WorldWideScience

Sample records for test ban preliminary

  1. Preliminary code development for seismic signal analysis related to test ban treaty questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brolley, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    Forensic seismology, from a present day viewpoint, appears to be divided into several areas. Overwhelmingly important, in view of current Complete Test Ban (CTB) discussions, is the seismological study of waves generated in the earth by underground nuclear explosions. Over the last two decades intensive effort has been devoted to developing improved observational apparatus and to the interpretation of the data produced by this equipment. It is clearly desirable to extract the maximum amount of information from seismic signals. It is, therefore, necessary to quantitatively compare various modes of analysis to establish which mode or combination of modes provides the most useful information. Preliminary code development for application of some modern developments in signal processing to seismic signals is described. Applications of noncircular functions are considered and compared with circular function results. The second portion of the discussion concerns maximum entropy analysis. Lastly, the multivariate aspects of the general problem are considered

  2. Nuclear test ban's last chance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnaby, F.

    1976-01-01

    It is argued that if nuclear disarmament is the aim then some arms control treaties have been counterproductive. The two great powers have conducted, albeit underground, more nuclear explosions in the 12 years since the partial test ban than they did in the preceding 18 years, 1945 to 1963. The partial test ban treaty obliges the parties to negotiate a ban on 'all test explosions of nuclear weapons for all time'. After 12 years of negotiations very little progress has been made to this end. The USA and the USSR signed a bilateral Threshold Test Ban Treaty in 1974 banning 'any underground nuclear weapon tests having a yield exceeding 150 kilo-tons... beginning 31 March, 1976', a protocol describes how compliance is to be verified, and Article III requires that an agreement is to be negotiated governing peaceful nuclear explosions. From the point of view of disarmament it would be much better if the threshold test ban treaty were not ratified and a comprehensive test ban treaty were negotiated instead. The main official reason given for the failure to negotiate such a treaty is the problem of verification. However it is argued that due to recent progress in seismology there are no longer significant technical obstacles to the negotiation of a comprehensive test ban treaty. But there is lack of political will to obtain such a treaty. (U.K.)

  3. The Limited Test Ban Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeb, B.S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the Limited Test Ban Treaty which came at the end of nearly five years of frustrated efforts to obtain a comprehensive test ban. Negotiations toward that end had begun in October 1958. At the same time a voluntary, informal moratorium on tests was initiated. The negotiations soon stalled over the Soviet Union's resistance to internationally supervised inspections on its soil. In April 1959 a phased ban that was to be limited at first to atmospheric tests conducted below an altitude of 50 kilometers. Such tests were thought to be easily verifiable. The Soviets rejected this idea and continued to insist that a complete test ban need not require numerous inspections. The two sides nevertheless appeared to be nearing agreement on a treaty to ban all but relatively small underground tests when, in May 1960, an U.S. U-2 reconnaissance plane was shot down over Soviet territory. After a thorough review of the U.S. position, the Kennedy administration proposed in April 1961 a draft treaty that made several concessions toward the Soviet position. Nevertheless, the Soviets, still disagreeing with the provisions for verification and with the makeup of the control organization, rejected it

  4. Nuclear test ban verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Kin-Yip

    1991-07-01

    This report describes verification and its rationale, the basic tasks of seismic verification, the physical basis for earthquake/explosion source discrimination and explosion yield determination, the technical problems pertaining to seismic monitoring of underground nuclear tests, the basic problem-solving strategy deployed by the forensic seismology resarch team at the University of Toronto, and the scientific significance of the team's research. The research carried out at the Univeristy of Toronto has two components: teleseismic verification using P wave recordings from the Yellowknife Seismic Array (YKA), and regional (close-in) verification using high-frequency L g and P n recordings from the Eastern Canada Telemetered Network. Major differences have been found in P was attenuation among the propagation paths connecting the YKA listening post with seven active nuclear explosion testing areas in the world. Significant revisions have been made to previously published P wave attenuation results, leading to more interpretable nuclear explosion source functions. (11 refs., 12 figs.)

  5. A comprehensive nuclear test ban

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The conclusion of a comprehensive nuclear test ban is of critical importance for the future of arms limitation and disarmament. As the 1980 report of the Secretary-General concluded, a comprehensive nuclear test ban is regarded as the first and most urgent step towards the cessation of the nuclear arms race and, in particular, of its qualitative aspects. It could serve as an important measure for the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, both vertical and horizontal. It would have a major arms limitation impact in that it would make it difficult, if not impossible, to develop new designs of nuclear weapons and would also place constraints on the modification of existing weapon designs. The permanent cessation of all nuclear-weapon tests has long been sought by the world community and its achievement would be an event of great international significance

  6. Comprehensive Nuclear Test-ban Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty was adopted by the General Assembly on 10 September 1996 (Res/50/245) and was open for signature by all states on 24 September 1996. It will enter into force 180 days after the date of deposit of the instruments of ratification by all states listed in Annex 2 to the Treaty. This document reproduces the text of the Treaty and the Protocol to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Protocol to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty

  7. Comprehensive Nuclear Test-ban Treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty was adopted by the General Assembly on 10 September 1996 (Res/50/245) and was open for signature by all states on 24 September 1996. It will enter into force 180 days after the date of deposit of the instruments of ratification by all states listed in Annex 2 to the Treaty. This document reproduces the text of the Treaty and the Protocol to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Protocol to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty. 4 tabs.

  8. India and the nuclear test ban

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, J.

    1998-01-01

    India has sought a nuclear-test ban for the last 42 years bur is now unable to sign the Comprehensive Test ban Treaty (CTBT) when it is in its final form and moved to block its transmittal from the Conference on Disarmament to the UN General assembly. The negotiating mandate for the CTBT required it to effectively contribute to the process of disarmament. It is towards this end that India proposed amendments. Nuclear disarmament is fundamental for India's strategic and security interests. The only viable solution to India's security concerns related to nuclear weapons is in pursuing total elimination of nuclear weapons from national arsenals

  9. Towards a nuclear-test ban

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    A survey of international efforts from the partial test-ban Treaty (in atmosphere, in outer space and under water) in 1963 to the Soviet-USA negotiations on verification measures for the threshold test-ban Treaty is given. As was the case in the bilateral and trilateral negotiations, the question of adequate verification procedures has remained one of the major problems in the multilateral considerations on a comprehensive test ban. Over the years, a number of proposals have been made in order to solve the issue, in particular by Sweden and by the Soviet Union. In 1988, the four experimental data centres, situated in Canberra, Moscow, Stockholm and Washington, carried out separate and joint experiments in analysis methodology. Communication techniques between the four international data centres and a number of national seismological stations were also tested. In addition, a global data-gathering experiment was conducted, resulting in the creation of an initial research data base at the experimental data centre in Canberra. Further technical experiments are planned for 1989, an in 1990 a large-scale experiment in data exchange and analysis, involving up to a hundred seismological stations globally and lasting several months, is foreseen

  10. Towards a nuclear-test ban

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    In 1986 and again in 1987 the General Assembly adopted resolutions by which it called on States conducting nuclear-test explosions to notify the Secretary-General, within one week of each explosion, of the time, place, yield and site characteristics of the test and also invited all other States to provide any such data on nuclear explosions that they might have. Over the years, in the Conference on Disarmament, members of the Group of 21 (mostly neutral and non-aligned countries) have continued to attach the utmost importance to the urgent conclusion of a comprehensive test-ban treaty as a significant contribution to the aim of ending the qualitative refinement of nuclear weapons and the development of new types of such weapons as well as of reversing the nuclear-arms race and achieving nuclear disarmament. In 1995 a conference will be convened to decide whether the non-proliferation Treaty will continue in force indefinitely, or will be extended for an additional fixed period or periods. Many States support the view that a comprehensive test ban would be a significant contribution to the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons; and some believe that, without a cessation of nuclear testing, it may not be possible to extend the NPT well beyond 1995. Other States, however, are of the opinion that the NPT, independently, offers benefits for the security of all States and, by its extension, will continue to do so

  11. Report made on behalf of the commission of foreign affairs about the project of law, adopted by the senate, authorizing the approval of the agreement between the French government and the preliminary commission of the organization of the nuclear test ban treaty, about the conduct of the activities relative to the international control facilities, including the post-certification activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazenave, R.

    2003-12-01

    France and the preliminary commission of the comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty organization (CTBTO) concluded on July 13, 2001, an agreement about the conduct of the activities relative to the international surveillance facilities. This agreement aims at organizing the modalities of implementation of the surveillance activities carried out by the technical secretariat of the preliminary committee of CTBTO in the French territory. This document is the report of the French national assembly about the project of law for the approval of this agreement. It presents the difficult implementation of an international test ban system, the French commitment in the comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty (CTBT), and the main dispositions of the agreement of July 13, 2001. (J.S.)

  12. In pursuit of a nuclear test ban treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmalberger, T.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this guide is to focus on the political issues in the test ban debate in the conference of Disarmament, and to produce a guide providing diplomats, researchers, and the interested public with background information. Such a complex negotiating process requires a selection of proposals, comments and technical details. The criterion from selecting material was based upon the importance for present negotiations. The first part of this guide provides a historical perspective on the arguments used for and against nuclear testing, and on the record of negotiating activities on this subject. The second part examines the test ban debate in the Conference on Disarmament during the past ten years. Figs

  13. Verification methods for treaties limiting and banning nuclear tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voloshin, N.P.

    1998-01-01

    Treaty on limitation of underground nuclear weapon tests and treaty on world banning of nuclear tests contribute to and accompany the process of nuclear disarmament. Test ban in three (Moscow treaty of 1963) as well as the Threshold Test Ban up to 1991 was controlled only with national means. But since 1991 nuclear test threshold of 150 kt has been measured with hydrodynamic and tele seismic methods and checked by the inspection. Distinctive feature of this control is that control is that it is bilateral. This conforms to Treaty on limitation of underground nuclear weapon tests signed by two countries - USA and USSR. The inspection at the place of tests requires monitoring of the test site of the party conducting a test and geological information of rock in the area of explosion. In the treaty of the World Nuclear Test Ban the following ways of international control are provided for: - seismologic measurements; - radionuclide measurements; - hydro-acoustics measurements; - infra-sound measurements; - inspection at the place of the tests conduction

  14. Elements of a system for verifying a Comprehensive Test Ban

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannon, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    The paper discusses the goals of a monitoring system for a CTB, its functions, the challenges to verification, discrimination techniques, and some recent developments. It is concluded technical, military and political efforts are required to establish and verify test ban treaties which will contribute to stability in the long term. It currently appears there will be a significant number of unidentified events

  15. The comprehensive test ban treaty negotiations: a view from Geneva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weston, Michael.

    1995-01-01

    The United Kingdom- one of the alliance's three nuclear powers is fully and actively involved in the search for a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) which would play an important role in both non-proliferation and disarmament objectives. This article considers how the negotiations are proceeding and assesses the prospects in a number of key areas. (author)

  16. Test ban treaty verification with regional data: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomeroy, P.W.; Best, W.J.; McEvilly, T.V.

    1982-01-01

    This paper summarizes the use of regional (Δ ≤ 30 0 ) seismic data in a test ban context for detecting, locating, identifying, and determining the yield of underground nuclear explosions. In many areas of the world (Eastern North America, Africa, Eastern USSR), Lg is the largest amplitude wave recorded on standard seismograph systems and thus is the most appropriate phase for monitoring small magnitude events. Excellent location capability for near-regional events has been demonstrated at the Norwegian small aperture array (NORESS) using Lg and P waves. Lg and other regional phases may contain information on source depth, but such information has not been exploited to date. Fifteen classes of regional discriminants are listed. Most have been tested only on limited data, usually from one geographic region and only one or two recording stations. No systematic analyses have been done to determine the best individual discriminant or combination of them. Preliminary evaluation of the use of Lg for yield determination suggests that regional waves hold promise in this application. Theoretical studies have contributed significantly to the understanding of propagation characteristics of regional waves but further studies are required emphasizing modeling for realistic anisotropic sources. The major conclusion of this study is that a systematic and comparative evaluation of all the proposed regional discriminants is now required, utilizing a common data base derived from all present-day test sites. This evaluation would suggest the optimal discrimination procedure using regional waves, and would also define areas of needed research. Without such an integrated evaluation, it is still possible to speculate, using existing results, on the most promising regional discriminants

  17. National security and the comprehensive test ban treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landauer, J.K.

    1980-08-01

    For nearly three years now, the US, UK, and USSR have been working on the draft of a treaty that would ban all nuclear explosions (both peaceful applications and weapon tests) and institute verification and monitoring provisions to ensure compliance with the treaty. The status of the draft treaty is summarized. The question, Is a CTBT really in the interest of US national security. is analyzed with arguments used by both proponents and opponents of the CTBT. It is concluded that there are arguments both for and against a CTBT, but, for those whose approach to national security can be expressed as peace through preparedness, the arguments against a CTBT appear persuasive

  18. The organisation of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopecky, Maurice

    2016-01-01

    The author presents the international control system implemented by the CTBT (Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty) organisation to permanently control the globe and to detect any indicator of a nuclear explosion from war or civil origin or seismic activities. He briefly indicates how many countries are members of this organisation, and positions of some others. He describes how a North-Korean explosion has been detected in January 2016. He evokes the existence of validation techniques, and comments the relationship between the European Union and this organisation. He outlines the role played by France, and outlines the need for a world-based control system

  19. Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty: options before nuclear Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattanaik, Smruti S.

    1998-01-01

    The post-nuclear period has rendered Pakistan's strategic calculations more vulnerable. The decision to go nuclear after seventeen days of debate have started proving costly to Pakistan. This is revealed by the economic crisis resulting out of the foreign currency shortage, leading the country to default on the payment of debts. The pressure imposed by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank and their patrons to sign the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) have exposed Pakistan's economic vulnerability. Under this growing pressure, many have started questioning the decision to go nuclear

  20. The Comprehensive Nuclear Test-ban Treaty : an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty ushers in the post-nuclear testing era. The Treaty is the result of many years of intensive international negotiation, and is an impressive document of some 48 pages plus 15 pages of annexes which, by April 1997, 143 nations including New Zealand had signed. New Zealand has consistently maintained a strong opposition to the testing of nuclear weapons and has had a long involvement in negotiations towards this Treaty. This is the first of a series of articles on the Treaty, its enforcement, and its implications for New Zealand, and provides an overview of the treaty by means of a quick tour through its main provisions. (author)

  1. Nuclear Testing and Comprehensive Test Ban: Chronology Starting September 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-18

    unless the Secretary determines that a different number of months is preferable. 09/00/03 — A conference on facilitating the CTBT’s entry into force was... Unicorn ,” at the Nevada Test Site. 09/20/06 — Fifty-nine foreign ministers called on states that have not done so to ratify the treaty. 09/28/06

  2. Inverse transport for the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-P. Issartel

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available An international monitoring system is being built as a verification tool for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. Forty stations will measure on a worldwide daily basis the concentration of radioactive noble gases. The paper introduces, by handling preliminary real data, a new approach of backtracking for the identification of sources of passive tracers after positive measurements. When several measurements are available the ambiguity about possible sources is reduced significantly. The approach is validated against ETEX data. A distinction is made between adjoint and inverse transport shown to be, indeed, different though equivalent ideas. As an interesting side result it is shown that, in the passive tracer dispersion equation, the diffusion stemming from a time symmetric turbulence is necessarily a self-adjoint operator, a result easily verified for the usual gradient closure, but more general.

  3. Subcritical tests - nuclear weapon testing under the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeibraaten, S.

    1998-10-01

    The report discusses possible nuclear weapons related experiments and whether these are permitted under the 1996 Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). The term ''subcritical experiments'' as used in the United States includes experiments in which one studies fissile materials (so far only plutonium) under extreme conditions generated by conventional high explosives, and in which a self-sustained chain reaction never develops in the fissile material. The known facts about the American subcritical experiments are presented. There is very little reason to doubt that these experiments were indeed subcritical and therefore permitted under the CTBT. Little is known about the Russian efforts that are being made on subcritical experiments

  4. Verifying the nuclear-test ban. CTBTO: For a safer and more secure world [videorecording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) was opened for signature in September 1996. In March 1997, the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization started work in Vienna, Austria. This film depicts the Commission's activities in establishing the Treaty's verification regime to monitor adherence to the global ban on nuclear explosions. It presents the challenging work at some of the global monitoring facilities, and at the International Data Centre in Vienna, where the data generated by the facilities are received, processed and analysed

  5. Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty: Science and Technology 2011 (S and T2011). Announcement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    To build and strengthen its relationship with the broader science community in support of the Treaty, the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) invites the community to a scientific conference CTBT: Science and Technology 2011 (S and T 2011), to be held from 8 to 10 June 2011 at the Hofburg Palace in Vienna, Austria. The conference goals are: Discuss advances in science and technology relevant to test ban verification; Explore scientific applications of the CTBT verification infrastructure; Encourage partnerships and knowledge exchange between the CTBTO and the broader scientific community.

  6. What can public endorsement for a smoking ban policy mean? Preliminary findings from a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowiec, Agnieszka; Lignowska, Izabella; Makowska, Marta

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the study is to describe attitudes which underlie Pole's declarations of support for a smoking ban in public places. The qualitative study using semi-structured individual in-depth interviews was conducted. The 30 IDI-s (in depth interviews) being a part of a larger research project entitled 'Lay meanings of health and life orientation of Polish society versus prevention and health promotion attitudes' were realized between 2007-2009. People belonging to all key socio-demographic categories identified by variables such as sex, age, education, and place of domicile were interviewed. The resulting material was subjected to content analysis. In the study the structural concept of 'attitude' was adopted. In order to identify the attitudes towards smoking bans in public places statements related to all three components of attitudes were analysed, but the typology of attitudes was constructed mainly on the basis of the emotional-evaluative component. The study identified as many as four attitudes behind the declared support for a smoking ban in public places. Those attitudes were labelled 'supportive', 'accepting', 'conditionally accepting', and 'ambivalent'. They differ as regards degree of acceptance for the ban, conviction about harmfulness of passive smoking, setting great store by other regulators of smoking like cultural norms or healthy consciousness, and propensity to observe and execute the smoking ban. The 'supportive' attitude can be characterized not only by total support for the smoking ban in public places but also by insistence on the need for its extension. The 'accepting' attitude means approval for the smoking ban, and the 'conditionally accepting' attitude is distinguished from the others by the stress put on the right of smokers to have an access to places where smoking is permitted. The 'ambivalent' attitude can be typified by underlining other than legal ways of influencing smoking in public places. The study suggests that the attitudes

  7. Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty research and development: plans and accomplishments ...from signature to entry into force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-06-01

    This brochure describes the high-priority R&D that is being pursued in the DOE Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) R&D Program and how it will support effective CTBT monitoring. Monitoring challenges, sensor systems, signal analysis, resolution of ambiguities, and the timeline for CTBT history and program milestones are covered.

  8. Resolution establishing the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization. Adopted on 19 November 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Resolution on the Establishment of a Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization which was adopted on 19 November 1996 at a meeting of the States Signatories of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty

  9. Xenon monitoring and the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowyer, Theodore W. [Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Program, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

    2014-05-09

    How do you monitor (verify) a CTBT? It is a difficult challenge to monitor the entire world for nuclear tests, regardless of size. Nuclear tests 'normally' occur underground, above ground or underwater. Setting aside very small tests (let's limit our thinking to 1 kiloton or more), nuclear tests shake the ground, emit large amounts of radioactivity, and make loud noises if in the atmosphere (or hydroacoustic waves if underwater)

  10. Can the deterrence survive to nuclear tests ban

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaffney, F.J. Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The problem of the soundness of the nuclear tests stopping is discussed here. The safety, the durability of nuclear weapons need nuclear tests. So, unless other means able to guarantee the deterrence, it is prejudicial to stop nuclear tests and to sign a non proliferation treaty with the option of zero nuclear explosion. (N.C.)

  11. Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty: Background and Current Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    response, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States warned of consequences if North Korea conducted a test; South Korea expressed “deep regret and... Unicorn ,” was conducted in a “down-hole” or vertical shaft configuration similar to an underground nuclear test...26; 2003: Piano, September 19; 2004: Armando, May 25; 2006: Krakatau (jointly with UK), February 23; Unicorn , August 30; 2010: Bacchus, September 15

  12. Australia: Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. Model Treaty text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The scope of the proposed Treaty includes the following: Each State Party undertakes not to carry out any nuclear weapon test explosion, and to prohibit and prevent any such nuclear explosion at any place under its jurisdiction or control; each State Party undertakes, furthermore, to refrain from causing, encouraging, or in any way participating in the carrying out of any nuclear weapon tests explosion or any other nuclear explosion

  13. Policy issues facing the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty and prospects for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeney, J.

    1999-01-01

    This report is divided into the following 5 sections: (1) Background; (2) Major Issues Facing Ratification of CTBT; (3) Current Status on CTBT Ratification; (4) Status of CTBT Signatories and Ratifiers; and (5) CTBT Activities Not Prohibited. The major issues facing ratification of CTBT discussed here are: impact on CTBT of START II and ABM ratification; impact of India and Pakistan nuclear tests; CTBT entry into force; and establishment of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization

  14. Should Australia Ban the Use of Genetic Test Results in Life Insurance?

    OpenAIRE

    Tiller, Jane; Otlowski, Margaret; Lacaze, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Under current Australian regulation, life insurance companies can require applicants to disclose all genetic test results, including results from research or direct-to-consumer tests. Life insurers can then use this genetic information in underwriting and policy decisions for mutually rated products, including life, permanent disability, and total income protection insurance. Over the past decade, many countries have implemented moratoria or legislative bans on the use of genetic information ...

  15. Policy issues facing the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty and prospects for the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeney, J.

    1999-04-01

    This report is divided into the following 5 sections: (1) Background; (2) Major Issues Facing Ratification of CTBT; (3) Current Status on CTBT Ratification; (4) Status of CTBT Signatories and Ratifiers; and (5) CTBT Activities Not Prohibited. The major issues facing ratification of CTBT discussed here are: impact on CTBT of START II and ABM ratification; impact of India and Pakistan nuclear tests; CTBT entry into force; and establishment of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization.

  16. The US National Resources Defense Council/Soviet Academy of Sciences Nuclear Test Ban Verification Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochran, T.B.

    1989-01-01

    The first week in September 1987 was an extraordinary one for arms control verification. As part of the co-operative Test Ban Verification Project of the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) and the Soviet Academy of Sciences, fourteen American scientists from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (at the University of California- San Diego), University of Nevada-Reno and the University of Colorado went to the region of the Soviet's principal nuclear test site near Semipalatinsk. Together with their Soviet counterparts from the Institute of Physics of the Earth (IPE) in Moscow, they fired off three large chemical explosions. The purpose of these explosions was to demonstrate the sensitivity of the three seismic stations surrounding the test site, to study the efficiency with which high-frequency seismic waves propagate in the region, and to study differences between chemical explosions, nuclear explosions and earthquakes in order more firmly to establish procedures for verification of a nuclear test ban. This paper presents a review of the results of these experiments, an update on the status of the joint project, and a review of the significance of high frequency seismic data to test ban verification

  17. Mine seismicity and the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiappetta, F. [Blasting Analysis International, Allentown, PA (United States); Heuze, F.; Walter, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Hopler, R. [Powderman Consulting Inc., Oxford, MD (United States); Hsu, V. [Air Force Technical Applications Center, Patrick AFB, FL (United States); Martin, B. [Thunder Basin Coal Co., Wright, WY (United States); Pearson, C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Stump, B. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States); Zipf, K. [Univ. of New South Wales (Australia)

    1998-12-09

    Surface and underground mining operations generate seismic ground motions which are created by chemical explosions and ground failures. It may come as a surprise to some that the ground failures (coal bumps, first caves, pillar collapses, rockbursts, etc.) can send signals whose magnitudes are as strong or stronger than those from any mining blast. A verification system that includes seismic, infrasound, hydroacoustic and radionuclide sensors is being completed as part of the CTBT. The largest mine blasts and ground failures will be detected by this system and must be identified as distinct from signals generated by small nuclear explosions. Seismologists will analyze the seismic records and presumably should be able to separate them into earthquake-like and non earthquake-like categories, using a variety of so-called seismic discriminants. Non-earthquake essentially means explosion- or implosion-like. Such signals can be generated not only by mine blasts but also by a variety of ground failures. Because it is known that single-fired chemical explosions and nuclear explosion signals of the same yield give very similar seismic records, the non-earthquake signals will be of concern to the Treaty verification community. The magnitude of the mine-related events is in the range of seismicity created by smaller nuclear explosions or decoupled tests, which are of particular concern under the Treaty. It is conceivable that legitimate mining blasts or some mine-induced ground failures could occasionally be questioned. Information such as shot time, location and design parameters may be all that is necessary to resolve the event identity. In rare instances where the legitimate origin of the event could not be resolved by a consultation and clarification procedure, it might trigger on On-Site Inspection (OSI). Because there is uncertainty in the precise location of seismic event as determined by the International Monitoring System (IMS), the OSI can cover an area of up to 1

  18. Surface coatings as xenon diffusion barriers on plastic scintillators : Improving Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty verification

    OpenAIRE

    Bläckberg, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    This thesis investigates the ability of transparent surface coatings to reduce xenon diffusion into plastic scintillators. The motivation for the work is improved radioxenon monitoring equipment, used with in the framework of the verification regime of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. A large part of the equipment used in this context incorporates plastic scintillators which are in direct contact with the radioactive gas to be detected. One problem with such setup is that radioxenon...

  19. Reviews of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty and U.S. security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanloz, Raymond

    2017-11-01

    Reviews of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) by the National Academy of Sciences concluded that the United States has the technical expertise and physical means to i) maintain a safe, secure and reliable nuclear-weapons stockpile without nuclear-explosion testing, and ii) effectively monitor global compliance once the Treaty enters into force. Moreover, the CTBT is judged to help constrain proliferation of nuclear-weapons technology, so it is considered favorable to U.S. security. Review of developments since the studies were published, in 2002 and 2012, show that the study conclusions remain valid and that technical capabilities are better than anticipated.

  20. About the treaty of complete nuclear test ban: the USA between unilateralism and multilateralism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sur, S.

    2000-01-01

    This article analyses the possible reasons that have led the US Senate to reject the treaty of comprehensive nuclear test ban. Even if this decision did not retained the attention of the international public opinion, it appears as surprising because the USA have worked a lot for the elaboration of this treaty and were considered as the main beneficiaries of it. Three interpretations are proposed by the author: some purely internal disputes inside Clinton's administration, a real will of the USA to abandon the arms control policy, or an intermediate attitude which allows the USA to act on different levels and to get rid of common rules. (J.S.)

  1. Selected Examples of LDRD Projects Supporting Test Ban Treaty Verification and Nonproliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Al-Ayat, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Walter, W. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-02-23

    The Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program at the DOE National Laboratories was established to ensure the scientific and technical vitality of these institutions and to enhance the their ability to respond to evolving missions and anticipate national needs. LDRD allows the Laboratory directors to invest a percentage of their total annual budget in cutting-edge research and development projects within their mission areas. We highlight a selected set of LDRD-funded projects, in chronological order, that have helped provide capabilities, people and infrastructure that contributed greatly to our ability to respond to technical challenges in support of test ban treaty verification and nonproliferation.

  2. Asia nuclear-test-ban network for nuclear non-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohara, Nobuo; Kokaji, Lisa; Ichimasa, Sukeyuki

    2010-01-01

    In Global Center of Excellence Program of The University of Tokyo, Non- Proliferation Study Committee by the members of nuclear industries, electricity utilities, nuclear energy institutes and universities has initiated on October 2008 from the viewpoints of investigating a package of measures for nuclear non-proliferation and bringing up young people who will support the near-future nuclear energy system. One of the non-proliferation issues in the Committee is the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Objective of this treaty is to cease all nuclear weapon test explosions and all other nuclear explosion. This purpose should be contributed effectively to the political stability of the Asian region by continuous efforts to eliminate the nuclear weapons. In the Committee, by extracting several issues related to the CTBT, conception of 'Asia nuclear-test-ban network for nuclear non-proliferation' has been discussed with the aim of the nuclear-weapon security in Asian region, where environmental nuclear-test monitoring data is mainly treated and utilized. In this paper, the conception of the 'network' is presented in detail. (author)

  3. Annual banned-substance review: analytical approaches in human sports drug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevis, Mario; Kuuranne, Tiia; Geyer, Hans; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2017-01-01

    There has been an immense amount of visibility of doping issues on the international stage over the past 12 months with the complexity of doping controls reiterated on various occasions. Hence, analytical test methods continuously being updated, expanded, and improved to provide specific, sensitive, and comprehensive test results in line with the World Anti-Doping Agency's (WADA) 2016 Prohibited List represent one of several critical cornerstones of doping controls. This enterprise necessitates expediting the (combined) exploitation of newly generated information on novel and/or superior target analytes for sports drug testing assays, drug elimination profiles, alternative test matrices, and recent advances in instrumental developments. This paper is a continuation of the series of annual banned-substance reviews appraising the literature published between October 2015 and September 2016 concerning human sports drug testing in the context of WADA's 2016 Prohibited List. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Sensing the danger. Can tsunami early warning systems benefit from test ban monitoring?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerbo, L.

    2005-01-01

    An editorial in the February 2005 edition of the Magazine for European Research pointed to the very issue of responsibility: Improvements are always possible, of course, but the very nature of a 'natural disaster' is that while not entirely absolving humans of responsibility it surpasses our means to deal with and even understand the forces at work. But science can help enhance our knowledge. For if there is one subject that the Asian tragedy has highlighted, it is the importance of putting in place coordinated early warning systems for earthquakes and, in particular, the absence of effective monitoring of tsunamis in the Indian Ocean. A concerted effort is now being made to develop a coordinated system of systems - bringing together organizations and initiatives that together can put in place an early warning system. The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), set-up to monitor adherence to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, is one organization seen to contribute to a coordinated early warning system

  5. Subcritical tests - nuclear weapon testing under the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty; Subkritiske tester - kjernevaapentesting under avtalen om fullstendig proevestans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeibraaten, S

    1998-10-01

    The report discusses possible nuclear weapons related experiments and whether these are permitted under the 1996 Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). The term ''subcritical experiments'' as used in the United States includes experiments in which one studies fissile materials (so far only plutonium) under extreme conditions generated by conventional high explosives, and in which a self-sustained chain reaction never develops in the fissile material. The known facts about the American subcritical experiments are presented. There is very little reason to doubt that these experiments were indeed subcritical and therefore permitted under the CTBT. Little is known about the Russian efforts that are being made on subcritical experiments.

  6. Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) monitoring station operating regime influence on radionuclide detection sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    International Monitoring System (IMS) stations are being deployed worldwide in support of the Comprehensive [Nuclear] Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). The highly sensitive radionuclide monitoring stations regularly sample airborne radionuclide particulates to determine whether fission products are present in the atmosphere that may be indicative of a nuclear weapons test. Standards have been set for these stations regarding their operation regime and the minimum detectable concentrations (MDCs) for specific radionuclides likely to be present after a nuclear weapons test. This study uses actual CTBT monitoring data to relate a subset of the specified operational standards with the listed MDC limits. It is determined that a relationship exists between the specified operational regime and the MDC values. Since the background radioactivity is largely a function of the radon and thoron progeny, longer decay operational regimes allow for a reduction in the background. For longer lived radionuclides, this corresponds to a reduction in MDC. (author)

  7. The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty and Its Relevance for the Global Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dáša ADAŠKOVÁ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT is one of important international nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament measures. One of its pillars is the verification mechanism that has been built as an international system of nuclear testing detection to enable the control of observance of the obligations anchored in the CTBT. Despite the great relevance to the global non-proliferation and disarmament efforts, the CTBT is still not in force. The main aim of the article is to summarize the importance of the CTBT and its entry into force not only from the international relations perspective but also from the perspective of the technical implementation of the monitoring system.

  8. Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) Verification research in support of non-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linger, D.

    1997-01-01

    The Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) prohibits nuclear weapons testing at any yield. The detection and positive identification of any evasive test presents a challenge to the technical community, however. Low yield testing can be masked by normal background seismic noise or permissible chemical explosions for mining or other purposes. Cavity decoupling can reduce the seismic signal from the nuclear explosion by a factor of 50 or more. The combination of decoupling and high explosive masking represents a particular technical challenge for positive identification. To address this problem, a technical program in cooperation with the Kazakhstan National Nuclear Center has been initiated to conduct a series of tests in the Balapan area of the Semipalatinsk Test Site to provide fundamental data on the depth of burial effects on seismic signals emanating from an explosion. If the depth of burial can be positively determined from the characteristics of the seismic waveform, near-surface mining blasts can be distinguished from deep underground evasive nuclear explosions, thus eliminating the capability to easily mask the nuclear event. This paper will briefly describe the basic concepts of some evasive nuclear testing options and discuss the cooperative test program that is being carried out to improve the capability to positively identify such tests. The paper will also discuss possible additional cooperative tests that might be done in 1998 to further improve the identification capability

  9. Action plan for the comprehensive nuclear-test-ban treaty (CTBT) Malaysian National Data Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashillah Baharuddin; Alawiah Musa; Roslan Mohd Ali

    2007-01-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is a keystone of the international regime on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons and an essential basis for the pursuit of nuclear disarmament. Its total ban of any nuclear weapon test explosion moreover will restrict the development and qualitative improvement of nuclear weapons and end the development of advanced new types of these weapons. One of the key features of this treaty is the development of an International Monitoring System (IMS) to detect any nuclear weapon test. The IMS comprises a network of 321 monitoring stations and 16 radionuclide laboratories that monitor the Earth for evidence of nuclear explosions. It uses four verification methods, including seismic, hydroacoustic and infrasound, in addition to radionuclide monitoring of the underground, underwater and atmosphere environments, respectively, whereas, radionuclide monitoring can detect radioactive debris vented from atmospheric, underground or underwater nuclear explosions. Malaysia signed the CTBT on 23 July 1998, and is currently in the process of drafting a national CTBT Act to facilitate ratification. As provided for under the Treaty, one of the radionuclide-monitoring stations (Rain) under the IMS will be located in Malaysia. The station is under the responsibility of the Malaysian Nuclear Agency, as the National Authority for the CTBT. The operation of the IMS is supported by an International Data Centre (IDC) CTBT, which is based at the headquarters of the Preparatory Commission for the CTBT Organization (CTBTO) in Vienna. To facilitate the acquisition of data from the IMS for the purposes of verifying compliance with the Treaty in general, and to enable Malaysia to benefit from the scientific applications of the data obtainable from the IDC, a CTBT National Data Centre (NDC) is the process of being established in Malaysia , which is targeted to be fully operational by the third quarter of 2007. (Author)

  10. EU sales ban on new cosmetics tested on animals: impact on alternative methods, WTO implications and animal welfare aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhdel, Irmela W

    2004-06-01

    In 1993, the European Union (EU) adopted Directive 93/35/EEC, calling for a sales ban on new cosmetic products containing ingredients tested on animals after 1 January, 1998, provided that alternative methods had been developed by then. In May 2000, for the second time, the European Commission postponed that ban. The Commission justified the repeated postponement of the sales ban by saying that no animal-free methods were available, although three in vitro methods were scientifically approved in 1997. With three years delay, these methods have been published and therefore "made available" in the EU. OECD acceptance is still awaited. Another reason for the postponement was the fear of possible World Trade Organisation (WTO) conflicts. However, according to WTO rules, the protection of public morality or animal health could justify a restriction of the free trade principle. From the animal welfare point of view, an unqualified EU sales ban, combined with an animal testing ban, would provide the incentive to further promote the development and acceptance of alternative methods and to prove that ethical standards are legitimate concerns under WTO rules.

  11. Radionuclide observables during the Integrated Field Exercise of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Jonathan L; Miley, Harry S; Milbrath, Brian D

    2016-03-01

    In 2014 the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) undertook an Integrated Field Exercise (IFE14) in Jordan. The exercise consisted of a simulated 0.5-2 kT underground nuclear explosion triggering an On-site Inspection (OSI) to search for evidence of a Treaty violation. This research paper evaluates two of the OSI techniques used during the IFE14, laboratory-based gamma-spectrometry of soil samples and in-situ gamma-spectrometry, both of which were implemented to search for 17 OSI relevant particulate radionuclides indicative of nuclear explosions. The detection sensitivity is evaluated using real IFE and model data. It indicates that higher sensitivity laboratory measurements are the optimum technique during the IFE and within the Treaty/Protocol-specified OSI timeframes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. On Preliminary Test Estimator for Median

    OpenAIRE

    Okazaki, Takeo; 岡崎, 威生

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to discuss about estimation of median with a preliminary test. Two procedures are presented, one uses Median test and the other uses Wilcoxon two-sample test for the preliminary test. Sections 3 and 4 give mathematical formulations of such properties, including mean square errors with one specified case. Section 5 discusses their optimal significance levels of the preliminary test and proposes their numerical values by Monte Carlo method. In addition to mea...

  13. Proceedings of the symposium on the Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE): Results and implications for test ban treaties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denny, M.D.; Stull, S.P. [eds.

    1994-12-31

    The large amounts of chemical explosives used worldwide in mining, quarrying, and civil engineering projects presents a challenge for policy makers molding a test ban, since their use could provide the necessary cover for a clandestine nuclear test. The Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE) seeks to measure certain differences between an underground nuclear test and a chemical explosion in the same geology. Two chemical explosions were detonated at the Nevada Test Site to compare their signatures with previous nuclear tests. This conference presents results of these tests and discusses implications for test ban treaties. Conference papers are divided into the following sections: Background; Test preparations; EOS and code simulations; Rainier Mesa structure; Ground motion measurements; Non-seismic technologies; On-site inspection technologies; and a panel discussion. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  14. The rejection of the comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty by the US Senate: a reverse for the nuclear arms control?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitt, B.

    2000-01-01

    On October 13, 1999, after a hasty debate, the US Senate rejected the comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty (CTBT) signed 3 years ago. This article analyses this event with respect to the US domestic context (discussions at the Senate, reaction of the Presidency) and with respect to the international context (international reactions, future of the treaty, consequences on arms control policy). (J.S.)

  15. Should Australia Ban the Use of Genetic Test Results in Life Insurance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiller, Jane; Otlowski, Margaret; Lacaze, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Under current Australian regulation, life insurance companies can require applicants to disclose all genetic test results, including results from research or direct-to-consumer tests. Life insurers can then use this genetic information in underwriting and policy decisions for mutually rated products, including life, permanent disability, and total income protection insurance. Over the past decade, many countries have implemented moratoria or legislative bans on the use of genetic information by life insurers. The Australian government, by contrast, has not reviewed regulation since 2005 when it failed to ensure implementation of recommendations made by the Australian Law Reform Commission. In that time, the Australian life insurance industry has been left to self-regulate its use of genetic information. As a result, insurance fears in Australia now are leading to deterred uptake of genetic testing by at-risk individuals and deterred participation in medical research, both of which have been documented. As the potential for genomic medicine grows, public trust and engagement are critical for successful implementation. Concerns around life insurance may become a barrier to the development of genomic health care, research, and public health initiatives in Australia, and the issue should be publicly addressed. We argue a moratorium on the use of genetic information by life insurers should be enacted while appropriate longer term policy is determined and implemented.

  16. Should Australia Ban the Use of Genetic Test Results in Life Insurance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Tiller

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Under current Australian regulation, life insurance companies can require applicants to disclose all genetic test results, including results from research or direct-to-consumer tests. Life insurers can then use this genetic information in underwriting and policy decisions for mutually rated products, including life, permanent disability, and total income protection insurance. Over the past decade, many countries have implemented moratoria or legislative bans on the use of genetic information by life insurers. The Australian government, by contrast, has not reviewed regulation since 2005 when it failed to ensure implementation of recommendations made by the Australian Law Reform Commission. In that time, the Australian life insurance industry has been left to self-regulate its use of genetic information. As a result, insurance fears in Australia now are leading to deterred uptake of genetic testing by at-risk individuals and deterred participation in medical research, both of which have been documented. As the potential for genomic medicine grows, public trust and engagement are critical for successful implementation. Concerns around life insurance may become a barrier to the development of genomic health care, research, and public health initiatives in Australia, and the issue should be publicly addressed. We argue a moratorium on the use of genetic information by life insurers should be enacted while appropriate longer term policy is determined and implemented.

  17. Automated aerosol sampling and analysis for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, H.S.; Bowyer, S.M.; Hubbard, C.W.; McKinnon, A.D.; Perkins, R.W.; Thompson, R.C.; Warner, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    Detecting nuclear debris from a nuclear weapon exploded in or substantially vented to the Earth's atmosphere constitutes the most certain indication that a violation of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty has occurred. For this reason, a radionuclide portion of the International Monitoring System is being designed and implemented. The IMS will monitor aerosols and gaseous xenon isotopes to detect atmospheric and underground tests, respectively. An automated system, the Radionuclide Aerosol Sampler/Analyzer (RASA), has been developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to meet CTBT aerosol measurement requirements. This is achieved by the use of a novel sampling apparatus, a high-resolution germanium detector, and very sophisticated software. This system draws a large volume of air (∼ 20,000 m 3 /day), performs automated gamma-ray spectral measurements (MDC( 140 Ba) 3 ), and communicates this and other data to a central data facility. Automated systems offer the added benefit of rigid controls, easily implemented QA/QC procedures, and centralized depot maintenance and operation. Other types of automated communication include pull or push transmission of State-Of-Health data, commands, and configuration data. In addition, a graphical user interface, Telnet, and other interactive communications are supported over ordinary phone or network lines. This system has been the subject of a USAF commercialization effort to meet US CTBT monitoring commitments. It will also be available to other CTBT signatories and the monitoring community for various governmental, environmental, or commercial needs. The current status of the commercialization is discussed

  18. Annual banned-substance review: analytical approaches in human sports drug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevis, Mario; Kuuranne, Tiia; Walpurgis, Katja; Geyer, Hans; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2016-01-01

    The aim of improving anti-doping efforts is predicated on several different pillars, including, amongst others, optimized analytical methods. These commonly result from exploiting most recent developments in analytical instrumentation as well as research data on elite athletes' physiology in general, and pharmacology, metabolism, elimination, and downstream effects of prohibited substances and methods of doping, in particular. The need for frequent and adequate adaptations of sports drug testing procedures has been incessant, largely due to the uninterrupted emergence of new chemical entities but also due to the apparent use of established or even obsolete drugs for reasons other than therapeutic means, such as assumed beneficial effects on endurance, strength, and regeneration capacities. Continuing the series of annual banned-substance reviews, literature concerning human sports drug testing published between October 2014 and September 2015 is summarized and reviewed in reference to the content of the 2015 Prohibited List as issued by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), with particular emphasis on analytical approaches and their contribution to enhanced doping controls. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Machine learning for radioxenon event classification for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stocki, Trevor J., E-mail: trevor_stocki@hc-sc.gc.c [Radiation Protection Bureau, 775 Brookfield Road, A.L. 6302D1, Ottawa, ON, K1A 1C1 (Canada); Li, Guichong; Japkowicz, Nathalie [School of Information Technology and Engineering, University of Ottawa, 800 King Edward Avenue, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Ungar, R. Kurt [Radiation Protection Bureau, 775 Brookfield Road, A.L. 6302D1, Ottawa, ON, K1A 1C1 (Canada)

    2010-01-15

    A method of weapon detection for the Comprehensive nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty (CTBT) consists of monitoring the amount of radioxenon in the atmosphere by measuring and sampling the activity concentration of {sup 131m}Xe, {sup 133}Xe, {sup 133m}Xe, and {sup 135}Xe by radionuclide monitoring. Several explosion samples were simulated based on real data since the measured data of this type is quite rare. These data sets consisted of different circumstances of a nuclear explosion, and are used as training data sets to establish an effective classification model employing state-of-the-art technologies in machine learning. A study was conducted involving classic induction algorithms in machine learning including Naive Bayes, Neural Networks, Decision Trees, k-Nearest Neighbors, and Support Vector Machines, that revealed that they can successfully be used in this practical application. In particular, our studies show that many induction algorithms in machine learning outperform a simple linear discriminator when a signal is found in a high radioxenon background environment.

  20. Role reversal and problem solving in international negotiations: the Partial Nuclear Test Ban case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, T.D.

    1978-01-01

    To facilitate finding bargaining space and to reinforce cooperative potential, a number of analysts have promoted the use of role reversal and problem solving. Role reversal involves restating the positions of one's adversary to demonstrate understanding and to develop empathy, while problem solving involves searching for alternatives that promote joint interests. The case of the negotiations in the Eighteen Nation Disarmament Conference from 1962--1963 leading to the Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty provided the context for examining bargaining relationships involving role reversal and problem solving. Interactions among the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union, as recorded in transcripts of 112 sessions, were coded using Bargaining Process Analysis II, a content analysis instrument used to classify negotiation behaviors. Role reversal was measured by the frequency of paraphrases of the adversary's positions. Problem solving was measured by the frequency of themes promoting the exploration of alternatives and the search for mutually beneficial outcomes. The findings on the use of paraphrasing suggest that it can be used to restrict exploration as well as to promote it. The exploratory focus of problem solving was somewhat limited by its use in association with demands, suggesting that problem solving was interpreted as a sign of weakness

  1. Cosmic veto gamma-spectrometry for Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, J.L.; Davies, A.V.

    2014-01-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is supported by a global network of monitoring stations that perform high-resolution gamma-spectrometry on air filter samples for the identification of 85 radionuclides. At the UK CTBT Radionuclide Laboratory (GBL15), a novel cosmic veto gamma-spectrometer has been developed to improve the sensitivity of station measurements, providing a mean background reduction of 80.8% with mean MDA improvements of 45.6%. The CTBT laboratory requirement for a 140 Ba MDA is achievable after 1.5 days counting compared to 5–7 days using conventional systems. The system consists of plastic scintillation plates that detect coincident cosmic-ray interactions within an HPGe gamma-spectrometer using the Canberra Lynx TM multi-channel analyser. The detector is remotely configurable using a TCP/IP interface and requires no dedicated coincidence electronics. It would be especially useful in preventing false-positives at remote station locations (e.g. Halley, Antarctica) where sample transfer to certified laboratories is logistically difficult. The improved sensitivity has been demonstrated for a CTBT air filter sample collected after the Fukushima incident

  2. Cosmic veto gamma-spectrometry for Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J. L.; Davies, A. V.

    2014-05-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is supported by a global network of monitoring stations that perform high-resolution gamma-spectrometry on air filter samples for the identification of 85 radionuclides. At the UK CTBT Radionuclide Laboratory (GBL15), a novel cosmic veto gamma-spectrometer has been developed to improve the sensitivity of station measurements, providing a mean background reduction of 80.8% with mean MDA improvements of 45.6%. The CTBT laboratory requirement for a 140Ba MDA is achievable after 1.5 days counting compared to 5-7 days using conventional systems. The system consists of plastic scintillation plates that detect coincident cosmic-ray interactions within an HPGe gamma-spectrometer using the Canberra LynxTM multi-channel analyser. The detector is remotely configurable using a TCP/IP interface and requires no dedicated coincidence electronics. It would be especially useful in preventing false-positives at remote station locations (e.g. Halley, Antarctica) where sample transfer to certified laboratories is logistically difficult. The improved sensitivity has been demonstrated for a CTBT air filter sample collected after the Fukushima incident.

  3. Cosmic veto gamma-spectrometry for Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnett, J.L., E-mail: jonathan.burnett@awe.co.uk; Davies, A.V.

    2014-05-21

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is supported by a global network of monitoring stations that perform high-resolution gamma-spectrometry on air filter samples for the identification of 85 radionuclides. At the UK CTBT Radionuclide Laboratory (GBL15), a novel cosmic veto gamma-spectrometer has been developed to improve the sensitivity of station measurements, providing a mean background reduction of 80.8% with mean MDA improvements of 45.6%. The CTBT laboratory requirement for a {sup 140}Ba MDA is achievable after 1.5 days counting compared to 5–7 days using conventional systems. The system consists of plastic scintillation plates that detect coincident cosmic-ray interactions within an HPGe gamma-spectrometer using the Canberra Lynx{sup TM} multi-channel analyser. The detector is remotely configurable using a TCP/IP interface and requires no dedicated coincidence electronics. It would be especially useful in preventing false-positives at remote station locations (e.g. Halley, Antarctica) where sample transfer to certified laboratories is logistically difficult. The improved sensitivity has been demonstrated for a CTBT air filter sample collected after the Fukushima incident.

  4. The International Data Centre of the comprehensive nuclear-test-ban treaty: vision and progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratt, S.R.

    2001-01-01

    The mission of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty International Data Centre (IDC) is to: (a) acquire data over a Global Communications Infrastructure from a global network of 337 facilities of the International Monitoring Systems (IMS), (b) to process and analyze these data, and (c) to provide the IMS data, IDC products and services to Member States. In effect, the IDC symbolizes a new brand of arms control for the information age, leveraging Internet communications, knowledge-based data fusion, graphical decision support systems and Web-based user interfaces to achieve its mission. During 2000, the IDC was disseminating products based on data from about 90 seismic, hydroacoustic, infrasound and radionuclide stations of the future network. The number of events in the reviewed seismo-acoustic bulletins ranged from 40 to 360 each day. On average, some 200 radionuclide spectra were processed and analysed each month. Users from 45 Member States received an average of close to 18,000 data and product deliveries per month from the IDC. As the IDC continues to prepare for entry-into-force of the CTBT, it will continue to integrate the state-of-the-art in science and technology in order to meet the demands of the increasing volume of new types of IMS data, expanded IDC services, and a growing base of users. (orig.) [de

  5. Machine learning for radioxenon event classification for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stocki, Trevor J.; Li, Guichong; Japkowicz, Nathalie; Ungar, R. Kurt

    2010-01-01

    A method of weapon detection for the Comprehensive nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty (CTBT) consists of monitoring the amount of radioxenon in the atmosphere by measuring and sampling the activity concentration of 131m Xe, 133 Xe, 133m Xe, and 135 Xe by radionuclide monitoring. Several explosion samples were simulated based on real data since the measured data of this type is quite rare. These data sets consisted of different circumstances of a nuclear explosion, and are used as training data sets to establish an effective classification model employing state-of-the-art technologies in machine learning. A study was conducted involving classic induction algorithms in machine learning including Naive Bayes, Neural Networks, Decision Trees, k-Nearest Neighbors, and Support Vector Machines, that revealed that they can successfully be used in this practical application. In particular, our studies show that many induction algorithms in machine learning outperform a simple linear discriminator when a signal is found in a high radioxenon background environment.

  6. Radionuclide observables during the Integrated Field Exercise of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, Jonathan L.; Miley, Harry S.; Milbrath, Brian D.

    2016-01-01

    In 2014 the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) undertook an Integrated Field Exercise (IFE14) in Jordan. The exercise consisted of a simulated 0.5–2 kT underground nuclear explosion triggering an On-site Inspection (OSI) to search for evidence of a Treaty violation. This research paper evaluates two of the OSI techniques used during the IFE14, laboratory-based gamma-spectrometry of soil samples and in-situ gamma-spectrometry, both of which were implemented to search for 17 OSI relevant particulate radionuclides indicative of nuclear explosions. The detection sensitivity is evaluated using real IFE and model data. It indicates that higher sensitivity laboratory measurements are the optimum technique during the IFE and within the Treaty/Protocol-specified OSI timeframes. - Highlights: • The 2014 Integrated Field Exercise occurred in Jordan. • The detection sensitivity for two On-site Inspection techniques was evaluated. • The techniques search for 17 particulate radionuclides indicative of nuclear explosions. • Laboratory-based gamma-spectrometry of soil samples was the optimum technique.

  7. Politics of motherhood: the case of Women Strike for Peace and the test ban treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swerdlow, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    This dissertation is a narrative history and organizational study of the formative years of Women Strike for Peace (1961-1963) and its campaign for a nuclear test ban treaty. WSP, a grass roots, participatory movement of American Women, was born on November 1, 1961 when an estimated 50,000 women in 60 communities across the nation walked out of their kitchens and off their jobs in a one day protest against Russian and American nuclear policies. In the process of transforming this one day strike into a national woman's movement, WSP developed a feminine political style characterized by an anti-heirarchical, anti-organizational format, simple, womanly rhetoric, and spontaneous, innovative national and international direct action. At a time when foreign policy dissenters were dismissed by the press and the public either as commies or kooks, the image that WSP projected to respectable middle-class, middle-aged peace mothers wearing white gloves and flowered hats while picketing the White House to save their children from nuclear holocaust caught the favorable attention of large sections of the media, the public, and even the President. Through an investigation of the program, internal debates, rhetoric, organizational structure, and tactics of WSP, along with the backgrounds of its leaders and members, this study uncovers the political and gender consciousness of the women who joined the movement

  8. Application of the nuclide identification system SHAMAN in monitoring the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarnio, P.A.; Ala-Heikkilae, J.J.; Hakulinen, T.T.; Nikkinen, M.T.

    1998-01-01

    SHAMAN is an expert for qualitative and quantitative radionuclide identification in gamma spectrometry. SHAMAN requires as input the calibrations, peak search, and fitting results from reliable spectral analysis software, such as SAMPO. SHAMAN uses a comprehensive reference library with 2600 radionuclides and 80 000 gamma-lines, as well as a rule base consisting of sixty inference rules. Identification results are presented both via an interactive graphical interface and in the form of configurable text reports. An organization has been established for monitoring the recent Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. For radionuclide monitoring, 80 stations will be set up around the world. Air-filter gamma-spectra will be collected from these stations on a daily basis and they will need to be reliably analyzed with minimum turnaround time. SHAMAN is currently being evaluated within the prototype monitoring system as an automated radionuclide identifier, in parallel with existing radionuclide identification software. In air-filter monitoring, very low concentrations of radionuclides are measured from bulky sources in close geometry and with long counting time. In this case true coincidence summing and self-absorption become important factors. SHAMAN is able to take into account these complicated phenomena, and the results it produces have been found to be very reliable and accurate. (author)

  9. Airborne radionuclides of concern and their measurement in monitoring a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, R.W.; Miley, H.S.; Hensley, W.K.; Abel, K.H.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting radioanalytical developmental programs with the goal of providing near-real-time analysis technology for airborne signature radionuclides which are indicative of a nuclear weapons test in any of the earth's environments. If a test were conducted in the atmosphere or above the atmosphere, then the full spectrum of fission and activation products, together with residues from the device would be dispersed in the atmosphere. However, if a nuclear test were conducted underground or under water, the emission could range from a major to a very minor vent, and the material released would likely consist mainly of noble gas radionuclides and the radioiodines. Since many of the noble gases decay to form particulate radionuclides, these may serve as the more sensitive signatures. For example, Ba-140 is a daughter of Xe-140 (13.6 s), and Cs-137 is a daughter of Xe-137 (3.82 min). Both of these have been observed in large amounts relative to other fission products in dynamic venting of U.S. underground nuclear detonations. Large amounts of radionuclides are produced from even a comparatively small nuclear detonation. For example, a 10-KT fission device will produce approximately a megacurie of Ba-140 and of several other radionuclides with half-lives of days to weeks. If such a device were detonated in the atmosphere at midlatitude, it would easily be observable at downwind monitoring sites during its first and subsequent circumnavigations of the earth. Efficient and practical methods for the near-real-time analysis of both particulate and gaseous radionuclides are important to an effective monitoring and attribution program in support of a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT); methods for this purpose are being pursued

  10. The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, the relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, Thomas Jr. [7609 Glenbrook Rd., Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States)

    2014-05-09

    The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) is the most important international security arrangement that we have that is protecting the world community and this has been true for many years. But it did not happen by accident, it is a strategic bargain in which 184 states gave up the right forever to acquire the most powerful weapon ever created in exchange for a commitment from the five states allowed to keep nuclear weapons under the NPT (U.S., U.K., Russia, France and China), to share peaceful nuclear technology and to engage in disarmament negotiations aimed at the ultimate elimination of their nuclear stockpiles. The most important part of this is the comprehensive nuclear test ban (CTBT); the thinking by the 184 NPT non-nuclear weapon states was and is that they understand that the elimination of nuclear weapon stockpiles is a long way off, but at least the NPT nuclear weapon states could stop testing the weapons. The CTBT has been ratified by 161 states but by its terms it can only come into force if 44 nuclear potential states ratify; 36 have of the 44 have ratified it, the remaining eight include the United States and seven others, most of whom are in effect waiting for the United States. No state has tested a nuclear weapon-except for complete outlier North Korea-in 15 years. There appears to be no chance that the U.S. Senate will approve the CTBT for ratification in the foreseeable future, but the NPT may not survive without it. Perhaps it is time to consider an interim measure, for the UN Security Council to declare that any future nuclear weapon test any time, anywhere is a 'threat to peace and security', in effect a violation of international law, which in today's world it clearly would be.

  11. Structure and behavior as determinants: United States nuclear test ban and chemical and biological arms control policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    US efforts to control chemical and biological warfare and nuclear testing are examined with the aim of explaining the paucity of US backed agreements in these areas. Two theoretical perspectives, the behavioral and structural approaches, are used to explore US arms control outcomes. In the behavioral approach, the effects of governmental organization and the bargaining dynamics of policy-making elites with different cognitive styles are posited as important influences on US nuclear test ban and chemical and biological arms control policy outcomes. The behavioral perspective accounts for the timing of all US failed and successful entries (with one exception) into nuclear test bans and chemical and biological warfare restraints. A shortcoming of the behavior approach, however, is that it tends to overemphasize the chances for successful US entry into nuclear test and chemical and biological warfare limitations. Analysis of the same events from the structural perspective helps to correct for expectations generated by behavioral variables for a higher success rate than ultimately resulted. In the structural approach, the focus is on the effect of the organization of international politics on US nuclear test ban and chemical and biological arms control policy outcomes

  12. Barometric gas transport along faults and its application to nuclear test-ban monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrigan, C.R.; Heinle, R.A.; Hudson, G.M.; Nitao, J.J.; Zucca, J.J.

