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Sample records for test alternate duct

  1. Depressurization test on hot gas duct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanihira, Masanori; Kunitomi; Kazuhiko; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Miyamoto, Yoshiaki; Sato, Yutaka.

    1989-05-01

    To study the integrity of internal structures and the characteristics in a hot gas duct under the rapid depressurization accident, depressurization tests have been carried out using a test apparatus installed the hot gas duct with the same size and the same structures as that of the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). The tests have been performed with three parameters: depressurization rate (0.14-3.08 MPa/s) determined by orifice diameter, area of the open space at the slide joint (11.9-2036 mm 2 ), and initial pressure (1.0-4.0 MPa) filled up in a pressure vessel, by using nitrogen gas and helium gas. The maximum pressure difference applied on the internal structures of the hot gas duct was 2.69 MPa on the liner tube and 0.45 MPa on the separating plate. After all tests were completed, the hot gas duct which was used in the tests was disassembled. Inspection revealed that there were no failure and no deformation on the internal structures such as separating plates, insulation layers, a liner tube and a pressure tube. (author)

  2. Eversion Bile Duct Anastomosis: A Safe Alternative for Bile Duct Size Discrepancy in Deceased Donor Liver Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal-Leyte, Pilar; McKenna, Greg J; Ruiz, Richard M; Anthony, Tiffany L; Saracino, Giovanna; Giuliano, Testa; Klintmalm, Goran B; Kim, Peter Tw

    2018-04-10

    Introduction Bile duct size discrepancy in liver transplantation may increase the risk of biliary complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and outcomes of the eversion bile duct anastomosis technique in deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT) with duct to duct anastomosis. Methods A total of 210 patients who received a DDLT with duct to duct anastomosis from 2012 to 2017 were divided into two groups: those who had eversion bile duct anastomosis (N=70) and standard bile duct anastomosis (N=140). Biliary complications rates were compared between the two groups. Results There was no difference in the cumulative incidence of biliary strictures (P=0.20) and leaks (P=0.17) between the two groups. The biliary complication rate in the eversion group was 14.3% and 11.4% in the standard anastomosis group. All the biliary complications in the eversion group were managed with endoscopic stenting. A severe size mismatch (≥3:1 ratio) was associated with a significantly higher incidence of biliary strictures (44.4%) compared to 2:1 ratio (8.2%), (P=0.002). Conclusion The use of the eversion technique is a safe alternative for bile duct discrepancy in deceased donor liver transplantation; however, severe bile duct size mismatch may be a risk factor for biliary strictures with such technique. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  3. Thermal performance test of the hot gas ducts of HENDEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hishida, M.; Kunitomi, K.; Ioka, I.; Umenishi, K.; Tanaka, T.; Shimomura, H.; Sanokawa, K.

    1984-01-01

    A hot gas duct provided with internal thermal insulation is to be used for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGR). This type of hot gas duct has not been used so far in industrial facilities, and only a couple of tests on such a large-scale model of a hot gas duct have been conducted. The present report deals with the results of the thermal performance of the single tube type hot gas ducts which are installed as parts of a helium engineering demonstration loop (HENDEL). Uniform temperature and heat flux distribution at the surface of the duct were observed, the experimental correlations being obtained for the effective thermal conductivity of the internal thermal insulation layer. The measured temperature distribution of the pressure tube was in good agreement with the calculation by a TRUMP heat transfer computer code. The temperature distribution of the inner tube of the co-axial hot gas duct was evaluated and no hot spot was detected. These results would be very valuable for the design and development of HTGR. (orig.)

  4. Bile Duct Cancer (Cholangiocarcinoma) Symptoms, Tests, Prognosis, and Stages (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bile duct cancer, or cholangiocarcinoma, is rare. Bile ducts are tubes that carry bile between the liver, gallbladder, and small intestine. Bile duct cancer can occur in the intrahepatic, perihilar (Klatskin tumor), or distal extrahepatic area. Learn about tests to diagnose and the stages of bile duct cancer.

  5. [Alternatives to animal testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Isabelle

    2009-11-01

    The use of alternative methods to animal testing are an integral part of the 3Rs concept (refine, reduce, replace) defined by Russel & Burch in 1959. These approaches include in silico methods (databases and computer models), in vitro physicochemical analysis, biological methods using bacteria or isolated cells, reconstructed enzyme systems, and reconstructed tissues. Emerging "omic" methods used in integrated approaches further help to reduce animal use, while stem cells offer promising approaches to toxicologic and pathophysiologic studies, along with organotypic cultures and bio-artificial organs. Only a few alternative methods can so far be used in stand-alone tests as substitutes for animal testing. The best way to use these methods is to integrate them in tiered testing strategies (ITS), in which animals are only used as a last resort.

  6. An evaluation of damping ratios for HVAC duct systems using vibration test data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunyasu, K.; Horimizu, Y.; Kawakami, A.; Iokibe, H.; Yamazaki, T.

    1988-01-01

    The function of Heating Ventilating Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems must be maintained including HVAC duct systems to keep the operation of safety-related equipment in nuclear power plants during earthquake excitations. Therefore, it is important to carry out seismic design for HVAC duct systems. In the previous aseismic design for HVAC duct systems, the 0.5% damping ratio has been used in Japan. In recent years, vibration tests, held on actual duct systems in nuclear power plants and mockup duct systems were performed in order to investigate damping ratios for HVAC duct systems. Based on the results, it was confirmed that the damping ratio for HVAC duct systems, evaluated from these tests, were much greater than the 0.5% damping ratio used in the previous aseismic design of Japan. The new damping ratio in aseismic design was proposed to be 2.5%. The present paper describes the results of the above mentioned investigation

  7. Bile Duct Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / Health Library / Diagnostics & Testing / Bile Duct Exploration Bile Duct Exploration Common bile duct exploration is a ... Test Details Results and Follow-Up What is bile, and what is bile duct exploration? Bile is ...

  8. Organic lining materials test in flue gas ducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raveh, R.; Sfez, D.; Johannsson, L.

    1998-01-01

    Corrosion protection solutions are being widely used in electric power plants equipped with Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) systems. Organic lining materials are one of many solutions available on the market for corrosion protection. This market segment is found in a continuous development in order to fulfill the severe demands of these materials. The main goal of this test is to obtain information about the high temperature resistance of the materials as occurs when the FGD system is by-passed. Aster initial investigation of this market segment only a few lining materials were found compatible according to their manufacturer data. Seven of these materials were installed in the outlet flue gas duct of the Israeli power station M.D. B. This power station is not equipped with a FGD system, thus it gives a real simulation of the environmental conditions into which the lining material is subjected when the FGD system is by-passed. The materials installation was observed carefully and performed by representatives from the manufacturers in order to avoid material failure due to a non-adequate application. The power station was shut down and the lining materials were inspected three and a half months after the lining materials were applied. The inspection results were good and besides changes in the lining color, most materials did not show any damages. During that time the flue gas temperature at the duct was 134?C except some temperature fluctuations

  9. A comparative analysis of reliability, maintainability and availability for two alternatives of the production submarine systems: ANM and submarine ducts versus BOP and a subsea well testing tree; Analise comparativa da confiabilidade, mantenabilidade e disponibilidade para duas alternativas de sistemas submarino de producao: ANM e dutos submarinos versus BOP e arvore submarina de teste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Arlindo Antonio de; Polillo Filho, Adolfo; Santos, Otto Luiz Alcantara [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This technical article presents a study using the concepts of the Engineering of the Reliability and Risk Analysis with the objective of doing a comparative evaluation of the reliability of two alternative production systems for a marine well: one composed by a wet christmas tree (ANM) producing through underwater ducts (flow lines) and other, usually used in tests of long duration, using a subsea BOP and a subsea well testing tree (AST). The central point of the work was the evaluation of the probability of happening an event considered as critic, denominated 'critical flaw', during the well production life. The work uses one of the procedures and methodologies adopted in the Well Construction Engineering, GERISK, together with four computer applications for data treatment, generation of flaw distribution curves and times of repair, modelling and Monte Carlo simulations. The adopted strategy was the one of starting from the existent report, to assume an interval for the possible real value of the relevant parameters and then to establish the scenarios (more probable, optimist and pessimist). Based on those sceneries, the considered premises, the modelling and the reliabilities obtained for each one of the variables, the simulations have been made. As results, are presented the medium readiness, MTTFF (Mean Time To First Failure), the number of flaws and the expected costs. The work also displays the sensibility analysis in respect to the time of production of the well. (author)

  10. A comparative analysis of reliability, maintainability and availability for two alternatives of the production submarine systems: ANM and submarine ducts versus BOP and a subsea well testing tree; Analise comparativa da confiabilidade, mantenabilidade e disponibilidade para duas alternativas de sistemas submarino de producao: ANM e dutos submarinos versus BOP e arvore submarina de teste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Arlindo Antonio de; Polillo Filho, Adolfo; Santos, Otto Luiz Alcantara [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This technical article presents a study using the concepts of the Engineering of the Reliability and Risk Analysis with the objective of doing a comparative evaluation of the reliability of two alternative production systems for a marine well: one composed by a wet christmas tree (ANM) producing through underwater ducts (flow lines) and other, usually used in tests of long duration, using a subsea BOP and a subsea well testing tree (AST). The central point of the work was the evaluation of the probability of happening an event considered as critic, denominated 'critical flaw', during the well production life. The work uses one of the procedures and methodologies adopted in the Well Construction Engineering, GERISK, together with four computer applications for data treatment, generation of flaw distribution curves and times of repair, modelling and Monte Carlo simulations. The adopted strategy was the one of starting from the existent report, to assume an interval for the possible real value of the relevant parameters and then to establish the scenarios (more probable, optimist and pessimist). Based on those sceneries, the considered premises, the modelling and the reliabilities obtained for each one of the variables, the simulations have been made. As results, are presented the medium readiness, MTTFF (Mean Time To First Failure), the number of flaws and the expected costs. The work also displays the sensibility analysis in respect to the time of production of the well. (author)

  11. Thermal performance test of hot gas ducts of helium engineering demonstration loop (HENDEL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hishida, Makoto; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko; Ioka, Ikuo; Umenishi, Koji; Kondo, Yasuo; Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Shimomura, Hiroaki

    1984-01-01

    A hot gas duct provided with internal thermal insulation is supposed to be used for an experimental very high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR) which has been developed by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). This type of hot gas duct has not been used so far in industrial facilities, and only a couple of tests on such a large-scale model of hot gas duct have been conducted. The present test was to investigate the thermal performance of the hot gas ducts which are installed as parts of a helium engineering demonstration loop (HENDEL) of JAERI. Uniform temperature and heat flux distributions at the surface of the duct were observed, the experimental correlation being obtained for the effective thermal conductivity of the internal thermal insulation layer. The measured temperature distribution of the pressure tube was in good agreement with the calculation by a TRUMP heat transfer computer code. The temperature distribution of the inner tube of VHTR hot gas duct was evaluated, and no hot spot was detected. These results would be very valuable for the design and development of VHTR. (author)

  12. Proof tests of irradiated and unirradiated EBR-II subassembly ducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruther, W.E.; Chopra, P.S.; Lambert, J.D.B.

    1977-01-01

    A series of dynamic pressure tests have been conducted within EBR-II subassembly ducts. The tests were designed to simulate bursting of a driver-fuel element in a cluster of such elements at their burnup limit during off-normal conditions in EBR-II. The major objective of the tests was to assure that such failure, which might cause rapid release of stored fission gas, would not deform or otherwise damage subassembly ducts in a way that would hinder movement of a control rod. The test results are described

  13. A molecular diagnostic test for persistent Müllerian duct syndrome in miniature schnauzer dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujar, S; Meyers-Wallen, V N

    2009-01-01

    In persistent Müllerian duct syndrome (PMDS), Müllerian ducts fail to regress in males during sexual differentiation. In the canine miniature schnauzer model, PMDS is caused by a C to T transition in exon 3 of the Müllerian inhibiting substance type II receptor (MISRII), which introduces a DdeI restriction site. Here we report a molecular diagnostic test for PMDS in the miniature schnauzer to identify affected dogs and carriers. As our test results suggest that the mutation is identical by descent in affected dogs of this breed, the test could be used to eliminate this mutation from the miniature schnauzer breed worldwide.

  14. A Molecular Diagnostic Test for Persistent Müllerian Duct Syndrome in Miniature Schnauzer Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Pujar, S.; Meyers-Wallen, V.N.

    2009-01-01

    In persistent Müllerian duct syndrome (PMDS), Müllerian ducts fail to regress in males during sexual differentiation. In the canine miniature schnauzer model, PMDS is caused by a C to T transition in exon 3 of the Müllerian inhibiting substance type II receptor (MISRII), which introduces a DdeI restriction site. Here we report a molecular diagnostic test for PMDS in the miniature schnauzer to identify affected dogs and carriers. As our test results suggest that the mutation is identical by de...

  15. ERROR REDUCTION IN DUCT LEAKAGE TESTING THROUGH DATA CROSS-CHECKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ANDREWS, J.W.

    1998-12-31

    One way to reduce uncertainty in scientific measurement is to devise a protocol in which more quantities are measured than are absolutely required, so that the result is over constrained. This report develops a method for so combining data from two different tests for air leakage in residential duct systems. An algorithm, which depends on the uncertainty estimates for the measured quantities, optimizes the use of the excess data. In many cases it can significantly reduce the error bar on at least one of the two measured duct leakage rates (supply or return), and it provides a rational method of reconciling any conflicting results from the two leakage tests.

  16. Dimensional changes in FFTF [Fast Flux Test Facility] austenitic cladding and ducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makenas, B.J.; Chastain, S.A.; Gneiting, B.C.

    1990-11-01

    As the standard cladding and duct material for the Fast Flux Test Facility driver fuel, 20% cold-worked 316 stainless steel has provided good service up to a fast fluence of 16 x 10 22 n/cm 2 in extreme cases. The titanium-stabilized variant of 316 SS, called D9, has extended the useful life of the austenitic alloys by increasing the incubation fluence necessary for the onset of volumetric swelling. Duct flat-to-flat, length and bow, pin bundle distortion, fuel pin diameter and length, as well as cladding volumetric swelling have been examined for high fluence components representing both alloys. These data emphasize the importance of the swelling process, the superiority of D9, and the interrelation between deformations in the duct, bundle, and individual pins. 8 refs., 10 figs

  17. Field Test of Advanced Duct-Sealing Technologies Within the Weatherization Assistance Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ternes, MP

    2001-12-05

    A field test of an aerosol-spray duct-sealing technology and a conventional, best-practice approach was performed in 80 homes to determine the efficacy and programmatic needs of the duct-sealing technologies as applied in the U.S. Department of Energy Weatherization Assistance Program. The field test was performed in five states: Iowa, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, and Wyoming. The study found that, compared with the best-practice approach, the aerosol-spray technology is 50% more effective at sealing duct leaks and can potentially reduce labor time and costs for duct sealing by 70%, or almost 4 crew-hours. Further study to encourage and promote use of the aerosol-spray technology within the Weatherization Assistance Program is recommended. A pilot test of full production weatherization programs using the aerosol-spray technology is recommended to develop approaches for integrating this technology with other energy conservation measures and minimizing impacts on weatherization agency logistics. In order to allow or improve adoption of the aerosol spray technology within the Weatherization Assistance Program, issues must be addressed concerning equipment costs, use of the technology under franchise arrangements with Aeroseal, Inc. (the holders of an exclusive license to use this technology), software used to control the equipment, safety, and training. Application testing of the aerosol-spray technology in mobile homes is also recommended.

  18. Ultrasound versus liver function tests for diagnosis of common bile duct stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan; Giljaca, Vanja; Takwoingi, Yemisi; Higgie, David; Poropat, Goran; Štimac, Davor; Davidson, Brian R

    2015-02-26

    Ultrasound and liver function tests (serum bilirubin and serum alkaline phosphatase) are used as screening tests for the diagnosis of common bile duct stones in people suspected of having common bile duct stones. There has been no systematic review of the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound and liver function tests. To determine and compare the accuracy of ultrasound versus liver function tests for the diagnosis of common bile duct stones. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, BIOSIS, and Clinicaltrials.gov to September 2012. We searched the references of included studies to identify further studies and systematic reviews identified from various databases (Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, Health Technology Assessment, Medion, and ARIF (Aggressive Research Intelligence Facility)). We did not restrict studies based on language or publication status, or whether data were collected prospectively or retrospectively. We included studies that provided the number of true positives, false positives, false negatives, and true negatives for ultrasound, serum bilirubin, or serum alkaline phosphatase. We only accepted studies that confirmed the presence of common bile duct stones by extraction of the stones (irrespective of whether this was done by surgical or endoscopic methods) for a positive test result, and absence of common bile duct stones by surgical or endoscopic negative exploration of the common bile duct, or symptom-free follow-up for at least six months for a negative test result as the reference standard in people suspected of having common bile duct stones. We included participants with or without prior diagnosis of cholelithiasis; with or without symptoms and complications of common bile duct stones, with or without prior treatment for common bile duct stones; and before or after cholecystectomy. At least two authors screened abstracts and selected studies for inclusion independently. Two authors independently collected data from

  19. Laparoscopic hysterectomy with bilateral orchidectomy for Persistent Mullerian duct syndrome with seminoma testes: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthilnathan Palanisamy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent Mullerian duct syndrome (PMDS is one of the three rare intersex disorders caused by defective anti-mullerian hormone or its receptor, characterized by undescended testes with presence of underdeveloped derivatives of mullerian duct in genetically male infant or adult with normal external genitals and virilization. This population will essentially have normal, 46(XY, phenotype. We hereby present a case of PMDS, presented with incarcerated left inguinal hernia associated with cryptorchidism and seminoma of right testes. Patient underwent laparoscopic hernia repair with bilateral orchidectomy and hysterectomy with uneventful postoperative recovery. Here we highlight the importance of minimal access approach for this scenario in terms of better visualization, less blood loss, combining multiple procedures along with early return to work and excellent cosmetic outcome.

  20. Alternative Test Method for Olefins in Gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    This action proposes to allow for an additional alternative test method for olefins in gasoline, ASTM D6550-05. The allowance of this additional alternative test method will provide more flexibility to the regulated industry.

  1. Alternative Water Processor Test Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Karen D.; Mitchell, Julie; Vega, Leticia; Adam, Niklas; Flynn, Michael; Wjee (er. Rau); Lunn, Griffin; Jackson, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The Next Generation Life Support Project is developing an Alternative Water Processor (AWP) as a candidate water recovery system for long duration exploration missions. The AWP consists of biological water processor (BWP) integrated with a forward osmosis secondary treatment system (FOST). The basis of the BWP is a membrane aerated biological reactor (MABR), developed in concert with Texas Tech University. Bacteria located within the MABR metabolize organic material in wastewater, converting approximately 90% of the total organic carbon to carbon dioxide. In addition, bacteria convert a portion of the ammonia-nitrogen present in the wastewater to nitrogen gas, through a combination of nitrogen and denitrification. The effluent from the BWP system is low in organic contaminants, but high in total dissolved solids. The FOST system, integrated downstream of the BWP, removes dissolved solids through a combination of concentration-driven forward osmosis and pressure driven reverse osmosis. The integrated system is expected to produce water with a total organic carbon less than 50 mg/l and dissolved solids that meet potable water requirements for spaceflight. This paper describes the test definition, the design of the BWP and FOST subsystems, and plans for integrated testing.

  2. Morphology of the testes and epididymal ducts in the pampas cat Leopardus colocolo (Molina, 1782

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Mehanna

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The pampas cat Leopardus colocolo (Molina, 1782 is a species of the Felidae family, widely distributed in South America, included on CITES Appendix II and classified as Near Threatened on the IUCN Red List, with population trend decreasing. Based on this information, the objective of this study is to describe morphologically the testes and epididymal ducts of pampas cat. The animal, coming from the Federal University of Mato Grosso Zoo, Brazil, had died after anesthesia procedure and the male reproductive system was dissected to collect the testicles. The samples taken were fragmented and histologically examined. From the microscopic analysis of the testes were identified: vaginal and tunica albuginea, formed by dense connective tissue modeled with large amount of collagen fibers. The tunica albuginea fibrous septa emits into the body. The seminiferous tubules are coiled and coated internally by spermatogenic epithelium consisting of Sertoli cells, surrounded by a basement membrane in the presence of myoid cells. The interstitial tissue between the seminiferous tubules, is composed of loose connective tissue, blood and lymph vessels, and Leydig cells in polyhedral shape. The epididymal ducts showed pseudostratified columnar epithelium with secretory cells of which stereocilia design, situated on a basement membrane filled by myoid cells. This epithelium has principal and basal cells, the main cell design stereocilia toward the lumen of the epididymal duct.

  3. High SO{sub 2} removal duct injection: A low-cost FGD alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, S.G. [Sorbent Technologies Corp., Twinsburg, OH (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Sorbent Technologies Corporation, of the United States, is currently developing and demonstrating a new waste free, retrofitable, high-SO{sub 2} removal duct-injection process. Up to 85 percent SO{sub 2} removal is achieved by simply injecting a new dry lime-based sorbent into the flue-gas duct, collecting the sorbent downstream in a particulate collector, and then recycling the sorbent. By avoiding large, expensive components, the process can have low capital costs, making it especially appropriate for smaller, older, less-utilized plants. The key to the new technology is the use of sorbent supports. Supported sorbents are produced by coating hydrated lime onto inexpensive mineral supports, such as exfoliated vermiculite or perlite. Consequently, there are no liquid, sludge, or solid wastes with the new technology. Once saturated with SO{sub 2}, the spent sorbent can be easily pelletized into a valuable soil-conditioning agricultural by-product, for the sustainable development that the future requires. This paper describes Sorbent Technologies` pilot demonstration of supported sorbent injection at the Ohio Edison Company`s R.E. Burger station. The Burger effort is also the first demonstration of the Electric Power Research Institute`s new {open_quotes}COHPAC{close_quotes} baghouse technology in a sorbent-injection desulfurization application.

  4. Testing and analyses of a high temperature duct for gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, W.E.; Roberge, A.; Felten, P.; Bastien, D.

    1979-01-01

    A 0.6 scale model of a steam cycle gas-cooled reactor high temperature duct was tested in a closed loop helium facility. The object of the test series was to determine: 1) the thermal effects of gas permeation within the thermal barrier, 2) the plastic deformation of the metallic components, and 3) the thermal performance of the fibrous insulation. A series of tests was performed with thermal cyclings from 100 0 C to 760 0 C at 50 atmospheres until the system thermal performance had stabilized hence enabling predictions for the reactor life. Additional tests were made to assess permeation by deliberately simulating sealing weld failures thereby allowing gas flow by-pass within the primary thermal barrier. After 100 cycles the entire primary structure was found to have performed without structural failure. Due to high pressures exerted by the insulation on the cover plates and a design oversight, the thin seal sheets were unable to expand in an anticipated manner. Local buckling resulted. The insulation retained an acceptable degree of resiliency. However, some fiber damage was observed within both the high and low temperature insulation blankets. A thermal analysis was conducted to correlate the hot duct heat transfer results with those obtained from the analytical techniques used for the HTGR design using a computer thermal model representative of the duct and test setup. The thermal performance of the insulation, the temperature gradient through the structural components, the heating load to the cooling system and the permeation flow effect on heat transfer were verified. Exellent correlation between the experimental data and the analytical techniques were obtained

  5. Alternative constructive methods for construction and assembly of ducts in flooded areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Otto L.M.; Gomes, Antonio E.; Loureiro, Mauro O. [Petroleo do Brasil S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The challenge of constructing the gas pipeline Urucu-Coari-Manaus, which has 662 kilometers of extension, from the Base of Operations Geologist Peter de Moura, in Urucu, to the Isaac Sabba Refinery - REMAN, in the city of Manaus, challenged PETROBRAS to search for innovative solutions in the construction of terrestrial ducts in Brazil. The introduction of these solutions was made necessary in view of, mainly, great difficulties of logistic imposed by the Amazonian forest, place where the enterprise in question was implemented. Of the new used techniques, the air transportation of pipes by cargo helicopters, the assembly of columns on pontoon ferries, opening ditches using excavators placed on 'H' shaped pontoon ferries and welding tie-in joints on a system of floating porches (pontoon ferries), must be emphasized. This work will be dedicated specifically to non-conventional constructive methods employed to overcome the construction difficulties due to the instability of the ground of flooded areas in the Amazonian forest, which during 6 (six) months of the year are total and/or partially submerged. (author)

  6. Pratt & Whitney Advanced Ducted Propulsor (ADP) Engine Test in 40x80ft w.t.: Engineers Peter

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Pratt & Whitney Advanced Ducted Propulsor (ADP) Engine Test in 40x80ft w.t.: Engineers Peter Zell (left) and Dr Clifton Horne (right) are shown preparing a laser light sheet for a flow visualization test. Shown standing in the nacelle of the ADP is John Girvin, senior test engineer for Pratt & Whitney.

  7. Surgical closure of persistent arterial duct with minimal invasive anterior thoracotomy: an alternative technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouilloux, Virginie; Gran, Célia; Kreitmann, Bernard

    2014-10-01

    Surgical approach for persistent ductus arteriosus ligation is typically a left lateral thoracotomy opening the pleural-space with left lung retraction. We describe an alternative approach, with a minimally invasive anterior parasternal incision. This is particularly adapted to preterm infants weighing less than 1.5 kg. This approach ensures a good exposure of vessels. We believe that it is safe, reliable and reproducible. The learning curve should not be an issue for surgeons used to manage low weight patients. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Alternative filtration testing program: Pre-evaluation of test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgeton, G.K.; Poirier, M.R.

    1990-01-01

    Based on results of testing eight solids removal technologies and one pretreatment option, it is recommended that a centrifugal ultrafilter and polymeric ultrafilter undergo further testing as possible alternatives to the Norton Ceramic filters. Deep bed filtration should be considered as a third alternative, if a backwashable cartridge filter is shown to be inefficient in separate testing

  9. Alternative filtration testing program: Pre-evaluation of test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgeton, G.K.; Poirier, M.R.

