Sample records for test mass actuators

  1. AMSD Cryo Actuator Testing (United States)

    Mullette, Mark; Matthews, Gary; Russell, Kevin (Technical Monitor)


    The actuator technology required for AMSD and subsequently NGST are critical in the successful development for future cryogenic systems. Kodak has undertaken an extensive test plan to determine the performance of the force actuators developed under the AMSD program. These actuators are currently in testing at MSFC and are expected to finish this test cycle in early June 2002.

  2. Toward standardization of EAP actuators test procedures (United States)

    Fernandez, Diego; Moreno, Luis; Baselga, Juan


    Since the field of Electroactive Polymers (EAP) actuators is fairly new there are no standard testing processes for such intelligent materials. This drawback can seriously limit the scope of application of EAP actuators, since the targeted industrial sectors (aerospace, biomedical...) demand high reliability and product assurance. As a first iteration two elements are required to define a test standard for an EAP actuator: a Unit Tester, and a Component Specification. In this paper a EAP Unit Tester architecture is presented along with the required classification of measurements to be included in the EAP actuator Component Specification. The proposed EAP Unit Tester allows on-line monitoring and recording of the following properties of the specimen under test: large deformation, small tip displacement, temperature at the electrodes, weight of the specimen, voltage and current driven into the EAP, load being applied to the actuator, output voltage of the EAP in sensing operation and mode of operation (structure/sensor/actuator/smart). The measurements are taken simultaneously, in real-time. The EAP Unit Tester includes a friendly Graphical User Interface. It uses embedded Excel tools to visualize data. In addition, real-time connectivity with MATLAB allows an easy testing of control algorithms. A novel methodology to measure the properties of EAP specimens versus a variable load is also presented. To this purpose a force signals generator in the range of mN was developed. The device is based on a DC mini-motor. It generates an opposing force to the movement of the EAP actuator. Since the device constantly opposes the EAP actuator movement it has been named Digital Force Generator (DFG). The DFG design allows simultaneous length and velocity measuring versus different load signals. By including such a device in the EAP Unit Tester the most suitable application for the specimen under test can be easily identified (vibration damper, large deformation actuator, large

  3. Velocity feedback control with a flywheel proof mass actuator (United States)

    Kras, Aleksander; Gardonio, Paolo


    This paper presents four new proof mass actuators to be used in velocity feedback control systems for the control of vibrations of machines and flexible structures. A classical proof mass actuator is formed by a coil-magnet linear motor, with either the magnet or the armature-coil proof mass suspended on soft springs. This arrangement produces a net force effect at frequencies above the fundamental resonance frequency of the springs-proof mass system. Thus, it can be used to implement point velocity feedback loops, although the dynamic response and static deflection of the springs-proof mass system poses some stability and control performance limitations. The four proof mass actuators presented in this study include a flywheel element, which is used to augment the inertia effect of the suspended proof mass. The paper shows that the flywheel element modifies both the dynamic response and static deflection of the springs-proof mass system in such a way as the stability and control performance of velocity feedback loops using these actuators are significantly improved.

  4. Prediction of dry ice mass for firefighting robot actuation (United States)

    Ajala, M. T.; Khan, Md R.; Shafie, A. A.; Salami, MJE; Mohamad Nor, M. I.


    The limitation in the performance of electric actuated firefighting robots in high-temperature fire environment has led to research on the alternative propulsion system for the mobility of firefighting robots in such environment. Capitalizing on the limitations of these electric actuators we suggested a gas-actuated propulsion system in our earlier study. The propulsion system is made up of a pneumatic motor as the actuator (for the robot) and carbon dioxide gas (self-generated from dry ice) as the power source. To satisfy the consumption requirement (9cfm) of the motor for efficient actuation of the robot in the fire environment, the volume of carbon dioxide gas, as well as the corresponding mass of the dry ice that will produce the required volume for powering and actuation of the robot, must be determined. This article, therefore, presents the computational analysis to predict the volumetric requirement and the dry ice mass sufficient to power a carbon dioxide gas propelled autonomous firefighting robot in a high-temperature environment. The governing equation of the sublimation of dry ice to carbon dioxide is established. An operating time of 2105.53s and operating pressure ranges from 137.9kPa to 482.65kPa were achieved following the consumption rate of the motor. Thus, 8.85m3 is computed as the volume requirement of the CAFFR while the corresponding dry ice mass for the CAFFR actuation ranges from 21.67kg to 75.83kg depending on the operating pressure.

  5. Investigation of Equivalent Unsprung Mass and Nonlinear Features of Electromagnetic Actuated Active Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yin


    Full Text Available Electromagnetic actuated active suspension benefits active control and energy harvesting from vibration at the same time. However, the rotary type electromagnetic actuated active suspension introduces a significant extra mass on the unsprung mass due to the inertia of the rotating components of the actuator. The magnitude of the introduced unsprung mass is studied based on a gearbox type actuator and a ball screw type actuator. The geometry of the suspension and the actuator also influence the equivalent unsprung mass significantly. The suspension performance simulation or control logic derived should take this equivalent unsprung mass into account. Besides, an extra force should be compensated due to the nonlinear features of the suspension structure and it is studied. The active force of the actuator should compensate this extra force. The discovery of this paper provides a fundamental for evaluating the rotary type electromagnetic actuated active suspension performance and control strategy derived as well as controlling the electromagnetic actuated active suspension more precisely.

  6. Mass and charge transport in IPMC actuators with fractal interfaces (United States)

    Chang, Longfei; Wu, Yucheng; Zhu, Zicai; Li, Heng


    Ionic Polymer-Metal Composite (IPMC) actuators have been attracting a growing interest in extensive applications, which consequently raises the demands on the accuracy of its theoretical modeling. For the last few years, rough landscape of the interface between the electrode and the ionic membrane of IPMC has been well-documented as one of the key elements to ensure a satisfied performance. However, in most of the available work, the interface morphology of IPMC was simplified with structural idealization, which lead to perplexity in the physical interpretation on its interface mechanism. In this paper, the quasi-random rough interface of IPMC was described with fractal dimension and scaling parameters. And the electro-chemical field was modeled by Poisson equation and a properly simplified Nernst-Planck equation set. Then, by simulation with Finite Element Method, a comprehensive analysis on he inner mass and charge transportation in IPMC actuators with different fractal interfaces was provided, which may be further adopted to instruct the performance-oriented interface design for ionic electro-active actuators. The results also verified that rough interface can impact the electrical and mechanical response of IPMC, not only from the respect of the real surface increase, but also from mass distribution difference caused by the complexity of the micro profile.

  7. A Bimorph Moment/Force Actuator for Dynamic Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou Xiaoyan


    Full Text Available This paper focuses on a novel bimorph actuator which can produce pure moment or pure force to structures under testing. Due to its unique construction, this actuator is only sensitive to one translational and one rotational degree of freedom (DOF, which can be further decoupled from each other through controlling the phase of the excitation voltage supplied to the actuator. To correlate the input electrical voltage with the output moment (or force, angular velocity, linear velocity, rotational (or translational conversion functions are defined and then numerically determined. Compared with conventional twin-shaker setup to generate moment, the bimorph actuator is simple, compact, light-weight, effective and cheap. When generating moment, the usually-existing unwanted force excitation is avoided. The working frequency range of the actuator is much wider and the loading effect is greatly reduced.

  8. Cryogenic actuator testing for the SAFARI ground calibration setup (United States)

    de Jonge, C.; Eggens, M.; Nieuwenhuizen, A. C. T.; Detrain, A.; Smit, H.; Dieleman, P.


    For the on-ground calibration setup of the SAFARI instrument cryogenic mechanisms are being developed at SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, including a filter wheel, XYZ-scanner and a flipmirror mechanism. Due to the extremely low background radiation requirement of the SAFARI instrument, all of these mechanisms will have to perform their work at 4.5 Kelvin and low-dissipative cryogenic actuators are required to drive these mechanisms. In this paper, the performance of stepper motors, piezoelectric actuators and brushless DC-motors as cryogenic actuators are compared. We tested stepper motor mechanical performance and electrical dissipation at 4K. The actuator requirements, test setup and test results are presented. Furthermore, design considerations and early performance tests of the flipmirror mechanism are discussed. This flipmirror features a 102 x 72 mm aluminum mirror that can be rotated 45°. A Phytron stepper motor with reduction gearbox has been chosen to drive the flipmirror. Testing showed that this motor has a dissipation of 49mW at 4K with a torque of 60Nmm at 100rpm. Thermal modeling of the flipmirror mechanism predicts that with proper thermal strapping the peak temperature of the flipmirror after a single action will be within the background level requirements of the SAFARI instrument. Early tests confirm this result. For low-duty cycle operations commercial stepper motors appear suitable as actuators for test equipment in the SAFARI on ground calibration setup.

  9. Zero-Net Mass-Flux Actuator Cavity Vortex (United States)

    Krieg, Michael; Mohseni, Kamran


    Zero-Net Mass-Flux (ZNMT) devices are used commonly as synthetic jet actuators for flow control in various applications. The authors have recently proposed using larger ZNMF jet actuators for underwater propulsion; similar to squid and jellyfish. Generally the external flow generated by these devices is characterized according to momentum and energy transfer rates, and little attention is paid to the dynamics of flow inside the cavity. In fact the flow inside the cavity, especially during the refilling phase is not only highly dynamic but greatly influences the pressure distribution at the opening as well as the external flow during the following jetting phase. A completely transparent axisymmetric ZNMF cavity was constructed in order to investigate the internal vortex dynamics. The flow is seeded with reflective particles and illumined with a laser sheet bisecting the axis of symmetry. Standard 2D DPIV techniques are used to recover the velocity field in this cross section. During filling it is observed that a starting jet extending from the opening to the inside of the cavity rolls into a vortex ring much like the jetting phase. However, the effect of the cavity walls becomes apparent almost immediately. In this talk we characterize how the circulation within the cavity decays as a function of both cavity/orifice geometry and the mass flux program. In addition a load cell measures the total thrust acting on the device which is used to validate pressure calculations performed on the moving surface inside the cavity, showing excellent agreement. This work is supported by a grant from the Office of Naval Research.

  10. 78 FR 25488 - Qualification Tests for Safety-Related Actuators in Nuclear Power Plants (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Qualification Tests for Safety-Related Actuators in Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear..., ``Qualification Tests for Safety-Related Actuators in Nuclear Power Plants.'' DG-1235 is proposed Revision 1 of RG... practices for qualifying safety-related actuators, and actuator components, in Nuclear Power Generating...

  11. Optimization of a micro Coriolis mass flow sensor using Lorentz force actuation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenesteijn, Jarno; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Haneveld, J.; Lötters, Joost Conrad


    In this paper we present Finite Element models to optimize the Lorentz force actuation of a micro Coriolis mass flow sensor. These models specify six different configurations for the permanent magnets used to create the magnetic field for the actuation. The models are used to compare the various

  12. 78 FR 67206 - Qualification Tests for Safety-Related Actuators in Nuclear Power Plants (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Qualification Tests for Safety-Related Actuators in Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear...-Related Actuators in Nuclear Power Plants.'' This RG is being revised to provide applicants and licensees with the most current information on testing safety-related actuators in nuclear power plants. This RG...

  13. A longitudinal thermal actuation principle for mass detection using a resonant micro -cantilever in a fluid medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grigorov, Alexander; Davis, Zachary James; Rasmussen, Peter


    from existing thermal actuation configurations as the actuation acts on the base of the cantilever device, as opposed to the whole length of the device, separating cantilever and actuator. This allows much bigger freedom in optimizing separately the dimensions of cantilever and actuator. Optimizing...... the mass sensitivity of the device depends on the relative and absolute dimensions of the cantilever, by limiting fluid damping, displaced mass and cantilever mass. The ability to detect resonance shifts depends on the resonant amplitude, which can be optimized by varying the actuator dimensions and shape...

  14. Characteristics Analysis and Testing of SMA Spring Actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzuo Ma


    Full Text Available The biasing form two-way shape memory alloy (SMA actuator composed of SMA spring and steel spring is analyzed. Based on the force equilibrium equation, the relationship between load capacity of SMA spring and geometric parameters is established. In order to obtain the characteristics of SMA spring actuator, the output force and output displacement of SMA spring under different temperatures are analyzed by the theoretical model and the experimental method. Based on the shape memory effect of SMA, the relationship of the SMA spring actuator's output displacement with the temperature, the stress and strain, the material parameters, and the size parameters is established. The results indicate that the trend of theoretical results is basically consistent with the experimental data. The output displacement of SMA spring actuator is increased with the increasing temperature.

  15. PVDF core-free actuator for Braille displays: design, fabrication process, and testing (United States)

    Levard, Thomas; Diglio, Paul J.; Lu, Sheng-Guo; Gorny, Lee J.; Rahn, Christopher D.; Zhang, Q. M.


    Refreshable Braille displays require many, small diameter actuators to move the pins. The electrostrictive P(VDF-TrFECFE) terpolymer can provide the high strain and actuation force under modest electric fields that are required of this application. In this paper, we develop core-free tubular actuators and integrate them into a 3 × 2 Braille cell. The films are solution cast, stretched to 6 μm thick, electroded, laminated into a bilayer, rolled into a 2 mm diameter tube, bonded, and provided with top and bottom contacts. Experimental testing of 17 actuators demonstrates significant strains (up to 4%). A novel Braille cell is designed and fabricated using six of these actuators.

  16. Actuator tests for a large deformable membrane mirror

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamelinck, R.F.M.M.; Rosielle, P.C.J.N.; Steinbuch, M.; Ellenbroek, R.M.L.; Verhaegen, M.; Doelman, N.J.


    In the design of a large adaptive deformable membrane mirror, variable reluctance actuators are used. These consist of a closed magnetic circuit in which a strong permanent magnet provides a static magnetic force on a ferromagnetic core which is suspended in a membrane. By applying a current through

  17. Minimum scale controlled topology optimization and experimental test of a micro thermal actuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heo, S.; Yoon, Gil Ho; Kim, Y.Y.


    This paper is concerned with the optimal topology design, fabrication and test of a micro thermal actuator. Because the minimum scale was controlled during the design optimization process, the production yield rate of the actuator was improved considerably; alternatively, the optimization design...... without scale control resulted in a very low yield rate. Using the minimum scale controlling topology design method developed earlier by the authors, micro thermal actuators were designed and fabricated through a MEMS process. Moreover, both their performance and production yield were experimentally...

  18. A model of electrostatically actuated MEMS and carbon nanotubes resonators for biological mass detection

    KAUST Repository

    Bouchaala, Adam M.


    We investigate the dynamics of electrically actuated Micro and Nano (Carbon nanotube (CNT)) cantilever beams implemented as resonant sensors for mass detection of biological elements. The beams are modeled using an Euler-Bernoulli beam theory including the nonlinear electrostatic forces and the added biological elements, which are modeled as a discrete point mass. A multi-mode Galerkin procedure is utilized to derive a reduced-order model, which is used for the dynamic simulations. The frequency shifts due to added mass of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) are calculated for the primary and higher order modes of vibrations. Also, analytical expressions of the natural frequency shift under dc voltage and added mass have been developed. We found that using higher-order modes of vibration of MEMS beams or miniaturizing the size of the beam to Nano scale leads to significant improved sensitivity. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015.

  19. Dynamic profile of a prototype pivoted proof-mass actuator. [damping the vibration of large space structures (United States)

    Miller, D. W.


    A prototype of a linear inertial reaction actuation (damper) device employing a flexure-pivoted reaction (proof) mass is discussed. The mass is driven by an electromechanic motor using a dc electromagnetic field and an ac electromagnetic drive. During the damping process, the actuator dissipates structural kinetic energy as heat through electromagnetic damping. A model of the inertial, stiffness and damping properties is presented along with the characteristic differential equations describing the coupled response of the actuator and structure. The equations, employing the dynamic coefficients, are oriented in the form of a feedback control network in which distributed sensors are used to dictate actuator response leading to a specified amount of structural excitation or damping.

  20. Design and testing of shape memory alloy actuation mechanism for flapping wing micro unmanned aerial vehicles (United States)

    Kamaruzaman, N. F.; Abdullah, E. J.


    Shape memory alloy (SMA) actuator offers great solution for aerospace applications with low weight being its most attractive feature. A SMA actuation mechanism for the flapping micro unmanned aerial vehicle (MAV) is proposed in this study, where SMA material is the primary system that provides the flapping motion to the wings. Based on several established design criteria, a design prototype has been fabricated to validate the design. As a proof of concept, an experiment is performed using an electrical circuit to power the SMA actuator to evaluate the flapping angle. During testing, several problems have been observed and their solutions for future development are proposed. Based on the experiment, the average recorded flapping wing angle is 14.33° for upward deflection and 12.12° for downward deflection. This meets the required design criteria and objective set forth for this design. The results prove the feasibility of employing SMA actuators in flapping wing MAV.

  1. Strategic avionics technology definition studies. Subtask 3-1A3: Electrical Actuation (ELA) Systems Test Facility (United States)

    Rogers, J. P.; Cureton, K. L.; Olsen, J. R.


    Future aerospace vehicles will require use of the Electrical Actuator systems for flight control elements. This report presents a proposed ELA Test Facility for dynamic evaluation of high power linear Electrical Actuators with primary emphasis on Thrust Vector Control actuators. Details of the mechanical design, power and control systems, and data acquisition capability of the test facility are presented. A test procedure for evaluating the performance of the ELA Test Facility is also included.

  2. Electric-stepping-motor tests for a control-drum actuator of a nuclear reactor (United States)

    Kieffer, A. W.


    Experimental tests were conducted on two stepping motors for application as reactor control-drum actuators. Various control-drum loads with frictional resistances ranging from approximately zero to 40 N-m and inertias ranging from zero to 0.424 kg-sq m were tested.

  3. Analysis of Foot Slippage Effects on an Actuated Spring-Mass Model of Dynamic Legged Locomotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yizhar Or


    Full Text Available The classical model of spring-loaded inverted pendulum (SLIP and its extensions have been widely accepted as a simple description of dynamic legged locomotion at various scales in humans, legged robots and animals. Similar to the majority of models in the literature, the SLIP model assumes ideal sticking contact of the foot. However, there are practical scenarios of low ground friction that causes foot slippage, which can have a significant influence on dynamic behaviour. In this work, an extension of the SLIP model with two masses and torque actuation is considered, which accounts for possible slippage under Coulomb's friction law. The hybrid dynamics of this model is formulated and numerical simulations under representative parameter values reveal several types of stable periodic solutions with stick-slip transitions. Remarkably, it is found that slippage due to low friction can sometimes increase average speed and improve energetic efficiency by significantly reducing the mechanical cost of transport.

  4. Design and testing of botanical thermotropic actuator mechanisms in thermally adaptive building coverings (United States)

    Barrett, Ronald M.; Barrett, Ronald P.; Barrett, Cassandra M.


    This paper lays out the inspiration, operational principles, analytical modeling and coupon testing of a new class of thermally adaptive building coverings. The fundamental driving concepts for these coverings are derived from various families of thermotropic plant structures. Certain plant cellular structures like those in Mimosa pudica (Sensitive Plant), Rhododendron leaves or Albizia julibrissin (Mimosa Tree), exhibit actuation physiology which depends on changes in cellular turgor pressures to generate motion. This form of cellular action via turgor pressure manipulation is an inspiration for a new field of thermally adaptive building coverings which use various forms of cellular foam to aid or enable actuation much like plant cells are used to move leaves. When exposed to high solar loading, the structures use the inherent actuation capability of pockets of air trapped in closed cell foam as actuators to curve plates upwards and outwards. When cold, these same structures curve back towards the building forming large convex pockets of dead air to insulate the building. This paper describes basic classical laminated plate theory models comparing theory and experiment of such coupons containing closed-cell foam actuators. The study concludes with a global description of the effectiveness of this class of thermally adaptive building coverings.

  5. Investigation of intracochlear dual actuator stimulation in a scaled test rig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Drunen Wouter J.


    Full Text Available For patients suffering from profound hearing loss or deafness still having respectable residual hearing in the low frequency range, the combination of a hearing aid with a cochlear implant results in the best quality of hearing perception (EAS – electric acoustic stimulation. In order to optimize EAS, ongoing research focusses on the integration of these stimuli in a single implant device. Within this study, the performance of piezoelectric actuators, particularly the dual actuator stimulation, in a scaled uncoiled test rig was investigated.

  6. Effects of an elastic mass on frequency response characteristics of an ultra-thin piezoelectric micro-acoustic actuator. (United States)

    Kim, Hye Jin; Yang, Woo Seok; No, Kwangsoo


    This paper presents an optimized method to improve the sound quality of ultra-thin piezoelectric micro-acoustic actuators. To achieve flat and smooth frequency response characteristics of the piezoelectric acoustic actuators, we have proposed an elastic mass attached to the acoustic diaphragm. The effects of the elastic mass on frequency response characteristics of the piezoelectric acoustic actuator were investigated by finite element analysis simulation and laser scanning vibrometer measurement. Based on the modal and vibrational characteristics, it was found that the fabricated piezoelectric acoustic actuator has a significant dip of 1.32 kHz and peak of 2.24 kHz, which correspond respectively to the (1,3) and (3,1) resonant modes of the acoustic diaphragm. However, by attaching an elastic mass to the acoustic diaphragm with a shape similar to the (3,1) mode, the resonant frequencies corresponding to the (1,3) and (3,1) modes shifted to higher frequencies and the vibrational displacements at each mode were dramatically reduced by about 40%. As a result, the dip at (1,3) mode was greatly improved by 13 dB and total harmonic distortion was dramatically reduced from 80.83% to 8.71%. This paper shows that the optimized elastic mass can allow flat and smooth frequency response characteristics by improving the significant peak and dip.

  7. Test of a Novel Moving Magnet Actuated Seat Valve for Digital Displacement Fluid Power Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Christian; Madsen, Esben Lundø; Christensen, Jeppe Haals


    electronicallycontrolled moving magnet actuated (MMA) annular seat valve is proposed, designed, built, and tested rigorously in the laboratory. The actuator is energized using one coil only, it has bidirectional force capability and it utilizes magnetic latching to keep it open instead of a spring. The annular seat valve...... has two metering edges; the static pressure drop is 0.11/0.31 bar at -142/108 l/min, respectively. The valve closing time is 4-6 ms depending on the flow rate. The MMA valve is tested experimentally in both standalone test rigs besides in situ tests in a fully operational digital displacement proto...... type machine. Measurements provided for pumping and motoring operation at 800 RPM/100 bar demonstrate that the proposed MMA valve topology is a promising candidate for energy-efficient digital displacement machines. Key characteristics include little power consumption, good switching performance...

  8. Impact of pulsed jet actuators on aircraft mass and fuel consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertels, F.G.A.; van Dijk, R.E.C.; Elmendorp, R.J.M.; Vos, R.


    Pulsed jet actuators (PJAs) are one of the candidate technologies to be integrated in Fowler flaps to increase the maximum lift coefficient of transport aircraft in the landing configuration. The total system consists of the actuators plus sensors, a piping system to supply pressurized air and a

  9. Design and testing of a regenerative magnetorheological actuator for assistive knee braces (United States)

    Ma, Hao; Chen, Bing; Qin, Ling; Liao, Wei-Hsin


    In this paper, a multifunctional magneto-rheological actuator with power regeneration capability, named regenerative magnetorheological actuator (RMRA), is designed for gait assistance in the knee joint. RMRA has motor and magnetorheological (MR) brake parts working in parallel that can harvest energy through regenerative braking. This novel design provides multiple functions with good energy efficiency. The configuration and basic design of the RMRA are first introduced. Then geometrical optimization of the MR brake is conducted based on a parameterized model, and multiple factors are considered in the design objectives: braking torque, weight, and power consumption. After the optimal design is obtained, an RMRA prototype is fabricated and associated driver circuits are designed. Finally, multiple functions of the RMRA, especially three different braking modes, are modeled and tested. Experimental results of RMRA output performances in all working modes match the modeling and simulation. Assistive knee braces with the developed RMRA are promising for future applications in gait assistance and rehabilitation.

  10. Design, characterization, and testing of macro-fiber composite actuators for integration on a fixed-wing UAV (United States)

    Prazenica, Richard J.; Kim, Daewon; Moncayo, Hever; Azizi, Boutros; Chan, May


    Smart materials offer several potential advantages for UAV flight control applications compared to traditional servo actuators. One important benefit is that smart materials are lightweight and can be embedded directly into the structure of a wing or control surface. Therefore, they can reduce the overall weight of the vehicle and eliminate the need for mechanical appendages that may compromise the form factor of the wing, benefits that become more significant as the size of the vehicle decreases. In addition, smart materials can be used to realize continuous camber change of aerodynamic surfaces. Such designs offer improved aerodynamic efficiency compared to the discontinuous deflections of traditional hinged control surfaces driven by servo actuators. In the research discussed in this paper, macro-fiber composite (MFC) aileron actuators are designed for implementation on a medium-scale, fixed-wing UAV in order to achieve roll control. Macro-fiber composites, which consist of piezoceramic fibers and electrodes embedded in an epoxy matrix, are an attractive choice for UAV actuation because they are manufactured as lightweight, thin sheets and, when implemented as bending actuators, can provide both large structural deflections and high bandwidth. In this study, several MFC aileron actuator designs were evaluated through a combination of theoretical and experimental analysis. The current design consists of glass fiber composite ailerons with two unimorph MFC actuators embedded in each aileron to produce upward deflection. Wind tunnel test results are presented to assess the changes in lift and drag coefficients for different levels of MFC aileron actuation. Preparations for open-loop flight testing using a Skywalker UAV with MFC ailerons are also discussed. In addition, the development of a closed-loop, autonomous flight control system for the Skywalker is overviewed in preparation for conducting simulations and flight testing of an autonomous Skywalker with MFC

  11. Modification of vortex dynamics and transport properties of transitional axisymmetric jets using zero-net-mass-flux actuation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Önder, Asim; Meyers, Johan, E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 300A, B3001 Leuven (Belgium)


    We study the near field of a zero-net-mass-flux (ZNMF) actuated round jet using direct numerical simulations. The Reynolds number of the jet Re{sub D} = 2000 and three ZNMF actuators are used, evenly distributed over a circle, and directed towards the main jet. The actuators are triggered in phase, and have a relatively low momentum coefficient of C{sub μ} = 0.0049 each. We study four different control frequencies with Strouhal numbers ranging from St{sub D} = 0.165 to St{sub D} = 1.32; next to that, also two uncontrolled baseline cases are included in the study. We find that this type of ZNMF actuation leads to strong deformations of the near-field jet region that are very similar to those observed for non-circular jets. At the end of the jet's potential core (x/D = 5), the jet-column cross section is deformed into a hexagram-like geometry that results from strong modifications of the vortex structures. Two mechanisms lead to these modifications, i.e., (i) self-deformation of the jet's primary vortex rings started by distortions in their azimuthal curvature by the actuation, and (ii) production of side jets by the development and subsequent detachment of secondary streamwise vortex pairs. Further downstream (x/D = 10), the jet transforms into a triangular pattern, as the sharp corner regions of the hexagram entrain fluid and spread. We further investigate the global characteristics of the actuated jets. In particular when using the jet preferred frequency, i.e., St{sub D} = 0.33, parameters such as entrainment, centerline decay rate, and mean turbulent kinetic energy are significantly increased. Furthermore, high frequency actuation, i.e., St{sub D} = 1.32, is found to suppress the mechanisms leading to large scale structure growth and turbulent kinetic energy production. The simulations further include a passive scalar equation, and passive scalar mixing is also quantified and visualized.

  12. Acceptance test for the linear motion actuator for the scanning slit of the HIE-ISOLDE short diagnostic boxes

    CERN Document Server

    Cantero, E D; Bravin, E; Sosa, A


    We performed experimental tests to characterize the mechanical accuracy of a linear actuator designed by the company AVS for the movement of the scanning slit of the HIE-ISOLDE short diagnostic boxes. The mechanism consists of a linear actuator composed of two guiding rods and a lead screw, with a full stroke of 135 mm. A specially designed blade was mounted on the actuator and the transverse positioning of the blade was monitored with a camera-based optical system while moving the actuator at speeds of up to 10 mm/s. The repeatability of the positioning of the blade after several cycles around predefined positions was also measured. The results of the measurements and a general inspection of the device show that the proposed solution fulfils the specifications. A full prototype of short diagnostic box for the HIE-ISOLDE project can now be built for testing.

  13. Design & Development of a High Mass Flow Piston Synthetic Jet Actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Hamad Muhammad


    Full Text Available The idea of having a device that is capable of working in a systematic process allowing control of the boundary layer by means of operated on high-frequency, small-scale, and low energy actuators has caught the interest of the aerodynamicist community. With an eye on the available data and potential flow control advantages, our research team set out to manufacture a compact SJA (Synthetic Jet Actuator of its own, which would be capable of being installed inside an airfoil. It consists of components such as a single piston cylinder, with variable exit geometry along with the control system that has an electrical actuator which can be regulated in order for it to be capable of producing various operating frequencies. This paper consists of a study into the design of a single piston device SJA and will present all significant data both theoretical and computational regarding its design and performance.

  14. Macro Fiber Composite Actuated Unmanned Air Vehicles: Design, Development, and Testing


    Bilgen, Onur


    The design and implementation of a morphing unmanned aircraft using smart materials is presented. Articulated lifting surfaces and articulated wing sections actuated by servos are difficult to instrument and fabricate in a repeatable fashion on thin, composite-wing micro-air-vehicles. Assembly is complex and time consuming. A type of piezoceramic composite actuator commonly known as Macro Fiber Composite (MFC) is used for wing morphing. The actuation capability of this actuator on fiberglas...

  15. Modeling of the effects of the electrical dynamics on the electromechanical response of a DEAP circular actuator with a mass-spring load (United States)

    Rizzello, G.; Hodgins, M.; Naso, D.; York, A.; Seelecke, S.


    This paper presents a modeling approach of an actuator system based on a dielectric electro-active polymer (DEAP) circular membrane mechanically loaded with a mass and a linear spring. The motion is generated by the deformation of the membrane caused by the electrostatic compressive force between two compliant electrodes applied on the surface of the polymer. A mass and a linear spring are used to pre-load the membrane, allowing stroke in the out-of-plane direction. The development of mathematical models which accurately describe the nonlinear coupling between electrical and mechanical dynamics is a fundamental step in order to design model-based, high-precision position control algorithms operating in high-frequency regimes (up to 150 Hz). The knowledge of the nonlinear electrical dynamics of the actuator driving circuit can be exploited during the control system design in order to achieve desirable features, such as higher modeling accuracy for high-frequency actuation, self-sensing or control energy minimization. This work proposes a physical model of the DEAP actuator system which couples both electrical and mechanical dynamics occurring during the actuation process. By means of numerous experiments, it is shown that the model can be used to predict both actuator current and displacement, and therefore to increase the overall displacement prediction accuracy with respect to actuator models which neglect electrical behavior.

  16. Test results for an SMA-actuated vortex wake control system (United States)

    Quackenbush, Todd R.; Bilanin, Alan J.; Carpenter, Bernie F.


    This paper describes recent test result obtained on a prototype SMA-actuated foil that serves as a key element in a vortex wake control scheme for lifting surfaces. Previous papers have described the theoretical basis and feasibility studies for this scheme - which is based on a novel wake control known as vortex leveraging - as well as prior work on device design, test planning, and fabrication. The critical item in the realization of this scheme is a Smart Vortex Leveraging Tab (SVLT), a device designed to provide perturbations in the vortex system downstream of lifting surfaces at frequencies and amplitudes carefully selected to accelerate overall wake breakup. The paper summarizes the background of the effort, but focuses on the detail design and fabrication techniques used in the construction of a prototype SVLT and the results of water tunnel tests of a near full-scale prototype device.

  17. Robotic Arm Actuated by Electroactie Polymers (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Y.; Xue, T.; Shaninpoor, M.; Simpson, J. O.; Smith, J.


    Actuators are used for many planetary and space applications. To meet the NASA goal to reduce the actuators size, mass, cost and power consumption, electroactie polymers (EAP) are being developed to induce large bending and longitudinal actuation strains.

  18. Design, fabrication, and test planning for an SMA-actuated vortex wake control system (United States)

    Quackenbush, Todd R.; Batcho, P. F.; Bilanin, Alan J.; Carpenter, Bernie F.


    This paper describes ongoing design and fabrication work on a vortex wake control system for submarines that employs SMA-actuated devices. Previous work has described the theoretical basis and feasibility studies for this system, which is based on a novel wake control scheme known as vortex leveraging. The critical item in the realization of this system is a Smart Vortex Leveraging Tab (SVLT), whose design and fabrication is the principal focus of this work. This paper outlines the background of the effort and the design principles involved, but will chiefly deal with three closely interrelated topics; the hydrodynamic design requirements and control surface layout for the vortex leveraging system; the detail design and fabrication techniques being used in the construction of a prototype SVLT; and the test planning and experiment design process currently underway for test of both the overall vortex leveraging concept and SVLT device itself.

  19. Design, testing and control of a magnetorheological actuator for assistive knee braces (United States)

    Chen, J. Z.; Liao, W. H.


    This paper is aimed at developing a smart actuator for assistive knee braces to provide assistance to disabled or elderly people with mobility problems. A magnetorheological (MR) actuator is developed to be used in assistive knee braces to provide controllable torque. The MR actuator can work as a brake or a clutch. When active torque is needed, the DC motor works and the MR actuator functions as a clutch to transfer the torque generated by the motor to the leg; when passive torque is desired, the DC motor is turned off and the MR actuator functions as a brake to provide controllable passive torque. The prototype of the developed MR actuator is fabricated and experiments are carried out to investigate the characteristics of the MR actuator. The results show that the MR actuator is able to provide sufficient torque needed for normal human activities. Adaptive control is proposed for controlling the MR actuator. Anti-windup strategy is used to achieve better control performance. Experiments on the MR actuator under control are also performed to study the torque tracking ability of the system.

  20. Development and testing of a magnetorheological actuator for an assistive knee brace (United States)

    Chen, Jinzhou; Liao, Wei-Hsin


    This paper proposes an assistive knee brace that is aimed to provide assistance to old or disabled people. A magnetorheological (MR) actuator is developed to be used in assistive knee braces to provide controllable torque. The MR actuator consists of a DC motor and an MR brake/clutch. When active torque is needed, the DC motor works and the MR actuator functions as a clutch to transfer the torque generated by the motor to the leg; when passive torque is desired, the DC motor is turned off and the MR actuator functions as a brake to provide controllable passive torque. The prototype of this MR actuator is fabricated and experiments are carried out to investigate the characteristics of the MR actuator. The results show that the MR actuator is able to provide sufficient torque needed for normal human activities. Adaptive control is proposed for controlling the MR actuator. Experiments of the MR actuator under control are performed to study the torque tracking ability of the system.

  1. Soft buckling actuators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Dian; Whitesides, George M.


    A soft actuator is described, including: a rotation center having a center of mass; a plurality of bucklable, elastic structural components each comprising a wall defining an axis along its longest dimension, the wall connected to the rotation center in a way that the axis is offset from the center of mass in a predetermined direction; and a plurality of cells each disposed between two adjacent bucklable, elastic structural components and configured for connection with a fluid inflation or deflation source; wherein upon the deflation of the cell, the bucklable, elastic structural components are configured to buckle in the predetermined direction. A soft actuating device including a plurality of the soft actuators and methods of actuation using the soft actuator or soft actuating device disclosed herein are also described.

  2. Tests of quark mass textures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The classic hints on the structure of the quark mass matrices are shortly reviewed and the possibility of obtaining further information through precise texture analysis is discussed with the aid of a specific example.

  3. Mass properties measurement for drag-free test masses (United States)

    Conklin, John W.; Swank, Aaron; Sun, Ke-Xun; DeBra, Dan B.


    Space-borne gravitational wave observatories like the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) and those beyond, which may utilize a Modular Gravitational Reference Sensor (MGRS), greatly benefit from precise knowledge of the mass center location and moment of inertia tensor of the test mass prior to launch. The motion of the mass center of a drag-free test mass, which follows a pure geodesic, must be inferred from measurements of the surface. Therefore, knowledge of the mass center is critical for calibration of the cross-coupling between rotational and translational degrees of freedom. Together with the moment of inertia tensor, the mass center can also provide an estimate of the material density inhomogeneity to quadratic order, and the gravitational potential to second order, which improves modeling of self gravitation forces. These benefits, which are independent of the test mass shape, motivate the development of three new techniques for improving mass center and moment of inertia measurements beyond the current state of the art. A static pendulum is proposed to determine the mass center of a cubic test mass to ~ 1 μm by measuring the equilibrium position with the cube in up to 24 different orientations relative to the pendulum platform. Measuring the natural frequency of a dynamic torsion pendulum can determine both the mass center and moment of inertia tensor of arbitrarily shaped objects to ~ 5 μm and 1 part in ~ 104 respectively. The velocity modulation technique for measuring the mass center of a sphere has raised the bar in precision to ~ 150 nm, a factor of 20 improvement over the work presented at the LISA 6th symposium. This new technique involves rolling the sphere down a set of parallel rails to spectrally shift the mass center offset information to the rolling rate frequency, in order to avoid the 1/f noise that typically prevents other techniques from achieving precision below 1 μm.

  4. LISA Pathfinder test mass injection in geodesic motion: status of the on-ground testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortoluzzi, D; Biral, F; Bosetti, P; Da Lio, M; De Cecco, M [Department of Mechanical and Structural Engineering and INFN, University of Trento, 38050 Trento (Italy); Baglivo, L [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Padova, 35122 Padova (Italy); Benedetti, M [Department of Materials Engineering and Industrial Technologies and INFN, University of Trento, 38050 Trento (Italy); Cavalleri, A; Dolesi, R; Weber, W; Vitale, S [Department of Physics and INFN, University of Trento, 38050 Trento (Italy); Lapolla, M, E-mail: daniele.bortoluzzi@ing.unitn.i [Thales Alenia Space Italia, 20090 Milano (Italy)


    The LISA Technology Package (LTP) onboard the LISA Pathfinder mission aims to demonstrate, in orbit, several critical technology milestones for LISA, including the purest geodesic motion ever achieved for a macroscopic body. The gravitational reference sensor in the LTP hosts a heavy test mass (TM) surrounded by electrodes, at a relatively large 'gap' distance of several mm, which are used to measure and control the TM position and attitude. The large gaps--necessary to minimize the force noise acting on the TM--limit the available level of electrostatic actuation force that can be applied to the TM and thus the authority to control its position and velocity. Due to the large mass and gaps, a caging mechanism is required to securely hold the TM during the launch phase, when the whole payload endures large accelerations. Later in orbit, the TM must be injected into its geodesic trajectory, through the release from the caging mechanism and subsequent capture by the electrostatic actuation. During the release phase, the constraining device must limit adhesion forces that exert a net impulse upon rupture, such that the required forces needed to control the TM do not exceed the actuation authority. The TM injection into geodesic motion, and most critically the release phase, constitutes a potential point of failure for the mission. The on-ground verification of this phase is performed by measuring the momentum transferred between TM-representative surfaces and the release device, reproducing the dynamics that will take place in flight. This paper reports on the testing activities performed at the Department of Mechanical and Structural Engineering of the University of Trento.

  5. Testes mass of Africander-. Hereford

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The general objective of a fertility test programme for bulls is to maintain the rate of reproduction on a level allowing the highest economic return. At present there isno such test in the bull performance testing scheme at Irene. In this pilot study an attempt was made to predict fertility and semen quality from testicular ...

  6. Experimental Tests and Aeroacoustic Simulations of the Control of Cavity Tone by Plasma Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Yokoyama


    Full Text Available A plasma actuator comprising a dielectric layer sandwiched between upper and lower electrodes can induce a flow from the upper to lower electrode by means of an externally-applied electric field. Our objective is to clarify the mechanism by which such actuators can control the cavity tone. Plasma actuators, with the electrodes elongated in the streamwise direction and aligned in the spanwise direction, were placed in the incoming boundary of a deep cavity with a depth-to-length ratio of 2.5. By using this experimental arrangement, the amount of sound reduction (“control effect” produced by actuators of differing dimensions was measured. Direct aeroacoustic simulations were performed for controlling the cavity tone by using these actuators, where the distributions of the body forces applied by the actuators were determined from measurements of the plasma luminescence. The predicted control effects on the flow and sound fields were found to agree well with the experimental results. The simulations show that longitudinal streamwise vortices are introduced in the incoming boundary by the actuators, and the vortices form rib structures in the cavity flow. These vortices distort and weaken the two-dimensional vortices responsible for producing the cavity tone, causing the tonal sound to be reduced.

  7. Development of a fatigue testing setup for dielectric elastomer membrane actuators (United States)

    Hill, M.; Rizzello, G.; Seelecke, S.


    Dielectric elastomers (DE's) represent a transduction technology with high potential in many fields, including industries, due to their low weight, flexibility, and small energy consumption. For industrial applications, it is of fundamental importance to quantify the lifetime of DE technology, in terms of electrical and mechanical fatigue, when operating in realistic environmental conditions. This work contributes toward this direction, by presenting the development of an experimental setup which permits systematic fatigue testing of DE membranes. The setup permits to apply both mechanical and electrical stimuli to several membranes simultaneously, while measuring at the same time their mechanical (force, deformation) and electrical response (capacitance, resistance). In its final state, the setup will allow to test up to 15 DE membranes at the same time for several thousands of cycles. Control of the modules, monitoring of the actuators, and data acquisition are realized on a cRio FPGA-system running with LabVIEW. The setup is located in a climate chamber, in order to investigate the fatigue mechanisms at different environmental conditions, i.e., in terms of temperature and humidity. The setup consists of two main parts, namely a fatigue group and a measurement group. The fatigue group stays permanently in the climate chamber, while the measurement group is assembled to the fatigue group and allows to perform measurements at 20°C.

  8. Airborne Electro-Mechanical Actuator Test Stand for Development of Prognostic Health Management Systems (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — With the advent of the next generation of aerospace systems equipped with fly-by-wire controls, electro- mechanical actuators (EMA) are quickly becoming components...

  9. Evaluation of existing EPRI and INEL test data to determine the worm to worm gear coefficient of friction in Limitorque actuators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garza, I.A.


    About the last sizing parameter for motor operated valves which has not been determined by utility or NRC sponsored testing is actuator efficiency. A by-product of EPRI testing for valve factors is the measurement of the actuator efficiencies. Motor sizing in this testing provides efficiency testing for motors running near synchronous speed. INEL testing, sponsored by the NRC, for stem factors and rate of loading provides complimentary data for motors loaded down to zero speed. This paper analyzes the data from these two test programs to determine the coefficient of friction for the worm to worm gear interface. This allowed the development of an algorithm for determining the efficiency of actuators which have not been tested. This paper compares the results of this algorithm to the test data to provide a measure of the accuracy of this method for calculating actuator efficiency.

  10. Design, analysis and testing of a new piezoelectric tool actuator for elliptical vibration turning (United States)

    Lin, Jieqiong; Han, Jinguo; Lu, Mingming; Yu, Baojun; Gu, Yan


    A new piezoelectric tool actuator (PETA) for elliptical vibration turning has been developed based on a hybrid flexure hinge connection. Two double parallel four-bar linkage mechanisms and two right circular flexure hinges were chosen to guide the motion. The two input displacement directional stiffness were modeled according to the principle of virtual work modeling method and the kinematic analysis was conducted theoretically. Finite element analysis was used to carry out static and dynamic analyses. To evaluate the performance of the developed PETA, off-line experimental tests were carried out to investigate the step responses, motion strokes, resolutions, parasitic motions, and natural frequencies of the PETA along the two input directions. The relationship between input displacement and output displacement, as well as the tool tip’s elliptical trajectory in different phase shifts was analyzed. By using the developed PETA mechanism, micro-dimple patterns were generated as the preliminary application to demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of PETA for elliptical vibration turning.

  11. Design, Manufacturing and Test of a High Lift Secondary Flight Control Surface with Shape Memory Alloy Post-Buckled Precompressed Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Sinn


    Full Text Available The use of morphing components on aerospace structures can greatly increase the versatility of an aircraft. This paper presents the design, manufacturing and testing of a new kind of adaptive airfoil with actuation through Shape Memory Alloys (SMA. The developed adaptive flap system makes use of a novel actuator that employs SMA wires in an antagonistic arrangement with a Post-Buckled Precompressed (PBP mechanism. SMA actuators are usually used in an antagonistic arrangement or are arranged to move structural components with linearly varying resistance levels similar to springs. Unfortunately, most of this strain energy is spent doing work on the passive structure rather than performing the task at hand, like moving a flight control surface or resisting air loads. A solution is the use of Post-Buckled Precompressed (PBP actuators that are arranged so that the active elements do not waste energy fighting passive structural stiffnesses. One major problem with PBP actuators is that the low tensile strength of the piezoelectric elements can often result in tensile failure of the actuator on the convex face. A solution to this problem is the use of SMA as actuator material due to their tolerance of tensile stresses. The power consumption to hold deflections is reduced by approximately 20% with the Post-Buckled Precompressed mechanism. Conventional SMAs are essentially non-starters for many classes of aircraft due to the requirement of holding the flight control surfaces in a given position for extremely long times to trim the vehicle. For the reason that PBP actuators balance out air and structural loads, the steady-state load on the SMAs is essentially negligible, when properly designed. Simulations and experiments showed that the SMAPBP actuator shows tip rotations on the order of 45°, which is nearly triple the levels achieved by piezoelectric PBP actuators. The developed SMAPBP actuator was integrated in a NACA0012 airfoil with a flexible skin

  12. Soft Robotic Actuators (United States)

    Godfrey, Juleon Taylor

    In this thesis a survey on soft robotic actuators is conducted. The actuators are classified into three main categories: Pneumatic Artificial Muscles (PAM), Electronic Electroactive Polymers (Electric EAP), and Ionic Electroactive Polymers (Ionic EAP). Soft robots can have many degrees and are more compliant than hard robots. This makes them suitable for applications that are difficult for hard robots. For each actuator background history, build materials, how they operate, and modeling are presented. Multiple actuators in each class are reviewed highlighting both their use and their mathematical formulation. In addition to the survey the McKibben actuator was chosen for fabrication and in-depth experimental analysis. Four McKibben actuators were fabricated using mesh sleeve, barbed hose fittings, and different elastic bladders. All were actuated using compressed air. Tensile tests were performed for each actuator to measure the tension force as air pressure increased from 20 to 100 psi in 10 psi increments. To account for material relaxation properties eleven trials for each actuator were run for 2-3 days. In conclusion, the smallest outer diameter elastic bladder was capable of producing the highest force due to the larger gap between the bladder and the sleeve.

  13. Electrowetting-on-dielectric actuation of droplets with capillary electrophoretic zones for off-line mass spectrometric analysis. (United States)

    Gorbatsova, Jelena; Borissova, Maria; Kaljurand, Mihkel


    Present article describes a novel technique based on digital microfluidics that allows collecting fractions of interest after electrophoretic separation and detection for further ESI-MS investigation. In this technique, a mixture is injected into a capillary electrophoresis (CE) apparatus, and microliter droplets are generated at the CE outlet at a frequency high enough to fraction each compound into several droplets, compartmentalizing the CE zones into a sequence of droplets. The droplets are transported from the CE outlet to a storage tube inlet using electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) for droplet actuation. By applying a vacuum at the other end of the storage tube, the droplets form a sequence of plugs separated by air gaps. The plugs stored in the tubing are later analyzed using a standalone spectrometric device. Off-line electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) was used to characterize the corresponding vitamin and was performed by pumping the segmented plugs directly into a spray emitter tip. The technique could be of interest to laboratories without access to well-equipped facilities (e.g. clean-rooms or lab robots). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. An experimental investigation of flows from zero-net mass-flux actuators (United States)

    Holman, Ryan Jay

    Zero-net mass-flux (ZNMF) devices consist of an oscillating driver, a cavity, and a small opening such as a rectangular slot or a circular orifice. The driver produces a series of vortex pairs (or rings) at the slot/orifice which add momentum and circulation to the flow. ZNMF devices are useful tools for flow control applications such as heat transfer, mixing enhancement, and boundary layer separation control. To date much research has been done to qualify and quantify the effects of ZNMF devices in many applications, both experimental and computational. However, a number of issues still remain. First, there is no universally accepted dimensionless parameter space, which makes device characterization and comparison between studies difficult. Second, most experimental studies do not sufficiently quantify the nearfield behavior, which hinders the fundamental understanding of the underlying flow physics. Of particular interest are the regimes of jet formation, and transition from laminar to turbulent-like flow, which are not well understood. Finally, the accuracy of experimental measurements are seldom reported in the literature. This study unifies the experimental and numerical data presented in the literature for ZNMF flowfields exhausting into a quiescent medium. A quantitative experimental database is also generated to completely characterize the topological regions of ZNMF flows over a useful range of the dimensionless parameter space. The database is derived chiefly from two-dimensional velocity field measurements using particle image velocimetry and laser Doppler anemometry. Vorticity, circulation, Reynolds stress, and turbulent kinetic energy is acquired to characterize the resulting flowfield. Significant insight into the behavior of voice coil driven ZNMF devices is uncovered. Design improvements are made by implementing a sinusoidal controller for piston motion and eliminating the need for a sealing membrane in the cavity. It is shown that the proper

  15. Testing of Piezo-Actuated Glass Micro-Membranes by Optical Low-Coherence Reflectometry. (United States)

    Merlo, Sabina; Poma, Paolo; Crisà, Eleonora; Faralli, Dino; Soldo, Marco


    In this work, we have applied optical low-coherence reflectometry (OLCR), implemented with infra-red light propagating in fiberoptic paths, to perform static and dynamic analyses on piezo-actuated glass micro-membranes. The actuator was fabricated by means of thin-film piezoelectric MEMS technology and was employed for modifying the micro-membrane curvature, in view of its application in micro-optic devices, such as variable focus micro-lenses. We are here showing that OLCR incorporating a near-infrared superluminescent light emitting diode as the read-out source is suitable for measuring various parameters such as the micro-membrane optical path-length, the membrane displacement as a function of the applied voltage (yielding the piezo-actuator hysteresis) as well as the resonance curve of the fundamental vibration mode. The use of an optical source with short coherence-time allows performing interferometric measurements without spurious resonance effects due to multiple parallel interfaces of highly planar slabs, furthermore selecting the plane/layer to be monitored. We demonstrate that the same compact and flexible setup can be successfully employed to perform spot optical measurements for static and dynamic characterization of piezo-MEMS in real time.

  16. Testing of Piezo-Actuated Glass Micro-Membranes by Optical Low-Coherence Reflectometry (United States)

    Merlo, Sabina; Poma, Paolo; Crisà, Eleonora; Faralli, Dino; Soldo, Marco


    In this work, we have applied optical low-coherence reflectometry (OLCR), implemented with infra-red light propagating in fiberoptic paths, to perform static and dynamic analyses on piezo-actuated glass micro-membranes. The actuator was fabricated by means of thin-film piezoelectric MEMS technology and was employed for modifying the micro-membrane curvature, in view of its application in micro-optic devices, such as variable focus micro-lenses. We are here showing that OLCR incorporating a near-infrared superluminescent light emitting diode as the read-out source is suitable for measuring various parameters such as the micro-membrane optical path-length, the membrane displacement as a function of the applied voltage (yielding the piezo-actuator hysteresis) as well as the resonance curve of the fundamental vibration mode. The use of an optical source with short coherence-time allows performing interferometric measurements without spurious resonance effects due to multiple parallel interfaces of highly planar slabs, furthermore selecting the plane/layer to be monitored. We demonstrate that the same compact and flexible setup can be successfully employed to perform spot optical measurements for static and dynamic characterization of piezo-MEMS in real time. PMID:28245603

  17. Testing of Piezo-Actuated Glass Micro-Membranes by Optical Low-Coherence Reflectometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Merlo


    Full Text Available In this work, we have applied optical low-coherence reflectometry (OLCR, implemented with infra-red light propagating in fiberoptic paths, to perform static and dynamic analyses on piezo-actuated glass micro-membranes. The actuator was fabricated by means of thin-film piezoelectric MEMS technology and was employed for modifying the micro-membrane curvature, in view of its application in micro-optic devices, such as variable focus micro-lenses. We are here showing that OLCR incorporating a near-infrared superluminescent light emitting diode as the read-out source is suitable for measuring various parameters such as the micro-membrane optical path-length, the membrane displacement as a function of the applied voltage (yielding the piezo-actuator hysteresis as well as the resonance curve of the fundamental vibration mode. The use of an optical source with short coherence-time allows performing interferometric measurements without spurious resonance effects due to multiple parallel interfaces of highly planar slabs, furthermore selecting the plane/layer to be monitored. We demonstrate that the same compact and flexible setup can be successfully employed to perform spot optical measurements for static and dynamic characterization of piezo-MEMS in real time.

  18. Electrowetting on dielectric actuation of droplets with capillary electrophoretic zones for MALDI mass spectrometric analysis. (United States)

    Gorbatsova, Jelena; Borissova, Maria; Kaljurand, Mihkel


    An automated fraction collection interface was developed for coupling CE with MALDI-MS. This fraction collection approach is based on the electrowetting on dielectric (EWOD) phenomenon performed on a digital microfluidic (DMF) board; it does not rely on a MALDI spotter. In this study, a four-peptide mixture was used as a sample test, and the separations were conducted in a portable CE instrument with a 150 μm o.d. × 50 μm i.d. capillary and a contactless conductivity detector. The CE instrument was interfaced with a robust DMF board. The CE fractions were directly deposited onto the DMF board at predetermined locations prior to MALDI analysis. The series of experiments determined the lowest concentration that produces a measurable MALDI signal. The concentrations were 0.25, 0.5, 0.05, and 0.05 nmol for bradykinin, angiotensin, ACTH (18-39), and insulin, respectively. The contactless conductivity detector limit of detection for the same analytes was 2.5 μmol. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Wind tunnel tests for a flapping wing model with a changeable camber using macro-fiber composite actuators (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Kwan; Han, Jae-Hung; Kwon, Ki-Jung


    In the present study, a biomimetic flexible flapping wing was developed on a real ornithopter scale by using macro-fiber composite (MFC) actuators. With the actuators, the maximum camber of the wing can be linearly changed from -2.6% to +4.4% of the maximum chord length. Aerodynamic tests were carried out in a low-speed wind tunnel to investigate the aerodynamic characteristics, particularly the camber effect, the chordwise flexibility effect and the unsteady effect. Although the chordwise wing flexibility reduces the effective angle of attack, the maximum lift coefficient can be increased by the MFC actuators up to 24.4% in a static condition. Note also that the mean values of the perpendicular force coefficient rise to a value of considerably more than 3 in an unsteady aerodynamic flow region. Additionally, particle image velocimetry (PIV) tests were performed in static and dynamic test conditions to validate the flexibility and unsteady effects. The static PIV results confirm that the effective angle of attack is reduced by the coupling of the chordwise flexibility and the aerodynamic force, resulting in a delay in the stall phenomena. In contrast to the quasi-steady flow condition of a relatively high advance ratio, the unsteady aerodynamic effect due to a leading edge vortex can be found along the wing span in a low advance ratio region. The overall results show that the chordwise wing flexibility can produce a positive effect on flapping aerodynamic characteristics in quasi-steady and unsteady flow regions; thus, wing flexibility should be considered in the design of efficient flapping wings.

  20. NiTi Alloy Negator Springs for Long-Stroke Constant-Force Shape Memory Actuators: Modeling, Simulation and Testing (United States)

    Spaggiari, Andrea; Dragoni, Eugenio; Tuissi, Ausonio


    This work aims at the experimental characterization and modeling validation of shape memory alloy (SMA) Negator springs. According to the classic engineering books on springs, a Negator spring is a spiral spring made of strip of metal wound on the flat with an inherent curvature such that, in repose, each coil wraps tightly on its inner neighbor. The main feature of a Negator springs is the nearly constant force displacement behavior in the unwinding of the strip. Moreover the stroke is very long, theoretically infinite, as it depends only on the length of the initial strip. A Negator spring made in SMA is built and experimentally tested to demonstrate the feasibility of this actuator. The shape memory Negator spring behavior can be modeled with an analytical procedure, which is in good agreement with the experimental test and can be used for design purposes. In both cases, the material is modeled as elastic in austenitic range, while an exponential continuum law is used to describe the martensitic behavior. The experimental results confirms the applicability of this kind of geometry to the shape memory alloy actuators, and the analytical model is confirmed to be a powerful design tool to dimension and predict the spring behavior both in martensitic and austenitic range.

  1. Optimization of Actuator with permanent Magnets from Viewpoint of their Arrangement and Total Mass of Magnetic Circuit

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doležel, Ivo; Karban, P.; Ulrych, B.


    Roč. 57, 8/S (2006), s. 181-184 ISSN 1335-3632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/04/0095 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20570509 Keywords : electromagnetic actuator * permanent magnet * magnet ic field Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  2. Laser Initiated Actuator study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, B.


    The program task was to design and study a laser initiated actuator. The design of the actuator is described, it being comprised of the fiber and body subassemblies. The energy source for all experiments was a Spectra Diode 2200-H2 laser diode. The diode is directly coupled to a 100 micron core, 0.3 numerical aperture fiber optic terminated with an SMA connector. The successful testing results are described and recommendations are made.

  3. Smart-actuated continuous moldline technology (CMT) mini wind tunnel test (United States)

    Pitt, Dale M.; Dunne, James P.; Kilian, Kevin J.


    The Smart Aircraft and Marine Propulsion System Demonstration (SAMPSON) Program will culminate in two separate demonstrations of the application of Smart Materials and Structures technology. One demonstration will be for an aircraft application and the other for marine vehicles. The aircraft portion of the program will examine the application of smart materials to aircraft engine inlets which will deform the inlet in-flight in order to regulate the airflow rate into the engine. Continuous Moldline Technology (CMT), a load-bearing reinforced elastomer, will enable the use of smart materials in this application. The capabilities of CMT to withstand high-pressure subsonic and supersonic flows were tested in a sub-scale mini wind- tunnel. The fixture, used as the wind-tunnel test section, was designed to withstand pressure up to 100 psi. The top and bottom walls were 1-inch thick aluminum and the side walls were 1-inch thick LEXAN. High-pressure flow was introduced from the Boeing St. Louis poly-sonic wind tunnel supply line. CMT walls, mounted conformal to the upper and lower surfaces, were deflected inward to obtain a converging-diverging nozzle. The CMT walls were instrumented for vibration and deflection response. Schlieren photography was used to establish shock wave motion. Static pressure taps, embedded within one of the LEXAN walls, monitored pressure variation in the mini-wind tunnel. High mass flow in the exit region. This test documented the response of CMT technology in the presence of high subsonic flow and provided data to be used in the design of the SAMPSON Smart Inlet.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norlida Jamil


    Full Text Available Milling is one of the most common manufacturing processes for automotive components, but its productivity is limited by the onset of regenerative chatter. This is a form of unstable self-excited vibration that occurs when the volume of material removed is too large for a particular spindle speed. This form of chatter is undesirable because it results in premature tool wear, poor surface finish on the machined component and the possibility of serious damage to the machine itself. The chatter stability of a milling process can be determined using well-established theory, provided that the frequency response of the flexible structure can be determined. In practice this usually involves the excitation of a stationery (non-rotating milling tool with a modal hammer, and measurement of the response of the tool with a co-located accelerometer. However, this measurement is not necessarily accurate due to amplitude dependency factor consideration. There is anecdotal evidence that structural nonlinearity can have a significant effect on the chatter stability of some milling machines. This project develops non-contact electromagnetic actuators to measure the frequency response of milling tools to machine automotive parts. In addition it will describe the practical application of this approach, and discuss its amplitude dependency for current excitation during frequency response function measurement using magnetic force generation.