    1997-05-01

    Underground nuclear explosions produce a unique but evanescent set of radionuclide gases that potentially can be used in the context of an on-site, test-ban monitoring program to differentiate them from other detected events such as earthquakes or mining activity. In Part I of this report we describe an experiment to evaluate the upward transport of gases from an underground explosion using two gas tracers with very different diffusivities that were released in a 400-m-deep, chemical explosive detonation. The less diffusive (more massive) tracer was detected on a nearby geologic fault 50 days following the detonation while the more diffusive tracer was detected 375 days after release. Computer simulations indicate that the arrival time and the chromatographic behavior of transport are characteristic of barometrically induced flow in a fractured, porous matrix regime. For a hypothetical 1-kiloton fission explosion subject to the same weather and gas transport conditions of the chemical explosion, simulations predict the detectability of argon-37 after 80 days in spite of depletion by radioactive decay. Largely because of the earlier arrival of xenon-133, owing to its lower binary gas diffusivity, the exceedingly short lived isotope should also be detectable - arriving about 30 days earlier than argon. In Part II we consider that our prediction of the detectability of argon and xenon is based upon the small volume (0.00001 m 3 ) sampling technique of the NPE tracer-gas sampling study while actual sampling for radionuclides would involve drawing much larger volume (possibly 0.1-1 m 3 ) gas samples from the near-surface. Extraction of such a large volume of gas from 1-5 meter depths in the soil raises the possibility of significant atmospheric infiltration, leading to substantial dilution of the extracted gas sample. However, an infiltration experiment suggests that significant dilution would not, in fact, occur at the most prolific sampling stations of the earlier gas

  13. Banning Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trede, Mildred

    1991-01-01

    The "Game of Decisions" is presented to encourage students to consider the consequences of banning books and/or ideas. The game involves story writing, creating probability graphs, writing a letter protesting censorship from a chosen historical period, and examining a controversial science issue. Three thesis statements for generating group…

  14. Introduction of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) and preparatory activities for its entry into force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tani, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Mutsu Establishment, Mutsu, Aomori (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is a very important treaty, not only for Japan but also for the world, because it prohibits any nuclear weapon test explosion or any other nuclear explosion anywhere in the world. The treaty however will not enter into force until it has been signed and ratified by all the 44 states listed in Annex 2 to the treaty. Many efforts to facilitate the treaty's early entry into force are being done by many countries and many international organizations. As one of result of these efforts, a Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization had be established at a meeting of State Signatories on 19 November 1996, and the Commission started activities to establish global verification regime of the treaty and to prepare for its entry into force. Under the CTBT activities, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) is expected to play an important role as supporter for the Japanese Government, especially in a field of an International Monitoring System (IMS). However, there is no appropriate guide book on the CTBT for JAERI staff at present. This report provides some introduction of the CTBT regime and preparatory activities for its entry into force. Only open source information is used for making the report. If anyone need more detail information, it should be asked to contact competent authorities. (author)

  15. Proceedings of the 21st Seismic Research Symposium: Technologies for Monitoring The Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, N. Jill [Editor

    1999-09-21

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 21st Seismic Research Symposium: Technologies for Monitoring The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, held 21-24 September 1999 in Las Vegas, Nevada. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Department of Defense (DoD), the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  16. Prohibiting and Preventing Nuclear Explosions: Background Information for Parliamentarians on the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-07-01

    The object and purpose of the CTBT is to ban comprehensively nuclear weapon test explosions and any other nuclear explosion in any environment in an effectively verifiable manner. The CTBT aims at eliminating nuclear weapons by constraining the development and qualitative improvement of new or more advanced nuclear weapons. It plays a crucial role in the prevention of nuclear proliferation and in nuclear disarmament, thus contributing to a safer and more secure world. When the Treaty enters into force it will establish a treaty-implementing body (the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO)), including an on-site inspection mechanism and confidence-building measures as well as an International Monitoring System (IMS) and International Data Centre (IDC). The IMS and IDC are already being created and are being provisionally operated during the preparatory phase by the Preparatory Commission for the CTBTO and its Provisional Technical Secretariat in Vienna. Seismic, hydroacoustic, infrasound and radionuclide data are collected through the stations of the IMS and transmitted to Member States via the IDC. The IDC also processes the raw data received from the stations to derive objective products and services which will support the Treaty verification responsibilities. If the collected and analysed data indicate an ambiguous event, States may address concerns about possible noncompliance with the Treaty through a consultation and clarification process after it enters into force and may request an on-site inspection by the CTBTO.

  17. Cyclonic valve test: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Andre Sampaio; Moraes, Carlos Alberto C.; Marins, Luiz Philipe M.; Soares, Fabricio; Oliveira, Dennis; Lima, Fabio Soares de; Airao, Vinicius [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ton, Tijmen [Twister BV, Rijswijk (Netherlands)

    2012-07-01

    For many years, the petroleum industry has been developing a valve that input less shear to the flow for a given required pressure drop and this can be done using the cyclonic concept. This paper presents a comparison between the performances of a cyclonic valve (low shear) and a conventional globe valve. The aim of this work is to show the advantages of using a cyclonic low shear valve instead of the commonly used in the primary separation process by PETROBRAS. Tests were performed at PETROBRAS Experimental Center (NUEX) in Aracaju/SE varying some parameters: water cut; pressure loss (from 4 kgf/cm2 to 10 kgf/cm2); flow rates (30 m3/h and 45 m3/h). Results indicates a better performance of the cyclonic valve, if compared with a conventional one, and also that the difference of the performance, is a function of several parameters (emulsion stability, water content free, and oil properties). The cyclonic valve tested can be applied as a choke valve, as a valve between separation stages (for pressure drop), or for controlling the level of vessels. We must emphasize the importance to avoid the high shear imposed by conventional valves, because once the emulsion is created, it becomes more difficult to break it. New tests are being planned to occur in 2012, but PETROBRAS is also analyzing real cases where the applications could increase the primary process efficiency. In the same way, the future installations are also being designed considering the cyclonic valve usage. (author)

  18. The 2014 Integrated Field Exercise of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty revisited: The case for data fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Jonathan L; Miley, Harry S; Bowyer, Theodore W; Cameron, Ian M

    2018-09-01

    The International Monitoring System of the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) uses a global network of radionuclide monitoring stations to detect evidence of a nuclear explosion. The two radionuclide technologies employed-particulate and noble gas (radioxenon) detection-have applications for data fusion to improve detection of a nuclear explosion. Using the hypothetical 0.5 kT nuclear explosive test scenario of the CTBTO 2014 Integrated Field Exercise, the intrinsic relationship between particulate and noble gas signatures has been examined. This study shows that, depending upon the time of the radioxenon release, the particulate progeny can produce the more detectable signature. Thus, as both particulate and noble gas signatures are inherently coupled, the authors recommend that the sample categorization schemes should be linked. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The 2014 Integrated Field Exercise of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty revisited: the case for data fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnett, Jonathan L.; Miley, Harry S.; Bowyer, Theodore W.; Cameron, Ian M.

    2018-04-18

    The International Monitoring System of the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) uses a global network of radionuclide monitoring stations to detect evidence of a nuclear explosion. The two radionuclide technologies employed—particulate and noble gas (radioxenon) detection—have applications for data fusion to improve detection of a nuclear explosion. Using the hypothetical 0.5 kT nuclear explosive test scenario of the CTBTO 2014 Integrated Field Exercise, the intrinsic relationship between particulate and noble gas signatures has been examined. This study shows that, depending upon the time of the radioxenon release, the particulate progeny can produce the more detectable signature. Thus, as both particulate and noble gas signatures are inherently coupled, the authors recommend that the sample categorization schemes should be linked.

  20. The banning of sportsmen and women who fail drug tests is unjustifiable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuster, S; Devine, J W

    2013-01-01

    The use of performance enhancing drugs among elite athletes has been in the headlines recently, particularly with Lance Armstrong's fall from grace and his admission about widespread doping. Many argue that the use of drugs confers an unfair advantage and is ultimately dangerous to the health of the athletes. Others, like Professor Shuster, argue that the use of drugs is no different from other techniques employed by athletes to boost their performance: swimmers shaving their body hair; skiers wearing sleek body armour; archers and shooters having laser eye surgery to improve their accuracy. Professor Shuster puts forward the provocative argument that since 'there is no acceptable proof (that) drugs improve competitive performance and their use is no different from accepted sports practice, banning them is wrong and immoral.' JW Devine argues the other side, that the use of performance enhancing drugs poses a 'significant risk to the health of athletes' and perhaps more importantly, 'threatens to undermine the very purpose of sport' by disrupting the 'balance of excellences'.

  1. Automated radioxenon monitoring for the comprehensive nuclear-test-ban treaty in two distinctive locations: Ottawa and Tahiti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stocki, T.J.; Blanchard, X.; D'Amours, R.; Ungar, R.K.; Fontaine, J.P.; Sohier, M.; Bean, M.; Taffary, T.; Racine, J.; Tracy, B.L.; Brachet, G.; Jean, M.; Meyerhof, D.

    2005-01-01

    In preparation for verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty, automated radioxenon monitoring is performed in two distinctive environments: Ottawa and Tahiti. These sites are monitored with SPALAX (Systeme de Prelevement d'air Automatique en Ligne avec l'Analyse des radioXenons) technology, which automatically extracts radioxenon from the atmosphere and measures the activity concentrations of 131m,133m,133,135 Xe. The resulting isotopic concentrations can be useful to discern nuclear explosions from nuclear industry xenon emissions. Ambient radon background, which may adversely impact analyser sensitivity, is discussed. Upper concentration limits are reported for the apparently radioxenon free Tahiti environment. Ottawa has a complex radioxenon background due to proximity to nuclear reactors and medical isotope facilities. Meteorological models suggest that, depending on the wind direction, the radioxenon detected in Ottawa can be characteristic of the normal radioxenon background in the Eastern United States, Europe, and Japan or distinctive due to medical isotope production

  2. Automated radioxenon monitoring for the comprehensive nuclear-test-ban treaty in two distinctive locations: Ottawa and Tahiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocki, T J; Blanchard, X; D'Amours, R; Ungar, R K; Fontaine, J P; Sohier, M; Bean, M; Taffary, T; Racine, J; Tracy, B L; Brachet, G; Jean, M; Meyerhof, D

    2005-01-01

    In preparation for verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty, automated radioxenon monitoring is performed in two distinctive environments: Ottawa and Tahiti. These sites are monitored with SPALAX (Systeme de Prelevement d'air Automatique en Ligne avec l'Analyse des radioXenons) technology, which automatically extracts radioxenon from the atmosphere and measures the activity concentrations of (131m,133m,133,135)Xe. The resulting isotopic concentrations can be useful to discern nuclear explosions from nuclear industry xenon emissions. Ambient radon background, which may adversely impact analyser sensitivity, is discussed. Upper concentration limits are reported for the apparently radioxenon free Tahiti environment. Ottawa has a complex radioxenon background due to proximity to nuclear reactors and medical isotope facilities. Meteorological models suggest that, depending on the wind direction, the radioxenon detected in Ottawa can be characteristic of the normal radioxenon background in the Eastern United States, Europe, and Japan or distinctive due to medical isotope production.

  3. Measurement of 37Ar to support technology for On-Site Inspection under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-BanTreaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalseth, C. E.; Day, A. R.; Haas, D. A.; Hoppe, E. W.; Hyronimus, B. J.; Keillor, M. E.; Mace, E. K.; Orrell, J. L.; Seifert, A.; Woods, V. T.

    2011-10-01

    On-Site Inspection (OSI) is a key component of the verification regime for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Measurements of radionuclide isotopes created by an underground nuclear explosion are a valuable signature of a Treaty violation. Argon-37 is produced by neutron interaction with calcium in soil, 40Ca( n, α) 37Ar. For OSI, the 35-day half-life of 37Ar provides both high specific activity and sufficient time for completion of an inspection before decay limits sensitivity. This paper presents a low-background internal-source gas proportional counter with an 37Ar measurement sensitivity level equivalent to 45 mBq/SCM in wholeair.

  4. Arms Control and nonproliferation technologies: Technology options and associated measures for monitoring a Comprehensive Test Ban, Second quarter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Leslie A.

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter contains reprinted papers discussing technology options and associated measures for monitoring a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). These papers were presented to the Conference on Disarmament (CD) in May and June 1994. An interagency Verification Monitoring Task Force developed the papers. The task force included participants from the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy, the Intelligence Community, the Department of Interior, and the Department of State. The purpose of this edition of Arms Control and Nonproliferation Technologies is to share these papers with the broad base of stakeholders in a CTBT and to facilitate future technology discussions. The papers in the first group discuss possible technology options for monitoring a CTBT in all environments (underground, underwater, atmosphere, and space). These technologies, along with on-site inspections, would facilitate CTBT monitoring by treaty participants. The papers in the second group present possible associated measures, e.g., information exchanges and transparency measures, that would build confidence among states participating in a CTBT.

  5. Recent Literature on Whether Statistical Significance Tests Should or Should Not Be Banned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegear, James

    This paper summarizes the literature regarding statistical significant testing with an emphasis on recent literature in various discipline and literature exploring why researchers have demonstrably failed to be influenced by the American Psychological Association publication manual's encouragement to report effect sizes. Also considered are…

  6. Use of Geophysical and Remote Sensing Techniques During the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization's Integrated Field Exercise 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labak, Peter; Sussman, Aviva; Rowlands, Aled; Chiappini, Massimo; Malich, Gregor; MacLeod, Gordon; Sankey, Peter; Sweeney, Jerry; Tuckwell, George

    2016-04-01

    The Integrated Field Exercise of 2014 (IFE14) was a field event held in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (with concurrent activities in Austria) that tested the operational and technical capabilities of a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty's (CTBT) on-site inspection (OSI). During an OSI, up to 40 inspectors search a 1000km2 inspection area for evidence of a nuclear explosion. Over 250 experts from ~50 countries were involved in IFE14 (the largest simulation of an OSI to date) and worked from a number of different directions, such as the Exercise Management and Control Teams to execute the scenario in which the exercise was played, to those participants performing as members of the Inspection Team (IT). One of the main objectives of IFE14 was to test Treaty allowed inspection techniques, including a number of geophysical and remote sensing methods. In order to develop a scenario in which the simulated exercise could be carried out, a number of physical features in the IFE14 inspection area were designed and engineered by the Scenario Task Force Group (STF) that the IT could detect by applying the geophysical and remote sensing inspection technologies, as well as other techniques allowed by the CTBT. For example, in preparation for IFE14, the STF modeled a seismic triggering event that was provided to the IT to prompt them to detect and localize aftershocks in the vicinity of a possible explosion. Similarly, the STF planted shallow targets such as borehole casings and pipes for detection by other geophysical methods. In addition, airborne technologies, which included multi-spectral imaging, were deployed such that the IT could identify freshly exposed surfaces, imported materials and other areas that had been subject to modification. This presentation will introduce the CTBT and OSI, explain the IFE14 in terms of goals specific to geophysical and remote sensing methods, and show how both the preparation for and execution of IFE14 meet those goals.

  7. Geophysics, Remote Sensing, and the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) Integrated Field Exercise 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, A. J.; Macleod, G.; Labak, P.; Malich, G.; Rowlands, A. P.; Craven, J.; Sweeney, J. J.; Chiappini, M.; Tuckwell, G.; Sankey, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Integrated Field Exercise of 2014 (IFE14) was an event held in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (with concurrent activities in Austria) that tested the operational and technical capabilities of an on-site inspection (OSI) within the CTBT verification regime. During an OSI, up to 40 international inspectors will search an area for evidence of a nuclear explosion. Over 250 experts from ~50 countries were involved in IFE14 (the largest simulation of a real OSI to date) and worked from a number of different directions, such as the Exercise Management and Control Teams (which executed the scenario in which the exercise was played) and those participants performing as members of the Inspection Team (IT). One of the main objectives of IFE14 was to test and integrate Treaty allowed inspection techniques, including a number of geophysical and remote sensing methods. In order to develop a scenario in which the simulated exercise could be carried out, suites of physical features in the IFE14 inspection area were designed and engineered by the Scenario Task Force (STF) that the IT could detect by applying the geophysical and remote sensing inspection technologies, in addition to other techniques allowed by the CTBT. For example, in preparation for IFE14, the STF modeled a seismic triggering event that was provided to the IT to prompt them to detect and localize aftershocks in the vicinity of a possible explosion. Similarly, the STF planted shallow targets such as borehole casings and pipes for detection using other geophysical methods. In addition, airborne technologies, which included multi-spectral imaging, were deployed such that the IT could identify freshly exposed surfaces, imported materials, and other areas that had been subject to modification. This presentation will introduce the CTBT and OSI, explain the IFE14 in terms of the goals specific to geophysical and remote sensing methods, and show how both the preparation for and execution of IFE14 meet those goals.

  8. Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunju, N.

    1997-01-01

    The notion that defence issues are incomprehensible to common man and should be left to the government, is mistaken and dangerous. The belief that only specialists can understand nuclear issues is also wrong. One need not be nuclear scientist to know of the havoc an atom bomb can cause. Even the hawkish defence analysts agree that nuclear is no weapon of war,- it is only a deterrent. This book gives a solution as how to avoid such a catastrophe, and how people will have to evolve a sane nuclear weapon policy and make the Government to follow that pragmatic path

  9. Preliminary Test for Constitutive Models of CAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, Yeon Joon; Hong, Soon Joon; Hwang, Su Hyun; Lee, Keo Hyung; Kim, Min Ki; Lee, Byung Chul [FNC Tech., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Sang Jun; Choi, Hoon [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    The development project for the domestic design code was launched to be used for the safety and performance analysis of pressurized light water reactors. As a part of this project, CAP (Containment Analysis Package) code has been developing for the containment safety and performance analysis side by side with SPACE. The CAP code treats three fields (vapor, continuous liquid and dispersed drop) for the assessment of containment specific phenomena, and is featured by assessment capabilities in multi-dimensional and lumped parameter thermal hydraulic cell. Thermal hydraulics solver was developed and has a significant progress now. Implementation of the well proven constitutive models and correlations are essential in other for a containment code to be used with the generalized or optimized purposes. Generally, constitutive equations are composed of interfacial and wall transport models and correlations. These equations are included in the source terms of the governing field equations. In order to develop the best model and correlation package of the CAP code, various models currently used in major containment analysis codes, such as GOTHIC, CONTAIN2.0 and CONTEMPT-LT are reviewed. Several models and correlations were incorporated for the preliminary test of CAP's performance and test results and future plans to improve the level of execution besides will be discussed in this paper

  10. Preliminary Test for Constitutive Models of CAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choo, Yeon Joon; Hong, Soon Joon; Hwang, Su Hyun; Lee, Keo Hyung; Kim, Min Ki; Lee, Byung Chul; Ha, Sang Jun; Choi, Hoon

    2010-01-01

    The development project for the domestic design code was launched to be used for the safety and performance analysis of pressurized light water reactors. As a part of this project, CAP (Containment Analysis Package) code has been developing for the containment safety and performance analysis side by side with SPACE. The CAP code treats three fields (vapor, continuous liquid and dispersed drop) for the assessment of containment specific phenomena, and is featured by assessment capabilities in multi-dimensional and lumped parameter thermal hydraulic cell. Thermal hydraulics solver was developed and has a significant progress now. Implementation of the well proven constitutive models and correlations are essential in other for a containment code to be used with the generalized or optimized purposes. Generally, constitutive equations are composed of interfacial and wall transport models and correlations. These equations are included in the source terms of the governing field equations. In order to develop the best model and correlation package of the CAP code, various models currently used in major containment analysis codes, such as GOTHIC, CONTAIN2.0 and CONTEMPT-LT are reviewed. Several models and correlations were incorporated for the preliminary test of CAP's performance and test results and future plans to improve the level of execution besides will be discussed in this paper

  11. Preliminary test conditions for KNGR SBLOCA DVI ECCS performance test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Kyoo Whan; Song, Jin Ho; Chung, Young Jong; Sim, Suk Ku; Park, Jong Kyun

    1999-03-01

    The Korean Next Generation Reactor (KNGR) adopts 4-train Direct Vessel Injection (DVI) configuration and injects the safety injection water directly into the downcomer through the 8.5'' DVI nozzle. Thus, the thermal hydraulic phenomena such as ECCS mixing and bypass are expected to be different from those observed in the cold leg injection. In order to investigate the realistic injection phenomena and modify the analysis code developed in the basis of cold leg injection, thermal hydraulic test with the performance evaluation is required. Preliminarily, the sequence of events and major thermal hydraulic phenomena during the small break LOCA for KNGR are identified from the analysis results calculated by the CEFLASH-4AS/REM. It is shown from the analysis results that the major transient behaviors including the core mixture level are largely affected by the downcomer modeling. Therefore, to investigate the proper thermal hydraulic phenomena occurring in the downcomer with limited budget and time, the separate effects test focusing on this region is considered to be effective and the conceptual test facility based on this recommended. For this test facility the test initial and boundary conditions are developed using the CEFLASH-4AS/REM analysis results that will be used as input for the preliminary test requirements. The final test requirements will be developed through the further discussions with the test performance group. (Author). 10 refs., 18 tabs., 4 figs

  12. Statement to the Third Conference on Facilitating the Entry into Force of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Vienna, 3 September 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The Third Conference on Facilitating the Entry into Force of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is being held at a time of major challenges to the nuclear arms control and disarmament regime. A verified, permanent, global ban on all types of nuclear explosive tests has been a key item on the international security agenda for nearly half a century. More than 2,000 nuclear explosive detonations have taken place since 1945, with the most recent ones in 1998. The CTBT has been characterized as the longest sought, hardest fought prize in the history of arms control. The Treaty, when implemented, will prohibit all nuclear explosions, in all environments, for all time. It will curb the development and testing of new, more advanced and more dangerous nuclear weapons, and will limit the possibilities for further nuclear proliferation. The Treaty will lead to the establishment of a comprehensive International Monitoring System to provide independent, impartial verification of compliance. The CTBT, along with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), and a future Treaty Banning the Production of Fissile Material for Nuclear Weapons and Other Nuclear Explosive Devices (FMCT), forms an essential element of a network of negotiated, global treaties that will strengthen international efforts to prevent the further spread of nuclear weapons and to promote nuclear disarmament leading in time hopefully to a world without nuclear weapons. In the meantime, with the early entry into force of the CTBT, it would indeed be a significant achievement if this new century were to remain free of any nuclear test explosions. In this context, I encourage all signatory States to ratify the CTBT, and all those States that have yet to sign to do so and to ratify the Treaty, as soon as possible - so that another crucial pillar can be raised to support the edifice of global nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear disarmament norms. (IAEA)

  13. Preliminary results of steel containment vessel model test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, T.; Komine, K.; Arai, S.

    1997-01-01

    A high pressure test of a mixed-scaled model (1:10 in geometry and 1:4 in shell thickness) of a steel containment vessel (SCV), representing an improved boiling water reactor (BWR) Mark II containment, was conducted on December 11-12, 1996 at Sandia National Laboratories. This paper describes the preliminary results of the high pressure test. In addition, the preliminary post-test measurement data and the preliminary comparison of test data with pretest analysis predictions are also presented

  14. Preliminary tests of the electrostatic plasma accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aston, G.; Acker, T.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes the results of a program to verify an electrostatic plasma acceleration concept and to identify those parameters most important in optimizing an Electrostatic Plasma Accelerator (EPA) thruster based upon this thrust mechanism. Preliminary performance measurements of thrust, specific impulse and efficiency were obtained using a unique plasma exhaust momentum probe. Reliable EPA thruster operation was achieved using one power supply.

  15. Why Ban Batasuna?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourne, Angela

    2015-01-01

    and Batasuna. These parties were banned by Spanish authorities for their integration in a terrorist network led by Euskadi Ta Askatasuna. The hypotheses are that democracies ban anti-system parties a) that do not unambiguously eschew violence; b) when alternatives to proscription are not effective. and c) when...... relevant office holders, or those holding a majority in parliament, have reason to believe they will not be disadvantaged electorally for supporting the ban....

  16. The comprehensive nuclear-test-ban treaty eight years after the opening of the treaty for signature: what is the situation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Goff, G.; Rousseau, D.

    2004-01-01

    The International community has just celebrated the eight anniversary of the opening for signature, on 24 September 1996, of the Comprehensive Nuclear -test-Ban Treaty (C.T.B.T.). This event provides an opportunity to review briefly the current situation with regard to the Treaty and the international organisation responsible for preparing the various steps necessary for its implementation. The purpose of this paper is not to give once again a detailed description of the history of the Treaty, the issues at stake and its prospects. It is simply recalled that the major undertaking by States Parties to the Treaty is not to carry out any nuclear weapon test explosion or any other nuclear explosion, and to prohibit and prevent any such nuclear explosion at any place under its jurisdiction or control. It is also useful to note that the Treaty provides for a verification regime consisting of the following four elements: creation of a permanent International Monitoring system; consultation and clarification procedures to be followed by states in the event of a suspicious occurrence; on-site inspections, carried out at the request of a State Party; confidence-building measures. On the eve of important deadlines particularly during 2005 for disarmament and nonproliferation, it was useful to give a brief factual picture of the current Treaty situation and above all of the results obtained to date by the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization. (N.C.)

  17. Voices of the Banned

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Thomas Friis

    2018-01-01

    of patrons as rational actors, as well as linear notions of cause and effect, this article challenges such conceptions. Instead, this article draws on actor network theory, and an understanding of banned youth as situated in networks of relations, in order to provide insights into how the effects of banning...

  18. Visual perception skills testing: preliminary results

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, Andrew C

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Good visual perception skills are important in the effective manipulation of Tangible User Interfaces. This paper reports on the application of a test set researchers have developed specifically to quantify the visual perception skills of children...

  19. Preliminary tests of holography in BEBC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouyat, F.

    1982-01-01

    A collaboration has been set-up between the Institut de Recherche in St. Louis (ISL), the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), and the BEBC Group at CERN to study possibilities for application of holographic techniques in BEBC. Laboratory tests and a first trial in BEBC have shown that holograms can be recorded with a two-beam set-up adapted to the optics system of the chamber. The object beam passing through the fish-eye windows illuminates the chamber; after reflection from the Scotchlite panel at the bottom of BEBC it falls through a large-aperture lens onto the film plane. The reference beam is projected directly onto the holographic film plane without passing through the chamber liquid. First results are presented on the influence of the BEBC magnetic field, vibrations of the BEBC expansion system, and on the limitations on resolution to be expected. An outlook is given of future plans for trying to feed a test program on holography into the physics program of the chamber. (orig.)

  20. Preliminary results of testing bioassay analytical performance standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D.R.; Robinson, A.V.; Hadley, R.T.

    1983-08-01

    The analytical performance of both in vivo and in vitro bioassay laboratories is being studied to determine the capability of these laboratories to meet the minimum criteria for accuracy and precision specified in the draft ANSI Standard N13.30, Performance Criteria for Radiobioassay. This paper presents preliminary results of the first round of testing

  1. Preliminary Test for Nonlinear Input Output Relations in SISO Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Torben

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses and develops preliminary statistical tests for detecting nonlinearities in the deterministic part of SISO systems with noise. The most referenced method is unreliable for common noise processes as e.g.\\ colored. Therefore two new methods based on superposition and sinus input...

  2. On-Site inspections as a tool for nuclear explosion monitoring in the framework of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, R.; Gaya-Pique, L.; Labak, P.; Tanaka, J.

    2009-04-01

    On-site inspections (OSIs) constitute the final verification measure under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). OSIs are launched to establish whether or not a nuclear explosion has been carried out, thus they are conducted to verify States' compliance with the Treaty. During such an inspection, facts are gathered within a limited investigation area of 1000 Km2 to identify possible violators of the Treaty. Time scale (referring both to the preparation of the inspection as well as to the conduct of an OSI itself) is one of the challenges that an inspection team has to face when conducting an OSI. Other challenges are the size of the team - which is limited to 40 inspectors - and political limitations imposed by the Treaty in the use of allowed techniques. The Integrated Field Exercise 2008 (IFE08) recently conducted in Kazakhstan was the first large-scale, as well as the most comprehensive, on site inspection exercise ever conducted by the Preparatory Commission of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO). The exercise took place in a deserted area south east of Kurchatov, within the former Soviet Union's Semipalatinsk nuclear test site. In this paper we will provide an overview of the technical activities conducted by the inspection team during IFE08 in order to collect evidence for a hypothetical nuclear explosion test. The techniques applied can be distributed in four different blocks: visual observation (to look for man-made changes in the geomorphology as well as anthropogenic features related to an underground nuclear explosion, UNE); passive seismic monitoring (to identify possible aftershocks created by the UNE); radionuclide measurements (to collect evidence for radionuclide isotopes related to a nuclear explosion); and finally geophysical surveys (to identify geophysical signatures related to an UNE in terms of changes in the geological strata, to the hydrogeological regime, and in terms of the shallow remains of the

  3. Proceedings of the Symposium on the Non-Proliferation Experiment: Results and Implications for Test Ban Treaties, Rockville, Maryland, April 19-21, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denny, Marvin D

    1994-01-01

    To address a critical verification issue for the current Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and for a possible future Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), the Department of Energy sought to measure certain differences between an underground nuclear test and a chemical test in the same geology, so that other explosions could be identified. This was done in a field experiment code-named the NonProliferation Experiment (NPE).This comprehensive experiment was designed to determine the signatures of chemical explosions for a broad range of phenomena for comparison with those of previous nuclear tests. If significant differences can be measured, then these measures can be used to discriminate between the two types of explosions. In addition, when these differences are understood, large chemical explosions can be used to seismically calibrate regions to discriminate earthquakes from explosions. Toward this end, on-site and off-site measurements of transient phenomena were made, and on-site measurements of residual effects are in progress.Perhaps the most striking result was that the source function for the chemical explosion was identical to that of a nuclear one of about twice the yield. These proceedings provide more detailed results of the experiment.

  4. Preliminary project of installation for separation tubes tests-ITTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, Z.

    1984-01-01

    A consolidation of actual ideas about installation, entitled ''Installation to separation tubes tests-ITTS'', expected to CDTN is presented. The project bases, the testing to be realized, the procedures to be obeyed during the operation, the components and the space required by installation and auxiliary equipments, the presumable origin of components (nacional and international), including a preliminary list of building and operation costs are described. (author) [pt

  5. Proceedings of the 22nd Annual DoD/DOE Seismic Research Symposium: Planning for Verification of and Compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, James W., LTC [Editor

    2000-09-15

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 22nd Annual DoD/DOE Seismic Research Symposium: Planning for Verification of and Compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), held 13-15 September 2000 in New Orleans, Louisiana. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Department of Defense (DoD), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Defense Special Weapons Agency (DSWA), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  6. The challenge of a ban on animal testing for the development of a regulated legal market for new psychoactive substances (NPS) ('legal highs') in New Zealand: Issues and options for resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychert, Marta; Wilkins, Chris

    2015-12-01

    In mid-July 2013, New Zealand passed the Psychoactive Substances Act (PSA), which allowed 'low risk' psychoactive products ('legal highs') to be approved for legal sale. In early May 2014, following public protest, the Psychoactive Substances Amendment Act (PSAA) was passed banning animal testing of psychoactive products, potentially making the new regime unworkable. To investigate strategies to overcome the impasse created by the animal testing ban. Solutions to the impasse were investigated using 'scenario' and 'stakeholder' analysis. Legislation, parliamentary debates, and regulatory statements related to the PSA and animal testing were reviewed. Strategies to resolve the impasse were discussed with stakeholders including the Psychoactive Substances Regulatory Authority (PSRA) officials, health officials, a legal high industry lawyer, and a leading legal highs manufacturer. This process generated six possible scenarios and five decision-making criteria of key importance to major stakeholders. Scenarios were then evaluated based on feedback from the industry and regulators. The six scenarios were: (1) pragmatic modification of the animal testing ban; (2) waiting until new non-animal test models are internationally accepted; (3) use of non-validated replacement test methods; (4) judicial challenge of the animal testing ban; (5) 'creative compliance' by only presenting human clinical trial results; and (6) philosophical re-conceptualisation of the 'benefits' from psychoactive products. Options 1 and 5 appear to be the most attractive overall solutions. However, both rely on a new political consensus and astute framing of the issues by political communicators. Political decision makers may be happy to accept Scenario 2 which would impose significant delays. A 'failed' pharmaceutical product with psychoactive effects may have the test data required to be approved under Scenarios 1 and 5. Ultimately, the pleasurable benefits from psychoactive products may need to be

  7. International law and arms control: Soviet Union and Russia’s stance on nuclear test ban treaties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Hessmann Dalaqua

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The long-lasting struggle against nuclear tests can be examined through different perspectives. In this paper, the focus will be on the part played by the USSR and Russia in the international efforts aimed at establishing legal instruments to outlaw nuclear explosions in space, underground, under water and in the atmosphere.  A luta contra os testes nucleares pode ser examinada sob diferentes perspectivas. Aqui, o foco recairá sobre o papel desempenhado pela União Soviética e Rússia na criação de instrumentos legais para proibir explosões nucleares no espaço, no subsolo, debaixo da água e na atmosfera.

  8. The picture test of separation and individuation - preliminary research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Žvelc

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Authors introduce a new instrument, which they developed for measuring separation and individuation process and attachment in adolescence and adulthood. The Picture Test of Separation and Individuation (PTSI is a semi–projective test. It consists of various pictures, which represent relationships with significant others. PTSI is divided into three subtests: Relationship with Mother, Relationship with Father and Attachment. In a preliminary research on a sample of college and university students authors studied basic properties of the test. The results of the research indicate that PTSI is consistent with theoretical background, has good sensitivity and is economical. The Picture Test of Separation and Individuation enables quick but complex insight into individual's relationships with significant others as well as into his/her stage of separation and individuation process. Considering satisfying results of pilot study, authors suggest further research for validation of the test.

  9. From Regional Hazard Assessment to Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Support - InSAR Ground Motion Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lege, T.; Kalia, A.; Gruenberg, I.; Frei, M.

    2016-12-01

    There are numerous scientific applications of InSAR methods in tectonics, earthquake analysis and other geologic and geophysical fields. Ground motion on local and regional scale measured and monitored via the application of the InSAR techniques provide scientists and engineers with plenty of new insights and further understanding of subsurface processes. However, the operational use of InSAR is not yet very widespread. To foster the operational utilization of the Copernicus Sentinel Satellites in the day-to-day business of federal, state and municipal work and planning BGR (Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources) initiated workshops with potential user groups. Through extensive reconcilement of interests and demands with scientific, technical, economic and governmental stakeholders (e.g. Ministries, Mining Authorities, Geological Surveys, Geodetic Surveys and Environmental Agencies on federal and state level, SMEs, German Aerospace Center) BGR developed the concept of the InSAR based German National Ground Motion Service. One important backbone for the nationwide ground motion service is the so-called Persistent Scatterer Interferometry Wide Area Product (WAP) approach developed with grants of European research funds. The presentation shows the implementation of the ground motion service and examples for product developments for operational supervision of mining, water resources management and spatial planning. Furthermore the contributions of Copernicus Sentinel 1 radar data in the context of CTBT are discussed. The DInSAR processing of Sentinel 1 IW (Interferometric Wide Swath) SAR acquisitions from January 1st and 13th Jan. 2016 allow for the first time a near real time ground motion measurement of the North Korean nuclear test site. The measured ground displacements show a strong spatio-temporal correlation to the calculated epicenter measured by teleseismic stations. We are convinced this way another space technique will soon contribute even

  10. OpenBAN: An Open Building ANalytics Middleware for Smart Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandarasamy Arjunan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Towards the realization of smart building applications, buildings are increasingly instrumented with diverse sensors and actuators. These sensors generate large volumes of data which can be analyzed for optimizing building operations. Many building energy management tasks such as energy forecasting, disaggregation, among others require complex analytics leveraging collected sensor data. While several standalone and cloud-based systems for archiving, sharing and visualizing sensor data have emerged, their support for analyzing sensor data streams is primitive and limited to rule-based actions based on thresholds and simple aggregation functions. We develop OpenBAN, an open source sensor data analytics middleware for buildings, to make analytics an integral component of modern smart building applications. OpenBAN provides a framework of extensible sensor data processing elements for identifying various building context, which different applications can leverage. We validate the capabilities of OpenBAN by developing three representative real-world applications which are deployed in our test-bed buildings: (i household energy disaggregation, (ii detection of sprinkler usage from water meter data, and (iii electricity demand forecasting. We also provide a preliminary system performance of OpenBAN when deployed in the cloud and locally.

  11. Preliminary Tests of a New Low-Cost Photogrammetric System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santise, M.; Thoeni, K.; Roncella, R.; Sloan, S. W.; Giacomini, A.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents preliminary tests of a new low-cost photogrammetric system for 4D modelling of large scale areas for civil engineering applications. The system consists of five stand-alone units. Each of the units is composed of a Raspberry Pi 2 Model B (RPi2B) single board computer connected to a PiCamera Module V2 (8 MP) and is powered by a 10 W solar panel. The acquisition of the images is performed automatically using Python scripts and the OpenCV library. Images are recorded at different times during the day and automatically uploaded onto a FTP server from where they can be accessed for processing. Preliminary tests and outcomes of the system are discussed in detail. The focus is on the performance assessment of the low-cost sensor and the quality evaluation of the digital surface models generated by the low-cost photogrammetric systems in the field under real test conditions. Two different test cases were set up in order to calibrate the low-cost photogrammetric system and to assess its performance. First comparisons with a TLS model show a good agreement.

  12. PRELIMINARY TESTS OF A NEW LOW-COST PHOTOGRAMMETRIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Santise

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents preliminary tests of a new low-cost photogrammetric system for 4D modelling of large scale areas for civil engineering applications. The system consists of five stand-alone units. Each of the units is composed of a Raspberry Pi 2 Model B (RPi2B single board computer connected to a PiCamera Module V2 (8 MP and is powered by a 10 W solar panel. The acquisition of the images is performed automatically using Python scripts and the OpenCV library. Images are recorded at different times during the day and automatically uploaded onto a FTP server from where they can be accessed for processing. Preliminary tests and outcomes of the system are discussed in detail. The focus is on the performance assessment of the low-cost sensor and the quality evaluation of the digital surface models generated by the low-cost photogrammetric systems in the field under real test conditions. Two different test cases were set up in order to calibrate the low-cost photogrammetric system and to assess its performance. First comparisons with a TLS model show a good agreement.

  13. Preliminary Design of a LSA Aircraft Using Wind Tunnel Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert ANGI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents preliminary results concerning the design and aerodynamic calculations of a light sport aircraft (LSA. These were performed for a new lightweight, low cost, low fuel consumption and long-range aircraft. The design process was based on specific software tools as Advanced Aircraft Analysis (AAA, XFlr 5 aerodynamic and dynamic stability analysis, and Catia design, according to CS-LSA requirements. The calculations were accomplished by a series of tests performed in the wind tunnel in order to assess experimentally the aerodynamic characteristics of the airplane.

  14. Preliminary Test on Hydraulic Rotation Device for Neutron Transmutation Doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ki-Jung; Kang, Han-Ok; Kim, Seong Hoon; Park, Cheol

    2014-01-01

    The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is developing a new Research Reactor (KJRR) which will be located at KIJANG in the south-eastern province of Korea. The KJRR will be mainly utilized for isotope production, NTD production, and the related research activities. During the NTD process, the irradiation rig containing the silicon ingot rotates at the constant speed to ensure precisely defined homogeneity of the irradiation. A new NTD Hydraulic Rotation Device (NTDHRD) is being developed to rotate the irradiation rigs at the required speed. In this study, the preliminary test and the analysis for the rotation characteristic of the NTDHRD, which is developed through the conceptual design, are described. A new NTD hydraulic rotation device is being developed for the purpose of application to the KIJANG research reactor (KJRR). The preliminary test and analysis for the rotation characteristic of the NTDHRD, which is developed through the conceptual design, are conducted in experimental apparatus. The film thickness by the thrust bearing is measured and the minimum required mass flow rate for stable rotation is determined

  15. Preliminary observations of gate valve flow interruption tests, Phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, R. Jr.; DeWall, K.G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary observations from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission/Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Flexible Wedge Gate Valve Qualification and Flow Interruption Test Program, Phase 2. The program investigated the ability of selected boiling water reactor (BWR) process line valves to perform their containment isolation function at high energy pipe break conditions and other more normal flow conditions. The fluid and valve operating responses were measured to provide information concerning valve and operator performance at various valve loadings so that the information could be used to assess typical nuclear industry motor operator sizing equations. Six valves were tested, three 6-in. isolation valves representative of those used in reactor water cleanup systems in BWRs and three 10-in. isolation valves representative of those used in BWR high pressure coolant injection (HPCI) steam lines. The concern with these normally open isolation valves is whether they will close in the event of a downstream pipe break outside of containment. The results of this testing will provide part of the technical insights for NRC efforts regarding Generic Issue 87 (GI-87), Failure of the HPCI Steam Line Without Isolation, which includes concerns about the uncertainties in gate valve motor operator sizing and torque switch settings for these BWR containment isolation valves. As of this writing, the Phase 2 test program has just been completed. Preliminary observations made in the field confirmed most of the results from the Phase 1 test program. All six valves closing in high energy water, high energy steam, and high pressure cold water require more force to close than would be calculated using the typical variables in the standard industry motor operator sizing equations

  16. Preliminary site design for the SP-100 ground engineering test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, C.M.; Miller, W.C.; Mahaffey, M.K.

    1986-04-01

    In November, 1985, Hanford was selected by the Department of Energy (DOE) as the preferred site for a full-scale test of the integrated nuclear subsystem for SP-100. The Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company, was assigned as the lead contractor for the Test Site. The nuclear subsystem, which includes the reactor and its primary heat transport system, will be provided by the System Developer, another contractor to be selected by DOE in late FY-1986. In addition to reactor operations, test site responsibilities include preparation of the facility plus design, procurement and installation of a vacuum chamber to house the reactor, a secondary heat transport system to dispose of the reactor heat, a facility control system, and postirradiation examination. At the conclusion of the test program, waste disposal and facility decommissioning are required. The test site must also prepare appropriate environmental and safety evaluations. This paper summarizes the preliminary design requirements, the status of design, and plans to achieve full power operation of the test reactor in September, 1990

  17. Results of Preliminary Tests of PAR Bunch Cleaning

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, Chihyuan; Grelick, Arthur; Lumpkin, Alex H; Sereno, Nicholas S

    2005-01-01

    A particle accumulator ring (PAR) is used at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) to collect multiple linac bunches and compress them into a 0.3-ns (rms) single bunch for booster injection. A 9.77-MHz fundamental rf system and a 117.3-MHz harmonic rf system are employed for initial beam capture and bunch length compression. Satellite bunches with very low charge form due to rf phase drifts or beam loading change. These satellites, when injected into the booster and then into the storage ring (SR), cause bunch impurity at three buckets from the target bucket. Storage ring and booster bunch cleaning was tried but proved to be difficult due to the top-up mode of operation in the storage ring and tune drift in the booster synchrotron. Recently we implemented a PAR bunch-cleaning system with tune-modulated harmonic rf knockout. Preliminary tests gave a measured SR bunch purity of better than 10

  18. Evaluation of high pressure Freon decontamination. I. Preliminary tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, W.N.

    1983-01-01

    High-pressure Freon blasting techniques are being evaluated for applications involving the removal of non-adherent radioactive particulate contamination at SRP. Very little waste is generated by this technique because the used Freon can be easily distilled and reused. One of the principle advantages of this technique is that decontaminated electrical equipment can be returned to service immediately without drying, unlike high-pressure water blasting techniques. Preliminary scoutin tests evaluating high-pressure Freon blasting for decontamination at SRP were carried out at Quadrex Co., Oak Ridge, TN, October 12 and 13. DWPF-type contamination (raw sludge plus volatiles) and separations area-type contamination (diluted boiling point (47.6 0 C) allow it to rapidly separate from higher boiling contaminants via distillation with filtration to remove particulate material, and distillation with condensation, the solvent may be recovered for indefinite reuse while reducing the radioactive waste to a minimum. 3 references, 5 figures, 6 tables

  19. Modeling and Testing of EVs - Preliminary Study and Laboratory Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Guang-Ya; Marra, Francesco; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2010-01-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) are expected to play a key role in the future energy management system to stabilize both supply and consumption with the presence of high penetration of renewable generation. A reasonably accurate model of battery is a key element for the study of EVs behavior and the grid...... tests, followed by the suggestions towards a feasible battery model for further studies.......Electric vehicles (EVs) are expected to play a key role in the future energy management system to stabilize both supply and consumption with the presence of high penetration of renewable generation. A reasonably accurate model of battery is a key element for the study of EVs behavior and the grid...... impact at different geographical areas, as well as driving and charging patterns. Electric circuit model is deployed in this work to represent the electrical properties of a lithium-ion battery. This paper reports the preliminary modeling and validation work based on manufacturer data sheet and realistic...

  20. Seismic proving test of ultimate piping strength (current status of preliminary tests)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, K.; Namita, Y.; Abe, H.; Ichihashi, I.; Suzuki, K.; Ishiwata, M.; Fujiwaka, T.; Yokota, H.

    2001-01-01

    In 1998 Fiscal Year, the 6 year program of piping tests was initiated with the following objectives: i) to clarify the elasto-plastic response and ultimate strength of nuclear piping, ii) to ascertain the seismic safety margin of the current seismic design code for piping, and iii) to assess new allowable stress rules. In order to resolve extensive technical issues before proceeding on to the seismic proving test of a large-scale piping system, a series of preliminary tests of materials, piping components and simplified piping systems is intended. In this paper, the current status of the material tests and the piping component tests is reported. (author)

  1. [New visual field testing possibilities (a preliminary report)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erichev, V P; Ermolaev, A P; Antonov, A A; Grigoryan, G L; Kosova, D V

    2018-01-01

    There are currently no portable mobile perimeters that allow visual field testing outside ophthalmologist's examination rooms. To develop a mobile perimetry technique based on use of a virtual reality headset (VR). The study involved 26 patients (30 eyes) with II-III stage primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) with compensated IOP. Perimetry was performed for each patient twice - on Humphrey analyzer (test 30-2, 76 points) and employing similar strategy on a perimeter integrated into VR headset (Total Vision, Russia). Visual field testing was performed with an interval from 1 hour to 3 days. The results were comparatively analyzed. Patients tolerated the examination well. Comparative analysis of preliminary perimetry results obtained with both methods showed high degree of identity, so the results were concluded to be comparable. By visually isolating the wearer, VR headset achieves elimination of distractions and stable light conditions for visual field testing. The headset-perimeter is compact, mobile, easily transportable, can be used in the work of visiting medical teams and for examination at home.

  2. Preliminary Beam Irradiation Test for RI Production Targets at KOMAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Sang Pil; Kwon, Hyeok Jung; Kim, Han Sung; Cho, Yong Sub; Seol, Kyung Tae; Song, Young Gi; Kim, Dae Il; Jung, Myung Hwan; Kim, Kye Ryung; Min, Yi Sub [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The new beamline and target irradiation facility has been constructed for the production of therapeutic radio-isotope. Sr-82 and Cu-67 were selected as the target isotope in this facility, they are promising isotope for the PET imaging and cancer therapy. For the facility commissioning, the irradiation test for the prototype-target was conducted to confirm the feasibility of radio-isotope production, the proto-type targets are made of RbCl pellet and the natural Zn metal for Sr-82 and Cu-67 production respectively, In this paper, an introduction to the RI production targetry system and the results of the preliminary beam irradiation test are discussed. the low-flux beam irradiation tests for proto-type RI target have been conducted. As a result of the beam irradiation tests, we could obtain the evidence of Sr-82 and Cu-67 production, have confirmed the feasibility of Sr-82 and Cu-67 production at KOMAC RI production facility.

  3. Preliminary Beam Irradiation Test for RI Production Targets at KOMAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sang Pil; Kwon, Hyeok Jung; Kim, Han Sung; Cho, Yong Sub; Seol, Kyung Tae; Song, Young Gi; Kim, Dae Il; Jung, Myung Hwan; Kim, Kye Ryung; Min, Yi Sub

    2016-01-01

    The new beamline and target irradiation facility has been constructed for the production of therapeutic radio-isotope. Sr-82 and Cu-67 were selected as the target isotope in this facility, they are promising isotope for the PET imaging and cancer therapy. For the facility commissioning, the irradiation test for the prototype-target was conducted to confirm the feasibility of radio-isotope production, the proto-type targets are made of RbCl pellet and the natural Zn metal for Sr-82 and Cu-67 production respectively, In this paper, an introduction to the RI production targetry system and the results of the preliminary beam irradiation test are discussed. the low-flux beam irradiation tests for proto-type RI target have been conducted. As a result of the beam irradiation tests, we could obtain the evidence of Sr-82 and Cu-67 production, have confirmed the feasibility of Sr-82 and Cu-67 production at KOMAC RI production facility

  4. Preliminary data evaluation for thermal insulation characterization testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeClue, J.F.; Moses, S.D.; Tollefson, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of Thermal Insulation Characterization Testing is to provide physical data to support certain assumptions and calculational techniques used in the criticality safety calculations in Section 6 of the Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging (SARPs) for drum-type packaging for Department of Energy's (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. Results of preliminary data evaluation regarding the fire-test condition reveal that realistic weight loss consideration and residual material characterization in developing calculational models for the hypothetical accident condition is necessary in order to prevent placement of unduly conservative restrictions on shipping requirements as a result of overly conservative modeling. This is particularly important for fast systems. Determination of the geometric arrangement of residual material is of secondary importance. Both the methodology used to determine the minimum thermal insulation mass remaining after the fire test and the treatment of the thermal insulation in the criticality safety calculational models requires additional evaluation. Specific testing to be conducted will provide experimental data with which to validate the mass estimates and calculational modeling techniques for extrapolation to generic drum-type containers

  5. Thick Concrete Specimen Construction, Testing, and Preliminary Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, Dwight A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hoegh, Kyle [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Khazanovich, Lev [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is to develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the operating lifetimes of nuclear power plants (NPPs) beyond 60 years. Since many important safety structures in an NPP are constructed of concrete, inspection techniques must be developed and tested to evaluate the internal condition. In-service containment structures generally do not allow for the destructive measures necessary to validate the accuracy of these inspection techniques. This creates a need for comparative testing of the various nondestructive evaluation (NDE) measurement techniques on concrete specimens with known material properties, voids, internal microstructure flaws, and reinforcement locations. A preliminary report detailed some of the challenges associated with thick reinforced concrete sections and prioritized conceptual designs of specimens that could be fabricated to represent NPP concrete structures for using in NDE evaluation comparisons. This led to the construction of the concrete specimen presented in this report, which has sufficient reinforcement density and cross-sectional size to represent an NPP containment wall. Details on how a suitably thick concrete specimen was constructed are presented, including the construction materials, final nominal design schematic, as well as formwork and rigging required to safely meet the desired dimensions of the concrete structure. The report also details the type and methods of forming the concrete specimen as well as information on how the rebar and simulated defects were embedded. Details on how the resulting specimen was transported, safely anchored, and marked to allow access for systematic comparative NDE testing of defects in a representative NPP containment wall concrete specimen are also given. Data collection using the MIRA Ultrasonic NDE equipment and

  6. Preliminary design studies on the Broad Application Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, W.J.; Terry, W.K.; Ryskamp, J.M.; Jahshan, S.N.; Fletcher, C.D.; Moore, R.L.; Leyse, C.F.; Ottewitte, E.H.; Motloch, C.G.; Lacy, J.M.

    1992-08-01

    This report describes progress made at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory during the first three quarters of Fiscal Year (FY) 1992 on the Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project to perform preliminary design studies on the Broad Application Test Reactor (BATR). This work builds on the FY-92 BATR studies, which identified anticipated mission and safety requirements for BATR and assessed a variety of reactor concepts for their potential capability to meet those requirements. The main accomplishment of the FY-92 BATR program is the development of baseline reactor configurations for the two conventional conceptual test reactors recommended in the FY-91 report. Much of the present report consists of descriptions and neutronics and thermohydraulics analyses of these baseline configurations. In addition, we considered reactor safety issues, compared the consequences of steam explosions for alternative conventional fuel types, explored a Molten Chloride Fast Reactor concept as an alternate BATR design, and examined strategies for the reduction of operating costs. Work planned for the last quarter of FY-92 is discussed, and recommendations for future work are also presented

  7. Preliminary analysis of accelerated space flight ionizing radiation testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. W.; Stock, L. V.; Carter, D. J.; Chang, C. K.

    1982-01-01

    A preliminary analysis shows that radiation dose equivalent to 30 years in the geosynchronous environment can be accumulated in a typical composite material exposed to space for 2 years or less onboard a spacecraft orbiting from perigee of 300 km out to the peak of the inner electron belt (approximately 2750 km). Future work to determine spacecraft orbits better tailored to materials accelerated testing is indicated. It is predicted that a range of 10 to the 9th power to 10 to the 10th power rads would be accumulated in 3-6 mil thick epoxy/graphite exposed by a test spacecraft orbiting in the inner electron belt. This dose is equivalent to the accumulated dose that this material would be expected to have after 30 years in a geosynchronous orbit. It is anticipated that material specimens would be brought back to Earth after 2 years in the radiation environment so that space radiation effects on materials could be analyzed by laboratory methods.

  8. Preliminary Design Progress of the HCCR TBM for ITER testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Won; Park, Sung Dae; Kim, Dong Jun; Jin, Hyung Gon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Mu-Young [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Korea has designed a helium cooled ceramic reflector (HCCR) test blanket module (TBM) including the TBM-shield, which is called the TBM-set, to be tested in ITER, a Nuclear Facility INB-174. Through the conceptual design review (CDR), its design integrity was successfully demonstrated at the conceptual design level at various loads. After CD approval, preliminary design (PD) was started and the progress is introduced in the present study. After PD review and approval, final design and then fabrication will be started. The main purpose of PD is to design the TBM-set according to the fabrication aspect and more detailed design for interfaces with ITER machine, such as installed TBM port plug and frame. With these considering, PD of TBM-set was started. PD for HCCR TBM has been performed (so far v0.24) from the CD model. FW, BZ, SW, TES/NAS, BM, and connecting support design were performed through the analyses, if necessary. The manufacturability was the main concern for PD model development. Thermal hydraulic analysis will be performed to evaluate the temperature and pressure drop in TBM-set. The structural integrity of TBM-set will be confirmed with combined various loads condition.

  9. Standing the Test of Time: Reference for a Preliminary Ruling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham

    2017-01-01

    It is often too easy to forget just how important the preliminary reference procedure is for the functionality of European Union law. For the Court of Justice, there are both formal and informal means of judicial dialogue. This article focuses on the formal means of dialogue through the preliminary...

  10. Preliminary tests of a high speed vertical axis windmill model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    South, P; Rangi, R S

    1971-01-01

    This report discusses a fixed-pitch vertical axis windmill that combines the inherent simplicity of this type of machine with a high aerodynamic efficiency and a high relative velocity. A three-bladed rotor was selected as the basic design, having constant chord symmetric airfoil blades configured in a catenary curve such that the rotor diameter is equal to the rotor height. In wind tunnel tests using a 30 inch scale model, it was found that once this rotor was given a very low rotational speed, it picked up speed and ran at a rotor tip velocity/wind speed ratio greater than 1. The number of blades was varied in the testing. A maximum power coefficient of 0.67 was achieved at 17 ft/s wind speed at a tip speed/wind speed ratio of 7.25 for a 2-bladed rotor. Increasing the number of blades above 3 did not result in higher power. The rotor could operate in gusts which double the mean wind velocity. Examination of Reynolds number effects, and taking into account the scale of the model, it was concluded that a full-scale windmill could run at lower velocity ratios than those predicted by the model tests, and that it could self-start under no-load conditions if the cut-in rpm are at least half the rpm for maximum power at the prevailing wind speed. Preliminary estimates show that a 15 ft diameter windmill of this design, designed to operate with a safety factor of 2.5 up to a maximum wind speed of 60 ft/s, would weigh ca 150 lb and could be marketed for ca $60.00, excluding the driven unit, if sufficient quantities were produced to make tooling costs negligible. Similarly, a 30 ft windmill would weigh ca 1000 lb and cost ca $400.00. 2 refs., 6 figs.

  11. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Nevada Test Site, Mercury, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Nevada Test Site (NTS), conducted June 22 through July 10, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by a multidisciplinary team of environmental specialists led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team members are outside experts being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with the NTS. The Survey covers all environment media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations and activities performed at the NTS, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing certain environmental problems identified during its on-site activities. The Sampling and Analysis Plan is being executed by the Battelle Columbus Division under contract with DOE. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the NTS Environmental Survey Interim Report. The Interim Report will reflect the final determinations of the NTS Survey. 165 refs., 42 figs., 52 tabs

  12. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Nevada Test Site, Mercury, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Nevada Test Site (NTS), conducted June 22 through July 10, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by a multidisciplinary team of environmental specialists led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team members are outside experts being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with the NTS. The Survey covers all environment media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations and activities performed at the NTS, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing certain environmental problems identified during its on-site activities. The Sampling and Analysis Plan is being executed by the Battelle Columbus Division under contract with DOE. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the NTS Environmental Survey Interim Report. The Interim Report will reflect the final determinations of the NTS Survey. 165 refs., 42 figs., 52 tabs.

  13. Preliminary Tests Of The Decris-sc Ion Source

    CERN Document Server

    Efremov, A; Bechterev, V; Bogomolov, S L; Bondarenko, P G; Datskov, V I; Dmitriev, S; Drobin, V; Lebedev, A; Leporis, M; Malinowski, H; Nikiforov, A; Paschenko, S V; Seleznev, V; Shishov, Yu A; Smirnov, Yu; Tsvineva, G; Yakovlev, B; Yazvitsky, N Yu

    2004-01-01

    A new "liquid He-free" superconducting Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source DECRIS-SC, to be used as injector for the IC-100 small cyclotron, has been designed by FLNR and LHE JINR. The main feature is that a compact refrigerator of Gifford-McMahon type is used to cool the solenoid coils. For the reason of very small cooling power at 4.2 K (about 1 W) our efforts were to optimize the magnetic structure and minimize an external heating of the coils. The maximum magnetic field strength is 3 T and 2 T in injection and extraction region respectively. For the radial plasma confinement a hexapole made of NdFeB permanent magnet is used. The source will be capable of ECR plasma heating using different frequencies (14 GHz or 18 GHz). To be able to deliver usable intensities of solids, the design is also allow axial access for evaporation oven and metal samples using the plasma sputtering technique. Very preliminary results of the source test are presented.

  14. MALLARD REPRODUCTIVE TESTING IN A POND ENVIRONMENT: A PRELIMINARY STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 2-year preliminary study was conducted on mallard ducks to determine the feasibility of using outdoor pond enclosures for reproductive studies and to evaluate the effects of the insecticide chlorpyrifos on mallard reproduction. No significant reproductive effects were observed ...

  15. Preliminary test results and CFD analysis for moderator circulation test at Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H.T. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Im, S.H.; Sung, H.J. [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Tech., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Seo, H.; Bang, I.C. [Ulsan National Inst. of Science and Tech., Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is carrying out a scaled-down moderator test program to simulate the CANDU6 moderator circulation phenomena during steady state operation and accident conditions. This research program includes the construction of the Moderator Circulation Test (MCT) facility, production of the validation data for self-reliant CFD tools, and development of optical measurement system using the Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The MCT facility includes a primary circulation loop (pipe lines, a primary side pump, a heat exchanger, valves, flow meters) and a secondary side loop (pipe lines, a secondary side pump, and an external cooling tower). The loop leakage test and non-heating test are performed in the present work. In the present work the PIV technique is used to measure the velocity distributions in the scaled moderator tank of MCT under iso-thermal test conditions. The preliminary PIV measurement data are obtained and compared with CFX code predictions. (author)

  16. Preliminary test results and CFD analysis for moderator circulation test at Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H.T.; Im, S.H.; Sung, H.J.; Seo, H.; Bang, I.C.

    2014-01-01

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is carrying out a scaled-down moderator test program to simulate the CANDU6 moderator circulation phenomena during steady state operation and accident conditions. This research program includes the construction of the Moderator Circulation Test (MCT) facility, production of the validation data for self-reliant CFD tools, and development of optical measurement system using the Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The MCT facility includes a primary circulation loop (pipe lines, a primary side pump, a heat exchanger, valves, flow meters) and a secondary side loop (pipe lines, a secondary side pump, and an external cooling tower). The loop leakage test and non-heating test are performed in the present work. In the present work the PIV technique is used to measure the velocity distributions in the scaled moderator tank of MCT under iso-thermal test conditions. The preliminary PIV measurement data are obtained and compared with CFX code predictions. (author)

  17. Accelerated stress testing of thin film solar cells: Development of test methods and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    If thin film cells are to be considered a viable option for terrestrial power generation their reliability attributes will need to be explored and confidence in their stability obtained through accelerated testing. Development of a thin film accelerated test program will be more difficult than was the case for crystalline cells because of the monolithic construction nature of the cells. Specially constructed test samples will need to be fabricated, requiring committment to the concept of accelerated testing by the manufacturers. A new test schedule appropriate to thin film cells will need to be developed which will be different from that used in connection with crystalline cells. Preliminary work has been started to seek thin film schedule variations to two of the simplest tests: unbiased temperature and unbiased temperature humidity. Still to be examined are tests which involve the passage of current during temperature and/or humidity stress, either by biasing in the forward (or reverse) directions or by the application of light during stress. Investigation of these current (voltage) accelerated tests will involve development of methods of reliably contacting the thin conductive films during stress.