    1990-09-28

    Based on results of testing eight solids removal technologies and one pretreatment option, it is recommended that a centrifugal ultrafilter and polymeric ultrafilter undergo further testing as possible alternatives to the Norton Ceramic filters. Deep bed filtration should be considered as a third alternative, if a backwashable cartridge filter is shown to be inefficient in separate testing.

  10. Test report : alternative fuels propulsion durability evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    This document, prepared by Honeywell Aerospace, Phoenix, AZ (Honeywell), contains the final : test report (public version) for the U.S. Department of Transportation/Federal Aviation : Administration (USDOT/FAA) Alternative Fuels Propulsion Engine Dur...

  11. Testing and analyses of a high temperature duct for gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, W.E.; Roberge, A.; Felten, P.; Bastien, R.

    1979-01-01

    A 0.6 scale model of a steam cycle gas-cooled reactor high temperature duct was tested in a closed loop helium facility. The object of the test series was to determine: 1) the thermal effects of gas permeation within the thermal barrier, 2) the plastic deformation of the metallic components, and 3) the thermal performance of the fibrous insulation. A series of tests was performed with thermal cyclings from 100 0 C to 760 0 C at 50 atmospheres until the system thermal performance had stabilized hence enabling predictions for the reactor life. Additional tests were made to assess permeation by deliberately simulating sealing weld failures thereby allowing gas flow by-pass within the primary thermal barrier. After 100 cycles the entire primary structure was found to have performed without structural failure. Due to high pressures exerted by the insulation on the cover plates and a design oversight, the thin seal sheets were unable to expand in an anticipated manner. Local buckling resulted. Pre and post test metallurgical analyses were conducted on the Hastelloy-X structures and reference specimens. The results gave evidence of aging in the form of noticeable changes in room temperature tensile and reduction in area parameters. The Hastelloy-X welds exhibited greater changes in properties due to thermal aging. The antifriction coating (Cr 3 C 2 ) performed well without spallation or excessive wear. (orig.)

  12. Update on alternative occupant volume testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    This paper describes the conduct of the first of a series of quasi-static compression tests of rail passenger equipment being done to examine occupant volume strength. Budd Pioneer car 244 has been chosen as the test article for examination of altern...

  13. Evaluation of bundle duct interaction by out of pile compressive test of FBR bundles. FFTF type bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Kosuke; Yamamoto, Yuji; Nagamine, Tsuyoshi; Maeda, Koji [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    2000-10-01

    Bundle duct interaction (BDI) caused by expansion of fuel pin bundle becomes one of the main limiting factors for fuel life times. Then, it is important for the design of fast reactor fuel assembly to understand the BDI behavior in detail. In order to understand the BDI behavior, out of pile compressive tests were conducted for FFTF type bundle by use of X-ray CT equipment. In these compressive tests, two type bundles with different accuracy of initial wire position were conducted. The objective of this test is to evaluate the influence of the initial error from standard position of wire at the same axial position. The locations of the pins and the duct flats are analyzed from CT image data. Quantitative evaluation was performed at the CT image data and discussed the bundle deformation status under BDI condition. Following results are obtained. 1) The accuracy of initial wire position is strongly depends on the pin-to-duct contact behavior. In the case of bundle with large error from standard position, pin-to-duct contact is delayed. 2) The BDI mitigation of the bundle with small error from standard wire position is following: The elastic ovality is the dominant deformation in mild BDI condition, then the wire dispersion and pin dispersion are occurred in severe BDI condition. 3) The BDI mitigation of the bundle with large error from standard wire position is following: The elastic ovality and local bowing of pins with large error from standard wire position are occurred in mild BDI condition, then pin dispersion is occurred around pins with large error from standard wire position, finally wire dispersion is occurred in severe BDI condition. 4) The existence of pins with large error from standard wire position is effective to delay the pin-to-duct contact, but the existence of these pins is possible to contact of pin- to- pin. (author)

  14. Intraluminal occlusion of the seminal duct by laser and Histoacryl: Two non-invasive alternatives for vasectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, B.; Sroka, R.; Koelle, S.; Becker, A. J.; Khoder, W.; Pongratz, T.; Stief, C. G.; Trottmann, M.

    2014-03-01

    Introduction and objective: Vasectomy is a well-established method in family control. Even though it is a safe and low risk operation, this surgery is invasive and difficult to reverse. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate new non-invasive methods for occlusion of the seminal duct. Material and Methods: Seminal duct tissue was obtained from patients (n=30) suffering from prostate cancer and therefore undergoing prostatectomy. In a first set of experiments, the seminal duct was occluded by intraluminal application of Histoacryl® (Braun Aesculap AG, Tuttlingen, Germany). In a 2nd set of experiments, endoluminal laser induced occlusion was performed. Four different laser wavelengths (1940nm, 1470nm, 1064nm, 940nm) and different sets of laser parameters (e.g. power, exposure duration, fibre diameter, energy applied) were compared. Effectiveness of occlusion of the seminal duct was proven by post-treatment irrigation flow measurement, as well as by morphological analyses. To evaluate a potential damage of the surrounding tissue, external temperature was measured using a thermometer during laser application. Results: Intraluminal application of Histoacryl® induced an immediate and complete occlusion of the seminal duct. The underlying connective tissue maintained its functional integrity after this treatment. By laser light application to a Histoacryl® block, a hole could be created into the block thus indicating the possibility of recanalization. Treatment with laser energy resulted in shrinkage of the ductal lumen. The laser application generally caused necrosis in the epithelium and induced formation of vacuoles in the underlying connective tissue. As described for endoluminal varicose treatment, this distinct local reaction might result in an intense inflammation leading to a functional occlusion of the vas deferens. Conclusions: Both laser-induced occlusion and application of Histoacryl® are fast and simple techniques which may be able to achieve a

  15. Harmonisation of animal testing alternatives in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shujun; Qu, Xiaoting; Qin, Yao

    2017-12-01

    More and more countries are lining up to follow the EU's approach and implement a full ban on the sale of cosmetics that have been tested on animals, which has been the case in the EU since 2013. Besides animal welfare considerations, the need for mutual acceptance of data (MAD) and harmonisation of the global market have made the move toward non-animal testing a desirable general trend for countries worldwide. Over the last 10 years, the concept of alternative methods has been gradually developing in China. This has seen the harmonisation of relevant legislation, the organisation of various theoretical and hands-on training sessions, the exploration of method validation, the adoption of internationally recognised methods, the propagation of alternative testing standards, and an in-depth investigation into the potential use of in vitro methods in the biosciences. There are barriers to this progress, including the demand for a completely new infrastructure, the need to build technology capability, the requirement for a national standardisation system formed through international co-operation, and the lack of technical assistance to facilitate self-innovation. China is now increasing speed in harmonising its approach to the use of non-animal alternatives, accelerating technological development and attempting to incorporate non-animal, in vitro, testing methods into the national regulatory system.

  16. Alternatives to animal testing: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doke, Sonali K; Dhawale, Shashikant C

    2015-07-01

    The number of animals used in research has increased with the advancement of research and development in medical technology. Every year, millions of experimental animals are used all over the world. The pain, distress and death experienced by the animals during scientific experiments have been a debating issue for a long time. Besides the major concern of ethics, there are few more disadvantages of animal experimentation like requirement of skilled manpower, time consuming protocols and high cost. Various alternatives to animal testing were proposed to overcome the drawbacks associated with animal experiments and avoid the unethical procedures. A strategy of 3 Rs (i.e. reduction, refinement and replacement) is being applied for laboratory use of animals. Different methods and alternative organisms are applied to implement this strategy. These methods provide an alternative means for the drug and chemical testing, up to some levels. A brief account of these alternatives and advantages associated is discussed in this review with examples. An integrated application of these approaches would give an insight into minimum use of animals in scientific experiments.

  17. High Power Alternator Test Unit (ATU) Electrical System Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchenough, Arthur; Hervol, David

    2007-01-01

    The Alternator Test Unit (ATU) in the Lunar Power System Facility (LPSF) located at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, OH was used to simulate the operating conditions and evaluate the performance of the ATU and it s interaction with various LPSF components in accordance with the JIMO AC Power System Requirements. The testing was carried out at the breadboard development level. Results of these tests will be used for the development and validation of analytical models for performance and lifetime prediction.

  18. Testing an alternate informed consent process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Bernice C; Dodendorf, Diane; Lane, Judy; LaFramboise, Louise; Pozehl, Bunny; Duncan, Kathleen; Knodel, Kendra

    2009-01-01

    One of the main problems in conducting clinical trials is low participation rate due to potential participants' misunderstanding of the rationale for the clinical trial or perceptions of loss of control over treatment decisions. The objective of this study was to test an alternate informed consent process in cardiac rehabilitation participants that involved the use of a multimedia flip chart to describe a future randomized clinical trial and then asked, hypothetically, if they would participate in the future trial. An attractive and inviting visual presentation of the study was created in the form of a 23-page flip chart that included 24 color photographs displaying information about the purpose of the study, similarities and differences between the two treatment groups, and the data collection process. We tested the flip chart in 35 cardiac rehabilitation participants. Participants were asked if they would participate in this future study on two occasions: immediately after the description of the flip chart and 24 hours later, after reading through the informed consent document. Participants were also asked their perceptions of the flip chart and consent process. Of the 35 participants surveyed, 19 (54%) indicated that they would participate in the future study. No participant changed his or her decision 24 hours later after reading the full consent form. The participation rate improved 145% over that of an earlier feasibility study where the recruitment rate was 22%. Most participants stated that the flip chart was helpful and informative and that the photographs were effective in communicating the purpose of the study. Participation rates could be enhanced in future clinical trials by using a visual presentation to explain and describe the study as part of the informed consent process. More research is needed to test alternate methods of obtaining informed consent.

  19. Evaluation of bundle duct interaction by out-of-pile compression test of FBR fuel pin bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Kosuke; Yamamoto, Yuji; Nagamine, Tsuyoshi; Maeda, Koji [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    2001-06-01

    Bundle duct interaction (BDI) caused by expansion of fuel pin bundle is a main factor to limit the fuel lifetime. Therefore, it is important for the design of fast reactor fuel assembly to understand the fuel pin deformation behavior under BDI condition. In order to understand the fuel pin deformation behavior under BDI condition, out-of-pile compression tests were conducted for FBR fuel pin bundle by use of X-ray CT equipment. In these compression tests, two kinds of fuel pin bundles were conducted. One was the fuel pin bundle with the short wire-pitch and the other was the fuel pin bundle with the short wire-pitch and large diameter claddings. The general discussions were also performed based on the results of out-of-pile compression tests obtained by use of X-ray CT equipment in the previous work. Following results were obtained. 1) The occurrence of the pin-to-duct contact depends on the wire-pitch. In the fuel pin bundle with large wire-pitch, the pin-to-duct contact occurred at the early stage of BDI. The reason of this result is due to the low bowing rigidity of the fuel pins with long wire-pitch. 2) The value of the ovalation stiffness strongly depends on the geometry of cladding (diameter, thickness) and especially on wire-pitch. This result in this work revealed that the occurrence of the pin-to-duct contact depends on the value of the ovalation stiffness. 3) The occurrence of wire dispersion and dispersive displacement of pins depends on the wire-pitch strongly. In the fuel pin bundle with the long wire-pitch, the occurrence of the above-mentioned suppression mechanism to BDI is remarkable. 4) The suppression mechanism to BDI of the fuel pin bundle with the long wire-pitch is elastic oval deformation of cladding, wire dispersion and dispersive displacement of pins. On the other hand, the elastic and plastic oval deformation of cladding is the major suppression mechanism to BDI in the fuel pin bundle with the short wire-pitch. 5) The appearance of

  20. Asympotic efficiency of signed - rank symmetry tests under skew alternatives.

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandra Durio; Yakov Nikitin

    2002-01-01

    The efficiency of some known tests for symmetry such as the sign test, the Wilcoxon signed-rank test or more general linear signed rank tests was studied mainly under the classical alternatives of location. However it is interesting to compare the efficiencies of these tests under asymmetric alternatives like the so-called skew alternative proposed in Azzalini (1985). We find and compare local Bahadur efficiencies of linear signed-rank statistics for skew alternatives and discuss also the con...

  1. Transportable Emissions Testing Laboratory for Alternative Vehicles Emissions Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Nigel

    2012-01-31

    The overall objective of this project was to perform research to quantify and improve the energy efficiency and the exhaust emissions reduction from advanced technology vehicles using clean, renewable and alternative fuels. Advanced vehicle and alternative fuel fleets were to be identified, and selected vehicles characterized for emissions and efficiency. Target vehicles were to include transit buses, school buses, vocational trucks, delivery trucks, and tractor-trailers. Gaseous species measured were to include carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter. An objective was to characterize particulate matter more deeply than by mass. Accurate characterization of efficiency and emissions was to be accomplished using a state-of-the-art portable emissions measurement system and an accompanying chassis dynamometer available at West Virginia University. These two units, combined, are termed the Transportable Laboratory. An objective was to load the vehicles in a real-world fashion, using coast down data to establish rolling resistance and wind drag, and to apply the coast down data to the dynamometer control. Test schedules created from actual vehicle operation were to be employed, and a specific objective of the research was to assess the effect of choosing a test schedule which the subject vehicle either cannot follow or can substantially outperform. In addition the vehicle loading objective was to be met better with an improved flywheel system.

  2. Nondestructive Evaluation of the J-2X Direct Metal Laser Sintered Gas Generator Discharge Duct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esther, Elizabeth A.; Beshears, Ronald D.; Lash, Rhonda K.

    2012-01-01

    The J-2X program at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) procured a direct metal laser sintered (DMLS) gas generator discharge duct from Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne and Morris Technologies for a test program that would evaluate the material properties and durability of the duct in an engine-like environment. DMLS technology was pursued as a manufacturing alternative to traditional techniques, which used off nominal practices to manufacture the gas generator duct's 180 degree turn geometry. MSFC's Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Team performed radiographic, ultrasonic, computed tomographic, and fluorescent penetrant examinations of the duct. Results from the NDE examinations reveal some shallow porosity but no major defects in the as-manufactured material. NDE examinations were also performed after hot-fire testing the gas generator duct and yielded similar results pre and post-test and showed no flaw growth or development.

  3. Alternatives Analysis for the Resumption of Transient Testing Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee Nelson

    2013-11-01

    An alternatives analysis was performed for resumption of transient testing. The analysis considered eleven alternatives – including both US international facilities. A screening process was used to identify two viable alternatives from the original eleven. In addition, the alternatives analysis includes a no action alternative as required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The alternatives considered in this analysis included: 1. Restart the Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT) 2. Modify the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) which includes construction of a new hot cell and installation of a new hodoscope. 3. No Action

  4. Strategy for Alternative Occupant Volume Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-20

    This paper describes plans for a series of quasi-static : compression tests of rail passenger equipment. These tests are : designed to evaluate the strength of the occupant volume under : static loading conditions. The research plan includes a detail...

  5. Should you get your heating ducts cleaned?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation conducted research into duct cleaning during which time several houses were tested for hot air furnace duct performance before and after cleaning. Duct cleaning is a major industry which claims that cleaning of ducts will provide you with better indoor air quality, reduce household molds and allergens, get rid of house dust, result in more airflow and better delivery of warm air and reduce energy costs. This report does not substantiate those claims. Researchers found little or no discernible differences in the concentrations of house airborne particles or in duct airflows due to duct cleaning. This is because ducts are metal passages that cannot create dust. Most household dusts come from outdoors that has been tracked in or blows through windows and other openings. While duct cleaning may be justifiable personally, it does not change the quality of the air you breathe, nor will it significantly affect airflow or heating costs. Some filters effectively clean the air in the ducts but they do not create a dust-free environment because of the above-mentioned dust sources. The only time that duct cleaning may make sense is if you have water in your ducts that can result in mold growth, if you are moving into a newly constructed house to remove drywall dust, if your are having trouble with furnace airflow, or if you see an accumulation of debris in the return air ducts. It was emphasized that broadcast spraying of biocides within the duct system should not be performed.

  6. Florida alternative NTCIP testing software (ANTS) for actuated signal controllers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The scope of this research project did include the development of a software tool to test devices for NTCIP compliance. Development of the Florida Alternative NTCIP Testing Software (ANTS) was developed by the research team due to limitations found w...

  7. Animal alternatives for whole effluent toxicity testing ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since the 1940s, effluent toxicity testing has been utilized to varying degrees in many countries to assess potential ecological impacts and assist in determining necessary treatment options for environmental protection. However, it was only in the early 1980’s that toxicity based effluent assessments and subsequent discharge controls became globally important, when it was recognized that physical and chemical measurements alone did not protect the environment from potential impacts. Consequently, various strategies using different toxicity tests, whole effluent assessment techniques (incorporating bioaccumulation potential and persistence) plus supporting analytical tools have been developed over 30 years of practice. Numerous workshops and meetings have focused on effluent risk assessment through ASTM, SETAC, OSPAR, UK competent authorities, and EU specific country rules. Concurrent with this drive to improve effluent quality using toxicity tests, interest in reducing animal use has risen. The Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) organized and facilitated an international workshop in March 2016 to evaluate strategies for concepts, tools, and effluent assessments and update the toolbox of for effluent testing methods. The workshop objectives were to identify opportunities to use a suite of strategies for effluents, and to identify opportunities to reduce the reliance on animal tests and to determine barriers to implementation of new methodologie

  8. Alternative Approach to Traumatic Stensen’s Duct Injuries Accompanied by Glandular Involvement: Botulinum Toxin Injection to the Gland in Conjunction with Microsurgical Repair of the Duct in an Acute Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mert Çalış

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term results of a simultaneous application of botulinum toxin to the parotid gland in conjunction with the microsurgical repair of the duct in an acute setting and to encourage using botulinum toxin as a first-line option to prevent future complications associated with glandular involvement. Material and Methods: Three patients who were referred to the Plastic Surgery Clinic by the emergency room of the Hacettepe University Hospital after maxillofacial trauma are reviewed in this study. Exploration of the facial nerve and Stensen’s duct was planned for all patients within the first 72 hours after their injuries. After intraoral catheterization of the Stensen’s duct through the papilla using an epidural catheter, microsurgical end-to-end anastomosis was performed. Concurrently, 100 units of botulinum toxin A was injected at standardized eight points to the parotid gland. Results: Postoperative magnetic resonance (MR sialography revealed patency in all patients at the end of postoperative first year. The mean postoperative parotid volume of the injured and non-injured sides were 19.82±10.55 cm3 and 17.79±10.98 cm3, respectively, and the results were found to be comparable. Fibrillation potentials in the postoperative electromyography recordings and clinical examination demonstrated nerve regeneration. Conclusion: Botulinum toxin A appears to be effective in treating duct injuries accompanied by glandular involvement in an acute setting, as well as in preventing long-term complications.

  9. Alternative Approach to Traumatic Stensen’s Duct Injuries Accompanied by Glandular Involvement: Botulinum Toxin Injection to the Gland in Conjunction with Microsurgical Repair of the Duct in an Acute Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Mert Çalış; Zeynep Öz; Hakan Uzun; Burçe Özgen; Alp Çetin3; Ali Emre Aksu

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term results of a simultaneous application of botulinum toxin to the parotid gland in conjunction with the microsurgical repair of the duct in an acute setting and to encourage using botulinum toxin as a first-line option to prevent future complications associated with glandular involvement. Material and Methods: Three patients who were referred to the Plastic Surgery Clinic by the emergency room of the Hacettepe University Hospita...

  10. Insights Gained from Testing Alternate Cell Designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, J.E.; Stoots, C.M.; Herring, J.S.; Housley, G.K.; Sohal, M.S.; Milobar, D.G.; Cable, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been researching the application of solid-oxide electrolysis cell for large-scale hydrogen production from steam over a temperature range of 800 to 900 C. The INL has been testing various solid oxide cell designs to characterize their electrolytic performance operating in the electrolysis mode for hydrogen production. Some results presented in this report were obtained from cells, initially developed by the Forschungszentrum Juelich and now manufactured by the French ceramics firm St. Gobain. These cells have an active area of 16 cm2 per cell. They were initially developed as fuel cells, but are being tested as electrolytic cells in the INL test stands. The electrolysis cells are electrode-supported, with ∼10 (micro)m thick yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolytes, ∼1400 (micro)m thick nickel-YSZ steam-hydrogen electrodes, and manganite (LSM) air-oxygen electrodes. The experiments were performed over a range of steam inlet mole fractions (0.1 to 0.6), gas flow rates, and current densities (0 to 0.6 A/cm2). Steam consumption rates associated with electrolysis were measured directly using inlet and outlet dewpoint instrumentation. On a molar basis, the steam consumption rate is equal to the hydrogen production rate. Cell performance was evaluated by performing DC potential sweeps at 800, 850, and 900 C. The voltage-current characteristics are presented, along with values of area-specific resistance as a function of current density. Long-term cell performance is also assessed to evaluate cell degradation. Details of the custom single-cell test apparatus developed for these experiments are also presented. NASA, in conjunction with the University of Toledo, has developed another fuel cell concept with the goals of reduced weight and high power density. The NASA cell is structurally symmetrical, with both electrodes supporting the thin electrolyte and containing micro-channels for gas diffusion. This configuration is

  11. Seismic assessment of safety-related structures: laboratory testing of the pressure relief duct frame at pickering NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghobarah, A.; Biddah, A.; Pilette, C.

    1995-01-01

    The pressure relief duct (PRD) is a Special safety System in the CANDU-PHW multi-unit nuclear power plants (NPP). It is designed to contain and direct the outflow from the reactor building to the pressure suppression and containing systems in the vacuum building. The PRD is a large elevated reinforced concrete box structure of internal width of 6.1 m, height of 7.6 m, and wall thickness of 0.6 m. The PRD is 662 m long and is supported every 22 m by concrete frames of height of 21 m. Typical frame members are 1.8 m in depth and width. A representative elevation of the frame is presented. The section of the PRD under investigation was designed and constructed before the current seismic design codes were in effect. An assessment of the PRD structure when subjected to various levels of ground motion has shown that the frame has a limited seismic withstand capacity. Its seismic performance is dependent on the ductility of the beams and on the ability of the beam-column joint to transfer bending moments and shear forces. The objectives of this study are to provide the data to validate the frame analysis results through laboratory testing of a scaled specimen of the beam-column joint, and to compare the observed response with the response of a beam-column joint when the shear reinforcement is detailed according to current seismic design codes. (author). 3 refs., 10 figs

  12. Bile Duct Cancer (Cholangiocarcinoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Types of Cancer > Bile Duct Cancer (Cholangiocarcinoma) Bile Duct Cancer (Cholangiocarcinoma) This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Bile Duct Cancer (Cholangiocarcinoma). Use the menu below to ...

  13. Wind Turbine With Concentric Ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhonen, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    Wind Turbine device is relatively compact and efficient. Converging inner and outer ducts increase pressure difference across blades of wind turbine. Turbine shaft drives alternator housed inside exit cone. Suitable for installation on such existing structures as water towers, barns, houses, and commercial buildings.

  14. Alternatives to animal testing: research, trends, validation, regulatory acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Jane

    2003-01-01

    Current trends and issues in the development of alternatives to the use of animals in biomedical experimentation are discussed in this position paper. Eight topics are considered and include refinement of acute toxicity assays; eye corrosion/irritation alternatives; skin corrosion/irritation alternatives; contact sensitization alternatives; developmental/reproductive testing alternatives; genetic engineering (transgenic) assays; toxicogenomics; and validation of alternative methods. The discussion of refinement of acute toxicity assays is focused primarily on developments with regard to reduction of the number of animals used in the LD(50) assay. However, the substitution of humane endpoints such as clinical signs of toxicity for lethality in these assays is also evaluated. Alternative assays for eye corrosion/irritation as well as those for skin corrosion/irritation are described with particular attention paid to the outcomes, both successful and unsuccessful, of several validation efforts. Alternative assays for contact sensitization and developmental/reproductive toxicity are presented as examples of methods designed for the examination of interactions between toxins and somewhat more complex physiological systems. Moreover, genetic engineering and toxicogenomics are discussed with an eye toward the future of biological experimentation in general. The implications of gene manipulation for research animals, specifically, are also examined. Finally, validation methods are investigated as to their effectiveness, or lack thereof, and suggestions for their standardization and improvement, as well as implementation are reviewed.

  15. Noise suppression in duct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, A.; Barfeh, M.A.G.

    2001-01-01

    In air-conditioning system the noise generated by supply fan is carried by conditioned air through the ductwork. The noise created in ductwork run may be transmission, regenerative and ductborne. Transmission noise is fan noise, regenerative noise is due to turbulence in flow and ductborne noise is the noise radiating from duct to surroundings. Some noise is attenuated in ducts also but if noise level is high then it needs to be attenuated. A simple mitre bend can attenuate-noise. This principle is extended to V and M-shape ducts with inside lining of fibreglass, which gave maximum attenuation of 77 dB and 62 dB respectively corresponding to 8 kHz frequency as compared to mitre, bend giving maximum 18 dB attenuation. Sound level meter measured sound levels with octave band filter and tests were conducted in anechoic room. A V-shape attenuator can be used at fan outlet and high frequency noise can be minimized greatly. (author)

  16. Proposed experimental test of an alternative electrodynamic theory of superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, J.E., E-mail: jhirsch@ucsd.edu

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • A new experimental test of electric screening in superconductors is proposed. • The electric screening length is predicted to be much larger than in normal metals. • The reason this was not seen in earlier experiments is explained. • This is not predicted by the conventional BCS theory of superconductivity. - Abstract: An alternative form of London’s electrodynamic theory of superconductors predicts that the electrostatic screening length is the same as the magnetic penetration depth. We argue that experiments performed to date do not rule out this alternative formulation and propose an experiment to test it. Experimental evidence in its favor would have fundamental implications for the understanding of superconductivity.

  17. 40 CFR 85.1414 - Alternative test procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Urban Bus Rebuild Requirements § 85.1414 Alternative... shall be representative of in-use urban bus operation. The requestor shall supply relevant technical... test is representative of in-use urban bus operation, the Agency shall determine whether to set such...