  5. High-Compression-Ratio; Atkinson-Cycle Engine Using Low-Pressure Direct Injection and Pneumatic-Electronic Valve Actuation Enabled by Ionization Current and Foward-Backward Mass Air Flow Sensor Feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harold Schock; Farhad Jaberi; Ahmed Naguib; Guoming Zhu; David Hung


    This report describes the work completed over a two and one half year effort sponsored by the US Department of Energy. The goal was to demonstrate the technology needed to produce a highly efficient engine enabled by several technologies which were to be developed in the course of the work. The technologies included: (1) A low-pressure direct injection system; (2) A mass air flow sensor which would measure the net airflow into the engine on a per cycle basis; (3) A feedback control system enabled by measuring ionization current signals from the spark plug gap; and (4) An infinitely variable cam actuation system based on a pneumatic-hydraulic valve actuation These developments were supplemented by the use of advanced large eddy simulations as well as evaluations of fuel air mixing using the KIVA and WAVE models. The simulations were accompanied by experimental verification when possible. In this effort a solid base has been established for continued development of the advanced engine concepts originally proposed. Due to problems with the valve actuation system a complete demonstration of the engine concept originally proposed was not possible. Some of the highlights that were accomplished during this effort are: (1) A forward-backward mass air flow sensor has been developed and a patent application for the device has been submitted. We are optimistic that this technology will have a particular application in variable valve timing direct injection systems for IC engines. (2) The biggest effort on this project has involved the development of the pneumatic-hydraulic valve actuation system. This system was originally purchased from Cargine, a Swedish supplier and is in the development stage. To date we have not been able to use the actuators to control the exhaust valves, although the actuators have been successfully employed to control the intake valves. The reason for this is the additional complication associated with variable back pressure on the exhaust valves when

  6. Transputer Control of Hydraulic Actuators and Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn


    Results from a Danish mechatronics research program entitled IMCIA - Intelligent Control and Intelligent Actuators. The objective is development of intelligent actuators for intelligent motion control. A mechatronics test facility with a transputer controlled hydraulic robot suiteable for real...

  7. Experimental identification of piezo actuator characteristic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľ. Miková


    Full Text Available This paper deals with piezoelectric material, which can be used as actuator for conversion of electrical energy to mechanical work. Test equipment has been developed for experimental testing of the piezoactuators. Piezoactivity of this actuator has non-linear characteristic. This type of actuator is used for in-pipe mechanism design.

  8. 30 CFR 250.433 - What are the diverter actuation and testing requirements? (United States)


    ... OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations...-control systems and control stations. You must also flow-test the vent lines. (a) For drilling operations... must conduct subsequent pressure tests within 7 days after the previous test. (b) For floating drilling...

  9. 30 CFR 250.1611 - Blowout preventer systems tests, actuations, inspections, and maintenance. (United States)


    ... there is a stuck drill pipe or there are pressure control operations and remedial efforts are being... rams shall be pressure tested against all sizes of pipe in use, excluding drill collars and bottomhole... manifold valves, upper and lower kelly cocks, and drill-string safety valves shall be pressure tested to...

  10. Hydraulically actuated artificial muscles (United States)

    Meller, M. A.; Tiwari, R.; Wajcs, K. B.; Moses, C.; Reveles, I.; Garcia, E.


    Hydraulic Artificial Muscles (HAMs) consisting of a polymer tube constrained by a nylon mesh are presented in this paper. Despite the actuation mechanism being similar to its popular counterpart, which are pneumatically actuated (PAM), HAMs have not been studied in depth. HAMs offer the advantage of compliance, large force to weight ratio, low maintenance, and low cost over traditional hydraulic cylinders. Muscle characterization for isometric and isobaric tests are discussed and compared to PAMs. A model incorporating the effect of mesh angle and friction have also been developed. In addition, differential swelling of the muscle on actuation has also been included in the model. An application of lab fabricated HAMs for a meso-scale robotic system is also presented.

  11. Design and testing of an under-actuated surface EMG-driven hand exoskeleton. (United States)

    Lince, A; Celadon, N; Battezzato, A; Favetto, A; Appendino, S; Ariano, P; Paleari, M


    Stroke and other neurological pathologies are an increasing cause of hand impairment, involving expensive rehabilitative therapies. In this scenario, robotics applied to hand rehabilitation and assistance appears particularly promising in order to lower therapy costs and boost its efficacy. This work shows a recently conceived hand exoskeleton, from the design and realization to its preliminary evaluation. A control strategy based on surface electromyography (sEMG) signals is integrated: preliminary tests performed on healthy subjects show the validity of this choice. The testing protocol, applied on healthy subjects, demonstrated the robustness of the whole system, both in terms of mimicking a physiological distribution of finger forces across subjects, and of realizing an effective control strategy based on the user's intention.

  12. Resonance test system (United States)

    Musial, Walter [Boulder, CO; White, Darris [Superior, CO


    An apparatus (10) for applying at least one load to a specimen (12) according to one embodiment of the invention may comprise a mass (18). An actuator (20) mounted to the specimen (12) and operatively associated with the mass (18) moves the mass (18) along a linear displacement path (22) that is perpendicular to a longitudinal axis of the specimen (12). A control system (26) operatively associated with the actuator (20) operates the actuator (20) to reciprocate the mass (18) along the linear displacement path (22) at a reciprocating frequency, the reciprocating frequency being about equal to a resonance frequency of the specimen (12) in a test configuration.

  13. Test masses for the G-POEM test of the weak equivalence principle (United States)

    Reasenberg, Robert D.; Phillips, James D.; Popescu, Eugeniu M.


    We describe the design of the test masses that are used in the ‘ground-based principle of equivalence measurement’ test of the weak equivalence principle. The main features of the design are the incorporation of corner cubes and the use of mass removal and replacement to create pairs of test masses with different test substances. The corner cubes allow for the vertical separation of the test masses to be measured with picometer accuracy by SAO's unique tracking frequency laser gauge, while the mass removal and replacement operations are arranged so that the test masses incorporating different test substances have nominally identical gravitational properties.

  14. Functional Testing of Subcutaneous Piezoelectrically Actuated Hearing Aid: Comparison With BAHA and Potential for Treating Single-sided Deafness. (United States)

    Kotiya, Akhilesh; Bance, Manohar; Leadbetter, Jeff; Brown, Jeremy; Adamson, Rob


    To compare the performance of a subcutaneous piezoelectrically actuated hearing aid (SPAHA) with the bone-anchored hearing aid (BAHA) and assess its effectiveness as a treatment option for conductive loss and single-sided deafness (SSD). To validate the use of the SPAHA as a bone conduction implant, its performance was compared with a widely used bone conduction implant, the BAHA. Maximum dynamic range, power consumed to deliver standard speech signals and total harmonic distortion (THD) was assessed. The transcranial attenuation was also measured to assess the SPAHA's potential to treat SSD. Functional testing of the SPAHA and BAHA was conducted using cadaver heads. Ipsilateral and contralateral promontory velocity and the power consumption by the devices were measured at 111 different frequencies in the range of 200 to 9600 Hz. Performance metrics were derived from these measurements. The maximum dynamic range for SPAHA was within 10 dB of that of BAHA. The THD for the SPAHA was at most 3%, slightly better than the BAHA. The power consumption by the SPAHA, whereas highly variable, was not statistically different than that of the BAHA. Transcranical attenuation in case of SPAHA was 5 to 10 dB across the measured frequency range. From observed dynamic range and THD, the speech quality delivered by the SPAHA should equal or exceed that delivered by the BAHA. To attain equivalent hearing sensation at lower frequencies, the drive voltage for SPAHA would have to be significantly higher than that for BAHA. For typical speech inputs the power consumption requirements of the SPAHA should be roughly equal to those of the BAHA. Given its performance at high frequencies, the SPAHA seems well-suited to treating SSD.

  15. Inflight magnetic characterization of the test masses onboard LISA Pathfinder

    CERN Document Server

    Diaz-Aguiló, Marc; Lobo, Alberto


    LISA Pathfinder is a science and technology demonstrator of the European Space Agency within the framework of its LISA mission, the latter aiming to be the first space-borne gravitational wave observatory. The payload of LISA Pathfinder is the so-called LISA Technology Package, which is designed to measure relative accelerations between two test masses in nominal free fall. The diagnostics subsystem consists of several modules, one of which is the magnetic diagnostics unit. Its main function is the assessment of the differential acceleration noise between the test masses due to magnetic effects. This subsystem is composed of two onboard coils intended to produce controlled magnetic fields at the location of the test masses. These magnetic fields couple with the remanent magnetic moment and susceptibility and produce forces and torques on the test masses. These, in turn, produce kinematic excursions of the test masses which are sensed by the onboard interferometer. We prove that adequately processing these exc...

  16. Lifetime of dielectric elastomer stack actuators (United States)

    Lotz, Peter; Matysek, Marc; Schlaak, Helmut F.


    Dielectric elastomer stack actuators (DESA) are well suited for the use in mobile devices, fluidic applications and small electromechanical systems. Despite many improvements during the last years the long term behavior of dielectric elastomer actuators in general is not known or has not been published. The first goal of the study is to characterize the overall lifetime under laboratory conditions and to identify potential factors influencing lifetime. For this we have designed a test setup to examine 16 actuators at once. The actuators are subdivided into 4 groups each with a separate power supply and driving signal. To monitor the performance of the actuators driving voltage and current are measured continuously and additionally, the amplitude of the deformations of each actuator is measured sequentially. From our first results we conclude that lifetime of these actuators is mainly influenced by the contact material between feeding line and multilayer electrodes. So far, actuators themselves are not affected by long term actuation. With the best contact material actuators can be driven for more than 2700 h at 200 Hz with an electrical field strength of 20 V/μm. This results in more than 3 billion cycles. Actually, there are further actuators driven at 10 Hz for more than 4000 hours and still working.

  17. On-ground testing of the role of adhesion in the LISA-Pathfinder test mass injection phase (United States)

    Bortoluzzi, D.; Zanoni, C.; Conklin, J. W.


    Many space missions share the need to fly a free-falling body inside the spacecraft, as a reference for navigation and/or as a probe for the local gravitational field. When a mechanism is required to cage such an object during the launch phase, the need arises to release it to free-fall once the operational phase must be initiated in orbit. The criticality of this phase increases when the mechanical interfaces between the body and the mechanism are affected by adhesion and the actuation authority of the control system on the free-falling body is limited. Both conditions are realized in the LISA Pathfinder mission, which aims at injecting a gold-coated 2 kg cubic test mass into a nearly perfect geodesic trajectory to demonstrate the readiness of the developed technology for in-space gravity wave detection. The criticality of adhesion is widely recognized in space technology, because it can affect and jeopardize the functionality of mechanisms, when arising between moving parts. In the LISA Pathfinder case, metallic adhesion potentially plays a relevant role, mainly for two reasons. First, thanks to its properties (ductility, high surface energy) the gold coating on the proof mass easily produces cold weldings, especially in vacuum conditions. Second, the detachment of the proof mass from the releasing device occurs abruptly and a relevant influence of the separation velocity is expected on the strength of the welding. This can produce an excessive velocity of the proof mass at the retraction of the releasing device for the following capture and centring phase on behalf of the control system. A testing activity is performed to characterize the dynamic behaviour of the adhesive bonds between the proof mass and the releasing device, which can be used to predict their contribution on the residual velocity of the proof mass after in-flight release. The study of such a dynamic phenomenon sets some challenging requirements on the measurement technique, both on the

  18. Testing the minimal supersymmetric standard model with the mass ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 69; Issue 5. Testing the minimal supersymmetric standard model with the mass ... We review the currently most accurate evaluation of the boson mass, , in the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM). It consists of a full one-loop calculation, including the ...

  19. Using Photographs and Diagrams to Test Young Children's Mass Thinking (United States)

    Cheeseman, Jill; McDonough, Andrea


    This paper reports the results of a pencil-and-paper test developed to assess young children's understanding of mass measurement. The innovative element of the test was its use of photographs. We found many children of the 295 6-8 year-old children tested could "read" the photographs and diagrams and recognise the images as…

  20. Soft Pneumatic Actuators for Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Belforte


    Full Text Available Pneumatic artificial muscles are pneumatic devices with practical and various applications as common actuators. They, as human muscles, work in agonistic-antagonistic way, giving a traction force only when supplied by compressed air. The state of the art of soft pneumatic actuators is here analyzed: different models of pneumatic muscles are considered and evolution lines are presented. Then, the use of Pneumatic Muscles (PAM in rehabilitation apparatus is described and the general characteristics required in different applications are considered, analyzing the use of proper soft actuators with various technical properties. Therefore, research activity carried out in the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering in the field of soft and textile actuators is presented here. In particular, pneumatic textile muscles useful for active suits design are described. These components are made of a tubular structure, with an inner layer of latex coated with a deformable outer fabric sewn along the edge. In order to increase pneumatic muscles forces and contractions Braided Pneumatic Muscles are studied. In this paper, new prototypes are presented, based on a fabric construction and various kinds of geometry. Pressure-force-deformation tests results are carried out and analyzed. These actuators are useful for rehabilitation applications. In order to reproduce the whole upper limb movements, new kind of soft actuators are studied, based on the same principle of planar membranes deformation. As an example, the bellows muscle model and worm muscle model are developed and described. In both cases, wide deformations are expected. Another issue for soft actuators is the pressure therapy. Some textile sleeve prototypes developed for massage therapy on patients suffering of lymph edema are analyzed. Different types of fabric and assembly techniques have been tested. In general, these Pressure Soft Actuators are useful for upper/lower limbs treatments

  1. Microwave Power for Smart Membrane Actuators (United States)

    Choi, Sang H.; Song, Kyo D.; Golembiewski, Walter T.; Chu, Sang-Hyon; King, Glen C.


    The concept of microwave-driven smart membrane actuators is envisioned as the best option to alleviate the complexity associated with hard-wired control circuitry. A large, ultra-light space structure, such as solar sails and Gossamer spacecrafts, requires a distribution of power into individual membrane actuators to control them in an effective way. A patch rectenna array with a high voltage output was developed to drive smart membrane actuators. Networked patch rectenna array receives and converts microwave power into a DC power for an array of smart actuators. To use microwave power effectively, the concept of a power allocation and distribution (PAD) circuit is developed and tested for networking a rectenna/actuator patch array. For the future development, the PAD circuit could be imbedded into a single embodiment of rectenna and actuator array with the thin-film microcircuit embodiment. Preliminary design and fabrication of PAD circuitry that consists of a sixteen nodal elements were made for laboratory testing.

  2. Shape memory alloys for micromembrane actuation (United States)

    Surbled, Patrick; Le Pioufle, Bruno; Yang, E. H.; Fujita, Hiroyuki


    More and more technologies and new materials have been combined with silicon process technologies to enhance the performances of microsystems and extend the application fields. Among these technologies, the Shape Memory Alloys (SMA's) as thin films have been developed recently. They have been shown to induce high displacement and large force/mass ratio under low voltage. They can produce work output higher than can be provided with other kinds of actuators. However, such SMA actuators are not easy to make because specific annealing treatments or mechanical bias springs are needed to realize cyclic device operation. Moreover, adhesion problems of SMA thin films may occur during the annealing treatment. We have developed a simple fabrication process allowing a reliable operation principle of a micromembrane. The cyclic actuation is ensured by membrane thickness residual stresses that avoids the assembling steps. These membranes whose surface varies from 200 X 200 micrometer2 up to 2 X 2 mm2 have been successfully tested. As developed, they are very adapted to integration process of microelectronics and can be applied to many applications such as optical, fluidic devices, and especially for biomedical applications as SMA's are biocompatible.

  3. Simulation and Experimental Testing of an Actuator for a Fast Switching On-Off Valve Suitable to Efficient Displacement Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roemer, Daniel Beck; Johansen, Per; Bech, Michael Møller


    for the valve design process. In this paper simulation of such fast switching valve is presented and the transient actuator performance is experimentally validated against transient Finite Element Analysis (FEA). Models predict a switching time of approximately 1ms for the valve and a pressure loss of 0.5 bar......Digital Displacement (DD) fluid power machines are upcoming technology, improving the efficiency compared to traditional variable displacement machines, especially at low displacements where currently available fluid power pumps/motors suffer from mediocre efficiency. This efficiency improvement...

  4. Control of Adjustable Compliant Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berno J.E. Misgeld


    Full Text Available Adjustable compliance or variable stiffness actuators comprise an additional element to elastically decouple the actuator from the load and are increasingly applied to human-centered robotic systems. The advantages of such actuators are of paramount importance in rehabilitation robotics, where requirements demand safe interaction between the therapy system and the patient. Compliant actuator systems enable the minimization of large contact forces arising, for example, from muscular spasticity and have the ability to periodically store and release energy in cyclic movements. In order to overcome the loss of bandwidth introduced by the elastic element and to guarantee a higher range in force/torque generation, new actuator designs consider variable or nonlinear stiffness elements, respectively. These components cannot only be adapted to the walking speed or the patient condition, but also entail additional challenges for feedback control. This paper introduces a novel design method for an impedance-based controller that fulfills the control objectives and compares the performance and robustness to a classical cascaded control approach. The new procedure is developed using a non-standard positive-real Η2 controller design and is applied to a loop-shaping approach. Robust norm optimal controllers are designed with regard to the passivity of the actuator load-impedance transfer function and the servo control problem. Classical cascaded and positive-real Η2 controller designs are validated and compared in simulations and in a test bench using a passive elastic element of varying stiffness.

  5. Design, modeling, analysis and testing of a novel piezo-actuated XY compliant mechanism for large workspace nano-positioning (United States)

    Zhu, Wu-Le; Zhu, Zhiwei; Shi, Yi; Wang, Xinwei; Guan, Kaimin; Ju, Bing-Feng


    In this paper, a new piezo-actuated XY parallel compliant mechanism for large workspace nano-positioning with decoupled motions is developed by incorporating a novel Z-shaped flexure hinge (ZFH)-based mechanism into the mirror-symmetrically distributed structure. The bridge-type mechanism and two-stage leverage mechanisms serve as preliminary displacement amplifiers, while further amplification with motion transfer and decoupled output motions are achieved by means of the ZFH mechanism. Based on finite element theory, a high-precision analytical model of the XY compliant mechanism is established by considering all the connecting linkages as flexible components. Through the improved differential evolution algorithm, the optimized compliant mechanism is capable of performing millimeter-scale workspace nano-positioning with decoupled motions. In addition, the input displacement unbalance, resulting from the lateral force which has potential to damage the piezoelectric actuators, is markedly lowered to a negligible value. The performance of the fabricated compliant mechanism with optimized parameters is investigated to well agree with both the analytical model and ANSYS simulation. In addition, based on the inverse kinematics derived from the model and experimental results, different elliptical vibration trajectories are accurately acquired.

  6. Cryogenic Fluid Transfer Components Using Single Crystal Piezoelectric Actuators Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cryogenic fluid transfer components using single crystal piezoelectric actuators are proposed to enable low thermal mass, minimal heat leak, low power consumption...

  7. Elastic actuation for legged locomotion (United States)

    Cao, Chongjing; Conn, Andrew


    The inherent elasticity of dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) gives this technology great potential in energy efficient locomotion applications. In this work, a modular double cone DEA is developed with reduced manufacturing and maintenance time costs. This actuator can lift 45 g of mass (5 times its own weight) while producing a stroke of 10.4 mm (23.6% its height). The contribution of the elastic energy stored in antagonistic DEA membranes to the mechanical work output is experimentally investigated by adding delay into the DEA driving voltage. Increasing the delay time in actuation voltage and hence reducing the duty cycle is found to increase the amount of elastic energy being recovered but an upper limit is also noticed. The DEA is then applied to a three-segment leg that is able to move up and down by 17.9 mm (9% its initial height), which demonstrates the feasibility of utilizing this DEA design in legged locomotion.

  8. Note: A SMA wire actuated extremely long-lifetime release actuator using two ball-lock mechanisms (United States)

    Huang, Dawei; Yan, Xiaojun; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Bai, Haibo; Wang, Xian; Liu, Ying


    A shape memory alloy (SMA)-wire actuated release actuator with an extremely long lifetime was designed and validated. To ensure the ability of repeated actuation, two stages of ball-lock mechanisms were adopted to reduce the load in the SMA wire. In addition, a length-increasing design of the SMA wire was employed. Validation tests, including function tests, vibration tests, shock tests, and thermal vacuum tests were conducted on prototypes. According to the test results, the actuator can release a maximum preload of 15 kN and has a lifetime of more than 693 cycles. Furthermore, the actuator can function well, even under severe thermal and vibration environments.

  9. Antagonistic dielectric elastomer actuator for biologically-inspired robotics (United States)

    Conn, Andrew T.; Rossiter, Jonathan


    For optimal performance, actuators designed for biologically-inspired robotics applications need to be capable of mimicking the key characteristics of natural musculoskeletal systems. These characteristics include a large output stroke, high energy density, antagonistic operation and passive compliance. The actuation properties of dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) make them viable for use as an artificial muscle technology. However, much like the musculoskeletal system, rigid structures are needed to couple the compliant DEA layers to a load. In this paper, a cone DEA design is developed as an antagonistic, multi-DOF actuator, viable for a variety for biologically-inspired robotics applications. The design has the advantage of maintaining pre-strain through a support structure without substantially lowering the overall mass-specific power density. Prototype cone DEAs have been fabricated with VHB 4910 acrylic elastomer and have characteristic dimensions of 49mm (strut length) and 60mm (DEA diameter). Multi-DOF kinematical outputs of the cone DEAs were measured using a custom 3D motion tracking system. Experimental tests of the prototypes demonstrate antagonistic linear (+/-10mm), rotational (+/-25°) and combined multi-DOF strokes. Overall, antagonistic cone DEAs are shown to produce a complex multi-DOF output from a mass-efficient support structure and thus are well suited for being exploited in biologically-inspired robotics.

  10. Frequency Shift During Mass Properties Testing Using Compound Pendulum Method (United States)

    Wolfe, David; Regan, Chris


    During mass properties testing on the X-48B Blended Wing Body aircraft (The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, large inertia measurement errors were observed in results from compound pendulum swings when compared to analytical models. By comparing periods of oscillations as measured from an average over the test period versus the period of each oscillation, it was noticed that the frequency of oscillation was shifting significantly throughout the test. This phenomenon was only noticed during compound pendulum swings, and not during bifilar pendulum swings. The frequency shift was only visible upon extensive data analysis of the frequency for each oscillation, and did not appear in averaged frequency data over the test period. Multiple test articles, test techniques, and hardware setups were used in attempts to eliminate or identify the cause of the frequency shift. Plotting the frequency of oscillation revealed a region of minimal shift that corresponded to a larger amplitude range. This region of minimal shift provided the most accurate results compared to a known test article; however, the amplitudes that produce accurate inertia measurements are amplitudes larger than those generally accepted in mass properties testing. This paper examines two case studies of the frequency shift, using mass properties testing performed on a dummy test article, and on the X-48B Blended Wing Body aircraft.

  11. Radiation pressure calibration and test mass reflectivities for LISA Pathfinder (United States)

    Korsakova, Natalia; Kaune, Brigitte; LPF Collaboration


    This paper describes a series of experiments which were carried out during the main operations of LISA Pathfinder. These experiments were performed by modulating the power of the measurement and reference beams. In one series of experiments the beams were sequentially switched on and off. In the other series of experiments the powers of the beams were modulated within 0.1% and 1% of the constant power. These experiments use recordings of the total power measured on the photodiodes to infer the properties of the Optical Metrology System (OMS), such as reflectivities of the test masses and change of the photodiode efficiencies with time. In the first case the powers are back propagated from the different photodiodes to the same place on the optical bench to express the unknown quantities in the measurement with the complimentary photodiode measurements. They are combined in the way that the only unknown left is the test mass reflectivities. The second experiment compared two estimates of the force applied to the test masses due to the radiation pressure that appears because of the beam modulations. One estimate of the force is inferred from the measurements of the powers on the photodiodes and propagation of this measurement to the test masses. The other estimation of the force is done by calculating it from the change in the main scientific output of the instrument - differential displacement of the two test masses.

  12. The Energy Amplification Characteristic Research of a Multimodal Actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Yali


    Full Text Available A multimodal actuator is proposed to fulfil the different walking patterns of a power-assisted knee exoskeleton. With this actuator, the exoskeleton leg can realize several modes of operation, including series elastic actuation, stiff position control and energy storage and release. The energy amplification characteristics of the multimodal actuator in the series elastic mode are analysed. A dynamics model was established to study how series elasticity and the equivalent mass of transmission influence a power source, such as an electric motor. The results, in both simulation and experiment, show that series elasticity can amplify actuator power output, and the power output of a multimodal actuator is greater when the equivalent mass of the transmission mechanism is smaller. This research into multimodal actuator energy amplification supplies important insights into the design of artificial systems that can more closely approximate the performance of biological systems.

  13. Study on the graphene-based actuator (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Oh, Il Kwon


    Bilayer actuators comprising of MWCNT (Multi-walled carbon nanotubes) and Graphene oxide (GO) were studied for their actuation performance by using induction heating system. A simple fabrication method namely, filtration of the colloidal suspensions of MWCNT and GO through an Anodisc membrane was used to fabricate the actuators. In case of bilayer actuators, sequential filtration of MWCNTs and Graphene oxide dispersions through a membrane filter membrane was used. Morphological studies by SEM showed that the bilayer paper did not delaminate at the macro-scale and a certain degree of adhesion between MWCNT and GO can be achieved even without any functionalization of either of the constituents of bilayer actuators. Actuation was tested by using the induction heating system, operated at different current densities. Substantial degree of deformation, as much as 0.128 mm-1 at 300 A was measured. The degree of actuation was defined in terms of bending curvature, because the deformation was too large to be detected by conventional displacement laser sensors. An attempt has been made to explain the basic mechanism of bilayer actuator in terms of the differential thermal expansion rates and eddy current which was confirmed from images obtained from thermal camera wherein the variation in bilayer actuator's surface temperature were monitored. Finally the deformation trend under different pulses is also examined.

  14. Characterization of kink actuators as compared to traditional chevron shaped Bent-Beam electrothermal actuators

    KAUST Repository

    Rawashdeh, E.


    This paper compares the design and performance of kink actuators, a modified version of the bent-beam thermal actuator, to the standard chevron-shaped designs. A variety of kink and chevron actuator designs were fabricated from polysilicon. While the actuators were electrically probed, these designs were tested using a probe station connected to a National Instruments (NI) controller that uses LabVIEW to extract the displacement results via image processing. The displacement results were then used to validate the thermal-electric-structural simulations produced by COMSOL. These results, in turn, were used to extract the stiffness for both actuator types. The data extracted show that chevron actuators can have larger stiffness values with increasing offsets, but at the cost of lower amplification factors. In contrast, kink actuators showed a constant stiffness value equivalent to the chevron actuator with the highest amplification factor. The kink actuator also had larger amplification factors than chevrons at all designs tested. Therefore, kink actuators are capable of longer throws at lower power levels than the standard chevron designs.

  15. Characterization of Kink Actuators as Compared to Traditional Chevron Shaped Bent-Beam Electrothermal Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian G. Foulds


    Full Text Available This paper compares the design and performance of kink actuators, a modified version of the bent-beam thermal actuator, to the standard chevron-shaped designs. A variety of kink and chevron actuator designs were fabricated from polysilicon. While the actuators were electrically probed, these designs were tested using a probe station connected to a National Instruments (NI controller that uses LabVIEW to extract the displacement results via image processing. The displacement results were then used to validate the thermal-electric-structural simulations produced by COMSOL. These results, in turn, were used to extract the stiffness for both actuator types. The data extracted show that chevron actuators can have larger stiffness values with increasing offsets, but at the cost of lower amplification factors. In contrast, kink actuators showed a constant stiffness value equivalent to the chevron actuator with the highest amplification factor. The kink actuator also had larger amplification factors than chevrons at all designs tested. Therefore, kink actuators are capable of longer throws at lower power levels than the standard chevron designs.

  16. Electromagnetic rotational actuation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogan, Alexander Lee


    There are many applications that need a meso-scale rotational actuator. These applications have been left by the wayside because of the lack of actuation at this scale. Sandia National Laboratories has many unique fabrication technologies that could be used to create an electromagnetic actuator at this scale. There are also many designs to be explored. In this internship exploration of the designs and fabrications technologies to find an inexpensive design that can be used for prototyping the electromagnetic rotational actuator.

  17. Performance Characterization of HT Actuator for Venus (United States)

    Rehnmark, F.; Bailey, J.; Cloninger, E.; Zacny, K.; Hall, J.; Sherrill, K.; Melko, J.; Kriechbaum, K.; Wilcox, B.


    A high temperature (HT) actuator capable of operating in the harsh environment found on the surface of Venus has been built and tested in rock drilling trials at JPL’s Venus Materials Test Facility.

  18. Active vibration control using DEAP actuators (United States)

    Sarban, Rahimullah; Jones, Richard W.


    Dielectric electro-active polymer (DEAP) is a new type of smart material, which has the potential to be used to provide effective actuation for a wide range of applications. The properties of DEAP material place it somewhere between those of piezoceramics and shape memory alloys. Of the range of DEAP-based actuators that have been developed those having a cylindrical configuration are among the most promising. This contribution introduces the use of a tubular type DEAP actuator for active vibration control purposes. Initially the DEAP-based tubular actuator to be used in this study, produced by Danfoss PolyPower A/S, is introduced along with the static and dynamic characteristics. Secondly an electromechanical model of the tubular actuator is briefly reviewed and its ability to model the actuator's hysteresis characteristics for a range of periodic input signals at different frequencies demonstrated. The model will be used to provide hysteresis compensation in future vibration isolation studies. Experimental active vibration control using the actuator is then examined, specifically active vibration isolation of a 250 g mass subject to shaker generated 'ground vibration'. An adaptive feedforward control strategy is used to achieve this. The ability of the tubular actuator to reject both tonal and broadband random vibratory disturbances is then demonstrated.

  19. Hydraulic Actuators with Autonomous Hydraulic Supply for the Mainline Aircrafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Shumilov


    Full Text Available Applied in the aircraft control systems, hydraulic servo actuators with autonomous hydraulic supply, so-called, hydraulic actuators of integrated configuration, i.e. combination of a source of hydraulic power and its load in the single unit, are aimed at increasing control system reliability both owing to elimination of the pipelines connecting the actuator to the hydraulic supply source, and owing to avoidance of influence of other loads failure on the actuator operability. Their purpose is also to raise control system survivability by eliminating the long pipeline communications and their replacing for the electro-conductive power supply system, thus reducing the vulnerability of systems. The main reason for a delayed application of the hydraulic actuators in the cutting-edge aircrafts was that such aircrafts require hydraulic actuators of considerably higher power with considerable heat releases, which caused an unacceptable overheat of the hydraulic actuators. Positive and negative sides of the hydraulic actuators, their alternative options of increased reliability and survivability, local hydraulic systems as an advanced alternative to independent hydraulic actuators are considered.Now to use hydraulic actuators in mainline aircrafts is inexpedient since there are the unfairly large number of the problems reducing, first and last, safety of flights, with no essential weight and operational advantages. Still works to create competitive hydraulic actuators ought to be continued.Application of local hydraulic systems (LHS will allow us to reduce length of pressure head and drain pipelines and mass of pipelines, as well as to raise their general fail-safety and survivability. Application of the LHS principle will allow us to use a majority of steering drive advantages. It is necessary to allocate especially the following:- ease of meeting requirements for the non-local spread of the engine weight;- essentially reducing length and weight of

  20. Extended DNA Tile Actuators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Martin; Kryger, Mille; Zhang, Zhao


    A dynamic linear DNA tile actuator is expanded to three new structures of higher complexity. The original DNA actuator was constructed from a central roller strand which hybridizes with two piston strands by forming two half-crossover junctions. A linear expansion of the actuator is obtained...

  1. Novel Highly Efficient Compact Rotary-Hammering Planetary Sampler Actuated by a Single Piezoelectric Actuator Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We had two objectives in this task: 1. Develop effective single low-mass, low-power piezoelectric drive that can actuate rotary-hammer samplers through walls. 2....

  2. Minimally Actuated Serial Robot


    Mann, Moshe P.; Damti, Lior; Zarrouk, David


    In this paper, we propose a novel type of serial robot with minimal actuation. The robot is a serial rigid structure consisting of multiple links connected by passive joints and of movable actuators. The novelty of this robot is that the actuators travel over the links to a given joint and adjust the relative angle between the two adjacent links. The joints passively preserve their angles until one of the actuators moves them again. This actuation can be applied to any serial robot with two o...

  3. Mass Appraisal Modelling in Minsk: Testing different Models Location sensitive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio D’Amato


    Full Text Available Mass Appraisal is the valuation of large quantity of properties. This automatic valuation procedure gave the opportunity to reach a single point estimate (The Appraisal of Real Estate, 13th Edition. The work test different location sensitive methodologies on a sample of 600 residential properties in the city of Minsk in Belarus. This is the first application of mass appraisal modelling in Belarus. Empirical application compares a location blind model with two Location Value Response Surface models (O Connor, 1982, the former based on the detection of value influence centers the latter based on error surface modelling.

  4. Multilayer Piezoelectric Stack Actuator Characterization (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Jones, Christopher M.; Aldrich, Jack B.; Blodget, Chad; Bao, Xioaqi; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph


    Future NASA missions are increasingly seeking to use actuators for precision positioning to accuracies of the order of fractions of a nanometer. For this purpose, multilayer piezoelectric stacks are being considered as actuators for driving these precision mechanisms. In this study, sets of commercial PZT stacks were tested in various AC and DC conditions at both nominal and extreme temperatures and voltages. AC signal testing included impedance, capacitance and dielectric loss factor of each actuator as a function of the small-signal driving sinusoidal frequency, and the ambient temperature. DC signal testing includes leakage current and displacement as a function of the applied DC voltage. The applied DC voltage was increased to over eight times the manufacturers' specifications to investigate the correlation between leakage current and breakdown voltage. Resonance characterization as a function of temperature was done over a temperature range of -180C to +200C which generally exceeded the manufacturers' specifications. In order to study the lifetime performance of these stacks, five actuators from one manufacturer were driven by a 60volt, 2 kHz sine-wave for ten billion cycles. The tests were performed using a Lab-View controlled automated data acquisition system that monitored the waveform of the stack electrical current and voltage. The measurements included the displacement, impedance, capacitance and leakage current and the analysis of the experimental results will be presented.

  5. Electrostatically actuated torsional resonant sensors and switches

    KAUST Repository

    Younis, Mohammad I.


    Embodiments in accordance of a torsional resonant sensor disclosure is configured to actuate a beam structure using electrostatic actuation with an AC harmonic load (e.g., AC and DC voltage sources) that is activated upon detecting a particular agent having a mass above a predefined level. In various embodiments, the beam structure may be different types of resonant structures that is at least partially coated or layered with a selective material.

  6. Force Limited Random Vibration Test of TESS Camera Mass Model (United States)

    Karlicek, Alexandra; Hwang, James Ho-Jin; Rey, Justin J.


    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) is a spaceborne instrument consisting of four wide field-of-view-CCD cameras dedicated to the discovery of exoplanets around the brightest stars. As part of the environmental testing campaign, force limiting was used to simulate a realistic random vibration launch environment. While the force limit vibration test method is a standard approach used at multiple institutions including Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), European Space Research and Technology Center (ESTEC), and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), it is still difficult to find an actual implementation process in the literature. This paper describes the step-by-step process on how the force limit method was developed and applied on the TESS camera mass model. The process description includes the design of special fixtures to mount the test article for properly installing force transducers, development of the force spectral density using the semi-empirical method, estimation of the fuzzy factor (C2) based on the mass ratio between the supporting structure and the test article, subsequent validating of the C2 factor during the vibration test, and calculation of the C.G. accelerations using the Root Mean Square (RMS) reaction force in the spectral domain and the peak reaction force in the time domain.

  7. Design and Characterization of a Novel High-Power Series Elastic Actuator for a Lower Limb Robotic Orthosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dino Accoto


    Full Text Available A safe interaction is crucial in wearable robotics in general, while in assistive and rehabilitation applications, robots may also be required to minimally perturb physiological movements, ideally acting as perfectly transparent machines. The actuation system plays a central role because the expected performance, in terms of torque, speed and control bandwidth, must not be achieved at the expense of lightness and compactness. Actuators embedding compliant elements, such as series elastic actuators, can be designed to meet the above-mentioned requirements in terms of high energy storing capacity and stability of torque control. A number of series elastic actuators have been proposed over the past 20 years in order to accommodate the needs arising from specific applications. This paper presents a novel series elastic actuator intended for the actuation system of a lower limb wearable robot, recently developed in our lab. The actuator is able to deliver 300 W and has a novel architecture making its centre of mass not co-located with its axis of rotation, for an easier integration into the robotic structure. A custom-made torsion spring with a stiffness of 272.25 N·m·rad–1 is directly connected to the load. The delivered torque is calculated from the measurement of the spring deflection, through two absolute encoders. Testing on torque measurement accuracy and torque/stiffness control are reported.

  8. Expanded newborn screening by mass spectrometry: New tests, future perspectives. (United States)

    Ombrone, Daniela; Giocaliere, Elisa; Forni, Giulia; Malvagia, Sabrina; la Marca, Giancarlo


    Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) has become a leading technology used in clinical chemistry and has shown to be particularly sensitive and specific when used in newborn screening (NBS) tests. The success of tandem mass spectrometry is due to important advances in hardware, software and clinical applications during the last 25 years. MS/MS permits a very rapid measurement of many metabolites in different biological specimens by using filter paper spots or directly on biological fluids. Its use in NBS give us the chance to identify possible treatable metabolic disorders even when asymptomatic and the benefits gained by this type of screening is now recognized worldwide. Today the use of MS/MS for second-tier tests and confirmatory testing is promising especially in the early detection of new disorders such as some lysosomal storage disorders, ADA and PNP SCIDs, X-adrenoleucodistrophy (X-ALD), Wilson disease, guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiency (GAMT), and Duchenne muscular dystrophy. The new challenge for the future will be reducing the false positive rate by using second-tier tests, avoiding false negative results by using new specific biomarkers and introducing new treatable disorders in NBS programs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Light-actuated microrobots for biomedical science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Villangca, Mark Jayson; Palima, Darwin Z.


    Light can be used to fabricate, handle, power, and actuate microrobotics functionalities, such as the loading and unloading of micro-cargo, showing promise for drug delivery and biological-testing applications.......Light can be used to fabricate, handle, power, and actuate microrobotics functionalities, such as the loading and unloading of micro-cargo, showing promise for drug delivery and biological-testing applications....

  10. Magnetic actuators and sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Brauer, John R


    An accessible, comprehensive guide on magnetic actuators and sensors, this fully updated second edition of Magnetic Actuators and Sensors includes the latest advances, numerous worked calculations, illustrations, and real-life applications. Covering magnetics, actuators, sensors, and systems, with updates of new technologies and techniques, this exemplary learning tool emphasizes computer-aided design techniques, especially magnetic finite element analysis, commonly used by today's engineers. Detailed calculations, numerous illustrations, and discussions of discrepancies make this text an inva

  11. Remote switch actuator (United States)

    Haas, Edwin Gerard; Beauman, Ronald; Palo, Jr., Stefan


    The invention provides a device and method for actuating electrical switches remotely. The device is removably attached to the switch and is actuated through the transfer of a user's force. The user is able to remain physically removed from the switch site obviating need for protective equipment. The device and method allow rapid, safe actuation of high-voltage or high-current carrying electrical switches or circuit breakers.

  12. Designing and testing lightweight shoulder prostheses with hybrid actuators for movements involved in typical activities of daily living and impact absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekine M


    Full Text Available Masashi Sekine,1,2 Kahori Kita,1 Wenwei Yu1 1Center for Frontier Medical Engineering, 2Graduate School of Engineering, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan Abstract: Unlike forearm amputees, transhumeral amputees have residual stumps that are too small to provide a sufficient range of operation for their prosthetic parts to perform usual activities of daily living. Furthermore, it is difficult for small residual stumps to provide sufficient impact absorption for safe manipulation in daily living, as intact arms do. Therefore, substitution of upper limb function in transhumeral amputees requires a sufficient range of motion and sufficient viscoelasticity for shoulder prostheses under critical weight and dimension constraints. We propose the use of two different types of actuators, ie, pneumatic elastic actuators (PEAs and servo motors. PEAs offer high power-to-weight performance and have intrinsic viscoelasticity in comparison with motors or standard industrial pneumatic cylinder actuators. However, the usefulness of PEAs in large working spaces is limited because of their short strokes. Servo motors, in contrast, can be used to achieve large ranges of motion. In this study, the relationship between the force and stroke of PEAs was investigated. The impact absorption of both types of actuators was measured using a single degree-of-freedom prototype to evaluate actuator compliance for safety purposes. Based on the fundamental properties of the actuators identified, a four degree-of-freedom robotic arm is proposed for prosthetic use. The configuration of the actuators and functional parts was designed to achieve a specified range of motion and torque calculated from the results of a simulation of typical movements performed in usual activities of daily living. Our experimental results showed that the requirements for the shoulder prostheses could be satisfied. Keywords: shoulder prosthesis, hybrid actuation, pneumatic elastic actuator, antagonistic

  13. Actuator development for the Instrument Pointing System (IPS) (United States)

    Suttner, K.


    The mechanisms of the instrument pointing system (IPS) are described. Particular emphasis is placed on the actuators which are necessary for operating the IPS. The actuators are described as follows: (1) two linear actuators that clamp the gimbals down during ascent and descent; (2) two linear actuators that attach the payload to the IPS during the mission, and release it into the payload clamps; (3) one rotational actuator that opens and closes the payload clamps; and (4) three identical drive units that represent the three orthogonal gimbal axes and are the prime movers for pointing. Design features, manufacturing problems, test performance, and results are presented.

  14. Spherically Actuated Motor (United States)

    Peeples, Steven


    A three degree of freedom (DOF) spherical actuator is proposed that will replace functions requiring three single DOF actuators in robotic manipulators providing space and weight savings while reducing the overall failure rate. Exploration satellites, Space Station payload manipulators, and rovers requiring pan, tilt, and rotate movements need an actuator for each function. Not only does each actuator introduce additional failure modes and require bulky mechanical gimbals, each contains many moving parts, decreasing mean time to failure. A conventional robotic manipulator is shown in figure 1. Spherical motors perform all three actuation functions, i.e., three DOF, with only one moving part. Given a standard three actuator system whose actuators have a given failure rate compared to a spherical motor with an equal failure rate, the three actuator system is three times as likely to fail over the latter. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory reliability studies of NASA robotic spacecraft have shown that mechanical hardware/mechanism failures are more frequent and more likely to significantly affect mission success than are electronic failures. Unfortunately, previously designed spherical motors have been unable to provide the performance needed by space missions. This inadequacy is also why they are unavailable commercially. An improved patentable spherically actuated motor (SAM) is proposed to provide the performance and versatility required by NASA missions.

  15. Manufacturable plastic microfluidic valves using thermal actuation. (United States)

    Pitchaimani, Karthik; Sapp, Brian C; Winter, Adam; Gispanski, Austin; Nishida, Toshikazu; Hugh Fan, Z


    A low-cost, manufacturable, thermally actuated, plastic microfluidic valve has been developed. The valve contains an encapsulated, temperature-sensitive fluid, which expands, deflecting a thin elastomeric film into a fluidic channel to control fluid flow. The power input for thermal expansion of each microfluidic valve can be controlled using a printed circuit board (PCB)-based controller, which is suitable for mass production and large-scale integration. A plastic microfluidic device with such valves was fabricated using compression molding and thermal lamination. The operation of the valves was investigated by measuring a change in the microchannel's ionic conduction current mediated by the resistance variation corresponding to the deflection of the microvalve. Valve closing was also confirmed by the disappearance of fluorescence when a fluorescent solution was displaced in the valve region. Valve operation was characterized for heater power ranging from 36 mW to 80 mW. When the valve was actuating, the local channel temperature was 10 to 19 degrees C above the ambient temperature depending on the heater power used. Repetitive valve operations (up to 50 times) have been demonstrated with a flow resulting from a hydrostatic head. Valve operation was tested for a flow rate of 0.33-4.7 microL/min.

  16. A multivariate rank test for comparing mass size distributions

    KAUST Repository

    Lombard, F.


    Particle size analyses of a raw material are commonplace in the mineral processing industry. Knowledge of particle size distributions is crucial in planning milling operations to enable an optimum degree of liberation of valuable mineral phases, to minimize plant losses due to an excess of oversize or undersize material or to attain a size distribution that fits a contractual specification. The problem addressed in the present paper is how to test the equality of two or more underlying size distributions. A distinguishing feature of these size distributions is that they are not based on counts of individual particles. Rather, they are mass size distributions giving the fractions of the total mass of a sampled material lying in each of a number of size intervals. As such, the data are compositional in nature, using the terminology of Aitchison [1] that is, multivariate vectors the components of which add to 100%. In the literature, various versions of Hotelling\\'s T 2 have been used to compare matched pairs of such compositional data. In this paper, we propose a robust test procedure based on ranks as a competitor to Hotelling\\'s T 2. In contrast to the latter statistic, the power of the rank test is not unduly affected by the presence of outliers or of zeros among the data. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  17. Electro-active paper actuators (United States)

    Kim, Jaehwan; Seo, Yung B.


    In this paper, the actuation mechanism of electro-active paper (EAPap) actuators is addressed and the potential of the actuators is demonstrated. EAPap is a paper that produces large displacement with small force under an electrical excitation. EAPap is made with a chemically treated paper by constructing thin electrodes on both sides of the paper. When electrical voltage is applied on the electrodes the EAPap produces bending displacement. However, the displacement output has been unstable and degraded with timescale. To improve the bending performance of EAPap, different paper fibers - softwood, hardwood, bacteria cellulose, cellophane, carbon mixture paper, electrolyte containing paper and Korean traditional paper, in conjunction with additive chemicals, were tested. Two attempts were made to construct the electrodes: the direct use of aluminum foil and the gold sputtering technique. It was found that a cellophane paper exhibits a remarkable bending performance. When 2 MV m-1 excitation voltage was applied to the paper actuator, more than 3 mm tip displacement was observed from the 30 mm long paper beam. This is quite a low excitation voltage compared with that of other EAPs. Details of the experiments and results are addressed.

  18. Stick and slip actuators (SSA) (United States)

    Schmitt, Carl; Breguet, Jean-Marc; Bergander, Arvid; Clavel, Reymond


    Stick and Skip Actuators (SSA) are particularly well adapted to micro- robotics. A simple design, a very high intrinsic resolution (a few nanometers) and a high rigidity make them especially interesting in high precision micro-manipulations. Moreover, a smart design allows to combine the guiding and actuating function. The mechanical interface between the piezo-elements and the guiding mechanisms in an important point of the stick and slip actuators. The design of this interface and the choice of the material are very important. Both aspects have an impact on the rigidity, which has an influence on the behavior of the actuator. They have also an incidence onf the reliability (lifetime) because the design gives the contact condition and the material the wear resistance. In addition, a loading system allowing to keep the mechanical contact at this interface has a direct effect on the contact pressure. In order to confirm the performance of SSA, prototypes have been developed at the ISR. Their designs have bene made for application in optical microscopy, for manipulators in industrial assembly of micro- engineering products, for micro-factory, chemical and bio-engineering equipment for research or routine tasks, such as testing, screening etc. This paper presents a short description of several SSA made by the IRS and describes the parameters characterizing the stick and slip motion and the mechanical interface.

  19. Scanning slit for HIE-ISOLDE: vibrations test (linear motion actuator from UHV design, MAXON brushless motor, speed = 10 mm/s)

    CERN Document Server

    Bravin, E; Sosa, A


    This report summarizes the results of a series of tests performed on the prototype HIE-ISOLDE diagnostic box (HIE-DB) regarding the vibrations and drifts in the transverse position of the scanning blade while moving in and out of beam path in the HIE-ISOLDE short box prototype. To monitor the transverse position of the blade, a series of 0.1 mm diameter holes were drilled on it and their positions were tracked with an optical system. The linear motion actuator was acquired from UHV design (model LSM38-150-SS), and it was adapted to be driven by a brushless EC motor from MAXON. The speed of the scanning blade during the tests was 10 mm/s. The transverse movement of the slit in the direction perpendicular to the movement was lower than 40 m, and is dominated by the displacement of the contact point of the applied force on the lead-screw. An offset on the slit position was observed while changing the direction of movement of the blade, its amplitude being of the order of 30 m. The amplitudes of the displacements...

  20. Scanning slit for HIE-ISOLDE: vibrational test (linear motion actuator from UHV design, speed = 2.5 mm/s)

    CERN Document Server

    Bravin, E; Sosa, A


    This report summarizes the results of a series of tests performed on the prototype HIE-ISOLDE diagnostic box (HIE-DB) regarding the vibrations and drifts in the transverse position of the scanning blade while moving inside or outside the box. To monitor the transverse position of the blade, a series of 0.1 mm diameter holes were drilled on it and their positions were tracked with an optical system. The linear motion actuator was acquired from UHV design (model LSM38-150-SS), is driven by a stepper motor and has all the guiding mechanisms outside vacuum. The maximum speed of the scanning blade during the tests was 2.5 mm/s. The transverse movement of the slit in the direction perpendicular to the movement was lower than 50 m, and is dominated by the displacement of the contact point of the applied force on the lead-screw. An offset on the slit position was observed while changing the direction of movement of the blade, its amplitude being of the order of 30 m. The amplitudes of the displacements of the transve...

  1. Micro magnetic-actuators; Micro jiki actuator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arai, K. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Research Institute of Electrical Communication; Honda, T. [Tokin Corporation, Tokyo (Japan)


    As the micromachine technology has attracted higher attention, the research and development of the technology is increasing. This paper describes the typical trial production samples of the electromagnetic type and magnetostrictive type actuators. The development of electromagnetic motors of the order of millimeters using the mechanical working technology is actively progressing. A report announced the axial gap motor 0.8 mm in outside diameter and 1.2 mm in height. The semiconductor micro machining technology was used to fabricate the reluctance motor (with the rotor 285 {mu}m in diameter). In this case, the LIGA process through the X-ray lithography was adopted. Some other types of micro magnetic-actuators were produced by using magnetic field gradient and magnetic torque. The magnetostrictive actuator is emerging to the market, drawing attention of the industry. This type of actuator utilizes the phenomenon that the dimensions vary when a magnetic field is applied to a magnetic substance. Samples applying high magnetic thin film include the cantilever type actuator and the travelling machine. 19 refs., 9 figs.

  2. Sensitive Superconducting Gravity Gradiometer Constructed with Levitated Test Masses (United States)

    Griggs, C. E.; Moody, M. V.; Norton, R. S.; Paik, H. J.; Venkateswara, K.


    We demonstrate basic operations of a two-component superconducting gravity gradiometer (SGG) that is constructed with a pair of magnetically levitated test masses coupled to superconducting quantum-interference devices. A design that gives a potential sensitivity of 1.4 ×10-4 E Hz-1 /2 (1 E ≡10-9 s-2 ) in the frequency band of 1 to 50 mHz and better than 2 ×10-5 E Hz-1 /2 between 0.1 and 1 mHz for a compact tensor SGG that fits within a 22-cm-diameter sphere. The SGG has the capability of rejecting the platform acceleration and jitter in all 6 degrees of freedom to one part in 109 . Such an instrument has applications in precision tests of fundamental laws of physics, earthquake early warning, and gravity mapping of Earth and the planets.

  3. Bottom and charm mass determinations with a convergence test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehnadi, Bahman [Fakultät für Physik, Universität Wien,Boltzmanngasse 5, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Hoang, André H. [Fakultät für Physik, Universität Wien,Boltzmanngasse 5, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Erwin Schrödinger International Institute for Mathematical Physics,University of Vienna, Boltzmanngasse 9, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Mateu, Vicent [Fakultät für Physik, Universität Wien,Boltzmanngasse 5, 1090 Vienna (Austria)


    We present new determinations of the (MS)-bar charm quark mass using relativistic QCD sum rules at O(α{sub s}{sup 3}) from the moments of the vector and the pseudoscalar current correlators. We use available experimental measurements from e{sup +} e{sup −} collisions and lattice simulation results, respectively. Our analysis of the theoretical uncertainties is based on different implementations of the perturbative series and on independent variations of the renormalization scales for the mass and the strong coupling. Taking into account the resulting set of series to estimate perturbative uncertainties is crucial, since some ways to treat the perturbative expansion can exhibit extraordinarily small scale dependence when the two scales are set equal. As an additional refinement, we address the issue that double scale variation could overestimate the perturbative uncertainties. We supplement the analysis with a test that quantifies the convergence rate of each perturbative series by a single number. We find that this convergence test allows to determine an overall and average convergence rate that is characteristic for the series expansions of each moment, and to discard those series for which the convergence rate is significantly worse. We obtain m̄{sub c}(m̄{sub c})= 1.288 ±0.020 GeV from the vector correlator. The method is also applied to the extraction of the (MS)-bar bottom quark mass from the vector correlator. We compute the experimental moments including a modeling uncertainty associated to the continuum region where no data is available. We obtain m̄{sub b}(m̄{sub b})= 4.176 ±0.023 GeV.

  4. Electrochemical micro actuator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamberg, M.W.; Hamberg, M.W.; Rusu, C.R.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.; Ijntema, D.J.; IJntema, D.J.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt


    In this paper an investigation of the feasibility of a new electrochemical micro actuator is presented. The actuator is fabricated using silicon micro-machining techniques. A gas pressure is generated by electrolysis of an aqueous electrolyte solution. The build up pressure is used to change the

  5. Sensors and actuators, Twente

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergveld, Piet


    This paper describes the organization and the research programme of the Sensor and Actuator (S&A) Research Unit of the University of Twente, Enschede, the Netherlands. It includes short descriptions of all present projects concerning: micromachined mechanical sensors and actuators, optical sensors,

  6. Pneumatically actuated hand tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cool, J.C.; Rijnsaardt, K.A.


    Abstract of NL 9401195 (A) Pneumatically actuated hand tool for carrying out a mechanical operation, provided with an exchangeable gas cartridge in which the gas which is required for pneumatic actuation is stored. More particularly, the hand tool is provided with at least one pneumatic motor, at

  7. Conjugated Polymers as Actuators: Modes of Actuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaarup, Steen

    The physical and chemical properties of conjugated polymers often depend very strongly on the degree of doping with anions or cations. The movement of ions in and out of the polymer matrix as it is redox cycled is also accompanied by mechanical changes. Both the volume and the stiffness can exhibit...... significant differences between the oxidized and reduced states. These effects form the basis of the use of conjugated polymers as actuators (or “artificial muscles”) controllable by a small (1-10 V) voltage. Three basic modes of actuation (bending, linear extension and stiffness change) have been proposed....... This work discusses their relative merits and possible areas of application....

  8. Conjugated polymers as actuators: modes of actuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaarup, Steen


    The physical and chemical properties of conjugated polymers often depend very strongly on the degree of doping with anions or cations. The movement of ions in and out of the polymer matrix as it is redox cycled is also accompanied by mechanical changes. Both the volume and the stiffness can exhibit...... significant differences between the oxidized and reduced states. These effects form the basis of the use of conjugated polymers as actuators (or “artificial muscles”) controllable by a small (1-10 V) voltage. Three basic modes of actuation (bending, linear extension and stiffness change) have been proposed....... This work discusses their relative merits and possible areas of application....

  9. Advanced high performance horizontal piezoelectric hybrid synthetic jet actuator (United States)

    Xu, Tian-Bing (Inventor); Jiang, Xiaoning (Inventor); Su, Ji (Inventor)


    The present invention comprises a high performance, horizontal, zero-net mass-flux, synthetic jet actuator for active control of viscous, separated flow on subsonic and supersonic vehicles. The present invention is a horizontal piezoelectric hybrid zero-net mass-flux actuator, in which all the walls of the chamber are electrically controlled synergistically to reduce or enlarge the volume of the synthetic jet actuator chamber in three dimensions simultaneously and to reduce or enlarge the diameter of orifice of the synthetic jet actuator simultaneously with the reduction or enlargement of the volume of the chamber. The present invention is capable of installation in the wing surface as well as embedding in the wetted surfaces of a supersonic inlet. The jet velocity and mass flow rate for the SJA-H will be several times higher than conventional piezoelectric actuators.

  10. Advanced high performance vertical hybrid synthetic jet actuator (United States)

    Xu, Tian-Bing (Inventor); Jiang, Xiaoning (Inventor); Su, Ji (Inventor)


    The present invention comprises a high performance, vertical, zero-net mass-flux, synthetic jet actuator for active control of viscous, separated flow on subsonic and supersonic vehicles. The present invention is a vertical piezoelectric hybrid zero-net mass-flux actuator, in which all the walls of the chamber are electrically controlled synergistically to reduce or enlarge the volume of the synthetic jet actuator chamber in three dimensions simultaneously and to reduce or enlarge the diameter of orifice of the synthetic jet actuator simultaneously with the reduction or enlargement of the volume of the chamber. The jet velocity and mass flow rate for the present invention will be several times higher than conventional piezoelectric synthetic jet actuators.

  11. Advanced Modified High Performance Synthetic Jet Actuator with Curved Chamber (United States)

    Xu, Tian-Bing (Inventor); Su, Ji (Inventor); Jiang, Xiaoning (Inventor)


    The advanced modified high performance synthetic jet actuator with optimized curvature shape chamber (ASJA-M) is a synthetic jet actuator (SJA) with a lower volume reservoir or chamber. A curved chamber is used, instead of the conventional cylinder chamber, to reduce the dead volume of the jet chamber and increase the efficiency of the synthetic jet actuator. The shape of the curvature corresponds to the maximum displacement (deformation) profile of the electroactive diaphragm. The jet velocity and mass flow rate for the ASJA-M will be several times higher than conventional piezoelectric actuators.