  18. Copper disinfection ban causes storm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Alan

    2013-05-01

    Since 1 February this year, under the EU's Biocidal Products Directive, it has been illegal to sell or use water treatment systems that use elemental copper, a practice employed historically by a significant number of UK healthcare facilities to combat Legionella. Alan Lester, managing director of specialist supplier of 'environmentally-friendly' water treatment systems, Advanced Hydro, says the ban has caused 'a storm of giant proportion,' with advocates of copper ion-based treatment systems arguing that this disinfection method dates back 3,000 years to Egyptian times, making it an 'undoubtedly proven' technology. Here he explains why the ban came into force, considers why the UK's Health and Safety Executive (HSE) is seeking a derogation, looks at the ban's likely impact, and gives a personal viewpoint on the 'pros and cons' of some of the alternative treatment technologies, including a titanium dioxide-based system marketed by Advanced Hydro itself in the UK.

  19. Preliminary results of a test of a longitudinal phase-space monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikutani, Eiji; Funakoshi, Yoshihiro; Kawamoto, Takashi; Mimashi, Toshihiro

    1994-01-01

    A prototype of a longitudinal phase-space monitor has been developed in TRISTAN Main Ring at KEK. The principle of the monitor and its basic components are explained. Also a result of a preliminary beam test is given. (author)

  20. Do Tobacco Bans Harm the Advertising Industry?

    OpenAIRE

    Tom Coupe; Olena Gnezdilova

    2008-01-01

    We use panel data on advertising expenditures to check the influence of tobacco advertising bans on the advertising industry. We find no clear evidence of a negative effect of tobacco bans on total per capita advertising expenditures.

  1. The Political Economy of Local Fracking Bans

    OpenAIRE

    Joshua C. Hall; Christopher Shultz; E. Frank Stephenson

    2015-01-01

    Concerns about harmful effects arising from the increased use of hydraulic fracturing (fracking) to extract underground fuel resources has led to efforts to ban the practice. Many townships in western New York, which lies above the gas-rich Marcellus shale formation, have enacted bans or moratoria. Using spatial econometric techniques, we examine factors related to townships' choice to adopt fracking bans and document the importance of spatial dependence when analyzing fracking bans. We find ...

  2. The Art Gallery Test: A Preliminary Comparison between Traditional Neuropsychological and Ecological VR-Based Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Gamito

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ecological validity should be the cornerstone of any assessment of cognitive functioning. For this purpose, we have developed a preliminary study to test the Art Gallery Test (AGT as an alternative to traditional neuropsychological testing. The AGT involves three visual search subtests displayed in a virtual reality (VR art gallery, designed to assess visual attention within an ecologically valid setting. To evaluate the relation between AGT and standard neuropsychological assessment scales, data were collected on a normative sample of healthy adults (n = 30. The measures consisted of concurrent paper-and-pencil neuropsychological measures [Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA, Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB, and Color Trails Test (CTT] along with the outcomes from the three subtests of the AGT. The results showed significant correlations between the AGT subtests describing different visual search exercises strategies with global and specific cognitive measures. Comparative visual search was associated with attention and cognitive flexibility (CTT; whereas visual searches involving pictograms correlated with global cognitive function (MoCA.

  3. Application of various laboratory assay techniques to the verification of the comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty. Analyses of samples from Kuwait and from AFTAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toivonen, H.; Ikaeheimonen, T.K.; Leppaenen, A.; Poellaenen, R.; Rantavaara, A.; Saxen, R.; Likonen, J.; Zilliacus, R.

    1997-11-01

    Various laboratory assay techniques were applied to two particulate air filters from Kuwait and to one filter salted artificially. The monitoring system, run by the PIDC in Arlington, identified 137 Cs but no 134 Cs in the air samples. Long-term counting using a 100 % HPGe detector in laboratory did not reveal 134 Cs either. Upper limit of the activity ratio 134 Cs/ 137 Cs was estimated to be 0.015 which is below the expected average value of the Chernobyl fall-out (0.025). This finding may indicate that the Cs in the sample has other origin than Chernobyl fall-out. Radiochemical methods to purify Cs from the bulk material were investigated. However, because of low yield, the preliminary efforts failed to improve detection limits. The high-resolution gamma-spectrometry of the artificial sample (AFTAC) identified the following man-made radionuclides: 95 Zr/ 95 Nb, 103 Ru, 137 Cs, 140 Ba/ 140 La, 141 Ce, 147 Nd. 241 Am was found in alpha spectrometry. The isotope ratios indicate that the sample is produced early in November 1996. The presence of Am shows that the material is most likely irradiated high-burnup uranium or plutonium containing transuranium elements before irradiation. Advantages of mass spectrometry were studied and the preliminary results are very promising. However, a separate programme for sample preparation should be launched. (orig.)

  4. From BAN to AmI-BAN: micro and nano technologies in future Body Area Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Val; Jones, Val

    2006-01-01

    At the University of Twente we have been researching mobile healthcare applications since 1999. Since 2002 the University of Twente and partners have been developing health Body Area Networks (BANs) and a BAN service platform. We define a BAN as a network of communicating devices worn on, around or in the body which provides mobile services to the user. The BAN may also communicate to remote users such as healthcare providers via external network services such as GPRS or UMTS. The generic BAN...

  5. Arms and the ban

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassard, J.

    1992-01-01

    A critique of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) is presented. While five nations known to have openly tested nuclear weapons (the United States, Britain, France, the Soviet Union and India) have agreed, at least at present, to observe a moritorium on testing nuclear weapons, only China dissenting, there are many other ''threshold'' nations interested in nuclear weapons, but not bound by Treaty restrictions. Double standards by the NPT nations do nothing to encourage threshold nations to hold back their nuclear programs. The threshold nations, including Iran, Iraq, Israel, Libya, Syria, Pakistan, India, Brazil, Argentina, South Africa, Algeria, North Korea and the Ukraine and Kazakhstan, four Soviet Republics, have been stockpiling weapons material or reactor technology and many see themselves as threatened by traditional political opponents. The author urges conformity to Rajv Gandhi's the former Indian prime minister, three-stage set of proposals aimed at producing a worldwide end to nuclear proliferation. (UK)

  6. Preliminary irradiation test results from the Yankee Atomic Electric Company reactor vessel test irradiation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biemiller, E.C.; Fyfitch, S.; Campbell, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    The Yankee Atomic Electric Company test irradiation program was implemented to characterize the irradiation response of representative Yankee Rowe reactor vessel beltline plate materials and to remove uncertainties in the analysis of existing irradiation data on the Yankee Rowe reactor vessel steel. Plate materials each containing 0.24 w/o copper, but different nickel contents at 0.63 w/o and 0.19 w/o, were heat treated to simulate the Yankee vessel heat treatment (austenitized at 1800 deg F) and to simulate Regulatory Guide 1.99 database materials (austenitized at 1600 deg. F). These heat treatments produced different microstructures so the effect of microstructure on irradiation damage sensitivity could be tested. Because the nickel content of the test plates varied and the copper level was constant, the effect of nickel on irradiation embrittlement was also tested. Correlation monitor material, HSST-02, was included in the program to benchmark the Ford Nuclear Reactor (U. of Michigan Test Reactor) which had never been used for this type of irradiation program. Materials taken from plate surface locations (vs. 1/4T) were included to test whether or not the improved toughness properties of the plate surface layer, resulting from the rapid quench, is maintained after irradiation. If the improved properties are maintained, pressurized thermal shock calculations could utilize this margin. Finally, for one experiment, irradiations were conducted at two irradiation temperatures (500 deg. F and 550 deg. F) to determine the effect of irradiation temperature on embrittlement. The preliminary results of the irradiation program show an increase in T 30 shift of 69 deg. F for a decrease in irradiation temperature of 50 deg. F. The results suggest that for nickel bearing steels, the superior toughness of plate surface material is maintained after irradiation and for the copper content tested, nickel had no apparent effect on irradiation response. No apparent microstructure

  7. Preliminary Options Assessment of Versatile Irradiation Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Ramazan Sonat [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this report is to summarize the work undertaken at INL from April 2016 to January 2017 and aimed at analyzing some options for designing and building a versatile test reactor; the scope of work was agreed upon with DOE-NE. Section 2 presents some results related to KNK II and PRISM Mod A. Section 3 presents some alternatives to the VCTR presented in [ ] as well as a neutronic parametric study to assess the minimum power requirement needed for a 235U metal fueled fast test reactor capable to generate a fast (>100 keV) flux of 4.0 x 1015 n /cm2-s at the test location. Section 4 presents some results regarding a fundamental characteristic of test reactors, namely displacement per atom (dpa) in test samples. Section 5 presents the INL assessment of the ANL fast test reactor design FASTER. Section 6 presents a summary.

  8. NNWSI Phase II materials interaction test procedure and preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, J.K.; Gerding, T.J.

    1985-01-01

    The Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) project is investigating the volcanic tuff beds of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as a potential location for a high-level radioactive waste repository. This report describes a test method (Phase II) that has been developed to measure the release of radionuclides from the waste package under simulated repository conditions, and provides information on materials interactions that may occur in the repository. The results of 13 weeks of testing using the method are presented, and an analog test is described that investigates the relationship between the test method and expected repository conditions. 9 references, 10 figures, 11 tables

  9. Preliminary nuclear design for test MOX Fuel rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Hyung Kook; Kim, Taek Kyum; Jeong, Hyung Guk; Noh, Jae Man; Cho, Jin Young; Kim, Young Il; Kim, Young Jin; Sohn, Dong Seong

    1997-10-01

    As a part of activity for future fuel development project, test MOX fuel rods are going to be loaded and irradiated in Halden reactor core as a KAERI`s joint international program with Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). PSI will fabricate test MOX rods with attrition mill device which was developed by KAERI. The test fuel assembly rig contains three MOX rods and three inert matrix rods. One of three MOX rods will be fabricated by BNFL, the other two MOX fuel rods will be manufacturing jointly by KAERI and PSI. Three inert matrix fuel rods will be fabricated with Zr-Y-Er-Pu oxide. Neutronic evaluation was preliminarily performed for test fuel assembly suggested by PSI. The power distribution of test fuel rod in test fuel assembly was analyzed for various fuel rods position in assembly and the depletion characteristic curve for test fuel was also determined. The fuel rods position in test fuel assembly does not effect the rod power distribution, and the proposal for test fuel rods suggested by PSI is proved to be feasible. (author). 2 refs., 13 tabs., 16 figs.

  10. Radiation Testing on State-of-the-Art CMOS: Challenges, Plans, and Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Cohn, Lewis M.

    2009-01-01

    At GOMAC 2007 and 2008, we discussed a variety of challenges for radiation testing of modern semiconductor devices and technologies [1, 2]. In this presentation, we provide more specific details in this on-going investigation focusing on out-of-the-box lessons observed for providing radiation effects assurances as well as preliminary test results.

  11. CHALLENGE TESTS WITH LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES IN SALAMI: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mioni

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Challenge tests are the preferable methodology to study the behaviour of Listeria monocytogenes on ready to eat foods, according to Regulation (EC 2073/2005. Challenge testing using L. monocytogenes in seasoned salami from different food business operators showed, after seasoning of the product, a count reduction of the inoculated organisms without any further growth of the pathogen; however differences of L. monocytogenes behaviour could be observed according to different production protocols.

  12. Athletes' perceptions of anti-doping sanctions: the ban from sport versus social, financial and self-imposed sanctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overbye, Marie Birch; Elbe, Anne-Marie; Knudsen, Mette Lykke

    2015-01-01

    Today the main doping deterrence strategy is to ban athletes from sport if caught. This study examines whether Danish elite athletes perceive the ban as a deterrent and how they evaluate social, self-imposed and financial sanctions compared with the ban. Questionnaires were emailed to elite...... athletes from 40 sports (N = 645; response rate, 43%). Results showed that 78% of athletes regarded the ban as a deterrent. Older male athletes, however, did so to a lesser degree. Seventy-seven per cent, regardless of gender, age, sport type and previous experience of doping testing, viewed social...... sanctions as a greater deterrent than the ban. Many also considered self-imposed sanctions (54%) and financial consequences (47%) a greater deterrent. Four per cent considered neither the ban nor the presented alternatives a deterrent. The findings indicate that the ban from sport deters doping...

  13. A Preliminary Field Test of an Employee Work Passion Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigarmi, Drea; Nimon, Kim; Houson, Dobie; Witt, David; Diehl, Jim

    2011-01-01

    Four dimensions of a process model for the formulation of employee work passion, derived from Zigarmi, Nimon, Houson, Witt, and Diehl (2009), were tested in a field setting. A total of 447 employees completed questionnaires that assessed the internal elements of the model in a corporate work environment. Data from the measurements of work affect,…

  14. Preliminary test of two stump surface protectants against Fomes annosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.E. Nelson; C.Y. Li

    1980-01-01

    Two materials, monolaurin (at two concentrations) and an unidentified species of the genus Streptomyces, were tested along with borax for ability to protect freshly cut stump surfaces of western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) from colonization by Fomes annosus. Protectants were significantly (P...

  15. HIFiRE-5 Flight Test Preliminary Results (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    CFD . 15. SUBJECT TERMS Boundary layer transition, hypersonic , flight test 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT: SAR 18...consistent with prior CFD 33,34 and wind tunnel measurements 28,29 at hypersonic conditions that indicated that the centerline is more unstable... Hypersonic Sciences Branch High Speed Systems Division NOVEMBER 2013 Approved for public release; distribution unlimited

  16. Semantic Verbal Fluency test in dementia: Preliminary retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Lopes

    Full Text Available Abstract The Semantic Verbal Fluency (SVF test entails the generation of words from a given category within a pre-set time of 60 seconds. Objectives: To verify whether socio-demographic and clinical data of individuals with dementia correlate with the performance on the SVF test and to ascertain whether differences among the criteria of number of answers, clusters and data spread over the intervals, predict clinical results. Methods: This was a retrospective study of 49 charts of demented patients classified according to the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR scale. We correlated education, age and gender, as well as CDR and Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE scores with the number of answers, clustering and switching distributed over four 15-second intervals on the SVF test. Results: The correlation between number of answers and quartiles was weak (r=0.407, p=0.004; r=0.484, p<0.001 but correlation between the number of clusters and responses was strong (r=0.883, p<0.001. The number of items on the SVF was statistically significant with MMSE score (p=0.01 and there was a tendency for significance on the CDR (p=0.06. The results indicated little activity regarding what we propose to call cluster recalling in the two groups. Discussion: The SVF test, using number of items generated, was found to be more effective than classic screening tests in terms of speed and ease of application in patients with CDR 2 and 3.

  17. GRIST-2 preliminary test plan and requirements for fuel fabrication and preirradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, I.M.; Harmon, D.P.; Torri, A.

    1978-12-01

    The preliminary version of the GRIST-2 test plan has been developed for the planned initial 5 years (1984 to 1989) of TREAT-Upgrade in-pile tests. These tests will be employed to study the phenomenology and integral behavior of GCFR core disruptive accidents (CDAs) and to support the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) CDA analyses for the demonstration plant licensing. The preliminary test plan is outlined. Test Phases I and II are for the fresh fuel (preconditioned or not) CDA behavior at the beginning-of-life (BOL) reactor state. Phase III is for the reactor state that contains irradiated fuel with a saturated content of helium and fission gas. Phase IV is for larger bundle tests and scaling effects

  18. Preliminary testing of the Scanning Laser Environmental Airborne Fluorosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, C.E.; Marois, R.; Fingas, M.F.; Mullin, J.V.

    2000-01-01

    The installation and testing program of the Scanning Laser Environmental Airborne Fluorosensor (SLEAF) on Environment Canada's DC-3 aircraft was described and the capabilities of the new system were presented. SLEAF is a new generation of laser fluorosensor designed to provide prompt reliable detection and mapping of oil pollution in different marine and terrestrial environments. It consists of a high-power excimer laser, high-resolution range-gated intensified diode-array spectrometer, and a pair of variable speed and angular displacement scanning mirrors. SLEAF is capable of detecting narrow bands of oil that can pile up along the high tide lines of beaches and shorelines, including those that contain ice and snow. It also has the added benefit of providing real-time detection. SLEAF will be declared operational for emergency response personnel when the initial test flight program will be completed in the near future. 9 refs., 2 figs

  19. Preliminary Results of Testing of Flow Effects on Evaporator Scaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, M.Z.

    2002-02-15

    This investigation has focused on the effects of fluid flow on solids deposition from solutions that simulate the feed to the 2H evaporator at the Savannah River Site. Literature studies indicate that the fluid flow (or shear) affects particle-particle and particle-surface interactions and thus the phenomena of particle aggregation in solution and particle deposition (i.e., scale formation) onto solid surfaces. Experimental tests were conducted with two configurations: (1) using a rheometer to provide controlled shear conditions and (2) using controlled flow of reactive solution through samples of stainless steel tubing. All tests were conducted at 80 C and at high silicon and aluminum concentrations, 0.133 M each, in solutions containing 4 M sodium hydroxide and 1 A4 each of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite. Two findings from these experiments are important for consideration in developing approaches for reducing or eliminating evaporator scaling problems: (1) The rheometer tests suggested that for the conditions studied, maximum solids deposition occurs at a moderate shear rate, approximately 12 s{sup -1}. That value is expected to be on the order of shear rates that will occur in various parts of the evaporator system; for instance, a 6 gal/min single-phase liquid flow through the 2-in. lift or gravity drain lines would result in a shear rate of approximately 16 s{sup -1}. These results imply that engineering approaches aimed at reducing deposits through increased mixing would need to generate shear near all surfaces significantly greater than 12 s{sup -1}. However, further testing is needed to set a target value for shear that is applicable to evaporator operation. This is because the measured trend is not statistically significant at the 95% confidence interval due to variability in the results. In addition, testing at higher temperatures and lower concentrations of aluminum and silicon would more accurately represent conditions in the evaporator. Without

  20. East Area Irradiation Test Facility: Preliminary FLUKA calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Lebbos, E; Calviani, M; Gatignon, L; Glaser, M; Moll, M; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2011-01-01

    In the framework of the Radiation to Electronics (R2E) mitigation project, the testing of electronic equipment in a radiation field similar to the one occurring in the LHC tunnel and shielded areas to study its sensitivity to single even upsets (SEU) is one of the main topics. Adequate irradiation test facilities are therefore required, and one installation is under consideration in the framework of the PS East area renovation activity. FLUKA Monte Carlo calculations were performed in order to estimate the radiation field which could be obtained in a mixed field facility using the slowly extracted 24 GeV/c proton beam from the PS. The prompt ambient dose equivalent as well as the equivalent residual dose rate after operation was also studied and results of simulations are presented in this report.

  1. Preliminary results of durability testing with borosilicate glass compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adel-Hadadi, M.; Adiga, R.; Barkatt, Aa.

    1987-01-01

    This is a report on the first year of research conducted at the Vitreous State Laboratory of the Catholic University of America in support of the West Valley Demonstration Project. One objective is the vitrification of liquid waste generated by previous nuclear fuel reprocessing. This work has been directed principally at the problem of glass composition optimization. This has necessitated the development of a coordinated program of glass production, durability measurements, and processability assessment. A small-scale continuous melter has been constructed for melting uranium and thorium containing glasses and for studying glass processing characteristics. Glass viscosities have been measured over a range of temperatures. A large number of glasses have also been produced in small crucible melts. Glass durability has been assessed using four types of leach tests: MCC-3, MCC-1, IAEA/ISO, and pulsed-flow tests. Extensive data from these tests are reported. The data have led to the design of very durable glasses (comparable to the Savannah River Laboratory Defense Waste Reference Glass) which have the requisite waste loading and processing characteristics. 14 refs., 4 figs., 77 tabs

  2. The Blasphemy Ban in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binderup, Lars Grassmè; Lassen, Eva Maria

    2017-01-01

    , it can seem odd why Denmark would not have followed the trend of most other European states, including those with which Denmark normally compares itself, to abolish the article. Denmark is a highly secularised society with generally a relaxed attitude towards religion. And finally, surveys indicate...... the potential to bring the ban on blasphemy back to life by bringing it into play with penal systems of other countries with blasphemy laws. The article proceeds to outline the reactions of international human rights bodies to art. 140, focussing on the statement of the UN Special Rapporteur on Religion...

  3. Banning nuclear power at sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handler, J.

    1993-01-01

    This article argues that now that the East-West conflict is over, nuclear-powered vessels should be retired. Nuclear-powered ships and submarines lack military missions, are expensive to build and operate, generate large amounts of long-lived deadly nuclear waste from their normal operations and when they are decommissioned, and are subject to accidents or deliberate attack which can result in the sinking of nuclear reactors and the release of radiation. With the costs of nuclear-powered vessels mounting, the time has come to ban nuclear power at sea. (author)

  4. The Impact of Banning Juvenile Gun Possession.

    OpenAIRE

    Marvell, Thomas B

    2001-01-01

    A 1994 federal law bans possession of handguns by persons under 18 years of age. Also in 1994, 11 states passed their own juvenile gun possession bans. Eighteen states had previously passed bans, 15 of them between 1975 and 1993. These laws were intended to reduce homicides, but arguments can be made that they have no effect on or that they even increase the homicide rate. This paper estimates the laws' impacts on various crime measures, primarily juvenile gun homicide victimizations and suic...

  5. Fast electrochemical membrane actuator: Design, fabrication and preliminary testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uvarov, I. V.; Postnikov, A. V.; Shlepakov, P. S.; Naumov, V. V.; Koroleva, O. M.; Izyumov, M. O.; Svetovoy, V. B.

    2017-11-01

    An actuator based on water electrolysis with a fast change of voltage polarity is presented. It demonstrates a new actuation principle allowing significant increase the operation frequency of the device due to fast termination of the produced gas. The actuator consists of a working chamber with metallic electrodes and supplying channels filled with an electrolyte. The chamber is formed in a layer of SU-8 and covered by a flexible polydimethylsiloxane membrane, which deforms as the pressure in the chamber increases. Design, fabrication procedure, and first tests of the actuator are described.

  6. Preliminary Results of Breakwater Round-Head Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Liu, Z.

    1995-01-01

    The rational design diagram for Dolos armour should incorporate both the hydraulic stability and the structural integrity. The previous tests performed by Aalborg University (AU) made available such design diagram for the trunk of Dolos breakwater without superstructures (Burcharth et al. 1992). ...... layer will be generated. Furthermore, Task IA will give the design diagram for the trunk of Tetrapod breakwaters. The more complete research results on Dolosse can certainly give some insight into the behaviour of Tetrapods armour layer of the breakwaters with superstructure....

  7. Preliminary Design of the Liquid Lead Corrosion Test Loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Chung Ho; Cha, Jae Eun; Cho, Choon Ho; Song, Tae Yung; Kim, Hee Reyoung

    2005-01-01

    Recently, Lead-Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) or Lead has newly attracted considerable attraction as a coolant to get the more inherent safety. Above all, LBE is preferred as the coolant and target material for an Accelerator-Driven System (ADS) due to its high production rate of neutrons, effective heat removal, and good radiation damage properties. But, the LBE or Lead as a coolant has a challenging problem that the LBE or Lead is more corrosive to the construction materials and fuel cladding material than the sodium because the solubility of Ni, Cr and Fe is high. After all, the LBE or Lead corrosion has been considered as an important design limit factor of ADS and Liquid Metal cooled Fast Reactors (LMFR). The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has been developing an ADS called HYPER. HYPER is designed to transmute Transuranics (TRU), Tc-99 and I-129 coming from Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs) and uses an LBE as a coolant and target material. Also, an experimental apparatuses for the compatibility of fuel cladding and structural material with the LBE or Lead are being under the construction or design. The main objective of the present paper is introduction of Lead corrosion test loop which will be built the upside of the LBE corrosion test loop by the end of October of 2005

  8. Preliminary test of vacuum system of SPring-8 synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Hideo; Yoneyama, Katsuji; Shimada, Taihei

    1992-01-01

    In this report, on the several points which it is desirable to be confirmed beforehand when the vacuum system of the synchrotron is designed, the results of the test by making the vacuum system for one normal cell simulating the actual machine are reported. Further by making three types of sample ducts, the ordinary type of 1.65 mm thickness, the rib-reinforced type of 0.3 mm thickness and bellows structure, the rate of released gas and the effect to eddy current were examined, for the purpose of taking the countermeasures to the eddy current accompanying the synchrotron operation. The mockup of the normal cell was composed of a duct of 10 m length, two ion pumps of 20 l/s, and a turbo molecular pump of 50 l/s, and the material of the ducts is SUS316L, and the sectional form is elliptic of 72 x 34. In the vacuum test of the normal cell, the exhaust characteristics at the time of rise and pressure distribution were verified. The measurement of the rate of released gas in the ducts and the measurement of current and voltage induced in the ducts are reported. The sufficient performance can be expected with the exhaust system used, and the time required for the rise of the vacuum system was clarified. (K.I.)

  9. Ban the Hickory Stick. Issues in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Nita H.

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that corporal punishment should be banned from every school as a means of classroom discipline, and presents teachers and administrators with workable alternatives to disciplining children. (BB)

  10. Proceedings of the Annual Seismic Research Symposium on Monitoring a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (19th). Held in Orlando, Florida on 23-25 September 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-05

    that cross the path; no ray need ever have followed the exact path previously. P- residuals (predicted) (observed) -2S ^AA+25 - 2Sri i AAAA+25...resampling techniques, such as Monte-Carlo iterations or bootstraping . IV. Disclaimer A historical U.S. explosion has been used in this study solely...diagnostic cluster population characteristics. The method can be applied to obtain " bootstrap " ground truth explosion waveforms for testing

  11. Preliminary interpretation of thermal data from the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sass, J.H.; Lachenbruch, A.H.

    1982-01-01

    Analysis of data from 60 wells in and around the Nevada Test Site, including 16 in the Yucca Mountain area, indicates a thermal regime characterized by large vertical and lateral gradients in heat flow. Estimates of heat flow indicate considerable variation on both regional and local scales. The variations are attributable primarily to hydrologic processes involving interbasin flow with a vertical component of (seepage) velocity (volume flux) of a few mm/yr. Apart from indicating a general downward movement of water at a few mm/yr, the reults from Yucca Mountain are as yet inconclusive. The purpose of the study was to determine the suitability of the area for proposed repository sites

  12. Sizing and preliminary hardware testing of solar powered UAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jashnani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Integrating solar energy into modern aircraft technology has been a topic of interest and has received a lot of attention from researchers over the last two decades. A few among the many potential applications of this technology are the possibility of continuous self sustained flight for purposes such as information relay, surveillance and monitoring. This paper discusses the altitude and payload mass, as independent parameters, and their influence on the size and design of the aircraft. To estimate available solar power, two different models have been presented; one for low altitudes and the other for high altitudes. An engineering ground model was built to simulate the power and propulsion system over 24 h of continuous operation. The paper presents data from tests performed till date and lessons learnt while dealing with the construction of the engineering ground model as well as changes that can be made to improve the design.

  13. Responding book banning in indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aji, RNB; Artono; Liana, C.

    2018-01-01

    The prohibition of books conducted by the government through its apparatus without any due process of law is unfortunate. The Constitutional Court of the Republic of Indonesia (MKRI) in 2010 was decided that book banning is contradictory to the 1945 Constitution (UUD 1945). The purpose of this paper is to know Indonesia, according to the Constitutional Court must absolutely carry out the function of due process of law that is law enforcement in a judicial system when it wants to prohibit printed material which is a book, whether it is a book that is considered criticism and books that teach radicalism. It would be wise for anyone who disagrees with a book, and then responds by writing through a book. The result of this article is to support and suggest that the government and its apparatus in the state of the law should not arbitrarily impose a book ban. Likewise, people should not take violence action to respond this issue. In historical records, the prohibition of books without due process of law is always followed by the withdrawal of books and make people unable to deal with differences, especially in knowledge. That’s why, the government and its apparatus must create a conducive situation and support the creation of various perspectives in the framework of the progress of science through a book. It would implicate that people can respect in any perspective and thought.

  14. Preliminary Process Theory does not validate the Comparison Question Test: A comment on Palmatier and Rovner

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ben-Shakar, G.; Gamer, M.; Iacono, W.; Meijer, E.; Verschuere, B.

    2015-01-01

    Palmatier and Rovner (2015) attempt to establish the construct validity of the Comparison Question Test (CQT) by citing extensive research ranging from modern neuroscience to memory and psychophysiology. In this comment we argue that merely citing studies on the preliminary process theory (PPT) of

  15. Test for Nonlinear Input Output Relations in SISO Systems by Preliminary Data Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Torben

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses and develops preliminary statistical tests for detecting nonlinearities in the deterministic part of SISO systems with noise. The most referenced method is unreliable for common noise processes as e.g.\\ colored. Therefore two new methods based on superposition and sinus input...

  16. Preliminary results on tests of a Cerenkov ring imaging device employing a photoionizing PWC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durkin, S.; Honma, A.; Leith, D.W.G.S.

    1978-08-01

    A brief description of techniques and problems of ring imaging Cerenkov detectors employing photoionizing PWC's is discussed. Preliminary results on a one dimensional ring imaging device tested at SLAC in May and June of 1978 are then presented. These results include rough measurements of the Cerenkov ring in nitrogen, argon, neon, and helium produced by a collimated positron beam.

  17. Preliminary results of the round-robin testing of F82H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiba, K.; Yamanouchi, N.; Tohyama, A.

    1996-10-01

    Preliminary results of metallurgical, physical and mechanical properties of low activation ferritic steel F82H (IEA heat) were obtained in the round-robin test in Japan. The properties of IEA heat F82H were almost the same as the original F82H.

  18. Evaluation of the preliminary auditory profile test battery in an international multi-centre study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Esch, T.E.M.; Kollmeier, B.; Vormann, M.; Lijzenga, J.; Houtgast, T.; Hallgren, M.; Larsby, B.; Athalye, S.P.; Lutman, M.E.; Dreschler, W.A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This paper describes the composition and international multi-centre evaluation of a battery of tests termed the preliminary auditory profile. It includes measures of loudness perception, listening effort, speech perception, spectral and temporal resolution, spatial hearing, self-reported

  19. From BAN to AmI-BAN : micro and nano technologies in future Body Area Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, Val

    2006-01-01

    At the University of Twente we have been researching mobile healthcare applications since 1999. Since 2002 the University of Twente and partners have been developing health Body Area Networks (BANs) and a BAN service platform. We define a BAN as a network of communicating devices worn on, around or

  20. Mont-Terri heater test: design and preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Sineriz, J.L.; Fuentes, J.L.; Mayor, J.C.; Huertas, F.

    2003-01-01

    for national HLW management (ENRESA, Spain; and NAGRA, Switzerland); one governmental institution (BGR, Germany); one independent scientific-technical expert organisation (GRS, Germany); two universities (UPC (represented by CIMNE-DIT), Spain and ETH, Switzerland); and one private, non-profit research organisation (AITEMIN, Spain), which carried out the installation and the supervision of that experiment. The HE installation was finished in 1999 and the project has been running since then. The experiment was designed to operate basically in an unattended mode, with remote supervision and control via modem. However, some of the planned instruments require manual reading. The paper describes the objectives of the test, its configuration, and the experience gained so far. (authors)

  1. Preliminary hazard analysis for the Brayton Isotope Ground Demonstration System (including vacuum test chamber)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, L.G.

    1975-01-01

    The Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA) of the BIPS-GDS is a tabular summary of hazards and undesired events which may lead to system damage or failure and/or hazard to personnel. The PHA reviews the GDS as it is envisioned to operate in the Vacuum Test Chamber (VTC) of the GDS Test Facility. The VTC and other equipment which will comprise the test facility are presently in an early stage of preliminary design and will undoubtedly undergo numerous changes before the design is frozen. The PHA and the FMECA to follow are intended to aid the design effort by identifying areas of concern which are critical to the safety and reliability of the BIPS-GDS and test facility

  2. Preliminary Failure Modes and Effects Analysis of the US DCLL Test Blanket Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee C. Cadwallader

    2010-06-01

    This report presents the results of a preliminary failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) of a small tritium-breeding test blanket module design for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. The FMEA was quantified with “generic” component failure rate data, and the failure events are binned into postulated initiating event families and frequency categories for safety assessment. An appendix to this report contains repair time data to support an occupational radiation exposure assessment for test blanket module maintenance.

  3. Preliminary Failure Modes and Effects Analysis of the US DCLL Test Blanket Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee C. Cadwallader

    2007-08-01

    This report presents the results of a preliminary failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) of a small tritium-breeding test blanket module design for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. The FMEA was quantified with “generic” component failure rate data, and the failure events are binned into postulated initiating event families and frequency categories for safety assessment. An appendix to this report contains repair time data to support an occupational radiation exposure assessment for test blanket module maintenance.

  4. Preliminary Failure Modes and Effects Analysis of the US DCLL Test Blanket Module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee C. Cadwallader

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the results of a preliminary failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) of a small tritium-breeding test blanket module design for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. The FMEA was quantified with 'generic' component failure rate data, and the failure events are binned into postulated initiating event families and frequency categories for safety assessment. An appendix to this report contains repair time data to support an occupational radiation exposure assessment for test blanket module maintenance

  5. On BAN logics for industrial security protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agray, N.; Hoek, van der W.; Vink, de E.P.; Dunin-Keplicz, B.; Nawarecki, E.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports on two case-studies of applying BAN logic to industrial strength security protocols. These studies demonstrate the flexibility of the BAN language, as it caters for the addition of appropriate constructs and rules. We argue that, although a semantical foundation of the formalism

  6. Preliminary investigation on determination of radionuclide distribution in field tracing test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Tadao; Mukai, Masayuki; Takebe, Shinichi; Guo Zede; Li Shushen; Kamiyama, Hideo.

    1993-12-01

    Field tracing tests for radionuclide migration have been conducted by using 3 H, 60 Co, 85 Sr and 134 Cs, in the natural unsaturated loess zone at field test site of China Institute for Radiation Protection. It is necessary to obtain confidable distribution data of the radionuclides in the test site, in order to evaluate exactly the migration behavior of the radionuclides in situ. An available method to determine the distribution was proposed on the basis of preliminary discussing results on sampling method of soils from the test site and analytical method of radioactivity in the soils. (author)

  7. Preliminary test results for post irradiation examination on the HTTR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueta, Shohei; Umeda, Masayuki; Sawa, Kazuhiro; Sozawa, Shizuo; Shimizu, Michio; Ishigaki, Yoshinobu; Obata, Hiroyuki

    2007-01-01

    The future post-irradiation program for the first-loading fuel of the HTTR is scheduled using the HTTR fuel handling facilities and the Hot Laboratory in the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) to confirm its irradiation resistance and to obtain data on its irradiation characteristics in the core. This report describes the preliminary test results and the future plan for a post-irradiation examination for the HTTR fuel. In the preliminary test, fuel compacts made with the same SiC-coated fuel particle as the first loading fuel were used. In the preliminary test, dimension, weight, fuel failure fraction, and burnup were measured, and X-ray radiograph, SEM, and EPMA observations were carried out. Finally, it was confirmed that the first-loading fuel of the HTTR showed good quality under an irradiation condition. The future plan for the post-irradiation tests was described to confirm its irradiation performance and to obtain data on its irradiation characteristics in the HTTR core. (author)

  8. Nuclear Weapons: Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-30

    reference/legal_resources/prepcom_resolution.pdf]. 75 Of these amounts, $47.077 million and 48.564 million are financed by contributions from states...and associated plutonium. Another SCE, “ Unicorn ,” was conducted in a “down-hole” or vertical shaft configuration similar to an underground nuclear...2006: Krakatau (jointly with U.K.), February 23; Unicorn , August 30. NNSA’s FY2006 request stated that, for pit certification, “The major activities in

  9. Preliminary engineering specifications for a test demonstration multilayer protective barrier cover system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, S.J.; Gilbert, T.W.; Adams, M.R.

    1985-03-01

    This report presents preliminary engineering specifications for a test protective barrier cover system and support radiohydrology facility to be constructed at the Hanford Protective Barrier Test Facility (PBTF). Construction of this test barrier and related radiohydrology facility is part of a continuing effort to provide construction experience and performance evaluation of alternative barrier designs used for long-term isolation of disposed radioactive waste materials. Design specifications given in this report are tentative, based on interim engineering and computer simulation design efforts. Final definitive design specifications and engineering prints will be produced in FY 1986. 6 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  10. Preliminary environmental analysis of a geopressured-geothermal test well in Brazoria County, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, W.A.; McGraw, M.; Gustavson, T.C.; Meriwether, J.

    1977-11-16

    Preliminary environmental data, including current land use, substrate lithology, soils, natural hazards, water resources, biological assemblages, meteorological data, and regulatory considerations have been collected and analyzed for approximately 150 km/sup 2/ of land near Chocolate Bayou, Brazoria County, Texas, in which a geopressured-geothermal test well is to be drilled in the fall of 1977. The study was designed to establish an environmental data base and to determine, within spatial constraints set by subsurface reservoir conditions, environmentally suitable sites for the proposed well. Preliminary analyses of data revealed the eed for focusing on the following areas: potential for subsidence and fault activation, susceptibility of test well and support facilities to fresh- and salt-water flooding, possible effects of produced saline waters on biological assemblages and groundwaer resources, distribution of expansive soils, and effect of drilling and associated support activities on known archeological-cultural resources.

  11. Preliminary results for HIP bonding Ta to W targets for the materials test station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dombrowski, David E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Maloy, Stuart A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Tungsten targets for the Materials Test Station (MTS) were clad with thin tantalum cover plates and a tantalum frame using hot isostatic pressing (HIP). A preliminary HIP parameter study showed good bonding and intimate mechanical contact for Ta cover plate thicknesses of 0.25 mm (0.010 inch) and 0.38 mm (0.015 inch). HIP temperatures of full HIP runs were 1500 C (2732 F). HIP pressure was 203 MPa (30 ksi).

  12. Experimental economics' inconsistent ban on deception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersch, Gil

    2015-08-01

    According to what I call the 'argument from public bads', if a researcher deceived subjects in the past, there is a chance that subjects will discount the information that a subsequent researcher provides, thus compromising the validity of the subsequent researcher's experiment. While this argument is taken to justify an existing informal ban on explicit deception in experimental economics, it can also apply to implicit deception, yet implicit deception is not banned and is sometimes used in experimental economics. Thus, experimental economists are being inconsistent when they appeal to the argument from public bads to justify banning explicit deception but not implicit deception. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Hydraulically driven control rod concept for integral reactors: fluid dynamic simulation and preliminary test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricotti, M.E.; Cammi, A.; Lombardi, C.; Passoni, M.; Rizzo, C.; Carelli, M.; Colombo, E.

    2003-01-01

    The paper deals with the preliminary study of the Hydraulically Driven Control Rod concept, tailored for PWR control rods (spider type) with hydraulic drive mechanism completely immersed in the primary water. A specific solution suitable for advanced versions of the IRIS integral reactor is under investigation. The configuration of the Hydraulic Control Rod device, made up by an external movable piston and an internal fixed cylinder, is described. After a brief description of the whole control system, particular attention is devoted to the Control Rod characterization via Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis. The investigation of the system behavior, including dynamic equilibrium and stability properties, has been carried out. Finally, preliminary tests were performed in a low pressure, low temperature, reduced length experimental facility. The results are compared with the dynamic control model and CFD simulation model, showing good agreement between simulations and experimental data. During these preliminary tests, the control system performs correctly, allowing stable dynamic equilibrium positions for the Control Rod and stable behavior during withdrawal and insertion steps. (author)

  14. Preliminary report on fire protection research program (July 6, 1977 test)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klamerus, L.J.

    1977-10-01

    This preliminary report describes a fire test performed at Sandia Laboratories on an array of cable trays filled with fire retardant (IEEE 383 qualified) electrical cable. The cable trays were arranged in an open-space horizontal configuration with the separation distances of Regulatory Guide 1.75 between those trays representing redundant safety divisions. Propane burners were used to produce a fully developed cable fire in one tray which then was allowed to interact with other trays. From this test it appears that it is possible for a fire to propagate across the vertical separation distance between safety divisions, if a fully developed cable fire is the initiating event

  15. Static Aeroelastic Deformation Effects in Preliminary Wind-tunnel Tests of Silent Supersonic Technology Demonstrator

    OpenAIRE

    Makino, Yoshikazu; Ohira, Keisuke; Makimoto, Takuya; Mitomo, Toshiteru; 牧野, 好和; 大平, 啓介; 牧本, 卓也; 三友, 俊輝

    2011-01-01

    Effects of static aeroelastic deformation of a wind-tunnel test model on the aerodynamic characteristics are discussed in wind-tunnel tests in the preliminary design phase of the silent supersonic technology demonstrator (S3TD). The static aeroelastic deformation of the main wing is estimated for JAXA 2m x 2m transonic wind-tunnel and 1m x 1m supersonic wind-tunnel by a finite element method (FEM) structural analysis in which its structural model is tuned with the model deformation calibratio...

  16. Preliminary testing of a planar converter with uranium oxide pellets in the emitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miskolczy, G.; Lieb, D.P.; Hatch, G.L.

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear reactor thermionic space power systems incorporating thermionic fuel element generally use refractory metal emitters, which contain the nuclear fuel. The purpose of the current work is to determine the effect, if any, of the diffusion of uranium oxide fuel through chemically vapor deposited (CVD) tungsten on converter performance. This paper describes the preliminary testing of the converter to assess the converter performance before any significant diffusion takes place. In testing, the emitter temperature was 1800 K and the collector temperature was varied from 1000 K to 1070 K. Experiments also examined pressure versus loading characteristics of the graphite

  17. Characteristics, finite element analysis, test description, and preliminary test results of the STM4-120 kinematic Stirling engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linker, K. L.; Rawlinson, K. S.; Smith, G.

    1991-10-01

    The Department of Energy's Solar Thermal Program has, as one of its program elements, the development and evaluation of conversion device technologies applicable to dish-electric systems. The primary research and development combines a conversion device (heat engine), solar receiver, and generator mounted at the focus of a parabolic dish concentrator. The Stirling-cycle heat engine was identified as the conversion device for dish-electric with the most potential for meeting the program's goals for efficiency, reliability, and installed cost. To advance the technology toward commercialization, Sandia National Laboratories has acquired a Stirling Thermal Motors, Inc. kinematic Stirling engine, STM4-120, for evaluation. The engine is being bench-tested at Sandia's Engine Test Facility and will be combined later with a solar receiver for on-sun evaluation. This report presents the engine characteristics, finite element analyses of critical engine components, test system layout, instrumentation, and preliminary performance results from the bench test.

  18. Do Workplace Smoking Bans Reduce Smoking?

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew C. Farrelly; William N. Evans; Edward Montgomery

    1999-01-01

    In recent years there has been a heightened public concern over the potentially harmful effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). In response, smoking has been banned on many jobs. Using data from the 1991 and 1993 National Health Interview Survey and smoking supplements to the September 1992 and May 1993 Current Population Survey, we investigate whether these workplace policies reduce smoking prevalence and smoking intensity among workers. Our estimates suggest that workplace bans reduce...

  19. Do provincial policies banning smoking in cars when children are present impact youth exposure to secondhand smoke in cars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elton-Marshall, Tara; Leatherdale, Scott T; Driezen, Pete; Azagba, Sunday; Burkhalter, Robin

    2015-09-01

    To examine youth exposure to smoking in cars following 7 provincial bans on smoking in cars with children in Canada. Repeated cross-sectional data from the 2004-2012 Youth Smoking Survey (n=91,800) were examined. Using a quasi-experimental design, contrasts of the interaction of survey year and province included in the logistic regression analyses were used to test whether exposure significantly declined pre-post implementation of a ban on smoking in cars relative to control provinces not implementing a ban. Exposure across all provinces declined from 26.5% in 2004 to 18.2% of youth in 2012. Exposure declined significantly from pre to post implementation of a ban on smoking in cars with children in Ontario at time 1 post ban (Pre-Ban=20.4% T1post=10.3%, OR=0.45), time 2 post ban (12.1%, OR=0.61) and time 3 post ban (11.6%, OR=0.58) relative to control provinces that did not implement a ban. In British Columbia exposure to smoking in cars declined significantly at pre-post ban time 3 compared to the control group (Pre-Ban=21.2%, T3post=9.6%, OR=0.51). No other provinces had a significant change in exposure pre-post ban relative to the control provinces. Although rates declined, significant differences were only found in Ontario relative to control provinces in the immediate and long term. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Jet-Surface Interaction: High Aspect Ratio Nozzle Test, Nozzle Design and Preliminary Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Clifford; Dippold, Vance

    2015-01-01

    The Jet-Surface Interaction High Aspect Ratio (JSI-HAR) nozzle test is part of an ongoing effort to measure and predict the noise created when an aircraft engine exhausts close to an airframe surface. The JSI-HAR test is focused on parameters derived from the Turbo-electric Distributed Propulsion (TeDP) concept aircraft which include a high-aspect ratio mailslot exhaust nozzle, internal septa, and an aft deck. The size and mass flow rate limits of the test rig also limited the test nozzle to a 16:1 aspect ratio, half the approximately 32:1 on the TeDP concept. Also, unlike the aircraft, the test nozzle must transition from a single round duct on the High Flow Jet Exit Rig, located in the AeroAcoustic Propulsion Laboratory at the NASA Glenn Research Center, to the rectangular shape at the nozzle exit. A parametric nozzle design method was developed to design three low noise round-to-rectangular transitions, with 8:1, 12:1, and 16: aspect ratios, that minimizes flow separations and shocks while providing a flat flow profile at the nozzle exit. These designs validated using the WIND-US CFD code. A preliminary analysis of the test data shows that the actual flow profile is close to that predicted and that the noise results appear consistent with data from previous, smaller scale, tests. The JSI-HAR test is ongoing through October 2015. The results shown in the presentation are intended to provide an overview of the test and a first look at the preliminary results.

  1. Antimicrobial growth promoter ban and resistance to macrolides and vancomycin in enterococci from pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boerlin, P.; Wissing, A.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2001-01-01

    Ninety-six enterococcus isolates from fecal samples of pigs receiving tylosin as an antimicrobial growth promoter and 59 isolates obtained in the same farms 5 to 6 months after the ban of antimicrobial growth promoters in Switzerland were tested for susceptibility to nine antimicrobial agents....... A clear decrease in resistance to macrolides, lincosamides, and tetracycline was visible after the ban. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium belonged to the same clonal lineage as vancomycin-resistant isolates previously isolated from Danish pigs....

  2. Preliminary design for hot dirty-gas control-valve test facility. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This report presents the results of a preliminary design and cost estimating effort for a facility for the testing of control valves in Hot Dirty Gas (HDGCV) service. This design was performed by Mittelhauser Corporation for the United States Department of Energy's Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The objective of this effort was to provide METC with a feasible preliminary design for a test facility which could be used to evaluate valve designs under simulated service conditions and provide a technology data base for DOE and industry. In addition to the actual preliminary design of the test facility, final design/construction/operating schedules and a facility cost estimate were prepared to provide METC sufficient information with which to evaluate this design. The bases, assumptions, and limitations of this study effort are given. The tasks carried out were as follows: METC Facility Review, Environmental Control Study, Gas Generation Study, Metallurgy Review, Safety Review, Facility Process Design, Facility Conceptual Layout, Instrumentation Design, Cost Estimates, and Schedules. The report provides information regarding the methods of approach used in the various tasks involved in the completion of this study. Section 5.0 of this report presents the results of the study effort. The results obtained from the above-defined tasks are described briefly. The turnkey cost of the test facility is estimated to be $9,774,700 in fourth quarter 1979 dollars, and the annual operating cost is estimated to be $960,000 plus utilities costs which are not included because unit costs per utility were not available from METC.

  3. A Preliminary Analysis of Reactor Performance Test (LOEP) for a Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyeonil; Park, Su-Ki [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The final phase of commissioning is reactor performance test, which is to prove the integrated performance and safety of the research reactor at full power with fuel loaded such as neutron power calibration, Control Absorber Rod/Second Shutdown Rod drop time, InC function test, Criticality, Rod worth, Core heat removal with natural mechanism, and so forth. The last test will be safety-related one to assure the result of the safety analysis of the research reactor is marginal enough to be sure about the nuclear safety by showing the reactor satisfies the acceptance criteria of the safety functions such as for reactivity control, maintenance of auxiliaries, reactor pool water inventory control, core heat removal, and confinement isolation. After all, the fuel integrity will be ensured by verifying there is no meaningful change in the radiation levels. To confirm the performance of safety equipment, loss of normal electric power (LOEP), possibly categorized as Anticipated Operational Occurrence (AOO), is selected as a key experiment to figure out how safe the research reactor is before turning over the research reactor to the owner. This paper presents a preliminary analysis of the reactor performance test (LOEP) for a research reactor. The results showed how different the transient between conservative estimate and best estimate will look. Preliminary analyses have shown all probable thermal-hydraulic transient behavior of importance as to opening of flap valve, minimum critical heat flux ratio, the change of flow direction, and important values of thermal-hydraulic parameters.

  4. Preliminary Test of Friction disk type turbine for S-CO{sub 2} cycle application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baik, Seungjoon; Kim, Hyeon Tae; Lee, Jeong Ik [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Due to the relatively mild sodium-CO{sub 2} interaction, the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle can reduce the accident consequence compared to the steam Rankine cycle. Also the S-CO{sub 2} power conversion cycle can achieve high efficiency for SFR core thermal condition. Moreover, the S-CO{sub 2} power cycle can reduce the total cycle footprint due to high density of the working fluid. However, the high pressure operating condition and low viscosity of the fluid cause difficulties in designing appropriate seals and multi-stage turbo machineries. To solve the problem for designing turbo machineries in a creative way, KAIST research team tested a friction disk type turbine concept for the S-CO{sub 2} cycle application. In this paper, the investigation of the Tesla turbine and preliminary test results with compressed air are covered. The KAIST research team investigated a friction disk type turbine, named as Tesla turbine, for the S-CO{sub 2} power cycle applications. Due to the robust design of the fiction disk type, the Tesla turbine technology can be utilized not only for S-CO{sub 2} turbo machinery but also for the multi-phase or sludge flow turbo machinery. The preliminary test of lab-scale Tesla turbine with compressed air was conducted. The high pressure vessel was manufactured for the S-CO{sub 2} operating condition. The test will be concentrated on the turbine efficiency measurement under various conditions and development of the design methodology.

  5. Preliminary report on LLNL mine seismicity deployment at the Twentymile Coal Mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, W.R.; Hunter, S.L.; Glenn, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes the preliminary results of a just completed experiment at the Twentymile Coal Mine, operated by the Cyprus Amax Coal Company near Oak Creek, CO. The purpose of the experiment was to obtain local and regional seismic data from roof caves associated with long-wall mining activities and to use this data to help determine the effectiveness with which these events can be discriminated from underground nuclear explosions under a future Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty

  6. Reflooding Experimental On Beta Test Loop : The Characterisation And Preliminary Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairul, H.; Antariksawan, Anhar R.; Sumamo, Edy; Kiswanta; Giarno; Joko, P.; H, Ismu

    2001-01-01

    The characterisation and preliminary experiment of reflooding had been conducted. The characteristics of main system and component had been identified completely. From these characteristics the experiment condition was set up : heated rod voltage was 20 volt, frequency,of pump was 19 Hz, flow rate was 1 m3/h. The first of experiment did not show the phenomena of rewetting. Possibly because the heated rod temperature was too low. For the second experiment, the voltage of heated rod was increased to 22 Volt and the flow rate was decreased. The result was that the nucleation boiling on the surfaced of heated rod, was observed during the water re flooded the test section

  7. Emotional profiles to the Rorschach test in subjects affected by Central Serous Chorioretinopathy: preliminary observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Gioffrè

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Psychological variables could be related to disorders of vision with particular interest of depressive feautures, but with little attention to dimensions such as stress and anxiety. Psychological stress associated with hyperactivation of the sympathetic autonomic nervous system, is considered the most important risk factor of a rare disorder of vision, the Central Serous Chorioretinopathy (CSC, whose etiology has not yet been clarified. This study to examine the psychological literature regarding to CSC and explore in a preliminary the projective methods of the Rorschach test, any correlations between personality variables and predisposition to CSC.

  8. Preliminary performance test of control rod position indicator for ballscrew type CEDM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, J. Y.; Kim, J. H.; Hu, H.; Lee, J. S.; Kim, J. I.

    2003-01-01

    The reliability and accuracy of the information on control rod position are very important to the reactor safety and the design of the core protection system. A survey on the RSPT(Reed Switch Position Transmitter) type control rod position indication system and its actual implementation in the exiting nuclear power plants in Korea was performed first. The prototype of control rod position indicator having the high performance for the ballscrew type CEDM was developed on the basis of RSPT technology identified through the survey. The characteristics of control rod position indicator was defined and documented through design procedure and preliminary performance test

  9. Nonlinear Analysis and Preliminary Testing Results of a Hybrid Wing Body Center Section Test Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przekop, Adam; Jegley, Dawn C.; Rouse, Marshall; Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Wu, Hsi-Yung T.

    2015-01-01

    A large test article was recently designed, analyzed, fabricated, and successfully tested up to the representative design ultimate loads to demonstrate that stiffened composite panels with through-the-thickness reinforcement are a viable option for the next generation large transport category aircraft, including non-conventional configurations such as the hybrid wing body. This paper focuses on finite element analysis and test data correlation of the hybrid wing body center section test article under mechanical, pressure and combined load conditions. Good agreement between predictive nonlinear finite element analysis and test data is found. Results indicate that a geometrically nonlinear analysis is needed to accurately capture the behavior of the non-circular pressurized and highly-stressed structure when the design approach permits local buckling.

  10. Preliminary tests on a new near-infrared continuous-wave tissue oximeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casavola, Claudia; Cicco, Giuseppe; Pirrelli, Anna; Lugara, Pietro M.

    2000-11-01

    We present a preliminary study, in vitro and in vivo, with a novel device for near-infrared tissue oximetry. The light sources used are two quasi-continuous-wave LEDs, emitting at 656 and 851 nm, and the detector is a photodiode. The data are acquired in back-scattering configuration, thus allowing the non-invasive characterization of thick tissues. Stability tests were performed by placing the optical probe on a tissue- like phantom and acquiring data for periods of time ranging from 5 to 40 minutes. No significant drifts in the DC signal were observed after a warm-up period of no more than 10 minutes. We performed reproducibility tests by repositioning the optical probe on the phantom for a number of times. We found a reproducibility better than 5% in the DC signal. We also present the results of a preliminary study conducted in vivo, on the calf muscle of human subjects. We report a comparison of the results obtained with the near-infrared oximeter with the values of blood oxygenation ctO2 measured with conventional chemical tests.

  11. Persian competing word test: Development and preliminary results in normal children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ebrahim Mahdavi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Assessment of central auditory processing skills needs various behavioral tests in format of a test battery. There is a few Persian speech tests for documenting central auditory processing disorders. The purpose of this study was developing a dichotic test formed of one-syllabic words suitable for evaluation of central auditory processing in Persian language children and reporting its preliminary results in a group of normal children.Materials and Methods: Persian words in competing manner test was developed utilizing most frequent monosyllabic words in children storybooks reported in the previous researches. The test was performed at MCL on forty-five normal children (39 right-handed and 6 left-handed aged 5-11 years. The children did not show any obvious problem in hearing, speech, language and learning. Free (n=28 and directed listening (n=17 tasks were investigated.Results: The results show that in directed listening task, there is significant advantage for performance of pre-cued ear relative to opposite side. Right ear advantage is evident in free recall condition. Average performance of the children in directed recall is significantly better than free recall. Average row score of the test increases with the children age.Conclusion: Persian words in competing manner test as a dichotic test, can show major characteristics of dichotic listening and effect of maturation of central auditory system on it in normal children.

  12. Detail design of test loop for FIV in fuel bundle and preliminary test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Woo Gunl; Lee, Wan Young; Kim, Sung Won [Hannam University, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-04-01

    It is urgent to develop the analytical model for the structural/mechanical integrity of fuel rod. In general, it is not easy to develop a pure analytical model. Occasionally, experimental results have been utilized for the model.Because of this reason, it is required to design proper test loop. Using the optimized test loop, With the optimized test loop, the dynamic behaviour of the rod will be evaluated and the critical flow velocity, which the rod loses the stability in, will be measured for the design of the rod. To verify the integrity of the fuel rod, it is required to evaluate the dynamic behaviour and the critical flow velocity with the test loop. The test results will be utilized to the design of the rod. Generally, the rod has a ground vibration due to turbulence in wide range of flow velocity and the amplitude of vibration becomes larger by the resonance, in a range of the velocity where occurs vortex. The rod loses stability in critical flow velocity caused by fluid-elastic instability. For the purpose of the present work to perform the conceptional design of the test loop, it is necessary (1) to understand the mechanism of the flow-induced vibration and the related experimental coefficients, (2) to evaluate the existing test loops for improving the loop with design parameters and (3) to decide the design specifications of the major equipments of the loop. 35 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs. (Author)

  13. Mineralogical test as a preliminary step for metallurgical proses of Kalan ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Affandi, K.

    1998-01-01

    Mineralogical tests as a preliminary step for hydrometallurgy of Kalan ores, including Eko Remaja and Rirang have been carried out to identify the elements and minerals content which affect the metallurgical process, especially the leaching and purification of uranium. Mineralogical tests have been done by means of radioactive and radioluxugraph tests to identify radioactive minerals; thin specimen analysis, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to identify elements and morphology, EPMA to analyse qualitatively the elements, X-ray Diffractometer (XRD) to identify of minerals content; and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) and chemical analyses to determine total elements qualitatively and quantitatively. The experimental results show that the Eko Remaja ores contain uraninite and brannerite, iron and titan oxides, sulfides, phosphates and silicates minerals, while the Rirang ores contain uraninite, monazite and molybdenite

  14. Preliminary research on eddy current bobbin quantitative test for heat exchange tube in nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Pan; Shao, Wenbin; Liao, Shusheng

    2016-02-01

    For quantitative defects detection research on heat transfer tube in nuclear power plants (NPP), two parts of work are carried out based on the crack as the main research objects. (1) Production optimization of calibration tube. Firstly, ASME, RSEM and homemade crack calibration tubes are applied to quantitatively analyze the defects depth on other designed crack test tubes, and then the judgment with quantitative results under crack calibration tube with more accuracy is given. Base on that, weight analysis of influence factors for crack depth quantitative test such as crack orientation, length, volume and so on can be undertaken, which will optimize manufacture technology of calibration tubes. (2) Quantitative optimization of crack depth. Neural network model with multi-calibration curve adopted to optimize natural crack test depth generated in in-service tubes shows preliminary ability to improve quantitative accuracy.

