Atom Interferometry tests of the isotropy of post-Newtonian gravity
Mueller, Holger; Chiow, Sheng-wey; Herrmann, Sven; Chu, Steven; Chung, Keng-Yeow
2007-01-01
We present a test of the local Lorentz invariance of post-Newtonian gravity by monitoring Earth's gravity with a Mach-Zehnder atom interferometer that features a resolution of about 8*10^(-9)g/Hz^(1/2), the highest reported thus far. Expressed within the standard model extension (SME) or Nordtvedt's anisotropic universe model, the analysis limits four coefficients describing anisotropic gravity at the ppb level and three others, for the first time, at the 10ppm level. Using the SME we explici...
Test of Parameterized Post-Newtonian Gravity with Galaxy-scale Strong Lensing Systems
Cao, Shuo; Li, Xiaolei; Biesiada, Marek; Xu, Tengpeng; Cai, Yongzhi; Zhu, Zong-Hong
2017-01-01
Based on a mass-selected sample of galaxy-scale strong gravitational lenses from the SLACS, BELLS, LSD, and SL2S surveys and using a well-motivated fiducial set of lens-galaxy parameters, we tested the weak-field metric on kiloparsec scales and found a constraint on the post-Newtonian parameter γ ={0.995}-0.047+0.037 under the assumption of a flat ΛCDM universe with parameters taken from Planck observations. General relativity (GR) predicts exactly γ = 1. Uncertainties concerning the total mass density profile, anisotropy of the velocity dispersion, and the shape of the light profile combine to systematic uncertainties of ˜25%. By applying a cosmological model-independent method to the simulated future LSST data, we found a significant degeneracy between the PPN γ parameter and the spatial curvature of the universe. Setting a prior on the cosmic curvature parameter -0.007 < Ωk < 0.006, we obtained the constraint on the PPN parameter that γ ={1.000}-0.0025+0.0023. We conclude that strong lensing systems with measured stellar velocity dispersions may serve as another important probe to investigate validity of the GR, if the mass-dynamical structure of the lensing galaxies is accurately constrained in future lens surveys.
Introducing The Newtonian Gravity Concept Inventory
Williamson, Kathryn; Willoughby, S.
2013-01-01
Multiple-choice Concept Inventories (CIs) have become important tools in the Astronomy Education Research community for assessing student learning and the effects of instructional interventions. We introduce for the first time the Newtonian Gravity Concept Inventory (NGCI), a 26-item research validated instrument to quickly and effectively assess introductory college astronomy students’ understanding of gravity. The conceptual focus of the NGCI covers four conceptual domains: (1) Independence of gravity from other factors (such as air pressure, magnetism, and rotation), (2) Application of the force law (including mass and distance proportionality relationships), (3) Behavior at certain thresholds (such as low mass and high distance limits, as well as atmospheric boundaries), and (4) Directionality (for objects on Earth or orbiting, and including superposition. After three iterations of testing and refining, the NGCI has proven to be both a reliable and valid instrument. As evidence, we present a full statistical analysis of overall instrument reliability, item difficulty and item discriminatory power, supplemented with qualitative information from think-aloud student interviews and expert review
Newtonian gravity on quantum spacetime
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Majid Shahn
2014-04-01
Full Text Available The bicrossproduct model λ-Minkowski (or ‘κ-Minkowski’ quantum space-time has an anomaly for the action of the Poincaré quantum group which was resolved by an extra cotangent direction θ’ not visible classically. We show that gauging a coefficient of θ′ introduces gravity into the model. We solve and analyse the model nonrelativisticaly in a 1/r potential, finding an induced constant term in the effective potential energy and a weakening and separation of the effective gravitational and inertial masses as the test particle Klein-Gordon mass increases. The present work is intended as a proof of concept but the approach could be relevant to an understanding of dark energy and possibly to macroscopic quantum systems.
Newtonian gravity and the Bargmann algebra
Andringa, Roel; Bergshoeff, Eric; Panda, Sudhakar; de Roo, Mees
2011-01-01
We show how the Newton-Cartan formulation of Newtonian gravity can be obtained from gauging the Bargmann algebra, i.e. the centrally extended Galilean algebra. In this gauging procedure several curvature constraints are imposed. These convert the spatial (time) translational symmetries of the
Newtonian gravity in loop quantum gravity
Smolin, Lee
2010-01-01
We apply a recent argument of Verlinde to loop quantum gravity, to conclude that Newton's law of gravity emerges in an appropriate limit and setting. This is possible because the relationship between area and entropy is realized in loop quantum gravity when boundaries are imposed on a quantum spacetime.
Newtonian potential in quantum Regge gravity
Hamber, H W; Herbert W Hamber; Ruth M Williams
1995-01-01
ABSTRACT: We show how the Newtonian potential between two heavy masses can be computed in simplicial quantum gravity. On the lattice we compute correlations between Wilson lines associated with the heavy particles and which are closed by the lattice periodicity. We check that the continuum analog of this quantity reproduces the Newtonian potential in the weak field expansion. In the smooth anti-de Sitter-like phase, which is the only phase where a sensible lattice continuum limit can be constructed in this model, we attempt to determine the shape and mass dependence of the attractive potential close to the critical point in G. It is found that non-linear graviton interactions give rise to a potential which is Yukawa-like, with a mass parameter that decreases towards the critical point where the average curvature vanishes. In the vicinity of the critical point we give an estimate for the effective Newton constant.
Post Newtonian gravity, a new simpler approach
Harrison, H. Ron
Galileo and Tycho Brahe made extensive astronomical observations which led Kepler to formulate his laws of planetary motion. All these observations were of relative motion. This led Newton to propose his theory of gravity, which could just as well have been expressed in a form that does not involve the concept of force. The approach in this paper extends the Newtonian theory and the special theory of relativity by including relative velocity based on the form of the measured data and also by comparison with electromagnetic effects. Application of the new single equation to the precession of the perihelion of Mercury, the gravitational deflection of light, the Shapiro time delay, the Schwarzschild radius and the last stable orbit gives results which agree with those of general relativity. Gravitational waves are also discussed. This approach could be used to determine non-Newtonian variations in the trajectories of satellites.
Virial Theorem in Nonlocal Newtonian Gravity
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Bahram Mashhoon
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Nonlocal gravity is the recent classical nonlocal generalization of Einstein’s theory of gravitation in which the past history of the gravitational field is taken into account. In this theory, nonlocality appears to simulate dark matter. The virial theorem for the Newtonian regime of nonlocal gravity theory is derived and its consequences for “isolated” astronomical systems in virial equilibrium at the present epoch are investigated. In particular, for a sufficiently isolated nearby galaxy in virial equilibrium, the galaxy’s baryonic diameter D 0 —namely, the diameter of the smallest sphere that completely surrounds the baryonic system at the present time—is predicted to be larger than the effective dark matter fraction f D M times a universal length that is the basic nonlocality length scale λ 0 ≈ 3 ± 2 kpc.
Entropic localization in non-unitary Newtonian gravity
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Filippo Maimone
2004-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract: The localizing properties and the entropy production of the Newtonian limit of a nonunitary version of fourth order gravity are analyzed. It is argued that pure highly unlocalized states of the center of mass motion of macroscopic bodies rapidly evolve into unlocalized ensembles of highly localized states. The localization time and the final entropy are estimated.
Williamson, Kathryn
2014-01-01
The topic of Newtonian gravity offers a unique perspective from which to investigate and encourage conceptual change because it is something with which everyone has daily experience, and because it is taught in two courses that reach a variety of students - introductory college astronomy (‘Astro 101’) and physics (‘Phys 101’). Informed by the constructivist theory of learning, this study characterizes and measures Astro 101 and Phys 101 students’ understanding of Newtonian gravity within four conceptual domains - Directionality, Force Law, Independence of Other Forces, and Threshold. A phenomenographic analysis of student-supplied responses to open-ended questions about gravity resulted in characterization of students’ alternative models and misapplications of the scientific model. These student difficulties informed the development of a multiple-choice assessment instrument, the Newtonian Gravity Concept Inventory (NGCI). Classical Test Theory (CTT), student interviews, and expert review show that the NGCI is a reliable and valid tool for assessing both Astro 101 and Phys 101 students’ understanding of gravity. Furthermore, the NGCI can provide extensive and robust information about differences between Astro 101 and Phys 101 students and curricula. Comparing and contrasting CTT values and response patterns shows qualitative differences in each of the four conceptual domains. Additionally, performing an Item Response Theory (IRT) analysis calibrates item parameters for all Astro 101 and Phys 101 courses and provides Newtonian gravity ability estimates for each student. Physics students show significantly higher pre- and post-instruction IRT abilities than astronomy students, but they show approximately equal gains. Linear regression models that control for student characteristics and classroom dynamics show that: (1) differences in post-instruction abilities are most influenced by students’ pre-instruction abilities and the level of interactivity in
Newtonian limit of Einsteinian gravity and dynamics of Solar system
Kholodenko, Arkady L
2010-01-01
Attempts to merge the Einsteinian gravity with Newonian run into logical inconsistencies coming from the fact that in Newton's gravity time is absolute and speed of propagation of gravity is assumed to be infinite. Such an assumption was in a focus of attention of many scientists in 19th century interested in finding out if, indeed, the speed of propagation of gravity is infinite. For this purpose, by analogy with electrodynamics,some retarded potentials replacing Newtonian were suggested. Using one of such potentials Gerber correctly calculated the perihelion shift for Mercury in 1902. However, subsequent attempts at calculation of the bending of light using Gerber-style calculations were not successful. Recently Gine' (Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 42, 1893 (2009)) was able to reobtain both the perihelion shift and bending of light using retarded potential. His equations however are not those obtained by Einstein and the results coincide with those by Einstein only at the level of leading order terms of infi...
Generalized Galilean algebras and Newtonian gravity
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N. González
2016-04-01
Full Text Available The non-relativistic versions of the generalized Poincaré algebras and generalized AdS-Lorentz algebras are obtained. These non-relativistic algebras are called, generalized Galilean algebras of type I and type II and denoted by GBn and GLn respectively. Using a generalized Inönü–Wigner contraction procedure we find that the generalized Galilean algebras of type I can be obtained from the generalized Galilean algebras type II. The S-expansion procedure allows us to find the GB5 algebra from the Newton Hooke algebra with central extension. The procedure developed in Ref. [1] allows us to show that the nonrelativistic limit of the five dimensional Einstein–Chern–Simons gravity is given by a modified version of the Poisson equation. The modification could be compatible with the effects of Dark Matter, which leads us to think that Dark Matter can be interpreted as a non-relativistic limit of Dark Energy.
Was Newton right? A search for non-Newtonian behavior of weak-field gravity
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Boynton Paul
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Empirical tests of Einstein’s metric theory of gravitation, even in the non-relativistic, weak-field limit, could play an important role in judging theory-driven extensions of the current Standard Model of fundamental interactions. Guided by Galileo's work and his own experiments, Newton formulated a theory of gravity in which the force of attraction between two bodies is independent of composition and proportional to the inertia of each, thereby transparently satisfying Galileo's empirically informed conjecture regarding the Universality of Free Fall. Similarly, Einstein honored the manifest success of Newton’s theory by assuring that the linearized equations of GTR matched the Newtonian formalism under “classical” conditions. Each of these steps, however, was explicitly an approximation raised to the status of principle. Perhaps, at some level, Newtonian gravity does not accurately describe the physical interaction between uncharged, unmagnetized, macroscopic bits of ordinary matter. What if Newton were wrong? Detecting any significant deviation from Newtonian behavior, no matter how small, could provide new insights and possibly reveal new physics. In the context of physics as an empirical science, for us this yet unanswered question constitutes sufficient motivation to attempt precision measurements of the kind described here. In this paper we report the current status of a project to search for violation of the Newtonian inverse square law of gravity.
Was Newton right? A search for non-Newtonian behavior of weak-field gravity
Boynton, Paul; Moore, Michael; Newman, Riley; Berg, Eric; Bonicalzi, Ricco; McKenney, Keven
2014-06-01
Empirical tests of Einstein's metric theory of gravitation, even in the non-relativistic, weak-field limit, could play an important role in judging theory-driven extensions of the current Standard Model of fundamental interactions. Guided by Galileo's work and his own experiments, Newton formulated a theory of gravity in which the force of attraction between two bodies is independent of composition and proportional to the inertia of each, thereby transparently satisfying Galileo's empirically informed conjecture regarding the Universality of Free Fall. Similarly, Einstein honored the manifest success of Newton's theory by assuring that the linearized equations of GTR matched the Newtonian formalism under "classical" conditions. Each of these steps, however, was explicitly an approximation raised to the status of principle. Perhaps, at some level, Newtonian gravity does not accurately describe the physical interaction between uncharged, unmagnetized, macroscopic bits of ordinary matter. What if Newton were wrong? Detecting any significant deviation from Newtonian behavior, no matter how small, could provide new insights and possibly reveal new physics. In the context of physics as an empirical science, for us this yet unanswered question constitutes sufficient motivation to attempt precision measurements of the kind described here. In this paper we report the current status of a project to search for violation of the Newtonian inverse square law of gravity.
Experimental Studies on the Lorentz Symmetry in Post-Newtonian Gravity with Pulsars
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Lijing Shao
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Local Lorentz invariance (LLI is one of the most important fundamental symmetries in modern physics. While the possibility of LLI violation (LLIv was studied extensively in flat spacetime, its counterpart in gravitational interaction also deserves significant examination from experiments. In this contribution, I review several recent studies of LLI in post-Newtonian gravity, using powerful tools of pulsar timing. It shows that precision pulsar timing experiments hold a unique position to probe LLIv in post-Newtonian gravity.
Bao, Qianzong; Qiang, Li-E.
2017-08-01
A theoretical study of testing nonlocal gravity in its Newtonian regime with gravity gradient measurements in space is given. For certain solutions of the modification to Newton’s law in nonlocal gravity, a null test and a lower bound on related parameters may be given with future high precision multi-axis gravity gradiometers along elliptic orbits.
... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003587.htm Urine specific gravity test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Urine specific gravity is a laboratory test that shows the concentration ...
Williamson, Kathryn Elizabeth
The topic of Newtonian gravity offers a unique vantage point from which to investigate and encourage conceptual change because it is something with which everyone has daily experience, and because it is taught in two courses that reach a wide variety of students - introductory-level college astronomy ("Astro 101") and physics ("Phys 101"). Informed by the constructivist theory of learning, this study characterizes and measures Astro 101 and Phys 101 students' understanding of Newtonian gravity within four conceptual domains - Directionality, Force Law, Independence of Other Forces, and Threshold. A phenomenographic analysis of Astro 101 student-supplied responses to open-ended questions about gravity results in the characterization of students' alternative mental models and misapplications of the scientific model. These student difficulties inform the development of a multiple-choice assessment instrument, the Newtonian Gravity Concept Inventory (NGCI). Classical Test Theory (CTT) statistics, student interviews, and expert review show that the NGCI is a reliable and valid tool for assessing both Astro 101 and Phys 101 students' understanding of gravity. Furthermore, the NGCI can provide extensive and robust information about differences between Astro 101 and Phys 101 students and curricula. Comparing and contrasting the Astro 101 and Phys 101 CTT values and student response patterns shows qualitative differences in each of the four conceptual domains. Additionally, performing an Item Response Theory (IRT) analysis of NGCI student response data calibrates item parameters for all Astro 101 and Phys 101 courses and provides Newtonian gravity ability estimates for each student. Physics students show significantly higher pre-instruction and post-instruction IRT abilities than astronomy students, but they show approximately equal gains. To investigate the differential effect of Astro 101 compared to Phys 101 curricula on students' overall post-instruction Newtonian
Modified Newtonian Gravity as an Alternative to the Dark Matter Hypothesis
Acedo, Luis
2017-11-01
The applications of Newtonian dynamics in galactic scales have shown that the inverse square law is incompatible with the amount of visible mass in the form of stars and molecular clouds. This manifests as the rotational curves of galaxies being asymptotically flat instead of decaying with the distance to the center of the galaxy. In the context of Newtonian gravity, the standard explanation requires a huge amount of dark mass in the form of hypothetical particles that still remain undetected. A different theory was provided as a modification of Newtonian dynamics (MOND) at low accelerations . This MOND theory still has many supporters and it can easily explain some features of the rotation curves, such as the Tully-Fisher (TF) phenomenological relation between luminosity and velocity. In this paper, we revisit the third approach of a non-Newtonian force, that has resurfaced from time to time, in order to reconcile it with a finite apparent dark mass and the TF relation.
Bechert, M.; Scheid, B.
2017-11-01
The draw resonance effect appears in fiber spinning processes if the ratio of take-up to inlet velocity, the so-called draw ratio, exceeds a critical value and manifests itself in steady oscillations of flow velocity and fiber diameter. We study the effect of surface tension on the draw resonance behavior of Newtonian fiber spinning in the presence of inertia and gravity. Utilizing an alternative scaling makes it possible to visualize the results in stability maps of highly practical relevance. The interplay of the destabilizing effect of surface tension and the stabilizing effects of inertia and gravity lead to nonmonotonic stability behavior and local stability maxima with respect to the dimensionless fluidity and the dimensionless inlet velocity. A region of unconditional instability caused by the influence of surface tension is found in addition to the region of unconditional stability caused by inertia, which was described in previous works [M. Bechert, D. W. Schubert, and B. Scheid, Eur. J. Mech B 52, 68 (2015), 10.1016/j.euromechflu.2015.02.005; Phys. Fluids 28, 024109 (2016), 10.1063/1.4941762]. Due to its importance for a particular group of fiber spinning applications, a viscous-gravity-surface-tension regime, i.e., negligible effect of inertia, is analyzed separately. The mechanism underlying the destabilizing effect of surface tension is discussed and established stability criteria are tested for validity in the presence of surface tension.
Supersoft symmetry energy encountering non-Newtonian gravity in neutron stars.
Wen, De-Hua; Li, Bao-An; Chen, Lie-Wen
2009-11-20
Considering the non-Newtonian gravity proposed in grand unification theories, we show that the stability and observed global properties of neutron stars cannot rule out the supersoft nuclear symmetry energies at suprasaturation densities. The degree of possible violation of the inverse-square law of gravity in neutron stars is estimated using an equation of state of neutron-rich nuclear matter consistent with the available terrestrial laboratory data.
Universality of testing ghost-free gravity
Edholm, James; Mazumdar, Anupam
2016-01-01
In this paper we show that there is a universal prediction for the Newtonian potential for an infinite derivative, ghost-free, quadratic curvature gravity. We show that in order to make such a theory ghost-free at a perturbative level, the Newtonian potential always falls-off as 1/r in the infrared limit, while at short distances the potential becomes non-singular. We provide examples which can potentially test the scale of gravitational non-locality up to 0.01 eV.
Post-Newtonian parameter γ in generalized non-local gravity
Zhang, Xue; Wu, YaBo; Yang, WeiQiang; Zhang, ChengYuan; Chen, BoHai; Zhang, Nan
2017-10-01
We investigate the post-Newtonian parameter γ and derive its formalism in generalized non-local (GNL) gravity, which is the modified theory of general relativity (GR) obtained by adding a term m 2 n-2 R☐-n R to the Einstein-Hilbert action. Concretely, based on parametrizing the generalized non-local action in which gravity is described by a series of dynamical scalar fields ϕ i in addition to the metric tensor g μν, the post-Newtonian limit is computed, and the effective gravitational constant as well as the post-Newtonian parameters are directly obtained from the generalized non-local gravity. Moreover, by discussing the values of the parametrized post-Newtonian parameters γ, we can compare our expressions and results with those in Hohmann and Järv et al. (2016), as well as current observational constraints on the values of γ in Will (2006). Hence, we draw restrictions on the nonminimal coupling terms F̅ around their background values.
Newtonian Version of the Variable Mass Theory of Gravity
Carvalho, J. C.; Lima, J. A. S.
1990-11-01
RESUMEN. Se presenta una versi6n Newtoniana de los modelos cosmol6gicos espacialmente e isotr6picos con masa variable. La influencia de la variaci6n de masa en la evoluci6n de la funci6n de escala est establecida para el caso de un Universo lieno de polvo bajo Ia suposici6n de que esta variaci6n es un efecto estrictamente cosmol6jico. Se muestra que el hiperb6lico, parab6lico 0 el#ptico dcl movimiento de puede ser modificado a lo larjo de la expansi6n. ABSTRACT. This paper presents a Newtonian version of the spatially homojeneous and isotropic cosmolojical models with variable mass. The influence of the mass variation on the evolution of the scale function is established for the case of a dust-filled Universe under the assumption that this variation is a strict cosmolojical effect. It is shown that the hyperbolic, parabolic or elliptic character of the fluid motion can be modified alonj the expansion. Keq : COSMOLOGY
Testing Modified Gravity in the Solar System
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mozaffari, A. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)
2011-07-01
It is well known that the Earth-Sun gravitational field has a few interesting features, such as the Lagrange points. It also has a saddle point, which from a Newtonian/GR point of view is rather boring, but in the context of modified gravity becomes a whole lot more interesting. Using both theoretical and computational models, we will present a way of testing modified gravity theories in the Solar System, using the forthcoming LISA-pathfinder space probe. This document is composed of the slides of the presentation. (author)
Modified Newtonian Gravity as an Alternative to the Dark Matter Hypothesis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luis Acedo
2017-11-01
Full Text Available [-5]The applications of Newtonian dynamics in galactic scales have shown that the inverse square law is incompatible with the amount of visible mass in the form of stars and molecular clouds. This manifests as the rotational curves of galaxies being asymptotically flat instead of decaying with the distance to the center of the galaxy. In the context of Newtonian gravity, the standard explanation requires a huge amount of dark mass in the form of hypothetical particles that still remain undetected. A different theory was provided as a modification of Newtonian dynamics (MOND at low accelerations . This MOND theory still has many supporters and it can easily explain some features of the rotation curves, such as the Tully–Fisher (TF phenomenological relation between luminosity and velocity. In this paper, we revisit the third approach of a non-Newtonian force, that has resurfaced from time to time, in order to reconcile it with a finite apparent dark mass and the TF relation.
Peron, Roberto; Lucchesi, David
The pericenter shift of a binary system represents a suitable observable to be used to test for possible deviations from the Newtonian gravitational inverse—square—law in favor of pos-sible new weak interactions between macroscopic objects. These very weak and long-range interactions are usually described by means of a Yukawa—like potential with strength α and range λ. Moreover, these supplementary interactions may be either consistent with Einstein Equivalence Principle or not. In this work, we analyzed 11 years of LAGEOS II normal points using the GEODYN II code with suitable models for both gravitational and non—gravitational perturbations. However, we do not included in the models the general relativity corrections to Newtonian gravity, such as the ones due to the Earth's gravitoelectric and gravitomagnetic fields. From the fit of the satellite pericenter residuals we have been able to obtain a 99% agreement with the predictions of Einstein theory of gravitation. Therefore, the present mea-surement of the LAGEOS II pericenter shift represents a 1% measurement in the field of the Earth of the combination of the Parametrized Post—Newtonian parameters g and b of general relativity. This result may be also used to put limits on the strength α of a possible Yukawa— like interaction with a characteristic range of about 1 Earth radii. We obtained |α| ≈ 4 · 10-11 , that represents a significant improvement with respect to the previous constraints based on Earth—LAGEOS or Lunar—LAGEOS data.
Compact binary systems in scalar-tensor gravity: Equations of motion to 2.5 post-Newtonian order
Mirshekari, Saeed
2013-01-01
We calculate the explicit equations of motion for non-spinning compact objects to 2.5 post-Newtonian order, or O(v/c)^5 beyond Newtonian gravity, in a general class of scalar-tensor theories of gravity. We use the formalism of the Direct Integration of the Relaxed Einstein Equations (DIRE), adapted to scalar-tensor theory, coupled with an approach pioneered by Eardley for incorporating the internal gravity of compact, self-gravitating bodies. For the conservative part of the motion, we obtain the two-body Lagrangian and conserved energy and momentum through second post-Newtonian order. We find the 1.5 post-Newtonian and 2.5 post-Newtonian contributions to gravitational radiation reaction, the former corresponding to the effects of dipole gravitational radiation, and verify that the resulting energy loss agrees with earlier calculations of the energy flux. For binary black holes we show that the motion through 2.5 post-Newtonian order is observationally identical to that predicted by general relativity. For mi...
CERN. Geneva
2017-01-01
Extensions of Einstein’s theory of General Relativity are under investigation as a potential explanation of the accelerating expansion rate of the universe. I’ll present a cosmologist’s overview of attempts to test these ideas in an efficient and unbiased manner. I’ll start by introducing the bestiary of alternative gravity theories that have been put forwards. This proliferation of models motivates us to develop model-independent, agnostic tools for comparing the theory space to cosmological data. I’ll introduce the effective field theory for cosmological perturbations, a framework designed to unify modified gravity theories in terms of a manageable set of parameters. Having outlined the formalism, I’ll talk about the current constraints on this framework, and the improvements expected from the next generation of large galaxy clustering, weak lensing and intensity mapping experiments.
Williamson, Kathryn Elizabeth
2013-01-01
The topic of Newtonian gravity offers a unique vantage point from which to investigate and encourage conceptual change because it is something with which everyone has daily experience, and because it is taught in two courses that reach a wide variety of students--introductory-level college astronomy ("Astro 101") and physics ("Phys…
Cosmological tests of modified gravity.
Koyama, Kazuya
2016-04-01
We review recent progress in the construction of modified gravity models as alternatives to dark energy as well as the development of cosmological tests of gravity. Einstein's theory of general relativity (GR) has been tested accurately within the local universe i.e. the Solar System, but this leaves the possibility open that it is not a good description of gravity at the largest scales in the Universe. This being said, the standard model of cosmology assumes GR on all scales. In 1998, astronomers made the surprising discovery that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating, not slowing down. This late-time acceleration of the Universe has become the most challenging problem in theoretical physics. Within the framework of GR, the acceleration would originate from an unknown dark energy. Alternatively, it could be that there is no dark energy and GR itself is in error on cosmological scales. In this review, we first give an overview of recent developments in modified gravity theories including f(R) gravity, braneworld gravity, Horndeski theory and massive/bigravity theory. We then focus on common properties these models share, such as screening mechanisms they use to evade the stringent Solar System tests. Once armed with a theoretical knowledge of modified gravity models, we move on to discuss how we can test modifications of gravity on cosmological scales. We present tests of gravity using linear cosmological perturbations and review the latest constraints on deviations from the standard [Formula: see text]CDM model. Since screening mechanisms leave distinct signatures in the non-linear structure formation, we also review novel astrophysical tests of gravity using clusters, dwarf galaxies and stars. The last decade has seen a number of new constraints placed on gravity from astrophysical to cosmological scales. Thanks to on-going and future surveys, cosmological tests of gravity will enjoy another, possibly even more, exciting ten years.
The chaotic four-body problem in Newtonian gravity- I. Identical point-particles
Leigh, Nathan W. C.; Stone, Nicholas C.; Geller, Aaron M.; Shara, Michael M.; Muddu, Harsha; Solano-Oropeza, Diana; Thomas, Yancey
2016-12-01
In this paper, we study the chaotic four-body problem in Newtonian gravity. Assuming point particles and total encounter energies ≤0, the problem has three possible outcomes. We describe each outcome as a series of discrete transformations in energy space, using the diagrams first presented in Leigh & Geller (see the appendix). Furthermore, we develop a formalism for calculating probabilities for these outcomes to occur, expressed using the density of escape configurations per unit energy, and based on the Monaghan description originally developed for the three-body problem. We compare this analytic formalism to results from a series of binary-binary encounters with identical point particles, simulated using the FEWBODY code. Each of our three encounter outcomes produces a unique velocity distribution for the escaping star(s). Thus, these distributions can potentially be used to constrain the origins of dynamically formed populations, via a direct comparison between the predicted and observed velocity distributions. Finally, we show that, for encounters that form stable triples, the simulated single star escape velocity distributions are the same as for the three-body problem. This is also the case for the other two encounter outcomes, but only at low virial ratios. This suggests that single and binary stars processed via single-binary and binary-binary encounters in dense star clusters should have a unique velocity distribution relative to the underlying Maxwellian distribution (provided the relaxation time is sufficiently long) or if ejected from the cluster, which can be calculated analytically.
On the cancellation of Newtonian singularities in higher-derivative gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Giacchini, Breno L., E-mail: breno@cbpf.br
2017-03-10
Recently there has been a growing interest in quantum gravity theories with more than four derivatives, including both their quantum and classical aspects. In this work we extend the recent results concerning the non-singularity of the modified Newtonian potential to the most relevant case in which the propagator has complex poles. The model we consider is Einstein–Hilbert action augmented by curvature-squared higher-derivative terms which contain polynomials on the d'Alembert operator. We show that the classical potential of these theories is a real quantity and it is regular at the origin despite the (complex or real) nature or the multiplicity of the massive poles. The expression for the potential is explicitly derived for some interesting particular cases. Finally, the issue of the mechanism behind the cancellation of the singularity is discussed; specifically we argue that the regularity of the potential can hold even if the number of massive tensor modes and scalar ones is not the same.
The Effect of Surface Tension on the Gravity-driven Thin Film Flow of Newtonian and Power-law Fluids
Hu, Bin; Kieweg, Sarah L.
2012-01-01
Gravity-driven thin film flow is of importance in many fields, as well as for the design of polymeric drug delivery vehicles, such as anti-HIV topical microbicides. There have been many prior works on gravity-driven thin films. However, the incorporation of surface tension effect has not been well studied for non-Newtonian fluids. After surface tension effect was incorporated into our 2D (i.e. 1D spreading) power-law model, we found that surface tension effect not only impacted the spreading ...
Testing chameleon gravity with the Coma cluster
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Terukina, Ayumu; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro [Department of Physical Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Kagamiyama 1-3-1, 739-8526 (Japan); Lombriser, Lucas; Bacon, David; Koyama, Kazuya; Nichol, Robert C., E-mail: telkina@theo.phys.sci.hiroshima-u.ac.jp, E-mail: lucas.lombriser@port.ac.uk, E-mail: kazuhiro@hiroshima-u.ac.jp, E-mail: david.bacon@port.ac.uk, E-mail: kazuya.koyama@port.ac.uk, E-mail: bob.nichol@port.ac.uk [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Dennis Sciama Building, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom)
2014-04-01
We propose a novel method to test the gravitational interactions in the outskirts of galaxy clusters. When gravity is modified, this is typically accompanied by the introduction of an additional scalar degree of freedom, which mediates an attractive fifth force. The presence of an extra gravitational coupling, however, is tightly constrained by local measurements. In chameleon modifications of gravity, local tests can be evaded by employing a screening mechanism that suppresses the fifth force in dense environments. While the chameleon field may be screened in the interior of the cluster, its outer region can still be affected by the extra force, introducing a deviation between the hydrostatic and lensing mass of the cluster. Thus, the chameleon modification can be tested by combining the gas and lensing measurements of the cluster. We demonstrate the operability of our method with the Coma cluster, for which both a lensing measurement and gas observations from the X-ray surface brightness, the X-ray temperature, and the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect are available. Using the joint observational data set, we perform a Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis of the parameter space describing the different profiles in both the Newtonian and chameleon scenarios. We report competitive constraints on the chameleon field amplitude and its coupling strength to matter. In the case of f(R) gravity, corresponding to a specific choice of the coupling, we find an upper bound on the background field amplitude of |f{sub R0}| < 6 × 10{sup −5}, which is currently the tightest constraint on cosmological scales.
The Effect of Surface Tension on the Gravity-driven Thin Film Flow of Newtonian and Power-law Fluids
Hu, Bin; Kieweg, Sarah L.
2012-01-01
Gravity-driven thin film flow is of importance in many fields, as well as for the design of polymeric drug delivery vehicles, such as anti-HIV topical microbicides. There have been many prior works on gravity-driven thin films. However, the incorporation of surface tension effect has not been well studied for non-Newtonian fluids. After surface tension effect was incorporated into our 2D (i.e. 1D spreading) power-law model, we found that surface tension effect not only impacted the spreading speed of the microbicide gel, but also had an influence on the shape of the 2D spreading profile. We observed a capillary ridge at the front of the fluid bolus. Previous literature shows that the emergence of a capillary ridge is strongly related to the contact line fingering instability. Fingering instabilities during epithelial coating may change the microbicide gel distribution and therefore impact how well it can protect the epithelium. In this study, we focused on the capillary ridge in 2D flow and performed a series of simulations and showed how the capillary ridge height varies with other parameters, such as surface tension coefficient, inclination angle, initial thickness, and power-law parameters. As shown in our results, we found that capillary ridge height increased with higher surface tension, steeper inclination angle, bigger initial thickness, and more Newtonian fluids. This study provides the initial insights of how to optimize the flow and prevent the appearance of a capillary ridge and fingering instability. PMID:23687391
Hu, Bin; Kieweg, Sarah L
2012-07-15
Gravity-driven thin film flow is of importance in many fields, as well as for the design of polymeric drug delivery vehicles, such as anti-HIV topical microbicides. There have been many prior works on gravity-driven thin films. However, the incorporation of surface tension effect has not been well studied for non-Newtonian fluids. After surface tension effect was incorporated into our 2D (i.e. 1D spreading) power-law model, we found that surface tension effect not only impacted the spreading speed of the microbicide gel, but also had an influence on the shape of the 2D spreading profile. We observed a capillary ridge at the front of the fluid bolus. Previous literature shows that the emergence of a capillary ridge is strongly related to the contact line fingering instability. Fingering instabilities during epithelial coating may change the microbicide gel distribution and therefore impact how well it can protect the epithelium. In this study, we focused on the capillary ridge in 2D flow and performed a series of simulations and showed how the capillary ridge height varies with other parameters, such as surface tension coefficient, inclination angle, initial thickness, and power-law parameters. As shown in our results, we found that capillary ridge height increased with higher surface tension, steeper inclination angle, bigger initial thickness, and more Newtonian fluids. This study provides the initial insights of how to optimize the flow and prevent the appearance of a capillary ridge and fingering instability.
Testing Grumiller's modified gravity at galactic scales
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cervantes-Cota, Jorge L., E-mail: jorge.cervantes@inin.gob.mx; Gómez-López, Jesús A.
2014-01-20
Using galactic rotation curves, we test a – quantum motivated – gravity model that at large distances modifies the Newtonian potential when spherical symmetry is considered. In this model one adds a Rindler acceleration term to the rotation curves of disk galaxies. Here we consider a standard and a power-law generalization of the Rindler modified Newtonian potential that are hypothesized to play the role of dark matter in galaxies. The new, universal acceleration has to be – phenomenologically – determined. Our galactic model includes the mass of the integrated gas and stars for which we consider a free mass model. We test the model by fitting rotation curves of thirty galaxies that has been employed to test other alternative gravity models. We find that the Rindler parameters do not perform a suitable fit to the rotation curves in comparison to the Burkert dark matter profile, but the models achieve a similar fit as the NFW's profile does. However, the computed parameters of the Rindler gravity show some spread, posing the model to be unable to consistently explain the observed rotation curves.
Very accurate upward continuation to low heights in a test of non-Newtonian theory
Romaides, Anestis J.; Jekeli, Christopher
1989-01-01
Recently, gravity measurements were made on a tall, very stable television transmitting tower in order to detect a non-Newtonian gravitational force. This experiment required the upward continuation of gravity from the Earth's surface to points as high as only 600 m above ground. The upward continuation was based on a set of gravity anomalies in the vicinity of the tower whose data distribution exhibits essential circular symmetry and appropriate radial attenuation. Two methods were applied to perform the upward continuation - least-squares solution of a local harmonic expansion and least-squares collocation. Both methods yield comparable results, and have estimated accuracies on the order of 50 microGal or better (1 microGal = 10(exp -8) m/sq s). This order of accuracy is commensurate with the tower gravity measurments (which have an estimated accuracy of 20 microGal), and enabled a definitive detection of non-Newtonian gravity. As expected, such precise upward continuations require very dense data near the tower. Less expected was the requirement of data (though sparse) up to 220 km away from the tower (in the case that only an ellipsoidal reference gravity is applied).
Application of Newtonian Physics to Predict the Speed of a Gravity Racer
Driscoll, H. F.; Bullas, A. M.; King, C. E.; Senior, T.; Haake, S. J.; Hart, J.
2016-01-01
Gravity racing can be studied using numerical solutions to the equations of motion derived from Newton's second law. This allows students to explore the physics of gravity racing and to understand how design and course selection influences vehicle speed. Using Euler's method, we have developed a spreadsheet application that can be used to predict…
Levi, Michele; Steinhoff, Jan
2017-12-01
We present a novel public package ‘EFTofPNG’ for high precision computation in the effective field theory of post-Newtonian (PN) gravity, including spins. We created this package in view of the timely need to publicly share automated computation tools, which integrate the various types of physics manifested in the expected increasing influx of gravitational wave (GW) data. Hence, we created a free and open source package, which is self-contained, modular, all-inclusive, and accessible to the classical gravity community. The ‘EFTofPNG’ Mathematica package also uses the power of the ‘xTensor’ package, suited for complicated tensor computation, where our coding also strategically approaches the generic generation of Feynman contractions, which is universal to all perturbation theories in physics, by efficiently treating n-point functions as tensors of rank n. The package currently contains four independent units, which serve as subsidiaries to the main one. Its final unit serves as a pipeline chain for the obtainment of the final GW templates, and provides the full computation of derivatives and physical observables of interest. The upcoming ‘EFTofPNG’ package version 1.0 should cover the point mass sector, and all the spin sectors, up to the fourth PN order, and the two-loop level. We expect and strongly encourage public development of the package to improve its efficiency, and to extend it to further PN sectors, and observables useful for the waveform modelling.
Velocity-dependent inverse cubic force and solar system gravity tests
Bailey, Quentin G.; Havert, Daniel
2017-09-01
Higher mass dimension terms in an effective field theory framework for tests of spacetime symmetries are studied. Using a post-Newtonian expansion method, we derive the spacetime metric and the equations of motion for a binary system. This reveals an effective inverse cubic force correction to post-Newtonian general relativity that depends on the velocity of the bodies in the system. The results are studied in the context of laboratory and space-based tests including the effects on solar-system ephemeris, laser ranging observations, and gravimeter tests. This work reveals the coefficient combinations for mass dimension 5 operators controlling C P T violation for gravity that can be measured using analysis from these tests. Other tests including light propagation can be used to probe these coefficients. Sensitivity estimates are provided and the results are contrasted with the minimal mass dimension 4 terms in the gravity sector.
Testing Verlinde's emergent gravity in early-type galaxies
Tortora, C.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Napolitano, N. R.; Valentijn, E. A.
2018-01-01
Emergent Gravity (EG) has been proposed to resolve the missing mass problem in galaxies, replacing the potential of dark matter (DM) by the effect of the entropy displacement of dark energy by baryonic matter. This apparent DM depends only on the baryonic mass distribution and the present-day value of the Hubble parameter. In this paper we test the EG proposition, formalized by Verlinde for a spherical and isolated mass distribution using the central dynamics (Sloan Digital Sky Survey velocity dispersion, σ) and the K-band light distribution in a sample of 4032 massive (M_{\\star }≳ 10^{10} M_{⊙}) and local early-type galaxies (ETGs) from the SPIDER datasample. Our results remain unaltered if we consider the sample of 750 roundest field galaxies. Using these observations we derive the predictions by EG for the stellar mass-to-light ratio (M/L) and the initial mass function (IMF). We demonstrate that, consistently with a classical Newtonian framework with a DM halo component or alternative theories of gravity as MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND), the central dynamics can be fitted if the IMF is assumed non-universal and systematically changing with σ. For the case of EG, we find lower, but still acceptable, stellar M/L if compared with the DM-based Navarro, Frenk & White (NFW) model and with MOND, but pretty similar to adiabatically contracted DM haloes and with expectations from spectral gravity-sensitive features. If the strain caused by the entropy displacement would be not maximal, as adopted in the current formulation, then the dynamics of ETGs could be reproduced with larger M/L.
Post-Newtonian parameters γ and β of scalar-tensor gravity for a homogeneous gravitating sphere
Hohmann, Manuel; Schärer, Andreas
2017-11-01
We calculate the parameters γ and β in the parametrized post-Newtonian (PPN) formalism for scalar-tensor gravity (STG) with an arbitrary potential, under the assumption that the source matter is given by a nonrotating sphere of constant density, pressure, and internal energy. For our calculation we write the STG field equations in a form which is manifestly invariant under conformal transformations of the metric and redefinitions of the scalar field. This easily shows that also the obtained PPN parameters are invariant under such transformations. Our result is consistent with the expectation that STG is a fully conservative theory, i.e., only γ and β differ from their general relativity values γ =β =1 , which indicates the absence of preferred frame and preferred location effects. We find that the values of the PPN parameters depend on both the radius of the gravitating mass source and the distance between the source and the observer. Most interestingly, we find that also at large distances from the source β does not approach β =1 , but receives corrections due to a modified gravitational self-energy of the source. Finally, we compare our result to a number of measurements of γ and β in the Solar System. We find that in particular measurements of β improve the previously obtained bounds on the theory parameters, due to the aforementioned long-distance corrections.
Testing Brans-Dicke gravity using the Einstein telescope
Zhang, Xing; Yu, Jiming; Liu, Tan; Zhao, Wen; Wang, Anzhong
2017-06-01
Gravitational radiation is an excellent field for testing theories of gravity in strong gravitational fields. The current observations on the gravitational-wave (GW) bursts by LIGO have already placed various constraints on the alternative theories of gravity. In this paper, we investigate the possible bounds which could be placed on the Brans-Dicke gravity using GW detection from inspiraling compact binaries with the proposed Einstein Telescope, a third-generation GW detector. We first calculate in detail the waveforms of gravitational radiation in the lowest post-Newtonian approximation, including the tensor and scalar fields, which can be divided into the three polarization modes, i.e., "plus mode," "cross mode," and "breathing mode." Applying the stationary phase approximation, we obtain their Fourier transforms, and derive the correction terms in amplitude, phase, and polarization of GWs, relative to the corresponding results in general relativity. Imposing the noise level of the Einstein Telescope, we find that the GW detection from inspiraling compact binaries, composed of a neutron star and a black hole, can place stringent constraints on the Brans-Dicke gravity. The bound on the coupling constant ωBD depends on the mass, sky position, inclination angle, polarization angle, luminosity distance, redshift distribution, and total observed number NGW of the binary systems. Taking into account all the burst events up to redshift z =5 , we find that the bound could be ωBD≳1 06×(NGW/1 04)1/2. Even for the conservative estimation with 1 04 observed events, the bound is still more than one order tighter than the current limit from Solar System experiments. So, we conclude that the Einstein Telescope will provide a powerful platform to test alternative theories of gravity.
Satellite Test of the Equivalence Principle as a Probe of Modified Newtonian Dynamics
Pereira, Jonas P; Poyneer, Alexander J
2016-01-01
The proposed Satellite Test of the Equivalence Principle (STEP) will detect possible violations of the Weak Equivalence Principle by measuring relative accelerations between test masses of different composition with a precision of one part in $10^{18}$. A serendipitous byproduct of the experimental design is that the absolute (common-mode) acceleration of the test masses is also measured to high precision as they oscillate along a common axis under the influence of restoring forces produced by the position sensor currents, which in drag-free mode lead to Newtonian accelerations as small as $10^{-14}$ g. This is deep inside the low-acceleration regime where Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) diverges strongly from the Newtonian limit of General Relativity. We show that MOND theories (including those based on the widely-used $n$-family of interpolating functions as well as the covariant Tensor-Vector-Scalar formulation) predict an easily detectable increase in the frequency of oscillations of the STEP test mass...
Numerical Well Test Analysis for Polymer Flooding considering the Non-Newtonian Behavior
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jia Zhichun
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Well test analysis for polymer flooding is different from traditional well test analysis because of the non-Newtonian properties of underground flow and other mechanisms involved in polymer flooding. Few of the present works have proposed a numerical approach of pressure transient analysis which fully considers the non-Newtonian effect of real polymer solution and interprets the polymer rheology from details of pressure transient response. In this study, a two-phase four-component fully implicit numerical model incorporating shear thinning effect for polymer flooding based on PEBI (Perpendicular Bisection grid is developed to study transient pressure responses in polymer flooding reservoirs. Parametric studies are conducted to quantify the effect of shear thinning and polymer concentration on the pressure transient response. Results show that shear thinning effect leads to obvious and characteristic nonsmoothness on pressure derivative curves, and the oscillation amplitude of the shear-thinning-induced nonsmoothness is related to the viscosity change decided by shear thinning effect and polymer concentration. Practical applications are carried out with shut-in data obtained in Daqing oil field, which validates our findings. The proposed method and the findings in this paper show significant importance for well test analysis for polymer flooding and the determination of the polymer in situ rheology.
7 CFR 51.3417 - Optional test for specific gravity.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Optional test for specific gravity. 51.3417 Section 51... specific gravity. Tests to determine specific gravity shall be made in accordance with the procedures set.... The specific gravity for any lot of potatoes shall be the average of at least 3 corrected readings on...
Planck scale gravity test with accelerators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gharibyan, Vahagn
2012-07-15
Quantum or torsion gravity models predict unusual properties of space-time at very short distances. In particular, near the Planck length, around 10{sup -35} m, empty space may behave as a crystal, singly or doubly refractive. However, this hypothesis remains uncheckable for any direct measurement since the smallest distance accessible in experiment is about 10{sup -19} m at the LHC. Here I propose a laboratory test to measure the space refractivity and birefringence induced by gravity. A sensitivity from 10{sup -31} m down to the Planck length could be reached at existent GeV and future TeV energy lepton accelerators using laser Compton scattering. There are already experimental hints for gravity signature at distances approaching the Planck length by 5-7 orders of magnitude, derived from SLC and HERA data.
Virial tests for post-Newtonian stationary black-hole-disk systems
Jaranowski, Piotr; Malec, Edward; Pirog, Michal
2015-01-01
We investigated hydrodynamical post-Newtonian models of selfgravitating stationary black-hole-disk systems. The post-Newtonian scheme presented here and also in our recent paper is a continuation of previous, purely Newtonian studies of selfgravitating hydrodynamical disks rotating according to the Keplerian rotation law. The post-Newtonian relativistic corrections are significant even at the 1PN level. The 1PN correction to the angular velocity can be of the order of 10% of its Newtonian value. It can be expressed as a combination of geometric and hydrodynamical terms. Moreover, in contrast to the Newtonian Poincare-Wavre theorem, it depends both on the distance from the rotation axis and the distance from the equatorial plane.
Newtonian wormholes with spherical symmetry and tidal forces on test particles
Luz, Paulo
2015-01-01
A spherically symmetric wormhole in Newtonian gravitation in curved space, enhanced with a connection between the mass density and the Ricci scalar, is presented. The wormhole, consisting of two connected asymptotically flat regions, inhabits a spherically symmetric curved space. The gravitational potential, gravitational field and the pressure that supports the fluid that permeates the Newtonian wormhole are computed. Particle dynamics and tidal effects in this geometry are studied. The possibility of having Newtonian black holes in this theory is sketched.
Testing quantum gravity through dumb holes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pourhassan, Behnam, E-mail: b.pourhassan@du.ac.ir [School of Physics, Damghan University, Damghan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faizal, Mir, E-mail: f2mir@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, AB T1K 3M4 (Canada); Irving K. Barber School of Arts and Sciences, University of British Columbia - Okanagan, Kelowna, BC V1V 1V7 (Canada); Capozziello, Salvatore, E-mail: capozzie@na.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Napoli ”Frederico II” Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, Edificio G, Via Cinthia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Gran Sasso Science Institute (INFN), Via F. Crispi 7, I-67100 L’ Aquila (Italy)
2017-02-15
We propose a method to test the effects of quantum fluctuations on black holes by analyzing the effects of thermal fluctuations on dumb holes, the analogs for black holes. The proposal is based on the Jacobson formalism, where the Einstein field equations are viewed as thermodynamical relations, and so the quantum fluctuations are generated from the thermal fluctuations. It is well known that all approaches to quantum gravity generate logarithmic corrections to the entropy of a black hole and the coefficient of this term varies according to the different approaches to the quantum gravity. It is possible to demonstrate that such logarithmic terms are also generated from thermal fluctuations in dumb holes. In this paper, we claim that it is possible to experimentally test such corrections for dumb holes, and also obtain the correct coefficient for them. This fact can then be used to predict the effects of quantum fluctuations on realistic black holes, and so it can also be used, in principle, to experimentally test the different approaches to quantum gravity.
Parameterized Post-Newtonian Cosmology
Sanghai, Viraj A A
2016-01-01
Einstein's theory of gravity has been extensively tested on solar system scales, and for isolated astrophysical systems, using the perturbative framework known as the parameterized post-Newtonian (PPN) formalism. This framework is designed for use in the weak-field and slow-motion limit of gravity, and can be used to constrain a large class of metric theories of gravity with data collected from the aforementioned systems. Given the potential of future surveys to probe cosmological scales to high precision, it is a topic of much contemporary interest to construct a similar framework to link Einstein's theory of gravity and its alternatives to observations on cosmological scales. Our approach to this problem is to adapt and extend the existing PPN formalism for use in cosmology. We derive a set of equations that use the same parameters to consistently model both weak fields and cosmology. This allows us to parameterize a large class of modified theories of gravity and dark energy models on cosmological scales, ...
Lucchesi, David M.; Peron, Roberto
2011-01-01
The pericenter shift of a binary system represents a suitable observable to test for possible deviations from the Newtonian inverse-square law in favor of new weak interactions between macroscopic objects. We analyzed 13 years of tracking data of the LAGEOS satellites with GEODYN II software but with no models for general relativity. From the fit of LAGEOS II pericenter residuals we have been able to obtain a 99.8% agreement with the predictions of Einstein's theory. This result may be consid...
Testing Verlinde's emergent gravity with the radial acceleration relation
Lelli, Federico; McGaugh, Stacy S.; Schombert, James M.
2017-06-01
It has recently been proposed that space-time and gravity may emerge from an underlying microscopic theory. In a de Sitter space-time, such emergent gravity (EG) contains an additional gravitational force due to dark energy, which may explain the mass discrepancies observed in galactic systems without the need of dark matter. For a point mass, EG is equivalent to Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND). We show that this equivalence does not hold for finite-size galaxies: There are significant differences between EG and MOND in the inner regions of galaxies. We confront theoretical predictions with the empirical radial acceleration relation (RAR). We find that (I) EG is consistent with the observed RAR only if we substantially decrease the fiducial stellar mass-to-light ratios; the resulting values are in tension with other astronomical estimates; (II) EG predicts that the residuals around the RAR should correlate with radius; such residual correlation is not observed.
Model-independent tests of cosmic gravity.
Linder, Eric V
2011-12-28
Gravitation governs the expansion and fate of the universe, and the growth of large-scale structure within it, but has not been tested in detail on these cosmic scales. The observed acceleration of the expansion may provide signs of gravitational laws beyond general relativity (GR). Since the form of any such extension is not clear, from either theory or data, we adopt a model-independent approach to parametrizing deviations to the Einstein framework. We explore the phase space dynamics of two key post-GR functions and derive a classification scheme, and an absolute criterion on accuracy necessary for distinguishing classes of gravity models. Future surveys will be able to constrain the post-GR functions' amplitudes and forms to the required precision, and hence reveal new aspects of gravitation.
A Proposal for Testing Gravity's Rainbow
Ali, Ahmed Farag
2014-01-01
Various approaches to quantum gravity such as string theory, loop quantum gravity and Horava-Lifshitz gravity predict modifications of the energy-momentum dispersion relation. Magueijo and Smolin incorporated the modified dispersion relation (MDR) with the general theory of relativity to yield a theory of gravity's rainbow. In this paper, we investigate the Schwarzschild metric in the context of gravity's rainbow. We investigate rainbow functions from three known modified dispersion relations that were introduced by Amelino-Camelia, et el. in [arXiv:hep-th/9605211, arXiv:0806.0339v2 [gr-qc], arXiv:astro-ph/9712103] and by Magueijo-Smolin in [arXiv:hep-th/0112090]. We study the effect of the rainbow functions on the deflection of light, photon time delay, gravitational red-shift, time dilation, and the weak equivalence principle. We compare our results with experiments to obtain upper bounds on the parameters of the rainbow functions.
Ultra faint dwarf galaxies: an arena for testing dark matter versus modified gravity
Lin, Weikang; Ishak, Mustapha
2016-10-01
The scenario consistent with a wealth of observations for the missing mass problem is that of weakly interacting dark matter particles. However, arguments or proposals for a Newtonian or relativistic modified gravity scenario continue to be made. A distinguishing characteristic between the two scenarios is that dark matter particles can produce a gravitational effect, in principle, without the need of baryons while this is not the case for the modified gravity scenario where such an effect must be correlated with the amount of baryonic matter. We consider here ultra-faint dwarf (UFD) galaxies as a promising arena to test the two scenarios based on the above assertion. We compare the correlation of the luminosity with the velocity dispersion between samples of UFD and non-UFD galaxies, finding a significant loss of correlation for UFD galaxies. For example, we find for 28 non-UFD galaxies a strong correlation coefficient of -0.688 which drops to -0.077 for the 23 UFD galaxies. Incoming and future data will determine whether the observed stochasticity for UFD galaxies is physical or due to systematics in the data. Such a loss of correlation (if it is to persist) is possible and consistent with the dark matter scenario for UFD galaxies but would constitute a new challenge for the modified gravity scenario.
MOdified Newtonian Dynamics as an entropic force
Carranza, D A
2014-01-01
Under natural assumptions on the thermodynamical properties of space and using the holographic principle we reproduce a MOND-like behaviour of gravity on particular scales of mass and length, where Newtonian gravity requires modification or extension if no dark matter component is introduced in the description of gravitational phenomena. The result is directly obtained with the assumption that a fundamental constant of nature needs to be introduced into the problem. This calculation extends the one by Verlinde (2010) in which Newtonian gravity is shown to be an emergent phenomenon and together with it, suggests that gravity at all scales is emergent.
Newtonian Atlas for Dust-Filled FRW Universe
Manton, Nicholas S
2013-01-01
The metric of an FRW universe filled with pressureless dust is shown to agree, close to any spacetime point, with a curved Newtonian-type metric where Einstein's equations simplify to those of Newtonian gravity. The agreement is shown to quadratic order in the local coordinates, so the curvatures agree. This result is established by expressing both metrics in Riemann normal form. This approach gives a local Newtonian understanding of cosmology that avoids the paradoxes of global Newtonian cosmology.