  12. Designing and testing lightweight shoulder prostheses with hybrid actuators for movements involved in typical activities of daily living and impact absorption. (United States)

    Sekine, Masashi; Kita, Kahori; Yu, Wenwei


    Unlike forearm amputees, transhumeral amputees have residual stumps that are too small to provide a sufficient range of operation for their prosthetic parts to perform usual activities of daily living. Furthermore, it is difficult for small residual stumps to provide sufficient impact absorption for safe manipulation in daily living, as intact arms do. Therefore, substitution of upper limb function in transhumeral amputees requires a sufficient range of motion and sufficient viscoelasticity for shoulder prostheses under critical weight and dimension constraints. We propose the use of two different types of actuators, ie, pneumatic elastic actuators (PEAs) and servo motors. PEAs offer high power-to-weight performance and have intrinsic viscoelasticity in comparison with motors or standard industrial pneumatic cylinder actuators. However, the usefulness of PEAs in large working spaces is limited because of their short strokes. Servo motors, in contrast, can be used to achieve large ranges of motion. In this study, the relationship between the force and stroke of PEAs was investigated. The impact absorption of both types of actuators was measured using a single degree-of-freedom prototype to evaluate actuator compliance for safety purposes. Based on the fundamental properties of the actuators identified, a four degree-of-freedom robotic arm is proposed for prosthetic use. The configuration of the actuators and functional parts was designed to achieve a specified range of motion and torque calculated from the results of a simulation of typical movements performed in usual activities of daily living. Our experimental results showed that the requirements for the shoulder prostheses could be satisfied.

  13. Fabrication and actuation of electro-active polymer actuator based on PSMI-incorporated PVDF (United States)

    Lu, Jun; Kim, Sang-Gyun; Lee, Sunwoo; Oh, Il-Kwon


    In this study, an ionic networking membrane (INM) of poly(styrene-alt-maleimide) (PSMI)-incorporated poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) was applied to fabricate electro-active polymer. Based on the same original membrane of PSMI-incorporated PVDF, various samples of INM actuator were prepared for different reduction times with the electroless-plating technique. The as-prepared INM actuators were tested in terms of surface resistance, platinum morphology, resonance frequency, tip displacement, current and blocked force, and their performances were compared to those of the widely used traditional Nafion actuator. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that much smaller and more uniform platinum particles were formed on the surfaces of the INM actuators as well as within their polymer matrix. Although excellent harmonic responses were observed for the newly developed INM actuators, they were found to be sensitive to the applied reduction times during the fabrication. The mechanical displacement of the INM actuator fabricated after the optimum reduction times was much larger than that of its Nafion counterpart of comparable thickness under the stimulus of constant and alternating current voltage. The PSMI-incorporated PVDF actuator can become a promising smart material to be used in the fields of biomimetic robots, biomedical devices, sensors and actuator, haptic interfaces, energy harvesting and so on.

  14. Cryogenic Piezoelectric Actuator (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaoning; Cook, William B.; Hackenberger, Wesley S.


    In this paper, PMN-PT single crystal piezoelectric stack actuators and flextensional actuators were designed, prototyped and characterized for space optics applications. Single crystal stack actuators with footprint of 10 mm x10 mm and the height of 50 mm were assembled using 10 mm x10mm x0.15mm PMN-PT plates. These actuators showed stroke > 65 - 85 microns at 150 V at room temperature, and > 30 microns stroke at 77 K. Flextensional actuators with dimension of 10mm x 5 mm x 7.6 mm showed stroke of >50 microns at room temperature at driving voltage of 150 V. A flextensional stack actuator with dimension of 10 mm x 5 mm x 47 mm showed stroke of approx. 285 microns at 150 V at room temperature and > 100 microns at 77K under driving of 150 V should be expected. The large cryogenic stroke and high precision of these actuators are promising for cryogenic optics applications.

  15. A centrifugally actuated point-of-care testing system for the surface acoustic wave immunosensing of cardiac troponin I. (United States)

    Lee, Woochang; Jung, Jaeyeon; Hahn, Young Ki; Kim, Sang Kyu; Lee, Yeolho; Lee, Joonhyung; Lee, Tae-Han; Park, Jin-Young; Seo, Hyejung; Lee, Jung Nam; Oh, Jin Ho; Choi, Youn-Suk; Lee, Soo Suk


    A fully automated point-of-care testing (POCT) system with a surface acoustic wave (SAW) immunosensor was developed for rapid and sensitive detection of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) in body fluid (plasma and whole blood). The assay, based on gold nanoparticle sandwich immunoassay and subsequent gold staining, was performed on the SAW immunosensor packaged inside a disposable microfluidic cartridge. The entire fluidic process, including plasma separation, reagent transport, metering, and mixing, was carried out by controlling the centrifugal force acting on the rotating cartridge and laser-irradiated ferrowax microvalves. On investigation of sensor response to various cTnI concentrations, the system exhibited a high performance with a detection limit of 6.7 pg mL(-1), and the coefficient of variation was less than 10% over the entire test range (10 pg mL(-1) to 25 ng mL(-1)). On comparing this POCT system with a clinically utilized system in a physical laboratory (Centaur® XP; Siemens), a correlation coefficient of 0.998 was found, validating the diagnostic capability of the SAW immunosensor.

  16. Design and fabrication of a hybrid actuator (United States)

    Fu, Yao; Ghantasala, Muralidhar K.; Harvey, Erol; Qin, Lijiang


    The necessity to reduce the size of actuators and at the same time increase the force and the air gap has placed severe constraints on the suitability of current microactuator technology for various applications. This has led to the development of new actuator technologies based on novel materials or modifying existing systems. As an effort in this direction, we are reporting on the design and fabrication of a hybrid actuator employing a combination of electromagnetic and piezoelectric actuation methods for the first time. This actuator was designed and optimized by using the piezoelectric and electromagnetic solvers of commercially available FEM software packages (CoventorWare and ANSYS). The device consists of a shaped piezoelectric composite cantilever on the top and a copper coil wound around a permalloy core assembled on a silicon substrate with a permanent magnet at the bottom. The composite cantilever consists of polarized piezoelectric polymer polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) with an electroplated permalloy layer on one side. Microstructures in the required shape are introduced using novel methodologies including laser micromachining and microembossing. The hybrid actuator has been fabricated and tested using standard testing procedures. The experimental data are compared with the simulation results from both the finite element methods and the analytical model. There is excellent agreement between the results obtained in simulation and by experiment. A maximum total deflection of 400 µm with a typical contact force of 200 µN has been achieved.

  17. Networked Rectenna Array for Smart Material Actuators (United States)

    Choi, Sang H.; Golembiewski, Walter T.; Song, Kyo D.


    The concept of microwave-driven smart material actuators is envisioned as the best option to alleviate the complexity associated with hard-wired control circuitry. Networked rectenna patch array receives and converts microwave power into a DC power for an array of smart actuators. To use microwave power effectively, the concept of a power allocation and distribution (PAD) circuit is adopted for networking a rectenna/actuator patch array. The PAD circuit is imbedded into a single embodiment of rectenna and actuator array. The thin-film microcircuit embodiment of PAD circuit adds insignificant amount of rigidity to membrane flexibility. Preliminary design and fabrication of PAD circuitry that consists of a few nodal elements were made for laboratory testing. The networked actuators were tested to correlate the network coupling effect, power allocation and distribution, and response time. The features of preliminary design are 16-channel computer control of actuators by a PCI board and the compensator for a power failure or leakage of one or more rectennas.

  18. Development of a prototype over-actuated biomimetic prosthetic hand. (United States)

    Williams, Matthew R; Walter, Wayne


    The loss of a hand can greatly affect quality of life. A prosthetic device that can mimic normal hand function is very important to physical and mental recuperation after hand amputation, but the currently available prosthetics do not fully meet the needs of the amputee community. Most prosthetic hands are not dexterous enough to grasp a variety of shaped objects, and those that are tend to be heavy, leading to discomfort while wearing the device. In order to attempt to better simulate human hand function, a dexterous hand was developed that uses an over-actuated mechanism to form grasp shape using intrinsic joint mounted motors in addition to a finger tendon to produce large flexion force for a tight grip. This novel actuation method allows the hand to use small actuators for grip shape formation, and the tendon to produce high grip strength. The hand was capable of producing fingertip flexion force suitable for most activities of daily living. In addition, it was able to produce a range of grasp shapes with natural, independent finger motion, and appearance similar to that of a human hand. The hand also had a mass distribution more similar to a natural forearm and hand compared to contemporary prosthetics due to the more proximal location of the heavier components of the system. This paper describes the design of the hand and controller, as well as the test results.

  19. Development of a prototype over-actuated biomimetic prosthetic hand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R Williams

    Full Text Available The loss of a hand can greatly affect quality of life. A prosthetic device that can mimic normal hand function is very important to physical and mental recuperation after hand amputation, but the currently available prosthetics do not fully meet the needs of the amputee community. Most prosthetic hands are not dexterous enough to grasp a variety of shaped objects, and those that are tend to be heavy, leading to discomfort while wearing the device. In order to attempt to better simulate human hand function, a dexterous hand was developed that uses an over-actuated mechanism to form grasp shape using intrinsic joint mounted motors in addition to a finger tendon to produce large flexion force for a tight grip. This novel actuation method allows the hand to use small actuators for grip shape formation, and the tendon to produce high grip strength. The hand was capable of producing fingertip flexion force suitable for most activities of daily living. In addition, it was able to produce a range of grasp shapes with natural, independent finger motion, and appearance similar to that of a human hand. The hand also had a mass distribution more similar to a natural forearm and hand compared to contemporary prosthetics due to the more proximal location of the heavier components of the system. This paper describes the design of the hand and controller, as well as the test results.

  20. Variable Valve Actuation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey Gutterman; A. J. Lasley


    the mechanism it was determined that the single cam design did not have enough flexibility to satisfy three critical OEM requirements simultaneously, (maximum valve lift variation, intake valve opening timing and valve closing duration), and a new approach would be necessary. After numerous internal design reviews including several with the OEM a dual cam design was developed that had the flexibility to meet all motion requirements. The second cam added complexity to the mechanism however the cost was offset by the deletion of the electric motor required in the previous design. New patent applications including detailed drawings and potential valve motion profiles were generated and alternate two cam designs were proposed and evaluated for function, cost, reliability and durability. Hardware was designed and built and testing of sample hardware was successfully completed on an engine test stand. The mechanism developed during the course of this investigation can be applied by Original Equipment Manufacturers, (OEM), to their advanced diesel engines with the ultimate goal of reducing emissions and improving fuel economy. The objectives are: (1) Develop an optimal, cost effective, variable valve actuation (VVA) system for advanced low temperature diesel combustion processes. (2) Design and model alternative mechanical approaches and down-select for optimum design. (3) Build and demonstrate a mechanism capable of application on running engines.

  1. Magnetically Actuated Seal Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — FTT proposes development of a magnetically actuated dynamic seal. Dynamic seals are used throughout the turbopump in high-performance, pump-fed, liquid rocket...

  2. Magnetically Actuated Seal (United States)

    Pinera, Alex


    This invention is a magnetically actuated seal in which either a single electromagnet, or multiple electromagnets, are used to control the seal's position. This system can either be an open/ close type of system or an actively controlled system.

  3. Rotary Series Elastic Actuator (United States)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Mehling, Joshua S. (Inventor); Parsons, Adam H. (Inventor); Griffith, Bryan Kristian (Inventor); Radford, Nicolaus A. (Inventor); Permenter, Frank Noble (Inventor); Davis, Donald R. (Inventor); Ambrose, Robert O. (Inventor); Junkin, Lucien Q. (Inventor)


    A rotary actuator assembly is provided for actuation of an upper arm assembly for a dexterous humanoid robot. The upper arm assembly for the humanoid robot includes a plurality of arm support frames each defining an axis. A plurality of rotary actuator assemblies are each mounted to one of the plurality of arm support frames about the respective axes. Each rotary actuator assembly includes a motor mounted about the respective axis, a gear drive rotatably connected to the motor, and a torsion spring. The torsion spring has a spring input that is rotatably connected to an output of the gear drive and a spring output that is connected to an output for the joint.

  4. Tendon Driven Finger Actuation System (United States)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Reich, David M. (Inventor); Bridgwater, Lyndon (Inventor); Linn, Douglas Martin (Inventor); Askew, Scott R. (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor); Hargrave, Brian (Inventor); Valvo, Michael C. (Inventor); Abdallah, Muhammad E. (Inventor); hide


    A humanoid robot includes a robotic hand having at least one finger. An actuation system for the robotic finger includes an actuator assembly which is supported by the robot and is spaced apart from the finger. A tendon extends from the actuator assembly to the at least one finger and ends in a tendon terminator. The actuator assembly is operable to actuate the tendon to move the tendon terminator and, thus, the finger.

  5. Automated stopcock actuator


    Vandehey, N. T.; O\\'Neil, J. P.


    Introduction We have developed a low-cost stopcock valve actuator for radiochemistry automation built using a stepper motor and an Arduino, an open-source single-board microcontroller. The con-troller hardware can be programmed to run by serial communication or via two 5–24 V digital lines for simple integration into any automation control system. This valve actuator allows for automated use of a single, disposable stopcock, providing a number of advantages over stopcock manifold systems ...

  6. A new torsion pendulum for testing the limits of free-fall for LISA test masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalleri, A [Centro Fisica degli Stati Aggregati, 38050 Povo, Trento (Italy); Ciani, G; Dolesi, R; Hueller, M; Nicolodi, D; Tombolato, D; Vitale, S; Wass, P J; Weber, W J [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trento, 38100 Povo, Trento (Italy); Heptonstall, A; Rowan, S, E-mail: weber@science.unitn.i [University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)


    On-ground verification of the precision with which a test mass can be in perfect free-fall, without any stray forces, is among the most challenging aspects of preparing for LISA and LISA Pathfinder. This study aims at improving the sensitivity in torsion pendulum measurements of the stray forces arising in the interaction between a test mass and the capacitive position sensor that surrounds it. Measurements are performed with pendulum suspensions based on both tungsten and higher quality factor uncoated fused silica torsion fibers. The results achieved with the fused silica pendulum establish more stringent upper limits on the excess force noise attributable to the sensor-at a level that roughly coincides with the LISA Pathfinder flight goal around 1 mHz. Additionally, these measurements demonstrate a force sensitivity improvement over what can be achieved with thermal noise-limited tungsten over a wide range of frequencies, with significant further improvements still possible.

  7. Soft actuators and soft actuating devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Dian; Whitesides, George M.


    A soft buckling linear actuator is described, including: a plurality of substantially parallel bucklable, elastic structural components each having its longest dimension along a first axis; and a plurality of secondary structural components each disposed between and bridging two adjacent bucklable, elastic structural components; wherein every two adjacent bucklable, elastic structural components and the secondary structural components in-between define a layer comprising a plurality of cells each capable of being connected with a fluid inflation or deflation source; the secondary structural components from two adjacent layers are not aligned along a second axis perpendicular to the first axis; and the secondary structural components are configured not to buckle, the bucklable, elastic structural components are configured to buckle along the second axis to generate a linear force, upon the inflation or deflation of the cells. Methods of actuation using the same are also described.

  8. Numerical Simulation of Fluidic Actuators for Flow Control Applications (United States)

    Vasta, Veer N.; Koklu, Mehti; Wygnanski, Israel L.; Fares, Ehab


    Active flow control technology is finding increasing use in aerospace applications to control flow separation and improve aerodynamic performance. In this paper we examine the characteristics of a class of fluidic actuators that are being considered for active flow control applications for a variety of practical problems. Based on recent experimental work, such actuators have been found to be more efficient for controlling flow separation in terms of mass flow requirements compared to constant blowing and suction or even synthetic jet actuators. The fluidic actuators produce spanwise oscillating jets, and therefore are also known as sweeping jets. The frequency and spanwise sweeping extent depend on the geometric parameters and mass flow rate entering the actuators through the inlet section. The flow physics associated with these actuators is quite complex and not fully understood at this time. The unsteady flow generated by such actuators is simulated using the lattice Boltzmann based solver PowerFLOW R . Computed mean and standard deviation of velocity profiles generated by a family of fluidic actuators in quiescent air are compared with experimental data. Simulated results replicate the experimentally observed trends with parametric variation of geometry and inflow conditions.

  9. Design of a Series Elastic- and Bowdencable-based actuation system for use as torque-=actuator in exoskeleton-type training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veneman, J.F.; Ekkelenkamp, R.; Kruidhof, R.; van der Helm, F.C.T.; van der Kooij, Herman


    Common actuators have important drawbacks for use in an exoskeleton type of rehabilitation (training) robot. Either the actuators are heavy, complex or poor torque sources. A new actuation system is proposed and tested that combines a lightweight joint and a simple structure with adequate torque

  10. Recent developments on SMA actuators: predicting the actuation fatigue life for variable loading schemes (United States)

    Wheeler, Robert W.; Lagoudas, Dimitris C.


    Shape memory alloys (SMAs), due to their ability to repeatably recover substantial deformations under applied mechanical loading, have the potential to impact the aerospace, automotive, biomedical, and energy industries as weight and volume saving replacements for conventional actuators. While numerous applications of SMA actuators have been flight tested and can be found in industrial applications, these actuators are generally limited to non-critical components, are not widely implemented and frequently one-off designs, and are generally overdesigned due to a lack of understanding of the effect of the loading path on the fatigue life and the lack of an accurate method for predicting actuator lifetimes. In recent years, multiple research efforts have increased our understanding of the actuation fatigue process of SMAs. These advances can be utilized to predict the fatigue lives and failure loads in SMA actuators. Additionally, these prediction methods can be implemented in order to intelligently design actuators in accordance with their fatigue and failure limits. In the following paper, both simple and complex thermomechanical loading paths have been considered. Experimental data was utilized from two material systems: equiatomic Nickel-Titanium and Nickelrich Nickel-Titanium.

  11. The integrated contaminant elution and tracer test toolkit, ICET3, for improved characterization of mass transfer, attenuation, and mass removal (United States)

    Brusseau, Mark L.; Guo, Zhilin


    It is evident based on historical data that groundwater contaminant plumes persist at many sites, requiring costly long-term management. High-resolution site-characterization methods are needed to support accurate risk assessments and to select, design, and operate effective remediation operations. Most subsurface characterization methods are generally limited in their ability to provide unambiguous, real-time delineation of specific processes affecting mass-transfer, transformation, and mass removal, and accurate estimation of associated rates. An integrated contaminant elution and tracer test toolkit, comprising a set of local-scale groundwater extraction-and injection tests, was developed to ameliorate the primary limitations associated with standard characterization methods. The test employs extended groundwater extraction to stress the system and induce hydraulic and concentration gradients. Clean water can be injected, which removes the resident aqueous contaminant mass present in the higher-permeability zones and isolates the test zone from the surrounding plume. This ensures that the concentrations and fluxes measured within the isolated area are directly and predominantly influenced by the local mass-transfer and transformation processes controlling mass removal. A suite of standard and novel tracers can be used to delineate specific mass-transfer and attenuation processes that are active at a given site, and to quantify the associated mass-transfer and transformation rates. The conceptual basis for the test is first presented, followed by an illustrative application based on simulations produced with a 3-D mathematical model and a brief case study application.

  12. Two-stage actuation system using DC motors and piezoelectric actuators for controllable industrial and automotive brakes and clutches (United States)

    Neelakantan, Vijay A.; Washington, Gregory N.; Bucknor, Norman K.


    High bandwidth actuation systems that are capable of simultaneously producing relatively large forces and displacements are required for use in automobiles and other industrial applications. Conventional hydraulic actuation mechanisms used in automotive brakes and clutches are complex, inefficient and have poor control robustness. These lead to reduced fuel economy, controllability issues and other disadvantages. This paper involves the design, development, testing and control of a two-stage hybrid actuation mechanism by combining classical actuators like DC motors and advanced smart material actuators like piezoelectric actuators. The paper also discusses the development of a robust control methodology using the Internal Model Control (IMC) principle and emphasizes the robustness property of this control methodology by comparing and studying simulation and experimental results.

  13. Digital Actuator Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ken Thomas; Ted Quinn; Jerry Mauck; Richard Bockhorst


    There are significant developments underway in new types of actuators for power plant active components. Many of these make use of digital technology to provide a wide array of benefits in performance of the actuators and in reduced burden to maintain them. These new product offerings have gained considerable acceptance in use in process plants. In addition, they have been used in conventional power generation very successfully. This technology has been proven to deliver the benefits promised and substantiate the claims of improved performance. The nuclear industry has been reluctant to incorporate digital actuator technology into nuclear plant designs due to concerns due to a number of concerns. These could be summarized as cost, regulatory uncertainty, and a certain comfort factor with legacy analog technology. The replacement opportunity for these types of components represents a decision point for whether to invest in more modern technology that would provide superior operational and maintenance benefits. Yet, the application of digital technology has been problematic for the nuclear industry, due to qualification and regulatory issues. With some notable exceptions, the result has been a continuing reluctance to undertake the risks and uncertainties of implementing digital actuator technology when replacement opportunities present themselves. Rather, utilities would typically prefer to accept the performance limitations of the legacy analog actuator technologies to avoid impacts to project costs and schedules. The purpose of this report is to demonstrate that the benefits of digital actuator technology can be significant in terms of plant performance and that it is worthwhile to address the barriers currently holding back the widespread development and use of this technology. It addresses two important objectives in pursuit of the beneficial use of digital actuator technology for nuclear power plants: 1. To demonstrate the benefits of digital actuator

  14. Design of a Long-Stroke Noncontact Electromagnetic Actuator for Active Vibration Isolation (United States)

    Banerjee, Bibhuti; Allaire, Paul E.


    A long-stroke moving coil Lorentz Actuator was designed for use in a microgravity vibration isolation experiment. The final design had a stroke of 5.08 cm (2 in) and enough force capability to isolate a mass of the order of 22.7-45.4 kg. A simple dynamic magnetic circuit analysis, using an electrical analog, was developed for the initial design of the actuator. A neodymium-iron-boron material with energy density of 278 T-kA/m (35 MGOe) was selected to supply the magnetic field. The effect of changes in the design parameters of core diameter, shell outer diameter, pole face length, and coil wire layers were investigated. An extensive three-dimensional finite element analysis was carried out to accurately determine linearity with regard to axial position of the coil and coil current levels. The actuator was constructed and tested on a universal testing machine. Example plots are shown, indicating good linearity over the stroke of approximately 5.08 cm (2 in) and a range of coil currents from -1.5 A to +1.5 A. The actuator was then used for the microgravity vibration isolation experiments, described elsewhere.

  15. Synthetic Jet Actuator Performance Enhancement (United States)

    Pikcilingis, Lucia; Housley, Kevin; Whalen, Ed; Amitay, Michael; Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Collaboration; Boeing Company Collaboration


    Over the last 20 years synthetic jets have been studied as a means for aerodynamic flow control. Specifically, synthetic jets provide momentum transfer with zero-net mass flux, which has been proven to be effective for controlling flow fields. A synthetic jet is created by the periodic formation of vortex rings at its orifice due to the periodic motion of a piezoelectric disk(s). The present study seeks to optimize the performance of a synthetic jet actuator by utilizing different geometrical parameters such as disk thickness, orifice width and length, cavity height and cavity diameter, and different input parameters such as voltage and frequency. Experiments were conducted using a synthetic jet apparatus designed for various geometrical parameters utilizing a dual disk configuration. Velocity and temperature measurements were acquired at the center of the synthetic jet orifice using a temperature compensated hotwire and thermocouple probe. The disk displacement was measured at the center of the disk with a laser displacement sensor. It was shown that the synthetic jet actuators are capable of exceeding peak velocities of 200 m/s with a relatively large orifice. Data suggests that jet velocities greater than 200 m/s are attainable.

  16. Nonmagnetic driver for piezoelectric actuators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekhtiari, Marzieh


    Piezoelectric actuator drive aims to enable reliable motor performance in strong magnetic fields for magnetic res- onance imaging and computed tomography treatment tables. There are technical limitations in operation of these motors and drive systems related to magnetic interference. Piezoelectric...... actuators. Therefore, piezoelectric transformer-based power converters are used for driving piezoelectric actuator drive motor in the presence of high electromagnetic field....

  17. Testing Mass Determinations of Supermassive Black Holes via Stellar Kinematics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cappellari, Michele; M. McDermid, Richard; Bacon, R.; L. Davies, Roger; T. de Zeeuw, P.; Emsellem, Eric; Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; Krajnović, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Peletier, R.F.; Sarzi, Marc; C. E. van den Bosch, Remco; van de Ven, Glenn; Debattista, Victor P.; Popescu, Cristina C.

    We investigate the accuracy of mass determinations MBH of supermassive black holes in galaxies using dynamical models of the stellar kinematics. We compare 10 of our MBH measurements, using integral-field OASIS kinematics, to published values. For a sample of 25 galaxies we confront our new MBH

  18. Investigation of electrochemical actuation by polyaniline nanofibers (United States)

    Mehraeen, Shayan; Alkan Gürsel, Selmiye; Papila, Melih; Çakmak Cebeci, Fevzi


    Polyaniline nanofibers have shown promising electrical and electrochemical properties which make them prominent candidates in the development of smart systems employing sensors and actuators. Their electrochemical actuation potential is demonstrated in this study. A trilayer composite actuator based on polyaniline nanofibers was designed and fabricated. Cross-linked polyvinyl alcohol was sandwiched between two polyaniline nanofibrous electrodes as ion-containing electrolyte gel. First, electrochemical behavior of a single electrode was studied, showing reversible redox peak pairs in 1 M HCl using a cyclic voltammetry technique. High aspect ratio polyaniline nanofibers create a porous network which facilitates ion diffusion and thus accelerates redox reactions. Bending displacement of the prepared trilayer actuator was then tested and reported under an AC potential stimulation as low as 0.5 V in a variety of frequencies from 50 to 1000 mHz, both inside 1 M HCl solution and in air. Decay of performance of the composite actuator in air is investigated and it is reported that tip displacement in a solution was stable and repeatable for 1000 s in all selected frequencies.

  19. Polypyrrole Actuator Based on Electrospun Microribbons. (United States)

    Beregoi, Mihaela; Evanghelidis, Alexandru; Diculescu, Victor C; Iovu, Horia; Enculescu, Ionut


    The development of soft actuators by using inexpensive raw materials and straightforward fabrication techniques, aiming at creating and developing muscle like micromanipulators, represents an important challenge nowadays. Providing such devices with biomimetic qualities, for example, sensing different external stimuli, adds even more complexity to the task. We developed electroactive polymer-coated microribbons that undergo conformational changes in response to external physical and chemical parameters. These were prepared following three simple steps. During the first step nylon-6/6 microribbons were fabricated by electrospinning. In a second step the microribbons were one side coated with a metallic layer. Finally, a conducting layer of polypyrrole was added by means of electrochemical deposition. Strips of polypyrrole-coated aligned microribbon meshes were tested as actuators responding to current, pH, and temperature. The electrochemical activity of the microstructured actuators was investigated by recording cyclic voltammograms. Chronopontentiograms for specific current, pH, and temperature values were obtained in electrolytes with different compositions. It was shown that, upon variation of the external stimulus, the actuator undergoes conformational changes due to the reduction processes of the polypyrrole layer. The ability of the actuator to hold and release thin wires, and to collect polystyrene microspheres from the bottom of the electrochemical cell, was also investigated.

  20. A Magnetic Bead Actuator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, R.; Prins, M.W.J.; Wimberger-Friedl, R.


    Actuation principles of superparamagnetic beads applicable on biosensing (at single beads and chain orderning) are studied in this report. This research can be used to develop new techniques that are able to accelerate bio-assays. An experimental setup containing a sub-microliter fluid volume

  1. The Actuated Guitar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jeppe Veirum; Overholt, Daniel; Moeslund, Thomas B.


    Playing a guitar is normally only for people with fully functional hands. In this work we investigate alternative interaction concepts to enable or re-enable people with non-functional right hands or arms to play a guitar via actuated strumming. The functionality and complexity of right hand...

  2. Bistable microelectromechanical actuator (United States)

    Fleming, J.G.


    A bistable microelectromechanical (MEM) actuator is formed on a substrate and includes a stressed membrane of generally rectangular shape that upon release assumes a curvilinear cross-sectional shape due to attachment at a midpoint to a resilient member and at opposing edges to a pair of elongate supports. The stressed membrane can be electrostatically switched between a pair of mechanical states having mirror-image symmetry, with the MEM actuator remaining in a quiescent state after a programming voltage is removed. The bistable MEM actuator according to various embodiments of the present invention can be used to form a nonvolatile memory element, an optical modulator (with a pair of mirrors supported above the membrane and moving in synchronism as the membrane is switched), a switchable mirror (with a single mirror supported above the membrane at the midpoint thereof) and a latching relay (with a pair of contacts that open and close as the membrane is switched). Arrays of bistable MEM actuators can be formed for applications including nonvolatile memories, optical displays and optical computing. 49 figs.

  3. Thermally Actuated Hydraulic Pumps (United States)

    Jones, Jack; Ross, Ronald; Chao, Yi


    Thermally actuated hydraulic pumps have been proposed for diverse applications in which direct electrical or mechanical actuation is undesirable and the relative slowness of thermal actuation can be tolerated. The proposed pumps would not contain any sliding (wearing) parts in their compressors and, hence, could have long operational lifetimes. The basic principle of a pump according to the proposal is to utilize the thermal expansion and contraction of a wax or other phase-change material in contact with a hydraulic fluid in a rigid chamber. Heating the chamber and its contents from below to above the melting temperature of the phase-change material would cause the material to expand significantly, thus causing a substantial increase in hydraulic pressure and/or a substantial displacement of hydraulic fluid out of the chamber. Similarly, cooling the chamber and its contents from above to below the melting temperature of the phase-change material would cause the material to contract significantly, thus causing a substantial decrease in hydraulic pressure and/or a substantial displacement of hydraulic fluid into the chamber. The displacement of the hydraulic fluid could be used to drive a piston. The figure illustrates a simple example of a hydraulic jack driven by a thermally actuated hydraulic pump. The pump chamber would be a cylinder containing encapsulated wax pellets and containing radial fins to facilitate transfer of heat to and from the wax. The plastic encapsulation would serve as an oil/wax barrier and the remaining interior space could be filled with hydraulic oil. A filter would retain the encapsulated wax particles in the pump chamber while allowing the hydraulic oil to flow into and out of the chamber. In one important class of potential applications, thermally actuated hydraulic pumps, exploiting vertical ocean temperature gradients for heating and cooling as needed, would be used to vary hydraulic pressures to control buoyancy in undersea research

  4. High Performance Piezoelectric Actuated Gimbal (HIERAX)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles Tschaggeny; Warren Jones; Eberhard Bamberg


    This paper presents a 3-axis gimbal whose three rotational axes are actuated by a novel drive system: linear piezoelectric motors whose linear output is converted to rotation by using drive disks. Advantages of this technology are: fast response, high accelerations, dither-free actuation and backlash-free positioning. The gimbal was developed to house a laser range finder for the purpose of tracking and guiding unmanned aerial vehicles during landing maneuvers. The tilt axis was built and the test results indicate excellent performance that meets design specifications.

  5. Controlling flexible structures with second order actuator dynamics (United States)

    Inman, Daniel J.; Umland, Jeffrey W.; Bellos, John


    The control of flexible structures for those systems with actuators that are modeled by second order dynamics is examined. Two modeling approaches are investigated. First a stability and performance analysis is performed using a low order finite dimensional model of the structure. Secondly, a continuum model of the flexible structure to be controlled, coupled with lumped parameter second order dynamic models of the actuators performing the control is used. This model is appropriate in the modeling of the control of a flexible panel by proof-mass actuators as well as other beam, plate and shell like structural numbers. The model is verified with experimental measurements.

  6. Actuator topology design using the controllability Gramian

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alves da Silveira, Otávio Augusto; Ono Fonseca, Jun Sérgio; Santos, Ilmar


    This work develops a methodology for the optimal design of actuators for the vibration control of flexible structures. The objective is the maximization of a measure of the controllability Gramian. The test case is the embedding of piezoelectric inserts in elastic structures for vibration control...

  7. Nonlinear dynamic modeling for smart material electro-hydraulic actuator development (United States)

    Larson, John P.; Dapino, Marcelo J.


    Smart material electro-hydraulic actuators use hydraulic rectification by one-way check valves to amplify the motion of smart materials, such as magnetostrictives and piezoelectrics, in order to create compact, lightweight actuators. A piston pump driven by a smart material is combined with a hydraulic cylinder to form a self-contained, power-by-wire actuator that can be used in place of a conventional hydraulic system without the need for hydraulic lines and a centralized pump. The performance of an experimental actuator driven by a 12.7 mm diameter, 114 mm length Terfenol-D rod is evaluated over a range of applied input frequencies, loads, and currents. The peak performance achieved is 37 W, moving a 220 N load at a rate of 17 cm/s and producing a blocked pressure of 12.5 MPa. Additional tests are conducted to quantify the dynamic behavior of the one-way reed valves using a scanning laser vibrometer to identify the frequency response of the reeds and the effect of the valve seat and fluid mass loading. A lumped-parameter model is developed for the system that includes valve inertia and fluid response nonlinearities, and the model results are compared with the experimental data.

  8. Piezoelectric-based actuators for improved tractor-trailer performance (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Menicovich, David; Amitay, Michael; Gallardo, Daniele


    The application of piezo-electrically-driven synthetic-jet-based active flow control to reduce drag on tractor-trailers and to improve thermal mixing in refrigerated trailers was explored on full-scale tests. The active flow control technique that is being used relies on a modular system comprised of distributed, small, highly efficient actuators. These actuators, called synthetic jets, are jets that are synthesized at the edge of an orifice by a periodic motion of a piezoelectric diaphragm(s) mounted on one (or more) walls of a sealed cavity. The synthetic jet is zero net mass flux (ZNMF), but it allows momentum transfer to flow. It is typically driven near diaphragm and/or cavity resonance, and therefore, small electric input [O(10W)] is required. Another advantage of this actuator is that no plumbing is required. The system doesn't require changes to the body of the truck, can be easily reconfigured to various types of vehicles, and consumes small amounts of electrical power from the existing electrical system of the truck. The actuators are operated in a closed feedback loop based on inputs received from the tractor's electronic control unit, various system components and environmental sensors. The data are collected and processed on-board and transmitted to a cloud-based data management platform for further big data analytics and diagnostics. The system functions as a smart connected product through the interchange of data between the physical truck-mounted system and its cloud platform.

  9. Fabrication and reliable implementation of an ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) biaxial bending actuator (United States)

    Lee, Gil-Yong; Choi, Jung-Oh; Kim, Myeungseon; Ahn, Sung-Hoon


    Ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs) are one of the most popular types of electro-active polymer actuator, due to their low electric driving potential, large deformation range, and light weight. IPMCs have been used as actuators or sensors in many areas of biomedical and robotic engineering. In this research, IPMCs were studied as a biaxial bending actuator capable of smart and flexible motion. We designed and fabricated this bending actuator and implemented it to have a reliable actuating motion using a systematic approach. The resulting device was bar shaped with a square cross section and had four insulated electrodes on its surface. By applying different voltages to these four electrodes, a biaxial bending motion can be induced. To construct this actuator, several fabrication processes were considered. We modified the Nafion stacking method, and established a complete sequence of actuator fabrication processes. Using these processes, we were able to fabricate an IPMC biaxial bending actuator with both high actuating force and high flexibility. Several experiments were conducted to investigate and verify the performance of the actuator. The IPMC actuator system was modeled from experimentally measured data, and using this actuator model, a closed-loop proportional integral (PI) controller was designed. Reference position tracking performances of open-loop and closed-loop systems were compared. Finally, circular motion tracking performances of the actuator tip were tested under different rotation frequencies and radii of a reference trajectory circle.

  10. Composite thermal micro-actuator array for tactile displays (United States)

    Enikov, Eniko T.; Lazarov, Kalin V.


    Tactile perception of complex symbols through tactile stimulation is an exciting application of a phenomenon known as tactile illusion (TI). Sensation of motion on the skin can be produced by a limited number of discrete mechanical actuators applying light pressure over the skin. This phenomenon can thus be used as a neurophysiological testing tool to determine central and peripheral nervous system injury as well as providing an additional human-machine communication channel. This paper describes the development of a 4 x 5 actuator array of individual vibrating pixels for fingertip tactile communication. The array is approximately one square centimeter and utilizes novel micro-clutch MEMS technology. The individual pixels are turned ON and OFF by pairs of microscopic composite thermal actuators, while the main vibration is generated by a vibrating piezo-electric plate. The physiological parameters required for inducing tactile illusion are described. The fabrication sequence for the thermal micro-actuators along with actuation results are also presented.

  11. Active Polymer Gel Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuji Hashimoto


    Full Text Available Many kinds of stimuli-responsive polymer and gels have been developed and applied to biomimetic actuators or artificial muscles. Electroactive polymers that change shape when stimulated electrically seem to be particularly promising. In all cases, however, the mechanical motion is driven by external stimuli, for example, reversing the direction of electric field. On the other hand, many living organisms can generate an autonomous motion without external driving stimuli like self-beating of heart muscles. Here we show a novel biomimetic gel actuator that can walk spontaneously with a wormlike motion without switching of external stimuli. The self-oscillating motion is produced by dissipating chemical energy of oscillating reaction. Although the gel is completely composed of synthetic polymer, it shows autonomous motion as if it were alive.

  12. Microfabricated therapeutic actuators (United States)

    Lee, Abraham P.; Northrup, M. Allen; Ciarlo, Dino R.; Krulevitch, Peter A.; Benett, William J.


    Microfabricated therapeutic actuators are fabricated using a shape memory polymer (SMP), a polyurethane-based material that undergoes a phase transformation at a specified temperature (Tg). At a temperature above temperature Tg material is soft and can be easily reshaped into another configuration. As the temperature is lowered below temperature Tg the new shape is fixed and locked in as long as the material stays below temperature Tg. Upon reheating the material to a temperature above Tg, the material will return to its original shape. By the use of such SMP material, SMP microtubing can be used as a release actuator for the delivery of embolic coils through catheters into aneurysms, for example. The microtubing can be manufactured in various sizes and the phase change temperature Tg is determinate for an intended temperature target and intended use.

  13. Natural fibres actuators for smart bio-inspired hygromorph biocomposites (United States)

    Le Duigou, Antoine; Requile, Samuel; Beaugrand, Johnny; Scarpa, Fabrizio; Castro, Mickael


    Hygromorph biocomposite (HBC) actuators make use of the transport properties of plant fibres to generate an out-of-plane displacement when a moisture gradient is present. HBC actuators possess a design based on the bilayer configuration of natural hygromorph actuators (like pine cone, wheat awn, Selaginella lepidophyll). In this work we present a series of design guidelines for HBCs with improved performance, low environmental footprints and high durability in severe environments. We develop a theoretical actuating response (curvature) formulation of maleic anhydride polypropylene (MAPP)/plant fibres based on bimetallic actuators theory. The actuation response is evaluated as a function of the fibre type (flax, jute, kenaf and coir). We demonstrate that the actuation is directly related to the fibre microstructure and its biochemical composition. The jute and flax fibres appear to be the best candidates for use in HBCs. Flax/MAPP and jute/MAPP HBCs exhibit similar actuating behaviours during the sorption phase (amplitude and speed), but different desorption characteristics due to the combined effect of the lumen size, fibre division and biochemical composition on the desorption mechanism. During hygromechanical fatigue tests the jute/MAPP HBCs exhibit a drastic improvement in durability compared to their flax counterparts. We also provide a demonstration on how HBCs can be used to trigger deployment of more complex structures based on Origami and Kirigami designs.

  14. Creep effect modeling for a core free tubular actuator (United States)

    Sarban, Rahimullah; Oubaek, Jakob; Jones, Richard W.


    Of the range of dielectric EAP-based actuators that currently exist those having a cylindrical configuration are perhaps the most important. Up until now the most popular tubular actuator designs have exploited the exceptional pre-strain performance of the acrylics VHB 2910 and VHB 2905. Unfortunately pre-stained acrylic film rolled tubular actuators with a spring core experience problems concerning reliability and life expectancy. Partly because of these problems research is beginning to be directed towards the design, fabrication and characterisation of core free tubular actuators. This work reviews the Voltage-Strain modeling of core free rolled actuators that are constructed using a dielectric electro active polymer film that employs smart electrode technology. Position response tests, whereby a step input of 1500 V was applied to each actuator, confirmed that time dependent strain influences the Voltage-Strain behaviour of the actuators. To represent the time dependent strain behaviour a creep effect model was combined with Pelrine's electromechanical model to provide a more accurate representation of the Voltage-Strain characteristics of the actuators.

  15. Dissolution actuated sample container (United States)

    Nance, Thomas A.; McCoy, Frank T.


    A sample collection vial and process of using a vial is provided. The sample collection vial has an opening secured by a dissolvable plug. When dissolved, liquids may enter into the interior of the collection vial passing along one or more edges of a dissolvable blocking member. As the blocking member is dissolved, a spring actuated closure is directed towards the opening of the vial which, when engaged, secures the vial contents against loss or contamination.

  16. Cylindrical Piezoelectric Fiber Composite Actuators (United States)

    Allison, Sidney G.; Shams, Qamar A.; Fox, Robert L.


    The use of piezoelectric devices has become widespread since Pierre and Jacques Curie discovered the piezoelectric effect in 1880. Examples of current applications of piezoelectric devices include ultrasonic transducers, micro-positioning devices, buzzers, strain sensors, and clocks. The invention of such lightweight, relatively inexpensive piezoceramic-fiber-composite actuators as macro fiber composite (MFC) actuators has made it possible to obtain strains and displacements greater than those that could be generated by prior actuators based on monolithic piezoceramic sheet materials. MFC actuators are flat, flexible actuators designed for bonding to structures to apply or detect strains. Bonding multiple layers of MFC actuators together could increase force capability, but not strain or displacement capability. Cylindrical piezoelectric fiber composite (CPFC) actuators have been invented as alternatives to MFC actuators for applications in which greater forces and/or strains or displacements may be required. In essence, a CPFC actuator is an MFC or other piezoceramic fiber composite actuator fabricated in a cylindrical instead of its conventional flat shape. Cylindrical is used here in the general sense, encompassing shapes that can have circular, elliptical, rectangular or other cross-sectional shapes in the planes perpendicular to their longitudinal axes.

  17. Microelectromechanical (MEM) thermal actuator (United States)

    Garcia, Ernest J [Albuquerque, NM; Fulcher, Clay W. G. [Sandia Park, NM


    Microelectromechanical (MEM) buckling beam thermal actuators are disclosed wherein the buckling direction of a beam is constrained to a desired direction of actuation, which can be in-plane or out-of-plane with respect to a support substrate. The actuators comprise as-fabricated, linear beams of uniform cross section supported above the substrate by supports which rigidly attach a beam to the substrate. The beams can be heated by methods including the passage of an electrical current through them. The buckling direction of an initially straight beam upon heating and expansion is controlled by incorporating one or more directional constraints attached to the substrate and proximal to the mid-point of the beam. In the event that the beam initially buckles in an undesired direction, deformation of the beam induced by contact with a directional constraint generates an opposing force to re-direct the buckling beam into the desired direction. The displacement and force generated by the movement of the buckling beam can be harnessed to perform useful work, such as closing contacts in an electrical switch.

  18. An inertia-type hybrid mount combining a rubber mount and a piezostack actuator for naval shipboard equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Jun Moon


    Full Text Available This paper has been focused on developing a new hybrid mount for shipboard equipment used in naval surface ships and submarines. While the hybrid mount studied in our previous research was 100 kg-class series-type mount, the new hybrid mount has been designed as an inertia-type mount capable of supporting a static of 500 kg. The proposed mount consists of a commercial rubber resilient mount, a piezostack actuator and an inertial mass. The piezostack actuator connected with the inertial mass generates actively the control force. The performances of the proposed mount with a newly designed specific controller have been evaluated in accordance with US military specifications and compared with the passive mount. An isolation system consisting of four proposed mounts and auxiliary devices has been also tested. Through a series of experimental tests, it has been confirmed that the proposed mount provides better performance than the US Navy's standard passive mounts.

  19. Testing the minimal supersymmetric standard model with the mass ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Heinemeyer et al particles (see e.g. refs [5,6]). Consequently, a precise theoretical prediction for. MW in terms of the model parameters is of utmost importance for present and future electroweak precision tests. A precise prediction for MW in the MSSM is also needed as a part of the 'SPA Convention and Project' (see ref.

  20. Mechanisms and actuators for rotorcraft blade morphing (United States)

    Vocke, Robert D., III

    The idea of improved fight performance through changes in the control surfaces dates back to the advent of aviation with the Wright brothers' pioneering work on "wing warping," but it was not until the recent progress in material and actuator development that such control surfaces seemed practical for modern aircraft. This has opened the door to a new class of aircraft that have the ability to change shape or morph, which are being investigated due to the potential to have a single platform serve multiple mission objectives, as well as improve performance characteristics. While the majority of existing research for morphing aircraft has focused on fixedwing aircraft, rotary-wing aircraft have begun to receive more attention. The purpose of this body of work is to investigate the current state of morphing actuation technology for rotorcraft and improve upon it. Specifically, this work looks at two types of morphing: Pneumatic Artificial Muscle (PAM) actuated trailing edge flaps and conformal variable diameter morphing. First, active camber changes through the use of PAM powered trailing edge flaps were investigated due to the potential for reductions in power requirements and vibration/noise levels. A PAM based antagonistic actuation system was developed utilizing a novel combination of mechanism geometry and PAM bias contraction optimization to overcome the natural extension stiffening characteristics of PAMs. In open-loop bench-top testing against a "worst-case" constant torsional loading, the system demonstrated actuation authority suitable for both primary control and vibration/noise reduction. Additionally, closed-loop test data indicated that the system was capable of tracking complex waveforms consistent with those needed for rotorcraft control. This system demonstrated performance on-par with the state of the art pneumatic trailing edge flap actuators, yet with a much smaller footprint and impact on the rotor-blade. The second morphing system developed in

  1. NanoDrill: 1 Actuator Core Acquisition System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to design, build and test a 1 kg, single actuator, sample acquisition drill. The drill uses a novel method of core or powder acquisition. The core...

  2. Integrated sensing and actuation of dielectric elastomer actuator (United States)

    Ye, Zhihang; Chen, Zheng


    Dielectric elastomer (DE) is a type of soft actuating material, the shape of which can be changed under electrical voltage stimuli. DE materials have great potential in applications involving energy harvesters, micro-manipulators, and adaptive optics. In this paper, a stripe DE actuator with integrated sensing and actuation is designed and fabricated, and characterized through several experiments. Considering the actuator's capacitor-like structure and its deform mechanism, detecting the actuator's displacement through the actuator's circuit feature is a potential approach. A self-sensing scheme that adds a high frequency probing signal into actuation signal is developed. A fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm is used to extract the magnitude change of the probing signal, and a non-linear fitting method and artificial neural network (ANN) approach are utilized to reflect the relationship between the probing signal and the actuator's displacement. Experimental results showed this structure has capability of performing self-sensing and actuation, simultaneously. With an enhanced ANN, the self-sensing scheme can achieve 2.5% accuracy.

  3. Numerical Calibration of Mass Flow Plug for Inlet Testing (United States)

    Sasson, Jonathan; Barnhart, Paul; Davis, David O.


    A simple control volume model has been developed to calculate the discharge coefficient through a mass flow plug (MFP) and validated with a calibration experiment. The maximum error of the model within the operating region of the MFP is 0.54%. The control volume analysis developed work is comprised of a sequence of flow calculations through the MFP. The model uses the MFP geometry and operating pressure and temperature to couple continuity, momentum, energy, an equation of state, and wall shear. The discharge coefficient calculation also includes the effects of boundary layer growth, including the reduction in cross-sectional flow area as characterized by the boundary layer displacement thickness. The last calculation in the sequence uses an integral method to calculate the growth of the boundary layer, from which the displacement thickness is then determined. The result of these successive calculations is an accurate one-dimension model of the velocity, pressure, and temperature through the MFP. For comparison, a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) calibration is shown, which when compared to the presented numerical model, had a lower accuracy with a maximum error of 1.35% in addition to being slower by a factor of 100."

  4. Hanford Apatite Treatability Test Report Errata: Apatite Mass Loading Calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szecsody, James E.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Williams, Mark D.; Truex, Michael J.


    The objective of this errata report is to document an error in the apatite loading (i.e., treatment capacity) estimate reported in previous apatite treatability test reports and provide additional calculation details for estimating apatite loading and barrier longevity. The apatite treatability test final report (PNNL-19572; Vermeul et al. 2010) documents the results of the first field-scale evaluation of the injectable apatite PRB technology. The apatite loading value in units of milligram-apatite per gram-sediment is incorrect in this and some other previous reports. The apatite loading in units of milligram phosphate per gram-sediment, however, is correct, and this is the unit used for comparison to field core sample measurements.

  5. Correlation Results for a Mass Loaded Vehicle Panel Test Article Finite Element Models and Modal Survey Tests (United States)

    Maasha, Rumaasha; Towner, Robert L.


    High-fidelity Finite Element Models (FEMs) were developed to support a recent test program at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The FEMs correspond to test articles used for a series of acoustic tests. Modal survey tests were used to validate the FEMs for five acoustic tests (a bare panel and four different mass-loaded panel configurations). An additional modal survey test was performed on the empty test fixture (orthogrid panel mounting fixture, between the reverb and anechoic chambers). Modal survey tests were used to test-validate the dynamic characteristics of FEMs used for acoustic test excitation. Modal survey testing and subsequent model correlation has validated the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the FEMs. The modal survey test results provide a basis for the analysis models used for acoustic loading response test and analysis comparisons

  6. Telescoping cylindrical piezoelectric fiber composite actuator assemblies (United States)

    Allison, Sidney G. (Inventor); Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor); Fox, Robert L. (Inventor); Fox, legal representative, Christopher L. (Inventor); Fox Chattin, legal representative, Melanie L. (Inventor)


    A telescoping actuator assembly includes a plurality of cylindrical actuators in a concentric arrangement. Each cylindrical actuator is at least one piezoelectric fiber composite actuator having a plurality of piezoelectric fibers extending parallel to one another and to the concentric arrangement's longitudinal axis. Each cylindrical actuator is coupled to concentrically-adjacent ones of the cylindrical actuators such that the plurality of cylindrical actuators can experience telescopic movement. An electrical energy source coupled to the cylindrical actuators applies actuation energy thereto to generate the telescopic movement.

  7. A New Type of Magnetic Actuator Capable of Wall-Climbing Movement Using Inertia Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Yaguchi


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new type of a magnetic actuator that operates on a resonance energy of a mass-spring model by using an electromagnetic force. The magnetic actuator is moved by the difference in an inertia force during one period of vibration. Experimental result demonstrates that a horizontal speed of the magnetic actuator was 7.4 mm/s with load mass of 50 g. We considered a method of a cable-free movement of the actuator by using two iron rails and four permanent magnets. The magnetic actuator is able to move stably a ceiling plane and a wall plane. This actuator is able to move on the plane of the magnetic materials only a function generator and a power amplifier.

  8. Application of Sweeping Jet Actuators on the NASA Hump Model and Comparison with CFDVAL2004 Experiments (United States)

    Koklu, Mehti


    Flow separation control over a wall-mounted hump model was studied experimentally to assess the performance of sweeping jet actuators. Results were compared to that of the 2004 CFD validation experiment (CFDVAL2004), which examined flow separation control with steady suction and unsteady zero-net-mass-flow actuators. Comparisons were carried out at low and high amplitude excitations. In addition to the active flow control methods, a passive flow control method (i.e., vortex generator) was used to complement the dataset. Steady/unsteady surface pressure measurements and surface oilflow visualization were used in the performance assessment of the actuators. The results indicated that the sweeping jet actuators are more effective than the steady suction and unsteady zero-net-mass-flow actuators. For the same momentum coefficient, the sweeping jet actuators produced more flow acceleration upstream of separation, more pressure recovery downstream, and consistently a smaller separation bubble.

  9. Development of an Actuator for Ambient to Cryo Application (United States)

    Menzel, Karen; Jung, Hans Jurgen; Schmidt, Joerg


    During the qualification campaign of the NIRSpec Instrument Mechanism, the actuator could not achieve the expected life time which was extended during the development phase. The initial design could not be adapted to the requested number of revolutions during that phase. Consequently the actuator needed to be modified such that the function of the mechanism would not be endangered and thus the overall function of the NIRSpec instrument. The modification included the change of the overall actuator design - internal dimensions, tolerances, materials, lubrication and assembly process - while keeping the interface to the mechanism, mass, and function. The lessons learned from the inspection of the failed actuator have been implemented in order to ensure the development and qualification success. The initially available time for this activity was in the range of 6 months to meet the overall program schedule.

  10. A Study on a Microwave-Driven Smart Material Actuator (United States)

    Choi, Sang H.; Chu, Sang-Hyon; Kwak, M.; Cutler, A. D.


    NASA s Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) has a large deployable, fragmented optical surface (greater than or = 2 8 m in diameter) that requires autonomous correction of deployment misalignments and thermal effects. Its high and stringent resolution requirement imposes a great deal of challenge for optical correction. The threshold value for optical correction is dictated by lambda/20 (30 nm for NGST optics). Control of an adaptive optics array consisting of a large number of optical elements and smart material actuators is so complex that power distribution for activation and control of actuators must be done by other than hard-wired circuitry. The concept of microwave-driven smart actuators is envisioned as the best option to alleviate the complexity associated with hard-wiring. A microwave-driven actuator was studied to realize such a concept for future applications. Piezoelectric material was used as an actuator that shows dimensional change with high electric field. The actuators were coupled with microwave rectenna and tested to correlate the coupling effect of electromagnetic wave. In experiments, a 3x3 rectenna patch array generated more than 50 volts which is a threshold voltage for 30-nm displacement of a single piezoelectric material. Overall, the test results indicate that the microwave-driven actuator concept can be adopted for NGST applications.

  11. Actuator technology and market outlook: where does the actuator move

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksanin Sergei Andreevich


    There are made conclusions about the "migration" of demand from hydraulic and pneumatic solutions to electromechanical actuators in the aerospace and manufacturing industries. Identify advantages of electromechanics over more traditional actuators in terms of energy efficiency and reliability. Also identify the most promising areas of the drive technological development.

  12. Piezoelectric actuated gimbal (United States)

    Tschaggeny, Charles W [Woods Cross, UT; Jones, Warren F [Idaho Falls, ID; Bamberg, Eberhard [Salt Lake City, UT


    A gimbal is described and which includes a fixed base member defining an axis of rotation; a second member concentrically oriented relative to the axis of rotation; a linear actuator oriented in immediate, adjoining force transmitting relation relative to the base member or to the second member, and which applies force along a linear axis which is tangential to the axis of rotation so as to cause the second member to rotate coaxially relative to the fixed base member; and an object of interest mounted to the second member such that the object of interest is selectively moved relative to the base member about the axis of rotation.

  13. Dynamic Electromechanical Coupling of Piezoelectric Bending Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa R. A. Nabawy


    Full Text Available Electromechanical coupling defines the ratio of electrical and mechanical energy exchanged during a flexure cycle of a piezoelectric actuator. This paper presents an analysis of the dynamic electromechanical coupling factor (dynamic EMCF for cantilever based piezoelectric actuators and provides for the first time explicit expressions for calculation of dynamic EMCF based on arrangement of passive and active layers, layer geometry, and active and passive materials selection. Three main cantilever layer configurations are considered: unimorph, dual layer bimorph and triple layer bimorph. The actuator is modeled using standard constitutive dynamic equations that relate deflection and charge to force and voltage. A mode shape formulation is used for the cantilever dynamics that allows the generalized mass to be the actual mass at the first resonant frequency, removing the need for numerical integration in the design process. Results are presented in the form of physical insight from the model structure and also numerical evaluations of the model to provide trends in dynamic EMCF with actuator design parameters. For given material properties of the active and passive layers and given system overall damping ratio, the triple layer bimorph topology is the best in terms of theoretically achievable dynamic EMCF, followed by the dual layer bimorph. For a damping ratio of 0.035, the dynamic EMCF for an example dual layer bimorph configuration is 9% better than for a unimorph configuration. For configurations with a passive layer, the ratio of thicknesses for the passive and active layers is the primary geometric design variable. Choice of passive layer stiffness (Young’s modulus relative to the stiffness of the material in the active layer is an important materials related design choice. For unimorph configurations, it is beneficial to use the highest stiffness possible passive material, whereas for triple layer bimorph configurations, the passive

  14. Test Sample for the Spatially Resolved Quantification of Illicit Drugs on Fingerprints Using Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muramoto, S.; Forbes, T.P.; van Asten, A.C.; Gillen, G.


    A novel test sample for the spatially resolved quantification of illicit drugs on the surface of a fingerprint using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) was demonstrated. Calibration curves relating the signal

  15. Contractive tension force stack actuator based on soft dielectric EAP (United States)

    Kovacs, Gabor; Düring, Lukas


    Among the electronic polymers EAPs especially the dielectric elastomers are functional materials that have promising potential as muscle-like actuators due to their inherent compliancy and good overall performance. The combination of huge active deformations, high energy densities, good efficiencies and fast response is unique to dielectric elastomers. Furthermore, they are lightweight, have a simple structure and can be easily tailored to various applications. Up to now most scientific research work has been focused on the planar expanding actuation mode due to the fact that the commercially available acrylic material VHB 4910 (3M) can easily be processed to planar actuators and has demonstrated very high actuation performance when pre-strained. Many different actuator designs have been developed and tested which expands in plane when voltage is applied and shrinks back as soon as the applied charges are removed from the electrodes. Obviously the contractive operation mode at activation is required for a wide range of application. Due to the principle of operation of soft DE EAP, mainly two directions to performed work against external loads are possible. Beside of the commonly used expanding actuation in planar direction the contractile actuation in thickness direction of the DE film represents a very promising option in the multilayer configuration. First approaches have been presented by the folded actuator design and by the multilayer tactile display device. In this study a novel approach for active structures driven by soft dielectric EAP is presented, which can perform contractive displacements at external tensile load. The device is composed of an array of equal segments, where the dielectric films are arranged in a pile-up configuration. In order to maintain satisfying structural integrity when external tension load is applied special attention was paid to the compliant electrode design which takes a central importance concerning the force transmission

  16. Electromagnetic actuation in MEMS switches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira Hansen, Roana Melina de; Mátéfi-Tempfli, Mária; Chemnitz, Steffen

    . Electromagnetic actuation is a very promising approach to operate such MEMS and Power MEMS devices, due to the long range, reproducible and strong forces generated by this method, among other advantages. However, the use of electromagnetic actuation in such devices requires the use of thick magnetic films, which...

  17. Novel ionic polymeric hydraulic actuators (United States)

    Shahinpoor, Mohsen; Kim, Kwang J.


    It is now well recognized that a strip of ionic polymer- metal composite (IPMC) exhibits a spontaneous bending capability under the influence of an electric potential. A key observation is the appearance and disappearance of water on the expansion and contraction surfaces of the strip, respectively. Such water appearing/disappearing activities occur near the permeable metal electrodes. The imposition of en elctric field causes the mobile cations that are conjugated to the polymeric anions to undergo electrophoretic dynamic migration that can result in local deformation of the material. Such an electrophoretic behavior of the IPMC causes the water to leak out of the permeable electroded boundary so as to lower the actuation performance. This situation is similar to a leaking hydraulic actuator (hydraulic jack), which has the highest force density notwithstanding the compressor unit weight. Herein, a new category of actuators as ionic polymeric hydraulic actuators (IPHA's) is defined. The IPMC is a good example of such ionic polymeric hydraulic actuators. The advantage of ionic polymeric hydraulic actuators is their potential to generate substantially high force densities, theoretically better than current hydraulic actuators. Based upon this ionic polymer hydraulic actuator concept, a certain manufacturing technique was developed to increase the force density of the conventional IPMC's by a factor of two (100% improvement in force). This technology and associated experimental results are presented in this paper.