  18. The significance test controversy revisited the fiducial Bayesian alternative

    CERN Document Server

    Lecoutre, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this book is not only to revisit the “significance test controversy,”but also to provide a conceptually sounder alternative. As such, it presents a Bayesian framework for a new approach to analyzing and interpreting experimental data. It also prepares students and researchers for reporting on experimental results. Normative aspects: The main views of statistical tests are revisited and the philosophies of Fisher, Neyman-Pearson and Jeffrey are discussed in detail. Descriptive aspects: The misuses of Null Hypothesis Significance Tests are reconsidered in light of Jeffreys’ Bayesian conceptions concerning the role of statistical inference in experimental investigations. Prescriptive aspects: The current effect size and confidence interval reporting practices are presented and seriously questioned. Methodological aspects are carefully discussed and fiducial Bayesian methods are proposed as a more suitable alternative for reporting on experimental results. In closing, basic routine procedures...

  19. Verification of the FBR fuel bundle-duct interaction analysis code BAMBOO by the out-of-pile bundle compression test with large diameter pins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwaba, Tomoyuki; Ito, Masahiro; Nemoto, Junichi; Ichikawa, Shoichi; Katsuyama, Kozo

    2014-09-01

    The BAMBOO computer code was verified by results for the out-of-pile bundle compression test with large diameter pin bundle deformation under the bundle-duct interaction (BDI) condition. The pin diameters of the examined test bundles were 8.5 mm and 10.4 mm, which are targeted as preliminary fuel pin diameters for the upgraded core of the prototype fast breeder reactor (FBR) and for demonstration and commercial FBRs studied in the FaCT project. In the bundle compression test, bundle cross-sectional views were obtained from X-ray computer tomography (CT) images and local parameters of bundle deformation such as pin-to-duct and pin-to-pin clearances were measured by CT image analyses. In the verification, calculation results of bundle deformation obtained by the BAMBOO code analyses were compared with the experimental results from the CT image analyses. The comparison showed that the BAMBOO code reasonably predicts deformation of large diameter pin bundles under the BDI condition by assuming that pin bowing and cladding oval distortion are the major deformation mechanisms, the same as in the case of small diameter pin bundles. In addition, the BAMBOO analysis results confirmed that cladding oval distortion effectively suppresses BDI in large diameter pin bundles as well as in small diameter pin bundles.

  20. Verification of the FBR fuel bundle–duct interaction analysis code BAMBOO by the out-of-pile bundle compression test with large diameter pins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uwaba, Tomoyuki, E-mail: uwaba.tomoyuki@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002, Narita-cho, Oarai-machi, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan); Ito, Masahiro; Nemoto, Junichi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002, Narita-cho, Oarai-machi, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan); Ichikawa, Shoichi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-1, Shiraki, Tsuruga-shi, Fukui 919-1279 (Japan); Katsuyama, Kozo [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002, Narita-cho, Oarai-machi, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan)

    2014-09-15

    The BAMBOO computer code was verified by results for the out-of-pile bundle compression test with large diameter pin bundle deformation under the bundle–duct interaction (BDI) condition. The pin diameters of the examined test bundles were 8.5 mm and 10.4 mm, which are targeted as preliminary fuel pin diameters for the upgraded core of the prototype fast breeder reactor (FBR) and for demonstration and commercial FBRs studied in the FaCT project. In the bundle compression test, bundle cross-sectional views were obtained from X-ray computer tomography (CT) images and local parameters of bundle deformation such as pin-to-duct and pin-to-pin clearances were measured by CT image analyses. In the verification, calculation results of bundle deformation obtained by the BAMBOO code analyses were compared with the experimental results from the CT image analyses. The comparison showed that the BAMBOO code reasonably predicts deformation of large diameter pin bundles under the BDI condition by assuming that pin bowing and cladding oval distortion are the major deformation mechanisms, the same as in the case of small diameter pin bundles. In addition, the BAMBOO analysis results confirmed that cladding oval distortion effectively suppresses BDI in large diameter pin bundles as well as in small diameter pin bundles.

  1. Bile duct stricture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... duct, the tube that moves bile from the liver to the small intestine. Bile is a substance that helps with digestion. ... causes of this condition include: Cancer of the bile duct, liver or pancreas Damage and scarring due to a ...

  2. Discontinuous finite element treatment of duct problems in transport calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, A. M.; Qamar, S.

    1998-01-01

    A discontinuous finite element approach is presented to solve the even-parity Boltzmann transport equation for duct problems. Presence of ducts in a system results in the streaming of particles and hence requires the employment of higher order angular approximations to model the angular flux. Conventional schemes based on the use of continuous trial functions require the same order of angular approximations to be used everywhere in the system, resulting in wastage of computational resources. Numerical investigations for the test problems presented in this paper indicate that the discontinuous finite elements eliminate the above problems and leads to computationally efficient and economical methods. They are also found to be more suitable for treating the sharp changes in the angular flux at duct-observer interfaces. The new approach provides a single-pass alternate to extrapolation and interactive schemes which need multiple passes of the solution strategy to acquire convergence. The method has been tested with the help of two case studies, namely straight and dog-leg duct problems. All results have been verified against those obtained from Monte Carlo simulations and K/sup +/ continuous finite element method. (author)

  3. Alternate immersion stress corrosion testing of 5083 aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, J.L.; Dringman, M.R.; Hausburg, D.E.; Jackson, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    The stress corrosion susceptibility of Type 5083 aluminum--magnesium alloy in plate form and press-formed shapes was determined in the short transverse direction. C-ring type specimens were exposed to alternate immersion in a sodium chloride solution. The test equipment and procedure, with several innovative features, are described in detail. Statistical test results are listed for seven thermomechanical conditions. A certain processing scheme was shown to yield a work-strengthened part that is not sensitized with respect to stress corrosion cracking

  4. Investment in testes, sperm-duct glands and lipid reserves differs between male morphs but not between early and late breeding season in Pomatoschistus minutus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvarnemo, C; Svensson, O; Manson, W

    2010-05-01

    This study of the sand goby Pomatoschistus minutus, a nest-holding fish with paternal care, focused on gonadal investment among males of different sizes collected early and late in the breeding season. All males caught at the nest had breeding colour, whereas trawl-caught fish consisted of males both with and without colour. The absence or presence of breeding colour was a good predictor of testes investment. Compared to males with breeding colour, males without colour were smaller in body size but had extraordinarily large testes. In absolute terms, testes mass of males without breeding colour was on average 3.4 times greater than those of males with breeding colour. Since small colourless males are known to reproduce as sneaker males, this heavy investment in testes probably reflects that they are forced to spawn under sperm competition. Contrary to testes size, sperm-duct glands were largest among males with breeding colour. These glands produce mucins used for making sperm-containing mucous trails that males place in the nest before and during spawning. Since both sneakers and nest-holders potentially could benefit from having large glands, this result is intriguing. Yet, high mucus production may be more important for nest-holders, because it also protects developing embryos from infections. There was no significant effect of season on body size, testes or sperm-duct glands size, but colourless males tended to be less common late in the season. Possibly this may indicate that individual small colourless males develop into their more colourful counterparts within the breeding season.

  5. Building America Case Study: High-Velocity Small-Diameter Duct System, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-04-01

    This study tests the performance of a variable airflow small-diameter duct heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system in a new construction unoccupied low-load test house in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The duct system was installed entirely in conditioned space and was operated from the winter through summer seasons. Measurements were collected on the in-room temperatures and energy consumed by the air handler and heat pump unit. Operation modes with three different volumes of airflow were compared to determine the ideal airflow scenario that maximizes room-to-room thermal uniformity while minimizing fan energy consumption. Black felt infrared imagery was used as a measure of diffuser throw and in-room air mixing. Measured results indicate the small-diameter, high velocity airflow system can provide comfort under some conditions. Solar heat gains resulted in southern rooms drifting beyond acceptable temperature limits. Insufficient airflow to some bedrooms also resulted in periods of potential discomfort. Homebuilders or HVAC contractors can use these results to assess whether this space conditioning strategy is an attractive alternative to a traditional duct system. The team performed a cost analysis of two duct system configurations: (1) a conventional diameter and velocity duct system, and (2) the small-diameter duct system. This work applies to both new and retrofit homes that have achieved a low heating and cooling density either by energy conservation or by operation in a mild climate with few heating or cooling degree days. Guidance is provided on cost trade-offs between the conventional duct system and the small-diameter duct system.

  6. Measured Performance of a Varied Airflow Small-Diameter Duct System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poerschke, Andrew [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2017-03-01

    This study tests the performance of a variable airflow small-diameter duct heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system in a new construction unoccupied low-load test house in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The duct system was installed entirely in conditioned space and was operated from the winter through summer seasons. Measurements were collected on the in-room temperatures and energy consumed by the air handler and heat pump unit. Operation modes with three different volumes of airflow were compared to determine the ideal airflow scenario that maximizes room-to-room thermal uniformity while minimizing fan energy consumption. Black felt infrared imagery was used as a measure of diffuser throw and in-room air mixing. Measured results indicate the small-diameter, high velocity airflow system can provide comfort under some conditions. Solar heat gains resulted in southern rooms drifting beyond acceptable temperature limits. Insufficient airflow to some bedrooms also resulted in periods of potential discomfort. Homebuilders or HVAC contractors can use these results to assess whether this space conditioning strategy is an attractive alternative to a traditional duct system. The team performed a cost analysis of two duct system configurations: (1) a conventional diameter and velocity duct system, and (2) the small-diameter duct system. This work applies to both new and retrofit homes that have achieved a low heating and cooling density either by energy conservation or by operation in a mild climate with few heating or cooling degree days. Guidance is provided on cost trade-offs between the conventional duct system and the small-diameter duct system.

  7. Measured Performance of a Varied Airflow Small-Diameter Duct System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poerschke, Andrew [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2017-03-16

    This study tests the performance of a variable airflow small-diameter duct heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system in a new construction unoccupied low-load test house in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The duct system was installed entirely in conditioned space and was operated from the winter through summer seasons. Measurements were collected on the in-room temperatures and energy consumed by the air handler and heat pump unit. Operation modes with three different volumes of airflow were compared to determine the ideal airflow scenario that maximizes room-to-room thermal uniformity while minimizing fan energy consumption. Black felt infrared imagery was used as a measure of diffuser throw and in-room air mixing. Measured results indicate the small-diameter, high velocity airflow system can provide comfort under some conditions. Solar heat gains resulted in southern rooms drifting beyond acceptable temperature limits. Insufficient airflow to some bedrooms also resulted in periods of potential discomfort. Homebuilders or HVAC contractors can use these results to assess whether this space conditioning strategy is an attractive alternative to a traditional duct system. The team performed a cost analysis of two duct system configurations: (1) a conventional diameter and velocity duct system, and (2) the small-diameter duct system. This work applies to both new and retrofit homes that have achieved a low heating and cooling density either by energy conservation or by operation in a mild climate with few heating or cooling degree days. Guidance is provided on cost trade-offs between the conventional duct system and the small-diameter duct system.

  8. Towards an alternative testing strategy for nanomaterials used in nanomedicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dusinska, M; Boland, S; Saunders, M

    2015-01-01

    In spite of recent advances in describing the health outcomes of exposure to nanoparticles (NPs), it still remains unclear how exactly NPs interact with their cellular targets. Size, surface, mass, geometry, and composition may all play a beneficial role as well as causing toxicity. Concerns...... towards alternative testing strategies for hazard and risk assessment of nanomaterials, highlighting the adaptation of standard methods demanded by the special physicochemical features of nanomaterials and bioavailability studies. The work has assessed a broad range of toxicity tests, cell models and NP...... types and concentrations taking into account the inherent impact of NP properties and the effects of changes in experimental conditions using well-characterized NPs. The results of the studies have been used to generate recommendations for a suitable and robust testing strategy which can be applied...

  9. Alternative containment integrity test methods, an overview of possible techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spletzer, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    A study is being conducted to develop and analyze alternative methods for testing of containment integrity. The study is focused on techniques for continuously monitoring containment integrity to provide rapid detection of existing leaks, thus providing greater certainty of the integrity of the containment at any time. The study is also intended to develop techniques applicable to the currently required Type A integrated leakage rate tests. A brief discussion of the range of alternative methods currently being considered is presented. The methods include applicability to all major containment types, operating and shutdown plant conditions, and quantitative and qualitative leakage measurements. The techniques are analyzed in accordance with the current state of knowledge of each method. The bulk of the techniques discussed are in the conceptual stage, have not been tested in actual plant conditions, and are presented here as a possible future direction for evaluating containment integrity. Of the methods considered, no single method provides optimum performance for all containment types. Several methods are limited in the types of containment for which they are applicable. The results of the study to date indicate that techniques for continuous monitoring of containment integrity exist for many plants and may be implemented at modest cost

  10. Alternate performance standard project: Interpreting the post-construction test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, A.D.; McDonough, S.E.

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes the results of a project commissioned by the State of Florida, in cooperation with the US Environmental Protection Agency, as one portion of the Florida Radon Research Program (FRRP). The purpose of the FRRP is to provide technical support for a statewide Building Standard for Radon-Resistant Construction currently in the rulemaking process. In this case the information provides technical background for a post-construction radon test specified as a performance element of the code which accompanies the prescriptive alternative that does not incorporate active radon reduction systems

  11. Evaluation of the Repeatability of the Delta Q Duct Leakage Testing TechniqueIncluding Investigation of Robust Analysis Techniques and Estimates of Weather Induced Uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickerhoff, Darryl; Walker, Iain

    2008-08-01

    The DeltaQ test is a method of estimating the air leakage from forced air duct systems. Developed primarily for residential and small commercial applications it uses the changes in blower door test results due to forced air system operation. Previous studies established the principles behind DeltaQ testing, but raised issues of precision of the test, particularly for leaky homes on windy days. Details of the measurement technique are available in an ASTM Standard (ASTM E1554-2007). In order to ease adoption of the test method, this study answers questions regarding the uncertainty due to changing weather during the test (particularly changes in wind speed) and the applicability to low leakage systems. The first question arises because the building envelope air flows and pressures used in the DeltaQ test are influenced by weather induced pressures. Variability in wind induced pressures rather than temperature difference induced pressures dominates this effect because the wind pressures change rapidly over the time period of a test. The second question needs to answered so that DeltaQ testing can be used in programs requiring or giving credit for tight ducts (e.g., California's Building Energy Code (CEC 2005)). DeltaQ modeling biases have been previously investigated in laboratory studies where there was no weather induced changes in envelope flows and pressures. Laboratory work by Andrews (2002) and Walker et al. (2004) found biases of about 0.5% of forced air system blower flow and individual test uncertainty of about 2% of forced air system blower flow. The laboratory tests were repeated by Walker and Dickerhoff (2006 and 2008) using a new ramping technique that continuously varied envelope pressures and air flows rather than taking data at pre-selected pressure stations (as used in ASTM E1554-2003 and other previous studies). The biases and individual test uncertainties for ramping were found to be very close (less than 0.5% of air handler flow) to those

  12. Alternate Reductant Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace Phase II Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, F. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Stone, M. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Miller, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-09-03

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) conducted a Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) to determine the optimum alternate reductant flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Specifically, two proposed flowsheets (nitric–formic–glycolic and nitric–formic–sugar) were evaluated based upon results from preliminary testing. Comparison of the two flowsheets among evaluation criteria indicated a preference towards the nitric–formic–glycolic flowsheet. Further research and development of this flowsheet eliminated the formic acid, and as a result, the nitric–glycolic flowsheet was recommended for further testing. Based on the development of a roadmap for the nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet, Waste Solidification Engineering (WS-E) issued a Technical Task Request (TTR) to address flammability issues that may impact the implementation of this flowsheet. Melter testing was requested in order to define the DWPF flammability envelope for the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF), a 1/12th scale DWPF melter, was selected by the SRR Alternate Reductant project team as the melter platform for this testing. The overall scope was divided into the following sub-tasks as discussed in the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP): Phase I - A nitric–formic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled) to baseline the CEF cold cap and vapor space data to the benchmark melter flammability models; Phase II - A nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled and bubbled) to: Define new cold cap reactions and global kinetic parameters in support of the melter flammability model development; Quantify off-gas surging potential of the feed; Characterize off-gas condensate for complete organic and inorganic carbon species. After charging the CEF with cullet from Phase I CEF testing, the melter was slurry-fed with glycolic flowsheet based SB6-Frit 418 melter feed at 36% waste

  13. An alternative test for verifying electronic balance linearity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, I.R.

    1998-02-01

    This paper presents an alternative method for verifying electronic balance linearity and accuracy. This method is being developed for safeguards weighings (weighings for the control and accountability of nuclear material) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). With regard to balance linearity and accuracy, DOE Order 5633.3B, Control and Accountability of Nuclear Materials, Paragraph 2, 4, e, (1), (a) Scales and Balances Program, states: ''All scales and balances used for accountability purposes shall be maintained in good working condition, recalibrated according to an established schedule, and checked for accuracy and linearity on each day that the scale or balance is used for accountability purposes.'' Various tests have been proposed for testing accuracy and linearity. In the 1991 Measurement Science Conference, Dr. Walter E. Kupper presented a paper entitled: ''Validation of High Accuracy Weighing Equipment.'' Dr. Kupper emphasized that tolerance checks for calibrated, state-of-the-art electronic equipment need not be complicated, and he presented four easy steps for verifying that a calibrated balance is operating correctly. These tests evaluate the standard deviation of successive weighings (of the same load), the off-center error, the calibration error, and the error due to nonlinearity. This method of balance validation is undoubtedly an authoritative means of ensuring balance operability, yet it could have two drawbacks: one, the test for linearity is not intuitively obvious, especially from a statistical viewpoint; and two, there is an absence of definitively defined testing limits. Hence, this paper describes an alternative means of verifying electronic balance linearity and accuracy that is being developed for safeguards measurements at the INEEL

  14. Alternatives to animal testing: current status and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebsch, Manfred; Grune, Barbara; Seiler, Andrea; Butzke, Daniel; Oelgeschläger, Michael; Pirow, Ralph; Adler, Sarah; Riebeling, Christian; Luch, Andreas

    2011-08-01

    On the occasion of the 20th anniversary of the Center for Alternative Methods to Animal Experiments (ZEBET), an international symposium was held at the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) in Berlin. At the same time, this symposium was meant to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the publication of the book "The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique" by Russell and Burch in 1959 in which the 3Rs principle (that is, Replacement, Reduction, and Refinement) has been coined and introduced to foster the development of alternative methods to animal testing. Another topic addressed by the symposium was the new vision on "Toxicology in the twenty-first Century", as proposed by the US-National Research Council, which aims at using human cells and tissues for toxicity testing in vitro rather than live animals. An overview of the achievements and current tasks, as well as a vision of the future to be addressed by ZEBET@BfR in the years to come is outlined in the present paper.

  15. 78 FR 68076 - Request for Information on Alternative Skin Sensitization Test Methods and Testing Strategies and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... Laboratory for Alternatives to Animal Testing (EURL ECVAM), and by the industry organization Cosmetics Europe... products. Pesticides and other marketed chemicals, including cosmetic ingredients, are routinely tested for... sensitization. NICEATM collaboration with industry scientists to develop an open-source Bayesian network as an...

  16. ALTERNATE REDUCTANT COLD CAP EVALUATION FURNACE PHASE I TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, F.; Miller, D.; Zamecnik, J.; Lambert, D.

    2014-04-22

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) conducted a Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) to determine the optimum alternate reductant flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Specifically, two proposed flowsheets (nitric–formic–glycolic and nitric–formic–sugar) were evaluated based upon results from preliminary testing. Comparison of the two flowsheets among evaluation criteria indicated a preference towards the nitric–formic–glycolic flowsheet. Further evaluation of this flowsheet eliminated the formic acid1, and as a result, the nitric–glycolic flowsheet was recommended for further testing. Based on the development of a roadmap for the nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet, Waste Solidification Engineering (WS-E) issued a Technical Task Request (TTR) to address flammability issues that may impact the implementation of this flowsheet. Melter testing was requested in order to define the DWPF flammability envelope for the nitric glycolic acid flowsheet. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF), a 1/12th scale DWPF melter, was selected by the SRR Alternate Reductant project team as the melter platform for this testing. The overall scope was divided into the following sub-tasks as discussed in the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP): Phase I - A nitric–formic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled) to baseline the Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF) cold cap and vapor space data to the benchmark melter flammability models Phase II - A nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled and bubbled) to: o Define new cold cap reactions and global kinetic parameters for the melter flammability models o Quantify off-gas surging potential of the feed o Characterize off-gas condensate for complete organic and inorganic carbon species Prior to startup, a number of improvements and modifications were made to the CEF, including addition of cameras, vessel support temperature measurement, and a heating

  17. Alternative Testing Methods for Predicting Health Risk from Environmental Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Colacci

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Alternative methods to animal testing are considered as promising tools to support the prediction of toxicological risks from environmental exposure. Among the alternative testing methods, the cell transformation assay (CTA appears to be one of the most appropriate approaches to predict the carcinogenic properties of single chemicals, complex mixtures and environmental pollutants. The BALB/c 3T3 CTA shows a good degree of concordance with the in vivo rodent carcinogenesis tests. Whole-genome transcriptomic profiling is performed to identify genes that are transcriptionally regulated by different kinds of exposures. Its use in cell models representative of target organs may help in understanding the mode of action and predicting the risk for human health. Aiming at associating the environmental exposure to health-adverse outcomes, we used an integrated approach including the 3T3 CTA and transcriptomics on target cells, in order to evaluate the effects of airborne particulate matter (PM on toxicological complex endpoints. Organic extracts obtained from PM2.5 and PM1 samples were evaluated in the 3T3 CTA in order to identify effects possibly associated with different aerodynamic diameters or airborne chemical components. The effects of the PM2.5 extracts on human health were assessed by using whole-genome 44 K oligo-microarray slides. Statistical analysis by GeneSpring GX identified genes whose expression was modulated in response to the cell treatment. Then, modulated genes were associated with pathways, biological processes and diseases through an extensive biological analysis. Data derived from in vitro methods and omics techniques could be valuable for monitoring the exposure to toxicants, understanding the modes of action via exposure-associated gene expression patterns and to highlight the role of genes in key events related to adversity.

  18. Full Scale Alternative Catalyst Testing for Bosch Reactor Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Katherine; Abney, Morgan B.

    2011-01-01

    Current air revitalization technology onboard the International Space Station (ISS) cannot provide complete closure of the oxygen and hydrogen loops. This makes re-supply necessary, which is possible for missions in low Earth orbit (LEO) like the ISS, but unviable for long term space missions outside LEO. In comparison, Bosch technology reduces carbon dioxide with hydrogen, traditionally over a steel wool catalyst, to create water and solid carbon. The Bosch product water can then be fed to the oxygen generation assembly to produce oxygen for crew members and hydrogen necessary to reduce more carbon dioxide. Bosch technology can achieve complete oxygen loop closure, but has many undesirable factors that result in a high energy, mass, and volume system. Finding a different catalyst with an equal reaction rate at lower temperatures with less catalyst mass and longer lifespan would make a Bosch flight system more feasible. Developmental testing of alternative catalysts for the Bosch has been performed using the Horizontal Bosch Test Stand. Nickel foam, nickel shavings, and cobalt shavings were tested at 500 C and compared to the original catalyst, steel wool. This paper presents data and analysis on the performance of each catalyst tested at comparable temperatures and recycle flow rates.

  19. The European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA): promoting alternative methods in Europe and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozigou, Gwenole; Crozier, Jonathan; Hendriksen, Coenraad; Manou, Irene; Ramirez-Hernandez, Tzutzuy; Weissenhorn, Renate

    2015-03-01

    Here in we introduce the European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA) and its activities, which are focused on international cooperation toward alternative methods. The EPAA is one of the leading organizations in Europe for the promotion of alternative approaches to animal testing. Its innovative public-private partnership structure enables a consensus-driven dialogue across 7 industry sectors to facilitate interaction between regulators and regulated stakeholders. Through a brief description of EPAA's activities and organizational structure, we first articulate the value of this collaboration; we then focus on 2 key projects driven by EPAA. The first project aims to address research gaps on stem cells for safety testing, whereas the second project strives for an approach toward demonstration of consistency in vaccine batch release testing. We highlight the growing need for harmonization of international acceptance and implementation of alternative approaches and for increased international collaboration to foster progress on nonanimal alternatives.

  20. Perceived game realism: a test of three alternative models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribbens, Wannes

    2013-01-01

    Perceived realism is considered a key concept in explaining the mental processing of media messages and the societal impact of media. Despite its importance, little is known about its conceptualization and dimensional structure, especially with regard to digital games. The aim of this study was to test a six-factor model of perceived game realism comprised of simulational realism, freedom of choice, perceptual pervasiveness, social realism, authenticity, and character involvement and to assess it against an alternative single- and five-factor model. Data were collected from 380 male digital game users who judged the realism of the first-person shooter Half-Life 2 based upon their previous experience with the game. Confirmatory factor analysis was applied to investigate which model fits the data best. The results support the six-factor model over the single- and five-factor solutions. The study contributes to our knowledge of perceived game realism by further developing its conceptualization and measurement.