Shock wave mitigation using Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids
Tao, Xingtian; Colvert, Brendan; Eliasson, Veronica
2014-11-01
The effectiveness of a wall of liquid as a blast mitigation device is examined using a shock tube and a custom-designed and -built shock test chamber. High-speed schlieren photography and high-frequency pressure sensors allow measurement during the relevant shock interaction time periods of the liquid-gas interface. The characteristic quantities that reflect these effects include reflected-to-incident shock strength ratio, transmitted-to-incident shock strength ratio, transmitted and reflected impulse, and peak pressure reduction. In particular, the effects of viscous properties of the fluid are considered when using non-Newtonian dilatant and pseudoplastic fluids. Experiments have been performed with both Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids. The impact of a shock waves on Non-newtonian fluids is compared to that of Newtonian fluids. Experiments show that non-Newtonian fluids have very strong reflection properties, acting like solid walls under the impact of a shock wave. Further work is to be performed to compare quantitatively the properties of Newtonian vs. non-Newtonian fluids.
Parameterised post-Newtonian expansion in screened regions
McManus, Ryan; Lombriser, Lucas; Peñarrubia, Jorge
2017-12-01
The parameterised post-Newtonian (PPN) formalism has enabled stringent tests of static weak-field gravity in a theory-independent manner. Here we incorporate screening mechanisms of modified gravity theories into the framework by introducing an effective gravitational coupling and defining the PPN parameters as functions of position. To determine these functions we develop a general method for efficiently performing the post-Newtonian expansion in screened regimes. For illustration, we derive all the PPN functions for a cubic galileon and a chameleon model. We also analyse the Shapiro time delay effect for these two models and find no deviations from General Relativity insofar as the signal path and the perturbing mass reside in a screened region of space.
Lucchesi, David M.; Peron, Roberto
2010-12-01
The pericenter shift of a binary system represents a suitable observable to test for possible deviations from the Newtonian inverse-square law in favor of new weak interactions between macroscopic objects. We analyzed 13 years of tracking data of the LAGEOS satellites with GEODYN II software but with no models for general relativity. From the fit of LAGEOS II pericenter residuals we have been able to obtain a 99.8% agreement with the predictions of Einstein’s theory. This result may be considered as a 99.8% measurement in the field of the Earth of the combination of the γ and β parameters of general relativity, and it may be used to constrain possible deviations from the inverse-square law in favor of new weak interactions parametrized by a Yukawa-like potential with strength α and range λ. We obtained |α|≲1×10-11, a huge improvement at a range of about 1 Earth radius.
Solar-system tests of the relativistic gravity
Ni, Wei-Tou
2016-01-01
In 1859, Le Verrier discovered the Mercury perihelion advance anomaly. This anomaly turned out to be the first relativistic-gravity effect observed. During the 156 years to 2016, the precisions and accuracies of laboratory and space experiments, and of astrophysical and cosmological observations on relativistic gravity have been improved by 3-4 orders of magnitude. The improvements have been mainly from optical observations at first followed by radio observations. The achievements for the past 50 years are from radio Doppler tracking and radio ranging together with lunar laser ranging. At the present, the radio observations and lunar laser ranging experiments are similar in the accuracy of testing relativistic gravity. We review and summarize the present status of solar-system tests of relativistic gravity. With planetary laser ranging, spacecraft laser ranging and interferometric laser ranging (laser Doppler ranging) together with the development of drag-free technology, the optical observations will improve...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Omotayo Omosebi
2015-12-01
This article presents an analytic technique for interpreting pressure falloff tests of non-Newtonian Power-law fluids in wells that are located near boundaries in dual-porosity reservoirs. First, dimensionless pressure solutions are obtained and Stehfest inversion algorithm is used to develop new type curves. Subsequently, long-time analytic solutions are presented and interpretation procedure is proposed using direct synthesis. Two examples, including real field data from a heavy oil reservoir in Colombian eastern plains basin, are used to validate and demonstrate application of this technique. Results agree with conventional type-curve matching procedure. The approach proposed in this study avoids the use of type curves, which is prone to human errors. It provides a better alternative for direct estimation of formation and flow properties from falloff data.
Black holes a laboratory for testing strong gravity
Bambi, Cosimo
2017-01-01
This textbook introduces the current astrophysical observations of black holes, and discusses the leading techniques to study the strong gravity region around these objects with electromagnetic radiation. More importantly, it provides the basic tools for writing an astrophysical code and testing the Kerr paradigm. Astrophysical black holes are an ideal laboratory for testing strong gravity. According to general relativity, the spacetime geometry around these objects should be well described by the Kerr solution. The electromagnetic radiation emitted by the gas in the inner part of the accretion disk can probe the metric of the strong gravity region and test the Kerr black hole hypothesis. With exercises and examples in each chapter, as well as calculations and analytical details in the appendix, the book is especially useful to the beginners or graduate students who are familiar with general relativity while they do not have any background in astronomy or astrophysics.
Ellis, George F. R.; Gibbons, Gary W.
2014-01-01
In this paper we lay down the foundations for a purely Newtonian theory of cosmology, valid at scales small compared with the Hubble radius, using only Newtonian point particles acted on by gravity and a possible cosmological term. We describe the cosmological background which is given by an exact solution of the equations of motion in which the particles expand homothetically with their comoving positions constituting a central configuration. We point out, using previous work, that an important class of central configurations are homogeneous and isotropic, thus justifying the usual assumptions of elementary treatments. The scale factor is shown to satisfy the standard Raychaudhuri and Friedmann equations without making any fluid dynamic or continuum approximations. Since we make no commitment as to the identity of the point particles, our results are valid for cold dark matter, galaxies, or clusters of galaxies. In future publications we plan to discuss perturbations of our cosmological background from the point particle viewpoint laid down in this paper and show consistency with much standard theory usually obtained by more complicated and conceptually less clear continuum methods. Apart from its potential use in large scale structure studies, we believe that our approach has great pedagogic advantages over existing elementary treatments of the expanding universe, since it requires no use of general relativity or continuum mechanics but concentrates on the basic physics: Newton’s laws for gravitationally interacting particles.
Planck-scale gravity test at PETRA. Letter of intent
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gharibyan, V.; Balewski, K.
2016-02-15
Quantum or torsion gravity models predict unusual properties of space- time at very short distances. In particular, near the Planck length, around 10{sup -35} m, empty space may behave as a crystal, singly or doubly refractive. This hypothesis, however, remains uncheckable for any direct measurement since the smallest distance accessible in experiment is about 10{sup -19} m at the LHC. Here we propose a laboratory test to measure space birefringence or refractivity induced by gravity. A sensitivity 10{sup -31} m for doubly and 10{sup -28} m for singly refractive vacuum could be reached with PETRA 6 GeV beam exploring UV laser Compton scattering.
Testing gravity with EG: mapping theory onto observations
Leonard, C. Danielle; Ferreira, Pedro G.; Heymans, Catherine
2015-12-01
We present a complete derivation of the observationally motivated definition of the modified gravity statistic EG. Using this expression, we investigate how variations to theory and survey parameters may introduce uncertainty in the general relativistic prediction of EG. We forecast errors on EG for measurements using two combinations of upcoming surveys, and find that theoretical uncertainties may dominate for a futuristic measurement. Finally, we compute predictions of EG under modifications to general relativity in the quasistatic regime, and comment on the pros and cons of using EG to test gravity with future surveys.
Planck-scale gravity test at PETRA -- Letter of Intent
Gharibyan, Vahagn
2016-01-01
Quantum or torsion gravity models predict unusual properties of space-time at very short distances. In particular, near the Planck length, around $10^{-35}m$, empty space may behave as a crystal, singly or doubly refractive. This hypothesis, however, remains uncheckable for any direct measurement since the smallest distance accessible in experiment is about $10^{-19}m$ at the LHC. Here we propose a laboratory test to measure space birefringence or refractivity induced by gravity. A sensitivity $10^{-31}m$ for doubly and $10^{-28}m$ for singly refractive vacuum could be reached with PETRA 6 GeV beam exploring UV laser Compton scattering.
Statistical Tests for Frequency Distribution of Mean Gravity Anomalies
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The hypothesis that a very large number of lOx 10mean gravity anomalies are normally distributed has been rejected at 5% Significance level based on the X2 and the unit normal deviate tests. However, the 50 equal area mean anomalies derived from the lOx 10data, have been found to be normally distributed at the same ...
Testing DGP modified gravity in the Solar System
Iorio, Lorenzo
2006-01-01
In this talk we review the perspectives of testing the multidimensional Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati (DGP) model of modified gravity in the Solar System. The inner planets, contrary to the giant gaseous ones, yield the most promising scenario for the near future.
Tests of Gravity Using Lunar Laser Ranging
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stephen M. Merkowitz
2010-11-01
Full Text Available Lunar laser ranging (LLR has been a workhorse for testing general relativity over the past four decades. The three retroreflector arrays put on the Moon by the Apollo astronauts and the French built arrays on the Soviet Lunokhod rovers continue to be useful targets, and have provided the most stringent tests of the Strong Equivalence Principle and the time variation of Newton’s gravitational constant. The relatively new ranging system at the Apache Point 3.5 meter telescope now routinely makes millimeter level range measurements. Incredibly, it has taken 40 years for ground station technology to advance to the point where characteristics of the lunar retroreflectors are limiting the precision of the range measurements. In this article, we review the gravitational science and technology of lunar laser ranging and discuss prospects for the future.
Qiang, Li-E
2015-01-01
High precision Superconductivity Gravity Gradiometers (SGG) are powerful tools for relativistic experiments. In this paper, we work out the tidal signals in non-dynamical Chern-Simons modified gravity, which could be measured by orbiting SGGs around Earth. We find that, with proper orientations of multi-axes SGGs, the tidal signals from the Chern-Simons modification can be isolated in the combined data of different axes. Furthermore, for three-axes SGGs, such combined data is the trace of the total tidal matrix, which is invariant under the rotations of SGG axes and thus free from axis pointing errors. Following nearly circular orbits, the tests of the parity-violating Chern-Simons modification and the measurements of the gravitomagnetic sector in parity-conserving metric theories can be carried out independently in the same time. A first step analysis on noise sources is also included.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abele, Hartmut; Bittner, Thomas; Cronenberg, Gunther; Filter, Hanno; Jenke, Tobias; Lemmel, Hartmut; Thalhammer, Martin [Atominstitut TU Wien, Wien (Austria); Geltenbort, Peter [Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France)
2012-07-01
This talk is about a test of the Newtons Inverse Square Law of Gravity at micron distances by quantum interference with ultra-cold neutrons deep into the theoretically interesting regime. The method is based on a new resonance spectroscopy technique related to Rabi spectroscopy, but it has been adapted to gravitationally bound quantum systems. By coupling such a quantum system to mechanical vibrations, we observe resonant transitions, devoid of electromagnetic interaction. As Newtonian gravity and hypothetical Fifth Forces evolve with different phase information, the experiment has the potential to test the equivalence principle and Newtons gravity law at the micron scale. This experiment can therefore test speculations on large extra dimensions of sub-millimetre size of space-time or the origin of the cosmological constant in the universe, where effects are predicted in the interesting range of this experiment and might give a signal in an improved setup.
Gamow, George
2003-01-01
A distinguished physicist and teacher, George Gamow also possessed a special gift for making the intricacies of science accessible to a wide audience. In Gravity, he takes an enlightening look at three of the towering figures of science who unlocked many of the mysteries behind the laws of physics: Galileo, the first to take a close look at the process of free and restricted fall; Newton, originator of the concept of gravity as a universal force; and Einstein, who proposed that gravity is no more than the curvature of the four-dimensional space-time continuum.Graced with the author's own draw
Simulation tests of galaxy cluster constraints on chameleon gravity
Wilcox, Harry; Nichol, Robert C.; Zhao, Gong-Bo; Bacon, David; Koyama, Kazuya; Romer, A. Kathy
2016-10-01
We use two new hydrodynamical simulations of Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) and f(R) gravity to test the methodology used by Wilcox et al. (W15) in constraining the effects of a fifth force on the profiles of clusters of galaxies. We construct realistic simulated stacked weak lensing and X-ray surface brightness cluster profiles from these cosmological simulations, and then use these data projected along various lines of sight to test the spherical symmetry of our stacking procedure. We also test the applicability of the NFW profile to model weak lensing profiles of clusters in f(R) gravity. Finally, we test the validity of the analytical model developed in W15 against the simulated profiles. Overall, we find our methodology is robust and broadly agrees with these simulated data. We also apply our full Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis from W15 to our simulated X-ray and lensing profiles, providing consistent constraints on the modified gravity parameters as obtained from the real cluster data, e.g. for our ΛCDM simulation we obtain |fR0| < 8.3 × 10-5 (95 per cent CL), which is in good agreement with the W15 measurement of |fR0| < 6 × 10-5. Overall, these tests confirm the power of our methodology which can now be applied to larger cluster samples available with the next generation surveys.
Testing MOG, non-local gravity and MOND with rotation curves of dwarf galaxies
Zhoolideh Haghighi, M. H.; Rahvar, S.
2017-07-01
Modified gravity (MOG) and non-local gravity (NLG) are two alternative theories to general relativity. They are able to explain the rotation curves of spiral galaxies and clusters of galaxies without including dark matter. In the weak-field approximation, these two theories have similar forms, with an effective gravitational potential that has two components: (I) Newtonian gravity with the gravitational constant enhanced by a factor (1 + α) and (II) a Yukawa-type potential that produces a repulsive force with length-scale 1/μ. In this work, we compare the rotation curves of dwarf galaxies in the LITTLE THINGS catalogue with predictions of MOG, NLG and modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND). We find that the universal parameters of the MOG and NLG theories can fit the rotation curves of dwarf galaxies only at the expense of systematically high stellar mass-to-light ratios at 3.6 μm. For instance, in MOG, half of the galaxies have best-fitting stellar M/L ratios larger than 10. It seems that such a big stellar mass-to-light ratio is in contradiction with observations of nearby stars in the Milky Way and with stellar population synthesis models; however, the stellar mass-to-light ratio of dwarf galaxies is not observed directly by the astrophysical methods. Future observations of binary stars in the dwarf galaxies will identify M/L and consequently examine different modified gravity models.
Modified Newtonian dynamics as an alternative to dark matter
Sanders, RH; McGaugh, SS
2002-01-01
Modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) is an empirically motivated modification of Newtonian gravity or inertia suggested by Milgrom as an alternative to cosmic dark matter. The basic idea is that at accelerations below a(0) approximate to 10(-8) cm/s(2) approximate to cH(o)/6 the effective
Sensitive Superconducting Gravity Gradiometer Constructed with Levitated Test Masses
Griggs, C. E.; Moody, M. V.; Norton, R. S.; Paik, H. J.; Venkateswara, K.
2017-12-01
We demonstrate basic operations of a two-component superconducting gravity gradiometer (SGG) that is constructed with a pair of magnetically levitated test masses coupled to superconducting quantum-interference devices. A design that gives a potential sensitivity of 1.4 ×10-4 E Hz-1 /2 (1 E ≡10-9 s-2 ) in the frequency band of 1 to 50 mHz and better than 2 ×10-5 E Hz-1 /2 between 0.1 and 1 mHz for a compact tensor SGG that fits within a 22-cm-diameter sphere. The SGG has the capability of rejecting the platform acceleration and jitter in all 6 degrees of freedom to one part in 109 . Such an instrument has applications in precision tests of fundamental laws of physics, earthquake early warning, and gravity mapping of Earth and the planets.
Testing relativistic gravity with binary and millisecond pulsars
Taylor, J H
1993-01-01
Binary and millisecond pulsars oiler unique opportunities for high precision experiments in relativistic gravity, probing well beyond the weak—ﬁeld, slowimotion limit of all previous experimental tests. 'I‘hey also provide the means for accurate measurements of neutron star masses, plao ing rigorous constraints on the energy density 01' low-frequency gravitational radiation in the universe, and a number of other significant results. The first known binary pulsar, BSR BI913+l6, has now been observed [or more than 18 years. Its timing measurements have conclusively established the ex~ istence, quadrupolar nature, and propagation speed of gravitational waves; the results are presently in accord with general relativity at, the 0.4% level. A more recently discovered binary pulsar, PSR B1534+12, has provided clean access to a test of gravity under stronghold conditions, independent of grav— itational radiation effects. In this paper I summarize and update the status of experiments involving these two pulsar...
Testing Gravity with Pulsars in the SKA Era
Shao, L.; Stairs, I.; Antoniadis, J.; Deller, A.; Freire, P.; Hessels, J.; Janssen, G.; Kramer, M.; Kunz, J.; Laemmerzahl, C.; Perlick, V.; Possenti, A.; Ransom, S.; Stappers, B.; van Straten, W.
2015-04-01
The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) will use pulsars to enable precise measurements of strong gravity effects in pulsar systems, which yield tests of gravitational theories that cannot be carried out anywhere else. The Galactic census of pulsars will discover dozens of relativistic pulsar systems, possibly including pulsar -- black hole binaries which can be used to test the "cosmic censorship conjecture" and the "no-hair theorem". Also, the SKA's remarkable sensitivity will vastly improve the timing precision of millisecond pulsars, allowing probes of potential deviations from general relativity (GR). Aspects of gravitation to be explored include tests of strong equivalence principles, gravitational dipole radiation, extra field components of gravitation, gravitomagnetism, and spacetime symmetries.
TESTING YUKAWA-LIKE POTENTIALS FROM f(R)-GRAVITY IN ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Napolitano, N. R. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Salita Moiariello, 16, 80131-Napoli (Italy); Capozziello, S.; Capaccioli, M. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , Napoli (Italy); Romanowsky, A. J. [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Tortora, C., E-mail: napolita@na.astro.it [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Zuerich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057, Zuerich (Switzerland)
2012-04-01
We present the first analysis of extended stellar kinematics of elliptical galaxies where a Yukawa-like correction to the Newtonian gravitational potential derived from f(R)-gravity is considered as an alternative to dark matter. In this framework, we model long-slit data and planetary nebula data out to 7 R{sub eff} of three galaxies with either decreasing or flat dispersion profiles. We use the corrected Newtonian potential in a dispersion-kurtosis Jeans analysis to account for the mass-anisotropy degeneracy. We find that these modified potentials are able to fit nicely all three elliptical galaxies and the anisotropy distribution is consistent with that estimated if a dark halo is considered. The parameter which measures the 'strength' of the Yukawa-like correction is, on average, smaller than the one found previously in spiral galaxies and correlates both with the scale length of the Yukawa-like term and the orbital anisotropy.
Deposition Velocities of Non-Newtonian Slurries in Pipelines: Complex Simulant Testing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Poloski, Adam P.; Bonebrake, Michael L.; Casella, Andrew M.; Johnson, Michael D.; Toth, James J.; Adkins, Harold E.; Chun, Jaehun; Denslow, Kayte M.; Luna, Maria; Tingey, Joel M.
2009-07-01
One of the concerns expressed by the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) is about the potential for pipe plugging at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Per the review’s executive summary, “Piping that transports slurries will plug unless it is properly designed to minimize this risk. This design approach has not been followed consistently, which will lead to frequent shutdowns due to line plugging.” To evaluate the potential for plugging, deposition-velocity tests were performed on several physical simulants to determine whether the design approach is conservative. Deposition velocity is defined as the velocity below which particles begin to deposit to form a moving bed of particles on the bottom of a straight horizontal pipe during slurry-transport operations. The deposition velocity depends on the system geometry and the physical properties of the particles and fluid. An experimental program was implemented to test the stability-map concepts presented in WTP-RPT-175 Rev. 01. Two types of simulant were tested. The first type of simulant was similar to the glass-bead simulants discussed in WTP-RPT-175 Rev. 0 ; it consists of glass beads with a nominal particle size of 150 µm in a kaolin/water slurry. The initial simulant was prepared at a target yield stress of approximately 30 Pa. The yield stress was then reduced, stepwise, via dilution or rheological modifiers, ultimately to a level of <1 Pa. At each yield-stress step, deposition-velocity testing was performed. Testing over this range of yield-stress bounds the expected rheological operating window of the WTP and allows the results to be compared to stability-map predictions for this system. The second simulant was a precipitated hydroxide that simulates HLW pretreated sludge from Hanford waste tank AZ-101. Testing was performed in a manner similar to that for the first simulant over a wide range of yield stresses; however, an additional test of net-positive suction-head required (NPSHR
The Fourth Gravity Test and Quintessence Matter Field
Liu, Molin; Yu, Fei; Gui, Yuanxing
2010-01-01
After the previous work on gravitational frequency shift, light deflection (arXiv:1003.5296) and perihelion advance (arXiv:0812.2332), we calculate carefully the fourth gravity test, i.e. radar echo delay in a central gravity field surrounded by static free quintessence matter, in this paper. Through the Lagrangian method, we find the influence of the quintessence matter on the time delay of null particle is presence by means of an additional integral term. When the quintessence field vanishes, it reduces to the usual Schwarzschild case naturally. Meanwhile, we also use the data of the Viking lander from the Mars and Cassini spacecraft to Saturn to constrain the quintessence field. For the Viking case, the field parameter $\\alpha$ is under the order of $10^{-9}$. However, $\\alpha$ is under $10^{-18}$ for the Cassini case.
Pipinos, Savas
2010-01-01
This article describes one classroom activity in which the author simulates the Newtonian gravity, and employs the Euclidean Geometry with the use of new technologies (NT). The prerequisites for this activity were some knowledge of the formulae for a particle free fall in Physics and most certainly, a good understanding of the notion of similarity…
Testing Gravity via Lunar Laser Ranging: Maximizing Data Quality
Murphy, Thomas
We propose to continue leading-edge observations with the Apache Point Observatory Lunar Laser-ranging Operation (APOLLO), in an effort to subject gravity to the most stringent tests yet. APOLLO has delivered a dramatic improvement in the measurement of the lunar orbit: now at the millimeter level. Yet incomplete models are thus far unable to confirm the accuracy. We therefore seek to build a calibration system to ensure that APOLLO meets its millimeter measurement goal. Gravity--the most evident force of nature--is in fact the weakest of the fundamental forces, and consequently the most poorly tested. Einstein’s general relativity, which is currently our best description of gravity, is fundamentally incompatible with quantum mechanics and is likely to be replaced by a more complete theory in the future. A modified theory would predict small deviations in the solar system that could have profound consequences for our understanding of the Universe as a whole. Lunar laser ranging (LLR), in which short laser pulses launched from a telescope are bounced off of reflectors placed on the Moon by U.S. astronauts and Soviet landers, has for decades produced some of the leading tests of gravity by mapping the shape of the lunar orbit to high precision. These include tests of the strong equivalence principle, the time-rate-ofchange of Newton’s gravitational constant, gravitomagnetism, the inverse-square law, and many others. Among the attributes that contribute to APOLLO’s superior observations, routine ranging to all five lunar reflectors on timescales of minutes dramatically improves our ability to gauge lunar orientation and body distortion. This information produces insights into the interior structure and dynamics of the Moon, allowing a more precise determination of the path for the Moon’s center of mass, lending to tests of fundamental gravity. Simultaneously, higher precision range measurements, together with data from a superconducting gravimeter at the
Testing strong gravity with gravitational waves and Love numbers
Franzin, E.; Cardoso, V.; Pani, P.; Raposo, G.
2017-05-01
The LIGO observation of GW150914 has inaugurated the gravitational-wave astronomy era and the possibility of testing gravity in extreme regimes. While distorted black holes are the most convincing sources of gravitational waves, similar signals might be produced also by other compact objects. In particular, we discuss what the gravitational-wave ringdown could tell us about the nature of the emitting object, and how measurements of the tidal Love numbers could help us in understanding the internal structure of compact dark objects.
Gravity Probe B - Testing Einstein at the Limits of Engineering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bencze, W.J.; Buchman, S.; Clarke, B.; DeBra, D.; Everitt, C.W.F.; Green, G.; Heifetz, M.I. [Gravity Probe B Relativity Mission, W.W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4085 (United States); Hipkins, D.N.; Keiser, G.M.; Li, J.; Lipa, J.A.; Muhlfelder, B.; Parkinson, B.W.; Silbergleit, A.S.; Taber, M.; Turneaure, J.P.; Wang, S. [Gravity Probe B Relativity Mission, W.W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4085 (United States)
2007-04-15
The Gravity Probe B experiment was developed to test two predictions of General Relativity; the Geodetic and the frame-dragging precessions of a mechanical gyroscope due to the gravitational field of the Earth. This space-based, cryogenic experiment was carried into orbit on 20 April 2004 atop a Boeing Delta II rocket. On-orbit operations consisted of 4.3 months of experiment setup, 11.6 months of science data collection, and 1.4 months of post-science calibrations. Analysis of the science data is now in progress, scheduled to complete in 2007.
Experimental Design for Testing Local Lorentz Invariance Violations in Gravity
Chen, Ya-Fen; Tan, Yu-Jie; Shao, Cheng-Gang
2017-09-01
Local Lorentz invariance is an important component of General Relativity. Testing for Local Lorentz invariance can not only probe the foundation stone of General Relativity but also help to explore the unified theory for General Relativity and quantum mechanics. In this paper, we search the Local Lorentz invariance violation associated with operators of mass dimension d=6 in the pure-gravity sector with short-range gravitational experiments. To enlarge the Local Lorentz invariance violation signal effectively, we design a new experiment in which the constraints of all fourteen violation coefficients may be improved by about one order of magnitude
Precision Gravity Tests with Atom Interferometry in Space
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tino, G.M.; Sorrentino, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia and LENS, Università di Firenze, INFN Sezione di Firenze, via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Aguilera, D. [Institute of Space Systems, German Aerospace Center, Robert-Hooke-Strasse 7, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Battelier, B.; Bertoldi, A. [Laboratoire Photonique, Numérique et Nanosciences, LP2N - UMR5298 - IOGS - CNRS Université Bordeaux 1, Bâtiment A30 351 cours de la Libération F-33405 TALENCE Cedex France (France); Bodart, Q. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia and LENS, Università di Firenze, INFN Sezione di Firenze, via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Bongs, K. [Midlands Ultracold Atom Research Centre School of Physics and Astronomy University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Bouyer, P. [Laboratoire Photonique, Numérique et Nanosciences, LP2N - UMR5298 - IOGS - CNRS Université Bordeaux 1, Bâtiment A30 351 cours de la Libération F-33405 TALENCE Cedex France (France); Braxmaier, C. [Institute of Space Systems, German Aerospace Center, Robert-Hooke-Strasse 7, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Cacciapuoti, L. [European Space Agency, Research and Scientific Support Department, Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ Noordwijk (Netherlands); Gaaloul, N. [Institute of Quantum Optics, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Welfengarten 1, D 30167 Hannover (Germany); Gürlebeck, N. [University of Bremen, Centre of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity (ZARM), Am Fallturm, D - 29359 Bremen (Germany); Hauth, M. [Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Newtonstr. 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); and others
2013-10-15
Atom interferometry provides extremely sensitive and accurate tools for the measurement of inertial forces. Operation of atom interferometers in microgravity is expected to enhance the performance of such sensors. This paper presents two possible implementations of a dual {sup 85}Rb-{sup 87}Rb atom interferometer to perform differential gravity measurements in space, with the primary goal to test the Weak Equivalence Principle. The proposed scheme is in the framework of two projects of the European Space Agency, namely Q-WEP and STE-QUEST. The paper describes the baseline experimental configuration, and discusses the technology readiness, noise and error budget for the two proposed experiments.
Newtonian cosmology with a quantum bounce
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bargueno, P.; Bravo Medina, S.; Nowakowski, M. [Universidad de los Andes, Departamento de Fisica, Bogota (Colombia); Batic, D. [University of West Indies, Department of Mathematics, Kingston 6 (Jamaica)
2016-10-15
It has been known for some time that the cosmological Friedmann equation deduced from general relativity can also be obtained within the Newtonian framework under certain assumptions. We use this result together with quantum corrections to the Newtonian potentials to derive a set a of quantum corrected Friedmann equations. We examine the behavior of the solutions of these modified cosmological equations paying special attention to the sign of the quantum corrections. We find different quantum effects crucially depending on this sign. One such a solution displays a qualitative resemblance to other quantum models like Loop quantum gravity or non-commutative geometry. (orig.)
Testing the gravity p-median model empirically
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kenneth Carling
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Regarding the location of a facility, the presumption in the widely used p-median model is that the customer opts for the shortest route to the nearest facility. However, this assumption is problematic on free markets since the customer is presumed to gravitate to a facility by the distance to and the attractiveness of it. The recently introduced gravity p-median model offers an extension to the p-median model that account for this. The model is therefore potentially interesting, although it has not yet been implemented and tested empirically. In this paper, we have implemented the model in an empirical problem of locating vehicle inspections, locksmiths, and retail stores of vehicle spare-parts for the purpose of investigating its superiority to the p-median model. We found, however, the gravity p-median model to be of limited use for the problem of locating facilities as it either gives solutions similar to the p-median model, or it gives unstable solutions due to a non-concave objective function.
Colpi, Monica; Gorini, Vittorio; Moschella, Ugo
2016-01-01
This book presents an overview of the current understanding of gravitation, with a focus on the current efforts to test its theories, especially general relativity. It shows how the quest for a deeper understanding, which would possibly incorporate gravity in the quantum realm, is more than ever an open field. The majority of the contributions deals with the manifold facets of “experimental gravitation”, but the book goes beyond this and covers a broad range of subjects from the foundations of gravitational theories to astrophysics and cosmology. The book is divided into three parts. The first part deals with foundations and Solar System tests. An introductory pedagogical chapter reviews first Newtonian gravitational theory, special relativity, the equivalence principle and the basics of general relativity. Then it focuses on approximation methods, mainly the post-Newtonian formalism and the relaxed Einstein equations, with a discussion on how they are used in treating experimental tests and in the proble...
The Role of Binary Pulsars in Testing Gravity Theories
Possenti, Andrea; Burgay, Marta
Radio pulsars are neutron stars (NSs) which emit collimated beams of radio waves, observed as pulses, once per rotation of the NS. A subgroup of the radio pulsars behave as highly stable clocks and monitoring the times of arrival of their radio pulses can provide an accurate determination of their positional, rotational, and orbital parameters, as well as indications on the properties of their space-time environment. In this chapter, we focus on the so-called relativistic binary pulsars, recycled NSs orbiting around a compact companion star. Some of them can be used as unique tools to test general relativity and other gravitational theories. The methodology for exploiting these sources as laboratories for gravity theories is first explained and then some of the most relevant recent results are reviewed.
Astrophysical and terrestrial probes to test Einstein-Cartan gravity
Garcia de Andrade, L. C.
2001-09-01
Spin-polarized cylinders with axial magnetic fields in Einstein-Cartan gravity are used as terrestrial and astrophysical probes to test torsion theories of gravitation. We show that a spin-polarized cylinder in teleparallel gravity cannot be constructed since the constraint of the vanishing of the full Riemann-Cartan (RC) curvature tensor leads to a vanishing spin-polarized density and therefore we are left with an unpolarized cylinder which would not be useful for our purposes since only spin-polarized test masses would be able to feel torsion. Therefore, we turn our attention to a more general type of post-Riemannian space called RC spaces where the full RC curvature does not vanish. By comparison with the experiment of Ritter et al (1993 Phys. Rev. Lett. 70 701) where a spin-polarized mass is used to test spin-dependent forces with a test mass with >1023 spin-polarized electrons in a few cubic centimetres, we are able to compute a spin density of 10-4 g cm-1 s-1 and a Cartan geometrical torsion of the order of 10-52 cm-1, which unfortunately is beyond the quantum-limit capability of any laboratory device. However, by considering the magnetic field along a torsion balance rotation axis we are able to compute a rotation of the torsion balance of the order of 10-2 rad s-1 due to an effect similar to the Einstein-de Haas effect. Deviation from the flat geometry is shown to be due to the difference between the spin-torsion polarized density and the magnetic energy which allows us to compute the necessary magnetic field to cancel the spin-torsion effects. This is of the order of 10-2 G, and can be obtained in the laboratory. In the case of neutron stars the difference between the spin density and the magnetic fields increases considerably compared with the laboratory and deviations on the metric would be appreciable. The Lense-Thirring effect is applied to a test particle to check the metric of the spin-polarized cylinder.
Testing strong-field gravity with tidal Love numbers
Cardoso, Vitor; Franzin, Edgardo; Maselli, Andrea; Pani, Paolo; Raposo, Guilherme
2017-04-01
The tidal Love numbers (TLNs) encode the deformability of a self-gravitating object immersed in a tidal environment and depend significantly both on the object's internal structure and on the dynamics of the gravitational field. An intriguing result in classical general relativity is the vanishing of the TLNs of black holes. We extend this result in three ways, aiming at testing the nature of compact objects: (i) we compute the TLNs of exotic compact objects, including different families of boson stars, gravastars, wormholes, and other toy models for quantum corrections at the horizon scale. In the black-hole limit, we find a universal logarithmic dependence of the TLNs on the location of the surface. (ii) We compute the TLNs of black holes beyond vacuum general relativity, including Einstein-Maxwell, Brans-Dicke, and Chern-Simons gravity. (iii) We assess the ability of present and future gravitational-wave detectors to measure the TLNs of these objects, including the first analysis of TLNs with LISA. Both LIGO, ET, and LISA can impose interesting constraints on boson stars, while LISA is able to probe even extremely compact objects. We argue that the TLNs provide a smoking gun of new physics at the horizon scale and that future gravitational-wave measurements of the TLNs in a binary inspiral provide a novel way to test black holes and general relativity in the strong-field regime.
Inconsistencies in Verlinde's emergent gravity
Dai, De-Chang; Stojkovic, Dejan
2017-11-01
We point out that recent Verlinde's proposal of emergent gravity suffers from some internal inconsistencies. The main idea in this proposal is to preserve general relativity at short scales where numerous tests verified its validity, but modify it on large scales where we meet puzzles raised by observations (in particular dark matter), by using some entropic concepts. We first point out that gravity as a conservative force is very difficult (if possible at all) to portray as an entropic force. We then show that the derivation of the MOND relation using the elastic strain idea is not self-consistent. When properly done, Verlinde's elaborate procedure recovers the standard Newtonian gravity instead of MOND.
Effects of standard and modified gravity on interplanetary ranges
Iorio, Lorenzo
2010-01-01
We numerically investigate the impact on the two-body range by several Newtonian and non-Newtonian dynamical effects for some Earth-planet pairs in view of the expected cm-level accuracy in future planned or proposed interplanetary ranging operations. The general relativistic gravitomagnetic Lense-Thirring effect should be modeled and solved-for in future, accurate ranging tests of Newtonian and post-Newtonian gravity because it falls within their measurability domain. It could a-priori "imprint" the determination of some of the target parameters of the tests considered. Moreover, the ring of the minor asteroids, Ceres, Pallas, Vesta and the Trans-Neptunian Objects (TNOs) act as sources of non-negligible systematic uncertainty on the larger gravitoelectric post-Newtonian signals from which it is intended to determine the parameters \\gamma and \\beta of the Parameterized Post Newtonian (PPN) formalism with very high precision (orders of magnitude better than the current 10^-4-10^-5 levels). Also other putative,...
Theoretical studies of non-Newtonian and Newtonian fluid flow through porous media
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wu, Yu-Shu.
1990-02-01
A comprehensive theoretical study has been carried out on the flow behavior of both single and multiple phase non-Newtonian fluids in porous media. This work is divided into three parts: development of numerical and analytical solutions; theoretical studies of transient flow of non-Newtonian fluids in porous media; and applications of well test analysis and displacement efficiency evaluation to field problems. A fully implicit, integral finite difference model has been developed for simulation of non-Newtonian and Newtonian fluid flow through porous media. Several commonly-used rheological models of power-law and Bingham plastic non-Newtonian fluids have been incorporated in the simulator. A Buckley-Leverett type analytical solution for one-dimensional, immiscible displacement involving non-Newtonian fluids in porous media has been developed. An integral method is also presented for the study of transient flow of Bingham fluids in porous media. In addition, two well test analysis methods have been developed for analyzing pressure transient tests of power-law and Bingham fluids, respectively. Applications are included to demonstrate this new technology. The physical mechanisms involved in immiscible displacement with non-Newtonian fluids in porous media have been studied using the Buckley-Leverett type analytical solution. In another study, an idealized fracture model has been used to obtain some insights into the flow of a power-law fluid in a double-porosity medium. Transient flow of a general pseudoplastic fluid has been studied numerically. 125 refs., 91 figs., 12 tabs.
Airborne gravity tests in the Italian area to improve the geoid model of Italy
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Barzaghi, R; Borghi, A; Keller, K
2009-01-01
Airborne gravimetry is an important method for measuring gravity over large unsurveyed areas. This technology has been widely applied in Canada, Antarctica and Greenland to map the gravity fields of these regions and in recent years, in the oil industry. In 2005, two tests in the Italian area were...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rongjia Yang
2014-08-01
Full Text Available If we assume that the source of thermodynamic system, ρ and p, are also the source of gravity, then either thermal quantities, such as entropy, temperature, and chemical potential, can induce gravitational effects, or gravity can induce thermal effects. We find that gravity can be seen as entropic force only for systems with constant temperature and zero chemical potential. The case for Newtonian approximation is discussed.
Mashhoon, Bahram
2017-05-01
Relativity theory is based on a postulate of locality, which means that the past history of the observer is not directly taken into account. This book argues that the past history should be taken into account. In this way, nonlocality 1R 2i1nr-in the sense of history dependence-is introduced into relativity theory. The deep connection between inertia and gravitation suggests that gravity could be nonlocal, and in nonlocal gravity the fading gravitational memory of past events must then be taken into account. Along this line of thought, a classical nonlocal generalization of Einstein's theory of gravitation has recently been developed. A significant consequence of this theory is that the nonlocal aspect of gravity appears to simulate dark matter. According to nonlocal gravity theory, what astronomers attribute to dark matter should instead be due to the nonlocality of gravitation. Nonlocality dominates on the scale of galaxies and beyond. Memory fades with time; therefore, the nonlocal aspect of gravity becomes weaker as the universe expands. The implications of nonlocal gravity are explored in this book for gravitational lensing, gravitational radiation, the gravitational physics of the Solar System and the internal dynamics of nearby galaxies, as well as clusters of galaxies. This approach is extended to nonlocal Newtonian cosmology, where the attraction of gravity fades with the expansion of the universe. Thus far, scientists have only compared some of the consequences of nonlocal gravity with astronomical observations.
Zero-Gravity Research Facility Drop Test (2/4)
1995-01-01
An experiment vehicle plunges into the deceleration pit at the end of a 5.18-second drop in the Zero-Gravity Research Facility at NASA's Glenn Research Center. The Zero-Gravity Research Facility was developed to support microgravity research and development programs that investigate various physical sciences, materials, fluid physcis, and combustion and processing systems. Payloads up to 1 meter in diameter and 455 kg in weight can be accommodated. The facility has a 145-meter evacuated shaft to ensure a disturbance-free drop. This is No. 2 of a sequence of 4 images. (Credit: NASA/Glenn Research Center)
Zero-Gravity Research Facility Drop Test (3/4)
1995-01-01
An experiment vehicle plunges into the deceleration at the end of a 5.18-second drop in the Zero-Gravity Research Facility at NASA's Glenn Research Center. The Zero-Gravity Research Facility was developed to support microgravity research and development programs that investigate various physical sciences, materials, fluid physics, and combustion and processing systems. Payloads up to one-meter in diameter and 455 kg in weight can be accommodated. The facility has a 145-meter evacuated shaft to ensure a disturbance-free drop. This is No. 3 of a sequence of 4 images. (Credit: NASA/Glenn Research Center)
Zero-Gravity Research Facility Drop Test (1/4)
1995-01-01
An experiment vehicle plunges into the deceleration pit at the end of a 5.18-second drop in the Zero-Gravity Research Facility at NASA's Glenn Research Center. The Zero-Gravity Research Facility was developed to support microgravity research and development programs that investigate various physical sciences, materials, fluid physics, and combustion and processing systems. Payloads up to 1 meter in diameter and 455 kg in weight can be accommodated. The facility has a 145-meter evacuated shaft to ensure a disturbance-free drop. This is No.1 of a sequence of 4 images. (Credit: NASA/Glenn Research Center)
Zero-Gravity Research Facility Drop Test (4/4)
1995-01-01
An experiment vehicle plunges into the deceleration pit at the end of a 5.18-second drop in the Zero-Gravity Research Facility at NASA's Glenn Research Center. The Zero-Gravity Research Facility was developed to support microgravity research and development programs that investigate various physical sciences, materials, fluid physics, and combustion and processing systems. Payloads up to one meter in diameter and 455 kg in weight can be accommodated. The facility has a 145-meter evacuated shaft to ensure a disturbance-free drop. This is No. 4 of a sequence of 4 images. (Credit: NASA/Glenn Research Center)
statistical tests for frequency distribution of mean gravity anomalies
African Journals Online (AJOL)
ES Obe
1980-03-01
Mar 1, 1980 ... applying statistical techniques in the analysis and prediction of gravity data. Krarup. [3] showed that least squares statistical prediction of the anomalous potential is nothing but the least squares adjustment in. Hilbert space with a kernel function, and developed a general least squares theory for estimating.
Testing Verlinde's emergent gravity in early-type galaxies
Tortora, C.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Napolitano, N. R.; Valentijn, E. A.
2017-01-01
Verlinde derived gravity as an emergent force from the information flow, through two-dimensional surfaces and recently, by a priori postulating the entanglement of information in 3D space, he derived the effect of the gravitational potential from dark matter (DM) as the entropy displacement of dark
statistical tests for frequency distribution of mean gravity anomalies
African Journals Online (AJOL)
ES Obe
1980-03-01
Mar 1, 1980 ... of the accuracy of astronomical leveling. Efforts have continued to be directed towards the improvement of statistical models for use in these estimations. One basic measurement for use with the above models is the gravity anomaly. Clearly statistical models are developed for random quantities and the.
Theoretical Studies of Non-Newtonian and Newtonian Fluid Flowthrough Porous Media
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wu, Yu -Shu [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
1990-02-01
A comprehensive theoretical study has been carried out on the flow behavior of both single and multiple phase non-Newtonian fluids in porous media. This work is divided into three parts: (1) development of numerical and analytical solutions; (2) theoretical studies of transient flow of non-Newtonian fluids in porous media; and (3) applications of well test analysis and displacement efficiency evaluation to field problems. A fully implicit, integral finite difference model has been developed for simulation of non-Newtonian and Newtonian fluid flow through porous media. Several commonly-used rheological models of power-law and Bingham plastic non-Newtonian fluids have been incorporated in the simulator. A Buckley-Leverett type analytical solution for one-dimensional, immiscible displacement involving non-Newtonian fluids in porous media has been developed. Based on this solution, a graphic approach for evaluating non-Newtonian displacement efficiency has been developed. The Buckley-Leverett-Welge theory is extended to flow problems with non-Newtonian fluids. An integral method is also presented for the study of transient flow of Bingham fluids in porous media. In addition, two well test analysis methods have been developed for analyzing pressure transient tests of power-law and Bingham fluids, respectively. Applications are included to demonstrate this new technology. The physical mechanisms involved in immiscible displacement with non-Newtonian fluids in porous media have been studied using the Buckley-Leverett type analytical solution. The results show that this kind of displacement is a complicated process and is determined by the rheological properties of the non-Newtonian fluids and the flow conditions, in addition to relative permeability data. In another study, an idealized fracture model has been used to obtain some insights into the flow of a power-law fluid in a double-porosity medium. For flow at a constant rate, non-Newtonian flow behavior in a fractured
Note: Planetary gravities made simple: Sample test of a Mars rover wheel
Viera-López, G.; Serrano-Muñoz, A.; Amigó-Vega, J.; Cruzata, O.; Altshuler, E.
2017-08-01
We introduce an instrument for a wide spectrum of experiments on gravities other than our planet's. It is based on a large Atwood machine where one of the loads is a bucket equipped with a single board computer and different sensors. The computer is able to detect the falling (or rising) and then the stabilization of the effective gravity and to trigger actuators depending on the experiment. Gravities within the range 0.4 g-1.2 g are easily achieved with acceleration noise of the order of 0.01 g. Under Martian gravity, we are able to perform experiments of approximately 1.5 s duration. The system includes features such as WiFi and a web interface with tools for the setup, monitoring, and data analysis of the experiment. We briefly show a case study in testing the performance of a model Mars rover wheel in low gravities.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baskin, D.K. (Chevron Petroleum Technology Company, La Habra, CA (United States)); Jones, R.W. (Chevron Oil Field Research Company, Encinitas, CA (United States))
1993-09-01
This paper discusses empirical geochemical correlations used to predict API oil gravities prior to drill-stem testing in Monterey Formation reservoirs, offshore southern California. The primary objective was to eliminate expensive well testing by identifying intervals that contain low-gravity, nonproducible oil (usually <14[degrees] API). However, the correlations proved very successful in accurately predicting (within 4[degrees]API) oil gravities that range from 5 to 35[degrees] API throughout the offshore Santa Barbara and Santa Maria areas. The primary data are weight-percent sulfur and Rock-Eval pyrolysis of bitumen chemically extracted from reservoir rock samples. In general, reservoirs that contain higher gravity, producible oil have bitumen organic sulfur contents of less than 5 wt. %, Rock-Eval bitumen, and Rock-Eval bitumen S[sub 1]/S[sub 2] ratios greater than 1.0. These data are usually supplemented with Rock-Eval pyrolysis of the reservoir rock, where whole-rock S[sub 1]/S[sub 2] ratios greater than 0.30 usually indicate associated oil gravities greater than 14[degrees] API. This analytical mix gives a multiple approach for estimating reservoir oil gravities within proposed drill-stem test (DST) intervals. Using this approach, oil gravities of more than 50 DSTs have been accurately predicted in the offshore southern California area. The technique is also useful for reevaluating API gravities in older wells where Monterey reservoirs were not the primary target. Moreover, the technique should have application elsewhere, provided the range of oil gravities are not the result of obvious biodegradation and sufficient rock and oil samples are available to establish pertinent correlations. 34 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.
Integral method for analyzing natural convection of non-newtonian ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
An analytical study of natural convection boundary-layer flow along a vertical plate embedded in an anisotropic porous medium saturated by a non-Newtonian fluid has been conducted. The principal axis of permeability ani-sotropy was oriented in oblique direction to the gravity vector. A power-law variation of wall ...
Pseudo-Newtonian planar circular restricted 3-body problem
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dubeibe, F.L., E-mail: fldubeibem@unal.edu.co [Facultad de Ciencias Humanas y de la Educación, Universidad de los Llanos, Villavicencio (Colombia); Grupo de Investigación en Relatividad y Gravitación, Escuela de Física, Universidad Industrial de Santander, A.A. 678, Bucaramanga (Colombia); Lora-Clavijo, F.D., E-mail: fadulora@uis.edu.co [Grupo de Investigación en Relatividad y Gravitación, Escuela de Física, Universidad Industrial de Santander, A.A. 678, Bucaramanga (Colombia); González, Guillermo A., E-mail: guillermo.gonzalez@saber.uis.edu.co [Grupo de Investigación en Relatividad y Gravitación, Escuela de Física, Universidad Industrial de Santander, A.A. 678, Bucaramanga (Colombia)
2017-02-12
We study the dynamics of the planar circular restricted three-body problem in the context of a pseudo-Newtonian approximation. By using the Fodor–Hoenselaers–Perjés procedure, we perform an expansion in the mass potential of a static massive spherical source up to the first non-Newtonian term, giving place to a gravitational potential that includes first-order general relativistic effects. With this result, we model a system composed by two pseudo-Newtonian primaries describing circular orbits around their common center of mass, and a test particle orbiting the system in the equatorial plane. The dynamics of the new system of equations is studied in terms of the Poincaré section method and the Lyapunov exponents, where the introduction of a new parameter ϵ, allows us to observe the transition from the Newtonian to the pseudo-Newtonian regime. We show that when the Jacobian constant is fixed, a chaotic orbit in the Newtonian regime can be either chaotic or regular in the pseudo-Newtonian approach. As a general result, we find that most of the pseudo-Newtonian configurations are less stable than their Newtonian equivalent.
Topology and dark energy: testing gravity in voids.
Spolyar, Douglas; Sahlén, Martin; Silk, Joe
2013-12-13
Modified gravity has garnered interest as a backstop against dark matter and dark energy (DE). As one possible modification, the graviton can become massive, which introduces a new scalar field--here with a Galileon-type symmetry. The field can lead to a nontrivial equation of state of DE which is density and scale dependent. Tension between type Ia supernovae and Planck could be reduced. In voids, the scalar field dramatically alters the equation of state of DE, induces a soon-observable gravitational slip between the two metric potentials, and develops a topological defect (domain wall) due to a nontrivial vacuum structure for the field.
Test Equal Bending by Gravity for Space and Time
Sweetser, Douglas
2009-05-01
For the simplest problem of gravity - a static, non-rotating, spherically symmetric source - the solution for spacetime bending around the Sun should be evenly split between time and space. That is true to first order in M/R, and confirmed by experiment. At second order, general relativity predicts different amounts of contribution from time and space without a physical justification. I show an exponential metric is consistent with light bending to first order, measurably different at second order. All terms to all orders show equal contributions from space and time. Beautiful minimalism is Nature's way.
Ground-based self-gravity tests for LISA Pathfinder and LISA
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Trenkel, C; Warren, C; Wealthy, D, E-mail: christian.trenkel@astrium.eads.ne [Astrium Ltd, Gunnels Wood Road, Stevenage SG1 2AS (United Kingdom)
2009-03-01
Gravitational coupling between the free-falling test masses and the surrounding spacecraft is one of the dominant noise sources for both LISA Pathfinder and LISA. At present, there are no plans to verify any of the self-gravity requirements by test, on the ground. Here, we explore the possibilities of conducting such tests, using a customised torsion balance. We discuss the main sources of systematic and statistical uncertainty present in such a set-up. Our preliminary assessment indicates that the sensitivity is sufficient to carry out meaningful self-gravity tests.
3-Space In-Flow Theory of Gravity: Boreholes, Blackholes and the Fine Structure Constant
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cahill R. T.
2006-04-01
Full Text Available A theory of 3-space explains the phenomenon of gravity as arising from the time-dependence and inhomogeneity of the differential flow of this 3-space. The emergent theory of gravity has two gravitational constants: GN — Newton’s constant, and a dimensionless constant α. Various experiments and astronomical observations have shown that α is the fine structure constant ≈ 1/137. Here we analyse the Greenland Ice Shelf and Nevada Test Site borehole g anomalies, and confirm with increased precision this value of α. This and other successful tests of this theory of gravity, including the supermassive black holes in globular clusters and galaxies, and the “dark-matter” effect in spiral galaxies, shows the validity of this theory of gravity. This success implies that the non-relativistic Newtonian gravity was fundamentally flawed from the beginning, and that this flaw was inherited by the relativistic General Relativity theory of gravity.
3-Space In-Flow Theory of Gravity: Boreholes, Blackholes and the Fine Structure Constant
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cahill R. T.
2006-04-01
Full Text Available A theory of 3-space explains the phenomenon of gravity as arising from the time-dependence and inhomogeneity of the differential flow of this 3-space. The emergent theory of gravity has two gravitational constants: G - Newton's constant, and a dimensionless constant alpha. Various experiments and astronomical observations have shown that alpha is the fine structure constant ~1/137. Here we analyse the Greenland Ice Shelf and Nevada Test Site borehole g anomalies, and confirm with increased precision this value of alpha. This and other successful tests of this theory of gravity, including the supermassive black holes in globular clusters and galaxies, and the "dark-matter" effect in spiral galaxies, shows the validity of this theory of gravity. This success implies that the non-relativistic Newtonian gravity was fundamentally flawed from the beginning, and that this flaw was inherited by the relativistic General Relativity theory of gravity.
Falsification of Mannheim's conformal gravity
Yoon, Youngsub
2013-01-01
We show that Mannheim's conformal gravity, whose potential has a term proportional to $1/r$ and another term proportional to $r$, doesn't reduce to Newtonian gravity at short distances. Therefore, despite the claim that it successfully explains galaxy rotation curves, it seems falsified by numerous Cavendish-type experiments performed at laboratories on Earth whose work haven't found any deviations from Newton's theory. Moreover, when Mannheim used his potential to fit the galaxy rotation curve, he used the Newtonian formula to calculate the effects of the term proportional to $1/r$, not the conformal gravity one. So, he lacked consistency. After all, he would not have been able to use the conformal gravity one either since it deviates so much from the Newtonian one, which the conformal gravity one should reduce to. We also give a couple of other similar reasons why Mannheim's conformal gravity is wrong. For example, the gravitational potential of conformal gravity doesn't reduce to the Newtonian one even in ...
Tests of local Lorentz invariance violation of gravity in the standard model extension with pulsars.
Shao, Lijing
2014-03-21
The standard model extension is an effective field theory introducing all possible Lorentz-violating (LV) operators to the standard model and general relativity (GR). In the pure-gravity sector of minimal standard model extension, nine coefficients describe dominant observable deviations from GR. We systematically implemented 27 tests from 13 pulsar systems to tightly constrain eight linear combinations of these coefficients with extensive Monte Carlo simulations. It constitutes the first detailed and systematic test of the pure-gravity sector of minimal standard model extension with the state-of-the-art pulsar observations. No deviation from GR was detected. The limits of LV coefficients are expressed in the canonical Sun-centered celestial-equatorial frame for the convenience of further studies. They are all improved by significant factors of tens to hundreds with existing ones. As a consequence, Einstein's equivalence principle is verified substantially further by pulsar experiments in terms of local Lorentz invariance in gravity.
Testing the influence of gravity on flower symmetry in five Saxifraga species.
Koethe, Sebastian; Bloemer, Judith; Lunau, Klaus
2017-04-01
Flower symmetry is considered a species-specific trait and is categorized in asymmetry, actinomorphic symmetry, bisymmetry and zygomorphic symmetry. Here we report on the intra-individual variation of flower symmetry in the genus Saxifraga and the influence of light, gravity and intrinsic factors on the development of flower symmetry. We tested five species-Saxifraga cuneifolia, Saxifraga imparilis, Saxifraga rotundifolia, Saxifraga stolonifera and Saxifraga umbrosa-concerning six flower parameters-angles between petals, petal length, petal pigmentation, angular position of carpels, movement of stamens and (only for S. imparilis and S. stolonifera) the length of the two lower elongated petals in regard to their position towards the stem. Specimens of all species were tested on a vertical clinostat as a gravity compensator, on a horizontal clinostat as a light incidence compensator and on a stationary control. The results show that the angle of incident light has no apparent impact on flower symmetry, whereas gravity affects the angular position of petals in S. cuneifolia and S. umbrosa and the petal colouration in S. rotundifolia. In S. cuneifolia and S. umbrosa, the absence of directional gravity resulted in the development of actinomorphic flowers, whereas the corresponding control flowers were zygomorphic. The development of flowers in S. rotundifolia was not altered by this treatment. The length of the two elongated petals in S. stolonifera and S. imparilis was not affected by gravity, but rather was determined by position of the flower within the inflorescence and resulted in asymmetrical flowers.