  18. Magnetic actuation of thick film multi-material compliant mechanisms (United States)

    Vogtmann, Dana; St. Pierre, Ryan; Bergbreiter, Sarah


    This work presents models and experimental validation of magnetically actuated silicon mechanisms with elastomer hinges. Combining both highly compliant hinges and magnetic actuation results in mechanisms that can be actuated with large torques, large displacements, and high power. A single link mechanism is modeled, fabricated, and tested as a proof-of-concept device for this approach. The fabricated elastomer used in this work is characterized for its static and dynamic properties, and the dipoles of the magnetic materials used are also characterized. Using these measured material properties, the modeled behavior of the single link mechanism is then compared to experimental results in both static and dynamic tests. The resulting link can be statically actuated over 150° (75.1° in both directions) with a maximum applied power from the magnetic field of 0.70 mW at resonance.

  19. Elastic Cube Actuator with Six Degrees of Freedom Output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengchuan Wang


    Full Text Available Unlike conventional rigid actuators, soft robotic technologies possess inherent compliance, so they can stretch and twist along every axis without the need for articulated joints. This compliance is exploited here using dielectric elastomer membranes to develop a novel six degrees of freedom (6-DOF polymer actuator that unifies ordinarily separate components into a simple cubic structure. This cube actuator design incorporates elastic dielectric elastomer membranes on four faces which are coupled by a cross-shaped end effector. The inherent elasticity of each membrane greatly reduces kinematic constraint and enables a 6-DOF actuation output to be produced via the end effector. An electro-mechanical model of the cube actuator is presented that captures the non-linear hyperelastic behaviour of the active membranes. It is demonstrated that the model accurately predicts actuator displacement and blocking moment for a range of input voltages. Experimental testing of a prototype 60 mm device demonstrates 6-DOF operation. The prototype produces maximum linear and rotational displacements of ±2.6 mm (±4.3% and ±4.8° respectively and a maximum blocking moment of ±76 mNm. The capacity for full 6-DOF actuation from a compact, readily scalable and easily fabricated polymeric package enables implementation in a range of mechatronics and robotics applications.

  20. Occupational relevance and body mass bias in military physical fitness tests. (United States)

    Vanderburgh, Paul M


    Recent evidence makes a compelling case that US Army, Navy, and Air Force health-related physical fitness tests penalize larger, not just fatter, service members. As a result, they tend to receive lower scores than their lighter counterparts, the magnitude of which can be explained by biologic scaling laws. Larger personnel, on the other hand, tend to be better performers of work-related fitness tasks such as load carriage, heavy lifting, and materiel handling. This has been explained by empirical evidence that lean body mass and lean body mass to dead mass ratio (dead mass = fat mass and external load to be carried/lifted) are more potent determinants of performance of these military tasks than the fitness test events such as push-ups, sit-ups, or 2-mile-distance run time. Because promotions are based, in part, on fitness test performance, lighter personnel have an advancement advantage, although they tend to be poorer performers on many tests of work-related fitness. Several strategies have been proposed to rectify this incongruence including balanced tests, scaled scores, and correction factors--yet most need large-scale validation. Because nearly all subjects in such research have been men, future investigations should focus on women and elucidate the feasibility of universal physical fitness tests for all that include measures of health- and work-related fitness while imposing no systematic body mass bias.

  1. Thermodynamic model using experimental loss factors for dielectric elastomer actuator design (United States)

    Lucking Bigué, J.-P.; Chouinard, P.; Denninger, M.; Proulx, S.; Plante, J.-S.


    Dielectric Elastomer Actuators (DEAs) are a promising actuation technology for mobile robotics due to their high forceto- weight ratio, their potential for high efficiencies, and their low cost. The preliminary design of such actuators requires a quick and precise assessment of actuator energy conversion performance. To do so, this paper proposes a simple thermodynamic model using experimentally acquired loss factors that predict actuator mechanical work, energy consumption, and efficiency when operating under constant voltage and constant charge modes. Mechanical and electrical loss factors for both VHB 4905 (acrylic) and Nusil's CF19-2186 (silicone) are obtained by mapping the performances of cone-shaped DEAs over a broad range of actuator speeds, capacitance ratios, and applied voltages. Extensive experimental results reveal the main performance trends to follow for preliminary actuator design, which are explained by the proposed model. For the tested conditions, the maximum experimental brake efficiencies are ~35% and ~25% for VHB and CF19-2186 respectively.

  2. Development of pneumatic actuator with low-wave reflection characteristics (United States)

    Chang, H.; Tsung, T. T.; Jwo, C. S.; Chiang, J. C.


    This study aims at the development of a less reflective electromagnetic pneumatic actuator often used in the anechoic chamber. Because a pneumatic actuator on the market is not appropriate for use in such a chamber and a metallic one has high dielectric constant which generates reflective electromagnetic waves to influence test parameters in the chamber. The newly developed pneumatic actuator is made from low dielectric constant plastics with less reflective of electromagnetic. A turbine-type air motor is used to develop the pneumatic actuator and a employ Prony tester is used to run the brake horsepower test for the performance test of pneumatic actuator. Test results indicate that the pneumatic actuator in the minimal starting flow is 17 l/min, and it generates a brake horsepower of 48 mW; in the maximum flow is 26 l/min, it generates a brake horsepower of 108 mW. Therefore, it works with a torque between 0.24 N-m and 0.55 N-m, and such a torque will be sufficient to drive the target button.

  3. Helium mass flow measurement in the International Fusion Superconducting Magnet Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baylor, L.R.


    The measurement of helium mass flow in the International Fusion Superconducting Magnet Test Facility (IFSMTF) is an important aspect in the operation of the facility's cryogenic system. Data interpretation methods that lead to inaccurate results can cause severe difficulty in controlling the experimental superconducting coils being tested in the facility. This technical memorandum documents the methods of helium mass flow measurement used in the IFSMTF for all participants of the Large Coil Program and for other cryogenic experimentalists needing information on mass flow measurements. Examples of experimental data taken and calculations made are included to illustrate the applicability of the methods used.

  4. Comparative description of immunological tests for tuberculous infection detection. Mass screening opportunities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Slogotskaya


    Full Text Available Goal: to evaluate efficiency of various immunological tests (tuberculin tests, IGRA tests, skin tests containing proteins specific for M. tuberculosis – ESAT-6, CFP10 in the detection of tuberculous infection, their sensitivity, specificity and opportunities to be used for mass screening in children and adolescents.Materials. 122 Russian and foreign publications have been analyzed including reviews and meta-analyses.Results. The specificity of tuberculin testing is fairly low due mass BCG vaccination among children and adolescents, IGRA tests possess high specificity but can not be used for mass screening due to high costs, intravenous manipulations and need for the well-equipped laboratory. Skin tests with agents containing the same proteins as IGRA tests are highly specific, sensible and effective for mass screening. Detection rate of tuberculosis and post-tuberculous changes in children with positive reaction to these tests is significantly higher compared to those with positive reactions to Mantoux testing with 2 TU PPD-L. 

  5. Contributions to Design of Actuators functioning with Nitinol Active Springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Amariei


    Full Text Available The paper presents the research results achieved in order to perform a comparison regarding the influence of natural and forced cooling process applied to the Nitinol active springs inside a linear motion actuator. SMAs offer attractive potentials such as reversible strains of several percent, generation of high recovery stresses and high power / weight ratios. The actuator behavior was simulated first with SolidWorks and experimentally tested for results validation.

  6. Active aeroelastic control aspects of an aircraft wing by using synthetic jet actuators : Modeling, simulations, experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donnell, K.O.; Schober, S.; Stolk, M.; Marzocca, P.; De Breuker, R.; Abdalla, M.; Nicolini, E.; Gürdal, Z.


    This paper discusses modeling, simulations and experimental aspects of active aeroelastic control on aircraft wings by using Synthetic Jet Actuators (SJAs). SJAs, a particular class of zero-net mass-flux actuators, have shown very promising results in numerous aeronautical applications, such as

  7. Performance of direct-driven flapping-wing actuator with piezoelectric single-crystal PIN-PMN-PT (United States)

    Ozaki, Takashi; Hamaguchi, Kanae


    We present a prototype flapping-wing actuator with a direct-driven mechanism to generate lift in micro- and nano-aerial vehicles. This mechanism has an advantage of simplicity because it has no transmission system between the actuator and wing. We fabricated the piezoelectric unimorph actuator from single-crystal PIN-PMN-PT, which achieved a lift force up to 1.45 mN, a value about 1.9 times larger than the mass of the actuator itself. This is the first reported demonstration of an insect-scale actuator with a direct-driven mechanism that can generate a lift force greater than its own weight.

  8. An Unconventional Inchworm Actuator Based on PZT/ERFs Control Technology (United States)

    Liu, Guojun; Zhang, Yanyan; Liu, Jianfang; Li, Jianqiao; Tang, Chunxiu; Wang, Tengfei; Yang, Xuhao


    An unconventional inchworm actuator for precision positioning based on piezoelectric (PZT) actuation and electrorheological fluids (ERFs) control technology is presented. The actuator consists of actuation unit (PZT stack pump), fluid control unit (ERFs valve), and execution unit (hydraulic actuator). In view of smaller deformation of PZT stack, a new structure is designed for actuation unit, which integrates the advantages of two modes (namely, diaphragm type and piston type) of the volume changing of pump chamber. In order to improve the static shear yield strength of ERFs, a composite ERFs valve is designed, which adopts the series-parallel plate compound structure. The prototype of the inchworm actuator has been designed and manufactured in the lab. Systematic test results indicate that the displacement resolution of the unconventional inchworm actuator reaches 0.038 μm, and the maximum driving force and velocity are 42 N, 14.8 mm/s, respectively. The optimal working frequency for the maximum driving velocity is 120 Hz. The complete research and development processes further confirm the feasibility of developing a new type of inchworm actuator with high performance based on PZT actuation and ERFs control technology, which provides a reference for the future development of a new type of actuator. PMID:27022234

  9. An Unconventional Inchworm Actuator Based on PZT/ERFs Control Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guojun Liu


    Full Text Available An unconventional inchworm actuator for precision positioning based on piezoelectric (PZT actuation and electrorheological fluids (ERFs control technology is presented. The actuator consists of actuation unit (PZT stack pump, fluid control unit (ERFs valve, and execution unit (hydraulic actuator. In view of smaller deformation of PZT stack, a new structure is designed for actuation unit, which integrates the advantages of two modes (namely, diaphragm type and piston type of the volume changing of pump chamber. In order to improve the static shear yield strength of ERFs, a composite ERFs valve is designed, which adopts the series-parallel plate compound structure. The prototype of the inchworm actuator has been designed and manufactured in the lab. Systematic test results indicate that the displacement resolution of the unconventional inchworm actuator reaches 0.038 μm, and the maximum driving force and velocity are 42 N, 14.8 mm/s, respectively. The optimal working frequency for the maximum driving velocity is 120 Hz. The complete research and development processes further confirm the feasibility of developing a new type of inchworm actuator with high performance based on PZT actuation and ERFs control technology, which provides a reference for the future development of a new type of actuator.

  10. Investigations on Actuator Dynamics through Theoretical and Finite Element Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somashekhar S. Hiremath


    Full Text Available This paper gives a new approach for modeling the fluid-structure interaction of servovalve component-actuator. The analyzed valve is a precision flow control valve-jet pipe electrohydraulic servovalve. The positioning of an actuator depends upon the flow rate from control ports, in turn depends on the spool position. Theoretical investigation is made for No-load condition and Load condition for an actuator. These are used in finite element modeling of an actuator. The fluid-structure-interaction (FSI is established between the piston and the fluid cavities at the piston end. The fluid cavities were modeled with special purpose hydrostatic fluid elements while the piston is modeled with brick elements. The finite element method is used to simulate the variation of cavity pressure, cavity volume, mass flow rate, and the actuator velocity. The finite element analysis is extended to study the system's linearized response to harmonic excitation using direct solution steady-state dynamics. It was observed from the analysis that the natural frequency of the actuator depends upon the position of the piston in the cylinder. This is a close match with theoretical and simulation results. The effect of bulk modulus is also presented in the paper.

  11. Voice Coil Actuators for two MTG Instruments (United States)

    Bencheikh, N.; Guignabert, A.; Barillot, F.; Benoit, C.; Burgui, C.; Compostizo, C.; Bueno, I.; Spanoudakis, P.; Kiener, L.; Schwab, P.


    While Cedrat Technologies has been active in space for more than 20 years with piezoelectric mechanisms, we have also been increasingly involved over the last few years in the development of magnetic actuators for space projects. In this paper, a focus is made on the case of magnetic actuators that are developed in the frame of the Meteosat Third Generation (MTG) project. The first one is the Scan Assembly (SCA) actuated by Rotating Voice Coil Motors (RVCM) for the East/West (E/W) axes and the North/South (N/S) axes developed in collaboration with Sener and the second one is the Voice Coil Motor (VCM) developed in collaboration with CSEM for the Corner Cube Mechanism (CCM)The motion needs are different for the both motor, linear motion for the CCM and rotational movement for the SCA. Even if the motion is different, the both applications have the same performance requirements such as linearity, low hysteresis, a high power to mass ratio, redundancy and so on.

  12. T-Slide Linear Actuators (United States)

    Vranish, John


    T-slide linear actuators use gear bearing differential epicyclical transmissions (GBDETs) to directly drive a linear rack, which, in turn, performs the actuation. Conventional systems use a rotary power source in conjunction with a nut and screw to provide linear motion. Non-back-drive properties of GBDETs make the new actuator more direct and simpler. Versions of this approach will serve as a long-stroke, ultra-precision, position actuator for NASA science instruments, and as a rugged, linear actuator for NASA deployment duties. The T slide can operate effectively in the presence of side forces and torques. Versions of the actuator can perform ultra-precision positioning. A basic T-slide actuator is a long-stroke, rack-and-pinion linear actuator that, typically, consists of a T-slide, several idlers, a transmission to drive the slide (powered by an electric motor) and a housing that holds the entire assembly. The actuator is driven by gear action on its top surface, and is guided and constrained by gear-bearing idlers on its other two parallel surfaces. The geometry, implemented with gear-bearing technology, is particularly effective. An electronic motor operating through a GBDET can directly drive the T slide against large loads, as a rack and pinion linear actuator, with no break and no danger of back driving. The actuator drives the slide into position and stops. The slide holes position with power off and no brake, regardless of load. With the T slide configuration, this GBDET has an entire T-gear surface on which to operate. The GB idlers coupling the other two T slide parallel surfaces to their housing counterpart surfaces provide constraints in five degrees-of-freedom and rolling friction in the direction of actuation. Multiple GB idlers provide roller bearing strength sufficient to support efficient, rolling friction movement, even in the presence of large, resisting forces. T-slide actuators can be controlled using the combination of an off

  13. A dielectric electroactive polymer generator-actuator model: modeling, identification, and dynamic simulation (United States)

    Ihlefeld, Curtis M.; Qu, Zhihua


    Dielectric electroactive polymer membranes have been shown to have capabilities both as actuators and generators. Recent models of actuators have shown input to output dynamics that link the electrical energy input to the acceleration of a mass. Models such as these are useful for implementing closed loop control systems and will be necessary in the future for the construction of robust and fault tolerant controls. On the other hand, explanations of the generator behavior of dielectric EAP devices tend to ignore full dynamics. In this paper it is demonstrated that an EAP actuator model with full electrical-mechanical dynamics can be used as a generator model with the generator input force equivalent to the actuator disturbance force. Since the generator and actuator models are equivalent, it can be shown how disturbance inputs can cause energy surges back toward the electrical input. Simulations and experimental results are provided of a device model that describes generation and actuation.

  14. Considerations for Contractile Electroactive Materials and Actuators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Lenore; Erickson, Carl J.; Meixler, Lewis D.; Ascione, George; Gentile, Charles A.; Tilson, Carl; Bernasek, Stephen L.; Abelev, Esta


    Ras Labs produces electroactive polymer (EAP) based materials and actuators that bend, swell, ripple and now contract (new development) with low electric input. This is an important attribute because of the ability of contraction to produce life-like motion. The mechanism of contraction is not well understood. Radionuclide-labeled experiments were conducted to follow the movement of electrolytes and water in these EAPs when activated. Extreme temperature experiments were performed on the contractile EAPs with very favorable results. One of the biggest challenges in developing these actuators, however, is the electrode-EAP interface because of the pronounced movement of the EAP. Plasma treatments of metallic electrodes were investigated in order to improve the attachment of the embedded electrodes to the EAP material. Surface analysis, adhesive testing, and mechanical testing were conducted to test metal surfaces and metal-polymer interfaces. The nitrogen plasma treatment of titanium produced a strong metal-polymer interface; however, oxygen plasma treatment of both stainless steel and titanium produced even stronger metal-polymer interfaces. Plasma treatment of the electrodes allows for the embedded electrodes and the EAP material of the actuator to work and move as a unit, with no detachment, by significantly improving the metal-polymer interface.

  15. Two cylindrical masses in orbit for the test of the equivalence principle (United States)

    Chhun, Ratana; Touboul, Pierre; Lebat, Vincent


    Two pairs of solid test-masses have been considered to perform in space the test of the universality of free fall with an accuracy of at least 10-15. These cylindrical masses are precisely at the heart of the MICROSCOPE mission instrument comprising two differential electrostatic accelerometers. These masses shall exhibit material quality, shapes, positions and alignments in regard to stringent experimental requirements. Indeed the space experiment is based on the control of the two masses submitted to the same gravity acceleration along the same orbit at 810 km altitude with an accuracy of 10-11 m. Thus effects of Earth and satellite gravity gradients shall be contained as well as any other disturbances of the mass motions induced by their magnetic susceptibility or electrical dissymmetries, by outgassing of the materials or radiation emissivity. Furthermore, the electrostatic levitation of the two masses depends dramatically on the mass shapes and electrical properties in particular for the definition of the sensitive axes orientation. All these aspects will be presented from the mass characteristics to the space MICROSCOPE experiment performance.

  16. Estimating kinetic mass transfer by resting-period measurements in flow-interruption tracer tests. (United States)

    Gong, R; Lu, C; Wu, W-M; Cheng, H; Gu, B; Watson, D B; Criddle, C S; Kitanidis, P K; Brooks, S C; Jardine, P M; Luo, J


    Flow-interruption tracer test is an effective approach to identify kinetic mass transfer processes for solute transport in subsurface media. By switching well pumping and resting, one may alter the dominant transport mechanism and generate special concentration patterns for identifying kinetic mass transfer processes. In the present research, we conducted three-phase (i.e., pumping, resting, and pumping) field-scale flow-interruption tracer tests using a conservative tracer bromide in a multiple-well system installed at the US Department of Energy Site, Oak Ridge, TN. A novel modeling approach based on the resting-period measurements was developed to estimate the mass transfer parameters. This approach completely relied on the measured breakthrough curves without requiring detailed aquifer characterization and solving transport equations in nonuniform, transient flow fields. Additional measurements, including hydraulic heads and tracer concentrations in large pumping wells, were taken to justify the assumption that mass transfer processes dominated concentration change during resting periods. The developed approach can be conveniently applied to any linear mass transfer model. Both first-order and multirate mass transfer models were applied to analyze the breakthrough curves at various monitoring wells. The multirate mass transfer model was capable of jointly fitting breakthrough curve behavior, showing the effectiveness and flexibility for incorporating aquifer heterogeneity and scale effects in upscaling effective mass transfer models. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Shape Control of Solar Collectors Using Shape Memory Alloy Actuators (United States)

    Lobitz, D. W.; Grossman, J. W.; Allen, J. J.; Rice, T. M.; Liang, C.; Davidson, F. M.


    Solar collectors that are focused on a central receiver are designed with a mechanism for defocusing the collector or disabling it by turning it out of the path of the sun's rays. This is required to avoid damaging the receiver during periods of inoperability. In either of these two cases a fail-safe operation is very desirable where during power outages the collector passively goes to its defocused or deactivated state. This paper is principally concerned with focusing and defocusing the collector in a fail-safe manner using shape memory alloy actuators. Shape memory alloys are well suited to this application in that once calibrated the actuators can be operated in an on/off mode using a minimal amount of electric power. Also, in contrast to other smart materials that were investigated for this application, shape memory alloys are capable of providing enough stroke at the appropriate force levels to focus the collector. Design and analysis details presented, along with comparisons to test data taken from an actual prototype, demonstrate that the collector can be repeatedly focused and defocused within accuracies required by typical solar energy systems. In this paper the design, analysis and testing of a solar collector which is deformed into its desired shape by shape memory alloy actuators is presented. Computations indicate collector shapes much closer to spherical and with smaller focal lengths can be achieved by moving the actuators inward to a radius of approximately 6 inches. This would require actuators with considerably more stroke and some alternate SMA actuators are currently under consideration. Whatever SMA actuator is finally chosen for this application, repeatability and fatigue tests will be required to investigate the long term performance of the actuator.

  18. The static actuation of dielectric elastomer actuators: how does pre-stretch improve actuation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kofod, Guggi [University of Potsdam, Institute of Physics, Advanced Condensed-Matter Physics, 14476 Potsdam (Germany)], E-mail:


    It has previously been shown that providing dielectric elastomer actuators with a level of pre-stretch can improve properties such as breakdown strength, actuation strain and efficiency. The actuation in such actuators depends on an interplay between the highly nonlinear hyperelastic stress-strain behaviour with the electrostatic Maxwell's stress; however, the direct effects of pre-stretch on the electromechanical coupling have still not been investigated in detail. We compare several experimental results found in the literature on the hyperelastic parameters of the Ogden model for the commonly used material VHB 4910, and introduce a more detailed and thus more accurate fit to a previous uniaxial stress-strain experiment. Electrostatic actuation models for a pure shear cuboid dielectric elastomer actuator with pre-stretch are introduced, for both intensive and extensive variables. For both intensive and extensive variables the constant strain (blocked stress or force) as well as the actuation strain is presented. It is shown how in the particular case of isotropic amorphous elastomers the pre-stretch does not affect the electromechanical coupling directly, and that the enhancement in actuation strain due to pre-stretch occurs through the alteration of the geometrical dimensions of the actuator. Also, the presence of the optimum load is explained as being due to the plateau region in the force-stretch curve, and it is shown that pre-stretch is not able to affect its position. Finally, it is shown how the simplified Ogden fit leads to entirely different conclusions for actuation strain in terms of extensive variables as does the detailed fit, emphasizing the importance of employing accurate hyperelastic models for the stress-stretch behaviour of the elastomer.

  19. The static actuation of dielectric elastomer actuators: how does pre-stretch improve actuation? (United States)

    Kofod, Guggi


    It has previously been shown that providing dielectric elastomer actuators with a level of pre-stretch can improve properties such as breakdown strength, actuation strain and efficiency. The actuation in such actuators depends on an interplay between the highly nonlinear hyperelastic stress-strain behaviour with the electrostatic Maxwell's stress; however, the direct effects of pre-stretch on the electromechanical coupling have still not been investigated in detail. We compare several experimental results found in the literature on the hyperelastic parameters of the Ogden model for the commonly used material VHB 4910, and introduce a more detailed and thus more accurate fit to a previous uniaxial stress-strain experiment. Electrostatic actuation models for a pure shear cuboid dielectric elastomer actuator with pre-stretch are introduced, for both intensive and extensive variables. For both intensive and extensive variables the constant strain (blocked stress or force) as well as the actuation strain is presented. It is shown how in the particular case of isotropic amorphous elastomers the pre-stretch does not affect the electromechanical coupling directly, and that the enhancement in actuation strain due to pre-stretch occurs through the alteration of the geometrical dimensions of the actuator. Also, the presence of the optimum load is explained as being due to the plateau region in the force-stretch curve, and it is shown that pre-stretch is not able to affect its position. Finally, it is shown how the simplified Ogden fit leads to entirely different conclusions for actuation strain in terms of extensive variables as does the detailed fit, emphasizing the importance of employing accurate hyperelastic models for the stress-stretch behaviour of the elastomer.

  20. Development of multilayer conducting polymer actuator for power application (United States)

    Ikushima, Kimiya; Kudoh, Yuji; Hiraoka, Maki; Yokoyama, Kazuo; Nagamitsu, Sachio


    In late years many kinds of home-use robot have been developed to assist elderly care and housework. Most of these robots are designed with conventional electromagnetic motors. For safety it is desirable to replace these electromagnetic motors with artificial muscle. However, an actuator for such a robot is required to have simple structure, low driving voltage, high stress generation, high durability, and operability in the air. No polymer actuator satisfying all these requirements has been realized yet. To meet these we took following two approaches focusing on conducting polymer actuators which can output high power in the air. (Approach 1) We have newly developed an actuator by multiply laminating ionic liquid infiltrated separators and polypyrrole films. Compared with conventional actuator that is driven in a bath of ionic liquid, the new actuator can greatly increase generated stress since the total sectional area is tremendously small. In our experiment, the new actuator consists of minimum unit with thickness of 128um and has work/weight ratio of 0.92J/kg by laminating 9 units in 0.5Hz driving condition. In addition, the driving experiment has shown a stable driving characteristic even for 10,000 cycles durability test. Furthermore, from our design consideration, it has been found that the work/weight ratio can be improved up to 8J/kg (1/8 of mammalian muscle of 64J/kg) in 0.1Hz by reducing the thickness of each unit to 30um. (Approach 2) In order to realize a simplified actuator structure in the air without sealing, we propose the use of ionic liquid gel. The actuation characteristic of suggested multilayered actuator using ionic liquid gel is simulated by computer. The result shows that performance degradation due to the use of ionic liquid gel is negligible small when ionic liquid gel with the elasticity of 3kPa or less is used. From above two results it is concluded that the proposed multilayerd actuator is promising for the future robotic applications

  1. Gear-Driven Turnbuckle Actuator (United States)

    Rivera, Ricky N.


    This actuator design allows the extension and contraction of turnbuckle assemblies. It can be operated manually or remotely, and is extremely compact. It is ideal for turnbuckles that are hard to reach by conventional tools. The tool assembly design solves the problem of making accurate adjustments to the variable geometry guide vanes without having to remove and reinstall the actuator system back on the engine. The actuator does this easily by adjusting the length of the turnbuckles while they are still attached to the engine.

  2. Climbing robot actuated by meso-hydraulic artificial muscles (United States)

    Bryant, Matthew; Fitzgerald, Jason; Miller, Samuel; Saltzman, Jonah; Kim, Sangkyu; Lin, Yong; Garcia, Ephrahim


    This paper presents the design, construction, experimental characterization, and system testing of a legged, wall-climbing robot actuated by meso-scale hydraulic artificial muscles. While small wall-climbing robots have seen increased research attention in recent years, most authors have primarily focused on designs for the gripping and adhesion of the robot to the wall, while using only standard DC servo-motors for actuation. This project seeks to explore and demonstrate a different actuation mechanism that utilizes hydraulic artificial muscles. A four-limb climbing robot platform that includes a full closed-loop hydraulic power and control system, custom hydraulic artificial muscles for actuation, an on-board microcontroller and RF receiver for control, and compliant claws with integrated sensing for gripping a variety of wall surfaces has been constructed and is currently being tested to investigate this actuation method. On-board power consumption data-logging during climbing operation, analysis of the robot kinematics and climbing behavior, and artificial muscle force-displacement characterization are presented to investigate and this actuation method.

  3. A bistable electromagnetically actuated rotary gate microvalve (United States)

    Luharuka, Rajesh; Hesketh, Peter J.


    Two types of rotary gate microvalves are developed for flow modulation in microfluidic systems. These microvalves have been tested for an open flow rate of up to 100 sccm and operate under a differential pressure of 6 psig with flow modulation of up to 100. The microvalve consists of a suspended gate that rotates in the plane of the chip to regulate flow through the orifice. The gate is suspended by a novel fully compliant in-plane rotary bistable micromechanism (IPRBM) that advantageously constrains the gate in all degrees of freedom except for in-plane rotational motion. Multiple inlet/outlet orifices provide flexibility of operating the microvalve in three different flow configurations. The rotary gate microvalve is switched with an external electromagnetic actuator. The suspended gate is made of a soft magnetic material and its electromagnetic actuation is based on the operating principle of a variable-reluctance stepper motor.

  4. Sensing and actuation of smart chiral honeycombs (United States)

    Abramovitch, H.; Burgard, M.; Edery-Azulay, Lucy; Evans, K. E.; Hoffmeister, M.; Miller, W.; Scarpa, F.; Smith, C. W.; Tee, K. F.; Schönecker, A.; Seffner, L.


    A chiral honeycomb configuration is developed with embedded piezosensors and actuators for smart sandwich panel applications. The chiral honeycomb concept is made of repeating units of cylinders and plates (ligaments), featuring an in-plane negative Poisson's ratio. Rapid Prototyping vacuum-cast and FDM (Fusion Deposition Moulding) techniques are developed to embed micro fibres composites to be used for potential structural health monitoring (SHM) applications, and microwave absorption screens for electromagnetic compatibility. Finite Element models are also developed to prototype and simulate the response, sensing and actuation capability of the honeycombs for design purposes. Dynamic tests using scanning laser vibrometers and acoustic wave propagation are carried out to assess the feasibility of the concept.

  5. Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori by carbon-13 urea breath test using a portable mass spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Sreekumar


    Full Text Available Context: In the non-invasive detection of markers of disease, mass spectrometry is able to detect small quantities of volatile markers in exhaled air. However, the problem of size, expense and immobility of conventional mass spectrometry equipment has restricted its use. Now, a smaller, less expensive, portable quadrupole mass spectrometer system has been developed. Helicobacter pylori has been implicated in the development of chronic gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcers and gastric cancer. Objectives: To compare the results obtained from the presence of H. pylori by a carbon-13 urea test using a portable quadrupole mass spectrometer system with those from a fixed mass spectrometer in a hospital-based clinical trial. Methods: Following ethical approval, 45 patients attending a gastroenterology clinic at the Royal Liverpool University Hospital exhaled a breath sample into a Tedlar gas sampling bag. They then drank an orange juice containing urea radiolabelled with carbon and 30 min later gave a second breath sample. The carbon-13 content of both samples was measured using both quadrupole mass spectrometer systems. If the post-drink level exceeded the pre-drink level by 3% or more, a positive diagnosis for the presence of H. pylori was made. Results: The findings were compared to the results using conventional isotope ratio mass spectrometry using a laboratory-based magnetic sector instrument off-site. The results showed agreement in 39 of the 45 patients. Conclusions: This study suggests that a portable quadrupole mass spectrometer is a potential alternative to the conventional centralised testing equipment. Future development of the portable quadrupole mass spectrometer to reduce further its size and cost is indicated, together with further work to validate this new equipment and to enhance its use in mass spectrometry diagnosis of other medical conditions.

  6. Embodying Desired Behavior in Variable Stiffness Actuators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, L.C.; Stramigioli, Stefano; Bicchi, Antonio


    Variable stiffness actuators are a class of actuators with the capability of changing their apparent output stiffness independently from the actuator output position. This is achieved by introducing internally a number of compliant elements, and internal actuated degrees of freedom that determine

  7. Energy-Efficient Variable Stiffness Actuators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, L.C.; Carloni, Raffaella; Stramigioli, Stefano


    Variable stiffness actuators are a particular class of actuators that is characterized by the property that the apparent output stiffness can be changed independent of the output position. To achieve this, variable stiffness actuators consist of a number of elastic elements and a number of actuated

  8. Experimental Testing of the HI Mass Reconstruction Procedure at Lis Setup (United States)

    Kamanin, D. V.; Strekalovsky, A. O.; Alexandrov, A. A.; Alexandrova, I. A.; Kondtatyev, N. A.; Kuznetsova, E. A.; Mishinsky, V. G.; Strekalovsky, O. V.; Zhuchko, V. E.; Pyatkov, Yu. V.; Mkaza, N.


    Reconstruction of the heavy ion masses in the time-of-flight spectrometry is known to be a complicated task due to distortions both in timing and measuring of the ions energy using PIN diodes. Original procedure which takes into account simultaneously pulse height defect (PHD) and plasma delay for unbiased mass reconstruction was tested in series of experiments at the LIS setup using degrader foils.

  9. Disposable Fluidic Actuators for Miniature In-Vivo Surgical Robotics. (United States)

    Pourghodrat, Abolfazl; Nelson, Carl A


    Fusion of robotics and minimally invasive surgery (MIS) has created new opportunities to develop diagnostic and therapeutic tools. Surgical robotics is advancing from externally actuated systems to miniature in-vivo robotics. However, with miniaturization of electric-motor-driven surgical robots, there comes a trade-off between the size of the robot and its capability. Slow actuation, low load capacity, sterilization difficulties, leaking electricity and transferring produced heat to tissues, and high cost are among the key limitations of the use of electric motors in in-vivo applications. Fluid power in the form of hydraulics or pneumatics has a long history in driving many industrial devices and could be exploited to circumvent these limitations. High power density and good compatibility with the in-vivo environment are the key advantages of fluid power over electric motors when it comes to in-vivo applications. However, fabrication of hydraulic/pneumatic actuators within the desired size and pressure range required for in-vivo surgical robotic applications poses new challenges. Sealing these types of miniature actuators at operating pressures requires obtaining very fine surface finishes which is difficult and costly. The research described here presents design, fabrication, and testing of a hydraulic/pneumatic double-acting cylinder, a limited-motion vane motor, and a balloon-actuated laparoscopic grasper. These actuators are small, seal-less, easy to fabricate, disposable, and inexpensive, thus ideal for single-use in-vivo applications. To demonstrate the ability of these actuators to drive robotic joints, they were modified and integrated in a robotic arm. The design and testing of this surgical robotic arm are presented to validate the concept of fluid-power actuators for in-vivo applications.

  10. Electromechanical actuation for thrust vector control applications (United States)

    Roth, Mary Ellen

    At present, actuation systems for the Thrust Vector Control (TVC) for launch vehicles are hydraulic systems. The Advanced Launch System (ALS), a joint initiative between NASA and the Air Force, is a launch vehicle that is designed to be cost effective, highly reliable and operationally efficient with a goal of reducing the cost per pound to orbit. As part of this initiative, an electromechanical actuation system is being developed as an attractive alternative to the hydraulic systems used today. NASA-Lewis is developing and demonstrating an Induction Motor Controller Actuation System with a 40 hp peak rating. The controller will integrate 20 kHz resonant link Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) technology and Pulse Population Modulation (PPM) techniques to implement Field Oriented Vector Control (FOVC) of a new advanced induction motor. Through PPM, multiphase variable frequency, variable voltage waveforms can be synthesized from the 20 kHz source. FOVC shows that varying both the voltage and frequency and their ratio (V/F), permits independent control of both torque and speed while operating at maximum efficiency at any point on the torque-speed curve. The driver and the FOVC will be microprocessor controlled. For increased system reliability, a Built-in Test (BITE) capability will be included. This involves introducing testability into the design of a system such that testing is calibrated and exercised during the design, manufacturing, maintenance and prelaunch activities. An actuator will be integrated with the motor controller for performance testing of the EMA TVC system. The design and fabrication of the motor controller is being done by General Dynamics Space Systems Division. The University of Wisconsin-Madison will assist in the design of the advanced induction motor and in the implementation of the FOVC theory. A 75 hp electronically controlled dynamometer will be used to test the motor controller in all four quadrants of operation using flight type

  11. Nondestructive testing using borehole and surface seismic techniques to evaluate rock mass damage zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, P.P.; Stokoe, K.H. II [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)


    A suite of seismic tests was performed at the U12g tunnel at the Nevada Test Site. The methods include borehole (crosshole and downhole) and surface (Rayleigh wave and refraction) tests. Results indicate that the different methods should be considered complimentary, and that seismic methods can sensitively evaluate magnitudes and variations of in situ rock mass stiffness. In particular, near-surface low velocity (damage) zones are delineated quite well with Rayleigh wave and downhole methods.

  12. Test the accuracy of the Dubna phenomenological model of the masses of the atomic nuclei


    Mavrodiev, Strachimir Cht.


    In this paper is presented the reliability test the numerical generalization of Bethe-Weizsacker mass formula which describes the values of measured 2654 nuclei masses in AME2012 nuclear database:, with accuracy in the interval (-1.90,1.80) MeV, for the nulear with mass number A=2(1,1) to 294(117,177). In the analyzed generalization of the Bethe-Weizsacker formula the little correction of proton and neutron magic numbers and boundaries of their influence was der...

  13. Probability of background to produce a signal-like excess, for all Higgs masses tested.

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, collaboration


    The probability of background to produce a signal-like excess, for all the Higgs boson masses tested. At almost all masses, the probability (solid curve) is at least a few percent; however, at 126.5 GeV it dips to 3x10-7, or one chance in three million, the '5-sigma' gold-standard normally used for the discovery of a new particle. A Standard Model Higgs boson with that mass would produce a dip to 4.6 sigma.

  14. A Completely New Type of Actuator -or- This Ain't Your Grandfather's Internal Combustion Engine (United States)

    Gore, Brian W.; Hawkins, Gary F.; Hess, Peter A.; Moore, Teresa A.; Fournier, Eric W.


    A completely new type of actuator - one that is proposed for use in a variety of environments from sea to land to air to space - has been designed, patented, built, and tested. The actuator is loosely based on the principle of the internal combustion engine, except that it is a completely closed system, only requiring electrical input, and the working fuel is water. This paper outlines the theory behind the electrolysis- and ignition-based cycle upon which the actuator operates and describes the performance capability test apparatus and results for the actuator. A mechanism application that harnessed the unit s power to twist a scaled rotor blade is also highlighted.

  15. Large-Stroke Self-Aligned Vertical Comb Drive Actuators for Adaptive Optics Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, E J; Olivier, S S; Solgaard, O


    A high-stroke micro-actuator array was designed, modeled, fabricated and tested. Each pixel in the 4x4 array consists of a self-aligned vertical comb drive actuator. This micro-actuator array was designed to become the foundation of a micro-mirror array that will be used as a deformable mirror for adaptive optics applications. Analytical models combined with CoventorWare{reg_sign} simulations were used to design actuators that would move up to 10{micro}m in piston motion with 100V applied. Devices were fabricated according to this design and testing of these devices demonstrated an actuator displacement of 1.4{micro}m with 200V applied. Further investigation revealed that fabrication process inaccuracy led to significantly stiffer mechanical springs in the fabricated devices. The increased stiffness of the springs was shown to account for the reduced displacement of the actuators relative to the design.

  16. Enzyme actuated bioresponsive hydrogels (United States)

    Wilson, Andrew Nolan

    Bioresponsive hydrogels are emerging with technological significance in targeted drug delivery, biosensors and regenerative medicine. Conferred with the ability to respond to specific biologically derived stimuli, the design challenge is in effectively linking the conferred biospecificity with an engineered response tailored to the needs of a particular application. Moreover, the fundamental phenomena governing the response must support an appropriate dynamic range and limit of detection. The design of these systems is inherently complicated due to the high interdependency of the governing phenomena that guide the sensing, transduction, and the actuation response of hydrogels. To investigate the dynamics of these materials, model systems may be used which seek to interrogate the system dynamics by uni-variable experimentation and limit confounding phenomena such as: polymer-solute interactions, polymer swelling dynamics and biomolecular reaction-diffusion concerns. To this end, a model system, alpha-chymotrypsin (Cht) (a protease) and a cleavable peptide-chromogen (pro-drug) covalently incorporated into a hydrogel, was investigated to understand the mechanisms of covalent loading and release by enzymatic cleavage in bio-responsive delivery systems. Using EDC and Sulfo-NHS, terminal carboxyl groups of N-succinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe p-nitroanilide, a cleavable chromogen, were conjugated to primary amines of a hydrated poly(HEMA)-based hydrogel. Hydrogel discs were incubated in buffered Cht causing enzyme-mediated cleavage of the peptide and concomitant release of the chromophore for monitoring. To investigate substrate loading and the effects of hydrogel morphology on the system, the concentration of the amino groups (5, 10, 20, and 30 mol%) and the cross-linked density (1, 5, 7, 9 and 12 mol%) were independently varied. Loading-Release Efficiency of the chromogen was shown to exhibit a positive relation to increasing amino groups (AEMA). The release rates demonstrated a

  17. Novel Cryogenic Actuator Development Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration —  New thin film low friction coating technologies have recently been developed and matured to the point for use in this IRAD actuator work.The new novel...

  18. Meso scale flextensional piezoelectric actuators (United States)

    York, Peter A.; Jafferis, Noah T.; Wood, Robert J.


    We present an ultra-thin meso scale piezoelectric actuator consisting of a piezoceramic beam and a carbon fiber displacement-amplification frame. We show that the actuator can be designed to achieve a wide range of force/displacement characteristics on the mN/μm scales. The best performing design achieved a free displacement of 106 μm and a blocked force of 73 mN, yielding a total energy density of 0.51 {{Jkg}}-1 for the 7.6 mg system. We describe a printed circuit MEMS process for fabricating the actuator that incorporates laser micromachining, chemical vapor deposition, and precision carbon fiber lamination. Lastly, we report the incorporation of the actuator into a microgripper and describe other promising application opportunities in micro-optics and micro-laser systems.

  19. Modeling and control of precision actuators

    CERN Document Server

    Kiong, Tan Kok


    IntroductionGrowing Interest in Precise ActuatorsTypes of Precise ActuatorsApplications of Precise ActuatorsNonlinear Dynamics and ModelingHysteresisCreepFrictionForce RipplesIdentification and Compensation of Preisach Hysteresis in Piezoelectric ActuatorsSVD-Based Identification and Compensation of Preisach HysteresisHigh-Bandwidth Identification and Compensation of Hysteretic Dynamics in Piezoelectric ActuatorsConcluding RemarksIdentification and Compensation of Frict

  20. Dielectric Elastomer Actuators for Microfluidics


    Maffli, Luc; Rosset, Samuel; Shea, Herbert


    One of the goals of microfluidics is to bring a whole laboratory processing chain on a few square centimeters, Lab-On-Chips (LOC). But current LOCs require many heavy and power-consuming off-chip controls like pneumatics, pumps and valves, which keep the small chip bound to the lab. Miniaturized Dielectric Elastomer Actuators (DEA) are excellent candidates to make LOC truly portable, since they combine electrical actuation, large stroke volumes and high output forces. We report on the use of ...

  1. Electrically Actuated Antiglare Rear-View Mirror Based on a Shape Memory Alloy Actuator (United States)

    Luchetti, T.; Zanella, A.; Biasiotto, M.; Saccagno, A.


    This article focuses on the experience of Centro Ricerche FIAT (CRF) regarding the development of shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators, and addressed some new design approaches which have been defined. Specific characteristics of shape memory materials, such as the efficiency of the transformation, have oriented the design of actuators toward occasionally used devices. The antiglare manual mechanism, incorporated in the internal rear-view mirror of a car, fits this new approach well. An antiglare rear-view mirror is a system capable of detecting a glare situation during night-time driving in order to automatically switch the mirror plane so as not to distract the driver. The low forces required, together with the silent, bi-stable movement are suitable for the use of a SMA actuator in this application. In the first part of the paper, the conceptual design is illustrated and a preliminary overview of the working principle is provided together with a series of considerations regarding the kinematics and the layout of electronic sensors in order to realize a fully controlled mechatronic prototype. Before concluding, the description of the realization of a working prototype is presented. The prototype of the EAGLE (Electrically Actuated antiGLare rEar-view mirror) system has provided experimental confirmation that such a device can satisfy fatigue and functional test requirements, thus offering the opportunity to spread the use of SMA devices in the automotive field.

  2. Mass Properties Testing and Evaluation for the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felicione, Frank S.


    Mass properties (MP) measurements were performed for the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG), serial number (S/N) 0X730401, the power system designated for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission. Measurements were made using new mounting fixtures at the mass properties testing station in the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Space and Security Power Systems Facility (SSPSF). The objective of making mass properties measurements was to determine the generator’s flight configured mass and center of mass or center of gravity (CG). Using an extremely accurate platform scale, the mass of the as-tested generator was determined to be 100.117 ± 0.007 lb. Weight accuracy was determined by checking the platform scale with calibrated weights immediately prior to weighing the MMRTG.a CG measurement accuracy was assessed by surrogate testing using an inert mass standard for which the CG could be readily determined analytically. Repeated testing using the mass standard enabled the basic measurement precision of the system to be quantified in terms of a physical confidence interval about the measured CG position. However, repetitious testing with the MMRTG itself was not performed in deference to the gamma and neutron radiation dose to operators and the damage potential to the flight unit from extra handling operations. Since the mass standard had been specially designed to have a total weight and CG location that closely matched the MMRTG, the uncertainties determined from its testing were assigned to the MMRTG as well. On this basis, and at the 99% confidence level, a statistical analysis found the direct, as-measured MMRTG-MSL CG to be located at 10.816 ± 0.0011 in. measured perpendicular from the plane of the lower surface of the generator’s mounting lugs (Z direction), and offset from the generator’s long axis centerline in the X and Y directions by 0.0968 ± 0.0040 in. and 0.0276 ± 0.0026 in., respectively. These uncertainties are based

  3. Electromechanical characterization of piezoelectric actuators subjected to a variable pre-loading force at cryogenic temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouaidy, M.; Saki, M.; Hammoudi, N.; Simonet, L. [IPN, CNRS-IN2P3, Orsay (France)


    A dedicated apparatus was designed and constructed for studying the electromechanical behavior of prototype piezoelectric actuators subjected to a variable pre-loading force at cryogenic temperatures. This device was successfully used for testing a piezoelectric actuator of PICMA type from PI{sup TM}, for T in the range 2 K-300 K. The dielectric properties as well as dynamic properties were measured including the actuator characteristics when used as force sensor. The corresponding data are reported and discussed. (authors)

  4. On-board diagnostics of fully variable valve actuator systems in spark-ignited combustion engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarac, Ipek


    faulty conditions caused by the valve actuators. Hence, they are chosen as the focus of this study and are analyzed for the first time for such an application. The hot film mass air flow sensor is studied for its precision at dethrottled operation at low loads which is not within the typical sensor operating range. The capability of this sensor to deduce the cylinder-individual air charge information is also investigated by using a rectangular signal windowing method. The hot film mass air flow sensor is found to be useful for dethrottled engine operation with variable valve systems. On the other hand it is proven to have slow response for fully variable valve application where each cylinder can be controlled separately. Furthermore, a new signal model is proposed for the manifold pressure for steady-state conditions. The signal model uses only a few harmonics of the Fourier series. Contrary to existing efforts, it works in the time domain, thereby using the information of occurrence times to isolate faults between the intake and exhaust actuators. The modelling issues such as synchronization of the model with the sensor data and adaptive threshold for residual data are handled. The results of these studies are supported by measurements take on a four-cylinder gasoline Audi EA 113 test bench engine equipped with an electro-hydraulic valve system for both intake and exhaust. The method is found to detect and isolate the emission-critical faults of fully variable valve actuators, and is thus recommended to fulfill the on-board diagnostics (OBD) requirements. (orig.)

  5. Mass Transfer Testing of a 12.5-cm Rotor Centrifugal Contactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. H. Meikrantz; T. G. Garn; J. D. Law; N. R. Mann; T. A. Todd


    TRUEX mass transfer tests were performed using a single stage commercially available 12.5 cm centrifugal contactor and stable cerium (Ce) and europium (Eu). Test conditions included throughputs ranging from 2.5 to 15 Lpm and rotor speeds of 1750 and 2250 rpm. Ce and Eu extraction forward distribution coefficients ranged from 13 to 19. The first and second stage strip back distributions were 0.5 to 1.4 and .002 to .004, respectively, throughout the dynamic test conditions studied. Visual carryover of aqueous entrainment in all organic phase samples was estimated at < 0.1 % and organic carryover into all aqueous phase samples was about ten times less. Mass transfer efficiencies of = 98 % for both Ce and Eu in the extraction section were obtained over the entire range of test conditions. The first strip stage mass transfer efficiencies ranged from 75 to 93% trending higher with increasing throughput. Second stage mass transfer was greater than 99% in all cases. Increasing the rotor speed from 1750 to 2250 rpm had no significant effect on efficiency for all throughputs tested.

  6. Ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography-(tandem) mass spectrometry in human sports drug testing: possibilities and limitations. (United States)

    Thevis, Mario; Thomas, Andreas; Pop, Valentin; Schänzer, Wilhelm


    Doping control analytical laboratories for human sports predominantly employ nowadays chromatographic-mass spectrometric test methods for routine, high throughput screening and confirmation assays concerning low and high molecular mass analytes. Liquid chromatography-(tandem) mass spectrometry [(LC-MS(/MS)] and particularly ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC)-MS/MS instruments have become devices of choice due to their indispensable capabilities that compensate for limitations inherent to other commonly used strategies such as immunological and gas chromatography-(tandem) mass spectrometry [(GC-MS(/MS)]-based detection methods. UHPLC-MS/MS-based assays at low mass spectrometric resolution have been established allowing for fast and sensitive targeted analyses focusing on pre-selected target analytes with diagnostic precursor-product ion pairs. Combining UHPLC to high resolution/high accuracy MS(/MS) further expanded the targeted approach (i.e., plotting extracted ion chromatograms of protonated or deprotonated molecules as well as product ions measured with accurate masses) toward non-targeted analyses enabling also retrospective data mining. In this review, recent applications of UHPLC-MS/MS in sports drug testing procedures published between 2008 and 2012 are presented and advantages as well as limitations in a short- and long-term perspective are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A micropower miniature piezoelectric actuator for implantable middle ear hearing device. (United States)

    Wang, Zhigang; Mills, Robert; Luo, Hongyan; Zheng, Xiaolin; Hou, Wensheng; Wang, Lijun; Brown, Stuart I; Cuschieri, Alfred


    This paper describes the design and development of a small actuator using a miniature piezoelectric stack and a flextensional mechanical amplification structure for an implantable middle ear hearing device (IMEHD). A finite-element method was used in the actuator design. Actuator vibration displacement was measured using a laser vibrometer. Preliminary evaluation of the actuator for an IMEHD was conducted using a temporal bone model. Initial results from one temporal bone study indicated that the actuator was small enough to be implanted within the middle ear cavity, and sufficient stapes displacement can be generated for patients with mild to moderate hearing losses, especially at higher frequency range, by the actuator suspended onto the stapes. There was an insignificant mass-loading effect on normal sound transmission (<3 dB) when the actuator was attached to the stapes and switched off. Improved vibration performance is predicted by more firm attachment. The actuator power consumption and its generated equivalent sound pressure level are also discussed. In conclusion, the actuator has advantages of small size, lightweight, and micropower consumption for potential use as IMHEDs.

  8. Testing the white dwarf mass-radius relationship with eclipsing binaries (United States)

    Parsons, S. G.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Marsh, T. R.; Ashley, R. P.; Bours, M. C. P.; Breedt, E.; Burleigh, M. R.; Copperwheat, C. M.; Dhillon, V. S.; Green, M.; Hardy, L. K.; Hermes, J. J.; Irawati, P.; Kerry, P.; Littlefair, S. P.; McAllister, M. J.; Rattanasoon, S.; Rebassa-Mansergas, A.; Sahman, D. I.; Schreiber, M. R.


    We present high-precision, model-independent, mass and radius measurements for 16 white dwarfs in detached eclipsing binaries and combine these with previously published data to test the theoretical white dwarf mass-radius relationship. We reach a mean precision of 2.4 per cent in mass and 2.7 per cent in radius, with our best measurements reaching a precision of 0.3 per cent in mass and 0.5 per cent in radius. We find excellent agreement between the measured and predicted radii across a wide range of masses and temperatures. We also find the radii of all white dwarfs with masses less than 0.48 M⊙ to be fully consistent with helium core models, but they are on average 9 per cent larger than those of carbon-oxygen core models. In contrast, white dwarfs with masses larger than 0.52 M⊙ all have radii consistent with carbon-oxygen core models. Moreover, we find that all but one of the white dwarfs in our sample have radii consistent with possessing thick surface hydrogen envelopes (10-5 ≥ MH/MWD ≥ 10-4), implying that the surface hydrogen layers of these white dwarfs are not obviously affected by common envelope evolution.

  9. Manufacture and tests of shape memory actuators for bolted joints of the oil and gas industry; Fabricacao e testes de atuadores de ligas com memoria de forma para unioes aparafusadas do setor de petroleo e gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Niedson J. da; Silva, Marcos M. da [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Curso de Pos-graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais; Araujo, Carlos J. de; Santos, Marco A. dos [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica


    Shape memory alloys (SMA) actuators have a great potential for applications in the engineering field due to the ability of mechanical force generation through the Shape Memory Effect (SME). The SME behavior is the capacity of SMA remember a form established previously when submitted to a temperature variation. In the oil and gas industry there is a variety of possible applications for these active materials, from thermostatic valves to safety devices for piping. Thus, the aim of this work was to study the technical viability of developing SMA washers for potential application in bolted joints of pipelines to improve the reliability of these joints. NiTi SMA washer actuators were produced through casting by plasma skull melting and molding by Push Pull method using the Discovery all machine from EDG equipment and controls. The NiTi SMA washers were obtained and analyzed using electrical resistance and force generation as a function of temperature. The results of force generation as a function of the temperature have demonstrated that important mechanical efforts can be obtained, justifying the application of these SMA for pipeline joints employed in the oil and gas industry. (author)

  10. Journal: A Review of Some Tracer-Test Design Equations for Tracer-Mass Estimation and Sample Collection Frequency (United States)

    Determination of necessary tracer mass, initial sample-collection time, and subsequent sample-collection frequency are the three most difficult aspects to estimate for a proposed tracer test prior to conducting the tracer test. To facilitate tracer-mass estimation, 33 mass-estima...

  11. Tester Board for testing mass-produced SMB modules for CMS Preshower

    CERN Document Server

    Velikzhanin, Yu S; Hsiung, Y B; Lee, Y J; Shiu, J G; Sun, C D; Wang, Y Z


    We have developed a Tester Board to test the electrical characteristics of the System Motherboard (SMB) for the CMS Preshower detector at CERN. The board is designed to test input resistances, output resistances, connections, interconnections and possible short- circuits of a module having up to 640 connector pins. The Tester Board is general-purpose in nature: it could be used to test any electronic module or cable by using dedicated cable sets. The module can detect a variety of problems not detected by either functional tests or the "flying probes" technique. The design, algorithms and results of using the Tester Board during mass production of CMS Preshower SMBs are presented.

  12. Single Piezo-Actuator Rotary-Hammering (SPaRH) Drill (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Domm, Lukas; Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Chang, Zensheu; Badescu, Mircea


    The search for present or past life in the Universe is one of the most important objectives of NASA's exploration missions. Drills for subsurface sampling of rocks, ice and permafrost are an essential tool for astrobiology studies on other planets. Increasingly, it is recognized that drilling via a combination of rotation and hammering offers an efficient and effective rapid penetration mechanism. The rotation provides an intrinsic method for removal of cuttings from the borehole while the impact and shear forces aids in the fracturing of the penetrated medium. Conventional drills that use a single actuator are based on a complex mechanism with many parts and their use in future mission involves greater risk of failure and/or may require lubrication that can introduce contamination. In this paper, a compact drill is reported that uses a single piezoelectric actuator to produce hammering and rotation of the bit. A horn with asymmetric grooves was design to impart a longitudinal (hammering) and transverse force (rotation) to a keyed free mass. The drill requires low axial pre-load since the hammering-impacts fracture the rock under the bit kerf and rotate the bit to remove the powdered cuttings while augmenting the rock fracture via shear forces. The vibrations 'fluidize' the powdered cuttings inside the flutes reducing the friction with the auger surface. This action reduces the consumed power and heating of the drilled medium helping to preserve the pristine content of the acquired samples. The drill consists of an actuator that simultaneously impacts and rotates the bit by applying force and torque via a single piezoelectric stack actuator without the need for a gearbox or lever mechanism. This can reduce the development/fabrication cost and complexity. In this paper, the drill mechanism will be described and the test results will be reported and discussed.

  13. Ground Testing and Flight Demonstration of Charge Management of Insulated Test Masses Using UV LED Electron Photoemission


    Saraf, Shailendhar; Buchman, Sasha; Balakrishnan, Karthik; Lui, Chin Yang; Soulage, Michael; Faied, Dohy; Hanson, John; Ling, Kuok; Jaroux, Belgacem; AlRashed, Abdullah; Nassban, Badr Al; Suwaidan, Badr Al; Harbi, Mohammed Al; Salamah, Badr Bin; Othman, Mohammed Bin


    The UV LED mission demonstrates the precise control of the potential of electrically isolated test masses that is essential for the operation of space accelerometers and drag free sensors. Accelerometers and drag free sensors were and remain at the core of geodesy, aeronomy, and precision navigation missions as well as gravitational science experiments and gravitational wave observatories. Charge management using photoelectrons generated by the 254 nm UV line of Hg was first demonstrated on G...

  14. A mass additive technique for modal testing as applied to the Space Shuttle ASTRO-1 payload (United States)

    Coleman, A. D.; Driskill, T. C.; Anderson, J. B.; Brown, D. L.


    Traditionally, a fixed base modal test has been performed as a means of verifying the coupled loads math model for Space Shuttle flight payloads. An alternate method, a free-free configured payload using mass loaded boundary conditions, is presented as a means of verifying the coupled loads model of the ASTRO-1 flight payload. This method allows evaluation of the influence of local load paths into the frequency range of the free-free test. The method is cost effective and does not contaminate the modal test results with fixture coupled modes or boundary condition uncertainties. This paper describes the mass additive modal test technique as applied to the Space Shuttle ASTRO-1 flight payload.

  15. Analysis of borehole expansion and gallery tests in anisotropic rock masses (United States)

    Amadei, B.; Savage, W.Z.


    Closed-form solutions are used to show how rock anisotropy affects the variation of the modulus of deformation around the walls of a hole in which expansion tests are conducted. These tests include dilatometer and NX-jack tests in boreholes and gallery tests in tunnels. The effects of rock anisotropy on the modulus of deformation are shown for transversely isotropic and regularly jointed rock masses with planes of transverse isotropy or joint planes parallel or normal to the hole longitudinal axis for plane strain or plane stress condition. The closed-form solutions can also be used when determining the elastic properties of anisotropic rock masses (intact or regularly jointed) in situ. ?? 1991.

  16. Hybrid Residual Flexibility/Mass-Additive Method for Structural Dynamic Testing (United States)

    Tinker, M. L.