  15. Smoking ban and health at birth: Evidence from Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajdu, Tamás; Hajdu, Gábor

    2018-06-13

    In 2012, smoking restrictions were extended to hospitality venues in Hungary. Women working in bars and restaurants were primarily affected by the intervention. In this research, we analyze the effect of this smoking ban on the outcomes of their pregnancies. Using individual live birth, fetal loss, and infant mortality registry data, we examine the probability of live birth, indicators of health at birth, and the probability of death in the first year of life. We apply a difference-in-differences framework and show that the smoking ban has improved health at birth. We observed birth weight to increase by 56 g (95% CI: 4.2 to 106.8) and gestation length by 0.19 weeks (95% CI: 0.02 to 0.36). Due to the ban, the probability of being born with very low and low birth weight has decreased by 1.2 and 2.2 percentage points, respectively (95% CI: -0.2 to -2.2 and 0.06 to -4.4), and we see a 0.9 percentage points reduction in the chance of being born very preterm (95% CI: -0.03 to -1.9). We also observe a decrease in the probability of being born with a low Ponderal index (decrease of 4.1 percentage points, 95% CI: -0.7 to -7.5). Performing a series of robustness and placebo tests, we provide evidence that supports the causal interpretation of our results. We also show that the ban was more beneficial for newborns of parents with low educational attainment and at the bottom of the fetal health endowment distribution. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Post-test thermomechanical calulations and preliminary data analysis for the Spent Fuel Test: Climax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butkovich, T.R.; Patrick, W.C.

    1985-09-01

    The Spent Fuel Test - Climax (SFT-C) was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of retrievable deep geologic storage of commercially generated, spent nuclear-reactor fuel assemblies. Thermomechanical response of the SFT-C was calculated before the test began using the finite-element structural analysis code ADINA and its companion heat transfer code ADINAT. While we found that the level of agreement between measured and calculated rock displacements was quite good, we needed to revise certain aspects of the heat transfer calculation, material properties, and in situ stresses to incorporate information obtained during and after the heated phase of the test. The post-test calculations reported here were performed using the best available input parameters, thermal and mechanical properties, and power levels that were directly measured or inferred from measurements made during the test. This report documents the results of these calculations and compares those results with selected measurements made during the 3-year heating phase and 6-month cooling phase of the SFT-C

  17. Factors Associated with Complete Home Smoking Ban among Chinese Parents of Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kaiyong; Chen, Hailian; Liao, Jing; Nong, Guangmin; Yang, Li; Winickoff, Jonathan P; Zhang, Zhiyong; Abdullah, Abu S

    2016-01-26

    (1) BACKGROUND: The home environment is a major source of Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) exposure among children especially in early childhood. ETS exposure is an important health risk among children and can cause severe and chronic diseases, such as asthma, bronchitis, and premature death. However, ETS exposure at home has often been neglected in the Chinese families. Identification of factors that facilitate or otherwise hamper the adoption of home smoking ban will help in the design and implementation of evidence-based intervention programs. This study identifies factors correlated with home smoking bans in Chinese families with children. (2) METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of parents living in Nanning city, Guangxi Province, China with at least one smoker and a child in the household was conducted between September, 2013 and January, 2014. A Chi-square test was used to compare categorical variables differences between the parents who had home smoking bans and those with no home smoking ban. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors correlated with home smoking bans. (3) RESULTS: 969 completed questionnaires were collected with a response rate of 92.29% (969/1050). Of the respondents (n = 969), 14.34% had complete home smoking bans. Factors that were associated with home smoking bans were: having no other smokers in the family (OR = 2.173), attaining education up to high school (OR = 2.471), believing that paternal smoking would increase the risk of lower respiratory tract illnesses (OR = 2.755), perceiving the fact that smoking cigarettes in the presence of the child will hurt the child's health (OR = 1.547), believing that adopting a no smoking policy at home is very important (OR = 2.816), and being confident to prevent others to smoke at home (OR = 1.950). Additionally, parents who perceived difficulty in adopting a no smoking policy at home would not have a home smoking ban (OR = 0.523). (4) CONCLUSIONS: A home smoking ban is

  18. Factors Associated with Complete Home Smoking Ban among Chinese Parents of Young Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiyong Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: The home environment is a major source of Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS exposure among children especially in early childhood. ETS exposure is an important health risk among children and can cause severe and chronic diseases, such as asthma, bronchitis, and premature death. However, ETS exposure at home has often been neglected in the Chinese families. Identification of factors that facilitate or otherwise hamper the adoption of home smoking ban will help in the design and implementation of evidence-based intervention programs. This study identifies factors correlated with home smoking bans in Chinese families with children. (2 Methods: A cross-sectional survey of parents living in Nanning city, Guangxi Province, China with at least one smoker and a child in the household was conducted between September, 2013 and January, 2014. A Chi-square test was used to compare categorical variables differences between the parents who had home smoking bans and those with no home smoking ban. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors correlated with home smoking bans. (3 Results: 969 completed questionnaires were collected with a response rate of 92.29% (969/1050. Of the respondents (n = 969, 14.34% had complete home smoking bans. Factors that were associated with home smoking bans were: having no other smokers in the family (OR = 2.173, attaining education up to high school (OR = 2.471, believing that paternal smoking would increase the risk of lower respiratory tract illnesses (OR = 2.755, perceiving the fact that smoking cigarettes in the presence of the child will hurt the child’s health (OR = 1.547, believing that adopting a no smoking policy at home is very important (OR = 2.816, and being confident to prevent others to smoke at home (OR = 1.950. Additionally, parents who perceived difficulty in adopting a no smoking policy at home would not have a home smoking ban (OR = 0.523. (4 Conclusions: A home smoking

  19. Preliminary irradiation test results from the Yankee Atomic Electric Company reactor vessel test irradiation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biemiller, E.C.; Fyfitch, Stephen; Campbell, C.A.

    1994-01-01

    The Yankee Atomic Electric Company test irradiation program was implemented to characterize the irradiation response of representative Yankee Rowe reactor vessel beltline plate materials and to remove uncertainties in the analysis of existing irradiation data on the Yankee Rowe reactor vessel steel. Plate materials each containing 0.24 w/o copper, but different nickel contents at 0.63 w/o and 0.19 w/o, were heat treated to simulate the Yankee vessel heat treatment (austenitized at 982 o C (1800 o F)) and to simulate Regulatory Guide 1.99 database materials (austenitized at 871 o C (1600 o F)). These heat treatments produced different microstructures so the effect of microstructure on irradiation damage sensitivity could be tested. Because the nickel content of the test plates varied and the copper level was constant, the effect of nickel on irradiation embrittlement was also tested. Correlation monitor material, HSST-02, was included in the program to benchmark the Ford Nuclear Reactor (University of Michigan Test Reactor) which had never been used before for this type of irradiation program. Materials taken from plate surface locations (versus 1/4 T) were included to test whether or not the improved toughness properties of the plate surface layer, resulting from the rapid quench, are maintained after irradiation. If the improved properties are maintained, pressurized thermal shock calculations could utilize this margin. Finally, for one experiment, irradiations were conducted at two irradiation temperatures (260 o C and 288 o C) to determine the effect of irradiation temperature on embrittlement. (Author)

  20. Preliminary Calculations of Bypass Flow Distribution in a Multi-Block Air Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Hwan; Tak, Nam Il

    2011-01-01

    The development of a methodology for the bypass flow assessment in a prismatic VHTR (Very High Temperature Reactor) core has been conducted at KAERI. A preliminary estimation of variation of local bypass flow gap size between graphite blocks in the NHDD core were carried out. With the predicted gap sizes, their influence on the bypass flow distribution and the core hot spot was assessed. Due to the complexity of gap distributions, a system thermo-fluid analysis code is suggested as a tool for the core thermo-fluid analysis, the model and correlations of which should be validated. In order to generate data for validating the bypass flow analysis model, an experimental facility for a multi-block air test was constructed at Seoul National University (SNU). This study is focused on the preliminary evaluation of flow distribution in the test section to understand how the flow is distributed and to help the selection of experimental case. A commercial CFD code, ANSYS CFX is used for the analyses

  1. Preliminary definition of the remote handling system for the current IFMIF Test Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queral, V., E-mail: vicentemanuel.queral@ciemat.es [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion, EURATOM-CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Urbon, J. [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion, EURATOM-CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Fusion Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Garcia, A.; Cuarental, I.; Mota, F. [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion, EURATOM-CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Micciche, G. [CR ENEA Brasimone, I-40035 Camugnano (BO) (Italy); Ibarra, A. [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion, EURATOM-CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Rapisarda, D. [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion, EURATOM-CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Fusion Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Casal, N. [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion, EURATOM-CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    A coherent design of the remote handling system with the design of the components to be manipulated is vital for reliable, safe and fast maintenance, having a decisive impact on availability, occupational exposures and operational cost of the facility. Highly activated components in the IFMIF facility are found at the Test Cell, a shielded pit where the samples are accurately located. The remote handling system for the Test Cell reference design was outlined in some past IFMIF studies. Currently a new preliminary design of the Test Cell in the IFMIF facility is being developed, introducing important modifications with respect to the reference one. This recent design separates the previous Vertical Test Assemblies in three functional components: Test Modules, shielding plugs and conduits. Therefore, it is necessary to adapt the previous design of the remote handling system to the new maintenance procedures and requirements. This paper summarises such modifications of the remote handling system, in particular the assessment of the feasibility of a modified commercial multirope crane for the handling of the weighty shielding plugs for the new Test Cell and a quasi-commercial grapple for the handling of the new Test Modules.

  2. Preliminary definition of the remote handling system for the current IFMIF Test Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queral, V.; Urbon, J.; Garcia, A.; Cuarental, I.; Mota, F.; Micciche, G.; Ibarra, A.; Rapisarda, D.; Casal, N.

    2011-01-01

    A coherent design of the remote handling system with the design of the components to be manipulated is vital for reliable, safe and fast maintenance, having a decisive impact on availability, occupational exposures and operational cost of the facility. Highly activated components in the IFMIF facility are found at the Test Cell, a shielded pit where the samples are accurately located. The remote handling system for the Test Cell reference design was outlined in some past IFMIF studies. Currently a new preliminary design of the Test Cell in the IFMIF facility is being developed, introducing important modifications with respect to the reference one. This recent design separates the previous Vertical Test Assemblies in three functional components: Test Modules, shielding plugs and conduits. Therefore, it is necessary to adapt the previous design of the remote handling system to the new maintenance procedures and requirements. This paper summarises such modifications of the remote handling system, in particular the assessment of the feasibility of a modified commercial multirope crane for the handling of the weighty shielding plugs for the new Test Cell and a quasi-commercial grapple for the handling of the new Test Modules.

  3. Stress analysis of HLW containers. Preliminary ring test exercise Compas project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This document describes the series of experiments and associated calculations performed as the Compas preliminary ring test exercise. A number of mild steel rings, representative of sections through HLW containers, some notched and pre-cracked, were tested in compression right up to and beyond their ultimate load. The Compas project partners independently modelled the behaviour of these rings using their finite element codes. Four different ring types were tested, and each test was repeated three times. For three of the ring types, the three test repetitions gave identical results. The fourth ring, which was not modelled by the partners, had a 4 mm thick layer of weld metal deposited on its surface. The three tests on this ring did not give identical results and suggested that the effect of welding methods should be addressed at a later stage of the project. Fracture was not found to be a significant cause of ring failure. The results of the ring tests were compared with the partners predictions, and additionally some time was spent assessing where the use of the codes could be improved. This exercise showed that the partners codes have the ability to produce results within acceptable limits. Most codes were unable to model stable crack growth. There were indications that some codes would not be able to cope with a significantly more complex three-dimensional analysis

  4. Influence of mechanical stress level in preliminary stress-corrosion testing on fatigue strength of a low-carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleskerova, S.A.; Pakharyan, V.A.

    1978-01-01

    Effect of corrosion and mechanical factors of preliminary stress corrosion of a metal in its fatigue strength, has been investigated. Smooth cylindrical samples of 20 steel have been tested. Preliminary corrosion under stress has been carried out under natural sea conditions. It is shown that mechanical stresses in the case of preliminary corrosion affect fatigue strength of low-carbon steels, decreasing the range of limited durability and fatigue limit. This effect increases with the increase of stress level and agressivity of corrosive medium

  5. Trans Fat Bans and Human Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of evidence has linked consumption of trans fatty acids to cardiovascular disease. To promote public health, numerous state and local governments in the United States have banned the use of artificial trans fats in restaurant foods, and additional bans may follow. Although these policies may have a positive impact on human health, they open the door to excessive government control over food, which could restrict dietary choices, interfere with cultural, ethnic, and religious traditions, and exacerbate socioeconomic inequalities. These slippery slope concerns cannot be dismissed as far-fetched, because the social and political pressures are place to induce additional food regulations. To protect human freedom and other values, policies that significantly restrict food choices, such as bans on types of food, should be adopted only when they are supported by substantial scientific evidence, and when policies that impose fewer restrictions on freedom, such as educational campaigns and product labeling, are likely to be ineffective. PMID:20229412

  6. Performance of Small Bore 60NiTi Hybrid Ball Bearings: Preliminary Life Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellacorte, Christopher; Howard, S. Adam

    2016-01-01

    Small bore (R8 size) hybrid ball bearings made with 60NiTi races and silicon nitride balls are under development for highly corrosive aerospace applications that are also exposed to heavy static (shock) loads. The target application is the vacuum pump used inside the wastewater recycling system on the International Space Station. To verify bearing longevity, life tests are run at 2000rpm for time periods up to 5000 hours. Accelerometers with data tracking are used to monitor operation and the bearings are disassembled and inspected at intervals to assess wear. Preliminary tests show that bearings made from 60NiTi are feasible for this aerospace and potentially other industrial applications that must endure similar operating environments.

  7. In vitro preliminary cytotoxicity testing of vegetal extracts, using colorimetric methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Patricia Cordero Camacho

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available To advance in the study of the Colombian vegetal biodiversity, considered as a potential source of pharmacologically active products, the establishment of biological activity evaluation systems is necessary, which allow the detection of active products against pathologies with high social and economical impact, such as cancer. This work describes the implementation of a preliminary in vitro methodology for the determination of potential anticancer activity in vegetal extracts, by cytotoxicity testing upon human tumor cell lines, measuring the cellular mass indirectly with the colorimetric assays of MTT (methyl tetrazolium tiazole reduction and SRB (sulforhodamine Bstaining. HT-29, MCF-7, SiHa and HEp-2 cell lines cultures were adapted, MTT concentration, cellular density and treatment period parameters for the cytotoxicity assay were selected. Cell lines sensitivity to the chemotherapeutic agent Doxorubicin HCl was determined. Colombian vegetal species extracts cytotoxicity was tested and usefulness of the assay as a tool to bioguide the search of active products was evidenced.

  8. In vitro preliminary cytotoxicity testing of vegetal extracts, using colorimetric methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Patricia Cordero Camacho

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To advance in the study of the Colombian vegetal biodiversity, considered as a potential source of pharmacologically active products, the establishment of biological activity evaluation systems is necessary, which allow the detection of active products against pathologies with high social and economical impact, such as cancer. This work describes the implementation of a preliminary in vitro methodology for the determination of potential anticancer activity in vegetal extracts, by cytotoxicity testing upon human tumor cell lines, measuring the cellular mass indirectly with the colorimetric assays of MTT (methyl tetrazolium tiazole reduction and SRB (sulforhodamine Bstaining. HT-29, MCF-7, SiHa and HEp-2 cell lines cultures were adapted, MTT concentration, cellular density and treatment period parameters for the cytotoxicity assay were selected. Cell lines sensitivity to the chemotherapeutic agent Doxorubicin HCl was determined. Colombian vegetal species extracts cytotoxicity was tested and usefulness of the assay as a tool to bioguide the search of active products was evidenced.

  9. Current status of VEGA program and a preliminary test with cesium iodide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidaka, A.; Nakamura, T.; Kudo, T.; Hayashida, R.; Nakamura, J.; Otomo, T.; Uetsuka, H.

    2000-01-01

    The VEGA program has been performed at JAERI to clarify the mechanism of FP release from irradiated PWR/BWR fuels including MOX fuel and to improve predictability of the source term. The principal purposes are to investigate the release of actinides and FPs including non-volatile radionuclides from irradiated fuel at 3000degC under high pressure condition up to 1.0 MPa. The short-life radionuclides will be accumulated by re-irradiation of test fuel just before the experiment using the JAERI's research reactor such as JRR-3 or NSRR. The test facility was installed into the beta/gamma concrete No.5 cell at RFEF and completed in February, 1999. Before the first VEGA-1 test in September, 1999, a preliminary test using a cold simulant, cesium iodide (CsI) was performed to confirm the fundamental capabilities of the test facility. The test results showed that the trapping efficiency of the aerosol filters is about 98%. The amount of CsI which arrived at the downstream pipe of the filters was quite small while a small amount of I 2 gas which can pass through the filters was condensed just before the cold condenser as expected in the design. (author)

  10. Clerics urge ban on altering germline cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, C

    1983-06-24

    A resolution calling for a ban on genetic engineering of human reproductive cells has been signed by leaders of almost every major church group in the United States. Some of the religious leaders, while not certain that a total moratorium should be placed on altering germline cells, signed the statement in order to stimulate public debate on the issue. Legislation has recently been introduced in Congress to set up a committee to monitor genetic engineering and its human applications, but author Jeremy Rifkin, the impetus behind the church leaders' resolution, argues that such tampering threatens the gene pool and should be banned altogether.

  11. The Danish trans-fatty acids ban

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Signild

    2017-01-01

    In 2003 an executive order was issued banning industrially produced trans-fatty acids above a low level in food items in Denmark. To date, only a few other countries have followed Denmark’s example. The way health consequences of trans fats were translated by the different actors enabled the crea......In 2003 an executive order was issued banning industrially produced trans-fatty acids above a low level in food items in Denmark. To date, only a few other countries have followed Denmark’s example. The way health consequences of trans fats were translated by the different actors enabled...

  12. [Recent developments on the European ban on animal experiments for cosmetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhdel, I W

    2001-01-01

    For the second time the European Commission has postponed the sales ban on cosmetics products that have been developed and tested in animal experiments now until 2002. In the meantime the Commission wants to adopt the Seventh Amendment of the EU Cosmetics Directive. In its draft the Commission proposes to scrap the sales ban and replace it with an animal testing ban. This change would avoid possible conflicts with the WTO, however, from the animal welfare point of view would result in animal testing moving into third countries instead of avoiding them. This is because cosmetics products tested on animals outside the EU could be sold in the EU without any restrictions. As a consequence this measure would take the pressure from authorities and industry to further develop and adopt alternative methods. Other proposed measures are not acceptable from the animal welfare point of view, e.g. because they contradict Directive 86/609 and would result in a delay of the application of validated alternative methods. The Deutscher Tierschutzbund therefore still demands an immediate and complete sales ban in connection with an animal testing ban within the EU.

  13. Test description and preliminary pitot-pressure surveys for Langley Test Technique Demonstrator at Mach 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everhart, Joel L.; Ashby, George C., Jr.; Monta, William J.

    1992-01-01

    A propulsion/airframe integration experiment conducted in the NASA Langley 20-Inch Mach 6 Tunnel using a 16.8-in.-long version of the Langley Test Technique Demonstrator configuration with simulated scramjet propulsion is described. Schlieren and vapor screen visualization of the nozzle flow field is presented and correlated with pitot-pressure flow-field surveys. The data were obtained at nominal free-stream conditions of Re = 2.8 x 10 exp 6 and a nominal engine total pressure of 100 psia. It is concluded that pitot-pressure surveys coupled to schlieren and vapor-screen photographs, and oil flows have revealed flow features including vortices, free shear layers, and shock waves occurring in the model flow field.

  14. Validating a dance-specific screening test for balance: preliminary results from multisite testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batson, Glenna

    2010-09-01

    Few dance-specific screening tools adequately capture balance. The aim of this study was to administer and modify the Star Excursion Balance Test (oSEBT) to examine its utility as a balance screen for dancers. The oSEBT involves standing on one leg while lightly targeting with the opposite foot to the farthest distance along eight spokes of a star-shaped grid. This task simulates dance in the spatial pattern and movement quality of the gesturing limb. The oSEBT was validated for distance on athletes with history of ankle sprain. Thirty-three dancers (age 20.1 +/- 1.4 yrs) participated from two contemporary dance conservatories (UK and US), with or without a history of lower extremity injury. Dancers were verbally instructed (without physical demonstration) to execute the oSEBT and four modifications (mSEBT): timed (speed), timed with cognitive interference (answering questions aloud), and sensory disadvantaging (foam mat). Stepping strategies were tracked and performance strategies video-recorded. Unlike the oSEBT results, distances reached were not significant statistically (p = 0.05) or descriptively (i.e., shorter) for either group. Performance styles varied widely, despite sample homogeneity and instructions to control for strategy. Descriptive analysis of mSEBT showed an increased number of near-falls and decreased timing on the injured limb. Dancers appeared to employ variable strategies to keep balance during this test. Quantitative analysis is warranted to define balance strategies for further validation of SEBT modifications to determine its utility as a balance screening tool.

  15. Preliminary test results and CFD analysis for Moderator Circulation Test (MCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyoung Tae

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) installed the Moderator Circulation Test (MCT) facility. • Velocity profiles for iso-thermal conditions are measured by the Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). • The PIV measurement results can capture the same flow pattern as that expected in the CANDU6 calandria tank under a momentum dominant flow condition. • More experimental works for the iso-thermal conditions as well as the heating conditions will be performed. • The CFX model will be validated against the PIV measurement data in the future. - Abstract: The moderator flow circulation patterns in CANDU6 reactor are complicated slow flows that significantly vary from buoyancy dominated to inertia dominated patterns. Accurate predictions of flow patterns are essential for accurate calculation of moderator temperature distributions and the related moderator subcooling. The code and its analytical models have therefore to be validated against experiments representative of reactor conditions. Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) installed the Moderator Circulation Test (MCT) facility to simulate the 3 dimensional moderator circulation phenomena in the calandria of CANDU6 reactor and develop the optical measurement system using the Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). From the present work it is shown that the PIV measurement results can capture the same flow pattern as that expected in the CANDU6 calandria tank under a momentum dominant flow condition, where the inlet jets penetrate the top of the tank and produce a downward flow through the center of the tube columns toward the outlet nozzle, and the flow fields are in symmetric distributions. The measurements of the downward velocities are performed at different locations. The velocity is shown to be axially uniform. The velocity is rapidly decreased as the measurement location is far from the center of the tank, since the downward flow is dominant along the center of the tube columns

  16. Manufacturing and preliminary tests of a 12 T ''wind and react'' coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corte, A. della; Pasotti, G.; Sacchetti, N.; Spadoni, M.; Oliva, A.B.; Penco, R.; Parodi, S.; Valle, N.; Specking, W.

    1994-01-01

    As already reported ENEA is engaged in the realization of a 12 T wind and react Nb 3 Sn coil, a subsize magnet designed to simulate many technological problems to be faced in NET-ITER magnets. EM-LMI and Ansaldo are the industrial partners in this project. A preliminary winding has been built and successfully tested. This winding has been cut in pieces and carefully inspected to be sure that the impregnation process after the heat treatment works well. No particular flaws have been detected. Then manufacturing of the 12 T magnet has been started and completed in about three months. Heat treatment, impregnation and electrical tests at 300 K have been successfully performed and the magnet is now ready for final tests. In order to obtain the most significant scientific and technological information from this magnet, the original test program (insertion of the coil in the SULTAN facility) has been modified according to a decision of the Fusion Technology Steering Committee (FTSC) of EURATOM. Details of the new test programs are given in the paper

  17. Welding of metallic fuel elements for the irradiation test in JOYO. Preliminary tests and welding execution tests (Joint research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Hironobu; Nakamura, Kinya; Iwai, Takashi; Arai, Yasuo

    2009-10-01

    Irradiation tests of metallic fuels elements in fast test reactor JOYO are planned under the joint research of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) and Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI). Six U-Pu-Zr fuel elements clad with ferritic martensitic steel are fabricated in Plutonium Fuel Research Facility (PFRF) of JAEA-Oarai for the first time in Japan. In PFRF, the procedures of fabrication of the fuel elements were determined and the test runs of the equipments were carried out before the welding execution tests for the fuel elements. Test samples for confirming the welding condition between the cladding tube and top and bottom endplugs were prepared, and various test runs were carried out before the welding execution tests. As a result, the welding conditions were finalized by passing the welding execution tests. (author)

  18. Preliminary study fo the interference of proteic compounds of radiopharmaceuticals in the test of lisadode amebocitos de limulus (LAL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldana, Claudia

    1997-01-01

    In this thesis the objective was evaluate the interference of proteic compounds of the radiopharmaceuticals in the test LAL (lisado of amebocitos de limulus) for this, macroagregates of albumina (MAA) was used with metilendifosfonato (MDP) as control that is the radiopharmaceutical more used in the nuclear medicine centers of the country. Initially preliminary test were carried out to assess if some of two radiopharmaceuticals would cause interference with LAL test, after the test was validated and finally routine tests were made. With the preliminary assays was concluded that proteic compounds did not cause interference (albumina with a concentration of 2 md/dl) with the MAA. However with the MDP cause interference with LAL test. The interference was eliminated with a dilution of 1:8 of the sample. Was concluded that the success of LAL test depends on conditions such as temperature, pH, constant incubation (no minimum variations) and that is a good test for quality control of the radiopharmaceuticals

  19. Should We Ban Instant Messaging In School?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texley, Sharon; DeGennaro, Donna

    2005-01-01

    This article is a brief debate on the pros and cons of allowing students to use instant messaging (IM) in school. On one hand, teenagers' desire to socialize can overcome other priorities and schools may set policies to ban instant messaging. The contrary view is that schools should embrace the IM technology being popularized by youth and find…

  20. The large-scale vented combustion test facility at AECL-WL: description and preliminary test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loesel Sitar, J.; Koroll, G.W.; Dewit, W.A.; Bowles, E.M.; Harding, J.; Sabanski, C.L.; Kumar, R.K.

    1997-01-01

    Implementation of hydrogen mitigation systems in nuclear reactor containments requires testing the effectiveness of the mitigation system, reliability and availability of the hardware, potential consequences of its use and the technical basis for hardware placement, on a meaningful scale. Similarly, the development and validation of containment codes used in nuclear reactor safety analysis require detailed combustion data from medium- and large-scale facilities. A Large-Scale Combustion Test Facility measuring 10 m x 4 m x 3 m (volume, 120 m 3 ) has been constructed and commissioned at Whiteshell Laboratories to perform a wide variety of combustion experiments. The facility is designed to be versatile so that many geometrical configurations can be achieved. The facility incorporates extensive capabilities for instrumentation and high speed data acquisition, on-line gas sampling and analysis. Other features of the facility include operation at elevated temperatures up to 150 degrees C, easy access to the interior, and remote operation. Initial thermodynamic conditions in the facility can be controlled to within 0.1 vol% of constituent gases. The first series of experiments examined vented combustion in the full 120 m 3 -volume configuration with vent areas in the range of 0.56 to 2.24 m 2 . The experiments were performed at ∼27 degrees C and near-atmospheric pressures, with hydrogen concentrations in the range of 8 to 12% by volume. This paper describes the Large-Scale Vented Combustion Test Facility and preliminary results from the first series of experiments. (author)

  1. Smoking bans and the secondhand smoking problem: an economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Annette; Nell, Martin

    2012-06-01

    Smoking bans are gaining widespread support in the European Union and other countries. The vast majority of these bans are partial bans given that smoking is still permitted in certain places. This article investigates the role of partial smoking bans in coping with externalities caused by the secondhand smoking problem. Although it is widely known that Pigouvian taxation is superior to a perfect ban, this result does not necessarily carry over to a partial ban because taxes cannot (easily) be differentiated according to location. We show that under an easy and intuitive condition, (1) enacting a partial smoking ban alone always improves social welfare (a) in an unregulated society and (b) even in a regulated society if externalities can be eliminated, and (2) it is ensured that a combination of Pigouvian tax and a partial smoking ban leads to a higher social optimum than implementing corrective Pigouvian taxation alone.

  2. Modeling and preliminary thermal analysis of the capsule for a creep test in HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Myoung Hwan; Cho, Man Soon; Choo, Kee Nam; Kang, Young Hwan; Sohn, Jae Min; Shin, Yoon Taeg; Park, Sung Jae; Kim, Bong Goo; Kim, Young Jin

    2005-01-01

    A creep capsule is a device to investigate the creep characteristics of nuclear materials during inpile irradiation tests. To obtain the design data of the capsule through a preliminary thermal analysis, a 2-dimensional model for the cross section of the capsule including the specimens and components is generated, and an analysis using the ANSYS program is performed. The gamma-heating rates of the materials for the HANARO power of 30MW are considered, and the effect of the gap size and the control rod position on the temperature of the specimen is discussed. From the analysis it is found that the gap between the thermal media and the external tube has a significant effect on the temperature of the specimen. The temperature by increasing the position of the control rod is decreased

  3. Preliminary safety evaluation (PSE) for Sodium Storage Facility at the Fast Flux Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, B.R.

    1994-01-01

    This evaluation was performed for the Sodium Storage Facility (SSF) which will be constructed at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) in the area adjacent to the South and West Dump Heat Exchanger (DHX) pits. The purpose of the facility is to allow unloading the sodium from the FFTF plant tanks and piping. The significant conclusion of this Preliminary Safety Evaluation (PSE) is that the only Safety Class 2 components are the four sodium storage tanks and their foundations. The building, because of its imminent risk to the tanks under an earthquake or high winds, will be Safety Class 3/2, which means the building has a Safety Class 3 function with the Safety Class 2 loads of seismic and wind factored into the design

  4. The preliminary tests of the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source DECRIS-SC2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efremov, A; Bekhterev, V; Bogomolov, S; Drobin, V; Loginov, V; Lebedev, A; Yazvitsky, N; Yakovlev, B

    2012-02-01

    A new compact version of the "liquid He-free" superconducting ECR ion source, to be used as an injector of highly charged heavy ions for the MC-400 cyclotron, is designed and built at the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions in collaboration with the Laboratory of High Energy Physics of JINR. The axial magnetic field of the source is created by the superconducting magnet and the NdFeB hexapole is used for the radial plasma confinement. The microwave frequency of 14 GHz is used for ECR plasma heating. During the first tests, the source shows a good enough performance for the production of medium charge state ions. In this paper, we will present the design parameters and the preliminary results with gaseous ions.

  5. Preliminary piping layout and integration of European test blanket modules subsystems in ITER CVCS area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarallo, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.tarallo@unina.it [CREATE, University of Naples Federico II, DII, P.le Tecchio, 80, 80125 Naples (Italy); Mozzillo, Rocco; Di Gironimo, Giuseppe [CREATE, University of Naples Federico II, DII, P.le Tecchio, 80, 80125 Naples (Italy); Aiello, Antonio; Utili, Marco [ENEA UTIS, C.R. Brasimone, Bacino del Brasimone, I-40032 Camugnano, BO (Italy); Ricapito, Italo [TBM& MD Project, Fusion for Energy, EU Commission, Carrer J. Pla, 2, Building B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • The use of human modeling tools for piping design in view of maintenance is discussed. • A possible preliminary layout for TBM subsystems in CVCS area has been designed with CATIA. • A DHM-based method to quickly check for maintainability of piping systems is suggested. - Abstract: This paper explores a possible integration of some ancillary systems of helium-cooled lithium lead (HCLL) and helium-cooled pebble-bed (HCPB) test blanket modules in ITER CVCS area. Computer-aided design and ergonomics simulation tools have been fundamental not only to define suitable routes for pipes, but also to quickly check for maintainability of equipment and in-line components. In particular, accessibility of equipment and systems has been investigated from the very first stages of the design using digital human models. In some cases, the digital simulations have resulted in changes in the initial space reservations.

  6. Mercury exposure on potential plant Ludwigia octovalvis L. - Preliminary toxicological testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrawiq, Huda S. M.; Mushrifah, I.

    2013-11-01

    The preliminary test in phytoremediation is necessaryto determine the ability of plant to survive in media with different concentrations of contaminant. It was conducted to determine the maximum concentration of the contaminant that isharmful to the plant and suppress the plant growth. This study showed the ability of Ludwigia octovalvisto resist mercury (Hg) contaminant in sand containing different concentrations of Hg (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 mg/L). The experimental work wasperformed under greenhouse conditions for an observation period of 4 weeks. Throughout the 4 weeks duration, the resultsshowed that 66.66% of the plants withered for on exposure to Hg concentration of 4 mg/L and 100% withered at higher concentrations of 6 and 8 mg/L. The results of this study may serve as a basis for research that aims to study uptake and accumulation of Hg using potential phytoremediation plants.

  7. A Preliminary Analysis for SMART-ITL SBLOCA Tests using the MARS/KS Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Yeon Sik; Ko, Yung Joo; Suh, Jae Seung [System Engineering and Technology Co., Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In this paper, a preliminary analysis was conducted for SMART-ITL SBLOCA tests using the MARS/KS Code. The results of this work are expected to be good guidelines for SBLOCA tests with the SMART-ITL, and used to understand the various thermal-hydraulic phenomena expected to occur in the integral-type reactor, SMART. An integral-effect test (IET) loop for SMART, SMART-ITL (or FESTA), has been designed using a volume scaling methodology. It was installed at KAERI and its commissioning tests were finished in 2012. Its height was preserved and its area and volume were scaled down to 1/49 compared with the prototype plant, SMART. The SMART-ITL consists of a primary system including a reactor pressure vessel with a pressurizer, four steam generators and four main coolant pumps, a secondary system, a safety system, and an auxiliary system. The objectives of IET using the SMART-ITL facility are to investigate the integral performance of the inter-connected components and possible thermal-hydraulic phenomena occurring in the SMART design, and to validate its safety for various design basis events (DBAs)

  8. Site study plan for Deep Hydronest Test Wells, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Preliminary draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-05-01

    Wells called Deep Hydronest Wells will be installed at six locations at the Deaf Smith County Site to characterize hydraulic parameters in the geologic column between the top of the San Andres Formation and the base of Pennsylvanian System. Three hydronests will be drilled during early stages of site characterization to provide data for performance assessment modeling. Four wells are proposed for each of these 3 nests. Results of drilling, testing, and preliminary modeling will direct drilling and testing activities at the last 3 nests. Two wells are proposed at each of the last 3 nests for a total of 18 wells. The Salt Repository Project (SRP) Networks specify the schedule under which this program will operate. Drilling and hydrologic testing of the first Deep Hydronest will begin early in the Surface Investigation Program. Drilling and testing of the first three Deep Hydronests will require about 18 months. After 12 months of evaluating and analyzing data from the first three hydronests, the remaining three hydronests will be drilled during a 12-month period. The Technical Field Services Contractor is responsible for conducting the field program. Samples and data will be handled and reported in accordance with established SRP procedures. A quality assurance program will be used to assure that activities affecting quality are performed correctly and that the appropriate documentation is maintained. 36 refs., 20 figs., 6 tabs

  9. A Preliminary Analysis for SMART-ITL SBLOCA Tests using the MARS/KS Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yeon Sik; Ko, Yung Joo; Suh, Jae Seung

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a preliminary analysis was conducted for SMART-ITL SBLOCA tests using the MARS/KS Code. The results of this work are expected to be good guidelines for SBLOCA tests with the SMART-ITL, and used to understand the various thermal-hydraulic phenomena expected to occur in the integral-type reactor, SMART. An integral-effect test (IET) loop for SMART, SMART-ITL (or FESTA), has been designed using a volume scaling methodology. It was installed at KAERI and its commissioning tests were finished in 2012. Its height was preserved and its area and volume were scaled down to 1/49 compared with the prototype plant, SMART. The SMART-ITL consists of a primary system including a reactor pressure vessel with a pressurizer, four steam generators and four main coolant pumps, a secondary system, a safety system, and an auxiliary system. The objectives of IET using the SMART-ITL facility are to investigate the integral performance of the inter-connected components and possible thermal-hydraulic phenomena occurring in the SMART design, and to validate its safety for various design basis events (DBAs)

  10. [Impact of the Italian smoking ban and comparison with the evaluation of the Scottish ban].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorini, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    The Italian smoking ban entered into force on January 10th, 2005, and banned smoking from enclosed workplaces and hospitality premises (HPs), even though provided separated smoking areas. Actually, only 1-2%of HPs built these areas, while no figures are available on the prevalence of smoking rooms in workplaces other than HPs. Italians were more in favour of the law after the ban. In 2008 Italians were the Europeans most in favour of a national smoking ban (88%). Measurements of environmental nicotine and particulate matter with a diameter hospitality sector against the ban in 2004, no studies on impact of the ban on hospitality industry businesses were conducted in Italy. We used the conceptual model for the evaluation of the impact of smoke-free policies, proposed by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), to compare Italian and Scottish evaluations of the bans. The Scottish evaluation was planned some years before the implementation, and was based on a network of researchers of different disciplines. The quantification of decrease in second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure in the general population and in hospitality workers was one of the main objectives of the Scottish evaluation. The Italian evaluation devoted more attention to distal (reduction of hospital admissions) and incidental effects of the law (trend in smoking prevalence, cigarette consumption). Qualitative studies in bars, homes, and communities recording changes in attitudes on tobacco smoking after the introduction of the ban, were conducted only in Scotland. In Italy the main problem was to develop and fund a network of researchers involved on a shared evaluation plan.

  11. The neutral beam test facility cryopumping operation: preliminary analysis and design of the cryogenic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravil, B.; Henry, D.; Cordier, J.J.; Hemsworth, R.; Van Houtte, D.

    2004-01-01

    The ITER neutral beam heating and current drive system is to be equipped with a cryosorption cryopump made up of 12 panels connected in parallel, refrigerated by 4.5 K 0.4 MPa supercritical helium. The pump is submitted to a non homogeneous flux of H 2 or D 2 molecules, and the absorbed flux varies from 3 Pa.m -3 .s -1 to 35 Pa.m -3 .s -1 . In the frame of the 'ITER first injector and test facility CSU-EFDA task' (TW3-THHN-IITF1), the ITER reference cryo-system and cryo-plant designs have been assessed and compared to optimised designs devoted to the Neutral Beam Test Facility (NBTF). The 4.5 K cryo-panel, which has a mass of about 1000 kg, must be periodically regenerated up to 90 K and occasionally to 470 K. The cool-down time after regeneration depends strongly on the refrigeration capacity. Fast regeneration and cool-down of the cryo-panels are not considered a priority for the test facility operation, and an analysis of the consequences of a limited cold power refrigerator on the cooling down time has been carried out and will be discussed. This paper presents a preliminary evaluation of the NBTF cryo-plant and the associated process flow diagram. (authors)

  12. In situ vitrification: Preliminary results from the first large-scale radioactive test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buelt, J.L.; Westsik, J.H.

    1988-02-01

    The first large-scale radioactive test (LSRT) of In Situ Vitrification (ISV) has been completed. In Situ Vitrification is a process whereby joule heating immobilizes contaminated soil in place by converting it to a durable glass and crystalline waste form. The LSRT was conducted at an actual transuranic contaminated soil site on the Department of Energy's Hanford Site. The test had two objectives: (1) determine large-scale processing performance and (2) produce a waste form that can be fully evaluated as a potential technique for the final disposal of transuranic-contaminated soil sites at Hanford. This accomplishment has provided technical data to evaluate the ISV process for its potential in the final disposition of transuranic-contaminated soil sites at Hanford. Because of the test's successful completion, within a year technical data on the vitrified soil will be available to determine how well the process incorporates transuranics into the waste form and how well the form resists leaching of transuranics. Preliminary results available include retention of transuranics and other elements within the waste form during processing and the efficiency of the off-gas treatment system in removing contaminants from the gaseous effluents. 13 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs

  13. Design and preliminary testing of a Bottom-Mounted Second Shutdown Drive Mechanism for the KJRR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sanghaun; Lee, Jin Haeng; Yoo, Yeon-Sik, E-mail: yooys@kaeri.re.kr; Cho, Yeong-Garp; Lee, Hyokwang; Sun, Jongoh; Ryu, Jeong Soo

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • The basic design principle, features and characteristics of the BMSSDM for KJRR are described. • The current development status based on practical fabrications, performance tests, and evaluations is described. • We have verified that all of the BMSSDM components satisfied their design requirements. • All of the performance requirements are satisfied from the performance test results. • The endurance test results show there are no structural failures and the wear of the impact parts in the hydraulic cylinder assembly is negligible. - Abstract: The KiJang Research Reactor (KJRR) is now being designed and undergoing preliminary construction by the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). The driving parts of the Second Shutdown Drive Mechanism (SSDM) for the KJRR are located in a Reactivity Control Mechanism (RCM) room below the reactor pool bottom. In this paper, the design principle and concept of the Bottom-Mounted SSDM (BMSSDM) for the KJRR are introduced. From the experimental evaluations of the design, fabrication and performance, we verified that all of the BMSSDM components in the current design and development status satisfy their design requirements.

  14. Preliminary Results From a Heavily Instrumented Engine Ice Crystal Icing Test in a Ground Based Altitude Test Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegel, Ashlie B.; Oliver, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Preliminary results from the heavily instrumented ALF502R-5 engine test conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center Propulsion Systems Laboratory are discussed. The effects of ice crystal icing on a full scale engine is examined and documented. This same model engine, serial number LF01, was used during the inaugural icing test in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory facility. The uncommanded reduction of thrust (rollback) events experienced by this engine in flight were simulated in the facility. Limited instrumentation was used to detect icing on the LF01 engine. Metal temperatures on the exit guide vanes and outer shroud and the load measurement were the only indicators of ice formation. The current study features a similar engine, serial number LF11, which is instrumented to characterize the cloud entering the engine, detect/characterize ice accretion, and visualize the ice accretion in the region of interest. Data were acquired at key LF01 test points and additional points that explored: icing threshold regions, low altitude, high altitude, spinner heat effects, and the influence of varying the facility and engine parameters. For each condition of interest, data were obtained from some selected variations of ice particle median volumetric diameter, total water content, fan speed, and ambient temperature. For several cases the NASA in-house engine icing risk assessment code was used to find conditions that would lead to a rollback event. This study further helped NASA develop necessary icing diagnostic instrumentation, expand the capabilities of the Propulsion Systems Laboratory, and generate a dataset that will be used to develop and validate in-house icing prediction and risk mitigation computational tools. The ice accretion on the outer shroud region was acquired by internal video cameras. The heavily instrumented engine showed good repeatability of icing responses when compared to the key LF01 test points and during day-to-day operation. Other noticeable

  15. Results of the Preliminary Test in the 1/4-Scale RCCS of the PMR200 VHTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong-Hwan; Bae, Yoon-Yeong; Hong, Sung-Deok; Kim, Chan-Soo; Cho, Bong-Hyun; Kim, Min-Hwan [Nuclear Hydrogen Reactor Technology Development Dep., Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) is a key ex-vessel passive safety system that will ensure the safety of the PMR200, and its performance needs to be verified. For the difficulty of the full-scale test, a 1/4-scale RCCS facility, NACEF (Natural Cooling Experimental Facility), has been constructed at KAERI, and a shakedown test has been performed. A brief design and the preliminary test results of this facility are described. A 1/4-scale RCCS mockup of PMR200, NACEF, was constructed and tested preliminarily. The functioning of the facility worked quite well. Moreover, the preliminary test results show a fairly good agreement with past work except for the conductive heat transfer region in the riser bottom. After a remedy such as the installation of more precise flow meters and a more improved insulation, the test facility is likely to work well.

  16. Study of secondhand smoke levels pre and post implementation of the comprehensive smoking ban in Mumbai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshpande Aditi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This research was undertaken with the aim of assessing the indoor air quality in popular hospitality venues, as also to evaluate the effectiveness of the nationwide comprehensive public smoking ban. The analysis was split into two halves - baseline study taken up prior to implementation of the said ban on 2 nd October 2008, and the follow-up study after it came into effect. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five venues including five restaurants, fourteen resto-bars, two hookah (smoking water-pipe cafes and four pubs were selected using a mix of random, convenience and purposeful sampling. Particulate matter (PM 2.5 measurements at these venues were made using TSI SidePak AM510 Personal Aerosol Monitor. Results: The average PM 2.5 level in venues where smoking was permitted prior to implementation of ban was found to be 669.95 ΅g/m 3 in the baseline study. Post ban, the average PM 2.5 level in same test venues reduced to 240.8 ΅g/m 3 . The hookah cafes were an exception as the average PM 2.5 levels exceeded the permissible limits before as well as post ban. Conclusion: The baseline study showed that the hospitality venues had hazardous levels of PM 2.5 particles arising from second-hand smoke prior to smoking ban. These decreased by a maximum of 64% after the law took effect. A substantial improvement in air quality at these venues post implementation of the smoking ban indicated the effectiveness of the law.

  17. Preliminary test of an imaging probe for nuclear medicine using hybrid pixel detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolucci, E.; Maiorino, M.; Mettivier, G.; Montesi, M.C.; Russo, P.

    2002-01-01

    We are investigating the feasibility of an intraoperative imaging probe for lymphoscintigraphy with Tc-99m tracer, for sentinel node radioguided surgery, using the Medipix series of hybrid detectors coupled to a collimator. These detectors are pixelated semiconductor detectors bump-bonded to the Medipix1 photon counting read-out chip (64x64 pixel, 170 μm pitch) or to the Medipix2 chip (256x256 pixel, 55 μm pitch), developed by the European Medipix collaboration. The pixel detector we plan to use in the final version of the probe is a semi-insulating GaAs detector or a 1-2 mm thick CdZnTe detector. For the preliminary tests presented here, we used 300-μm thick silicon detectors, hybridized via bump-bonding to the Medipix1 chip. We used a tungsten parallel-hole collimator (7 mm thick, matrix array of 64x64 100 μm circular holes with 170 μm pitch), and a 22, 60 and 122 keV point-like (1 mm diameter) radioactive sources, placed at various distances from the detector. These tests were conducted in order to investigate the general feasibility of this imaging probe and its resolving power. Measurements show the high resolution but low efficiency performance of the detector-collimator set, which is able to image the 122 keV source with <1 mm FWHM resolution

  18. Test results with the Transrapid 06. System data from preliminary trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinrich, K; Mnich, P

    1987-10-01

    Following the takeover of the Transrapid maglev facility by MVP, in spite of remaining preparatory work and conversion of the support and guidance system on the basis of a new electronic generation, interesting system data could be obtained experimentally before the planned continuous trials phase. Although the full test track length is not yet available - it is at present only 20.5 km - more than 25,000 km have already been covered in almost 1,200 test runs. Some 200 of these were for the purpose of demonstrating the Transrapid technology to visting German and foreign experts. The system data obtained from the preliminary trails were positive. Any weak points noted were mainly site-specific and not maglev-specific, but in spite of generally satisfactory results there are still many individual aspects calling for improvement and optimation before the technology can be declared ready for service. Proceeding from the positive trend of the system data obtained at up to 355 km/h, it can be said that proof of serviceability of the Transrapid transport system at speeds of up to 400 km/h can be provided in the next two years. (orig.).

  19. In Situ Vitrification preliminary results from the first large-scale radioactive test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buelt, J.L.; Westsik, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    The first large-scale radioactive test (LSRT) of In Situ Vitrification (ISV) has been completed. In Situ Vitrification is a process whereby joule heating immobilizes contaminated soil in place by converting it to a durable glass and crystalline waste form. The LSRT was conducted at an actual transuranic contaminated soil site on the Department of Energy's Hanford Site. The test had two objectives: 1) determine large-scale processing performance and 2) produce a waste form that can be fully evaluated as a potential technique for the final disposal of transuranic-contaminated soil sites at Hanford. This accomplishment has provided technical data to evaluate the ISV process for its potential in the final disposition of transuranic-contaminated soil sites at Hanford. The LSRT was completed in June 1987 after 295 hours of operation and 460 MWh of electrical energy dissipated to the molten soil. This resulted in a minimum of a 450-t block of vitrified soil extending to a depth of 7.3m (24 ft). The primary contaminants vitrified during the demonstration were Pu and Am transuranics, but also included up to 26,000 ppm fluorides. Preliminary data show that their retention in the vitrified product exceeded predictions meaning that fewer contaminants needed to be removed from the gaseous effluents by the processing equipment. The gaseous effluents were contained and treated throughout the run; that is, no radioactive or hazardous chemical releases were detected

  20. Using a situational judgement test for selection into dental core training: a preliminary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowett, E; Patterson, F; Cousans, F; Elley, K

    2017-05-12

    Objective and setting This paper describes the evaluation of a pilot situational judgement test (SJT) for selection into UK Dental Core Training (DCT). The SJT's psychometric properties, group differences based on gender and ethnicity, and candidate reactions were assessed.Methods The SJT targets four non-academic attributes important for success in DCT. Data were collected alongside live selection processes from five Health Education England local teams in the UK (N = 386). Candidates completed the pilot SJT and an evaluation questionnaire to examine their reactions to the test.Results SJT scores were relatively normally distributed and showed acceptable levels of internal reliability (α = 0.68). Difficulty level and partial correlations between scenarios and SJT total score were in the expected ranges (64.61% to 90.03% and r = 0.06 to 0.41, respectively). No group differences were found for gender, and group differences between White and BME candidates were minimal. Most candidates perceived the SJT as relevant to the target role, appropriate and fair.Conclusions This study demonstrated the potential suitability of an SJT for use in DCT selection. Future research should replicate these preliminary findings in other cohorts, and assess the predictive validity of the SJT for predicting key training and practice-based outcomes.

  1. Preliminary Tests in the NACA Tank to Investigate the Fundamental Characteristics of Hydrofoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Kenneth E.; Land, Norman S.

    1940-01-01

    This preliminary investigation was made to study the hydrodynamic properties and general behavior of simple hydrofoils. Six 5- by 30-inch plain, rectangular hydrofoils were tested in the NACA tank at various speeds, angles of attack and depths below the water surface. Two of the hydrofoils had sections representing the sections of commonly used airfoils, one had a section similar to one developed Guidoni for use with hydrofoil-equipped seaplane floats, and three had sections designed to have constant chordwise pressure distributions at given values of the lift coefficient for the purpose of delaying the speed at which cavitation begins. The experimental results are presented as curves of the lift and drag coefficients plotted against speed for the various angles of attack and depths for which the hydrofoils were tested. A number of derived curves are included for the purpose of better comparing the characteristics of the hydrofoils and to show the effects of depth. Several representative photographs show the development of cavitation on the the upper surface of the hydrofoils. The results indicate that properly designed hydrofoil sections will have excellent characteristics and that the speed at which cavitation occurs may be delayed to an appreciable extent by the use of suitable sections.

  2. Preliminary failure modes and effects analysis on Korean HCCR TBS to be tested in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Mu-Young; Cho, Seungyon; Jin, Hyung Gon; Lee, Dong Won; Park, Yi-Hyun; Lee, Youngmin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Postulated initiating events are identified through failure modes and effects analysis on the current HCCR TBS design. • A set of postulated initiating events are selected for consideration of deterministic analysis. • Accident evolutions on the selected postualted initiating events are qualitatively described for deterministic analysis. - Abstract: Korean Helium cooled ceramic reflector (HCCR) Test blanket system (TBS), which comprises Test blanket module (TBM) and ancillary systems in various locations of ITER building, is operated at high temperature and pressure with decay heat. Therefore, safety is utmost concern in design process and it is required to demonstrate that the HCCR TBS is designed to comply with the safety requirements and guidelines of ITER. Due to complexity of the system with many interfaces with ITER, a systematic approach is necessary for safety analysis. This paper presents preliminary failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) study performed for the HCCR TBS. FMEA is a systematic methodology in which failure modes for components in the system and their consequences are studied from the bottom-up. Over eighty failure modes have been investigated on the HCCR TBS. The failure modes that have similar consequences are grouped as postulated initiating events (PIEs) and total seven reference accident scenarios are derived from FMEA study for deterministic accident analysis. Failure modes not covered here due to evolving design of the HCCR TBS and uncertainty in maintenance procedures will be studied further in near future.

  3. Preliminary failure modes and effects analysis on Korean HCCR TBS to be tested in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Mu-Young, E-mail: myahn74@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seungyon [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Hyung Gon; Lee, Dong Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yi-Hyun; Lee, Youngmin [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Postulated initiating events are identified through failure modes and effects analysis on the current HCCR TBS design. • A set of postulated initiating events are selected for consideration of deterministic analysis. • Accident evolutions on the selected postualted initiating events are qualitatively described for deterministic analysis. - Abstract: Korean Helium cooled ceramic reflector (HCCR) Test blanket system (TBS), which comprises Test blanket module (TBM) and ancillary systems in various locations of ITER building, is operated at high temperature and pressure with decay heat. Therefore, safety is utmost concern in design process and it is required to demonstrate that the HCCR TBS is designed to comply with the safety requirements and guidelines of ITER. Due to complexity of the system with many interfaces with ITER, a systematic approach is necessary for safety analysis. This paper presents preliminary failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) study performed for the HCCR TBS. FMEA is a systematic methodology in which failure modes for components in the system and their consequences are studied from the bottom-up. Over eighty failure modes have been investigated on the HCCR TBS. The failure modes that have similar consequences are grouped as postulated initiating events (PIEs) and total seven reference accident scenarios are derived from FMEA study for deterministic accident analysis. Failure modes not covered here due to evolving design of the HCCR TBS and uncertainty in maintenance procedures will be studied further in near future.

  4. Five-Kilometers Time Trial: Preliminary Validation of a Short Test for Cycling Performance Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Jose Luiz; Pereira, Gleber; Nakamura, Fabio Yuzo

    2015-09-01

    The five-kilometer time trial (TT5km) has been used to assess aerobic endurance performance without further investigation of its validity. This study aimed to perform a preliminary validation of the TT5km to rank well-trained cyclists based on aerobic endurance fitness and assess changes of the aerobic endurance performance. After the incremental test, 20 cyclists (age = 31.3 ± 7.9 years; body mass index = 22.7 ± 1.5 kg/m(2); maximal aerobic power = 360.5 ± 49.5 W) performed the TT5km twice, collecting performance (time to complete, absolute and relative power output, average speed) and physiological responses (heart rate and electromyography activity). The validation criteria were pacing strategy, absolute and relative reliability, validity, and sensitivity. Sensitivity index was obtained from the ratio between the smallest worthwhile change and typical error. The TT5km showed high absolute (coefficient of variation 0.95) reliability of performance variables, whereas it presented low reliability of physiological responses. The TT5km performance variables were highly correlated with the aerobic endurance indices obtained from incremental test (r > 0.70). These variables showed adequate sensitivity index (> 1). TT5km is a valid test to rank the aerobic endurance fitness of well-trained cyclists and to differentiate changes on aerobic endurance performance. Coaches can detect performance changes through either absolute (± 17.7 W) or relative power output (± 0.3 W.kg(-1)), the time to complete the test (± 13.4 s) and the average speed (± 1.0 km.h(-1)). Furthermore, TT5km performance can also be used to rank the athletes according to their aerobic endurance fitness.

  5. Is it time to ban alcohol advertising?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter

    2009-04-01

    Children and adolescents are particularly vulnerable to the harmful effects of alcohol, with heavy drinking risking impaired brain development and future alcohol dependence. Advertisements increase expectancies about alcohol, leading to a greater likelihood of drinking. A systematic review of 13 longitudinal studies of over 38,000 young people found convincing evidence of an impact of media exposure and alcohol advertising on subsequent alcohol use, including initiation of drinking and heavier drinking among existing drinkers. All European countries, with the exception of the UK, have a ban on one or more types of advertising. Since self-regulation is reported as failing to prevent marketing which has an impact on younger people, and since advertising commonly crosses country borders, there is an argument to approximate advertising rules across Europe banning alcohol advertising targeted at young people, a highly cost-effective measure to reduce harmful alcohol use, and one supported by European citizens and case law.

  6. Communicating contentious health policy: lessons from Ireland's workplace smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahy, Declan; Trench, Brian; Clancy, Luke

    2012-05-01

    The Irish workplace smoking ban has been described as possibly a tipping point for public health worldwide. This article presents the first analysis of the newspaper coverage of the ban over the duration of the policy formation process. It adds to previous studies by analyzing how health communication strategists engaged, over time, with a newsworthy topic, viewed as being culturally controversial. It analyzes a sample of media content (n = 1,154) and firsthand accounts from pro-ban campaigners and journalists (n = 10). The analysis shows that the ban was covered not primarily as a health issue: Economic, political, social, democratic, and technical aspects also received significant attention. It shows how coverage followed controversy and examines how pro-ban campaigners countered effectively the anti-ban communication efforts of influential social actors in the economic and political spheres. The analysis demonstrates that medical-political sources successfully defined the ban's issues as centrally concerned with public health.

  7. Japan. Human cloning ban allows some research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normile, D

    2000-12-08

    TOKYO--Japanese legislators last week approved a ban on human cloning that leaves room for the use of certain techniques in basic research. The action comes at the same time officials in two other countries--China and France--aired similar proposals that would prohibit so-called reproductive cloning while recognizing the possible importance of the technology in combating disease and improving human health.

  8. The hasty British ban on commercial surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahams, D

    1987-02-01

    While commercial surrogate parenting arrangements continue to flourish in the U.S., Britain has made it a criminal offense for third parties to benefit from surrogacy. Voluntary surrogacy, however, is still within the law. Banning commercial surrogacy while leaving voluntary surrogacy lawful seems neither logical nor fair. A more equitable solution would be to license stringently and control both commercial and nonprofit agencies to provide these services.

  9. Should Selecting Saviour Siblings be Banned?

    OpenAIRE

    Sheldon, Sally; Wilkinson, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    By using tissue typing in conjunction with preimplantation genetic diagnosis doctors are able to pick a human embryo for implantation which, if all goes well, will become a "saviour sibling", a brother or sister capable of donating life-saving tissue to an existing child. \\ud \\ud This paper addresses the question of whether this form of selection should be banned and concludes that it should not. Three main prohibitionist arguments are considered and found wanting: (a) the claim that saviour ...

  10. ILO to promote global asbestos ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Rory

    2006-01-01

    The International Labour Office (ILO) is to pursue a global ban on asbestos, the world's biggest ever industrial killer. The landmark decision came with the adoption of a resolution on 14 June 2006 at the ILO conference in Geneva and followed a high level union campaign. Rory O'Neill asked Jukka Takala, director of ILO's Safe Work program, what ILO will now do to help make the world asbestos-free.

  11. History of Asbestos Ban in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Kwan Wong

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available As millions of immigrants moved to Hong Kong (HK from China in the recent decades, large amount of residential housings were built in the early years and a substantial proportion of those buildings used asbestos-containing materials (ACMs. Since the number of new cases of ARDs diagnosed has increased year by year since 1990’s, the remarkable increase of incidences had drawn the attention of the public and most importantly the HK government. It became one of the trigger points leading to asbestos ban in HK history. Comparatively, non-governmental organizations (NGOs, labor unions and patients’ self-help organizations demonstrated a more aggressive and proactive attitude than the HK government and have played a key role in the development of asbestos banning policy in HK. After numerous petitions and meetings with the government representatives by those parties in the past decade, the HK government eventually changed its attitude and started to consider terminating the endless threat from asbestos by amending the policy, and the new clause of legislation for banning of all forms of asbestos was enacted on 4 April 2014. Other than the restriction of asbestos use, the compensation system about ARDs has also made some great moves by the effort of those parties as well. Based on the experience we learnt through the years, efforts from different stakeholders including patients’ self-help organizations, NGOs, legislative councilors, and media power are absolutely essential to the success of progression and development in today’s asbestos banning in HK.