  1. Reference values of MRI measurements of the common bile duct and pancreatic duct in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwal, Kriti; Bedoya, Maria A.; Patel, Neal; Darge, Kassa; Anupindi, Sudha A. [University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Rambhatla, Siri J. [Beth Israel Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, Newark, NJ (United States); Sreedharan, Ram R. [University of Pennsylvania, Departments of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging/cholangiopancreatography (MRI/MRCP) is now an essential imaging modality for the evaluation of biliary and pancreatic pathology in children, but there are no data depicting the normal diameters of the common bile duct (CBD) and pancreatic duct. Recognition of abnormal duct size is important and the increasing use of MRCP necessitates normal MRI measurements. To present normal MRI measurements for the common bile duct and pancreatic duct in children. In this retrospective study we searched all children ages birth to 10 years in our MR urography (MRU) database from 2006 until 2013. We excluded children with a history of hepatobiliary or pancreatic surgery. We stratified 204 children into five age groups and retrospectively measured the CBD and the pancreatic duct on 2-D axial and 3-D coronal T2-weighted sequences. We performed statistical analysis, using logistic and linear regressions to detect the age association of the visibility and size of the duct measurements. We used non-parametric tests to detect gender and imaging plane differences. Our study included 204 children, 106 (52%) boys and 98 (48%) girls, with a median age of 33 months (range 0-119 months). The children were distributed into five age groups. The common bile duct was visible in all children in all age groups. The pancreatic duct was significantly less visible in the youngest children, group 1 (54/67, 80.5%; P = 0.003) than in the oldest children, group 5 (22/22, 100%). In group 2 the pancreatic duct was seen in 19/21 (90.4%), in group 3 52/55 (94.5%), and in group 4 39/39 (100%). All duct measurements increased with age (P < 0.001; r-value > 0.423), and the incremental differences between ages were significant. The measurement variations between the axial and coronal planes were statistically significant (P < 0.001); however these differences were fractions of millimeters. For example, in group 1 the mean coronal measurement of the CBD was 2.1 mm and the axial

  2. Reference values of MRI measurements of the common bile duct and pancreatic duct in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwal, Kriti; Bedoya, Maria A.; Patel, Neal; Darge, Kassa; Anupindi, Sudha A.; Rambhatla, Siri J.; Sreedharan, Ram R.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging/cholangiopancreatography (MRI/MRCP) is now an essential imaging modality for the evaluation of biliary and pancreatic pathology in children, but there are no data depicting the normal diameters of the common bile duct (CBD) and pancreatic duct. Recognition of abnormal duct size is important and the increasing use of MRCP necessitates normal MRI measurements. To present normal MRI measurements for the common bile duct and pancreatic duct in children. In this retrospective study we searched all children ages birth to 10 years in our MR urography (MRU) database from 2006 until 2013. We excluded children with a history of hepatobiliary or pancreatic surgery. We stratified 204 children into five age groups and retrospectively measured the CBD and the pancreatic duct on 2-D axial and 3-D coronal T2-weighted sequences. We performed statistical analysis, using logistic and linear regressions to detect the age association of the visibility and size of the duct measurements. We used non-parametric tests to detect gender and imaging plane differences. Our study included 204 children, 106 (52%) boys and 98 (48%) girls, with a median age of 33 months (range 0-119 months). The children were distributed into five age groups. The common bile duct was visible in all children in all age groups. The pancreatic duct was significantly less visible in the youngest children, group 1 (54/67, 80.5%; P = 0.003) than in the oldest children, group 5 (22/22, 100%). In group 2 the pancreatic duct was seen in 19/21 (90.4%), in group 3 52/55 (94.5%), and in group 4 39/39 (100%). All duct measurements increased with age (P < 0.001; r-value > 0.423), and the incremental differences between ages were significant. The measurement variations between the axial and coronal planes were statistically significant (P < 0.001); however these differences were fractions of millimeters. For example, in group 1 the mean coronal measurement of the CBD was 2.1 mm and the axial

  3. Blocked Tear Duct

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the nose (lacrimal sac). From there tears travel down a duct (the nasolacrimal duct) draining into your nose. Once in the nose, tears are reabsorbed. A blockage can occur at any point in the tear drainage system, from the puncta ...

  4. Alternative occupied volume integrity (OVI) tests and analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    FRA, supported by the Volpe Center, conducted research on alternative methods of evaluating occupied volume integrity (OVI) in passenger railcars. Guided by this research, an alternative methodology for evaluating OVI that ensures an equivalent or gr...

  5. Phototoxicity: Its Mechanism and Animal Alternative Test Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyeonji; Lim, Kyung-Min

    2015-01-01

    The skin exposure to solar irradiation and photoreactive xenobiotics may produce abnormal skin reaction, phototoxicity. Phototoxicity is an acute light-induced response, which occurs when photoreacive chemicals are activated by solar lights and transformed into products cytotoxic against the skin cells. Multifarious symptoms of phototoxicity are identified, skin irritation, erythema, pruritis, and edema that are similar to those of the exaggerated sunburn. Diverse organic chemicals, especially drugs, are known to induce phototoxicity, which is probably from the common possession of UV-absorbing benzene or heterocyclic rings in their molecular structures. Both UVB (290~320 nm) and UVA (320~400 nm) are responsible for the manifestation of phototoxicity. Absorption of photons and absorbed energy (hv) by photoactive chemicals results in molecular changes or generates reactive oxygen species and depending on the way how endogenous molecules are affected by phototoxicants, mechanisms of phototoxcity is categorized into two modes of action: Direct when unstable species from excited state directly react with the endogenous molecules, and indirect when endogeneous molecules react with secondary photoproducts. In order to identify phototoxic potential of a chemical, various test methods have been introduced. Focus is given to animal alternative test methods, i.e., in vitro, and in chemico assays as well as in vivo. 3T3 neutral red uptake assay, erythrocyte photohemolysis test, and phototoxicity test using human 3-dimensional (3D) epidermis model are examples of in vitro assays. In chemico methods evaluate the generation of reactive oxygen species or DNA strand break activity employing plasmid for chemicals, or drugs with phototoxic potential. PMID:26191378

  6. 77 FR 8865 - Recent Postings of Broadly Applicable Alternative Test Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... Applicable Alternative Test Methods AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: This notice announces the broadly applicable alternative test method approval decisions... INFORMATION CONTACT: An electronic copy of each alternative test method approval document is available on the...

  7. Experiment data report for Semiscale Mod-1 Test S-05-3 (alternate ECC injection test)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, E.M.; Patton, M.L. Jr.; Sackett, K.E.

    1977-03-01

    Recorded test data are presented for Test S-05-3 of the Semiscale Mod-1 alternate ECC injection test series. These tests are among several Semiscale Mod-1 experiments conducted to investigate the thermal and hydraulic phenomena accompanying a hypothesized loss-of-coolant accident in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) system. Test S-05-3 was conducted from initial conditions of 2263 psia and 545 0 F to investigate the response of the Semiscale Mod-1 system to a depressurization and reflood transient following a simulated double-ended offset shear of the cold leg broken loop piping. During the test, cooling water was injected into the cold leg sides of the intact and broken loops and into the vessel upper plenum to simulate emergency core coolant injection in a PWR. For Test S-05-3, specifically the effects of upper plenum coolant injection on core thermal and system response were being investigated

  8. Refuge alternatives relief valve testing and design with updated test stand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, T J; Bissert, P T; Homce, G T; Yonkey, J A

    2018-03-01

    Underground refuge alternatives require an air source to supply breathable air to the occupants. This requires pressure relief valves to prevent unsafe pressures from building up within the refuge alternative. The U.S. Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) mandates that pressure relief valves prevent pressure from exceeding 1.25 kPa (0.18 psi), or as specified by the manufacturer, above mine atmospheric pressure when a fan or compressor is used for the air supply. The U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) tested a variety of pressure relief valves using an instrumented test fixture consisting of data acquisition equipment, a centrifugal blower, ductwork and various sensors to determine if the subject pressure relief valves meet the MSHA requirement. Relief pressures and flow characteristics, including opening pressure and flow rate, were measured for five different pressure relief valves under a variety of conditions. The subject pressure relief valves included two off-the-shelf modified check valves, two check valves used in MSHA-approved built-in-place refuge alternatives, and a commercially available valve that was designed for a steel refuge alternative and is currently being used in some built-in-place refuge alternatives. The test results showed relief pressures ranging from 0.20 to 1.53 kPa (0.03 to 0.22 psi) and flow rates up to 19.3 m 3 /min (683 scfm). As tested, some of the pressure relief valves did not meet the 1.25 kPa (0.18 psi) relief specification.

  9. Compact Buried Ducts in a Hot-Humid Climate House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallay, Dave [Home Innovation Research Labs, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2016-01-07

    "9A system of compact, buried ducts provides a high-performance and cost-effective solution for delivering conditioned air throughout the building. This report outlines research activities that are expected to facilitate adoption of compact buried duct systems by builders. The results of this research would be scalable to many new house designs in most climates and markets, leading to wider industry acceptance and building code and energy program approval. The primary research question with buried ducts is potential condensation at the outer jacket of the duct insulation in humid climates during the cooling season. Current best practices for buried ducts rely on encapsulating the insulated ducts with closed-cell spray polyurethane foam insulation to control condensation and improve air sealing. The encapsulated buried duct concept has been analyzed and shown to be effective in hot-humid climates. The purpose of this project is to develop an alternative buried duct system that performs effectively as ducts in conditioned space - durable, energy efficient, and cost-effective - in a hot-humid climate (IECC warm-humid climate zone 3A) with three goals that distinguish this project: 1) Evaluation of design criteria for buried ducts that use common materials and do not rely on encapsulation using spray foam or disrupt traditional work sequences; 2) Establishing design criteria for compact ducts and incorporate those with the buried duct criteria to further reduce energy losses and control installed costs; 3) Developing HVAC design guidance for performing accurate heating and cooling load calculations for compact buried ducts.

  10. Testing alternative theories of dark matter with the CMB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Baojiu; Barrow, John D.; Mota, David F.; Zhao, HongSheng

    2008-01-01

    We propose a method to study and constrain modified gravity theories for dark matter using CMB temperature anisotropies and polarization. We assume that the theories considered here have already passed the matter power-spectrum test of large-scale structure. With this requirement met, we show that a modified gravity theory can be specified by parametrizing the time evolution of its dark-matter density contrast, which is completely controlled by the dark-matter stress history. We calculate how the stress history with a given parametrization affects the CMB observables, and a qualitative discussion of the physical effects involved is supplemented with numerical examples. It is found that, in general, alternative gravity theories can be efficiently constrained by the CMB temperature and polarization spectra. There exist, however, special cases where modified gravity cannot be distinguished from the CDM model even by using both CMB and matter power spectrum observations, nor can they be efficiently restricted by other observables in perturbed cosmologies. Our results show how the stress properties of dark matter, which determine the evolutions of both density perturbations and the gravitational potential, can be effectively investigated using just the general conservation equations and without assuming any specific theoretical gravitational theory within a wide class.

  11. Experiment data report for Semiscale Mod-1 Test S-05-1 (alternate ECC injection test)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, E.M.; Patton, M.L. Jr.; Sackett, K.E.

    1977-02-01

    Recorded test data are presented for Test S-05-1 of the Semiscale Mod-1 alternate ECC injection test series. These tests are among several Semiscale Mod-1 experiments conducted to investigate the thermal and hydraulic phenomena accompanying a hypothesized loss-of-coolant accident in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) system. Test S-05-1 was conducted from initial conditions of 2263 psia and 544 0 F to investigate the response of the Semiscale Mod-1 system to a depressurization and reflood transient following a simulated double-ended offset shear of the cold leg broken loop piping. During the test, cooling water was injected into the vessel lower plenum to simulate emergency core coolant injection in a PWR, with the flow rate based on system volume scaling

  12. Experiment data report for Semiscale Mod-1 Test S-05-4 (alternate ECC injection test)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, B.L.; Feldman, E.M.

    1977-03-01

    Recorded test data are presented for Test S-05-4 of the Semiscale Mod-1 alternate emergency core coolant injection test series. These tests are among several Semiscale Mod-1 experiments conducted to investigate the thermal and hydraulic phenomena accompanying a hypothesized loss-of-coolant accident in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) system. Test S-05-4 was conducted from initial conditions of 2266 psia and 543 0 F to investigate the response of the Semiscale Mod-1 system to a depressurization and reflood transient following a simulated double-ended offset shear of the cold leg broken loop piping. During the test, cooling water was injected into the cold leg of each loop and into the vessel upper plenum to simulate emergency core coolant injection in a PWR. The upper plenum coolant injection was scaled according to the heat stored in the metal mass of the upper plenum

  13. Experiment data report for Semiscale Mod-1 Test S-05-5 (alternate ECC injection test)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, B.L.; Patton, M.L. Jr.; Sackett, K.E.

    1977-04-01

    Recorded test data are presented for Test S-05-5 of the Semiscale Mod-1 alternate ECC injection test series. These tests are among several Semiscale Mod-1 experiments conducted to investigate the thermal and hydraulic phenomena accompanying a hypothesized loss-of-coolant accident in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) system. Test S-05-5 was conducted from initial conditions of 2263 psia and 537 0 F to investigate the response of the Semiscale Mod-1 system to a depressurization and reflood transient following a simulated double-ended offset shear of the cold leg broken loop piping. During the test, cooling water was injected into the cold leg of the intact and broken loops to simulate emergency core coolant injection in a PWR. The upper plenum was vented through a reflood bypass line interconnecting the hot and cold legs of the broken loop

  14. Modified nasolacrimal duct stenting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Min; Jin Mei; Chen Huanjun; Li Yi

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Traditional nasolacrimal duct stenting possesses some shortcoming including difficulty of pulling ball head guide wire from the nasal cavity with turbinate hypertrophy and nasal septal deviation. The new method of nose-oral tube track establishment can overcome the forementioned and increase the successful rate. Methods: 5 F catheter and arterial sheath were modified to be nasolacrimal duct stent delivery device respectively. Antegrade dacryocystography was taken firstly to display the obstructed site and followed by the modified protocol of inserting the guide wire through nasolacrimal duct and nasal cavity, and establishing the stent delivery track for retrograde stent placement. Results: 5 epiphora patients with failure implantation by traditional method were all succeeded through the modified stenting (100%). During 6-mouth follow-up, no serious complications and reocclusion occurred. Conclusion: The establishment of eye-nose-mouth-nose of external nasal guide wire track can improve the successful rate of nasolacrimal duct stenting. (authors)

  15. Bile duct obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tumors that have spread to the biliary system Liver and bile duct worms (flukes) The risk factors include: History of ... Increased bilirubin level Increased alkaline phosphatase level Increased liver enzymes The ... CT scan Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography ( ...

  16. Ducted fuel injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Charles J.

    2018-03-06

    Various technologies presented herein relate to enhancing mixing inside a combustion chamber to form one or more locally premixed mixtures comprising fuel and charge-gas with low peak fuel to charge-gas ratios to enable minimal, or no, generation of soot and other undesired emissions during ignition and subsequent combustion of the locally premixed mixtures. To enable sufficient mixing of the fuel and charge-gas, a jet of fuel can be directed to pass through a bore of a duct causing charge-gas to be drawn into the bore creating turbulence to mix the fuel and the drawn charge-gas. The duct can be located proximate to an opening in a tip of a fuel injector. The duct can comprise of one or more holes along its length to enable charge-gas to be drawn into the bore, and further, the duct can cool the fuel and/or charge-gas prior to combustion.

  17. Strategic alternatives ranking methodology: Multiple RCRA incinerator evaluation test case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, G.; Thomson, R.D.; Reece, J.; Springer, L.; Main, D.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents an important process approach to permit quantification and ranking of multiple alternatives being considered in remedial actions or hazardous waste strategies. This process is a methodology for evaluating programmatic options in support of site selection or environmental analyses. Political or other less tangible motivations for alternatives may be quantified by means of establishing the range of significant variables, weighting their importance, and by establishing specific criteria for scoring individual alternatives. An application of the process to a recent AFLC program permitted ranking incineration alternatives from a list of over 130 options. The process forced participation by the organizations to be effected, allowed a consensus of opinion to be achieved, allowed complete flexibility to evaluate factor sensitivity, and resulted in strong, quantifiable support for any subsequent site-selection action NEPA documents

  18. Curved-Duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je Hyun Baekt

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical study is conducted on the fully-developed laminar flow of an incompressible viscous fluid in a square duct rotating about a perpendicular axis to the axial direction of the duct. At the straight duct, the rotation produces vortices due to the Coriolis force. Generally two vortex cells are formed and the axial velocity distribution is distorted by the effect of this Coriolis force. When a convective force is weak, two counter-rotating vortices are shown with a quasi-parabolic axial velocity profile for weak rotation rates. As the rotation rate increases, the axial velocity on the vertical centreline of the duct begins to flatten and the location of vorticity center is moved near to wall by the effect of the Coriolis force. When the convective inertia force is strong, a double-vortex secondary flow appears in the transverse planes of the duct for weak rotation rates but as the speed of rotation increases the secondary flow is shown to split into an asymmetric configuration of four counter-rotating vortices. If the rotation rates are increased further, the secondary flow restabilizes to a slightly asymmetric double-vortex configuration. Also, a numerical study is conducted on the laminar flow of an incompressible viscous fluid in a 90°-bend square duct that rotates about axis parallel to the axial direction of the inlet. At a 90°-bend square duct, the feature of flow by the effect of a Coriolis force and a centrifugal force, namely a secondary flow by the centrifugal force in the curved region and the Coriolis force in the downstream region, is shown since the centrifugal force in curved region and the Coriolis force in downstream region are dominant respectively.

  19. Putting it to the test : alternative exploration techniques seek recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cope, G.

    2005-06-01

    In the past, remote sensing techniques such as magnetic surveying, geochemical sampling and radiometric surveys, were efficient in hard rock mining exploration but were limited in hydrocarbon detection due to problems such as diurnal and weather variations. This article discussed some of the recent advances in technology that have been developed to overcome many of the drawbacks of older systems. Two Calgary-based companies are currently offering innovative and viable exploration alternatives. The Gore-Sorber module is the most accurate and comprehensive surface geochemical sampling technology currently available to the oil and gas industry. The testing module consists of 2 portions of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene polymer material sealed into a GORE-TEX sheath to prevent water and particle contamination. The module is then inserted into a shallow hole to a depth of 50 centimetres and left there for up to 2 weeks. The sample position is marked and surveyed. Over the course of the 2 weeks, volatile and semi-volatile soil gases in the C2-C15 range are absorbed into the material. The modules are analysed in mass spectrometers and gas chromatographs to determine zone and phase information. Advantages of the system include a reduction in soil contamination; the elimination of day-to-day fluctuations; and the fact that lab analysis allows for higher sensitivity. Costs are approximately $60,000 to $70,000 for an area of 16 square kilometres. Disadvantages include the inability to define the amount of hydrocarbons in place or their depth and the fact that proper field operation and collection of data by trained personnel is critical to the analysis process. The technique has been gaining in popularity in Canada as more exploration is directed towards environmentally sensitive frontier areas. Radiometric surveys record the gamma ray emissions of potassium, uranium and thorium as they decay radioactively. As hydrocarbons leak to the surface, they cause geochemical changes

  20. Patent arterial duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Robin P

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Patent arterial duct (PAD is a congenital heart abnormality defined as persistent patency in term infants older than three months. Isolated PAD is found in around 1 in 2000 full term infants. A higher prevalence is found in preterm infants, especially those with low birth weight. The female to male ratio is 2:1. Most patients are asymptomatic when the duct is small. With a moderate-to-large duct, a characteristic continuous heart murmur (loudest in the left upper chest or infraclavicular area is typical. The precordium may be hyperactive and peripheral pulses are bounding with a wide pulse pressure. Tachycardia, exertional dyspnoea, laboured breathing, fatigue or poor growth are common. Large shunts may lead to failure to thrive, recurrent infection of the upper respiratory tract and congestive heart failure. In the majority of cases of PAD there is no identifiable cause. Persistence of the duct is associated with chromosomal aberrations, asphyxia at birth, birth at high altitude and congenital rubella. Occasional cases are associated with specific genetic defects (trisomy 21 and 18, and the Rubinstein-Taybi and CHARGE syndromes. Familial occurrence of PAD is uncommon and the usual mechanism of inheritance is considered to be polygenic with a recurrence risk of 3%. Rare families with isolated PAD have been described in which the mode of inheritance appears to be dominant or recessive. Familial incidence of PAD has also been linked to Char syndrome, familial thoracic aortic aneurysm/dissection associated with patent arterial duct, and familial patent arterial duct and bicuspid aortic valve associated with hand abnormalities. Diagnosis is based on clinical examination and confirmed with transthoracic echocardiography. Assessment of ductal blood flow can be made using colour flow mapping and pulsed wave Doppler. Antenatal diagnosis is not possible, as PAD is a normal structure during antenatal life. Conditions with signs and symptoms of

  1. Imaging manifestation of hepatocellular carcinoma with bile duct tumor thrombi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qingyu; Chen Jianyu; Liang Biling; Hu Tao

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the imaging features of hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC) with bile duct tumor thrombi. Methods: Thirteen patients with bile duct tumor thrombi proved pathologically underwent imaging examination. MR and CT were performed in 3 cases, and 2 cases had CT only and 8 cases had MRI only. Ultrasonography(US) was performed in all 13 patients. The accuracy of bile duct tumor thrombi detection was compared between US, CT and MRI with Fisher test. Results: Liver tumors and bile duct tumor thrombi were demonstrated in all patients on CT or MRI. Presence of intraluminal soft tissue mass was found in four of five cases on CT, and mild enhancement of the intraluminal mass in the arterial phase was noted, dilated bile duct distal to tumor thrombi was detected in all five patients. Eleven Tumor thrombi showed slight low signal intensity on T 1 WI, slight high signal intensity on T 2 WI, and mild to moderate contrast enhancement on the contrast-enhanced MR images. The MRCP findings of tumor thrombi were as follows: interruption, stricture of the bile ducts or irregular filling defect in the bile ducts with dilated intrahepatic ducts, bile duet was abruptly interrupted or showed a 'rat-tail' stricture (n=5); the common bile duct was filled with tumor thrombi, intrahepatic bile duct dilatation and missing common bile duct was noted on MRCP (n=2). Bile duct tumor thrombi were correctly diagnosed in 7 cases on US, and 12 cases on CT or MRI. Six cases were misdiagnosed or miss-diagnosed on US, and 4 cases were misdiagnosed on CT or MRI. There was no significant difference between US and CT/MRI in diagnosis of bile duct tumor thrombi (P=0.270). Conclusion: CT or MR imaging is useful for the diagnosis of HCC with biliary tumor thrombi and for evaluating the extension of thrombi. (authors)

  2. Duct-to-duct biliary reconstruction after radical resection of Bismuth IIIa hilar cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen-Guang; Gu, Jun; Dong, Ping; Lu, Jian-Hua; Li, Mao-Lan; Wu, Xiang-Song; Yang, Jia-Hua; Zhang, Lin; Ding, Qi-Chen; Weng, Hao; Ding, Qian; Liu, Ying-Bin

    2013-04-21

    At present, radical resection remains the only effective treatment for patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma. The surgical approach for R0 resection of hilar cholangiocarcinoma is complex and diverse, but for the biliary reconstruction after resection, almost all surgeons use Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy. A viable alternative to Roux-en-Y reconstruction after radical resection of hilar cholangiocarcinoma has not yet been proposed. We report a case of performing duct-to-duct biliary reconstruction after radical resection of Bismuth IIIa hilar cholangiocarcinoma. End-to-end anastomosis between the left hepatic duct and the distal common bile duct was used for the biliary reconstruction, and a single-layer continuous suture was performed along the bile duct using 5-0 prolene. The patient was discharged favorably without biliary fistula 2 wk later. Evidence for tumor recurrence was not found after an 18 mo follow-up. Performing bile duct end-to-end anastomosis in hilar cholangiocarcinoma can simplify the complex digestive tract reconstruction process.

  3. Alternative method of inservice hydraulic testing of difficult to test pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockton, N.B.; Shangari, S.

    1994-01-01

    The pump test codes require that system resistance be varied until the independent variable (either the pump flow rate or differential pressure) equals its reference value. Variance from this fixed reference value is not specifically allowed. However, the design of many systems makes it impractical to set the independent variable to an exact value. Over a limited range of pump operation about the fixed reference value, linear interpolation between two points of pump operation can be used to accurately determine degradation at the reference value without repeating reference test conditions. This paper presents an overview of possible alternatives for hydraulic testing of pumps and a detailed discussion of the linear interpolation method. The approximation error associated with linear interpolation is analyzed. Methods to quantify and minimize approximation error are presented

  4. Pressure analysis in ventilation ducts at bituminization facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Naoki; Iimura, Masato; Takahashi, Yuki; Omori, Eiichi; Yamanouchi, Takamichi

    1997-09-01

    Pressure analysis in cell ventilation ducts at bituminization facility where the fire and explosion accident occured was carried out. This report also describes the results of bench mark calculations for computer code EVENT84 which was used for the accident analysis. The bench mark calculations were performed by comparing the analytical results by EVENT84 code with the experimental data of safety demonstration tests of ventilation system which were carried out by JAERI. We confirmed the applicability of EVENT84 code with the conservative results. The pressure analysis in cell ventilation ducts at bituminization facility were performed by comparing the analytical results of duct pressure by EVENT84 code with the yield stress of destroyed ducts by explosion, in order to estimate the scale of explosion. As a result, we could not explain the damage of ducts quantitatively, but we found the local pressure peaks analytically in downstream ducts where the serious damages were observed. (author)

  5. An alternative approach to absolute-value test for the parameters of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An alternative approach to absolute-value test statistic Mn is developed for conducting tests simultaneously on all the parameters of multiple linear regression models. Under certain null and alternative hypotheses, the new test statistic is shown to have limiting central and noncentral chisquare distributions, respectively.

  6. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 178 - Alternative Leakproofness Test Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternative Leakproofness Test Methods B Appendix... FOR PACKAGINGS Pt. 178, App. B Appendix B to Part 178—Alternative Leakproofness Test Methods In addition to the method prescribed in § 178.604 of this subchapter, the following leakproofness test methods...

  7. Immunohistochemistry and alternative FISH testing in breast cancer with HER2 equivocal amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agersborg, Sally; Mixon, Christopher; Nguyen, Thanh; Aithal, Sramila; Sudarsanam, Sucha; Blocker, Forrest; Weiss, Lawrence; Gasparini, Robert; Jiang, Shiping; Chen, Wayne; Hess, Gregory; Albitar, Maher

    2018-03-22

    While HER2 testing is well established in directing appropriate treatment for breast cancer, a small percentage of cases show equivocal results by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Alternative probes may be used in equivocal cases. We present a single community-based institution's experience in further evaluating these cases. Between 2014 and 2016, 4255 samples were submitted for HER2 amplification testing by alternative probes, TP53, RAI1, and RARA. Of the patients tested by FISH, 505/3908 (12.9%) also had IHC data. Most (73.9%) FISH equivocal cases remained equivocal after IHC testing. However, 50.5% of equivocal cases were classified as HER2 amplified by alternative probes. Most cases were positive by more than one probe: 78% of positive cases by RAI1 and 73.9% by TP53. There was a significant difference between IHC and FISH alternative testing (p alternative FISH testing. Available data showed that 41% of patients were treated with palbociclib and were positive by alternative FISH. The prevalence of double HER2 equivocal cases and the discrepancy between IHC and alternative FISH testing suggest that FISH alternative testing using both RAI1 and TP53 probes is necessary for conclusive classification. Because almost half of FISH equivocal cases converted to HER2 amplified upon alternative testing, clinical studies to determine the benefit of anti-HER2 therapy in these patients are urgently needed.