    A large fixture was designed and constructed for modal vibration testing of International Space Station elements. This fixed-base test fixture, which weighs thousands of pounds and is anchored to a massive concrete floor, initially utilized spherical bearings and pendulum mechanisms to simulate Shuttle orbiter boundary constraints for launch of the hardware. Many difficulties were encountered during a checkout test of the common module prototype structure, mainly due to undesirable friction and excessive clearances in the test-article-to-fixture interface bearings. Measured mode shapes and frequencies were not representative of orbiter-constrained modes due to the friction and clearance effects in the bearings. As a result, a major redesign effort for the interface mechanisms was undertaken. The total cost of the fixture design, construction and checkout, and redesign was over $2 million. Because of the problems experienced with fixed-base testing, alternative free-suspension methods were studied, including the residual flexibility and mass-additive approaches. Free-suspension structural dynamics test methods utilize soft elastic bungee cords and overhead frame suspension systems that are less complex and much less expensive than fixed-base systems. The cost of free-suspension fixturing is on the order of tens of thousands of dollars as opposed to millions, for large fixed-base fixturing. In addition, free-suspension test configurations are portable, allowing modal tests to be done at sites without modal test facilities. For example, a mass-additive modal test of the ASTRO-1 Shuttle payload was done at the Kennedy Space Center launch site. In this Technical Memorandum, the mass-additive and residual flexibility test methods are described in detail. A discussion of a hybrid approach that combines the best characteristics of each method follows and is the focus of the study.

  17. Mechanical Q-factor measurements on a test mass with a structured surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nawrodt, R [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Helmholtzweg 5, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Zimmer, A [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Helmholtzweg 5, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Koettig, T [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Helmholtzweg 5, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Clausnitzer, T [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Bunkowski, A [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut) and Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Callinstr. 38, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Kley, E B [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Schnabel, R [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut) and Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Callinstr. 38, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Danzmann, K [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut) and Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Callinstr. 38, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Nietzsche, S [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Helmholtzweg 5, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Vodel, W [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Helmholtzweg 5, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Tuennermann, A [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Seidel, P [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Helmholtzweg 5, D-07743 Jena (Germany)


    We present mechanical Q-factors (quality factors) of a crystalline quartz test mass with a nano-structured surface, measured in the temperature regime from 5 to 300 K. The nano-structure was a grating with a period of 2 {mu}m and a depth of about 0.1 {mu}m. Comparative measurements were performed on the plain substrate and on the structured test mass with different numbers of SiO{sub 2}/Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} coating layers. The measurements at different stages of the test mass fabrication process show that the surface distortion induced by the nanostructure does not severely lower the mechanical Q-factor of the substrate. Damping due to a multi-layer coating stack was found to be orders of magnitude higher. The results provide vital information concerning the potential usage of low-thermal noise nano-structured test masses in future generations of high-precision laser interferometers and in current attempts to measure quantum effects of macroscopic mirror oscillators.

  18. Vibration control of a flexible structure with electromagnetic actuators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gruzman, Maurício; Santos, Ilmar


    This work presents the model of a shear-frame-type structure composed of six flexible beams and three rigid masses. Fixed on the ground, outside the structure, two voltage-controlled electromagnetic actuators are used for vibration control. To model the flexible beams, unidimensional finite...... elements were used. Nonlinear equations for the actuator electromagnetic force, noise in the position sensor, time delays for the control signal update and voltage saturation were also considered in the model. For controlling purposes, a discrete linear quadratic regulator combined with a predictive full......-order discrete linear observer was employed. Results of numerical simulations, where the structure is submitted to an impulsive disturbance force and to a harmonic force, show that the oscillations can be significantly reduced with the use of the electromagnetic actuators....

  19. Investigation of oscillations of piezoelectric actuators with multi-directional polarization (United States)

    Lucinskis, Raimundas; Mazeika, Dalius; Bansevicius, Ramutis


    Oscillations of two beam type piezoelectric actuators with non-homogeneous polarization are investigated. 3DOF oscillations of the contact point are excited applying harmonic signal on the electrodes of the actuators. Elliptical motion of the contact point is generated in the three perpendicular planes independently. Investigated actuators can move or rotate slider in three different directions. Superposition of flexural resonant oscillations in two perpendicular directions and longitudinal resonant oscillation of the beam is employed to obtain elliptical motion of the contact point. Performed investigation demonstrates that the piezoelectric actuators with non-homogeneous polarization provide an effective solution for generation a multi-DOF motion of the contact point. Both proposed actuators have specific topology of the electrodes that allows to control contact point trajectory by means of particular excitation regimes. The paper presents results of numerical modeling as well as experimental study obtained in the course of testing of the fabricated prototypes of the actuators.

  20. Metallic molybdenum disulfide nanosheet-based electrochemical actuators (United States)

    Acerce, Muharrem; Akdoğan, E. Koray; Chhowalla, Manish


    Actuators that convert electrical energy to mechanical energy are useful in a wide variety of electromechanical systems and in robotics, with applications such as steerable catheters, adaptive wings for aircraft and drag-reducing wind turbines. Actuation systems can be based on various stimuli, such as heat, solvent adsorption/desorption, or electrochemical action (in systems such as carbon nanotube electrodes, graphite electrodes, polymer electrodes and metals). Here we demonstrate that the dynamic expansion and contraction of electrode films formed by restacking chemically exfoliated nanosheets of two-dimensional metallic molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) on thin plastic substrates can generate substantial mechanical forces. These films are capable of lifting masses that are more than 150 times that of the electrode over several millimetres and for hundreds of cycles. Specifically, the MoS2 films are able to generate mechanical stresses of about 17 megapascals—higher than mammalian muscle (about 0.3 megapascals) and comparable to ceramic piezoelectric actuators (about 40 megapascals)—and strains of about 0.6 per cent, operating at frequencies up to 1 hertz. The actuation performance is attributed to the high electrical conductivity of the metallic 1T phase of MoS2 nanosheets, the elastic modulus of restacked MoS2 layers (2 to 4 gigapascals) and fast proton diffusion between the nanosheets. These results could lead to new electrochemical actuators for high-strain and high-frequency applications.

  1. Stable electroosmotically driven actuators (United States)

    Sritharan, Deepa; Motsebo, Mylene; Tumbic, Julia; Smela, Elisabeth


    We have previously presented "nastic" actuators based on electroosmotic (EO) pumping of fluid in microchannels using high electric fields for potential application in soft robotics. In this work we address two challenges facing this technology: applying EO to meso-scale devices and the stability of the pumping fluid. The hydraulic pressure achieved by EO increases with as 1/d2, where d is the depth of the microchannel, but the flow rate (which determines the stroke and the speed) is proportional to nd, where n is the number of channels. Therefore to get high force and high stroke the device requires a large number of narrow channels, which is not readily achievable using standard microfabrication techniques. Furthermore, for soft robotics the structure must be soft. In this work we present a method of fabricating a three-dimensional porous elastomer to serve as the array of channels based on a sacrificial sugar scaffold. We demonstrate the concept by fabricating small pumps. The flexible devices were made from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and comprise the 3D porous elastomer flanked on either side by reservoirs containing electrodes. The second issue addressed here involves the pumping fluid. Typically, water is used for EO, but water undergoes electrolysis even at low voltages. Since EO takes place at kV, these systems must be open to release the gases. We have recently reported that propylene carbonate (PC) is pumped at a comparable rate as water and is also stable for over 30 min at 8 kV. Here we show that PC is, however, degraded by moisture, so future EO systems must prevent water from reaching the PC.

  2. Constant force actuator for gravitational wave detector's seismic attenuation systems (SAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Chenyang E-mail:; Tariq, Hareem; DeSalvo, Riccardo E-mail:; Iida, Yukiyoshi; Marka, Szabolcs; Nishi, Yuhiko; Sannibale, Virginio; Takamori, Akiteru


    We have designed, tested and implemented a UHV-compatible, low-noise, non-contacting force actuator for DC positioning and inertial damping of the rigid body resonances of the Seismic Attenuation System (SAS) designed for the TAMA Gravitational Wave Interferometer. The actuator fully satisfies the stringent zero-force-gradient requirements that are necessary to prevent re-injecting seismic noise into the SAS chain. The actuator's closed magnetic field design makes for particularly low power requirements, and low susceptibility to external perturbations. The actuator retains enough strength to absorb seismic perturbations even during small earthquakes.

  3. Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of uranium hexafluoride

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for subsampling and for chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of uranium hexafluoride UF6. Most of these test methods are in routine use to determine conformance to UF6 specifications in the Enrichment and Conversion Facilities. 1.2 The analytical procedures in this document appear in the following order: Note 1—Subcommittee C26.05 will confer with C26.02 concerning the renumbered section in Test Methods C761 to determine how concerns with renumbering these sections, as analytical methods are replaced with stand-alone analytical methods, are best addressed in subsequent publications. Sections Subsampling of Uranium Hexafluoride 7 - 10 Gravimetric Determination of Uranium 11 - 19 Titrimetric Determination of Uranium 20 Preparation of High-Purity U3O 8 21 Isotopic Analysis 22 Isotopic Analysis by Double-Standard Mass-Spectrometer Method 23 - 29 Determination of Hydrocarbons, Chlorocarbons, and Partially Substitut...

  4. Demonstration of AC and DC charge control for the LISA test masses (United States)

    Olatunde, Taiwo Janet


    Taiwo Olatunde, Stephen Apple, Andrew Chilton, Samantha Parry, Peter Wass, Guido Mueller, John W. Conklin The residual test mass acceleration in LISA must be below 3 fm/s2/√Hz at all frequencies between 0.1 and 3 mHz. Test mass charge coupled with stray electrical potentials and external electromagnetic fields is a well-known source of acceleration noise. LISA Pathfinder uses Hg lamps emitting mostly around 254 nm to discharge the test masses via photoemission, but a future LISA mission launched around 2030 will likely replace the lamps with newer UV LEDs with lower mass, better power efficiency, smaller size and higher bandwidth. This presentation will discuss charge control demonstrated on the torsion pendulum in AC and DC modes at the University of Florida using latest generation UV LEDs producing light at 240 nm with energy above the work function of pure Au. Initial results of Au quantum efficiency measurements (number of emitted electrons per incident photons) which is critical for bi-polar charge control will also be presented.

  5. A biomimetic robotic jellyfish (Robojelly) actuated by shape memory alloy composite actuators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villanueva, Alex; Smith, Colin; Priya, Shashank, E-mail: [Center for Intelligent Material Systems and Structures (CIMSS), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)


    An analysis is conducted on the design, fabrication and performance of an underwater vehicle mimicking the propulsion mechanism and physical appearance of a medusa (jellyfish). The robotic jellyfish called Robojelly mimics the morphology and kinematics of the Aurelia aurita species. Robojelly actuates using bio-inspired shape memory alloy composite actuators. A systematic fabrication technique was developed to replicate the essential structural features of A. aurita. Robojelly's body was fabricated from RTV silicone having a total mass of 242 g and bell diameter of 164 mm. Robojelly was able to generate enough thrust in static water conditions to propel itself and achieve a proficiency of 0.19 s{sup -1} while the A. aurita achieves a proficiency of around 0.25 s{sup -1}. A thrust analysis based on empirical measurements for a natural jellyfish was used to compare the performance of the different robotic configurations. The configuration with best performance was a Robojelly with segmented bell and a passive flap structure. Robojelly was found to consume an average power on the order of 17 W with the actuators not having fully reached a thermal steady state.

  6. Apollo Soyuz Test Project Weights and Mass Properties Operational Management System (United States)

    Collins, M. A., Jr.; Hischke, E. R.


    The Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) Weights and Mass Properties Operational Management System was established to assure a timely and authoritative method of acquiring, controlling, generating, and disseminating an official set of vehicle weights and mass properties data. This paper provides an overview of the system and its interaction with the various aspects of vehicle and component design, mission planning, hardware and software simulations and verification, and real-time mission support activities. The effect of vehicle configuration, design maturity, and consumables updates is discussed in the context of weight control.

  7. High-strain actuator materials based on dielectric elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelrine, R.; Kornbluh, R.; Kofod, G.


    Dielectric elastomers are a new class of actuator materials that exhibit excellent performance. The principle of operation, as well as methods to fabricate and test these elastomers, is summarized here. The Figure is a sketch of an elastomer film (light gray) stretched on a frame (black) and patt......Dielectric elastomers are a new class of actuator materials that exhibit excellent performance. The principle of operation, as well as methods to fabricate and test these elastomers, is summarized here. The Figure is a sketch of an elastomer film (light gray) stretched on a frame (black...

  8. Design of a power-asymmetric actuator for a transtibial prosthesis. (United States)

    Bartlett, Harrison L; Lawson, Brian E; Goldfarb, Michael


    This paper presents the design and characterization of a power-asymmetric actuator for a transtibial prosthesis. The device is designed to provide the combination of: 1) joint locking, 2) high power dissipation, and 3) low power generation. This actuator functionality allows for a prosthesis to be designed with minimal mass and power consumption relative to a fully-powered robotic prosthesis while maintaining much of the functionality necessary for activities of daily living. The actuator achieves these design characteristics while maintaining a small form factor by leveraging a combination of electromechanical and hydraulic components. The design of the actuator is described herein, and results of an experimental characterization are provided that indicate that the actuator is capable of providing the functional capabilities required of an ankle prosthesis in a compact and lightweight package.

  9. A tubular dielectric elastomer actuator: Fabrication, characterization and active vibration isolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarban, R.; Jones, R. W.; Mace, B. R.


    This contribution reviews the fabrication, characterization and active vibration isolation performance of a core-free rolled tubular dielectric elastomer (DE) actuator, which has been designed and developed by Danfoss PolyPower A/S. PolyPower DE material, PolyPower (TM), is produced in thin sheets...... the dominant dynamic characteristics of the core-free tubular actuator. It has been observed that all actuators have similar dynamic characteristics in a frequency range up to 1 kHz. A tubular actuator is then used to provide active vibration isolation (AVI) of a 250 g mass subject to shaker generated 'ground...... vibration'. An adaptive feedforward control approach is used to achieve this. The tubular actuator is shown to provide excellent isolation against harmonic vibratory disturbances with attenuation of the resulting 5 and 10 Hz harmonics being 66 and 23 dB, respectively. AVI against a narrow band vibratory...

  10. The core mass-radius relation for giants - A new test of stellar evolution theory (United States)

    Joss, P. C.; Rappaport, S.; Lewis, W.


    It is demonstrated here that the measurable properties of systems containing degenerate dwarfs can be used as a direct test of the core mass-radius relation for moderate-mass giants if the final stages of the loss of the envelope of the progenitor giant occurred via stable critical lobe overflow. This relation directly probes the internal structure of stars at a relatively advanced evolutionary state and is only modestly influenced by adjustable parameters. The measured properties of six binary systems, including such diverse systems as Sirius and Procyon and two millisecond pulsars, are utilized to derive constraints on the empirical core mass-radius relation, and the constraints are compared to the theoretical relation. The possibility that the final stages of envelope ejection of the giant progenitor of Sirius B occurred via critical lobe overflow in historical times is considered.

  11. Mass-additive modal test method for verification of constrained structural models (United States)

    Admire, John R.; Tinker, Michael L.; Ivey, Edward W.


    A method for deriving constrained or fixed-base modes and frequencies from free-free modes of a structure with mass-loaded boundaries is developed. Problems associated with design and development of test fixtures can be avoided with such an approach. The analytical methodology presented is used to assess applicability of the mass-additive method for three types of structures and to determine the accuracy of derived constrained modes and frequencies. Results show that mass loading of the boundaries enables local interface modes to be measured within a desired frequency bandwidth, thus allowing constrained modes to be derived with considerably fewer free-free modes than for unloaded boundaries. Good convergence was obtained for a simple beam and a truss-like Shuttle payload, both of which had well-spaced modes and stiff interface support structures. Slow convergence was obtained for a space station module prototype, a shell-like structure having high modal density.

  12. Advancements in Actuated Musical Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overholt, Daniel; Berdahl, Edgar; Hamilton, Robert


    This article presents recent developments in actuated musical instruments created by the authors, who also describe an ecosystemic model of actuated performance activities that blur traditional boundaries between the physical and virtual elements of musical interfaces. Actuated musical instruments...... are physical instruments that have been endowed with virtual qualities controlled by a computer in real-time but which are nevertheless tangible. These instruments provide intuitive and engaging new forms of interaction. They are different from traditional (acoustic) and fully automated (robotic) instruments...... in that they produce sound via vibrating element(s) that are co-manipulated by humans and electromechanical systems. We examine the possibilities that arise when such instruments are played in different performative environments and music-making scenarios, and we postulate that such designs may give rise to new...

  13. Dielectric Elastomers for Actuation and Energy Harvesting (United States)

    Brochu, Paul A.

    The first part of this work focuses on free-standing linear soft silicone actuators as this configuration is the most relevant for real applications. A particular soft silicone has been isolated a good candidate and was extensively tested in a free-standing linear actuator configuration to determine the effects of pre-stretch and the application of mechanical loads on its actuation performance. It is shown that when the mechanical loads are properly applied, large linear actuation strains of 120% and work density of 0.5 J/cm3 can be obtained. Furthermore, we demonstrate that when coupled with single wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) compliant electrodes, fault-tolerance is introduced via self-clearing leading to significantly improved operational reliability. Driven at moderate electric fields, the actuators display relatively high linear actuation strain (25%) without degradation of the electromechanical performance even after 85,000 cycles. The high performance of the aforementioned soft silicone actuators requires the application of rather large levels of prestrain. In order to eliminate this requirement a novel all-silicone prestrain-locked interpenetrating polymer network (S-IPN) elastomer was developed. The elastomer is fabricated using a combination of two silicones: a soft room temperature vulcanizing silicone that serves as the host elastomer matrix, and a more rigid high temperature vulcanizing silicone that acts to preserve the prestrain in the host network. The free-standing prestrain-locked silicones show a more than twofold performance improvement over standard free-standing silicone films, with a linear strain of 25% and an area strain of 45% when tested in a diaphragm configuration. The S-IPN procedure was leveraged to improve electrode adhesion and stability as well as improve the interlayer adhesion in multilayer actuators. It is demonstrated that strongly bonded SWNT electrodes are capable of fault tolerance through self-clearing, even in multilayer

  14. Roll Motion Control of a Delta Wing by LE Actuators (United States)

    Lee, Gwo-Bin; Ho, Chih-Ming; Tsao, Tom; Tai, Yu-Chong


    For a delta wing at high angle of attack, the two leading edge vortices contribute a significant portion of the total lift. If the symmetry of the two vortices is perturbed by miniature actuators, a large rolling moment can be generated. This experimentally obtained rolling moment, when normalized by the moment generated by a single leading edge vortex , can be as high as 50%. The size of the actuator is about equal to the thickness of the boundary layer at the leading edge of the wing. This length scale matching provides a coupling between the perturbations and the flow field. We also have tested the concept on a one seventh scale model of a Mirage aircraft. In the flight tests, the miniature leading edge actuators have been shown to be able to control the motion of the aircraft in several maneuvering modes. This work is supported by a DARPA grant managed by AFOSR.

  15. Application of multiple statistical tests to enhance mass spectrometry-based biomarker discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garner Harold R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mass spectrometry-based biomarker discovery has long been hampered by the difficulty in reconciling lists of discriminatory peaks identified by different laboratories for the same diseases studied. We describe a multi-statistical analysis procedure that combines several independent computational methods. This approach capitalizes on the strengths of each to analyze the same high-resolution mass spectral data set to discover consensus differential mass peaks that should be robust biomarkers for distinguishing between disease states. Results The proposed methodology was applied to a pilot narcolepsy study using logistic regression, hierarchical clustering, t-test, and CART. Consensus, differential mass peaks with high predictive power were identified across three of the four statistical platforms. Based on the diagnostic accuracy measures investigated, the performance of the consensus-peak model was a compromise between logistic regression and CART, which produced better models than hierarchical clustering and t-test. However, consensus peaks confer a higher level of confidence in their ability to distinguish between disease states since they do not represent peaks that are a result of biases to a particular statistical algorithm. Instead, they were selected as differential across differing data distribution assumptions, demonstrating their true discriminatory potential. Conclusion The methodology described here is applicable to any high-resolution MALDI mass spectrometry-derived data set with minimal mass drift which is essential for peak-to-peak comparison studies. Four statistical approaches with differing data distribution assumptions were applied to the same raw data set to obtain consensus peaks that were found to be statistically differential between the two groups compared. These consensus peaks demonstrated high diagnostic accuracy when used to form a predictive model as evaluated by receiver operating characteristics

  16. Cost-Effectiveness between Double and Single Fecal Immunochemical Test(s) in a Mass Colorectal Cancer Screening. (United States)

    Cai, Shan-Rong; Zhu, Hong-Hong; Huang, Yan-Qin; Li, Qi-Long; Ma, Xin-Yuan; Zhang, Su-Zhan; Zheng, Shu


    This study investigated the cost-effectiveness between double and single Fecal Immunochemical Test(s) (FIT) in a mass CRC screening. A two-stage sequential screening was conducted. FIT was used as a primary screening test and recommended twice by an interval of one week at the first screening stage. We defined the first-time FIT as FIT1 and the second-time FIT as FIT2. If either FIT1 or FIT2 was positive (+), then a colonoscopy was recommended at the second stage. Costs were recorded and analyzed. A total of 24,419 participants completed either FIT1 or FIT2. The detection rate of advanced neoplasm was 19.2% among both FIT1+ and FIT2+, especially high among men with age ≥55 (27.4%). About 15.4% CRC, 18.9% advanced neoplasm, and 29.9% adenoma missed by FIT1 were detected by FIT2 alone. Average cost was $2,935 for double FITs and $2,121 for FIT1 to detect each CRC and $901 for double FITs and $680 for FIT1 to detect each advanced neoplasm. Double FITs are overall more cost-effective, having significantly higher positive and detection rates with an acceptable higher cost, than single FIT. Double FITs should be encouraged for the first screening in a mass CRC screening, especially in economically and medically underserved populations/areas/countries.

  17. Tinetti mobility test is related to muscle mass and strength in non-institutionalized elderly people. (United States)

    Curcio, Francesco; Basile, Claudia; Liguori, Ilaria; Della-Morte, David; Gargiulo, Gaetano; Galizia, Gianluigi; Testa, Gianluca; Langellotto, Assunta; Cacciatore, Francesco; Bonaduce, Domenico; Abete, Pasquale


    Elderly people are characterized by a high prevalence of falls and sarcopenia. However, the relationship among Tinetti mobility test (TMT) score, a powerful tool to detect elderly people at risk of falls, and sarcopenia is still not thoroughly investigated. Thus, to determine the relationship between TMT score and muscle mass and strength, 337 elderly participants (mean age 77.1 ± 6.9 years) admitted to comprehensive geriatric assessment were enrolled. TMT score, muscle mass by bioimpedentiometer, and muscle strength by grip strength were evaluated. Muscle mass progressively decreased as TMT score decreased (from 15.3 ± 3.7 to 8.8 ± 1.8 kg/m2; p for trend Tinetti score decreased (from 34.7 ± 8.0 to 23.7 ± 8.7 kg; p for trend 0.001). Linear regression analysis demonstrated that TMT score is linearly related with muscle mass (y = 4.5x + 0.4, r = 0.61; p < 0.01) and strength (y = 14.0x + 0.8, r = 0.53; p < 0.01). Multivariate analysis confirms the strong relationship between the TMT score and muscle mass (r = 0.48, p = 0.024) and strength (r = 0.39, p = 0.046). The present study indicates that TMT score is significantly related to muscle mass and strength in non-institutionalized elderly participants. This evidence suggests that TMT score, together with evaluation of muscle mass and strength, may identify sarcopenic elderly participants at high risk of falls.

  18. Polypyrrole Actuators for Tremor Suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaarup, Steen; Mogensen, Naja; Bay, Lasse


    for the change of length and for the stiffness change are significantly different - the stiffness change being about 10 times faster. Both force measurements and Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance measurements indicate that the actuation process is complex and involves at least two different processes...... enter the polymer in a slower process driven by osmotic pressure. Earlier work has tended to focus on achieving the maximum length change, therefore taking the time needed to include all processes. However, since the slower process described above is associated with the lowest strength of the actuator...

  19. Testing sub-gravitational forces on atoms from a miniature in-vacuum source mass (United States)

    Jaffe, Matt; Haslinger, Philipp; Xu, Victoria; Hamilton, Paul; Upadhye, Amol; Elder, Benjamin; Khoury, Justin; Müller, Holger


    Traditional gravity measurements use bulk masses to both source and probe gravitational fields. Matter-wave interferometers enable the use of probe masses as small as neutrons, atoms and molecular clusters, but still require fields generated by masses ranging from hundreds of kilograms to the entire Earth. Shrinking the sources would enable versatile configurations, improve positioning accuracy, enable tests for beyond-standard-model (`fifth') forces, and allow observation of non-classical effects of gravity. Here we detect the gravitational force between freely falling caesium atoms and an in-vacuum, miniature (centimetre-sized, 0.19 kg) source mass using atom interferometry. Sensitivity down to gravitational strength forces accesses the natural scale for a wide class of cosmologically motivated scalar field models of modified gravity and dark energy. We improve the limits on two such models, chameleons and symmetrons, by over two orders of magnitude. We expect further tests of dark energy theories, and measurements of Newton's gravitational constant and the gravitational Aharonov-Bohm effect.

  20. Hydrodynamic, mass transfer, and dissolution effects induced by tablet location during dissolution testing. (United States)

    Bai, Ge; Armenante, Piero M


    Tablets undergoing dissolution in the USP Dissolution Testing Apparatus II are often found at locations on the vessel bottom that are off-center with respect to the dissolution vessel and impeller. A previously validated CFD approach and a novel experimental method were used here to examine the effect of tablet location on strain rates and dissolution rates. Dissolution tests were conducted with non-disintegrating tablets (salicylic acid) and disintegrating tablets (Prednisone) immobilized at different locations along the vessel bottom. CFD was used to predict the velocity profiles and strain rates when the tablets were placed at such locations. A CFD-based model was derived to predict the mass transfer coefficient and dissolution curves, which were then compared to the experimental results. Both non-disintegrating and disintegrating off-center tablets experimentally produced higher dissolution rates than centered tablets. The CFD-predicted strain rate distribution along the bottom was highly not uniform and the predicted strain rates correlated well with the experimental mass transfer coefficients. The proposed CFD-based model predicts mass transfer rates that correlate well with the experimental ones. The exact tablet location has a significant impact on the dissolution profile. The proposed model can satisfactorily predict the mass transfer coefficients and dissolution profiles for non-disintegrating tablets.

  1. Bio-inspired aquatic robotics by untethered piezohydroelastic actuation. (United States)

    Cen, L; Erturk, A


    This paper investigates fish-like aquatic robotics using flexible bimorphs made of macro-fiber composite (MFC) piezoelectric laminates for carangiform locomotion. In addition to noiseless and efficient actuation over a range of frequencies, geometric scalability, and simple design, bimorph propulsors made of MFCs offer a balance between the actuation force and velocity response for performance enhancement in bio-inspired swimming. The experimental component of the presented work focuses on the characterization of an elastically constrained MFC bimorph propulsor for thrust generation in quiescent water as well as the development of a robotic fish prototype combining a microcontroller and a printed-circuit-board amplifier to generate high actuation voltage for untethered locomotion. From the theoretical standpoint, a distributed-parameter electroelastic model including the hydrodynamic effects and actuator dynamics is coupled with the elongated-body theory for predicting the mean thrust in quiescent water. In-air and underwater experiments are performed to verify the incorporation of hydrodynamic effects in the linear actuation regime. For electroelastically nonlinear actuation levels, experimentally obtained underwater vibration response is coupled with the elongated-body theory to predict the thrust output. The measured mean thrust levels in quiescent water (on the order of ∼10 mN) compare favorably with thrust levels of biological fish. An untethered robotic fish prototype that employs a single bimorph fin (caudal fin) for straight swimming and turning motions is developed and tested in free locomotion. A swimming speed of 0.3 body-length/second (7.5 cm s⁻¹ swimming speed for 24.3 cm body length) is achieved at 5 Hz for a non-optimized main body-propulsor bimorph combination under a moderate actuation voltage level.

  2. Passive stability and actuation of micro aerial vehicles (United States)

    Piccoli, Matthew

    Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs) have increased in popularity in recent years. The most common platform, the quadrotor, has surpassed other MAVs like traditional helicopters and ornithopters in popularity mainly due to their simplicity. Yet the quadrotor design is a century old and was intended to carry people. We set out to design a MAV that is designed specifically to be a MAV, i.e. a vehicle not intended to carry humans as a payload. With this constraint lifted the vehicle can continuously rotate, which would dizzy a human, can sustain larger forces, which would damage a human, or can take advantage of scaling properties, where it may not work at human scale. Furthermore, we aim for simplicity by removing vehicle controllers and reducing the number of actuators, such that the vehicle can be made cost effective, if not disposable. We begin by studying general equations of motion for hovering MAVs. We search for vehicle configurations that exhibit passive stability, allowing the MAV to operate without a controller or actuators to apply control, ideally a single actuator. The analysis suggests two distinct types of passively stabilized MAVs and we create test vehicles for both. With simple hovering achieved, we concentrate on controlled motion with an emphasis on doing so without adding actuators. We find we can attain three degree of freedom control using separation of time scales with our actuator via low frequency for control in the vertical direction and high frequency for control in the horizontal plane. We explore techniques for achieving high frequency actuator control, which also allow the compensation of motor defects, specifically cogging torque. We combine passive stability with the motion control into two vehicles, UNO and Piccolissimo. UNO, the Underactuated-propeller Naturally-stabilized One-motor vehicle, demonstrates the capabilities of simple vehicles by performing maneuvers like conventional quadrotors. Piccolissimo, Italian for very little

  3. Evaluation of Effective Diaphragm Area for Pneumatic Actuator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Hogeun; Han, Bongsub; Seon, Juhyoung [SOOSAN INDUSTRIES, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The purpose of this study is to develop a methodology to calculate the exact effective diaphragm area using the results of diagnostic test to be performed in the evaluation of air operated valve performance. By using this developed methodology in pneumatic actuator performance evaluation, it can be reduce the possible errors arising from effective diaphragm area in the evaluation of performance of air operated valves. The performance assessment for the operability and structural integrity of air operated valves for the domestic nuclear power plant is in progress. One of the important parameters that determine the performance of the air operated valves is the effective diaphragm area of diaphragm type actuator. The effective diaphragm area is the actual area which the air pressure acting on the diaphragm. In general, the effective diaphragm area used for the performance evaluation of pneumatic actuator is provided by the manufacture or the actuator drawing. Flat type diaphragm was showed the difference between the measured value of EDA and the manufacture’s value, in the case of convoluted type diaphragm has showed that the measured value of EDA and manufacture’s value is almost the same. When evaluate a performance of a diaphragm actuator, accurate EDA is to be used because it is an important variable affecting the actuator performance. Particularly in the case of flat type diaphragm which EDA is changed in accordance with the stroke position, by using the EDA evaluation methodology developed in this study to minimize a possible error due to EDA when evaluating the performance of the air actuator.

  4. Modular Actuators for Space Applications Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Rocketstar Robotics is proposing the development of a modern dual drive actuator. Rocketstar has put together numerous modern concepts for modular actuators that...

  5. Electrically controllable twisted-coiled artificial muscle actuators using surface-modified polyester fibers (United States)

    Park, Jungwoo; Yoo, Ji Wang; Seo, Hee Won; Lee, Youngkwan; Suhr, Jonghwan; Moon, Hyungpil; Koo, Ja Choon; Ryeol Choi, Hyouk; Hunt, Robert; Kim, Kwang Jin; Kim, Soo Hyun; Nam, Jae-Do


    As a new class of thermally activated actuators based on polymeric fibers, we investigated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) yarns for the development of a twisted-coiled polymer fiber actuator (TCA). The PET yarn TCA exhibited the maximum linear actuation up to 8.9% by external heating at above the glass transition temperature, 160 °C-180 °C. The payload of the actuator was successfully correlated with the preload and training-load conditions by an empirical equation. Furthermore, the PET-based TCA was electrically driven by Joule heating after the PET surface was metallization with silver. For the fast and precise control of PET yarn TCA, electroless silver plating was conducted to form electrical conductive layers on the PET fiber surface. The silver plated PET-based TCA was tested by Joule heating and the tensile actuation was increased up to 12.1% (6 V) due to the enhanced surface hardness and slippage of PET fibers. Overall, silver plating of the polymeric yarn provided a fast actuation speed and enhanced actuation performance of the TCA actuator by Joule heating, providing a great potential for being used in artificial muscle for biomimetic machines including robots, industrial actuators and powered exoskeletons.

  6. Study of parametric instability in gravitational wave detectors with silicon test masses (United States)

    Zhang, Jue; Zhao, Chunnong; Ju, Li; Blair, David


    Parametric instability is an intrinsic risk in high power laser interferometer gravitational wave detectors, in which the optical cavity modes interact with the acoustic modes of the mirrors, leading to exponential growth of the acoustic vibration. In this paper, we investigate the potential parametric instability for a proposed next generation gravitational wave detector, the LIGO Voyager blue design, with cooled silicon test masses of size 45 cm in diameter and 55 cm in thickness. It is shown that there would be about two unstable modes per test mass at an arm cavity power of 3 MW, with the highest parametric gain of  ∼76. While this is less than the predicted number of unstable modes for Advanced LIGO (∼40 modes with max gain of  ∼32 at the designed operating power of 830 kW), the importance of developing suitable instability suppression schemes is emphasized.

  7. Electrostatic comb drive for vertical actuation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A. P., LLNL


    The electrostatic comb finger drive has become an integral design for microsensor and microactuator applications. This paper reports on utilizing the levitation effect of comb fingers to design vertical-to-the-substrate actuation for interferometric applications. For typical polysilicon comb drives with 2 {micro}m gaps between the stationary and moving fingers, as well as between the microstructures and the substrate, the equilibrium position is nominally 1-2 {micro}m above the stationary comb fingers. This distance is ideal for many phase shifting interferometric applications. Theoretical calculations of the vertical actuation characteristics are compared with the experimental results, and a general design guideline is derived from these results. The suspension flexure stiffnesses, gravity forces, squeeze film damping, and comb finger thicknesses are parameters investigated which affect the displacement curve of the vertical microactuator. By designing a parallel plate capacitor between the suspended mass and the substrate, in situ position sensing can be used to control the vertical movement, providing a total feedback-controlled system. Fundamentals of various capacitive position sensing techniques are discussed. Experimental verification is carried out by a Zygo distance measurement interferometer.

  8. More Electric Landing Gear Actuation Study


    Li, Wei


    This report addresses the problem of landing gear actuation system design on more-electric aircraft (MEA). Firstly, information about more-electric aircraft and more-electric actuators was gathered and sorted. Current more-electric landing actuation system applications and researches were also summarized. Then several possible more-electric landing gear actuation concepts were identified. To evaluate these concepts, the case study method has been used. A concept aircraft “MR...

  9. Application of polyimide actuator rod seals (United States)

    Watermann, A. W.; Gay, B. F.; Robinson, E. D.; Srinath, S. K.; Nelson, W. G.


    Development of polyimide two-stage hydraulic actuator rod seals for application in high-performance aircraft was accomplished. The significant portion of the effort was concentrated on optimization of the chevron and K-section second-stage seal geometries to satisfy the requirements for operation at 450 K (350 F) with dynamic pressure loads varying between 200 psig steady-state and 1500 psig impulse cycling. Particular significance was placed on reducing seal gland dimension by efficiently utilizing the fatigue allowables of polyimide materials. Other objectives included investigation of pressure balancing techniques for first-stage polyimide rod seals for 4000 psig 450 K(350 F) environment and fabrication of a modular retainer for the two-stage combination. Seals were fabricated in 0.0254 m (1.0in.) and 0.0635 m (2.5in.) sizes and tested for structural integrity, frictional resistance, and endurance life. Test results showed that carefully designed second stages using polyimides could be made to satisfy the dynamic return pressure requirements of applications in high-performance aircraft. High wear under full system pressure indicated that further research is necessary to obtain an acceptable first-stage design. The modular retainer was successfully tested and showed potential for new actuator applications.

  10. Design of a piezoelectric rotation actuator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holterman, J.; de Vries, Theodorus J.A.; Babakhani, B.; Brouwer, Dannis Michel


    In order to facilitate active damping within a linear motion system, a self-sensing piezoelectric rotation actuator has been designed. The rotation actuator consists of two piezoelectric stacks that function as linear actuators, embedded in a mechanical interface with several elastic elements, thus

  11. Carbon nanotube-polymer composite actuators (United States)

    Gennett, Thomas [Denver, CO; Raffaelle, Ryne P [Honeoye Falls, NY; Landi, Brian J [Rochester, NY; Heben, Michael J [Denver, CO


    The present invention discloses a carbon nanotube (SWNT)-polymer composite actuator and method to make such actuator. A series of uniform composites was prepared by dispersing purified single wall nanotubes with varying weight percents into a polymer matrix, followed by solution casting. The resulting nanotube-polymer composite was then successfully used to form a nanotube polymer actuator.

  12. Ion-Selective Ionic Polymer Metal Composite (IPMC) Actuator Based on Crown Ether Containing Sulfonated Poly(Arylene Ether Ketone)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tas, Sinem; Zoetebier, Bram; Sardan Sukas, Ö.; Bayraktar, Muharrem; Hempenius, Mark A.; Vancso, Gyula J.; Nijmeijer, Dorothea C.

    This study introduces the concept of ion selective actuation in polymer metal composite actuators, employing crown ether bearing aromatic polyether materials. For this purpose, sulfonated poly(arylene ether ketone) (SPAEK) and crown ether containing SPAEK with molar masses suitable for membrane

  13. Electro-Active Polymer (EAP) Actuators for Planetary Applications (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Y.; Leary, S.; Shahinpoor, M.; Harrison, J. O.; Smith, J.


    NASA is seeking to reduce the mass, size, consumed power, and cost of the instrumentation used in its future missions. An important element of many instruments and devices is the actuation mechanism and electroactive polymers (EAP) are offering an effective alternative to current actuators. In this study, two families of EAP materials were investigated, including bending ionomers and longitudinal electrostatically driven elastomers. These materials were demonstrated to effectively actuate manipulation devices and their performance is being enhanced in this on-going study. The recent observations are reported in this paper, include the operation of the bending-EAP at conditions that exceed the harsh environment on Mars, and identify the obstacles that its properties and characteristics are posing to using them as actuators. Analysis of the electrical characteristics of the ionomer EAP showed that it is a current driven material rather than voltage driven and the conductivity distribution on the surface of the material greatly influences the bending performance. An accurate equivalent circuit modeling of the ionomer EAP performance is essential for the design of effective drive electronics. The ionomer main limitations are the fact that it needs to be moist continuously and the process of electrolysis that takes place during activation. An effective coating technique using a sprayed polymer was developed extending its operation in air from a few minutes to about four months. The coating technique effectively forms the equivalent of a skin to protect the moisture content of the ionomer. In parallel to the development of the bending EAP, the development of computer control of actuated longitudinal EAP has been pursued. An EAP driven miniature robotic arm was constructed and it is controlled by a MATLAB code to drop and lift the arm and close and open EAP fingers of a 4-finger gripper. Keywords: Miniature Robotics, Electroactive Polymers, Electroactive Actuators, EAP

  14. Structural Sizing Methodology for the Tendon-Actuated Lightweight In-Space MANipulator (TALISMAN) System (United States)

    Jones, Thomas C.; Dorsey, John T.; Doggett, William R.


    The Tendon-Actuated Lightweight In-Space MANipulator (TALISMAN) is a versatile long-reach robotic manipulator that is currently being tested at NASA Langley Research Center. TALISMAN is designed to be highly mass-efficient and multi-mission capable, with applications including asteroid retrieval and manipulation, in-space servicing, and astronaut and payload positioning. The manipulator uses a modular, periodic, tension-compression design that lends itself well to analytical modeling. Given the versatility of application for TALISMAN, a structural sizing methodology was developed that could rapidly assess mass and configuration sensitivities for any specified operating work space, applied loads and mission requirements. This methodology allows the systematic sizing of the key structural members of TALISMAN, which include the truss arm links, the spreaders and the tension elements. This paper summarizes the detailed analytical derivations and methodology that support the structural sizing approach and provides results from some recent TALISMAN designs developed for current and proposed mission architectures.

  15. A novel compact compliant actuator design for rehabilitation robots. (United States)

    Yu, Haoyong; Huang, Sunan; Thakor, Nitish V; Chen, Gong; Toh, Siew-Lok; Sta Cruz, Manolo; Ghorbel, Yassine; Zhu, Chi


    Rehabilitation robots have direct physical interaction with human body. Ideally, actuators for rehabilitation robots should be compliant, force controllable, and back drivable due to safety and control considerations. Various designs of Series Elastic Actuators (SEA) have been developed for these applications. However, current SEA designs face a common performance limitation due to the compromise on the spring stiffness selection. This paper presents a novel compact compliant force control actuator design for portable rehabilitation robots to overcome the performance limitations in current SEAs. Our design consists of a servomotor, a ball screw, a torsional spring between the motor and the ball screw, and a set of translational springs between the ball screw nut and the external load. The soft translational springs are used to handle the low force operation and reduce output impedance, stiction, and external shock load. The torsional spring, being in the high speed range, has high effective stiffness and improves the system bandwidth in large force operation when the translational springs are fully compressed. This design is also more compact due to the smaller size of the springs. We explain the construction and the working principle of our new design, followed by the dynamic modeling and analysis of the actuator. We also show the preliminary testing results of a prototype actuator designed for a lower limb exoskeleton for gait rehabilitation.

  16. Integrated high pressure microhydraulic actuation and control for surgical instruments. (United States)

    Moers, A J M; De Volder, M F L; Reynaerts, D


    To reduce the surgical trauma to the patient, minimally invasive surgery is gaining considerable importance since the eighties. More recently, robot assisted minimally invasive surgery was introduced to enhance the surgeon's performance in these procedures. This resulted in an intensive research on the design, fabrication and control of surgical robots over the last decades. A new development in the field of surgical tool manipulators is presented in this article: a flexible manipulator with distributed degrees of freedom powered by microhydraulic actuators. The tool consists of successive flexible segments, each with two bending degrees of freedom. To actuate these compliant segments, dedicated fluidic actuators are incorporated, together with compact hydraulic valves which control the actuator motion. Especially the development of microvalves for this application was challenging, and are the main focus of this paper. The valves distribute the hydraulic power from one common high pressure supply to a series of artificial muscle actuators. Tests show that the angular stroke of the each segment of this medical instrument is 90°.

  17. Design and Control of a Pneumatically Actuated Transtibial Prosthesis (United States)

    Zheng, Hao; Shen, Xiangrong


    This paper presents the design and control of a pneumatically actuated transtibial prosthesis, which utilizes a pneumatic cylinder-type actuator to power the prosthetic ankle joint to support the user's locomotion. The pneumatic actuator has multiple advantages over the traditional electric motor, such as light weight, low cost, and high power-to-weight ratio. The objective of this work is to develop a compact and lightweight transtibial prosthesis, leveraging the multiple advantages provided by this highly competitive actuator. In this paper, the design details of the prosthesis are described, including the determination of performance specifications, the layout of the actuation mechanism, and the calculation of the torque capacity. Through the authors’ design calculation, the prosthesis is able to provide sufficient range of motion and torque capacity to support the locomotion of a 75 kg individual. The controller design is also described, including the underlying biomechanical analysis and the formulation of the finite-state impedance controller. Finally, the human subject testing results are presented, with the data indicating that the prosthesis is able to generate a natural walking gait and sufficient power output for its amputee user. PMID:26146497

  18. Dynamic modeling of brushless dc motors for aerospace actuation (United States)

    Demerdash, N. A.; Nehl, T. W.


    A discrete time model for simulation of the dynamics of samarium cobalt-type permanent magnet brushless dc machines is presented. The simulation model includes modeling of the interaction between these machines and their attached power conditioners. These are transistorized conditioner units. This model is part of an overall discrete-time analysis of the dynamic performance of electromechanical actuators, which was conducted as part of prototype development of such actuators studied and built for NASA-Johnson Space Center as a prospective alternative to hydraulic actuators presently used in shuttle orbiter applications. The resulting numerical simulations of the various machine and power conditioner current and voltage waveforms gave excellent correlation to the actual waveforms collected from actual hardware experimental testing. These results, numerical and experimental, are presented here for machine motoring, regeneration and dynamic braking modes. Application of the resulting model to the determination of machine current and torque profiles during closed-loop actuator operation were also analyzed and the results are given here. These results are given in light of an overall view of the actuator system components. The applicability of this method of analysis to design optimization and trouble-shooting in such prototype development is also discussed in light of the results at hand.

  19. Compliant actuation of rehabilitation robots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vallery, Heike; Veneman, J.F.; van Asseldonk, Edwin H.F.; Ekkelenkamp, R.; Buss, Martin; van der Kooij, Herman


    This article discusses the pros and cons of compliant actuation for rehabilitation robots on the example of LOPES, focusing on the cons. After illustrating the bandwidth limitations, a new result has been derived: if stability in terms of passivity of the haptic device is desired, the renderable

  20. The actuation of sound change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinget, A.C.H.


    This dissertation is a sociophonetic study on sound change in progress. It addresses the actuation problem, i.e. the question as to why a particular change takes place in a particular language at a given time. The study is implemented in the framework of exemplar-based theories, which incorporates

  1. Explosive micro-bubble actuator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, D.M.


    Microactuators are key components in numerous microsystems, and in many applications strong and fast microactuators are required. The principles used to generate forces in the current actuators are not capable of fulfilling both requirements at the same time, so new principles have to be

  2. Flexible printed circuit board actuators (United States)

    Lee, Junseok; Cha, Youngsu


    Out-of-plane actuators are made possible by the breaking of planar symmetry. In this paper, we present a thin-film out-of-plane electrostatic actuator for a flexible printed circuit board (FPCB) that can be fabricated with a single step of the conventional manufacturing process. No other components are required for actuation except a single sheet of the FPCB, and it works based on the planar asymmetry resulting from asymmetrically patterned top and bottom electrodes on each side of the polyimide film. With the structural asymmetry, the application of a high voltage in the order of kilovolts results in the asymmetry of the electric fields and the body force density, which generates the bending moment that leads to macroscopic deformations. We applied the finite element method to examine the asymmetry induced by the difference in the electrodes. In the experiment, the displacement responses to step input and square wave input of various frequencies were analyzed. It was found that our actuator constitutes an underdamped system, exhibiting resonance characteristics. The maximum oscillatory amplitude was determined at resonance, and the relationship between the displacement and the applied voltage was investigated.

  3. Budget impact analysis of chronic kidney disease mass screening test in Japan. (United States)

    Kondo, Masahide; Yamagata, Kunihiro; Hoshi, Shu-Ling; Saito, Chie; Asahi, Koichi; Moriyama, Toshiki; Tsuruya, Kazuhiko; Konta, Tsuneo; Fujimoto, Shouichi; Narita, Ichiei; Kimura, Kenjiro; Iseki, Kunitoshi; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi


    Our recently published cost-effectiveness study on chronic kidney disease mass screening test in Japan evaluated the use of dipstick test, serum creatinine (Cr) assay or both in specific health checkup (SHC). Mandating the use of serum Cr assay additionally, or the continuation of current policy mandating dipstick test only was found cost-effective. This study aims to examine the affordability of previously suggested reforms. Budget impact analysis was conducted assuming the economic model would be good for 15 years and applying a population projection. Costs expended by social insurers without discounting were counted as budgets. Annual budget impacts of mass screening compared with do-nothing scenario were calculated as ¥79-¥-1,067 million for dipstick test only, ¥2,505-¥9,235 million for serum Cr assay only and ¥2,517-¥9,251 million for the use of both during a 15-year period. Annual budget impacts associated with the reforms were calculated as ¥975-¥4,129 million for mandating serum Cr assay in addition to the currently used mandatory dipstick test, and ¥963-¥4,113 million for mandating serum Cr assay only and abandoning dipstick test. Estimated values associated with the reform from ¥963-¥4,129 million per year over 15 years are considerable amounts of money under limited resources. The most impressive finding of this study is the decreasing additional expenditures in dipstick test only scenario. This suggests that current policy which mandates dipstick test only would contain medical care expenditure.

  4. Test Sample for the Spatially Resolved Quantification of Illicit Drugs on Fingerprints Using Imaging Mass Spectrometry. (United States)

    Muramoto, Shin; Forbes, Thomas P; van Asten, Arian C; Gillen, Greg


    A novel test sample for the spatially resolved quantification of illicit drugs on the surface of a fingerprint using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) was demonstrated. Calibration curves relating the signal intensity to the amount of drug deposited on the surface were generated from inkjet-printed arrays of cocaine, methamphetamine, and heroin with a deposited-mass ranging nominally from 10 pg to 50 ng per spot. These curves were used to construct concentration maps that visualized the spatial distribution of the drugs on top of a fingerprint, as well as being able to quantify the amount of drugs in a given area within the map. For the drugs on the fingerprint on silicon, ToF-SIMS showed great success, as it was able to generate concentration maps of all three drugs. On the fingerprint on paper, only the concentration map of cocaine could be constructed using ToF-SIMS and DESI-MS, as the signals of methamphetamine and heroin were completely suppressed by matrix and substrate effects. Spatially resolved quantification of illicit drugs using imaging mass spectrometry is possible, but the choice of substrates could significantly affect the results.

  5. ToF-SIMS characterization of silk fibroin and polypyrrole composite actuators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradshaw, Nathan P.; Severt, Sean Y.; Wang, Zhaoying; Fengel, Carly V.; Larson, Jesse D.; Zhu, Zihua; Murphy, Amanda R.; Leger., Janelle M.


    Biocompatible materials capable of controlled actuation under biologically relevant conditions are in high demand for use in a number of biomedical applications. Recently, we demonstrated that a composite material composed of silk biopolymer and the conducting polymer poly(pyrrole) can bend under an applied voltage using a simple bilayer device. Here we present further characterization of these bilayer actuators using time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry, and provide clarification on the mechanism of actuation and factors affecting device performance and stability. We will discuss the results of this study in the context of strategies for optimization of device performance.

  6. Expanding analytical options in sports drug testing: Mass spectrometric detection of prohibited substances in exhaled breath. (United States)

    Thevis, Mario; Krug, Oliver; Geyer, Hans; Schänzer, Wilhelm


    Continuously refining and advancing the strategies and methods employed in sports drug testing is critical for efficient doping controls. Besides improving and expanding the spectrum of target analytes, alternative test matrices have warranted in-depth evaluation as they commonly allow for minimal-/non-invasive and non-intrusive sample collection. In this study, the potential of exhaled breath (EB) as doping control specimen was assessed. EB collection devices employing a non-woven electret-based air filter unit were used to generate test specimens, simulating a potential future application in doping controls. A multi-analyte sports drug testing approach configured for a subset of 12 model compounds that represent specific classes of substances prohibited in sports (anabolic agents, hormone and metabolic modulators, stimulants, and beta-blockers) was established using unispray liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) and applied to spiked and elimination study EB samples. The test method was characterized concerning specificity, assay imprecision, and limits of detection. The EB collection device allowed for retaining and extracting all selected model compounds from the EB aerosol. Following elution and concentration, LC/MS/MS analysis enabled detection limits between 5 and 100 pg/filter and imprecisions ranging from 3% to 20% for the 12 selected model compounds. By means of EB samples from patients and participants of administration studies, the elimination of relevant compounds and, thus, their traceability in EB for doping control purposes, was investigated. Besides stimulants such as methylhexaneamine and pseudoephedrine, also the anabolic-androgenic steroid dehydrochloromethyltestosterone, the metabolic modulator meldonium, and the beta-blocker bisoprolol was detected in exhaled breath. The EB aerosol has provided a promising proof-of-concept suggesting the expansion of this testing strategy as a complement to currently utilized sports drug

  7. A new class of equivalence principle test masses, with application to SR-POEM (United States)

    Reasenberg, Robert D.


    We describe a new class of test masses (TMs) for use in a Galilean test of the equivalence principle, principally in space. These TMs have n\\geqslant 2 vertical bars that are joined by an off-center connector. A pair of TMs will be positioned to have interleaved bars. For n\\geqslant 3, the principal moments of inertia of a TM can be made equal. With their centers of mass aligned, a TM pair shows decreasing susceptibility to differential acceleration from local mass as n increases. For the Sounding Rocket based Principle Of Equivalence Measurement (SR-POEM), the mission requirements are well met with n=3, but not met with n=2. For a 1 kg SR-POEM TM, vibration frequencies can be made to be above 1 kHz and thus not interfere with the operation of the TM suspension system. The SR-POEM housing supports electrodes for a set of capacitance gauges that observes all six kinematic degrees of freedom of each TM.

  8. Dynamic Tests on a Concrete Slab with a Tuned Mass Damper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campuzano Carmona Jorge Eliécer


    Full Text Available Nowadays, structures became more slender and flexible due to lighter materials with great resistance, compared to traditional materials used in construction. This fact provides to structural systems with low natural frequencies. High amplitude vibrations can be experienced, when the structures are subjected to people walking, running, jumping, dancing, activities that are characterized by periodical low frequency forces. Various solutions can be taken, such as techniques to stiffen all the structure, which can result a non-economical solution and not practical. Other alternative that can be more economical and executable is to install tuned mass dampers (TMD at the building structure, that vibrate out of phase with the main system, transferring the mechanical energy to the additional mass. In this work, excessive vibrations in concrete slabs are studied through testing a dynamic platform very flexible where it is installed a TMD. The tests simulate human activities such as walking, jumping or dancing. Vibrations amplitudes of the platform are compared with and without TMD installation, finding a good reduction on these amplitudes with this structural control device. The TMD designed has a dry friction mechanism to reduce the response of the additional mass, controlling excessive vibration caused by human activities in building floors.

  9. Aeroelastic Wing Shaping Control Subject to Actuation Constraints. (United States)

    Swei, Sean Shan-Min; Nguyen, Nhan


    This paper considers the control of coupled aeroelastic aircraft model which is configured with Variable Camber Continuous Trailing Edge Flap (VCCTEF) system. The relative deflection between two adjacent flaps is constrained and this actuation constraint is accounted for when designing an effective control law for suppressing the wing vibration. A simple tuned-mass damper mechanism with two attached masses is used as an example to demonstrate the effectiveness of vibration suppression with confined motion of tuned masses. In this paper, a dynamic inversion based pseudo-control hedging (PCH) and bounded control approach is investigated, and for illustration, it is applied to the NASA Generic Transport Model (GTM) configured with VCCTEF system.

  10. Magnetic actuation for MEMS scanners for retinal scanning displays (United States)

    Yan, Jun; Luanava, Selso; Casasanta, Vincenzo


    We discuss magnetic actuation for Microvision"s bi-axial scanners for retinal scanning displays. Compared to the common side-magnet and moving-coil approach, we have designed, assembled and tested a novel magnet configuration, with magnets above and below the moving coil. This design reduces the magnet sizes significantly without sacrificing performance, and opens further improvement paths as well.

  11. Pneumatic Actuation of a 2-Link Robotic System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Oct 16, 2014 ... nanorobotics, are still in the testing phase but they demand precision. The investigation of a 2-link pneumatic robotic system, using robotic and electric actuators, will be made. For the sake of representation, the prototype will be made of available materials in the market to fulfil its requirements. An insight.

  12. Design of Transputer Controllers for Hydraulic Actuator Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn


    The paper deals with how transputers can be applied for fast controllers for hydraulic actuator systems. A general transputer-based control systems including a data acquisition transputer subsystem is presented. An application case: development of a mechatronic test facility with a fast hydraulic...

  13. Electric motors and actuators at cryogenic tempertures (United States)

    Bugeat, J. P.; Macaigne, J.; Valentian, D.

    A small electric motor and an actuating mechanism for use at temperatures around 4.2 K under ultra high vacuum was tested in order to assess the feasibility of such a driving mechanism working in the coldest part of a spacecraft cryostat. A variable reluctance stepping motor driving a simple screw nut mechanism was used. Dry lubrication was provided by polyimide slide bearings and nut and by composite retainer roller bearings. Motor and mechanism sustained extended tests at liquid helium temperature with continuous operation for 8 hr periods and faultless restart after 16 hr rest periods. Power consumption was reduced to 15 mV leading to low liquid helium comsumption. Post test analysis indicates no change in motor characteristics and no damage to bearings, screw and nut.

  14. Trampoline Resonator Fabrication for Tests of Quantum Mechanics at High Mass (United States)

    Weaver, Matthew; Pepper, Brian; Sonin, Petro; Eerkens, Hedwig; Buters, Frank; de Man, Sven; Bouwmeester, Dirk


    There has been much interest recently in optomechanical devices that can reach the ground state. Two requirements for achieving ground state cooling are high optical finesse in the cavity and high mechanical quality factor. We present a set of trampoline resonator devices using high stress silicon nitride and superpolishing of mirrors with sufficient finesse (as high as 60,000) and quality factor (as high as 480,000) for ground state cooling in a dilution refrigerator. These devices have a higher mass, between 80 and 100 ng, and lower frequency, between 200 and 500 kHz, than other devices that have been cooled to the ground state, enabling tests of quantum mechanics at a larger mass scale.

  15. Firefly Optimization and Mathematical Modeling of a Vehicle Crash Test Based on Single-Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Klausen


    Full Text Available In this paper mathematical modeling of a vehicle crash test based on a single-mass is studied. The model under consideration consists of a single-mass coupled with a spring and/or a damper. The parameters for the spring and damper are obtained by analyzing the measured acceleration in the center of gravity of the vehicle during a crash. A model with a nonlinear spring and damper is also proposed and the parameters will be optimized with different damper and spring characteristics and optimization algorithms. The optimization algorithms used are interior-point and firefly algorithm. The objective of this paper is to compare different methods used to establish a simple model of a car crash and validate the results against real crash data.

  16. Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade boron carbide

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade boron carbide powder and pellets to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Sections Total Carbon by Combustion and Gravimetry 7-17 Total Boron by Titrimetry 18-28 Isotopic Composition by Mass Spectrometry 29-38 Chloride and Fluoride Separation by Pyrohydrolysis 39-45 Chloride by Constant-Current Coulometry 46-54 Fluoride by Ion-Selective Electrode 55-63 Water by Constant-Voltage Coulometry 64-72 Impurities by Spectrochemical Analysis 73-81 Soluble Boron by Titrimetry 82-95 Soluble Carbon by a Manometric Measurement 96-105 Metallic Impurities by a Direct Reader Spectrometric Method 106-114

  17. Development of large aperture telescope technology (LATT): test results on a demonstrator bread-board (United States)

    Briguglio, R.; Xompero, M.; Riccardi, A.; Lisi, F.; Duò, F.; Vettore, C.; Gallieni, D.; Tintori, M.; Lazzarini, P.; Patauner, C.; Biasi, R.; D'Amato, F.; Pucci, M.; Pereira do Carmo, João.


    The concept of a low areal density primary mirror, actively controlled by actuators, has been investigated through a demonstration prototype. A spherical mirror (400 mm diameter, 2.7 Kg mass) has been manufactured and tested in laboratory and on the optical bench, to verify performance, controllability and optical quality. In the present paper we will describe the prototype and the test results.