  12. The effect of a smoking ban on hospitalization rates for cardiovascular and respiratory conditions in Prince Edward Island, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Gaudreau

    Full Text Available This is the first study to have examined the effect of smoking bans on hospitalizations in the Atlantic Canadian socio-economic, cultural and climatic context. On June 1, 2003 Prince Edward Island (PEI enacted a province-wide smoking ban in public places and workplaces. Changes in hospital admission rates for cardiovascular (acute myocardial infarction, angina, and stroke and respiratory (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma conditions were examined before and after the smoking ban.Crude annual and monthly admission rates for the above conditions were calculated from April 1, 1995 to December 31, 2008 in all PEI acute care hospitals. Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average time series models were used to test for changes in mean and trend of monthly admission rates for study conditions, control conditions and a control province after the comprehensive smoking ban. Age- and sex-based analyses were completed.The mean rate of acute myocardial infarctions was reduced by 5.92 cases per 100,000 person-months (P = 0.04 immediately after the smoking ban. The trend of monthly angina admissions in men was reduced by -0.44 cases per 100,000 person-months (P = 0.01 in the 67 months after the smoking ban. All other cardiovascular and respiratory admission changes were non-significant.A comprehensive smoking ban in PEI reduced the overall mean number of acute myocardial infarction admissions and the trend of angina hospital admissions.

  13. AGR-2 Irradiated Test Train Preliminary Inspection and Disassembly First Look

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploger, Scott [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Demkowciz, Paul [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Harp, Jason [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    The AGR 2 irradiation experiment began in June 2010 and was completed in October 2013. The test train was shipped to the Materials and Fuels Complex in July 2014 for post-irradiation examination (PIE). The first PIE activities included nondestructive examination of the test train, followed by disassembly of the test train and individual capsules and detailed inspection of the capsule contents, including the fuel compacts and their graphite fuel holders. Dimensional metrology was then performed on the compacts, graphite holders, and steel capsule shells. AGR 2 disassembly and metrology were performed with the same equipment used successfully on AGR 1 test train components. Gamma spectrometry of the intact test train gave a preliminary look at the condition of the interior components. No evidence of damage to compacts or graphite components was evident from the isotopic and gross gamma scans. Disassembly of the AGR 2 test train and its capsules was conducted rapidly and efficiently by employing techniques refined during the AGR 1 disassembly campaign. Only one major difficulty was encountered while separating the test train into capsules when thermocouples (of larger diameter than used in AGR 1) and gas lines jammed inside the through tubes of the upper capsules, which required new tooling for extraction. Disassembly of individual capsules was straightforward with only a few minor complications. On the whole, AGR 2 capsule structural components appeared less embrittled than their AGR 1 counterparts. Compacts from AGR 2 Capsules 2, 3, 5, and 6 were in very good condition upon removal. Only relatively minor damage or markings were visible using high resolution photographic inspection. Compact dimensional measurements indicated radial shrinkage between 0.8 to 1.7%, with the greatest shrinkage observed on Capsule 2 compacts that were irradiated at higher temperature. Length shrinkage ranged from 0.1 to 0.9%, with by far the lowest axial shrinkage on Capsule 3 compacts

  14. Banning banking in EU emissions trading?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleich, Joachim; Ehrhart, Karl-Martin; Hoppe, Christian; Seifert, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    Admitting banking in emissions trading systems reduces overall compliance costs by allowing for inter-temporal flexibility: cost savings can be traded over time. However, unless individual EU Member States (MS) decide differently, the transfer of unused allowances from the period of 2005-2007 into the first commitment period under the Kyoto Protocol, i.e. 2008-2012, will be prohibited. In this paper, we first explore the implications of such a ban on banking when initial emission targets are lenient. This analysis is based on a simulation which was recently carried out in Germany with companies and with a student control group. The findings suggest that a EU-wide ban on banking would lead to efficiency losses in addition to those losses which arise from the lack of inter-temporal flexibility. Second, we use simple game-theoretic considerations to argue that, under reasonable assumptions, such a EU-wide ban on banking will be the equilibrium outcome. Thus, to avoid a possible prisoners' dilemma, MS should have co-ordinated their banking decisions

  15. A closer look at the effect of preliminary goodness-of-fit testing for normality for the one-sample t-test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochon, Justine; Kieser, Meinhard

    2011-11-01

    Student's one-sample t-test is a commonly used method when inference about the population mean is made. As advocated in textbooks and articles, the assumption of normality is often checked by a preliminary goodness-of-fit (GOF) test. In a paper recently published by Schucany and Ng it was shown that, for the uniform distribution, screening of samples by a pretest for normality leads to a more conservative conditional Type I error rate than application of the one-sample t-test without preliminary GOF test. In contrast, for the exponential distribution, the conditional level is even more elevated than the Type I error rate of the t-test without pretest. We examine the reasons behind these characteristics. In a simulation study, samples drawn from the exponential, lognormal, uniform, Student's t-distribution with 2 degrees of freedom (t(2) ) and the standard normal distribution that had passed normality screening, as well as the ingredients of the test statistics calculated from these samples, are investigated. For non-normal distributions, we found that preliminary testing for normality may change the distribution of means and standard deviations of the selected samples as well as the correlation between them (if the underlying distribution is non-symmetric), thus leading to altered distributions of the resulting test statistics. It is shown that for skewed distributions the excess in Type I error rate may be even more pronounced when testing one-sided hypotheses. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  16. Preliminary Analysis of the Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT) with PROTEUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connaway, H. M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Lee, C. H. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-11-30

    The neutron transport code PROTEUS has been used to perform preliminary simulations of the Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT). TREAT is an experimental reactor designed for the testing of nuclear fuels and other materials under transient conditions. It operated from 1959 to 1994, when it was placed on non-operational standby. The restart of TREAT to support the U.S. Department of Energy’s resumption of transient testing is currently underway. Both single assembly and assembly-homogenized full core models have been evaluated. Simulations were performed using a historic set of WIMS-ANL-generated cross-sections as well as a new set of Serpent-generated cross-sections. To support this work, further analyses were also performed using additional codes in order to investigate particular aspects of TREAT modeling. DIF3D and the Monte-Carlo codes MCNP and Serpent were utilized in these studies. MCNP and Serpent were used to evaluate the effect of geometry homogenization on the simulation results and to support code-to-code comparisons. New meshes for the PROTEUS simulations were created using the CUBIT toolkit, with additional meshes generated via conversion of selected DIF3D models to support code-to-code verifications. All current analyses have focused on code-to-code verifications, with additional verification and validation studies planned. The analysis of TREAT with PROTEUS-SN is an ongoing project. This report documents the studies that have been performed thus far, and highlights key challenges to address in future work.

  17. What would menthol smokers do if menthol in cigarettes were banned? Behavioral intentions and simulated demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Richard J; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Carter, Lawrence P; Cummings, K Michael

    2012-07-01

      The US Food and Drug Administration must consider whether to ban the use of menthol in cigarettes. This study examines how current smokers might respond to such a ban on menthol cigarettes.   Convenience sample of adolescent and adult smokers recruited from an online survey panel.   United States, 2010.   A total of 471 adolescent and adult current cigarette smokers.   Respondents were asked a series of questions about how they might react if menthol cigarettes were banned. In addition, participants completed a simulation purchase task to estimate the demand for menthol and non-menthol cigarettes across a range of prices.   Overall, 36.1% of respondents said they always (18.9%) or usually (17.2%) smoked menthol cigarettes. When asked how they might respond to a ban on menthol cigarettes, 35% of current menthol smokers said they would stop smoking, and 25% said they would 'find a way to buy a menthol brand'. Those who reported they might quit tended to have greater current intentions to quit [odds ratio (OR) = 4.47], while those who reported that they might seek illicit menthol cigarettes were far less likely to report current intentions to quit (OR = 0.06). Estimates for demand elasticity for preferred cigarette type were similar for menthol (α = 0.0051) and non-menthol (α = 0.0049) smokers. Demand elasticity and peak consumption were related to usual cigarette type and cigarettes smoked per day, but did not appear to differ by race, gender or age.   Preliminary evidence suggests that a significant minority of smokers of menthol cigarettes in the United States would try to stop smoking altogether if such cigarettes were banned. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. Augmented Reality Cubes for Cognitive Gaming: Preliminary Usability and Game Experience Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costas Boletsis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Early detection is important in dementia care; however, cognitive impairment is still under-recognised and under-diagnosed. Cognitive screening and training are two important preventative treatments, which can lead to early detection of cognitive decline. In this work, the “Cognitive Augmented Reality Cubes” (CogARC system is presented, i.e. a serious game for cognitive training and screening, utilising an interaction technique based on Augmented Reality and the manipulation of tangible, physical objects (cubes. The game is a collection of cognitive mini-games of preventative nature and is, primarily, targeting elderly players (≥60 years old. A preliminary testing was conducted focusing on the game experience that CogARC offers (utilising the In-Game Experience Questionnaire, the usability of the system (using the System Usability Scale, and the specific user observations and remarks, as documented by open, semi-structured interviews.  Overall, CogARC demonstrated satisfying positive responses, however, the negative reactions indicated that there are specific problems with aspects of the interaction technique and a number of mini-games. The open interview shed more light on the specific issues of each mini-game and further interpretation of user interactions. The current study managed to provide interesting insights into the game design elements, integration of Augmented Reality, tangible interaction of the system, and on how elderly players perceive and use those interaction components. 

  19. Preliminary tests in skull pediatric phantom for dosimetry in computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Elaine Wirney; Potiens, Maria da Penha de A.

    2014-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is one of the techniques in the field of radiology with striking technological advance in recent years. One reason for this was the increased number of channels associated with the increased power of the X-ray tube. These conditions allowed the equipment high speed in the acquisition of the cuts, reducing the patient exposure time essential characteristic for the increase of its use in pediatric patients. In this context, were developed a new pediatric skull simulator to analyze the results of measurements performed in laboratory and clinic beams with the objective of creation and use of diagnostic reference levels observing risks stochastic effects and assessing the reduction of absorbed doses in patients undergoing growing. Preliminary tests performed in clinical beams showed C w values: 2.525 ± 0.212 mGy for the developed simulator quoted and 3.362 ± 0.282 mGy for a simulator developed by IPEN called standard, both being between uncertainty values of 8.4% and 14.4% suggested by TRS number 457

  20. Preliminary experimental results of tungsten wire-array Z-pinches on primary test stand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xian-Bin; Zhou, Shao-Tong; Dan, Jia-Kun; Ren, Xiao-Dong, E-mail: amosrxd@163.com; Wang, Kun-Lun; Zhang, Si-Qun; Li, Jing; Xu, Qiang; Cai, Hong-Chun; Duan, Shu-Chao; Ouyang, Kai; Chen, Guang-Hua; Ji, Ce; Wei, Bing; Feng, Shu-Ping; Wang, Meng; Xie, Wei-Ping; Deng, Jian-Jun [Key Laboratory of Pulsed Power, Institute of Fluid Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, P.O. Box 919-108, Mianyang, Sichuan 621999 (China); Zhou, Xiu-Wen; Yang, Yi [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, P.O. Box 919-987, Mianyang, Sichuan 621999 (China)

    2015-07-15

    The Primary Test Stand (PTS) developed at the China Academy of Engineering Physics is a 20 TW pulsed power driver, which can deliver a ∼10 MA, 70 ns rise-time (10%–90%) current to a short-circuit load and has important applications in Z-pinch driven inertial confinement fusion and high energy density physics. Preliminary results of tungsten wire-array Z-pinch experiments on PTS are presented. The load geometries investigated include 15-mm-tall cylindrical single and nested arrays with diameter ranging from 13 mm to 30 mm, consisting of 132–300 tungsten wires with 5–10 μm in diameter. Multiple diagnostics were fielded to characterize the x-ray radiation from wire-array Z pinches. The x-ray peak power (∼50 TW) and total radiated energy (∼500 kJ) were obtained from a single 20-mm-diam array with 80-ns stagnation time. The highest x-ray peak power up to 80 TW with 2.4 ns FWHM was achieved by using a nested array with 20-mm outer diameter, and the total x-ray energy from the nested array is comparable to that of single array. Implosion velocity estimated from the time-resolved image measurement exceeds 30 cm/μs. The detailed experimental results and other findings are presented and discussed.

  1. Preliminary Report: DESiGN and Test Result of KSR-3 Rocket Magnetometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo-Min Kim

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The solar wind contributes to the formation of unique space environment called the Earth's magnetosphere by various interactions with the Earth's magnetic field. Thus the solar-terrestrial environment affects the Earth's magnetic field, which can be observed with an instrument for the magnetic field measurement, the magnetometer usually mounted on the rocket and the satellite and based on the ground observatory. The magnetometer is a useful instrument for the spacecraft attitude control as well as the Earth's magnetic field measurements for a scientific purpose. In this paper, we present the preliminary design and test results of the two onboard magnetometers of KARI's (Korea Aerospace Research Institute sounding rocket, KSR-3, which will be launched four times during the period of 2001-02. The KSR-3 magnetometers consist of the fluxgate magnetometer, MAG/AIM (Attitude Information Magnetometer for acquiring the rocket flight attitude information, and of the search-coil magnetometer, MAG/SIM (Scientific Investigation Magnetometer for the observation of the Earth's magnetic field fluctuations. With the MAG/AIM, the 3-axis attitude information can be acquired by the comparison of the resulting dc magnetic vector field with the IGRF (International Geomagnetic Reference Field. The Earth's magnetic field fluctuations ranging from 10 to 1,000 Hz can also be observed with the MAG/SIM measurement.

  2. Soda-Anthraquinone Durian (Durio Zibethinus Murr.) Rind Linerboard and Corrugated Medium Paper: A Preliminary Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizal Masrol, Shaiful; Irwan Ibrahim, Mohd Halim; Adnan, Sharmiza; Mubarak Sa'adon, Amir; Ika Sukarno, Khairil; Fadrol Hisham Yusoff, Mohd

    2017-08-01

    A preliminary test was conducted to investigate the characteristics of linerboard and corrugated medium paper made from durian rind waste. Naturally dried durian rinds were pulped according to Soda-Anthraquinone (Soda-AQ) pulping process with a condition of 20% active alkali, 0.1% AQ, 7:1 liquor to material ratio, 120 minutes cooking time and 170°C cooking temperature. The linerboard and corrugated medium paper with a basis weight of 120 gsm were prepared and evaluated according to Malaysian International Organization for Standardization (MS ISO) and Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry (TAPPI). The results indicate that the characteristics of durian rind linerboard are comparable with other wood or non-wood based paper and current commercial paper. However, low CMT value for corrugated medium and water absorptiveness quality for linerboard could be improved in future. Based on the bulk density (0.672 g/cm3), burst index (3.12 kPa.m2/g) and RCT (2.00 N.m2/g), the durian rind has shown a good potential and suitable as an alternative raw material source for linerboard industry.

  3. Innovative thin silicon detectors for monitoring of therapeutic proton beams: preliminary beam tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignati, A.; Monaco, V.; Attili, A.; Cartiglia, N.; Donetti, M.; Fadavi Mazinani, M.; Fausti, F.; Ferrero, M.; Giordanengo, S.; Hammad Ali, O.; Mandurrino, M.; Manganaro, L.; Mazza, G.; Sacchi, R.; Sola, V.; Staiano, A.; Cirio, R.; Boscardin, M.; Paternoster, G.; Ficorella, F.

    2017-12-01

    To fully exploit the physics potentials of particle therapy in delivering dose with high accuracy and selectivity, charged particle therapy needs further improvement. To this scope, a multidisciplinary project (MoVeIT) of the Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN) aims at translating research in charged particle therapy into clinical outcome. New models in the treatment planning system are being developed and validated, using dedicated devices for beam characterization and monitoring in radiobiological and clinical irradiations. Innovative silicon detectors with internal gain layer (LGAD) represent a promising option, overcoming the limits of currently used ionization chambers. Two devices are being developed: one to directly count individual protons at high rates, exploiting the large signal-to-noise ratio and fast collection time in small thicknesses (1 ns in 50 μm) of LGADs, the second to measure the beam energy with time-of-flight techniques, using LGADs optimized for excellent time resolutions (Ultra Fast Silicon Detectors, UFSDs). The preliminary results of first beam tests with therapeutic beam will be presented and discussed.

  4. A soft wearable robot for the shoulder: Design, characterization, and preliminary testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Ciaran T; Phipps, Nathan S; Cappello, Leonardo; Paganoni, Sabrina; Walsh, Conor J

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we present a soft wearable robot for the shoulder which has the potential to assist individuals suffering from a range of neuromuscular conditions affecting the shoulder to perform activities of daily living. This wearable robot combines two types of soft textile pneumatic actuators which were custom developed for this particular application to support the upper arm through shoulder abduction and horizontal flexion/extension. The advantage of a textile-based approach is that the robot can be lightweight, low-profile, comfortable and non-restrictive to the wearer, and easy to don like an item of clothing. The actuator's ability to fold flat when not in use allows the robot to be almost invisible under clothing, potentially allowing the user to avoid any stigma associated with using assistive devices in public. To abduct the arm, a textilebased pneumatic actuator was developed to fit within the axilla to push the arm upwards, while a pair of smaller actuators pivot the abduction actuator to allow for horizontal extension and flexion. The individual textile actuators were experimentally evaluated before being integrated into a wearable garment. Human subject testing was performed to evaluate the ability of the robot to assist the arm by monitoring changes in biological muscle activity when comparing the robot powered on and off. Preliminary results show large reductions in muscular effort in targeted muscles, demonstrating the feasibility and promise of such a soft wearable robot for the shoulder.

  5. Preliminary Flight Results of the Microelectronics and Photonics Test Bed: NASA DR1773 Fiber Optic Data Bus Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, George L.; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Marshall, Cheryl; Barth, Janet; Seidleck, Christina; Marshall, Paul

    1998-01-01

    NASA Goddard Spare Flight Center's (GSFC) Dual Rate 1773 (DR1773) Experiment on the Microelectronic and Photonic Test Bed (MPTB) has provided valuable information on the performance of the AS 1773 fiber optic data bus in the space radiation environment. Correlation of preliminary experiment data to ground based radiation test results show the AS 1773 bus is employable in future spacecraft applications requiring radiation tolerant communication links.

  6. Experimental study of sodium droplet burning in free fall. Evaluation of preliminary test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Shinya; Ara, Kuniaki

    1998-08-01

    To study a sodium leak and combustion behavior phenomenologically and to construct the mechanistic evaluation method, an experimental series of a sodium droplet burning in free fall is under way. In this study, the accuracy of measurement technique used in the preliminary test was assessed and the modified technique was proposed for the next test series. Analytical study of the test results was also conducted to deduce dominant parameters and important measurement items which would play an important role in the droplet combustion behavior. The results and conclusions are as follows: (1) Assessment of measurement accuracy and modified technique proposed for the next test series. a) Control accuracy of sodium supply system using β-alumina solid electrolyte was sufficient for generation of objective size of single droplet. However, it is necessary to calibrate the correlation between the quantity of electric charge for sodium supply system and that of supplied sodium. b) Measurement accuracy of falling velocity using high-speed video was ±0.33 m/s at an upper part and ±0.48 m/s at a lower part of the measurement. To reduce the error, a high-speed stroboscopic method is recommended to measure the falling velocity of droplet. (2) Results of analytical study and deduced dominant parameters and important measurement items. a) The falling behavior of a burning droplet was described solving the equation of free falling motion for a rigid sphere. In the case of higher falling height, it is necessary to study the burning effects on the falling behavior. b) The mass burned of a falling droplet was calculated using the combustion model according to 'D 2 ' law during the full burning phase. It is necessary to study the dominant chemical reaction in the burning flame because the mass burned depends on the composition of the reaction products. c) The mass burned was calculated using surface oxidation model for preignition phase together with above model. However, it is

  7. Scintigraphic test of gastric emptying and motility: preliminary results in patients with chronic gastritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausmann, T. [Abt. Nuklearmedizin und Spezielle Biophysik, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany); Mueller-Schauenburg, W. [Abt. Nuklearmedizin, Univ. Tuebingen (Germany); Goeke, M. [Abt. Gastroenterologie und Hepatologie, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany); Luebeck, M. [Abt. Nuklearmedizin, Univ.-Krankenhaus Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Gratz, K.F. [Abt. Nuklearmedizin und Spezielle Biophysik, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany); Meier, P. [Abt. Gastroenterologie und Hepatologie, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany); Manns, M. [Abt. Gastroenterologie und Hepatologie, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany); Hundeshagen, H. [Abt. Nuklearmedizin und Spezielle Biophysik, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany)

    1995-11-01

    To record gastric peristalsis using a conventional scintigraphic gastric emptying test the frame rate was increased to 1 frame per 3 s at 10, 30, and 50 min postprandially. The gastric contraction frequency was obtained from the first harmonic of a Fourier transform of a gastric region of interest (ROI) curve. The propagation of gastric contractions was better revealed from computed functional images of the phase and amplitude distribution as compared with the multiple scintigraphic images. The maximal count-rate changes per pixel were calculated as an estimate of the most prominent regional contractile activity of the gastric wall. Among 12 patients with chronic gastritis the group with more severe dyspeptic complaints (n = 6) had significantly higher count-rate changes per pixel when compared with the group with minor complaints (20.0, 21.1 and 14.2 vs 12.9, 12.0, and 10.4 counts/pixel X s at 10, 30, and 50 min. respectively; p < 0.05). The mean half-times of gastric emptying (61, SD 11 vs 54, SD 13 min) and the mean gastric contraction frequencies (2.99, SD 0.19; 3.09, SD 0.33; 3.07, SD 0.10 vs 3.15, SD 0.15; 3.17, SD 0.13; 3.23, SD 0.20 cycles/min at 10, 30, and 50 min, respectively) did not show significant differences between both groups. Our preliminary results agree with the hypothesis of the occurrence of more powerful, nonexpulsive gastric-wall contractions in patients with more severe dyspeptic complaints. Hence, additional quantification of gastric motility allowed a more detailed evaluation of gastric-motor-activity disorders that were for so long not accessible to conventional gastric-emptying tests. (orig.)

  8. Scintigraphic test of gastric emptying and motility: preliminary results in patients with chronic gastritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausmann, T.; Mueller-Schauenburg, W.; Goeke, M.; Luebeck, M.; Gratz, K.F.; Meier, P.; Manns, M.; Hundeshagen, H.

    1995-01-01

    To record gastric peristalsis using a conventional scintigraphic gastric emptying test the frame rate was increased to 1 frame per 3 s at 10, 30, and 50 min postprandially. The gastric contraction frequency was obtained from the first harmonic of a Fourier transform of a gastric region of interest (ROI) curve. The propagation of gastric contractions was better revealed from computed functional images of the phase and amplitude distribution as compared with the multiple scintigraphic images. The maximal count-rate changes per pixel were calculated as an estimate of the most prominent regional contractile activity of the gastric wall. Among 12 patients with chronic gastritis the group with more severe dyspeptic complaints (n = 6) had significantly higher count-rate changes per pixel when compared with the group with minor complaints (20.0, 21.1 and 14.2 vs 12.9, 12.0, and 10.4 counts/pixel X s at 10, 30, and 50 min. respectively; p < 0.05). The mean half-times of gastric emptying (61, SD 11 vs 54, SD 13 min) and the mean gastric contraction frequencies (2.99, SD 0.19; 3.09, SD 0.33; 3.07, SD 0.10 vs 3.15, SD 0.15; 3.17, SD 0.13; 3.23, SD 0.20 cycles/min at 10, 30, and 50 min, respectively) did not show significant differences between both groups. Our preliminary results agree with the hypothesis of the occurrence of more powerful, nonexpulsive gastric-wall contractions in patients with more severe dyspeptic complaints. Hence, additional quantification of gastric motility allowed a more detailed evaluation of gastric-motor-activity disorders that were for so long not accessible to conventional gastric-emptying tests. (orig.)

  9. Preliminary development of an advanced modular pressure relief cushion: Testing and user evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeto, Tyler; Mitchell, Steven J; Bogie, Kath M

    2018-02-01

    Effective pressure relief cushions are identified as a core assistive technology need by the World Health Organization Global Cooperation on Assistive Technology. High quality affordable wheelchair cushions could provide effective pressure relief for many individuals with limited access to advanced assistive technology. Value driven engineering (VdE) principles were employed to develop a prototype modular cushion. Low cost dynamically responsive gel balls were arranged in a close packed array and seated in bilayer foam for containment and support. Two modular cushions, one with high compliance balls and one with moderate compliance balls were compared with High Profile and Low Profile Roho ® and Jay ® Medical 2 cushions. ISO 16480-2 biomechanical standardized tests were applied to assess cushion performance. A preliminary materials cost analysis was carried out. A prototype modular cushion was evaluated by 12 participants who reported satisfaction using a questionnaire based on the Quebec User Evaluation of Satisfaction with Assistive Technology (QUEST 2.0) instrument. Overall the modular cushions performed better than, or on par with, the most widely prescribed commercially available cushions under ISO 16480-2 testing. Users rated the modular cushion highly for overall appearance, size and dimensions, comfort, safety, stability, ease of adjustment and general ease of use. Cost-analysis indicated that every modular cushion component a could be replaced several times and still maintain cost-efficacy over the complete cushion lifecycle. A VdE modular cushion has the potential provide effective pressure relief for many users at a low lifetime cost. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Epistemic Dependence and the EU Seal Ban Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Christian Blichner

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available On September 2009 the European Union (EU adopted a regulation banning the import of seal products into the EU or placing seal products on the EU market. The European Parliament was the main driving force behind the regulation and the EU has been criticised by affected countries outside the EU for not basing this decision on the available expert knowledge. The questions asked are how, given epistemic dependence, non-experts may challenge an expert based policy proposal. Can non-experts hold experts accountable, and if so in what way? Three main tests and ten subtests of expert knowledge are proposed and these tests are then used to assess whether the European Parliament did in fact argue in a way consistent with available expert knowledge in amending the Commission proposal for a regulation.

  11. Preliminary test of cigarette nicotine discrimination threshold in non-dependent versus dependent smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Kenneth A; Kunkle, Nicole; Karelitz, Joshua L; Perkins, K A; Kunkle, N; Karelitz, J L

    2017-06-01

    Despite its potential for understanding tobacco dependence, behavioral discrimination of nicotine via smoking has not been formally examined as a function of nicotine dependence level. Spectrum research cigarettes were used to compare non-dependent with dependent smokers on the lowest content of nicotine they could discriminate (i.e., "threshold"). Dependent (n=21; 16M, 5F) or non-dependent (n=7; 4M, 3F) smokers were tested on ability to discriminate between cigarettes with nicotine contents of 17, 11, 5, 2, and 1mg/g, one per session, from an "ultra-low" cigarette with 0.4mg/g (all had 9-10mg "tar"). All abstained from smoking overnight prior to sessions, and number of sessions was determined by the lowest nicotine content they could reliably discriminate from the ultra-low on >80% of trials (i.e., ≥5 of 6). Subjective perceptions and cigarette choice behavior were also assessed and related to discrimination behavior. Discrimination thresholds (and most perceptions) did not differ between dependent and non-dependent smokers, with median thresholds of 11mg/g for both subgroups. Yet, "liking" and puff choice for threshold cigarettes were greater in dependent but not non-dependent smokers, while cigarettes with nicotine contents below threshold did not support "liking" or choice in both groups. In sum, this preliminary study suggests threshold for discriminating nicotine via smoking may not vary by dependence level, and further study is needed to confirm that cigarettes unable to be discriminated are also not reinforcing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Can a smoking ban save your heart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzonna, Fabrizio; Salari, Paola

    2018-06-04

    This paper evaluates the causal effect of environmental tobacco exposure on health by exploiting the time and geographical variation in public-place smoking bans implemented in Switzerland between 2007 and 2011. We use administrative data on hospitalizations for acute myocardial infarction, which allow to measure the short-run effects of the policy on an objective metric of health. We show that the incidence of acute myocardial infarction decreases by approximately 8% immediately after implementation of the law with large heterogeneity across regions. Our results indicate that the policy was effective in reducing the negative externality of smoking with potential spillovers on health inequality. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Change in indoor particle levels after a smoking ban in Minnesota bars and restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohac, David L; Hewett, Martha J; Kapphahn, Kristopher I; Grimsrud, David T; Apte, Michael G; Gundel, Lara A

    2010-12-01

    Smoking bans in bars and restaurants have been shown to improve worker health and reduce hospital admissions for acute myocardial infarction. Several studies have also reported improved indoor air quality, although these studies generally used single visits before and after a ban for a convenience sample of venues. The primary objective of this study was to provide detailed time-of-day and day-of-week secondhand smoke-exposure data for representative bars and restaurants in Minnesota. This study improved on previous approaches by using a statistically representative sample of three venue types (drinking places, limited-service restaurants, and full-service restaurants), conducting repeat visits to the same venue prior to the ban, and matching the day of week and time of day for the before- and after-ban monitoring. The repeat visits included laser photometer fine particulate (PM₂.₅) concentration measurements, lit cigarette counts, and customer counts for 19 drinking places, eight limited-service restaurants, and 35 full-service restaurants in the Minneapolis/St. Paul metropolitan area. The more rigorous design of this study provides improved confidence in the findings and reduces the likelihood of systematic bias. The median reduction in PM₂.₅ was greater than 95% for all three venue types. Examination of data from repeated visits shows that making only one pre-ban visit to each venue would greatly increase the range of computed percentage reductions and lower the statistical power of pre-post tests. Variations in PM₂.₅ concentrations were found based on time of day and day of week when monitoring occurred. These comprehensive measurements confirm that smoking bans provide significant reductions in SHS constituents, protecting customers and workers from PM₂.₅ in bars and restaurants. Copyright © 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  14. Holocene geologic slip rate for the Banning strand of the southern San Andreas Fault, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Peter O.; Behr, Whitney M.; Rood, Dylan; Sharp, Warren D.; Rockwell, Thomas; Kendrick, Katherine J.; Salin, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Northwest directed slip from the southern San Andreas Fault is transferred to the Mission Creek, Banning, and Garnet Hill fault strands in the northwestern Coachella Valley. How slip is partitioned between these three faults is critical to southern California seismic hazard estimates but is poorly understood. In this paper, we report the first slip rate measured for the Banning fault strand. We constrain the depositional age of an alluvial fan offset 25 ± 5 m from its source by the Banning strand to between 5.1 ± 0.4 ka (95% confidence interval (CI)) and 6.4 + 3.7/−2.1 ka (95% CI) using U-series dating of pedogenic carbonate clast coatings and 10Be cosmogenic nuclide exposure dating of surface clasts. We calculate a Holocene geologic slip rate for the Banning strand of 3.9 + 2.3/−1.6 mm/yr (median, 95% CI) to 4.9 + 1.0/−0.9 mm/yr (median, 95% CI). This rate represents only 25–35% of the total slip accommodated by this section of the southern San Andreas Fault, suggesting a model in which slip is less concentrated on the Banning strand than previously thought. In rejecting the possibility that the Banning strand is the dominant structure, our results highlight an even greater need for slip rate and paleoseismic measurements along faults in the northwestern Coachella Valley in order to test the validity of current earthquake hazard models. In addition, our comparison of ages measured with U-series and 10Be exposure dating demonstrates the importance of using multiple geochronometers when estimating the depositional age of alluvial landforms.

  15. Burqa Ban, Freedom of Religion and ‘Living Together’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2015-01-01

    In the summer of 2014, the European Court of Human Rights ruled that the French 2010 law banning face-covering clothing in public spaces, the so-called burqa ban, did not violate the right to freedom of religion. Due to the ‘wide margin of appreciation’, the Court deemed the ban proportionate...... to the French state’s legitimate aim with the ban of preserving the conditions of ‘living together’. The paper analyses and provides an internal criticism of the Court’s justification for this judgement focusing on the aim of living together and the right to freedom of religion. The Court’s justification...

  16. Equity Options During the Shorting Ban of 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusret Cakici

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Securities and Exchange Commission’s 2008 emergency order introduced a shorting ban of some 800 financials traded in the US. This paper provides an empirical analysis of the options market around the ban period. Using transaction level data from OPRA (The Options Price Reporting Authority, we study the options volume, spreads, pricing measures and option trade volume informativeness during the ban. We also consider the put–call parity relationship. While mostly statistically significant, economic magnitudes of our results suggest that the impact of the ban on the equity options market was likely not as dramatic as initially thought.

  17. Effect of British hunting ban on fox numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Philip J; Harris, Stephen; Webbon, Charlotte C

    2002-09-05

    Pressure to ban the hunting of foxes with hounds in Britain has fuelled debate about its contribution to the control of fox populations. We took advantage of a nationwide one-year ban on fox-hunting during the outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in 2001 to examine this issue and found that the ban had no measurable impact on fox numbers in randomly selected areas. Our results argue against suggestions that fox populations would increase markedly in the event of a permanent ban on hunting.

  18. Patient empowerment in long-term conditions: development and preliminary testing of a new measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Patient empowerment is viewed by policy makers and health care practitioners as a mechanism to help patients with long-term conditions better manage their health and achieve better outcomes. However, assessing the role of empowerment is dependent on effective measures of empowerment. Although many measures of empowerment exist, no measure has been developed specifically for patients with long-term conditions in the primary care setting. This study presents preliminary data on the development and validation of such a measure. Methods We conducted two empirical studies. Study one was an interview study to understand empowerment from the perspective of patients living with long-term conditions. Qualitative analysis identified dimensions of empowerment, and the qualitative data were used to generate items relating to these dimensions. Study two was a cross-sectional postal study involving patients with different types of long-term conditions recruited from general practices. The survey was conducted to test and validate our new measure of empowerment. Factor analysis and regression were performed to test scale structure, internal consistency and construct validity. Results Sixteen predominately elderly patients with different types of long-term conditions described empowerment in terms of 5 dimensions (identity, knowledge and understanding, personal control, personal decision-making, and enabling other patients). One hundred and ninety seven survey responses were received from mainly older white females, with relatively low levels of formal education, with the majority retired from paid work. Almost half of the sample reported cardiovascular, joint or diabetes long-term conditions. Factor analysis identified a three factor solution (positive attitude and sense of control, knowledge and confidence in decision making and enabling others), although the structure lacked clarity. A total empowerment score across all items showed acceptable levels of internal

  19. Efficient preliminary floating offshore wind turbine design and testing methodologies and application to a concrete spar design

    OpenAIRE

    Matha, Denis; Sandner, Frank; Molins i Borrell, Climent; Campos Hortigüela, Alexis; Cheng, Po Wen

    2015-01-01

    The current key challenge in the floating offshore wind turbine industry and research is on designing economic floating systems that can compete with fixed-bottom offshore turbines in terms of levelized cost of energy. The preliminary platform design, as well as early experimental design assessments, are critical elements in the overall design process. In this contribution, a brief review of current floating offshore wind turbine platform pre-design and scaled testing methodologies is provide...

  20. Preliminary results of ecotoxicological assessment of an Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) passive treatment system testing water quality of depurated lixiviates

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Sarmiento, Aguasanta; Bonnail, Estefanía; Nieto Liñán, José Miguel; Valls Casillas, Tomás Ángel del

    2017-01-01

    The current work reports on the preliminary results of a toxicity test using screening experiments to check the efficiency of an innovative passive treatment plant designed for acid mine drainage purification. Bioassays took place with water samples before and after the treatment system and in the river, once treated water is discharged. Due to the high toxicity of the water collected at the mouth of the mine (before the treatment plant), the bioassay was designed and developed with respect t...

  1. Preliminary test results from a telescope of Hughes pixel arrays at FNAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jernigan, J.G.; Arens, J.; Vezie, D.; Collins, T.; Krider, J.; Skubic, P.

    1992-09-01

    In December of 1991 three silicon hybrid pixel detectors each having 2.56 x 2.56 pixels 30 μm square, made by the Hughes Aircraft Company, were placed in a high energy muon beam at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. Straight tracks were recorded in these detectors at angles to the normal to the plane of the silicon ranging from 0 to 45 degrees. In this note, preliminary results are presented on the straight through tracks, i.e., those passing through the telescope at normal incidence. Pulse height data, signal-to-noise data, and preliminary straight line fits to the data resulting in residual distributions are presented. Preliminary calculations show spatial resolution of less than 5 μm in two dimensions

  2. Are bans on kidney sales unjustifiably paternalistic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmqvist, Erik

    2014-03-01

    This paper challenges the view that bans on kidney sales are unjustifiably paternalistic, that is, that they unduly deny people the freedom to make decisions about their own bodies in order to protect them from harm. I argue that not even principled anti-paternalists need to reject such bans. This is because their rationale is not hard paternalism, which anti-paternalists repudiate, but soft paternalism, which they in principle accept. More precisely, I suggest that their rationale is what Franklin Miller and Alan Wertheimer call 'group soft paternalism'. Group soft paternalistic policies restrict the freedom of autonomous individuals, not for their own good (hard paternalism), but as an unavoidable consequence of seeking to protect other, non-autonomous individuals from harms that they have not voluntarily chosen (soft paternalism). Group soft paternalism supports prohibiting kidney sales on three conditions: (1) that such sales are potentially harmful to vendors, (2) that many vendors would suffer impaired autonomy, and (3) that distinguishing between autonomous and non-autonomous vendors and interfering only with the latter is unfeasible. I provide reasons for thinking that these conditions will often hold. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Preliminary results of hydrologic testing of the Umtanum Basalt Fracture Zone at borehole RRL-2 (3,781 to 3,827 ft)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strait, S.R.; Spane, F.A. Jr.

    1983-02-01

    This report presents preliminary results and description of hydrologic test activities for the Umtanum Basalt Fracture Zone at Borehole RRL-2, within the test interval 3,781 to 3,827 feet. Hydrologic tests conducted include two short-term, constant discharge pumping tests and two slug tests. Preliminary results indicate an observed hydraulic head for the test interval of 406.7 feet above mean sea level. Transmissivity values determined from hydrologic tests performed range between 205 and 881 ft 2 /day. The best estimate of equivalent hydraulic conductivity, based on an effective test thickness of 6 feet, is 147 ft/day. 8 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  4. ERG and GRG review of the draft of ''preliminary test plan for in situ testing from an exploratory shaft in salt - October 1983''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalia, H.N.

    1986-03-01

    The Engineering Review Group (ERG) and Geologic Review Group (GRG) were established by the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) to help evaluate engineering- and geologic-related issues in the US Department of Energy's nuclear waste repository program. The January 1984 meeting of the ERG and GRG reviewed the In Situ Test Plan (ISTP) titled ''Preliminary Test Plan for In Situ Testing From an Exploratory Shaft in Salt - October 1983.'' This report documents the ERG's and GRG's comments and recommendations on this subject and the ONWI responses to the specific points raised by the ERG and GRG. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  5. Violation of Bans on Tobacco Advertising and Promotion at Points of Sale in Viet Nam: Trend from 2009 - 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Le Thi Thanh; Long, Tran Khanh; Son, Phung Xuan; Huyen, Do Phuc; Linh, Phan Thuy; Bich, Nguyen Ngoc; Lam, Nguyen Xuan; Anh, Le Vu; Tuyet-Hanh, Tran Thi

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive bans on tobacco advertising and promotion were introduced through tobacco control legislation in Viet Nam, but it has been established that violations of the bans are very common. This study was conducted to explore the trend in violations of bans on tobacco advertising and promotion at points of sale in Viet Nam in the past six years and to explore any differences in the violation situations before and after the Law on Tobacco Control came into effect on 1st May 2013. Quantitative data were collected through observation of violations of the bans on tobacco advertising and promotion at points of sale in 10 provinces throughout Viet Nam in four survey rounds (2009, 2010, 2011, and 2015). Variation in violation prevalence over time was examined by chi-square test using a Bonferini method. Binary logistic regression was employed to identify the factors that may have influences on different types of violation. A level of significance of padvertising increased while violations on promotion ban and on displaying tobacco decreased through time. Some factors associated with the tobacco advertising and promotion bans included surveyed years, types of points of sale, regions and areas where the points of sale were located. The enforcement of the bans did not improve even after the issuance and the enactment of the Law on Tobacco Control. This suggests that the monitoring and enforcement of bans on tobacco advertising and promotion at points of sale should be strengthened. Penalties should be strictly applied for violators as indicated in the current tobacco control legislation.

  6. Preliminary Results from Second Phase Sea Testing of the Wave Dragon Prototype Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soerensen, Hans Chr.; Tedd, James; Friis-Madsen, Erik

    2006-01-01

    In March 2006 the prototype Wave Dragon has been redeployed to a more energetic site in Nissum Bredning an inland sea in Western Denmark. This has followed a period of renovation of many aspects of the device which have resulted in 20% higher energy output. This paper describes the preliminary...

  7. Preliminary studies of tunnel interface response modeling using test data from underground storage facilities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobolik, Steven Ronald; Bartel, Lewis Clark

    2010-11-01

    correctly image the tunnel. This report represents a preliminary step in the development of a methodology to convert numerical predictions of rock properties to an estimation of the extent of rock damage around an underground facility and its corresponding seismic velocity, and the corresponding application to design a testing methodology for tunnel detection.

  8. BAN-Based m-health Services: Experiences and Prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baarda, Marianne; Jones, Valerie M.; Stemerding, Dirk

    2005-01-01

    The University of Twente and partners are developing and prototyping Body Area networks (BANs) for healthcare. We define a BAN as a network of devices worn on or around the body which communicate amongst themselves and perform a set of services for the user. Our work began with the European

  9. The Operational Impact of the U.S. Assassination Ban

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berg, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    ... banned its use regardless of the nature of the conflict or the status of the leader. The United States should eliminate the assassination ban. As potentially one of the most effective and efficient means for combating and deterring aggression from rogue states and terrorists, assassination or at least the credible threat of assassination, should be an option available to the United States.

  10. The Impact of the Workplace Smoking Ban in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Beomsoo Kim

    2009-01-01

    A full work area smoking ban reduced the current smoking rate by 9.6 percentage points among males and the average daily consumption among smokers by 24 percent relative to no smoking ban. Secondhand smoke showed a dramatic decrease of 88 percent from the sample mean among males. The public anti-smoking campaign did not show any significant impact on smoking behavior.

  11. Book Banning in the High Schools, 1975-81.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, John Anthony

    1982-01-01

    Describes recent cases of high school book banning illustrating patterns of censorship in the United States. The author examines reasons for book banning, the motivations behind this kind of censorship, and the ideological orientation of groups responsible for it. A bibliography of information on censorship is included. (AM)

  12. Internationalization of Oman Fisheries Firms After the European Union Ban

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zaibet

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impacts of the l998 ban on Oman fish exports to the EU markets and ensuing the internationalization of Oman fish companies. The ban raises two concerns that the paper intends to answer: (i how firms have responded to surmount the ban, and (ii which strategies are more effective in the process of internationalization. The paper distinguishes three sets of actions: during the ban and immediate actions; short term actions; and long term actions. Besides government support for the implementation of international norms of quality and safety control, firms have responded individually to the EU ban. The actions subsequently undertaken by firms in response to the ban were selected: identification of new markets (alternatives; implementation of the required regulations and needed support to continue exporting to traditional European markets (competence; and long term business and marketing strategies (strategic thinking. These actions or steps represent the internationalization process or approach followed by the fisheries firms in Oman. All these actions have been undertaken after the EU ban, which leads to the conclusion that the ban has indeed worked as a driving force to internationalize, i.e. to develop the requisites of international markets.

  13. The development and preliminary testing of a multimedia patient–provider survivorship communication module for breast cancer survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Kuang-Yi; Miller, Suzanne M.; Stanton, Annette L.; Fleisher, Linda; Morra, Marion E.; Jorge, Alexandra; Diefenbach, Michael A.; Ropka, Mary E.; Marcus, Alfred C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This paper describes the development of a theory-guided and evidence-based multimedia training module to facilitate breast cancer survivors’ preparedness for effective communication with their health care providers after active treatment. Methods The iterative developmental process used included: (1) theory and evidence-based content development and vetting; (2) user testing; (3) usability testing; and (4) participant module utilization. Results Formative evaluation of the training module prototype occurred through user testing (n = 12), resulting in modification of the content and layout. Usability testing (n = 10) was employed to improve module functionality. Preliminary web usage data (n = 256, mean age = 53, 94.5% White, 75% college graduate and above) showed that 59% of the participants accessed the communication module, for an average of 7 min per login. Conclusion The iterative developmental process was informative in enhancing the relevance of the communication module. Preliminary web usage results demonstrate the potential feasibility of such a program. Practice implications Our study demonstrates survivors’ openness to the use of a web-based communication skills training module and outlines a systematic iterative user and interface program development and testing process, which can serve as a prototype for others considering such an approach. PMID:22770812

  14. The development and preliminary testing of a multimedia patient-provider survivorship communication module for breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Kuang-Yi; Miller, Suzanne M; Stanton, Annette L; Fleisher, Linda; Morra, Marion E; Jorge, Alexandra; Diefenbach, Michael A; Ropka, Mary E; Marcus, Alfred C

    2012-08-01

    This paper describes the development of a theory-guided and evidence-based multimedia training module to facilitate breast cancer survivors' preparedness for effective communication with their health care providers after active treatment. The iterative developmental process used included: (1) theory and evidence-based content development and vetting; (2) user testing; (3) usability testing; and (4) participant module utilization. Formative evaluation of the training module prototype occurred through user testing (n = 12), resulting in modification of the content and layout. Usability testing (n = 10) was employed to improve module functionality. Preliminary web usage data (n = 256, mean age = 53, 94.5% White, 75% college graduate and above) showed that 59% of the participants accessed the communication module, for an average of 7 min per login. The iterative developmental process was informative in enhancing the relevance of the communication module. Preliminary web usage results demonstrate the potential feasibility of such a program. Our study demonstrates survivors' openness to the use of a web-based communication skills training module and outlines a systematic iterative user and interface program development and testing process, which can serve as a prototype for others considering such an approach. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  15. Global Banning of a Diffused Controversial Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurses, Kerem; Giones, Ferran; Mehta, Kandarpkumar

    2017-01-01

    We study the deinstitutionalization of a controversial practice that had previously reached a level of international diffusion. We draw on international diffusion and deinstitutionalization theory to study the emergence and diffusion of the third-party ownership practice in the soccer industry. We...... use an inductive case study combining archival and interview data to study the determinants of the international diffusion of a controversial practice at a global scale, the contestation, and finally the deinstitutionalization process that resulted from the ban of the practice. We find...... that the opacity of the practice can be a diffusion driver, locally and at the international level, nevertheless the opacity also may lead to different meaning creation attempts and potential discursive battles between actors, and eventually to deinstitutionalization of the practice. This article advances our...

  16. Should selecting saviour siblings be banned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, S; Wilkinson, S

    2004-12-01

    By using tissue typing in conjunction with preimplantation genetic diagnosis doctors are able to pick a human embryo for implantation which, if all goes well, will become a "saviour sibling", a brother or sister capable of donating life-saving tissue to an existing child. This paper addresses the question of whether this form of selection should be banned and concludes that it should not. Three main prohibitionist arguments are considered and found wanting: (a) the claim that saviour siblings would be treated as commodities; (b) a slippery slope argument, which suggests that this practice will lead to the creation of so-called "designer babies"; and (c) a child welfare argument, according to which saviour siblings will be physically and/or psychologically harmed.

  17. Experience of Japan in Achieving a Total Ban on Asbestos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugio Furuya

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine the process through which a total ban on asbestos was achieved in Japan. We reconstructed the process, analyzed the roles of involved parties/events, and drew lessons from the Japanese experience of achieving the ban. In Japan, a bill to phase out asbestos was proposed in 1992 but rejected without deliberation. Wide support for such a ban subsequently grew, however, largely due to the actions of trade unions and civil societies in establishing a coalition, raising awareness, organizing asbestos victims and their families, and propagating information on international developments. A governmental decision towards a ban was made in 2002 based on several national and international factors. A huge asbestos scandal in 2005 preponed the achievement of a total ban and led to the establishment of comprehensive measures to tackle asbestos issues. However, challenges remain for the elimination of asbestos-related diseases.

  18. Preliminary Feasibility, Design, and Hazard Analysis of a Boiling Water Test Loop Within the Idaho National Laboratory Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerstner, Douglas M.

    2009-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a pressurized light-water reactor with a design thermal power of 250 MW. The principal function of the ATR is to provide a high neutron flux for testing reactor fuels and other materials. The ATR and its support facilities are located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). A Boiling Water Test Loop (BWTL) is being designed for one of the irradiation test positions within the. The objective of the new loop will be to simulate boiling water reactor (BWR) conditions to support clad corrosion and related reactor material testing. Further it will accommodate power ramping tests of candidate high burn-up fuels and fuel pins/rods for the commercial BWR utilities. The BWTL will be much like the pressurized water loops already in service in 5 of the 9 'flux traps' (region of enhanced neutron flux) in the ATR. The loop coolant will be isolated from the primary coolant system so that the loop's temperature, pressure, flow rate, and water chemistry can be independently controlled. This paper presents the proposed general design of the in-core and auxiliary BWTL systems; the preliminary results of the neutronics and thermal hydraulics analyses; and the preliminary hazard analysis for safe normal and transient BWTL and ATR operation

  19. Obtaining 64Cu in a nuclear reactor from a Zn matrix: Preliminary tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguirre, Andrea; Bedregal, Patricia; Montoya, Eduardo; Cohen, Marcos Isaac

    2014-01-01

    The design and feasibility of a method for obtaining 6C u in a nuclear reactor, from the 64 Zn(n,p) 64 Cu threshold reaction of zinc, induced by the fast component of the neutron spectrum, is presented. The product obtained will be used in positron emission tomography (PET). The preliminary experiments were performed using the RP-10 research reactor at a power of 3.5 MW, followed by a radiochemical separation by solvent extraction using a chloroform solution of dithizone. The radioisotope has been identified and quantified through the full energy peak of 1345.77 keV, using a high resolution gamma spectrometry system. The preliminary yield achieved demonstrates the feasibility of the proposed method. (authors).

  20. To ban or not to ban: direct-to-consumer advertising and human rights analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Wellington

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The issues surrounding Direct-To-Consumer Advertising of pharmaceuticals are ripe for scrutiny through the lens of Human Rights analysis. Among the human rights most decisively engaged by DTCA is the right to autonomy in health-related decision making, which in turn incorporates right of access to health-related information. The latter incorporates, in part, right of access to reliable and beneficial information through the avenues of commercial speech among others. Another crucial human right is the right not to be harmed by unsafe consumer products through corporate malfeasance or negligence. The most commonly invoked policy options in the context of DTCA are either an outright ban or strengthening regulatory oversight in combination with voluntary guidelines. Banning Direct-To-Consumer Advertising risks being both over inclusive and under inclusive as a policy option. A wholesale ban risks being over inclusive in that it could deprive consumers of information about medications with a positive benefit-risk profile, ones that could enhance their quality of health and well being. Thus it risks being overly paternalistic. Banning DTCA, by itself, is under inclusive in that it is insufficient to address the ways that unadvertised drugs can pose significant risks to consumers. Other policy measures would be most optimal to deal with the very serious deficits in the processes by which prescription drugs undergo clinical trials, and garner regulatory approval prior to their promotion in the marketplace. A more finely tuned approach to regulatory oversight is endorsed, one involving a proactive and precautionary approach reliant upon prior approval. Such an approach could help to address the very serious concerns about potential infringements of the human right not to be harmed by unsafe consumer products through corporate malfeasance or negligence.

  1. Banning the bulb: Institutional evolution and the phased ban of incandescent lighting in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howarth, Nicholas A.A.; Rosenow, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Much academic attention has been directed at analysing energy efficiency investments through the lens of ‘behavioural failure’. These studies have challenged the neoclassical framing of regulation which emphasises the efficiency benefits of price based policy, underpinned by the notion of rational individual self-mastery. The increasing use of a regulatory ban on electric lamps in many countries is one of the most recent and high profile flash points in this dialectic of ‘freedom-versus-the-state’ in the public policy discourse. This paper interrogates this debate through a study of electric lamp diffusion in Germany. It is argued that neoclassical theory and equilibrium analysis is inadequate as a tool for policy analysis as it takes the formation of market institutions, such as existing regulations, for granted. Further still, it may be prone to encourage idealistic debates around such grand narratives which may in practice simply serve those who benefit most from the status quo. Instead we argue for an evolutionary approach which we suggest offers a more pragmatic framing tool which focuses on the formation of market institutions in light of shifting social norms and political goals—in our case, progress towards energy efficiency and environmental goals. - Highlights: • Empirical data on the ban of incandescent lamps in Germany is presented. • The political debate on the ban is positioned within key bodies of theory. • Discourse was found to have positively influenced diffusion of efficient lighting. • Tools for the reframing of political debate are proposed for policy makers

  2. Nuclear maintenance strategy and first steps for preliminary maintenance plan of the EU HCLL & HCPB Test Blanket Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galabert, Jose, E-mail: jose.galabert@f4e.europa.eu [F4E Fusion for Energy, EU Domestic Agency, c/Josep Pla, 2. B3, 08019, Barcelona (Spain); Hopper, Dave [AMEC Foster Wheeler, Faraday Street, Birchwood Park, WA3 6GN (United Kingdom); Neviere, Jean-Cristophe [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90046, 13067, St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Nodwell, David [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Pascal, Romain [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90046, 13067, St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Poitevin, Yves; Ricapito, Italo [F4E Fusion for Energy, EU Domestic Agency, c/Josep Pla, 2. B3, 08019, Barcelona (Spain); White, Gareth [AMEC Foster Wheeler, Faraday Street, Birchwood Park, WA3 6GN (United Kingdom)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Nuclear maintenance strategy for the two European (EU) Test Blanket Systems (TBS): i/. Helium Cooled Lead Lithium (HCLL) and ii/. Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB). • Preliminary identification of maintenance tasks for most relevant components of the EU HCLL & HCPB TBS. • Preliminary feasibility analysis for hands-on maintenance tasks of some relevant components of the European Test Blanket Systems. • Design recommendations for enhancement of the European Test Blanket Systems maintainability. - Abstract: This paper gives an overview of nuclear maintenance strategy to be followed for the European HCLL & HCPB Test Blanket Systems (TBS) to be installed in ITER. One of the several core documents to prepare in view of their licensing is their respective ‘Maintenance Plan’. This document is fundamental for ensuring sound performance and safety of the TBS during ITER’s operational phase and shall include, amongst others, relevant information on: maintenance organization, preventive and corrective maintenance task procedures, condition monitoring for key components, maintenance work planning, and a spare parts plan, just to mention some of the key topics. In compliance with the ITER Plant Maintenance policy, first steps have been taken aimed at defining nuclear maintenance strategy for some of the most relevant HCLL & HCPB TBS components, conducted by F4E in collaboration with industry. After a brief recall of maintenance strategy of the TBM Program (PBS-56), this paper analyses main features of EU HCLL & HCPB TBS maintainability and identifies, at their conceptual design phase, a preliminary list of maintenance tasks to be developed for their most representative components. In addition, the paper also presents the first nuclear maintenance studies conducted for replacement of the Q{sub 2} Getter Beds, identifying some design recommendations for their sound maintainability.

  3. Nuclear maintenance strategy and first steps for preliminary maintenance plan of the EU HCLL & HCPB Test Blanket Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galabert, Jose; Hopper, Dave; Neviere, Jean-Cristophe; Nodwell, David; Pascal, Romain; Poitevin, Yves; Ricapito, Italo; White, Gareth

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Nuclear maintenance strategy for the two European (EU) Test Blanket Systems (TBS): i/. Helium Cooled Lead Lithium (HCLL) and ii/. Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB). • Preliminary identification of maintenance tasks for most relevant components of the EU HCLL & HCPB TBS. • Preliminary feasibility analysis for hands-on maintenance tasks of some relevant components of the European Test Blanket Systems. • Design recommendations for enhancement of the European Test Blanket Systems maintainability. - Abstract: This paper gives an overview of nuclear maintenance strategy to be followed for the European HCLL & HCPB Test Blanket Systems (TBS) to be installed in ITER. One of the several core documents to prepare in view of their licensing is their respective ‘Maintenance Plan’. This document is fundamental for ensuring sound performance and safety of the TBS during ITER’s operational phase and shall include, amongst others, relevant information on: maintenance organization, preventive and corrective maintenance task procedures, condition monitoring for key components, maintenance work planning, and a spare parts plan, just to mention some of the key topics. In compliance with the ITER Plant Maintenance policy, first steps have been taken aimed at defining nuclear maintenance strategy for some of the most relevant HCLL & HCPB TBS components, conducted by F4E in collaboration with industry. After a brief recall of maintenance strategy of the TBM Program (PBS-56), this paper analyses main features of EU HCLL & HCPB TBS maintainability and identifies, at their conceptual design phase, a preliminary list of maintenance tasks to be developed for their most representative components. In addition, the paper also presents the first nuclear maintenance studies conducted for replacement of the Q_2 Getter Beds, identifying some design recommendations for their sound maintainability.

  4. Fish-Friendly Hydropower Turbine Development & Deployment: Alden Turbine Preliminary Engineering and Model Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foust, J. [Voith Hydro, Inc., York, PA (USA); Hecker, G. [Alden Research Laboratory, Inc., Holden, MA (USA); Li, S. [Alden Research Laboratory, Inc., Holden, MA (USA); Allen, G. [Alden Research Laboratory, Inc., Holden, MA (USA)

    2011-10-01

    The Alden turbine was developed through the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) former Advanced Hydro Turbine Systems Program (1994-2006) and, more recently, through the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the DOE's Wind & Water Power Program. The primary goal of the engineering study described here was to provide a commercially competitive turbine design that would yield fish passage survival rates comparable to or better than the survival rates of bypassing or spilling flow. Although the turbine design was performed for site conditions corresponding to 92 ft (28 m) net head and a discharge of 1500 cfs (42.5 cms), the design can be modified for additional sites with differing operating conditions. During the turbine development, design modifications were identified for the spiral case, distributor (stay vanes and wicket gates), runner, and draft tube to improve turbine performance while maintaining features for high fish passage survival. Computational results for pressure change rates and shear within the runner passage were similar in the original and final turbine geometries, while predicted minimum pressures were higher for the final turbine. The final turbine geometry and resulting flow environments are expected to further enhance the fish passage characteristics of the turbine. Computational results for the final design were shown to improve turbine efficiencies by over 6% at the selected operating condition when compared to the original concept. Prior to the release of the hydraulic components for model fabrication, finite element analysis calculations were conducted for the stay vanes, wicket gates, and runner to verify that structural design criteria for stress and deflections were met. A physical model of the turbine was manufactured and tested with data collected for power and efficiency, cavitation limits, runaway speed, axial and radial thrust, pressure pulsations, and wicket gate torque. All parameters were observed to fall

  5. Reducing Disparities in Tobacco Retailer Density by Banning Tobacco Product Sales Near Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribisl, Kurt M; Luke, Douglas A; Bohannon, Doneisha L; Sorg, Amy A; Moreland-Russell, Sarah

    2017-02-01

    This study examined whether a policy of banning tobacco product retailers from operating within 1000 feet of schools could reduce existing socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities in tobacco retailer density. We geocoded all tobacco retailers in Missouri (n = 4730) and New York (n = 17 672) and linked them with Census tract characteristics. We then tested the potential impact of a proximity policy that would ban retailers from selling tobacco products within 1000 feet of schools. Our results confirmed socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities in tobacco retailer density, with more retailers found in areas with lower income and greater proportions of African American residents. A high proportion of retailers located in these areas were in urban areas, which also have stores located in closer proximity to schools. If a ban on tobacco product sales within 1000 feet of schools were implemented in New York, the number of tobacco retailers per 1000 people would go from 1.28 to 0.36 in the lowest income quintile, and from 0.84 to 0.45 in the highest income quintile. In New York and Missouri, a ban on tobacco product sales near schools would either reduce or eliminate existing disparities in tobacco retailer density by income level and by proportion of African American. Proximity-based point of sale (POS) policies banning tobacco product sales near schools appear to be more effective in reducing retailer density in lower income and racially diverse neighborhoods than in higher income and white neighborhoods, and hold great promise for reducing tobacco-related disparities at the POS. Given the disparities-reducing potential of policies banning tobacco product sales near schools, jurisdictions with tobacco retailer licensing should consider adding this provision to their licensing requirements. Since relatively few jurisdictions currently ban tobacco sales near schools, future research should examine ways to increase and monitor the uptake of this policy, and assess

  6. D-shaped configurations in FTU for testing liquid lithium limiter: Preliminary studies and experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ramogida

    2017-08-01

    A possible alternative connection of the poloidal field coils in FTU is here proposed, with the aim of achieving a true X-point configuration with a magnetic single null well inside the plasma chamber and strike points on the lithium limiter. A preliminary assessment of this design allowed estimating the required power supply upgrade and showed its compatibility with the existing mechanical structure and cooling system, at least for plasmas with current up to 300 kA and flat-top duration up to 4s.