Testing the influence of gravity on flower symmetry in five Saxifraga species
Koethe, Sebastian; Bloemer, Judith; Lunau, Klaus
2017-04-01
Flower symmetry is considered a species-specific trait and is categorized in asymmetry, actinomorphic symmetry, bisymmetry and zygomorphic symmetry. Here we report on the intra-individual variation of flower symmetry in the genus Saxifraga and the influence of light, gravity and intrinsic factors on the development of flower symmetry. We tested five species— Saxifraga cuneifolia, Saxifraga imparilis, Saxifraga rotundifolia, Saxifraga stolonifera and Saxifraga umbrosa—concerning six flower parameters—angles between petals, petal length, petal pigmentation, angular position of carpels, movement of stamens and (only for S. imparilis and S. stolonifera) the length of the two lower elongated petals in regard to their position towards the stem. Specimens of all species were tested on a vertical clinostat as a gravity compensator, on a horizontal clinostat as a light incidence compensator and on a stationary control. The results show that the angle of incident light has no apparent impact on flower symmetry, whereas gravity affects the angular position of petals in S. cuneifolia and S. umbrosa and the petal colouration in S. rotundifolia. In S. cuneifolia and S. umbrosa, the absence of directional gravity resulted in the development of actinomorphic flowers, whereas the corresponding control flowers were zygomorphic. The development of flowers in S. rotundifolia was not altered by this treatment. The length of the two elongated petals in S. stolonifera and S. imparilis was not affected by gravity, but rather was determined by position of the flower within the inflorescence and resulted in asymmetrical flowers.
Test of the second order asymptotic theory with low degree solar gravity modes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barry, C.T.; Rosenwald, R.D.; Gu, Y.; Hill, H.A
1988-01-01
Further testing of first and second order asymptotic theory predictions for solar gravity modes is possible with the work of gu and Hill in which the number of classified low-degree gravity mode multiplets was increased from 31 to 53. In an extension of the work where the properties of 31 multiplets were analyzed in the framework of first order asymptotic theory, a new analysis has been performed using the properties of the 53 classified multiplets. The result of this analysis again shows the inadequacy of first order asymptotic theory for describing the eigenfrequency spectrum and clearly demonstrates the necessity of using second order asymptotic theory. 30 refs.
The New Era of Precision Cosmology: Testing Gravity at Large Scales
Prescod-Weinstein, Chanda
2011-01-01
Cosmic acceleration may be the biggest phenomenological mystery in cosmology today. Various explanations for its cause have been proposed, including the cosmological constant, dark energy and modified gravities. Structure formation provides a strong test of any cosmic acceleration model because a successful dark energy model must not inhibit the development of observed large-scale structures. Traditional approaches to studies of structure formation in the presence of dark energy ore modified gravity implement the Press & Schechter formalism (PGF). However, does the PGF apply in all cosmologies? The search is on for a better understanding of universality in the PGF In this talk, I explore the potential for universality and talk about what dark matter haloes may be able to tell us about cosmology. I will also discuss the implications of this and new cosmological experiments for better understanding our theory of gravity.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olesen, Arne Vestergaard; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Tscherning, C.C.
2002-01-01
onshore gravity coverage and fill in new data in the very-near coastal area, where altimetry data may contain gross errors. The airborne surveys extend from the coastline to approximately 100 km offshore, along 6000 km of coastline. An adequate merging of these different data sources is important...... for the use of gravity data especially, when computing geoid models in coastal regions. The presence of reliable marine gravity data for independent control offers an opportunity to study procedures for the merging of airborne and satellite data around Greenland. Two different merging techniques, both based...
Solar system tests of Ho\\v{r}ava-Lifshitz gravity
Harko, Tiberiu; Lobo, Francisco S N
2009-01-01
Recently, a renormalizable gravity theory with higher spatial derivatives in four dimensions was proposed by Ho\\v{r}ava. The theory reduces to Einstein gravity with a non-vanishing cosmological constant in IR, but it has improved UV behaviors. The spherically symmetric black hole solutions for an arbitrary cosmological constant, which represent the generalization of the standard Schwarzschild-(A)dS solution, has also been obtained for the Ho\\v{r}ava-Lifshitz theory. The exact asymptotically flat Schwarzschild type solution of the gravitational field equations in Ho\\v{r}ava gravity contains a quadratic increasing term, as well as the square root of a fourth order polynomial in the radial coordinate, and it depends on one arbitrary integration constant. The IR modified Ho\\v{r}ava gravity seems to be consistent with the current observational data, but in order to test its viability more observational constraints are necessary. In the present paper we consider the possibility of observationally testing Ho\\v{r}ava...
Scalar theory of gravity as a pressure force
Arminjon, Mayeul
2007-01-01
The theory starts from a tentative interpretation of gravity as Archimedes' thrust exerted on matter at the scale of elementary particles by an imagined perfect fluid ("ether"): the gravity acceleration is expressed by a formula in which the "ether pressure" p_e plays the role of the Newtonian potential. The instantaneous propagation of Newtonian gravity is obtained with an incompressible ether, giving a field equation for p_e. For a compressible ether, this equation holds in the static case....
Astrophysical tests of modified gravity: Constraints from distance indicators in the nearby universe
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jain, Bhuvnesh; Vikram, Vinu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Sakstein, Jeremy [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)
2013-12-10
We use distance measurements in the nearby universe to carry out new tests of gravity, surpassing other astrophysical tests by over two orders of magnitude for chameleon theories. The three nearby distance indicators—cepheids, tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) stars, and water masers—operate in gravitational fields of widely different strengths. This enables tests of scalar-tensor gravity theories because they are screened from enhanced forces to different extents. Inferred distances from cepheids and TRGB stars are altered (in opposite directions) over a range of chameleon gravity theory parameters well below the sensitivity of cosmological probes. Using published data, we have compared cepheid and TRGB distances in a sample of unscreened dwarf galaxies within 10 Mpc. We use a comparable set of screened galaxies as a control sample. We find no evidence for the order unity force enhancements expected in these theories. Using a two-parameter description of the models (the coupling strength and background field value), we obtain constraints on both the chameleon and symmetron screening scenarios. In particular we show that f(R) models with background field values f {sub R0} above 5 × 10{sup –7} are ruled out at the 95% confidence level. We also compare TRGB and maser distances to the galaxy NGC 4258 as a second test for larger field values. While there are several approximations and caveats in our study, our analysis demonstrates the power of gravity tests in the local universe. We discuss the prospects for additional improved tests with future observations.
On Backreaction in Newtonian cosmology
Buchert, Thomas
2018-01-01
We clarify that a result recently stated by Kaiser is contained in a theorem of Buchert and Ehlers that is widely known for its main result: that there is no global kinematical backreaction in Newtonian cosmology. Kaiser cites this paper, re-derives parts of the theorem, but incompletely restates its content. He makes further claims, which cannot be proven beyond the limited context of Newtonian cosmology. We also discuss recent papers of Rácz et al. and Roukema, who claim the existence of global backreaction within the Newtonian framework.
Droplet Dynamics of Newtonian and Inelastic Non-Newtonian Fluids in Conﬁnement
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nikolaos Ioannou
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Microﬂuidic droplet technology has been developing rapidly. However, precise control of dynamical behaviour of droplets remains a major hurdle for new designs. This study is to understand droplet deformation and breakup under simple shear ﬂow in conﬁned environment as typically found in microﬂuidic applications. In addition to the Newtonian–Newtonian system, we consider also both a Newtonian droplet in a non-Newtonian matrix ﬂuid and a non-Newtonian droplet in a Newtonian matrix. The lattice Boltzmann method is adopted to systematically investigate droplet deformation and breakup under a broad range of capillary numbers, viscosity ratios of the ﬂuids, and conﬁnement ratios considering shear-thinning and shear-thickening ﬂuids. Conﬁnement is found to enhance deformation, and the maximum deformation occurs at the viscosity ratio of unity. The droplet orients more towards the ﬂow direction with increasing viscosity ratio or conﬁnement ratio. In addition, it is noticed that the wall effect becomes more signiﬁcant for conﬁnement ratios larger than 0.4. Finally, for the whole range of Newtonian carrier ﬂuids tested, the critical capillary number above which droplet breakup occurs is only slightly affected by the conﬁnement ratio for a viscosity ratio of unity. Upon increasing the conﬁnement ratio, the critical capillary number increases for the viscosity ratios less than unity, but decreases for the viscosity ratios more than unity.
Beyond consistency test of gravity with redshift-space distortions at quasilinear scales
Taruya, Atsushi; Koyama, Kazuya; Hiramatsu, Takashi; Oka, Akira
2014-02-01
Redshift-space distortions (RSDs) offer an attractive method to measure the growth of cosmic structure on large scales, and combining with the measurement of the cosmic expansion history, they can be used as cosmological tests of gravity. With the advent of future galaxy redshift surveys aiming at precisely measuring the RSD, an accurate modeling of RSD going beyond linear theory is a critical issue in order to detect or disprove small deviations from general relativity (GR). While several improved models of RSD have been recently proposed based on the perturbation theory (PT), the framework of these models heavily relies on GR. Here, we put forward a new PT prescription for RSD in general modified gravity models. As a specific application, we present theoretical predictions of the redshift-space power spectra in the f(R) gravity model, and compare them with N-body simulations. Using the PT template that takes into account the effects of both modifications of gravity and RSD properly, we successfully recover the fiducial model parameter in N-body simulations in an unbiased way. On the other hand, we found it difficult to detect the scale dependence of the growth rate in a model-independent way based on GR templates.
Structural Optimization of non-Newtonian Microfluidics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Kristian Ejlebjærg; Okkels, Fridolin
2011-01-01
We present results for topology optimization of a non-Newtonian rectifier described with a differential constitutive model. The results are novel in the sense that a differential constitutive model has not been combined with topology optimization previously. We find that it is necessary to apply ...... optimization of fluids. We test the method on a microfluidic rectifier and find solutions topologically different from experimentally realized designs....
Astrophysical tests of gravity: a screening map of the nearby universe
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cabré, Anna; Vikram, Vinu; Jain, Bhuvnesh [Center for Particle Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6396 (United States); Zhao, Gong-Bo; Koyama, Kazuya, E-mail: annanusca@gmail.com, E-mail: vinu@sas.upenn.edu, E-mail: gong-bo.zhao@port.ac.uk, E-mail: bjain@physics.upenn.edu, E-mail: Kazuya.Koyama@port.ac.uk [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Dennis Sciama Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom)
2012-07-01
Astrophysical tests of modified gravity theories in the nearby universe have been emphasized recently by Hui 2009 and Jain 2011. A key element of such tests is the screening mechanism whereby general relativity is restored in massive halos or high density environments like the Milky Way. In chameleon theories of gravity, including all f(R) models, field dwarf galaxies may be unscreened and therefore feel an extra force, as opposed to screened galaxies. The first step to study differences between screened and unscreened galaxies is to create a 3D screening map. We use N-body simulations to test and calibrate simple approximations to determine the level of screening in galaxy catalogs. Sources of systematic errors in the screening map due to observational inaccuracies are modeled and their contamination is estimated. We then apply our methods to create a map out to 200 Mpc in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey footprint using data from the Sloan survey and other sources. In two companion papers this map will be used to carry out new tests of gravity using distance indicators and the disks of dwarf galaxies. We also make our screening map publicly available.
Spin coating of non-Newtonian fluids with a moving front
Charpin, J. P. F.; Lombe, M.; Myers, T. G.
2007-07-01
We investigate axisymmetric spin coating of power law and Ellis fluids. The flow is driven by centrifugal force, gravity and surface tension. For power law and Ellis models a single equation for the fluid film height is obtained. For a Newtonian fluid the flux only involves linear derivative terms which allows the flux to be easily split for a numerical scheme. For power law and Ellis models the derivatives appear as nonlinear terms. To overcome this we develop an alternative numerical scheme to solve for the film height. Neglecting surface tension and gravity the power law model shows a central spike which is reduced by the introduction of surface tension and gravity. In certain cases the shear thinning power law model predicts slower spreading than the Newtonian model. The Ellis fluid shows no central spike, even for zero surface tension and the film always spreads further than the Newtonian fluid.
Beyond consistency test of gravity with redshift-space distortions at quasilinear scales
Taruya, Atsushi; Koyama, Kazuya; Hiramatsu, Takashi; Oka, Akira
2014-01-01
Redshift-space distortions (RSDs) offer an attractive method to measure the growth of cosmic structure on large scales, and combining with the measurement of the cosmic expansion history, they can be used as cosmological tests of gravity. With the advent of future galaxy redshift surveys aiming at precisely measuring the RSD, an accurate modeling of RSD going beyond linear theory is a critical issue in order to detect or disprove small deviations from general relativity (GR). While several im...
Zumberge, M. A.; Harris, R. N.; Oliver, H. W.; Sasagawa, G. S.; Ponce, D. A.
Absolute gravity measurements were made at 4 sites in southern Nevada using the absolute gravity free-fall apparatus. Three of the sites are located on the Nevada Test Site at Mercury, Yucca Pass, and in northern Jackass Flats. The fourth site is at Kyle Canyon ranger station near Charleston Park where observed gravity is 216.19 mGal lower than at Mercury. Although there is an uncertainty of about 0.02 mGal in the absolute measured values, their gravity differences are considered accurate to about 0.03 mGal. Therefore, the absolute measurements should provide local control for the calibration of gravity meters between Mercury and Kyle Canyon ranger station to about 1 to 2 parts in 10,000. The average gravity differences between Mercury and Kyle Canyon obtained using LaCoste and Romberg gravity meters is 216.13 mGal, 0.06 mGal lower, or 3 parts in 10,000 lower than using the absolute gravity meter. Because of the discrepancy between the comparison of the absolute and relative gravity meters, more absolute and relative gravity control in southern Nevada, as well as the Mt. Hamilton area where the LaCoste and Romberg instruments were calibrated, is needed. Multiple gravity meter ties were also made between each of the four absolute stations to nearby base stations located on bedrock. These stations were established to help monitor possible real changes in gravity at the absolute sites that could result from seasonal variations in the depth to the water table.
Tests of Quantum Gravity induced non-locality via opto-mechanical quantum oscillators
Belenchia, Alessio; Liberati, Stefano; Marin, Francesco; Marino, Francesco; Ortolan, Antonello
2015-01-01
Several quantum gravity scenarios lead to physics below the Planck scale characterised by nonlocal, Lorentz invariant equations of motion. We show that such non-local effective field theories lead to a modified Schr\\"odinger evolution in the nonrelativistic limit. In particular, the nonlocal evolution of opto-mechanical quantum oscillators is characterised by a spontaneous periodic squeezing that cannot be generated by environmental effects. We discuss constraints on the nonlocality obtained by past experiments, and show how future experiments (already under construction) will either see such effects or otherwise cast severe bounds on the non-locality scale (well beyond the current limits set by the Large Hadron Collider). This paves the way for table top, high precision experiments on massive quantum objects as a promising new avenue for testing some quantum gravity phenomenology.
Improved Accuracy of the Gravity Probe B Science Results
Conklin, John; Adams, M.; Aljadaan, A.; Aljibreen, H.; Almeshari, M.; Alsuwaidan, B.; Bencze, W.; Buchman, S.; Clarke, B.; Debra, D. B.; Everitt, C. W. F.; Heifetz, M.; Holmes, T.; Keiser, G. M.; Kolodziejczak, J.; Li, J.; Lipa, J.; Lockhart, J. M.; Muhlfelder, B.; Parkinson, B. W.; Salomon, M.; Silbergleit, A.; Solomonik, V.; Stahl, K.; Taber, M.; Turneaure, J. P.; Worden, P. W., Jr.
This paper presents the progress in the science data analysis for the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) experiment. GP-B, sponsored by NASA and launched in April of 2004, tests two fundamental predictions of general relativity, the geodetic effect and the frame-dragging effect. The GP-B spacecraft measures the non-Newtonian drift rates of four ultra-precise cryogenic gyroscopes placed in a circular polar Low Earth Orbit. Science data was collected from 28 August 2004 until cryogen depletion on 29 September 2005. The data analysis is complicated by two unexpected phenomena, a) a continually damping gyroscope polhode affecting the calibration of the gyro readout scale factor, and b) two larger than expected classes of Newtonian torque acting on the gyroscopes. Experimental evidence strongly suggests that both effects are caused by non-uniform electric potentials (i.e. the patch effect) on the surfaces of the gyroscope rotor and its housing. At the end of 2008, the data analysis team reported intermediate results showing that the two complications are well understood and are separable from the relativity signal. Since then we have developed the final GP-B data analysis code, the "2-second Filter", which provides the most accurate and precise determination of the non-Newtonian drifts attainable in the presence of the two Newtonian torques and the fundamental instrument noise. This limit is roughly 5
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bondarescu Ruxandra
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The successful miniaturisation of extremely accurate atomic clocks and atom interferometers invites prospects for satellite missions to perform precision experiments. We discuss the effects predicted by general relativity and alternative theories of gravity that can be detected by a clock, which orbits the Earth. Our experiment relies on the precise tracking of the spacecraft using its observed tick-rate. The spacecraft’s reconstructed four-dimensional trajectory will reveal the nature of gravitational perturbations in Earth’s gravitational field, potentially differentiating between different theories of gravity. This mission can measure multiple relativistic effects all during the course of a single experiment, and constrain the Parametrized Post-Newtonian Parameters around the Earth. A satellite carrying a clock of fractional timing inaccuracy of Δ f / f ∼ 10−16 in an elliptic orbit around the Earth would constrain the PPN parameters |β − 1|, |γ − 1| ≲ 10−6. We also briefly review potential constraints by atom interferometers on scalar tensor theories and in particular on Chameleon and dilaton models.
Testing effective quantum gravity with gravitational waves from extreme mass ratio inspirals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yunes, N [Institute for Gravitational Physics and Geometry, Center for Gravitational Wave Physics, Department of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802-6300 (United States); Sopuerta, C F, E-mail: nyunes@princeton.ed [Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Facultat de Ciencies, Campus UAB, Torre C5 parells, Bellaterra, 08193 Barcelona (Spain)
2010-05-01
Testing deviation of GR is one of the main goals of the proposed Laser Interferometer Space Antenna. For the first time, we consistently compute the generation of gravitational waves from extreme-mass ratio inspirals (stellar compact objects into supermassive black holes) in a well-motivated alternative theory of gravity, that to date remains weakly constrained by double binary pulsar observations. The theory we concentrate on is Chern-Simons (CS) modified gravity, a 4-D, effective theory that is motivated both from string theory and loop-quantum gravity, and which enhances the Einstein-Hilbert action through the addition of a dynamical scalar field and the parity-violating Pontryagin density. We show that although point particles continue to follow geodesics in the modified theory, the background about which they inspiral is a modification to the Kerr metric, which imprints a CS correction on the gravitational waves emitted. CS modified gravitational waves are sufficiently different from the General Relativistic expectation that they lead to significant dephasing after 3 weeks of evolution, but such dephasing will probably not prevent detection of these signals, but instead lead to a systematic error in the determination of parameters. We end with a study of radiation-reaction in the modified theory and show that, to leading-order, energy-momentum emission is not CS modified, except possibly for the subdominant effect of scalar-field emission. The inclusion of radiation-reaction will allow for tests of CS modified gravity with space-borne detectors that might be two orders of magnitude larger than current binary pulsar bounds.
Bittencourt, E; Novello, M; Toniato, J D
2016-01-01
We discuss a class of models for gravity based on a scalar field. The models include and generalize the old approach by Nordstr\\"om which predated and in some way inspired General Relativity. The class include also a model that we have recently introduced and discussed in its cosmological aspects (GSG). We present here a complete characterisation of the Schwarschild geometry as a vacuum solution of GSG and sketch a discussion of the first Post-Newtonian approximation.
Testing Chern-Simons modified gravity with observations of extreme-mass-ratio binaries
Canizares, Priscilla; Sopuerta, Carlos F
2012-01-01
Extreme-Mass-Ratio Inspirals (EMRIs) are one of the most promising sources of gravitational waves (GWs) for space-based detectors like the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). EMRIs consist of a compact stellar object orbiting around a massive black hole (MBH). Since EMRI signals are expected to be long lasting (containing of the order of hundred thousand cycles), they will encode the structure of the MBH gravitational potential in a precise way such that features depending on the theory of gravity governing the system may be distinguished. That is, EMRI signals may be used to test gravity and the geometry of black holes. However, the development of a practical methodology for computing the generation and propagation of GWs from EMRIs in theories of gravity different than General Relativity (GR) has only recently begun. In this paper, we present a parameter estimation study of EMRIs in a particular modification of GR, which is described by a four-dimensional Chern-Simons (CS) gravitational term. We focu...
Gravity and magnetic data of Fortymile Wash, Nevada Test Site, Nevada
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ponce, D.A.; Kohrn, S.B. [Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Waddell, S. [Fenix and Scisson, Inc., Mercury, NV (United States)
1992-12-31
Gravity and ground magnetic data collected along six traverses across Fortymile Wash, in the southwest quadrant of the Nevada Test Site suggest that there are no significant vertical offsets below Fortymile Wash. The largest gravity and magnetic anomaly, in the vicinity of Fortymile Wash, is produced by the Paintbrush fault, on the west flank of Fran Ridge. Inferred vertical offset is about 250 {+-} 60 m (800 {+-} 200 ft). Geophysical data indicate that the fault is about 300 m (1,000 ft) east of its mapped, but concealed location. North of Busted Butte, near Fran Ridge, geophysical data do not preclude the existence of small vertical offsets bounding Fortymile Wash. However, gravity and magnetic profiles south of Busted Butte show little correlation to those to the north and suggest that vertical offsets, comparable in size to the Paintbrush fault, are not present. Density profiling, a technique used to determine the average density of small topographic features, suggests that the density of near-surface material in the vicinity of Fortymile Wash is 1.80 to 2.00 g/cm{sup 3}.
Tidal disruptions by rotating black holes: relativistic hydrodynamics with Newtonian codes
Tejeda, Emilio; Gafton, Emanuel; Rosswog, Stephan; Miller, John C.
2017-08-01
We propose an approximate approach for studying the relativistic regime of stellar tidal disruptions by rotating massive black holes. It combines an exact relativistic description of the hydrodynamical evolution of a test fluid in a fixed curved space-time with a Newtonian treatment of the fluid's self-gravity. Explicit expressions for the equations of motion are derived for Kerr space-time using two different coordinate systems. We implement the new methodology within an existing Newtonian smoothed particle hydrodynamics code and show that including the additional physics involves very little extra computational cost. We carefully explore the validity of the novel approach by first testing its ability to recover geodesic motion, and then by comparing the outcome of tidal disruption simulations against previous relativistic studies. We further compare simulations in Boyer-Lindquist and Kerr-Schild coordinates and conclude that our approach allows accurate simulation even of tidal disruption events where the star penetrates deeply inside the tidal radius of a rotating black hole. Finally, we use the new method to study the effect of the black hole spin on the morphology and fallback rate of the debris streams resulting from tidal disruptions, finding that while the spin has little effect on the fallback rate, it does imprint heavily on the stream morphology, and can even be a determining factor in the survival or disruption of the star itself. Our methodology is discussed in detail as a reference for future astrophysical applications.
Critique of "Problems with Mannheim's conformal gravity program" by Yoon
Mannheim, Philip D
2015-01-01
Recently Yoon has suggested that there may be problems for the conformal gravity theory in recovering Newtonian gravity. Here we show that Yoon's results are due to assuming that gravitational sources can be treated the same way that they are treated in standard gravity. Since such an assumption violates the theory's underlying conformal invariance,Yoon's conclusions are invalid.
The Santiago-Harvard-Edinburgh-Durham void comparison I: SHEDding light on chameleon gravity tests
Cautun, Marius; Paillas, Enrique; Cai, Yan-Chuan; Bose, Sownak; Armijo, Joaquin; Li, Baojiu; Padilla, Nelson
2018-02-01
We present a systematic comparison of several existing and new void finding algorithms, focusing on their potential power to test a particular class of modified gravity models - chameleon f(R) gravity. These models deviate from standard General Relativity (GR) more strongly in low-density regions and thus voids are a promising venue to test them. We use Halo Occupation Distribution (HOD) prescriptions to populate haloes with galaxies, and tune the HOD parameters such that the galaxy two-point correlation functions are the same in both f(R) and GR models. We identify both 3D voids as well as 2D underdensities in the plane-of-the-sky to find the same void abundance and void galaxy number density profiles across all models, which suggests that they do not contain much information beyond galaxy clustering. However, the underlying void dark matter density profiles are significantly different, with f(R) voids being more underdense than GR ones, which leads to f(R) voids having a larger tangential shear signal than their GR analogues. We investigate the potential of each void finder to test f(R) models with near-future lensing surveys such as EUCLID and LSST. The 2D voids have the largest power to probe f(R) gravity, with a LSST analysis of tunnel (which is a new type of 2D underdensity introduced here) lensing distinguishing at 80 and 11σ (statistical error) f(R) models with parameters, |fR0| = 10-5 and 10-6, from GR.
Probes and Tests of Strong-Field Gravity with Observations in the Electromagnetic Spectrum
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Psaltis Dimitrios
2008-11-01
Full Text Available Neutron stars and black holes are the astrophysical systems with the strongest gravitational fields in the universe. In this article, I review the prospect of using observations of such compact objects to probe some of the most intriguing general relativistic predictions in the strong-field regime: the absence of stable circular orbits near a compact object and the presence of event horizons around black-hole singularities. I discuss the need for a theoretical framework, within which future experiments will provide detailed, quantitative tests of gravity theories. Finally, I summarize the constraints imposed by current observations of neutron stars on potential deviations from general relativity.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Iorio, Lorenzo [Ministero dell' Istruzione Univ. della Ricerca (M.I.U.R.), Bari (Italy)
2017-02-15
Recently, Ciufolini et al. reported on a test of the general relativistic gravitomagnetic Lense-Thirring effect by analyzing about 3.5 years of laser ranging data to the LAGEOS, LAGEOS II, LARES geodetic satellites orbiting the Earth. By using the GRACE-based GGM05S Earth's global gravity model and a linear combination of the nodes Ω of the three satellites designed to remove the impact of errors in the first two even zonal harmonic coefficients J{sub 2}, J{sub 4} of the multipolar expansion of the Newtonian part of the Earth's gravitational potential, they claimed an overall accuracy of 5% for the Lense-Thirring caused node motion. We show that the scatter in the nominal values of the uncancelled even zonals of degree l = 6, 8, 10 from some of the most recent global gravity models does not yet allow to reach unambiguously and univocally the expected ∼1% level, being large up to
Test of Relativistic Gravity for Propulsion at the Large Hadron Collider
Felber, Franklin
2010-01-01
A design is presented of a laboratory experiment that could test the suitability of relativistic gravity for propulsion of spacecraft to relativistic speeds. An exact time-dependent solution of Einstein's gravitational field equation confirms that even the weak field of a mass moving at relativistic speeds could serve as a driver to accelerate a much lighter payload from rest to a good fraction of the speed of light. The time-dependent field of ultrarelativistic particles in a collider ring is calculated. An experiment is proposed as the first test of the predictions of general relativity in the ultrarelativistic limit by measuring the repulsive gravitational field of bunches of protons in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The estimated `antigravity beam' signal strength at a resonant detector of each proton bunch is 3 nm/s2 for 2 ns during each revolution of the LHC. This experiment can be performed off-line, without interfering with the normal operations of the LHC.
Xie, Yi; Kopeikin, Sergei
2010-01-01
We construct a set of reference frames for description of the orbital and rotational motion of the Moon. We use a scalar-tensor theory of gravity depending on two parameters of the parametrized post-Newtonian (PPN) formalism and utilize the concepts of the relativistic resolutions on reference frames adopted by the International Astronomical Union in 2000. We assume that the solar system is isolated and space-time is asymptotically flat. The primary reference frame has the origin at the solar-system barycenter (SSB) and spatial axes are going to infinity. The SSB frame is not rotating with respect to distant quasars. The secondary reference frame has the origin at the Earth-Moon barycenter (EMB). The EMB frame is local with its spatial axes spreading out to the orbits of Venus and Mars and not rotating dynamically in the sense that both the Coriolis and centripetal forces acting on a free-falling test particle, moving with respect to the EMB frame, are excluded. Two other local frames, the geocentric (GRF) and the selenocentric (SRF) frames, have the origin at the center of mass of the Earth and Moon respectively. They are both introduced in order to connect the coordinate description of the lunar motion, observer on the Earth, and a retro-reflector on the Moon to the observable quantities which are the proper time and the laser-ranging distance. We solve the gravity field equations and find the metric tensor and the scalar field in all frames. We also derive the post-Newtonian coordinate transformations between the frames and analyze the residual gauge freedom of the solutions of the field equations. We discuss the gravitomagnetic effects in the barycentric equations of the motion of the Moon and argue that they are beyond the current accuracy of lunar laser ranging (LLR) observations.
Gravity measurement, processing and evaluation: Test cases de Peel and South Limburg
Nohlmans, Ron
1990-05-01
A general overview of the process of the measurement and the adjustment of a gravity network and the computation of some output parameters of gravimetry, gravity values, gravity anomalies and mean block anomalies, is given. An overview of developments in gravimetry, globally and in the Netherlands, until now is given. The basic theory of relative gravity measurements is studied and a description of the most commonly used instrument, the LaCoste and Romberg gravimeter is given. The surveys done in the scope of this study are descibed. A more detailed impression of the adjustment procedure and the results of the adjustment are given. A closer look is taken at the more geophysical side of gravimetry: gravity reduction, the computation of anomalies and the correlation with elevation. The interpolation of gravity and the covariance of gravity anomalies are addressed.
Conceptual Coherence of Non-Newtonian Worldviews in Force Concept Inventory Data
Scott, Terry F.; Schumayer, Dániel
2017-01-01
The Force Concept Inventory is one of the most popular and most analyzed multiple-choice concept tests used to investigate students' understanding of Newtonian mechanics. The correct answers poll a set of underlying Newtonian concepts and the coherence of these underlying concepts has been found in the data. However, this inventory was constructed…
Gravity Probe B: final results of a space experiment to test general relativity.
Everitt, C W F; DeBra, D B; Parkinson, B W; Turneaure, J P; Conklin, J W; Heifetz, M I; Keiser, G M; Silbergleit, A S; Holmes, T; Kolodziejczak, J; Al-Meshari, M; Mester, J C; Muhlfelder, B; Solomonik, V G; Stahl, K; Worden, P W; Bencze, W; Buchman, S; Clarke, B; Al-Jadaan, A; Al-Jibreen, H; Li, J; Lipa, J A; Lockhart, J M; Al-Suwaidan, B; Taber, M; Wang, S
2011-06-03
Gravity Probe B, launched 20 April 2004, is a space experiment testing two fundamental predictions of Einstein's theory of general relativity (GR), the geodetic and frame-dragging effects, by means of cryogenic gyroscopes in Earth orbit. Data collection started 28 August 2004 and ended 14 August 2005. Analysis of the data from all four gyroscopes results in a geodetic drift rate of -6601.8±18.3 mas/yr and a frame-dragging drift rate of -37.2±7.2 mas/yr, to be compared with the GR predictions of -6606.1 mas/yr and -39.2 mas/yr, respectively ("mas" is milliarcsecond; 1 mas=4.848×10(-9) rad).
Astrophysical Tests of Kinematical Conformal Cosmology in Fourth-Order Conformal Weyl Gravity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gabriele U. Varieschi
2014-12-01
Full Text Available In this work we analyze kinematical conformal cosmology (KCC, an alternative cosmological model based on conformal Weyl gravity (CG, and test it against current type Ia supernova (SNIa luminosity data and other astrophysical observations. Expanding upon previous work on the subject, we revise the analysis of SNIa data, confirming that KCC can explain the evidence for an accelerating expansion of the Universe without using dark energy or other exotic components. We obtain an independent evaluation of the Hubble constant, H0 = 67:53 kms-1 Mpc-1, very close to the current best estimates. The main KCC and CG parameters are re-evaluated and their revised values are found to be close to previous estimates. We also show that available data for the Hubble parameter as a function of redshift can be fitted using KCC and that this model does not suffer from any apparent age problem. Overall,
Post-Newtonian approximation of the ECSK theory II
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Castagnino, M.A.; Levinas, M.L.
1987-06-01
The authors complete the PNA program for the ECSK theory. They find the general post-Newtonian equations of motion for the source. The different components of the complete affine connection, the torsion, and the energy-momentum tensor, as well as the conservation theorems of the theory, are developed for the case of an ideal fluid with spin in order to find the post-Newtonian trajectories of test particles exterior to the sources distribution. The main results are compared with the corresponding ones of general relativity.
Thick Presentism and Newtonian Mechanics
Lubashevsky, Ihor
2016-01-01
In the present paper I argue that the formalism of Newtonian mechanics stems directly from the general principle to be called the principle of microlevel reducibility which physical systems obey in the realm of classical physics. This principle assumes, first, that all the properties of physical systems must be determined by their states at the current moment of time, in a slogan form it is "only the present matters to physics." Second, it postulates that any physical system is nothing but an ensemble of structureless particles arranged in some whose interaction obeys the superposition principle. I substantiate this statement and demonstrate directly how the formalism of differential equations, the notion of forces in Newtonian mechanics, the concept of phase space and initial conditions, the principle of least actions, etc. result from the principle of microlevel reducibility. The philosophical concept of thick presentism and the introduction of two dimensional time---physical time and meta-time that are mut...
Álvarez, Enrique; Meessen, Patrick
1998-05-01
A Newtonian matrix cosmology, corresponding to the Banks, Fischler, Shenker and Susskind model of eleven-dimensional M-theory in the infinite momentum frame as a supersymmetric (0+1) M(atrix) model is constructed. Interesting new results are obtained, such as the existence of (much sought for in the past) static solutions. The possible interpretation of the off-diagonal entries as a background geometry is also briefly discussed.
Battat, James Benjamin Royston
We use observations of solar system bodies to derive constraints on departures from General Relativity (GR). We also characterize the initial science data from the Apache Point Observatory Lunar Laser-ranging Operation (APOLLO). The millimeter-precision APOLLO data will enable an order-of-magnitude improvement in several tests of gravitational physics. This work is motivated by the current dark energy crisis. Multiple independent astrophysical observations suggest that the Universe is accelerating in its expansion. GR with Einstein's cosmological constant can give rise to acceleration, but no viable theory can compute the observed dark energy density from first principles. A plausible alternative to dark energy is that GR breaks down on cosmological scales. There is no shortage of speculative gravity theories that could replace GR. Many of these predict observable deviations from GR in the solar system. We look for the evidence of such deviations in two ways: (1) searching for Lorentz symmetry violation using Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) data and (2) searching for anomalous perihelion precession using planetary range and Doppler measurements. Our constraints on Lorentz symmetry violation are presented in the Standard- Model Extension (SME) framework. No evidence for Lorentz violation is seen at the level of 10 -6 to 10 -11 in the six dimensionless SME parameters to which LLR is sensitive. We also show that any universal anomalous precession of the planetary perihelia must be less than 0.02 arcseconds per century. This constraint has direct relevance to the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati (DGP) theory of braneworld gravity, which can explain the accelerating Universe without a cosmological constant. DGP theory posits that gravity weakens above a cross-over scale r c = 5 Gpc. As a result, DGP predicts a uniform anomalous perihelion precession rate for the planets of do/dt = 5 × 10 -4 arcseconds per century. Our precession constraint requires r c > 0.13 Gpc, a factor of 40 away
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sadjadi, H.M. [University of Tehran, Department of Physics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2017-03-15
We study the parameterized post-Newtonian approximation in teleparallel model of gravity with a scalar field. The scalar field is non-minimally coupled to the scalar torsion as well as to the boundary term introduced in Bahamonde and Wright (Phys Rev D 92:084034 arXiv:1508.06580v4 [gr-qc], 2015). We show that, in contrast to the case where the scalar field is only coupled to the scalar torsion, the presence of the new coupling affects the parameterized post-Newtonian parameters. These parameters for different situations are obtained and discussed. (orig.)
Bench-scale testing of the multi-gravity separator in combination with Microcel
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1993-04-30
Work this quarter focused on the development of the engineering design specifications for the ET Test Circuit. Process flowsheets and detailed equipment specifications were finalized. Based on this information, bid packages were assembled and purchase orders were issued for all of the necessary process equipment. The design and procurement information is summarized in the ET Circuit Design Report submitted to the DOE's COR this quarter. Final drafts of the ET Circuit - System Safety Analysis, Nuclear Density Gauge - System Safety Analysis and Operating Manual/SOP were also completed and submitted to the COR this quarter. Preliminary characterization studies were also initiated this quarter. Tests were conducted to determine the grinding conditions required to achieve the desired particle size distributions for the characterization work. Flotation release analysis tests were conducted on both the Pittsburgh [number sign]8 and Illinois [number sign]6 seam coals as a function of grind size. The primary objective of the proposed work is to design, install, and operate an advanced fine coal processing circuit combining the Microcel and Multi-Gravity-Separator (MGS) technologies. Both of these processes have specific advantages as stand-alone units. For example, the Microcel column effectively removes ash-bearing mineral matter, while the MGS efficiently removes coal-pyrite composites. By combining both unit operations into a single processing circuit, synergistic advantages can be gained. As a result, this circuit arrangement has the potential to improve coal quality beyond that achieved using the individual technologies.
Precision measurement of the Newtonian gravitational constant using cold atoms.
Rosi, G; Sorrentino, F; Cacciapuoti, L; Prevedelli, M; Tino, G M
2014-06-26
About 300 experiments have tried to determine the value of the Newtonian gravitational constant, G, so far, but large discrepancies in the results have made it impossible to know its value precisely. The weakness of the gravitational interaction and the impossibility of shielding the effects of gravity make it very difficult to measure G while keeping systematic effects under control. Most previous experiments performed were based on the torsion pendulum or torsion balance scheme as in the experiment by Cavendish in 1798, and in all cases macroscopic masses were used. Here we report the precise determination of G using laser-cooled atoms and quantum interferometry. We obtain the value G = 6.67191(99) × 10(-11) m(3) kg(-1) s(-2) with a relative uncertainty of 150 parts per million (the combined standard uncertainty is given in parentheses). Our value differs by 1.5 combined standard deviations from the current recommended value of the Committee on Data for Science and Technology. A conceptually different experiment such as ours helps to identify the systematic errors that have proved elusive in previous experiments, thus improving the confidence in the value of G. There is no definitive relationship between G and the other fundamental constants, and there is no theoretical prediction for its value, against which to test experimental results. Improving the precision with which we know G has not only a pure metrological interest, but is also important because of the key role that G has in theories of gravitation, cosmology, particle physics and astrophysics and in geophysical models.
Newtonian view of general relativistic stars
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oliveira, A.M. [Instituto Federal do Espirito Santo (IFES), Grupo de Ciencias Ambientais e Recursos Naturais, Guarapari (Brazil); Velten, H.E.S.; Fabris, J.C. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Departamento de Fisica, Vitoria (Brazil); Salako, I.G. [Institut de Mathematiques et de Sciences Physiques (IMSP), Porto-Novo (Benin)
2014-11-15
Although general relativistic cosmological solutions, even in the presence of pressure, can be mimicked by using neo-Newtonian hydrodynamics, it is not clear whether there exists the same Newtonian correspondence for spherical static configurations. General relativity solutions for stars are known as the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff (TOV) equations. On the other hand, the Newtonian description does not take into account the total pressure effects and therefore cannot be used in strong field regimes. We discuss how to incorporate pressure in the stellar equilibrium equations within the neo-Newtonian framework. We compare the Newtonian, neo-Newtonian, and the full relativistic theory by solving the equilibrium equations for both three approaches and calculating the mass-radius diagrams for some simple neutron stars' equations of state. (orig.)
First test of Verlinde's theory of Emergent Gravity using Weak Gravitational Lensing measurements
Brouwer, Margot M.; Visser, Manus R.; Dvornik, Andrej; Hoekstra, Henk; Kuijken, Konrad; Valentijn, Edwin A.; Bilicki, Maciej; Blake, Chris; Brough, Sarah; Buddelmeijer, Hugo; Erben, Thomas; Heymans, Catherine; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Holwerda, Benne W.; Hopkins, Andrew M.; Klaes, Dominik; Liske, Jochen; Loveday, Jon; McFarland, John; Nakajima, Reiko; Sifón, Cristóbal; Taylor, Edward N.
2016-01-01
Verlinde (2016) proposed that the observed excess gravity in galaxies and clusters is the consequence of Emergent Gravity (EG). In this theory the standard gravitational laws are modified on galactic and larger scales due to the displacement of dark energy by baryonic matter. EG gives an estimate of
Xie, Yi; Kopeikin, Sergei Affiliaiton: AB(Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, USA kopeikins@missouri.edu)
2010-08-01
We overview a set of post-Newtonian reference frames for a comprehensive study of the orbital dynamics and rotational motion of Moon and Earth by means of lunar laser ranging (LLR). We employ a scalar-tensor theory of gravity depending on two post-Newtonian parameters, and , and utilize the relativistic resolutions on reference frames adopted by the International Astronomical Union (IAU) in 2000. We assume that the solar system is isolated and space-time is asymptotically flat at infinity. The primary reference frame covers the entire space-time, has its origin at the solar-system barycenter (SSB) and spatial axes stretching up to infinity. The SSB frame is not rotating with respect to a set of distant quasars that are forming the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF). The secondary reference frame has its origin at the Earth-Moon barycenter (EMB). The EMB frame is locally-inertial and is not rotating dynamically in the sense that equation of motion of a test particle moving with respect to the EMB frame, does not contain the Coriolis and centripetal forces. Two other local frames geocentric (GRF) and selenocentric (SRF) have their origins at the center of mass of Earth and Moon respectively and do not rotate dynamically. Each local frame is subject to the geodetic precession both with respect to other local frames and with respect to the ICRF because of their relative motion with respect to each other. Theoretical advantage of the dynamically non-rotating local frames is in a more simple mathematical description. Each local frame can be aligned with the axes of ICRF after applying the matrix of the relativistic precession. The set of one global and three local frames is introduced in order to fully decouple the relative motion of Moon with respect to Earth from the orbital motion of the Earth-Moon barycenter as well as to connect the coordinate description of the lunar motion, an observer on Earth, and a retro-reflector on Moon to directly measurable
Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) as a Modification of Newtonian Inertia
Alzain, Mohammed
2017-12-01
We present a modified inertia formulation of Modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) without retaining Galilean invariance. Assuming that the existence of a universal upper bound, predicted by MOND, to the acceleration produced by a dark halo is equivalent to a violation of the hypothesis of locality (which states that an accelerated observer is pointwise inertial), we demonstrate that Milgrom's law is invariant under a new space-time coordinate transformation. In light of the new coordinate symmetry, we address the deficiency of MOND in resolving the mass discrepancy problem in clusters of galaxies.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nojiri, Shin' ichi [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)], E-mail: nojiri@phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Odintsov, Sergei D. [Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA) and Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai (IEEC-CSIC), Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciencies, Torre C5-Par-2a pl, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: odintsov@ieec.uab.es
2007-12-06
We suggest two realistic f(R) and one F(G) modified gravities which are consistent with local tests and cosmological bounds. The typical property of such theories is the presence of the effective cosmological constant epochs in such a way that early-time inflation and late-time cosmic acceleration are naturally unified within single model. It is shown that classical instability does not appear here and Newton law is respected. Some discussion of possible anti-gravity regime appearance and related modification of the theory is done.
A side-by-side test of four land gravity meters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chapin, D.A.; Crawford, M.F. [ARCO Exploration and Production Technology, Plano, TX (United States); Baumeister, M. [Photo Gravity Corp., Houston, TX (United States)
1999-05-01
Four different land gravity meters were run side by side on a test range in eastern Texas. This test range was designed to duplicate typical field survey conditions encountered in gravity measurements on 3-D land seismic surveys. A profile of 270 stations was acquired with a station spacing of 33.5 m (110 ft). The four meters were Scintrex CG-3, Sodin, LaCoste and Romberg (L and R) G-meter, and Edcon/L and R Super-G meter. The purpose of this study was to determine which of the four meters had the best balance of accuracy, convenience, and speed of measurement for these specialized surveys. All four meters had their limitations, and no single meter was greatly superior to the others. The CG-3 was awkward in leveling, had a large (368 {mu}Gal per day) drift rate, and had some quirks in its user interface. The Sodin meter had problems controlling its temperature and, at one point, had a very high 935 {mu}Gal per day drift rate. It had the poorest accuracy of the four. The G-meter lacked a convenient digital user interface; thus, it was susceptible to operator blunder in misreading or recording the data. The Super-G meter also had some problems in its user interface, had only a 6-mGal range without a range change, and was the heaviest of the field instruments. An unbiased statistical estimator was developed to analyze the data. The technique determined the best three meters at each station. Both the G-meter and the Super-G meter produced the most accurate data. They had an average absolute deviation from the mean of 209 and 23 {mu}Gal, respectively. In comparison, the two quartz meters--the CG-3 and the Sodin--had an average absolute deviation from the mean of 31 and 46 {mu}Gal, respectively. The authors would like to see the manufacturers improve (or add, in the case of the G-meter and the Sodin) their digital interfaces. Additionally, they would like to see upgrades in the thermal control systems in all the meters. The single largest amount of station time was
Experimental Testing and Numerical Modeling of Spray Cooling Under Terrestrial Gravity Conditions
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Baysinger, Kerri M; Yerkes, Kirk L; Thomas, Scott K
2005-01-01
... using ANSYS finite element software. A parametric study was performed to study the effects of volumetric flow rate, heat transfer rate, and orientation with respect to gravity on the experimental system...
High Energy Astrophysics Tests of Lorentz Invariance and Quantum Gravity Models
Stecker, Floyd W.
2012-01-01
High energy astrophysics observations provide the best possibilities to detect a very small violation of Lorentz invariance such as may be related to the structure of space-time near the Planck scale of approx.10(exp -35) m. I will discuss the possible signatures of Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) that can be manifested by observing of the spectra, polarization, and timing of gamma-rays from active galactic nuclei and gamma-ray bursts. Other sensitive tests are provided by observations of the spectra of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays and neutrinos. Using the latest data from the Pierre Auger Observatory one can already derive an upper limit of 4.5 x 10(exp -23) on the fraction of LIV at a Lorentz factor of approx. 2 x 10(exp 11). This result has fundamental implications for quantum gravity models. I will also discuss the possibilities of using more sensitive space-based detection techniques to improve searches for LIV in the future. I will also discuss how the LIV formalism casts doubt on the OPERA superluminal neutrino claim.
Cosmology with modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND)
Sanders, R. H.
1998-01-01
It is well known that the application of Newtonian dynamics to an expanding spherical region leads to the correct relativistic expression (the Friedmann equation) for the evolution of the cosmic scalefactor. Here, the cosmological implications of Milgrom's modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) are
Newtonian cosmology - Problems of cosmological didactics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Skarzynski, E.
1983-03-01
The article presents different methods of model construction in Newtonian cosmology. Newtonian cosmology is very convenient for discussion of local problems, so the problems presented are of great didactic importance. The constant k receives a new interpretation in relativistic cosmology as the curvature of the space in consequence of the greater informational capacity of Riemann space in comparison to Euclidean space. 11 references.
Cosmic Tsunamis in Modified Gravity: Disruption of Screening Mechanisms from Scalar Waves.
Hagala, R; Llinares, C; Mota, D F
2017-03-10
Extending general relativity by adding extra degrees of freedom is a popular approach for explaining the accelerated expansion of the Universe and to build high energy completions of the theory of gravity. The presence of such new degrees of freedom is, however, tightly constrained from several observations and experiments that aim to test general relativity in a wide range of scales. The viability of a given modified theory of gravity, therefore, strongly depends on the existence of a screening mechanism that suppresses the extra degrees of freedom. We perform simulations, and find that waves propagating in the new degrees of freedom can significantly impact the efficiency of some screening mechanisms, thereby threatening the viability of these modified gravity theories. Specifically, we show that the waves produced in the symmetron model can increase the amplitude of the fifth force and the parametrized post Newtonian parameters by several orders of magnitude.
Gernhardt, M.L.; Chappell, S.P.
2009-01-01
The EVA Physiology, Systems and Performance (EPSP) Project is performing tests in different analog environments to understand human performance during Extravehicular Activity (EVA) with the aim of developing more safe and efficient systems for lunar exploration missions and the Constellation Program. The project is characterizing human EVA performance in studies using several test beds, including the underwater NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) and Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) facilities, JSC fs Partial Gravity Simulator (POGO), and the NASA Reduced Gravity Office (RGO) parabolic flight aircraft. Using these varied testing environments, NASA can gain a more complete understanding of human performance issues related to EVA and the limitations of each testing environment. Tests are focused on identifying and understanding the EVA system factors that affect human performance such as center of gravity (CG), inertial mass, ground reaction forces (GRF), suit weight, and suit pressure. The test results will lead to the development of lunar EVA systems operations concepts and design requirements that optimize human performance and exploration capabilities. METHODS: Tests were conducted in the NBL and during NEEMO missions in the NOAA Aquarius Habitat. A reconfigurable back pack with repositionable mass was used to simulate Perfect, Low, Forward, High, Aft and NASA Baseline CG locations. Subjects performed simulated exploration tasks that included ambulation, kneel and recovery, rock pick-up, and shoveling. Testing using POGO, that simulates partial gravity via pneumatic weight offload system and a similar reconfigurable rig, is underway for a subset of the same tasks. Additionally, test trials are being performed on the RGO parabolic flight aircraft. Subject performance was assessed using a modified Cooper-Harper scale to assess operator compensation required to achieve desired performance. All CG locations are based on the assumption of a
Experimental tests of relativistic gravitation theories
Anderson, J. D.
1971-01-01
Experimental tests were studied for determining the potential uses of future deep space missions in studies of relativistic gravity. The extensions to the parametrized post-Newtonian framework to take explicit account of the solar system's center of mass relative to the mean rest frame of the Universe is reported. Discoveries reported include the Machian effects of motion relative to the universal rest frame. Summaries of the JPL research are included.
Tests of Gravitational Symmetries with Radio Pulsars
Shao, Lijing
2016-01-01
Symmetries play important roles in modern theories of physical laws. In this paper, we review several experimental tests of important symmetries associated with the gravitational interaction, including the universality of free fall for self-gravitating bodies, time-shift symmetry in the gravitational constant, local position invariance and local Lorentz invariance of gravity, and spacetime translational symmetries. Recent experimental explorations for post-Newtonian gravity are discussed, of which, those from pulsar astronomy are highlighted. All of these tests, of very different aspects of gravity theories, at very different length scales, favor to very high precision the predictions of the strong equivalence principle (SEP) and, in particular, general relativity which embodies SEP completely. As the founding principles of gravity, these symmetries are motivated to be promoted to even stricter tests in future.
American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia
2006-01-01
1.1 This test method covers procedures for determining water absorption, bulk density, apparent porosity, and apparent specific gravity of fired unglazed whiteware products. 1.2 This standard may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
Burrage, Clare; Parkinson, David; Seery, David
2017-08-01
In "modified" gravity the observed acceleration of the universe is explained by changing the gravitational force law or the number of degrees of freedom in the gravitational sector. Both possibilities can be tested by measurements of cosmological structure formation. In this paper we elaborate the details of such tests using the Galileon model as a case study. We pay attention to the possibility that each new degree of freedom may have stochastically independent initial conditions, generating different types of potential well in the early universe and breaking complete correlation between density and velocity power spectra. This "stochastic bias" can confuse schemes to parametrize the predictions of modified gravity models, such as the use of the growth parameter f alone. Using data from the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey we show that it will be possible to obtain constraints using information about the cosmological-scale force law embedded in the multipole power spectra of redshift-space distortions. As an example, we obtain an upper limit on the strength of the conformal coupling to matter in the cubic Galileon model, giving |1 /M |≲200 /MP . This allows the fifth-force to be stronger than gravity, but is consistent with zero coupling.
Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND: Observational Phenomenology and Relativistic Extensions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stacy S. McGaugh
2012-09-01
Full Text Available A wealth of astronomical data indicate the presence of mass discrepancies in the Universe. The motions observed in a variety of classes of extragalactic systems exceed what can be explained by the mass visible in stars and gas. Either (i there is a vast amount of unseen mass in some novel form - dark matter - or (ii the data indicate a breakdown of our understanding of dynamics on the relevant scales, or (iii both. Here, we first review a few outstanding challenges for the dark matter interpretation of mass discrepancies in galaxies, purely based on observations and independently of any alternative theoretical framework. We then show that many of these puzzling observations are predicted by one single relation - Milgrom's law - involving an acceleration constant a_0 (or a characteristic surface density Σ_† = a_0∕G on the order of the square-root of the cosmological constant in natural units. This relation can at present most easily be interpreted as the effect of a single universal force law resulting from a modification of Newtonian dynamics (MOND on galactic scales. We exhaustively review the current observational successes and problems of this alternative paradigm at all astrophysical scales, and summarize the various theoretical attempts (TeVeS, GEA, BIMOND, and others made to effectively embed this modification of Newtonian dynamics within a relativistic theory of gravity.
Electrostatic analogy for symmetron gravity
Ogden, Lillie; Brown, Katherine; Mathur, Harsh; Rovelli, Kevin
2017-12-01
The symmetron model is a scalar-tensor theory of gravity with a screening mechanism that suppresses the effect of the symmetron field at high densities characteristic of the Solar System and laboratory scales but allows it to act with gravitational strength at low density on the cosmological scale. We elucidate the screening mechanism by showing that in the quasistatic Newtonian limit there are precise analogies between symmetron gravity and electrostatics for both strong and weak screening. For strong screening we find that large dense bodies behave in a manner analogous to perfect conductors in electrostatics. Based on this analogy we find that the symmetron field exhibits a lightning rod effect wherein the field gradients are enhanced near the ends of pointed or elongated objects. An ellipsoid placed in a uniform symmetron gradient is shown to experience a torque. By symmetry there is no gravitational torque in this case. Hence this effect unmasks the symmetron and might serve as the basis for future laboratory experiments. The symmetron force between a point mass and a large dense body includes a component corresponding to the interaction of the point mass with its image in the larger body. None of these effects have counterparts in the Newtonian limit of Einstein gravity. We discuss the similarities between symmetron gravity and the chameleon model as well as the differences between the two.