  18. Correction factors for body mass bias in military physical fitness tests. (United States)

    Vanderburgh, Paul M


    Recent research findings combined with the theoretical laws of biological similarity make the compelling case that all physical fitness test items for the Army, Air Force, and Navy impose a 15 to 20% physiological bias against heavier, not fatter, men and women. Using the published findings that actual scores of muscle and aerobic endurance scale by body mass raised to the 1/3 power, correction factor tables were developed. This correction factor can be multiplied by one's actual score (e.g., push-ups, sit-ups, abdominal crunches, or curl-up repetitions or distance run time) to yield adjusted scores that are free of body mass bias. These adjusted scores eliminate this bias, become better overall indicators of physical fitness relevant to military tasks, are easily applied to the scoring tables used in the present physical fitness tests, and do not reward body fatness. Use of these correction factors should be explored by all military services to contribute to more relevant fitness tests.

  19. Body mass penalties in the physical fitness tests of the Army, Air Force, and Navy. (United States)

    Vanderburgh, Paul M; Crowder, Todd A


    Recent research has empirically documented a consistent penalty against heavier service members for events identical or similar to those in the physical fitness tests of the Army, Air Force, and Navy. These penalties, which are not related to body fatness, are based on biological scaling models and have a physiological basis. Using hypothetical cases, we quantified the penalties for men, with body mass of 60 vs. 90 kg, and women, 45 vs. 75 kg, to be 15% to 20% for the fitness tests of these three services. Such penalties alone can adversely affect awards and promotions for heavier service members. To deal equitably with these penalties in a practical manner, we offer two recommendations, i.e., (1) implementation of revised fitness tests with balanced events, in which the penalties of one event for heavier service members are balanced by an equal and opposite bias against lighter service members, or (2) development of correction factors that can be multiplied by raw scores to yield adjusted scores free of body mass bias.

  20. On electrostatically actuated NEMS/MEMS circular plates (United States)

    Caruntu, Dumitru I.; Alvarado, Iris


    This paper deals with electrostatically actuated micro and nano-electromechanical (MEMS/NEMS) circular plates. The system under investigation consists of two bodies, a deformable and conductive circular plate placed above a fixed, rigid and conductive ground plate. The deformable circular plate is electrostatically actuated by applying an AC voltage between the two plates. Nonlinear parametric resonance and pull-in occur at certain frequencies and relatively large AC voltage, respectively. Such phenomena are useful for applications such as sensors, actuators, switches, micro-pumps, micro-tweezers, chemical and mass sensing, and micro-mirrors. A mathematical model of clamped circular MEMS/NEMS electrostatically actuated plates has been developed. Since the model is in the micro- and nano-scale, surface forces, van der Waals and/or Casimir, acting on the plate are included. A perturbation method, the Method of Multiple Scales (MMS), is used for investigating the case of weakly nonlinear MEMS/NEMS circular plates. Two time scales, fast and slow, are considered in this work. The amplitude-frequency and phase-frequency response of the plate in the case of primary resonance are obtained and discussed.

  1. Advanced Electromechanical Actuation System (EMAS), Flight Test (United States)


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  2. Comparing interferometry techniques for multi-degree of freedom test mass readout (United States)

    Isleif, Katharina-Sophie; Gerberding, Oliver; Mehmet, Moritz; Schwarze, Thomas S.; Heinzel, Gerhard; Danzmann, Karsten


    Laser interferometric readout systems with 1pm/Hz precision over long time scales have successfully been developed for LISA and LISA Pathfinder. Future gravitational physics experiments, for example in the fields of gravitational wave detection and geodesy, will potentially require similar levels of displacement and tilt readouts of multiple test masses in multiple degrees of freedom. In this article we compare currently available classic interferometry schemes with new techniques using phase modulations and complex readout algorithms. Based on a simple example we show that the new techniques have great potential to simplify interferometric readouts.

  3. Torque characteristics of a 122-centimeter butterfly valve with a hydro/pneumatic actuator (United States)

    Lin, F. N.; Moore, W. I.; Lundy, F. E.


    Actuating torque data from field testing of a 122-centimeter (48 in.) butterfly valve with a hydro/pneumatic actuator is presented. The hydraulic cylinder functions as either a forward or a reverse brake. Its resistance torque increases when the valve speeds up and decreases when the valve slows down. A reduction of flow resistance in the hydraulic flow path from one end of the hydraulic cylinder to the other will effectively reduce the hydraulic resistance torque and hence increase the actuating torque. The sum of hydrodynamic and friction torques (combined resistance torque) of a butterfly valve is a function of valve opening time. An increase in the pneumatic actuating pressure will result in a decrease in both the combined resistance torque and the actuator opening torque; however, it does shorten the valve opening time. As the pneumatic pressure increases, the valve opening time for a given configuration approaches an asymptotical value.

  4. Actuation Using Piezoelectric Materials: Application in Augmenters, Energy Harvesters, and Motors (United States)

    Hasenoehrl, Jennifer


    Piezoelectric actuators are used in many manipulation, movement, and mobility applications as well as transducers and sensors. When used at the resonance frequencies of the piezoelectric stack, the actuator performs at its maximum actuation capability. In this Space Grant internship, three applications of piezoelectric actuators were investigated including hammering augmenters of rotary drills, energy harvesters, and piezo-motors. The augmenter shows improved drill performance over rotation only. The energy harvesters rely on moving fluid to convert mechanical energy into electrical power. Specific designs allow the harvesters more freedom to move, which creates more power. The motor uses the linear movement of the actuator with a horn applied to the side of a rotor to create rotational motion. Friction inhibits this motion and is to be minimized for best performance. Tests and measurements were made during this internship to determine the requirements for optimal performance of the studied mechanisms and devices.

  5. A fully dynamic model of a multi-layer piezoelectric actuator incorporating the power amplifier (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Yang, Fufeng; Rui, Xiaoting


    The dynamic input–output characteristics of the multi-layer piezoelectric actuator (PA) are intrinsically rate-dependent and hysteresis. Meanwhile, aiming at the strong capacitive impedance of multi-layer PA, the power amplifier of the actuator can greatly affect the dynamic performances of the actuator. In this paper, a novel dynamic model that includes a model of the electric circuit providing voltage to the actuator, an inverse piezoelectric effect model describing the hysteresis and creep behavior of the actuator, and a mechanical model, in which the vibration characteristics of the multi-layer PA is described, is put forward. Validation experimental tests are conducted. Experimental results show that the proposed dynamic model can accurately predict the fully dynamic behavior of the multi-layer PA with different driving power.

  6. Core-free rolled actuators for Braille displays using P(VDF-TrFE-CFE) (United States)

    Levard, Thomas; Diglio, Paul J.; Lu, Sheng-Guo; Rahn, Christopher D.; Zhang, Q. M.


    Refreshable Braille displays require many small diameter actuators to move the pins. The electrostrictive P(VDF-TrFE-CFE) terpolymer can provide the high strain and actuation force under modest electric fields that are required for this application. In this paper, we develop core-free tubular actuators and integrate them into a 3 × 2 Braille cell. The terpolymer films are solution cast, stretched to 6 μm thick, electroded, laminated into a bilayer, rolled into a 2 mm diameter tube, bonded, and provided with top and bottom contacts. Experimental testing of 17 actuators demonstrates significant strains (up to 4%) and blocking forces (1 N) at moderate electric fields (100 MV m-1). A novel Braille cell is designed and fabricated using six of these actuators.

  7. NGC 6819: testing the asteroseismic mass scale, mass loss and evidence for products of non-standard evolution (United States)

    Handberg, R.; Brogaard, K.; Miglio, A.; Bossini, D.; Elsworth, Y.; Slumstrup, D.; Davies, G. R.; Chaplin, W. J.


    We present an extensive peakbagging effort on Kepler data of ˜50 red giant stars in the open star cluster NGC 6819. By employing sophisticated pre-processing of the time series and Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques we extracted individual frequencies, heights and line widths for hundreds of oscillation modes. We show that the `average' asteroseismic parameter δν02, derived from these, can be used to distinguish the stellar evolutionary state between the red giant branch (RGB) stars and red clump (RC) stars. Masses and radii are estimated using asteroseismic scaling relations, both empirically corrected to obtain self-consistency and agreement with independent measures of distance, and using updated theoretical corrections. Remarkable agreement is found, allowing the evolutionary state of the giants to be determined exclusively from the empirical correction to the scaling relations. We find a mean mass of the RGB stars and RC stars in NGC 6819 to be 1.61 ± 0.02 and 1.64 ± 0.02 M⊙, respectively. The difference ΔM = -0.03 ± 0.01 M⊙ is almost insensitive to systematics, suggesting very little RGB mass loss, if any. Stars that are outliers relative to the ensemble reveal overmassive members that likely evolved via mass transfer in a blue straggler phase. We suggest that KIC 4937011, a low-mass Li-rich giant, is a cluster member in the RC phase that experienced very high mass loss during its evolution. Such over- and undermassive stars need to be considered when studying field giants, since the true age of such stars cannot be known and there is currently no way to distinguish them from normal stars.

  8. Numerical analysis of helical dielectric elastomer actuator (United States)

    Park, Jang Ho; Nair, Saurabh; Kim, Daewon


    Dielectric elastomer actuators (DEA) are known for its capability of experiencing extreme strains, as it can expand and contract based on specific actuation voltage applied. On contrary, helical DEA (HDEA) with its unique configuration does not only provide the contractile and extendable capabilities, but also can aid in attaining results for bending and torsion. The concept of HDEA embraces many new techniques and can be applied in multiple disciplines. Thus, this paper focuses on the simulation of HDEA with helical compliant electrodes that is a major factor prior to its application. The attributes of the material used to build the structure plays a vital role in the behavior of the system. For numerical analysis of HDEA, the material characteristics are input into a commercial grade software, and then the appropriate analysis is performed to retrieve its outcome. Applying the material characteristics into numerical analysis modeling, the functionality of HDEA for various activations can be achieved, which is used to test and comply with the fabricated final product.

  9. Stress measurements of planar dielectric elastomer actuators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osmani, Bekim; Aeby, Elise A.; Müller, Bert [Biomaterials Science Center, University of Basel, Gewerbestrasse 14, 4123 Allschwil (Switzerland)


    Dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA) micro- and nano-structures are referred to artificial muscles because of their specific continuous power and adequate time response. The bending measurement of an asymmetric, planar DEA is described. The asymmetric cantilevers consist of 1 or 5 μm-thin DEAs deposited on polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) substrates 16, 25, 38, or 50 μm thick. The application of a voltage to the DEA electrodes generates an electrostatic pressure in the sandwiched silicone elastomer layer, which causes the underlying PEN substrate to bend. Optical beam deflection enables the detection of the bending angle vs. applied voltage. Bending radii as large as 850 m were reproducibly detected. DEA tests with electric fields of up to 80 V/μm showed limitations in electrode’s conductivity and structure failures. The actuation measurement is essential for the quantitative characterization of nanometer-thin, low-voltage, single- and multi-layer DEAs, as foreseen for artificial sphincters to efficiently treat severe urinary and fecal incontinence.

  10. Measurements of Physical Parameters of White Dwarfs: A Test of the Mass-Radius Relation (United States)

    Bédard, A.; Bergeron, P.; Fontaine, G.


    We present a detailed spectroscopic and photometric analysis of 219 DA and DB white dwarfs for which trigonometric parallax measurements are available. Our aim is to compare the physical parameters derived from the spectroscopic and photometric techniques, and then to test the theoretical mass-radius relation for white dwarfs using these results. The agreement between spectroscopic and photometric parameters is found to be excellent, especially for effective temperatures, showing that our model atmospheres and fitting procedures provide an accurate, internally consistent analysis. The values of surface gravity and solid angle obtained, respectively, from spectroscopy and photometry, are combined with parallax measurements in various ways to study the validity of the mass-radius relation from an empirical point of view. After a thorough examination of our results, we find that 73% and 92% of the white dwarfs are consistent within 1σ and 2σ confidence levels, respectively, with the predictions of the mass-radius relation, thus providing strong support to the theory of stellar degeneracy. Our analysis also allows us to identify 15 stars that are better interpreted in terms of unresolved double degenerate binaries. Atmospheric parameters for both components in these binary systems are obtained using a novel approach. We further identify a few white dwarfs that are possibly composed of an iron core rather than a carbon/oxygen core, since they are consistent with Fe-core evolutionary models.

  11. Electrical breakdown detection system for dielectric elastomer actuators (United States)

    Ghilardi, Michele; Busfield, James J. C.; Carpi, Federico


    Electrical breakdown of dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) is an issue that has to be carefully addressed when designing systems based on this novel technology. Indeed, in some systems electrical breakdown might have serious consequences, not only in terms of interruption of the desired function but also in terms of safety of the overall system (e.g. overheating and even burning). The risk for electrical breakdown often cannot be completely avoided by simply reducing the driving voltages, either because completely safe voltages might not generate sufficient actuation or because internal or external factors might change some properties of the actuator whilst in operation (for example the aging or fatigue of the material, or an externally imposed deformation decreasing the distance between the compliant electrodes). So, there is the clear need for reliable, simple and cost-effective detection systems that are able to acknowledge the occurrence of a breakdown event, making DEA-based devices able to monitor their status and become safer and "selfaware". Here a simple solution for a portable detection system is reported that is based on a voltage-divider configuration that detects the voltage drop at the DEA terminals and assesses the occurrence of breakdown via a microcontroller (Beaglebone Black single-board computer) combined with a real-time, ultra-low-latency processing unit (Bela cape an open-source embedded platform developed at Queen Mary University of London). The system was used to both generate the control signal that drives the actuator and constantly monitor the functionality of the actuator, detecting any breakdown event and discontinuing the supplied voltage accordingly, so as to obtain a safer controlled actuation. This paper presents preliminary tests of the detection system in different scenarios in order to assess its reliability.

  12. Modeling of a corrugated dielectric elastomer actuator for artificial muscle applications (United States)

    Kadooka, Kevin; Taya, Minoru; Naito, Keishi; Saito, Makoto


    Dielectric elastomer actuators have many advantages, including light weight, simplicity, high energy density, and silent operation. These features make them suitable to replace conventional actuators and transducers, especially in artificial muscle applications where large contractile strains are necessary for lifelike motions. This paper will introduce the concept of a corrugated dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA), which consists of dielectric elastomer (DE) laminated to a thin elastic layer to induce bending motion at each of the corrugations, resulting in large axial deformation. The location of the DE and elastic layers can be configured to provide tensile or compressive axial strain. Such corrugated DE actuators are also highly scalable: linking multiple actuators in series results in greater deformation, whereas multiple actuators in parallel results in larger force output. Analytical closed-form solutions based on linear elasticity were derived for the displacement and force output of curved unimorph and corrugated DEA, both consisting of an arbitrary number of lamina. A total strain energy analysis and Castigiliano's theorem were used to predict the nonlinear force-displacement behavior of the corrugated actuator. Curved unimorph and corrugated DEA were fabricated using VHB F9469PC as the DE material. Displacement of the actuators observed during testing agreed well with the modeling results. Large contractile strain (25.5%) was achieved by the corrugated DEA. Future work includes investigating higher performance DE materials such as plasticized PVDF terpolymers, processed by thin film deposition methods.

  13. Electrical actuators applications and performance

    CERN Document Server

    De Fornel, Bernard


    This helpful resource covers a large range of information regarding electrical actuators. In particular, robustness, a very problematic issue, is fully explored in a dedicated chapter. The text also deals with he estimate of non-measurable mechanical variables by examining the estimate of load moment, then observation of the positioning of a command without mechanical sensor. Finally, it examines the conditions needed to measure variables and real implementation of numerical algorithms. This is a key working resource for electrical engineers.

  14. An Innovative Shape Memory Actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cappellini Valter


    Full Text Available The work describes a NiTi linear actuator. This material is able to realize a contraction with heating produced through Joule effect. Then a cooling of the active device is realized with forced air. Finally the lengthening is realized with another active element. The particular structure of the geometry allows for an increment of reliability, because the electrical connections are mechanically stabilized and the active elements are compelled to avoid undesired electrical contacts through an insulated cylindrical core.

  15. Actuator line modeling of vertical-axis turbines

    CERN Document Server

    Bachant, Peter; Wosnik, Martin


    To bridge the gap between high and low fidelity numerical modeling tools for vertical-axis (or cross-flow) turbines (VATs or CFTs), an actuator line model (ALM) was developed and validated for both a high and a medium solidity vertical-axis turbine at rotor diameter Reynolds numbers $Re_D \\sim 10^6$. The ALM is a hybridization of classical blade element theory with Navier--Stokes based flow models, and in this study both $k$--$\\epsilon$ Reynolds-averaged Navier--Stokes (RANS) and Smagorinsky large eddy simulation (LES) turbulence models were tested. The RANS models were able to be run on coarse grids while still providing good convergence behavior in terms of the mean power coefficient, and also approximately four orders of magnitude reduction in computational expense compared with 3-D blade-resolved RANS simulations. Submodels for dynamic stall, end effects, added mass, and flow curvature were implemented, resulting in reasonable performance predictions for the high solidity rotor, more discrepancies for the...

  16. Cryo-Tracker® Mass Gauging System Testing in a Launch Vehicle Simulation (United States)

    Schieb, Daniel J.; Haberbusch, Mark S.; Yeckley, Alexander J.


    Sierra Lobo successfully tested its patented Cryo-Tracker® probe and mass gauging system in an Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) liquid oxygen tank simulation for NASA's Launch Service Providers Directorate. The effort involved collaboration between Sierra Lobo, NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC), and Lockheed Martin personnel. Testing simulated filling and expulsion operations of Lockheed Martin's Atlas V liquid oxygen (LOX) tank and characterized the 10.06 m (33-ft) Cryo-Tracker's performance. Sierra Lobo designed a 9.14 m (30-ft) tall liquid nitrogen test tank to simulate the Atlas V LOX tank flow conditions and validate Cryo-Tracker® data via other sensors and visualization. This test package was fabricated at Sierra Lobo's Cryogenics Testbed at NASA KSC. All test objectives were met or exceeded. Key accomplishments include: fabrication of the longest Cryo-Tracker® probe to date; installation technique proven with only two attachment points at top and bottom of tank; probe survived a harsh environment with no loss of signal or structural integrity; probe successfully measured liquid levels and temperatures under all conditions and successfully demonstrated its feasibility as an engine cut-off signal.

  17. Subsurface mass transport affects the radioxenon signatures that are used to identify clandestine nuclear tests (United States)

    Deinert, M. R.


    Underground nuclear tests produce anthropogenic isotopes that provide the only definitive means by which to determine whether a nuclear explosion has taken place. Verification of a suspected test under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty often relies on ratios of radioxenon isotopes. Gas samples are gathered either on-site or off-site with certain ranges of xenon isotope ratios considered to be a signature of a weapons test. It is well established that below ground transport can affect the rate at which Noble gasses will reach the surface. However, the relative abundance of anthropogenic isotopes is has long been assumed to rely solely on fission yield and decay rate. By including in subsurface transport models the effects of mass dependent diffusion, and a time dependent source term for the decay of radioiodine precursors, we show here that this assumption is not true. In fact, certain combinations of geology and atmospheric conditions can alter xenon isotope ratios sufficiently for a weapons test going unconfirmed under the current standards.

  18. Impedance-based control and piezoelectric shell actuators for suppressing interior noise (United States)

    Jayachandran, Vijay

    The damaging effects of high level acoustic noise are visible in many aspects of engineering as well as in our everyday life. The active control of interior noise in fixed-wing aircraft, helicopters, automobiles and HVAC equipment have received considerable attention in the recent past. Various techniques have been investigated, of which Active Noise Cancellation (ANC) and Active Structural-Acoustic Control (ASAC) are quite popular. Some researchers have investigated the possibility of using acoustic impedance as the controlled variable at the secondary sources in active interior noise control systems. However, there are no detailed studies of impedance conditions in actively controlled three- dimensional systems, and many control approaches are based on results from one-dimensional studies. The first part of this thesis investigates the steady-state impedance conditions in an actively controlled three- dimensional rectangular enclosure, with a tonal disturbance field. This is followed by an investigation into the adaptive-passive impedance control of tonal duct noise using mass-spring type of absorptive elements. The studies provide a better understanding of active and passive impedance control strategies and serve as a foundation for building impedance-based controllers. The second part of the thesis investigates new actuation schemes for ANC in aircraft. The severe weight and space limitations encountered in the design of commercial aircraft have created a need for low-profiled and lightweight acoustic sources that can be used as control elements. To this end, a detailed analytical and experimental investigation into the possible use of the commercially available RAINBOW and THUNDER actuators as controllable acoustic sources is performed. The RAINBOW actuator is modeled analytically as a piezoceramic spherical shallow shell and the effects of curvature, support stiffness, loading mass and other parameters on the natural frequencies, linear stroke and volume

  19. In situ multi-dimensional actuation measurement method for tensile actuation of paraffin-infiltrated multi-wall carbon nanotube yarns (United States)

    Dang, Dang Xuan; Truong, Thuy Kieu; Lim, Seong Chu; Suh, Dongseok


    We introduce an experimental setup for the simultaneous measurement of axial and radial strain variations of a hybrid carbon nanotube (CNT) yarn actuator, where a paraffin wax is melt-infiltrated inside the CNT yarn. Such a hybrid yarn system has been known as a Joule-heating-driven tensile/torsional actuator due to a large volume expansion of the infiltrated paraffin upon a solid-to-liquid phase transition. During the operation of this actuator, however, the axial strain variations along the yarn axis and the diameter change of the yarn, which is the radial strain variations perpendicular to the yarn axis, had been measured separately, which prohibits the exact understanding of the whole actuation dynamics. In the new experimental configuration, a laser scan micrometer is employed for the in situ yarn's diameter measurement and is combined with the conventional tensile actuation measurement setup for real-time data-taking during the actuation. When the hybrid CNT yarn was tested, the synchronized strain variation data in the axial and radial directions were obtained, which helps the analysis of these actuation phenomena especially in the intermediate states.

  20. Charge-Induced Force Noise on Free-Falling Test Masses: Results from LISA Pathfinder. (United States)

    Armano, M; Audley, H; Auger, G; Baird, J T; Binetruy, P; Born, M; Bortoluzzi, D; Brandt, N; Bursi, A; Caleno, M; Cavalleri, A; Cesarini, A; Cruise, M; Danzmann, K; de Deus Silva, M; Diepholz, I; Dolesi, R; Dunbar, N; Ferraioli, L; Ferroni, V; Fitzsimons, E D; Flatscher, R; Freschi, M; Gallegos, J; García Marirrodriga, C; Gerndt, R; Gesa, L; Gibert, F; Giardini, D; Giusteri, R; Grimani, C; Grzymisch, J; Harrison, I; Heinzel, G; Hewitson, M; Hollington, D; Hueller, M; Huesler, J; Inchauspé, H; Jennrich, O; Jetzer, P; Johlander, B; Karnesis, N; Kaune, B; Killow, C J; Korsakova, N; Lloro, I; Liu, L; López-Zaragoza, J P; Maarschalkerweerd, R; Madden, S; Mance, D; Martín, V; Martin-Polo, L; Martino, J; Martin-Porqueras, F; Mateos, I; McNamara, P W; Mendes, J; Mendes, L; Moroni, A; Nofrarias, M; Paczkowski, S; Perreur-Lloyd, M; Petiteau, A; Pivato, P; Plagnol, E; Prat, P; Ragnit, U; Ramos-Castro, J; Reiche, J; Romera Perez, J A; Robertson, D I; Rozemeijer, H; Rivas, F; Russano, G; Sarra, P; Schleicher, A; Slutsky, J; Sopuerta, C; Sumner, T J; Texier, D; Thorpe, J I; Trenkel, C; Vetrugno, D; Vitale, S; Wanner, G; Ward, H; Wass, P J; Wealthy, D; Weber, W J; Wittchen, A; Zanoni, C; Ziegler, T; Zweifel, P


    We report on electrostatic measurements made on board the European Space Agency mission LISA Pathfinder. Detailed measurements of the charge-induced electrostatic forces exerted on free-falling test masses (TMs) inside the capacitive gravitational reference sensor are the first made in a relevant environment for a space-based gravitational wave detector. Employing a combination of charge control and electric-field compensation, we show that the level of charge-induced acceleration noise on a single TM can be maintained at a level close to 1.0  fm s^{-2} Hz^{-1/2} across the 0.1-100 mHz frequency band that is crucial to an observatory such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). Using dedicated measurements that detect these effects in the differential acceleration between the two test masses, we resolve the stochastic nature of the TM charge buildup due to interplanetary cosmic rays and the TM charge-to-force coupling through stray electric fields in the sensor. All our measurements are in good agreement with predictions based on a relatively simple electrostatic model of the LISA Pathfinder instrument.

  1. Charge-Induced Force Noise on Free-Falling Test Masses: Results from LISA Pathfinder (United States)

    Armano, M.; Audley, H.; Auger, G.; Baird, J. T.; Binetruy, P.; Born, M.; Bortoluzzi, D.; Brandt, N.; Bursi, A.; Caleno, M.; Cavalleri, A.; Cesarini, A.; Cruise, M.; Danzmann, K.; de Deus Silva, M.; Diepholz, I.; Dolesi, R.; Dunbar, N.; Ferraioli, L.; Ferroni, V.; Fitzsimons, E. D.; Flatscher, R.; Freschi, M.; Gallegos, J.; García Marirrodriga, C.; Gerndt, R.; Gesa, L.; Gibert, F.; Giardini, D.; Giusteri, R.; Grimani, C.; Grzymisch, J.; Harrison, I.; Heinzel, G.; Hewitson, M.; Hollington, D.; Hueller, M.; Huesler, J.; Inchauspé, H.; Jennrich, O.; Jetzer, P.; Johlander, B.; Karnesis, N.; Kaune, B.; Killow, C. J.; Korsakova, N.; Lloro, I.; Liu, L.; López-Zaragoza, J. P.; Maarschalkerweerd, R.; Madden, S.; Mance, D.; Martín, V.; Martin-Polo, L.; Martino, J.; Martin-Porqueras, F.; Mateos, I.; McNamara, P. W.; Mendes, J.; Mendes, L.; Moroni, A.; Nofrarias, M.; Paczkowski, S.; Perreur-Lloyd, M.; Petiteau, A.; Pivato, P.; Plagnol, E.; Prat, P.; Ragnit, U.; Ramos-Castro, J.; Reiche, J.; Romera Perez, J. A.; Robertson, D. I.; Rozemeijer, H.; Rivas, F.; Russano, G.; Sarra, P.; Schleicher, A.; Slutsky, J.; Sopuerta, C.; Sumner, T. J.; Texier, D.; Thorpe, J. I.; Trenkel, C.; Vetrugno, D.; Vitale, S.; Wanner, G.; Ward, H.; Wass, P. J.; Wealthy, D.; Weber, W. J.; Wittchen, A.; Zanoni, C.; Ziegler, T.; Zweifel, P.; LISA Pathfinder Collaboration


    We report on electrostatic measurements made on board the European Space Agency mission LISA Pathfinder. Detailed measurements of the charge-induced electrostatic forces exerted on free-falling test masses (TMs) inside the capacitive gravitational reference sensor are the first made in a relevant environment for a space-based gravitational wave detector. Employing a combination of charge control and electric-field compensation, we show that the level of charge-induced acceleration noise on a single TM can be maintained at a level close to 1.0 fm s-2 Hz-1 /2 across the 0.1-100 mHz frequency band that is crucial to an observatory such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). Using dedicated measurements that detect these effects in the differential acceleration between the two test masses, we resolve the stochastic nature of the TM charge buildup due to interplanetary cosmic rays and the TM charge-to-force coupling through stray electric fields in the sensor. All our measurements are in good agreement with predictions based on a relatively simple electrostatic model of the LISA Pathfinder instrument.

  2. Inertial sensor surface properties for LISA Pathfinder and their effect on test mass discharging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte, M O; Shaul, D N A; Hollington, D; Waschke, S; Sumner, T J [Imperial College London, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Wass, P J [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trento, Via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo (Italy); Pasquali, L; Nannarone, S, E-mail: [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dei Materiali e dell' Ambiente, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via Vignolese 905-41100 Modena (Italy)


    Maintaining the low acceleration noise target for LISA Pathfinder requires the removal of electrostatic charge from the test masses. The charge management device (CMD) has been designed to remove charge either continuously with a low noise impact, or intermittently at high discharge rates. Recent measurements and simulations have highlighted the sensitivity of the discharge performance to the inertial sensor surface properties. In response to this Imperial College London (ICL) and the University of Trento (UTN) have initiated a laboratory program to characterize the properties of representative surfaces in detail. The aim of this program is to ensure that the behaviour of the surfaces used in flight is well understood and that the discharge simulations and pre-flight measurements are representative of the in-flight performance. The discharge process has been simulated, taking into account surface properties and we use simulation results to understand the experimental results from the test mass discharge experiments performed using the Trento torsion pendulum. Finally, we describe a new concept to implement redundancy and ruggedness in a UV-LED based design for LISA, incorporating recent advances made for LISA Pathfinder charge management.

  3. Model Test of Anchoring Effect on Zonal Disintegration in Deep Surrounding Rock Masses (United States)

    Chen, Xu-Guang; Zhang, Qiang-Yong; Wang, Yuan; Liu, De-Jun; Zhang, Ning


    The deep rock masses show a different mechanical behavior compared with the shallow rock masses. They are classified into alternating fractured and intact zones during the excavation, which is known as zonal disintegration. Such phenomenon is a great disaster and will induce the different excavation and anchoring methodology. In this study, a 3D geomechanics model test was conducted to research the anchoring effect of zonal disintegration. The model was constructed with anchoring in a half and nonanchoring in the other half, to compare with each other. The optical extensometer and optical sensor were adopted to measure the displacement and strain changing law in the model test. The displacement laws of the deep surrounding rocks were obtained and found to be nonmonotonic versus the distance to the periphery. Zonal disintegration occurs in the area without anchoring and did not occur in the model under anchoring condition. By contrasting the phenomenon, the anchor effect of restraining zonal disintegration was revealed. And the formation condition of zonal disintegration was decided. In the procedure of tunnel excavation, the anchor strain was found to be alternation in tension and compression. It indicates that anchor will show the nonmonotonic law during suppressing the zonal disintegration. PMID:23997683

  4. Standard test methods for chemical and mass spectrometric analysis of nuclear-grade gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) powder

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical and mass spectrometric analysis of nuclear-grade gadolinium oxide powders to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Sections Carbon by Direct CombustionThermal Conductivity C1408 Test Method for Carbon (Total) in Uranium Oxide Powders and Pellets By Direct Combustion-Infrared Detection Method Total Chlorine and Fluorine by Pyrohydrolysis Ion Selective Electrode C1502 Test Method for Determination of Total Chlorine and Fluorine in Uranium Dioxide and Gadolinium Oxide Loss of Weight on Ignition 7-13 Sulfur by CombustionIodometric Titration Impurity Elements by a Spark-Source Mass Spectrographic C761 Test Methods for Chemical, Mass Spectrometric, Spectrochemical,Nuclear, and Radiochemical Analysis of Uranium Hexafluoride C1287 Test Method for Determination of Impurities In Uranium Dioxide By Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry Gadolinium Content in Gadolinium Oxid...

  5. Lightweight High Efficiency Electric Motors and Actuators for Low Temperature Mobility and Robotics Applications Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — QM Power will build and empirically test Space and Cryogenic qualified preproduction Parallel Magnetic Circuit [PMC] 1-5 HP motor/actuators with electronic...

  6. The Actuated Guitar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jeppe Veirum; Overholt, Daniel; Moeslund, Thomas B.


    , thereby making it easier to adapt to individual users. To validate and test the instrument platform we collaborated with the Helena Elsass Center in Copenhagen, Denmark during their 2013 Summer Camp, to see if we actually succeeded in creating an electrical guitar that children with Hemiplegia could play......People with a physical handicap are often not able to engage and embrace the world of music on the same terms as normal functioning people. Traditional musical instruments have been refined over the last centuries, developing highly specialized and powerful interfaces; but nearly all require two...... functioning hands. In this study we try to enable people with Hemiplegia to play a real electrical guitar, by modifying it in a way that allows people with Hemiplegia able to actually use the instrument. We developed a guitar platform utilizing sensors to capture the rhythmic motion of alternate fully...

  7. Plasma actuators for bluff body flow control (United States)

    Kozlov, Alexey V.

    The aerodynamic plasma actuators have shown to be efficient flow control devices in various applications. In this study the results of flow control experiments utilizing single dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators to control flow separation and unsteady vortex shedding from a circular cylinder in cross-flow are reported. This work is motivated by the need to reduce landing gear noise for commercial transport aircraft via an effective streamlining created by the actuators. The experiments are performed at Re D = 20,000...164,000. Circular cylinders in cross-flow are chosen for study since they represent a generic flow geometry that is similar in all essential aspects to a landing gear oleo or strut. The minimization of the unsteady flow separation from the models and associated large-scale wake vorticity by using actuators reduces the radiated aerodynamic noise. Using either steady or unsteady actuation at ReD = 25,000, Karman shedding is totally eliminated, turbulence levels in the wake decrease significantly and near-field sound pressure levels are reduced by 13.3 dB. Unsteady actuation at an excitation frequency of St D = 1 is found to be most effective. The unsteady actuation also has the advantage that total suppression of shedding is achieved for a duty cycle of only 25%. However, since unsteady actuation is associated with an unsteady body force and produces a tone at the actuation frequency, steady actuation is more suitable for noise control applications. Two actuation strategies are used at ReD = 82,000: spanwise and streamwise oriented actuators. Near field microphone measurements in an anechoic wind tunnel and detailed study of the near wake using LDA are presented in the study. Both spanwise and streamwise actuators give nearly the same noise reduction level of 11.2 dB and 14.2 dB, respectively, and similar changes in the wake velocity profiles. The contribution of the actuator induced noise is found to be small compared to the natural shedding

  8. Thermal vertical bimorph actuators and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sehr, H J


    In this thesis, a novel concept for lateral actuators based on vertical bimorphs is presented. Vertical bimorphs consist of silicon beams side-coated with aluminium, which bend when heated due to the different thermal expansion coefficients of the two materials causing a displacement in the wafer plane. The heating of the actuator is provided by an electrical current through the silicon beam. The simplest implementation of a vertical bimorph actuator is a clamped-clamped beam. To obtain higher deflections, a meander shaped actuator has been designed. By combining four meander actuators, a two-dimensional positioning stage has been realised. The meander actuator has also been applied for normally closed and normally open micro-relays. Analytical calculations and ANSYS simulations have been carried out to predict the physical behaviour of the bimorph devices, including temperature distribution, static deflection, vertical stiffness, thermal time constant and lateral resonances. For both the clamped-clamped beam...

  9. Series Elastic Actuators for legged robots (United States)

    Pratt, Jerry E.; Krupp, Benjamin T.


    Series Elastic Actuators provide many benefits in force control of robots in unconstrained environments. These benefits include high force fidelity, extremely low impedance, low friction, and good force control bandwidth. Series Elastic Actuators employ a novel mechanical design architecture which goes against the common machine design principal of "stiffer is better." A compliant element is placed between the gear train and driven load to intentionally reduce the stiffness of the actuator. A position sensor measures the deflection, and the force output is accurately calculated using Hooke"s Law (F=Kx). A control loop then servos the actuator to the desired output force. The resulting actuator has inherent shock tolerance, high force fidelity and extremely low impedance. These characteristics are desirable in many applications including legged robots, exoskeletons for human performance amplification, robotic arms, haptic interfaces, and adaptive suspensions. We describe several variations of Series Elastic Actuators that have been developed using both electric and hydraulic components.

  10. Chapter 2. Mode-switching in Hydraulic Actuator Systems - An Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Ole; Conrad, Finn; Ravn, Anders P.


    Experiments with mode-switching adaptive control of actuators to drive a hydraulic test robot.The research is a cooperation with IT, DTU within the IMCIA Research Programme supported by the Danish Technical Research Council, STVF.......Experiments with mode-switching adaptive control of actuators to drive a hydraulic test robot.The research is a cooperation with IT, DTU within the IMCIA Research Programme supported by the Danish Technical Research Council, STVF....

  11. Chained Iron Microparticles for Directionally Controlled Actuation of Soft Robots. (United States)

    Schmauch, Marissa M; Mishra, Sumeet R; Evans, Benjamin A; Velev, Orlin D; Tracy, Joseph B


    Magnetic field-directed self-assembly of magnetic particles in chains is useful for developing directionally responsive materials for applications in soft robotics. Using materials with greater complexity allows advanced functions, while still using simple device architectures. Elastomer films containing chained magnetic microparticles were prepared through solvent casting and formed into magnetically actuated lifters, accordions, valves, and pumps. Chaining both enhances actuation and imparts a directional response. Cantilevers used as lifters were able to lift up to 50 times the mass of the polymer film. We introduce the "specific torque", the torque per field per mass of magnetic particles, as a figure of merit for assessing and comparing the performance of lifters and related devices. Devices in this work generated specific torques of 68 Nm/kgT, which is significantly higher than in previously reported actuators. Applying magnetic fields to folded accordion structures caused extension and compression, depending on the accordion's orientation. In peristaltic pumps comprised of composite tubes containing embedded chains, magnetic fields caused a section of the tube to pinch closed where the field was applied. These results will facilitate both the further development of soft robots based on chained magnetic particles and efforts to engineer materials with higher specific torque.

  12. Stimuli-Responsive Polymers for Actuation. (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang Matthew; Serpe, Michael J


    A variety of stimuli-responsive polymers have been developed and used as actuators and/or artificial muscles, with the movement being driven by an external stimulus, such as electrical potential. This Review highlights actuators constructed from liquid-crystal elastomers, dielectric elastomers, ionic polymers, and conducting polymers. The Review covers recent examples of a variety of actuators generated from these materials and their utility. The mechanism of actuation will be detailed for most examples in order to stimulate possible future research, and lead to new applications and advanced applications. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. High Reliability Cryogenic Piezoelectric Valve Actuator Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cryogenic fluid valves are subject to harsh exposure and actuators to drive these valves require robust performance and high reliability. DSM's piezoelectric...

  14. A framework for testing assumptions about foraging scales, body mass, and niche separation using telemetry data. (United States)

    Cumming, Graeme S; Henry, Dominic A W; Reynolds, Chevonne


    Ecological theory predicts that if animals with very similar dietary requirements inhabit the same landscape, then they should avoid niche overlap by either exploiting food resources at different times or foraging at different spatial scales. Similarly, it is often assumed that animals that fall in different body mass modes and share the same body plan will use landscapes at different spatial scales. We developed a new methodological framework for understanding the scaling of foraging (i.e. the range and distribution of scales at which animals use their landscapes) by applying a combination of three well-established methods to satellite telemetry data to quantify foraging patch size distributions: (1) first-passage time analysis; (2) a movement-based kernel density estimator; and (3) statistical comparison of resulting histograms and tests for multimodality. We demonstrate our approach using two sympatric, ecologically similar species of African ducks with quite different body masses: Egyptian Geese (actually a shelduck), and Red-billed Teal. Contrary to theoretical predictions, the two species, which are sympatric throughout the year, foraged at almost identical spatial scales. Our results show how ecologists can use GPS tracking data to explicitly quantify and compare the scales of foraging by different organisms within an animal community. Our analysis demonstrates both a novel approach to foraging data analysis and the need for caution when making assumptions about the relationships among niche separation, diet, and foraging scale.

  15. Testing the conditional mass function of dark matter haloes against numerical N-body simulations (United States)

    Tramonte, D.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Betancort-Rijo, J.; Dalla Vecchia, C.


    We compare the predicted conditional mass function (CMF) of dark matter haloes from two theoretical prescriptions against numerical N-body simulations, both in overdense and underdense regions and at different Eulerian scales ranging from 5 to 30 h-1 Mpc. In particular, we consider in detail a locally implemented rescaling of the unconditional mass function (UMF) already discussed in the literature, and also a generalization of the standard rescaling method described in the extended Press-Schechter formalism. First, we test the consistency of these two rescalings by verifying the normalization of the CMF at different scales, and showing that none of the proposed cases provides a normalized CMF. In order to satisfy the normalization condition, we include a modification in the rescaling procedure. After this modification, the resulting CMF generally provides a better description of numerical results. We finally present an analytical fit to the ratio between the CMF and the UMF (also known as the matter-to-halo bias function) in underdense regions, which could be of special interest to speed up the computation of the halo abundance when studying void statistics. In this case, the CMF prescription based on the locally implemented rescaling provides a slightly better description of the numerical results when compared to the standard rescaling.

  16. Bio-inspired artificial muscle structure for integrated sensing and actuation (United States)

    Ye, Zhihang; Faisal, Md. Shahnewaz Sabit; Asmatulu, Ramazan; Chen, Zheng


    In this paper, a novel artificial muscle/tendon structure is developed for achieving bio-inspired actuation and self-sensing. The hybrid structure consists of a dielectric elastomer (DE) material connected with carbon fibers, which incorporates the built-in sensing and actuation capability of DE and mechanical, electrical interfacing capability of carbon fibers. DEs are light weight artificial muscles that can generate compliant actuation with low power consumption. Carbon fibers act as artificial tendon due to their high electro-conductivity and mechanical strength. PDMS material is used to electrically and mechanically connect the carbon fibers with the DE material. A strip actuator was fabricated to verify the structure design and characterize its actuation and sensing capabilities. A 3M VHB 4905 tape was used as the DE material. To make compliant electrodes on the VHB tape, carbon black was sprayed on the surface of VHB tape. To join the carbon fibers to the VHB tape, PDMS was used as bonding material. Experiments have been conducted to characterize the actuation and sensing capabilities. The actuation tests have shown that the energy efficiency of artificial muscle can reach up to 0.7% and the strain can reach up to 1%. The sensing tests have verified that the structure is capable of self-sensing through the electrical impedance measurement.

  17. Prediction of Lateral Ankle Sprains in Football Players Based on Clinical Tests and Body Mass Index. (United States)

    Gribble, Phillip A; Terada, Masafumi; Beard, Megan Q; Kosik, Kyle B; Lepley, Adam S; McCann, Ryan S; Pietrosimone, Brian G; Thomas, Abbey C


    The lateral ankle sprain (LAS) is the most common injury suffered in sports, especially in football. While suggested in some studies, a predictive role of clinical tests for LAS has not been established. To determine which clinical tests, focused on potentially modifiable factors of movement patterns and body mass index (BMI), could best demonstrate risk of LAS among high school and collegiate football players. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 539 high school and collegiate football players were evaluated during the preseason with the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) and Functional Movement Screen as well as BMI. Results were compared between players who did and did not suffer an LAS during the season. Logistic regression analyses and calculated odds ratios were used to determine which measures predicted risk of LAS. The LAS group performed worse on the SEBT-anterior reaching direction (SEBT-ANT) and had higher BMI as compared with the noninjured group (P football players. BMI was also significantly higher in football players who sustained an LAS. Identifying clinical tools for successful LAS injury risk prediction will be a critical step toward the creation of effective prevention programs to reduce risk of sustaining an LAS during participation in football. © 2015 The Author(s).


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcondes Mendes Souza


    Full Text Available This work aims to evaluate through technological tests the use of quartzite residues as component at the the production of porcelain stoneware. Were collected five samples of quartzites called of green quartzite, black quartzite, pink quartzite, goldy quartzite, white quartzite. After, the raw materials were milled, passed by a sieve with a Mesh of 200# (Mesh and characterized by chemical analysis in fluorescence of x-rays and also analysis of the crystalline phases by diffraction of x-rays. The porcelain tiles mass is composed of five formulations containing 57% of feldspar, 37% of clay and 6% of residues of quartzite with different coloration. For the preparation of the specimens, it was used uniaxial pressing, which afterwards were synthesized at 1150°C, 1200°C and 1250°C. After the sintering, the specimens were submit for tests of technological characterization like: water absorption, linear shrinkage, apparently porosity, density and flexural strain at three points. The results presented in the fluorescence of x-rays showed a high-content of iron oxide on black quartzite that is why it was discarded the utilization of it in porcelain stoneware. All quartzite formulations had low water absorption achieved when synthesized at 1200°C, getting 0.1 to 0.36% without having gone through the atomization process. At the tests of flexural strain, all the quartzite had in acceptance limits, according to the European norm EN 100, overcoming 27 MPA at 1200°C

  19. A porous actuator for an Isfet-based coulometric sensor-actuator system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, J.; Luo, J.; Olthuis, Wouter; Bergveld, Piet; van der Linden, W.E.; Bos, M.


    The previously developed prototype ISFET (ion-sensitive field effect transistor)-based coulometric sensor-actuator system suffers from delay in response due to the nonzero distance between the sensor and actuator. The authors describe a novel configuration of a sensor-actuator device which employs a

  20. Active Suppression of Rotating Stall Inception with Distributed Jet Actuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huu Duc Vo


    Full Text Available An analytical and experimental investigation of the effectiveness of full-span distributed jet actuation for active suppression of long length-scale rotating stall inception is carried out. Detailed modeling and experimental verification highlight the important effects of mass addition, discrete injectors, and feedback dynamics, which may be overlooked in preliminary theoretical studies of active control with jet injection. A model of the compression system incorporating nonideal injection and feedback dynamics is verified with forced response measurements to predict the right trends in the movement of the critical pole associated with the stall precursor. Active control experiments with proportional feedback control show that the predicted stall precursors are suppressed to give a 5.5% range extension in compressor flow coefficient. In addition, results suggest that the proposed model could be used to design a more sophisticated controller to further improve performance while reducing actuator bandwidth requirements.

  1. Three-dimensional plasma actuation for faster transition to turbulence (United States)

    Das Gupta, Arnob; Roy, Subrata


    We demonstrate that a 3D non-linear plasma actuation method creates secondary instabilities by forming lambda vortices for a spatially developing turbulent boundary layer flow over a flat plate. Both bypass transition and controlled transition processes are numerically investigated using wall resolved modal discontinuous Galerkin based implicit large eddy simulation. The largest momentum thickness based Reynolds numbers ≤ft( R{{e}θ } \\right) tested are 1250 and 1100 for the bypass transition and the controlled transition, respectively. The 3D actuation method is based on a square serpentine plasma actuator (Durscher and Roy 2012 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 45 035202). The transition is achieved via oblique wave transition by perturbing the flow at a frequency of 1 kHz with amplitude of 10% of the freestream velocity. Although the flow is perturbed at a single frequency, the instabilities arising due to the nonlinear interaction between the consecutive lambda vortices, creates subharmonic lambda vortices (half of the fundamental frequency), which finally break down into fully turbulent flow. These interactions have been thoroughly studied and discussed. Since the actuation creates oblique wave transition it will allow faster transition compared to the standard secondary instability mechanism with similar disturbance amplitude reducing the amount of energy input required for flow control.

  2. Devising Mobile Sensing and Actuation Infrastructure with Drones. (United States)

    Bae, Mungyu; Yoo, Seungho; Jung, Jongtack; Park, Seongjoon; Kim, Kangho; Kim, Joon Yeop Lee; Kim, Hwangnam


    Vast applications and services have been enabled as the number of mobile or sensing devices with communication capabilities has grown. However, managing the devices, integrating networks or combining services across different networks has become a new problem since each network is not directly connected via back-end core networks or servers. The issue is and has been discussed especially in wireless sensor and actuator networks (WSAN). In such systems, sensors and actuators are tightly coupled, so when an independent WSAN needs to collaborate with other networks, it is difficult to adequately combine them into an integrated infrastructure. In this paper, we propose drone-as-a-gateway (DaaG), which uses drones as mobile gateways to interconnect isolated networks or combine independent services. Our system contains features that focus on the service being provided in the order of importance, different from an adaptive simple mobile sink system or delay-tolerant system. Our simulation results have shown that the proposed system is able to activate actuators in the order of importance of the service, which uses separate sensors' data, and it consumes almost the same time in comparison with other path-planning algorithms. Moreover, we have implemented DaaG and presented results in a field test to show that it can enable large-scale on-demand deployment of sensing and actuation infrastructure or the Internet of Things (IoT).

  3. A rotary piezoelectric actuator using longitudinal and bending hybrid transducer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingxiang Liu


    Full Text Available A rotary piezoelectric actuator using bolt-clamped type transducer with double driving feet is proposed in this study. The first-order longitudinal and fourth-order bending vibration modes are superimposed in the actuator to produce elliptical movements on the driving tips. Longitudinal PZT and bending PZT are clamped between the exponential shape horns and the flange by bolts. The vibration shape changes of the actuator are presented to give a clear explanation of its working principle. Several structural parameters of the exponential shape horn are selected and adjusted to accomplish the tuning process of the longitudinal and bending resonance frequencies. The input impedance and vibration characteristics are calculated by using FEM method; the gained results verify the feasibility of the proposed actuator. After the fabrication of a prototype, its vibration characteristics are measured by using a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer; the tested results are in good agreement with the FEM calculated results. The mechanical output performance experiments state that the prototype achieves a maximum speed of 129 r/min and a maximum torque of 1.5 Nm.

  4. A rotary piezoelectric actuator using longitudinal and bending hybrid transducer (United States)

    Liu, Yingxiang; Yang, Xiaohui; Chen, Weishan; Liu, Junkao


    A rotary piezoelectric actuator using bolt-clamped type transducer with double driving feet is proposed in this study. The first-order longitudinal and fourth-order bending vibration modes are superimposed in the actuator to produce elliptical movements on the driving tips. Longitudinal PZT and bending PZT are clamped between the exponential shape horns and the flange by bolts. The vibration shape changes of the actuator are presented to give a clear explanation of its working principle. Several structural parameters of the exponential shape horn are selected and adjusted to accomplish the tuning process of the longitudinal and bending resonance frequencies. The input impedance and vibration characteristics are calculated by using FEM method; the gained results verify the feasibility of the proposed actuator. After the fabrication of a prototype, its vibration characteristics are measured by using a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer; the tested results are in good agreement with the FEM calculated results. The mechanical output performance experiments state that the prototype achieves a maximum speed of 129 r/min and a maximum torque of 1.5 Nm.

  5. Hybrid-Actuated Finger Prosthesis with Tactile Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Yee Low


    Full Text Available Finger prostheses are devices developed to emulate the functionality of natural human fingers. On top of their aesthetic appearance in terms of shape, size and colour, such biomimetic devices require a high level of dexterity. They must be capable of gripping an object, and even manipulating it in the hand. This paper presents a biomimetic robotic finger actuated by a hybrid mechanism and integrated with a tactile sensor. The hybrid actuation mechanism comprises a DC micromotor and a Shape Memory Alloy (SMA wire. A customized test rig has been developed to measure the force and stroke produced by the SMA wire. In parallel with the actuator development, experimental investigations have been conducted on Quantum Tunnelling Composite (QTC and Pressure Conductive Rubber (PCR towards the development of a tactile sensor for the finger. The viability of using these materials for tactile sensing has been determined. Such a hybrid actuation approach aided with tactile sensing capability enables a finger design as an integral part of a prosthetic hand for applications up to the transradial amputation level.

  6. Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of nuclear-grade plutonium nitrate solutions

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of nuclear-grade plutonium nitrate solutions to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Sections Plutonium by Controlled-Potential Coulometry Plutonium by Amperometric Titration with Iron(II) Plutonium by Diode Array Spectrophotometry Free Acid by Titration in an Oxalate Solution 8 to 15 Free Acid by Iodate Precipitation-Potentiometric Titration Test Method 16 to 22 Uranium by Arsenazo I Spectrophotometric Test Method 23 to 33 Thorium by Thorin Spectrophotometric Test Method 34 to 42 Iron by 1,10-Phenanthroline Spectrophotometric Test Method 43 to 50 Impurities by ICP-AES Chloride by Thiocyanate Spectrophotometric Test Method 51 to 58 Fluoride by Distillation-Spectrophotometric Test Method 59 to 66 Sulfate by Barium Sulfate Turbidimetric Test Method 67 to 74 Isotopic Composition by Mass Spectrom...

  7. Bistable electroactive polymer for refreshable Braille display with improved actuation stability (United States)

    Niu, Xiaofan; Brochu, Paul; Stoyanov, Hristiyan; Yun, Sung Ryul; Pei, Qibing


    Poly(t-butyl acrylate) is a bistable electroactive polymer (BSEP) capable of rigid-to-rigid actuation. The BSEP combines the large-strain actuation of dielectric elastomers with shape memory property. We have introduced a material approach to overcome pull-in instability in poly(t-butyl acrylate) that significantly improves the actuation lifetime at strains greater than 100%. Refreshable Braille display devices with size of a smartphone screen have been fabricated to manifest a potential application of the BSEP. We will report the testing results of the devices by a Braille user.

  8. An electro-mechanically coupled model for the dynamic behavior of a dielectric electro-active polymer actuator (United States)

    Hodgins, M.; Rizzello, G.; Naso, D.; York, A.; Seelecke, S.


    Dielectric electro-active polymer (DEAP) technology holds promise for enabling lightweight, energy efficient, and scalable actuators. The circular DEAP actuator configuration (also known as cone or diaphragm actuator) in particular shows potential in applications such as pumps, valves, micro-positioners and loudspeakers. For a quantitative prediction of the actuator behavior as well as for design optimization tasks, material models which can reproduce the coupled electromechanical behavior inherent to these actuators are necessary. This paper presents a non-linear viscoelastic model based on an electro-mechanical Ogden free energy expression for the DEAP. The DEAP model is coupled with a spring/mass system to study the dynamic performance of such a representative system from static behavior to 50 Hz. The system is identified and validated by several different experiments.

  9. Miniature Piezoelectric Macro-Mass Balance (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Trebi-Ollennu, Ashitey; Bonitz, Robert G.; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph


    Mass balances usually use a strain gauge that requires an impedance measurement and is susceptible to noise and thermal drift. A piezoelectric balance can be used to measure mass directly by monitoring the voltage developed across the piezoelectric balance, which is linear with weight or it can be used in resonance to produce a frequency change proportional to the mass change (see figure). The piezoelectric actuator/balance is swept in frequency through its fundamental resonance. If a small mass is added to the balance, the resonance frequency shifts down in proportion to the mass. By monitoring the frequency shift, the mass can be determined. This design allows for two independent measurements of mass. Additionally, more than one sample can be verified because this invention allows for each sample to be transported away from the measuring device upon completion of the measurement, if required. A piezoelectric actuator, or many piezoelectric actuators, was placed between the collection plate of the sampling system and the support structure. As the sample mass is added to the plate, the piezoelectrics are stressed, causing them to produce a voltage that is proportional to the mass and acceleration. In addition, a change in mass delta m produces a change in the resonance frequency with delta f proportional to delta m. In a microgravity environment, the spacecraft could be accelerated to produce a force on the piezoelectric actuator that would produce a voltage proportional to the mass and acceleration. Alternatively, the acceleration could be used to force the mass on the plate, and the inertial effects of the mass on the plate would produce a shift in the resonance frequency with the change in frequency related to the mass change. Three prototypes of the mass balance mechanism were developed. These macro-mass balances each consist of a solid base and an APA 60 Cedrat flextensional piezoelectric actuator supporting a measuring plate. A similar structure with 3 APA

  10. Body Mass Index-Dependent Ventilatory Parameters From Respiratory Inductive Plethysmography During 6-Minute Walk Test. (United States)

    Retory, Yann; de Picciotto, Carole; Niedzialkowski, Pauline; Petitjean, Michel; Bonay, Marcel


    Walking is part of obesity management. Assessment of ventilatory impairments and consequences for gait induced by obesity could be clinically helpful. We aimed to develop a method to accurately monitor ventilation with respiratory inductive plethysmography (RIP) in subjects with high body mass indices (BMIs) during a 6-min walk test (6MWT). 25 volunteers were divided into 2 groups based on BMI (30 kg/m2) and performed a 6MWT with a calibrated RIP. Ventilatory parameters (tidal volume [V(T)], inspiratory [T(I)] and expiratory [T(E)] times, V(T)/T(I) ratio, and T(I)/Ttot ratio) were determined after processing RIP signals with a custom-made algorithm designed to discriminate tissue motion artifacts and respiratory cycles in the time domain. Six-min walk distance and average speed by minute were collected. The number of artifacts removed by the algorithm used for artifact removal was higher for high-BMI subjects and was correlated to their individual values (r = 0.66, P exercise for V(T), T(I), and T(E) (P exercise as well as locomotor and ventilatory differences relative to BMI during the 6MWT. Thus, this system gives useful information from the 6MWT for clinicians who want to assess respiratory patterns of patients during this commonly used test. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  11. Effect of asymmetric actuator and detector position on Coriolis flowmeter and measured phase shift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enz, Stephanie


    Coriolis flowmeters (CFM) are forced to vibrate by a periodic excitation usually applied midpipe through an electromagnetic actuator. From hands-on experience with industrial CFMs it appears, that the electromagnetic actuator has to be located as symmetric as possible. For CFM design and trouble-shooting...... position, e.g. due to manufacturing variations or improper handling of the CFM, induces a phase shift that leads to changes of the meter’s sensitivity, and could therefore result into erroneous measurements of the mass flow. This phase shift depends on the mass flow and does not contribute to a lacking...

  12. Actuator Fault Detection and Diagnosis for Quadrotors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, P.; Van Kampen, E.J.; Yu, B.


    This paper presents a method for fault detection and diagnosis of actuator loss of effectiveness for a quadrotor helicopter. This paper not only considers the detection of the actuator loss of effectiveness faults, but also addresses the diagnosis of the faults. The detection and estimation of the

  13. Artificial Cilia : Mimicking Nature Through Magnetic Actuation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khaderi, S. N.; Baltussen, M. G. H. M.; Anderson, P. D.; Ioan, D.; den Toonder, J.M.J.; Onck, P. R.; Murthy, SK; Khan, SA; Ugaz, VM; Zeringue, HC


    Manipulation of bio-fluids in microchannels faces many challenges in the development of lab-on-a-chip devices. We propose magnetically actuated artificial cilia which can propel fluids in microchannels. These cilia are magnetic films which can be actuated by an external magnetic field, leading to an

  14. Conducting Polymer Actuators: Prospects and Limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaarup, Steen

    Actuators constructed with a conjugated polymer as the active part have been predicted to have a number of highly desirable properties: Large mechanical strength, high power density, i.e. high actuation speeds possible, sufficient maximum strain values, high reversibility and safe, low voltages (1...

  15. Conjugated Polymer Actuators: Prospects and Limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaarup, Steen


    Actuators constructed with a conjugated polymer as the active part have been predicted to have a number of highly desirable properties: Large mechanical strength, high power density, i.e. high actuation speeds possible, sufficient maximum strain values, high reversibility and safe, low voltages (1...

  16. Design optimization of a linear actuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rechenbach, B.; Willatzen, Morten; Preisler, K. Lorenzen


    The mechanical contacting of a dielectric elastomer actuator is investigated. The actuator is constructed by coiling the dielectric elastomer around two parallel metal rods, similar to a rubber band stretched by two index fingers. The goal of this paper is to design the geometry and the mechanical...

  17. Fault Detection for Diesel Engine Actuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, M.; Bøgh, S.A.; Jørgensen, R.B.