  8. Particle deposition in ventilation ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sippola, Mark Raymond [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2002-09-01

    Exposure to airborne particles is detrimental to human health and indoor exposures dominate total exposures for most people. The accidental or intentional release of aerosolized chemical and biological agents within or near a building can lead to exposures of building occupants to hazardous agents and costly building remediation. Particle deposition in heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems may significantly influence exposures to particles indoors, diminish HVAC performance and lead to secondary pollutant release within buildings. This dissertation advances the understanding of particle behavior in HVAC systems and the fates of indoor particles by means of experiments and modeling. Laboratory experiments were conducted to quantify particle deposition rates in horizontal ventilation ducts using real HVAC materials. Particle deposition experiments were conducted in steel and internally insulated ducts at air speeds typically found in ventilation ducts, 2-9 m/s. Behaviors of monodisperse particles with diameters in the size range 1-16 μm were investigated. Deposition rates were measured in straight ducts with a fully developed turbulent flow profile, straight ducts with a developing turbulent flow profile, in duct bends and at S-connector pieces located at duct junctions. In straight ducts with fully developed turbulence, experiments showed deposition rates to be highest at duct floors, intermediate at duct walls, and lowest at duct ceilings. Deposition rates to a given surface increased with an increase in particle size or air speed. Deposition was much higher in internally insulated ducts than in uninsulated steel ducts. In most cases, deposition in straight ducts with developing turbulence, in duct bends and at S-connectors at duct junctions was higher than in straight ducts with fully developed turbulence. Measured deposition rates were generally higher than predicted by published models. A model incorporating empirical equations based on the

  9. Experiment data report for Semiscale Mod-1 Test S-05-2 (alternate ECC injection test)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, E.M.; Collins, B.L.; Sackett, K.E.

    1977-02-01

    Recorded test data are presented for Test S-05-2 of the Semiscale Mod-1 alternate emergency core coolant (ECC) injection test series. This test is one of several Semiscale Mod-1 experiments conducted to investigate the thermal and hydraulic phenomena accompanying a hypothesized loss-of-coolant accident in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) system. Test S-05-2 was conducted from an initial cold leg fluid temperature of 545 0 F and an initial pressure of 2263 psia. A simulated double-ended offset shear cold leg break was used to investigate core and system response to a depressurization and reflood transient with ECC injection at the intact loop pump suction and broken loop cold leg. A reduced lower plenum volume was used for this test to more accurately represent the lower plenum of a PWR, based on system volume scaling. System flow was set to achieve a core fluid temperature differential of 65 0 F at a core power level of 1.44 MW. The flow resistance of the intact loop was based on core area scaling. An electrically heated core with a slightly peaked radial power profile was used in the pressure vessel to simulate the predicted surface heat flux of nuclear fuel rods during a loss-of-coolant accident

  10. Experiences with novel approaches in earthworm testing alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hund-Rinke, K.; Lindemann, M.; Simon, M. [Fraunhofer Inst. for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology, Schmallenberg (Germany)

    2005-11-01

    Goal, Scope and Background. The earthworm avoidance test is a sensitive screening test. Currently, two test designs, a two-chamber system and a six-chamber system, are under standardization. In the scope of the present study, the two test systems are compared. To assess the results, two procedures are applied, which are based on a threshold value and a statistical method. Moreover, the sensitivity of the avoidance test is compared with the sensitivity of the reproduction test. Methods. The avoidance behaviour of E. fetida towards five chemicals (Cd, Cu, PCP, TBT, TNT) was tested in a sandy and a loamy soil. The ecotoxicological test was performed according to the draft guideline ISO/DIS 17512-1. The results were compared with the number of offspring determined in the reproduction test carried out according to ISO 11268-2. Results and Discussion. The results demonstrate that the avoidance behaviour towards organic chemicals and heavy metals is a suitable screening method showing first tendencies of a chemical's effects on the habitat function of soils. Effects caused by chemical substances become visible at low concentrations and within short test periods. The sensitivity of the reproduction test and the avoidance test is principally comparable; in some cases, the avoidance test showed more sensitive reactions. The dose-response-relationships were more pronounced in the two-chamber test than in the six-chamber-system. Recommendation and Outlook. The two-chamber-system proved to be more feasible than the six-chamber-system. As the sensitivity of the avoidance test and the reproduction test is comparable, the avoidance test can be considered as a suitable screening test. A possible field of application may be the selection of soil samples for which the reproduction assay seems necessary. To assess contaminated or remediated soils, the earthworm reproduction test is recommended as an indicator for the habitat function of the soils. To reduce costs, the avoidance

  11. Revisiting the advection-dispersion model - Testing an alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neretnieks, I.

    2001-01-01

    Some of the basic assumptions of the Advection-Dispersion model, AD-model, are revisited. That model assumes a continuous mixing along the flowpath similar to Fickian diffusion. This implies that there is a constant dispersion length irrespective of observation distance. This is contrary to most field observations. The properties of an alternative model based on the assumption that individual water packages can retain their identity over long distances are investigated. The latter model is called the Multi-Channel model, MChM. Inherent in the latter model is that if the waters in the different pathways are collected and mixed, the 'dispersion length' is proportional to observation distance. Using diffusion theory it is investigated over which distances or contact times, adjacent water packages will keep their identity. It is found that for a contact time of 10 hours, two streams, each wider than 6 mm, that flow side by side, will not have lost their identity. For 1000 hours contact time the minimum width is 6 cm. The MChM and AD-models were found to have very similar Residence Time Distributions, RTD, for Peclet numbers larger than 3. A generalised relation between flowrate and residence time is developed, including the so-called cubic law and constant aperture assumptions. Using the generalised relation, surprisingly it is found that for a system that has the same average flow volume and average flowrate the form of the RTD curves are the same irrespective of the form of the relation. Both models are also compared for a system where there is strong interaction of the solute with the rock matrix. In this case it is assumed that the solute can diffuse into and out of the fracture walls and also to sorb on the micro-fractures of the matrix. The so-called Flow Wetted Surface, FWS, between the flowing water in the fracture and the rock is a key entity in such systems. It is found that the AD-model predicts much later arrivals and lower concentrations than does the MCh

  12. Nipple Aspirate Test Is Not An Alternative To Mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... special pump and testing it for abnormal cells. Companies have marketed this test as a way to screen for abnormal cells (instead of a mammogram), but the U.S. Food and Drug Administration is reminding you that this kind of test ...

  13. Test of cold asphalt storability based on alternative approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaffyová, Zora; Komačka, Jozef

    2017-09-01

    Cold asphalt products for potholes repairs should be workable (soft enough) for long time to ensure their applicability. Storability is assessed indirectly using various tests of workability. Therefore, simple test methods (self-compaction and disintegration test) was developed and verified to investigate changes of storability of this group of cold asphalts. Selfcompaction of the tested mixture in the upturned Abram’s cone for the cement concrete slump test and in the mould for the California Bearing Ratio test was assessed in first stage. After that the video record of disintegration test was taken. During this test, the mould was lifted up and the mixture fell off the mould (Abram’s cone) or disintegrate (CBR mould). The drop of surface after 10 min self-compaction and netto time related to falling out or disintegration of the mixture were used to evaluate the mixture from storability point of view. It was found out the self-compaction test has not a potential to reveal and prove changes of mixture properties. Based on the disintegration test results it can be stated this test at 5 °C using the upturned Abram’s cone could be a suitable approach to determine qualitative changes of a cold mixture from storability point of view.

  14. Vitellointestinal Duct Anomalies in Infancy

    OpenAIRE

    Kadian, Yogender Singh; Verma, Anjali; Rattan, Kamal Nain; Kajal, Pardeep

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vitellointestinal duct (VID) or omphalomesenteric duct anomalies are secondary to the persistence of the embryonic vitelline duct, which normally obliterates by weeks 5–9 of intrauterine life. Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of a total of 16 patients of symptomatic remnants of vitellointestinal duct from period of Jan 2009 to May 2013. Results: Male to female ratio (M:F) was 4.3:1 and mean age of presentation was 2 months and their mode of presentation was: paten...

  15. Testing and assessment strategies, including alternative and new approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Otto A.

    2003-01-01

    The object of toxicological testing is to predict possible adverse effect in humans when exposed to chemicals whether used as industrial chemicals, pharmaceuticals or pesticides. Animal models are predominantly used in identifying potential hazards of chemicals. The use of laboratory animals raises...... ethical concern. However, irrespective of animal welfare it is an important aspect of the discipline of toxicology that the primary object is human health. The ideal testing and assessment strategy is simple to use all the available test methods and preferably more in laboratory animal species from which...... uses and of the absence of health problems involved with their use. Thus, the regulatory toxicology is a cocktail of science and pragmatism added a crucial concern for animal welfare. Test methods are most often used in a testing sequence as bricks in a testing strategy. The main key driving forces...

  16. Magnetohydrodynamics in rectangular ducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenhart, L.

    1994-04-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic flow in straight ducts or bends is a key issue, which has to be investigated for developing self-cooled liquid metal blankets of fusion reactors. The code presented solves the full set of governing equations and simulates all phenomena of such flows, including inertial effects. The range of application is limited by computer storage only. (orig./WL)

  17. Evaluation of PEGIT duct connection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain S.; Brenner, Douglas E.; Sherman, Max H.; Dickerhoff, Darryl J.

    2003-08-01

    Most air duct system components are assembled in the field and are mechanically fastened by sheet metal screws (for sheet metal-to-sheet metal) or by drawbands (for flex duct-to-sheet metal). Air sealing is separate from this mechanical fastening and is usually achieved using tape or mastic products after mechanical fastening. Field observations have shown that mechanical fastening rarely meets code or manufacturers requirements and that sealing procedures are similarly inconsistent. To address these problems, Proctor Engineering Group (PEG) is developing a system of joining ducts (called PEGIT) that combines the mechanical fastening and sealing into a single self-contained procedure. The PEGIT system uses a shaped flexible seal between specially designed sheet metal duct fittings to both seal and fasten duct sections together. Figure 1 shows the inner duct fitting complete with rubber seal. This seal provides the air seal for the completed fitting and is shaped to allow the inner and outer fittings to slide together, and then to lock the fittings in place. The illustration in Figure 2 shows the approximate cross section of the rubber seal that shows how the seal has a lip that is angled backwards. This angled lip allows the joint to be pushed together by folding flat but then its long axis makes it stiff in the pulling apart direction. This study was undertaken to assist PEG in some of the design aspects of this system and to test the performance of the PEGIT system. This study was carried out in three phases. The initial phase evaluated the performance of a preliminary seal design for the PEGIT system. After the first phase, the seal was redesigned and this new seal was evaluated in the second phase of testing. The third phase performed more detailed testing of the second seal design to optimize the production tolerances of the sheet metal fittings. This report summarizes our findings from the first two phases and provides details about the third phase of testing.

  18. The Canadian residential duct and chimney survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fugler, D.

    2003-12-01

    A study was conducted in 1989 to better understand the thermal performance of ducts and chimneys in houses. The objective was to address the problems associated with insufficient airflow and backdrafting of combustion gases resulting from malfunctioning fans, furnaces and fireplaces. The Duct Test Rig was used to measure and recorded airflows and heat losses in a variety of ducts and chimneys in a representative mix of houses in Vancouver, Kelowna, Winnipeg, Calgary, Toronto, London, Montreal, Quebec City, Halifax, Fredericton and Ottawa. Bath, kitchen, clothes dryer and central vacuum exhaust fans were tested to determine how performance is affected by fan age, accumulations of dust, grease, bugs and installation methods. Results indicate that there is no statistical difference between axial or centrifugal fans. The greatest problem appeared to be with low flows, high leakage rates, and poor conditions of bathroom fans. Many kitchen fans were found to be blocked at the inlet by cooking grease. The exhaust flows depended greatly on the condition of the backdraft damper. Dryer exhaust airflow was typically less than the 75 L/s specified by manufacturers, but even old dryers performed relatively well. All types of chimneys were tested for different positive hood pressures, airflow lost through leakage, and thermal characteristics. Airflow was found to vary depending on the type and area of the flue and the presence of a cap. For heating systems, the low duct efficiency was due mostly to duct leakage, radiation losses and restrictive ducts and registers. The findings of this testing program are still valid today. 3 tabs.

  19. Inappropriate Practices in Fitness Testing and Reporting: Alternative Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xihe; Davis, Summer; Kirk, T. Nicole; Haegele, Justin A.; Knott, Stephen E.

    2018-01-01

    Fitness education is becoming an integrated component for many physical education programs. As such, many physical educators conduct health-related fitness tests on a regular basis. Some states even mandate certain types of physical fitness tests to be administered and reported annually or by semester. Yet, inappropriate practices have been…

  20. 76 FR 5319 - Regulation of Fuel and Fuel Additives: Alternative Test Method for Olefins in Gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... Regulation of Fuel and Fuel Additives: Alternative Test Method for Olefins in Gasoline AGENCY: Environmental... gasoline. This proposed rule will provide flexibility to the regulated community by allowing an additional... A. Alternative Test Method for Olefins in Gasoline III. Statutory and Executive Order Reviews A...

  1. 77 FR 17457 - Work Group on Alternative Test Methods for Commercial Measuring Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Institute of Standards and Technology Work Group on Alternative... Work Group (WG) to examine alternative methods for testing the accuracy of commercial measuring devices... participates to promote uniformity among the states in laws, regulations, methods, and testing equipment that...

  2. Critical Evaluation of Animal Alternative Tests for the Identification of Endocrine Active Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    A significant amount of research is currently targeted to evaluate alternative test methods that may reduce, refine, or replace the use of animals, while ensuring human and environmental health and safety. It is important that the information gained from the alternative tests pr...

  3. Alternate retrieval technology demonstrations program - test report (ARD Environmental, Inc.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglin, E.J.

    1997-07-31

    A prototype vehicle, control system, and waste and water scavenging system were designed and fabricated with essentially the full capabilities of the vehicle system proposed by ARD Environmental. A test tank mockup, including riser and decontamination chamber were designed and fabricated, and approximately 830 cubic feet of six varieties of waste simulants poured. The tests were performed by ARD Environmental personnel at its site in Laurel, Maryland, from 4/22/97 through 5/2/97. The capabilities tested were deployment and retrieval, extended mobility and productivity, the ability to operate the system using video viewing only, retrieval after simulated failure, and retrieval and decontamination. Testing commenced with deployment of the vehicle into the tank. Deployment was accomplished using a crane and auxiliary winch to position the vehicle and lower it through the decontamination chamber, into the 36`` diameter x 6` high riser, and touch down on the waste field in the tank. The initial mobility tests were conducted immediately after deployment, prior to sluicing, as the waste field exhibited the greatest amount of variation at this time. This test demonstrated the ability of the vehicle to maneuver over the simulated waste field, and the ability of the operator to work with only video viewing available. In addition, the ability of the vehicle to right itself after being turned on its side was demonstrated. The production rate was evaluated daily through the testing period by measuring the surface and estimating the amount of material removed. The test demonstrated the ability of the vehicle to reduce the waste surface using 400 psi (nominal) water jets, scavenge water and material from the work area, and move to any location, even in the relatively confined space of the 20` diameter test tank. In addition, the ability to sluice to a remote scavenging module was demonstrated. The failure mode test demonstrated the ability to retrieve a stuck vehicle by pulling

  4. Alternate retrieval technology demonstrations program - test report (ARD Environmental, Inc.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berglin, E.J.

    1997-01-01

    A prototype vehicle, control system, and waste and water scavenging system were designed and fabricated with essentially the full capabilities of the vehicle system proposed by ARD Environmental. A test tank mockup, including riser and decontamination chamber were designed and fabricated, and approximately 830 cubic feet of six varieties of waste simulants poured. The tests were performed by ARD Environmental personnel at its site in Laurel, Maryland, from 4/22/97 through 5/2/97. The capabilities tested were deployment and retrieval, extended mobility and productivity, the ability to operate the system using video viewing only, retrieval after simulated failure, and retrieval and decontamination. Testing commenced with deployment of the vehicle into the tank. Deployment was accomplished using a crane and auxiliary winch to position the vehicle and lower it through the decontamination chamber, into the 36'' diameter x 6' high riser, and touch down on the waste field in the tank. The initial mobility tests were conducted immediately after deployment, prior to sluicing, as the waste field exhibited the greatest amount of variation at this time. This test demonstrated the ability of the vehicle to maneuver over the simulated waste field, and the ability of the operator to work with only video viewing available. In addition, the ability of the vehicle to right itself after being turned on its side was demonstrated. The production rate was evaluated daily through the testing period by measuring the surface and estimating the amount of material removed. The test demonstrated the ability of the vehicle to reduce the waste surface using 400 psi (nominal) water jets, scavenge water and material from the work area, and move to any location, even in the relatively confined space of the 20' diameter test tank. In addition, the ability to sluice to a remote scavenging module was demonstrated. The failure mode test demonstrated the ability to retrieve a stuck vehicle by pulling

  5. The Power of Unit Root Tests Against Nonlinear Local Alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demetrescu, Matei; Kruse, Robinson

    of Econometrics 112, 359-379) in comparison to the linear Dickey-Fuller test. To this end, we consider different adjustment schemes for deterministic terms. We provide asymptotic results which imply that the error variance has a severe impact on the behavior of the tests in the nonlinear case; the reason...... for such behavior is the interplay of nonstationarity and nonlinearity. In particular, we show that nonlinearity of the data generating process can be asymptotically negligible when the error variance is moderate or large (compared to the "amount of nonlinearity"), rendering the linear test more powerful than...

  6. Evaluation of seven in vitro alternatives for ocular safety testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, L H; Kain, D J; Roberts, D A; Parker, R D

    1991-07-01

    Seven in vitro assays were evaluated to determine if any were useful as screening procedures in ocular safety assessment. Seventeen test materials (chemicals, household cleaners, hand soaps, dishwashing liquids, shampoos, and liquid laundry detergents) were tested in each assay. In vivo ocular irritation scores for the materials were obtained from existing rabbit low volume eye test (LVET) data. The seven assays evaluated included the silicon microphysiometer (SM), luminescent bacteria toxicity test (LBT), neutral red assay (NR), total protein assay (TP), Tetrahymena thermophila motility assay (TTMA), bovine eye/chorioallantoic membrane assay (BE/CAM), and the EYTEX system (ETS). For the seventeen materials used in this study there was a significant correlation between the in vivo irritant potential and in vitro data for all the tests except the EYTEX System (SM, r = -0.87; LBT, r = -0.91; NR, r = -0.85; TTMA, r = 0.78; TP, r = -0.86; ETS, r = 0.29). The irritation classifications provided by the BE/CAM also did not correspond with the actual in vivo irritancy potential of the test materials. The result of this study suggested it may be possible to classify materials into broad irritancy categories with some of the assays. This would allow their use as screens prior to limited in vivo confirmation in the ocular safety assessment process.

  7. Reciprocity principle in duct acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Y.-C.

    1979-01-01

    Various reciprocity relations in duct acoustics have been derived on the basis of the spatial reciprocity principle implied in Green's functions for linear waves. The derivation includes the reciprocity relations between mode conversion coefficients for reflection and transmission in nonuniform ducts, and the relation between the radiation of a mode from an arbitrarily terminated duct and the absorption of an externally incident plane wave by the duct. Such relations are well defined as long as the systems remain linear, regardless of acoustic properties of duct nonuniformities which cause the mode conversions.

  8. Salivary duct carcinoma: a Danish national study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinholt, Helle; Elhakim, Mohammad Talal; Godballe, Christian

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To present the first national series of salivary duct carcinoma patients, including survival rates and an analysis of prognostic factors. METHODS: By merging three Danish nationwide registries that encompass an entire population, 34 patients diagnosed with salivary duct carcinoma from......-rank test. RESULTS: Salivary duct carcinoma showed an incidence of 0.04/100.000 inhabitants/year. Distant recurrence was seen in 52% of patients. Five-year overall survival, disease-specific survival and recurrence-free survival were 32%, 42% and 35%, respectively. Univariate analyses suggested that overall...... carcinoma incidence averages to two episodes per year in the entire Kingdom of Denmark. With half of patients in this study experiencing distant recurrences and only a third surviving at 5 years, prognosis is dismal. Advanced overall stage, vascular invasion and involved resection margins all seem...

  9. Idiopathic chylopericardium treated by percutaneous thoracic duct embolization after failed surgical thoracic duct ligation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtney, Malachi; Ayyagari, Raj R. [Yale School of Medicine, Yale New Haven Hospital, New Haven, CT (United States); Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, 789 Howard Avenue, P.O. Box 208042, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Chylopericardium rarely occurs in pediatric patients, but when it does it is most often a result of lymphatic injury during cardiothoracic surgery. Primary idiopathic chylopericardium is especially rare, with few cases in the pediatric literature. We report a 10-year-old boy who presented with primary idiopathic chylopericardium after unsuccessful initial treatment with surgical lymphatic ligation and creation of a pericardial window. Following readmission to the hospital for a right-side chylothorax resulting from the effluent from the pericardial window, he had successful treatment by interventional radiology with percutaneous thoracic duct embolization. This case illustrates the utility of thoracic duct embolization as a less-invasive alternative to surgical thoracic duct ligation, or as a salvage procedure when surgical ligation fails. (orig.)

  10. Idiopathic chylopericardium treated by percutaneous thoracic duct embolization after failed surgical thoracic duct ligation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtney, Malachi; Ayyagari, Raj R.

    2015-01-01

    Chylopericardium rarely occurs in pediatric patients, but when it does it is most often a result of lymphatic injury during cardiothoracic surgery. Primary idiopathic chylopericardium is especially rare, with few cases in the pediatric literature. We report a 10-year-old boy who presented with primary idiopathic chylopericardium after unsuccessful initial treatment with surgical lymphatic ligation and creation of a pericardial window. Following readmission to the hospital for a right-side chylothorax resulting from the effluent from the pericardial window, he had successful treatment by interventional radiology with percutaneous thoracic duct embolization. This case illustrates the utility of thoracic duct embolization as a less-invasive alternative to surgical thoracic duct ligation, or as a salvage procedure when surgical ligation fails. (orig.)

  11. Eyeball Measurement of Dexterity: Tests as Alternatives to Interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guion, Robert M.; Imada, Andrew S.

    1981-01-01

    Reports a study conducted for litigation in a sex discrimination case dealing with misuse of an employment interview. Results show that dexterity could not be determined in an interview and a more appropriate selection technique such as a test was required. (Author/JAC)

  12. 76 FR 62044 - Alternative Testing Requirements for Small Batch Manufacturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ... become part of the public record. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Concerning requests and procedures for... Flammability of Vinyl Plastic Film. 1215 Infant Bath Seats. Sec. 101 of CPSIA (Test Method CPSC-CH- Lead... public hearing will become part of the public record. Access to the docket to read background documents...

  13. Alternatives to Animal Use in Research, Testing, and Education. Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    With an estimated 17-22 million animals used in laboratories annually in the United States, public interest in animal welfare has sparked an often emotional debate over such uses of animals. Concerns focus on balancing societal needs for continued progress in biomedical and behavioral research, for toxicity testing to safeguard the public, and for…

  14. Gas Test Loop Facilities Alternatives Assessment Report Rev 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    William J. Skerjanc; William F. Skerjanc

    2005-01-01

    An important task in the Gas Test Loop (GTL) conceptual design was to determine the best facility to serve as host for this apparatus, which will allow fast-flux neutron testing in an existing nuclear facility. A survey was undertaken of domestic and foreign nuclear reactors and accelerator facilities to arrive at that determination. Two major research reactors in the U.S. were considered in detail, the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), each with sufficient power to attain the required neutron fluxes. HFIR routinely operates near its design power limit of 100 MW. ATR has traditionally operated at less than half its design power limit of 250 MW. Both of these reactors should be available for at least the next 30 years. The other major U.S. research reactor, the Missouri University Research Reactor, does not have sufficient power to reach the required neutron flux nor do the smaller research reactors. Of the foreign reactors investigated, BOR-60 is perhaps the most attractive. Monju and BN 600 are power reactors for their respective electrical grids. Although the Joyo reactor is vigorously campaigning for customers, local laws regarding transport of radioactive material mean it would be very difficult to retrieve test articles from either Japanese reactor for post irradiation examination. PHENIX is scheduled to close in 2008 and is fully booked until then. FBTR is limited to domestic (Indian) users only. Data quality is often suspect in Russia. The only accelerator seriously considered was the Fuel and Material Test Station (FMTS) currently proposed for operation at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The neutron spectrum in FMTS is similar to that found in a fast reactor, but it has a pronounced high-energy tail that is atypical of fast fission reactor spectra. First irradiation in the FMTS is being contemplated for 2008. Detailed review of these facilities resulted in the recommendation that the ATR would be the best host for the GTL

  15. Tests of alternative reductants in the second uranium purification cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, M.C.

    1980-05-01

    Miniature mixer-settler tests of the second uranium purification cycle show that plutonium cannot be removed by hydroxylamine-hydrazine (NH 2 OH-N 2 H 4 ) because the acidity is too high, or by 2,5-di-t-pentylhydroquinone because HNO 3 oxidizes the hydroquinone. Plutonium can be removed satisfactorily when U(IV)-hydrazine is used as the reductant

  16. Tests of a homogeneous Poisson process against clustering and other alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwood, C.L.