Berge, Joel; Christophe, Bruno; Liorzou, Françoise
Theories beyond the standard model aim to face several challenges: connect gravitation with the other three known forces, and shed light on dark matter and dark energy. Although General Relativity has been incredibly successful at passing laboratory / Solar System scales tests to date, it is a classical theory (hence, incompatible with quantum physics scales) and it fails at explaining large scale astrophysical observations such as galaxy rotation curves and the accelerated expansion of the Universe without introducing dark matter and dark energy. Thus, most theories beyond the standard model explore modifications to General Relativity. Those modifications, whether they consist in adding an extra scalar field or adding a scale-dependence to the gravitation laws, allow us to predict small deviations from General Relativity at laboratory / Solar System scales. For instance, such a deviation could have explained the Pioneer anomaly, where the Pioneer probes were measured to undergo an unexpected acceleration. Although this anomaly has recently been accounted for by an instrumental thermal radiation, precise measurements of the non-gravitational forces applied to the probes would have helped decide whether the observed behavior was due to gravitational or non-gravitational physics. As a result, several missions have been proposed to embark an accelerometer on-board an interplanetary probe. Indeed, an accelerometer will measure the non-gravitational accelerations applied to the probe, thereby separating the potentially measured departures from a pure geodetic trajectory into their gravitational and non-gravitational components, and allowing us to easily constrain General Relativity in deep space. The Gravity Advanced Package (GAP) is an instrument developed for this purpose. It is composed of a 3-axes electrostatic accelerometer called MicroSTAR and a rotating platform called Bias Rejection System. It aims to provide an unbiased measurement of a spacecraft's non
Congested Aggregation via Newtonian Interaction
Craig, Katy; Kim, Inwon; Yao, Yao
2017-08-01
We consider a congested aggregation model that describes the evolution of a density through the competing effects of nonlocal Newtonian attraction and a hard height constraint. This provides a counterpoint to existing literature on repulsive-attractive nonlocal interaction models, where the repulsive effects instead arise from an interaction kernel or the addition of diffusion. We formulate our model as the Wasserstein gradient flow of an interaction energy, with a penalization to enforce the constraint on the height of the density. From this perspective, the problem can be seen as a singular limit of the Keller-Segel equation with degenerate diffusion. Two key properties distinguish our problem from previous work on height constrained equations: nonconvexity of the interaction kernel (which places the model outside the scope of classical gradient flow theory) and nonlocal dependence of the velocity field on the density (which causes the problem to lack a comparison principle). To overcome these obstacles, we combine recent results on gradient flows of nonconvex energies with viscosity solution theory. We characterize the dynamics of patch solutions in terms of a Hele-Shaw type free boundary problem and, using this characterization, show that in two dimensions patch solutions converge to a characteristic function of a disk in the long-time limit, with an explicit rate on the decay of the energy. We believe that a key contribution of the present work is our blended approach, combining energy methods with viscosity solution theory.
Testing the inverse-square law of gravity: Error and design with the upward continuation integral
Thomas, J.
1989-01-01
It has been reported that the inverse-square law of gravity is violated over a range of a few hundred meters. I present a different method for the analysis of the data from that experiment. In this method, the experimental error can be evaluated analytically and I confirm the previous analysis but show that it is a 2σ effect. The method can also be used to design new experiments that will yield minimum errors for a fixed number of data points.
Recent advancements in conformal gravity
O'Brien, James G.; Chaykov, Spasen S.; Dentico, Jeremy; Stulge, Modestas; Stefanski, Brian; Moss, Robert J.
2017-05-01
In recent years, due to the lack of direct observed evidence of cold dark matter, coupled with the shrinking parameter space to search for new dark matter particles, there has been increased interest in Alternative Gravitational theories. This paper, addresses three recent advances in conformal gravity, a fourth order renormalizable metric theory of gravitation originally formulated by Weyl, and later advanced by Mannheim and Kazanas. The first section of the paper applies conformal gravity to the rotation curves of the LITTLE THINGS survey, extending the total number of rotation curves successfully fit by conformal gravity to well over 200 individual data sets without the need for additional dark matter. Further, in this rotation curve study, we show how MOND and conformal gravity compare for each galaxy in the sample. Second, we look at the original Zwicky problem of applying the virial theorem to the Coma cluster in order to get an estimate for the cluster mass. However, instead of using the standard Newtonian potential, here we use the weak field approximation of conformal gravity. We show that in the conformal case we can get a much smaller mass estimate and thus there is no apparent need to include dark matter. We then show that this calculation is in agreement with the observational data from other well studied clusters. Last, we explore the calculation of the deflection of starlight through conformal gravity, as a first step towards applying conformal gravity to gravitaitonal lensing.
Revisiting Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics Using Computer Algebra
Knight, D. G.
2006-01-01
This article illustrates how a computer algebra system, such as Maple[R], can assist in the study of theoretical fluid mechanics, for both Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids. The continuity equation, the stress equations of motion, the Navier-Stokes equations, and various constitutive equations are treated, using a full, but straightforward,…
Analysis of the autonomous problem about coupled active non-Newtonian multi-seepage in sparse medium
Deng, Shuxian; Li, Hongen
2017-10-01
The flow field of non-Newtonian fluid in sparse medium was analyzed by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method. The results show that the axial velocity and radial velocity of the non-Newtonian fluid are larger than those of the Newtonian fluid due to the coupling of the viscosity of the non-Newtonian fluid and the shear rate, and the tangential velocity is less than that of the Newtonian fluid. These differences lead to the difference in the sparse medium Non-Newtonian fluids are of a special nature. The influence of the weight function on the global existence and blasting of the problem is discussed by analyzing the non-Newtonian percolation equation with nonlocal and weighted non-local Dirichlet boundary conditions. According to the non-Newtonian percolation equation, we define the weak solution of the problem and expound the local existence of the weak solution. Then we construct the test function and prove the weak comparison principle by using the Grown well inequality. The overall existence and blasting are analyzed by constructing the upper and lower solutions.
Proposed antimatter gravity measurement with an antihydrogen beam
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kellerbauer, A. [Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, Postfach 103980, 69029 Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: a.kellerbauer@mpi-hd.mpg.de; Amoretti, M. [Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, Postfach 103980, 69029 Heidelberg (Germany); Belov, A.S. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Bonomi, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare and Dept. of Physics, University of Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Boscolo, I. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare and Dept. of Physics, University of Milan, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy); Brusa, R.S. [Dept. of Physics, University of Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38100 Povo (Italy); Buechner, M. [Laboratoire Collisions Agregats Reactivite - IRSAMC, Universite Paul Sabatier and CNRS UMR 5589, 118 Route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cedex (France); Byakov, V.M. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation); Cabaret, L. [Laboratoire Aime Cotton, CNRS II, Campus d' Orsay, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Canali, C.; Carraro, C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare and Dept. of Physics, University of Genoa, via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Castelli, F.; Cialdi, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare and Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Milan, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy); Combarieu, M. de [Laboratoire de Basse Temperature du SPEC/DRECAM/DSM, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Comparat, D. [Laboratoire Aime Cotton, CNRS II, Campus d' Orsay, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Consolati, G. [Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan (Italy); Djourelov, N. [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, 72 Tzarigradsko Chaussee, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Doser, M. [Dept. of Physics, CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Drobychev, G. [Laboratoire d' Annecy-le-Vieux de Physique des Particules, 9 Chemin de Bellevue, B.p. 110, 74941 Annecy Cedex (France)] (and others)
2008-02-15
The principle of the equivalence of gravitational and inertial mass is one of the cornerstones of general relativity. Considerable efforts have been made and are still being made to verify its validity. A quantum-mechanical formulation of gravity allows for non-Newtonian contributions to the force which might lead to a difference in the gravitational force on matter and antimatter. While it is widely expected that the gravitational interaction of matter and of antimatter should be identical, this assertion has never been tested experimentally. With the production of large amounts of cold antihydrogen at the CERN Antiproton Decelerator, such a test with neutral antimatter atoms has now become feasible. For this purpose, we have proposed to set up the AEGIS experiment at CERN/AD, whose primary goal will be the direct measurement of the Earth's gravitational acceleration on antihydrogen with a classical Moire deflectometer.
Air Sparging for Mixing Non-Newtonian Slurries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bamberger, Judith A.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Tzemos, Spyridon
2010-01-01
The mechanics of air sparger systems have been primarily investigated for aqueous-based Newtonian fluids. Tilton et al. (1982) [1] describes the fluid mechanics of air sparging systems in non-Newtonian fluids as having two primary flow regions. A center region surrounding the sparger, referred to as the region of bubbles (ROB), contains upward flow due to the buoyant driving force of the rising bubbles. In an annular region, outside the ROB, referred to as the zone of influence (ZOI), the fluid flow is reversed and is opposed to the direction of bubble rise. Outside the ZOI the fluid is unaffected by the air sparger system. The flow regime in the ROB is often turbulent, and the flow regime in the ZOI is laminar; the flow regime outside the ZOI is quiescent. Tests conducted with shear thinning non-Newtonian fluid in a 34-in. diameter tank showed that the ROB forms an approximately inverted cone that is the envelop of the bubble trajectories. The depth to which the air bubbles reach below the sparger nozzle is a linear function of the air-flow rate. The recirculation time through the ZOI was found to vary proportionally with the inverse square of the sparging air-flow rate. Visual observations of the ROB were made in both water and Carbopol®. The bubbles released from the sparge tube in Carbopol® were larger than those in water
A comparison of Newtonian and non-Newtonian models for pulsatile blood flow simulations
Husain, Iqbal; Labropulu, Fotini; Langdon, Chris; Schwark, Justin
2013-04-01
Mathematical modeling of blood flows in the arteries is an important and challenging problem. This study compares several non-Newtonian blood models with the Newtonian model in simulating pulsatile blood flow through two three-dimensional models of an arterial stenosis and an aneurysm. Four non-Newtonian blood models, namely the Power Law, the Casson, the Carreau, and the Generalized Power Law, as well as the Newtonian model of blood viscosity, are used to investigate the flow effects induced by these different blood constitutive equations. The aim of this study is three-fold: firstly, to investigate the variation in wall shear stress in an artery with a stenosis or aneurysm at different flow rates and degrees of severity; secondly, to compare the various blood models and hence quantify the differences between the models and judge their significance; and lastly, to determine whether the use of the Newtonian blood model is appropriate over a wide range of shear rates.
Post-Newtonian celestial dynamics in cosmology: Field equations
Kopeikin, Sergei M.; Petrov, Alexander N.
2013-02-01
Post-Newtonian celestial dynamics is a relativistic theory of motion of massive bodies and test particles under the influence of relatively weak gravitational forces. The standard approach for development of this theory relies upon the key concept of the isolated astronomical system supplemented by the assumption that the background spacetime is flat. The standard post-Newtonian theory of motion was instrumental in the explanation of the existing experimental data on binary pulsars, satellite, and lunar laser ranging, and in building precise ephemerides of planets in the Solar System. Recent studies of the formation of large-scale structures in our Universe indicate that the standard post-Newtonian mechanics fails to describe more subtle dynamical effects in motion of the bodies comprising the astronomical systems of larger size—galaxies and clusters of galaxies—where the Riemann curvature of the expanding Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker universe interacts with the local gravitational field of the astronomical system and, as such, cannot be ignored. The present paper outlines theoretical principles of the post-Newtonian mechanics in the expanding Universe. It is based upon the gauge-invariant theory of the Lagrangian perturbations of cosmological manifold caused by an isolated astronomical N-body system (the Solar System, a binary star, a galaxy, and a cluster of galaxies). We postulate that the geometric properties of the background manifold are described by a homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker metric governed by two primary components—the dark matter and the dark energy. The dark matter is treated as an ideal fluid with the Lagrangian taken in the form of pressure along with the scalar Clebsch potential as a dynamic variable. The dark energy is associated with a single scalar field with a potential which is hold unspecified as long as the theory permits. Both the Lagrangians of the dark matter and the scalar field are
O'Sullivan, Ian
2014-03-01
The speed of light is measured as a constant number of metres per second. However, a meter is a measure of how far light travels in a second. That is, light always travels as far as it does in a second every second. This is a circular definition. When measured against other things, light speed must change. Gravity is usually described as a consequence of a curve in spacetime. The word ``space'' has two distinct meanings. In geometry, space is a continuous area. In relativity, ``space'' refers exclusively to geometric spaces measured with light. ``Time'' in a relativistic sense also refers exclusively to the passage of time as measured against light. So a curve in spacetime (a relativistic concept) is a gradual deviation in the thing we use to measure geometric spaces and the passage of time, i.e. the speed of light. I show how Newtonian gravity can explain observable phenomena if the speed of light is inversely proportional to the strength of the gravitational field. For example, we would also expect light to refract as it changes speed passing near massive bodies. Boundary conditions are also discussed, for example, very high gravity will slow light to a stop, making it impossible to measure anything against light, giving a gravitational singularity.
Gravity a very short introduction
Clifton, Timothy
2017-01-01
Gravity is one of the four fundamental interactions that exist in nature. It also has the distinction of being the oldest, weakest, and most difficult force to quantize. Understanding gravity is not only essential for understanding the motion of objects on Earth, but also the motion of all celestial objects, and even the expansion of the Universe itself. It was the study of gravity that led Einstein to his profound realizations about the nature of space and time. Gravity is not only universal, it is also essential for understanding the behavior of the Universe, and all astrophysical bodies within it. In this Very Short Introduction Timothy Clifton looks at the development of our understanding of gravity since the early observations of Kepler and Newtonian theory. He discusses Einstein's theory of gravity, which now supplants Newton's, showing how it allows us to understand why the frequency of light changes as it passes through a gravitational field, why GPS satellites need their clocks corrected as they orbi...
Scalable Gravity Offload System Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A scalable gravity offload device simulates reduced gravity for the testing of various surface system elements such as mobile robots, excavators, habitats, and...
Non newtonian annular alloy solidification in mould
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moraga, Nelson O.; Garrido, Carlos P. [Universidad de La Serena, Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica, La Serena (Chile); Castillo, Ernesto F. [Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica, Santiago (Chile)
2012-08-15
The annular solidification of an aluminium-silicon alloy in a graphite mould with a geometry consisting of horizontal concentric cylinders is studied numerically. The analysis incorporates the behavior of non-Newtonian, pseudoplastic (n=0.2), Newtonian (n=1), and dilatant (n=1.5) fluids. The fluid mechanics and heat transfer coupled with a transient model of convection diffusion are solved using the finite volume method and the SIMPLE algorithm. Solidification is described in terms of a liquid fraction of a phase change that varies linearly with temperature. The final results make it possible to infer that the fluid dynamics and heat transfer of solidification in an annular geometry are affected by the non-Newtonian nature of the fluid, speeding up the process when the fluid is pseudoplastic. (orig.)
Non Newtonian annular alloy solidification in mould
Moraga, Nelson O.; Castillo, Ernesto F.; Garrido, Carlos P.
2012-08-01
The annular solidification of an aluminium-silicon alloy in a graphite mould with a geometry consisting of horizontal concentric cylinders is studied numerically. The analysis incorporates the behavior of non-Newtonian, pseudoplastic ( n = 0.2), Newtonian ( n = 1), and dilatant ( n = 1.5) fluids. The fluid mechanics and heat transfer coupled with a transient model of convection diffusion are solved using the finite volume method and the SIMPLE algorithm. Solidification is described in terms of a liquid fraction of a phase change that varies linearly with temperature. The final results make it possible to infer that the fluid dynamics and heat transfer of solidification in an annular geometry are affected by the non-Newtonian nature of the fluid, speeding up the process when the fluid is pseudoplastic.
Testing quantum gravity effects through Dyonic charged AdS black hole
Sadeghi, J; Rostami, M
2016-01-01
In this paper, we consider dyonic charged AdS black hole which is holographic dual of a van der Waals fluid. We use logarithmic corrected entropy and study thermodynamics of the black hole and show that holographic picture is still valid. Critical behaviors and stability also discussed. Logarithmic corrections arises due to thermal fluctuations which are important when size of black hole be small. So, thermal fluctuations interpreted as quantum effect. It means that we can see quantum effect of a black hole which is a gravitational system. Hence, one can use result of this paper to compare with that of van der Waals fluid in the lab and see quantum gravity effects.
Xu, Peng; Paik, Ho Jung
2016-02-01
With continuous advances in technology, future satellite gradiometry missions will be capable of performing precision relativistic experiments and imposing constraints on modern gravity theories. To this end, the full first-order post-Newtonian tidal tensor under inertially guided and Earth-pointing local frames along post-Newtonian orbits is worked out. The physical picture behind the "Mashhoon-Theiss anomaly" is explained at the post-Newtonian level. The relativistic precession of the local frame with respect to the sidereal frame will produce modulations of Newtonian tidal forces along certain bases, which gives rise to two different kinds of secular tidal tensors. The measurements of the secular tidal force from the frame-dragging effect is also discussed.
Large Scale Structure in Bekenstein’s Theory of Relativistic Modified Newtonian Dynamics
Skordis, C; Ferreira, P G; Böhm, C
2006-01-01
A relativistic theory of modified gravity has been recently proposed by Bekenstein. The tensor field in Einstein’s theory of gravity is replaced by a scalar, a vector, and a tensor field which interact in such a way to give modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) in the weak-field nonrelativistic limit. We study the evolution of the Universe in such a theory, identifying its key properties and comparing it with the standard cosmology obtained in Einstein gravity. The evolution of the scalar field is akin to that of tracker quintessence fields. We expand the theory to linear order to find the evolution of perturbations on large scales. The impact on galaxy distributions and the cosmic microwave background is calculated in detail. We show that it may be possible to reproduce observations of the cosmic microwave background and galaxy distributions with Bekenstein’s theory of MOND.
QuBounce: the dynamics of ultra-cold neutrons falling in the gravity potential of the Earth
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abele, H.; Jenke, T. [Physik-Department E18, TU Muenchen, James-Franck-Strasse, 85748 Garching (Germany); Stadler, D. [Physikalisches Institut, Philosophenweg 12, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Geltenbort, P. [Institut Laue-Langevin, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)
2009-08-15
The dynamics of a quantum mechanical wave packet bouncing off a hard surface in the gravitational field of the earth combines quantum theory with aspects of Newtonian mechanics at short distances. We realize such a quantum bouncing ball with ultracold neutrons. By quantum interference, this experiment is sensitive to gravity-like forces at a length scale below 10 {mu}m and can test speculations on large extra dimensions of submillimeter size of space-time or the origin of the cosmological constant in the universe.
Electrokinetics of non-Newtonian fluids: a review.
Zhao, Cunlu; Yang, Chun
2013-12-01
This work presents a comprehensive review of electrokinetics pertaining to non-Newtonian fluids. The topic covers a broad range of non-Newtonian effects in electrokinetics, including electroosmosis of non-Newtonian fluids, electrophoresis of particles in non-Newtonian fluids, streaming potential effect of non-Newtonian fluids and other related non-Newtonian effects in electrokinetics. Generally, the coupling between non-Newtonian hydrodynamics and electrostatics not only complicates the electrokinetics but also causes the fluid/particle velocity to be nonlinearly dependent on the strength of external electric field and/or the zeta potential. Shear-thinning nature of liquids tends to enhance electrokinetic phenomena, while shear-thickening nature of liquids leads to the reduction of electrokinetic effects. In addition, directions for the future studies are suggested and several theoretical issues in non-Newtonian electrokinetics are highlighted. © 2013.
Nahra, Henry K.; Hall, Nancy R.; Hasan, Mohammad M.; Wagner, James D.; May, Rochelle L.; Mackey, Jeffrey R.; Kolacz, John S.; Butcher, Robert L.; Frankenfield, Bruce J.; Mudawar, Issam;
2013-01-01
Flow boiling and condensation have been identified as two key mechanisms for heat transport that are vital for achieving weight and volume reduction as well as performance enhancement in future space systems. Since inertia driven flows are demanding on power usage, lower flows are desirable. However, in microgravity, lower flows are dominated by forces other than inertia (like the capillary force). It is of paramount interest to investigate limits of low flows beyond which the flow is inertial enough to be gravity independent. One of the objectives of the Flow Boiling and Condensation Flight Experiment sets to investigate these limits for flow boiling and condensation. A two-phase flow loop consisting of a Flow Boiling Module and two Condensation Modules has been developed to experimentally study flow boiling condensation heat transfer in the reduced gravity environment provided by the reduced gravity platform. This effort supports the development of a flow boiling and condensation facility for the International Space Station (ISS). The closed loop test facility is designed to deliver the test fluid, FC-72 to the inlet of any one of the test modules at specified thermodynamic and flow conditions. The zero-g-aircraft tests will provide subcooled and saturated flow boiling critical heat flux and flow condensation heat transfer data over wide range of flow velocities. Additionally, these tests will verify the performance of all gravity sensitive components, such as evaporator, condenser and accumulator associated with the two-phase flow loop. We will present in this paper the breadboard development and testing results which consist of detailed performance evaluation of the heater and condenser combination in reduced and normal gravity. We will also present the design of the reduced gravity aircraft rack and the results of the ground flow boiling heat transfer testing performed with the Flow Boiling Module that is designed to investigate flow boiling heat transfer and
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
de Rham, Claudia
2014-01-01
We review recent progress in massive gravity. We start by showing how different theories of massive gravity emerge from a higher-dimensional theory of general relativity, leading to the Dvali–Gabadadze–Porrati model (DGP...
Clusters of galaxies with modified Newtonian dynamics
Sanders, RH
2003-01-01
I consider X-ray emitting clusters of galaxies in the context of modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND). Self-gravitating isothermal gas spheres are not good representations of rich clusters; the X-ray luminosity at a given temperature is typically an order of magnitude larger than observed, and the
Claudia de Rham
2016-01-01
We review recent progress in massive gravity. We start by showing how different theories of massive gravity emerge from a higher-dimensional theory of general relativity, leading to the Dvali–Gabadadze–Porrati model (DGP), cascading gravity, and ghost-free massive gravity. We then explore their theoretical and phenomenological consistency, proving the absence of Boulware–Deser ghosts and reviewing the Vainshtein mechanism and the cosmological solutions in these models. Finally, we present alt...
Hatami, M.; Jing, D.
2017-01-01
In this study, a simple and high accurate series-based method called Differential Transformation Method (DTM) is used for solving the coupled nonlinear differential equations in fluids mechanic problems. The concept of the DTM is briefly introduced, and its application on two different cases, natural convection of a non-Newtonian nanofluid between two vertical plates and Newtonian nanofluid flow between two horizontal plates, has been studied. DTM results are compared with those obtained by a...
Applying Tiab’s direct synthesis technique to dilatant non-Newtonian/Newtonian fluids
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Javier Andrés Martínez
2011-08-01
Full Text Available Non-Newtonian fluids, such as polymer solutions, have been used by the oil industry for many years as fracturing agents and drilling mud. These solutions, which normally include thickened water and jelled fluids, are injected into the formation to enhanced oil recovery by improving sweep efficiency. It is worth noting that some heavy oils behave non-Newtonianly. Non-Newtonian fluids do not have direct proportionality between applied shear stress and shear rate and viscosity varies with shear rate depending on whether the fluid is either pseudoplastic or dilatant. Viscosity decreases as shear rate increases for the former whilst the reverse takes place for dilatants. Mathematical models of conventional fluids thus fail when applied to non-Newtonian fluids. The pressure derivative curve is introduced in this descriptive work for a dilatant fluid and its pattern was observed. Tiab’s direct synthesis (TDS methodology was used as a tool for interpreting pressure transient data to estimate effective permeability, skin factors and non-Newtonian bank radius. The methodology was successfully verified by its application to synthetic examples. Also, comparing it to pseudoplastic behavior, it was found that the radial flow regime in the Newtonian zone of dilatant fluids took longer to form regarding both the flow behavior index and consistency factor.
Loop quantum gravity and observations
Barrau, A
2014-01-01
Quantum gravity has long been thought to be completely decoupled from experiments or observations. Although it is true that smoking guns are still missing, there are now serious hopes that quantum gravity phenomena might be tested. We review here some possible ways to observe loop quantum gravity effects either in the framework of cosmology or in astroparticle physics.
The Post-Newtonian Approximation for Relativistic Compact Binaries
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Futamase Toshifumi
2007-03-01
Full Text Available We discuss various aspects of the post-Newtonian approximation in general relativity. After presenting the foundation based on the Newtonian limit, we show a method to derive post-Newtonian equations of motion for relativistic compact binaries based on a surface integral approach and the strong field point particle limit. As an application we derive third post-Newtonian equations of motion for relativistic compact binaries which respect the Lorentz invariance in the post-Newtonian perturbative sense, admit a conserved energy, and are free from any ambiguity.
Brane worlds in gravity with auxiliary fields
Guo, Bin; Liu, Yu-Xiao; Yang, Ke
2015-02-01
Recently, Pani et al. explored a new theory of gravity by adding nondynamical fields, i.e., gravity with auxiliary fields (Phys Rev D 88:121502, 2013). In this gravity theory, higher-order derivatives of matter fields generically appear in the field equations. In this paper we extend this theory to any dimensions and discuss the thick braneworld model in five dimensions. Domain wall solutions are obtained numerically. The stability of the brane system under tensor perturbations is analyzed. We find that the system is stable under tensor perturbations and the gravity zero mode is localized on the brane. Therefore, the four-dimensional Newtonian potential can be realized on the brane.
Leach, R. N.; Greeley, Ronald; White, Bruce R.; Iversen, James D.
1987-01-01
In the study of planetary aeolian processes the effect of gravity is not readily modeled. Gravity appears in the equations of particle motion along with the interparticle forces but the two are not separable. A wind tunnel that perimits multiphase flow experiments with wind blown particles at variable gravity was built and experiments were conducted at reduced gravity. The equations of particle motion initiation (saltation threshold) with variable gravity were experimentally verified and the interparticle force was separated. A uniquely design Carousel Wind Tunnel (CWT) allows for the long flow distance in a small sized tunnel since the test section if a continuous loop and develops the required turbulent boundary layer. A prototype model of the tunnel where only the inner drum rotates was built and tested in the KC-135 Weightless Wonder 4 zero-g aircraft. Future work includes further experiments with walnut shell in the KC-135 which sharply graded particles of widely varying median sizes including very small particles to see how interparticle force varies with particle size, and also experiments with other aeolian material.
Non-linear effects in the post-Newtonian approximation of a spherically symmetric field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gambi, J.M.; Zamorano, P. [Madrid Univ. Carlos 3, Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Matematicas; Romero, P.; Garcia del Pino, M.L. [Madrid Univ. Complutense, Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Astronomia y Geodesia
2000-02-01
Conditions for the compatibility of the exterior metric of a spherically symmetric object with the field equations for the empty space and equations of motion and of trajectories for test particles, written in polar Gaussian and Fermi coordinates, are obtained to show that, although their explicit exact solutions cannot be derived in these coordinates, the post-Newtonian limits of these solutions can, nevertheless, be obtained. With these limits, it is next shown that the cited post-Newtonian equations do not fit into the standard post-Newtonian approximation either. It is then shown that these coordinates can, nevertheless, be included in a more general formalism together with the usual post-Newtonian (standard, harmonic, Painleve and isotropic) coordinates so that their respective equations of motion may be compared to each other and, finally, it is demonstrated that the only non-linear term taken in the Christoffel symbols with these usual coordinates in the standard post-Newtonian equations of motion to explain some known perturbations is not needed when polar Gaussian or Fermi coordinates are used to explain also those perturbations. In fact, it is demonstrated that these are the only coordinates for which that term becomes zero.
Conceptual coherence of non-Newtonian worldviews in Force Concept Inventory data
Scott, Terry F.; Schumayer, Dániel
2017-06-01
The Force Concept Inventory is one of the most popular and most analyzed multiple-choice concept tests used to investigate students' understanding of Newtonian mechanics. The correct answers poll a set of underlying Newtonian concepts and the coherence of these underlying concepts has been found in the data. However, this inventory was constructed after several years of research into the common preconceptions held by students and using these preconceptions as distractors in the questions. Their sole purpose is to deflect non-Newtonian candidates away from the correct answer. Alternatively, one can argue that the responses could also be treated as polling these preconceptions. In this paper we shift the emphasis of the analysis away from the correlation structure of the correct answers and look at the latent traits underlying the incorrect responses. Our analysis models the data employing exploratory factor analysis, which uses regularities in the data to suggest the existence of underlying structures in the cognitive processing of the students. This analysis allows us to determine whether the data support the claim that there are alternate non-Newtonian worldviews on which students' incorrect responses are based. The existence of such worldviews, and their coherence, could explain the resilience of non-Newtonian preconceptions and would have significant implications to the design of instruction methods. We find that there are indeed coherent alternate conceptions of the world which can be categorized using the results of the research that led to the construction of the Force Concept Inventory.
Nortunen, S; Flinkkilä, T; Lantto, I; Kortekangas, T; Niinimäki, J; Ohtonen, P; Pakarinen, H
2015-08-01
We prospectively assessed the diagnostic accuracy of the gravity stress test and clinical findings to evaluate the stability of the ankle mortise in patients with supination-external rotation-type fractures of the lateral malleolus without widening of the medial clear space. The cohort included 79 patients with a mean age of 44 years (16 to 82). Two surgeons assessed medial tenderness, swelling and ecchymosis and performed the external rotation (ER) stress test (a reference standard). A diagnostic radiographer performed the gravity stress test. For the gravity stress test, the positive likelihood ratio (LR) was 5.80 with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 2.75 to 12.27, and the negative LR was 0.15 (95% CI 0.07 to 0.35), suggesting a moderate change from the pre-test probability. Medial tenderness, both alone and in combination with swelling and/or ecchymosis, indicated a small change (positive LR, 2.74 to 3.25; negative LR, 0.38 to 0.47), whereas swelling and ecchymosis indicated only minimal changes (positive LR, 1.41 to 1.65; negative LR, 0.38 to 0.47). In conclusion, when gravity stress test results are in agreement with clinical findings, the result is likely to predict stability of the ankle mortise with an accuracy equivalent to ER stress test results. When clinical examination suggests a medial-side injury, however, the gravity stress test may give a false negative result. ©2015 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.
Seduced by logic Emilie du Chatelet, Mary Somerville and the Newtonian revolution
Arianrhod, Robyn
2012-01-01
Newton's explanation of the natural law of universal gravity shattered the way mankind perceived the universe, and hence it was not immediately embraced. After all, how can anyone warm to a force that cannot be seen or touched? But for two women, separated by time and space but joined in their passion for Newtonian physics, the intellectual power of that force drove them to great achievements. Brilliant, determined, and almost entirely self-taught, they dedicated their lives to explaining and disseminating Newton's discoveries.Robyn Arianrhod's Seduced by Logic tells the story of Emilie du Cha
Roy, M.; Lewis, M.; George, N. K.; Johnson, A.; Dichter, M.; Rowe, C. A.; Guardincerri, E.
2016-12-01
The joint-inversion of gravity data and cosmic ray muon flux measurements has been utilized by a number of groups to image subsurface density structure in a variety of settings, including volcanic edifices. Cosmic ray muons are variably-attenuated depending upon the density structure of the material they traverse, so measuring muon flux through a region of interest provides an independent constraint on the density structure. Previous theoretical studies have argued that the primary advantage of combining gravity and muon data is enhanced resolution in regions not sampled by crossing muon trajectories, e.g. in sensing deeper structure or structure adjacent to the region sampled by muons. We test these ideas by investigating the ability of gravity data alone and the joint-inversion of gravity and muon flux to image subsurface density structure, including voids, in a well-characterized field location. Our study area is a tunnel vault located at the Los Alamos National Laboratory within Quaternary ash-flow tuffs on the Pajarito Plateau, flanking the Jemez Volcano in New Mexico. The regional geology of the area is well-characterized (with density measurements in nearby wells) and the geometry of the tunnel and the surrounding terrain is known. Gravity measurements were made using a Lacoste and Romberg D meter and the muon detector has a conical acceptance region of 45 degrees from the vertical and track resolution of several milliradians. We obtain individual and joint resolution kernels for gravity and muon flux specific to our experimental design and plan to combine measurements of gravity and muon flux both within and above the tunnel to infer density structure. We plan to compare our inferred density structure against the expected densities from the known regional hydro-geologic framework.
Simulation of the Zero-Gravity Environment for Dynamic Testing of Structures
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Kienholz, David A
1996-01-01
.... A multipoint, six degree of freedom suspension system for dynamic testing is described. Intended primarily for highly flexible space structures, it uses a combination of passive pneumatic and active electromagnetic subsystems...
Structural Optimization of Non-Newtonian Rectifiers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Kristian Ejlebjærg; Okkels, Fridolin
When the size of fluidic devices is scaled down, inertial effects start to vanish such that the governing equation becomes linear. Some microfluidic devices rely on the non-linear term related to the inertia of the fluid, and one example is fluid rectifiers (diodes) e.g. related to some micropumps....... In this context it is natural to look for other sources of non-linearity and one possibility is to introduce a non-Newtonian working fluid. Non-Newtonian properties are due to stretching of large particles/molecules in the fluid and this is commonly seen for biological samples in “lab-on-a-chip” systems....... These rectifiers rely on the device geometry for their working mechanism, but on further downscaling the inertial effect vanishes and the governing equation starts to show symmetry properties. These symmetry properties reduce the geometry influence to the point where fluid rectifiers cease to function...
Symposium on the Foundations of Newtonian Scholarship
Nauenberg, Michael; The foundations of Newtonian scholarship
2000-01-01
Newtonian scholarship has taken great steps forward in the last half-century.The recent completion of critical editions of Newton's mathematical papers and of his scientific correspondence, as well as the publication of the first volume of his optical papers and of variant readings of the Principia in the original Latin, have made most of Newton's scientific work generally available for study and analysis for the first time. This has provided a better understanding of Newton's Principia and Optics especially regarding their origin and interpretation, much of which has remained obscure for several centuries. Some of the new developments and insights are presented in this book by several of the scholars who have made these primary sources accessible, and by others who are using them to elucidate Newton's work. Most of the papers included were presented at the Symposium on the Foundations of Newtonian Scholarship, held at the Royal Society in London in March 1997.
Maximum thermal conductance for a micro-channel, utilising Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid
Stocks, M. D.; Bello-Ochende, T.; Meyer, J. P.
2014-06-01
This paper investigates the thermal behaviour of two micro-channel elements cooled by Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids, with the objective to maximise thermal conductance subject to constraints. This is done firstly for a two-dimensional duct micro-channel and secondly for a three-dimensional complex micro-channel. A numerical model is used to solve the governing equations relating to flow and temperature fields for both cases. The geometric configuration of each cooling channel is optimised for Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid at a fixed inlet velocity and heat flux. In addition, the effect of porosity on thermal conductance is investigated. It was found, in both cases, that the non-Newtonian fluid characteristics result in a significant variation in thermal conductance as inlet velocity is increased. The characteristics of a dilatant fluid greatly reduce thermal conductance on account of shear thickening on the boundary surface. In contrast, a pseudoplastic fluid shows increased thermal conductance. A comparison of the complex micro-channel and the duct micro-channel shows the improved thermal conductance resulting from greater flow access to the conductive area, achieved by the complex micro-channel.
The Two Extended Bodies Problem in General Relativity within the post-Newtonian Approximation
Almonacid, William
2014-01-01
The dynamics of extended bodies is a fundamental problem in any gravitational theory. In the case of General Relativity, this problem is under study since the theory was published. Several methods have been developed and different approaches are avalaible in the literature to interpret the relativistic contributions in the motion under gravity influence. The main goal in this thesis is to study a general method to face the equation of motion for extended bodies in General Relativity. We started with a proposal in the Newtonian theory, which consists in a multipolar expansion for the gravitational potentials as a function of the mass density moments and other physical variables as the stress tensor. The methodology give us the equation of motion for an isolated and self-gravitating system of extended bodies in Newtonian mechanics. A geometrical approach to get the equation of motion is also used for the Newtonian problems, it allows us to extend the methodology to General Relativity. In General Relativity, som...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Iorio, Lorenzo [Ministero dell' Istruzione, Universita e della Ricerca (M.I.U.R.)-Istruzione, Bari, BA (Italy)
2017-03-15
In the framework of the emergent gravity scenario by Verlinde, it was recently observed by Liu and Prokopec that, among other things, an anomalous pericenter precession would affect the orbital motion of a test particle orbiting an isolated central body. Here, it is shown that, if it were real, its expected magnitude for the inner planets of the Solar System would be at the same level of the present-day accuracy in constraining any possible deviations from their standard perihelion precessions as inferred from long data records spanning about the last century. The most favorable situation for testing the Verlinde-type precession seems to occur for Mars. Indeed, according to recent versions of the EPM and INPOP planetary ephemerides, non-standard perihelion precessions, of whatsoever physical origin, which are larger than some ∼ 0.02-0.11 milliarcseconds per century are not admissible, while the putative precession predicted by Liu and Prokopec amounts to 0.09 milliarcseconds per century. Other potentially interesting astronomical and astrophysical scenarios like, e.g., the Earth's LAGEOS II artificial satellite, the double pulsar system PSR J0737-3039A/B and the S-stars orbiting the Supermassive Black Hole in Sgr A* are, instead, not viable because of the excessive smallness of the predicted precessions for them. (orig.)
Curved non-relativistic spacetimes, Newtonian gravitation and massive matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Geracie, Michael, E-mail: mgeracie@uchicago.edu; Prabhu, Kartik, E-mail: kartikp@uchicago.edu; Roberts, Matthew M., E-mail: matthewroberts@uchicago.edu [Kadanoff Center for Theoretical Physics, Enrico Fermi Institute and Department of Physics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)
2015-10-15
There is significant recent work on coupling matter to Newton-Cartan spacetimes with the aim of investigating certain condensed matter phenomena. To this end, one needs to have a completely general spacetime consistent with local non-relativistic symmetries which supports massive matter fields. In particular, one cannot impose a priori restrictions on the geometric data if one wants to analyze matter response to a perturbed geometry. In this paper, we construct such a Bargmann spacetime in complete generality without any prior restrictions on the fields specifying the geometry. The resulting spacetime structure includes the familiar Newton-Cartan structure with an additional gauge field which couples to mass. We illustrate the matter coupling with a few examples. The general spacetime we construct also includes as a special case the covariant description of Newtonian gravity, which has been thoroughly investigated in previous works. We also show how our Bargmann spacetimes arise from a suitable non-relativistic limit of Lorentzian spacetimes. In a companion paper [M. Geracie et al., e-print http://arxiv.org/abs/1503.02680 ], we use this Bargmann spacetime structure to investigate the details of matter couplings, including the Noether-Ward identities, and transport phenomena and thermodynamics of non-relativistic fluids.
Smalley, Larry L.
1998-01-01
Project Satellite Energy Exchange (SEE) is a free-flying, high altitude satellite that utilizes space to construct a passive, low-temperature, nano-g environment in order to accurately measure the poorly known gravitational constant G plus other gravitational parameters that are difficult to measure in an earth-based laboratory. Eventually data received from SEE must be analyzed using a model of the gravitational interaction including parameters that describe deviations from general relativity and experiment. One model that can be used to fit tile data is the Parametrized post- Newtonian (PPN) approximation of general relativity (GR) which introduces ten parameters which have specified values in (GR). It is the lowest-order, consistent approximation that contains non linear terms. General relativity predicts that the Robertson parameters, gamma (light deflection), and beta (advance of the perihelion), are both 1 in GR. Another eight parameters, alpha(sub k), k=1,2,3 and zeta(sub k), k=1,2,3,4 and Xi are all zero in GR. Non zero values for alpha(sub k) parameters predict preferred frame effects; for zeta(sub k) violations of globally conserved quantities such as mass, momentum and angular momentum; and for Xi a contribution from the Whitehead theory of gravitation, once thought to be equivalent to GR. In addition, there is the possibility that there may be a preferred frame for the universe. If such a frame exists, then all observers must measure the velocity omega of their motion with respect to this universal rest frame. Such a frame is somewhat reminiscent of the concept of the ether which was supposedly the frame in which the velocity of light took the value c predicted by special relativity. The SEE mission can also look for deviations from the r(exp -2) law of Newtonian gravity, adding parameters alpha and lamda for non Newtonian behavior that describe the magnitude and range of the r(exp -2) deviations respectively. The foundations of the GR supposedly agree
Fluid/gravity correspondence and the CFM black brane solutions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Casadio, R. [Universita di Bologna, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Bologna (Italy); I.N.F.N., Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Cavalcanti, R.T. [Universita di Bologna, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Bologna (Italy); Universidade Federal do ABC-UFABC, Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Humanas, Santo Andre (Brazil); Rocha, Roldao da [Universidade Federal do ABC-UFABC, Centro de Matematica, Computacao e Cognicao, Santo Andre (Brazil)
2016-10-15
We consider the lower bound for the shear viscosity-to-entropy density ratio, obtained from the fluid/gravity correspondence, in order to constrain the post-Newtonian parameter of brane-world metrics. In particular, we analyse the Casadio-Fabbri-Mazzacurati (CFM) effective solutions for the gravity side of the correspondence and argue that including higher-order terms in the hydrodynamic expansion can lead to a full agreement with the experimental bounds, for the Eddington-Robertson-Schiff post-Newtonian parameter in the CFM metrics. This lends further support to the physical relevance of the viscosity-to-entropy ratio lower bound and fluid/gravity correspondence. Hence we show that CFM black branes are, effectively, Schwarzschild black branes. (orig.)
Stability of anisotropic compact objects in f(T) gravity
Bhatti, M. Zaeem-Ul-Haq; Yousaf, Z.; Hanif, Sonia
2017-03-01
We exhibit the dynamical instability of cylindrical compact object in the gravitational field of f(T) gravity, which is the simplest modification of teleparallel theory (TPT). We explore the field equations and conservation laws to provide the extra degrees of freedom governed by f(T) gravity. We investigate the behavior of small perturbations on geometric and material profile in the background of collapsing fluid configuration. The un/stable eras are studied under Newtonian (N) and post-Newtonian (pN) approximations. Our results show that the stiffness parameter has major role in determining the un/stable epochs of cylindrical object. The dark source terms of f(T) gravity lead to relatively more unstable configuration during its evolutionary process.
Fluid/gravity correspondence and the CFM black brane solutions
Casadio, R.; Cavalcanti, R. T.; da Rocha, Roldão
2016-10-01
We consider the lower bound for the shear viscosity-to-entropy density ratio, obtained from the fluid/gravity correspondence, in order to constrain the post-Newtonian parameter of brane-world metrics. In particular, we analyse the Casadio-Fabbri-Mazzacurati (CFM) effective solutions for the gravity side of the correspondence and argue that including higher-order terms in the hydrodynamic expansion can lead to a full agreement with the experimental bounds, for the Eddington-Robertson-Schiff post-Newtonian parameter in the CFM metrics. This lends further support to the physical relevance of the viscosity-to-entropy ratio lower bound and fluid/gravity correspondence. Hence we show that CFM black branes are, effectively, Schwarzschild black branes.
Equations of motion in relativistic gravity
Lämmerzahl, Claus; Schutz, Bernard
2015-01-01
The present volume aims to be a comprehensive survey on the derivation of the equations of motion, both in General Relativity as well as in alternative gravity theories. The topics covered range from the description of test bodies, to self-gravitating (heavy) bodies, to current and future observations. Emphasis is put on the coverage of various approximation methods (e.g., multipolar, post-Newtonian, self-force methods) which are extensively used in the context of the relativistic problem of motion. Applications discussed in this volume range from the motion of binary systems -- and the gravitational waves emitted by such systems -- to observations of the galactic center. In particular the impact of choices at a fundamental theoretical level on the interpretation of experiments is highlighted. This book provides a broad and up-do-date status report, which will not only be of value for the experts working in this field, but also may serve as a guideline for students with background in General Relativity who ...
Perrin, Christian L; Tardy, Philippe M J; Sorbie, Ken S; Crawshaw, John C
2006-03-15
The in situ rheology of polymeric solutions has been studied experimentally in etched silicon micromodels which are idealizations of porous media. The rectangular channels in these etched networks have dimensions typical of pore sizes in sandstone rocks. Pressure drop/flow rate relations have been measured for water and non-Newtonian hydrolyzed-polyacrylamide (HPAM) solutions in both individual straight rectangular capillaries and in networks of such capillaries. Results from these experiments have been analyzed using pore-scale network modeling incorporating the non-Newtonian fluid mechanics of a Carreau fluid. Quantitative agreement is seen between the experiments and the network calculations in the Newtonian and shear-thinning flow regions demonstrating that the 'shift factor,'alpha, can be calculated a priori. Shear-thickening behavior was observed at higher flow rates in the micromodel experiments as a result of elastic effects becoming important and this remains to be incorporated in the network model.
Bench-scale testing of the multi-gravity separator in combination with Microcel
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1993-01-29
The primary objective of the proposed work is to design, install and operate an advanced fine coal processing circuit combining Microcel and MGS technologies. Both of these processes have specific advantages as stand-alone units. For example, the Microcel column is effective in removing ash-bearing mineral matter, while the MGS is capable of efficiently removing coal-pyrite composites. Therefore, by combining both of these unit operations into a single processing circuit, synergistic advantages can be gained. As a result, this circuit arrangement has the potential of improving coal quality beyond that which could be achieved using either one of the technologies individually. In addition to the primary objective, secondary objectives of the proposed test program will include: (1) Circuit Optimization: The performance of each unit operation, individually and combined, will be optimized by conducting parametric studies as a function of key operating variables. The goal of this work will be to maximize the rejections of pyritic sulfur and ash while maintaining a high energy recovery; and (2) Process Variability: The steady-state performance of the optimized processing circuit will be studied (i) by conducting several long-duration test runs over a period of several days and (ii) by testing coal samples from other sources specified by the participating coal companies.
Deposition Velocities of Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Slurries in Pipelines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Poloski, Adam P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Adkins, Harold E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Abrefah, John [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Casella, Andrew M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hohimer, Ryan E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Nigl, Franz [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Minette, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Toth, James J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tingey, Joel M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Yokuda, Satoru T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
2009-03-01
correlation used in the WTP design guide has been shown to be inaccurate for Hanford waste feed materials. The use of the Thomas (1979) correlation in the design guide is not conservative—In cases where 100% of the particles are smaller than 74 μm or particles are considered to be homogeneous due to yield stress forces suspending the particles the homogeneous fraction of the slurry can be set to 100%. In such cases, the predicted critical velocity based on the conservative Oroskar and Turian (1980) correlation is reduced to zero and the design guide returns a value from the Thomas (1979) correlation. The measured data in this report show that the Thomas (1979) correlation predictions often fall below that measured experimental values. A non-Newtonian deposition velocity design guide should be developed for the WTP— Since the WTP design guide is limited to Newtonian fluids and the WTP expects to process large quantities of such materials, the existing design guide should be modified address such systems. A central experimental finding of this testing is that the flow velocity required to reach turbulent flow increases with slurry rheological properties due to viscous forces dampening the formation of turbulent eddies. The flow becomes dominated by viscous forces rather than turbulent eddies. Since the turbulent eddies necessary for particle transport are not present, the particles will settle when crossing this boundary called the transitional deposition boundary. This deposition mechanism should be expected and designed for in the WTP.
CERN. Geneva
2007-01-01
Of the four fundamental forces, gravity has been studied the longest, yet gravitational physics is one of the most rapidly developing areas of science today. This talk will give a broad brush survey of the past achievements and future prospects of general relativistic gravitational physics. Gravity is a two frontier science being important on both the very largest and smallest length scales considered in contemporary physics. Recent advances and future prospects will be surveyed in precision tests of general relativity, gravitational waves, black holes, cosmology and quantum gravity. The aim will be an overview of a subject that is becoming increasingly integrated with experiment and other branches of physics.
Constraints on LISA Pathfinder’s self-gravity: design requirements, estimates and testing procedures
Armano, M.; Audley, H.; Auger, G.; Baird, J.; Binetruy, P.; Born, M.; Bortoluzzi, D.; Brandt, N.; Bursi, A.; Caleno, M.; Cavalleri, A.; Cesarini, A.; Cruise, M.; Danzmann, K.; de Deus Silva, M.; Desiderio, D.; Piersanti, E.; Diepholz, I.; Dolesi, R.; Dunbar, N.; Ferraioli, L.; Ferroni, V.; Fitzsimons, E.; Flatscher, R.; Freschi, M.; Gallegos, J.; García Marirrodriga, C.; Gerndt, R.; Gesa, L.; Gibert, F.; Giardini, D.; Giusteri, R.; Grimani, C.; Grzymisch, J.; Harrison, I.; Heinzel, G.; Hewitson, M.; Hollington, D.; Hueller, M.; Huesler, J.; Inchauspé, H.; Jennrich, O.; Jetzer, P.; Johlander, B.; Karnesis, N.; Kaune, B.; Korsakova, N.; Killow, C.; Lloro, I.; Liu, L.; López-Zaragoza, J. P.; Maarschalkerweerd, R.; Madden, S.; Mance, D.; Martín, V.; Martin-Polo, L.; Martino, J.; Martin-Porqueras, F.; Mateos, I.; McNamara, P. W.; Mendes, J.; Mendes, L.; Moroni, A.; Nofrarias, M.; Paczkowski, S.; Perreur-Lloyd, M.; Petiteau, A.; Pivato, P.; Plagnol, E.; Prat, P.; Ragnit, U.; Ramos-Castro, J.; Reiche, J.; Romera Perez, J. A.; Robertson, D.; Rozemeijer, H.; Rivas, F.; Russano, G.; Sarra, P.; Schleicher, A.; Slutsky, J.; Sopuerta, C. F.; Sumner, T.; Texier, D.; Thorpe, J. I.; Tomlinson, R.; Trenkel, C.; Vetrugno, D.; Vitale, S.; Wanner, G.; Ward, H.; Warren, C.; Wass, P. J.; Wealthy, D.; Weber, W. J.; Wittchen, A.; Zanoni, C.; Ziegler, T.; Zweifel, P.
2016-12-01
LISA Pathfinder satellite was launched on 3 December 2015 toward the Sun-Earth first Lagrangian point (L1) where the LISA Technology Package (LTP), which is the main science payload, will be tested. LTP achieves measurements of differential acceleration of free-falling test masses (TMs) with sensitivity below 3× {10}-14 {{m}} {{{s}}}-2 {{Hz}}-1/2 within the 1-30 mHz frequency band in one-dimension. The spacecraft itself is responsible for the dominant differential gravitational field acting on the two TMs. Such a force interaction could contribute a significant amount of noise and thus threaten the achievement of the targeted free-fall level. We prevented this by balancing the gravitational forces to the sub nm s-2 level, guided by a protocol based on measurements of the position and the mass of all parts that constitute the satellite, via finite element calculation tool estimates. In this paper, we will introduce the gravitational balance requirements and design, and then discuss our predictions for the balance that will be achieved in flight.
Constraints on LISA Pathfinder's Self-Gravity: Design Requirements, Estimates and Testing Procedures
Armano, M.; Audley, H.; Auger, G.; Baird, J.; Binetruy, P.; Born, M.; Bortoluzzi, M.; Brandt, Nico; Bursi, Alessandro; Slutsky. J.;
2016-01-01
LISA Pathfinder satellite was launched on 3 December 2015 toward the Sun Earth first Lagrangian point (L1) where the LISA Technology Package (LTP), which is the main science payload, will be tested. LTP achieves measurements of differential acceleration of free-falling test masses (TMs) with sensitivity below 3 x 10(exp -14) m s(exp -2) Hz(exp - 1/2) within the 130 mHz frequency band in one dimension. The spacecraft itself is responsible for the dominant differential gravitational field acting on the two TMs. Such a force interaction could contribute a significant amount of noise and thus threaten the achievement of the targeted free-fall level. We prevented this by balancing the gravitational forces to the sub nm s(exp -2) level, guided by a protocol based on measurements of the position and the mass of all parts that constitute the satellite, via finite element calculation tool estimates. In this paper, we will introduce the gravitational balance requirements and design, and then discuss our predictions for the balance that will be achieved in flight.
Testing Chern-Simons Modified Gravity with Gravitational-Wave Detections of Extreme-Mass-Ratio Binaries
Canizares, Priscilla; Sopuerta, Carlos F
2012-01-01
[abridged] The detection of gravitational waves from extreme-mass-ratio (EMRI) binaries, comprising a stellar-mass compact object orbiting around a massive black hole, is one of the main targets for low-frequency gravitational-wave detectors in space, like the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA or eLISA/NGO). The long-duration gravitational-waveforms emitted by such systems encode the structure of the strong field region of the massive black hole, in which the inspiral occurs. The detection and analysis of EMRIs will therefore allow us to study the geometry of massive black holes and determine whether their nature is as predicted by General Relativity and even to test whether General Relativity is the correct theory to describe the dynamics of these systems. To achieve this, EMRI modeling in alternative theories of gravity is required to describe the generation of gravitational waves. In this paper, we explore to what extent EMRI observations with LISA or eLISA/NGO might be able to distinguish between G...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Healey, D.L. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (USA)
1983-12-31
A large density contrast exists between the Paleozoic rocks (including the rocks of Climax stock) and less dense, Tertiary volcanic rocks and alluvium. This density contrast ranges widely, and herein for interpretive purposes, is assumed to average 0.85 Mg/m{sup 3} (megagrams per cubic meter). The large density contrast makes the gravity method a useful tool with which to study the interface between these rock types. However, little or no density contrast is discernible between the sedimentary Paleozoic rocks that surround the Climax stock and the intrusive rocks of the stock itself. Therefore the gravity method can not be used to define the configuration of the stock. Gravity highs coincide with outcrops of the dense Paleozoic rocks, and gravity lows overlie less-dense Tertiary volcanic rocks and Quaternary alluvium. The positions of three major faults (Boundary, Yucca, and Butte faults) are defined by steep gravity gradients. West of the Climax stock, the Tippinip fault has juxtaposed Paleozoic rocks of similar density, and consequently, has no expression in the gravity data in that area. The gravity station spacing, across Oak Spring Butte, is not sufficient to adequately define any gravity expression of the Tippinip fault. 18 refs., 5 figs.