  7. FCTC followed by accelerated implementation of tobacco advertising bans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiilamo, Heikki; Glantz, Stanton

    2017-07-01

    We sought to evaluate changes in countries' enacting advertising bans after the effect of ratifying the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). We compared adoption of advertising bans on five areas (TV and radio, print media, billboards, point-of-sale, sponsorship) in countries that did versus did not ratify the FCTC, accounting for years since the ratification of the Convention. On average, passage of complete advertising bans accelerated after FCTC ratification. The development was strongest among lower middle-income countries. Lack of state capacity was associated with lower likelihood of countries implementing complete advertising bans. Implementation of complete advertising bans slowed after 2007. Implementation of FCTC Article 13 was followed by increased progress towards complete advertising bans, but progress is incomplete, especially among low-income countries. Low-income countries need comprehensive support to implement FCTC as part of a broad effort to reinvigorate progress on global implementation of the FCTC. Enforcing complete bans requires constant monitoring and attacking of tobacco industry efforts to circumvent them. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. The Case for a Global Ban on Asbestos

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDou, Joseph; Castleman, Barry; Frank, Arthur; Gochfeld, Michael; Greenberg, Morris; Huff, James; Joshi, Tushar Kant; Landrigan, Philip J.; Lemen, Richard; Myers, Jonny; Soffritti, Morando; Soskolne, Colin L.; Takahashi, Ken; Teitelbaum, Daniel; Terracini, Benedetto; Watterson, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Background All forms of asbestos are now banned in 52 countries. Safer products have replaced many materials that once were made with it. Nonetheless, many countries still use, import, and export asbestos and asbestos-containing products, and in those that have banned other forms of asbestos, the so-called “controlled use” of chrysotile asbestos is often exempted from the ban. In fact, chrysotile has accounted for > 95% of all the asbestos used globally. Objective We examined and evaluated the literature used to support the exemption of chrysotile asbestos from the ban and how its exemption reflects the political and economic influence of the asbestos mining and manufacturing industry. Discussion All forms of asbestos, including chrysotile, are proven human carcinogens. All forms cause malignant mesothelioma and lung and laryngeal cancers, and may cause ovarian, gastrointestinal, and other cancers. No exposure to asbestos is without risk. Illnesses and deaths from asbestos exposure are entirely preventable. Conclusions All countries of the world have an obligation to their citizens to join in the international endeavor to ban the mining, manufacture, and use of all forms of asbestos. An international ban is urgently needed. There is no medical or scientific basis to exempt chrysotile from the worldwide ban of asbestos. PMID:20601329

  9. Preliminary Single-Phase Mixing Test using Wire Mesh System in a wire-wrapped 37-rod Bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Hwang; Kim, Hyungmo; Lee, Dong Won; Choi, Hae Seob; Choi, Sun Rock; Chang, Seokkyu; Kim, Seok; Euh, Dongjin; Lee, Hyeongyeon

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, preliminary tests of the wire-mesh sensor are introduced before measuring of mixing coefficient in the wire-wrapped 37-pin fuel assembly for a sodium-cooled fast reactor. Through this preliminary test, it was confirmed that city water can be used as a tracer for demineralized water as a base. A simple test was performed to evaluate the characteristics of a wire mesh with of a short pipe shape. The conductivity of de-mineralized water and city water is linearly increased for the limited temperature ranges as the temperature is increased. The reliability of the wire mesh sensor was estimated based on the averages and standard deviations of the plane image using the cross points. A wire mesh sensor is suitable to apply to a single-phase flow measurement for a mixture with de-mineralized water and city water. A wire mesh sensor and system have been traditionally used to measure the void fraction of a two-phase flow field with gas and liquid. Recently, Ylonen et al. successfully designed and commissioned a measurement system for a single-phase flow using a wire mesh sensor

  10. Development and preliminary testing of a computerized Animated Activity Questionnaire (AAQ) in patients with hip and knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peter, Wf; Loos, M; de Vet, Hcw

    2015-01-01

    , and to preliminary assess its reliability and validity. We hypothesize that the AAQ correlates highly with performance-based tests, and moderately with self-reports. Methods Item selection was based on 1) the pilot AAQ; 2) pre-specified conditions; 3) the International Classification of Functioning core set for OA......Objective To develop an Animated Activity Questionnaire (AAQ), based on video animations, for assessing activity limitations in patients with hip/knee osteoarthritis (OA), which combines the advantages of self-reported questionnaires and performance-based tests, without many of their limitations......, 4) existing measurement instruments, and 5) focus groups of patients. Test-retest reliability was assessed in 30/110 patients. In 110 patients correlations were calculated between AAQ and self-reported Hip disability and Knee injury Osteoarthritis Outcome ADL subscale (H/KOOS). In 45/110 patients...

  11. Creating XML/PHP Interface for BAN Interoperability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkos, Vasileios; Katzis, Konstantinos; Despotou, Georgios

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in medical and electronic technologies have introduced the use of Body Area Networks as a part of e-health, for constant and accurate monitoring of patients and the transmission as well as processing of the data to develop a holistic Electronic Health Record. The rising global population, different BAN manufacturers and a variety of medical systems pose the issue of interoperability between BANs and systems as well as the proper way to propagate medical data in an organized and efficient manner. In this paper, we describe BANs and propose the use of certain web technologies to address this issue.

  12. Preliminary test results from a free-piston Stirling engine technology demonstration program to support advanced radioisotope space power applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Maurice A.; Qiu Songgang; Augenblick, Jack E.

    2000-01-01

    Free-piston Stirling engines offer a relatively mature, proven, long-life technology that is well-suited for advanced, high-efficiency radioisotope space power systems. Contracts from DOE and NASA are being conducted by Stirling Technology Company (STC) for the purpose of demonstrating the Stirling technology in a configuration and power level that is representative of an eventual space power system. The long-term objective is to develop a power system with an efficiency exceeding 20% that can function with a high degree of reliability for up to 15 years on deep space missions. The current technology demonstration convertors (TDC's) are completing shakedown testing and have recently demonstrated performance levels that are virtually identical to projections made during the preliminary design phase. This paper describes preliminary test results for power output, efficiency, and vibration levels. These early results demonstrate the ability of the free-piston Stirling technology to exceed objectives by approximately quadrupling the efficiency of conventional radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG's)

  13. Preliminary test results from a free-piston Stirling engine technology demonstration program to support advanced radioisotope space power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Maurice A.; Qiu, Songgang; Augenblick, Jack E.

    2000-01-01

    Free-piston Stirling engines offer a relatively mature, proven, long-life technology that is well-suited for advanced, high-efficiency radioisotope space power systems. Contracts from DOE and NASA are being conducted by Stirling Technology Company (STC) for the purpose of demonstrating the Stirling technology in a configuration and power level that is representative of an eventual space power system. The long-term objective is to develop a power system with an efficiency exceeding 20% that can function with a high degree of reliability for up to 15 years on deep space missions. The current technology demonstration convertors (TDC's) are completing shakedown testing and have recently demonstrated performance levels that are virtually identical to projections made during the preliminary design phase. This paper describes preliminary test results for power output, efficiency, and vibration levels. These early results demonstrate the ability of the free-piston Stirling technology to exceed objectives by approximately quadrupling the efficiency of conventional radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG's). .

  14. Hydroxyapatite nanorods: soft-template synthesis, characterization and preliminary in vitro tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nga Kim; Leoni, Matteo; Maniglio, Devid; Migliaresi, Claudio

    2013-07-01

    Synthetic hydroxyapatite nanorods are excellent candidates for bone tissue engineering applications. In this study, hydroxyapatite nanorods resembling bone minerals were produced by using soft-template method with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide. Composite hydroxyapatite/poly(D, L)lactic acid films were prepared to evaluate the prepared hydroxyapatite nanorods in terms of cell affinity. Preliminary in vitro experiments showed that aspect ratio and film surface roughness play a vital role in controlling adhesion and proliferation of human osteoblast cell line MG 63. The hydroxyapatite nanorods with aspect ratios in the range of 5.94-7 were found to possess distinctive properties, with the corresponding hydroxyapatite/poly(D, L)lactic acid films promoting cellular confluence and a fast formation of collagen fibers as early as after 7 days of culture.

  15. Measurements of entanglement over a kilometric distance to test superluminal models of Quantum Mechanics: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocciaro, B.; Faetti, S.; Fronzoni, L.

    2017-08-01

    As shown in the EPR paper (Einstein, Podolsky e Rosen, 1935), Quantum Mechanics is a non-local Theory. The Bell theorem and the successive experiments ruled out the possibility of explaining quantum correlations using only local hidden variables models. Some authors suggested that quantum correlations could be due to superluminal communications that propagate isotropically with velocity vt > c in a preferred reference frame. For finite values of vt and in some special cases, Quantum Mechanics and superluminal models lead to different predictions. So far, no deviations from the predictions of Quantum Mechanics have been detected and only lower bounds for the superluminal velocities vt have been established. Here we describe a new experiment that increases the maximum detectable superluminal velocities and we give some preliminary results.

  16. Velocity Measurements in Nasal Cavities by Means of Stereoscopic Piv - Preliminary Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzi, Fabio; Felisati, Giovanni; Quadrio, Maurizio

    2017-08-01

    The prediction of detailed flow patterns in human nasal cavities using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can provide essential information on the potential relationship between patient-specific geometrical characteristics of the nasal anatomy and health problems, and ultimately led to improved surgery. The complex flow structure and the intricate geometry of the nasal cavities make achieving such goals a challenge for CFD specialists. The need for experimental data to validate and improve the numerical simulations is particularly crucial. To this aim an experimental set-up based on Stereo PIV and a silicon phantom of nasal cavities have been designed and realized at Politecnico di Milano. This work describes the main features and challenges of the set-up along with some preliminary results.

  17. The development and preliminary testing of new boronated agents for BNCT based on PET derived data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, T.; Kabalka, G.; Kahn, M.; Das, B.; Das, S.; Bao, W.; Miller, L.

    2000-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has been utilized at the University of Tennessee for evaluating a variety of tumors including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and metastatic malignant melanoma (MM). Studies have been carried out utilizing fluorine-18 labeled p-boronophenylalanine ( 18 F-BPA) and other unnatural amino acids. A comparison of PET studies obtained using 18 F-BPA and a carbon-11 labeled cyclobutane-based amino acid ( 11 C-ACBC) revealed that 11 C-ACBC localized effectively in GBM tumors. Based on these results, we have prepared a series of boronated, aminocyclobutanecarboxylic acids. Preliminary uptake and cell toxicity studies have been carried out and show that many of the agents are not toxic. In one instance, a biodistribution study carried out using nude mice implanted with a human glioblastoma tumor, the tumor to normal tissue uptake of boron exceeds that observed for BPA. (author)

  18. Preliminary benefit-cost analysis of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) power addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callaway, J.M.; Lezberg, A.J.; Scott, M.J.; Tawil, J.J.

    1984-07-01

    The primary objective of this report is to conduct a preliminary benefit-cost study for the proposed power addition to FFTF to determine whether the project is cost-effective. If the project is authorized, construction will begin in 1986 and end in 1991. Full power operation is scheduled to begin in 1991 and a project life of 20 years is assumed. The undiscounted cost during the construction period of the FFTF power addition is estimated to be approximately $117 million over the construction period (1984 dollars). An additional $3 million is estimated as the opportunity cost - or value of these resources in their most favorable alternative use - of surplus FFTF equipment and unused CRBR equipment, including materials for steam generator fabrication. The annual operating and maintenance cost of the project is estimated to be about $2.1 million in 1984 dollars. 20 references

  19. Observing the Testing Effect using Coursera Video-recorded Lectures: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Zhihao eYONG

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the testing effect in Coursera video-based learning. One hundred and twenty-three participants either (a studied an instructional video-recorded lecture four times, (b studied the lecture three times and took one recall test, or (c studied the lecture once and took three tests. They then took a final recall test, either immediately or a week later, through which their learning was assessed. Whereas repeated studying produced better recall performance than did repeated testing when the final test was administered immediately, testing produced better performance when the final test was delayed until a week after. The testing effect was observed using Coursera lectures. Future directions are documented.

  20. Influence of memory, attention, IQ and age on auditory temporal processing tests: preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Cristina Ferraz Borges; Zachi, Elaine Cristina; Roque, Daniela Tsubota; Ventura, Dora Selma Fix; Schochat, Eliane

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the existence of correlations between the performance of children in auditory temporal tests (Frequency Pattern and Gaps in Noise--GIN) and IQ, attention, memory and age measurements. Fifteen typically developing individuals between the ages of 7 to 12 years and normal hearing participated in the study. Auditory temporal processing tests (GIN and Frequency Pattern), as well as a Memory test (Digit Span), Attention tests (auditory and visual modality) and intelligence tests (RAVEN test of Progressive Matrices) were applied. Significant and positive correlation between the Frequency Pattern test and age variable were found, which was considered good (p<0.01, 75.6%). There were no significant correlations between the GIN test and the variables tested. Auditory temporal skills seem to be influenced by different factors: while the performance in temporal ordering skill seems to be influenced by maturational processes, the performance in temporal resolution was not influenced by any of the aspects investigated.

  1. A joint Russian-American field test at the Chelyabinsk-65 (Mayak) Site: Test description and preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollenberg, H.; Tsang, C.F.; Frangos, W.

    1995-05-01

    In September 1994, a Russian-American team conducted hydrogeological, geochemical, geophysical, and radiometric measurements in the territory of the Mayak Production Association. The primary purpose of these operations was to examine the groundwater plume moving from Lake Karachai toward the river. Activities encompassed isolation of hydrologic intervals in two wells and production of water from these intervals, to compare isolated versus open-well sampling methods; surface and soil-water sampling, accompanying radiometric measurements and subsequent chemical analyses; and electrical resistivity profiling in areas of expected contrasting resistivity. Preliminary results indicate that (1) 60 Co and 137 Cs are present in small concentrations in water of the Mishelyak River, (2) analyses of water samples collected by a downhole sampler and of water produced from packed-off intervals agree within limits of laboratory accuracy, attesting to the efficacy of the sampling methods presently used by the Russian workers; and (3) strong contrasts occur between the electrical resistivities of soil and bedrock. Further collaborative work is strongly recommended, and should include more detailed isolation of intervals in wells by multi-packer installations, to better determine the geochemical and hydrological characteristics of the Karachai-Mishelyak system; deployment of a broader soil-water and soil sampling array; a more detailed examination of the distribution and concentration of radionuclides by high-resolution field gamma spectrometry; and a detailing of the area's electrical resistivity setting, using a mobile electromagnetic measurement system

  2. Perception of Stakeholders to the Proposed Ban on Cow Hide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Keywords: Cow hide consumption, cow hide value chain, ponmo .... value chain;. 2. identify sources of information of the respondents on the proposed ban; ..... the health risk associated with the consumption of ponmo may favour its proposed.

  3. Networks of global bird invasion altered by regional trade ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reino, Luís; Figueira, Rui; Beja, Pedro; Araújo, Miguel B; Capinha, César; Strubbe, Diederik

    2017-11-01

    Wildlife trade is a major pathway for introduction of invasive species worldwide. However, how exactly wildlife trade influences invasion risk, beyond the transportation of individuals to novel areas, remains unknown. We analyze the global trade network of wild-caught birds from 1995 to 2011 as reported by CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora). We found that before the European Union ban on imports of wild-caught birds, declared in 2005, invasion risk was closely associated with numbers of imported birds, diversity of import sources, and degree of network centrality of importer countries. After the ban, fluxes of global bird trade declined sharply. However, new trade routes emerged, primarily toward the Nearctic, Afrotropical, and Indo-Malay regions. Although regional bans can curtail invasion risk globally, to be fully effective and prevent rerouting of trade flows, bans should be global.

  4. Why ban the sale of cigarettes? The case for abolition

    OpenAIRE

    Proctor, Robert N

    2013-01-01

    The cigarette is the deadliest artefact in the history of human civilisation. Most of the richer countries of the globe, however, are making progress in reducing both smoking rates and overall consumption. Many different methods have been proposed to steepen this downward slope, including increased taxation, bans on advertising, promotion of cessation, and expansion of smoke-free spaces. One option that deserves more attention is the enactment of local or national bans on the sale of cigarett...

  5. sponsorship ban in Lebanon: a baseline cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Chaaya

    2016-05-01

    This study provided information about compliance to the smoking ban in Beirut. The advertising sector's compliance would hopefully decrease the tobacco industry’s influence on the public. Further studies aiming at understanding the underlying factors behind the lack of compliance to the indoor smoking ban and finding effective solutions in a politically unstable country with weak rule of law like Lebanon are crucial and can serve as an example for similar developing countries.

  6. Influence of memory, attention, IQ and age on auditory temporal processing tests: preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Cristina Ferraz Borges; Zachi, Elaine Cristina; Roque, Daniela Tsubota; Ventura, Dora Selma Fix; Schochat, Eliane

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the existence of correlations between the performance of children in auditory temporal tests (Frequency Pattern and Gaps in Noise - GIN) and IQ, attention, memory and age measurements. METHOD: Fifteen typically developing individuals between the ages of 7 to 12 years and normal hearing participated in the study. Auditory temporal processing tests (GIN and Frequency Pattern), as well as a Memory test (Digit Span), Attention tests (auditory and visual modality) and ...

  7. Effectiveness of the California State Ban on the Sale of Caulerpa Species in Aquarium Retail Stores in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Stephanie; Smith, Jayson R.; Zaleski, Susan F.; Murray, Steven N.

    2012-07-01

    The invasion of the aquarium strain of the green alga Caulerpa taxifolia and subsequent alteration of community structure in the Mediterranean Sea raised awareness of the potential for non-native seaweeds to impact coastal communities. An introduction of C. taxifolia in southern California in 2000, presumably from the release of aquarium specimens, cost ~7 million for eradication efforts. Besides C. taxifolia, other Caulerpa species being sold for aquarium use also may have the potential to invade southern Californian and U.S. waters. Surveys of the availability of Caulerpa species in southern California aquarium retail stores in 2000-2001 revealed that 26 of 50 stores sold at least one Caulerpa species (52 %) with seven stores selling C. taxifolia. In late 2001, California imposed a ban on the importation, sale, or possession of nine Caulerpa species; the City of San Diego expanded these regulations to include the entire genus. To determine the effectiveness of the California ban, we resurveyed Caulerpa availability at 43 of the 50 previously sampled retail stores in southern California in ~2006, ~4 years following the ban. Of the 43 stores, 23 sold Caulerpa (53 %) with four stores selling C. taxifolia. A χ2 test of frequency of availability before and after the California ban suggests that the ban has not been effective and that the aquarium trade continues to represent a potential vector for distributing Caulerpa specimens, including C. taxifolia. This study underscores the need for increased enforcement and outreach programs to increase awareness among the aquarium industry and aquarium hobbyists.

  8. Design and preliminary testing of a MEMS microphone phased array for aeroacoustic testing of a small-scale wind turbine airfoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bale, A.; Orlando, S.; Johnson, D. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Wind Energy Group

    2010-07-01

    One of the barriers preventing the widespread utilization of wind turbines is the audible sound that they produce. Developing quieter wind turbines will increase the amount of available land onto which wind farms can be built. Noise emissions from wind turbines can be attributed to the aerodynamic effects between the turbine blades and the air surrounding them. A dominant source of these aeroacoustic emissions from wind turbines is known to originate at the trailing edges of the airfoils. This study investigated the flow physics of noise generation in an effort to reduce noise from small-scale wind turbine airfoils. The trailing edge noise was studied on scale-models in wind tunnels and applied to full scale conditions. Microphone phased arrays are popular research tools in wind tunnel aeroacoustic studies because they can measure and locate noise sources. However, large arrays of microphones can be prohibitively expensive. This paper presented preliminary testing of micro-electrical mechanical system (MEMS) microphones in phased arrays for aeroacoustic testing on a small wind turbine airfoil. Preliminary results showed that MEMS microphones are an acceptable low-cost alternative to costly condenser microphones. 19 refs., 1 tab., 11 figs.

  9. [Acceptance of a total smoking ban in schools: students' attitudes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, M; Wiborg, G; Hanewinkel, R

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure students' attitudes towards a total smoking ban in schools and towards impositions in cases of violation. Cross-sectional survey of 1 738 students of 12 public schools in Schleswig-Holstein (grades 7-13, age 11-20 years). Data were collected by means of written questionnaires administered during class time. The following variables were assessed: attitude towards smoking ban, attitude towards impositions, age, sex, citizenship, perceived school climate, current smoking, lifetime smoking; for smokers, and additionally, the "Heaviness of Smoking Index". 76.5% of all students agreed with a total smoking ban, 66.4% agreed with the punishment of violations. Higher acceptance rates were found among girls, young students (11-15 years of age), for never-smokers, and for students who feel comfortable at school. Acceptance of the smoking ban is closely related to current smoking status: 93% of the non-smoking students, but only 14% of the daily smoking students agreed with the regulations. Refusal of the ban increased with increasing physical dependence. The intensification of the smoking ban in public schools meets approval by the majority of students. Smoking students should be more strongly involved in the implementation process, e.g., by supplemental cessation programmes.

  10. Development and Preliminary Testing of a High Precision Long Stroke Slit Change Mechanism for the SPICE Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paciotti, Gabriel; Humphries, Martin; Rottmeier, Fabrice; Blecha, Luc

    2014-01-01

    In the frame of ESA's Solar Orbiter scientific mission, Almatech has been selected to design, develop and test the Slit Change Mechanism of the SPICE (SPectral Imaging of the Coronal Environment) instrument. In order to guaranty optical cleanliness level while fulfilling stringent positioning accuracies and repeatability requirements for slit positioning in the optical path of the instrument, a linear guiding system based on a double flexible blade arrangement has been selected. The four different slits to be used for the SPICE instrument resulted in a total stroke of 16.5 mm in this linear slit changer arrangement. The combination of long stroke and high precision positioning requirements has been identified as the main design challenge to be validated through breadboard models testing. This paper presents the development of SPICE's Slit Change Mechanism (SCM) and the two-step validation tests successfully performed on breadboard models of its flexible blade support system. The validation test results have demonstrated the full adequacy of the flexible blade guiding system implemented in SPICE's Slit Change Mechanism in a stand-alone configuration. Further breadboard test results, studying the influence of the compliant connection to the SCM linear actuator on an enhanced flexible guiding system design have shown significant enhancements in the positioning accuracy and repeatability of the selected flexible guiding system. Preliminary evaluation of the linear actuator design, including a detailed tolerance analyses, has shown the suitability of this satellite roller screw based mechanism for the actuation of the tested flexible guiding system and compliant connection. The presented development and preliminary testing of the high-precision long-stroke Slit Change Mechanism for the SPICE Instrument are considered fully successful such that future tests considering the full Slit Change Mechanism can be performed, with the gained confidence, directly on a

  11. A preliminary study of shear wave elastography for the evaluation of unilateral palpable undescended testes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ucar, Ayse Kalyoncu, E-mail: Aysekucar@gmail.com [Istanbul University, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, KMPasa, Istanbul, 34098 (Turkey); Alis, Deniz, E-mail: denizalis@gmail.com [Istanbul University, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, KMPasa, Istanbul, 34098 (Turkey); Samanci, Cesur, E-mail: cesursamanci@gmail.com [Istanbul University, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, KMPasa, Istanbul, 34098 (Turkey); Aslan, Mine, E-mail: mineus_77@yahoo.com [Istanbul University, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, KMPasa, Istanbul, 34098 (Turkey); Habibi, Hatice Arioz, E-mail: arioz.hatice@gmail.com [Istanbul University, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, KMPasa, Istanbul, 34098 (Turkey); Dikici, Atilla Suleyman, E-mail: drsuleymandikici@gmail.com [Istanbul University, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, KMPasa, Istanbul, 34098 (Turkey); Namdar, Yesim, E-mail: namdaryesim@gmail.com [Istanbul University, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, KMPasa, Istanbul, 34098 (Turkey); Gultekin, Mehmet Hamza, E-mail: mhamzagultekin@hotmail.com [Istanbul University, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine, Department of Urology, KMPasa, Istanbul, 34098 (Turkey); Onal, Bulent, E-mail: bulonal@yahoo.com [Istanbul University, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine, Department of Urology, KMPasa, Istanbul, 34098 (Turkey); Adaletli, Ibrahim, E-mail: iadaletli@yahoo.com [Istanbul University, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, KMPasa, Istanbul, 34098 (Turkey)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Testicular biopsy is no longer recommended in the management of undescended testes. • SWE yields valuable quantitative information about the histological properties tissues by assessing stiffness. • Mean stiffness values of undescended testes were significantly higher than those of the contralateral descended testes. • SWE seems to be a useful sonographic technique to assess damage to the undescended testis. • SWE might replace testicular biopsy in the management of undescended testes. - Abstract: Objectives: We sought to compare unilateral palpable undescended testes and contralateral descended testes using shear wave elastography (SWE) to show potential quantitative differences in elasticity patterns, which might reflect the histologic features. Methods: Approval for this prospective study was obtained from the local ethics committee. A total of 29 patients (mean age, 7.52 years; range, 1–18 years) with unilateral palpable undescended testes and contralateral descended testes were examined by greyscale ultrasonography and SWE between February 2015 and April 2016. The volume and the elasticity of each testicle were the main factors evaluated. Results: There was no difference between undescended testes and contralateral descended testes in terms of volume. However, a significant difference was evident in SWE-derived quantitative data. Conclusions: SWE seems to be a useful sonographic technique to predict histologic features of the undescended testicle, which might replace testicular biopsy in modern management of the undescended testis.

  12. Preliminary Plugging tests in Narrow Sodium Channels by Sodium and Carbon Dioxide reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sun Hee; Wi, Myung-Hwan; Min, Jae Hong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    This report is on the investigation of the physical/chemical phenomena that a slow loss of CO{sub 2} inventory into sodium after the sodium-CO{sub 2} boundary failure in PCHEs in realistic operating conditions. The first phenomenon is potential channel plugging inside the narrow PCHE channel. Unlike a conventional shell and- tube type HXs, failures in a PCHE are expected to be small cracks. If the faulted channel is blocked, it may have a positive function for plant safety because the pressure boundary would automatically recover due to this self-plugging. The other one is damage propagation on pressure boundary, which is referred to as potential wastage with combined corrosion/erosion effect. Physical/chemical phenomena that a slow loss of CO{sub 2} inventory into sodium after the sodium-CO{sub 2} boundary failure in printed circuit heat exchangers (PCHEs) were investigated. Our preliminary experimental results of plugging show that sodium flow immediately stopped as CO{sub 2} was injected through the nozzle at 300-400 .deg. C in 3 mm sodium channels, whereas sodium flow stopped about 60 min after CO{sub 2} injection in 5 mm sodium channels.

  13. Water-quality monitoring at the Hoe Creek test site: review and preliminary conclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, F T; Mead, S W; Stuermer, D H

    1982-05-20

    It has been shown that underground coal gasification (UCG) may introduce a broad range of residual gasification products into the groundwater of a coal aquifer. Sorption of many contaminants by the coal itself is an important factor in restricting the migration of these contaminants in the ground water. However, field studies, conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Hoe Creek site, have shown that sorption of organic compounds by coal is not as effective as expected, perhaps because the coal surface area is limited. Furthermore, if severe roof collapse has taken place during gasification, non-coal aquifers located above the gasified coal seam may be interconnected with the coal aquifer, and contaminants may enter these non-coal aquifers, in which sorption is even less effective. The Hoe Creek II and III experiments have provided opportunities to study the contamination of a sand aquifer located above a gasified coal seam in a hydrological recharge area. Preliminary results indicate that the water in the overlying sand aquifer is much less contaminated with organic compounds than the water in the gasified coal aquifer. In conducting these field investigations, valuable lessons ere learned concerning groundwater monitoring. A suggested monitoring strategy is discussed.

  14. Preliminary test results from the HSST shallow-crack fracture toughness program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theiss, T.J.; Robinson, G.C.; Rolfe, S.T.

    1991-01-01

    The Heavy Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program under sponsorship of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is investigating the influence of crack depth on the fracture toughness of reactor pressure vessel steel. The ultimate goal of the investigation is the generation of a limited data base of elastic-plastic fracture toughness values appropriate for shallow flaws in a reactor pressure vessel and the application of this data to reactor vessel life assessments. It has been shown that shallow-flaws play a dominant role in the probabilistic fracture mechanics analysis of reactor pressure vessels during a pressurized-thermal-shock event. In addition, recent research has shown that the crack initiation toughness measured using specimens with shallow flaws is greater that the toughness determined with conventional, deeply notched specimens at temperatures within the transition region for non-nuclear steels. The influence of crack depth on the elastic-plastic fracture toughness for prototypic reactor material is being investigated. Preliminary results indicate a significant increase in the toughness associated with shallow-flaws which has the potential to significantly impact the conditional probability of vessel failure. 8 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  15. Preliminary results of the US pool-boiling coils from the IFSMTF full-array tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lue, J.W.; Dresner, L.; Lubell, M.S.; Luton, J.N.; McManamy, T.J.; Shen, S.S.

    1986-01-01

    The Large Coil Task to develop superconducting magnets for fusion reactors, is now in the midst of full-array tests in the International Fusion Superconducting Magnet Test Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Included in the test array are two pool-boiling coils designed and fabricated by US manufacturers, General Dynamics/Convair Division and General Electric/Union Carbide Corporation. So far, both coils have been energized to full design currents in the single-coil tests, and the General Dynamics coil has reached the design point in the first Standard-I full-array test. Both coils performed well in the charging experiments. Extensive heating tests and the heavy instrumentation of these coils have, however, revealed some generic limitations of large pool-boiling superconducting coils. Details of these results and their analyses are reported

  16. Air STAR Beyond Visual Range UAS Description and Preliminary Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Kevin; Cox, David E.; Foster, John V.; Riddick, Stephen E.; Laughter, Sean A.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research Unmanned Aerial System project's capabilities were expanded by updating the system design and concept of operations. The new remotely piloted airplane system design was flight tested to assess integrity and operational readiness of the design to perform flight research. The purpose of the system design is to improve aviation safety by providing a capability to validate, in high-risk conditions, technologies to prevent airplane loss of control. Two principal design requirements were to provide a high degree of reliability and that the new design provide a significant increase in test volume (relative to operations using the previous design). The motivation for increased test volume is to improve test efficiency and allow new test capabilities that were not possible with the previous design and concept of operations. Three successful test flights were conducted from runway 4-22 at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Wallops Flight Facility.

  17. Testing a Preliminary Live with Love Conceptual Framework for cancer couple dyads: A mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiuping; Xu, Yinghua; Zhou, Huiya; Loke, Alice Yuen

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the previous proposed Preliminary Live with Love Conceptual Framework (P-LLCF) that focuses on spousal caregiver-patient couples in their journey of coping with cancer as dyads. A mixed-methods study that included qualitative and quantitative approaches was conducted. Methods of concept and theory analysis, and structural equation modeling (SEM) were applied in testing the P-LLCF. In the qualitative approach in testing the concepts included in the P-LLCF, a comparison was made between the P-LLCF with a preliminary conceptual framework derived from focus group interviews among Chinese couples' coping with cancer. The comparison showed that the concepts identified in the P-LLCF are relevant to the phenomenon under scrutiny, and attributes of the concepts are consistent with those identified among Chinese cancer couple dyads. In the quantitative study, 117 cancer couples were recruited. The findings showed that inter-relationships exist among the components included in the P-LLCF: event situation, dyadic mediators, dyadic appraisal, dyadic coping, and dyadic outcomes. In that the event situation will impact the dyadic outcomes directly or indirectly through Dyadic Mediators. The dyadic mediators, dyadic appraisal, and dyadic coping are interrelated and work together to benefit the dyadic outcomes. This study provides evidence that supports the interlinked components and the relationship included in the P-LLCF. The findings of this study are important in that they provide healthcare professionals with guidance and directions according to the P-LLCF on how to plan supportive programs for couples coping with cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Preliminary design of steam reformer in out-pile demonstration test facility for HTTR heat utilization system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haga, Katsuhiro; Hino, Ryutaro; Inagaki, Yosiyuki; Hata, Kazuhiko; Aita, Hideki; Sekita, Kenji; Nishihara, Tetsuo; Sudo, Yukio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Yamada, Seiya

    1996-11-01

    One of the key objectives of HTTR is to demonstrate effectiveness of high-temperature nuclear heat utilization system. Prior to connecting a heat utilization system to HTTR, an out-pile demonstration test is indispensable for the development of experimental apparatuses, operational control and safety technology, and verification of the analysis code of safety assessment. For the first heat utilization system of HTTR, design of the hydrogen production system by steam reforming is going on. We have proposed the out-pile demonstration test plan of the heat utilization system and conducted preliminary design of the test facility. In this report, design of the steam reformer, which is the principal component of the test facility, is described. In the course of the design, two types of reformers are considered. The one reformer contains three reactor tubes and the other contains one reactor tube to reduce the construction cost of the test facility. We have selected the steam reformer operational conditions and structural specifications by analyzing the steam reforming characteristics and component structural strength for each type of reformer. (author)

  19. Preliminary project definition for long duration. Tests of coal fired MHD generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Laken, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    In its final report the Faraday Working Group recommended the CEC amongst others to explore the possibility of a long duration test of a 'state-of-the-art', MHD-generator in order to remove uncertainties concerning the lifetime and availability of such a generator design. The duration of the test should be several thousands of hours, considerably more than the duration tests carried out until now. The scope of the present study is to prepare a project definition document for a long duration test of a coal fired, state-of-the-art MHD-generator

  20. Preliminary Interpretation of a Radionuclide and Colloid Tracer Test in a Granodiorite Shear Zone at the Grimsel Test Site, Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimus, Paul W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-30

    In February and March 2012, a tracer test involving the injection of a radionuclide-colloid cocktail was conducted in the MI shear zone at the Grimsel Test Site, Switzerland, as part of the Colloids Formation and Migration (CFM) project. The colloids were derived from FEBEX bentonite, which is mined in Spain and is being considered as a potential waste package backfill in a Spanish nuclear waste repository. The tracer test, designated test 12-02 (second test in 2012), involved the injection of the tracer cocktail into borehole CFM 06.002i2 and extraction from the Pinkel surface packer at the main access tunnel wall approximately 6.1 m from the injection interval. The test configuration is depicted in Figure 1. This configuration has been used in several conservative tracer tests and two colloid-homologue tracer tests since 2007, and it is will be employed in an upcoming test involving the emplacement of a radionuclide-doped bentonite plug into CFM 06.002i2 to evaluate the swelling and erosion of the bentonite and the transport of bentonite colloids and radionuclides from the source to the extraction point at the tunnel wall. Interpretive analyses of several of the previous tracer tests, from 09-01 through 12-02 were provided in two previous Used Fuel Disposition Program milestone reports (Arnold et al., 2011; Kersting et al., 2012). However, only the data for the conservative tracer Amino-G Acid was previously analyzed from test 12-02 because the other tracer data from this test were not available at the time. This report documents the first attempt to quantitatively analyze the radionuclide and colloid breakthrough curves from CFM test 12-02. This report was originally intended to also include an experimental assessment of colloid-facilitated transport of uranium by bentonite colloids in the Grimsel system, but this assessment was not conducted because it was reported by German collaborators at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) that neither uranium nor

  1. Direct democracy and minority rights: same-sex marriage bans in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Daniel C

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. A common critique of direct democracy posits that minority rights are endangered by citizen legislative institutions. By allowing citizens to directly create public policy, these institutions avoid the filtering mechanisms of representative democracy that provide a check on the power of the majority. Empirical research, however, has produced conflicting results that leave the question of direct democracy's effect on minority rights open to debate. This article seeks to empirically test this critique using a comparative, dynamic approach.Methods. I examine the diffusion of same-sex marriage bans in the United States using event-history analysis, comparing direct-democracy states to non-direct-democracy states.Results. The results show that direct-democracy states are significantly more likely than other states to adopt same-sex marriage bans.Conclusion. The findings support the majoritarian critique of direct democracy, suggesting that the rights of minority groups are at relatively higher risk under systems with direct democracy.

  2. Cardiorespiratory hospitalisation and mortality reductions after smoking bans in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicedo-Cabrera, Ana M; Röösli, Martin; Radovanovic, Dragana; Grize, Leticia; Witassek, Fabienne; Schindler, Christian; Perez, Laura

    2017-01-19

    Smoking bans are considered one of the most effective policies to reduce population exposure to tobacco smoke and prevent adverse health outcomes. However, evidence on the effect of contextual variables on the effectiveness of smoking bans is still lacking. The patchwork of cantonal smoke-free laws in Switzerland was used as a quasi-experimental setting to assess changes after their introduction in: hospitalisations and mortality due to cardiorespiratory diseases in adults; total hospitalisations and hospitalisations due to respiratory disorders in children; and the modifying effects of contextual factors and the effectiveness of the laws. Using hospital and mortality registry data for residents in Switzerland (2005-2012), we conducted canton-specific interrupted time-series analyses followed by random effects meta-analyses to obtain nationwide smoking ban estimates by subgroups of age, sex and causes of hospitalisation or death. Heterogeneity of the impact caused by strictness of the ban and other smoking-related characteristics of the cantons was explored through meta-regression. Total hospitalisation rates due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases did not significantly change after the introduction of the ban. Post-ban changes were detected in ischaemic heart disease hospitalisations, with a 2.5% reduction (95% confidence interval [CI)] -6.2 to 1.3%) for all ages and 5.5% (95% CI -10.8 to -0.2%) in adults 35-64 years old. Total mortality due to respiratory diseases decreased by 8.2% (95% CI -15.2 to -0.6%) over all ages, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease mortality decreased by 14.0% (95% CI -22.3 to -4.5%) in adults ≥65 years old. Cardiovascular mortality did not change after the introduction of the ban, but there was an indication of post-ban reductions in mortality due to hypertensive disorders (-5.4%, 95% CI -12.6 to 2.3%), and congestive heart failure (-6.0%, 95% CI -14.5 to 3.4%). No benefits were observed for hospitalisations due to

  3. Evaluation of photopatch test allergens for Indian patients of photodermatitis: Preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Jindal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a strong need to develop a photopatch test tray suitable for Indian patients of photodermatitis as European/Scandinavian photopatch test trays may not be wholly relevant for them. Aim: We carried out this study using photoallergens relevant in the Indian context to determine their relevance in patients of photodermatitis. Methods: Thirty patients (M:F, 23:7 between 19 and 76 years of age of photodermatitis and 10 controls were patch- and photopatch tested with 20 common photoallergens. In addition, the patients were also (photo patch tested with articles of daily use as and when these were suspected to be the cause. Results: Forty-three positive reactions to one or more antigens were seen in 22 (74% patients. Fourteen positive photopatch tests to seven allergens were observed in 10 (33% patients, and nine (30% of them had a definite relevance. The most common contact allergen was fragrance mix (FM (30%, followed by p-phenylenediamine (20% and Parthenium hysterophorous (17%. The definite relevance of the patch- and photopatch tests could be correlated in 47% of these patients. Conclusions: FM is the most common contact and photocontact allergen among the various photopatch test antigens. Although differences in technique and evaluation make direct comparison between different centers difficult, still photopatch testing remains an integral part and gold standard for the work-up of the photosensitive patients.

  4. Design and preliminary test results of the quench detection system for IFSMTF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, S.S.; Walstrom, P.L.; Wilson, C.T.; Goddard, J.S.

    1985-01-01

    A unique quench detection system was designed for the International Fusion Superconducting Magnet Test Facility (IFSMTF), where a simultaneous test of six large superconducting toroidal field magnets will be carried out. The scheme was based on analog subtraction of self and neighboring pickup winding voltage from the coil voltage to yield a compensated signal proportional to a normal-zone voltage. The compensated signals were input to quench detection modules that give a quench output signal to discharge the coil if the compensated signals exceed preset thresholds for preset time durations. This paper summarizes the design and analysis of the system and presents the experimental results of the simulation tests, two-coil charging-discharging tests, and the normal-zone recovery tests

  5. Preliminary Validation of a New Measure of Negative Response Bias: The Temporal Memory Sequence Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegedish, Omer; Kivilis, Naama; Hoofien, Dan

    2015-01-01

    The Temporal Memory Sequence Test (TMST) is a new measure of negative response bias (NRB) that was developed to enrich the forced-choice paradigm. The TMST does not resemble the common structure of forced-choice tests and is presented as a temporal recall memory test. The validation sample consisted of 81 participants: 21 healthy control participants, 20 coached simulators, and 40 patients with acquired brain injury (ABI). The TMST had high reliability and significantly high positive correlations with the Test of Memory Malingering and Word Memory Test effort scales. Moreover, the TMST effort scales exhibited high negative correlations with the Glasgow Coma Scale, thus validating the previously reported association between probable malingering and mild traumatic brain injury. A suggested cutoff score yielded acceptable classification rates in the ABI group as well as in the simulator and control groups. The TMST appears to be a promising measure of NRB detection, with respectable rates of reliability and construct and criterion validity.

  6. Preliminary reactor physics calculations for Exxon LWR fuel testing in the power burst facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, W.O.; Nigg, D.W.

    1981-05-01

    The PFB reactor is being considered as an irradiation facility to test LWR fuel rods for Exxon Nuclear Company. Requested test conditions are 18 kW/ft axial peak steady state power in 2.5% initial enrichment, 20,000 MWd/Tu exposed rods. Multigroup transport theory calculations (S/sub n/ and Monte Carlo) showed that this was unattainable in the standard PBF test loop. Thus, a flux multiplier was developed in the form of a Zr-2-clad 0.15-inch thick cylindrical shell of 35% enriched, 88% T.D. UO 2 replacing the flow divider, surrounding the rod within the in-pile tube in PFB. With this flux multiplier installed and assuming an average water density of 0.86 g/cm 3 within the test loop, a Figure of Merit (FOM) for a single-rod test assembly of 0.86 kW/ft-MW +- 5% (at 95% confidence level) was calculated. This FOM is the axial peak linear test rod power per megawatt of reactor power. A reactor power of about 21 megawatts will therefore be required to supply the requested linear test rod axial peak heating rate of 18 kW/ft

  7. Construction of PREMUX and preliminary experimental results, as preparation for the HCPB breeder unit mock-up testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernández, F., E-mail: francisco.hernandez@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology (INR) (Germany); Kolb, M. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Applied Materials (IAM-WPT) (Germany); Annabattula, R. [Indian Institute of Technology Madras (IITM), Department of Mechanical Engineering (India); Weth, A. von der [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology (INR) (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • PREMUX has been constructed as preparation for a future out-of-pile thermo-mechanical qualification of a HCPB breeder unit mock-up. • The rationale and constructive details of PREMUX are reported in this paper. • PREMUX serves as a test rig for the new heater system developed for the HCPB-BU mock-up. • PREMUX will be used as benchmark for the thermal and thermo-mechanical models developed in ANSYS for the pebble beds of the HCPB-BU. • Preliminary results show the functionality of PREMUX and the good agreement of the measured temperatures with the thermal model developed in ANSYS. - Abstract: One of the European blanket designs for ITER is the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) blanket. The core of the HCPB-TBM consists of so-called breeder units (BUs), which encloses beryllium as neutron multiplier and lithium orthosilicate (Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}) as tritium breeder in form of pebble beds. After the design phase of the HCPB-BU, a non-nuclear thermal and thermo-mechanical qualification program for this device is running at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. Before the complex full scale BU testing, a pre-test mock-up experiment (PREMUX) has been constructed, which consists of a slice of the BU containing the Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} pebble bed. PREMUX is going to be operated under highly ITER-relevant conditions and has the following goals: (1) as a testing rig of new heater concept based on a matrix of wire heaters, (2) as benchmark for the existing finite element method (FEM) codes used for the thermo-mechanical assessment of the Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} pebble bed, and (3) in situ measurement of thermal conductivity of the Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} pebble bed during the tests. This paper describes the construction of PREMUX, its rationale and the experimental campaign planned with the device. Preliminary results testing the algorithm used for the temperature reconstruction of the pebble bed are reported and compared qualitatively with first analyses

  8. Design and Preliminary Testing of the International Docking Adapter's Peripheral Docking Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Christopher W.; Blaschak, Johnathan; Eldridge, Erin A.; Brazzel, Jack P.; Spehar, Peter T.

    2015-01-01

    The International Docking Adapter's Peripheral Docking Target (PDT) was designed to allow a docking spacecraft to judge its alignment relative to the docking system. The PDT was designed to be compatible with relative sensors using visible cameras, thermal imagers, or Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) technologies. The conceptual design team tested prototype designs and materials to determine the contrast requirements for the features. This paper will discuss the design of the PDT, the methodology and results of the tests, and the conclusions pertaining to PDT design that were drawn from testing.

  9. Design and preliminary test results of the 40 MW power supply at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boenig, H.J.; Bogdan, F.; Morris, G.C.; Ferner, J.A.; Schneider-Muntau, H.J.; Rumrill, R.H.; Rumrill, R.S.

    1993-01-01

    Four highly stabilized, steady-state, 10 MW power supplies have been installed at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory in Tallahassee, FL. Each supply consists of a 12.5 kV vacuum circuit breaker, two three-winding, step-down transformers, a 24-pulse rectifier with interphase reactors and freewheeling diodes, and a passive and an active filter. Two different transformer tap settings allow dc supply output voltages of 400 and 500 V. The rated current of a supply is 17 kA and each supply has a one hour overload capability of 20 kA. The power supply output bus system, including a reversing switch at the input and 2 x 16 disconnect switches at the output, connects each supply to 16 different magnet cells. The design of the power supply is described and preliminary test results with a supply feeding a 10 MW resistive load are presented

  10. PHOEBUS/UHTREX: a preliminary study of a low-cost facility for transient tests of LMFBR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, W.L.

    1976-08-01

    The results of a brief preliminary design study of a facility for transient nuclear tests of fast breeder reactor fuel are described. The study is based on the use of a reactor building originally built for the UHTREX reactor, and the use of some reactor hardware and reactor design and fabrication technology remaining from the Phoebus-2 reactor of the Rover nulcear rocket propulsion program. The facility is therefore currently identified as the PHOEBUS/UHTREX facility. This facility is believed capable of providing early information regarding fast reactor core accident energetics issues which will be very valuable to the overall LMFBR safety program. Facility performance in conjunction with a reference 127-fuel pin experiment is described. Low cost and early availability of the facility were emphasized in the selection of design features and parameters

  11. Gaseous electron multiplier-based soft x-ray plasma diagnostics development: Preliminary tests at ASDEX Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernyshova, M., E-mail: maryna.chernyshova@ipplm.pl; Malinowski, K.; Czarski, T.; Kowalska-Strzęciwilk, E. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Hery 23, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Wojeński, A.; Poźniak, K. T.; Kasprowicz, G.; Krawczyk, R.; Kolasiński, P.; Zabołotny, W.; Zienkiewicz, P. [Institute of Electronic Systems, Warsaw University of Technology, Nowowiejska 15/19, 00-665 Warsaw (Poland); Vezinet, D.; Herrmann, A. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Mazon, D.; Jardin, A. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2016-11-15

    A Gaseous Electron Multiplier (GEM)-based detector is being developed for soft X-ray diagnostics on tokamaks. Its main goal is to facilitate transport studies of impurities like tungsten. Such studies are very relevant to ITER, where the excessive accumulation of impurities in the plasma core should be avoided. This contribution provides details of the preliminary tests at ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) with a focus on the most important aspects for detector operation in harsh radiation environment. It was shown that both spatially and spectrally resolved data could be collected, in a reasonable agreement with other AUG diagnostics. Contributions to the GEM signal include also hard X-rays, gammas, and neutrons. First simulations of the effect of high-energy photons have helped understanding these contributions.

  12. PHOEBUS/UHTREX: a preliminary study of a low-cost facility for transient tests of LMFBR fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirk, W.L. (comp.)

    1976-08-01

    The results of a brief preliminary design study of a facility for transient nuclear tests of fast breeder reactor fuel are described. The study is based on the use of a reactor building originally built for the UHTREX reactor, and the use of some reactor hardware and reactor design and fabrication technology remaining from the Phoebus-2 reactor of the Rover nulcear rocket propulsion program. The facility is therefore currently identified as the PHOEBUS/UHTREX facility. This facility is believed capable of providing early information regarding fast reactor core accident energetics issues which will be very valuable to the overall LMFBR safety program. Facility performance in conjunction with a reference 127-fuel pin experiment is described. Low cost and early availability of the facility were emphasized in the selection of design features and parameters.

  13. Efficient preliminary floating offshore wind turbine design and testing methodologies and application to a concrete spar design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matha, Denis; Sandner, Frank; Molins, Climent; Campos, Alexis; Cheng, Po Wen

    2015-02-28

    The current key challenge in the floating offshore wind turbine industry and research is on designing economic floating systems that can compete with fixed-bottom offshore turbines in terms of levelized cost of energy. The preliminary platform design, as well as early experimental design assessments, are critical elements in the overall design process. In this contribution, a brief review of current floating offshore wind turbine platform pre-design and scaled testing methodologies is provided, with a focus on their ability to accommodate the coupled dynamic behaviour of floating offshore wind systems. The exemplary design and testing methodology for a monolithic concrete spar platform as performed within the European KIC AFOSP project is presented. Results from the experimental tests compared to numerical simulations are presented and analysed and show very good agreement for relevant basic dynamic platform properties. Extreme and fatigue loads and cost analysis of the AFOSP system confirm the viability of the presented design process. In summary, the exemplary application of the reduced design and testing methodology for AFOSP confirms that it represents a viable procedure during pre-design of floating offshore wind turbine platforms. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Clove cigar sales following the US flavoured cigarette ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delnevo, Cristine D; Hrywna, Mary

    2015-12-01

    Following the passage of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act in 2009, flavoured cigarettes, including clove cigarettes, were banned based on the rationale that such cigarettes appealed to youth. However, the ban on characterising flavours was not extended to cigars. This study reviewed industry documents from Kretek International, the parent company behind Djarum clove cigars, to document the changes in their marketing and production strategies following the flavour ban on cigarettes. To assess sales trends following the ban, data for clove cigar sales in the USA from 2009 to 2012 were analysed using Nielsen's Convenience Track retail scanner database. Additionally, data on tobacco imports to the USA from Indonesia were obtained from the USDA Foreign Agricultural Service's Global Agricultural Trade System for the years 2008-2012. In anticipation of Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) flavour ban on cigarettes and recognising the regulatory advantages of cigars, Kretek International began developing Djarum clove cigars in 2007. Immediately following the flavour ban, sales of this product increased by more than 1400% between 2009 and 2012. During this same period, tobacco imports to the USA from Indonesia, a leader in clove tobacco production, shifted from cigarettes to almost exclusively cigars. Kretek International, like other tobacco manufacturers, manipulated its products following the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act as a way to capitalise on regulatory loopholes and replace its now banned clove cigarettes. As a result, consumption of the company's Djarum clove cigars increased exponentially in recent years. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. Preliminary studies of microchannel plate photomultiplier tube neutron detectors for flight test applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, K.W.

    1978-10-01

    Electrical, mechanical, thermal, and neutron response data indicate that microchannel plate photomultiplier tubes are viable candidates as miniature, ruggedized neutron detectors for flight test applications in future weapon systems

  16. Preliminary analyses for HTTR`s start-up physics tests by Monte Carlo code MVP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nojiri, Naoki [Science and Technology Agency, Tokyo (Japan); Nakano, Masaaki; Ando, Hiroei; Fujimoto, Nozomu; Takeuchi, Mitsuo; Fujisaki, Shingo; Yamashita, Kiyonobu

    1998-08-01

    Analyses of start-up physics tests for High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) have been carried out by Monte Carlo code MVP based on continuous energy method. Heterogeneous core structures were modified precisely, such as the fuel compacts, fuel rods, coolant channels, burnable poisons, control rods, control rod insertion holes, reserved shutdown pellet insertion holes, gaps between graphite blocks, etc. Such precise modification of the core structures was difficult with diffusion calculation. From the analytical results, the followings were confirmed; The first criticality will be achieved around 16 fuel columns loaded. The reactivity at the first criticality can be controlled by only one control rod located at the center of the core with other fifteen control rods fully withdrawn. The excess reactivity, reactor shutdown margin and control rod criticality positions have been evaluated. These results were used for planning of the start-up physics tests. This report presents analyses of start-up physics tests for HTTR by MVP code. (author)

  17. Preliminary analyses for HTTR's start-up physics tests by Monte Carlo code MVP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nojiri, Naoki; Nakano, Masaaki; Ando, Hiroei; Fujimoto, Nozomu; Takeuchi, Mitsuo; Fujisaki, Shingo; Yamashita, Kiyonobu

    1998-08-01

    Analyses of start-up physics tests for High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) have been carried out by Monte Carlo code MVP based on continuous energy method. Heterogeneous core structures were modified precisely, such as the fuel compacts, fuel rods, coolant channels, burnable poisons, control rods, control rod insertion holes, reserved shutdown pellet insertion holes, gaps between graphite blocks, etc. Such precise modification of the core structures was difficult with diffusion calculation. From the analytical results, the followings were confirmed; The first criticality will be achieved around 16 fuel columns loaded. The reactivity at the first criticality can be controlled by only one control rod located at the center of the core with other fifteen control rods fully withdrawn. The excess reactivity, reactor shutdown margin and control rod criticality positions have been evaluated. These results were used for planning of the start-up physics tests. This report presents analyses of start-up physics tests for HTTR by MVP code. (author)

  18. Preliminary tests of WIMSD/4 program installed in a CDC CYBER 170/750 at IEAV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claro, L.H.; Anaf, J.

    1989-12-01

    Some cell calculations options of the WIMSD/4 code were tested. Comparisons with the HAMMER code results are presented. Control cards for WIMSD/4 execution in the IEAv CDC CYBER 170/750 and input examples are included. (author) [pt

  19. First Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence round-robin test of water samples: Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgese, Laura; Bilo, Fabjola [Chemistry for Technologies Laboratory, University of Brescia, Brescia (Italy); Tsuji, Kouichi [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka City University, Osaka (Japan); Fernández-Ruiz, Ramón [Servicio Interdepartamental de Investigación (SIdI), Laboratorio de TXRF, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Margui, Eva [Department of Chemistry, University of Girona, Girona (Spain); Streli, Christina [TU Wien, Atominstitut,Radiation Physics, Vienna (Austria); Pepponi, Giancarlo [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Povo, Trento (Italy); Stosnach, Hagen [Bruker Nano GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Yamada, Takashi [Rigaku Corporation, Takatsuki, Osaka (Japan); Vandenabeele, Peter [Department of Archaeology, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Maina, David M.; Gatari, Michael [Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Nairobi, Nairobi (Kenya); Shepherd, Keith D.; Towett, Erick K. [World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), Nairobi (Kenya); Bennun, Leonardo [Laboratorio de Física Aplicada, Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción (Chile); Custo, Graciela; Vasquez, Cristina [Gerencia Química, Laboratorio B025, Centro Atómico Constituyentes, San Martín (Argentina); Depero, Laura E., E-mail: laura.depero@unibs.it [Chemistry for Technologies Laboratory, University of Brescia, Brescia (Italy)

    2014-11-01

    Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) is a mature technique to evaluate quantitatively the elemental composition of liquid samples deposited on clean and well polished reflectors. In this paper the results of the first worldwide TXRF round-robin test of water samples, involving 18 laboratories in 10 countries are presented and discussed. The test was performed within the framework of the VAMAS project, interlaboratory comparison of TXRF spectroscopy for environmental analysis, whose aim is to develop guidelines and a standard methodology for biological and environmental analysis by means of the TXRF analytical technique. - Highlights: • The discussion of the first worldwide TXRF round-robin test of water samples (18 laboratories of 10 countries) is reported. • Drinking, waste, and desalinated water samples were tested. • Data dispersion sources were identified: sample concentration, preparation, fitting procedure, and quantification. • The protocol for TXRF analysis of drinking water is proposed.

  20. The passive seismic aftershock Monitoring system: testing program and preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhtari, M.

    2005-01-01

    The paper is dedicated to testing program (phase of the passive seismic aftershock monitoring system with RefTek equipment (Refraction Technology, Inc., USA) for On-Site Inspection purposes that was carried out near Vienna International Centre in 2000. Equipment and applied software are described. Testing results were analyzed; in particular, least needs in maintenance personnel during operation. Development perspectives of passive seismic aftershock monitoring system for On-Site Inspection have been discussed. (author)

  1. ABCOVE program: preliminary results of tests AB5 and AB6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilliard, R.K.; Muhlestein, L.D.

    1984-01-01

    A program for aerosol behavior code validation and evaluation (ABCOVE) is in progress in the United States. Purpose of the ABCOVE program is to provide a basis for judging the adequacy of existing aerosol behavior computer codes to describe inherent aerosol behavior in containment buildings during postulated breeder reactor accidents. The program involves pretest calculations by code developers and users, large-scale confirmatory tests in the 850-m 3 containment vessel of the Containment Systems Test Facility (CSTF), and blind post-test analyses and comparisons with experimental data. Two ABCOVE tests have been performed in the CSTF to date. In the first test, a single-species aerosol was used, with the aerosol being generated by spraying sodium at a high rate into an air atmosphere. In the second test, the experimental conditions simulated an accident environment in which a fission product aerosol, NaI, was released in the presence of a sodium fire. Pretest computer code predictions were made by seven organizations using eight computer codes (HAA-3, HAA-4, HAARM-3, SOFIA, QUICK, QUICKM, MAEROS, and CONTAIN)

  2. Preliminary Test Results of Heshe Hydrogeological Experimental Well Station in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, P.; Liu, C.; Lin, M.; Chan, W.; Lee, T.; Chia, Y.; Teng, M.; Liu, C.

    2013-12-01

    Safe disposal of radioactive waste is a critical issue for the development of nuclear energy. The design of final disposal system is based on the concept of multiple barriers which integrate the natural barriers and engineering barriers for long-term isolation of radioactive wastes. As groundwater is the major medium that can transport radionuclides to our living environment, it is essential to characterize groundwater flow at the disposal site. Taiwan is located at the boundary between the Eurasian plate and the Philippine Sea plate. Geologic formations are often fractured due to tectonic compression and extension. In this study, a well station for the research and development of hydrogeological techniques was established at the Experimental Forest of the National Taiwan University in central Taiwan. There are 10 testing wells, ranging in depth from 25 m to 100 m, at the station. The bedrock beneath the regolith is highly fractured mudstone. As fracture is the preferential pathway of the groundwater flow, the focus of in-situ tests is to investigate the location of permeable fractures and the connection of permeable fractures. Several field tests have been conducted, including geophysical logging, heat-pulse flowmeter, hydraulic test, tracer test and double packer test, for the development of advanced technologies to detect the preferential groundwater flow in fractured rocks.