    1994-05-01

    This report presents three closely related tests of the hypothesis that data points come from a homogeneous Poisson process. If there is too much observed variation among the log-transformed between-point distances, the hypothesis is rejected. The tests are more powerful than the standard chi-squared test against the alternative hypothesis of event clustering, but not against the alternative hypothesis of a Poisson process with smoothly varying intensity

  17. Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Ophthalmic Medications: Relevant Allergens and Alternative Testing Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey, Katherine R; Warshaw, Erin M

    Allergic contact dermatitis is an important cause of periorbital dermatitis. Topical ophthalmic agents are relevant sensitizers. Contact dermatitis to ophthalmic medications can be challenging to diagnose and manage given the numerous possible offending agents, including both active and inactive ingredients. Furthermore, a substantial body of literature reports false-negative patch test results to ophthalmic agents. Subsequently, numerous alternative testing methods have been described. This review outlines the periorbital manifestations, causative agents, and alternative testing methods of allergic contact dermatitis to ophthalmic medications.

  18. An Alternative to the Conventional Tri-Axial Compression Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Storgaard; Bay, Niels; Eriksen, Morten

    2006-01-01

    A new test for measurement of the mechanical properties of granular powders is proposed, consisting of upsetting the powder inside a metal tube. The radial pressure is found by correlating measurements of radial bulging of the tube with numerical analysis of tube bulging. Estimates of the error o...... on the determination of the radial pressure are given along with an evaluation of the coefficient of friction for a specific case. New data for the yield surfaces for BSCCO are given and found to be in good agreement with previously published data....

  19. GSDO Program Hexavalent Chrome Alternatives: Final Pretreatments Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Hexavalent chrome free pretreatments should be considered for use on Ground Support Equipment (OSE) and Electrical Ground Support Equipment (EOSE). Both of the hexavalent chrome free pretreatments (Metalast TCP HF and SurTec 650C) evaluated by this project met, and in some instances exceeded, the requirements ofMIL-DTL-5541 "Chemical Conversion Coatings on Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys". For DC resistance measurements, both Metalast TCP HF and SurTec (!50C met initial requirements following assembly and in many cases continued to maintain passing readings for the duration of testing.

  20. EKSTRAHEPATIC BILE DUCT CANCER

    OpenAIRE

    Aleš Tomažič; Dragan Stanisavljevič; Valentin Sojar; Blaž Trotovšek

    2003-01-01

    Background. Malignant strictures involving the bile ducts remain a major challenge in biliary surgery. It is an uncommon cancer. The etiology is unknown, most cases are sporadic, but several conditions confer an incrised risk of developing cholangiocarcinoma.Clinical presentation and preoperative evaluation. The early simptoms are nonspecific. In the past computed tomography, percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography and angiography were considered standard investigations, but currently magne...

  1. An experimental test of alternative population augmentation scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronenberger, John A; Gerberich, Jill C; Fitzpatrick, Sarah W; Broder, E Dale; Angeloni, Lisa M; Funk, W Chris

    2018-01-19

    Human land use is fragmenting habitats worldwide and inhibiting dispersal among previously connected populations of organisms, often leading to inbreeding depression and reduced evolutionary potential in the face of rapid environmental change. To combat this augmentation of isolated populations with immigrants is sometimes used to facilitate demographic and genetic rescue. Augmentation with immigrants that are genetically and adaptively similar to the target population effectively increases population fitness, but if immigrants are very genetically or adaptively divergent, augmentation can lead to outbreeding depression. Despite well-cited guidelines for the best practice selection of immigrant sources, often only highly divergent populations remain, and experimental tests of these riskier augmentation scenarios are essentially nonexistent. We conducted a mesocosm experiment with Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata) to test the multigenerational demographic and genetic effects of augmenting 2 target populations with 3 types of divergent immigrants. We found no evidence of demographic rescue, but we did observe genetic rescue in one population. Divergent immigrant treatments tended to maintain greater genetic diversity, abundance, and hybrid fitness than controls that received immigrants from the source used to seed the mesocosms. In the second population, divergent immigrants had a slightly negative effect in one treatment, and the benefits of augmentation were less apparent overall, likely because this population started with higher genetic diversity and a lower reproductive rate that limited genetic admixture. Our results add to a growing consensus that gene flow can increase population fitness even when immigrants are more highly divergent and may help reduce uncertainty about the use of augmentation in conservation. © 2018 Society for Conservation Biology.

  2. Performance Testing of a High Temperature Linear Alternator for Stirling Convertors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metscher, Jonathan F.; Geng, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has conducted performance testing of a high temperature linear alternator (HTLA) in support of Stirling power convertor development for potential future Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS). The high temperature linear alternator is a modified version of that used in Sunpower's Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC), and is capable of operation at temperatures up to 200 deg. Increasing the temperature capability of the linear alternator could expand the mission set of future Stirling RPS designs. High temperature Neodymium-Iron-Boron (Nd-Fe-B) magnets were selected for the HTLA application, and were fully characterized and tested prior to use. Higher temperature epoxy for alternator assembly was also selected and tested for thermal stability and strength. A characterization test was performed on the HTLA to measure its performance at various amplitudes, loads, and temperatures. HTLA endurance testing at 200 deg is currently underway.

  3. Critical Evaluation of Animal Alternative Tests for the Identification of Endocrine Active Substances, oral presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the past 20 years, considerable progress in animal alternatives accompanied by advances in the toxicological sciences and new emphases on aquatic vertebrates has appeared. A significant amount of current research is targeted to evaluate alternative test methods that may reduce...

  4. Rare bile duct anomaly: B3 duct draining to gallbladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Eun Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 10-year-old girl presented with recurrent right upper abdominal pain and dyspepsia. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography revealed a dilated common channel of intrahepatic bile duct of segment 3 (B3 and segment 4 (B4 drained into the gallbladder directly. The patient underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy and Roux-en Y hepaticojejunostomy (B3-jejunostomy. Among the anatomical variability of the biliary system, the cholecystohepatic ducts are controversial in existence and incidence. We report a very rare variant of a cholecystohepatic duct in which the B3 duct drained into gallbladder directly and to the best of our knowledge this is the first report.

  5. Alternate Material Pallet, 40" x 48", MIL-STD-1660, Engineering Evaluation Tests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dugan, Jeffery

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Army Defense Ammunition Center (DAC), Validation Engineering Division (SJMAC-DEV) conducted Engineering Evaluation Tests to determine if the Alternate Material Pallet manufactured by Hunter Paine Enterprise, Inc...

  6. Testing In College Admissions: An Alternative to the Traditional Predictive Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunneborg, Clifford E.

    1982-01-01

    A decision-making or utility theory model (which deals effectively with affirmative action goals and allows standardized tests to be placed in the service of those goals) is discussed as an alternative to traditional predictive admissions. (Author/PN)

  7. Radiation resistant ducted superconductive coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleich, A.

    1976-01-01

    The radiation-resistant ducted superconductive coil consists of a helically wound electrical conductor constituted by an electrically conductive core of superconductive material provided with a longitudinally extending cooling duct. The core is covered with a layer of inorganic insulating material and the duct is covered by an electrically conductive metallic gas-tight sheath. The metallic sheaths on adjacent turns of the coil are secured together. 2 Claims, 4 Drawing Figures

  8. Duct having oscillatory side wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprouse, Kenneth M.

    2018-04-03

    A pump system includes a particulate consolidator pump that has a pump outlet. A duct is coupled to the pump outlet. The duct has a wall that is coupled with an oscillator. The oscillator is operable to oscillate the wall at a controlled frequency. The controlled frequency is selected with respect to breaking static bridging of particulate in the duct due, at least in part, to consolidation of the particulate from a downstream check valve.

  9. Test person operated 2-Alternative Forced Choice Audiometry compared to traditional audiometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jesper Hvass; Brandt, Christian; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

      Background: With a newly developed technique, hearing thresholds can be estimated with a system operated by the test persons themselves. This technique is based on the 2 Alternative Forced Choice paradigm known from the psychoacoustic research theory. Test persons can operate the system very......-likelihood and up-down methods has proven effective and reliable even under suboptimal test settings. In non-optimal testing conditions i.e. as a part of a hearing conservation programme the headphone Sennheiser HDA-200 has been used as it contains hearing protection. This test-method has been validated......-retest studies of 2AFC audiometry are comparable to test-retest results known from traditional audiometry under standard clinical settings.   Conclusions 2 Alternative Forced Choice audiometry can be a reliable alternative to traditional audiometry especially under certain circumstances, where it can...

  10. The Role of Alternative Testing Strategies in Environmental Risk Assessment of Engineered Nanomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Hjorth, Rune; Holden, Patricia; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Colman, Ben; Grieger, Khara; Hendren, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Within toxicology there is a pressure to find new test systems and organisms to replace, reduce and refine animal testing. In nanoecotoxicology the need for alternative testing strategies (ATS) is further emphasized as the validity of tests and risk assessment practices developed for dissolved chemicals are challenged. Nonetheless, standardized whole organism animal testing is still considered the gold standard for environmental risk assessment. Advancing risk analysis of engineered nanomater...

  11. Transcystic duct treatment of common bile duct stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amberg, J.R.; Chun, G.

    1981-01-01

    Successful removal of 2 retained common bile duct stones following cholecystostomy is described. With the use of the steerable catheter and the wire basket, one stone was crushed and the second was extracted in retrograde fashion through the cystic duct and gallbladder. (orig.)

  12. An alternative approach to contrast-detail testing of X-ray image intensifier systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotre, C.J.; Marshall, N.W.; Faulkner, K.

    1992-01-01

    The difficulties of making the results of threshold contrast-detail diameter tests on X-ray image intensifier systems consistent with published performance standards are discussed. The current approach to contrast-detail testing is described and an alternative method intended to give greater consistency for all image intensifier input field diameters proposed. The current and alternative test conditions are compared on two image intensifier systems. The results obtained show that the contrast-detail curves for image intensifier systems with a wide range of input field diameters can be effectively normalized to be directly comparable to a common reference standard by applying the proposed alternative test conditions. The implications of this result on the interpretation of the contrast-detail test are discussed. (author)

  13. A European perspective on alternatives to animal testing for environmental hazard identification and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Stefan; Sela, Erika; Blaha, Ludek; Braunbeck, Thomas; Galay-Burgos, Malyka; García-Franco, Mauricio; Guinea, Joaquin; Klüver, Nils; Schirmer, Kristin; Tanneberger, Katrin; Tobor-Kapłon, Marysia; Witters, Hilda; Belanger, Scott; Benfenati, Emilio; Creton, Stuart; Cronin, Mark T D; Eggen, Rik I L; Embry, Michelle; Ekman, Drew; Gourmelon, Anne; Halder, Marlies; Hardy, Barry; Hartung, Thomas; Hubesch, Bruno; Jungmann, Dirk; Lampi, Mark A; Lee, Lucy; Léonard, Marc; Küster, Eberhard; Lillicrap, Adam; Luckenbach, Till; Murk, Albertinka J; Navas, José M; Peijnenburg, Willie; Repetto, Guillermo; Salinas, Edward; Schüürmann, Gerrit; Spielmann, Horst; Tollefsen, Knut Erik; Walter-Rohde, Susanne; Whale, Graham; Wheeler, James R; Winter, Matthew J

    2013-12-01

    Tests with vertebrates are an integral part of environmental hazard identification and risk assessment of chemicals, plant protection products, pharmaceuticals, biocides, feed additives and effluents. These tests raise ethical and economic concerns and are considered as inappropriate for assessing all of the substances and effluents that require regulatory testing. Hence, there is a strong demand for replacement, reduction and refinement strategies and methods. However, until now alternative approaches have only rarely been used in regulatory settings. This review provides an overview on current regulations of chemicals and the requirements for animal tests in environmental hazard and risk assessment. It aims to highlight the potential areas for alternative approaches in environmental hazard identification and risk assessment. Perspectives and limitations of alternative approaches to animal tests using vertebrates in environmental toxicology, i.e. mainly fish and amphibians, are discussed. Free access to existing (proprietary) animal test data, availability of validated alternative methods and a practical implementation of conceptual approaches such as the Adverse Outcome Pathways and Integrated Testing Strategies were identified as major requirements towards the successful development and implementation of alternative approaches. Although this article focusses on European regulations, its considerations and conclusions are of global relevance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Alternative approaches for identifying acute systemic toxicity: Moving from research to regulatory testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Jon; Sullivan, Kristie; Clippinger, Amy J; Strickland, Judy; Bell, Shannon; Bhhatarai, Barun; Blaauboer, Bas; Casey, Warren; Dorman, David; Forsby, Anna; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Gehen, Sean; Graepel, Rabea; Hotchkiss, Jon; Lowit, Anna; Matheson, Joanna; Reaves, Elissa; Scarano, Louis; Sprankle, Catherine; Tunkel, Jay; Wilson, Dan; Xia, Menghang; Zhu, Hao; Allen, David

    2017-06-01

    Acute systemic toxicity testing provides the basis for hazard labeling and risk management of chemicals. A number of international efforts have been directed at identifying non-animal alternatives for in vivo acute systemic toxicity tests. A September 2015 workshop, Alternative Approaches for Identifying Acute Systemic Toxicity: Moving from Research to Regulatory Testing, reviewed the state-of-the-science of non-animal alternatives for this testing and explored ways to facilitate implementation of alternatives. Workshop attendees included representatives from international regulatory agencies, academia, nongovernmental organizations, and industry. Resources identified as necessary for meaningful progress in implementing alternatives included compiling and making available high-quality reference data, training on use and interpretation of in vitro and in silico approaches, and global harmonization of testing requirements. Attendees particularly noted the need to characterize variability in reference data to evaluate new approaches. They also noted the importance of understanding the mechanisms of acute toxicity, which could be facilitated by the development of adverse outcome pathways. Workshop breakout groups explored different approaches to reducing or replacing animal use for acute toxicity testing, with each group crafting a roadmap and strategy to accomplish near-term progress. The workshop steering committee has organized efforts to implement the recommendations of the workshop participants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Alternative Testing Strategies for Nanomaterials: State of the Science and Considerations for Risk Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatkin, J A; Ong, K J

    2016-08-01

    The rapid growth of the nanotechnology industry has warranted equal progress in the nanotoxicology and risk assessment fields. In vivo models have traditionally been used to determine human and environmental risk for chemicals; however, the use of these tests has limitations, and there are global appeals to develop reliable alternatives to animal testing. Many have investigated the use of alternative (nonanimal) testing methods and strategies have quickly developed and resulted in the generation of large toxicological data sets for numerous nanomaterials (NMs). Due to the novel physicochemical properties of NMs that are related to surface characteristics, the approach toward toxicity test development has distinct considerations from traditional chemicals, bringing new requirements for adapting these approaches for NMs. The methodical development of strategies that combine multiple alternative tests can be useful for predictive NM risk assessment and help screening-level decision making. This article provides an overview of the main developments in alternative methods and strategies for reducing uncertainty in NM risk assessment, including advantages and disadvantages of in vitro, ex vivo, and in silico methods, and examples of existing comprehensive strategies. In addition, knowledge gaps are identified toward improvements for experimental and strategy design, specifically highlighting the need to represent realistic exposure scenarios and to consider NM-specific concerns such as characterization, assay interferences, and standardization. Overall, this article aims to improve the reliability and utility of alternative testing methods and strategies for risk assessment of manufactured NMs. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  16. Alternative host models for Testing Anti-Protozoal or Antifungal Compounds and fungal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrecilhas, Ana Claudia; Xander, Patricia; Ferreira, Karen Spadari; Batista, Wagner Luiz

    2018-04-12

    The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are caused by several parasites, fungi, bacteria and viruses and affect more than one billion people in the world. The control and prevention against NTDs need implementation of alternative methods for testing new compounds against these diseases. For the implementation of alternative methods, it is necessary to apply the principles of replacement, reduction and refinement (the 3Rs) for the use of laboratory animals. Accordingly, the present review addressed a variety of alternative models to study the infections caused by protozoa and fungi. Overall, vertebrate and invertebrate models of fungal infection have been used to elucidate hostpathogen interactions. However, until now the insect model has not been used in protozoal studies as an alternative method, but there is interest in the scientific community to try new tools to screen alternative drugs to control and prevent protozoal infections. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. Propagation of sound waves in ducts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn

    2000-01-01

    Plane wave propagation in ducts with rigid walls, radiation from ducts, classical four-pole theory for composite duct systems, and three-dimentional waves in wave guides of various cross-sectional shape are described.......Plane wave propagation in ducts with rigid walls, radiation from ducts, classical four-pole theory for composite duct systems, and three-dimentional waves in wave guides of various cross-sectional shape are described....

  18. A remote joint system for large vacuum ducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagmann, D.B.; Coughlan, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    A large remote vacuum duct joining system has been developed for fusion machines that uses several two-jaw screwdriven clamps. The preferred location for clamp installation is inside the vacuum duct where access space is available for the actuating device. It also decreases space needed for handling operations exterior to the duct. The clamp system is unique in that it is low cost, applies force directly over the seal, permits leak testing to the seal annulus, is highly reliable, can be remotely replaced, and is usable on a variety of other applications

  19. Alternative methods for skin irritation testing: the current status : ECVAM skin irritation task force report 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botham, P.A.; Earl, L.K.; Fentem, J.H.; Roguet, R.; Sandt, J.J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The ECVAM Skin Irritation Task Force was established in November 1996, primarily to prepare a report on the current status of the development and validation of alternative tests for skin irritation and corrosion and, in particular, to identify any appropriate non-animal tests for predicting human

  20. Bending fatigue tests on SiC-Al tapes under alternating stress at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    The development of a testing method for fatigue tests on SiC-Al tapes containing a small amount of SiC filaments under alternating stress is reported. The fatigue strength curves resulting for this composite are discussed. They permit an estimate of its behavior under continuous stress and in combination with various other matrices, especially metal matrices.

  1. Learning From Tests: Facilitation of Delayed Recall by Initial Recognition Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitten, William B., II; Leonard, Janet Mauriello

    1980-01-01

    Two experiments were designed to determine the effects of multiple-choice recognition test alternatives on subsequent memory for the correct answers. Results of both experiments are interpreted as demonstrations of the principle that long-term retention is facilitated such that memory evaluation occurs during initial recognition tests. (Author/RD)

  2. Development of an alternative artificial soil for earthworm toxicity testing in tropical countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Silva, M.; van Gestel, C.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    The standard soil invertebrate toxicity tests developed by OECD and ISO use an artificial soil as the test substrate, which contains sphagnum peat as a component. This type of peat is not widely available. Investigation of possible alternative substrates using locally available materials therefore

  3. 76 FR 50221 - International Workshop on Alternative Methods for Human and Veterinary Rabies Vaccine Testing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... and Veterinary Rabies Vaccine Testing: State of the Science and Planning the Way Forward AGENCY... (NICEATM) announces an ``International Workshop on Alternative Methods for Human and Veterinary Rabies... rabies vaccine potency testing, and to develop an implementation strategy to achieve global acceptance...

  4. A Simple Alternative to the IMViC Test in Microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benathen, Isaiah A.

    1992-01-01

    Presents a singular alternative to the Indole Methyl-red Voges-Proskauer Citrate (IMViC) test that uses bile-esculin agar to distinguish between the Escherichia coli and Enterobacter aerogenes bacteria. Includes materials and methods, results, and conclusions for the test. (MDH)

  5. Validation of Alternative In Vitro Methods to Animal Testing: Concepts, Challenges, Processes and Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesinger, Claudius; Desprez, Bertrand; Coecke, Sandra; Casey, Warren; Zuang, Valérie

    This chapter explores the concepts, processes, tools and challenges relating to the validation of alternative methods for toxicity and safety testing. In general terms, validation is the process of assessing the appropriateness and usefulness of a tool for its intended purpose. Validation is routinely used in various contexts in science, technology, the manufacturing and services sectors. It serves to assess the fitness-for-purpose of devices, systems, software up to entire methodologies. In the area of toxicity testing, validation plays an indispensable role: "alternative approaches" are increasingly replacing animal models as predictive tools and it needs to be demonstrated that these novel methods are fit for purpose. Alternative approaches include in vitro test methods, non-testing approaches such as predictive computer models up to entire testing and assessment strategies composed of method suites, data sources and decision-aiding tools. Data generated with alternative approaches are ultimately used for decision-making on public health and the protection of the environment. It is therefore essential that the underlying methods and methodologies are thoroughly characterised, assessed and transparently documented through validation studies involving impartial actors. Importantly, validation serves as a filter to ensure that only test methods able to produce data that help to address legislative requirements (e.g. EU's REACH legislation) are accepted as official testing tools and, owing to the globalisation of markets, recognised on international level (e.g. through inclusion in OECD test guidelines). Since validation creates a credible and transparent evidence base on test methods, it provides a quality stamp, supporting companies developing and marketing alternative methods and creating considerable business opportunities. Validation of alternative methods is conducted through scientific studies assessing two key hypotheses, reliability and relevance of the

  6. A free-piston Stirling engine/linear alternator controls and load interaction test facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, Jeffrey S.; Kankam, M. David; Santiago, Walter; Madi, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    A test facility at LeRC was assembled for evaluating free-piston Stirling engine/linear alternator control options, and interaction with various electrical loads. This facility is based on a 'SPIKE' engine/alternator. The engine/alternator, a multi-purpose load system, a digital computer based load and facility control, and a data acquisition system with both steady-periodic and transient capability are described. Preliminary steady-periodic results are included for several operating modes of a digital AC parasitic load control. Preliminary results on the transient response to switching a resistive AC user load are discussed.

  7. [Alternate form of the test de aprendizaje verbal España-Complutense (TAVEC)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Antonieta; Hernández-Rodríguez, Edith; Hernández-Torres, Atteneri; Velasco Rodríguez-Solís, Pedro; Hess-Medler, Stephany; Machado-Fernández, Alejandra; Molina-Rodríguez, Yaiza; Barroso, José

    2014-05-01

    Parallel forms of neuropsychological tests are scarce. Practice effects associated to repeated testing with the same test confound the interpretation of observed changes in serial assessments. Practice effects are especially likely with memory testing. To develop an alternate form to the test de aprendizaje verbal España-Complutense (TAVEC), one of the most common memory tests used for Spanish speaking population. Participants in the normative study were 110 undergraduates. Participants in the study of the alternate vs original forms were 70 neurologically normal volunteers ranged in age from 18 to 89 years. Forms were administered in counterbalanced order, with a test-retest interval of 15-20 days. Multivariate analyses showed that none of the effects for form, order of administration or session achieved significance. Interactions also failed to reach significance. Aforementioned results were observed in the total sample and the different age groups: young adults (18-29 years), middle-age (30-59 years) and older (60-89 years). Correlational analyses supported the validity and internal consistence of the alternate form. Results indicate the equivalence between the original TAVEC and the form elaborated in this study. This alternate form may be used in serial assessment of learning and memory deterioration.

  8. The impact of duct-to-duct interaction on the hex duct dilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.J.; Chang, L.K.; Lahm, C.E.; Porter, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    Dilation of the hex duct is an important factor in the operational lifetime of fuel subassemblies in liquid metal fast reactors. It is caused primarily by the irradiation-enhanced creep and void swelling of the hex duct material. Excessive dilation may jeopardize subassembly removal from the core or cause a subassembly storage problem where the grid size of the storage basket is limited. Dilation of the hex duct in Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) limits useful lifetime because of these storage basket limitations. It is, therefore, important to understand the hex duct dilation behavior to guide the design and in-core management of fuel subassemblies in a way that excessive duct deformation can be avoided. To investigate the dilation phenomena, finite-element models of the hex duct have been developed. The inelastic analyses were performed using the structural analysis code, ANSYS. Both Type 316 and D9 austenitic stainless steel ducts are considered. The calculated dilations are in good agreement with profilometry measurements made after irradiation. The analysis indicates that subassembly interaction is an important parameter in addition to neutron fluence and temperature in determining hex duct dilation. 5 refs

  9. Earthworm avoidance test for soil assessments. An alternative for acute and reproduction tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hund-Rinke, K.; Wiechering, H. [Fraunhofer-Inst. fuer Umweltchemie und Oekotoxikologie, Schmallenberg (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    For ecotoxicological assessments of contaminated or remediated soils pointing to the habitat function of soils for biocenoses, standardized tests with earthworms (acute test, reproduction test) are available among others. Tests used for routine applications should be sensitive and indicate impacts on test organisms after short test periods. The usually applied earthworm tests do not satisfactorily fulfil these criteria. Therefore, in the present work, a behavioural test with earthworms (test criterion: avoidance) was investigated in detail using uncontaminated, artificially contaminated and originally contaminated soils. It was demonstrated that the avoidance behaviour is primarily determined by pollutants, and not by chemical-physical soil properties. The sensitivity of the presented test reaches the sensitivity of established tests. For waste sites, a considerably higher sensitivity was determined. An avoidance behaviour of at least 80% of the worms leaving the soil to be assessed is proposed as a criterion for toxicity. (orig.)