Schmidt, Fabian
2013-08-01
These lectures provide a brief introduction into modified gravity theories, i.e. theories that deviate from General Relativity. We focus on theories that satisfy the Einstein Equivalence Principle, which are characterized by a single metric governing the motions of bodies and dynamics of fields. Further, we emphasize models that have received interest in the cosmological context, and which modify gravity on large scales.
Mashhoon, Bahram
2017-01-01
Relativity theory is based on a postulate of locality, which means that the past history of the observer is not directly taken into account. This book argues that the past history should be taken into account. In this way, nonlocality---in the sense of history dependence---is introduced into relativity theory. The deep connection between inertia and gravitation suggests that gravity could be nonlocal, and in nonlocal gravity the fading gravitational memory of past events must then be taken into account. Along this line of thought, a classical nonlocal generalization of Einstein's theory of gravitation has recently been developed. A significant consequence of this theory is that the nonlocal aspect of gravity appears to simulate dark matter. According to nonlocal gravity theory, what astronomers attribute to dark matter should instead be due to the nonlocality of gravitation. Nonlocality dominates on the scale of galaxies and beyond. Memory fades with time; therefore, the nonlocal aspect of gravity becomes wea...
Non-Newtonian perspectives on pulsatile blood-analog flows in a 180° curved artery model
van Wyk, Stevin; Prahl Wittberg, Lisa; Bulusu, Kartik V.; Fuchs, Laszlo; Plesniak, Michael W.
2015-07-01
Complex, unsteady fluid flow phenomena in the arteries arise due to the pulsations of the heart that intermittently pumps the blood to the extremities of the body. The many different flow waveform variations observed throughout the arterial network are a result of this process and a function of the vessel properties. Large scale secondary flow structures are generated throughout the aortic arch and larger branches of the arteries. An experimental 180° curved artery test section with physiological inflow conditions was used to validate the computational methods implemented in this study. Good agreement of the secondary flow structures is obtained between experimental and numerical studies of a Newtonian blood-analog fluid under steady-state and pulsatile, carotid artery flow rate waveforms. Multiple vortical structures, some of opposite rotational sense to Dean vortices, similar to Lyne-type vortices, were observed to form during the systolic portion of the pulse. Computational tools were used to assess the effect of blood-analog fluid rheology (i.e., Newtonian versus non-Newtonian). It is demonstrated that non-Newtonian, blood-analog fluid rheology results in shear layer instabilities that alter the formation of vortical structures during the systolic deceleration and onwards during diastole. Additional vortices not observed in the Newtonian cases appear at the inside and outside of the bend at various times during the pulsation. The influence of blood-analog shear-thinning viscosity decreases mean pressure losses in contrast to the Newtonian blood analog fluid.
Coupling electrokinetics and rheology: Electrophoresis in non-Newtonian fluids.
Khair, Aditya S; Posluszny, Denise E; Walker, Lynn M
2012-01-01
We present a theoretical scheme to calculate the electrophoretic motion of charged colloidal particles immersed in complex (non-Newtonian) fluids possessing shear-rate-dependent viscosities. We demonstrate that this non-Newtonian rheology leads to an explicit shape and size dependence of the electrophoretic velocity of a uniformly charged particle in the thin-Debye-layer regime, in contrast to electrophoresis in Newtonian fluids. This dependence is caused by non-Newtonian stresses in the bulk (electroneutral) fluid outside the Debye layer, whose magnitude is naturally characterized in an electrophoretic Deborah number.
Test of the inverse-square law of gravitation using the 300-m tower at Erie, Colorado
Speake, C. C.; Niebauer, T. M.; McHugh, M. P.; Keyser, P. T.; Faller, J. E.
1990-10-01
Gravity was measured at eight different heights on a 300-m meteorological tower using LaCoste and Romberg gravimeters. The observed values were adjusted for tides, drift, and gravimeter screw errors, and tested for systematic effects due to tower motion. These results are compared with values predicted using Newton's inverse-square law from surface gravity. The differences exhibit no systematic trends and their rms value is only 10 x 10 to the -8th m/sec sq, well within the estimated erros of the experiment. This result places new constraints on the possible strength and range of any non-Newtonian force.
A Phase Space Diagram for Gravity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xavier Hernandez
2012-05-01
Full Text Available In modified theories of gravity including a critical acceleration scale a_{0}, a critical length scale r_{M} = (GM/a_{0}^{1/2} will naturally arise with the transition from the Newtonian to the dark matter mimicking regime occurring for systems larger than r_{M}. This adds a second critical scale to gravity, in addition to the one introduced by the criterion v < c of the Schwarzschild radius, r_{S }= 2GM/c^{2}. The distinct dependencies of the two above length scales give rise to non-trivial phenomenology in the (mass, length plane for astrophysical structures, which we explore here. Surprisingly, extrapolation to atomic scales suggests gravity should be at the dark matter mimicking regime there.
Problems with Mannheim's conformal gravity program
Yoon, Youngsub
2013-07-01
We show that Mannheim’s conformal gravity program, whose potential has a term proportional to 1/r and another term proportional to r, does not reduce to Newtonian gravity at short distances, unless one assumes undesirable singularities of the mass density of the proton. Therefore, despite the claim that it successfully explains galaxy rotation curves, unless one assumes the singularities, it seems to be falsified by numerous Cavendish-type experiments performed at laboratories on Earth whose work have not found any deviations from Newton’s theory. Moreover, it can be shown that as long as the total mass of the proton is positive, Mannheim’s conformal gravity program leads to negative linear potential, which is problematic from the point of view of fitting galaxy rotation curves, which necessarily requires positive linear potential.
Viscosity effects in foam drainage: Newtonian and non-newtonian foaming fluids
Safouane, M.; Saint-Jalmes, A.; Bergeron, V.; Langevin, D.
2006-02-01
We have studied the drainage of foams made from Newtonian and non-Newtonian solutions of different viscosities. Forced-drainage experiments first show that the behavior of Newtonian solutions and of shear-thinning ones (foaming solutions containing either Carbopol or Xanthan) are identical, provided one considers the actual viscosity corresponding to the shear rate found inside the foam. Second, for these fluids, a drainage regime transition occurs as the bulk viscosity is increased, illustrating a coupling between surface and bulk flow in the channels between bubbles. The properties of this transition appear different from the ones observed in previous works in which the interfacial viscoelasticity was varied. Finally, we show that foams made of solutions containing long flexible PolyEthylene Oxide (PEO) molecules counter-intuitively drain faster than foams made with Newtonian solutions of the same viscosity. Complementary experiments made with fluids having all the same viscosity but different responses to elongational stresses (PEO-based Boger fluids) suggest an important role of the elastic properties of the PEO solutions on the faster drainage.
Precision tests of gravitation: Liquid-supported torsion balance experiments and a tower experiment
McHugh, Martin Patrick
The use of a liquid-supported torsion balance (LSTB) in precision tests of gravity is explored. The LSTB uses water at its maximum density point of 4 C for support, and an electrostatic array for the centering force and the linear restoring torque. An optical detection system is used to measure the angular displacement. The LSTB holds 12 test masses arranged in a ring--6 made of copper, 6 made of lead. A proposed new intermediate-range (10 m-1000 m) composition-dependent force was tested using the local mass inhomogeneity of the sub-basement laboratory as the source. Attempts at improving the limits of a possible breakdown of the weak equivalence principle (universal free fall) at longer ranges, using the gravitational field of the sun as the source, were also made using two approaches. One approach was to look for a 24 h period in the torque on the balance due to a differing free fall rate between lead and copper. The other approach is similar except that the balance was rotated with period of 6 h in an attempt to remove the effect of other 24 h period disturbances on the balance. All results were consistent with Newtonian gravity with the accuracy limited by gravity multipole couplings, tilts, and temperature effects. A test of the inverse-square law of gravity was also undertaken on a 300 m tower at Erie, CO. This test is sensitive to the strength and range of a finite-range (Yukawa) force. Surface gravity data was used to predict the Newtonian gravity at eight heights on the tower. The measurements of gravity on the tower were done with LaCoste and Romberg relative gravimeters. The differences between the measured and the predicted values had an rms value of 10 microGal with the value at the 300 m height being 10 plus or minus microGal.
Chen, Shi; Liao, Xu; Ma, Hongsheng; Zhou, Longquan; Wang, Xingzhou; Zhuang, Jiancang
2017-04-01
The relative gravimeter, which generally uses zero-length springs as the gravity senor, is still as the first choice in the field of terrestrial gravity measurement because of its efficiency and low-cost. Because the drift rate of instrument can be changed with the time and meter, it is necessary for estimating the drift rate to back to the base or known gravity value stations for repeated measurement at regular hour's interval during the practical survey. However, the campaigned gravity survey for the large-scale region, which the distance of stations is far away from serval or tens kilometers, the frequent back to close measurement will highly reduce the gravity survey efficiency and extremely time-consuming. In this paper, we proposed a new gravity data adjustment method for estimating the meter drift by means of Bayesian statistical interference. In our approach, we assumed the change of drift rate is a smooth function depend on the time-lapse. The trade-off parameters were be used to control the fitting residuals. We employed the Akaike's Bayesian Information Criterion (ABIC) for the estimated these trade-off parameters. The comparison and analysis of simulated data between the classical and Bayesian adjustment show that our method is robust and has self-adaptive ability for facing to the unregularly non-linear meter drift. At last, we used this novel approach to process the realistic campaigned gravity data at the North China. Our adjustment method is suitable to recover the time-varied drift rate function of each meter, and also to detect the meter abnormal drift during the gravity survey. We also defined an alternative error estimation for the inversed gravity value at the each station on the basis of the marginal distribution theory. Acknowledgment: This research is supported by Science Foundation Institute of Geophysics, CEA from the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (Nos. DQJB16A05; DQJB16B07), China National Special Fund for Earthquake
Clément, Gilles
2007-01-01
Protecting the health, safety, and performance of exploration-class mission crews against the physiological deconditioning resulting from long-term weightlessness during transit and long-term reduced gravity during surface operations will require effective, multi-system countermeasures. Artificial gravity, which would replace terrestrial gravity with inertial forces generated by rotating the transit vehicle or by short-radius human centrifuge devices within the transit vehicle or surface habitat, has long been considered a potential solution. However, despite its attractiveness as an efficient
Lujan, Richard E.
2001-01-01
A mechanical gravity brake that prevents hoisted loads within a shaft from free-falling when a loss of hoisting force occurs. A loss of hoist lifting force may occur in a number of situations, for example if a hoist cable were to break, the brakes were to fail on a winch, or the hoist mechanism itself were to fail. Under normal hoisting conditions, the gravity brake of the invention is subject to an upward lifting force from the hoist and a downward pulling force from a suspended load. If the lifting force should suddenly cease, the loss of differential forces on the gravity brake in free-fall is translated to extend a set of brakes against the walls of the shaft to stop the free fall descent of the gravity brake and attached load.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Barceló Carlos
2005-12-01
Full Text Available Analogue models of (and for gravity have a long and distinguished history dating back to the earliest years of general relativity. In this review article we will discuss the history, aims, results, and future prospects for the various analogue models. We start the discussion by presenting a particularly simple example of an analogue model, before exploring the rich history and complex tapestry of models discussed in the literature. The last decade in particular has seen a remarkable and sustained development of analogue gravity ideas, leading to some hundreds of published articles, a workshop, two books, and this review article. Future prospects for the analogue gravity programme also look promising, both on the experimental front (where technology is rapidly advancing and on the theoretical front (where variants of analogue models can be used as a springboard for radical attacks on the problem of quantum gravity.
The BIPM measurements of the Newtonian constant of gravitation, G.
Quinn, Terry; Speake, Clive; Parks, Harold; Davis, Richard
2014-10-13
This paper is a complement to the two short papers published in 2001 and 2013 in which we presented the results of the two BIPM determinations of the Newtonian constant of gravitation G. While this review contains no new results, it includes more detailed descriptions of certain key parameters that enter into the determination of G. Following a description of the overall method and the two versions of the experiment, we discuss the properties of the torsion strip, including the effects of anelasticity, then the electrostatic torque transducer, the source and test masses, dimensional metrology, angle measurement, the calculation and measurement of the moment of inertia, calculation of the torque, possible magnetic interactions and finally we discuss uncertainties and correlations in the derivation of a value for G. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
Process viscometry in flows of non-Newtonian fluids using an anchor agitator
Jo, Hae Jin; Jang, Hye Kyeong; Kim, Young Ju; Hwang, Wook Ryol
2017-11-01
In this work, we present a viscosity measurement technique for inelastic non-Newtonian fluids directly in flows of anchor agitators that are commonly used in highly viscous fluid mixing particularly with yield stress. A two-blade anchor impeller is chosen as a model flow system and Carbopol 940 solutions and Xanthan gum solutions with various concentrations are investigated as test materials. Following the Metzner-Otto correlation, the effective shear rate constant and the energy dissipation rate constant have been estimated experimentally by establishing (i) the relationship between the power number and the Reynolds number using a reference Newtonian fluid and (ii) the proportionality between the effective shear rate and the impeller speed with a reference non-Newtonian fluid. The effective viscosity that reproduces the same amount of the energy dissipation rate, corresponding to that of Newtonian fluid, has been obtained by measuring torques for various impeller speeds and the accuracy in the viscosity prediction as a function of the shear rate has been compared with the rheological measurement. We report that the process viscometry with the anchor impeller yields viscosity estimation within the relative error of 20% with highly shear-thinning fluids.
Heat transfer of a non-Newtonian fluid (Carbopol aqueous solution) in transitional pipe flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peixinho, J.; Desaubry, C.; Lebouche, M. [LEMTA - Laboratoire d' Energetique et de Mecanique Theorique et Appliquee, 2 Avenue de la foret de Haye, BP 160, 54 504 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)
2008-01-15
An experimental study of the forced convection heat transfer for non-Newtonian fluid flow in a pipe is presented. We focus particularly on the transitional regime. A wall boundary heating condition of heat flux is imposed. The non-Newtonian fluid used is Carbopol (polyacrylic acid) aqueous solutions. Detailed rheology as well as the variation of the rheological parameters with temperature are reported. Newtonian and shear thinning fluids are also tested for comparative purposes. The characterization of the flow and the thermal convection is made via the pressure drop and the wall temperature measurements over a range of Reynolds number from laminar to turbulent regime. Our measurements show that the non-Newtonian character stabilizes the flow, i.e., the critical Reynolds number to transitional flow increases with shear thinning and yield stress. The heat transfer coefficients are given and compared with heat transfer laws for different regime flows. Details when the heat transfer coefficient loses rapidly its local dependence on the Reynolds number are analyzed. (author)
Hooft, G. 't
2000-01-01
Gravitons should have momentum just as photons do; and since graviton momentum would cause compression rather than elongation of spacetime outside of matter; it does not appear that gravitons are compatible with Swartzchild's spacetime curvature. Also, since energy is proportional to mass, and mass is proportional to gravity; the energy of matter is proportional to gravity. The energy of matter could thus contract space within matter; and because of the inter-connectedness of space, cause the...
What is a Singularity in Geometrized Newtonian Gravitation?
Weatherall, James Owen
2013-01-01
I discuss singular spacetimes in the context of the geometrized formulation of Newtonian gravitation. I argue first that geodesic incompleteness is a natural criterion for when a model of geometrized Newtonian gravitation is singular, and then I show that singularities in this sense arise naturally in classical physics by stating and proving a classical version of the Raychaudhuri-Komar singularity theorem.
Non-Newtonian Comment of Lebesgue Measure in Real Numbers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cenap Duyar
2017-01-01
Full Text Available We would like to generalize to non-Newtonian real numbers the usual Lebesgue measure in real numbers. For this purpose, we introduce the Lebesgue measure on open and closed sets in non-Newtonian sense and examine their basic properties.
Non-Newtonian Comment of Lebesgue Measure in Real Numbers
Duyar, Cenap; Sağır, Birsen
2017-01-01
We would like to generalize to non-Newtonian real numbers the usual Lebesgue measure in real numbers. For this purpose, we introduce the Lebesgue measure on open and closed sets in non-Newtonian sense and examine their basic properties.
Testing the strong equivalence principle with the triple pulsar PSR J 0337 +1715
Shao, Lijing
2016-04-01
Three conceptually different masses appear in equations of motion for objects under gravity, namely, the inertial mass, mI , the passive gravitational mass, mP, and the active gravitational mass, mA. It is assumed that, for any objects, mI=mP=mA in the Newtonian gravity, and mI=mP in the Einsteinian gravity, oblivious to objects' sophisticated internal structure. Empirical examination of the equivalence probes deep into gravity theories. We study the possibility of carrying out new tests based on pulsar timing of the stellar triple system, PSR J 0337 +1715 . Various machine-precision three-body simulations are performed, from which, the equivalence-violating parameters are extracted with Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling that takes full correlations into account. We show that the difference in masses could be probed to 3 ×1 0-8 , improving the current constraints from lunar laser ranging on the post-Newtonian parameters that govern violations of mP=mI and mA=mP by thousands and millions, respectively. The test of mP=mA would represent the first test of Newton's third law with compact objects.
Flow regime analysis of non-Newtonian duct flows
Speetjens, Michel; Rudman, Murray; Metcalfe, Guy
2006-01-01
Reoriented duct flows of generalized Newtonian fluids are an idealization of non-Newtonian fluid flow in industrial in-line mixers. Based on scaling analysis and computation we find that non-Newtonian duct flows have several limit behaviors, in the sense that such flows can become (nearly) independent of one or more of the rheological and dynamical control parameters, simplifying the general flow and mixing problem. These limit flows give several levels of modeling complexity to the full problem of non-Newtonian duct flow. We describe the sets of simplified flow models and their corresponding regions of validity. This flow-model decomposition captures the essential rheological and dynamical characteristics of the reoriented duct flows and enables a more efficient and systematic study and design of flow and mixing of non-Newtonian fluids in ducts. Key aspects of the flow-model decomposition are demonstrated via a specific, but representative, duct flow.
Thin-shell wormholes in neo-Newtonian theory
Övgün, Ali; Salako, Ines G.
2017-07-01
In this paper, we constructed an acoustic thin-shell wormhole (ATW) under neo-Newtonian theory using the Darmois-Israel junction conditions. To determine the stability of the ATW by applying the cut-and-paste method, we found the surface density and surface pressure of the ATW under neo-Newtonian hydrodynamics just after obtaining an analog acoustic neo-Newtonian solution. We focused on the effects of the neo-Newtonian parameters by performing stability analyses using different types of fluids, such as a linear barotropic fluid (LBF), a Chaplygin fluid (CF), a logarithmic fluid (LogF) and a polytropic fluid (PF). We showed that a fluid with negative energy is required at the throat to keep the wormhole stable. The ATW can be stable if suitable values of the neo-Newtonian parameters ς, A and B are chosen.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
MM Movahedi
2008-03-01
Full Text Available Background: There is considerable evidence that vascular fluid dynamics plays an important role in the developmentand prevalence of atherosclerosis which is one of the most widespread disease in humans .The onset and prevalence of atherosclerosis hemodynamic parameter are largely affected by geometric parameters. If any obstacle interferes with the blood flow, the above parameters change dramatically. Most of the arterial diseases, such as atherosclerosis, occur in the arteries with complex patterns of fluid flow where the blood dynamics plays an important role. Arterial stenosis mostly occurs in an area with a complex pattern of fluid flow, such as coronary artery, aorta bifurcation, carotid and vessels of lower limbs. During the past three decades, many experimental studies have been performed on the hemodynamic role of the blood in forming sediment in the inner wall of the vessels. It has been shown that forming sediment in the inner wall of vessels depends on the velocity of fluid and also on the amount of wall shear stress.Methods: We have examined the effect on the blood flow of local stenosis in carotid artery in numerical form using the incompressible Navier-Stockes equations. The profile of the velocity in different parts and times in the pulsatile cycle, separation and reattachment points on the wall, the distance stability of flow and also alteration caused by the wall shear stress in entire vessel were shown and compared with two behaviors flow (Newtonian and Non-Newtonian.Finally we describe the influence of the severity of the stenosis on the separation and reattachmentpoints for a Non-Newtonian fuid. Results: In the present study, we have pointed very low and high oscillating WSS (Wall Shear Stress values play a significant role in the development of forming sediment in the inner wall of vessels. Also, we obtain this probability is higher for Newtonian than Non-Newtonian fluid behavior.Conclusion: Based on our results, the
Cosmological attractors in massive gravity
Dubovsky, S; Tkachev, I I
2005-01-01
We study Lorentz-violating models of massive gravity which preserve rotations and are invariant under time-dependent shifts of the spatial coordinates. In the linear approximation the Newtonian potential in these models has an extra ``confining'' term proportional to the distance from the source. We argue that during cosmological expansion the Universe may be driven to an attractor point with larger symmetry which includes particular simultaneous dilatations of time and space coordinates. The confining term in the potential vanishes as one approaches the attractor. In the vicinity of the attractor the extra contribution is present in the Friedmann equation which, in a certain range of parameters, gives rise to the cosmic acceleration.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ciufolini, Ignazio [Universita del Salento, Dipartimento Ingegneria dell' Innovazione, Lecce (Italy); Sapienza Universita di Roma, Scuola di Ingegneria Aerospaziale, Rome (Italy); Paolozzi, Antonio; Paris, Claudio [Sapienza Universita di Roma, Scuola di Ingegneria Aerospaziale, Rome (Italy); Museo della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche Enrico Fermi, Rome (Italy); Pavlis, Erricos C. [University of Maryland, Joint Center for Earth Systems Technology (JCET), Baltimore County (United States); Koenig, Rolf [GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Helmholtz Centre Potsdam, Potsdam (Germany); Ries, John [University of Texas at Austin, Center for Space Research, Austin (United States); Gurzadyan, Vahe; Khachatryan, Harutyun; Mirzoyan, Sergey [Alikhanian National Laboratory and Yerevan State University, Center for Cosmology and Astrophysics, Yerevan (Armenia); Matzner, Richard [University of Texas at Austin, Theory Center, Austin (United States); Penrose, Roger [University of Oxford, Mathematical Institute, Oxford (United Kingdom); Sindoni, Giampiero [Sapienza Universita di Roma, DIAEE, Rome (Italy)
2016-03-15
We present a test of general relativity, the measurement of the Earth's dragging of inertial frames. Our result is obtained using about 3.5 years of laser-ranged observations of the LARES, LAGEOS, and LAGEOS 2 laser-ranged satellites together with the Earth gravity field model GGM05S produced by the space geodesy mission GRACE. We measure μ = (0.994 ± 0.002) ± 0.05, where μ is the Earth's dragging of inertial frames normalized to its general relativity value, 0.002 is the 1-sigma formal error and 0.05 is our preliminary estimate of systematic error mainly due to the uncertainties in the Earth gravity model GGM05S. Our result is in agreement with the prediction of general relativity. (orig.)
Ciufolini, Ignazio; Paolozzi, Antonio; Pavlis, Erricos C; Koenig, Rolf; Ries, John; Gurzadyan, Vahe; Matzner, Richard; Penrose, Roger; Sindoni, Giampiero; Paris, Claudio; Khachatryan, Harutyun; Mirzoyan, Sergey
2016-01-01
We present a test of general relativity, the measurement of the Earth's dragging of inertial frames. Our result is obtained using about 3.5 years of laser-ranged observations of the LARES, LAGEOS, and LAGEOS 2 laser-ranged satellites together with the Earth gravity field model GGM05S produced by the space geodesy mission GRACE. We measure [Formula: see text], where [Formula: see text] is the Earth's dragging of inertial frames normalized to its general relativity value, 0.002 is the 1-sigma formal error and 0.05 is our preliminary estimate of systematic error mainly due to the uncertainties in the Earth gravity model GGM05S. Our result is in agreement with the prediction of general relativity.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Hatami
2016-06-01
Full Text Available In this study, a simple and high accurate series-based method called Differential Transformation Method (DTM is used for solving the coupled nonlinear differential equations in fluids mechanic problems. The concept of the DTM is briefly introduced, and its application on two different cases, natural convection of a non-Newtonian nanofluid between two vertical plates and Newtonian nanofluid flow between two horizontal plates, has been studied. DTM results are compared with those obtained by a numerical solution (Fourth-order Runge–Kutta to show the accuracy of the proposed method. Results reveal that DTM is very effective and convenient which can achieve more reliable results compared to other analytical methods in solving some engineering and sciences problems.
Force effects on rotor of squeeze film damper using Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid
Dominik, Šedivý; Petr, Ferfecki; Simona, Fialová
2017-09-01
This article presents the evaluation of force effects on rotor of squeeze film damper. Rotor is eccentric placed and its motion is translate-circular. The amplitude of rotor motion is smaller than its initial eccentricity. The force effects are calculated from pressure and viscous forces which were gained by using computational modeling. Two types of fluid were considered as filling of damper. First type of fluid is Newtonian (has constant viscosity) and second type is magnetorheological fluid (does not have constant viscosity). Viscosity of non-Newtonian fluid is given using Bingham rheology model. Yield stress is a function of magnetic induction which is described by many variables. The most important variables of magnetic induction are electric current and gap width which is between rotor and stator. Comparison of application two given types of fluids is shown in results.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlos Barceló
2011-05-01
Full Text Available Analogue gravity is a research programme which investigates analogues of general relativistic gravitational fields within other physical systems, typically but not exclusively condensed matter systems, with the aim of gaining new insights into their corresponding problems. Analogue models of (and for gravity have a long and distinguished history dating back to the earliest years of general relativity. In this review article we will discuss the history, aims, results, and future prospects for the various analogue models. We start the discussion by presenting a particularly simple example of an analogue model, before exploring the rich history and complex tapestry of models discussed in the literature. The last decade in particular has seen a remarkable and sustained development of analogue gravity ideas, leading to some hundreds of published articles, a workshop, two books, and this review article. Future prospects for the analogue gravity programme also look promising, both on the experimental front (where technology is rapidly advancing and on the theoretical front (where variants of analogue models can be used as a springboard for radical attacks on the problem of quantum gravity.
Hyperdiffusive Dynamics in Newtonian Nanoparticle Fluids
Srivastava, Samanvaya
2015-10-20
© 2015 American Chemical Society. Hyperdiffusive relaxations in soft glassy materials are typically associated with out-of-equilibrium states, and nonequilibrium physics and aging are often invoked in explaining their origins. Here, we report on hyperdiffusive motion in model soft materials comprised of single-component polymer-tethered nanoparticles, which exhibit a readily accessible Newtonian flow regime. In these materials, polymer-mediated interactions lead to strong nanoparticle correlations, hyperdiffusive relaxations, and unusual variations of properties with temperature. We propose that hyperdiffusive relaxations in such materials can arise naturally from nonequilibrium or non-Brownian volume fluctuations forced by equilibrium thermal rearrangements of the particle pair orientations corresponding to equilibrated shear modes.
Gravity's dark side[Doing without dark matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chalmers, M. [Physics World (United Kingdom)
2006-06-15
Despite decades of searching, the 'dark matter' thought to hold galaxies together is still nowhere to be found. Matthew Chalmers describes how some physicists think it makes more sense to change our theory of gravity instead. Einstein's general theory of relativity is part of the bedrock of modern physics. It describes in elegant mathematical terms how matter causes space-time to curve, and therefore how objects move in a gravitational field. Since it was published in 1916, general relativity has passed every test asked of it with flying colours, and to many physicists the notion that it is wrong is sacrilege. But the motivation for developing an alternative theory of gravity is compelling. Over the last few years cosmologists have arrived at a simple yet extraordinarily successful model of universe. The trouble is that it requires most of the cosmos to be filled with mysterious stuff that we cannot see. In particular, general relativity - or rather its non-relativistic limit otherwise known as Newtonian gravity - can only correctly describe the dynamics of galaxies if we invoke huge quantities of 'dark matter'. Furthermore, an exotic entity called dark energy is necessary to account for the recent discovery that the expansion of the universe is accelerating. Indeed, in the standard model of cosmology, visible matter such as stars, planets and physics textbooks accounts for just 4% of the total universe. (U.K.)
Kiefer, Claus
2012-01-01
The search for a quantum theory of the gravitational field is one of the great open problems in theoretical physics. This book presents a self-contained discussion of the concepts, methods and applications that can be expected in such a theory. The two main approaches to its construction - the direct quantisation of Einstein's general theory of relativity and string theory - are covered. Whereas the first attempts to construct a viable theory for the gravitational field alone, string theory assumes that a quantum theory of gravity will be achieved only through a unification of all the interactions. However, both employ the general method of quantization of constrained systems, which is described together with illustrative examples relevant for quantum gravity. There is a detailed presentation of the main approaches employed in quantum general relativity: path-integral quantization, the background-field method and canonical quantum gravity in the metric, connection and loop formulations. The discussion of stri...
Corten-Gualtieri, Pascale; Ritter, Christian; Plumat, Jim; Keunings, Roland; Lebrun, Marcel; Raucent, Benoit
2016-07-01
Most students enter their first university physics course with a system of beliefs and intuitions which are often inconsistent with the Newtonian frame of reference. This article presents an experiment of collaborative learning aiming at helping first-year students in an engineering programme to transition from their naïve intuition about dynamics to the Newtonian way of thinking. In a first activity, students were asked to critically analyse the contents of two video clips from the point of view of Newtonian mechanics. In a second activity, students had to design and realise their own video clip to illustrate a given aspect of Newtonian mechanics. The preparation of the scenario for the second activity required looking up and assimilating scientific knowledge. The efficiency of the activity was assessed on an enhanced version of the statistical analysis method proposed by Hestenes and Halloun, which relies on a pre-test and a post-test to measure individual learning.
Probing the dark matter issue in f(R)-gravity via gravitational lensing
Lubini, M; Näf, J; Jetzer, Ph; Capozziello, S
2011-01-01
For a general class of analytic f(R)-gravity theories, we discuss the weak field limit in view of gravitational lensing. Though an additional Yukawa term in the gravitational potential modifies dynamics with respect to the standard Newtonian limit of General Relativity, the motion of massless particles results unaffected thanks to suitable cancellations in the post-Newtonian limit. Thus, all the lensing observables are equal to the ones known from General Relativity. Since f(R)-gravity is claimed, among other things, to be a possible solution to overcome for the need of dark matter in virialized systems, we discuss the impact of our results on the dynamical and gravitational lensing analyses. In this framework, dynamics could, in principle, be able to reproduce the astrophysical observations without recurring to dark matter, but in the case of gravitational lensing we find that dark matter is an unavoidable ingredient. Another important implication is that gravitational lensing, in the post-Newtonian limit, i...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maartens Roy
2004-01-01
Full Text Available The observable universe could be a 1+3-surface (the "brane" embedded in a 1+3+$d$-dimensional spacetime (the "bulk", with Standard Model particles and fields trapped on the brane while gravity is free to access the bulk. At least one of the $d$ extra spatial dimensions could be very large relative to the Planck scale, which lowers the fundamental gravity scale, possibly even down to the electroweak ($sim$TeV level. This revolutionary picture arises in the framework of recent developments in M theory. The 1+10-dimensional M theory encompasses the known 1+9-dimensional superstring theories, and is widely considered to be a promising potential route to quantum gravity. General relativity cannot describe gravity at high enough energies and must be replaced by a quantum gravity theory, picking up significant corrections as the fundamental energy scale is approached. At low energies, gravity is localized at the brane and general relativity is recovered, but at high energies gravity "leaks" into the bulk, behaving in a truly higher-dimensional way. This introduces significant changes to gravitational dynamics and perturbations, with interesting and potentially testable implications for high-energy astrophysics, black holes and cosmology. Brane-world models offer a phenomenological way to test some of the novel predictions and corrections to general relativity that are implied by M theory. This review discusses the geometry, dynamics and perturbations of simple brane-world models for cosmology and astrophysics, mainly focusing on warped 5-dimensional brane-worlds based on the Randall-Sundrum models.
A Chern-Simons approach to Galilean quantum gravity in 2+1 dimensions
Papageorgiou, Georgios; Schroers, Bernd J.
2009-01-01
We define and discuss classical and quantum gravity in 2+1 dimensions in the Galilean limit. Although there are no Newtonian forces between massive objects in (2+1)-dimensional gravity, the Galilean limit is not trivial. Depending on the topology of spacetime there are typically finitely many topological degrees of freedom as well as topological interactions of Aharonov-Bohm type between massive objects. In order to capture these topological aspects we consider a two-fold central extension of...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rodrigo F. Sobreiro
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Recently, a model for an emergent gravity based on SO(5 Yang-Mills action in Euclidian 4-dimensional spacetime was proposed. In this work we provide some 1- and 2-loop computations and show that the model can accommodate suitable predicting values for the Newtonian constant. Moreover, it is shown that the typical scale of the expected transition between the quantum and the geometrodynamical theory is consistent with Planck scale. We also provide a discussion on the cosmological constant problem.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shan Gao
2011-04-01
Full Text Available The remarkable connections between gravity and thermodynamics seem to imply that gravity is not fundamental but emergent, and in particular, as Verlinde suggested, gravity is probably an entropic force. In this paper, we will argue that the idea of gravity as an entropic force is debatable. It is shown that there is no convincing analogy between gravity and entropic force in Verlinde’s example. Neither holographic screen nor test particle satisfies all requirements for the existence of entropic force in a thermodynamics system. Furthermore, we show that the entropy increase of the screen is not caused by its statistical tendency to increase entropy as required by the existence of entropic force, but in fact caused by gravity. Therefore, Verlinde’s argument for the entropic origin of gravity is problematic. In addition, we argue that the existence of a minimum size of spacetime, together with the Heisenberg uncertainty principle in quantum theory, may imply the fundamental existence of gravity as a geometric property of spacetime. This may provide a further support for the conclusion that gravity is not an entropic force.
Global stability of self-gravitating discs in modified gravity
Ghafourian, Neda; Roshan, Mahmood
2017-07-01
Using N-body simulations, we study the global stability of a self-gravitating disc in the context of modified gravity (MOG). This theory is a relativistic scalar-tensor-vector theory of gravity and it is presented to address the dark matter problem. In the weak field limit, MOG possesses two free parameters α and μ0, which have already been determined using the rotation curve data of spiral galaxies. The evolution of a stellar self-gravitating disc and, more specifically, the bar instability in MOG are investigated and compared to a Newtonian case. Our models have exponential and Mestel-like surface densities as Σ ∝ exp (-r/h) and Σ ∝ 1/r. It is found that, surprisingly, the discs are more stable against the bar mode in MOG than in Newtonian gravity. In other words, the bar growth rate is effectively slower than the Newtonian discs. Also, we show that both free parameters (i.e. α and μ0) have stabilizing effects. In other words, an increase in these parameters will decrease the bar growth rate.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Shiraz Minwalla
Scattering amplitudes are fundamental observables in quatnum field theories, and are of great interest to high energy phenomenologists, because they are directly measurable in particle accelerators. N = 4 Yang Mills is a theory of massless gluons. Natural question: can one use gravity to compute the S matrix of.
A boundary integral method for two-dimensional (non)-Newtonian drops in slow viscous flow
Toose, E.M.; Geurts, Bernardus J.; Kuerten, Johannes G.M.
1995-01-01
A boundary integral method for the simulation of the time-dependent deformation of Newtonian or non-Newtonian drops suspended in a Newtonian fluid is developed. The boundary integral formulation for Stokes flow is used and the non-Newtonian stress is treated as a source term which yields an extra
Einstein versus the Simple Pendulum Formula: Does Gravity Slow All Clocks?
Puri, Avinash
2015-01-01
According to the Newtonian formula for a simple pendulum, the period of a pendulum is inversely proportional to the square root of "g", the gravitational field strength. Einstein's theory of general relativity leads to the result that time slows down where gravity is intense. The two claims look contradictory and can muddle student and…
A Note on Unsteady Temperature Equation For Gravity Flow of A ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
We present an analytical study of unsteady temperature energy equation for gravity of a fluid with non – Newtonian behaviour through a porous medium. For the case of radial axisymmetric flow, the governing partial differential equation is transformed into an ordinary differential equation through similarity variables.
Asymptotic expansion of unsteady gravity flow of a power-law fluid ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
We investigate the effects of velocity on the temperature field. We investigate the power-law viscosity exponent on the flow, the Darcy parameter on the temperature profiles and the results obtained are discussed. Keywords: Unsteady gravity flows; Porous media; Non – Newtonian power- law fluid and Asymptotic expansion.
Lemaître-Tolman-Bondi Solutions in f (R)-gravity
Bochicchio, Ivana
Exact Lemaître-Tolman-Bondi solutions are obtained in -Tolman-Bondi solutions are obtained inf(R)-gravity. In particular, we discuss how such solutions can be consistently compared with General Relativity according to post-Newtonian and post-Minkowskian limits. The cosmological application of the results is considered towards the observed apparent accelerated behavior of the cosmic fluid.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Corianò, Claudio [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “Ennio De Giorgi' , Università del Salento and INFN-Lecce, Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); STAG Research Centre and Mathematical Sciences, University of Southampton,Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Costantini, Antonio; Dell’Atti, Marta; Rose, Luigi Delle [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “Ennio De Giorgi' , Università del Salento and INFN-Lecce, Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy)
2015-07-29
We extend a previous phenomenological analysis of photon lensing in an external gravitational background to the case of a massless neutrino, and propose a method to incorporate radiative effects in the classical lens equations of neutrinos and photons. The study is performed for a Schwarzschild metric, generated by a point-like source, and expanded in the Newtonian potential at first order. We use a semiclassical approach, where the perturbative corrections to neutrino scattering, evaluated at one-loop in the Standard Model, are compared with the Einstein formula for the deflection using an impact parameter formulation. For this purpose, we use the renormalized expression of the graviton/fermion/fermion vertex presented in previous studies. We show the agreement between the classical and the semiclassical formulations, for values of the impact parameter b{sub h} of the neutrinos of the order of b{sub h}∼20, measured in units of the Schwarzschild radius. The analysis is then extended with the inclusion of the post Newtonian corrections in the external gravity field, showing that this extension finds application in the case of the scattering of a neutrino/photon off a primordial black hole. The energy dependence of the deflection, generated by the quantum corrections, is then combined with the standard formulation of the classical lens equations. We illustrate our approach by detailed numerical studies, using as a reference both the thin lens and the Virbhadra-Ellis lens.
Compact objects in relativistic theories of gravity
Okada da Silva, Hector
2017-05-01
In this dissertation we discuss several aspects of compact objects, i.e. neutron stars and black holes, in relativistic theories of gravity. We start by studying the role of nuclear physics (encoded in the so-called equation of state) in determining the properties of neutron stars in general relativity. We show that low-mass neutron stars are potentially useful astrophysical laboratories that can be used to constrain the properties of the equation of state. More specifically, we show that various bulk properties of these objects, such as their quadrupole moment and tidal deformability, are tightly correlated. Next, we develop a formalism that aims to capture how generic modifications from general relativity affect the structure of neutron stars, as predicted by a broad class of gravity theories, in the spirit of the parametrized post-Newtonian formalism (PPN). Our "post-Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff" formalism provides a toolbox to study both stellar structure and the interior/exterior geometries of static, spherically symmetric relativistic stars. We also apply the formalism to parametrize deviations from general relativity in various astrophysical observables related with neutron stars, including surface redshift, apparent radius, Eddington luminosity. We then turn our attention to what is arguably the most well-motivated and well-investigated generalization of general relativity: scalar-tensor theory. We start by considering theories where gravity is mediated by a single extra scalar degree of freedom (in addition to the metric tensor). An interesting class of scalar-tensor theories passes all experimental tests in the weak-field regime of gravity, yet considerably deviates from general relativity in the strong-field regime in the presence of matter. A common assumption in modeling neutron stars is that the pressure within these object is spatially isotropic. We relax this assumption and examine how pressure anisotropy affects the mass, radius and moment of inertia
Subduction dynamics: Constraints from gravity field observations
Mcadoo, D. C.
1985-01-01
Satellite systems do the best job of resolving the long wavelength components of the Earth's gravity field. Over the oceans, satellite-borne radar altimeters such as SEASAT provide the best resolution observations of the intermediate wavelength components. Satellite observations of gravity contributed to the understanding of the dynamics of subduction. Large, long wavelength geoidal highs generally occur over subduction zones. These highs are attributed to the superposition of two effects of subduction: (1) the positive mass anomalies of subducting slabs themselves; and (2) the surface deformations such as the trenches convectively inducted by these slabs as they sink into the mantle. Models of this subduction process suggest that the mantle behaves as a nonNewtonian fluid, its effective viscosity increases significantly with depth, and that large positive mass anomalies may occur beneath the seismically defined Benioff zones.
Light-like scattering in quantum gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bjerrum-Bohr, N.E.J. [Niels Bohr International Academy & Discovery Center, Niels Bohr Institute,University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 17, Copenhagen Ø, DK-2100 (Denmark); Donoghue, John F. [Department of Physics-LGRT, University of Massachusetts,Amherst, MA, 01003 (United States); Holstein, Barry R. [Department of Physics-LGRT, University of Massachusetts,Amherst, MA, 01003 (United States); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California,Santa Barbara, CA, 93016 (United States); Planté, Ludovic; Vanhove, Pierre [CEA, DSM, Institut de Physique Théorique, IPhT, CNRS MPPU, URA2306,Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette, F-91191 (France)
2016-11-21
We consider scattering in quantum gravity and derive long-range classical and quantum contributions to the scattering of light-like bosons and fermions (spin-0, spin-(1/2), spin-1) from an external massive scalar field, such as the Sun or a black hole. This is achieved by treating general relativity as an effective field theory and identifying the non-analytic pieces of the one-loop gravitational scattering amplitude. It is emphasized throughout the paper how modern amplitude techniques, involving spinor-helicity variables, unitarity, and squaring relations in gravity enable much simplified computations. We directly verify, as predicted by general relativity, that all classical effects in our computation are universal (in the context of matter type and statistics). Using an eikonal procedure we confirm the post-Newtonian general relativity correction for light-like bending around large stellar objects. We also comment on treating effects from quantum ℏ dependent terms using the same eikonal method.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bartz, W.J.; Reynolds, T.
1979-01-01
The effective viscosity of a non-Newtonian oil has been compared with the viscosity of a Newtonian multigrade engine oil according to SAE 20W-50. The viscosity/temperature behaviour of both oils was identical. Using the definition of the effective data of temperature, shear stress and pressure the effective viscosity in the lubricating gap of a steadily loaded journal bearing could be determined. In doing so a very good correlation of the experimental test results with the theoretically calculated data of Sassenfeld/Walther has been obtained.
Constraining Relativistic Generalizations of Modified Newtonian Dynamics with Gravitational Waves
Chesler, Paul M.; Loeb, Abraham
2017-07-01
In the weak-field limit of general relativity, gravitational waves obey linear equations and propagate at the speed of light. These properties of general relativity are supported by the observation of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays as well as by LIGO's recent detection of gravitation waves. We argue that two existing relativistic generalizations of modified Newtonian dynamics, namely, the generalized Einstein-aether theory and bimetric modified Newtonian dynamics, display fatal inconsistencies with these observations.
Constraining Relativistic Generalizations of Modified Newtonian Dynamics with Gravitational Waves.
Chesler, Paul M; Loeb, Abraham
2017-07-21
In the weak-field limit of general relativity, gravitational waves obey linear equations and propagate at the speed of light. These properties of general relativity are supported by the observation of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays as well as by LIGO's recent detection of gravitation waves. We argue that two existing relativistic generalizations of modified Newtonian dynamics, namely, the generalized Einstein-aether theory and bimetric modified Newtonian dynamics, display fatal inconsistencies with these observations.
Chen, Xiaopeng; Mandre, Shreyas; Feng, James J.
2006-09-01
When a water drop falls onto an oil-water interface, the drop usually rests for some time before merging with the water underneath the interface. We report experiments on this process using water- and oil-based Newtonian liquids and polymer solutions, with an emphasis on the non-Newtonian effects. We deduce that the drop surface is immobilized by contaminants pre-existing in the fluids, and find that the rest time scales with the matrix viscosity for Newtonian fluids. The results are compared with lubrication models for film drainage. If the surrounding matrix is a dilute polymer solution, the rest time is identical to that for a matrix of the solvent alone. Further investigation indicates that the polymer molecules have been cleared from the film by surface adsorption. Depending on the fluid properties and drop size, the drop-interface merging may be completed in one shot or through a cascade of partial coalescence. Partial coalescence occurs for an intermediate range of drop sizes; it is arrested by viscosity for smaller drops and by gravity for larger ones. When either the drop or the matrix phase is a polymer solution, viscoelasticity is shown to suppress partial coalescence for smaller drops. This is apparently due to the inhibition of capillary pinch-off which would otherwise produce a secondary drop before the merging is complete.
Gravitational radiation for extreme mass ratio inspirals to the 14th post-Newtonian order
Fujita, Ryuichi
2011-01-01
We derive gravitational waveforms needed to compute the 14th post-Newtonian (14PN) order energy flux, i.e. $v^{28}$ beyond Newtonian approximation where $v$ is the orbital velocity of a test particle, in a circular orbit around a Schwarzschild black hole. We exhibit clearly the convergence of the energy flux in the PN expansion and suggest the fitting formula which can be used for more general case. The phase difference between the 14PN waveforms and numerical waveforms after two years inspiral becomes about $10^{-7}$ for $\\mu/M=10^{-4}$ and $10^{-3}$ for $\\mu/M=10^{-5}$ where $\\mu$ and $M$ are the masses of a compact object and a supermassive black hole at the centers of galaxies respectively. The 14PN expressions will lead to the parameter estimation comparable to numerical waveforms for extreme mass ratio inspirals, which are one of the main targets of Laser Interferometer Space Antenna.
Transient Non-Newtonian Screw Flow
Ashrafi, Nariman
2013-03-01
The influence of axial flow on the transient response of the pseudoplastic rotating flow is carried out. The fluid is assumed to follow the Carreau-Bird model and mixed boundary conditions are imposed. The four-dimensional low-order dynamical system, resulted from Galerkin projection of the conservation of mass and momentum equations, includes additional nonlinear terms in the velocity components originated from the shear-dependent viscosity. In absence of axial flow the base flow loses its radial flow stability to the vortex structure at a lower critical Taylor number, as the pseudoplasticity increases. The emergence of the vortices corresponds to the onset of a supercritical bifurcation which is also seen in the flow of a linear fluid. However, unlike the Newtonian case, pseudoplastic Taylor vortices lose their stability as the Taylor number reaches a second critical number corresponding to the onset of a Hopf bifurcation. Existence of an axial flow, manifested by a pressure gradient appears to further advance each critical point on the bifurcation diagram. In addition to the simulation of spiral flow, the proposed formulation allows the axial flow to be independent of the main rotating flow. Complete transient flow field together with viscosity maps are also presented.
Renormalization Group Approach in Newtonian Cosmology
Sota, Y.; Kobayashi, T.; Maeda, K.; Nakamichi, A.; Kurokawa, T.; Morikawa, M.
There are many evidences that the matter distribution of the Universe show fractal well beyond the scale of hundred Mpc. This fractal matter distribution clearly conflicts with the widely assumed cosmological model in which the matter distribution asymptotically becomes homogeneous in larger scale. If this fractal distribution of matter, however, turns out to be true and the local density fluctuations do not reduce in larger scale, we have to change the present cosmological model of the Universe which is globally described by FRW space-time. Here, we analyze the global behavior of such fluctuation-dominated Universe by applying the renormalization group (RG) method. We derive the flow of the RG equations and clarify the properties of fixed points by using the model of Newtonian cosmology with dust fluid. This model allows the scale-invariance and a well defined procedure of space averaging, both of which make our RG analysis easier. Based on this RG analysis, we would like to argue (a) how the large fluctuations in all scales affect the global structure of the Universe, (b) how the age problem of the Universe is solved and (c) the nature of dark matter in fractal Universe.
Conceptual evolution of Newtonian and relativistic mechanics
Ghosh, Amitabha
2018-01-01
This book provides an introduction to Newtonian and relativistic mechanics. Unlike other books on the topic, which generally take a 'top-down' approach, it follows a novel system to show how the concepts of the 'science of motion' evolved through a veritable jungle of intermediate ideas and concepts. Starting with Aristotelian philosophy, the text gradually unravels how the human mind slowly progressed towards the fundamental ideas of inertia physics. The concepts that now appear so obvious to even a high school student took great intellectuals more than a millennium to clarify. The book explores the evolution of these concepts through the history of science. After a comprehensive overview of the discovery of dynamics, it explores fundamental issues of the properties of space and time and their relation with the laws of motion. It also explores the concepts of spatio-temporal locality and fields, and offers a philosophical discussion of relative motion versus absolute motion, as well as the concept of an abso...
Maartens, Roy; Koyama, Kazuya
2010-01-01
The observable universe could be a 1+3-surface (the "brane") embedded in a 1+3+d-dimensional spacetime (the "bulk"), with Standard Model particles and fields trapped on the brane while gravity is free to access the bulk. At least one of the d extra spatial dimensions could be very large relative to the Planck scale, which lowers the fundamental gravity scale, possibly even down to the electroweak (∼ TeV) level. This revolutionary picture arises in the framework of recent developments in M theory. The 1+10-dimensional M theory encompasses the known 1+9-dimensional superstring theories, and is widely considered to be a promising potential route to quantum gravity. At low energies, gravity is localized at the brane and general relativity is recovered, but at high energies gravity "leaks" into the bulk, behaving in a truly higher-dimensional way. This introduces significant changes to gravitational dynamics and perturbations, with interesting and potentially testable implications for high-energy astrophysics, black holes, and cosmology. Brane-world models offer a phenomenological way to test some of the novel predictions and corrections to general relativity that are implied by M theory. This review analyzes the geometry, dynamics and perturbations of simple brane-world models for cosmology and astrophysics, mainly focusing on warped 5-dimensional brane-worlds based on the Randall-Sundrum models. We also cover the simplest brane-world models in which 4-dimensional gravity on the brane is modified at low energies - the 5-dimensional Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati models. Then we discuss co-dimension two branes in 6-dimensional models.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Roy Maartens
2010-09-01
Full Text Available The observable universe could be a 1+3-surface (the “brane” embedded in a 1+3+d-dimensional spacetime (the “bulk”, with Standard Model particles and fields trapped on the brane while gravity is free to access the bulk. At least one of the d extra spatial dimensions could be very large relative to the Planck scale, which lowers the fundamental gravity scale, possibly even down to the electroweak (∼ TeV level. This revolutionary picture arises in the framework of recent developments in M theory. The 1+10-dimensional M theory encompasses the known 1+9-dimensional superstring theories, and is widely considered to be a promising potential route to quantum gravity. At low energies, gravity is localized at the brane and general relativity is recovered, but at high energies gravity “leaks” into the bulk, behaving in a truly higher-dimensional way. This introduces significant changes to gravitational dynamics and perturbations, with interesting and potentially testable implications for high-energy astrophysics, black holes, and cosmology. Brane-world models offer a phenomenological way to test some of the novel predictions and corrections to general relativity that are implied by M theory. This review analyzes the geometry, dynamics and perturbations of simple brane-world models for cosmology and astrophysics, mainly focusing on warped 5-dimensional brane-worlds based on the Randall–Sundrum models. We also cover the simplest brane-world models in which 4-dimensional gravity on the brane is modified at low energies – the 5-dimensional Dvali–Gabadadze–Porrati models. Then we discuss co-dimension two branes in 6-dimensional models.
Daly, Patrick; Kayse, Regina; Rudick, Steven; Robbins, Nathan; Scheler, Jennifer; Harris, David; O'Donnell, Robert; Dwivedi, Alok K; Gerson, Myron C
2017-08-31
Exercise is the AHA/ACC guideline-recommended stress modality for myocardial perfusion imaging, but many patients are unable to exercise to target heart rate on a conventional treadmill. We examined the feasibility and safety of stress imaging using an anti-gravity treadmill in patients with perceived poor exercise capacity. 49 patients were recruited for stress testing by anti-gravity treadmill (n = 29) or to a regadenoson control group (n = 20). Seventeen anti-gravity test patients (59%) reached target heart rate obviating the need for a pharmacologic stress agent. Adverse effects of the anti-gravity treadmill were limited to minor muscle aches in 5 subjects. Stress myocardial perfusion image quality judged by 3 blinded readers on a 5-point scale was comparable for the anti-gravity treadmill (4.30 ± SD 0.87) vs pharmacologic stress (4.28 ± SD 0.66). Stress testing using an anti-gravity treadmill is feasible and may help some patients safely achieve target heart rate.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jared C Weddell
Full Text Available Development of many conditions and disorders, such as atherosclerosis and stroke, are dependent upon hemodynamic forces. To accurately predict and prevent these conditions and disorders hemodynamic forces must be properly mapped. Here we compare a shear-rate dependent fluid (SDF constitutive model, based on the works by Yasuda et al in 1981, against a Newtonian model of blood. We verify our stabilized finite element numerical method with the benchmark lid-driven cavity flow problem. Numerical simulations show that the Newtonian model gives similar velocity profiles in the 2-dimensional cavity given different height and width dimensions, given the same Reynolds number. Conversely, the SDF model gave dissimilar velocity profiles, differing from the Newtonian velocity profiles by up to 25% in velocity magnitudes. This difference can affect estimation in platelet distribution within blood vessels or magnetic nanoparticle delivery. Wall shear stress (WSS is an important quantity involved in vascular remodeling through integrin and adhesion molecule mechanotransduction. The SDF model gave a 7.3-fold greater WSS than the Newtonian model at the top of the 3-dimensional cavity. The SDF model gave a 37.7-fold greater WSS than the Newtonian model at artery walls located immediately after bifurcations in the idealized femoral artery tree. The pressure drop across arteries reveals arterial sections highly resistive to flow which correlates with stenosis formation. Numerical simulations give the pressure drop across the idealized femoral artery tree with the SDF model which is approximately 2.3-fold higher than with the Newtonian model. In atherosclerotic lesion models, the SDF model gives over 1 Pa higher WSS than the Newtonian model, a difference correlated with over twice as many adherent monocytes to endothelial cells from the Newtonian model compared to the SDF model.
Superconducting gravity gradiometer for sensitive gravity measurements. I. Theory
Chan, H. A.; Paik, H. J.
1987-06-01
Because of the equivalence principle, a global measurement is necessary to distinguish gravity from acceleration of the reference frame. A gravity gradiometer is therefore an essential instrument needed for precision tests of gravity laws and for applications in gravity survey and inertial navigation. Superconductivity and SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) technology can be used to obtain a gravity gradiometer with very high sensitivity and stability. A superconducting gravity gradiometer has been developed for a null test of the gravitational inverse-square law and space-borne geodesy. Here we present a complete theoretical model of this instrument. Starting from dynamical equations for the device, we derive transfer functions, a common mode rejection characteristic, and an error model of the superconducting instrument. Since a gradiometer must detect a very weak differential gravity signal in the midst of large platform accelerations and other environmental disturbances, the scale factor and common mode rejection stability of the instrument are extremely important in addition to its immunity to temperature and electromagnetic fluctuations. We show how flux quantization, the Meissner effect, and properties of liquid helium can be utilized to meet these challenges.