  3. Engineering, Manufacture and Preliminary Testing of the ITER Toroidal Field (TF) Magnet Helium Cold Circulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rista, P. E. C.; Shull, J.; Sargent, S.

    2015-12-01

    The ITER cryodistribution system provides the supercritical Helium (SHe) forced flow cooling to the magnet system using cold circulators. The cold circulators are located in each of five separate auxiliary cold boxes planned for use in the facility. Barber-Nichols Inc. has been awarded a contract from ITER-India for engineering, manufacture and testing of the Toroidal Field (TF) Magnet Helium Cold Circulator. The cold circulator will be extensively tested at Barber-Nichols’ facility prior to delivery for qualification testing at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency's (JAEA) test facility at Naka, Japan. The TF Cold Circulator integrates features and technical requirements which Barber-Nichols has utilized when supplying helium cold circulators worldwide over a period of 35 years. Features include a vacuum-jacketed hermetically sealed design with a very low helium leak rate, a heat shield for use with both nitrogen & helium cold sources, a broad operating range with a guaranteed isentropic efficiency over 70%, and impeller design features for high efficiency. The cold circulator will be designed to meet MTBM of 17,500 hours and MTBF of 36,000 hours. Vibration and speed monitoring are integrated into a compact package on the rotating assembly with operation and health monitoring in a multi-drop PROFIBUS communication environment using an electrical cabinet with critical features and full local and network PLC interface and control. For the testing in Japan and eventual installation in Europe, the cold circulator must be certified to the Japanese High Pressure Gas Safety Act (JHPGSA) and CE marked in compliance with the European Pressure Equipment Directive (PED) including Essential Safety Requirements (ESR). The test methodology utilized at Barber-Nichols’ facility and the resulting test data, validating the high efficiency of the TF Cold Circulator across a broad operating range, are important features of this paper.

  4. Engineering, Manufacture and Preliminary Testing of the ITER Toroidal Field (TF) Magnet Helium Cold Circulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C Rista, P E; Shull, J; Sargent, S

    2015-01-01

    The ITER cryodistribution system provides the supercritical Helium (SHe) forced flow cooling to the magnet system using cold circulators. The cold circulators are located in each of five separate auxiliary cold boxes planned for use in the facility. Barber-Nichols Inc. has been awarded a contract from ITER-India for engineering, manufacture and testing of the Toroidal Field (TF) Magnet Helium Cold Circulator. The cold circulator will be extensively tested at Barber-Nichols’ facility prior to delivery for qualification testing at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency's (JAEA) test facility at Naka, Japan. The TF Cold Circulator integrates features and technical requirements which Barber-Nichols has utilized when supplying helium cold circulators worldwide over a period of 35 years. Features include a vacuum-jacketed hermetically sealed design with a very low helium leak rate, a heat shield for use with both nitrogen and helium cold sources, a broad operating range with a guaranteed isentropic efficiency over 70%, and impeller design features for high efficiency. The cold circulator will be designed to meet MTBM of 17,500 hours and MTBF of 36,000 hours. Vibration and speed monitoring are integrated into a compact package on the rotating assembly with operation and health monitoring in a multi-drop PROFIBUS communication environment using an electrical cabinet with critical features and full local and network PLC interface and control. For the testing in Japan and eventual installation in Europe, the cold circulator must be certified to the Japanese High Pressure Gas Safety Act (JHPGSA) and CE marked in compliance with the European Pressure Equipment Directive (PED) including Essential Safety Requirements (ESR). The test methodology utilized at Barber-Nichols’ facility and the resulting test data, validating the high efficiency of the TF Cold Circulator across a broad operating range, are important features of this paper. (paper)

  5. Can joint sound assess soft and hard endpoints of the Lachman test?: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Koji; Ogawa, Munehiro; Tanaka, Kazunori; Matsuya, Ayako; Uematsu, Kota; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2016-05-12

    The Lachman test is considered to be a reliable physical examination for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Patients with a damaged ACL demonstrate a soft endpoint feeling. However, examiners judge the soft and hard endpoints subjectively. The purpose of our study was to confirm objective performance of the Lachman test using joint auscultation. Human and porcine knee joints were examined. Knee joint sound during the Lachman test (Lachman sound) was analyzed by fast Fourier transformation. As quantitative indices of Lachman sound, the peak sound as the maximum relative amplitude (acoustic pressure) and its frequency were used. The mean Lachman peak sound for healthy volunteer knees was 86.9 ± 12.9 Hz in frequency and -40 ± 2.5 dB in acoustic pressure. The mean Lachman peak sound for intact porcine knees was 84.1 ± 9.4 Hz and -40.5 ± 1.7 dB. Porcine knees with ACL deficiency had a soft endpoint feeling during the Lachman test. The Lachman peak sounds of porcine knees with ACL deficiency were dispersed into four distinct groups, with center frequencies of around 40, 160, 450, and 1600. The Lachman peak sound was capable of assessing soft and hard endpoints of the Lachman test objectively.

  6. Preliminary Tests For Development Of A Non-Pertechnetate Analysis Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diprete, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-28

    The objective of this task was to develop a non-pertechnetate analysis method that 222-S lab could easily implement. The initial scope involved working with 222-S laboratory personnel to adapt the existing Tc analytical method to fractionate the non-pertechnetate and pertechnetate. SRNL then developed and tested a method using commercial sorbents containing Aliquat® 336 to extract the pertechnetate (thereby separating it from non-pertechnetate), followed by oxidation, extraction, and stripping steps, and finally analysis by beta counting and Mass Spectroscopy. Several additional items were partially investigated, including impacts of a 137Cs removal step. The method was initially tested on SRS tank waste samples to determine its viability. Although SRS tank waste does not contain non-pertechnetate, testing with it was useful to investigate the compatibility, separation efficiency, interference removal efficacy, and method sensitivity.

  7. Comprehensive nuclear-test-ban treaty: relevant radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geer, L.E. de

    2001-01-01

    With the first version of the IDC software all known radionuclides, less the natural ones and one 'naturalised' man-made one, caused a spectrum measured in the IMS network to be characterised as interesting from a CTBT point of view. But this is really not true for the majority of nuclides, so a change has been made to let only nuclides from a limited set of so called CTBT relevant nuclides have an impact on the characterization scheme. In the present paper the concept of CTBT relevance is analysed and a set of 96 relevant nuclides are defined. Out of these 51 are fission products and 41 are neutron activation products. There are also 4 nuclides which are residues from the nuclear fuel itself or added tracers. (orig.) [de

  8. Conference urges States to ratify nuclear test ban

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-12-01

    Article XIV of the CTBT deals with the treaty's entry into force. The article foresees a mechanism of regular conferences to promote the treaty's entry into force, if this has not taken place three years after its opening for signature. The first such Conference took place in Vienna in 1999. Subsequent Conferences were held in new y ork in 2001 and in 2005, and in Vienna in 2003 and in 2007. The Secretary-general of the United nations convenes the conference at the request of States that have ratified the treaty. Representatives of ratifying States are invited to participate in the deliberations. Signatory States, non-signatory States, international organizations and non-governmental organizations are invited to attend as observers.

  9. Authentication of data for monitoring a comprehensive test ban treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craft, R.L.; Draelos, T.J.

    1996-05-01

    The important issue of data integrity in the CTBT International Monitoring System (IMS) is discussed and a brief tutorial on data authentication techniques is offered. The utilization of data authentication as a solution to the data integrity problem is evaluated. Public key data authentication is recommended for multilateral monitoring regimes such as the CTBT. The ramifications and system considerations of applying data authentication at various locations in the IMS, or not at all, are reviewed in a data surety context. The paper concludes with a recommendation of authenticating data at all critical monitoring stations

  10. Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty: Background and Current Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-06

    111 Of these amounts, $47.077 million and €48.564 million are financed by contributions from states that...up to 500 pounds of explosive and associated plutonium. Another SCE, “ Unicorn ,” was conducted in a “down-hole” or vertical shaft configuration similar...September 19; 2004: Armando, May 25; 2006: Krakatau (jointly with U.K.), February 23; Unicorn , August 30. NNSA’s FY2006 request stated that, for pit

  11. Regional Seismic Arrays and Nuclear Test Ban Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    Anderson, K. R., S. T. Rosenberg, and D. Lanan (1982). Automatic association using expert system techniq:_,s, in Seismic Discrimination, Semiannual...Travel Times, Earthquake, by Glenn D. Nelson and John E. V idale . ........... ...................................... ............ . ....... 395 Lund...1553 Nelson, Glenn D. and John E. Vidale-Earthquake Locations by 3-D Finite Difference Travel Times

  12. The Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty and the position of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sijde, B. van der

    1998-01-01

    Pugwash must maintain the gradual progress that nuclear disarmament appears to demand: in this case, monitoring the progress of CTBT. In the long run, opposition such as India's is counter-productive, even if the reasons behind are understandable. Pugwash as many other Non-Government Organisations (NGO) must work hard towards a Nuclear Weapons Convention

  13. Performance of flash ADCs in the 100 MHz range: I. Test bench and preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawley, H.B.; McKay, R.; Meyer, W.T.; Rosenberg, E.I.; Thomas, W.D.

    1990-01-01

    We describe a systematic study of the performance of commercially available Flash ADCs in the 100 Megasample per second range, which might be suitable for use in the Superconducting Super Collider. Performance characteristics are measured using a CAMAC based test bench which is described. Among the FADC performance characteristics reported are linearity, differential linearity and the effective number of bits. This paper is the first in a series of reports to be presented within the next year as our tests continue. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  14. Preliminary findings from tests of a microwave applicator designed to treat Barrett's oesophagus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meeson, S; Reeves, J W; Birch, M J; Swain, C P; Ikeda, K; Feakins, R M

    2005-01-01

    Barrett's oesophagus is considered to increase the risk of cancer 30-fold. Helical microwave antennas have been developed for ablative treatment of Barrett's. A microwave balloon applicator was tested in an initial animal study using adult white pigs. For treatment, a balloon filled with tissue-equivalent material encapsulated the antenna. A range of different treatment temperatures and durations was used to investigate a range of thermal ablations of the oesophageal epithelium. Eight animals were investigated, five non-survival and three with a 1-week survival period. The balloon was fitted with an array of temperature sensors, which gave an indication of the treatment in situ and allowed modifications to be performed in real time. Temperature data were recorded from all four quadrants of the balloon throughout and test sites were collected and analysed histologically. All experiments were successfully completed without perforation, serious adverse effects or death. Sites of discrete ulceration were induced in the survival tests, whereas the non-survival tests yielded little reproducible tissue modification. Results suggested that an activation temperature of ∼55 deg. C needed to be reached during the treatment for tissue damage to be induced. Once damage had been triggered the severity was related to the mean temperature attained during the treatment period. A mean temperature of 52 deg. C or more resulted in substantial damage, whilst a mean temperature of ∼50 deg. C resulted in the desired surface damage with sparing of subjacent tissues

  15. A Novel Anti-Pollution Filter for Volatile Agents During Cardiopulmonary Bypass: Preliminary Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro Neto, Caetano; Landoni, Giovanni; Tardelli, Maria Angela

    2017-08-01

    Concerns regarding pollution of the operating room by volatile anesthetics and effects on atmospheric ozone depletion exist. Volatile agents commonly are used during cardiopulmonary bypass to provide anesthesia independent of any supposed myocardial protective effects. The authors' aim was to create and to assess the performance of a prototype filter for volatile agents to be connected to the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit to avoid the emission of volatile agents to the operating room, and also to the environment without causing damage to the membrane oxygenator. Observational trial. University hospital. Prototype filter for volatile agents. The prototype filter was tested in a single ex vivo experiment. The main data measured during the test were pressure drop to detect interference with the performance of the oxygenator, back pressure to detect overpressure to the outlet gas jacket of the oxygenator, analysis of exhaled sevoflurane after the membrane oxygenator, and after the filter to detect any presence of sevoflurane. The prototype filter adsorbed the sevoflurane eliminated through the outlet portion of the oxygenator. During the entire test, the back pressure remained constant (4 mmHg) and pressure drop varied from 243 mmHg to 247 mmHg. The prototype filter was considered suitable to absorb the sevoflurane, and it did not cause an overpressure to the membrane oxygenator during the test. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Smoking-Related Weight and Eating Episodes Test (SWEET): development and preliminary validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Claire E; Baillie, Lauren E; Copeland, Amy L

    2011-11-01

    Many smokers believe that smoking helps them to control their weight, and concerns about weight gain can interfere with smoking cessation. As researchers typically assess general weight concerns, a measure specific to smoking-related weight concerns is needed. The Smoking-related Weight and Eating Episodes Test (SWEET) was created by generating items from 4 content domains: Hunger, Craving, Overeating, and Body Image. Female undergraduate smokers (N = 280) rated their postcessation weight gain concern and completed the SWEET, Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, Brief Smoking Consequences Questionnaire-Adult, Eating Attitudes Test (EAT)-26, Bulimia Test-Revised (BULIT-R), and Body Shape Questionnaire. Factor analysis of the initial items suggested a 4-factor solution, suggesting 4 subscales: Smoking to suppress appetite, smoking to prevent overeating, smoking to cope with body dissatisfaction, and withdrawal-related appetite increases. Based on these results, the SWEET subscales were revised and shortened. The resulting 10-item SWEET showed excellent internal consistency (total α = .94; mean α = .86) and evidence of validity by predicting smoking frequency, eating pathology, and body image concerns (ps < .05). Smoking frequency, eating pathology, and body image concerns were significantly predicted by the SWEET while controlling for existing measures of postcessation weight gain concern. The SWEET appears to be a reliable and valid measure of tendencies to smoke in response to body image concern and nicotine withdrawal and as a way to control appetite and overeating.

  17. Preliminary findings from tests of a microwave applicator designed to treat Barrett's oesophagus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeson, S [Department of Clinical Physics, Royal London Hospital, London E1 1BB (United Kingdom); Reeves, J W [Department of Clinical Physics, Royal London Hospital, London E1 1BB (United Kingdom); Birch, M J [Department of Clinical Physics, Royal London Hospital, London E1 1BB (United Kingdom); Swain, C P [Department of Clinical Physics, Royal London Hospital, London E1 1BB (United Kingdom); Ikeda, K [Department of Clinical Physics, Royal London Hospital, London E1 1BB (United Kingdom); Feakins, R M [Department of Histopathology, Royal London Hospital, London E1 1BB (United Kingdom)

    2005-10-07

    Barrett's oesophagus is considered to increase the risk of cancer 30-fold. Helical microwave antennas have been developed for ablative treatment of Barrett's. A microwave balloon applicator was tested in an initial animal study using adult white pigs. For treatment, a balloon filled with tissue-equivalent material encapsulated the antenna. A range of different treatment temperatures and durations was used to investigate a range of thermal ablations of the oesophageal epithelium. Eight animals were investigated, five non-survival and three with a 1-week survival period. The balloon was fitted with an array of temperature sensors, which gave an indication of the treatment in situ and allowed modifications to be performed in real time. Temperature data were recorded from all four quadrants of the balloon throughout and test sites were collected and analysed histologically. All experiments were successfully completed without perforation, serious adverse effects or death. Sites of discrete ulceration were induced in the survival tests, whereas the non-survival tests yielded little reproducible tissue modification. Results suggested that an activation temperature of {approx}55 deg. C needed to be reached during the treatment for tissue damage to be induced. Once damage had been triggered the severity was related to the mean temperature attained during the treatment period. A mean temperature of 52 deg. C or more resulted in substantial damage, whilst a mean temperature of {approx}50 deg. C resulted in the desired surface damage with sparing of subjacent tissues.

  18. High Temperature Test Facility Preliminary RELAP5-3D Input Model Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayless, Paul David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-12-01

    A RELAP5-3D input model is being developed for the High Temperature Test Facility at Oregon State University. The current model is described in detail. Further refinements will be made to the model as final as-built drawings are released and when system characterization data are available for benchmarking the input model.

  19. National Data Center Preparedness Exercise 2015 (NPE 2015): MY-NDC Preliminary Analysis Result

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faisal Izwan Abdul Rashid; Muhammed Zulfakar Zolkaffly

    2016-01-01

    Malaysia has established the CTBT National Data Centre (MY-NDC) in December 2005. MY-NDC is tasked to perform Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty (CTBT) data management as well as provide information for Treaty related events to Nuclear Malaysia as CTBT National Authority. In 2015, MY-NDC has participated in the National Data Centre Preparedness Exercise 2015 (NPE 2015). This paper aims at presenting MY-NDC preliminary analysis result of NPE 2015. In NPE 2015, MY-NDC has performed five different analyses, namely, radionuclide, atmospheric transport modelling (ATM), data fusion, seismic analysis and site forensics. The preliminary findings show the hypothetical scenario in NPE 2015 most probably is an uncontained event resulted high release of radionuclide to the air. (author)

  20. Preliminary results of hydrologic testing: The composite Umtanum basalt flow top at borehole RRL-2 (3,568 - 3,781 feet)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strait, S.R.; Spane, F.A. Jr.

    1982-11-01

    This report presents preliminary results and description of hydrologic test activities for the composite Umtanum basalt flow top (3,568--3,781 feet) at Borehole RRL-2. Hydrologic tests conducted include two constant discharge air-lift and four slug tests. Preliminary results indicate an observed hydraulic head for the test interval of 405.7 feet above mean sea level. Transmissivity values determined from hydrologic tests performed, range between 244 to 481 ft 2 /day, with an assigned best estimate of 480 ft 2 /day. The best estimate of equivalent hydraulic conductivity, based on an effective test thickness of 157 feet, is 3.1 ft/day. 7 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Analysis of clonogenic human brain tumour cells: preliminary results of tumour sensitivity testing with BCNU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenblum, M L; Dougherty, D A; Deen, D F; Hoshino, T; Wilson, C B [California Univ., San Francisco (USA). Dept. of Neurology

    1980-04-01

    Biopsies from 6 patients with glioblastoma multiforme were disaggregated and single cells were treated in vitro with various concentrations of 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitroso urea (BCNU) and plated for cell survival. One patient's cells were sensitive to BCNU in vitro; after a single dose of BCNU her brain scan reverted to normal and she was clinically well. Five tumours demonstrated resistance in vitro. Three of these tumours progressed during the first course of chemotherapy with a nitrosourea and the patients died at 21/2, 4 and 81/2 months after operation. Two patients who showed dramatic responses to radiation therapy were considered unchanged after the first course of nitrosourea therapy (although one demonstrated tumour enlargement on brain scan). The correlation of in vitro testing of tumour cell sensitivity with actual patient response is encouraging enough to warrant further work to determine whether such tests should weigh in decisions on patient therapy.

  2. Preliminary results on performance testing of a turbocharged rotary combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, P. R.; Rice, W. J.; Schock, H. J.; Pringle, D. P.

    1982-01-01

    The performance of a turbocharged rotary engine at power levels above 75 kW (100 hp) was studied. A twin rotor turbocharged Mazda engine was tested at speeds of 3000 to 6000 rpm and boost pressures to 7 psi. The NASA developed combustion diagnostic instrumentation was used to quantify indicated and pumping mean effect pressures, peak pressure, and face to face variability on a cycle by cycle basis. Results of this testing showed that a 5900 rpm a 36 percent increase in power was obtained by operating the engine in the turbocharged configuration. When operating with lean carburetor jets at 105 hp (78.3 kW) and 4000 rpm, a brake specific fuel consumption of 0.45 lbm/lb-hr was measured.

  3. Preliminary data from lithium hydride ablation tests conducted by NASA, Ames Research Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, R.D.

    1970-01-01

    A series of ablation tests of lithium hydride has been made by NASA-Ames in one of their high-enthalpy arc-heated wind tunnels. Two-inch diameter cylindrical samples of the hydride, supplied by A. I., were subjected to heating on their ends for time periods up to 10 seconds. After each test, the amount of material removed from each sample was measured. The rates of loss of material were correlated with the heat input rates in terms of a heat of ablation, which ranged from 2100 to 3500 Btu/lb. The higher values were obtained when the hydride contained a matrix such as steel honeycomb of steel wool. (U.S.)

  4. Large scale sodium interactions. Part 2. Preliminary test results for limestone concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smaardyk, J.E.; Sutherland, H.J.; King, D.L.; Dahlgren, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    Any sodium cooled reactor system must consider the interaction of hot sodium with cell liners, and given either a failed liner or a hypothetical core disruptive accident, the interaction of hot sodium with concrete. The data base available for safety assessments involving these interactions is limited, especially for the concrete and failed liner interactions. To better understand what happens when hot sodium comes in contact with concrete, a series of tests is being carried out to investigate sodium-concrete reactions under conditions which are similar to actual reactor accident conditions. Tests cover the cases of sodium spills on bare concrete and on cells with defective steel liners. Specific objectives have been to obtain a complete description of the sodium/concrete interaction including heat balance, gas evolution and flow, movement and heat generation of the reaction zone, reaction product formation, and the layering or movement of the products

  5. A Robotic Solution for Assisting People with MCI at Home: Preliminary Tests of the ENRICHME System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salatino, Claudia; Pigini, Lucia; Van Kol, Marlies Maria Elisabeth; Gower, Valerio; Andrich, Renzo; Munaro, Giulia; Rosso, Roberto; Castellani, Angelo P; Farina, Elisabetta

    2017-01-01

    Robots have the potential to support care and independence of older adults. The ENRICHME project is developing an integrated system composed of a robot, sensors and a networking care platform, aiming at assisting older adults with MCI in their home environment. This paper reports findings of the tests performed on a sample of MCI users and their caregivers, with the first version of the ENRICHME system, in a controlled environment.

  6. Preliminary cleaning tests on candidate materials for APS beamline and front end UHV components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, R.; Kuzay, T.M.

    1992-01-01

    Comparative cleaning tests have been done on four candidate materials for use in APS beamline and front-end vacuum components. These materials are 304 SS, 304L SS, OFHC copper, and Glidcop* (Cu-Al 2 O 3 )- Samples of each material were prepared and cleaned using two different methods. After cleaning, the sample surfaces were analyzed using ESCA (Electron Spectography for Chemical Analysis). Uncleaned samples were used as a reference. The cleaning methods and surface analysis results are further discussed

  7. Use of the crumb test as a preliminary indicator of dispersive soils

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maharaj, A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available to overcome them. Keywords: Dispersive soils, dispersion, failure, identification, crumb test, shortcomings Introduction Dispersive soils are those soils, which when immersed in relatively pure and still water will deflocculate causing the clay particles... developed by Emerson for the classification of soils. Immerse dry aggregates in water Slaking No slaking Complete Dispersion (Class 1) Some Dispersion (Class 2) No Dispersion Swelling (Class 7) No Swelling (Class 8) Remould at water...

  8. New method for rapid Susceptibility Testing on blood culture with HB&L system: preliminary data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Rondinelli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Blood culture, although represents the gold standard in detecting the ethiological agent of sepsis, is rather rarely required in relation to the real diagnostic importance. The result of this test depends in fact on many factors (sample volume, time of collection, accuracy, antibiotic therapy, contamination, number of drawings, drawing site, interpretation difficulties, etc. that are often considered by many clinicians so limited as to doubt about their actual value. The disadvantages are therefore represented by the lack of standardization but also by the low sensitivity and above all by the technical times too long for the clinical needs. Blood culture begins with the drawing of samples from the “septic” patient followed incubation of the bottles in automatic thermostated systems. In case of positive result (36 hours, the culture is Gram stained and streaked on solid media in order to obtain isolated colonies for the identification and the susceptibility testing (48 hours from positive result. The long time required for pathogen identification and susceptibility testing involves empirical broad spectrum antibiotic therapy that can promote the increase of bacterial resistance but also patient management costs. A clinically useful report should be available on short notice in order to guide the clinician to choose the most appropriate antibiotic. The microbiologist has therefore the hard work of reviewing the organization and the management of the procedures.We have therefore started to consider the possibility of treating the blood as an biological liquid in order to quickly determine the susceptibility of bacteria to antibiotics.

  9. Adaptation and Preliminary Testing of the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (DCDQ) for Children in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Priya; Gabbard, Carl

    2017-05-01

    While Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) has gained worldwide attention, in India it is relatively unknown. The revised DCD Questionnaire (DCDQ'07) is one of the most utilized screening tools for DCD. The aim of this study was to translate the DCDQ'07 into the Hindi language (DCDQ-Hindi) and test its basic psychometric properties. The DCDQ'07 was translated following guidelines for cross cultural adaptation of instruments. Parents of 1100 children (5-15 years) completed the DCDQ-Hindi, of which 955 were considered for data analysis and 60 were retested randomly after 3 weeks for test-retest reliability. The DCDQ-Hindi showed high internal consistency (α = .86) and moderate test-retest reliability (.73). Confirmatory factor analysis showed equivalence to the DCDQ'07. The% probable DCD using DCDQ'07 cutoff scores (≤57) ranged from 22% to 68%. Using more stringent cutoffs (≤36) it ranged from 5% to 9%. Significant difference was seen for gender (p < .05) in subset 1(gross-motor skills) total scores. The DCDQ-Hindi reveals promise for initial identification of Hindi speaking Indian children with DCD. Based on more stringent cut-off scores, the "probable prevalence" of children with risk of DCD in India appears to be around 6-7%. Research with larger sample and comparison with the MABC-2 or equivalent is needed.

  10. Sediments indicate the continued use of banned antifouling compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egardt, Jenny; Nilsson, Per; Dahllöf, Ingela

    2017-12-15

    Antifouling paints are widely used to avoid organisms settling on boat hulls. The active ingredients in the paints have differed over the years where lead, TBT, irgarol and diuron have been deemed too harmful to non-target organisms and subsequently been banned within the EU. Most of these compounds however are persistent in the environment and can cause problems long after they are deposited. We have examined if present-day and banned substances used in antifouling paints can be found in sediments in a national park on the Swedish west coast. Sampled locations include waterways, natural harbours and small marinas for leisure crafts to investigate if number of visiting boats affect the concentration of antifouling compounds in sediments. Few significant differences were found when comparing the different locations types, suggesting that overall boat presence is more important than specific mooring sites, however, several banned antifouling compounds were found in the surface sediments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Environment Canada defends decision to ban PCB waste exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The position of Environment Canada in banning the export of PCB waste to the United States was defended as falling within their jurisdiction under provisions of the the Canadian Environmental Protection Act. The United States had previously banned the import of Canadian PCBs, but when it reversed its decision Environment Canada posted an Interim Order, upholding the ban. The decision to do so was based on protection of the large investment that was made to develop the Canadian PCB incineration facility in Swan Lake, Alberta. Canada also had an obligation under the Basel Convention to reduce it cross boundary movement of hazardous waste and provide adequate destruction facilities in Canada. Legal implications of PCB exports and the uncertainty of continuing access to American facilities were also cited as reasons for issuing the Interim Order

  12. A Qualitative Study Among Mexican Americans to Understand Factors Influencing the Adoption and Enforcement of Home Smoking Bans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savas, Lara S; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Hovell, Melbourne F; Escoffrey, Cam; Fernandez, Maria E; Jones, Jennifer A; Cavazos, Jazmine; Gutierrez Monroy, Jo Ann A; Kegler, Michelle C

    2017-11-07

    One-third of Mexican-American children, in addition to nonsmoker adults, are exposed to secondhand smoke at home, yet few interventions target Mexican-American households. An effective, brief English language program, tested with United Way 2-1-1 callers in Atlanta, increased home smoking bans (confirmed by air monitors). Two randomized controlled trials in North Carolina and Texas replicated those results. We explored factors determining adoption and enforcement of smoking bans in Mexican-American households to inform program linguistic and cultural adaptation to broaden program reach and relevance. Bilingual interviewers recruited convenience samples of Mexican-American smokers and nonsmokers living with at least one smoker in Houston and San Diego households and asked open-ended questions regarding conditions for implementing home and vehicle smoking bans and conditions for varying acceptance of bans. Investigators independently reviewed English transcripts and completed a descriptive analysis using ATLAS.ti. Participants (n = 43) were predominantly female (n = 31), current smokers (n = 26), interviewed in Spanish (n = 26), had annual household incomes less than $30000 (n = 24), and allowed smoking inside the home (n = 24). Themes related to difficulty creating and enforcing bans included courtesy, respect for guests and heads of household who smoke, and gender imbalances in decision making. Participants viewed protecting children's health as a reason for the ban but not protecting adult nonsmokers' health. A dual-language, culturally adapted intervention targeting multigenerational Mexican-American households should address household differences regarding language and consider influences of cultural values on family dynamics and interactions with guests that may weaken bans. Qualitative interviews suggested cultural and family considerations to address in adapting a brief evidence-based smoke-free homes intervention for Mexican Americans, including traditional

  13. Jaw-opening force test to screen for Dysphagia: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Koji; Tohara, Haruka; Wada, Satoko; Iida, Takatoshi; Ueda, Koichiro; Ansai, Toshihiro

    2014-05-01

    To assess the jaw-opening force test (JOFT) for dysphagia screening. Criterion standard. University dental hospital. Patients complaining of dysphagia (N=95) and with symptoms of dysphagia with chronic underlying causes (mean age ± SD, 79.3±9.61y; range, 50-94y; men: n=49; mean age ± SD, 77.03±9.81y; range, 50-94y; women: n=46; mean age ± SD, 75.42±9.73y; range, 51-93y) admitted for treatment between May 2011 and December 2012 were included. None. All patients were administered the JOFT and underwent fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES). The mean jaw-opening strength was compared with aspiration (ASP) and pharyngeal residue observations of the FEES, which was used as the criterion standard. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed. Forces of ≤3.2kg for men and ≤4kg for women were appropriate cutoff values for predicting ASP with a sensitivity and specificity of .57 and .79 for men and .93 and .52 for women, respectively. Based on the ROC analyses for predicting pharyngeal residue, forces of ≤5.3kg in men and ≤3.9kg in women were appropriate cutoff values, with a sensitivity and specificity of .80 and .88 for men and .83 and .81 for women, respectively. The JOFT could be a useful screening tool for predicting pharyngeal residue and could provide useful information to aid in the referral of patients for further diagnostic imaging testing. However, given its low sensitivity to ASP the JOFT should be paired with other screening tests that predict ASP. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Preliminary tests of an electrokinetic barrier to prevent heavy metal pollution of soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, R.J.; Muntoni, A.; Ruggeri, R.; Winfield, K.C.

    2007-01-01

    Sardinia has to deal with significant environmental problems related to heavy-metal contamination, mainly located at its abandoned mining districts. In particular, acid mine drainage management and groundwater pollution are typical problems associated with mining activities which constitute a serious threat to human health. To prevent contaminant spread over the adjacent environment, it is of great interest to consider using an electric field as a containment fence to counteract pollutant transport. In this application, contaminant transport due to a hydraulic gradient driving force is prevented by the combined effect of electro-osmosis and electro-migration. Although there are other alternative containment technologies, the electrokinetic fence offers many advantages, as it is easy to operate, there is a minimal exposure to the operating personnel and it is likely to be effective for a wide range of contaminants. In this work, both one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) tests have been carried out. In the 1D tests, the efficiency of an electrokinetic barrier to prevent cadmium from polluting an uncontaminated sample was investigated; soil pH, metal concentration and current intensity have been monitored; results indicate that the barrier can prevent or significantly reduce heavy-metal contamination from spreading against a hydraulic gradient of 7. In 2D tests, two rows of electrodes inserted in a horizontally flat soil tank were used to generate an electric field. It was found that an electric field of 125 V m -1 was sufficient to prevent significant copper incursion from a contaminant flow under a hydraulic gradient of 1.3

  15. Ponded infiltration tests at the Box Canyon site: data report and preliminary analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, Paul; Faybishenko, Boris; Freifeld, Barry; Jacobsen, Janet; Lee, Ki Ha; Salve, Rohit; Zawislanski, Peter

    1998-01-01

    We discuss the design and present the main results of a two-week ponded infiltration test conducted in 1996 at the Box Canyon site near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. To investigate liquid flow and chemical transport in fractured basalt, the following types of instruments were installed in boreholes: tensiometers, suction lysimeters, thermistors, time domain reflectrometry probes, and electrical resisitivity probes. These probes were installed using an innovative technology of borehole instrumentation and completion using polyurethane foam injection. The probes were attached to plastic packers that were inflated using the polyurethane foam, and then the space between packers was back-filled with the foam in order to ensure the isolation of the instruments at different depths. Polyurethane foam showed great promise in enabling rapid, cost-effective installation of sensors and probes in fractured rock. A ponded infiltration test was conducted from 8/27/96 to 9/9/96, by maintaining water to an average depth of 23 cm in a rectangular infiltration pond. Within the 7 x 8 m pond, nine local infiltrometers (0.25 m diameter) were-installed to determine local values of the water flux. A slug of conservative tracer (KM) was added to the pond on 9/2/96, yielding a tracer concentration in the pond of approximately 3 g/L. The water supply to the pond was halted for two days so that the tracer concentration in the pond water would remain essentially constant. Thereafter, the water supply was re-established to maintain a constant water level. Installation procedures and measurement results for each type of probe are presented, along with a description of the data acquisition system. The attachments include a description of the calibration and testing of instrumentation. The data files can be found at the FTP site zenitMnel/ or the Web site http://www- esd.lbl.gov/ERT/inel/inel.htrnl

  16. A preliminary guidebook for identifying stratigraphic contacts at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawloski, G.A.; McKague, H.L.; Wagoner, J.L.; McKinnis, W.B.

    1992-01-01

    Lithologic variation, regional depositional trends, and the lack of written guidelines have resulted in inconsistencies in the recognition of stratigraphic contacts in drill holes at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Stratigraphic identification, based on mineralogy of discrete samples, can be augmented by geophysical logs and downhole movies to more accurately and consistently locate contacts between units. Criteria are established for locating the base of the Pahute Mesa ash-flow tuff, the top of the Ammonia Tanks ash-flow tuff, the top of the Ammonia Tanks bedded tuff, and the top and the base of the Rainier Mesa Tuff

  17. Preliminary calculation with code CONTEMPT-LT for spray cooling tests with JAERI model containment vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Mitsugu

    1978-01-01

    LWR plants have a containment spray system to reduce the escape of radioactive material to the environment in a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) by washing out fission products, especially radioiodine, and condensing the steam to lower the pressure. For carrying out the containment spray tests, pressure and temperature behaviour of the JAERI Model Containment Vessel in spray cooling has been calculated with computer program CONTEMPT-LT. The following could be studied quantitatively: (1) pressure and temperature raise rates for steam addition rate and (2) pressure fall rate for spray flow rate and spray heat transfer efficiency. (auth.)

  18. Language lateralization by functional MRI : a comparison with wada test-preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryoo, Jae Wook; Na, Dong Gyu; Byun, Hong Sik [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan Univ. School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    1999-05-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of functional MR imaging (fMRI) for the determination of language dominance and to assess differences in language lateralization according to activation task or activated area. Functional maps of the language area were obtained during word generation tasks(noun and verb) and a reading task in ten patients (9 right handed, 1 left handed) who had undergone the Wada test. MR examinations were performed using a 1.5T scanner and the EPI BOLD technique. The SPM program was employed for the postprocessing of images and the threshold for significance was set at p<0.001 or p<0.01. A lateralization index was calculated from the number of activated pixels in three hemispheric regions (whole hemisphere, frontal lobe, and temporoparietal lobe), and the results were compared with those of Wada tests. The results for lateralization of language area were compared among stimulation tasks and regions and used for calculation of lateralization indices. During the Wada test, nine patients were left dominant and one patient was right dominant for language. Language dominance based on activated signals in each hemisphere was consistent with the results of the Wada test in 87.5% (verb and noun generation tasks) and 90% (reading task) of patients. Language dominance determined by activated signals in the frontal lobe was consistent in 87.5%, 75%, and 80% of patients in each stimulation task (verb generation, noun generation, and reading), respectively. The consistency rate of activated signals in the temporoparietal lobe was 87.5%, 87.5% and 80% of patients in each task. the mean value of the lateralization index, calculated on the basis of activated signals in the temporoparietal lobe was higher than that in the hemisphere or frontal lobe. The verb generation task showed a higher lateralization index than the noun generation or reading task. The lateralization index was higher in the verb generation task and in the region of the temporoparietal lobe than in

  19. Language lateralization by functional MRI : a comparison with wada test-preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryoo, Jae Wook; Na, Dong Gyu; Byun, Hong Sik

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of functional MR imaging (fMRI) for the determination of language dominance and to assess differences in language lateralization according to activation task or activated area. Functional maps of the language area were obtained during word generation tasks(noun and verb) and a reading task in ten patients (9 right handed, 1 left handed) who had undergone the Wada test. MR examinations were performed using a 1.5T scanner and the EPI BOLD technique. The SPM program was employed for the postprocessing of images and the threshold for significance was set at p<0.001 or p<0.01. A lateralization index was calculated from the number of activated pixels in three hemispheric regions (whole hemisphere, frontal lobe, and temporoparietal lobe), and the results were compared with those of Wada tests. The results for lateralization of language area were compared among stimulation tasks and regions and used for calculation of lateralization indices. During the Wada test, nine patients were left dominant and one patient was right dominant for language. Language dominance based on activated signals in each hemisphere was consistent with the results of the Wada test in 87.5% (verb and noun generation tasks) and 90% (reading task) of patients. Language dominance determined by activated signals in the frontal lobe was consistent in 87.5%, 75%, and 80% of patients in each stimulation task (verb generation, noun generation, and reading), respectively. The consistency rate of activated signals in the temporoparietal lobe was 87.5%, 87.5% and 80% of patients in each task. the mean value of the lateralization index, calculated on the basis of activated signals in the temporoparietal lobe was higher than that in the hemisphere or frontal lobe. The verb generation task showed a higher lateralization index than the noun generation or reading task. The lateralization index was higher in the verb generation task and in the region of the temporoparietal lobe than in

  20. Test anxiety inventory-State: Preliminary analysis of validity and reliability in psychology college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Dominguez-Lara

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to examine the internal structure of the Test anxiety inventory-State (TAI-State in Spanish version. A sample of 125 college students from Lima (84.8% female between 18 and 31 years old (M = 22.51 was evaluated. The internal structure of the STAI was analyzed by a confirmatory factor analysis, evaluating three models: oblique, bifactor and unidimensional. The results indicate that a single dimension constitutes the STAI and there are coefficients of reliability with high magnitudes. In conclusion, the version studied shows favorable psychometric properties that support its use in Lima.

  1. A preliminary report on oral fat tolerance test in rhesus monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Di; Liu, Qingsu; Wei, Shiyuan; Zhang, Yu Alex; Yue, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Background Oral fat tolerance test (OFTT) has been widely used to assess the postprandial lipemia in human beings, but there is few studies concerning OFTT in nonhuman primates. This study is designed to explore the feasibility of OFTT in rhesus monkeys. Methods In a cross-over study, a total of 8 adult female rhesus monkeys were fed with normal monkey diet (NND), high sugar high fat diet (HHD), and extremely high fat diet (EHD), respectively. Each monkey consumed NND, HHD and EHD respectivel...

  2. Isotope detectors and radiation detectors for test reliability techniqui. A preliminary project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christell, R.

    1977-03-01

    A survey is done of small and simple components for use as detectors for ionizing radiation, as well as different methods and components producing images of radiation fields based on position sensitive detectors. The investigation has resulted in a system for detection of stones in wood. In a second project isotope excited x ray fluorescence has been used for analysis of material resulting from wear of mechanical components. A facility for analysis has been built and test analysis has been performed. Methods for continous wear control with possibility to forecast breakdowns have been investigated. (K.K.)

  3. Preliminary phytochemical analysis, Antioxidant and cytotoxicity test of Carissa edulis Vahl dried fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowsiya, J.; Madhumitha, G.

    2017-11-01

    Plants are the main source of medicine which is used in traditional as well as modern medicine in recent years for curing many diseases. Carissa edulis Vahl is one of the traditional plants which have healing property on diarrhea, toothache and chest pain. The present work aims on phytochemical, antioxidant and in vitro cytotoxicity test of C. edulis dried fruits. The different solvent extracts obtained from petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, chloroform, ethanol and water have been evaluated the presence of phytochemicals. Several assays were carried out like total antioxidant, DPPH, reducing power and thiobarbituric acid to investigate the free radical scavenging property. In addition, the cytotoxicity study also carried out on human lung cancer cells (A549). Among different solvent extract, ethanol exhibited strong antioxidant activity. Additionally, the in vitro cytotoxicity test of C. edulis on human lung cancer cell (A549) showed IC50 value 405.704 ± 2.42 μg/mL. Therefore, C. edulis could be useful as a potential preventive intervention for free radicals mediated diseases as well as an antioxidant drug in the pharmaceutical industry.

  4. Can Implicit Associations Distinguish True and False Eyewitness Memory? Development and Preliminary Testing of the IATe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, Rebecca K; Ceci, Stephen J; Burd, Kayla A

    2016-11-01

    Eyewitness identification has been shown to be fallible and prone to false memory. In this study we develop and test a new method to probe the mechanisms involved in the formation of false memories in this area, and determine whether a particular memory is likely to be true or false. We created a seven-step procedure based on the Implicit Association Test to gauge implicit biases in eyewitness identification (the IATe). We show that identification errors may result from unconscious bias caused by implicit associations evoked by a given face. We also show that implicit associations between negative attributions such as guilt and eyewitnesses' final pick from a line-up can help to distinguish between true and false memory (especially where the witness has been subject to the suggestive nature of a prior blank line-up). Specifically, the more a witness implicitly associates an individual face with a particular crime, the more likely it is that a memory they have for that person committing the crime is false. These findings are consistent with existing findings in the memory and neuroscience literature showing that false memories can be caused by implicit associations that are outside conscious awareness. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. A Structured Clinical Interview for Kleptomania (SCI-K): preliminary validity and reliability testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Kim, Suck Won; McCabe, James S

    2006-06-01

    Kleptomania presents difficulties in diagnosis for clinicians. This study aimed to develop and test a DSM-IV-based diagnostic instrument for kleptomania. To assess for current kleptomania the Structured Clinical Interview for Kleptomania (SCI-K) was administered to 112 consecutive subjects requesting psychiatric outpatient treatment for a variety of disorders. Reliability and validity were determined. Classification accuracy was examined using the longitudinal course of illness. The SCI-K demonstrated excellent test-retest (Phi coefficient = 0.956 (95% CI = 0.937, 0.970)) and inter-rater reliability (phi coefficient = 0.718 (95% CI = 0.506, 0.848)) in the diagnosis of kleptomania. Concurrent validity was observed with a self-report measure using DSM-IV kleptomania criteria (phi coefficient = 0.769 (95% CI = 0.653, 0.850)). Discriminant validity was observed with a measure of depression (point biserial coefficient = -0.020 (95% CI = -0.205, 0.166)). The SCI-K demonstrated both high sensitivity and specificity based on longitudinal assessment. The SCI-K demonstrated excellent reliability and validity in diagnosing kleptomania in subjects presenting with various psychiatric problems. These findings require replication in larger groups, including non-psychiatric populations, to examine their generalizability. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Bioreactor tests preliminary to landfill in situ aeration: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raga, Roberto, E-mail: roberto.raga@unipd.it [ICEA Department, University of Padova. Via Marzolo, 9, 35131 Padova (Italy); Cossu, Raffaello [ICEA Department, University of Padova. Via Marzolo, 9, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Carbon and nitrogen mass balances in aerated landfill simulation reactors. ► Waste stabilization in aerated landfill simulation reactors. ► Effect of temperature on biodegradation processes in aerated landfills. - Abstract: Lab scale tests in bioreactor were carried out in the framework of the characterization studies of a landfill where in situ aeration (possibly followed by landfill mining) had been proposed as part of the novel waste management strategy in a region in northern Italy. The tests were run to monitor the effects produced by aerobic conditions at different temperatures on waste sampled at different depths in the landfill, with focus on the carbon and nitrogen conversion during aeration. Temperatures ranging from 35 to 45 °C were chosen, in order to evaluate possible inhibition of biodegradation processes (namely nitrification) at 45 °C in the landfill. The results obtained showed positive effects of the aeration on leachate quality and a significant reduction of waste biodegradability. Although a delay of biodegradation processes was observed in the reactor run at 45 °C, biodegradation rates increased after 2 months of aeration, providing very low values of the relevant parameters (as in the other aerated reactors) by the end of the study. Mass balances were carried out for TOC and N-NH{sub 4}{sup +}; the findings obtained were encouraging and provided evidence of the effectiveness of carbon and nitrogen conversion processes in the aerated landfill simulation reactors.

  7. Preliminary Test of Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System Controller for Spacecraft Attitude Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Woo Kim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of spacecraft attitude control is solved using an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS. An ANFIS produces a control signal for one of the three axes of a spacecraft’s body frame, so in total three ANFISs are constructed for 3-axis attitude control. The fuzzy inference system of the ANFIS is initialized using a subtractive clustering method. The ANFIS is trained by a hybrid learning algorithm using the data obtained from attitude control simulations using state-dependent Riccati equation controller. The training data set for each axis is composed of state errors for 3 axes (roll, pitch, and yaw and a control signal for one of the 3 axes. The stability region of the ANFIS controller is estimated numerically based on Lyapunov stability theory using a numerical method to calculate Jacobian matrix. To measure the performance of the ANFIS controller, root mean square error and correlation factor are used as performance indicators. The performance is tested on two ANFIS controllers trained in different conditions. The test results show that the performance indicators are proper in the sense that the ANFIS controller with the larger stability region provides better performance according to the performance indicators.

  8. Preliminary Analysis on Decay Heat Removal Capability of Helium Cooled Solid Breeder Test Blanket Module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Mu Young; Cho, Seung Yon; Kim, Duck Hoi; Lee, Eun Seok; Kim, Hyung Seok; Suh, Jae Seung; Yun, Sung Hwan; Cho, Nam Zin

    2007-01-01

    One of the main ITER goals is to test and validate design concepts of tritium breeding blankets relevant to DEMO or fusion power plants. Korea Helium-Cooled Solid Breeder (HCSB) Test Blanket Module (TBM) has been developed with overall objectives of achieving this goal. The TBM employs high pressure helium to cool down the First Wall (FW), Side Wall (SW) and Breeding Zone (BZ). Therefore, safety consideration is a part of the design process. Each ITER Party performing the TBM program is requested to reach a similar level of confidence in the TBM safety analysis. To meet ITER's request, Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) studies have been performed on the TBM to identify the Postulated Initial Event (PIE). Although FMEA on the KO TBM has not been completed, in-vessel, in-box and ex-vessel Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA) are considered as enveloping cases of PIE in general. In this paper, accidental analyses for the three selected LOCA were performed to investigate the decay heat removal capability of the TBM. To simulate transient thermo-hydraulic behavior of the TBM for the selected scenarios, RELAP5/MOD3.2 code was used

  9. Bioreactor tests preliminary to landfill in situ aeration: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raga, Roberto; Cossu, Raffaello

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Carbon and nitrogen mass balances in aerated landfill simulation reactors. ► Waste stabilization in aerated landfill simulation reactors. ► Effect of temperature on biodegradation processes in aerated landfills. - Abstract: Lab scale tests in bioreactor were carried out in the framework of the characterization studies of a landfill where in situ aeration (possibly followed by landfill mining) had been proposed as part of the novel waste management strategy in a region in northern Italy. The tests were run to monitor the effects produced by aerobic conditions at different temperatures on waste sampled at different depths in the landfill, with focus on the carbon and nitrogen conversion during aeration. Temperatures ranging from 35 to 45 °C were chosen, in order to evaluate possible inhibition of biodegradation processes (namely nitrification) at 45 °C in the landfill. The results obtained showed positive effects of the aeration on leachate quality and a significant reduction of waste biodegradability. Although a delay of biodegradation processes was observed in the reactor run at 45 °C, biodegradation rates increased after 2 months of aeration, providing very low values of the relevant parameters (as in the other aerated reactors) by the end of the study. Mass balances were carried out for TOC and N-NH 4 + ; the findings obtained were encouraging and provided evidence of the effectiveness of carbon and nitrogen conversion processes in the aerated landfill simulation reactors

  10. Development and Preliminary Tests of an Open-Path Airborne Diode Laser Absorption Instrument for Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diskin, Glenn S.; DiGangi, Joshua P.; Yang, Melissa; Slate, Thomas A.; Rana, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is well known for its importance as an atmospheric greenhouse gas, with many sources and sinks around the globe. Understanding the fluxes of carbon into and out of the atmosphere is a complex and daunting challenge. One tool applied by scientists to measure the vertical flux of CO2 near the surface uses the eddy covariance technique, most often from towers but also from aircraft flying specific patterns over the study area. In this technique, variations of constituents of interest are correlated with fluctuations in the local vertical wind velocity. Measurement requirements are stringent, particularly with regard to precision, sensitivity to small changes, and temporal sampling rate. In addition, many aircraft have limited payload capability, so instrument size, weight, and power consumption are also important considerations. We report on the development and preliminary application of an airborne sensor for the measurement of atmospheric CO2. The instrument, modeled on the successful DLH (Diode Laser Hygrometer) series of instruments, has been tested in the laboratory and on the NASA DC-8 aircraft. Performance parameters such as accuracy, precision, sensitivity, specificity, and temporal response are discussed in the context of typical atmospheric variability and suitability for flux measurement applications. On-aircraft, in-flight data have been obtained and are discussed as well. Performance of the instrument has been promising, and continued flight testing is planned during 2016.

  11. Preliminary testing of flow-ecology hypotheses developed for the GCP LCC region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Shannon K.; Davis, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The Ecological Limits of Hydrological Alteration (ELOHA) framework calls for the development of flow-ecology hypotheses to support protection of the flow regime from ecologically harmful alteration due to human activities. As part of a larger instream flow project for the Gulf Coast Prairie Landscape Conservation Cooperative (GCP LCC), regional flow-ecology hypotheses were developed for fish, mussels, birds, and riparian vegetation (Davis and Brewer 20141). The objective of this study was to assess the usefulness of existing ecological and hydrological data to test these hypotheses or others that may be developed in the future. Several databases related to biological collections and hydrologic data from Oklahoma, Texas, and Louisiana were compiled. State fish-community data from Oklahoma and Louisiana were summarized and paired with existing USGS gage data having at least a 40-year period of record that could be separated into reference and current conditions for comparison. The objective of this study was not to conduct exhaustive analyses of these data, the hypotheses, or analyses interpretation, but rather to use these data to determine if existing data were adequate to statistically test the regional flow-ecology hypotheses. The regional flow-ecology hypotheses were developed for the GCP LCC by a committee chaired by Shannon Brewer and Mary Davis (Davis and Brewer 2014). Existing data were useful for informing the hypotheses and suggest support for some hypotheses, but also highlight the need for additional testing and development as some results contradicted hypotheses. Results presented here suggest existing data are adequate to support some flow-ecology hypotheses; however, lack of sampling effort reported with the fish collections and the need for ecoregion-specific analyses suggest more data would be beneficial to analyses in some ecoregions. Additional fish sampling data from Texas and Louisiana will be available for future analyses and may ameliorate

  12. Banned prints in the National and University Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozina Švent

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the formation and operation of the D-collection (a special collection of banned prints in the National and University Library (NUL. The functioning of the collection was constantly faced with different complications caused either by legislation or by librarians themselves, due to a too strict adherence to some unwritten rules ("better one more then one less". In the 50-years period, a unique collection of at that tirne banned prints was formed,complemented by over 17000 articles indexed from different periodicals.

  13. The effects of taxes and bans on passive smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Jerome Adda; Francesca Cornaglia

    2005-01-01

    This paper evaluates the effect of excise taxes and bans on smoking in public places on the exposure to tobacco smoke of non-smokers. We use a novel way of quantifying passive smoking: we use data on cotinine concentration- a metabolite of nicotine- measured in a large population of non-smokers over time. Exploiting state and time variation across US states, we reach two important conclusions. First, excise taxes have a significant effect on passive smoking. Second, smoking bans have on avera...

  14. The Effect of Taxes and Bans on Passive Smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Jérôme Adda; Francesca Cornaglia

    2006-01-01

    This paper evaluates the effect of excise taxes and bans on smoking in public places on the exposure to tobacco smoke of non-smokers. We use a novel way of quantifying passive smoking: we use data on cotinine concentration- a metabolite of nicotine- measured in a large population of non-smokers over time. Exploiting state and time variation across US states, we reach two important conclusions. First, excise taxes have a significant effect on passive smoking. Second, smoking bans have on avera...

  15. Paraquat use among farmers in Korea after the ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Ye Jin; Kim, Jaeyoung; Lee, Won Jin

    2017-07-04

    The purpose of this study was to examine the proportion of paraquat use among farmers and to describe their epidemiologic characteristics after the paraquat ban in 2012. We interviewed 249 farmers in Korea in 2014. Approximately 20% of the farmers reported using paraquat in 2014. Farmers with longer farming experience, longer pesticide application years, and upland farming reported an increased risk of paraquat use although the trend was not statistically significant. The majority of the farmers used preexisting paraquat (85.7%), but some farmers purchased it illegally (14.3%). Farmers who used paraquat perceived paraquat as a dangerous chemical; however, they disagreed with the necessity of the paraquat ban.

  16. Preliminary analysis of the safety and environmental impact of the Tritium Systems Test Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.V.; Jalbert, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    The Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) is a facility dedicated to the development of technologies associated with the D-T fuel cycle of future fusion reactors while demonstrating that TSTA can be operated safely with no significant losses to the environment. During the initial design stage of TSTA, a safety analysis was performed which investigated the effects of major subsystem component failure, the meteorology and seismicity of the site and their possible effect on the facility, and accident scenarios which result in tritium releases. Major releases of tritium to the environment are considered highly improbable since they require a compound failure of primary and secondary containment, along with either a breach of the building or a failure of the Emergency Tritium Cleanup system. Accidental releases caused by natural phenomena (earthquake, tornado, etc.) are considered highly improbable

  17. Preliminary experiences with material testing at the oxyfuel pilot plant at Schwarze Pumpe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjoernhede, Anders [Vattenfall Power, Gothenborg (Sweden); Montgomery, Melanie [Technical Univ. Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Inst. for Mekanisk Teknologi; Vattenfall Heat Nordic, Lyngby (Denmark); Bjurman, Martin; Henderson, Pamela [Vattenfall AB (Sweden). Research and Development; Gerhardt, Alexander [Vattenfall AB, Berlin (Germany). Research and Development

    2010-07-01

    Several material related issues may arise from oxyfuel combustion of coal due to the presence of CO{sub 2} but also as an effect of the partial recirculation of the flue gas. Two examples are increased corrosion and carburisation which may limit steam data, hence limiting the efficiency. A number of corrosion tests, in both conventional air-firing and oxyfuel mode, have been made in Vattenfalls 30 MW oxyfuel pilot plant located in Schwarze Pumpe, Germany. Internally cooled corrosion probes, equipped with ferritic, austenitic, super austenitic steels as well as Ni-based and FeCrAl alloys, simulating superheaters, economisers and air preheaters were exposed for up to 1500 hrs. The analyses show an indication of higher material wastage in oxyfuel compared to air combustion especially at the lower exposure temperatures. This may be due to increased sulphur concentration in corrosion front, increased heat flux, carburisation or other precipitate formations on austenitic steels and Ni-based alloys. (orig.)

  18. DEVELOPMENT AND PRELIMINARY TESTING OF A PARABOLIC TROUGH SOLAR WATER HEATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Lasode

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is a high-temperature, high-energy radiant energy source, with tremendous advantages over other alternative energy sources. It is a reliable, robust renewable resource which is largely undeveloped. The design and fabrication of parabolic trough solar water heater for water heating was executed. The procedure employed includes the design, construction and testing stages. The equipment which is made up of the reflector surface (curved mirror, reflector support, absorber pipe and a stand was fabricated using locally sourced materials. The results obtained. compared favourably with other research works in the literature. It depicts that employing a suitable design, selection of time of heating and proper focusing of the reflected rays to the focal spot region, solar radiation can efficiently be utilized for water heating in a tropical environment. This work presents a parabolic trough solar water heater as a suitable renewable energy technology for reducing water-heating costs.

  19. Preliminary design of mesoscale turbocompressor and rotordynamics tests of rotor bearing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Saddam

    2011-12-01

    A mesoscale turbocompressor spinning above 500,000 RPM is evolutionary technology for micro turbochargers, turbo blowers, turbo compressors, micro-gas turbines, auxiliary power units, etc for automotive, aerospace, and fuel cell industries. Objectives of this work are: (1) to evaluate different air foil bearings designed for the intended applications, and (2) to design & perform CFD analysis of a micro-compressor. CFD analysis of shrouded 3-D micro compressor was conducted using Ansys Bladegen as blade generation tool, ICEM CFD as mesh generation tool, and CFX as main solver for different design and off design cases and also for different number of blades. Comprehensive experimental facilities for testing the turbocompressor system have been also designed and proposed for future work.

  20. Some Preliminary Notes on an Empirical Test of Freud’s Theory on Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmet, Mattias

    2012-01-01

    A review of the literature indicates that empirical researchers have difficulty translating Freud’s theory on depression into appropriate research questions and hypotheses. In their attempt to do so, the level of complexity in Freud’s work is often lost. As a result, what is empirically tested is no more than a caricature of the original theory. To help researchers avoid such problems, this study presents a conceptual analysis of Freud’s theory of depression as it is presented in Mourning and Melancholia (Freud, 1917). In analyzing Freud’s theory on the etiology of depression, it is essential to differentiate between (1) an identification with the satisfying and frustrating aspects of the love object, (2) the inter- and an intrapersonal loss of the love object, and (3) conscious and unconscious dynamics. A schematic representation of the mechanism of depression is put forward and a research design by which this schema can be empirically investigated is outlined. PMID:23675357

  1. Development of Ozone Detector for Ksr-Iii and Preliminary Test Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Hyun Hwang

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available KARI (Korea Aerospace Research Institute has measured the ozone density profiles over the Korean Peninsular since the launch of the Korean Sounding Rocket-I (KSR-I in 1993. The purpose of ozone measurements is to obtain the stratospheric and mesospheric vertical ozone density profiles over the Korean Peninsular with solar UV radiometers. With the visible channel of the radiometer, the attitude variation of the rocket was corrected and compensated. Developed system is based on ozone detector designs onboard the KSR-I and KSR-II. We discuss the development of ozone detector which will be onboard the KSR-III and its circuit and vibration test results for EM Model.

  2. Some Preliminary Notes on an Empirical Test of Freud’s Theory on Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattias eDesmet

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A review of the literature indicates that empirical researchers have difficulty translating Freud’s theory on depression into appropriate research questions and hypotheses. In their attempt to do so, the level of complexity in Freud’s work is often lost. As a result, what is empirically tested is no more than a caricature of the original theory. To help researchers avoid such problems, this study presents a conceptual analysis of Freud’s theory of depression as it is presented in Mourning and Melancholia (Freud, 1917. In analyzing Freud’s theory on the etiology of depression, it is essential to differentiate between (1 an identification with the satisfying and frustrating aspects of the love object, (2 the inter- and an intrapersonal loss of the love object, and (3 conscious and unconscious dynamics. A schematic representation of the mechanism of depression is put forward and a research design by which this schema can be empirically investigated is outlined.