    Feedback control systems are vulnerable to faults in control loop sensors and actuators, because feedback actions may cause abrupt responses and process damage when faults occur.......Feedback control systems are vulnerable to faults in control loop sensors and actuators, because feedback actions may cause abrupt responses and process damage when faults occur....

  18. Numerical investigation of aerodynamic flow actuation produced by surface plasma actuator on 2D oscillating airfoil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh Khang Phan


    Full Text Available Numerical simulation of unsteady flow control over an oscillating NACA0012 airfoil is investigated. Flow actuation of a turbulent flow over the airfoil is provided by low current DC surface glow discharge plasma actuator which is analytically modeled as an ion pressure force produced in the cathode sheath region. The modeled plasma actuator has an induced pressure force of about 2 kPa under a typical experiment condition and is placed on the airfoil surface at 0% chord length and/or at 10% chord length. The plasma actuator at deep-stall angles (from 5° to 25° is able to slightly delay a dynamic stall and to weaken a pressure fluctuation in down-stroke motion. As a result, the wake region is reduced. The actuation effect varies with different plasma pulse frequencies, actuator locations and reduced frequencies. A lift coefficient can increase up to 70% by a selective operation of the plasma actuator with various plasma frequencies and locations as the angle of attack changes. Active flow control which is a key advantageous feature of the plasma actuator reveals that a dynamic stall phenomenon can be controlled by the surface plasma actuator with less power consumption if a careful control scheme of the plasma actuator is employed with the optimized plasma pulse frequency and actuator location corresponding to a dynamic change in reduced frequency.

  19. A multi-segment soft actuator for biomedical applications based on IPMCs (United States)

    Zhao, Dongxu; Wang, Yanjie; Liu, Jiayu; Luo, Meng; Li, Dichen; Chen, Hualing


    With rapid progress of biomedical devices towards miniaturization, flexibility, multifunction and low cost, the restrictions of traditional mechanical structures become particularly apparent, while soft materials become research focus in broad fields. As one of the most attractive soft materials, Ionic Polymer-Metal Composite (IPMC) is widely used as artificial muscles and actuators, with the advantages of low driving-voltage, high efficiency of electromechanical transduction and functional stabilization. In this paper, a new intuitive control method was presented to achieve the omnidirectional bending movements and was applied on a representative actuation structure of a multi-degree-offreedom soft actuator composed of two segments bar-shaped IPMC with a square cross section. Firstly, the bar-shaped IPMCs were fabricated by the solution casting method, reducing plating, autocatalytic plating method and cut into shapes successively. The connectors of the multi-segment IPMC actuator were fabricated by 3D printing. Then, a new control method was introduced to realize the intuitive mapping relationship between the actuator and the joystick manipulator. The control circuit was designed and tested. Finally, the multi-degree-of-freedom actuator of 2 segments bar-shaped IPMCs was implemented and omnidirectional bending movements were achieved, which could be a promising actuator for biomedical applications, such as endoscope, catheterism, laparoscopy and the surgical resection of tumors.

  20. Robust control of dielectric elastomer diaphragm actuator for human pulse signal tracking (United States)

    Ye, Zhihang; Chen, Zheng; Asmatulu, Ramazan; Chan, Hoyin


    Human pulse signal tracking is an emerging technology that is needed in traditional Chinese medicine. However, soft actuation with multi-frequency tracking capability is needed for tracking human pulse signal. Dielectric elastomer (DE) is one type of soft actuating that has great potential in human pulse signal tracking. In this paper, a DE diaphragm actuator was designed and fabricated to track human pulse pressure signal. A physics-based and control-oriented model has been developed to capture the dynamic behavior of DE diaphragm actuator. Using the physical model, an H-infinity robust control was designed for the actuator to reject high-frequency sensing noises and disturbances. The robust control was then implemented in real-time to track a multi-frequency signal, which verified the tracking capability and robustness of the control system. In the human pulse signal tracking test, a human pulse signal was measured at the City University of Hong Kong and then was tracked using DE actuator at Wichita State University in the US. Experimental results have verified that the DE actuator with its robust control is capable of tracking human pulse signal.

  1. Advanced Actuator Concepts for High Precision Deformable Mirrors Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TRS Technologies proposes to develop a variety of single crystal actuators for adaptive optics deformable mirrors. Single crystal piezoelectric actuators are...

  2. Soil test phosphorus dynamics in animal waste amended soils: using P mass balance approach. (United States)

    Shafqat, Mustafa N; Pierzynski, Gary M


    Soil test phosphorus (STP) is commonly used for phosphorus (P) fertilizer recommendations in agriculture and in risk assessment of offsite P movement from environmental perspectives. Present guidelines do not differentiate between the P sources and assume that P added to the soil would behave alike. The objective of this study was to understand the influence of different animal P sources applied at three different rates on changes in STP in many different soils using P mass balance approach. Six P sources consisting of three types of monogastric, two ruminant and triple super phosphate (TSP) applied at 0, 50, and 150 mg P kg(-1) in six different soils. Corn (Zea mays L.) was used to remove P and total of seven harvests were achieved. The STP (Bray 1P) was monitored at T(0) and after each harvest and relationship was developed between STP and net P addition/removal to compute the slope. Prior to crop P removal, the Turkey (Meleagris gallopava) litter (TL) produced the smallest slope at both rates and across all soils. Most P sources resulted large slope values in the Woodson soil. The slope value progressively decreased from higher rate to lower rate to the control treatment in P mass balance study. Soil clay content, initial STP, soil pH, and soil organic matter levels were involved in explaining variations in slope value in TL, while initial STP and clay content in Hog (Sus scrofa) manure (HM) and biosolid (SS) amended soils in net P addition/removal study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Piecewise Model and Parameter Obtainment of Governor Actuator in Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhao


    Full Text Available The governor actuators in some heat-engine plants have nonlinear valves. This nonlinearity of valves may lead to the inaccuracy of the opening and closing time constants calculated based on the whole segment fully open and fully close experimental test curves of the valve. An improved mathematical model of the turbine governor actuator is proposed to reflect the nonlinearity of the valve, in which the main and auxiliary piecewise opening and closing time constants instead of the fixed oil motive opening and closing time constants are adopted to describe the characteristics of the actuator. The main opening and closing time constants are obtained from the linear segments of the whole fully open and close curves. The parameters of proportional integral derivative (PID controller are identified based on the small disturbance experimental tests of the valve. Then the auxiliary opening and closing time constants and the piecewise opening and closing valve points are determined by the fully open/close experimental tests. Several testing functions are selected to compare genetic algorithm and particle swarm optimization algorithm (GA-PSO with other basic intelligence algorithms. The effectiveness of the piecewise linear model and its parameters are validated by practical power plant case studies.

  4. Microfabrication of stacked dielectric elastomer actuator fibers (United States)

    Corbaci, Mert; Walter, Wayne; Lamkin-Kennard, Kathleen


    Dielectric elastomer actuators (DEA) are one of the best candidate materials for next generation of robotic actuators, soft sensors and artificial muscles due to their fast response, mechanical robustness and compliance. However, high voltage requirements of DEAs have impeded their potential to become widely used in such applications. In this study, we propose a method for fabrication of silicon based multilayer DEA fibers composed of microlevel dielectric layers to improve the actuation ratios of DEAs at lower voltages. A multi-walled carbon nanotube - polydimethylsiloxane (MWCNT/PDMS) composite was used to fabricate mechanically compliant, conductive parallel plates and electrode connections for the DEA actuators. Active surface area and layer thickness were varied to study the effects of these parameters on actuation ratio as a function of applied voltage. Different structures were fabricated to assess the flexibility of the fabrication method for specific user-end applications.

  5. Actuators Using Piezoelectric Stacks and Displacement Enhancers (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Walkenmeyer, Phillip; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh


    Actuators are used to drive all active mechanisms including machines, robots, and manipulators to name a few. The actuators are responsible for moving, manipulating, displacing, pushing and executing any action that is needed by the mechanism. There are many types and principles of actuation that are responsible for these movements ranging from electromagnetic, electroactive, thermo-mechanic, piezoelectric, electrostrictive etc. Actuators are readily available from commercial producers but there is a great need for reducing their size, increasing their efficiency and reducing their weight. Studies at JPL’s Non Destructive Evaluation and Advanced Actuators (NDEAA) Laboratory have been focused on the use of piezoelectric stacks and novel designs taking advantage of piezoelectric’s potential to provide high torque/force density actuation and high electromechanical conversion efficiency. The actuators/motors that have been developed and reviewed in this paper are operated by various horn configurations as well as the use of pre-stress flexures that make them thermally stable and increases their coupling efficiency. The use of monolithic designs that pre-stress the piezoelectric stack eliminates the use of compression stress bolt. These designs enable the embedding of developed solid-state motors/actuators in any structure with the only macroscopically moving parts are the rotor or the linear translator. Finite element modeling and design tools were used to determine the requirements and operation parameters and the results were used to simulate, design and fabricate novel actuators/motors. The developed actuators and performance will be described and discussed in this paper.

  6. Preliminary Evaluation of Intelligent Intention Estimation Algorithms for an Actuated Lower-Limb Exoskeleton


    Mervin Chandrapal; XiaoQi Chen; Wenhui Wang; Benjamin Stanke; Nicolas Le Pape


    This paper describes the experimental testing of an actuated lower-limb exoskeleton. The exoskeleton is designed to alleviate the loading at the knee joint by supplying assistive torque. It is hypothesized that the support provided will reduce the muscular effort required to perform activities of daily living and thus facilitate the execution of these movements by those who previously had limited mobility. The exoskeleton is actuated by four pneumatic artificial muscles, each providing 150N o...

  7. Study of test-mass charging process in the LISA missions due to diffuse gamma-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finetti, N; Scrimaglio, R [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita degli Studi dell' Aquila and Gruppo INFN dell' Aquila collegato ai Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Via Vetoio, 67010 Coppito, L' Aquila (Italy); Grimani, C; Fabi, M, E-mail: noemi.finetti@aquila.infn.i [Istituto di Fisica dell' Universita degli Studi di Urbino ' Carlo Bo' , Via S. Chiara, 27, 61029, Urbino (Italy)


    Gravitational inertial sensors will be placed on board the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) and aboard its precursor mission LISA Pathfinder (LISA-PF) in order to detect low frequency gravitational waves in space. Free-floating test-masses (Au{sub 7}Pt{sub 3} cubes) will be housed in inertial sensors for detecting possible laser signal variations induced by gravitational waves. Charging of the LISA test-masses due to exposure of the spacecraft to cosmic radiation and energetic solar particles will affect operation of gravitational inertial sensors. In this paper we report on the role of diffuse gamma-rays in charging the LISA and LISA-PF test-masses with respect to protons and helium nuclei. The diffuse gamma-ray flux in the Galaxy has been interpolated taking into account the outcomes of recent calculations. A comparison with gamma-ray observations gathered by different experiments (COMPTEL and EGRET, Milagro, Whipple, HEGRA, TIBET) has been carried out. Simulations of the test-mass charging process have been performed by means of the FLUKA2006.3b package. Monte Carlo simulations of the interaction of cosmic particles with the LISA spacecraft indicate that the diffuse gamma-ray contribution to the average steady-state test-mass charging rate and to the single-sided power spectrum of the charge rate noise is marginal with respect to that due to galactic cosmic-rays.

  8. Electroactive polymers as a novel actuator technology for lighter-than-air vehicles (United States)

    Michel, Silvain; Dürager, Christian; Zobel, Martin; Fink, Erich


    In this paper the worldwide first EAP actuated blimp will be presented. It consists of a slightly pressurized Helium filled body of a biologically inspired form with Dielectric Elastomer (DE) actuators driving a classical cross tail with two vertical and horizontal rudders for flight control. Two versions of actuators will be discussed: The first version consisted of "spring-roll" type of cylindrical actuators placed together with the electrical supply and control unit in the pay load gondola. The second version consisted of a configuration, where the actuators are placed between the control surfaces and the rudders. This novel type of EAP actuator named "active hinge" was developed and characterized first in the laboratory and afterwards optimized for minimum weight and finally integrated in the blimp structure. In the design phase a numerical simulation tool for the prediction of the DE actuators was developed based on a material model calibrated with the test results from cylindrical actuators. The electrical supply and control system was developed and optimized for minimum of weight. Special attention was paid to the electromagnetic systems compatibility of the high voltage electrical supply system of the DE actuators and the radio flight control system. The design and production of this 3.5 meter long Lighter-than-Air vehicle was collaboration between Empa Duebendorf Switzerland and the Technical University of Berlin. The first version of this EAP blimp first flew at an RC airship regatta hold on 24 th of June 2006 in Dresden Germany, while the second version had his maiden flight on 8 th of January 2007 in Duebendorf Switzerland. In both cases satisfactory flight control performances were demonstrated.

  9. Polypyrrole Actuators Working at 2 to 30 Hz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaarup, Steen; Bay, Lasse; West, Keld


    “Soft actuators” based on the conducting polymer polypyrrole (PPy) may be especially suitable for use in combination with human limbs. A research project under the European Union Quality of Life program (DRIFTS, Dynamically Responsive Intervention for Tremor Suppression,“Soft actuators” based on the conducting polymer polypyrrole (PPy) may be especially suitable for use in combination with human limbs. A research project under the European Union Quality of Life program (DRIFTS, Dynamically Responsive Intervention for Tremor Suppression, http......:// focuses on the development of practical tremor suppression orthoses prototypes [1]. One of the choices of actuation mechanism is to use conducting polymers. The main challenge is to provide significant forces at the frequencies relevant to tremor in upper limbs: 2-16 Hz. Forces in the range of 0.1-1 kg......, and 0.32 mm at 15 Hz for the 1 kg limit. The required mass of the actuator itself at 15 Hz is ~100 mg. The results indicate the feasibility of using PPy actuators for tremor suppression....

  10. Testing effective quantum gravity with gravitational waves from extreme mass ratio inspirals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yunes, N [Institute for Gravitational Physics and Geometry, Center for Gravitational Wave Physics, Department of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802-6300 (United States); Sopuerta, C F, E-mail: nyunes@princeton.ed [Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Facultat de Ciencies, Campus UAB, Torre C5 parells, Bellaterra, 08193 Barcelona (Spain)


    Testing deviation of GR is one of the main goals of the proposed Laser Interferometer Space Antenna. For the first time, we consistently compute the generation of gravitational waves from extreme-mass ratio inspirals (stellar compact objects into supermassive black holes) in a well-motivated alternative theory of gravity, that to date remains weakly constrained by double binary pulsar observations. The theory we concentrate on is Chern-Simons (CS) modified gravity, a 4-D, effective theory that is motivated both from string theory and loop-quantum gravity, and which enhances the Einstein-Hilbert action through the addition of a dynamical scalar field and the parity-violating Pontryagin density. We show that although point particles continue to follow geodesics in the modified theory, the background about which they inspiral is a modification to the Kerr metric, which imprints a CS correction on the gravitational waves emitted. CS modified gravitational waves are sufficiently different from the General Relativistic expectation that they lead to significant dephasing after 3 weeks of evolution, but such dephasing will probably not prevent detection of these signals, but instead lead to a systematic error in the determination of parameters. We end with a study of radiation-reaction in the modified theory and show that, to leading-order, energy-momentum emission is not CS modified, except possibly for the subdominant effect of scalar-field emission. The inclusion of radiation-reaction will allow for tests of CS modified gravity with space-borne detectors that might be two orders of magnitude larger than current binary pulsar bounds.

  11. Testing Chern-Simons modified gravity with observations of extreme-mass-ratio binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Canizares, Priscilla; Sopuerta, Carlos F


    Extreme-Mass-Ratio Inspirals (EMRIs) are one of the most promising sources of gravitational waves (GWs) for space-based detectors like the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). EMRIs consist of a compact stellar object orbiting around a massive black hole (MBH). Since EMRI signals are expected to be long lasting (containing of the order of hundred thousand cycles), they will encode the structure of the MBH gravitational potential in a precise way such that features depending on the theory of gravity governing the system may be distinguished. That is, EMRI signals may be used to test gravity and the geometry of black holes. However, the development of a practical methodology for computing the generation and propagation of GWs from EMRIs in theories of gravity different than General Relativity (GR) has only recently begun. In this paper, we present a parameter estimation study of EMRIs in a particular modification of GR, which is described by a four-dimensional Chern-Simons (CS) gravitational term. We focu...

  12. Materials testing for spacecraft use. [by measurement of Total Mass Loss of Volatile Condensable Materials (United States)

    Park, J. J.


    A technique has been developed for determining the outgassing characteristics of materials intended for spacecraft use. A measurement of the total mass loss (TML) and of the collected volatile condensable materials (CVCM) is used as a guide for selecting those materials low in outgassing. The data were used to compare the outgassing from two conductive black paints. In addition, the apparatus was also used in an attempt to simulate expected launch temperatures by collecting the outgassed molecules on a glass plate, which simulates a nearby thermal control surface. The glass plate was then irradiated in vacuum by simulated sunlight. Transmittance patterns of the clean glass plate and also with the condensed material on it were compared with the transmittance pattern after irradiation of the condensate. The transmittance patterns showed a drastic change. The resultant discoloration indicated the detrimental effects of the contamination and aided in selecting the better conductive paint. Additional tests utilizing an aluminized mirror collector plate have been run to show the effect of irradiation upon the CVCM from certain different classes of materials often used on spacecraft.

  13. Considerations for Contractile Electroactive Polymeric Materials and Actuators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Lenore; Erickson, Carl J.; Meixler, Lewis D.; Ascione, George; Gentile, Charles A.; Tilson, Charles; Bernasek, Stephen L.; Abelev, Esta


    Ras Labs produces electroactive polymer (EAP) based materials and actuators that bend, swell, ripple and now contract (new development) with low electric input. This is an important attribute because of the ability of contraction to produce life-like motion. The mechanism of contraction is not well understood. Radionuclide-labeled experiments were conducted to follow the movement of electrolytes and water in these EAPs when activated. Extreme temperature experiments were performed on the contractile EAPs with very favorable results. One of the biggest challenges in developing these actuators, however, is the electrode-EAP interface because of the pronounced movement of the EAP. Plasma treatments of metallic electrodes were investigated in order to improve the attachment of the embedded electrodes to the EAP material. Surface analysis, adhesive testing, and mechanical testing were conducted to test metal surfaces and metal-polymer interfaces. The nitrogen plasma treatment of titanium produced a strong metal-polymer interface; however, oxygen plasma treatment of both stainless steel and titanium produced even stronger metal-polymer interfaces. Plasma treatment of the electrodes allows for the embedded electrodes and the EAP material of the actuator to work and move as a unit, with no detachment, by significantly improving the metal-polymer interface.

  14. Optothermally actuated capillary burst valve (United States)

    Eriksen, Johan; Bilenberg, Brian; Kristensen, Anders; Marie, Rodolphe


    We demonstrate the optothermal actuation of individual capillary burst valves in an all-polymer microfluidic device. The capillary burst valves are realised in a planar design by introducing a fluidic constriction in a microfluidic channel of constant depth. We show that a capillary burst valve can be burst by raising the temperature due to the temperature dependence of the fluid surface tension. We address individual valves by using a local heating platform based on a thin film of near infrared absorber dye embedded in the lid used to seal the microfluidic device [L. H. Thamdrup et al., Nano Lett. 10, 826-832 (2010)]. An individual valve is burst by focusing the laser in its vicinity. We demonstrate the capture of single polystyrene 7 μm beads in the constriction triggered by the bursting of the valve.

  15. High-Performance Multiresponsive Paper Actuators. (United States)

    Amjadi, Morteza; Sitti, Metin


    There is an increasing demand for soft actuators because of their importance in soft robotics, artificial muscles, biomimetic devices, and beyond. However, the development of soft actuators capable of low-voltage operation, powerful actuation, and programmable shape-changing is still challenging. In this work, we propose programmable bilayer actuators that operate based on the large hygroscopic contraction of the copy paper and simultaneously large thermal expansion of the polypropylene film upon increasing the temperature. The electrothermally activated bending actuators can function with low voltages (≤ 8 V), low input electric power per area (P ≤ 0.14 W cm-2), and low temperature changes (≤ 35 °C). They exhibit reversible shape-changing behavior with curvature radii up to 1.07 cm-1 and bending angle of 360°, accompanied by powerful actuation. Besides the electrical activation, they can be powered by humidity or light irradiation. We finally demonstrate the use of our paper actuators as a soft gripper robot and a lightweight paper wing for aerial robotics.

  16. Characterization of a Lorentz Force Actuator (United States)

    Donovan, John F.; Kral, Linda D.; Cary, Andrew W.


    To develop a detailed understanding of the effect of a Lorentz force actuator in seawater, both experiments and numerical simulations are conducted in an environment with no mean flow. The Lorentz force actuator is comprised of a pair of magnets and a pair of electrodes and produces a volumetric body force. A pressurized water vessel contains a uniform water/electrolyte solution. Particle image velocimetry and laser sheet flow visualization are used to obtain snapshots of the induced flow for different orientations of the laser sheet. Simulations are also performed in a static water/electrolyte solution with the same current levels as in the experiments. Flow is induced upward at the center of the actuator, even though a downward Lorentz force is applied there. Both the simulations and the experiments show that the Lorentz force actuator creates a complex three-dimensional interaction resulting in a upward flow over the actuator. Two wall jets directed toward one another are created by the forces over the electrodes that impinge in the center of the actuator and fluid is pushed up and away from the wall. In terms of vorticity production, the actuator exhibits local maxima in the curl of the Lorentz force away from the wall in a region above the magnets. Comparison between simulation and experiment is remarkably good. This work is supported by Mr. Gary Jones at the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency.

  17. Thermoelectric Responsive Shape Memory Graphene/Hydro-Epoxy Composites for Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongkun Wang


    Full Text Available A series of thermoelectric responsive shape memory hydro-epoxy (H-EP composites filled with different contents of graphene were developed and characterized. Compared with traditional actuation materials, these novel shape memory composites exhibit attractive properties, such as light weight, large deformation, good processability and high response speed, making them good candidates for actuator materials. The effect of graphene content on the shape memory composites was studied in terms of mechanical, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA, electrical properties, and thermoelectric responsive shape memory test. The results show that when graphene content was 2 wt %, the bend strength of the composite improved by about 47% with a storage modulus larger than other composites. The shape recovery ratio of the composites was about 100%, and the shape recovery speed increased with the increment of graphene content, applied voltage, and temperature. Due to the excellent actuation performance, the graphene/hydro-epoxy composite has potential applications in the actuator in the future.

  18. Rubber muscle actuation with pressurized CO2 from enzyme-catalyzed urea hydrolysis (United States)

    Sutter, Thomas M.; Dickerson, Matthew B.; Creasy, Terry S.; Justice, Ryan S.


    A biologically inspired pneumatic pressure source was designed and sized to supply high pressure CO2(g) to power a rubber muscle actuator. The enzyme urease served to catalyze the hydrolysis of urea, producing CO2(g) that flowed into the actuator. The actuator’s power envelope was quantified by testing actuator response on a custom-built linear-motion rig. Reaction kinetics and available work density were determined by replacing the actuator with a double-action piston and measuring volumetric gas generation against a fixed pressure on the opposing piston. Under the conditions investigated, urease catalyzed the generation of up to 0.81 MPa (117 psi) of CO2(g) in the reactor headspace within 18 min, and the evolved gas produced a maximum work density of 0.65 J ml-1.

  19. Improvement of Flexible Linear Stepping Actuator Driven by Pneumatic Balloons and Brakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eguchi Yuya


    Full Text Available The development of soft actuator for the rehabilitation device and power assisting devices has been required based on aging society. However, a flexible actuator that can generate both larger force and longer displacement has not been developed. It is also difficult to realize a flexible displacement sensor with long stroke while deforming its form according to the actuator’s shape. In the previous study, the flexible actuator with larger force and longer stroke that can adjust its stroke by giving stepping motion using pneumatic balloons and brakes was proposed and tested. However, the slipping of the pneumatic brake prevents the larger generated force. In this paper, the improved pneumatic brake using a pneumatic balloon and a mechanical chuck is described. The fundamental performance of the actuator using the improved brake is also described.

  20. Testing the Reliability of Cluster Mass Indicators with a Systematics Limited Dataset (United States)

    Juett, Adrienne M.; Davis, David S.; Mushotzky, Richard


    We present the mass X-ray observable scaling relationships for clusters of galaxies using the XMM-Newton cluster catalog of Snowden et al. Our results are roughly consistent with previous observational and theoretical work, with one major exception. We find 2-3 times the scatter around the best fit mass scaling relationships as expected from cluster simulations or seen in other observational studies. We suggest that this is a consequence of using hydrostatic mass, as opposed to virial mass, and is due to the explicit dependence of the hydrostatic mass on the gradients of the temperature and gas density profiles. We find a larger range of slope in the cluster temperature profiles at radii 500 than previous observational studies. Additionally, we find only a weak dependence of the gas mass fraction on cluster mass, consistent with a constant. Our average gas mass fraction results also argue for a closer study of the systematic errors due to instrumental calibration and modeling method variations between analyses. We suggest that a more careful study of the differences between various observational results and with cluster simulations is needed to understand sources of bias and scatter in cosmological studies of galaxy clusters.

  1. Saturated poroelastic actuators generated by topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Casper Schousboe; Sigmund, Ole


    In this paper the fluid-structure interaction problem of a saturated porous media is considered. The pressure coupling properties of porous saturated materials change with the microstructure and this is utilized in the design of an actuator using a topology optimized porous material. By maximizing...... the coupling of internal fluid pressure and elastic shear stresses a slab of the optimized porous material deflects/deforms when a pressure is imposed and an actuator is created. Several phenomenologically based constraints are imposed in order to get a stable force transmitting actuator....

  2. Refreshable Braille displays using EAP actuators (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph


    Refreshable Braille can help visually impaired persons benefit from the growing advances in computer technology. The development of such displays in a full screen form is a great challenge due to the need to pack many actuators in small area without interferences. In recent years, various displays using actuators such as piezoelectric stacks have become available in commercial form but most of them are limited to one line Braille code. Researchers in the field of electroactive polymers (EAP) investigated methods of using these materials to form full screen displays. This manuscript reviews the state of the art of producing refreshable Braille displays using EAP-based actuators.

  3. Modeling of a Dielectric Elastomer Bender Actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul White


    Full Text Available The current smallest self-contained modular robot uses a shape memory alloy, which is inherently inefficient, slow and difficult to control. We present the design, fabrication and demonstration of a module based on dielectric elastomer actuation. The module uses a pair of bowtie dielectric elastomer actuators in an agonist-antagonist configuration and is seven times smaller than previously demonstrated. In addition, we present an intuitive model for the bowtie configuration that predicts the performance with experimental verification. Based on this model and the experimental analysis, we address the theoretical limitations and advantages of this antagonistic bender design relative to other dielectric elastomer actuators.

  4. Interface design for DE based stack-actuators considering various application cases (United States)

    Bochmann, Helge; von Heckel, Benedikt; Hoffstadt, Thorben; Maas, Jürgen


    Transducers based on dielectric elastomers (DE) are able to fulfill various requirements as generator, sensor and actuator applications. Depending on the application their design implementation differs. An advantageous transducer topology to improve the strain and force are DE stack-transducers which consist of multiple layers of DE films coated with a compliant electrode. Their actuation behavior is strongly depended on the total number of layers and the mechanical interface to its environment. Considering different application cases customized actuator designs are proposed and the utilized manufacturing process is briefly presented. Within this publication a FE model is used to simulate the deformation under consideration of various mechanical boundaries. After-wards, experimental investigations are conducted to verify the simulation results. Actuator configurations with different mechanical interfaces are analyzed regarding their static actuation behavior. Furthermore, dynamic tests were conducted to show differences between actuators made from silicone and polyurethane (PUR). In summary, the tests confirm the results of the FE analysis and provide promising results appropriate for various future applications.

  5. Characterization of three-dimensional dynamics of piezo-stack actuators (United States)

    Arda Gozen, B.; Burak Ozdoganlar, O.


    This paper presents a methodology for the characterization of dynamic behavior of piezoelectric-stack actuators. Piezo-stack actuators are used in many fields to obtain high-accuracy displacements and vibrations, commonly in multiple dimensions. However, obtaining accurate motions from piezo-stack actuators require thorough characterization of their non-linear dynamic response characteristics in three dimensions. In this work, a laser Doppler vibrometer-based precision characterization system is created to measure the three-dimensional dynamic motions of the piezo-stack actuators within a wide frequency range. A measurement reference frame is obtained by arranging three laser beams in a mutually orthogonal configuration. A set of stepped-sine tests are conducted at different levels of excitation amplitudes by individually exciting each of the stacks (of a multi-stack piezo actuator) and measuring the three-dimensional response in the measurement reference frame. The resulting dynamic response is decomposed into its components that occur at harmonics and non-harmonics of the excitation frequency. A power analysis is then conducted to determine the amount of contribution of each response component (harmonic or non-harmonic) in the overall response. The response behavior is then represented using a new approach constructed by extending the conventional frequency response function (FRF) description to higher-harmonic and non-harmonic components. The application of the approach is demonstrated by testing two three-axis piezo-stack actuators.

  6. Conformal grasping using feedback controlled bubble actuator array (United States)

    Carrigan, Wei; Stein, Richard; Mittal, Manoj; Wijesundara, Muthu B. J.


    This paper presents an implementation of a bubble actuator array (BAA) based active robotic skin, a modular system, onto existing low cost robotic end-effectors or prosthetic hands for conformal grasping of objects. The active skin is comprised of pneumatically controlled polyurethane rubber bubbles with overlaid sensors for feedback control. Sensor feedback allows the BAA based robotic skin to conformally grasp an object with an explicit uniform force distribution. The bubble actuator array reported here is capable of applying up to 4N of force at each point of contact and tested for conformally grasping objects with a radius of curvature up to 57.15mm. Once integrated onto a two-finger gripper with one degree of freedom (DOF), the active skin was shown to reduce point of contact forces of up to 50% for grasped objects.

  7. Shape Memory Alloy Actuator Design: CASMART Collaborative Best Practices (United States)

    Benafan, Othmane; Brown, Jeff; Calkins, F. Tad; Kumar, Parikshith; Stebner, Aaron; Turner, Travis; Vaidyanathan, Raj; Webster, John; Young, Marcus L.


    Upon examination of shape memory alloy (SMA) actuation designs, there are many considerations and methodologies that are common to them all. A goal of CASMART's design working group is to compile the collective experiences of CASMART's member organizations into a single medium that engineers can then use to make the best decisions regarding SMA system design. In this paper, a review of recent work toward this goal is presented, spanning a wide range of design aspects including evaluation, properties, testing, modeling, alloy selection, fabrication, actuator processing, design optimization, controls, and system integration. We have documented each aspect, based on our collective experiences, so that the design engineer may access the tools and information needed to successfully design and develop SMA systems. Through comparison of several case studies, it is shown that there is not an obvious single, linear route a designer can adopt to navigate the path of concept to product. SMA engineering aspects will have different priorities and emphasis for different applications.

  8. FEM assisted design and simulation of novel electrothermal actuators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deladi, S.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt


    In this work the authors present the design, simulation, and experimental results of novel electrothermal actuators, such as the trimorph actuator for out-of-plane motion, the coupled in-plane actuator for in-plane motion and an actuator providing combined in- and out-of-plane motion that have been

  9. Missile flight control using active flexspar actuators (United States)

    Barrett, Ronald M.; Gross, R. Steven; Brozoski, Fred


    A new type of subsonic missile flight control surface using piezoelectric flexspar actuators is presented. The flexspar design uses an aerodynamic shell which is pivoted at the quarter-chord about a graphite main spar. The shell is pitched up and down by a piezoelectric bender element which is rigidly attached to a base mount and allowed to rotate freely at the tip. The element curvature, shell pitch deflection and torsional stiffness are modeled using laminated plate theory. A one-third scale TOW 2B missile model was used as a demonstration platform. A static wing of the missile was replaced with an active flexspar wing. The 1' X 2.7' active flight control surface was powered by a bi-morph bender with 5-mil PZT-5H sheets. Bench and wind tunnel testing showed good correlation between theory and experiment and static pitch deflections in excess of +/- 14 degree(s). A natural frequency of 78.5 rad/s with a break frequency of 157 rad/s was measured. Wind tunnel tests revealed no flutter or divergence tendencies. Maximum changes in lift coefficient were measured at (Delta) CL equals +/- .73 which indicates that terminal and initial missile load factors may be increased by approximately 3.1 and 12.6 g's respectively, leading to a greatly reduced turn radius of only 2,400 ft.

  10. Low power valve actuation using trans-permanent magnetics (United States)

    Duval, Luis Denit

    The subject of magnetic actuators is very broad, and encompasses a wide range of technologies, magnetic circuit topologies, and performance characteristics for an ever-increasing spectrum of applications. As a consequence of recent advances in soft and hard magnetic materials and developments in power electronics, microprocessors and digital control strategies, and the continuing demand for higher performance motion control systems, there appears to be more research and development activity in magnetic actuators for applications spanning all market sectors than at any time. In this dissertation, a rational approach for switching the states of permanent magnets through an on-board magnetization process is presented. The resulting dynamic systems are referred to as trans-permanent magnetic systems (T-PM). The first part of this research focuses on the governing equations needed for the analysis of T-PM systems. Their feasibility is demonstrated experimentally. In doing so, a method that has the potential of leading to new ultra-low power designs for electromechanical devices is introduced. In the second part of this research, the aforementioned developments in T-PM are applied to the problem of low power valves. Whereas alternate approaches to low power valve control may utilize latching mechanisms to maintain valve position during inactive periods, an approach that eliminates latching mechanisms is presented. Instead, the principles of T-PM are employed to switch the states of permanent magnets; the used of permanent magnets instead of electromagnets eliminates power consumption during inactive periods, thereby reducing power consumption to ultra-low levels. The magnets in a T-PM actuator are configured in a stack. The relationships between the strength and number of magnets in the stack and the stroke and resolution of the actuator are developed. This dissertation reports on the design and testing of a prototype valve actuator that uses a stack pf T-PM with


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghezzi, Luan; Johnson, John Asher, E-mail: [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)


    Characterizing the physical properties of exoplanets and understanding their formation and orbital evolution requires precise and accurate knowledge of their host stars. Accurately measuring stellar masses is particularly important because they likely influence planet occurrence and the architectures of planetary systems. Single main-sequence stars typically have masses estimated from evolutionary tracks, which generally provide accurate results due to their extensive empirical calibration. However, the validity of this method for subgiants and giants has been called into question by recent studies, with suggestions that the masses of these evolved stars could have been overestimated. We investigate these concerns using a sample of 59 benchmark evolved stars with model-independent masses (from binary systems or asteroseismology) obtained from the literature. We find very good agreement between these benchmark masses and the ones estimated using evolutionary tracks. The average fractional difference in the mass interval ∼0.7–4.5 M{sub ⊙} is consistent with zero (−1.30 ± 2.42%), with no significant trends in the residuals relative to the input parameters. A good agreement between model-dependent and -independent radii (−4.81 ± 1.32%) and surface gravities (0.71 ± 0.51%) is also found. The consistency between independently determined ages for members of binary systems adds further support for the accuracy of the method employed to derive the stellar masses. Taken together, our results indicate that determination of masses of evolved stars using grids of evolutionary tracks is not significantly affected by systematic errors, and is thus valid for estimating the masses of isolated stars beyond the main sequence.

  12. Pulse mode actuation-readout system based on MEMS resonator for liquid sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Meng; Cagliani, Alberto; Davis, Zachary James


    A MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems) bulk disk resonator is applied for mass sensing under its dynamic mode. The classical readout circuitry involves sophisticated feedback loop and feedthrough compensation. We propose a simple straightforward non-loop pulse mode actuation and capacitive...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.I. Baida


    Full Text Available A feasibility of reducing a vacuum circuit-breaker actuator armature speed by means of a liquid damper is analyzed. The paper presents comparative calculations of the armature reduced mass motion dynamics with allowance for the hydraulic damper counter forces.

  14. High Reliability Cryogenic Piezoelectric Valve Actuator Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Piezoelectric actuators constructed with the "smart material" PZT offer many potential advantages for use in NASA cryo-valve missions relative to conventional...

  15. Robust Tracking Control for a Piezoelectric Actuator

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Salah, M; McIntyre, M; Dawson, D; Wagner, J


    In this paper, a hysteresis model-based nonlinear robust controller is developed for a piezoelectric actuator, utilizing a Lyapunov-based stability analysis, which ensures that a desired displacement...

  16. Serpentine Robot Arm Contains Electromagnetic Actuators (United States)

    Moya, Israel A.; Studer, Philip A.


    Identical modules assembled into flexible robot arm configured in serpentlike fashion to manipulate objects while avoiding obstacles. Each module includes integral electromagnetic actuators energized selectively to produce variety of motions, stationary configurations, and combinations thereof.

  17. Considerations for Contractile Electroactive Materials and Actuators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenore Rasmussen, David Schramm, Paul Rasmussen, Kevin Mullaly, Ras Labs, LLC, Intelligent Materials for Prosthetics & Automation, Lewis D. Meixler, Daniel Pearlman and Alice Kirk


    Ras Labs produces contractile electroactive polymer (EAP) based materials and actuators that bend, swell, ripple, and contract (new development) with low electric input. In addition, Ras Labs produces EAP materials that quickly contract and expand, repeatedly, by reversing the polarity of the electric input, which can be cycled. This phenomenon was explored using molecular modeling, followed by experimentation. Applied voltage step functions were also investigated. High voltage steps followed by low voltage steps produced a larger contraction followed by a smaller contraction. Actuator control by simply adjusting the electric input is extremely useful for biomimetic applications. Muscles are able to partially contract. If muscles could only completely contract, nobody could hold an egg, for example, without breaking it. A combination of high and low voltage step functions could produce gross motor function and fine manipulation within the same actuator unit. Plasma treated electrodes with various geometries were investigated as a means of providing for more durable actuation.

  18. MEMS Sensors and Actuators Laboratory (MSAL) (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The MEMS Sensors and Actuators Laboratory (MSAL) in the A.J. Clark School of Engineering at the University of Maryland (UMD) was established in January 2000. Our lab...

  19. Testing the performances of different image representations for mass classification in digital mammograms


    Angelini, Enrico; Campanini, Renato; Iampieri, Emiro; Lanconelli, Nico; Masotti, Matteo; Roffilli, Matteo


    The classification of tumoral masses and normal breast tissue is targeted. A mass detection algorithm which does not refer explicitly to shape, border, size, contrast or texture of mammographic suspicious regions is evaluated. In the present approach, classification features are embodied by the image representation used to encode suspicious regions. Classification is performed by means of a support vector machine (SVM) classifier. To investigate whether improvements can be achieved with respe...

  20. A new methodology to test galaxy formation models using the dependence of clustering on stellar mass (United States)

    Campbell, David J. R.; Baugh, Carlton M.; Mitchell, Peter D.; Helly, John C.; Gonzalez-Perez, Violeta; Lacey, Cedric G.; Lagos, Claudia del P.; Simha, Vimal; Farrow, Daniel J.


    We present predictions for the two-point correlation function of galaxy clustering as a function of stellar mass, computed using two new versions of the GALFORM semi-analytic galaxy formation model. These models make use of a high resolution, large volume N-body simulation, set in the 7-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe cosmology. One model uses a universal stellar initial mass function (IMF), while the other assumes different IMFs for quiescent star formation and bursts. Particular consideration is given to how the assumptions required to estimate the stellar masses of observed galaxies (such as the choice of IMF, stellar population synthesis model, and dust extinction) influence the perceived dependence of galaxy clustering on stellar mass. Broad-band spectral energy distribution fitting is carried out to estimate stellar masses for the model galaxies in the same manner as in observational studies. We show clear differences between the clustering signals computed using the true and estimated model stellar masses. As such, we highlight the importance of applying our methodology to compare theoretical models to observations. We introduce an alternative scheme for the calculation of the merger time-scales for satellite galaxies in GALFORM, which takes into account the dark matter subhalo information from the simulation. This reduces the amplitude of small-scale clustering. The new merger scheme offers improved or similar agreement with observational clustering measurements, over the redshift range 0 < z < 0.7. We find reasonable agreement with clustering measurements from the Galaxy and Mass Assembly Survey, but find larger discrepancies for some stellar mass ranges and separation scales with respect to measurements from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey, depending on the GALFORM model used.

  1. Standard test method for isotopic analysis of uranium hexafluoride by double standard single-collector gas mass spectrometer method

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This is a quantitative test method applicable to determining the mass percent of uranium isotopes in uranium hexafluoride (UF6) samples with 235U concentrations between 0.1 and 5.0 mass %. 1.2 This test method may be applicable for the entire range of 235U concentrations for which adequate standards are available. 1.3 This test method is for analysis by a gas magnetic sector mass spectrometer with a single collector using interpolation to determine the isotopic concentration of an unknown sample between two characterized UF6 standards. 1.4 This test method is to replace the existing test method currently published in Test Methods C761 and is used in the nuclear fuel cycle for UF6 isotopic analyses. 1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro...

  2. Microelectromechanical Systems Actuator Based Reconfigurable Printed Antenna (United States)

    Simons, Rainee N. (Inventor)


    A polarization reconfigurable patch antenna is disclosed. The antenna includes a feed element, a patch antenna element electrically connected to the feed element, and at least one microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) actuator, with a partial connection to the patch antenna element along an edge of the patch antenna element. The polarization of the antenna can be switched between circular polarization and linear polarization through action of the at least one MEMS actuator.

  3. Linear peristaltic pump based on electromagnetic actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maddoui Lotfi


    Full Text Available In this paper a study and design of a linear peristaltic pump are presented. A set of electromagnetic (solenoid actuators is used as the active tools to drag the liquid by crushing an elastic tube. The pump consists of six serially-connected electromagnetic actuators controlled via an electronic board. This may be considered as a simulated peristalsis action of intestines. The dynamic performances of the pump are investigated analytically and experimentally.

  4. SparkJet Actuators for Flow Control (United States)


    GED-L-07-0137 Aqsi Recording Comute I, rm) /117 ~ Lens (f=105m) X2Photodiode Kodak ES4.0 (2amera 2K) Oscilloscope 300 MHz, Camera 2.5 GS/s and Laser...actuator arrays. 19 SparkJet Actuators for Flow Control Enclosure to: Final Report GED-L-07-0137 From a mathematical standpoint, CFD formulations will


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Moosavi


    Full Text Available An actuator is a device that converts input energy into mechanical energy. According to various types of input energy, various actuators have been advanced. Displacement in the electromagnetic, hydraulic and pneumatic actuators achieve by moving a piston via electromagnetic force or pressure, however the piezoelectric actuator (piezoceramic plates displace directly. Therefore, accuracy and speed in the piezoelectric device are higher than other types of actuators. In the present work, the high-field electromechanical response of high-quality (1−x(Bi 0.5Na0.5TiO3–x(Bi0.5K0.5TiO3 samples abbreviated to BNKTx with x = 0.18, 0.20, 0.22 and 0.24 ceramic materials across its MPB was investigated. The piezoelectrics and actuation characteristics were characterized. Ourresults indicate that x = 0.20, indeed, constitutes the best choice for the MPB composition in the system. Maximum of remanent polarization (37.5 μC cm−2 was obtained for x=0.20. High-field electromechanical responses were also obtained for BNKT0.20 samples. This material exhibited giant field induced strains of 0.13% under 1 kV mm -1 at room temperature.

  6. High-displacement spiral piezoelectric actuators (United States)

    Mohammadi, F.; Kholkin, A. L.; Jadidian, B.; Safari, A.


    A high-displacement piezoelectric actuator, employing spiral geometry of a curved piezoelectric strip is described. The monolithic actuators are fabricated using a layered manufacturing technique, fused deposition of ceramics, which is capable of prototyping electroceramic components with complex shapes. The spiral actuators (2-3 cm in diameter) consisted of 4-5 turns of a lead zirconate titanate ceramic strip with an effective length up to 28 cm. The width was varied from 0.9 to 1.75 mm with a height of 3 mm. When driven by the electric field applied across the width of the spiral wall, the tip of the actuator was found to displace in both radial and tangential directions. The tangential displacement of the tip was about 210 μm under the field of 5 kV/cm. Both the displacement and resonant frequency of the spirals could be tailored by changing the effective length and wall width. The blocking force of the actuator in tangential direction was about 1 N under the field of 5 kV/cm. These properties are advantageous for high-displacement low-force applications where bimorph or monomorph actuators are currently employed.

  7. Dielectric Elastomer Actuated Systems and Methods (United States)

    Dubowsky, Steven (Inventor); Hafez, Moustapha (Inventor); Lichter, Matthew (Inventor); Weiss, Peter (Inventor); Wingert, Andreas (Inventor)


    The system of the present invention includes an actuator having at least two electrodes, an elastomeric dielectric film disposed between the two electrodes, and a frame attached to the elastomeric dielectric film. The frame provides a linear actuation force characteristic over a displacement range. The displacement range is preferably the stroke of the actuator. The displacement range can be about 5 mm and greater. Further, the frame can include a plurality of configurations, for example, at least a rigid members coupled to a flexible member wherein the frame provides an elastic restoring force. In preferred embodiments, the rigid member can be, but is not limited to, curved beams, parallel beams, rods and plates. In a preferred embodiment the actuator can further include a passive element disposed between two flexible members such as, for example, links to tune a stiffness characteristic of the actuator. The passive element can be a bi-stable element. Further, the actuator can include a plurality of layers of the elastomeric dielectric film integrated into the frame. The elastomeric film can be made of different materials such as, for example, acrylic, silicone and latex.

  8. Testing ElEvoHI on a multi-point in situ detected Coronal Mass Ejection (United States)

    Amerstorfer, Tanja; Möstl, Christian; Hess, Phillip; Mays, M. Leila; Temmer, Manuela


    The Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO) has provided us a deep insight into the interplanetary propagation of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Especially the wide-angle heliospheric imagers (HI) enabled the development of a multitude of methods for analyzing the evolution of CMEs through interplanetary (IP) space. Methods able to forecast arrival times and speeds at Earth (or other targets) use the advantage of following a CME's path of propagation up to 1 AU. However, these methods were not able to reduce today's errors in arrival time forecasts to less than ±6 hours, arrival speeds are mostly overestimated by some 100 km s-1. One reason for that is the assumption of constant propagation speed, which is clearly incorrect for most CMEs—especially for those being faster than the ambient solar wind. ElEvoHI, the Ellipse Evolution model (ElEvo) based on HI observations, is a new prediction tool, which uses the benefits of different methods and observations. It provides the possibility to adjust the CME frontal shape (angular width, ellipse aspect ratio) and the direction of motion for each CME event individually. This information can be gained from Graduated Cylindrical Shell (GCS) flux-rope fitting within coronagraph images. Using the Ellipse Conversion (ElCon) method, the observed HI elongation angle is converted into a unit of distance, which reveals the kinematics of the event. After fitting the time-distance profile of the CME using the drag-based equation of motion, where real-time in situ solar wind speed from 1 AU is used as additional input, we receive all input parameters needed to run a forecast using the ElEvo model and to predict arrival times and speeds at any target of interest in IP space. Here, we present a test on a slow CME event of 3 November 2010, in situ detected by the lined-up spacecraft MESSENGER and STEREO Behind. We gain the shape of the CME front from a cut of the 3D GCS CME shape with the ecliptic plane, resulting in an

  9. Analysis and Evaluation of the Dynamic Performance of SMA Actuators for Prosthetic Hand Design (United States)

    O'Toole, Kevin T.; McGrath, Mark M.; Coyle, Eugene


    It is widely acknowledged within the biomedical engineering community that shape memory alloys (SMAs) exhibit great potential for application in the actuation of upper limb prosthesis designs. These lightweight actuators are particularly suitable for prosthetic hand solutions. A four-fingered, 12 degree-of-freedom prosthetic hand has been developed featuring SMA bundle actuators embedded within the palmar structure. Joule heating of the SMA bundle actuators generates sufficient torque at the fingers to allow a wide range of everyday tasks to be carried out. Transient characterization of SMA bundles has shown that performance/response during heating and cooling differs substantially. Natural convection is insufficient to provide for adequate cooling during elongation of the actuators. An experimental test-bed has been developed to facilitate analysis of the heat transfer characteristics of the appropriately sized SMA bundle actuators for use within the prosthetic hand design. Various modes of heat sinking are evaluated so that the most effective wire-cooling solution can be ascertained. SMA bundles of varying size will be used so that a generalized model of the SMA displacement performance under natural and forced cooling conditions can be obtained. The optimum cooling solution will be implemented onto the mechanical hand framework in future work. These results, coupled with phenomenological models of SMA behavior, will be used in the development of an effective control strategy for this application in future work.

  10. Laser and Surface Processes of NiTi Shape Memory Elements for Micro-actuation (United States)

    Nespoli, Adelaide; Biffi, Carlo Alberto; Previtali, Barbara; Villa, Elena; Tuissi, Ausonio


    In the current microtechnology for actuation field, shape memory alloys (SMA) are considered one of the best candidates for the production of mini/micro devices thanks to their high power-to-weight ratio as function of the actuator weight and hence for their capability of generating high mechanical performance in very limited spaces. In the microscale the most suitable conformation of a SMA actuator is given by a planar wavy formed arrangement, i.e., the snake-like shape, which allows high strokes, considerable forces, and devices with very low sizes. This uncommon and complex geometry becomes more difficult to be realized when the actuator dimensions are scaled down to micrometric values. In this work, micro-snake-like actuators are laser machined using a nanosecond pulsed fiber laser, starting from a 120- μm-thick NiTi sheet. Chemical and electrochemical surface polishes are also investigated for the removal of the thermal damages of the laser process. Calorimetric and thermo-mechanical tests are accomplished to assess the NiTi microdevice performance after each step of the working process. It is shown that laser machining has to be followed by some post-processes in order to obtain a micro-actuator with good thermo-mechanical properties.

  11. A pulse coding and decoding strategy to perform Lamb wave inspections using simultaneously multiple actuators (United States)

    De Marchi, Luca; Marzani, Alessandro; Moll, Jochen; Kudela, Paweł; Radzieński, Maciej; Ostachowicz, Wiesław


    The performance of Lamb wave based monitoring systems, both in terms of diagnosis time and data complexity, can be enhanced by increasing the number of transducers used to actuate simultaneously the guided waves in the inspected medium. However, in case of multiple simultaneously-operated actuators the interference among the excited wave modes within the acquired signals has to be considered for the further processing. To this aim, in this work a code division strategy based on the Warped Frequency Transform is presented. At first, the proposed procedure encodes actuation pulses using Gold sequences. Next, for each considered actuator the acquired signals are compensated from dispersion by cross correlating the warped version of the actuated and received signals. Compensated signals form the base for a final wavenumber imaging meant at emphasizing defects and or anomalies by removing incident wavefield and edge reflections. The proposed strategy is tested numerically, and validated through an experiment in which guided waves are actuated in a plate by four piezoelectric transducers operating simultaneously.

  12. Control of stationary crossflow modes in swept Hiemenz flows with dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators (United States)

    Wang, Zhefu; Wang, Liang; Fu, Song


    Sensitivity analyses and non-linear parabolized stability equations are solved to provide a computational assessment of the potential use of a Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) plasma actuator for a prolonging laminar region in swept Hiemenz flow. The derivative of the kinetic energy with respect to the body force is deduced, and its components in different directions are defined as sensitivity functions. The results of sensitivity analyses and non-linear parabolized stability equations both indicate that the introduction of a body force as the plasma actuator at the bottom of a crossflow vortex can mitigate instability to delay flow transition. In addition, the actuator is more effective when placed more upstream until the neutral point. In fact, if the actuator is sufficiently close to the neutral point, it is likely to act as a strong disturbance over-riding the natural disturbance and dominating transition. Different operating voltages of the DBD actuators are tested, resulting in an optimal practice for transition delay. The results demonstrate that plasma actuators offer great potential for transition control.

  13. Electrowetting dynamics of microfluidic actuation. (United States)

    Wang, K-L; Jones, T B


    When voltage is suddenly applied to vertical, parallel dielectric-coated electrodes dipped into a liquid with finite conductivity, the liquid responds by rising up to reach a new hydrostatic equilibrium height. On the microfluidic scale, the dominating mechanism impeding this electromechanically induced actuation appears to be a dynamic friction force that is directly proportional to the velocity of the contact line moving along the solid surface. This mechanism has its origin in the molecular dynamics of the liquid coming into contact with the solid surface. A simple reduced-order model for the rising column of liquid is used to quantify the magnitude of this frictional effect by providing estimates for the contact line friction coefficient. Above some critical threshold of voltage, the electromechanical force is clamped, presumably by the same mechanism responsible for contact angle saturation and previously reported static height-of-rise limits. The important distinction for the dynamic case is that the onset of the saturation effect is delayed in time until the column has risen more than about halfway to its static equilibrium height.

  14. Theoretical Investigation of the Viscous Damping Coefficient of Hydraulic Actuators (United States)

    Huang, Ming-Hui; Pan, Qing; Li, Yi-Bo; Ma, Peng-Da; Ma, Jun


    The viscous damping coefficient (VDC) of hydraulic actuators is crucial for system modeling, control and dynamic characteristic analysis. Currently, the researches on hydraulic actuators focus on behavior assessment, promotion of control performance and efficiency. However, the estimation of the VDC is difficult due to a lack of study. Firstly, using two types of hydraulic cylinders, behaviors of the VDC are experimentally examined with velocities and pressure variations. For the tested plunger type hydraulic cylinder, the exponential model B = α υ^{ - β } ,(α > 0,β > 0) or B = α1 e^{{ - β1 υ }} + α2 e^{{ - β2 υ }} (α1 ,α2 > 0,β1 ,β2 > 0), fits the relation between the VDC and velocities for a given pressure of chamber with high precision. The magnitude of the VDC decreases almost linearly under certain velocities when increasing the chamber pressure from 0.6 MPa to 6.0 MPa. Furthermore, the effects of the chamber pressures on the VDC of piston and plunge type hydraulic cylinders are different due to different sealing types. In order to investigate the VDC of a plunger type hydraulic actuator drastically, a steady-state numerical model has been developed to describe the mechanism incorporating tandem seal lubrication, back-up ring related friction behaviors and shear stress of fluid. It is shown that the simulated results of VDC agree with the measured results with a good accuracy. The proposed method provides an instruction to predict the VDC in system modeling and analysis.

  15. The Effect of Body Mass on the 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test in Rugby Union Players. (United States)

    Darrall-Jones, Joshua; Roe, Gregory; Carney, Shane; Clayton, Ryan; Phibbs, Padraic; Read, Dale; Weakley, Jonathon; Till, Kevin; Jones, Ben


    To evaluate the difference in performance of the 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test (30-15IFT) across 4 squads in a professional rugby union club in the UK and consider body mass in the interpretation of the end velocity of the 30-15IFT (VIFT). One hundred fourteen rugby union players completed the 30-15IFT midseason. VIFT demonstrated small and possibly lower (ES = -0.33; 4/29/67) values in the under 16s compared with the under 21s, with further comparisons unclear. With body mass included as a covariate, all differences were moderate to large and very likely to almost certainly lower in the squads with lower body mass, with the exception of comparisons between senior and under-21 squads. The data demonstrate that there appears to be a ceiling to the VIFT attained in rugby union players that does not increase from under-16 to senior level. However, the associated increases in body mass with increased playing level suggest that the ability to perform high-intensity running increases with age, although not translating into greater VIFT due to the detrimental effect of body mass on change of direction. Practitioners should be aware that VIFT is unlikely to improve, but it needs to be monitored during periods where increases in body mass are evident.

  16. Characterization of hydrofoil damping due to fluid-structure interaction using piezocomposite actuators (United States)

    Seeley, Charles; Coutu, André; Monette, Christine; Nennemann, Bernd; Marmont, Hugues


    Hydroelectric power generation is an important non-fossil fuel power source to help meet the world’s energy needs. Fluid-structure interaction (FSI), in the form of mass loading and damping, governs the dynamic response of water turbines, such as Francis turbines. Although the effects of fluid mass loading are well documented, fluid damping is also a critical quantity that may limit vibration amplitudes during service, and therefore help to avoid premature failure of the turbines. However, fluid damping has received less attention in the literature. This paper presents an experimental investigation of damping due to FSI. Three hydrofoils were designed and built to investigate damping due to FSI. Piezoelectric actuation using macrofiber composites (MFCs) provided excitation to the hydrofoil test structure, independent of the flow conditions, to overcome the noisy environment. Natural frequency and damping estimates were experimentally obtained from sine sweep frequency response functions measured with a laser vibrometer through a window in the test section. The results indicate that, although the natural frequencies were not substantially affected by the flow, the damping ratios were observed to increase in a linear manner with respect to flow velocity.

  17. Mechanical Design of Innovative Electromagnetic Linear Actuators for Marine Applications (United States)

    Muscia, Roberto


    We describe an engineering solution to manufacture electromagnetic linear actuators for moving rudders and fin stabilizers of military ships (Italian Ministry of Defence, General Direction of Naval Equipments (NAVARM), Projects ISO (2012-2014) and EDDA (2015-2017). The solution defines the transition from the conceptual design of the device initially studied from an electromagnetic point of view to mechanical configurations that really work. The structural problems that have been resolved with the proposed configuration are described. In order to validate the design choices discussed we illustrate some results of the numerical simulations performed by the structural finite elements method. These results quantitatively justify the suggested mechanical solution by evaluating stresses and deformations in a virtual prototype of the structure during its functioning. The parts of the device that have been studied are the most critical because in cases of excessive deformation/stress, they can irreparably compromise the actuator operation. These parts are the pole piece-base set and the retention cages of the permanent magnets. The FEM analysis has allowed us to identify the most stressed areas of the previous elements whose shape has been appropriately designed so as to reduce the maximum stresses and deformations. Moreover, the FEM analysis helped to find the most convenient solution to join the pole pieces to the respective bases. The good results obtained by the suggested engineering solution have been experimentally confirmed by tests on a small prototype actuator purposely manufactured. Finally, a qualitative analysis of the engineering problems that have to be considered to design electromagnetic linear actuators bigger than the one already manufactured is illustrated.

  18. MiRTE: Mixed Reality Triage and Evacuation game for Mass Casualty information systems design, testing and training. (United States)

    Yu, Xunyi; Ganz, Aura


    In this paper we introduce a Mixed Reality Triage and Evacuation game, MiRTE, that is used in the development, testing and training of Mass Casualty Incident (MCI) information systems for first responders. Using the Source game engine from Valve software, MiRTE creates immersive virtual environments to simulate various incident scenarios, and enables interactions between multiple players/first responders. What distinguishes it from a pure computer simulation game is that it can interface with external mass casualty incident management systems, such as DIORAMA. The game will enable system developers to specify technical requirements of underlying technology, and test different alternatives of design. After the information system hardware and software are completed, the game can simulate various algorithms such as localization technologies, and interface with an actual user interface on PCs and Smartphones. We implemented and tested the game with the DIORAMA system.