Notes on the post-Newtonian limit of the massive Brans-Dicke theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Roshan, Mahmood; Shojai, Fatimah, E-mail: fshojai@ut.ac.ir [Department of Physics, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2011-07-21
We consider the post-Newtonian limit of the massive Brans-Dicke theory and make some notes about the post-Newtonian limit of the case {omega} = 0. This case is dynamically equivalent to the metric f(R) theory. It is known that this theory can be compatible with the solar system tests if the Chameleon mechanism occurs. Also, it is known that this mechanism is because of the nonlinearity in the field equations produced by the largeness of the local curvature relative to the background curvature. Thus, the linearization of the field equations breaks down. On the other hand, we know that the Chameleon mechanism exists when a coupling between the matter and the scalar field exists. In the Jordan frame of the Brans-Dicke theory, we have no such coupling. But in the Einstein frame, this theory behaves like a Chameleon scalar field. By confining ourselves to the case {omega} = 0, we show that 'Chameleon-like' behaviour can exist also in the Jordan frame, but it has an important difference compared with the Chameleon mechanism. Also we show that the conditions which lead to the existence of a 'Chameleon-like' mechanism are consistent with the conditions in the post-Newtonian limit which correspond to a heavy scalar field at the cosmological scale and a small effective cosmological constant. Thus, one can linearize field equations to the post-Newtonian order, and this linearization has no contradiction with the existence of 'Chameleon-like' behaviour.
On Dual Phase-Space Relativity, the Machian Principle and Modified Newtonian Dynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Castro C.
2005-04-01
Full Text Available We investigate the consequences of the Mach’s principle of inertia within the context of the Dual Phase Space Relativity which is compatible with the Eddington-Dirac large numbers coincidences and may provide with a physical reason behind the observed anomalous Pioneer acceleration and a solution to the riddle of the cosmological constant problem. The cosmological implications of Non-Archimedean Geometry by assigning an upper impossible scale in Nature and the cosmological variations of the fundamental constants are also discussed. We study the corrections to Newtonian dynamics resulting from the Dual Phase Space Relativity by analyzing the behavior of a test particle in a modified Schwarzschild geometry (due to the the effects of the maximal acceleration that leads in the weak-field approximation to essential modifications of the Newtonian dynamics and to violations of the equivalence principle. Finally we follow another avenue and find modified Newtonian dynamics induced by the Yang’s Noncommutative Spacetime algebra involving a lower and upper scale in Nature.
Phelps, Geoffrey A.; McKee, Edwin H.; Sweetkind, D.; Langenheim, V.E.
2000-01-01
The Environmental Restoration Program of the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, was developed to investigate the possible consequences to the environment of 40 years of nuclear testing on the Nevada Test Site. The majority of the tests were detonated underground, introducing contaminants into the ground-water system (Laczniak and others, 1996). An understanding of the ground-water flow paths is necessary to evaluate the extent of ground-water contamination. This report provides information specific to Yucca Flat on the Nevada Test Site. Critical to understanding the ground-water flow beneath Yucca Flat is an understanding of the subsurface geology, particularly the structure and distribution of the pre-Tertiary rocks, which comprise both the major regional aquifer and aquitard sequences (Winograd and Thordarson, 1975; Laczniak and others, 1996). Because the pre-Tertiary rocks are not exposed at the surface of Yucca Flat their distribution must be determined through well logs and less direct geophysical methods such as potential field studies. In previous studies (Phelps and others, 1999; Phelps and Mckee, 1999) developed a model of the basement surface of the Paleozoic rocks beneath Yucca Flat and a series of normal faults that create topographic relief on the basement surface. In this study the basement rocks and structure of Yucca Flat are examined in more detail using the basement gravity anomaly derived from the isostatic gravity inversion model of Phelps and others (1999) and high-resolution magnetic data, as part of an effort to gain a better understanding of the Paleozoic rocks beneath Yucca Flat in support of groundwater modeling.
Electro-gravity spin density waves
Syromyatnikov, A. G.
It is known that some string models predict that strong bursts of gravitational radiation which should be detectable by LIGO, VIRGO and LISA detectors are accompanied by cosmologic gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). GRBs of low-energy gamma ray are associated with core-collapse supernovae (SN). However, measurements of the X-ray afterglow of very intense GRBs (allow a critical test of GRB theories) disagree with that predicted by widely accepted fireball internal-external shocks models of GRBs. It is also known that in a system of a large number of fermions, pairs of gravitational interaction occur on spontaneous breaking of the vacuum spatial symmetry, accompanied by gravitational mass defect. In another side, the space rays generation mechanism on a method of direct transformation of intergalactic gamma-rays to the proton current on spin shock-waves ensures precise agreement between generated proton currents (spin shock waves theory) with the angular distribution data of Galactic gamma-rays as well as for the individual pulses of gamma-/X-ray bursts. There is a precise confirmation of the generated currents (theory) with the burst radiation data characterized by the standard deviation of ± 1% in intensity in relative units within the sensitivity of the equipment. Thus, it was found that the spin angular momentum conservation law (equation of dynamics of spin shock waves) in the X-ray/gamma ranges is fulfilled exactly in real time. The nature of gamma bursts is largely determined by the influence of powerful external sources. The angular distributions anisotropy of Galactic gamma rays and pulsars are determined by the paradoxes way, so this can only take place under conditions of the isotropy of space-time. In this regard, promising gravity in a Finsler space can have the selected direction in flat Minkowski space metric with torsion as in the Einstein-Cartan theory. Considering the induction of torsion in conformal transformations of tetrades (N-ades in arbitrary
Alternative Gravity Rotation Curves for the LITTLE THINGS Survey
O’Brien, James G.; Chiarelli, Thomas L.; Dentico, Jeremy; Stulge, Modestas; Stefanski, Brian; Moss, Robert; Chaykov, Spasen
2018-01-01
Galactic rotation curves have proven to be the testing ground for dark matter bounds in spiral galaxies of all morphologies. Dwarf galaxies serve as an increasingly interesting case of rotation curve dynamics due to their typically rising rotation curve as opposed to the flattening curve of large spirals. Dwarf galaxies usually vary in galactic structure and mostly terminate at small radial distances. This, coupled with the fact that Cold Dark Matter theories struggle with the universality of galactic rotation curves, allow for exclusive features of alternative gravitational models to be analyzed. Recently, The H I Nearby Galactic Survey (THINGS) has been extended to include a sample of 25 dwarf galaxies now known as the LITTLE THINGS Survey. Here, we show an application of alternative gravitational models to the LITTLE THINGS survey, specifically focusing on conformal gravity (CG) and Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND). In this work, we provide an analysis and discussion of the rotation curve predictions of each theory to the sample. Furthermore, we show how these two alternative gravitational models account for the recently observed universal trends in centripetal accelerations in spiral galaxies. This work highlights the similarities and differences of the predictions of the two theories in dwarf galaxies. The sample is not large or diverse enough to strongly favor a single theory, but we posit that both CG and MOND can provide an accurate description of the galactic dynamics in the LITTLE THINGS sample without the need for dark matter.
On the Correspondence Between Newtonian and Functional Mechanics
Piskovskiy, E. V.; Volovich, I. V.
2011-01-01
The world view underlying traditional science is based on reductionism and determinism when there is an empty space (vacuum) and material points which move along the Newtonian trajectories. This approach may be called "mechanistic" or "Newtonian". Quantum mechanics, in its Copenhagen interpretation, also adopts this world view. However this world view is not satisfactory by at least two reasons. First, there is uncertainty in the derivation of the position and velocity of the material point and second, it can not solve the time irreversibility problem. Moreover, the Newtonian approach is not well suited for applications of mathematics and physics to life science. Recently a new approach to classical mechanics was proposed in which the basic notion is not the trajectory but a probability distribution. In this functional mechanics approach one deals with the mean trajectories and one has corrections to the Newtonian equation of motion. In this note we consider correspondence between the Newtonian trajectories for an anharmonic oscillator and the averaged trajectories in the functional mechanics and compute the dependence of the characteristic time from the dispersion.
Dynamic characteristics of Non Newtonian fluid Squeeze film damper
Palaksha, C. P.; Shivaprakash, S.; Jagadish, H. P.
2016-09-01
The fluids which do not follow linear relationship between rate of strain and shear stress are termed as non-Newtonian fluid. The non-Newtonian fluids are usually categorized as those in which shear stress depends on the rates of shear only, fluids for which relation between shear stress and rate of shear depends on time and the visco inelastic fluids which possess both elastic and viscous properties. It is quite difficult to provide a single constitutive relation that can be used to define a non-Newtonian fluid due to a great diversity found in its physical structure. Non-Newtonian fluids can present a complex rheological behaviour involving shear-thinning, viscoelastic or thixotropic effects. The rheological characterization of complex fluids is an important issue in many areas. The paper analyses the damping and stiffness characteristics of non-Newtonian fluids (waxy crude oil) used in squeeze film dampers using the available literature for viscosity characterization. Damping and stiffness characteristic will be evaluated as a function of shear strain rate, temperature and percentage wax concentration etc.
Martínez-Merino, Aldo; Ryan, Michael P
2016-01-01
Newtonian gravitation with some slight modifications, along with some highly simplified ideas from quantum field theory allow us to reproduce, at least at the level of back-of-the-envelope calculations, many results of black hole physics. We consider particle production by a black hole, the Newtonian equivalent of the Hawking temperature, and the Bekenstein entropy. Also, we are able to deduce Newtonian field equations from entropy. We finally study higher-order Newtonian theories under the same assumptions used for ordinary Newtonian theory. In a companion article we will look at entropic forces for various entropies and make contact with our analysis of higher-order Newtonian theories.
Torsional Newton-Cartan gravity from the large c expansion of general relativity
Van den Bleeken, Dieter
2017-09-01
We revisit the manifestly covariant large c expansion of general relativity, c being the speed of light. Assuming the relativistic connection has no pole in c-2 , this expansion is known to reproduce Newton-Cartan gravity and a covariant version of post-Newtonian corrections to it. We show that relaxing this assumption leads to the inclusion of twistless torsion in the effective non-relativistic theory. We argue that the resulting twistless torsion Newton-Cartan theory is an effective description of a non-relativistic regime of general relativity that extends Newtonian physics by including strong gravitational time dilation.
Yeylaghi, Shahab; Moa, Belaid; Buckham, Bradley; Oshkai, Peter; Vasquez, Jose; Crawford, Curran
2017-09-01
A comprehensive modeling of landslide generated waves using an in-house parallel Incompressible Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (ISPH) code is presented in this paper. The study of landslide generated waves is challenging due to the involvement of several complex physical phenomena, such as slide-water interaction, turbulence and complex free surface profiles. A numerical tool that can efficiently calculate both slide motion, impact with the surface and the resulting wave is needed for ongoing study of these phenomena. Mesh-less numerical methods, such as Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH), handle the slide motion and the complex free surface profile with ease. In this paper, an in-house parallel explicit ISPH code is used to simulate both subaerial and submarine landslides in 2D and in more realistic 3D applications. Both rigid and deformable slides are used to generate the impulsive waves. A landslide case is simulated where a slide falls into a non-Newtonian reservoir fluid (water-bentonite mixture). A new technique is also proposed to calculate the motion of a rigid slide on an inclined ramp implicitly, without using the prescribed motion in SPH. For all the test cases, results generated from the proposed ISPH method are compared with available experimental data and show good agreement.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NGS Absolute Gravity data (78 stations) was received in July 1993. Principal gravity parameters include Gravity Value, Uncertainty, and Vertical Gradient. The...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data base (14,559 records) was received in January 1986. Principal gravity parameters include elevation and observed gravity. The observed gravity values are...
Granular Superconductors and Gravity
Noever, David; Koczor, Ron
1999-01-01
As a Bose condensate, superconductors provide novel conditions for revisiting previously proposed couplings between electromagnetism and gravity. Strong variations in Cooper pair density, large conductivity and low magnetic permeability define superconductive and degenerate condensates without the traditional density limits imposed by the Fermi energy (approx. 10(exp -6) g cu cm). Recent experiments have reported anomalous weight loss for a test mass suspended above a rotating Type II, YBCO superconductor, with a relatively high percentage change (0.05-2.1%) independent of the test mass' chemical composition and diamagnetic properties. A variation of 5 parts per 104 was reported above a stationary (non-rotating) superconductor. In experiments using a sensitive gravimeter, bulk YBCO superconductors were stably levitated in a DC magnetic field and exposed without levitation to low-field strength AC magnetic fields. Changes in observed gravity signals were measured to be less than 2 parts in 108 of the normal gravitational acceleration. Given the high sensitivity of the test, future work will examine variants on the basic magnetic behavior of granular superconductors, with particular focus on quantifying their proposed importance to gravity.
Turbulence modeling based on non-Newtonian constitutive laws
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mompean, G [Universite Lille 1, Polytech' Lille, LML, CNRS, UMR 8107, F-59655 V. d' Ascq (France); Qiu, X [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Shanghai Institute of Technology, Shanghai 200235 (China); Schmitt, F G [LOG, CNRS, UMR 8187, F-62930 Wimereux (France); Thompson, R, E-mail: gilmar.mompean@polytech-lille.fr [UFF, LMTA, Niteroi RJ24210-240 (Brazil)
2011-12-22
This work revisits the analogy between Newtonian turbulence and non-Newtonian laminar flows. Several direct numerical simulations (DNS) data of a plane channel flow, for a large range of Reynolds numbers (180 {<=} Re{sub {tau}} {<=} 2000) were explored. The profiles of mean velocity and second moment quantities were used to extract viscometric functions in the non-Newtonian modeling framework. The Reynolds stress tensor is expressed in terms of a set of basis kinematic tensors based on a projection of a nonlinear framework. The coefficients of the model are given as functions of the intensity of the mean strain tensor. The apparent eddy turbulent viscosity, the first and second normal stress differences are presented as function of the shear rate. One of the advantages of the new algebraic nonlinear power law constitutive equation derived in the paper, is that is only dependent on the mean velocity gradient and can be integrated up to the wall.
Non-Newtonian fluid structure interaction in flexible biomimetic microchannels
Kiran, M.; Dasgupta, Sunando; Chakraborty, Suman
2017-11-01
To investigate the complex fluid structure interactions in a physiologically relevant microchannel with deformable wall and non-Newtonian fluid that flows within it, we fabricated cylindrical microchannels of various softness out of PDMS. Experiments to measure the transient pressure drop across the channel were carried out with high sampling frequencies to capture the intricate flow physics. In particular, we showed that the waveforms varies greatly for each of the non-Newtonian and Newtonian cases for both non-deformable and deformable microchannels in terms of the peak amplitude, r.m.s amplitude and the crest factor. In addition, we carried out frequency sweep experiments to evaluate the frequency response of the system. We believe that these results will aid in the design of polymer based microfluidic phantoms for arterial FSI studies, and in particular for studying blood analog fluids in cylindrical microchannels as well as developing frequency specific Lab-on-chip systems for medical diagnostics.
Lombard, John
2017-01-01
We introduce the construction of a new framework for probing discrete emergent geometry and boundary-boundary observables based on a fundamentally a-dimensional underlying network structure. Using a gravitationally motivated action with Forman weighted combinatorial curvatures and simplicial volumes relying on a decomposition of an abstract simplicial complex into realized embeddings of proper skeletons, we demonstrate properties such as a minimal volume-scale cutoff, the necessity of a term playing the role of a positive definite cosmological constant as a regulator for nondegenerate geometries, and naturally emergent simplicial structures from Metropolis network evolution simulations with no restrictions on attachment rules or regular building blocks. We see emergent properties which echo results from both the spinfoam formalism and causal dynamical triangulations in quantum gravity, and provide analytical and numerical results to support the analogy. We conclude with a summary of open questions and intent for future work in developing the program.
Transport phenomena in Newtonian fluids a concise primer
Olsson, Per
2013-01-01
This short primer provides a concise and tutorial-style introduction to transport phenomena in Newtonian fluids , in particular the transport of mass, energy and momentum. The reader will find detailed derivations of the transport equations for these phenomena, as well as selected analytical solutions to the transport equations in some simple geometries. After a brief introduction to the basic mathematics used in the text, Chapter 2, which deals with momentum transport, presents a derivation of the Navier-Stokes-Duhem equation describing the basic flow in a Newtonian fluid. Also provided at
Carmona, A.; Pérez-Segarra, C. D.; Lehmkuhl, O.; Oliva, A.
2012-11-01
The aim of this work is to provide numerical solutions for the fluid flow and the heat transfer generated in closed systems containing viscoplastic-type non-Newtonian fluids. A lid driven cavity (LDC) and a differentially heated cavity (DHC) are used as test cases. These numerical solutions can be an appropriate tool for verifying CFD codes which have been developed or adapted to deal with this kind of non-Newtonian fluids. In order to achieve this objective, an in-house CFD code has been implemented and correctly verified by the method of manufactured solutions and by some numerical solutions too. Furthermore, a high-performance CFD code (Termo Fluids S.L.) has been adapted and properly verified, by the corresponding numerical solutions, to deal with this kind of non-Newtonian fluids. The viscoplastic behaviour of certain non-Newtonian fluids will be generated from a viscous stress which has been defined by a potential-type rheological law. The pseudoplastic and dilatant behaviours will be studied. On this matter, the influence of different physical aspects on the numerical simulations will be analysed, e.g. different exponent values in the potential-type rheological law and different values of the non-dimensional numbers. Moreover, the influence of different numerical aspects on the numerical simulations will also be analysed, e.g. unstructured meshes, conservative numerical schemes and more efficient and parallel algorithms and solvers.
Conceptual Models of the Climate 2003 Program of Study: Non-Newtonian Geophysical Fluid Dynamics
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Balmforth, NeiI
2004-01-01
Non-Newtonian fluids occur commonly in our world. These fluids, such as toothpaste, saliva, oils, mud and lava, exhibit a number of behaviors that are different from Newtonian fluids and have a number of additional material properties...
Geometric constructions for repulsive gravity and quantization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hohmann, Manuel
2010-11-15
In this thesis we present two geometric theories designed to extend general relativity. It can be seen as one of the aims of such theories to model the observed accelerating expansion of the universe as a gravitational phenomenon, or to provide a mathematical structure for the formulation of quantum field theories on curved spacetimes and quantum gravity. This thesis splits into two parts: In the first part we consider multimetric gravity theories containing N>1 standard model copies which interact only gravitationally and repel each other in the Newtonian limit. The dynamics of each of the standard model copies is governed by its own metric tensor. We show that the antisymmetric case, in which the mutual repulsion between the different matter sectors is of equal strength compared to the attractive gravitational force within each sector, is prohibited by a no-go theorem for N=2. We further show that this theorem does not hold for N>2 by explicitly constructing an antisymmetric multimetric repulsive gravity theory. We then examine several properties of this theory. Most notably, we derive a simple cosmological model and show that the accelerating expansion of the late universe can indeed be explained by the mutual repulsion between the different matter sectors. We further present a simple model for structure formation and show that our model leads to the formation of filament-like structures and voids. Finally, we show that multimetric repulsive gravity is compatible with high-precision solar system data using the parametrized post-Newtonian formalism. In the second part of the thesis we propose a mathematical model of quantum spacetime as an infinite-dimensional manifold locally homeomorphic to an appropriate Schwartz space. This extends and unifies both the standard function space construction of quantum mechanics and the differentiable manifold structure of classical spacetime. In this picture we demonstrate that classical spacetime emerges as a finite
Kenji, HAYASHI; Takeshi, SHIRAFUJI; Institute of Physics, University of Tokyo; Physics Department, Saitama University
1980-01-01
We study the equations of motion for test bodies and various limits in Poincare gauge theory with linear and quadratic Lagrangians. The classical equations of motion are derived both for spin-1/2 particles and for macroscopic test bodies. It is also shown that various limits can be taken, including General Relativity and New General Relativity.
Gravitational Self-Energy and Black Holes in Newtonian Physics
Dillon, G.
2013-01-01
A definition of a Newtonian black hole is possible which incorporates the mass-energy equivalence from special relativity. However, exploiting a double spherical shell model, it will be shown that the ensuing gravitational self-energy and mass renormalization prevent the formation of such an object.
Inelastic non-Newtonian flow over heterogeneously slippery surfaces
Haase, A. Sander; Wood, Jeffery Alan; Sprakel, Lisette Maria Johanna; Lammertink, Rob G.H.
2017-01-01
In this study, we investigated inelastic non-Newtonian fluid flow over heterogeneously slippery surfaces. First, we simulated the flow of aqueous xanthan gum solutions over a bubble mattress, which is a superhydrophobic surface consisting of transversely positioned no-slip walls and no-shear gas
The formation of cosmic structure with modified Newtonian dynamics
Sanders, R. H.
2001-01-01
I consider the growth of inhomogeneities in a low-density, baryonic, vacuum energy-dominated universe in the context of modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND). I first write down a two-field Langrangian-based theory of MOND (nonrelativistic) that embodies several assumptions, such as constancy of the
The fundamental plane of elliptical galaxies with modified Newtonian dynamics
Sanders, RH
2000-01-01
The modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND), suggested by Milgrom as an alternative to dark matter, implies that isothermal spheres with a fixed anisotropy parameter should exhibit a near-perfect relation between the mass and velocity dispersion of the form M proportional to sigma(4). This is consistent
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1993-04-30
Work this quarter focused on the development of the engineering design specifications for the ET Test Circuit. Process flowsheets and detailed equipment specifications were finalized. Based on this information, bid packages were assembled and purchase orders were issued for all of the necessary process equipment. The design and procurement information is summarized in the ET Circuit Design Report submitted to the DOE`s COR this quarter. Final drafts of the ET Circuit - System Safety Analysis, Nuclear Density Gauge - System Safety Analysis and Operating Manual/SOP were also completed and submitted to the COR this quarter. Preliminary characterization studies were also initiated this quarter. Tests were conducted to determine the grinding conditions required to achieve the desired particle size distributions for the characterization work. Flotation release analysis tests were conducted on both the Pittsburgh {number_sign}8 and Illinois {number_sign}6 seam coals as a function of grind size. The primary objective of the proposed work is to design, install, and operate an advanced fine coal processing circuit combining the Microcel and Multi-Gravity-Separator (MGS) technologies. Both of these processes have specific advantages as stand-alone units. For example, the Microcel column effectively removes ash-bearing mineral matter, while the MGS efficiently removes coal-pyrite composites. By combining both unit operations into a single processing circuit, synergistic advantages can be gained. As a result, this circuit arrangement has the potential to improve coal quality beyond that achieved using the individual technologies.
Rothleitner, Christian; Francis, Olivier
2014-04-01
An original setup is presented to measure the Newtonian Constant of Gravitation G. It is based on the same principle as used in ballistic absolute gravimeters. The differential acceleration of three simultaneously freely falling test masses is measured in order to determine G. In this paper, a description of the experimental setup is presented. A detailed uncertainty budget estimates the relative uncertainty to be of the order of 5.3 × 10(-4), however with some improvements a relative uncertainty in G of one part in 10(4) could be feasible.
Investigation of Non-Newtonian Flow in Anaerobic Digesters
Langner, Jeremy M.
This thesis examines how the non-Newtonian characteristics of liquid hog manure affect the flow conditions within a steady-flow anaerobic digester. There are three main parts to this thesis. In the first part of this thesis, the physical properties of liquid hog manure and their variation with temperature and solids concentration are experimentally determined. Naturally-settled manure sampled from an outdoor storage lagoon is studied, and density, viscosity, and particle size distribution are measured. Hog manure with total solids concentrations of less than 3.6% exhibits Newtonian behaviour; manure between 3.6% and 6.5% total solids is pseudoplastic, and fits the power law; manure with more than 6.5% total solids exhibits non-Newtonian and time-dependent characteristics. The second part of this thesis investigates the flow of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids---represented by tap water and xanthan gum solution, respectively---within four lab-scale reactor geometries, using residence time distribution (RTD) experiments. The effect of reactor geometry, flow rate, and fluid viscosity are evaluated. In the third part of this thesis, flow conditions within lab-scale and pilot-scale anaerobic digester reactors are simulated using three-dimensional modeling techniques. The RTDs of lab-scale reactors as predicted by the 3D numerical models compare well to the experimental results. The 3D models are also validated using data from particle image velocimetry (PIV) experiments. Finally, the viscous properties of liquid hog manure at 3% and 8% total solids are incorporated into the models, and the results are evaluated.
Is nonrelativistic gravity possible?
Kocharyan, A. A.
2009-01-01
We study nonrelativistic gravity using the Hamiltonian formalism. For the dynamics of general relativity (relativistic gravity) the formalism is well known and called the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner (ADM) formalism. We show that if the lapse function is constrained correctly, then nonrelativistic gravity is described by a consistent Hamiltonian system. Surprisingly, nonrelativistic gravity can have solutions identical to relativistic gravity ones. In particular, (anti-)de Sitter black holes of Eins...
Linker, Patrick
2016-01-01
A couple of quantum gravity theories were proposed to make theoretical predictions about the behavior of gravity. The most recent approach to quantum gravity, called E-theory, is proposed mathematical, but there is not formulated much about what dynamics of gravity this theory proposes. This research paper treats the main results of the application of E-theory to General relativity involving conservation laws and scattering of particles in presence of gravity. Also the low-energy limit of thi...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jamshid M. Nouri
2008-03-01
Full Text Available Mean and rms velocity characteristics of two Newtonian flows at Reynolds numbers of 12,800 (glycerin solution and 48,000 (water and of a non-Newtonian flow (0.2% CMC solution, at a power number similar to the Newtonian glycerin flow in a mixing vessel stirred by a 60° pitched blade impeller have been measured by laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV. The velocity measurements, resolved over 360° and 1.08° of impeller rotation, showed that the mean flow of the two power number matched glycerin and CMC flows were similar to within 3% of the impeller tip velocity and the turbulence intensities generally lower in the CMC flow by up to 5% of the tip velocity. The calculated mean flow quantities showed similar discharge coefficient and pumping efficiency in all three flows and similar strain rate between the two power number matched glycerin and CMC flows; the strain rate of the higher Reynolds number Newtonian flow was found to be slightly higher. The energy balance around the impeller indicated that the CMC flow dissipated up to 9% more of the total input power and converted 7% less into the turbulence compared to the glycerin flow with the same power input which could lead to less effective mixing processes where the micro-mixing is important.
Adair, Aaron Michael
In order for Physics Education Research (PER) to achieve its goals of significant learning gains with efficient methods, it is necessary to figure out what are the sorts of preexisting issues that students have prior to instruction and then to create teaching methods that are best able to overcome those problems. This makes it necessary to figure out what is the nature of student physics misconceptions---prior beliefs that are both at variance to Newtonian mechanics and also prevent a student from properly cognizing Newtonian concepts. To understand the prior beliefs of students, it is necessary to uncover their origins, which may allow instructors to take into account the sources for ideas of physics that are contrary to Newtonian mechanics understanding. That form of instruction must also induce the sorts of metacognitive processes that allow students to transition from their previous conceptions to Newtonian ones, let alone towards those of modern physics. In this paper, the notions of basic dynamics that are common among first-year college students are studied and compared with previous literature. In particular, an analysis of historical documents from antiquity up to the early modern period shows that these conceptions were rather widespread and consistent over thousands of years and in numerous cultural contexts. This is one of the only analyses in PER that considers the original languages of some of these texts, along with appropriate historical scholarship. Based on the consistent appearance of these misconceptions, a test and interview module was devised to help elucidate the feelings students have that may relate to fictitious forces. The test looked at one-dimensional motion and forces. The first part of the interview asked each student about their answers to the test questions, while the second part asked how students felt when undergoing three cases of constant acceleration in a car. We determined that students confabulated relative motion with the
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lamon, Raphael
2010-06-29
. Furthermore, we succeed in solving the quantum Gauss constraint. In the second part of the thesis we introduce some aspects of phenomenological quantum gravity and their possible detectable signatures. The goal of phenomenological quantum gravity is to derive conclusions and make predictions from expected characteristics of a full theory of quantum gravity. One possibility is an energy-dependent speed of light arising from a quantized space such that the propagation time of two photons differs. However, the amount of these corrections is very small such that only cosmological distances can be considered. Gamma-ray bursts (GRB) are ideal candidates as they are short but very luminous bursts of gamma-rays taking place at distances billions of light-years away. We study GRBs detected by the European satellite INTEGRAL and develop a new method to analyze unbinned data. A {chi}{sup 2}-test will provide a lower bound for quantum gravity corrections, which will be nevertheless well below the Planck mass. Then we shall study the sensibility of NASA's new satellite Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope and conclude that it is well suited to detect corrections. This prediction has just been confirmed when Fermi detected a very energetic photon emanating from GRB 090510 which highly constrains models with linear corrections to the speed of light. However, as it is shown at the end of this thesis, more bursts are needed in order to definitely falsify such models. (orig.)
Scaling of Two-Phase Systems Across Gravity Levels Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There is a defined need for long term earth based testing for the development and deployment of two-phase flow systems in reduced-gravity, including lunar gravity,...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. A. Starasotnikau
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The paper considers a control scheme of such optoelectronic devices with matrix photo-detectors as autocollimators, microscopes, star trackers and other film equipment an d the control is carried out with the help of a collimator. A number of factors (structure discreteness, photo-detector noise, consistency in collimator test-object size, photo-detector pixel size and point scattering function of optical components exert an influence on control accuracy.In the context of control problems and alignment of optoelectronic devices the paper studies a scheme which includes two components: controlling component that is a collimator and a component to be controlled that is a tele-centric system. A mathematical model for control schemes has been proposed with the purpose to determine an effect of the above-mentioned factors and its mathematical implementation has been described in the paper.Due to simulation an optimal ratio has been selected for component parameters of the optical control scheme: point scattering function for a collimator objective and a telecentric system, collimator test-object size, photo-detector pixel size. A collimator test-object size has been determined in the paper. Using the considered scheme the size will give the smallest measurement error caused by photo-detector discreteness of a controlled device. A standard deviation of the gravity energy center for a collimator test-object caused by photo-detector noise has been determined in the paper. In order to reduce the effect of photo-detector noise the paper proposes to take as zero values of a signal such values which are smaller than a doubled discretization interval of an analog-to-digital converter.
Gottlieb, Robert G.
1993-01-01
Derivation of first and second partials of the gravitational potential is given in both normalized and unnormalized form. Two different recursion formulas are considered. Derivation of a general gravity gradient torque algorithm which uses the second partial of the gravitational potential is given. Derivation of the geomagnetic field vector is given in a form that closely mimics the gravitational algorithm. Ada code for all algorithms that precomputes all possible data is given. Test cases comparing the new algorithms with previous data are given, as well as speed comparisons showing the relative efficiencies of the new algorithms.
Feeling Gravity's Pull: Gravity Modeling. The Gravity Field of Mars
Lemoine, Frank; Smith, David; Rowlands, David; Zuber, Maria; Neumann, G.; Chinn, Douglas; Pavlis, D.
2000-01-01
Most people take the constant presence of gravitys pull for granted. However, the Earth's gravitational strength actually varies from location to location. This variation occurs because mass, which influences an object's gravitational pull, is not evenly distributed within the planet. Changes in topography, such as glacial movement, an earthquake, or a rise in the ocean level, can subtly affect the gravity field. An accurate measurement of the Earth's gravity field helps us understand the distribution of mass beneath the surface. This insight can assist us in locating petroleum, mineral deposits, ground water, and other valuable substances. Gravity mapping can also help notice or verify changes in sea surface height and other ocean characteristics. Such changes may indicate climate change from polar ice melting and other phenomena. In addition, gravity mapping can indicate how land moves under the surface after earthquakes and other plate tectonic processes. Finally, changes in the Earth's gravity field might indicate a shift in water distribution that could affect agriculture, water supplies for population centers, and long-term weather prediction. Scientists can map out the Earth's gravity field by watching satellite orbits. When a satellite shifts in vertical position, it might be passing over an area where gravity changes in strength. Gravity is only one factor that may shape a satellite's orbital path. To derive a gravity measurement from satellite movement, scientists must remove other factors that might affect a satellite's position: 1. Drag from atmospheric friction. 2. Pressure from solar radiation as it heads toward Earth and. as it is reflected off the surface of the Earth 3. Gravitational pull from the Sun, the Moon, and other planets in the Solar System. 4. The effect of tides. 5. Relativistic effects. Scientists must also correct for the satellite tracking process. For example, the tracking signal must be corrected for refraction through the
Alam, Shadab; Miyatake, Hironao; More, Surhud; Ho, Shirley; Mandelbaum, Rachel
2017-03-01
We measure a combination of gravitational lensing, galaxy clustering and redshift-space distortions (RSDs) called EG. The quantity EG probes both parts of metric potential and is insensitive to galaxy bias and σ8. These properties make it an attractive statistic to test lambda cold dark matter, general relativity and its alternate theories. We have combined CMASS Data Release 11 with CFHTLenS and recent measurements of β from RSD analysis, and find EG(z = 0.57) = 0.42 ± 0.056, a 13 per cent measurement in agreement with the prediction of general relativity EG(z = 0.57) = 0.396 ± 0.011 using the Planck 2015 cosmological parameters. We have corrected our measurement for various observational and theoretical systematics. Our measurement is consistent with the first measurement of EG using cosmic microwave background lensing in place of galaxy lensing at small scales, but shows 2.8σ tension when compared with their final results including large scales. This analysis with future surveys will provide improved statistical error and better control over systematics to test general relativity and its alternate theories.
Threshold Gravity Determination and Artificial Gravity Studies Using Magnetic Levitation
Ramachandran, N.; Leslie, F.
2005-01-01
What is the threshold gravity (minimum gravity level) required for the nominal functioning of the human system? What dosage is required (magnitude and duration)? Do human cell lines behave differently in microgravity in response to an external stimulus? The critical need for a variable gravity simulator is emphasized by recent experiments on human epithelial cells and lymphocytes on the Space Shuttle clearly showing that cell growth and function are markedly different from those observed terrestrially. Those differences are also dramatic between cells grown in space and those in Rotating Wall Vessels (RWV), or NASA bioreactor often used to simulate microgravity, indicating that although morphological growth patterns (three dimensional growth) can be successfully simulated using RWVs, cell function performance is not reproduced - a critical difference. If cell function is dramatically affected by gravity off-loading, then cell response to stimuli such as radiation, stress, etc. can be very different from terrestrial cell lines. Yet, we have no good gravity simulator for use in study of these phenomena. This represents a profound shortcoming for countermeasures research. We postulate that we can use magnetic levitation of cells and tissue, through the use of strong magnetic fields and field gradients, as a terrestrial microgravity model to study human cells. Specific objectives of the research are: 1. To develop a tried, tested and benchmarked terrestrial microgravity model for cell culture studies; 2. Gravity threshold determination; 3. Dosage (magnitude and duration) of g-level required for nominal functioning of cells; 4. Comparisons of magnetic levitation model to other models such as RWV, hind limb suspension, etc. and 5. Cellular response to reduced gravity levels of Moon and Mars.
Spin Entanglement Witness for Quantum Gravity
Bose, Sougato; Mazumdar, Anupam; Morley, Gavin W.; Ulbricht, Hendrik; Toroš, Marko; Paternostro, Mauro; Geraci, Andrew A.; Barker, Peter F.; Kim, M. S.; Milburn, Gerard
2017-12-01
Understanding gravity in the framework of quantum mechanics is one of the great challenges in modern physics. However, the lack of empirical evidence has lead to a debate on whether gravity is a quantum entity. Despite varied proposed probes for quantum gravity, it is fair to say that there are no feasible ideas yet to test its quantum coherent behavior directly in a laboratory experiment. Here, we introduce an idea for such a test based on the principle that two objects cannot be entangled without a quantum mediator. We show that despite the weakness of gravity, the phase evolution induced by the gravitational interaction of two micron size test masses in adjacent matter-wave interferometers can detectably entangle them even when they are placed far apart enough to keep Casimir-Polder forces at bay. We provide a prescription for witnessing this entanglement, which certifies gravity as a quantum coherent mediator, through simple spin correlation measurements.
,
2016-01-01
With Einstein's inertial motion (free-falling and non-rotating relative to gyroscopes), geodesics for non-relativistic particles can intersect repeatedly, allowing one to compute the space-time curvature $R^{\\hat{0} \\hat{0}}$ exactly. Einstein's $R^{\\hat{0} \\hat{0}}$ for strong gravitational fields and for relativistic source-matter is identical with the Newtonian expression for the relative radial acceleration of neighboring free-falling test-particles, spherically averaged.--- Einstein's field equations follow from Newtonian experiments, local Lorentz-covariance, and energy-momentum conservation combined with the Bianchi identity.
Topological mixing study of non-Newtonian duct flows
Speetjens, Michel; Metcalfe, Guy; Rudman, Murray
2006-10-01
Tracer advection of non-Newtonian fluids in reoriented duct flows is investigated in terms of coherent structures in the web of tracer paths that determine transport properties geometrically. Reoriented duct flows are an idealization of in-line mixers, encompassing many micro and industrial continuous mixers. The topology of the tracer dynamics of reoriented duct flows is Hamiltonian. As the stretching per reorientation increases from zero, we show that the qualitative route from the integrable state to global chaos and good mixing does not depend on fluid rheology. This is due to a universal symmetry of reoriented duct flows, which we derive, controlling the topology of the tracer web. Symmetry determines where in parameter space global chaos first occurs, while increasing non-Newtonian effects delays the quantitative value of onset. Theory is demonstrated computationally for a representative duct flow, the rotated arc mixing flow.
A GENERALIZED FAMILY OF POST-NEWTONIAN DEDEKIND ELLIPSOIDS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gürlebeck, Norman [ZARM, University of Bremen, Am Fallturm, D-28359 Bremen (Germany); Petroff, David, E-mail: norman.guerlebeck@zarm.uni-bremen.de, E-mail: david.petroff@zks.uni-leipzig.de [Coordination Centre for Clinical Trials, University of Leipzig, D-04317 Leipzig (Germany)
2013-11-01
We derive a family of post-Newtonian (PN) Dedekind ellipsoids to first order. They describe non-axially symmetric, homogeneous, and rotating figures of equilibrium. The sequence of the Newtonian Dedekind ellipsoids allows for an axially symmetric limit in which a uniformly rotating Maclaurin spheroid is recovered. However, the approach taken by Chandrasekhar and Elbert to find the PN Dedekind ellipsoids excludes such a limit. In a previous work, we considered an extension to their work that permits a limit of 1 PN Maclaurin ellipsoids. Here we further detail the sequence and demonstrate that a choice of parameters exists with which the singularity formerly found by Chandrasekhar and Elbert along the sequence of PN Dedekind ellipsoids is removed.
Brownian versus Newtonian devitrification of hard-sphere glasses
Montero de Hijes, Pablo; Rosales-Pelaez, Pablo; Valeriani, Chantal; Pusey, Peter N.; Sanz, Eduardo
2017-08-01
In a recent molecular dynamics simulation work it has been shown that glasses composed of hard spheres crystallize via cooperative, stochastic particle displacements called avalanches [E. Sanz et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 75 (2014), 10.1073/pnas.1308338110]. In this Rapid Communication we investigate if such a devitrification mechanism is also present when the dynamics is Brownian rather than Newtonian. The research is motivated in part by the fact that colloidal suspensions, an experimental realization of hard-sphere systems, undergo Brownian motion. We find that Brownian hard-sphere glasses do crystallize via avalanches with very similar characteristics to those found in the Newtonian case. We briefly discuss the implications of these findings for experiments on colloids.
Viscous dark matter growth in (neo-)Newtonian cosmology
Velten, H.; Schwarz, D. J.; Fabris, J. C.; Zimdahl, W.
2013-11-01
We assume cold dark matter to possess a small bulk-viscous pressure which typically attenuates the growth of inhomogeneities. Explicit calculations, based on Eckart’s theory of dissipative processes, reveal that for viscous cold dark matter the usual Newtonian approximation for perturbation scales smaller than the Hubble scale is no longer valid. We advocate the use of a neo-Newtonian approach which consistently incorporates pressure effects into the fluid dynamics and correctly reproduces the general relativistic dynamics. This result is of interest for numerical simulations of nonlinear structure formation involving nonstandard dark-matter fluids. We obtain upper limits on the magnitude of the viscous pressure by requiring that relevant perturbation amplitudes should grow sufficiently to enter the nonlinear stage.
Journal Bearings Lubrication Aspect Analysis Using Non-Newtonian Fluids
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abdessamed Nessil
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of this work is related to an analysis of journal bearings lubrication using non-Newtonian fluids which are described by a power-law model. The performance characteristics of the journal bearings are determined for various values of the non-Newtonian power-law index “” which is equal to: 0.9, 1, and 1.1. Obtained numerical results show that for the dilatant fluids (, the load-carrying capacity, the pressure, the temperature, and the frictional force increased while for the pseudo-plastic fluids ( they decreased. The influence of the thermal effects on these characteristics is important at higher values of the flow behavior index “.” Obtained results are compared to those obtained by others. Good agreement is observed between the different results.
Constraints on Covariant Horava-Lifshitz Gravity from frame-dragging experiment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Radicella, Ninfa; Lambiase, Gaetano; Parisi, Luca; Vilasi, Gaetano, E-mail: ninfa.radicella@sa.infn.it, E-mail: lambiase@sa.infn.it, E-mail: parisi@sa.infn.it, E-mail: vilasi@sa.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' E.R. Caianiello" , Università di Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II 132, 84081 Fisciano (Italy)
2014-12-01
The effects of Horava-Lifshitz corrections to the gravito-magnetic field are analyzed. Solutions in the weak field, slow motion limit, referring to the motion of a satellite around the Earth are considered. The post-newtonian paradigm is used to evaluate constraints on the Horava-Lifshitz parameter space from current satellite and terrestrial experiments data. In particular, we focus on GRAVITY PROBE B, LAGEOS and the more recent LARES mission, as well as a forthcoming terrestrial project, GINGER.
Modified Gravity Theories: Alternatives To The Missing Mass And Missing Energy Problems
Soussa, M E
2005-01-01
Modified theories of gravity are examined and shown to be alternative possibilities to the standard paradigms of dark matter and dark energy in explaining the currently observed cosmological phenomenology. Special consideration is given to the relativistic extension of Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) in supplanting the need for dark matter. A specific modification of the Einstein-Hilbert action (whereby an inverse power of the Ricci scalar is added) is shown to serve as an alternative to dark energy.
ngVLA Key Science Goal 4: Using Pulsars in the Galactic Center as Fundamental Tests of Gravity
Bower, Geoffrey C.; Chatterjee, Shami; Cordes, James; Demorest, Paul; Dexter, Jason; Kramer, Michael; Lazio, Joseph; Ransom, Scott; Wharton, Robert; ngVLA Science Working Group 4
2018-01-01
Pulsars in the Galactic Center (GC) are important probes of general relativity (GR), star formation, stellar dynamics, stellar evolution, and the interstellar medium. A pulsar in orbit around the massive black hole in the GC, Sgr A*, has the power to provide a high-precision measurement of the black hole mass and spin in a unique regime of GR. It is sufficient to find and time a normal, slowly rotating pulsar in a reasonable orbit, in order to measure the mass of Sgr A* with a precision of 1 solar mass, to test the cosmic censorship conjecture to a precision of 0.1%, and to test the no-hair theorem to a precision of 1%. The pulsar population in the GC on scales from the inner parsec to the edge of the Central Molecular Zone (250 parsecs in diameter) can provide fresh insight into the complex processes at work in this region: the characteristic age distribution of the discovered pulsars will give insight into the star formation history; millisecond pulsars can be used as acceleratormeters to probe the local gravitational potential; the observed dispersion and scattering measures (and their variability) will allow us to probe the distribution, clumpiness and other properties of the central interstellar medium, including characterization of the central magnetic field using Faraday rotation. Proper motions of young pulsars can be used to point back to regions of recent star formation and/or supernova remnants.Despite years of searching, only a handful of pulsars in the central 0.5 degrees are known. This is likely the result of strong interstellar scattering along the line of sight, which broadens individual pulses to greater width than the pulse period. Scattering effects decline as wavelength to the fourth power, implying that we require observation at higher frequencies than are typical for typical pulsar searches. The characteristic steep spectrum of pulsars, however, implies the need for greater instrumental sensitivity at higher frequencies in order to detect and
Shape Oscillations of Gas Bubbles With Newtonian Interfacial Rheological Properties
Nadim, Ali
1996-01-01
The oscillation frequency and damping rate for small-amplitude axisymmetric shape modes of a gas bubble in an ideal liquid are obtained, in the limit when the bubble interface possesses Newtonian interfacial rheology with constant surface shear and dilatational viscosities. Such results permit the latter surface properties to be measured by analyzing experimental data on frequency shift and damping rate of specific shape modes of suspended bubbles in the presence of surfactants.
NUMERICAL MODELING OF GENERALIZED NEWTONIAN FLOWS IN CHANNELS
Kozel, Karel
2012-01-01
This paper is concerned with numerical solution of generalized Newtonian flow in the channel geometry. This flow is described by the system of generalized Navier-Stokes equations. The system of equations consists of continuity and momentum equations. Viscosity in the momentum equations is not constant and is prescribed by a function depending on the shear rate. Numerical solution is based on the artificial compressibility method. Using this method allows us to solve hyperbolic-parabolic syste...
GUP parameter from quantum corrections to the Newtonian potential
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Scardigli, Fabio, E-mail: fabio@phys.ntu.edu.tw [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza L. da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Lambiase, Gaetano, E-mail: lambiase@sa.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica “E.R. Caianiello”, Universita' di Salerno, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy); INFN – Gruppo Collegato di Salerno (Italy); Vagenas, Elias C., E-mail: elias.vagenas@ku.edu.kw [Theoretical Physics Group, Department of Physics, Kuwait University, P.O. Box 5969, Safat 13060 (Kuwait)
2017-04-10
We propose a technique to compute the deformation parameter of the generalized uncertainty principle by using the leading quantum corrections to the Newtonian potential. We just assume General Relativity as theory of Gravitation, and the thermal nature of the GUP corrections to the Hawking spectrum. With these minimal assumptions our calculation gives, to first order, a specific numerical result. The physical meaning of this value is discussed, and compared with the previously obtained bounds on the generalized uncertainty principle deformation parameter.
Newtonian noise limit in atom interferometers for gravitational wave detection
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vetrano, Flavio; Vicere, Andrea [Universita degli Studi di Urbino ' ' Carlo Bo' ' , Dipartimento di Scienze di Base e Fondamenti - DiSBeF, Urbino (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Firenze, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)
2013-10-15
In this work we study the influence of the Newtonian noise on atom interferometers applied to the detection of gravitational waves, and we compute the resulting limits to the sensitivity in two different configurations: a single atom interferometer, or a pair of atom interferometers operated in a differential configuration. We find that for the instrumental configurations considered, and operating in the frequency range [0.1-10] Hz, the limits would be comparable to those affecting large scale optical interferometers. (orig.)
Particle manipulations in non-Newtonian microfluidics: A review.
Lu, Xinyu; Liu, Chao; Hu, Guoqing; Xuan, Xiangchun
2017-08-15
Microfluidic devices have been widely used since 1990s for diverse manipulations of particles (a general term of beads, cells, vesicles, drops, etc.) in a variety of applications. Compared to the active manipulation via an externally imposed force field, the passive manipulation of particles exploits the flow-induced intrinsic lift and/or drag to control particle motion with several advantages. Along this direction, inertial microfluidics has received tremendous interest in the past decade due to its capability to handle a large volume of samples at a high throughput. This inertial lift-based approach in Newtonian fluids, however, becomes ineffective and even fails for small particles and/or at low flow rates. Recent studies have demonstrated the potential of elastic lift in non-Newtonian fluids for manipulating particles with a much smaller size and over a much wider range of flow rates. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the various passive manipulations, including focusing, separation, washing and stretching, of particles that have thus far been demonstrated in non-Newtonian microfluidics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cadiz, California Gravity Data
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (32 records) were gathered by Mr. Seth I. Gutman for AridTech Inc., Denver, Colorado using a Worden Prospector gravity meter. This data base...
Beysens, D.A.; van Loon, J.J.W.A.; Beysens, D.A.; van Loon, J.J.W.A.
2015-01-01
It is generally thought that gravity is zero on an object travelling at constant velocity in space. This is not exactly so. We detail in the following those causes that make space gravity not strictly zero.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Central Andes gravity data (6,151 records) were compiled by Professor Gotze and the MIGRA Group. This data base was received in April, 1997. Principal gravity...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (24,284 records) were compiled by the U. S. Geological Survey. This data base was received on February 23, 1993. Principal gravity...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Decade of North American Geology (DNAG) gravity grid values, spaced at 6 km, were used to produce the Gravity Anomaly Map of North America (1987; scale...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Roberto Mei
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The application of a multivariable predictive controller to the mixing process for the production of a non-Newtonian fluid is discussed in this work. A data-driven model has been developed to describe the dynamic behaviour of the rheological properties of the fluid as a function of the operating conditions using experimental data collected in a pilot plant. The developed model provides a realistic process representation and it is used to test and verify the multivariable controller, which has been designed to maintain viscosity curves of the non-Newtonian fluid within a given region of the viscosity-vs-shear rate plane in presence of process disturbances occurring in the mixing process.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jingya Sun
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Dampers are widely applied to protect devices or human body from severe impact or harmful vibration circumstances. Considering that dampers with low velocity exponent have advantages in energy absorption, they have been widely used in antiseismic structures and shock buffering. Non-Newtonian fluid with strong shear-thinning effect is commonly adopted to achieve this goal. To obtain the damping mechanism and find convenient methods to design the nonlinear fluid damper, in this study, a hydraulic damper is filled with 500,000 cSt silicone oil to achieve a low velocity exponent. Drop hammer test is carried out to experimentally obtain its impact and buffering characteristics. Then a coupling model is built to analyze its damping mechanism, which consists of a model of impact system and a computational fluid dynamics (CFD model. Results from the coupling model can be consistent with the experiment results. Simulation method can help design non-Newtonian fluid dampers more effectively.
A study on the pressure loss coefficient of non-Newtonian fluids in the stenotic tubes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Suh, S.H. [Soong Sil University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, S.S. [Han Kuk Aviation University (Korea, Republic of); Chang, N.I. [Hyosung Heavy Industries and Construction Co., Ltd. (Korea, Republic of)
1996-05-01
The pressure loss coefficient of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids such as water, aqueous solutions of Carbopol-934 and Separan AP-273 and blood in the stenotic tubes are determined experimentally and numerically. The numerical analyses for flows of non-Newtonian fluids in the stenotic tubes are conducted by the finite element method. The effect of the contraction ratio and the ratio of length to diameter on the pressure drop are investigated by the experiments and numerical analysis. The pressure loss coefficients are significantly dependent upon the Reynolds number in the laminar flow regime. As Reynolds number increases, the pressure loss coefficients of both Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids decrease in the laminar flow regime. As the ratio of length to diameter increases the maximum pressure loss coefficient increases in the laminar flow regime for both Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids. Newtonian fuid shows the highest values of pressure loss coefficient and blood the next, followed by Carbopol solution and Separan solution in order. Experimental results are used to verify the numerical analyses for flows of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids. Numerical results for the maximum pressure loss coefficient in the stenotic tubes are in fairly good agreement with the experimental results. The relative differences between the numerical and experimental results of the pressure loss coefficients in the laminar flow regime range from 0.5% to 14.8%. (author). 17 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Ratkovich, Nicolas Rios; Madsen, S.
2012-01-01
, impellers. Validation of the CFD (computational ﬂuid dynamics) model was made against laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) tangential velocity measurements (error less than 8%) using water as a ﬂuid. The shear stress over the membrane surface was inferred from the CFD simulations for water. However, activated......Fouling is the main bottleneck of the widespread use of MBR systems. One way to decrease and/or control fouling is by process hydrodynamics. This can be achieved by the increase of liquid cross- ﬂow velocity. In rotational cross-ﬂow MBR systems, this is attained by the spinning of, for example...... sludge (AS) is a non-Newtonian liquid, for which the CFD model was modiﬁed incorporating the non-Newtonian behaviour of AS. Shear stress and area-weighted average shear stress relationships were made giving error less that 8% compared with the CFD results. An empirical relationship for the area...
Bergshoeff, E.; Pope, C.N.; Stelle, K.S.
1990-01-01
We discuss the notion of higher-spin covariance in w∞ gravity. We show how a recently proposed covariant w∞ gravity action can be obtained from non-chiral w∞ gravity by making field redefinitions that introduce new gauge-field components with corresponding new gauge transformations.
Levi Said, Jackson; Farrugia, Gabriel; Finch, Andrew; Pace, Mark
2016-01-01
Five small articles by each author: 1 The Gravity Research Group by Jackson Levi Said 2 Cosmology and Gravity: The dark side of the universe by Gabriel Farrugia 3 Galactic Rotation Dynamics in Modifi ed Gravity by Andrew Finch 4 Exotic Stars by Mark Pace
Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni
2003-01-01
Comment: 9 pages, LaTex. These notes were prepared while working on an invited contribution to the November 2003 issue of Physics World, which focused on quantum gravity. They intend to give a non-technical introduction (accessible to readers from outside quantum gravity) to "Quantum Gravity Phenomenology"
Gravity and decoherence: the double slit experiment revisited
Samuel, Joseph
2018-02-01
The double slit experiment is iconic and widely used in classrooms to demonstrate the fundamental mystery of quantum physics. The puzzling feature is that the probability of an electron arriving at the detector when both slits are open is not the sum of the probabilities when the slits are open separately. The superposition principle of quantum mechanics tells us to add amplitudes rather than probabilities and this results in interference. This experiment defies our classical intuition that the probabilities of exclusive events add. In understanding the emergence of the classical world from the quantum one, there have been suggestions by Feynman, Diosi and Penrose that gravity is responsible for suppressing interference. This idea has been pursued in many different forms ever since, predominantly within Newtonian approaches to gravity. In this paper, we propose and theoretically analyse two ‘gedanken’ or thought experiments which lend strong support to the idea that gravity is responsible for decoherence. The first makes the point that thermal radiation can suppress interference. The second shows that in an accelerating frame, Unruh radiation does the same. Invoking the Einstein equivalence principle to relate acceleration to gravity, we support the view that gravity is responsible for decoherence.