  10. Impact fracture behavior of HT9 duct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, F.H.; Gelles, D.S.

    1994-07-01

    Ferritic alloys are known to undergo a ductile-brittle transition as the test temperature is decreased. This inherent problem has limited their applications to reactor component materials subjected to low neutron exposures. However, the excellent resistance to void swelling exhibited by these alloys has led to choosing the materials as candidate materials for fast and fusion reactor applications. Despite the ductile-brittle transition problem, results show that the materials exhibit superior resistance to fracture under very high neutron fluences at irradiation temperatures above 380 degrees C. Impact testing on FFTF duct sections of HT9 indicates that HT9 ducts have adequate fracture toughness at much higher temperatures for handling operations at room temperature and refueling operations

  11. Pressure drop in T's in concentric ducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shock, R.A.W.

    1983-02-01

    A set of experiments has been carried out to measure the pressure drop characteristics of single-phase flow in dividing and joining right-angled T's in a concentric ducting system. These have been compared with measured pressure drops in a simple round tube system. In most tests with the concentric system the number of velocity heads lost is either similar to, or more than, the value for the round tubes. (author)

  12. Pancreaticobiliary duct changes of periampullary carcinomas: Quantitative analysis at MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Dong Sheng, E-mail: victoryhope@163.com [Department of Radiology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Department of Radiology, No.4 West China Teaching Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Chen, Wei Xia, E-mail: wxchen25@126.com [Department of Radiology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Wang, Xiao Dong, E-mail: tyfs03yz@163.com [Department of Radiology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Acharya, Riwaz, E-mail: riwaz007@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Jiang, Xing Hua, E-mail: 13881865517@163.com [Department of Pathology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China)

    2012-09-15

    Purpose: To quantitatively analyse the pancreaticobiliary duct changes of periampullary carcinomas with volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE) and true fast imaging with steady-state precession (true FISP) sequence, and investigate the value of these findings in differentiation and preoperative evaluation. Materials and methods: Magnetic resonance (MR) images of 71 cases of periampullary carcinomas (34 cases of pancreatic head carcinoma, 16 cases of intrapancreatic bile duct carcinoma and 21 cases of ampullary carcinoma) confirmed histopathologically were analysed. The maximum diameter of the common bile duct (CBD) and main pancreatic duct (MPD), dilated pancreaticobiliary duct angle and the distance from the end of the proximal dilated pancreaticobiliary duct to the major papilla were measured. Analysis of variance and the Chi-squared test were performed. Results: These findings showed significant differences among the three subtypes: the distance from the end of proximal dilated pancreaticobiliary duct to the major papilla and pancreaticobiliary duct angle. The distance and the pancreaticobiliary duct angle were least for ampullary carcinoma among the three subtypes. The percentage of dilated CBD was 94.1%, 93.8%, and 100% for pancreatic head carcinoma, intrapancreatic bile duct carcinoma and ampullary carcinoma, respectively. And that for the dilated MPD was 58.8%, 43.8%, and 42.9%, respectively. Conclusion: Quantitative analysis of the pancreaticobiliary ductal system can provide accurate and objective assessment of the pancreaticobiliary duct changes. Although benefit in differential diagnosis is limited, these findings are valuable in preoperative evaluation for both radical resection and palliative surgery.

  13. A new modified wetting test and an alternative disintegration test for orally disintegrating tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Patrick; Lasher, Jason; Alexander, Kenneth S; Baki, Gabriella

    2016-02-20

    Industrial manufacturing of solid oral dosage forms require quality tests, such as friability, hardness, and disintegration. The United States Pharmacopeia (USP) disintegration test uses 900mL of water. However, recent studies of orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) have shown that this volume does not accurately portray the oral environment. In our study, various tests were conducted with a more moderate amount of water that accurately resembles the oral environment. A simulated wetting test was performed to calculate the water absorption ratio. Results showed that wetting was comparable to disintegration. Although the wetting test worked for most types of ODTs, it had limitations that produced inaccurate results. This led to the use of a modified shaking water bath test. This test was found to work for all types of ODT products and was not subject to the limitations of the wetting test. The shake test could provide disintegration times rather than water permeation times; however, it could not be used to calculate the water absorption ratio. A strong correlation was observed between the standardized shake test and the USP disintegration times for the tablets. This shake test could be used during the development stages and quality tests for ODTs with relative ease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Cost benefit and risk assessment for selected tank waste process testing alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasper, K.A.

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy has established the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) program to safely manage wastes currently stored in underground tank at the Hanford Site. A TWRS testing and development strategy was recently developed to define long-range TWRS testing plans. The testing and development strategy considered four alternatives. The primary variable in the alternatives is the level of pilot-scale testing involving actual waste. This study evaluates the cost benefit and risks associated with the four alternatives. Four types of risk were evaluated: programmatic schedule risk, process mishap risk, worker risk, and public health risk. The structure of this report is as follows: Section 1 introduces the report subject; Section 2 describes the test strategy alternative evaluation; Section 3 describes the approach used in this study to assess risk and cost benefit; Section 4 describes the assessment methodologies for costs and risks; Section 5 describes the bases and assumptions used to estimate the costs and risks; Section 6 presents the detailed costs and risks; and Section 7 describes the results of the cost benefit analysis and presents conclusions

  15. Intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Karen; Delvaux, Peter; Huysentruyt, Frederik

    2017-08-01

    Intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB) is a rare variant of bile duct tumors, characterized by papillary growth within the bile duct lumen and is regarded as a biliary counterpart of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) of the pancreas. IPNBs are mainly found in patients from Far Eastern areas, where hepatolithiasis and clonorchiasis are endemic. The Western experience, however, remains limited. In this article, we report a 56-year-old man, referred to our hospital because of deranged liver function tests. Further imaging modalities showed a cystic lesion of 9 cm diameter, arising from the left hepatic duct. Inlying was a heterogeneous, lobulated mass. The patient underwent a left hemihepatectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy. Despite recent advanced technologies, diagnosis of IPNB is still challenging, especially in western countries due to its rarity. Early identification and resection of lesions, even in asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic patients, are however important prognostic factors.

  16. Spontaneous common bile duct perforation—A rare clinical entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Amberger

    Full Text Available Introduction: Spontaneous common bile duct perforation is an uncommon clinical entity in both adults and children. Few case reports have been published since the first clinical description in 1882. Our work has been reported in line with SCARE criteria. Presentation of case: Herein, we describe the case of a 28 year-old female who suffered spontaneous common bile duct perforation while admitted for choledocholithiasis. Discussion: The perforation occurred while in-hospital, and extensive imaging and laboratory tests characterized the disease in detail. To our knowledge, this is the first report of spontaneous common bile duct perforation witnessed from pre-perforation through definitive management. Conclusion: Physicians and Surgeons should seek out this uncommon diagnosis in the patient with suspected Choledocholithiasis who suddenly become peritoneal on physical exam so that definitive care can be expedited. Keywords: Common bile duct, Biliary peritonitis, Choledocholithiasis

  17. Evaluation of the zebrafish embryo as an alternative model for hepatotoxicity testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, Marja

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis we showed the applicability of the zebrafish embryo as an alternative model for hepatotoxicity testing using analysis of mechanisms through toxicogenomics. By applying a variety of toxicogenomics techniques, we were able to characterize specific responses. NGS revealed that

  18. 76 FR 65382 - Regulation of Fuel and Fuel Additives: Alternative Test Method for Olefins in Gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... Regulation of Fuel and Fuel Additives: Alternative Test Method for Olefins in Gasoline AGENCY: Environmental... gasoline. This final rule will provide flexibility to the regulated community by allowing an additional... Method for Olefins in Gasoline III. Statutory and Executive Order Reviews A. Executive Order 12866...

  19. Testing Alternative Hypotheses Regarding the Association between Behavioral Inhibition and Language Development in Toddlerhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Ashley K. Smith; Patel, Deepika; Corley, Robin P.; Friedman, Naomi P.; Hewitt, John K.; Robinson, JoAnn L.; Rhee, Soo H.

    2014-01-01

    Studies have reported an inverse association between language development and behavioral inhibition or shyness across childhood, but the direction of this association remains unclear. This study tested alternative hypotheses regarding this association in a large sample of toddlers. Data on behavioral inhibition and expressive and receptive…

  20. HESI pilot project: Testing a qualitative approach for incorporating exposure into alternatives assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greggs, Bill; Arnold, Scott; Burns, Thomas J.

    -quantitative exposure assessment on the alternatives being considered. This talk will demonstrate an approach for including chemical and product exposure information in a qualitative AA comparison. Starting from existing hazard AAs, a series of four exposure examples were examined to test the concept, to understand...

  1. Vitellointestinal Duct Anomalies in Infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadian, Yogender Singh; Verma, Anjali; Rattan, Kamal Nain; Kajal, Pardeep

    2016-01-01

    Vitellointestinal duct (VID) or omphalomesenteric duct anomalies are secondary to the persistence of the embryonic vitelline duct, which normally obliterates by weeks 5-9 of intrauterine life. This is a retrospective analysis of a total of 16 patients of symptomatic remnants of vitellointestinal duct from period of Jan 2009 to May 2013. Male to female ratio (M:F) was 4.3:1 and mean age of presentation was 2 months and their mode of presentation was: patent VID in 9 (56.25%) patients, umbilical cyst in 2(12.25%), umbilical granuloma in 2 (12.25%), and Meckel diverticulum as content of hernia sac in obstructed umbilical hernia in 1 (6.25%) patient. Two patients with umbilical fistula had severe electrolyte disturbance and died without surgical intervention. Persistent VID may have varied presentations in infancy. High output umbilical fistula and excessive bowel prolapse demand urgent surgical intervention to avoid morbidity and mortality.

  2. Reconstruction of Bile Duct Injury and Defect with the Round Ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokmak, Safi; Aussilhou, Béatrice; Ragot, Emilia; Tantardini, Camille; Cauchy, François; Ponsot, Philippe; Belghiti, Jacques; Sauvanet, Alain; Soubrane, Olivier

    2017-09-01

    Lateral injury of the bile duct can occur after cholecystectomy, bile duct dissection, or exploration. If direct repair is not possible, conversion to bilioenteric anastomosis can be needed with the risk of long-term bile duct infections and associated complications. We developed a new surgical technique which consist of reconstructing the bile duct with the round ligament. The vascularized round ligament is completely mobilized until its origin and used for lateral reconstruction of the bile duct to cover the defect. T tube was inserted and removed after few months. Patency of the bile duct was assessed by cholangiography, the liver function test and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Two patients aged 33 and 59 years old underwent lateral reconstruction of the bile duct for defects secondary to choledocotomy for stone extraction or during dissection for Mirizzi syndrome. The defects measured 2 and 3 cm and occupied half of the bile duct circumference. The postoperative course was marked by low output biliary fistula resolved spontaneously. In one patient, the T tube was removed at 3 months after surgery and MRI at 9 months showed strictly normal aspect of the bile duct with normal liver function test. The second patient is going very well 2 months after surgery and the T tube is closed. Lateral reconstruction of the bile duct can be safely achieved with the vascularized round ligament. We will extend our indications to tubular reconstruction.

  3. The Sequential Probability Ratio Test: An efficient alternative to exact binomial testing for Clean Water Act 303(d) evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Connie; Gribble, Matthew O; Bartroff, Jay; Bay, Steven M; Goldstein, Larry

    2017-05-01

    The United States's Clean Water Act stipulates in section 303(d) that states must identify impaired water bodies for which total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) of pollution inputs into water bodies are developed. Decision-making procedures about how to list, or delist, water bodies as impaired, or not, per Clean Water Act 303(d) differ across states. In states such as California, whether or not a particular monitoring sample suggests that water quality is impaired can be regarded as a binary outcome variable, and California's current regulatory framework invokes a version of the exact binomial test to consolidate evidence across samples and assess whether the overall water body complies with the Clean Water Act. Here, we contrast the performance of California's exact binomial test with one potential alternative, the Sequential Probability Ratio Test (SPRT). The SPRT uses a sequential testing framework, testing samples as they become available and evaluating evidence as it emerges, rather than measuring all the samples and calculating a test statistic at the end of the data collection process. Through simulations and theoretical derivations, we demonstrate that the SPRT on average requires fewer samples to be measured to have comparable Type I and Type II error rates as the current fixed-sample binomial test. Policymakers might consider efficient alternatives such as SPRT to current procedure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Motivational changes in response to blocked goals and foreshortened time: testing alternatives to socioemotional selectivity theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Helene H; Carstensen, Laura L

    2004-03-01

    Socioemotional selectivity theory contends that when people perceive time as limited, they prioritize emotionally meaningful goals. Although empirical support for the theory has been found in several studies, 2 alternative explanations for the pattern of findings remain: (a) emotional goals are pursued by default because nonemotional goals are blocked, and (b) emotional goals are pursued in search of emotional support rather than emotional meaning. This study tested these alternatives by examining social goals in response to blocked goals and foreshortened time. Findings reveal distinct motivational patterns, as reflected in social preferences and self-reported social goals, in response to the 2 types of constraints.

  5. Detailed design, fabrication and testing of an engineering prototype compensated pulsed alternator. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, W.L. Jr.; Woodson, H.H.

    1980-03-01

    The design, fabrication, and test results of a prototype compensated pulsed alternator are discussed. The prototype compulsator is a vertical shaft single phase alternator with a rotating armature and salient pole stator. The machine is designed for low rep rate pulsed duty and is sized to drive a modified 10 cm Beta amplifier. The load consists of sixteen 15 mm x 20 mm x 112 cm long xenon flashlamps connected in parallel. The prototype compulsator generates an open circuit voltage of 6 kV, 180 Hz, at a maximum design speed of 5400 rpm. At maximum speed, the inertial energy stored in the compulsator rotor is 3.4 megajoules

  6. Alternative Forms of the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith A. Hawkins

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Practice effects in memory testing complicate the interpretation of score changes over repeated testings, particularly in clinical applications. Consequently, several alternative forms of the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT have been developed. Studies of these typically indicate that the forms examined are equivalent. However, the implication that the forms in the literature are interchangeable must be tempered by several caveats. Few studies of equivalence have been undertaken; most are restricted to the comparison of single pairs of forms, and the pairings vary across studies. These limitations are exacerbated by the minimal overlapping across studies in variables reported, or in the analyses of equivalence undertaken. The data generated by these studies are nonetheless valuable, as significant practice effects result from serial use of the same form. The available data on alternative AVLT forms are summarized, and recommendations regarding form development and the determination of form equivalence are offered.

  7. Compressor Calorimeter Test of R-410A Alternatives R-32, DR-5, and L-41a

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrestha, Som S [ORNL; Mahderekal, Isaac [ORNL; Sharma, Vishaldeep [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL

    2013-02-01

    As a contribution to the AHRI Low-GWP Alternative Refrigerants Evaluation Program (AREP), this study compares performance of alternative refrigerants R32, DR-5, and L-41A to that of refrigerant R-410A (baseline) in a scroll compressor designed for air-conditioning and heat pump applications. Compressor calorimeter tests were performed to evaluate the performance of the lower-GWP alternative refrigerants in place of the common refrigerant R-410A in a 36,000 Btu/hr compressor calorimeter using a compressor having a nominal rated capacity of 21,300 Btu/hr. Tests were conducted over a suction dew point temperature range of 10 F to 55 F in 5 F increments and a discharge dew point temperature range of 70 F to 140 F in 10 F increments. All the tests were performed with 20 F superheat, 40 F superheat and 65 F suction temperature. A liquid subcooling level of 15 F was maintained for all the test conditions. The tests showed that performance of these three lower-GWP alternative refrigerants is comparable to that of R-410A. For the 20 F superheat and 15 F subcooling test conditions, EERs of R32, DR-5, and L-41A were 90% to 99%, 96% to 99%, and 94% to 101%, respectively, compared to that of R-410A. Similarly, cooling capacities of R32, DR-5, and L-41A were 98% to 103%, 92% to 96%, and 84% to 92%, respectively, compared to that of R-410A.

  8. A non-local computational boundary condition for duct acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorumski, William E.; Watson, Willie R.; Hodge, Steve L.

    1994-01-01

    A non-local boundary condition is formulated for acoustic waves in ducts without flow. The ducts are two dimensional with constant area, but with variable impedance wall lining. Extension of the formulation to three dimensional and variable area ducts is straightforward in principle, but requires significantly more computation. The boundary condition simulates a nonreflecting wave field in an infinite duct. It is implemented by a constant matrix operator which is applied at the boundary of the computational domain. An efficient computational solution scheme is developed which allows calculations for high frequencies and long duct lengths. This computational solution utilizes the boundary condition to limit the computational space while preserving the radiation boundary condition. The boundary condition is tested for several sources. It is demonstrated that the boundary condition can be applied close to the sound sources, rendering the computational domain small. Computational solutions with the new non-local boundary condition are shown to be consistent with the known solutions for nonreflecting wavefields in an infinite uniform duct.

  9. Conservative Treatment for Cystic Duct Stenosis in a Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Gasparetto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Few cases of common bile duct stenosis have been reported in the literature, and observations of strictures in the cystic duct are even more rare. Surgical cholecystectomy is the treatment needed in most cases of gallbladder hydrops. This paper describes the diagnosis and successful medical treatment of a rare pediatric case of cystic duct stenosis and gallbladder hydrops. Case Report. A formerly healthy one-year-old girl was admitted with colicky abdominal pain. Blood tests were normal, except for an increase in transaminases. Abdominal ultrasound excluded intestinal intussusception and identified a distended gallbladder with biliary sludge. MR cholangiography revealed a dilated gallbladder containing bile sediment and no detectable cystic duct, while the rest of the intra- and extrahepatic biliary tree and hepatic parenchyma were normal. This evidence was consistent with gallbladder hydrops associated with cystic duct stenosis. The baby was treated with i.v. hydration, corticosteroids, antibiotics, and ursodeoxycholic acid. Her general condition rapidly improved, with no further episodes of abdominal pain and normalization of liver enzymes. This allowed to avoid cholecystectomy, and the child is well 1.5 years after diagnosis. Conclusions. Although cholecystectomy is usually necessary in case of gallbladder hydrops, our experience suggests that surgical procedures can be avoided when the distension is caused by a cystic duct stenosis.

  10. Generalist predator, cyclic voles and cavity nests: testing the alternative prey hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöysä, Hannu; Jalava, Kaisa; Paasivaara, Antti

    2016-12-01

    The alternative prey hypothesis (APH) states that when the density of the main prey declines, generalist predators switch to alternative prey and vice versa, meaning that predation pressure on the alternative prey should be negatively correlated with the density of the main prey. We tested the APH in a system comprising one generalist predator (pine marten, Martes martes), cyclic main prey (microtine voles, Microtus agrestis and Myodes glareolus) and alternative prey (cavity nests of common goldeneye, Bucephala clangula); pine marten is an important predator of both voles and common goldeneye nests. Specifically, we studied whether annual predation rate of real common goldeneye nests and experimental nests is negatively associated with fluctuation in the density of voles in four study areas in southern Finland in 2000-2011. Both vole density and nest predation rate varied considerably between years in all study areas. However, we did not find support for the hypothesis that vole dynamics indirectly affects predation rate of cavity nests in the way predicted by the APH. On the contrary, the probability of predation increased with vole spring abundance for both real and experimental nests. Furthermore, a crash in vole abundance from previous autumn to spring did not increase the probability of predation of real nests, although it increased that of experimental nests. We suggest that learned predation by pine marten individuals, coupled with efficient search image for cavities, overrides possible indirect positive effects of high vole density on the alternative prey in our study system.

  11. Toxicity testing: the search for an in vitro alternative to animal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, J E; Xu, J; Morse, H R; Avent, N D; Donaldson, C

    2009-01-01

    Prior to introduction to the clinic, pharmaceuticals must undergo rigorous toxicity testing to ensure their safety. Traditionally, this has been achieved using in vivo animal models. However, besides ethical reasons, there is a continual drive to reduce the number of animals used for this purpose due to concerns such as the lack of concordance seen between animal models and toxic effects in humans. Adequate testing to ensure any toxic metabolites are detected can be further complicated if the agent is administered in a prodrug form, requiring a source of cytochrome P450 enzymes for metabolism. A number of sources of metabolic enzymes have been utilised in in vitro models, including cell lines, primary human tissue and liver extracts such as S9. This review examines current and new in vitro models for toxicity testing, including a new model developed within the authors' laboratory utilising HepG2 liver spheroids within a co-culture system to examine the effects of chemotherapeutic agents on other cell types.

  12. USING COMPUTER-BASED TESTING AS ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT METHOD OF STUDENT LEARNING IN DISTANCE EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia SAPRIATI

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the use of computer-based testing in distance education, based on the experience of Universitas Terbuka (UT, Indonesia. Computer-based testing has been developed at UT for reasons of meeting the specific needs of distance students as the following: Ø students’ inability to sit for the scheduled test, Ø conflicting test schedules, and Ø students’ flexibility to take examination to improve their grades. In 2004, UT initiated a pilot project in the development of system and program for computer-based testing method. Then in 2005 and 2006 tryouts in the use of computer-based testing methods were conducted in 7 Regional Offices that were considered as having sufficient supporting recourses. The results of the tryouts revealed that students were enthusiastic in taking computer-based tests and they expected that the test method would be provided by UT as alternative to the traditional paper and pencil test method. UT then implemented computer-based testing method in 6 and 12 Regional Offices in 2007 and 2008 respectively. The computer-based testing was administered in the city of the designated Regional Office and was supervised by the Regional Office staff. The development of the computer-based testing was initiated with conducting tests using computers in networked configuration. The system has been continually improved, and it currently uses devices linked to the internet or the World Wide Web. The construction of the test involves the generation and selection of the test items from the item bank collection of the UT Examination Center. Thus the combination of the selected items compromises the test specification. Currently UT has offered 250 courses involving the use of computer-based testing. Students expect that more courses are offered with computer-based testing in Regional Offices within easy access by students.

  13. Scaleup tests and supporting research for the development of duct injection technology: Topical report No. 3, Task 3.2: Scale-up testing; Topical report No. 4, Task 3.3: Advanced configurations; Topical report No. 5, Task 3.4: Process controls; Topical report No. 6, Task 3.5: Failure modes; Task 3.6: Waste characterization, Duct Injection Test Facility, Muskingum River Power Plant, Beverly, Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felix, L.G.; Gooch, J.P.; Merritt, R.L. [Southern Research Inst., Birmingham, AL (United States); Klett, M.G.; Demian, A.G.; Hunt, J.E. [Gilbert/Commonwealth, Inc., Reading, PA (United States)

    1992-08-01

    This document is the third interim report on tests that were conducted at the Duct Injection Test Facility (DITF) operated for the Department of Energy at Unit 5 of the Ohio Power Company`s Muskingum River station in Beverly, Ohio. At the DITF dry calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2), an aqueous slurry of Ca(OH){sub 2} (prepared by slaking quicklime), or a mixture of one of these sorbents with waste ash from earlier tests was injected into a slipstream of flue gas from the Unit 5 boiler to achieve partial removal of SO{sub 2} in the flue gas. Up to 50,000 acfm of flue gas was taken from the inlet to the Unit 5 electrostatic precipitator (ESP) for these tests. Water was injected separately with the dry sorbent or as part of the slurry to cool the flue gas and increase the water vapor content of the flue gas. The addition of water, either as a separate spray or in the slurry makes the reaction between the sorbent and the SO{sub 2} more complete; the presumption is that water is effective in the liquid state when it can physically wet the sorbent particles, and not especially effective in the vapor state. Higher values of calcium utilization were obtained with slurry injection than with dry sorbent injection and humidification. Slurries made from reagent slaked lime, mixtures of reagent slaked lime and recycle ash, and from recycle ash alone were injected through the same nozzles used for humidification. The focus of most of these tests was on the constant addition of recycle ash to reduce the amount of slaked lime required for SO{sub 2} removal (for best economics). Testing was continued until the amount of Ca(OH){sub 2} in the recycle ash equaled that predicted for equilibrium Two test cases were evaluated: a low Ca/S ratio (1.0 reagent, 44{degrees}/F approach) for 50% SO{sub 2} removal and a high Ca/S ratio (1.7 reagent, 24{degrees}F approach) for 88% SO{sub 2} removal.

  14. Scaleup tests and supporting research for the development of duct injection technology: Topical report No. 3, Task 3. 2: Scale-up testing; Topical report No. 4, Task 3. 3: Advanced configurations; Topical report No. 5, Task 3. 4: Process controls; Topical report No. 6, Task 3. 5: Failure modes; Task 3. 6: Waste characterization, Duct Injection Test Facility, Muskingum River Power Plant, Beverly, Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felix, L.G.; Gooch, J.P.; Merritt, R.L. (Southern Research Inst., Birmingham, AL (United States)); Klett, M.G.; Demian, A.G.; Hunt, J.E. (Gilbert/Commonwealth, Inc., Reading, PA (United States))

    1992-08-01

    This document is the third interim report on tests that were conducted at the Duct Injection Test Facility (DITF) operated for the Department of Energy at Unit 5 of the Ohio Power Company's Muskingum River station in Beverly, Ohio. At the DITF dry calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2), an aqueous slurry of Ca(OH)[sub 2] (prepared by slaking quicklime), or a mixture of one of these sorbents with waste ash from earlier tests was injected into a slipstream of flue gas from the Unit 5 boiler to achieve partial removal of SO[sub 2] in the flue gas. Up to 50,000 acfm of flue gas was taken from the inlet to the Unit 5 electrostatic precipitator (ESP) for these tests. Water was injected separately with the dry sorbent or as part of the slurry to cool the flue gas and increase the water vapor content of the flue gas. The addition of water, either as a separate spray or in the slurry makes the reaction between the sorbent and the SO[sub 2] more complete; the presumption is that water is effective in the liquid state when it can physically wet the sorbent particles, and not especially effective in the vapor state. Higher values of calcium utilization were obtained with slurry injection than with dry sorbent injection and humidification. Slurries made from reagent slaked lime, mixtures of reagent slaked lime and recycle ash, and from recycle ash alone were injected through the same nozzles used for humidification. The focus of most of these tests was on the constant addition of recycle ash to reduce the amount of slaked lime required for SO[sub 2] removal (for best economics). Testing was continued until the amount of Ca(OH)[sub 2] in the recycle ash equaled that predicted for equilibrium Two test cases were evaluated: a low Ca/S ratio (1.0 reagent, 44[degrees]/F approach) for 50% SO[sub 2] removal and a high Ca/S ratio (1.7 reagent, 24[degrees]F approach) for 88% SO[sub 2] removal.

  15. Assessment of Chronological Effects of Irreversible Electroporation on Hilar Bile Ducts in a Porcine Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jae Woong, E-mail: cooljay@korea.ac.kr; Lu, David S. K., E-mail: dlu@mednet.ucla.edu; Osuagwu, Ferdnand, E-mail: fosuagwu@mednet.ucla.edu; Raman, Steven, E-mail: sraman@mednet.ucla.edu [David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Department of Radiology (United States); Lassman, Charles, E-mail: classman@mednet.ucla.edu [David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Department of Pathology (United States)

    2013-11-07

    PurposeTo evaluate the chronological effects of irreversible electroporation (IRE) on large hilar bile ducts in an in vivo porcine model correlated with computed tomography (CT) cholangiography and histopathology.Materials and MethodsTwelve IRE zones were made along hilar bile ducts intraoperatively under ultrasound (US)-guidance in 11 pigs. Paired electrodes were placed either on opposing sides of the bile duct (straddle [STR]) or both on one side of the bile duct (one-sided [OSD]). The shortest electrode-to-duct distance was classified as periductal (≤2 mm) or nonperiductal (>2 mm). CT cholangiography and laboratory tests were performed before IRE and again at 2 days, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks after IRE. Degree of bile duct injury were graded as follows: grade 0 = no narrowing; grade 1 = ≤50 % duct narrowing; grade 2 = >50 % narrowing without proximal duct dilatation; grade 3 = grade 2 with proximal duct dilatation; and grade 4 = grade 3 with enzyme elevation. Pigs were selected for killing and histopathology at 2 days, 4, and 8 weeks.ResultsNonperiductal electrode placement produced no long-term strictures in 5 of 5 ducts. Periductal electrode placement produced mild narrowing in 6 of 7 ducts: 5 grade 1 and 1 grade 2. None showed increased enzymes. There was no significant difference between STR versus OSD electrode placement. Histopathology showed minor but relatively greater ductal mural changes in narrowed ducts.ConclusionIn the larger hilar ducts, long-term patency and mural integrity appear resistant to IRE damage with the energy deposition used, especially if the electrode is not immediately periductal in position.