  19. Robust Force Control of Series Elastic Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Calanca


    Full Text Available Force-controlled series elastic actuators (SEA are widely used in novel human-robot interaction (HRI applications, such as assistive and rehabilitation robotics. These systems are characterized by the presence of the “human in the loop”, so that control response and stability depend on uncertain human dynamics, including reflexes and voluntary forces. This paper proposes a force control approach that guarantees the stability and robustness of the coupled human-robot system, based on sliding-mode control (SMC, considering the human dynamics as a disturbance to reject. We propose a chattering free solution that employs simple task models to obtain high performance, comparable with second order solutions. Theoretical stability is proven within the sliding mode framework, and predictability is reached by avoiding the reaching phase by design. Furthermore, safety is introduced by a proper design of the sliding surface. The practical feasibility of the approach is shown using an SEA prototype coupled with a human impedance in severe stress tests. To show the quality of the approach, we report a comparison with state-of-the-art second order SMC, passivity-based control and adaptive control solutions.

  20. A cyclically actuated electrolytic drug delivery device

    KAUST Repository

    Yi, Ying


    This work, focusing on an implantable drug delivery system, presents the first prototype electrolytic pump that combines a catalytic reformer and a cyclically actuated mode. These features improve the release performance and extend the lifetime of the device. Using our platinum (Pt)-coated carbon fiber mesh that acts as a catalytic reforming element, the cyclical mode is improved because the faster recombination rate allows for a shorter cycling time for drug delivery. Another feature of our device is that it uses a solid-drug-in-reservoir (SDR) approach, which allows small amounts of a solid drug to be dissolved in human fluid, forming a reproducible drug solution for long-term therapies. We have conducted proof-of-principle drug delivery studies using such an electrolytic pump and solvent blue 38 as the drug substitute. These tests demonstrate power-controlled and pulsatile release profiles of the chemical substance, as well as the feasibility of this device. A drug delivery rate of 11.44 ± 0.56 μg min-1 was achieved by using an input power of 4 mW for multiple pulses, which indicates the stability of our system. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.

  1. Active vibration reduction by optimally placed sensors and actuators with application to stiffened plates by beams (United States)

    Daraji, A. H.; Hale, J. M.


    This study concerns new investigation of active vibration reduction of a stiffened plate bonded with discrete sensor/actuator pairs located optimally using genetic algorithms based on a developed finite element modeling. An isotropic plate element stiffened by a number of beam elements on its edges and having a piezoelectric sensor and actuator pair bonded to its surfaces is modeled using the finite element method and Hamilton’s principle, taking into account the effects of piezoelectric mass, stiffness and electromechanical coupling. The modeling is based on the first order shear deformation theory taking into account the effects of bending, membrane and shear deformation for the plate, the stiffening beam and the piezoelectric patches. A Matlab finite element program has been built for the stiffened plate model and verified with ANSYS and also experimentally. Optimal placement of ten piezoelectric sensor/actuator pairs and optimal feedback gain for active vibration reduction are investigated for a plate stiffened by two beams arranged in the form of a cross. The genetic algorithm was set up for optimization of sensor/actuator placement and feedback gain based on the minimization of the optimal linear quadratic index as an objective function to suppress the first six modes of vibration. Comparison study is presented for active vibration reduction of a square cantilever plate stiffened by crossed beams with two sensor/actuator configurations: firstly, ten piezoelectric sensor/actuator pairs are located in optimal positions; secondly, a piezoelectric layer of single sensor/actuator pair covering the whole of the stiffened plate as a SISO system.

  2. Piezoelectric Low Net Passive Stiffness (LNPS) flutter test vane (United States)

    Barnhart, Ryan; Barrett, Ronald M.


    This paper outlines the design, fabrication and testing of a new, high performance piezoelectrically driven aircraft flutter test vane. This flutter test vane utilizes low-net passive stiffness (LNPS) actuator configurations to produce deflection amplification ratios on the order of 5:1 while maintaining full blocked moment generation capability. With an order of magnitude lower weight than conventional vanes, the LNPS flight flutter test vane is capable of producing larger amplitude structural deflections with smaller force levels because vane forcing waveforms, frequencies and phasing can be very exactingly controlled with respect to each other. The paper covers the fundamental driving theories behind the device, actuator geometry, test article layout, fabrication and testing. This device was wind tunnel tested at airspeeds up to 110 ft/s with excellent correlation between theory and experiment. Experimental tests show an improvement in angular deflection and delta lift forces from approximately +/-1.8 deg. and 0.45 lbf to +/-8.5 deg. and 1.45 lbf, respectively. The flutter test vane consumes only 1W of peak power at max. actuation frequency, drastically reducing the impact of electrical power supply lines on the modal mass of the wing. This paper describes the modeling, testing and evaluation of the adaptive flutter test vane and quantifies the implications on the current state of flight flutter testing.

  3. Testing sub-gravitational forces on atoms from a miniature, in-vacuum source mass (United States)

    Jaffe, Matthew; Haslinger, Philipp; Xu, Victoria; Hamilton, Paul; Upadhye, Amol; Elder, Benjamin; Khoury, Justin; Mueller, Holger


    In this talk, I will discuss our recent measurement of the gravitational attraction between cesium atoms in free fall and a centimeter-sized source mass using atom interferometry. Placing the source mass in vacuum provides sensitivity to a wide class of ``fifth force'' type interactions whose effects would otherwise be suppressed beyond detectability in regions of high matter density. Examples include so-called chameleon and symmetron fields, proposed as dark energy candidates. Our measurement tightens constraints on such theories by over two orders of magnitude.

  4. Position and torque tracking: series elastic actuation versus model-based-controlled hydraulic actuation. (United States)

    Otten, Alexander; van Vuuren, Wieke; Stienen, Arno; van Asseldonk, Edwin; Schouten, Alfred; van der Kooij, Herman


    Robotics used for diagnostic measurements on, e.g. stroke survivors, require actuators that are both stiff and compliant. Stiffness is required for identification purposes, and compliance to compensate for the robots dynamics, so that the subject can move freely while using the robot. A hydraulic actuator can act as a position (stiff) or a torque (compliant) actuator. The drawback of a hydraulic actuator is that it behaves nonlinear. This article examines two methods for controlling a nonlinear hydraulic actuator. The first method that is often applied uses an elastic element (i.e. spring) connected in series with the hydraulic actuator so that the torque can be measured as the deflection of the spring. This torque measurement is used for proportional integral control. The second method of control uses the inverse of the model of the actuator as a linearizing controller. Both methods are compared using simulation results. The controller designed for the series elastic hydraulic actuator is faster to implement, but only shows good performance for the working range for which the controller is designed due to the systems nonlinear behavior. The elastic element is a limiting factor when designing a position controller due to its low torsional stiffness. The model-based controller linearizes the nonlinear system and shows good performance when used for torque and position control. Implementing the model-based controller does require building and validating of the detailed model. © 2011 IEEE

  5. Single Piezo-Actuator Rotary-Hammering (SPaRH) Drill (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor); Badescu, Mircea (Inventor); Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor)


    A Single Piezo-Actuator Rotary-Hammering (SPaRH) Drill includes a horn actuator having high power piezoelectric materials and a flexure pre-stress to increase the actuators effectiveness. The drill is a low mass, low power, compact coring drill measuring 20-cm high by 7-cm diameter and having a total weight of 2 kg including drive electronics. Using an average power of 50-Watts, the drill basalt is expected to cut basalt at a rate of 0.2 cm/min down to depth of 10-cm and create cuttings and an intact core. The drill is expected to operate under different environments including Martian ambient (6 Torr and down to -50 degree C), and liquid nitrogen temperatures (77 K) and low pressure (<<1 Torr) to simulate lunar polar and Europa conditions. Materials expected to be sampled include Kaolinite, Saddleback Basalt, Limestone, Volcanic Breccia, Siltstone, ice, permafrost and layered rocks with different hardness.

  6. Magnetic Actuator with Multiple Vibration Components Arranged at Eccentric Positions for Use in Complex Piping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Yaguchi


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a magnetic actuator using multiple vibration components to perform locomotion in a complex pipe with a 25 mm inner diameter. Due to the desire to increase the turning moment in a T-junction pipe, two vibration components were attached off-center to an acrylic plate with an eccentricity of 2 mm. The experimental results show that the magnetic actuator was able to move at 40.6 mm/s while pulling a load mass of 20 g in a pipe with an inner diameter of 25 mm. In addition, this magnetic actuator was able to move stably in U-junction and T-junction pipes. If a micro-camera is implemented in the future, the inspection of small complex pipes can be enabled. The possibility of inspection in pipes with a 25 mm inner diameter was shown by equipping the pipe with a micro-camera.

  7. Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade plutonium dioxide powders and pellets

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade plutonium dioxide powders and pellets to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Sections Plutonium Sample Handling 8 to 10 Plutonium by Controlled-Potential Coulometry Plutonium by Ceric Sulfate Titration Plutonium by Amperometric Titration with Iron(II) Plutonium by Diode Array Spectrophotometry Nitrogen by Distillation Spectrophotometry Using Nessler Reagent 11 to 18 Carbon (Total) by Direct Combustion–Thermal Conductivity 19 to 30 Total Chlorine and Fluorine by Pyrohydrolysis 31 to 38 Sulfur by Distillation Spectrophotometry 39 to 47 Plutonium Isotopic Analysis by Mass Spectrometry Rare Earth Elements by Spectroscopy 48 to 55 Trace Elements by Carrier–Distillation Spectroscopy 56 to 63 Impurities by ICP-AES Impurity Elements by Spark-Source Mass Spectrography 64 to 70 Moisture by the Coulomet...

  8. 76 FR 82129 - Medical Devices; Ovarian Adnexal Mass Assessment Score Test System; Labeling; Black Box Restrictions (United States)


    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 866 Medical Devices; Ovarian Adnexal Mass... 21 CFR Part 866 Biologics, Laboratories, Medical devices. Therefore, under the Federal Food, Drug.... ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the regulation...

  9. Testing the blazar sequence and black hole mass scaling with BL Lac objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plotkin, R.M.; Markoff, S.; Anderson, S.F.; Kelly, B.C.; Körding, E.; Trager, S.C.


    Jets from accreting black holes appear remarkably similar over eight orders of magnitude in black hole mass, with more massive black holes generally launching more powerful jets. For example, there is an observed correlation, termed the fundamental plane of black hole accretion, between black hole

  10. Testing the blazar sequence and black hole mass scaling with BL Lac objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plotkin, Richard M.; Markoff, Sera; Anderson, Scott F.; Kelly, Brandon C.; Körding, Elmar; Trager, Scott C.; Romero, Gustavo E.; Sunyaev, Rashid A.; Belloni, Tomaso

    Jets from accreting black holes appear remarkably similar over eight orders of magnitude in black hole mass, with more massive black holes generally launching more powerful jets. For example, there is an observed correlation, termed the fundamental plane of black hole accretion, between black hole

  11. Testing Hypothesized Psychosocial Mediators: Lessons Learned in the MassBUILT Study (United States)

    Okechukwu, Cassandra A.; Krieger, Nancy; Sorensen, Glorian; Li, Yi; Barbeau, Elizabeth M.


    Only a few of the interventions that target blue-collar workers have conducted formal analysis to evaluate the specific attributes of their intervention that are associated with success or failure. This study examined the role of dual hazard and decisional balance in the MassBUILT smoking cessation intervention. The authors conducted sets of…

  12. Risk-benefit analysis for mass screening of breast cancer utilizing mammography as a screening test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iinuma, T.A.; Tateno, Yukio (National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan))


    Incidence of breast cancers in Japanese women is increasing steadily. Mass screening of breast cancer was started in Japan under auspices of Adult Health Promotion Act of the Japanese Government from 1987. As the first screening method, the palpation of breasts is employed at present, but it is expected to be replaced by the mammography. In this report, the risk-benefit analysis is presented between risk of breast carcinogenesis due to radiation and benefit of mass screening of breast cancer. The benefit of mass screening is taken as the net elongation of average life expectancy of women due to survival from breast cancers. The risk of mammography is taken as the net loss of average life expectancy of women due to breast carcinogenesis. In the latter, the latency time and plateau period of radiation carcinogenesis were taken into consideration in the calculation. The results show that the ages at which the benefit and risk become equal are between 30 and 35 years old when dose equivalent of mammography is between 10 and 20 mSv, that are conventionally used. However, the critical age will be reduced to 20 years old if the dose equivalent becomes 1 mSv. Therefore, it is strongly recommended that a low dose mammographic system should be developed in order to achieve 1 mSv for the mass screening of breast cancer of Japanese women. In author's opinion, this is quite feasible by employing a new digital radiography with imaging plate. (author).

  13. Design, fabrication and testing of a novel MEMS resonator for mass sensing applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Zachary James; Svendsen, Winnie Edith; Boisen, Anja


    Micro- and nanoelectromechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS) have a high potential for mass sensing application. By miniaturization of the dimensions, higher and higher sensitivities can be achieved. Here we are presenting finite element modelling and optimization of a free–free beam type mechanical...

  14. PID Testing Method Suitable for Process Control of Solar Cells Mass Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianfang Gou


    Full Text Available Voltage bias of several hundred volts which are applied between solar cells and module frames may lead to significant power losses, so-called potential-induced degradation (PID, in normal photovoltaic (PV installations system. Modules and minimodules are used to conduct PID test of solar cells. The test procedure is time consuming and of high cost, which cannot be used as process monitoring method during solar cells fabrication. In this paper, three kinds of test including minimodule, Rsh, and V-Q test are conducted on solar cells or wafers with SiNx of different refractive index. All comparisons between test results of Rsh, V-Q, and minimodule tests have shown equal results. It is shown that Rsh test can be used as quality inspection of solar cells and V-Q test of coated wafer can be used as process control of solar cells.

  15. Integrated Vibration and Acceleration Testing to Reduce Payload Mass, Cost and Mission Risk Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a capability to provide integrated acceleration, vibration, and shock testing using a state-of-the-art centrifuge, allowing for the test of...

  16. Integrated nozzle - flapper valve with piezoelectric actuator and isothermal chamber: a feedback linearization multi control device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamali, Mohammadreza; Jazayeri, Seyed Ali [K. N.Toosi University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Najafi, Farid [University of Guilan, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kawashima, Kenji [Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Kagawa, Toshiharu [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper introduces a new nozzle-flapper valve with isothermal chamber using piezoelectric actuator. It controls the pressure and flow rate simply, effectively and separately. The proposed valve uses isothermal chamber presenting practical isothermal condition due to its large heat transfer interfaces filled by metal wool. The valve uses stacked type piezoelectric actuator with unique advantages. By using this valve, a simple method has been fulfilled to control flow rate or pressure of ideal gases in a pneumatic actuators. Experimental results demonstrated applications of the proposed valve to control either pressure or flow rate in pneumatic circuits. This valve can be also used in the pilot stage valve to actuate the main stage of a much bigger pneumatic valve. Designated structure contains only one pressure sensor installed on the isothermal control chamber, capable of controlling both pressure and flow rate. The desired output mass flow rate of the valve is controlled by the pressure changes during positioning of piezoelectric actuator at proper position. The proposed valve can control steady and unsteady oscillatory flow rate and pressure effectively, using nonlinear control method such as feedback linearization approach. Its effectiveness is demonstrated and validated through simulation and experiments.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John V. Fernandez; David S. Pixton


    A history and project summary of the development of an integrated drilling system using a mud-actuated down-hole hammer as its primary engine are given. The summary includes laboratory test results, including atmospheric tests of component parts and simulated borehole tests of the hammer system. Several remaining technical hurdles are enumerated. A brief explanation of commercialization potential is included. The primary conclusion for this work is that a mud actuated hammer can yield substantial improvements to drilling rate in overbalanced, hard rock formations. A secondary conclusion is that the down-hole mud actuated hammer can serve to provide other useful down-hole functions including generation of high pressure mud jets, generation of seismic and sonic signals, and generation of diagnostic information based on hammer velocity profiles.

  18. Optoelectrowetting for continuous microdroplet actuation (United States)

    Collier, Christopher M.; Hill, Kyle A.; DeWachter, Mark A.; Huizing, Alex M.; Holzman, Jonathan F.


    Microfluidics technologies have received great attention and appear in many bioanalyses applications. A recent microfluidics subset has appeared as droplet-based digital microfluidics (DMF). Here, microdroplets are manipulated in a two-dimensional on-chip plane using electric fields, contrasting the one-dimensional pressure-based channel flow of continuous flow microfluidics. These DMF systems fundamentally offer reconfigurability, whereby one device performs many bioanalysis tasks. A subset of DMF systems called optoelectrowetting is also of recent interest due to its ability for intricate microdroplet routing processes in the on-chip plane. For an optoelectrowetting chip, the DMF structure is modified with optically triggered electrodes with arrayed photoconductive switches. The arrayed photoconductive switches are optically-activated so microdroplets in the vicinity are routed to the illuminated switch. Unfortunately, such systems still require intricate electrode arrays, limiting microdroplet actuation resolution by the electrode size. This work proposes an on-chip optofluidic device with a continuous and planar semiconductor layer as the photoconductive mechanism. An illuminated section of the semiconductor layer acts as a localized electrode, with the photogenerated charge-carriers attracting nearby microdroplets. Given this planar topology, the illuminating beam is used to move the microdroplets continuously over the on-chip plane with precise optical control. The resolution for such a process is ultimately limited by charge-carrier diffusion, so an alternative material, a nanocomposite, is introduced to the on-chip device design. The nanocomposite consists of 20 nm semiconductor nanoparticles embedded in an insulative polymer host. This gives restricted diffusion length, being on the nanometer-scale of the nanoparticle diameter. Experimental device operation is demonstrated.

  19. 76 FR 16350 - Medical Devices; Ovarian Adnexal Mass Assessment Score Test System; Labeling; Black Box Restrictions (United States)


    ... evaluation of the patient), may lead to a high frequency of unnecessary further testing and surgery due to... the most current (2009) Implicit Price Deflator for the Gross Domestic Product. FDA does not expect... the use of test results without consideration of other diagnostic testing and clinical assessment...

  20. An advanced actuator for high-performance slewing (United States)

    Downer, James; Eisenhaure, David; Hockney, Richard


    A conceptual design for an advanced momentum exchange actuator for application to spacecraft slewing is described. The particular concept is a magnetically-suspended, magnetically gimballed Control Moment Gyro (CMG). A scissored pair of these devices is sized to provide the torque and angular momentum capacity required to reorient a large spacecraft through large angle maneuvers. The concept described utilizes a composite material rotor to achieve the high momentum and energy densities to minimize system mass, an advanced superconducting magnetic suspension system to minimize system weight and power consumption. The magnetic suspension system is also capable of allowing for large angle gimballing of the rotor, thus eliminating the mass and reliability penalties attendant to conventional gimbals. Descriptions of the various subelement designs are included along with the necessary system sizing formulation and material.

  1. Biodegradation testing of chemicals with high Henry’s constants – separating mass and effective concentration reveals higher rate constants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Heidi; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus; Comber, Mike

    During simulation-type biodegradation tests, volatile chemicals will continuously partition between water phase and headspace. This study addressed how (1) this partitioning affects biodegradation test results and (2) it can be accounted for by combining mass balance and dynamic biodegradation...... Microextraction (HS-SPME) was applied directly on the test systems to measure substrate depletion by biodegradation relative to abiotic controls. HS-SPME was also applied to determine air to water partitioning ratios. Water phase biodegradation rate constants, kwater, were up to 72 times higher than test system...... biodegradation rate constants, ksystem. True water phase degradation rate constants facilitate extrapolation to other air-water systems and are more suitable input parameters for aquatic exposure and fate models. As such, they should be considered more appropriate for risk assessments than test system rate...

  2. An Advanced Actuator Line Method for Wind Energy Applications and Beyond: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Churchfield, Matthew; Schreck, Scott; Martinez-Tossas, Luis A.; Meneveau, Charles; Spalart, Philippe R.


    The actuator line method to represent rotor aerodynamics within computational fluid dynamics has been in use for over a decade. This method applies a body force to the flow field along rotating lines corresponding to the individual rotor blades and employs tabular airfoil data to compute the force distribution. The actuator line method is attractive because compared to blade-resolved simulations, the required mesh is much simpler and the computational cost is lower. This work proposes a higher fidelity variant of the actuator line method meant to fill the space between current actuator line and blade-resolved simulations. It contains modifications in two key areas. The first is that of freestream velocity vector estimation along the line, which is necessary to compute the lift and drag along the line using tabular airfoil data. Most current methods rely on point sampling in which the location of sampling is ambiguous. Here we test a velocity sampling method that uses a properly weighted integral over space, removing this ambiguity. The second area of improvement is the function used to project the one-dimensional actuator line force onto the three-dimensional fluid mesh as a body force. We propose and test a projection function that spreads the force over a region that looks something like a real blade with the hope that it will produce the blade local and near wake flow features with more accuracy and higher fidelity. Our goal is that between these two improvements, not only will the flow field predictions be enhanced, but also the spanwise loading will be made more accurate. We refer to this combination of improvements as the advanced actuator line method. We apply these improvements to two different wind turbine cases. Although there is a strong wind energy motivation in our work, there is no reason these advanced actuator line ideas cannot be used in other applications, such as helicopter rotors.

  3. An Advanced Actuator Line Method for Wind Energy Applications and Beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Churchfield, Matthew J.; Schreck, Scott; Martinez-Tossas, Luis A.; Meneveau, Charles; Spalart, Philippe R.


    The actuator line method to represent rotor aerodynamics within computational fluid dynamics has been in use for over a decade. This method applies a body force to the flow field along rotating lines corresponding to the individual rotor blades and employs tabular airfoil data to compute the force distribution. The actuator line method is attractive because compared to blade-resolved simulations, the required mesh is much simpler and the computational cost is lower. This work proposes a higher fidelity variant of the actuator line method meant to fill the space between current actuator line and blade-resolved simulations. It contains modifications in two key areas. The first is that of freestream velocity vector estimation along the line, which is necessary to compute the lift and drag along the line using tabular airfoil data. Most current methods rely on point sampling in which the location of sampling is ambiguous. Here we test a velocity sampling method that uses a properly weighted integral over space, removing this ambiguity. The second area of improvement is the function used to project the one-dimensional actuator line force onto the three-dimensional fluid mesh as a body force. We propose and test a projection function that spreads the force over a region that looks something like a real blade with the hope that it will produce the blade local and near wake flow features with more accuracy and higher fidelity. Our goal is that between these two improvements, not only will the flow field predictions be enhanced, but also the spanwise loading will be made more accurate. We refer to this combination of improvements as the advanced actuator line method. We apply these improvements to two different wind turbine cases. Although there is a strong wind energy motivation in our work, there is no reason these advanced actuator line ideas cannot be used in other applications, such as helicopter rotors.

  4. Improved electromechanical behavior in castable dielectric elastomer actuators (United States)

    Akbari, Samin; Rosset, Samuel; Shea, Herbert R.


    Non-viscoelastic castable elastomers are replacing the polyacrylate VHB films in the new generations of dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) to achieve fast and reliable actuation. We introduce the optimum prestretch conditions to enhance the electromechanical behavior of the castable DEAs resulting in large actuation strain. For castable actuator in which the thickness is selected independent of the prestretch, uniaxial prestretch mode offers the highest actuation strain in the transverse direction compared to biaxial and pure shear. We experimentally demonstrate that miniaturization hinders the loss of tension and up to 85% linear actuation strain is generated with a 300 × 300 μm2 polydimethylsiloxanes-based DEA.

  5. Laminar composite structures for high power actuators (United States)

    Hobosyan, M. A.; Martinez, P. M.; Zakhidov, A. A.; Haines, C. S.; Baughman, R. H.; Martirosyan, K. S.


    Twisted laminar composite structures for high power and large-stroke actuators based on coiled Multi Wall Carbon Nanotube (MWNT) composite yarns were crafted by integrating high-density Nanoenergetic Gas Generators (NGGs) into carbon nanotube sheets. The linear actuation force, resulting from the pneumatic force caused by expanding gases confined within the pores of laminar structures and twisted carbon nanotube yarns, can be further amplified by increasing NGG loading and yarns twist density, as well as selecting NGG compositions with high energy density and large-volume gas generation. Moreover, the actuation force and power can be tuned by the surrounding environment, such as to increase the actuation by combustion in ambient air. A single 300-μm-diameter integrated MWNT/NGG coiled yarn produced 0.7 MPa stress and a contractile specific work power of up to 4.7 kW/kg, while combustion front propagated along the yarn at a velocity up to 10 m/s. Such powerful yarn actuators can also be operated in a vacuum, enabling their potential use for deploying heavy loads in outer space, such as to unfold solar panels and solar sails.

  6. An algorithm for LQ optimal actuator location (United States)

    Darivandi, Neda; Morris, Kirsten; Khajepour, Amir


    The locations of the control hardware are typically a design variable in controller design for distributed parameter systems. In order to obtain the most efficient control system, the locations of control hardware as well as the feedback gain should be optimized. These optimization problems are generally non-convex. In addition, the models for these systems typically have a large number of degrees of freedom. Consequently, existing optimization schemes for optimal actuator placement may be inaccurate or computationally impractical. In this paper, the feedback control is chosen to be an optimal linear quadratic regulator. The optimal actuator location problem is reformulated as a convex optimization problem. A subgradient-based optimization scheme which leads to the global solution of the problem is used to optimize actuator locations. The optimization algorithm is applied to optimize the placement of piezoelectric actuators in vibration control of flexible structures. This method is compared with a genetic algorithm, and is observed to be faster and more accurate. Experiments are performed to verify the efficacy of optimal actuator placement.

  7. Evolutionary flight and enabling smart actuator devices (United States)

    Manzo, Justin; Garcia, Ephrahim


    Recent interest in morphing vehicles with multiple, optimized configurations has led to renewed research on biological flight. The flying vertebrates - birds, bats, and pterosaurs - all made or make use of various morphing devices to achieve lift to suit rapidly changing flight demands, including maneuvers as complex as perching and hovering. The first part of this paper will discuss these devices, with a focus on the morphing elements and structural strong suits of each creature. Modern flight correlations to these devices will be discussed and analyzed as valid adaptations of these evolutionary traits. The second part of the paper will focus on the use of active joint structures for use in morphing aircraft devices. Initial work on smart actuator devices focused on NASA Langley's Hyper-Elliptical Cambered Span (HECS) wing platform, which led to development of a discretized spanwise curvature effector. This mechanism uses shape memory alloy (SMA) as the sole morphing actuator, allowing fast rotation with lightweight components at the expense of energy inefficiency. Phase two of morphing actuator development will add an element of active rigidity to the morphing structure, in the form of shape memory polymer (SMP). Employing a composite structure of polymer and alloy, this joint will function as part of a biomimetic morphing actuator system in a more energetically efficient manner. The joint is thermally actuated to allow compliance on demand and rigidity in the nominal configuration. Analytical and experimental joint models are presented, and potential applications on a bat-wing aircraft structure are outlined.

  8. Curved Piezoelectric Actuators for Stretching Optical Fibers (United States)

    Allison, Sidney G.; Shams, Qamar A.; Fox, Robert L.


    Assemblies containing curved piezoceramic fiber composite actuators have been invented as means of stretching optical fibers by amounts that depend on applied drive voltages. Piezoceramic fiber composite actuators are conventionally manufactured as sheets or ribbons that are flat and flexible, but can be made curved to obtain load-carrying ability and displacement greater than those obtainable from the flat versions. In the primary embodiment of this invention, piezoceramic fibers are oriented parallel to the direction of longitudinal displacement of the actuators so that application of drive voltage causes the actuator to flatten, producing maximum motion. Actuator motion can be transmitted to the optical fiber by use of hinges and clamp blocks. In the original application of this invention, the optical fiber contains a Bragg grating and the purpose of the controlled stretching of the fiber is to tune the grating as part of a small, lightweight, mode-hop-free, rapidly tunable laser for demodulating strain in Bragg-grating strain-measurement optical fibers attached to structures. The invention could also be used to apply controllable tensile force or displacement to an object other than an optical fiber.

  9. Demand Shifting With Thermal Mass in Large Commercial Buildings:Field Tests, Simulation and Audits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Peng; Haves, Philip; Piette, Mary Ann; Zagreus, Leah


    The principle of pre-cooling and demand limiting is to pre-cool buildings at night or in the morning during off-peak hours, storing cooling in the building thermal mass and thereby reducing cooling loads and reducing or shedding related electrical demand during the peak periods. Cost savings are achieved by reducing on-peak energy and demand charges. The potential for utilizing building thermal mass for load shifting and peak demand reduction has been demonstrated in a number of simulation, laboratory, and field studies (Braun 1990, Ruud et al. 1990, Conniff 1991, Andresen and Brandemuehl 1992, Mahajan et al. 1993, Morris et al. 1994, Keeney and Braun 1997, Becker and Paciuk 2002, Xu et al. 2003). This technology appears to have significant potential for demand reduction if applied within an overall demand response program. The primary goal associated with this research is to develop information and tools necessary to assess the viability of and, where appropriate, implement demand response programs involving building thermal mass in buildings throughout California. The project involves evaluating the technology readiness, overall demand reduction potential, and customer acceptance for different classes of buildings. This information can be used along with estimates of the impact of the strategies on energy use to design appropriate incentives for customers.

  10. Standard test method for isotopic analysis of hydrolyzed uranium hexafluoride and uranyl nitrate solutions by thermal ionization mass spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This method applies to the determination of isotopic composition in hydrolyzed nuclear grade uranium hexafluoride. It covers isotopic abundance of 235U between 0.1 and 5.0 % mass fraction, abundance of 234U between 0.0055 and 0.05 % mass fraction, and abundance of 236U between 0.0003 and 0.5 % mass fraction. This test method may be applicable to other isotopic abundance providing that corresponding standards are available. 1.2 This test method can apply to uranyl nitrate solutions. This can be achieved either by transforming the uranyl nitrate solution to a uranyl fluoride solution prior to the deposition on the filaments or directly by depositing the uranyl nitrate solution on the filaments. In the latter case, a calibration with uranyl nitrate standards must be performed. 1.3 This test method can also apply to other nuclear grade matrices (for example, uranium oxides) by providing a chemical transformation to uranyl fluoride or uranyl nitrate solution. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address al...

  11. Analytic model and frequency characteristics of plasma synthetic jet actuator (United States)

    Zong, Hao-hua; Wu, Yun; Li, Ying-hong; Song, Hui-min; Zhang, Zhi-bo; Jia, Min


    This paper reports a novel analytic model of a plasma synthetic jet actuator (PSJA), considering both the heat transfer effect and the inertia of the throat gas. Both the whole cycle characteristics and the repetitive working process of PSJA can be predicted with this model. The frequency characteristics of a PSJA with 87 mm3 volume and different orifice diameters are investigated based on the analytic model combined with experiments. In the repetitive working mode, the actuator works initially in the transitional stage with 20 cycles and then in the dynamic balanced stage. During the transitional stage, major performance parameters of PSJA experience stepped growth, while during the dynamic balanced stage, these parameters are characterized by periodic variation. With a constant discharge energy of 6.9 mJ, there exists a saturated frequency of 4 kHz/6 kHz for an orifice diameter of 1 mm/1.5 mm, at which the time-averaged total pressure of the pulsed jet reaches a maximum. Between 0.5 mm and 1.5 mm, a larger orifice diameter leads to a higher saturated frequency due to the reduced jet duration time. As the actuation frequency increases, both the time-averaged cavity temperature and the peak jet velocity initially increase and then remain almost unchanged at 1600 K and 280 m/s, respectively. Besides, with increasing frequency, the mechanical energy incorporated in single pulsed jet, the expelled mass per pulse, and the time-averaged density in the cavity, decline in a stair stepping way, which is caused by the intermittent decrease of refresh stage duration in one period.

  12. Improvements to the Tendon-Actuated Lightweight In-Space MANipulator (TALISMAN) (United States)

    Doggett, William R.; Dorsey, John T.; Jones, Thomas C.; Lodding, Kenneth N.; Ganoe, George G.; Mercer, David; King, Bruce D.


    Devices for manipulating and precisely placing payloads are critical for efficient space operations including berthing of spacecraft, in-space assembly, construction and repair. Key to the success of many NASA space activities has been the availability of long-reach crane-like devices such as the Shuttle Remote Manipulation System (SRMS) and the Space Station Remote Manipulation System (SSRMS). These devices have been used for many operations including berthing visiting spacecraft to the International Space Station, deployment of spacecraft, space station assembly, astronaut positioning, payload transfer, and spacecraft inspection prior to atmospheric re-entry. Retiring the Space Transportation System has led to the removal of the SRMS from consideration for in-space missions, thus creating a capability gap. Recognizing this gap, work was initiated at NASA on a new architecture for long-reach space manipulators. Most current devices are constructed by joining revolute joints with carbon composite tubes, with the joints accounting for the majority of the device mass. For example in the case of the SRMS, the entire device mass is 410 kg (904 lbm); the joint structure, motors, gear train, cabling, etc., accounts for the majority of the system mass because the carbon composite tubes mass is 46 kg (101 lbm). An alternate space manipulator concept, the Tendon-Actuated Lightweight In-Space MANipulator (TALISMAN) was created to address deficiencies in the current state-of-the-art in long-reach manipulators. The antagonistic tendon actuated joint architecture allows the motors actuating the joint to be removed from the joint axis, which simplifies the joint design while simultaneously providing mechanical advantage for the motors. The improved mechanical advantage, in turn, reduces the size and power requirements for the motor and gear train. This paper will describe recent architectural improvements to the TALISMAN design that: 1) improve the operational robustness of the

  13. Mass spectrometric gas composition measurements associated with jet interaction tests in a high-enthalpy wind tunnel (United States)

    Lewis, B. W.; Brown, K. G.; Wood, G. M., Jr.; Puster, R. L.; Paulin, P. A.; Fishel, C. E.; Ellerbe, D. A.


    Knowledge of test gas composition is important in wind-tunnel experiments measuring aerothermodynamic interactions. This paper describes measurements made by sampling the top of the test section during runs of the Langley 7-Inch High-Temperature Tunnel. The tests were conducted to determine the mixing of gas injected from a flat-plate model into a combustion-heated hypervelocity test stream and to monitor the CO2 produced in the combustion. The Mass Spectrometric (MS) measurements yield the mole fraction of N2 or He and CO2 reaching the sample inlets. The data obtained for several tunnel run conditions are related to the pressures measured in the tunnel test section and at the MS ionizer inlet. The apparent distributions of injected gas species and tunnel gas (CO2) are discussed relative to the sampling techniques. The measurements provided significant real-time data for the distribution of injected gases in the test section. The jet N2 diffused readily from the test stream, but the jet He was mostly entrained. The amounts of CO2 and Ar diffusing upward in the test section for several run conditions indicated the variability of the combustion-gas test-stream composition.

  14. Mass media, stigma, and disclosure of HIV test results: multilevel analysis in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. (United States)

    Hutchinson, P L; Mahlalela, X; Yukich, Josh


    In this article, we examine the role of mass media and interpersonal communication in affecting knowledge of HIV/AIDS, reducing stigma, using condoms, and increasing the likelihood of disclosing HIV test results to sexual partners and family members. Data from a 2002 household survey in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa are used to measure levels of stigma, interpersonal communication, willingness to disclosure HIV test results and condom use. We use a multilevel framework that accounts for the social context in which individuals access information, gauge social norms, and make decisions about the costs and benefits of HIV testing and disclosure. The results provide support for the positive effects of both media exposure and informal social networks on ideational factors, namely changes in knowledge and stigma, which lead to behavior change. Consistent with common models of health communication dynamics, these latter factors dominate decisions regarding disclosure of HIV test results and condom use.

  15. Processing and characterization of oval piezoelectric actuators (United States)

    Jadidian, B.; Allahverdi, M.; Mohammadi, F.; Safari, A.


    The processing and characterization of piezoelectric actuators with oval geometry are presented. The monolithic actuators were fabricated using the fused deposition of ceramic process. The minor diameter of the ovals varied between 2 and 14 mm and their major diameter, wall thickness, and width were 20, 0.85, and 7 mm, respectively. When driven under electric field, the actuators expanded along their minor diameter. The static and dynamic displacements of ˜7 and ˜5.6 μm were observed at 850 V(dc) and 100 V(ac). The static displacement of the ovals varied almost linearly with voltage and did not change under the application of external load in the range of 1-15 N. However, both dynamic displacement and resonant frequency of the ovals varied, with a maximum of 42 μm and 38 Hz, respectively, under 13 N load.

  16. Electrothermally Actuated Microbeams With Varying Stiffness

    KAUST Repository

    Tella, Sherif Adekunle


    We present axially loaded clamped-guided microbeams that can be used as resonators and actuators of variable stiffness, actuation, and anchor conditions. The applied axial load is implemented by U-shaped electrothermal actuators stacked at one of the beams edges. These can be configured and wired in various ways, which serve as mechanical stiffness elements that control the operating resonance frequency of the structures and their static displacement. The experimental results have shown considerable increase in the resonance frequency and mid-point deflection of the microbeam upon changing the end conditions of the beam. These results can be promising for applications requiring large deflection and high frequency tunability, such as filters, memory devices, and switches. The experimental results are compared to multi-physics finite-element simulations showing good agreement among them.

  17. Optical feedback control for mechatronic actuators (United States)

    Necsulescu, Dan; Khatri, Zubair


    The paper investigates optical implementation of feedback control of mechatronic actuators. The goal is to analyze experimentally the feasibility of optical closed loop control using optical components for signal transmission and control loop implementation. The analysis is carried out for position control of an electric actuator. Angular position and velocity are measured with optical sensors. Measurement signals are transmitted through a fiberglass to an optical controller. Position commands from the optical controller are transmitted through a fiber glass as analog optical signals to a photodetector. A power operational amplifier serves a driver for the electric motor. This feedback controller configuration is designed to have extensive optical implementation and permits to investigate the level of complexity of the control laws which can be implemented optically. Experimental results, obtained using a LabVIEW for data acquisition and processing, illustrate the advantages and the limitations of the proposed optical implementation of a feedback controller for mechatronic actuators.

  18. Air Muscle Actuated Low Cost Humanoid Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Scarfe


    Full Text Available The control of humanoid robot hands has historically been expensive due to the cost of precision actuators. This paper presents the design and implementation of a low-cost air muscle actuated humanoid hand developed at Curtin University of Technology. This hand offers 10 individually controllable degrees of freedom ranging from the elbow to the fingers, with overall control handled through a computer GUI. The hand is actuated through 20 McKibben-style air muscles, each supplied by a pneumatic pressure-balancing valve that allows for proportional control to be achieved with simple and inexpensive components. The hand was successfully able to perform a number of human-equivalent tasks, such as grasping and relocating objects.

  19. Air Muscle Actuated Low Cost Humanoid Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Scarfe


    Full Text Available The control of humanoid robot hands has historically been expensive due to the cost of precision actuators. This paper presents the design and implementation of a low-cost air muscle actuated humanoid hand developed at Curtin University of Technology. This hand offers 10 individually controllable degrees of freedom ranging from the elbow to the fingers, with overall control handled through a computer GUI. The hand is actuated through 20 McKibben-style air muscles, each supplied by a pneumatic pressure-balancing valve that allows for proportional control to be achieved with simple and inexpensive components. The hand was successfully able to perform a number of human-equivalent tasks, such as grasping and relocating objects.

  20. A methodology for identification and control of electro-mechanical actuators. (United States)

    Tutunji, Tarek A; Saleem, Ashraf


    Mechatronic systems are fully-integrated engineering systems that are composed of mechanical, electronic, and computer control sub-systems. These integrated systems use electro-mechanical actuators to cause the required motion. Therefore, the design of appropriate controllers for these actuators are an essential step in mechatronic system design. In this paper, a three-stage methodology for real-time identification and control of electro-mechanical actuator plants is presented, tested, and validated. First, identification models are constructed from experimental data to approximate the plants' response. Second, the identified model is used in a simulation environment for the purpose of designing a suitable controller. Finally, the designed controller is applied and tested on the real plant through Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) environment. The described three-stage methodology provides the following practical contributions: •Establishes an easy-to-follow methodology for controller design of electro-mechanical actuators.•Combines off-line and on-line controller design for practical performance.•Modifies the HIL concept by using physical plants with computer control (rather than virtual plants with physical controllers). Simulated and experimental results for two case studies, induction motor and vehicle drive system, are presented in order to validate the proposed methodology. These results showed that electromechanical actuators can be identified and controlled using an easy-to-duplicate and flexible procedure.

  1. Multi-parameter actuation of a neutrally stable shell: a flexible gear-less motor. (United States)

    Hamouche, W; Maurini, C; Vidoli, S; Vincenti, A


    We have designed and tested experimentally a morphing structure consisting of a neutrally stable thin cylindrical shell driven by a multi-parameter piezoelectric actuation. The shell is obtained by plastically deforming an initially flat copper disc, so as to induce large isotropic and almost uniform inelastic curvatures. Following the plastic deformation, in a perfectly isotropic system, the shell is theoretically neutrally stable, having a continuous set of stable cylindrical shapes corresponding to the rotation of the axis of maximal curvature. Small imperfections render the actual structure bistable, giving preferred orientations. A three-parameter piezoelectric actuation, exerted through micro-fibre-composite actuators, allows us to add a small perturbation to the plastic inelastic curvature and to control the direction of maximal curvature. This actuation law is designed through a geometrical analogy based on a fully nonlinear inextensible uniform-curvature shell model. We report on the fabrication, identification and experimental testing of a prototype and demonstrate the effectiveness of the piezoelectric actuators in controlling its shape. The resulting motion is an apparent rotation of the shell, controlled by the voltages as in a 'gear-less motor', which is, in reality, a precession of the axis of principal curvature.

  2. Characterization of a pneumatic balloon actuator for use in refreshable Braille displays. (United States)

    Fan, Richard E; Feinman, Adam M; Wottawa, Christopher; King, Chih-Hung; Franco, Miguel L; Dutson, Erik P; Grundfest, Warren S; Culjat, Martin O


    Many existing refreshable Braille display technologies are costly or lack robust performance. A process has been developed to fabricate consistent and reliable pneumatic balloon actuators at low material cost, using a novel manufacturing process. This technique has been adapted for use in refreshable Braille displays that feature low power consumption, ease of manufacture and small form factor. A prototype refreshable cell, conforming to American Braille standards, was developed and tested. The cell was fabricated from molded PDMS to form balloon actuators with a spin-coated silicone film, and fast pneumatic driving elements and an electronic control system were developed to drive the Braille dots. Perceptual testing was performed to determine the feasibility of the approach using a single blind human subject. The subject was able to detect randomized Braille letters rapidly generated by the actuator with 100% character detection accuracy.

  3. Quantitative, Multidrug Pain Medication Testing by Liquid Chromatography: Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). (United States)

    Bodor, Geza S


    Chronic pain is often treated with narcotic analgesics. The most commonly used narcotic analgesics are the opiates (natural or modified compounds of the poppy plant) or opioids (synthetic chemicals that act on opiate receptors). While opiates and opioids are excellent analgesics, they can also have significant side effects that include respiratory depression, coma, or death. Tolerance, physical dependence, and addiction (psychological dependence) are other severe side effects of opioid use. Patients who develop dependence or addiction often times abuse other, non-opioid narcotics and may trade their prescription medication for illegal street drugs (called "diversion"). In order to minimize side effects, detect possible multidrug abuse and prove diversion, simultaneous monitoring of numerous prescription and illicit drugs is required. The method described in this chapter is for the quantitative measurement of 43 different drugs in urine. The panel includes narcotic pain medications, benzodiazepines, NIDA drugs, and other, commonly abused medications. The analytes of interests are injected in the presence of deuterated internal standards to correct for possible extraction inefficiencies, ion suppression, or other interferences. The sample is prepared by adding dilution buffer with the deuterated internal standards to the sample, followed by reversed-phase, gradient HPLC separation on a Phenyl-Hexyl column using water and methanol as mobile phases. Detection of the analytes of interest is done by isotope-dilution mass spectrometry on a triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer following electrospray ionization in the positive mode. Mass spectrometric (MS) data are collected in the scheduled MRM (sMRM) mode. Two MRM transitions are monitored for each analyte and one MRM transition is monitored for each IS. Quantitation of the unknown analytes is achieved by comparing the peak area ratios of the analytes to that of the internal standards and reading the unknown

  4. Entanglement of Macroscopic Test Masses and the Standard Quantum Limit in Laser Interferometry (United States)

    Müller-Ebhardt, Helge; Rehbein, Henning; Schnabel, Roman; Danzmann, Karsten; Chen, Yanbei


    We show that the generation of entanglement of two heavily macroscopic mirrors is feasible with state of the art techniques of high-precision laser interferometry. The basis of such a demonstration would be a Michelson interferometer with suspended mirrors and simultaneous homodyne detections at both interferometer output ports. We present the connection between the generation of entanglement and the standard quantum limit (SQL) for a free mass. The SQL is a well-known reference limit in operating interferometers for gravitational-wave detection and provides a measure of when macroscopic entanglement can be observed in the presence of realistic decoherence processes.

  5. Hemispherical breathing mode speaker using a dielectric elastomer actuator. (United States)

    Hosoya, Naoki; Baba, Shun; Maeda, Shingo


    Although indoor acoustic characteristics should ideally be assessed by measuring the reverberation time using a point sound source, a regular polyhedron loudspeaker, which has multiple loudspeakers on a chassis, is typically used. However, such a configuration is not a point sound source if the size of the loudspeaker is large relative to the target sound field. This study investigates a small lightweight loudspeaker using a dielectric elastomer actuator vibrating in the breathing mode (the pulsating mode such as the expansion and contraction of a balloon). Acoustic testing with regard to repeatability, sound pressure, vibration mode profiles, and acoustic radiation patterns indicate that dielectric elastomer loudspeakers may be feasible.

  6. Cryo-Tracker mass gauging system testing in a large-scale expendable launch vehicle LOX tank simulator (United States)

    Schieb, Daniel J.; Haberbusch, Mark S.; Yeckley, Alexander J.


    Sierra Lobo tested its patented Cryo-Tracker(R) probe and Mass Gauging System in a large scale Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) liquid oxygen tank simulation for NASA. Typical Liquid Oxygen (LOX) tank operations were simulated at Lockheed Martin's Engineering Propulsion Laboratory in Denver, Colorado. The Cryo-Tracker(R) probe is 33 feet long, the longest built to date. It was mounted in the tank at only two locations, separated by 26 feet. Each test simulated typical Lockheed Martin booster pre-launch tanking operations, including filling the tank with LOX at fill rates typically used at the launch pad, and maintaining the fill level for a period representative of a typical pad hold. The Cryo-Tracker(R) Mass Gauging System was the primary instrument used for monitoring the fill and controlling the topping operations. Each test also simulated a typical flight profile, expelling the LOX at representative pressures and expulsion flow rates. During expulsion, the Cryo-Tracker(R) System served to generate an Engine Cut-Off (ECO) signal. Test objectives were as follows: Cryo-Tracker(R) data will be validated by flight-like propellant instruments currently used in launch vehicles; the probe will survive the harsh environment (which will be documented by a digital video camera) with no loss of signal or structural integrity; the system will successfully measure liquid levels and temperatures under all conditions and calculate propellant mass in real-time; the system will successfully demonstrate its feasibility as a control sensor for LOX filling and topping operations, as well as for engine cut-off. All objectives were met and the test results are presented.

  7. Orion Pad Abort 1 Crew Module Mass Properties Test Approach and Results (United States)

    Herrera, Claudia; Harding, Adam


    The Flight Loads Laboratory at the Dryden Flight Research Center conducted tests to measure the inertia properties of the Orion Pad Abort 1 (PA-1) Crew Module (CM). These measurements were taken to validate analytical predictions of the inertia properties of the vehicle and assist in reducing uncertainty for derived aero performance coefficients to be calculated post-launch. The first test conducted was to determine the Ixx of the Crew Module. This test approach used a modified torsion pendulum test setup that allowed the suspended Crew Module to rotate about the x axis. The second test used a different approach to measure both the Iyy and Izz properties. This test used a Knife Edge fixture that allowed small rotation of the Crew Module about the y and z axes. Discussions of the techniques and equations used to accomplish each test are presented. Comparisons with the predicted values used for the final flight calculations are made. Problem areas, with explanations and recommendations where available, are addressed. Finally, an evaluation of the value and success of these techniques to measure the moments of inertia of the Crew Module is provided.

  8. Interference in axisymmetric synthetic jet actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smyk Emil


    Full Text Available The paper presents research of phenomena of mechanical wave interference during generate synthetic jets in actuator with two executive elements (speakers. Two speakers work with the same or other phase using the phenomenon of mechanical wave interference (sound wave. In effect the volume of ingestion and expulsion flow is a sum of two speakers' work. In this paper is presented analysis of operation so constructed axisymetric actuator and influence of phase shift - between work of the speakers - on actuator’s operation.

  9. Optical nano and micro actuator technology

    CERN Document Server

    Knopf, George K


    In Optical Nano and Micro Actuator Technology, leading engineers, material scientists, chemists, physicists, laser scientists, and manufacturing specialists offer an in-depth, wide-ranging look at the fundamental and unique characteristics of light-driven optical actuators. They discuss how light can initiate physical movement and control a variety of mechanisms that perform mechanical work at the micro- and nanoscale. The book begins with the scientific background necessary for understanding light-driven systems, discussing the nature of light and the interaction between light and NEMS/MEMS d

  10. Ceramic-Metal Interfaces in Multilayer Actuators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engell, John; Pedersen, Henrik Guldberg; Andersen, Bjørn


    on the quality and strength of this interface. In the case of a weak ceramic-metal interface, delaminations will occur under severe working conditions.Work has been carried out on a commercial PZT type ceramic and various types of Pt electrode paste. The present study involves characterization of the interface......Multilayer actuators consist of a number of piezoelectric or electrostrictive ceramic layers, separated by thin metal electrodes. Thus, the ceramic-metal interface plays an even more important role than for bulk piezoceramics. The performance and durability of the actuator depends closely...

  11. A dynamic linearization concept for piezoelectric actuators. (United States)

    Biancuzzi, Giovanni; Haller, Daniel; Lemke, Thomas; Wischke, Martin; Goldschmidtboeing, Frank; Woias, Peter


    We present a linearization circuit based on a capacitive Wheatstone bridge that is able to set a desired polarization in a piezoactuator. The system is meant to be used for dynamic actuation in a broad frequency range. A general nonlinear model for piezoactuators is presented in which two nonlinear sub-systems are cascaded: the electric-field-to-polarization (E-P) and the polarization-to-strain (P-x) blocks. The inversion of the latter sub-system in combination with the linearization bridge results in a reduction of up to 19 dB of the harmonic distortion of the actuator's mechanical displacement. © 2011 IEEE

  12. Electrokinetic actuation of liquid metal for reconfigurable radio frequency devices (United States)

    Gough, Ryan C.

    oxide layer. Several proof-of-concept devices are designed and tested to demonstrate the effectiveness of these electrical actuation techniques. A pair of tunable slot antennas are presented that achieve frequency reconfigurability through different implementations of liquid metal tuning elements - the first uses liquid metal as a dynamic short-circuit boundary condition for the magnetic current within the resonant aperture, and the second as a variable-length transmission stub that adds and removes reactance from the antenna. The two antennas are tunable across effective bandwidths of 19% and 15%, respectively. In addition, a tunable bandpass filter is demonstrated in which a central liquid-metal resonant element is 'stretched' to lower the passband of the filter by 10% without impacting the insertion loss. Finally, it is demonstrated how liquid metal can be formed into arbitrary shapes at high speeds (approximately 2.5 cm/s) without the need for an external power supply.

  13. Pneumatic Multi-Pocket Elastomer Actuators for Metacarpophalangeal Joint Flexion and Abduction-Adduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapio Veli Juhani Tarvainen


    Full Text Available During recent years, interest has been rising towards developing fluidic fiber-reinforced elastomer actuators for wearable soft robotics used in hand rehabilitation and power-assist. However, they do not enable finger abduction-adduction, which plays an important role in activities of daily living, when grasping larger objects. Furthermore, the developed gloves often do not have separate control of joints, which is important for doing various common rehabilitation motions. The main obstacle for the development of a fully-assisting glove is moving a joint with multiple degrees of freedom. If the functions are built into the same structure, they are naturally coupled and affect each other, which makes them more difficult to design and complex to control than a simple flexion-extension actuator. In this study, we explored the key design elements and fabrication of pneumatic multi-pocket elastomer actuators for a soft rehabilitation glove. The goal was to gain more control over the metacarpophalangeal joint’s response by increasing the degree of actuation. Three main functional designs were tested for achieving both flexion and abduction-adduction. Five prototypes, with four different actuator geometries and four different reinforcement types, were designed and fabricated. They were evaluated by recording their free motion with motion capture and measuring their torque output using a dummy finger. Results showed the strengths and weaknesses of each design in separating the control of the two functions. We discuss the different improvements that are needed in order to make each design plausible for developing an actuator that meets the requirements for full assist of the hand’s motions. In conclusion, we show that it is possible to produce multi-pocket actuators for assisting MCP joint motion in both flexion and abduction-adduction, although coupling between the separate functions is still problematic and should be considered further.

  14. Study of a pseudo-empirical model approach to characterize plasma actuators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marziali Bermudez, M [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, UBA, Ciudad Universitaria Pab. I, Buenos Aires 1428 (Argentina); Sosa, R; Artana, G [Laboratorio de Fluidodinamica, Facultad de Ingenieria, UBA, Av. Paseo Colon 850, Buenos Aires 1063 (Argentina); Grondona, D; Marquez, A; Kelly, H, E-mail: [Instituto de Fisica del Plasma (CONICET) - Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, UBA, Ciudad Universitaria Pab. I, Buenos Aires 1428 (Argentina)


    The use of plasma actuators is a recent technology that imposes a localized electric force that is used to control air flows. A suitable representation of actuation enables to undertake plasma actuators optimization, to design flow-control strategies, or to analyse the flow stabilization that can be attained by plasma forcing. The problem description may be clearly separated in two regions. An outer region, where the fluid is electrically neutral, in which the flow is described by the Navier-Stokes equation without any forcing term. An inner region, that forms a thin boundary layer, where the fluid is ionized and electric forces are predominant. The outer limit of the inner solution becomes the boundary condition for the outer problem. The outer problem can then be solved with a slip velocity that is issued from the inner solution. Although the solution for the inner problem is quite complex it can be contoured proposing pseudo-empirical models where the slip velocity of the outer problem is determined indirectly from experiments. This pseudo-empirical model approach has been recently tested in different cylinder flows and revealed quite adapted to describe actuated flow behaviour. In this work we determine experimentally the influence of the duty cycle on the slip velocity distribution. The velocity was measured by means of a pitot tube and flow visualizations of the starting vortex (i.e. the induced flow when actuation is activated in a quiescent air) have been done by means of the Schlieren technique. We also performed numerical experiments to simulate the outer region problem when actuation is activated in a quiescent air using a slip velocity distribution as a boundary condition. The experimental and numerical results are in good agreement showing the potential of this pseudo-empirical model approach to characterize the plasma actuation.

  15. Piezoelectric control of the static behaviour of flextensional actuators with constricted hinges (United States)

    Przybylski, Jacek


    The objective of this paper is to present the mathematical modelling and computational testing of the static operational performance and effectiveness of flextensional actuators comprised of two rectilinear or initially deflected beams placed equidistantly from a centrally located piezoceramic stack in the form of a rod. The beams are mounted by stiff links with an offset to a piezoelectric transformer. A monolithic hinge lever mechanism is applied by cutting constricted hinges at the links to generate and magnify the in-plane displacement created by the application of a voltage to the piezorod. Structures of such a type have been commonly used as passive or active actuators since the manufacturing of the mechanism’s prototypes in the form of Moonie or cymbal actuators. An analytical model of the actuator is developed on the basis of stationary values of the total potential energy principle with the use of the von Kármán non-linear strains theory. During the numerical computations, the deflection and internal axial force generated by both the externally distributed load and the the application of an electric field are determined by changing the actuator properties such as the distance between the beams and the rod, the amplitude of the beam’s initial displacement as well as the stiffness of the constricted hinges. Additionally, the application of structure prestressing is considered to avoid an undesired stretching of the piezo stack. It has been shown that for the flextensional actuator with a very high flexibility of constricted hinges, the generated transverse displacement is limited by the maximum electric field as the characteristic property for each piezoceramic material. A vast number of numerical results exhibit the mechanical responses of the transducer of different geometrical and physical properties to piezoelectric stimulation; this has potential applications in the design process of such actuators.

  16. Supporting scalable Bayesian networks using configurable discretizer actuators

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Osunmakinde, I


    Full Text Available The authors propose a generalized model with configurable discretizer actuators as a solution to the problem of the discretization of massive numerical datasets. Their solution is based on a concurrent distribution of the actuators and uses dynamic...

  17. Actuator assembly including a single axis of rotation locking member (United States)

    Quitmeyer, James N.; Benson, Dwayne M.; Geck, Kellan P.


    An actuator assembly including an actuator housing assembly and a single axis of rotation locking member fixedly attached to a portion of the actuator housing assembly and an external mounting structure. The single axis of rotation locking member restricting rotational movement of the actuator housing assembly about at least one axis. The single axis of rotation locking member is coupled at a first end to the actuator housing assembly about a Y axis and at a angle to an X and Z axis providing rotation of the actuator housing assembly about the Y axis. The single axis of rotation locking member is coupled at a second end to a mounting structure, and more particularly a mounting pin, about an X axis and at a angle to a Y and Z axis providing rotation of the actuator housing assembly about the X axis. The actuator assembly is thereby restricted from rotation about the Z axis.

  18. Prognostic Health-Management System Development for Electromechanical Actuators (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Electro-mechanical actuators (EMAs) have been gaining increased acceptance as safety-critical actuation devices in the next generation of aircraft and spacecraft....

  19. Structure-property relations of gold and graphene nanoporous actuators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saane, Siva Shankar Reddy


    Electrochemical nanoporous actuators have low weight, large specific surface areas and low voltage operating capabilities, making them attractive for application in small-scale electromechanical devices. The actuation strain of these materials at the macroscopic scale is a manifestation of

  20. Evaluation of encapsulating coatings on the performance of polypyrrole actuators (United States)

    Naficy, Sina; Stoboi, Nicholas; Whitten, Philip G.; Spinks, Geoffrey M.; Wallace, Gordon G.


    Conjugated polymer actuators are electroactive materials capable of generating force and movement in response to an applied external voltage. Many potential biomedical and industrial applications require these actuators to operate in a liquid environment. However, immersion of uncoated conducting polymer actuators in non-electrolyte liquids greatly reduces their operating lifetime. Here, we demonstrate the use of spray coating as an effective and simple method to encapsulate polypyrrole (PPy) tri-layer bending actuators. Poly(styrene-b-isobutylene-b-styrene) (SIBS) was used as an encapsulating, compliant spray coating on PPy actuators. A significant enhancement in actuator lifetime in both air and water was observed by encapsulating the actuators. The change in stiffness and reduction in bending amplitude for coatings of different thickness was studied. A simple beam mechanics model describes the experimental results and highlights the importance of coating compliance for actuator coatings. The model may be used to evaluate other possible encapsulating materials.