Investigations of the gravity profile below the Tibetan plateau
Shen, W. B.; Han, J. C.
2012-04-01
Scientists pay great attention to the structure and dynamics of the Tibetan plateau due to the fact that it is a natural experiment site for geoscience studies. The gravity profiles below the Tibetan plateau with successive high-accuracy play more and more significant role in studying the structure and evolution of the Tibetan plateau. This study focuses on determining the inner gravity field of the Tibetan plateau until to the depth of D and interpret possible mechanism of the gravity profile below the Tibetan plateau, especially reinvestigating the isostasy problem (Pratt hypothesis and Airy hypothesis). The inner gravity field below the Tibetan plateau is determined based on a simple technique (i.e. a combination of Newtonian integral, downward continuation of gravity field, and "remove-restore" scheme) and the following datasets: the external Earth gravitational model EGM2008 and the digital topographic model DTM2006.0 released by NGA (National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, USA), and the crust density distribution model CRUST2.0 released by NGS (National Geological Survey, USA). This study is supported by Natural Science Foundation China (grant No.40974015; No.41174011).
Gholson, Barry; Witherspoon, Amy; Morgan, Brent; Brittingham, Joshua K.; Coles, Robert; Graesser, Arthur C.; Sullins, Jeremiah; Craig, Scotty D.
2009-01-01
This paper tested the deep-level reasoning questions effect in the domains of computer literacy between eighth and tenth graders and Newtonian physics for ninth and eleventh graders. This effect claims that learning is facilitated when the materials are organized around questions that invite deep-reasoning. The literature indicates that vicarious…
Clark, Douglas B.; Nelson, Brian C.; Chang, Hsin-Yi; Martinez-Garza, Mario; Slack, Kent; D'Angelo, Cynthia M.
2011-01-01
This study investigates the potential of a digital game that overlays popular game-play mechanics with formal physics representations and terminology to support explicit learning and exploration of Newtonian mechanics. The analysis compares test data, survey data, and observational data collected during implementations in Taiwan and the United…
Comparison of post-Newtonian templates for extreme mass ratio inspirals
Varma, Vijay; Choudhary, Ashok; Iyer, Bala R
2013-01-01
Extreme mass ratio inspirals (EMRIs), the inspirals of compact objects into supermassive black holes, are important gravitational wave sources for the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). We study the performance of various post-Newtonian (PN) template families relative to the high precision numerical waveforms in the context of EMRI parameter estimation with LISA. Expressions for the time domain waveforms TaylorT1, TaylorT2, TaylorT3, TaylorT4 and TaylorEt are derived up to 22PN order, i.e $\\mathcal{O}(v^{44})$ ($v$ is the characteristic velocity of the binary) beyond the Newtonian term, for a test particle in a circular orbit around a Schwarzschild black hole. The phase difference between the above 22PN waveform families and numerical waveforms are evaluated during two-year inspirals for two prototypical EMRI systems with mass ratios $10^{-4}$ and $10^{-5}$. We find that the dephases (in radians) for TaylorT1 and TaylorT2, respectively, are about $10^{-9}$ ($10^{-2}$) and $10^{-9}$ ($10^{-3}$) for mas...
Impinging jet spray formation using non-Newtonian liquids
Rodrigues, Neil S.
Over the past two decades there has been a heightened interest in implementing gelled propellants for rocket propulsion, especially for hypergolic bi-propellants such as monomethylhydrazine (MMH) and nitrogen tetroxide oxidizer (NTO). Due to the very high level of toxicity of hypergolic liquid rocket propellants, increasing safety is an important area of need for continued space exploration and defense operations. Gelled propellants provide an attractive solution to meeting the requirements for safety, while also potentially improving performance. A gelling agent can be added to liquid propellants exhibiting Newtonian behavior to transform the liquid into a non-Newtonian fluid with some solid-like behavior, i.e. a gel. Non-Newtonian jet impingement is very different from its Newtonian counterpart in terms of fluid flow, atomization, and combustion. This is due to the added agents changing physical properties such as the bulk rheology (viscosity) and interfacial rheology (surface tension). Spray characterization of jet impingement with Newtonian liquids has been studied extensively in existing literature. However, there is a scarcity in literature of studies that consider the spray characterization of jet impingement with gelled propellants. This is a rather critical void since a major tradeoff of utilizing gelled propellants is the difficulty with atomization due to the increased effective viscosity. However, this difficulty can be overcome by using gels that exhibit shear-thinning behavior---viscosity decreases with increasing strain rate. Shear-thinning fluids are ideal because they have the distinct advantage of only flowing easily upon pressure. Thereby, greatly reducing the amount of propellant that could be accidentally leaked during both critical functions such as liftoff or engagement in the battlefield and regular tasks like refilling propellant tanks. This experimental work seeks to help resolve the scarcity in existing literature by providing drop size
Dynamical 3-Space Gravity Theory: Effects on Polytropic Solar Models
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May R. D.
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Numerous experiments and observations have confirmed the existence of a dynamical 3-space, detectable directly by light-speed anisotropy experiments, and indirectly by means of novel gravitational effects, such as bore hole g anomalies, predictable black hole masses, flat spiral-galaxy rotation curves, and the expansion of the universe, all without dark matter and dark energy. The dynamics for this 3-space follows from a unique generalisation of Newtonian gravity, once that is cast into a velocity formalism. This new theory of gravity is applied to the solar model of the sun to compute new density, pressure and temperature profiles, using polytrope modelling of the equation of state for the matter. These results should be applied to a re-analysis of solar neutrino production, and to stellar evolution in general.
Dynamical 3-Space Gravity Theory: Effects on Polytropic Solar Models
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Cahill R. T.
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Numerous experiments and observations have confirmed the existence of a dynamical 3-space, detectable directly by light-speed anisotropy experiments, and indirectly by means of novel gravitational effects, such as bore hole g-anomalies, predictable black hole masses, flat spiral-galaxy rotation curves, and the expansion of the universe, all without dark matter and dark energy. The dynamics for this 3-space follows from a unique generalisation of Newtonian gravity, once that is cast into a velocity formalism. This new theory of gravity is applied to the solar model of the sun to compute new density, pressure and temperature profiles, using polytrope modelling of the equation of state for the matter. These results should be applied to a re-analysis of solar neutrino production, and to stellar evolution in general.
Adaptative displays of body constitution in gravity cyclists
Siriški, Damjan; Novotný, Jan
2015-01-01
The objective of our study was to investigate somatotype, body constitution and motor skills of elite cyclists of technical gravity disciplines (freestyle MTB, biketrial) and downhill gravity disciplines (fourcross, downhill) and to characterize the impact of specific training process on body constitution and level of motor skills. Test group consisted of 30 riders (15 technical gravity disciplines, 15 downhill gravity disciplines). We used Heath-Carter method to define somatotype and Matiegk...
Adaptive displays of body constitution in gravity cyclists
Siriški Damjan; Novotný Jan
2015-01-01
The objective of our study was to investigate somatotype, body constitution and motor skills of elite cyclists of technical gravity disciplines (freestyle MTB, biketrial) and downhill gravity disciplines (fourcross, downhill) and to characterize the impact of specific training process on body constitution and level of motor skills. Test group consisted of 30 riders (15 technical gravity disciplines, 15 downhill gravity disciplines). We used Heath-Carter method to define somatotype and Matiegk...
Improved Airborne Gravity Results Using New Relative Gravity Sensor Technology
Brady, N.
2013-12-01
Airborne gravity data has contributed greatly to our knowledge of subsurface geophysics particularly in rugged and otherwise inaccessible areas such as Antarctica. Reliable high quality GPS data has renewed interest in improving the accuracy of airborne gravity systems and recent improvements in the electronic control of the sensor have increased the accuracy and ability of the classic Lacoste and Romberg zero length spring gravity meters to operate in turbulent air conditions. Lacoste and Romberg type gravity meters provide increased sensitivity over other relative gravity meters by utilizing a mass attached to a horizontal beam which is balanced by a ';zero length spring'. This type of dynamic gravity sensor is capable of measuring gravity changes on the order of 0.05 milliGals in laboratory conditions but more commonly 0.7 to 1 milliGal in survey use. The sensor may have errors induced by the electronics used to read the beam position as well as noise induced by unwanted accelerations, commonly turbulence, which moves the beam away from its ideal balance position otherwise known as the reading line. The sensor relies on a measuring screw controlled by a computer which attempts to bring the beam back to the reading line position. The beam is also heavily damped so that it does not react to most unwanted high frequency accelerations. However this heavily damped system is slow to react, particularly in turns where there are very high Eotvos effects. New sensor technology utilizes magnetic damping of the beam coupled with an active feedback system which acts to effectively keep the beam locked at the reading line position. The feedback system operates over the entire range of the system so there is now no requirement for a measuring screw. The feedback system operates at very high speed so that even large turbulent events have minimal impact on data quality and very little, if any, survey line data is lost because of large beam displacement errors. Airborne testing
Decay of solutions to equations modelling incompressible bipolar non-newtonian fluids
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Bo-Qing Dong
2005-11-01
Full Text Available This article concerns systems of equations that model incompressible bipolar non-Newtonian fluid motion in the whole space $mathbb{R}^n$. Using the improved Fourier splitting method, we prove that a weak solution decays in the $L^2$ norm at the same rate as $(1+t^{-n/4}$ as the time $t$ approaches infinity. Also we obtain optimal $L^2$ error-estimates for Newtonian and Non-Newtonian flows.
Effects of non-newtonian properties of blood flow on magnetic nanoparticle targeted drug delivery
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Mobin Haghdel
2017-04-01
Full Text Available Objective(s: One applications of nanotechnology is in the area of medicine which is called nanomedicine. Primary instruments in nanomedicine can help us to detect diseases and used for drug delivery to inaccessible areas of human tissues. An important issue in simulating the motion of nanoparticles is modeling blood flow as a Newtonian or non-Newtonian fluid. Sometimes blood flow is simulated as a Newtonian fluid but actually blood has nature of non-Newtonian fluid. Simulation of targeted drug delivery and motion of nanoparticles in the blood flow as Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid flow is investigated in this paperMaterials and Methods: In this paper, the blood flow is modeled as both Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid and the effects of each case on the motion of nanoparticles in blood flow and targeted drug delivery is investigated. The flow is modeled with finite volume method. The particle modeled with discrete phase model.Results: Cross, Herschel-Bulkley and Power-law models are used for simulating the non-Newtonian blood flow. Numerical simulations show that trajectory of nanoparticle’s movement and the required time to pass the vessel by blood flow is variable for different models. According to obtained results, non-Newtonian Power-law and Herschel-Bulkley models have closely similar results but they have significant differences compared with Newtonian model. Conclusion: According to the results, it is preferred in the simulation to model blood flow as a non-Newtonian fluid and uses one of Herschel- Bulkley or Power-law models. Otherwise the simulation is far different from real phenomena.
General relativistic weak-field limit and Newtonian N-body simulations
Fidler, Christian; Tram, Thomas; Rampf, Cornelius; Crittenden, Robert; Koyama, Kazuya; Wands, David
2017-12-01
We show how standard Newtonian N-body simulations can be interpreted in terms of the weak-field limit of general relativity by employing the recently developed Newtonian motion gauge. Our framework allows the inclusion of radiation perturbations and the non-linear evolution of matter. We show how to construct the weak-field metric by combining Newtonian simulations with results from Einstein-Boltzmann codes. We discuss observational effects on weak lensing and ray tracing, identifying important relativistic corrections.
Problems in non-Newtonian fluid mechanics
Manero, Octavio
1980-12-01
The rheological behavior of industrial liquids such as polymer solutions in complex flow situations and the possibility of predicting this behavior are addressed. Preliminary consideration is given to the rheometrical characterization of several elastico-viscous test solutions. Results of simple shear flow and oscillatory shear flow measurements are shown. These data enable us to choose the most appropriate solutions for our experimental studies. Implicit models of the Oldroyd-Maxwell type are chosen as our constitutive equations to characterize the complex behavior of the liquids considered. These models retain the simplicity necessary to solve complicated flow problems. The numerical method chosen to solve the very complex equations governing the flow of elastic liquids in complex flow situations is discussed. The method is of the generalized conjugate gradient type with incomplete LU-decomposition. This is used to solve the discretized equations using finite differences with central difference formula. The first flow problem considered deals with two unsteady pipe flows. Since experimental data for both are available, we attempt to simulate the experimental results using a conventional perturbation method and a more sophisticated finite difference technique employing the full set of equations. It is concluded that in the vibrating pipe situation the flow must be considered dominated by the axial movement of the pipe. Attention is devoted to the flow of elastic liquids in situations involving abrupt changes in geometry. Associated with this situation is the problem of determining the pressure field and in many publications the pressure solution is not included. The numerical determination of pressure fields in the L-shaped geometry is considered. Experimental pressure drop measurements are described which facilitate a comparison between theory and experiment. The relevant computer program is shown. The problem of the slow flow of elastic liquids past circular
King, Scott D.; Hager, Bradford H.
1990-01-01
The relationship between oceanic trench viscosity and oceanic plate velocity is studied using a Newtonian rheology by varying the viscosity at the trench. The plate velocity is a function of the trench viscosity for fixed Rayleigh number and plate/slab viscosity. Slab velocities for non-Newtonian rheology calculations are significantly different from slab velocities from Newtonian rheology calculations at the same effective Rayleigh number. Both models give reasonable strain rates for the slab when compared with estimates of seismic strain rate. Non-Newtonian rheology eliminates the need for imposed weak zones and provides a self-consistent fluid dynamical mechanism for subduction in numerical convection models.
Numerical analysis of non-Newtonian rheology effect on hydrocyclone flow field
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Lin Yang
2015-03-01
Full Text Available In view of the limitations of the existing Newton fluid effects on the vortex flow mechanism study, numerical analysis of non Newton fluid effects was presented. Using Reynolds stress turbulence model (RSM and mixed multiphase flow model (Mixture of FLUENT (fluid calculation software and combined with the constitutive equation of apparent viscosity of non-Newtonian fluid, the typical non-Newtonian fluid (drilling fluid, polymer flooding sewage and crude oil as medium and Newton flow field (water as medium were compared by quantitative analysis. Based on the research results of water, the effects of non-Newtonian rheology on the key parameters including the combined vortex motion index n and tangential velocity were analyzed. The study shows that: non-Newtonian rheology has a great effect on tangential velocity and n value, and tangential velocity decreases with non-Newtonian increasing. The three kinds of n values (constant segment are: 0.564(water, 0.769(polymer flooding sewage, 0.708(drilling fluid and their variation amplitudes are larger than Newtonian fluid. The same time, non-Newtonian rheology will lead to the phenomenon of turbulent drag reduction in the vortex flow field. Compared with the existing formula calculation results shown, the calculation result of non-Newtonian rheology is most consistent with the simulation result, and the original theory has large deviations. The study provides reference for theory research of non-Newtonian cyclone separation flow field.
Convex functions and some inequalities in terms of the Non-Newtonian Calculus
Unluyol, Erdal; Salas, Seren; Iscan, Imdat
2017-04-01
Differentiation and integration are basic operations of calculus and analysis. Indeed, they are many versions of the subtraction and addition operations on numbers, respectively. From 1967 till 1970 Michael Grossman and Robert Katz [1] gave definitions of a new kind of derivative and integral, converting the roles of subtraction and addition into division and multiplication, and thus establish a new calculus, called Non-Newtonian Calculus. So, in this paper, it is investigated to the convex functions and some inequalities in terms of Non-Newtonian Calculus. Then we compare with the Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Calculus.
Rheological non-Newtonian behaviour of ethylene glycol-based Fe2O3 nanofluids
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Pastoriza-Gallego María
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract The rheological behaviour of ethylene glycol-based nanofluids containing hexagonal scalenohedral-shaped α-Fe2O3 (hematite nanoparticles at 303.15 K and particle weight concentrations up to 25% has been carried out using a cone-plate Physica MCR rheometer. The tests performed show that the studied nanofluids present non-Newtonian shear-thinning behaviour. In addition, the viscosity at a given shear rate is time dependent, i.e. the fluid is thixotropic. Finally, using strain sweep and frequency sweep tests, the storage modulus G', loss modulus G″ and damping factor were determined as a function of the frequency showing viscoelastic behaviour for all samples.
The Non-Newtonian Rheology of Real Magmas: insights into 3D microstructures
Pistone, M.; Caricchi, L.; Ulmer, P.; Reusser, E.; Marone, F.; Burlini, L.
2010-12-01
thinning. These non-Newtonian effects can be reconciled with the observed microstructures. Shear thinning is related to an evident crystal size reduction and subsequent generation of shear bands, where deformation is predominantly accommodated. Shear thickening occurs when bubbles coalesce and gas-channels are produced thereby promoting magma degassing and resulting in an increase of viscosity due to volatile loss. In both cases, whether magmas are weakened or strengthened, finally, they result liable to fracture, if the strain rate is sufficiently incremented. BIBLIOGRAPHY Paterson, M.S., Olgaard, D.L. (2000). Rock deformation tests to large shear strains in torsion. Journal of Structural Geology 22, 1341-1358. Stampanoni, M., Groso, A., Isenegger, A., Mikuljan, G., Chen, Q., Bertrand, A., Henein, S., Betemps, R., Frommherz, U., Böhler, P., Meister, D., Lange, M., Abela, R. (2006). Trends in synchrotron-based tomographic imaging: the SLS experience. Proceedings of SPIE 6318, 1-14. Webb, S.L., Dingwell, D.B. (1990). Non-Newtonian rheology of igneous melts at high stresses and strain rates: experimental results for rhyolite, andesite, basalt and nephelinite. Journal of Geophysical Research 95 (B10), 15695-15701.
Inelastic non-Newtonian flow over heterogeneously slippery surfaces
Haase, A. Sander; Wood, Jeffery Alan; Sprakel, Lisette Maria Johanna; Lammertink, Rob G. H.
2017-01-01
In this study, we investigated inelastic non-Newtonian fluid flow over heterogeneously slippery surfaces. First, we simulated the flow of aqueous xanthan gum solutions over a bubble mattress, which is a superhydrophobic surface consisting of transversely positioned no-slip walls and no-shear gas bubbles. The results reveal that for shear-thinning fluids wall slip can be increased significantly, provided that the system is operated in the shear-thinning regime. For a 0.2 wt% xanthan gum soluti...
Viscosity of Heterogeneous Silicate Melts: A Non-Newtonian Model
Liu, Zhuangzhuang; Blanpain, Bart; Guo, Muxing
2017-12-01
The recently published viscosity data of heterogeneous silicate melts with well-documented structure and experimental conditions are critically re-analyzed and tabulated. By using these data, a non-Newtonian viscosity model incorporating solid fraction, solid shape, and shear rate is proposed on the basis of the power-law equation. This model allows calculating the viscosity of the heterogeneous silicate melts with solid fraction up to 34 vol pct. The error between the calculated and measured data is evaluated to be 32 pct, which is acceptable considering the large error in viscosity measurement of the completely liquid silicate melt.
Simple Choreographies of the Planar Newtonian N-Body Problem
Yu, Guowei
2017-08-01
In the N-body problem, a simple choreography is a periodic solution, where all masses chase each other on a single loop. In this paper we prove that for the planar Newtonian N-body problem with equal masses, N ≧ 3, there are at least 2 N-3 + 2[( N-3)/2] different main simple choreographies. This confirms a conjecture given by Chenciner et al. (Geometry, mechanics, and dynamics. Springer, New York, pp 287-308, 2002). All the simple choreoagraphies we prove belong to the linear chain family.
GUP parameter from quantum corrections to the Newtonian potential
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Fabio Scardigli
2017-04-01
Full Text Available We propose a technique to compute the deformation parameter of the generalized uncertainty principle by using the leading quantum corrections to the Newtonian potential. We just assume General Relativity as theory of Gravitation, and the thermal nature of the GUP corrections to the Hawking spectrum. With these minimal assumptions our calculation gives, to first order, a specific numerical result. The physical meaning of this value is discussed, and compared with the previously obtained bounds on the generalized uncertainty principle deformation parameter.
Falcon, N.
2017-07-01
At cosmic scales the dynamics of the Universe are almost exclusively prescribed by the force of gravity; however the assumption of the law of gravitation, depending on the inverse of the distance, leads to the known problems of the rotation curves of galaxies and missing mass (dark matter). The problem of the coupling of gravity to changes in scale and deviations from the law of the inverse square is an old problem (Laplace, 1805; Seeliger 1898), which has motivated alternatives to Newtonian dynamics compatible with observations. The present paper postulates a modified Newtonian dynamics by adding an inverse Yukawa potential: U(r)≡U0(M)(r-r0)e-α/r is the the potential per unit mass (in N/kg) as a function of the barionic mass that causes the field, r0 is of the order of 50h-1 Mpc and alpha is a coupling constant of the order of 2.5 h-1 Mpc. This potential is zero within the solar system, slightly attractive at interstellar distances, very attractive in galactic range and repulsive at cosmic scales. Its origin is the barionic matter, it allows to include the Milgrow MoND theory to explain the rotation curves, it is compatible with the experiments Eovos type, and allows to deduce the law of Hubble to cosmic scales, in the form H0=100h km/s Mpc≍U0(M)/c, where U0(M)≍ 4pi×6.67 10-11m/s2, is obtained from the Laplace's equation, assuming that the gravitational force is the law of the inverse of the square plus a non-linear term type Yukawa inverse. It is concluded that the modification of the law of gravity with nonlinear terms, allows to model the dynamics of the Universe on a large scale and include non-locality without dark matter. (See Falcon et al. 2014, International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 4, 551-559).
Pirkola, Patrik
2016-01-01
The surface gravity on Mars is smaller than the surface gravity on Earth, resulting in longer falling times. This effect can be simulated on Earth by taking advantage of air resistance and buoyancy, which cause low density objects to fall slowly enough to approximate objects falling on the surface of Mars. We describe a computer simulation based on an experiment that approximates Martian gravity, and verify our numerical results by performing the experiment.
Gravity Independent Compressor Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop and demonstrate a small, gravity independent, vapor compression refrigeration system using a linear motor compressor which effectively...
Classical Weyl transverse gravity
Oda, Ichiro
2017-05-01
We study various classical aspects of the Weyl transverse (WTDiff) gravity in a general space-time dimension. First of all, we clarify a classical equivalence among three kinds of gravitational theories, those are, the conformally invariant scalar tensor gravity, Einstein's general relativity and the WTDiff gravity via the gauge-fixing procedure. Secondly, we show that in the WTDiff gravity the cosmological constant is a mere integration constant as in unimodular gravity, but it does not receive any radiative corrections unlike the unimodular gravity. A key point in this proof is to construct a covariantly conserved energy-momentum tensor, which is achieved on the basis of this equivalence relation. Thirdly, we demonstrate that the Noether current for the Weyl transformation is identically vanishing, thereby implying that the Weyl symmetry existing in both the conformally invariant scalar tensor gravity and the WTDiff gravity is a "fake" symmetry. We find it possible to extend this proof to all matter fields, i.e. the Weyl-invariant scalar, vector and spinor fields. Fourthly, it is explicitly shown that in the WTDiff gravity the Schwarzschild black hole metric and a charged black hole one are classical solutions to the equations of motion only when they are expressed in the Cartesian coordinate system. Finally, we consider the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmology and provide some exact solutions.
Classical Weyl transverse gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oda, Ichiro [University of the Ryukyus, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Nishihara, Okinawa (Japan)
2017-05-15
We study various classical aspects of the Weyl transverse (WTDiff) gravity in a general space-time dimension. First of all, we clarify a classical equivalence among three kinds of gravitational theories, those are, the conformally invariant scalar tensor gravity, Einstein's general relativity and the WTDiff gravity via the gauge-fixing procedure. Secondly, we show that in the WTDiff gravity the cosmological constant is a mere integration constant as in unimodular gravity, but it does not receive any radiative corrections unlike the unimodular gravity. A key point in this proof is to construct a covariantly conserved energy-momentum tensor, which is achieved on the basis of this equivalence relation. Thirdly, we demonstrate that the Noether current for the Weyl transformation is identically vanishing, thereby implying that the Weyl symmetry existing in both the conformally invariant scalar tensor gravity and the WTDiff gravity is a ''fake'' symmetry. We find it possible to extend this proof to all matter fields, i.e. the Weyl-invariant scalar, vector and spinor fields. Fourthly, it is explicitly shown that in the WTDiff gravity the Schwarzschild black hole metric and a charged black hole one are classical solutions to the equations of motion only when they are expressed in the Cartesian coordinate system. Finally, we consider the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmology and provide some exact solutions. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Animesh Mukherjee
1991-01-01
Full Text Available Based upon Biot's [1965] theory of initial stresses of hydrostatic nature produced by the effect of gravity, a study is made of surface waves in higher order visco-elastic media under the influence of gravity. The equation for the wave velocity of Stonely waves in the presence of viscous and gravitational effects is obtained. This is followed by particular cases of surface waves including Rayleigh waves and Love waves in the presence of viscous and gravity effects. In all cases the wave-velocity equations are found to be in perfect agreement with the corresponding classical results when the effects of gravity and viscosity are neglected.
Inelastic non-Newtonian flow over heterogeneously slippery surfaces
Haase, A. Sander; Wood, Jeffery A.; Sprakel, Lisette M. J.; Lammertink, Rob G. H.
2017-02-01
In this study, we investigated inelastic non-Newtonian fluid flow over heterogeneously slippery surfaces. First, we simulated the flow of aqueous xanthan gum solutions over a bubble mattress, which is a superhydrophobic surface consisting of transversely positioned no-slip walls and no-shear gas bubbles. The results reveal that for shear-thinning fluids wall slip can be increased significantly, provided that the system is operated in the shear-thinning regime. For a 0.2 wt% xanthan gum solution with a power-law index of n =0.4 , the numerical results indicate that wall slip can be enhanced 3.2 times when compared to a Newtonian liquid. This enhancement factor was also predicted from a theoretical analysis, which gave an expression for the maximum slip length that can be attained over flat, heterogeneously slippery surfaces. Although this equation was derived for a no-slip/no-shear unit length that is much larger than the typical size of the system, we found that it can also be used to predict the enhancement in the regime where the slip length is proportional to the size of the no-shear region or the bubble width. The results could be coupled to the hydrodynamic development or entrance length of the system, as maximum wall slip is only reached when the fluid flow can fully adapt to the no-slip and no-shear conditions at the wall.
On a modification of the Newtonian particle view of rays
Ben-Benjamin, J. S.; Cohen, L.
2015-10-01
We have developed a simple Newtonian dynamics for the motion of rays as particles that are governed by Snell’s law. In Newton’s original formulation, the particle moves faster in a relatively higher index of refraction medium. We show that it is the constant mass assumption that leads to this conclusion. We derive an explicit expression for the mass as a function of position and show that the formulation leads to the conclusion that indeed the particle moves slower in a relatively higher index of refraction medium. Our approach leads to a simple Newtonian particle picture where the equations of motion may be simply written. We obtain explicit expressions for the velocity, acceleration, and forces which allow one to write the equations of motion. We also formulate the dynamics in terms of the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulations, taking variable mass into account. The solutions to the dynamics are such that the particle always follows Snell’s law in a variable index of refraction medium. Exactly solvable analytic examples are given. We also we show that the SOFAR channel phenomenon, where a wave is trapped between two regions, is easily explained in the particle picture.
Post-Newtonian Circular Restricted 3-Body Problem: Schwarzschild primaries
Dubeibe, F. L.; Lora-Clavijo, F. D.; González, G. A.
2017-07-01
The restricted three-body problem (RTBP) has been extensively studied to investigate the stability of the solar system, extra-solar subsystems, asteroid capture, and the dynamics of two massive black holes orbited by a sun. In the present work, we study the stability of the planar circular restricted three-body problem in the context of post-Newtonian approximations. First of all, we review the results obtained from the post-Newtonian equations of motion calculated in the framework of the Einstein-Infeld-Hoffmann formalism (EIH). Therefore, using the Fodor-Hoenselers-Perjes formalism (FHP), we have performed an expansion of the gravitational potential for two primaries, deriving a new system of equations of motion, which unlike the EIH-approach, preserves the Jacobian integral of motion. Additionally, we have obtained approximate expressions for the Lagrange points in terms of a mass parameter μ, where it is found that the deviations from the classical regime are larger for the FHP than for the EIH equations.
Measurement of Newtonian fluid slip using a torsional ultrasonic oscillator
Willmott, G. R.; Tallon, J. L.
2007-12-01
The composite torsional ultrasonic oscillator, a versatile experimental system, can be used to investigate slip of a Newtonian fluid at a smooth surface. A rigorous analysis of slip-dependent damping for the oscillator is presented. Initially, the phenomenon of finite surface slip and the slip length are considered for a half space of Newtonian fluid in contact with a smooth, oscillating solid surface. Definitions are reconsidered and clarified in light of inconsistencies in the literature. We point out that, in general oscillating flows, Navier’s slip length b is a complex number. An intuitive velocity discontinuity parameter of unrestricted phase is used to describe the effect of slip on measurement of viscous shear damping. The analysis is applied to the composite oscillator, and preliminary experimental work for a 40 kHz oscillator is presented. The nonslip boundary condition has been verified for a hydrophobic surface in water to within ˜60nm of |b|=0nm . Experiments were carried out at shear rate amplitudes between 230 and 6800s-1 , corresponding to linear displacement amplitudes between 3.2 and 96 nm.
Dynamics of magnetic nano-flake vortices in Newtonian fluids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bazazzadeh, Nasim, E-mail: n.bazazzadeh@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Evin, Tehran 19839 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohseni, Seyed Majid, E-mail: m-mohseni@sbu.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Evin, Tehran 19839 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khavasi, Amin, E-mail: khavasi@sharif.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 11555-4363 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zibaii, Mohammad Ismail, E-mail: mizibaye@gmail.com [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Evin, Tehran 19839 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Movahed, S.M.S., E-mail: m_movahed@sbu.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Evin, Tehran 19839 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jafari, G.R., E-mail: gjafari@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Evin, Tehran 19839 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2016-12-01
We study the rotational motion of nano-flake ferromagnetic disks suspended in a Newtonian fluid, as a potential material owing the vortex-like magnetic configuration. Using analytical expressions for hydrodynamic, magnetic and Brownian torques, the stochastic angular momentum equation is determined in the dilute limit conditions under applied magnetic field. Results are compared against experimental ones and excellent agreement is observed. We also estimate the uncertainty in the orientation of the disks due to the Brownian torque when an external magnetic field aligns them. Interestingly, this uncertainty is roughly proportional to the ratio of thermal energy of fluid to the magnetic energy stored in the disks. Our approach can be implemented in many practical applications including biotechnology and multi-functional fluidics. - Highlights: • The rotational motion of magnetic-vortex microdiscs in a Newtonian fluid is studied. • Results are compared against experimental ones and excellent agreement is observed. • The uncertainty in the orientation of the microdiscs is analytically derived.
Post-Newtonian approximation of the Einstein-Cartan-Sciama-Kibble theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Castagnino, M.; Levinas, M.L.; Umerez, N.
1985-07-01
The post-Newtonian approximation is applied to determine the exterior trajectories of test particles for the Einstein-Cartan-Sciama-Kibble generalization of general relativity, in which torsion due to matter spin does not propagate in the vacuum. The ideal-spinning-fluid model of Hehl et al. (1976) is employed, and the torsion corrections to the fourth-order potential psi are estimated. A significant reduction (relative to earlier theories) in the mass density required of an astronomical object for matter spin to be detectable is obtained, permitting experimental detection in stars with structures known to order v-bar and verification of the theory (via the acceleration equation) in objects with structures known to the second order in sigma-bar to the mu nu. 7 references.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jinlian Ren
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A periodic density reinitialization smoothed particle hydrodynamics (PDRI-SPH method is proposed to treat the generalized Newtonian free surface flows, which is based on the concept of Taylor series expansion. Meanwhile, an artificial stress term is also presented and tested, for the purpose of eliminating the unphysical phenomenon of particle clustering in fluid stretching. The free surface phenomena of a Cross model droplet impacting and spreading on an inclined rigid plate at low impacting angles are investigated numerically using the proposed PDRI-SPH method. In particular, the effect of the surface inclination and the different regimes of droplet impact, spreading and depositing on an inclined surface, are illustrated; the influence of surface inclination on the tensile instability is also concerned. The numerical results show that the accuracy and the stability of the conventional SPH are all improved by the periodic density reinitialization scheme. All numerical results agree well with the available reference data.
Finite Element Modeling of Suspended Particle Migration in Non-Newtonian Fluids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Altobelli, S.; Baer, T.; Mondy, L.; Rao, R.; Stephens, T.
1999-03-04
Shear-induced migration of particles is studied during the slow flow of suspensions of spheres (particle volume fraction {phi} = 0.50) in an inelastic but shear-thinning, suspending fluid in flow between counterrotating concentric cylinders, The conditions are such that nonhydrodynamic effects are negligible. The movement of particles away from the high shear rate region is more pronounced than in a Newtonian suspending liquid. We test a continuum constitutive model for the evolution of particle concentration in a flowing suspension proposed by Phillips et al. (1992) by using shear-thinning, suspending fluids. The fluid constitutive equation is Carreau-like in its shear-thinning behavior but also varies with the local particle concentration. The model is compared with the experimental data gathered with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging.
Comparison Between Self-Force and Post-Newtonian Dynamics: Beyond Circular Orbits
Akcay, Sarp; Barack, Leor; Sago, Norichika; Warburton, Niels
2015-01-01
The gravitational self-force (GSF) and post-Newtonian (PN) schemes are complementary approximation methods for modelling the dynamics of compact binary systems. Comparison of their results in an overlapping domain of validity provides a crucial test for both methods, and can be used to enhance their accuracy, e.g.\\ via the determination of previously unknown PN parameters. Here, for the first time, we extend such comparisons to noncircular orbits---specifically, to a system of two nonspinning objects in a bound (eccentric) orbit. To enable the comparison we use a certain orbital-averaged quantity $\\langle U \\rangle $ that generalizes Detweiler's redshift invariant. The functional relationship $\\langle U \\rangle(\\Omr,\\Omph)$, where $\\Omr$ and $\\Omph$ are the frequencies of the radial and azimuthal motions, is an invariant characteristic of the conservative dynamics. We compute $\\langle U \\rangle(\\Omr,\\Omph)$ numerically through linear order in the mass ratio $q$, using a GSF code which is based on a frequency-...
Astronomical Constraints on Some Long-Range Models of Modified Gravity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lorenzo Iorio
2007-01-01
Full Text Available We use the corrections to the Newton-Einstein secular precessions of the longitudes of the perihelia of the inner planets, phenomenologically estimated E.V. Pitjeva by fitting almost one century of data with the EPM2004 ephemerides, to constrain some long-range models of modified gravity recently put forth to address the dark energy and dark matter problems. They are the four-dimensional ones obtained with the addition of inverse powers and logarithm of some curvature invariants, and the DGP multidimensional braneworld model. After working out the analytical expressions of the secular perihelion precessions induced by the corrections to the Newtonian potential of such models, we compare them to the estimated extra-rates of perihelia by taking their ratio for different pairs of planets instead of using one perihelion at a time for each planet separately, as done so far in literature. The curvature invariants-based models are ruled out, even by rescaling by a factor 10 the errors in the estimated planetary orbital parameters. Less neat is the situation for the DGP model. Only the general relativistic Lense-Thirring effect, not included, as the other exotic models considered here, by Pitjeva in the EPM force models, passes such a test.
Influence of soil consolidation and thermal expansion effects on height and gravity variations
Romagnoli, C.; Zerbini, S.; Lago, L.; Richter, B.; Simon, D.; Domenichini, F.; Elmi, C.; Ghirotti, M.
2003-07-01
The daily GPS height series of the Medicina station were analyzed for the period July 1996-September 2001. The station is located in the middle Po Plain on fine-grained alluvial deposits. A seasonal oscillation in the order of 18 mm (peak-to-peak amplitude) is present in the data. This crustal deformation has been modeled by including variations in the atmospheric, oceanic and hydrologic mass. The vertical positions can also be affected significantly by soil consolidation. Geotechnical parameters derived by in situ tests and laboratory analyses of the clayey soil collected at Medicina allowed the estimate of the soil settlement relevant to the seasonal oscillation of the surficial water table. Thermal expansion of the geodetic monument has to be taken into account in the case of high-precision vertical positioning. In this work models both for the soil consolidation and the thermal expansion effects are provided. The continuous gravity observations collected at Medicina by means of a superconducting gravimeter also exhibit a marked seasonal oscillation, which has been interpreted as the sum of loading and Newtonian attraction effects, as well as of the contribution due to soil consolidation. Especially the study concerning the soil consolidation effect has allowed a better insight on the seasonal vertical movements occurring at the Medicina station by providing quantitative information on soil behavior due to change of effective pressures. The results can be applied to those stations characterized by similar fine-grained soils and surficial hydrogeology.
Entropy generation in a pipe due to non-Newtonian fluid flow ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
However, a rather simple approach can be introduced to consider the mixture as a single homogeneous continuum. In this case, the mixture of fluid and solid particles behaves like a non-Newtonian fluid (Johnson et al 1991). Considerable research studies were carried out to investigate non-Newtonian fluid flows in pipes.
Non-Newtonian fluid flow in annular pipes and entropy generation ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
non-Newtonian parameter, while it is the reverse for the viscosity parame- ter, which is more pronounced in the region close to the annular pipe inner wall. Keywords. Non-Newtonian fluid; third-grade fluid; variable viscosity; entropy; entropy generation number. 1. Introduction. Flow through annular pipes finds application in ...
General relativistic weak-field limit and Newtonian N-body simulations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fidler, Christian; Tram, Thomas; Rampf, Cornelius
2017-01-01
We show how standard Newtonian N-body simulations can be interpreted in terms of the weak-field limit of general relativity by employing the recently developed Newtonian motion gauge. Our framework allows the inclusion of radiation perturbations and the non-linear evolution of matter. We show how...
Drop impact experiments of non-Newtonian liquids on micro-structured surfaces
Guemas, Marine; Gomez Marin, Alvaro; Lohse, Detlef
2012-01-01
The spreading dynamics of Newtonian liquids have been extensively studied in hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces and their behaviors have been extensively explored over the last few years. However, the drop impact of non-Newtonian liquids still needs further study. Luu and Forterre (J. Fluid Mech.,
Al-Achi, Antoine; Baghat, Tushar; Chukwubeze, Onah; Dembla, Ishwin
2007-01-01
Knowledge of the physical characteristics of commercially available over-the-counter preparations can aid the compounding pharmacist in preparing medication. In this study, 15 over-the-counter products were studied with regard to their specific gravity, surface tension, pH, and rheologic profile. The specific gravities of all the products were greater than 1, with the exceptions of Nivea Lotion and rubbing alcohol, which were less than 1. The majority of the products had an acidic pH. With the exception of two products, Citrucel and Chloraseptic, all products demonstrated a surface tension value less than that of water (72.8 dynes/cm). Chloraseptic had the lowest Newtonian viscosity (1.27 cPs), whereas Vicks DayQuil had the highest (098.86 cPs). Citrucel exhibited dilatant-type flow; Suave Shampoo, herbal shampoo, Tangerine Tickle Herbal Shampoo, and Metamucil pseudoplastic flow; the remaining non-Newtonian formulations, plastic flow profiles.
Bringing Artificial Gravity into the Classroom
Thompson, Grant; Aning, Isaac
2018-01-01
We recently conducted an experimental test of artificial gravity by placing various species of plants in centrifuges and analyzed the plants’ germination and growth. This research project incorporated several topics covered in undergraduate astronomy, biology, and physics courses. Given the interest of introductory astronomy students in artificial gravity and their pre-existing images of applications such as rotating spacecraft from pop culture, the results of the experiment may provide a gateway to discuss artificial gravity beyond teaching the traditional examples of Newton’s laws. We will discuss the experiment in detail and provide suggestions for how the experiment could be incorporated into your classroom.
Tensor-vector-scalar-modified gravity: from small scale to cosmology.
Bekenstein, Jacob D
2011-12-28
The impressive success of the standard cosmological model has suggested to many that its ingredients are all that one needs to explain galaxies and their systems. I summarize a number of known problems with this programme. They might signal the failure of standard gravity theory on galaxy scales. The requisite hints as to the alternative gravity theory may lie with the modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) paradigm, which has proved to be an effective summary of galaxy phenomenology. A simple nonlinear modified gravity theory does justice to MOND at the non-relativistic level, but cannot be consistently promoted to relativistic status. The obstacles were first side-stepped with the formulation of tensor-vector-scalar theory (TeVeS), a covariant-modified gravity theory. I review its structure, its MOND and Newtonian limits, and its performance in the face of galaxy phenomenology. I also summarize features of TeVeS cosmology and describe the confrontation with data from strong and weak gravitational lensing.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sivakumar Venkatachalam
2011-09-01
Full Text Available Many experiments have been conducted to study the hydrodynamic characteristics of column reactors and loop reactors. In this present work, a novel combined loop airlift fluidized bed reactor was developed to study the effect of superficial gas and liquid velocities, particle diameter, fluid properties on gas holdup by using Newtonian and non-Newtonian liquids. Compressed air was used as gas phase. Water, 5% n-butanol, various concentrations of glycerol (60 and 80% were used as Newtonian liquids, and different concentrations of carboxy methyl cellulose aqueous solutions (0.25, 0.6 and 1.0% were used as non-Newtonian liquids. Different sizes of spheres, Bearl saddles and Raschig rings were used as solid phases. From the experimental results, it was found that the increase in superficial gas velocity increases the gas holdup, but it decreases with increase in superficial liquid velocity and viscosity of liquids. Based on the experimental results a correlation was developed to predict the gas hold-up for Newtonian and non-Newtonian liquids for a wide range of operating conditions at a homogeneous flow regime where the superficial gas velocity is approximately less than 5 cm/s
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guenther, Chris [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Garg, Rahul [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States)
2013-08-19
The Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) sponsored a workshop on non-Newtonian multiphase slurry at NETL’s Morgantown campus August 19 and 20, 2013. The objective of this special two-day meeting of 20-30 invited experts from industry, National Labs and academia was to identify and address technical issues associated with handling non-Newtonian multiphase slurries across various facilities managed by DOE. Particular emphasis during this workshop was placed on applications managed by the Office of Environmental Management (EM). The workshop was preceded by two webinars wherein personnel from ORP and NETL provided background information on the Hanford WTP project and discussed the critical design challenges facing this project. In non-Newtonian fluids, viscosity is not constant and exhibits a complex dependence on applied shear stress or deformation. Many applications under EM’s tank farm mission involve non-Newtonian slurries that are multiphase in nature; tank farm storage and handling, slurry transport, and mixing all involve multiphase flow dynamics, which require an improved understanding of the mechanisms responsible for rheological changes in non-Newtonian multiphase slurries (NNMS). To discuss the issues in predicting the behavior of NNMS, the workshop focused on two topic areas: (1) State-of-the-art in non-Newtonian Multiphase Slurry Flow, and (2) Scaling up with Confidence and Ensuring Safe and Reliable Long-Term Operation.
Lubrication performances of short journal bearings operating with non-Newtonian ferrofluids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lin, Jaw-Ren [Taoyuan Innovation Inst. of Tech., Jhongli, TW (China). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Li, Po-Jui [National Taipei Univ. of Technology, Taipei, TW (China). Dept. of Inst. of Mechatronic Engineering; Hung, Tzu-Chen [National Taipei Univ. of Technology, Taipei, TW (China). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
2013-03-15
The lubrication performances of short journal bearings operating with non-Newtonian ferrofluids have been investigated in the present study. Based upon the ferrofluid model of Shliomis and the micro-continuum theory of Stokes, a two-dimensional modified Reynolds equation is derived by taking into account the effects of rotation of ferromagnetic particles and the effects of non-Newtonian properties. As an application, the short-bearing approximation is illustrated. Comparing with the conventional non-ferrofluid case, the short journal bearings with ferrofluids in the presence of magnetic fields result in a higher load capacity. Comparing with the Newtonian ferrofluid case, the non-Newtonian effects of couple stresses provide an enhancement in the load capacity, as well as a reduction in the friction parameter. The inclusion of non-Newtonian couple stresses signifies an improvement in performance characteristics of ferrofluid journal bearings. (orig.)
Probing the dark matter issue in f(R)-gravity via gravitational lensing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lubini, M.; Tortora, C.; Naef, J.; Jetzer, P. [Universitaet Zuerich, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Zuerich (Switzerland); Capozziello, S. [Universita degli studi di Napoli ' ' Federico II' ' , Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Napoli (Italy); Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, Napoli (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Napoli (Italy)
2011-12-15
For a general class of analytic f(R)-gravity theories, we discuss the weak field limit in view of gravitational lensing. Though an additional Yukawa term in the gravitational potential modifies dynamics with respect to the standard Newtonian limit of General Relativity, the motion of massless particles results unaffected thanks to suitable cancellations in the post-Newtonian limit. Thus, all the lensing observables are equal to the ones known from General Relativity. Since f(R)-gravity is claimed, among other things, to be a possible solution to overcome for the need of dark matter in virialized systems, we discuss the impact of our results on the dynamical and gravitational lensing analyses. In this framework, dynamics could, in principle, be able to reproduce the astrophysical observations without recurring to dark matter, but in the case of gravitational lensing we find that dark matter is an unavoidable ingredient. Another important implication is that gravitational lensing, in the post-Newtonian limit, is not able to constrain these extended theories, since their predictions do not differ from General Relativity. (orig.)
Contribution of the GOCE gradiometer components to regional gravity solutions
Naeimi, Majid; Bouman, Johannes
2017-05-01
The contribution of the GOCE gravity gradients to regional gravity field solutions is investigated in this study. We employ radial basis functions to recover the gravity field on regional scales over Amazon and Himalayas as our test regions. In the first step, four individual solutions based on the more accurate gravity gradient components Txx, Tyy, Tzz and Txz are derived. The Tzz component gives better solution than the other single-component solutions despite the less accuracy of Tzz compared to Txx and Tyy. Furthermore, we determine five more solutions based on several selected combinations of the gravity gradient components including a combined solution using the four gradient components. The Tzz and Tyy components are shown to be the main contributors in all combined solutions whereas the Txz adds the least value to the regional gravity solutions. We also investigate the contribution of the regularization term. We show that the contribution of the regularization significantly decreases as more gravity gradients are included. For the solution using all gravity gradients, regularization term contributes to about 5 per cent of the total solution. Finally, we demonstrate that in our test areas, regional gravity modelling based on GOCE data provide more reliable gravity signal in medium wavelengths as compared to pre-GOCE global gravity field models such as the EGM2008.
Insight into the baryon-gravity relation in galaxies
Famaey, Benoit; Gentile, Gianfranco; Bruneton, Jean-Philippe; Zhao, Hongsheng
2007-03-01
Observations of spiral galaxies strongly support a one-to-one analytical relation between the inferred gravity of dark matter at any radius and the enclosed baryonic mass. It is baffling that baryons manage to settle the dark matter gravitational potential in such a precise way, leaving no “messy” fingerprints of the merging events and “gastrophysical” feedbacks expected in the history of a galaxy in a concordance Universe. This correlation of gravity with baryonic mass can be interpreted from several nonstandard angles, especially as a modification of gravity called TeVeS, in which no galactic dark matter is needed. In this theory, the baryon-gravity relation is captured by the dieletric-like function μ of modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND), controlling the transition from 1/r2 attraction in the strong gravity regime to 1/r attraction in the weak regime. Here, we study this μ-function in detail. We investigate the observational constraints upon it from fitting galaxy rotation curves, unveiling the degeneracy between the stellar mass-to-light ratio and the μ-function as well as the importance of the sharpness of transition from the strong to weak gravity regimes. We also numerically address the effects of nonspherical baryon geometry in the framework of nonlinear TeVeS, and exhaustively examine how the μ-function connects with the free function of that theory. In that regard, we exhibit the subtle effects and wide implications of renormalizing the gravitational constant. We finally present a discontinuity-free transition between quasistatic galaxies and the evolving Universe for the free function of TeVeS, inevitably leading to a return to 1/r2 attraction at very low accelerations in isolated galaxies.
Interior Alaska Bouguer Gravity Anomaly
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 1 kilometer Complete Bouguer Anomaly gravity grid of interior Alaska. Only those grid cells within 10 kilometers of a gravity data point have gravity values....
Dynamical spacetimes in conformal gravity
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Hongsheng Zhang; Yi Zhang; Xin-Zhou Li
2017-01-01
The conformal gravity remarkably boosts our prehension of gravity theories. We find a series of dynamical solutions in the W2-conformal gravity, including generalized Schwarzschild–Friedmann–Robertson–Walker (GSFRW...
No consistent bimetric gravity?
Deser, S.; Sandora, M.; Waldron, A
2013-01-01
We discuss the prospects for a consistent, nonlinear, partially massless (PM), gauge symmetry of bimetric gravity (BMG). Just as for single metric massive gravity, we show that consistency of BMG relies on it having a PM extension; we then argue that it cannot.
Consistency of orthodox gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bellucci, S. [INFN, Frascati (Italy). Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati; Shiekh, A. [International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)
1997-01-01
A recent proposal for quantizing gravity is investigated for self consistency. The existence of a fixed-point all-order solution is found, corresponding to a consistent quantum gravity. A criterion to unify couplings is suggested, by invoking an application of their argument to more complex systems.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2016-11-02
Nov 2, 2016 ... the existence of dark energy and dark matter, several modified theories of gravitation have been proposed as alternative to Einstein's theory. By modifying the geometrical part of Einstein–Hilbert action of general relativity, we obtain the modified gravity. Modified gravity is of great importance because it can ...
A testable prediction from entropic gravity
Süzen, Mehmet
2016-01-01
I have shown conceptually that quantum state has a direct relationship to gravitational constant due to entropic force posed by Verlinde's argument and part of the Newton-Schr\\"odinger equation (N-S) in the context of gravity induced collapse of the wavefunction via Di\\'osi-Penrose proposal. This direct relationship can be used to measure gravitational constant using state-of-the-art mater-wave interferometry to test the entropic gravity argument.
Jet impingement and primary atomization of non-Newtonian liquids
Mallory, Jennifer A.
The effect of liquid rheology on the flowfield resulting from non-Newtonian impinging jets was investigated experimentally and analytically. Experimental data were acquired using a unique experimental apparatus developed to examine the jet impingement of non-Newtonian liquids. The analytical modeling was aimed at determining which physical mechanisms transform non-Newtonian impinging jets into a sheet with waves on its surface, how those waves influence sheet fragmentation and subsequent ligament formation, and how those ligaments break up to form drops (primary atomization). Prior to impinging jet measurements, the rheological properties of 0.5 wt.-% CMC-7HF, 1.4 wt.-% CMC-7MF, 0.8 wt.-% CMC-7MF, 0.06 wt.-% CMC-7MF 75 wt.-% glycerin, 1 wt.-% Kappa carrageenan, and 1 wt.-% Agar were determined through the use of rotational and capillary rheometers. Two approaches were used to experimentally measure solid-like gel propellant simulant static surface tension. All liquids exhibited pseudoplastic rheological behavior. At various atomizer geometric and flow parameters sheet instability wavelength, sheet breakup length, ligament diameter, and drop sizes were measured from high-speed video images. Results showed that viscosity dependence on shear rate is not the sole factor that determines atomization likelihood. Instead, a key role is played by the interaction of the gelling agent with the solvent at the molecular level. For instance, despite high jet exit velocities and varying atomizer geometric parameters HPC gel propellant simulants did not atomize. The molecular nature of HPC results in physical entanglement of polymer chains when gelled, which resists liquid breakup and subsequent spray formation. However, atomization was achieved with Agar, which absorbs the water and forms a network around it rather than bonding to it. The measured liquid sheet instability wavelength, sheet breakup length, ligament diameter, and drop sizes were compared to predictions from a
Palsingh, S. (Inventor)
1975-01-01
An educational toy useful in demonstrating fundamental concepts regarding the laws of gravity is described. The device comprises a sphere 10 of radius r resting on top of sphere 12 of radius R. The center of gravity of sphere 10 is displaced from its geometrical center by distance D. The dimensions are so related that D((R+r)/r) is greater than r. With the center of gravity of sphere 10 lying on a vertical line, the device is in equilibrium. When sphere 10 is rolled on the surface of sphere 12 it will return to its equilibrium position upon release. This creates an illusion that sphere 10 is defying the laws of gravity. In reality, due to the above noted relationship of D, R, and r, the center of gravity of sphere 10 rises from its equilibrium position as it rolls a short distance up or down the surface of sphere 12.
Integrating post-Newtonian equations on graphics processing units
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Herrmann, Frank; Tiglio, Manuel [Department of Physics, Center for Fundamental Physics, and Center for Scientific Computation and Mathematical Modeling, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Silberholz, John [Center for Scientific Computation and Mathematical Modeling, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Bellone, Matias [Facultad de Matematica, Astronomia y Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Cordoba 5000 (Argentina); Guerberoff, Gustavo, E-mail: tiglio@umd.ed [Facultad de Ingenieria, Instituto de Matematica y Estadistica ' Prof. Ing. Rafael Laguardia' , Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo (Uruguay)
2010-02-07
We report on early results of a numerical and statistical study of binary black hole inspirals. The two black holes are evolved using post-Newtonian approximations starting with initially randomly distributed spin vectors. We characterize certain aspects of the distribution shortly before merger. In particular we note the uniform distribution of black hole spin vector dot products shortly before merger and a high correlation between the initial and final black hole spin vector dot products in the equal-mass, maximally spinning case. More than 300 million simulations were performed on graphics processing units, and we demonstrate a speed-up of a factor 50 over a more conventional CPU implementation. (fast track communication)
Interaction of the rigid journal with Newtonian fluid
Michal, Havlásek; František, Pochylý
2017-09-01
This paper deals with the problem of identification of added effects of incompressible Newtonian fluid that impacts on the rigid journal performing translational motion. It considers two degrees of freedom. The axial motion of the rigid journal was neglected. It assumes small oscillations and linear model. The task was solved for two geometrical configurations of the computational domain. In the first variant of geometry, there is no flow between the bases of journal and stator. The second variant of geometry also allows liquid to flow in space between the bases of journal and stator. The introduction describes the mathematical model for the identification of added mass, damping and stiffness matrices. On the basis of the mathematical model and computational modeling of velocity and pressure fields using CFD, the force components are determined. From there, the mentioned matrices are determined depending on the eccentricity of the rigid journal.