  3. Preliminary design of safety and interlock system for indian test facility of diagnostic neutral beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyagi, Himanshu; Soni, Jignesh; Yadav, Ratnakar; Bandyopadhyay, Mainak; Rotti, Chandramouli; Gahlaut, Agrajit; Joshi, Jaydeep; Parmar, Deepak; Bansal, Gourab; Pandya, Kaushal; Chakraborty, Arun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Indian Test Facility being built to characterize DNB for ITER delivery. • Interlock system required to safeguard the investment incurred in building the facility and protecting ITER deliverable components. • Interlock levels upto 3IL-3 identified. • Safety instrumented system for occupational safety being designed. Safety I&C functions of SIL-2 identified. • The systems are based on ITER PIS and PSS design guidelines. - Abstract: Indian Test Facility (INTF) is being built in Institute For Plasma Research to characterize Diagnostic Neutral Beam in co-operation with ITER Organization. INTF is a complex system which consists of several plant systems like beam source, gas feed, vacuum, cryogenics, high voltage power supplies, high power RF generators, mechanical systems and diagnostics systems. Out of these, several INTF components are ITER deliverable, that is, beam source, beam line components and power supplies. To ensure successful operation of INTF involving integrated operation of all the constituent plant systems a matured Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS) is required. The INTF DACS is based on CODAC platform following on PCDH (Plant Control Design Handbook) guidelines. The experimental phases involve application of HV power supplies (100 KV) and High RF power (∼800 KW) which will produce energetic beam of maximum power 6MW within the facility for longer durations. Hence the entire facility will be exposed tohigh heat fluxes and RF radiations. To ensure investment protection and to provide occupational safety for working personnel a matured Safety and Interlock system is required for INTF. The Safety and Interlock systems are high-reliability I&C systems devoted completely to the specific functions. These systems will be separate from the conventional DACS of INTF which will handle the conventional control and acquisition functions. Both, the Safety and Interlock systems are based on IEC 61511 and IEC 61508 standards as

  4. [Preliminary application of video head impulse test in the diagnosis of vertigo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanmei; Chen, Siqi; Zhong, Zhen; Chen, Li; Wu, Yuanding; Zhao, Guiping; Liu, Yuhe

    2015-06-01

    To investigate clinical application of head impulse test with video recording eye movements in the diagnosis of vertigo. The video head impulse test(vHIT) was used to measure the eye saccades and velocity gain in 95 patients with vertigo which were divided into two groups, peripheral vertigo (47 cases) and central vertigo(48 cases); the characteristics of eye saccades and velocity gain of six semicircular canals in different patients with vertigo were analyzed, and were compared between the two groups. The vHIT result in patients with peripheral vertigo: in 22 patients (23 affected ears) with Meniere's disease, 21 ears were abnormal (91. 3%); the vHIT results in 4 patients with vestibular schwannoma, 2 patients with vestibular neuritis, 5 patients with delayed endolymphatic hydrops, 6 patients with sudden hearing loss accompanied vertigo, and 8 patients with vestibular dysfunction, were abnormal with correct saccades and/or lower velocity gain of vHIT. The abnormal vHIT results were also found in 35 of 48 patients (72. 9%) with central vertigo, which including posterior cerebral circulation ischemia(7 patients), cerebral infarction/stroke(6 patients), and dizziness with vertigo(17 patients) and others(18 patients). Abnormal rate of vHIT in patients with peripheral vertigo was 95. 7% (45/47), which was significantly higher than that (72. 9%) in patients with central vertigo. It is easy to perform the vHIT which without adverse reactions. We can record high-frequency characteristics of vestibular-ocular reflex among six semicircular canals through vHIT. The vHIT results which show the function of vestibular ocular reflex in different diseases with vertigo, can help discriminate peripheral vertigo from central vertigo, and it is a practical assessment method for vertigo.

  5. Preliminary design of safety and interlock system for indian test facility of diagnostic neutral beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyagi, Himanshu, E-mail: htyagi@iter-india.org [ITER-India, Institute For Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Soni, Jignesh [Institute For Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Yadav, Ratnakar; Bandyopadhyay, Mainak; Rotti, Chandramouli [ITER-India, Institute For Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Gahlaut, Agrajit [Institute For Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Joshi, Jaydeep; Parmar, Deepak [ITER-India, Institute For Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Bansal, Gourab; Pandya, Kaushal; Chakraborty, Arun [Institute For Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Indian Test Facility being built to characterize DNB for ITER delivery. • Interlock system required to safeguard the investment incurred in building the facility and protecting ITER deliverable components. • Interlock levels upto 3IL-3 identified. • Safety instrumented system for occupational safety being designed. Safety I&C functions of SIL-2 identified. • The systems are based on ITER PIS and PSS design guidelines. - Abstract: Indian Test Facility (INTF) is being built in Institute For Plasma Research to characterize Diagnostic Neutral Beam in co-operation with ITER Organization. INTF is a complex system which consists of several plant systems like beam source, gas feed, vacuum, cryogenics, high voltage power supplies, high power RF generators, mechanical systems and diagnostics systems. Out of these, several INTF components are ITER deliverable, that is, beam source, beam line components and power supplies. To ensure successful operation of INTF involving integrated operation of all the constituent plant systems a matured Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS) is required. The INTF DACS is based on CODAC platform following on PCDH (Plant Control Design Handbook) guidelines. The experimental phases involve application of HV power supplies (100 KV) and High RF power (∼800 KW) which will produce energetic beam of maximum power 6MW within the facility for longer durations. Hence the entire facility will be exposed tohigh heat fluxes and RF radiations. To ensure investment protection and to provide occupational safety for working personnel a matured Safety and Interlock system is required for INTF. The Safety and Interlock systems are high-reliability I&C systems devoted completely to the specific functions. These systems will be separate from the conventional DACS of INTF which will handle the conventional control and acquisition functions. Both, the Safety and Interlock systems are based on IEC 61511 and IEC 61508 standards as

  6. Preliminary Study on Mg content of hard part(Test) of a benthic foraminifer from the inner shelf, off West Coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khare, N.; Nigam, R.; Iyer, S.D.

    A preliminary study has been made for trace element (Mg) in the test of benthic species Bulimina exilis from a shallow sediment core (at 22 m water depth) off west coast of India using Electron Probe Microanalyser (EPMA) The Mg content is selected...

  7. THE DESIGN, FABRICATION AND PRELIMINARY TESTING OF AN INDIGENOUS SINGLE SCREW EXTRUDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FOLASAYO T. FAYOSE

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Developing countries including Nigeria have become dumping grounds of unserviceable and broken down imported machineries because of poor adaptation. Detailed study and design of machines to suit local conditions will prevent poor adaptation of imported machines and high initial costs. In this study, a single screw starch extruder was designed, fabricated and tested using locally available materials. The extruder is the dry type and it has 27.12 kg/s capacity, a compression ratio of 4.5: 1 and is powered by a 5.5 kW electric motor. It consists of a hopper, feeding screw, extruder screw rotating in a barrel and variable die, all made of stainless steel. A unit of the machine costs N 470, 390.00.00 as at April 2015. When used to process cassava flour, a maximum temperature of 114°C was attained through viscous dissipation, up to an actual screw speed of 98.96 rpm (1.65 Hz and extruder efficiency of 64%. Barrel temperature varied directly with extrusion time in a polynomial trend while actual extruder screw speed and efficiency varied inversely with extrusion time and it is best fitted with a polynomial trend.

  8. Medical chilling device designed for hypothermic hydration graft storage system: Design, thermohydrodynamic modeling, and preliminary testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jung Hwan [Hongik University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Hypothermic hydration graft storage is essential to reduce the metabolic demand of cells in vitro. The alleviated metabolic demands reduce the emergence rate of anaerobic metabolism generating adenosine triphosphate (ATP) energy that creates free radicals. The cessive free radicals can damage cells and tissues due to their highly oxidative power with molecules. Current cooling systems such as a conventional air cooling system and an ice pack system are inappropriate for chilling cell tissues in vitro because of inconvenience in use and inconsistent temperature sustainability caused by large size and progressive melting, respectively. Here, we develop a medical chilling device (MCD) for hypothermic hydration graft storage based on thermo-hydrodynamic modeling and thermal electric cooling technology. Our analysis of obtained hydrodynamic thermal behavior of the MCD revealed that the hypothermic condition of 4 .deg. C was continuously maintained, which increased the survival rates of cells in vitro test by reduced free radicals. The validated performance of the MCD promises future development of an optimal hypothermic hydration graft storage system designed for clinical use.

  9. ANALYSIS OF THE FORCE DURING OVERCOMING THE ROADBLOCK – THE PRELIMINARY EXPERIMENTAL TESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub POLASIK

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper applies to the issue of preservation of passenger vehicles during overcoming the roadblocks on a dry asphalt surface with the constant speed. The study aimed to estimate the forces which are affecting the suspension of the vehicle during the contact between a tyre and roadblock. Using the video recording it is possible to calculate the values of the tyre deflection and forces acting in the system. The obtained deflections of the tyres were compared to earlier laboratory test results and load-deflection characteristics of the tyres with the same size. The roadblock with the defined geometry causes a dynamic deflection of the tyre. During the study a significant change in the geometry of the suspension has not occurred. The paper presents the characteristics of the vehicles research with a particular regard to model and type of tyres. The determination of the exact dimensions of the roadblocks and application of the ADIS 16385 system for acquisition and archiving the features of the kinematic motion of the vehicle allowed to determine the speed at the moment of collision with the roadblock.

  10. Preliminary investigation Area 12 fleet operations steam cleaning discharge area Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-07-01

    This report documents the characterization activities and findings of a former steam cleaning discharge area at the Nevada Test Site. The former steam cleaning site is located in Area 12 east of Fleet Operations Building 12-16. The characterization project was completed as a required condition of the ''Temporary Water Pollution Control Permit for the Discharge From Fleet Operations Steam Cleaning Facility'' issued by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection. The project objective was to collect shallow soil samples in eight locations in the former surface discharge area. Based upon field observations, twelve locations were sampled on September 6, 1995 to better define the area of potential impact. Samples were collected from the surface to a depth of approximately 0.3 meters (one foot) below land surface. Discoloration of the surface soil was observed in the area of the discharge pipe and in localized areas in the natural drainage channel. The discoloration appeared to be consistent with the topographically low areas of the site. Hydrocarbon odors were noted in the areas of discoloration only. Samples collected were analyzed for bulk asbestos, Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) metals, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semi-volatile organic compounds (Semi-VOCs), and gamma scan

  11. Preliminary Correlation Map of Geomorphic Surfaces in North-Central Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechtel Nevada

    2005-01-01

    This correlation map (scale = 1:12,000) presents the results of a mapping initiative that was part of the comprehensive site characterization required to operate the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility located in northern Frenchman Flat at the Nevada Test Site. Eight primary map units are recognized for Quaternary surfaces: remnants of six alluvial fan or terrace surfaces, one unit that includes colluvial aprons associated with hill slopes, and one unit for anthropogenically disturbed surfaces. This surficial geology map provides fundamental data on natural processes for reconstruction of the Quaternary history of northern Frenchman Flat, which in turn will aid in the understanding of the natural processes that act to develop the landscape, and the time-frames involved in landscape development. The mapping was conducted using color and color-infrared aerial photographs and field verification of map unit composition and boundaries. Criteria for defining the map unit composition of geomorphic surface units are based on relative geomorphic position, landform morphology, and degree of preservation of surface morphology. The bedrock units identified on this map were derived from previous published mapping efforts and are included for completeness

  12. A Preliminary Test for Skin Gas Assessment Using a Porphyrin Based Evanescent Wave Optical Fiber Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman SELYANCHYN

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available An evanescent-wave optical fibre sensor modified with tetrakis-(4-sulfophenyl porphine (TSPP and poly(allylamine hydrochloride (PAH bilayers using layer-by-layer (LbL electrostatic self-assembly was tested to measure the gas emitted from human skin. Optical intensity changes at different wavelengths in the transmission spectrum of the porphyrin-based film were induced by the human skin gas and measured as sensor response. Influence of relative humidity, which can be a major interference to sensor response, was thoroughly studied and shown to be significantly different when compared to the influence of skin emanations. Responses of the current optical sensor system could be considered as composite sensor array, where different optical wavelengths act as channels that have selective response to specific volatile compounds. Data obtained from the sensor system was analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA. This approach enabled to distinguish skin odors of different people and their altered physiological conditions after alcohol consumption.

  13. Preliminary tests of a model of cooling-pond thermal performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, B.B.; Wesely, M.L.; Wilczek, J.

    1975-01-01

    Experiments performed during recent years at the cooling pond complex at the Dresden nuclear power station have been designed to improve our understanding of the fundamental properties of thermal exchange at a warm-water surface. To a considerable extent, the field studies have been successful in that they have shown that modern micrometeorological techniques can be successfully applied to the demanding circumstances of an industrial cooling lake at temperature of at least 40 0 C. The intent of these studies has been to create a set of parameterization schemes good enough to allow simulation of the performance of the Dresden cooling lake without adjustment of numerical constants. An obvious extension of these studies, and one of the goals of the cooling-pond research program as presently stated, is to obtain an accurate numerical simulation of thermal performance of ponds with use of the improved formulations that have resulted from the experimental work at the Dresden lake. The computer model is divided into two sections and can be used to test the sensitivity of predicted performance to variations in procedures for determining the thermal transfer from the surface

  14. Preliminary draft: environmental impact statement for Hot Engineering Test Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, J.W.; Baxter, B.J.; Carpenter, J.A.

    1978-08-01

    The project considered is the Hot Engineering Test Project (HETP), which is to be located in largely existing facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The project is a part of the National High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Fuel Recycle Program, which seeks to demonstrate the technological feasibility of the recycle processes. The HETP will attempt to confirm the operability of the processes (proven feasible in cold or nonradioactive, benchtop experimentation) under the more realistic radioactive condition. As such, the operation will involve the reprocessing and refabrication of spent HTGR fuel rods obtained from the Fort St. Vrain reactor. The reference fuel is highly enriched uranium. No significant radiological impacts are expected from routine operation of the facility to any biota or ecosystem. Concentrations of one or more radionuclides in Whiteoak Lake will increase as a result of the combination of HETP wastes with other ORNL wastes. Nonradiological effects from construction activities and routine operation should be insignificant on land and water use and on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. No significant socioeconomic impacts should occur from either construction or operation of the facility. Some conservative accident scenarios depict significant releases of radioactivity. Effects should be localized and would not be severe for all but the most unlikely of such incidents. No significant long-term commitment of resources is expected to be required for the project. Nor are any large quantities of scarce or critical resources likely to be irreversibly or irretrievably committed to the project. Principal alternatives considered were: relocation of the project site, postponement of the project schedule, project cancellation, and chemical process variations

  15. The design space exploration and preliminary testing of a new class of tailsitting quadrotor aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodlak, Eric

    Within the last decade, multi-rotor aircraft have become the most prevalent form of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), with applications in the military, commercial, and civilian sectors. This is due primarily to advances in electronics that allow small-scale aircraft systems to be produced and controlled in an affordable manner. Such systems are maneuvered by precisely varying the thrust and torque of individual rotors to produce flight control forces, thereby eliminating much of the mechanical complexity inherent in conventional helicopter configurations. Although many UAV missions exploit the ability to hover in place, many also require the ability to quickly and efficiently dash from point to point. Rotorcraft, in general, are limited in this capacity, since rotor thrust must also be used to produce lift. Transitional aircraft represent an alternative that blends the vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) capabilities of rotorcraft with the forward flight performance of fixed-wing aircraft, but they often rely on cumbersome mechanisms, such as additional or rotating powerplants. UAVs, however, have no need to maintain cockpit orientation. Consequently, a tailsitting quadcopter concept was devised by Dr. Ron Barrett to combine quadcopter hovering performance with the high-speed flight of fixed-wing craft. This paper lays out the arguments for such an aircraft--the XQ-139 --and examines the performance of XQ-139 variants with installed power values ranging from 100 W to 10,000 kW. Battery-electric, rotary engine, turboprop, and hybrid propulsive options are considered, and the merits of each discussed. Additionally, an XQ-139 prototype was designed and constructed, and stationary test was used to compare the aircraft's installed efficiency with that of a typical quadcopter. The prototype was found to be approximately 5% more efficient in hover mode than the quadcopter to which it was compared.

  16. Preliminary full size test of a simplified version of the CMS link alignment system at the ISR hall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arce, P.; Calvo, E.; Figueroa, C.F.; Garcia, N.; Matorras, F.; Rodrigo, T.; Vila, I.; Virto, A.L.; Fernandez, M.G.; Ferrando, A.; Josa, M.I.; Molinero, A.; Oller, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    A preliminary full size test of a simplified version containing some relevant elements of the CMS (compact muon solenoid) Link Alignment System has been installed in an experimental area of the ISR (interaction storage ring) tunnel at CERN. Previously a calibration bench was prepared with standard precise survey methods. The environmental conditions, temperature, atmospheric pressure and relative humidity in the hall were controlled revealing quite stable conditions all along the tests period. The stability measurements done under these conditions show that the light spot on sensors located at about 6 m from the light source are smaller than 5 μm, which satisfies the requirements. Induced changes in the environmental conditions have different effects. Air flows degrades significantly the spatial resolution (∼5μm) but the background due to the environmental light does not degrades the resolution in position reconstruction. A geodesic network defines a reference system common to all opto-mechanical components and can be used to do absolute measurements of the angle between the two light beams coming out from the splitter. The accuracy in the reconstruction of angles with the help of the geodesic network depends on the errors in the network definition. These errors propagate with a smaller or larger strength depending on the distances between the network points. In our tests, the accuracy in the angle reconstruction is 14 μrad when using 4 in and 5.9 m long arms and 17 μrad for 4 m and 2.9 m arms. We found a precision 4 μrad in the angular reconstruction. (authors)

  17. Smoking ban and small-for-gestational age births in Ireland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubair Kabir

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ireland introduced a comprehensive workplace smoke-free legislation in March, 2004. Smoking-related adverse birth outcomes have both health care and societal cost implications. The main aim of this study was to determine the impact of the Irish smoke-free legislation on small-for-gestationa- age (SGA births. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We developed a population-based birthweight (BW percentile curve based on a recent study to compute SGA (BW <5(th percentile and very SGA (vSGA - BW<3(rd percentile for each gestational week. Monthly births born between January 1999 and December 2008 were analyzed linking with monthly maternal smoking rates from a large referral maternity university hospital. We ran individual control and CUSUM charts, with bootstrap simulations, to pinpoint the breakpoint for the impact of ban implementation ( = April 2004. Monthly SGA rates (% before and after April 2004 was considered pre and post ban period births, respectively. Autocorrelation was tested using Durbin Watson (DW statistic. Mixed models using a random intercept and a fixed effect were employed using SAS (v 9.2. A total of 588,997 singleton live-births born between January 1999 and December 2008 were analyzed. vSGA and SGA monthly rates declined from an average of 4.7% to 4.3% and from 6.9% to 6.6% before and after April 2004, respectively. No auto-correlation was detected (DW = ~2. Adjusted mixed models indicated a significant decline in both vSGA and SGA rates immediately after the ban [(-5.3%; 95% CI -5.43% to -5.17%, p<0.0001 and (-0.45%; 95% CI: -0.7% to -0.19%, p<0.0007], respectively. Significant gradual effects continued post the ban periods for vSGA and SGA rates, namely, -0.6% (p<0.0001 and -0.02% (p<0.0001, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A significant reduction in small-for-gestational birth rates both immediately and sustained over the post-ban period, reinforces the mounting evidence of the positive health effect of a successful comprehensive

  18. PET/CT image registration: Preliminary tests for its application to clinical dosimetry in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banos-Capilla, M. C.; Garcia, M. A.; Bea, J.; Pla, C.; Larrea, L.; Lopez, E.

    2007-01-01

    The quality of dosimetry in radiotherapy treatment requires the accurate delimitation of the gross tumor volume. This can be achieved by complementing the anatomical detail provided by CT images through fusion with other imaging modalities that provide additional metabolic and physiological information. Therefore, use of multiple imaging modalities for radiotherapy treatment planning requires an accurate image registration method. This work describes tests carried out on a Discovery LS positron emission/computed tomography (PET/CT) system by General Electric Medical Systems (GEMS), for its later use to obtain images to delimit the target in radiotherapy treatment. Several phantoms have been used to verify image correlation, in combination with fiducial markers, which were used as a system of external landmarks. We analyzed the geometrical accuracy of two different fusion methods with the images obtained with these phantoms. We first studied the fusion method used by the PET/CT system by GEMS (hardware fusion) on the basis that there is satisfactory coincidence between the reconstruction centers in CT and PET systems; and secondly the fiducial fusion, a registration method, by means of least-squares fitting algorithm of a landmark points system. The study concluded with the verification of the centroid position of some phantom components in both imaging modalities. Centroids were estimated through a calculation similar to center-of-mass, weighted by the value of the CT number and the uptake intensity in PET. The mean deviations found for the hardware fusion method were: vertical bar Δx vertical bar ±σ=3.3 mm±1.0 mm and vertical bar Δy vertical bar ±σ=3.6 mm±1.0 mm. These values were substantially improved upon applying fiducial fusion based on external landmark points: vertical bar Δx vertical bar ±σ=0.7 mm±0.8 mm and vertical bar Δy vertical bar ±σ=0.3 mm±1.7 mm. We also noted that differences found for each of the fusion methods were similar for

  19. Preliminary tests for Salix sp. tolerance to heavy metals (Cd, Ni, Pb)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corneanu, Mihaela; Hernea, Cornelia; Butnariu, Monica; Corneanu, Gabriel; Sărac, Ioan; Hollerbach, Wilhelm; Neţoiu, Constantin; Petcov, Andreea Adriana

    2014-05-01

    The species of Salix genus constitute potential sources of germplasm in the prevention of the environment degradation, and offer remedy for about two third from the all degradation types. The majority of the willow species, present a good adaptation to hypoxic conditions, feature which suggest that they manifest a preference for mineral nutrition in comparison with organic one. Thus, many of willow species can be developed on soils with a big amount of minerals and/or radionuclides, being both phytoremediatory species, as well as pioneer ones, contributing to the restoration of soil. Thus, the willow species, posses the capacity for development in degraded areas, natural or anthropic, as swamps, abandoning crops areas, sandy dune, riparian sandy areas, gravels, a.o. In this paper are present some laboratory comparative tests of heavy metals tolerance on four Salix sp. genotypes: clone 202 (Salix alba), hybrid 892 (Salix alba), Inger (Salix viminalis) and Gudrun (Salix viminalis). The genotypes of Salix alba are native from Romania, produced in the Forest Research and Management Institute Bucharest, while the genotypes of Salix viminalis are native from Sweden, but the plant material was produced under license in Romania by REBINA Agrar SRL. As plant material were used one-year-old cuttings (5-10 cm long), with 2-6 buds each. Per genotype, per heavy metal and each of three concentration five replication were used. There were ten experimental variants for each genotype: three concentrations for each of the heavy metals; concentrations selected, in the accordance SR ISO 11269-2/March 1999 and Control (tap water). The cuttings were maintained in metalic solutions for 15 days. In the days 7th and 15th, were performed biometrical observations on: the roots number and length, the shoots number and length, the leaves number/shoot, viability of the shoots. At the end of the experiment the content in heavy metals was determined in roots and shoots (by atomic absorption

  20. Preparation and quality test of superparamagnetic iron oxide labeled antisense oligodeoxynucleotide probe: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Ming; Li, Bibo; Ouyang, Yu; Luo, Yi; Li, Shaolin

    2009-06-01

    Molecular imaging of tumor antisense gene techniques have been applied to the study of magnetic resonance (MR) gene imaging associated with malignant tumors. In this study, we designed, synthesized, and tested a novel molecular probe, in which the antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ASODN) was labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO), and its efficiency was examined by in vitro MR imaging after SK-Br-3 mammary carcinoma cell lines (oncocytes) transfection. The SPIO-labeled ASODN probe was prepared through SPIO conjugated to ASODN using a chemical cross linking method. Its morphology and size were detected by atomic force microscope, size distribution were detected by laser granulometer, the conjugating rate and biological activity were determined by high performance liquid chromatography, and the stability was determined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. After that, the probes were transfected into the SK-Br-3 oncocytes, cellular iron uptake was analyzed qualitatively at light and electron microscopy and was quantified at atomic absorption spectrometry, and the signal change of the transfected cells was observed and measured using MR imaging. The morphology of the SPIO-labeled ASODN probe was mostly spherical with well-distributed scattering, and the diameters were between 25 and 40 nm (95%) by atomic force microscope and laser granulometer, the conjugating rate of the probe was 99%. Moreover, this probe kept its activity under physiological conditions and could conjugate with antisense oligodeoxynucleotide. In addition, light microscopy revealed an intracellular uptake of iron oxides in the cytosol and electron microscopic studies revealed a lysosomal deposition of iron oxides in the transfected SK-Br-3 oncocytes by antisense probes, some of them gathered stacks, and the iron content of the group of transfected SK-Br-3 oncocytes by antisense probe is significantly higher (18.37 +/- 0.42 pg) than other contrast groups, the MR imaging showed that

  1. A new airborne Polar Nephelometer for the measurement of optical and microphysical cloud properties. Part II: Preliminary tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Crépel

    Full Text Available A new optical sensor, the airborne Polar Nephelometer, has been tested in an open wind tunnel. The wind tunnel was operated in cloudy conditions including either cloud water droplets or ice crystals, or a mixture of these particles. The sensor is designed to measure the optical and microphysical parameters of cloud particles sized from a few micrometers to about 500 µm diameter. Basically, the probe measures the scattering phase function of an ensemble of cloud particles which intersect a collimated laser beam near the focal point of a paraboloidal mirror. From the measured scattering phase function the retrieval of the droplet-size spectra and subsequent derived quantities such as liquid water content and size parameters can be calculated using an inversion method. The particle phase discrimination (water droplets/ice particles can be derived from the shape of the scattering phase function and the sensitivity of the probe allows the detection of small ice crystals (typically of 5 µm diameter. The paper describes the preliminary results obtained by the prototype version of the Polar Nephelometer in various cloudy conditions. These results are compared with direct microphysical measurements obtained by usual PMS probes also mounted in the wind tunnel. Complementary results obtained in a cold chamber are presented in order to illustrate the reliability of the Polar Nephelometer in the presence of small ice crystals.

  2. A coupled mechanical-hydrological investigation of crystalline rocks: Annual technical progress report, proposed test matrix, and preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastian, R.J.; Voss, C.F.; Apted, M.J.; Shotwell, L.R.

    1988-02-01

    This report reviews the Fracture Flow Behavior in Rock Study being performed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The study's objective is to determine the feasibility of predicting mechanical-hydrological behavior of natural rock fractures by accurately characterizing fracture surface topography and mineralization. A laboratory-scale facility is currently being used to ensure optimum control of variables. Devising a technique to study small-scale samples is the first step to understanding the complex coupled processes encountered in geomechanics and hydrology. The major accomplishments during fiscal year 1987 were initial development of the innovative testing method, identification of appropriate specimens, substantial renovation to the facility, completion of several sets of experiments, and procurement of hardware components for a laser-imaging device used to characterize fracture surfaces. A complete set of preliminary results and findings is presented in this report. These results, gathered from a basalt core with a natural fracture, have demonstrated that the methodology is valid, and definite trends in the data are readily apparent. 10 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab

  3. DOE/NETL's phase II mercury control technology field testing program: preliminary economic analysis of activated carbon injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew P; Hoffmann, Jeffrey W; Smith, Dennis N; Feeley, Thomas J; Murphy, James T

    2007-02-15

    Based on results of field testing conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL), this article provides preliminary costs for mercury control via conventional activated carbon injection (ACI), brominated ACI, and conventional ACI coupled with the application of a sorbent enhancement additive (SEA) to coal prior to combustion. The economic analyses are reported on a plant-specific basis in terms of the cost required to achieve low (50%), mid (70%), and high (90%) levels of mercury removal "above and beyond" the baseline mercury removal achieved by existing emission control equipment. In other words, the levels of mercury control are directly attributable to ACI. Mercury control costs via ACI have been amortized on a current dollar basis. Using a 20-year book life, levelized costs for the incremental increase in cost of electricity (COE), expressed in mills per kilowatt-hour (mills/kWh), and the incremental cost of mercury control, expressed in dollars per pound of mercury removed ($/lb Hg removed), have been calculated for each level of ACI mercury control. For this analysis, the increase in COE varied from 0.14 mills/kWh to 3.92 mills/kWh. Meanwhile, the incremental cost of mercury control ranged from $3810/lb Hg removed to $166000/lb Hg removed.

  4. In-situ burning of Alaskan oils and emulsions: preliminary results of laboratory tests with and without waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buist, I.; McCourt, J.; Karunakaran, K.; Gierer, C.; Comins, D.; Glover, N.; McKenzie, B.

    1996-01-01

    The efficiency of in-situ burning (ISB) as a response tool for oils transported in Alaska was studied. ISB can be an effective measure during an oil spill clean-up and has the potential to quickly remove large amounts of oil from the water surface. However, studies have shown that it is important to act quickly before the oil evaporates and before water-in-oil emulsions form, rendering the slick unignitable. Small-scale laboratory tests were conducted to determine the limits to ignition of slicks of four oils, and to determine the effectiveness of chemical emulsion breakers in extending the ignition limits. Results showed that while evaporation and emulsification could curtail ignition of oil slicks, the addition of a chemical emulsion breaker could extend the limits of ignition and burnability. Preliminary results also showed that waves had an effect on the burning of fresh, weathered and slightly emulsified crude oil. Burn efficiency and burn time were found to decrease with increasing wave energy. 14 refs., 18 tabs., 4 figs

  5. Effects of New Jersey's cell phone and text ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Since March 1, 2008 there has been a ban on wireless telephone and electronic : communication devices in New Jersey while operating a motor vehicle. But from general : observation on any roadway, it appears that there are still drivers who are talkin...

  6. Autonomous Operation of Super-Regenerative Receiver in BAN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalyanasundaram, P.; Huang, L.; Dolmans, G.; Imamura, K.

    2012-01-01

    Super-regenerative receiver is one of the potential candidates to achieve ultra low power wireless communication in body area network (BAN). The main limitations of the super-regenerative receiver include the difficulty in choosing a good quench waveform to optimize its sensitivity and selectivity,

  7. Referendum 1978 - Nuclear power plant ban Act 1978 - legal consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staudinger, F.

    1981-10-01

    This paper discusses the legal consequences of the 1978 Act banning nuclear power production. It provides a summary outline of the relevant rules of the Austrian Constitution and reviews the legal basis for the organisation of the national electricity system. (NEA) [fr

  8. The Impact of Affirmative Action Bans in Graduate Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garces, Liliana M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines whether bans on affirmative action across four states-- Texas (during "Hopwood v. State of Texas"), California (with Proposition 209), Washington (with Initiative 200), and Florida (with One Florida Initiative)--have reduced the enrollment rates of underrepresented students of color in graduate studies and in a…

  9. Ban the Book Report: Promoting Frequent and Enthusiastic Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Graham

    2012-01-01

    Teachers recognize that frequent independent reading increases student knowledge on a wide range of topics, enhances vocabulary, and improves comprehension. "Ban the Book Report" inspires teachers to go beyond narrow and analytical book reports by exploring the potential of book talks, alternate book covers, identifying features of informational…

  10. Banning Corporal Punishment: A Crucial Step toward Preventing Child Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moelis, Cindy S.

    1988-01-01

    Banning school corporal punishment is supported as a step towards gradually eliminating all violent actions toward children. The 39 states that allow corporal punishment are encouraged to outlaw it, to teach children that it is not socially acceptable behavior and to set an example for families' child-rearing attitudes and practices. (JDD)

  11. Consumer groups call for ban on internet pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmaise, David

    2004-08-01

    A number of consumer groups have called on the Canadian government to ban internet pharmacies, claiming that the industry is putting the health of Canadians at risk. The groups say that the impact will escalate if the problem is not addressed.

  12. Recreating big Ban to learn more about universe

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    A multi-nation effort at Gemeva-based CERN laboratory to recreate conditions existing just after the Big Ban could give vital clues to the creation of the universe and help overcome prejudices against this widely held scientific theory, an eminent science writer said in Kolkata on Tuesday

  13. Overturn of the proposed alcohol advertising ban in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paukštė, Ernesta; Liutkutė, Vaida; Stelemėkas, Mindaugas; Goštautaitė Midttun, Nijolė; Veryga, Aurelijus

    2014-05-01

    In response to the dramatic increase in alcohol-related problems in Lithuania, policy measures, including alcohol advertising and availability restrictions combined with taxation increase, were implemented in 2007-08. Simultaneously, a full alcohol advertising ban was adopted to take effect from 1 January 2012. Therefore, the alcohol industry responded with extensive lobbying aiming to revoke this ban, and ultimately they succeeded at the end of December 2011. To document and analyse actions of stakeholders and events during the alcohol advertising ban cancellation process in Lithuania. Policy analysis includes a development of event time-line, description of key stakeholders' actions and a review of policy context. The alcohol industry in Lithuania used similar tactics as the tobacco industry globally, such as creating strong and diverse opposing groups. The industry successfully exerted pressure to change alcohol control legislation, while non-governmental organizations had the important role of a watchdog, blunting industry's efforts. Unequal power distribution made it difficult to withstand combined local and international lobbying to cancel the ban. Given the global nature of the alcohol industry, there is a need for international regulation to limit the influence of vested interests on national lawmaking. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  14. Statewide ban on recreational fires resulted in a significant decrease in campfire-related summer burn center admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, David Manh; Reid, Dixie; Lentz, Christopher William

    2013-01-01

    Every summer, there is an increase in the number of burn injuries caused by accidents around campfires. Because of the prevalence of drought, high winds, and uncontrolled wild fires, a statewide ban on recreational fires was instituted in New Mexico from June to July 2011. We hypothesized that this legislation would have a significant impact on burn admissions caused by campfire-related injuries. A retrospective review of summer admissions to a state burn center was conducted to assess the effect of this ban on recreational fire injuries, and these data were compared with that of the previous summer when no ban was in effect. All burn admissions to a state burn center were reviewed from Memorial Day to Labor Day in 2010 and 2011. Data collected included cause, % TBSA, age, days of hospitalization, intensive care unit days, and total surface area grafted. Nonparametric statistical analysis was performed with Fisher exact test for dichotomous data and Mann-Whitney test for continuous data with significance at P fires during the study period (n = 14 [17%] in 2010 and 4 [5%] in 2011; P = .02). This resulted in a decrease in the number of patient-days from 91 in 2010 to 25 in 2011. Half of the camp fire admissions required skin grafts to definitively close the wounds (6/14 in 2010 and 2/4 in 2011). Recreational fire bans targeted at controlling wildfires during conditions favoring rapid spread were associated with a 3- to 4-fold decrease in campfire-related burn admissions. Compared with a summer when no fire ban was in effect, the number of patient-days decreased from 91 to 25.

  15. Buckling Test Results and Preliminary Test and Analysis Correlation from the 8-Foot-Diameter Orthogrid-Stiffened Cylinder Test Article TA02

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilburger, Mark W.; Waters, W. Allen, Jr.; Haynie, Waddy T.; Thornburgh, Robert P

    2017-01-01

    Results from the testing of cylinder test article SBKF-P2-CYL-TA02 (referred to herein as TA02) are presented. TA02 is an 8-foot-diameter (96-inches), 78.0-inch-long, aluminum-lithium (Al-Li), orthogrid-stiffened cylindrical shell similar to those used in current state-of-the-art launch-vehicle structures and was designed to exhibit global buckling when subjected to combined compression and bending loads. The testing was conducted at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), February 3-6, 2009, in support of the Shell Buckling Knockdown Factor Project (SBKF). The test was used to verify the performance of a newly constructed buckling test facility at MSFC and to verify the test article design and analysis approach used by the SBKF researchers.

  16. Preliminary probe of quality indicators and quality specification in total testing process in 5753 laboratories in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Yang; Kang, Fengfeng; Wang, Wei; Zhao, Haijian; He, Falin; Zhong, Kun; Wang, Zhiguo; Chen, Wenxiang

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the study was to promote the establishment and implementation of quality indicators (QIs) in clinical laboratories, catch up with the state of art, and provide preliminary quality specifications for established QIs. Clinical laboratories from different provinces in China were included in this QIs survey in 2015. All participants were asked to collect data related to QIs and complete QIs questionnaires. Defect percentages and sigma values were calculated for each QI. The 25th percentile, median, and the 75th percentile of defect percentages and TATs were calculated as optimum, desirable and minimum quality specifications. While 25th, median, and 75th of sigma values were calculated as minimum, desirable and optimum quality specifications, respectively. Five thousand seven hundred and fifty-three clinical laboratories from 28 provinces in China participated in this survey. Median defect percentages of pre-examination QIs varied largely from 0.01% (incorrect sample container) to 0.57% (blood culture contamination) with sigma values varied from 4.0σ to 5.1σ. Median defect percentages of examination phase QIs were all really high. The most common problem in examination phase was test uncovered by inter-laboratory comparison (86.67%). Defect percentages of critical values notification and timely critical values notification were all 0.00% (6.0σ). While the median of defect percentages of incorrect laboratory reports was only 0.01% (5.4σ). Improvements are needed in all phases of total testing process (TTP) in laboratories in China, especially in examination phase. More attention should be paid when microbiology specimens are collected and results are reported. Quality specifications can provide directions for laboratories to make effort for.

  17. Microfabricated thermal modulator for comprehensive two-dimensional micro gas chromatography: design, thermal modeling, and preliminary testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Jin; Reidy, Shaelah M; Block, Bruce P; Wise, Kensall D; Zellers, Edward T; Kurabayashi, Katsuo

    2010-07-07

    In comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC), a modulator is placed at the juncture between two separation columns to focus and re-inject eluting mixture components, thereby enhancing the resolution and the selectivity of analytes. As part of an effort to develop a microGC x microGC prototype, in this report we present the design, fabrication, thermal operation, and initial testing of a two-stage microscale thermal modulator (microTM). The microTM contains two sequential serpentine Pyrex-on-Si microchannels (stages) that cryogenically trap analytes eluting from the first-dimension column and thermally inject them into the second-dimension column in a rapid, programmable manner. For each modulation cycle (typically 5 s for cooling with refrigeration work of 200 J and 100 ms for heating at 10 W), the microTM is kept approximately at -50 degrees C by a solid-state thermoelectric cooling unit placed within a few tens of micrometres of the device, and heated to 250 degrees C at 2800 degrees C s(-1) by integrated resistive microheaters and then cooled back to -50 degrees C at 250 degrees C s(-1). Thermal crosstalk between the two stages is less than 9%. A lumped heat transfer model is used to analyze the device design with respect to the rates of heating and cooling, power dissipation, and inter-stage thermal crosstalk as a function of Pyrex-membrane thickness, air-gap depth, and stage separation distance. Experimental results are in agreement with trends predicted by the model. Preliminary tests using a conventional capillary column interfaced to the microTM demonstrate the capability for enhanced sensitivity and resolution as well as the modulation of a mixture of alkanes.

  18. Banning Corporal Punishment in Taiwan: A Narrative Exploration of Teacher Change and Critical Examination of the Legal Ban

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Wen-Ting

    2013-01-01

    Employing narrative ways of inquiry, this study interrogated how a reform action--legal banning corporal punishment in schools, which was intentionally introduced into Taiwanese society by advocates as a social movement strategy at a time when the incidence rate of school corporal punishment was high--could contribute to ending educators' use of…

  19. 16 CFR 1500.86 - Exemptions from classification as a banned toy or other banned article for use by children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... toy or other banned article for use by children. 1500.86 Section 1500.86 Commercial Practices CONSUMER... employee of the Consumer Product Safety Commission and shall permit such officer or employee to inspect and... horizontal plane of the ball when it is suspended by the cord. Clacker balls where the mass of each ball is...

  20. Label it or ban it? Public perceptions of nano-food labels and propositions for banning nano-food applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, Agnes S. F.; Leong, Alisius D.; Cummings, Christopher L.; Ho, Shirley S.

    2018-02-01

    The future of nano-food largely hinges on public perceptions and willingness to accept this novel technology. The present study utilizes the scientific literacy model and psychometric paradigm as the key theoretical frameworks to examine the factors influencing public support for labeling and banning of nano-food in Singapore. Using data collected from a nationally representative survey of 1001 respondents, the findings demonstrated that attitudes toward technology, preference for natural product, science knowledge, and risk perception were found to substantially affect public support for both labeling and banning of nano-food. Conversely, attention to food safety news on traditional media and attention to nano-news on new media were only associated with public support for labeling of nano-food. Similarly, benefit perception was only significantly associated with public support for banning of nano-food. Theoretically, these findings support the growing body of literature that argues for the significant role played by predispositions, media use, science knowledge, and risk and benefit perceptions on attitude formation toward nano-food. It serves as the pioneering piece to address the aspect of banning in the field of nano-food. Practically, insights drawn from this study could aid relevant stakeholders in enlisting effecting strategies to convey the benefits of nano-food while mitigating the risk perceptions among the public.

  1. Breaking Habits: The Effect of The French Vending Machine Ban on School Snacking and Sugar Intakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capacci, Sara; Mazzocchi, Mario; Shankar, Bhavani

    2018-01-01

    This paper estimates the effect of the 2005 vending machine ban in French secondary schools on nutrient intakes and on the frequency of morning snacking at school. Using data before and after the ban, and exploiting the discontinuity associated with the age-dependent exposure to the ban, we specify a difference-in-differences regression…

  2. 76 FR 79678 - City of Banning, CA; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ... through the ETC Pass-through Clause contained in Banning's TO Tariff; (3) accept revisions to Appendix I to Banning's TO Tariff to reflect Banning's revised TRBAA, forcasted calendar year 2012 ETC costs... lieu of paper using the ``eFiling'' link at http://www.ferc.gov . Persons unable to file electronically...

  3. Teachers' Perceptions and Concerns on the Banning of Corporal Punishment and Its Alternative Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwo, Lwun-syin Laurence; Yuan, You-Shi

    2011-01-01

    Corporal punishment (CP) has been officially banned since December 2006 in Taiwan. It would be useful to explore the perceptions and concerns of elementary school teachers on the issue of banning CP and on alternative methods of discipline in 2008, two years since the ban took effect. In this study, 323 teachers were stratified randomly and drawn…

  4. Long-term retention of a divided attention psycho-motor test combining choice reaction test and postural balance test: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, R; Pascolo, P B

    2015-09-01

    Driving in degraded psychophysical conditions, such as under the influence of alcohol or drugs but also in a state of fatigue or drowsiness, is a growing problem. The current roadside tests used for detecting drugs from drivers suffer various limitations, while impairment is subjective and does not necessarily correlate with drug metabolite concentration found in body fluids. This work is a validation step towards the study of feasibility of a novel test conceived to assess psychophysical conditions of individuals performing at-risk activities. Motor gestures, long-term retention and learning phase related to the protocol are analysed in unimpaired subjects. The protocol is a divided attention test, which combines a critical tracking test achieved with postural movements and a visual choice reaction test. Ten healthy subjects participated in a first set of trials and in a second set after about six months. Each session required the carrying out of the test for ten times in order to investigate learning effect and performance over repetitions. In the first set the subjects showed a learning trend up to the third trial, whilst in the second set of trials they showed motor retention. Nevertheless, the overall performance did not significantly improve. Gestures are probably retained due to the type of tasks and the way in which the instructions are conveyed to the subjects. Moreover, motor retention after a short training suggests that the protocol is easy to learn and understand. Implications for roadside test usage and comparison with current tests are also discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Preliminary Sensorimotor and Cardiovascular Results from the Joint Russian/U.S. Pilot Field Test in Preparation for the Full Field Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke, M. F.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.; Tomilovskaya, E. S.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Platts, S. H.; Rukavishnikov, I. V.; Fomina, E. V.; Stenger, M. B.; Lee, S. M. C.; Wood, S. J.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Ongoing collaborative research efforts between NASA's Neuroscience and Cardiovascular Laboratories, and the Institute of Biomedical Problems' (IBMP) Sensory-Motor and Countermeasures Laboratories have been measuring functional sensorimotor, cardiovascular and strength responses following bed rest, dry immersion, short-duration (Space Shuttle) and long-duration (Mir and International Space Station [ISS]) space flights. While the unloading paradigms associated with dry immersion and bed rest does serve as acceptable flight analogs, testing of crew responses following the long-duration flights previously has not been possible until a minimum of 24 hours after landing. As a result, it is not possible to estimate the nonlinear trend of the early (testing at the landing site. By joint agreement, this research effort has been identified as the functional Field Test (FT). For practical reasons the FT has been divided into two phases: the full FT and a preliminary pilot version (PFT) of the FT that is reduced in both length and scope. The primary goal of this research is to determine functional abilities in long-duration space-flight crews beginning as soon after landing as possible (test in conjunction with postural ataxia testing (quiet stance sway) as well as cardiovascular responses during the other functional tasks. In addition to the immediate post-landing collection of data for the full FT, postflight data will be acquired between one and three more other times within the 24 hours after landing and will continue over the subsequent weeks until functional sensorimotor and cardiovascular responses have returned to preflight normative values. The PFT represents a single trial run comprised of a jointly agreed upon subset of tests from the full FT and relies heavily on IBMP's Sensory-Motor and Countermeasures Laboratories for content and implementation. The PFT has been collected on several ISS missions. Testing included: (1) a sit-to-stand test, (2) recovery from a fall

  6. Development and preliminary user testing of the DCIDA (Dynamic computer interactive decision application) for 'nudging' patients towards high quality decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansback, Nick; Li, Linda C; Lynd, Larry; Bryan, Stirling

    2014-08-01

    preferred option when using DCIDA. Preliminary results suggest that DCIDA has potential to improve the quality of patient decision-making. Next steps include larger studies to test individual components of DCIDA and feasibility testing with patients making real decisions.

  7. Brazilian preliminary norms and investigation of age and education effects on the Modified Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Stroop Color and Word test and Digit Span test in adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Nicolle; Cardoso, Caroline de Oliveira; Trentini, Clarissa Marceli; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Fonseca, Rochele Paz

    2015-01-01

    Executive functions are involved in a series of human neurological and psychiatric disorders. For this reason, appropriate assessment tools with age and education adjusted norms for symptom diagnosis are necessary. Objective To present normative data for adults (19-75 year-olds; with five years of education or more) on the Modified Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (MWCST), Stroop color and word test and Digit Span test. Age and education effects were investigated. Methods Three samples were formed after inclusion criteria and data analysis: MWCST (n=124); Digit Span (n=123), and Stroop test (n=158). Groups were divided into young (19-39), middle-aged (40-59) and older (60-75) participants with five to eight years of education and nine years of education or more. Two-way ANOVA and ANCOVA analyses were used. Results Education effects were found in most variables of the three tasks. An age effect was only found on color naming and color-word naming speed from the Stroop test. No interactions were detected. Conclusion In countries with heterogeneous educational backgrounds, the use of stratified norms by education to assess at least some components of executive functions is essential for an ethical and accurate cognitive diagnosis. PMID:29213953

  8. Varnostni vidiki spletnega bančništva : diplomsko delo univerzitetnega študija

    OpenAIRE

    Prodanović, Stanislav

    2013-01-01

    Banke imajo, kot osrednje finančne institucije, veliko zaslug za hiter razvoj informacijske tehnologije. Če je bila še pred približno 15 leti tehnologija bank skrita pred očmi javnosti, je danes preko elektronskega bančništva povezana s komitenti bank, saj se je v zadnjem desetletju elektronsko bančništvo izkazalo za eno najbolj dobičkonosnih spletnih storitev. Spletno bančništvo je del elektronskega bančništva in omogoča opravljanje bančnih poslov preko interneta ob vseh urah dneva, hkrat...

  9. The neglected repercussions of a physician advertising ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwier, Sandra

    2014-03-01

    Although the adverse implications of physician advertising are the subject of a fierce and sustained debate, there is almost no scholarly discussion on the ethical repercussions of physician advertising bans. The present paper draws attention to these repercussions as they exist today in most of the world, with particular focus on three serious implications for the public: (a) uncertainty about the physician's interests, namely, that patients must trust the physician to put patient wellbeing ahead of possible gains when taking medical decisions; (b) uncertainty about alternative treatments, namely, that patients must trust in the physician's treatment decisions; and (c) uncertainty about the exclusive patient-physician relationship, namely, that patients must develop and maintain a good relationship with one physician. Physician advertising bans continue to tell the public in most of the modern world that these are irrelevant or inappropriate issues, meaning that they are effectively left to the public to resolve.

  10. The impact of tobacco advertising bans on consumption in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecher, Evan

    2008-07-01

    Tobacco advertising bans have become commonplace in developed nations but are less prevalent in developing countries. The importance of advertising bans as part of comprehensive tobacco control strategies has been emphasised by the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control which calls for comprehensive bans on tobacco advertising. The empirical literature suggests that comprehensive advertising bans have played a role in reducing consumption in developed countries but that limited policies have not. This paper extends this analysis to include 30 developing countries and finds that bans do play an important role in reducing tobacco consumption in these countries. It finds that both comprehensive as well as limited policies are effective in reducing consumption although comprehensive bans have a far greater impact than limited ones. Furthermore, it finds that advertising bans may be even more effective in the developing world than they are in the developed world.

  11. Attitudes towards smoking restrictions and tobacco advertisement bans in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhturidze, George D; Mittelmark, Maurice B; Aarø, Leif E; Peikrishvili, Nana T

    2013-11-25

    This study aims to provide data on a public level of support for restricting smoking in public places and banning tobacco advertisements. A nationally representative multistage sampling design, with sampling strata defined by region (sampling quotas proportional to size) and substrata defined by urban/rural and mountainous/lowland settlement, within which census enumeration districts were randomly sampled, within which households were randomly sampled, within which a randomly selected respondent was interviewed. The country of Georgia, population 4.7 million, located in the Caucasus region of Eurasia. One household member aged between 13 and 70 was selected as interviewee. In households with more than one age-eligible person, selection was carried out at random. Of 1588 persons selected, 14 refused to participate and interviews were conducted with 915 women and 659 men. Respondents were interviewed about their level of agreement with eight possible smoking restrictions/bans, used to calculate a single dichotomous (agree/do not agree) opinion indicator. The level of agreement with restrictions was analysed in bivariate and multivariate analyses by age, gender, education, income and tobacco use status. Overall, 84.9% of respondents indicated support for smoking restrictions and tobacco advertisement bans. In all demographic segments, including tobacco users, the majority of respondents indicated agreement with restrictions, ranging from a low of 51% in the 13-25 age group to a high of 98% in the 56-70 age group. Logistic regression with all demographic variables entered showed that agreement with restrictions was higher with age, and was significantly higher among never smokers as compared to daily smokers. Georgian public opinion is normatively supportive of more stringent tobacco-control measures in the form of smoking restrictions and tobacco advertisement bans.

  12. Economic and environmental impacts of a hypothetical global GMO ban

    OpenAIRE

    Mahaffey, Harrison H

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research is to assess the global economic and greenhouse gas emission impacts of GMO crops. This is done by modeling two counterfactual scenarios and evaluating them apart and in combination. The first scenario models the impact of a global GMO ban. The second scenario models the impact of increased GMO penetration. The focus is on the price and welfare impacts, and land use change greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with GMO technologies. Much of the prior work on...

  13. Why Banning Embedded Sales Commissions Is a Public Policy Issue

    OpenAIRE

    Henri-Paul Rousseau

    2017-01-01

    Regulatory authorities have consulted on the option of banning embedded sales commissions for Canadian financial advisors. Such an action would create more problems than it would solve. It would have serious ramifications for Canadians’ access to financial advice and raise issues of choice, industry concentration and price transparency for clients seeking advice on investments and retirement. Financial advisors have much greater knowledge of investments than their clients, who rightly expect ...

  14. For or against the smoking ban in restaurants?

    OpenAIRE

    Marinakou, Evangelia

    2011-01-01

    A considerable number of countries have applied laws for the ban of smoking in public places. Furthermore, the separate area for smokers and non-smokers customers in private places such as restaurants and bars, is a significant change that has caused positive or negative attitudes. The different views of customers and restaurant owners have created a legal and social debate. The findings suggest that on the one hand, the majority of the restaurant owners impose the law, but not actively. On t...

  15. Pengujian Alat Konversi Ban Bekas Menjadi Bahan Bakar

    OpenAIRE

    Saputra, Imron Aryadi; Arijanto, Arijanto

    2017-01-01

    Pirolisis dapat didefinisikan sebagai dekomposisi thermal material organik pada suasana inert (tanpa kehadiran oksigen) dan suhu tinggi sehingga terurai menjadi molekul yang lebih kecil. Pirolisis merupakan bentuk penghematan energi karena dapat menyuling bahan bakar atau bahan kimia yang berguna dari limbah padat. Produk pirolisis berupa gas, cair dan padat. Tujuan penelitian ini yaitu untuk menguji alat konversi ban bekas menjadi bahan bakar, mengetahui jumlah minyak yang dihasilkan pada pr...

  16. Why ban the sale of cigarettes? The case for abolition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Robert N

    2013-05-01

    The cigarette is the deadliest artefact in the history of human civilisation. Most of the richer countries of the globe, however, are making progress in reducing both smoking rates and overall consumption. Many different methods have been proposed to steepen this downward slope, including increased taxation, bans on advertising, promotion of cessation, and expansion of smoke-free spaces. One option that deserves more attention is the enactment of local or national bans on the sale of cigarettes. There are precedents: 15 US states enacted bans on the sale of cigarettes from 1890 to 1927, for instance, and such laws are still fully within the power of local communities and state governments. Apart from reducing human suffering, abolishing the sale of cigarettes would result in savings in the realm of healthcare costs, increased labour productivity, lessened harms from fires, reduced consumption of scarce physical resources, and a smaller global carbon footprint. Abolition would also put a halt to one of the principal sources of corruption in modern civilisation, and would effectively eliminate one of the historical forces behind global warming denial and environmental obfuscation. The primary reason for abolition, however, is that smokers themselves dislike the fact they smoke. Smoking is not a recreational drug, and abolishing cigarettes would therefore enlarge rather than restrict human liberties. Abolition would also help cigarette makers fulfil their repeated promises to 'cease production' if cigarettes were ever found to be causing harm.

  17. Three-dimensional vs. two-dimensional shear-wave elastography of the testes - preliminary study on a healthy collective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcon, J; Trottmann, M; Rübenthaler, J; D'Anastasi, M; Stief, C G; Reiser, M F; Clevert, D A

    2016-01-01

    Shear wave elastography (SWE) and its derivative Supersonic Shear Imaging (SSI) are newer techniques for the determination of tissue elasticity by measuring the velocity of generated shear waves (SWV), which correlates positively with tissue stiffness.The techniques are integrated into many modern ultrasound systems and have been examined in the evaluation of viscoelastic properties of different organ systems. Two-dimensional shear wave elastography (2D SWE) of the testes has been found to be a useful tool in recent studies which included the determination of standard values in healthy volunteers. Three-dimensional shear wave elastography (3D SWE) is the latest development in elastography and is made possible by generation of a multiplanar three-dimensional map via volumetric acquisition with a special ultrasound transducer. This technique allows the assessment of tissue elasticity in a three-dimensional, fully accessible organ map.The aim of this preliminary study was to both evaluate the feasibility of 3D SWE and to compare 2D and 3D SWE standard values in the testes of healthy subjects. We examined the testes of healthy male volunteers (n = 32) with a mean age of 51.06±17.75 years (range 25-77 years) by B-mode ultrasound, 2D and 3D SWE techniques in September of 2016. Volunteers with a history of testicular pathologies were excluded. For all imaging procedures the SL15-4 linear transducer (bandwidth 4-15 MHz) as well as the SLV16-4 volumetric probe (bandwidth 4-16 MHz) of the Aixplorer® ultrasound device (SuperSonic Imagine, Aix-en-Provence, France) were used. Seven regions of interest (ROI, Q-Box®) within the testes were evaluated for SWV using both procedures. SWV values were described in m/s. Results were statistically evaluated using univariateanalysis. Mean SWV values were 1.05 m/s for the 2D SWE and 1.12 m/s for the 3D SWE.Comparisons of local areas delivered no statistically significant differences (p = 0.11 to p = 0.66), except for

  18. Implementation of an indoor smoking ban and an advertising/ sponsorship ban in Lebanon: a baseline cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Monique Chaaya; Rima Nakkash; Rima Afifi; Guillermo Adame; Nadia Fanous; Nabil Tabbal; Dahlia Saab

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although the majority of countries ratified the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, few have comprehensive smoke-free laws and compliance is not always satisfactory. In 2011, Lebanon, having among the highest smoking rates in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, passed a comprehensive tobacco control law (Law 174). This study aimed to assess compliance with Law 174 among smokers and non-smokers in Beirut (the capital), three months after the ban in ...

  19. Why Banning Embedded Sales Commissions Is a Public Policy Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri-Paul Rousseau

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory authorities have consulted on the option of banning embedded sales commissions for Canadian financial advisors. Such an action would create more problems than it would solve. It would have serious ramifications for Canadians’ access to financial advice and raise issues of choice, industry concentration and price transparency for clients seeking advice on investments and retirement. Financial advisors have much greater knowledge of investments than their clients, who rightly expect value from their advisors’ services. Advisors may also face conflicts of interest when they make recommendations about a financial product whose manufacturer might be paying the advisor for selling its products. Banning sales commissions from the manufacturers and having the client pay the advisor directly instead brings its own problems. This is because financial advice is a good with peculiar characteristics. Firstly, financial advice has three fundamental components – the alpha, beta and gamma factors. Together, they define the roles financial advisors play: (alpha asset or portfolio manager, (beta asset allocator (rebalancing a client’s portfolio, and (gamma coach with regard to savings discipline and financial planning. Financial advice has value thanks to the interplay between the three factors. Studies of the issue which have focused on one factor at a time, usually the alpha, produce results that are skewed; however, when studies measure all three factors, the evidence shows that financial advice has significant value, greater than the usual cost charged to clients. Secondly, financial advice is an “experience good”, meaning that clients don’t know ahead of time how good financial advice is until they see how it works out. Assessing the value of financial advice may take many years. Since they can’t immediately measure what they’re paying for, clients with modest incomes or wealth are usually willing only to pay low fees, or not pay

  20. Preliminary evaluation of the use of the greater confinement disposal concept for the disposal of Fernald 11e(2) byproduct material at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochran, J.R.; Brown, T.J.; Stockman, H.W.; Gallegos, D.P.; Conrad, S.H.; Price, L.L.

    1997-09-01

    This report documents a preliminary evaluation of the ability of the greater confinement disposal boreholes at the Nevada Test Site to provide long-term isolation of radionuclides from the disposal of vitrified byproduct material. The byproduct material is essentially concentrated residue from processing uranium ore that contains a complex mixture of radionuclides, many of which are long-lived and present in concentrations greater than 100,000 picoCuries per gram. This material has been stored in three silos at the fernald Environmental Management Project since the early 1950s and will be vitrified into 6,000 yd 3 (4,580 m 3 ) of glass gems prior to disposal. This report documents Sandia National Laboratories' preliminary evaluation for disposal of the byproduct material and includes: the selection of quantitative performance objectives; a conceptual model of the disposal system and the waste; results of the modeling; identified issues, and activities necessary to complete a full performance assessment