Constraining f(R gravity in solar system, cosmology and binary pulsar systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tan Liu
2018-02-01
Full Text Available The f(R gravity can be cast into the form of a scalar–tensor theory, and scalar degree of freedom can be suppressed in high-density regions by the chameleon mechanism. In this article, for the general f(R gravity, using a scalar–tensor representation with the chameleon mechanism, we calculate the parametrized post-Newtonian parameters γ and β, the effective gravitational constant Geff, and the effective cosmological constant Λeff. In addition, for the general f(R gravity, we also calculate the rate of orbital period decay of the binary system due to gravitational radiation. Then we apply these results to specific f(R models (Hu–Sawicki model, Tsujikawa model and Starobinsky model and derive the constraints on the model parameters by combining the observations in solar system, cosmological scales and the binary systems.
Constraining f(R) gravity in solar system, cosmology and binary pulsar systems
Liu, Tan; Zhang, Xing; Zhao, Wen
2018-02-01
The f (R) gravity can be cast into the form of a scalar-tensor theory, and scalar degree of freedom can be suppressed in high-density regions by the chameleon mechanism. In this article, for the general f (R) gravity, using a scalar-tensor representation with the chameleon mechanism, we calculate the parametrized post-Newtonian parameters γ and β, the effective gravitational constant Geff, and the effective cosmological constant Λeff. In addition, for the general f (R) gravity, we also calculate the rate of orbital period decay of the binary system due to gravitational radiation. Then we apply these results to specific f (R) models (Hu-Sawicki model, Tsujikawa model and Starobinsky model) and derive the constraints on the model parameters by combining the observations in solar system, cosmological scales and the binary systems.
Cosmological acceleration. Dark energy or modified gravity?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bludman, S.
2006-05-15
We review the evidence for recently accelerating cosmological expansion or ''dark energy'', either a negative pressure constituent in General Relativity (Dark Energy) or modified gravity (Dark Gravity), without any constituent Dark Energy. If constituent Dark Energy does not exist, so that our universe is now dominated by pressure-free matter, Einstein gravity must be modified at low curvature. The vacuum symmetry of any Robertson-Walker universe then characterizes Dark Gravity as low- or high-curvature modifications of Einstein gravity. The dynamics of either kind of ''dark energy'' cannot be derived from the homogeneous expansion history alone, but requires also observing the growth of inhomogeneities. Present and projected observations are all consistent with a small fine tuned cosmological constant, but also allow nearly static Dark Energy or gravity modified at cosmological scales. The growth of cosmological fluctuations will potentially distinguish between static and ''dynamic'' ''dark energy''. But, cosmologically distinguishing the Concordance Model {lambda}CDM from modified gravity will require a weak lensing shear survey more ambitious than any now projected. Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati low-curvature modifications of Einstein gravity may also be detected in refined observations in the solar system (Lue and Starkman) or at the intermediate Vainstein scale (Iorio) in isolated galaxy clusters. Dark Energy's epicyclic character, failure to explain the original Cosmic Coincidence (''Why so small now?'') without fine tuning, inaccessibility to laboratory or solar system tests, along with braneworld theories, now motivate future precision solar system, Vainstein-scale and cosmological-scale studies of Dark Gravity. (Orig.)
Dynamical analysis of cylindrically symmetric anisotropic sources in f( R, T) gravity
Zubair, M.; Azmat, Hina; Noureen, Ifra
2017-03-01
In this paper, we have analyzed the stability of cylindrically symmetric collapsing object filled with locally anisotropic fluid in f( R, T) theory, where R is the scalar curvature and T is the trace of stress-energy tensor of matter. Modified field equations and dynamical equations are constructed in f( R, T) gravity. The evolution or collapse equation is derived from dynamical equations by performing a linear perturbation on them. The instability range is explored in both the Newtonian and the post-Newtonian regimes with the help of an adiabetic index, which defines the impact of the physical parameters on the instability range. Some conditions are imposed on the physical quantities to secure the stability of the gravitating sources.
Evolution of axially symmetric anisotropic sources in f(R, T) gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zubair, M. [COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan); Noureen, Ifra [University of Management and Technology, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan)
2015-06-15
We discuss the dynamical analysis in f(R, T) gravity (where R is the Ricci scalar and T is the trace of the energy momentum tensor) for gravitating sources carrying axial symmetry. The self-gravitating system is taken to be anisotropic and the line element describes an axially symmetric geometry avoiding rotation about the symmetry axis and meridional motions (zero vorticity case). The modified field equations for axial symmetry in f(R, T) theory are formulated, together with the dynamical equations. Linearly perturbed dynamical equations lead to the evolution equation carrying the adiabatic index Γ, which defines the impact of a non-minimal matter to geometry coupling on the range of instability for Newtonian and post-Newtonian approximations. (orig.)
Dynamical analysis of cylindrically symmetric anisotropic sources in f(R, T) gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zubair, M.; Azmat, Hina [COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan); Noureen, Ifra [University of Management and Technology, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan)
2017-03-15
In this paper, we have analyzed the stability of cylindrically symmetric collapsing object filled with locally anisotropic fluid in f(R, T) theory, where R is the scalar curvature and T is the trace of stress-energy tensor of matter. Modified field equations and dynamical equations are constructed in f(R, T) gravity. The evolution or collapse equation is derived from dynamical equations by performing a linear perturbation on them. The instability range is explored in both the Newtonian and the post-Newtonian regimes with the help of an adiabatic index, which defines the impact of the physical parameters on the instability range. Some conditions are imposed on the physical quantities to secure the stability of the gravitating sources. (orig.)
Wu, Ning
2006-01-01
For a long time, it is generally believed that spin-spin interactions can only exist in a theory where Lorentz symmetry is gauged, and a theory with spin-spin interactions is not perturbatively renormalizable. But this is not true. By studying the motion of a spinning particle in gravitational field, it is found that there exist spin-spin interactions in gauge theory of gravity. Its mechanism is that a spinning particle will generate gravitomagnetic field in space-time, and this gravitomagnet...
How much gravity is needed to establish the perceptual upright?
Harris, Laurence R; Herpers, Rainer; Hofhammer, Thomas; Jenkin, Michael
2014-01-01
Might the gravity levels found on other planets and on the moon be sufficient to provide an adequate perception of upright for astronauts? Can the amount of gravity required be predicted from the physiological threshold for linear acceleration? The perception of upright is determined not only by gravity but also visual information when available and assumptions about the orientation of the body. Here, we used a human centrifuge to simulate gravity levels from zero to earth gravity along the long-axis of the body and measured observers' perception of upright using the Oriented Character Recognition Test (OCHART) with and without visual cues arranged to indicate a direction of gravity that differed from the body's long axis. This procedure allowed us to assess the relative contribution of the added gravity in determining the perceptual upright. Control experiments off the centrifuge allowed us to measure the relative contributions of normal gravity, vision, and body orientation for each participant. We found that the influence of 1 g in determining the perceptual upright did not depend on whether the acceleration was created by lying on the centrifuge or by normal gravity. The 50% threshold for centrifuge-simulated gravity's ability to influence the perceptual upright was at around 0.15 g, close to the level of moon gravity but much higher than the threshold for detecting linear acceleration along the long axis of the body. This observation may partially explain the instability of moonwalkers but is good news for future missions to Mars.
Effect of a Non-Newtonian Load on Signature S2 for Quartz Crystal Microbalance Measurements
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jae-Hyeok Choi
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The quartz crystal microbalance (QCM is increasingly used for monitoring the interfacial interaction between surfaces and macromolecules such as biomaterials, polymers, and metals. Recent QCM applications deal with several types of liquids with various viscous macromolecule compounds, which behave differently from Newtonian liquids. To properly monitor such interactions, it is crucial to understand the influence of the non-Newtonian fluid on the QCM measurement response. As a quantitative indicator of non-Newtonian behavior, we used the quartz resonator signature, S2, of the QCM measurement response, which has a consistent value for Newtonian fluids. We then modified De Kee’s non-Newtonian three-parameter model to apply it to our prediction of S2 values for non-Newtonian liquids. As a model, we chose polyethylene glycol (PEG400 with the titration of its volume concentration in deionized water. As the volume concentration of PEG400 increased, the S2 value decreased, confirming that the modified De Kee’s three-parameter model can predict the change in S2 value. Collectively, the findings presented herein enable the application of the quartz resonator signature, S2, to verify QCM measurement analysis in relation to a wide range of experimental subjects that may exhibit non-Newtonian behavior, including polymers and biomaterials.
Amiri Delouei, A.; Nazari, M.; Kayhani, M. H.; Kang, S. K.; Succi, S.
2016-04-01
In the current study, a direct-forcing immersed boundary-non-Newtonian lattice Boltzmann method (IB-NLBM) is developed to investigate the sedimentation and interaction of particles in shear-thinning and shear-thickening fluids. In the proposed IB-NLBM, the non-linear mechanics of non-Newtonian particulate flows is detected by combination of the most desirable features of immersed boundary and lattice Boltzmann methods. The noticeable roles of non-Newtonian behavior on particle motion, settling velocity and generalized Reynolds number are investigated by simulating benchmark problem of one-particle sedimentation under the same generalized Archimedes number. The effects of extra force due to added accelerated mass are analyzed on the particle motion which have a significant impact on shear-thinning fluids. For the first time, the phenomena of interaction among the particles, such as Drafting, Kissing, and Tumbling in non-Newtonian fluids are investigated by simulation of two-particle sedimentation and twelve-particle sedimentation. The results show that increasing the shear-thickening behavior of fluid leads to a significant increase in the kissing time. Moreover, the transverse position of particles for shear-thinning fluids during the tumbling interval is different from Newtonian and the shear-thickening fluids. The present non-Newtonian particulate study can be applied in several industrial and scientific applications, like the non-Newtonian sedimentation behavior of particles in food industrial and biological fluids.
Barr, Amy C.; Pappalardo, Robert T.
2005-01-01
Ice I exhibits a complex rheology at temperature and pressure conditions appropriate for the interiors of the outer ice I shells of Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto. We use numerical methods to determine the conditions required to trigger convection in an ice I shell with a stress-, temperature-, and grain-size-dependent rheology measured in laboratory experiments by Goldsby and Kohlstedt [2001] (henceforth GK2001). Triggering convection from an initially conductive ice shell with a non-Newtonian rheology for ice I requires that a finite-amplitude temperature perturbation be issued to the ice shell [2]. Here, we characterize the amplitude and wavelength of temperature perturbation required to initiate convection in the outer ice I shells of Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto using the GK2001 rheology for a range of ice grain sizes.
Barr, A. C.; Pappalardo, R. T.
2004-01-01
Ice I exhibits a complex rheology at temperature and pressure conditions appropriate for the interiors of the ice I shells of Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto. We use numerical methods and existing parameterizations of the critical Rayleigh number to determine the conditions required to trigger convection in an ice I shell with the stress-, temperature- and grain size- dependent rheology measured in laboratory experiments by Goldsby and Kohlstedt [2001]. The critical Rayleigh number depends on the ice grain size and the amplitude and wavelength of temperature perturbation issued to an initially conductive ice I shell. If the shells have an assumed uniform grain size less than 0.4 mm, deformation during initial plume growth is accommodated by Newtonian volume diffusion. If the ice grain size is between 0.4 mm and 3 cm, deformation during plume growth is accommodated by weakly non-Newtonian grain boundary sliding, where the critical ice shell thickness for convection depends on the amplitude of temperature perturbation to the _0.5 power. If the ice grain size exceeds 2 cm, convection can not occur in the ice I shells of the Galilean satellites regardless of the amplitude or wavelength of temperature perturbation. If the grain size in a convecting ice I shell evolves to effective values greater than 2 cm, convection will cease. If the ice shell has a grain size large enough to permit flow by dislocation creep, the ice is too stiff to permit convection, even in the thickest possible ice I shell. Consideration of the composite rheology implies that estimates of the grain size in the satellites and knowledge of their initial thermal states are required when judging the convective instability of their ice I shells.
Micro-gravity Isolation using only Electro-magnetic Actuators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vinther, D.; Alminde, Lars; Bisgaard, Morten
In this paper the design, construction and test of a free floating micro-gravity isolation platform to reduce the acceleration dose on zero gravity experiments on e.g. the International Space Station (ISS) is discussed. During the project a system is specified and constructed whereupon it is tested...
Micro-gravity Isolation using only Electro-magnetic Actuators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vinther, D.; Alminde, Lars; Bisgaard, Morten
2004-01-01
In this paper the design, construction and test of a free floating micro-gravity isolation platform to reduce the acceleration dose on zero gravity experiments on e.g. the International Space Station (ISS) is discussed. During the project a system is specified and constructed whereupon it is test...
Modifying gravity: you cannot always get what you want.
Starkman, Glenn D
2011-12-28
The combination of general relativity (GR) and the Standard Model of particle physics disagrees with numerous observations on scales from our Solar System up. In the canonical concordance model of Lambda cold dark matter (ΛCDM) cosmology, many of these contradictions between theory and data are removed or alleviated by the introduction of three completely independent new components of stress energy--the inflaton, dark matter and dark energy. Each of these in its turn is meant to have dominated (or to currently dominate) the dynamics of the Universe. There is, until now, no non-gravitational evidence for any of these dark sectors, nor is there evidence (though there may be motivation) for the required extension of the Standard Model. An alternative is to imagine that it is GR that must be modified to account for some or all of these disagreements. Certain coincidences of scale even suggest that one might expect not to make independent modifications of the theory to replace each of the three dark sectors. Because they must address the most different types of data, attempts to replace dark matter with modified gravity are the most controversial. A phenomenological model (or family of models), modified Newtonian dynamics, has, over the last few years, seen several covariant realizations. We discuss a number of challenges that any model that seeks to replace dark matter with modified gravity must face: the loss of Birkhoff's theorem, and the calculational simplifications it implies; the failure to explain clusters, whether static or interacting, and the consequent need to introduce dark matter of some form, whether hot dark matter neutrinos or dark fields that arise in new sectors of the modified gravity theory; the intrusion of cosmological expansion into the modified force law, which arises precisely because of the coincidence in scale between the centripetal acceleration at which Newtonian gravity fails in galaxies and the cosmic acceleration. We conclude with the
Applications of Group Theoretical Methods to Non-Newtonian Fluid Flow Models: Survey of Results
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Taha Aziz
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The present review is intended to encompass the applications of symmetry based approaches for solving non-Newtonian fluid flow problems in various physical situations. Works which deal with the fundamental science of non-Newtonian fluids that are analyzed using the Lie group method and conditional symmetries are reviewed. We provide the mathematical modelling, the symmetries deduced, and the solutions obtained for all the models considered. This survey includes, as far as possible, all the articles published until 2015. Only papers published by a process of peer review in archival journals are reviewed and are grouped together according to the specific non-Newtonian models under investigation.
Numerical study of purely viscous non-Newtonian flow in an abdominal aortic aneurysm.
Marrero, Victor L; Tichy, John A; Sahni, Onkar; Jansen, Kenneth E
2014-10-01
It is well known that blood has non-Newtonian properties, but it is generally accepted that blood behaves as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates above 100 s-1. However, in transient conditions, there are times and locations where the shear rate is well below 100 s-1, and it is reasonable to infer that non-Newtonian effects could become important. In this study, purely viscous non-Newtonian (generalized Newtonian) properties of blood are incorporated into the simulation-based framework for cardiovascular surgery planning developed by Taylor et al. (1999, "Predictive Medicine: Computational Techniques in Therapeutic Decision Making," Comput. Aided Surg., 4, pp. 231-247; 1998, "Finite Element Modeling of Blood Flow in Arteries," Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Eng., 158, pp. 155-196). Equations describing blood flow are solved in a patient-based abdominal aortic aneurysm model under steady and physiological flow conditions. Direct numerical simulation (DNS) is used, and the complex flow is found to be constantly transitioning between laminar and turbulent in both the spatial and temporal sense. It is found for the case simulated that using the non-Newtonian viscosity modifies the solution in subtle ways that yield a mesh-independent solution with fewer degrees of freedom than the Newtonian counterpart. It appears that in regions of separated flow, the lower shear rate produces higher viscosity with the non-Newtonian model, which reduces the associated resolution needs. When considering the real case of pulsatile flow, high shear layers lead to greater unsteadiness in the Newtonian case relative to the non-Newtonian case. This, in turn, results in a tendency for the non-Newtonian model to need fewer computational resources even though it has to perform additional calculations for the viscosity. It is also shown that both viscosity models predict comparable wall shear stress distribution. This work suggests that the use of a non-Newtonian viscosity models may be attractive
A Symmetry Particle Method towards Implicit Non‐Newtonian Fluids
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yalan Zhang
2017-02-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a symmetry particle method, the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH method, is extended to deal with non‐Newtonian fluids. First, the viscous liquid is modeled by a non‐Newtonian fluid flow and the variable viscosity under shear stress is determined by the Carreau‐Yasuda model. Then a pressure correction method is proposed, by correcting density error with individual stiffness parameters for each particle, to ensure the incompressibility of fluid. Finally, an implicit method is used to improve efficiency and stability. It is found that the nonNewtonian behavior can be well displayed in all cases, and the proposed SPH algorithm is stable and efficient.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (55,907 records) were gathered by various governmental organizations (and academia) using a variety of methods. This data base was received...
Phenomenological Quantum Gravity
Kimberly, Dagny; Magueijo, Joa~O.
2005-08-01
These notes summarize a set of lectures on phenomenological quantum gravity which one of us delivered and the other attended with great diligence. They cover an assortment of topics on the border between theoretical quantum gravity and observational anomalies. Specifically, we review non-linear relativity in its relation to loop quantum gravity and high energy cosmic rays. Although we follow a pedagogic approach we include an open section on unsolved problems, presented as exercises for the student. We also review varying constant models: the Brans-Dicke theory, the Bekenstein varying α model, and several more radical ideas. We show how they make contact with strange high-redshift data, and perhaps other cosmological puzzles. We conclude with a few remaining observational puzzles which have failed to make contact with quantum gravity, but who knows... We would like to thank Mario Novello for organizing an excellent school in Mangaratiba, in direct competition with a very fine beach indeed.
Carroll versus Galilei gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bergshoeff, Eric [Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen,Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Gomis, Joaquim [Departament de Física Cuàntica i Astrofísica and Institut de Ciències del Cosmos,Universitat de Barcelona,Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Rollier, Blaise [Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen,Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Rosseel, Jan [Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna,Boltzmanngasse 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Veldhuis, Tonnis ter [Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen,Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands)
2017-03-30
We consider two distinct limits of General Relativity that in contrast to the standard non-relativistic limit can be taken at the level of the Einstein-Hilbert action instead of the equations of motion. One is a non-relativistic limit and leads to a so-called Galilei gravity theory, the other is an ultra-relativistic limit yielding a so-called Carroll gravity theory. We present both gravity theories in a first-order formalism and show that in both cases the equations of motion (i) lead to constraints on the geometry and (ii) are not sufficient to solve for all of the components of the connection fields in terms of the other fields. Using a second-order formalism we show that these independent components serve as Lagrange multipliers for the geometric constraints we found earlier. We point out a few noteworthy differences between Carroll and Galilei gravity and give some examples of matter couplings.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (65,164 records) were gathered by various governmental organizations (and academia) using a variety of methods. The data base was received...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (71 records) were gathered by various governmental organizations (and academia) using a variety of methods. This data base was received in...
Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Hohm, Olaf; Townsend, Paul K.
2012-01-01
We present a brief review of New Massive Gravity, which is a unitary theory of massive gravitons in three dimensions obtained by considering a particular combination of the Einstein-Hilbert and curvature squared terms.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 1985, Dr. William F. Haxby of the Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory of Columbia University prepared this data base of free-air gravity anomalies, based on the...
Infrared Modifications Of Gravity
Rombouts, J
2005-01-01
In this thesis, we study theories that modify gravity at very large distances. Motivated by recent observations in cosmology, such as the dimming of type Ia supernovae and flattening of rotation curves of galaxies, we study two classes of theories that attempt to explain these observations as due to a change in the laws of gravity at large distances rather than due to the presence of new forms of exotic energy and matter. The first class of theories is massive gravity, obtained by adding a mass term to the action for the gravitational fluctuation in Einstein's general relativity. The second class of models we study are braneworlds that provide infrared modified gravity, in specific the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati model and its extension to higher codimensional branes. We stress in our discussion the field theoretical consistency, both classically and quantum-mechanically, of these models.
Garland, G D; Wilson, J T
2013-01-01
The Earth's Shape and Gravity focuses on the progress of the use of geophysical methods in investigating the interior of the earth and its shape. The publication first offers information on gravity, geophysics, geodesy, and geology and gravity measurements. Discussions focus on gravity measurements and reductions, potential and equipotential surfaces, absolute and relative measurements, and gravity networks. The text then elaborates on the shape of the sea-level surface and reduction of gravity observations. The text takes a look at gravity anomalies and structures in the earth's crust; interp
Quantum massive conformal gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Faria, F.F. [Universidade Estadual do Piaui, Centro de Ciencias da Natureza, Teresina, PI (Brazil)
2016-04-15
We first find the linear approximation of the second plus fourth order derivative massive conformal gravity action. Then we reduce the linearized action to separated second order derivative terms, which allows us to quantize the theory by using the standard first order canonical quantization method. It is shown that quantum massive conformal gravity is renormalizable but has ghost states. A possible decoupling of these ghost states at high energies is discussed. (orig.)
Artificial Gravity Research Project
Kamman, Michelle R.; Paloski, William H.
2005-01-01
Protecting the health, safety, and performance of exploration-class mission crews against the physiological deconditioning resulting from long-term weightlessness during transit and long-term hypogravity during surface operations will require effective, multi-system countermeasures. Artificial gravity (AG), which would replace terrestrial gravity with inertial forces generated by rotating the transit vehicle or by a human centrifuge device within the transit vehicle or surface habitat, has long been considered a potential solution. However, despite its attractiveness as an efficient, multi-system countermeasure and its potential for improving the environment and simplifying operational activities (e.g., WCS, galley, etc.), much still needs to be learned regarding the human response to rotating environments before AG can be successfully implemented. This paper will describe our approach for developing and implementing a rigorous AG Research Project to address the key biomedical research questions that must be answered before developing effective AG countermeasure implementation strategies for exploration-class missions. The AG Research Project will be performed at JSC, ARC, extramural academic and government research venues, and international partner facilities maintained by DLR and IMBP. The Project includes three major ground-based human research subprojects that will lead to flight testing of intermittent short-radius AG in ISS crewmembers after 201 0, continuous long-radius AG in CEV crews transiting to and from the Moon, and intermittent short-radius AG plus exercise in lunar habitats. These human ground-based subprojects include: 1) a directed, managed international short-radius project to investigate the multi-system effectiveness of intermittent AG in human subjects deconditioned by bed rest, 2) a directed, managed long-radius project to investigate the capacity of humans to live and work for extended periods in rotating environments, and 3) a focused
Gravity Before Einstein and Schwinger Before Gravity
Trimble, Virginia L.
2012-05-01
Julian Schwinger was a child prodigy, and Albert Einstein distinctly not; Schwinger had something like 73 graduate students, and Einstein very few. But both thought gravity was important. They were not, of course, the first, nor is the disagreement on how one should think about gravity that is being highlighted here the first such dispute. The talk will explore, first, several of the earlier dichotomies: was gravity capable of action at a distance (Newton), or was a transmitting ether required (many others). Did it act on everything or only on solids (an odd idea of the Herschels that fed into their ideas of solar structure and sunspots)? Did gravitational information require time for its transmission? Is the exponent of r precisely 2, or 2 plus a smidgeon (a suggestion by Simon Newcomb among others)? And so forth. Second, I will try to say something about Scwinger's lesser known early work and how it might have prefigured his "source theory," beginning with "On the Interaction of Several Electrons (the unpublished, 1934 "zeroth paper," whose title somewhat reminds one of "On the Dynamics of an Asteroid," through his days at Berkeley with Oppenheimer, Gerjuoy, and others, to his application of ideas from nuclear physics to radar and of radar engineering techniques to problems in nuclear physics. And folks who think good jobs are difficult to come by now might want to contemplate the couple of years Schwinger spent teaching elementary physics at Purdue before moving on to the MIT Rad Lab for war work.
Capps, Stephen; Lorandos, Jason; Akhidime, Eval; Bunch, Michael; Lund, Denise; Moore, Nathan; Murakawa, Kiosuke
1989-01-01
The purpose of this study is to investigate comprehensive design requirements associated with designing habitats for humans in a partial gravity environment, then to apply them to a lunar base design. Other potential sites for application include planetary surfaces such as Mars, variable-gravity research facilities, and a rotating spacecraft. Design requirements for partial gravity environments include locomotion changes in less than normal earth gravity; facility design issues, such as interior configuration, module diameter, and geometry; and volumetric requirements based on the previous as well as psychological issues involved in prolonged isolation. For application to a lunar base, it is necessary to study the exterior architecture and configuration to insure optimum circulation patterns while providing dual egress; radiation protection issues are addressed to provide a safe and healthy environment for the crew; and finally, the overall site is studied to locate all associated facilities in context with the habitat. Mission planning is not the purpose of this study; therefore, a Lockheed scenario is used as an outline for the lunar base application, which is then modified to meet the project needs. The goal of this report is to formulate facts on human reactions to partial gravity environments, derive design requirements based on these facts, and apply the requirements to a partial gravity situation which, for this study, was a lunar base.
Sinking of spherical slablets through a non-Newtonian mantle
Crameri, Fabio; Stegman, Dave; Petersen, Robert; Tackley, Paul
2014-05-01
The dominant driving force for plate tectonics is slab pull, in which sinking slabs pull the trailing plate. Forward plate velocities are typically similar in magnitude (7 cm/yr) as estimates for sinking velocities of slabs through the upper mantle. However, these estimates are based on data for slabs that are coherent into the transition zone as well as models that considered the upper mantle to be entirely Newtonian. Dislocation creep in the upper mantle can strongly influence mantle flow, and is likely activated for flow around vertically sinking slabs in the uppermost mantle. Thus, it is possible that in some scenarios, a non-Newtonian mantle will have an influence on plate motions but it is unclear to what degree. To address this question, we investigate how the non-Newtonian rheology modifies the sinking velocities of slablets (spherical, negatively buoyant and highly viscous blobs). The model set-up is similar to a Stokes sphere sinking, but is in 2-D cartesian with temperature-and stress-dependent rheology. For these numerical models, we use the Stag-YY code (e.g., Tackley 2008) and apply a pseudo-free surface using the 'sticky-air' approach (Matsumoto and Tomoda 1983; Schmeling et al, 2008, Crameri et al., 2012). The sinking blob is both highly viscous and compositionally dense, but is the same temperature as the background fluid which eliminates thermal diffusion and associated variations in thermal buoyancy. The model domain is 2x1 or 4x1 and allows enough distance to the sidewalls so that sinking velocities are not influenced by the boundary conditions. We compare our results with those previously obtained for salt diapirs rising through a power-law rheology mantle/crust (Weinberg, 1993; Weinberg and Podladchikov, 1994), which provided both numerical and analytic results. Previous results indicate a speed-up of an order of magnitude is possible. Finally, we then extend the models and analysis to mantle convection systems that include for single
Yuen, D. A.; Schubert, G.
1976-01-01
Stress is placed on the temperature dependence of both a linear Newtonian rheology and a nonlinear olivine rheology in accounting for narrow mantle flow structures. The boundary-layer theory developed incorporates an arbitrary temperature-dependent power-law rheology for the medium, in order to facilitate the study of mantle plume dynamics under real conditions. Thermal, kinematic, and dynamic structures of mantle plumes are modelled by a two-dimensional natural-convection boundary layer rising in a fluid with a temperature-dependent power-law relationship between shear stress and strain rate. An analytic similarity solution is arrived at for upwelling adjacent to a vertical isothermal stress-free plane. Newtonian creep as a deformation mechanism, thermal anomalies resulting from chemical heterogeneity, the behavior of plumes in non-Newtonian (olivine) mantles, and differences in the dynamics of wet and dry olivine are discussed.
Universal Property of Quantum Gravity implied by Uniqueness Theorem of Bekenstein-Hawking Entropy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hiromi Saida
2011-09-01
Full Text Available This paper consists of three parts. In the first part, we prove that the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy is the unique expression of black hole entropy. Our proof is constructed in the framework of thermodynamics without any statistical discussion. In the second part, intrinsic properties of quantum mechanics are shown, which justify the Boltzmann formula to yield a unique entropy in statistical mechanics. These properties clarify three conditions, one of which is necessary and others are sufficient for the validity of Boltzmann formula. In the third part, by combining the above results, we find a reasonable suggestion from the sufficient conditions that the potential of gravitational interaction among microstates of underlying quantum gravity may not diverge to negative infinity (such as Newtonian gravity but is bounded below at a finite length scale. In addition to that, from the necessary condition, the interaction has to be repulsive within the finite length scale. The length scale should be Planck size. Thus, quantum gravity may become repulsive at Planck length. Also, a relation of these suggestions with action integral of gravity at semi-classical level is given. These suggestions about quantum gravity are universal in the sense that they are independent of any existing model of quantum gravity.
Upper Semicontinuity of Attractors for a Non-Newtonian Fluid under Small Random Perturbations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jianxin Luo
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates the limiting behavior of attractors for a two-dimensional incompressible non-Newtonian fluid under small random perturbations. Under certain conditions, the upper semicontinuity of the attractors for diminishing perturbations is shown.
A numerical solution for the entrance region of non-newtonian flow in annuli
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maia M.C.A.
2003-01-01
Full Text Available Continuity and momentum equations applied to the entrance region of an axial, incompressible, isothermal, laminar and steady flow of a power-law fluid in a concentric annulus, were solved by a finite difference implicit method. The Newtonian case was solved used for validation of the method and then compared to reported results. For the non-Newtonian case a pseudoplastic power-law model was assumed and the equations were transformed to obtain a pseudo-Newtonian system which enabled its solution using the same technique as that used for the Newtonian case. Comparison of the results for entrance length and pressure drop with those available in the literature showed a qualitative similarity, but significant quantitative differences. This can be attributed to the differences in entrance geometries and the definition of asymptotic entrance length.
On the problem of deformed spherical systems in Modified Newtonian Dynamics
Ko, Chung-Ming
2016-01-01
Based on Newtonian dynamics, observations show that the luminous masses of astrophysical objects that are the size of a galaxy or larger are not enough to generate the measured motions which they supposedly determine. This is typically attributed to the existence of dark matter, which possesses mass but does not radiate (or absorb radiation). Alternatively, the mismatch can be explained if the underlying dynamics is not Newtonian. Within this conceptual scheme, Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) is a successful theoretical paradigm. MOND is usually expressed in terms of a nonlinear Poisson equation, which is difficult to analyse for arbitrary matter distributions. We study the MONDian gravitational field generated by slightly non-spherically symmetric mass distributions based on the fact that both Newtonian and MONDian fields are conservative (which we refer to as the compatibility condition). As the non-relativistic version of MOND has two different formulations (AQUAL and QuMOND) and the compatibility condi...
Stability analysis of slot-entry hybrid journal bearings operating with non-newtonian lubricant
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H.C. Garg
2015-09-01
Full Text Available This paper presents theoretical investigations of rheological effects of lubricant on stability parameters of various configurations of slot-entry hybrid journal bearing system. FEM has been used to solve Reynolds equation governing flow of lubricant in bearing clearance space along with restrictor flow equation using suitable iterative technique. The non-Newtonian lubricant has been assumed to follow cubic shear stress law. The stability parameters in terms of stiffness coefficients, damping coefficients, threshold speed and whirl frequency of different configurations of slot-entry hybrid journal bearing have been computed and presented for wide range of external load while operating with Newtonian and Non-Newtonian lubricants. The computed results reveal that variation of viscosity due to non-Newtonian behavior of lubricant affects bearing stability quite significantly. The results are presented in graphical form and logical conclusions are drawn to identify best possible configuration from stability point of view.
Lie group analysis of flow and heat transfer of non-Newtonian ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
law nanofluid over a stretching surface under convective boundary conditions and temperature-dependent fluid viscosity has been numerically investigated. The power-law rheology is adopted to describe non-Newtonian characteristics of the ...
Repulsive Gravity in the Oppenheimer-Snyder Collapsar
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marshall T. W.
2016-07-01
Full Text Available The Oppenheimer-Snyder metric for a collapsing dust ball has a well defined equilib- rium state when the time coordinate goes to plus infinity. The entire ball is contained within the gravitational radius r 0 , but half of its content lies within a thin shell between r 0 and 0 : 94 r 0 . This state has the acausal property that no light ray escapes from it, but if one boundary condition at the surface, which Oppenheimer and Snyder imposed without justification, is removed, then all points in the interior remain in causal contact by null geodesics with the exterior. This modification causes the half shell’s interior radius to increase to 0 : 97 r 0 . Together with the results of a previous article on the den- sity inside a spherosymmetric neutron star, the present results indicate that, in contrast with the universal attraction of Newtonian gravity, General Relativity gives gravitational repulsion at high density.
Dark Matter: A Relativistic Inertial Effect in Einstein Canonical Gravity?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lusanna, Luca, E-mail: lusanna@fi.infn.it [Sezione INFN di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)
2011-03-01
After consideration of non-inertial frames in special relativity with emphasis on the problem of clock synchronization (i.e. of how to define 3-space), an overview is given of Einstein canonical gravity in the York canonical basis and of its Hamiltonian Post-Minkowskian (PM) linearization in 3-orthogonal gauges. It is shown that the York time (the trace of the extrinsic curvature of 3-spaces) is the inertial gauge variable describing the general relativistic remnant of the clock synchronization gauge freedom. The dark matter implied by the rotation curves of galaxies can be explained with a choice of the York time implying a PM extension of the Newtonian International Celestial Reference System (ICRS).
Using ultrasonic Doppler velocimetry to investigate the mixing of non-Newtonian fluids
Patel, Dineshkumar; Ein-Mozaffari, Farhad; Mehrvar, Mehrab
2012-12-01
Mixing is a critical unit operation, which is widely used in chemical and allied industries. Mixing of non-Newtonian fluids is a challenging task due to the complex rheology exhibited by these fluids. Pseudoplastic fluids with yield stress are an important class of non-Newtonian fluids. In this study, we utilized ultrasonic Doppler velocimetry (UDV) to explore the flow field generated by different impellers in the agitation of xanthan gum solutions and pulp suspensions, which are yield-pseudoplastic fluids.
Numerical Simulation of Non-Newtonian Core Annular Flow through Rectangle Return Bends
Fan Jiang; Yun Long; Yijun Wang; Zhenzhang Liu; Conggui Chen
2016-01-01
The volume of fluid (VOF) model together with the continuum surface stress (CSS) model is proposed to simulate the core annular of non-Newtonian oil and water flow through the rectangle return bends (∏-bends). A comprehensive investigation is conducted to generate the profiles of volume fraction, pressure and velocity. The influences of oil properties, flow direction, and bend geometric parameters on hydrodynamic of nonNewtonian oil and water core annular flow in ∏-bends are discusse...
Projection formalism for constrained dynamical systems: from Newtonian to Hamiltonian mechanics.
Kneller, Gerald R
2007-10-28
The Hamiltonian of a holonomically constrained dynamical many-particle system in Cartesian coordinates has been recently derived for applications in statistical mechanics [G. R. Kneller, J. Chem. Phys. 125, 114107 (2006)]. Using the same projector formalism, we show here the equivalence of the corresponding equations of motion with those obtained from a Newtonian and a Lagrangian description. In the case of Newtonian mechanics, the general case of nonholonomic constraints is considered, too.
Drop impact experiments of non-Newtonian liquids on micro-structured surfaces
Guémas, Marine; Marin, Alvaro; Lohse, Detlef
2017-01-01
The spreading dynamics of Newtonian liquids have been extensively studied in hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces and its behavior has been extensively explored over the last years. However, drop impact of Non-Newtonian liquids still needs further study. Luu and Forterre (J. Fluid Mech., 632, 2009) successfully found scaling laws for yield-stress fluids on hydrophilic surfaces. They also uncovered interesting and yet unexplained regimes when the impact was performed on a superhydrophobic surf...
The middeck 0-gravity dynamics experiment
Crawley, Edward F.; Vanschoor, Marthinus C.; Bokhour, Edward B.
The Middeck 0-Gravity Dynamics Experiment (MODE), flown onboard the Shuttle STS-48 Mission, consists of three major elements: the Experiment Support Module, a dynamics test bed providing computer experiment control, analog signal conditioning, power conditioning, an operator interface consisting of a keypad and display, experiment electrical and thermal control, and archival data storage: the Fluid Test Article assembly, used to investigate the dynamics of fluid-structure interaction in 0-gravity; and the Structural Test Article for investigating the open-loop dynamics of structures in 0-gravity. Deployable, erectable, and rotary modules were assembled to form three one- and two-dimensional structures, in which variations in bracing wire and rotary joint preload could be introduced. Change in linear modal parameters as well as the change in nonlinear nature of the response is examined. Trends in modal parameters are presented as a function of force amplitude, joint preload, and ambient gravity. An experimental study of the lateral slosh behavior of contained fluids is also presented. A comparison of the measured earth and space results identifies and highlights the effects of gravity on the linear and nonlinear slosh behavior of these fluids.
Unsteady Non-Newtonian Solver on Unstructured Grid for the Simulation of Blood Flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guojie Li
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Blood is in fact a suspension of different cells with yield stress, shear thinning, and viscoelastic properties, which can be represented by different non-Newtonian models. Taking Casson fluid as an example, an unsteady solver on unstructured grid for non-Newtonian fluid is developed to simulate transient blood flow in complex flow region. In this paper, a steady solver for Newtonian fluid is firstly developed with the discretization of convective flux, diffusion flux, and source term on unstructured grid. For the non-Newtonian characteristics of blood, the Casson fluid is approximated by the Papanastasiou's model and treated as Newtonian fluid with variable viscosity. Then considering the transient property of blood flow, an unsteady non-Newtonian solver based on unstructured grid is developed by introducing the temporal term by first-order upwind difference scheme. Using the proposed solver, the blood flows in carotid bifurcation of hypertensive patients and healthy people are simulated. The result shows that the possibility of the genesis and development of atherosclerosis is increased, because of the increase in incoming flow shock and backflow areas of the hypertensive patients, whose WSS was 20~87.1% lower in outer vascular wall near the bifurcation than that of the normal persons and 3.7~5.5% lower in inner vascular wall downstream the bifurcation.
Pulsatile Non-Newtonian Laminar Blood Flows through Arterial Double Stenoses
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mir Golam Rabby
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The paper presents a numerical investigation of non-Newtonian modeling effects on unsteady periodic flows in a two-dimensional (2D pipe with two idealized stenoses of 75% and 50% degrees, respectively. The governing Navier-Stokes equations have been modified using the Cartesian curvilinear coordinates to handle complex geometries. The investigation has been carried out to characterize four different non-Newtonian constitutive equations of blood, namely, the (i Carreau, (ii Cross, (iii Modified Casson, and (iv Quemada models. The Newtonian model has also been analyzed to study the physics of fluid and the results are compared with the non-Newtonian viscosity models. The numerical results are represented in terms of streamwise velocity, pressure distribution, and wall shear stress (WSS as well as the vorticity, streamlines, and vector plots indicating recirculation zones at the poststenotic region. The results of this study demonstrate a lower risk of thrombogenesis at the downstream of stenoses and inadequate blood supply to different organs of human body in the Newtonian model compared to the non-Newtonian ones.
Spacetime, Spin and Gravity Probe B
Overduin, James M
2015-01-01
It is more important than ever to push experimental tests of gravitational theory to the limits of existing technology in both range and sensitivity. This brief review focuses on spin-based tests of General Relativity and their implications for alternative, mostly non-metric theories of gravity motivated by the challenge of unification with the Standard Model of particle physics. The successful detection of geodetic precession and frame-dragging by Gravity Probe B places new constraints on a number of these theories, and increases our confidence in the theoretical mechanisms underpinning current ideas in astrophysics and cosmology.
liger: mock relativistic light cones from Newtonian simulations
Borzyszkowski, Mikolaj; Bertacca, Daniele; Porciani, Cristiano
2017-11-01
We introduce a method to create mock galaxy catalogues in redshift space including general relativistic effects to linear order in the cosmological perturbations. We dub our method liger, short for `light cones with general relativity'. liger takes a (N-body or hydrodynamic) Newtonian simulation as an input and outputs the distribution of galaxies in comoving redshift space. This result is achieved making use of a coordinate transformation and simultaneously accounting for lensing magnification. The calculation includes both local corrections and terms that have been integrated along the line of sight. Our fast implementation allows the production of many realizations that can be used to forecast the performance of forthcoming wide-angle surveys and to estimate the covariance matrix of the observables. To facilitate this use, we also present a variant of liger designed for large-volume simulations with low-mass resolution. In this case, the galaxy distribution on large scales is obtained by biasing the matter-density field. Finally, we present two sample applications of liger. First, we discuss the impact of weak gravitational lensing on to the angular clustering of galaxies in a Euclid-like survey. In agreement with previous analytical studies, we find that magnification bias can be measured with high confidence. Secondly, we focus on two generally neglected Doppler-induced effects: magnification and the change of number counts with redshift. We show that the corresponding redshift-space distortions can be detected at 5.5σ significance with the completed Square Kilometre Array.
Eglit, M. E.; Yakubenko, A. E.; Yakubenko, T. A.
2017-10-01
This paper deals with the mathematical and numerical modeling of the propagation stage of geophysical gravity-driven flows, such as snow avalanches, mudflows, and rapid landslides. New mathematical models are presented which are based on full, not-depth-averaged equations of mechanics of continuous media. The models account for three important issues: non-Newtonian rheology of the moving material, entrainment of the bed material by the flow, and turbulence. The main objective is to investigate the effect of these three factors on the flow dynamics and on the value of the entrainment rate. To exclude the influence of many other factors, e.g., the complicated slope topography, only the motion down a long uniform slope with a constant inclination angle is studied numerically. Moreover, the entire flow from the front to the rear area was not modeled, but only its middle part where the flow is approximately uniform in length. One of the qualitative results is that in motion along homogeneous slope the mass entrainment increases the flow velocity and depth while the entrainment rate at large time tends to become constant which depends on the physical properties of the flow and the underlying material but not on the current values of the flow velocity and depth.
Mandal, Shubhadeep; Chakraborty, Suman
2017-09-01
The rheological behavior of a dilute emulsion comprised of neutrally buoyant drops suspended in an immiscible medium under the combined influence of a uniform electric field and simple shear flow is analyzed. Considering the drops and suspending medium as Newtonian and leaky dielectrics, the effective emulsion stress tensor is obtained when the fluid motion is governed by the Stokes equations. The present study takes into account an arbitrarily oriented uniform electric field in the plane of shear flow. A small-deformation analysis is performed to study this coupled electrohydrodynamic problem considering weak imposed shear flow and weak surface charge convection. Analytical expressions are obtained for the effective shear viscosity and normal stress differences of the dilute emulsion. The tilt angle (orientation angle of the applied electric field relative to the direction of shear flow) is found to affect the emulsion rheology. Key results show that the dilute emulsion exhibits non-Newtonian behavior such as shear-rate-dependent effective viscosity and nonzero first and second normal stress differences. In the absence of shape deformation and charge convection, a dilute emulsion displays shear thinning or shear thickening behavior depending on the drop polarization and tilt angle. The effective viscosity of the dilute emulsion can be lower or higher than the viscosity of the suspending medium depending on the electrical property ratios, tilt angle, and relative strength of the electric stress as compared with viscous stress. Surface charge convection significantly affects the electrohydrodynamic flow and thereby modifies the effective viscosity and normal stress differences. The applied electric field significantly affects the drop shape and orientation angle and thereby modifies the effective viscosity and normal stress differences. Both the surface charge convection and shape deformation can increase or decrease the effective viscosity and normal stress
Impact Of GOCE On The Nordic Gravity Field Modelling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yidiz, Hasan; Forsberg, René; Tscherning, C. C.
2011-01-01
and surface free air gravity anomalies to predict terrestrial gravity anomalies with a direct comparison of 19 mgal level and much better (7-8 mgal) when surface data are filtered at the GOCE resolution. We found that the results are slightly dependent of covariance function. Combined with DTU10 Mean Sea......GOCE level-2 Tzz and Txx gravity gradients at satellite altitude are used in combination as input data to predict surface free air gravity anomalies over the Nordic region using Least Square Collocation. We test the performance of using covariance functions created separately from Tzz gradients...
Morey-Holton, Emily R.
1996-01-01
Gravity has been the most constant environmental factor throughout the evolution of biological species on Earth. Organisms are rarely exposed to other gravity levels, either increased or decreased, for prolonged periods. Thus, evolution in a constant 1G field has historically prevented us from appreciating the potential biological consequences of a multi-G universe. To answer the question 'Can terrestrial life be sustained and thrive beyond our planet?' we need to understand the importance of gravity on living systems, and we need to develop a multi-G, rather than a 1G, mentality. The science of gravitational biology took a giant step with the advent of the space program, which provided the first opportunity to examine living organisms in gravity environments lower than could be sustained on Earth. Previously, virtually nothing was known about the effects of extremely low gravity on living organisms, and most of the initial expectations were proven wrong. All species that have flown in space survive in microgravity, although no higher organism has ever completed a life cycle in space. It has been found, however, that many systems change, transiently or permanently, as a result of prolonged exposure to microgravity.
Gravity and Extreme Magnetism SMEX
2012-01-01
The Gravity and Extreme Magnetism SMEX mission will be the first mission to catalogue the X-ray polarisation of many astrophysical objects including black-holes and pulsars. This first of its kind mission is enabled by the novel use of a time projection chamber as an X-ray polarimeter. The detector has been developed over the last 5 years, with the current effort charged toward a demonstration of it's technical readiness to be at level 6 prior to the preliminary design review. This talk will describe the design GEMS polarimeter and the results to date from the engineering test unit.
Spinning particles coupled to gravity
Hojman, Sergio A
2016-01-01
Recent experimental work has determined that free falling $^{87}$Rb atoms on Earth, with vertically aligned spins, follow geodesics, thus apparently ruling out spin--gravitation interactions. It is showed that while some spinning matter models coupled to gravitation referenced to in that work seem to be ruled out by the experiment, those same experimental results confirm theoretical results derived from a Lagrangian description of spinning particles coupled to gravity constructed over forty years ago. A proposal to carry out (similar but) different experiments which will help to test the validity of the Universality of Free Fall as opposed to the correctness of the aforementioned Lagrangian theory, is presented.
MHD mixed convection analysis of non-Newtonian power law fluid in an open channel with round cavity
Bose, Pritom; Rakib, Tawfiqur; Das, Sourav; Rabbi, Khan Md.; Mojumder, Satyajit
2017-06-01
In this study, magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) mixed convection flow through a channel with a round cavity at bottom wall using non-Newtonian power law fluid is analysed numerically. The cavity is kept at uniformly high temperature whereas rest of the bottom wall is insulated and top wall of the channel is maintained at a temperature lower than cavity temperature. Grid independency test and code validation are performed to justify the computational accuracy before solving the present problem. Galerkin weighted residual method is appointed to solve the continuity, momentum and energy equations. The problem is solved for wide range of pertinent parameters like Rayleigh number (Ra= 103 - 105), Hartmann number (Ha= 0 - 60) and power law index (n= 0.5 - 1.5) at constant Richardson number Ri= 1.0. The flow and thermal field have been thoroughly discussed through streamline and isothermal lines respectively. The heat transfer performance of the given study is illustrated by average Nusselt number plots. Result of this investigation indicates that heat transfer is highest for dilatant fluids at this configuration and they perform better (47% more heat transfer) in absence of magnetic field. The retardation of heat transfer is offset by shear thickening nature of non-Newtonian fluid.
Point-of-care Devices: Non-Newtonian Whole Blood Behavior and Capillary Flow on Reagent-coated Walls
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jean BERTHIER
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Most point-of-care (POC and patient self-testing (PST devices are based on the analysis of whole blood taken from a finger prick. Whole blood contains a bountiful of information about the donor’s health. We analyze here two particularities of microsystems for blood analysis: the blood non-Newtonian behavior, and the capillary flow in reagent-coated channels. Capillarity is the most commonly used method to move fluids in portable systems. It is shown first that the capillary flow of blood does not follow the Lucas-Washburn-Rideal law when the capillary flow velocity is small, due to its non-Newtonian rheology and to the formation of rouleaux of RBCs. In a second step, the capillary flow of blood on reagent-coated surfaces is investigated; first experimentally by observing the spreading of a droplet of blood on different reagent-coated substrates; second theoretically and numerically using the general law for spontaneous capillary flows and the Evolver numerical program.
Rabbi, Khan Md.; Rakib, Tawfiqur; Das, Sourav; Mojumder, Satyajit; Saha, Sourav
2016-07-01
This paper demonstrates magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) mixed convection flow through a channel with a rectangular obstacle at the entrance region using non-Newtonian power law fluid. The obstacle is kept at uniformly high temperature whereas the inlet and top wall of the channel are maintained at a temperature lower than obstacle temperature. Poiseuille flow is implemented as the inlet velocity boundary condition. Grid independency test and code validation are performed to justify the computational accuracy before solving the present problem. Galerkin weighted residual method has been appointed to solve the continuity, momentum and energy equations. The problem has been solved for wide range of pertinent parameters like Richardson number (Ri = 0.1 - 10) at a constant Reynolds number (Re = 100), Hartmann number (Ha = 0 - 100), power index (n = 0.6 - 1.6). The flow and thermal field have been thoroughly discussed through streamline and isothermal lines respectively. The heat transfer performance of the given study has been illustrated by average Nusselt number plots. It is observed that increment of Hartmann number (Ha) tends to decrease the heat transfer rate up to a critical value (Ha = 20) and then let increase the heat transfer performance. Thus maximum heat transfer rate has been recorded for higher Hartmann number and Rayleigh number in case of pseudo-plastic (n = 0.6) non-Newtonian fluid flow.
Mueller, Eva-Maria; Percival, Will; Linder, Eric; Alam, Shadab; Zhao, Gong-Bo; Sánchez, Ariel G.; Beutler, Florian; Brinkmann, Jon
2018-01-01
We use baryon acoustic oscillation and redshift space distortion from the completed Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey, corresponding to data release 12 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, combined sample analysis in combination with cosmic microwave background, supernova and redshift space distortion measurements from additional spectroscopic surveys to test deviations from general relativity. We present constraints on several phenomenological models of modified gravity: First, we parametrise the growth of structure using the growth index γ, finding γ = 0.566 ± 0.058 (68% C.L.). Second, we modify the relation of the two Newtonian potentials by introducing two additional parameters, GM and GL. In this approach, GM refers to modifications of the growth of structure whereas GL to modification of the lensing potential. We consider a power law to model the redshift dependency of GM and GL as well as binning in redshift space, introducing four additional degrees of freedom, GM(z 0.5), GL(z 0.5). At 68% C.L. we measure GM = 0.980 ± 0.096 and GL = 1.082 ± 0.060 for a linear model, GM = 1.01 ± 0.36 and GL = 1.31 ± 0.19 for a cubic model as well as GM(z 0.5) = 0.986 ± 0.022, GL(z 0.5) = 1.037 ± 0.029. Thirdly, we investigate general scalar tensor theories of gravity, finding the model to be mostly unconstrained by current data. Assuming a one-parameter f(R) model we can constrain B0 < 7.7 × 10-5 (95% C.L). For all models we considered we find good agreement with general relativity.
Ortín, Tomás
2015-01-01
Self-contained and comprehensive, this definitive new edition of Gravity and Strings is a unique resource for graduate students and researchers in theoretical physics. From basic differential geometry through to the construction and study of black-hole and black-brane solutions in quantum gravity - via all the intermediate stages - this book provides a complete overview of the intersection of gravity, supergravity, and superstrings. Now fully revised, this second edition covers an extensive array of topics, including new material on non-linear electric-magnetic duality, the electric-tensor formalism, matter-coupled supergravity, supersymmetric solutions, the geometries of scalar manifolds appearing in 4- and 5-dimensional supergravities, and much more. Covering reviews of important solutions and numerous solution-generating techniques, and accompanied by an exhaustive index and bibliography, this is an exceptional reference work.
Intrinsic Time Quantum Gravity
Yu, Hoi Lai
2016-01-01
Correct identification of the true gauge symmetry of General Relativity being 3d spatial diffeomorphism invariant(3dDI) (not the conventional infinite tensor product group with principle fibre bundle structure), together with intrinsic time extracted from clean decomposition of the canonical structure yields a self-consistent theory of quantum gravity. A new set of fundamental commutation relations is also presented. The basic variables are the eight components of the unimodular part of the spatial dreibein and eight SU(3) generators which correspond to Klauder's momentric variables that characterize a free theory of quantum gravity. The commutation relations are not canonical, but have well defined group theoretical meanings. All fundamental entities are dimensionless; and the quantum wave functionals are preferentially in the dreibein representation. The successful quantum theory of gravity involves only broad spectrum of knowledge and deep insights but no exotic idea.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cahill R. T.
2015-10-01
Full Text Available A new quantum gravity experiment is reported with the data confirming the generali- sation of the Schrödinger equation to include the interaction of the wave function with dynamical space. Dynamical space turbulence, via this interaction process, raises and lowers the energy of the electron wave function, which is detected by observing conse- quent variations in the electron quantum barrier tunnelling rate in reverse-biased Zener diodes. This process has previously been reported and enabled the measurement of the speed of the dynamical space flow, which is consistent with numerous other detection experiments. The interaction process is dependent on the angle between the dynamical space flow velocity and the direction of the electron flow in the diode, and this depen- dence is experimentally demonstrated. This interaction process explains gravity as an emergent quantum process, so unifying quantum phenomena and gravity. Gravitational waves are easily detected.
Extensions and limits of gravity in three dimensions
Parra Rodriguez, Lorena
2015-01-01
General Relativity (GR) has resisted the test of time even a hundred years after its conception. However, GR loses precision and predictability not only at strong gravity regimes but also there are some unexplained phenomena in the weak gravity regimes. There have been a lot of efforts in studying
Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for EN05 (2012)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan collected in 2012 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the...
Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for EN06 (2016)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Maine, Canada, and the Atlantic Ocean collected in 2012 over 2 surveys. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the...
Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for EN08 (2013)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for New York, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusettes, Maine, and Canada collected in 2013 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity...
Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for EN04 (2013)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Michigan and Lake Huron collected in 2012 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American...
Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for PN01 (2014)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for California and Oregon collected in 2011 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical...
Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for AN03 (2010)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Alaska collected in 2010 and 2012 over 2 surveys. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical Datum...