  16. Assessment of Chronological Effects of Irreversible Electroporation on Hilar Bile Ducts in a Porcine Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jae Woong; Lu, David S. K.; Osuagwu, Ferdnand; Raman, Steven; Lassman, Charles

    2014-01-01

    PurposeTo evaluate the chronological effects of irreversible electroporation (IRE) on large hilar bile ducts in an in vivo porcine model correlated with computed tomography (CT) cholangiography and histopathology.Materials and MethodsTwelve IRE zones were made along hilar bile ducts intraoperatively under ultrasound (US)-guidance in 11 pigs. Paired electrodes were placed either on opposing sides of the bile duct (straddle [STR]) or both on one side of the bile duct (one-sided [OSD]). The shortest electrode-to-duct distance was classified as periductal (≤2 mm) or nonperiductal (>2 mm). CT cholangiography and laboratory tests were performed before IRE and again at 2 days, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks after IRE. Degree of bile duct injury were graded as follows: grade 0 = no narrowing; grade 1 = ≤50 % duct narrowing; grade 2 = >50 % narrowing without proximal duct dilatation; grade 3 = grade 2 with proximal duct dilatation; and grade 4 = grade 3 with enzyme elevation. Pigs were selected for killing and histopathology at 2 days, 4, and 8 weeks.ResultsNonperiductal electrode placement produced no long-term strictures in 5 of 5 ducts. Periductal electrode placement produced mild narrowing in 6 of 7 ducts: 5 grade 1 and 1 grade 2. None showed increased enzymes. There was no significant difference between STR versus OSD electrode placement. Histopathology showed minor but relatively greater ductal mural changes in narrowed ducts.ConclusionIn the larger hilar ducts, long-term patency and mural integrity appear resistant to IRE damage with the energy deposition used, especially if the electrode is not immediately periductal in position

  17. Field Testing of Alternative Cookstove Performance in a Rural Setting of Western India

    OpenAIRE

    Muralidharan, Veena; Sussan, Thomas; Limaye, Sneha; Koehler, Kirsten; Williams, D'Ann; Rule, Ana; Juvekar, Sanjay; Breysse, Patrick; Salvi, Sundeep; Biswal, Shyam

    2015-01-01

    Nearly three billion people use solid fuels for cooking and heating, which leads to extremely high levels of household air pollution and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Many stove manufacturers have developed alternative cookstoves (ACSs) that are aimed at reducing emissions and fuel consumption. Here, we tested a traditional clay chulha cookstove (TCS) and five commercially available ACSs, including both natural draft (Greenway Smart Stove, Envirofit PCS-1) and forced draft stov...

  18. Development And Testing Of Biogas-Petrol Blend As An Alternative Fuel For Spark Ignition Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awogbemi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This research is on the development and testing of a biogas-petrol blend to run a spark ignition engine. A2080 ratio biogaspetrol blend was developed as an alternative fuel for spark ignition engine test bed. Petrol and biogas-petrol blend were comparatively tested on the test bed to determine the effectiveness of the fuels. The results of the tests showed that biogas petrol blend generated higher torque brake power indicated power brake thermal efficiency and brake mean effective pressure but lower fuel consumption and exhaust temperature than petrol. The research concluded that a spark ignition engine powered by biogas-petrol blend was found to be economical consumed less fuel and contributes to sanitation and production of fertilizer.

  19. Evaluation of the ultimate pressure capacity of rectangular HVAC ducts for nuclear pwoer plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedellsborg, B.W.

    1984-01-01

    Typical Category I HVAC ducts in a nuclear plant must be designed for loads and load combinations including positive and negative pressure loads which are generated due to the normal operation and postulated accident conditions. These pressure loads most often govern the design of the HVAC ducts. Structural design criteria are presently based on the AISI Code which limits the duct panel width-to-thickness ratio to a maximum of 500 and the maximum height-to-thickness ratio to 200, unless it can be shown by structural tests that larger ratios can be used. Test Programs performed on rectangular HVAC ducts subjected to vacumm loads have substantiated the use of ducts having panel width to thickness ratios of up to 1600. The results of the test programs were subsequently incorporated into the design through a more rational analytical design method which was developed from and correlates well with the test results. The purpose of this paper is to present the analytical design method and its correlation with the test results. Simple formulae for the design of rectangular HVAC ducts are presented. Lower bound values of duct sheet, and stiffener ultimate loads are derived, and correlated with recent test results. Analytically predicted ultimate pressures are also compared with other available duct test data

  20. Experiments on the Recovery of Waste Heat in Cooling Ducts, Special Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Abe

    1939-01-01

    Tests have been conducted in the N.A.C.A. full-scale wind tunnel to investigate the partial recovery of the heat energy which is apparently wasted in the cooling of aircraft engines. The results indicate that if the radiator is located in an expanded duct, a part of the energy lost in cooling is recovered; however, the energy recovery is not of practical importance up to airplane speeds of 400 miles per hour. Throttling of the duct flow occurs with heated radiators and must be considered in designing the duct outlets from data obtained with cold radiators in the ducts.

  1. Alternative test method to assess the energy performance of frost-free refrigerating appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermes, Christian J.L.; Melo, Cláudio; Knabben, Fernando T.

    2013-01-01

    This paper outlines an alternative test method to evaluate the energy consumption of frost-free refrigerators and freezers for residential applications. While the standardized methods require the refrigerating appliance to be kept running according to its onboard control system, which usually drives the refrigerator through an on–off cycling pattern, the proposed approach assesses the refrigerator energy performance in the steady-state regime, being therefore much faster and more reliable. In this procedure, the cooling capacity is matched to the cooling loads by PID-controlled electrical heaters installed within the refrigerated compartments, so that the compartment temperatures are kept at the desired standardized levels. Comparisons between the experimental results obtained using the steady-state energy test and the standardized procedures showed that the former follows closely the trends observed for the latter. - Highlights: ► An alternative test method to assess the energy consumption of refrigerators is proposed. ► PID-controlled electrical heaters were installed within the compartments. ► Steady-state and ISO energy tests were performed and compared. ► Both proposed and standardized test procedures showed similar trends.

  2. Recommendation for a non-animal alternative to rat caries testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Featherstone, John D B; Stookey, George K; Kaminski, Michael A; Faller, Robert V

    2011-10-01

    As a requirement of the Food & Drug Administration's final monograph on "Anticaries drug products for over-the-counter human use", the toothpaste industry has been conducting animal caries tests on every fluoride-containing toothpaste introduced into the U.S. market since 1996. The practice of testing in animals, although required by law, is in stark conflict with the corporate policy of many U.S. and global toothpaste manufacturers, in which, if possible, alternatives to animal testing are utilized. A provision does exist within the regulation which allows the use of an alternative method to demonstrate efficacy. However, to take advantage of this provision, a petition must be submitted to the FDA and in this petition data demonstrating the alternative provides results of "equivalent accuracy" must be included. After many years of research, model development and model comparisons, we have identified one particular laboratory model that demonstrated excellent correlation with the currently accepted animal caries models. This model, known as the Featherstone pH cycling model, is discussed in this paper. The Featherstone pH cycling model has been shown to produce results of equivalent accuracy to the animal caries model by: (1) demonstrating a clinically relevant fluoride dose response similar to that shown in the animal caries model (including 1100 ppm F, 250 ppm F and placebo); (2) demonstrating similar results to the animal caries model for clinically proven dentifrice formulations relative to positive and negative controls; (3) demonstrating discriminating ability in strong agreement with the animal caries model for differentiating between a dentifrice formulation with attenuated fluoride activity and a USP standard; and (4) providing a clinically relevant representation of the caries process, as demonstrated by orthodontic banding studies. In addition, the model sufficiently addresses both salivary and abrasive/anticalculus agent interference concerns. For more

  3. Biliary stenting and anti-cancer therapy for unresectable hilar bile duct carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Hiroya; Hokotate, Hirofumi; Takeuchi, Shyuhei; Takamura, Akio

    2007-01-01

    At present, although imaging diagnosis has been developed, most hilar bile duct cancer is still diagnosed at an advanced stage and its prognosis is generally poor. In hilar bile duct cancer, radiotherapy and other several therapies, for example-chemotherapy, arterial-infusion chemotherapy, photodynamic therapy, etc-are being performed for non-operative cases. But standard therapies for this cancer has not been established yet. On the other hand, metallic stents (MS) have been widely used to relieve biliary obstructions as an alternative to plastic prostheses and conventional drainage. The use of MS offers good palliation in hilar bile duct cancer, but patients selection is a key to obtain good results. In this article we reviewed previous studies and clinical trials regarding the anti-cancer therapy and biliary stenting for unresectable hilar bile duct cancer. And optimal therapeutic strategy for hilar bile duct cancer is proposed, primarily based on present views. (author)

  4. A Modified Jonckheere Test Statistic for Ordered Alternatives in Repeated Measures Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Tül Kübra AKDUR

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a new test based on Jonckheere test [1] for  randomized blocks which have dependent observations within block is presented. A weighted sum for each block statistic rather than the unweighted sum proposed by Jonckheereis included. For Jonckheere type statistics, the main assumption is independency of observations within block. In the case of repeated measures design, the assumption of independence is violated. The weighted Jonckheere type statistic for the situation of dependence for different variance-covariance structure and the situation based on ordered alternative hypothesis structure of each block on the design is used. Also, the proposed statistic is compared to the existing test based on Jonckheere in terms of type I error rates by performing Monte Carlo simulation. For the strong correlations, circular bootstrap version of the proposed Jonckheere test provides lower rates of type I error.

  5. Evaluation of HIV-1 rapid tests and identification of alternative testing algorithms for use in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleebu, Pontiano; Kitandwe, Paul Kato; Lutalo, Tom; Kigozi, Aminah; Watera, Christine; Nanteza, Mary Bridget; Hughes, Peter; Musinguzi, Joshua; Opio, Alex; Downing, Robert; Mbidde, Edward Katongole

    2018-02-27

    The World Health Organization recommends that countries conduct two phase evaluations of HIV rapid tests (RTs) in order to come up with the best algorithms. In this report, we present the first ever such evaluation in Uganda, involving both blood and oral based RTs. The role of weak positive (WP) bands on the accuracy of the individual RT and on the algorithms was also investigated. In total 11 blood based and 3 oral transudate kits were evaluated. All together 2746 participants from seven sites, covering the four different regions of Uganda participated. Two enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) run in parallel were used as the gold standard. The performance and cost of the different algorithms was calculated, with a pre-determined price cut-off of either cheaper or within 20% price of the current algorithm of Determine + Statpak + Unigold. In the second phase, the three best algorithms selected in phase I were used at the point of care for purposes of quality control using finger stick whole blood. We identified three algorithms; Determine + SD Bioline + Statpak; Determine + Statpak + SD Bioline, both with the same sensitivity and specificity of 99.2% and 99.1% respectively and Determine + Statpak + Insti, with sensitivity and specificity of 99.1% and 99% respectively as having performed better and met the cost requirements. There were 15 other algorithms that performed better than the current one but rated more than the 20% price. None of the 3 oral mucosal transudate kits were suitable for inclusion in an algorithm because of their low sensitivities. Band intensity affected the performance of individual RTs but not the final algorithms. We have come up with three algorithms we recommend for public or Government procurement based on accuracy and cost. In case one algorithm is preferred, we recommend to replace Unigold, the current tie breaker with SD Bioline. We further recommend that all the 18 algorithms that have shown better performance than the current one are made

  6. 78 FR 37463 - Expedited Approval of Alternative Test Procedures for the Analysis of Contaminants Under the Safe...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... Approval of Alternative Test Procedures for the Analysis of Contaminants Under the Safe Drinking Water Act... page 32570, with the table entitled ``ALTERNATIVE TESTING METHODS FOR CONTAMINANTS LISTED AT 40 CFR 141... Contaminants Listed at 40 CFR 141.25(a) SM 21st Edition SM 22nd Edition Contaminant Methodology \\1\\ \\28\\ ASTM...

  7. Imaging features of intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yubao; Li Meng; Zhong Xiaomei; Liu Zaiyi; Liang Changhong

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the CT and MRI features of intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB). Methods: Thirty eight patients with IPNB finally diagnosed by puncture biopsy or surgery were enrolled in this study. All the CT or MRI data were investigated retrospectively. Twenty one patients underwent CT examinations, 17 patients underwent MRI examinations. The features of IPNB including the distribution features of the nodules or masses, CT and MRI features of cholangiectasis, mucus were analyzed. The accuracy differences of CT and MRI for the preoperatively diagnosing mucus and tumor growing along mucous were compared by nonparametric test. Results: The lesions (including 5 patients with solitary lesions and 19 patients with multiple lesions) were located in intrahepatic bile duct in 24 patients, 3 patients occurred simultaneously in intrahepatic and portal bile duct, 2 lesions occurred in portal bile duct, 8 lesions occurred in common bile duct, the lesions of 1 patient occurred simultaneously in common bile duct, cystic duct and gallbladder. Seventeen and 11 patients appeared nodules locating in dilated bile duct on CT and MRI, respectively. Four and 5 patients appeared cystic lesions with multiple nodules of the liver on CT and MRI, respectively. Higher contrast enhancement on CT and MRI in arterial phase than that in portal vein and equilibrium phase were observed in 18 and 12 patients, respectively. Excluding the patients undergoing puncture, CT was better than MRI in evaluating whether the mucus was present, with the accuracies of 30.0% (6/20) and 6.3% (1/16) for CT and MRI, respectively (Z=2.58, P<0.05). CT was worse than MRI in preoperatively evaluating the features of tumor growing along mucous, with the accuracies of 77.8% (14/18) and 92.6% (13/14) for CT and MRI, respectively (Z=4.23, P<0.01). Conclusion: IPNB had the features of growing along mucous of the bile duct, nodule or mass in dilated bile duct and other features, CT and MRI are

  8. Mycoplasma testing of cell substrates and biologics: Review of alternative non-microbiological techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volokhov, Dmitriy V; Graham, Laurie J; Brorson, Kurt A; Chizhikov, Vladimir E

    2011-01-01

    Mycoplasmas, particularly species of the genera Mycoplasma and Acholeplasma, are known to be occasional microbial contaminants of cell cultures that produce biologics. This presents a serious concern regarding the risk of mycoplasma contamination for research laboratories and commercial facilities developing and manufacturing cell-derived biological and biopharmaceutical products for therapeutic use. Potential undetected contamination of these products or process intermediates with mycoplasmas represents a potential safety risk for patients and a business risk for producers of biopharmaceuticals. To minimize these risks, monitoring for adventitious agents, such as viruses and mycoplasmas, is performed during the manufacture of biologics produced in cell culture substrates. The "gold standard" microbiological assay, currently recommended by the USP, EP, JP and the US FDA, for the mycoplasma testing of biologics, involves the culture of viable mycoplasmas in broth, agar plates and indicator cells. Although the procedure enables highly efficient mycoplasma detection in cell substrates and cell-derived products, the overall testing strategy is time consuming (a minimum of 28 days) and requires skilled interpretation of the results. The long time period required for these conventional assays does not permit their use for products with short shelf-lives or for timely 'go/no-go' decisions during routine in-process testing. PCR methodology has existed for decades, however PCR based and other alternative methods for mycoplasma detection have only recently been considered for application to biologics manufacture. The application of alternative nucleic acid-based, enzyme-based and/or recombinant cell-culture methods, particularly in combination with efficient sample preparation procedures, could provide advantages over conventional microbiological methods in terms of analytical throughput, simplicity, and turnaround time. However, a challenge to the application of alternative

  9. Development of a non-engine fuel injector deposit test for alternative fuels (ENIAK-project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Hajo; Pohland vom Schloss, Heide [OWI - Oel Waerme Institut GmbH, Herzogenrath (Germany)

    2013-06-01

    Deposit formation in and on the injectors of diesel engines may lead to injector malfunction, resulting in a loss in power, rough engine operation and poor emission levels. Poor Biodiesel quality, contamination with copper and zinc as well as undesired reactions between (several) additives and biodiesel components are known causes for nozzle fouling. Therefore, good housekeeping when using biodiesel is required, and all additives have to pass a no-harm test concerning injector fouling. The standard fouling tests are two engine tests: The XUD9-test (CEC F-23-01) and the DW-10-test (CEC DF 98-08). The XUD9 is a cost efficient, fast and proven testing method. It uses, however, an obsolete indirect injection diesel engine and cannot reproduce internal diesel injector deposits (IDID). The newer DW10 test is complex, costly and designed for high stress. This reduces the engine life and leads to a fuel consumption of approximately 1,000 1 per test, both contributing to the high costs of the test. The ENIAK-Project is funded by the FNR (''Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe'', Agency for Renewable Resources) and conducted in cooperation with AGQM, ASG and ERC. Its main goal is the development, assembly, commissioning, and evaluation of a non-engine fuel injector test. It uses a complete common rail system. The injection takes place in a self-designed reactor instead of an engine, and the fuel is not combusted, but re-condensed and pumped in a circle, leading to a low amount of fuel required. If the test method proves to be as reliable as expected, it can be used as an alternative test method for injector fouling with low requirements regarding infrastructure on the testing site and sample volume. (orig.)

  10. Treatment Options for Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Liver Cancer Prevention Liver Cancer Screening Research Bile Duct Cancer (Cholangiocarcinoma) Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version Treatment ... are different types of treatment for patients with bile duct cancer. Different types of treatments are available ...

  11. Treatment Option Overview (Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Liver Cancer Prevention Liver Cancer Screening Research Bile Duct Cancer (Cholangiocarcinoma) Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version Treatment ... are different types of treatment for patients with bile duct cancer. Different types of treatments are available ...

  12. General Information about Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Liver Cancer Prevention Liver Cancer Screening Research Bile Duct Cancer (Cholangiocarcinoma) Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version Treatment ... are different types of treatment for patients with bile duct cancer. Different types of treatments are available ...

  13. High-Performance Ducts in Hot-Dry Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeschele, Marc [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chitwood, Rick [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); German, Alea [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Weitzel, Elizabeth [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-07-30

    Duct thermal losses and air leakage have long been recognized as prime culprits in the degradation of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system efficiency. Both the U.S. Department of Energy’s Zero Energy Ready Home program and California’s proposed 2016 Title 24 Residential Energy Efficiency Standards require that ducts be installed within conditioned space or that other measures be taken to provide similar improvements in delivery effectiveness (DE). Pacific Gas & Electric Company commissioned a study to evaluate ducts in conditioned space and high-performance attics (HPAs) in support of the proposed codes and standards enhancements included in California’s 2016 Title 24 Residential Energy Efficiency Standards. The goal was to work with a select group of builders to design and install high-performance duct (HPD) systems, such as ducts in conditioned space (DCS), in one or more of their homes and to obtain test data to verify the improvement in DE compared to standard practice. Davis Energy Group (DEG) helped select the builders and led a team that provided information about HPD strategies to them. DEG also observed the construction process, completed testing, and collected cost data.

  14. 14 CFR 29.1103 - Induction systems ducts and air duct systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Induction systems ducts and air duct systems. 29.1103 Section 29.1103 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1103 Induction systems ducts and air duct...

  15. Thoracic duct lymphography by subcutaneous contrast agent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A second lymphography revealed a collateral thoracic duct that was not detected during the first lymphography. The collateral duct was ligated and chylothorax was resolved after the second surgery. The lymphography applied in this study was minimally-invasive and easily provided images of the thoracic duct in a dog with ...

  16. Warm-Up Effect in Panelist-Articulated-2-Alternative Forced Choice Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, David J; Baik, Hwa-Young; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2018-01-01

    Panelist performance in discrimination tests has been shown to increase when warm-up samples are provided prior to the actual test. Samples are used prior to the actual test for the attribute articulation process of a panelist-articulated-2-alternative forced choice (PA-2-AFC) procedure; however, it is yet unknown if the pretest articulation phase adds to the power of this testing method as with the warm-up. The goal of the study was to determine if a "warm-up" effect was displayed in the PA-2-AFC test resulting in greater power compared to the researcher-designated-2-AFC (RD-2-AFC) test. A RD-2-AFC test, with and without warm-up samples, and a PA-2-AFC test were performed by 61 panelists. A reduced calorie, citrus-flavored, and carbonated beverage was used in the tests. During RD-2-AFC testing, panelists were asked to identify which sample was more sour. For PA-2-AFC testing, panelists individually articulated the nature and direction of the difference between the 2 samples through a pretesting articulation procedure. The articulated difference was, then, used in standard 2-AFC test procedure. A warm-up effect was observed when comparing the standard RD-2-AFC with and without warm-up samples. The addition of warm up samples significantly increased the power of the test, in addition, the PA-2-AFC method had lower power than the RD-2-AFC method. The increase in power with the addition of warm-up samples for the RD-2-AFC procedure supports literature findings on the benefit of providing warm-up samples. No warm-up effect can be attributed to the PA-2-AFC method evidenced by the overall low power observed, which may be attributed to sample complexity. Selecting a specified discrimination testing method is advantageous and can reduce costs of sensory testing, but has been considered unpractical when samples may differ in unknown ways. This research explores the use of panelist derived terms to circumvent the need for researchers to identify these differences and

  17. Alternative procedure for the cold test for soybean seeds Procedimento alternativo para o teste de frio em semente de soja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Guilherme Torres Licursi Vieira

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The growing demand for high quality soybean [Glycine max (L. Merrill] seeds requires a precise seed quality control system from the seed industry. One way to accomplish this is by improving vigor testing. Cold test has been traditionally employed for corn seeds. However, it has also been used for other seed crops such as cotton (Gossypium spp., soybean (Glycine Max, dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris and pea (Pisum sativum. This study was carried out with the objective of adjusting an alternative procedure for the cold test to determine soybean seed vigor. Six commercial soybean seed lots of the cultivar BRS 133 were used. The physiological potential of the seed lots was evaluated by germination on paper towel and sand box, seedling field emergence, tetrazolium, accelerated aging and electrical conductivity tests. Seed moisture content was also determined. The temperature used for the cold test procedures was 10ºC during five days. Four cold test procedures were evaluated: i plastic boxes with soil; ii rolled paper towel with soil; iii rolled paper towel without soil, and iv an alternative procedure, using rolled paper towel without soil under cold water. A completely randomized experimental design with eight replications was used and the means were compared by the Tukey test (p = 0.05. To verify the dependence between the alternative test and others single linear correlation was used. All cold test procedures had similar coefficients of variation (CV, highlighting that rolled paper towel with soil and the alternative procedure had the best performance, with an average of 94% and 93% normal seedlings and CV of 3.2% and 3.6%, respectively. The alternative procedure has satisfactory results for estimating soybean seed vigor, yielding consistent results compared to the traditional procedure.A crescente demanda por semente de soja [Glycine max (L. Merrill] de alta qualidade tem requerido da indústria de sementes um controle de qualidade mais preciso

  18. Preventive maintenance plan of the air-conditioning duct using the ACM-sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuba, Kazushi; Ito, Takanobu; Kojima, Akiko; Tanji, Kazuhiro; Sato, Yuki

    2013-01-01

    Air-conditioning duct is difficult to predict the date to occur of corrosion such as affect the function. Therefore, the current conservation method is mostly corrective maintenance. Therefore, we used the test pieces of six types and ACM-sensor in order to solve the corrosion speed from corrosion environment and relationship of corrosion quantity of test pieces. In addition, was used the duct molded articles various in order to check the corrosion degree of when processed the duct. As a result, we were selected crust body constituting a duct and optimal combination of the flange by solve the corrosion speed of the test pieces various. Thus, it performs preventive disposal before to occur of corrosion such as affect the function by predicting the duct life from corrosion speed, and lead to stability and safe operating by appropriate maintenance of equipment. (author)

  19. Evaluation of Alternative Methods for Testing the Bioefficacy of Household Ambient Insecticide Products Against Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassini, Rudi; Scremin, Mara; Contiero, Barbara; Drago, Andrea; Vettorato, Christian; Marcer, Federica; di Regalbono, Antonio Frangipane

    2016-06-01

    Ambient insecticides are receiving increasing attention in many developed countries because of their value in reducing mosquito nuisance. As required by the European Union Biocidal Products Regulation 528/2012, these devices require appropriate testing of their efficacy, which is based on estimating the knockdown and mortality rates of free-flying (free) mosquitoes in a test room. However, evaluations using free mosquitoes present many complexities. The performances of 6 alternative methods with mosquitoes held in 2 different cage designs (steel wire and gauze/plastic) with and without an operating fan for air circulation were monitored in a test room through a closed-circuit television system and were compared with the currently recommended method using free mosquitoes. Results for caged mosquitoes without a fan showed a clearly delayed knockdown effect, whereas outcomes for caged mosquitoes with a fan recorded higher mortality at 24 h, compared to free mosquitoes. Among the 6 methods, cages made of gauze and plastic operating with fan wind speed at 2.5-2.8 m/sec was the only method without a significant difference in results for free mosquitoes, and therefore appears as the best alternative to assess knockdown by ambient insecticides accurately.

  20. Alternative (non-animal) methods for cosmetics testing: current status and future prospects-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Sarah; Basketter, David; Creton, Stuart; Pelkonen, Olavi; van Benthem, Jan; Zuang, Valérie; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Angers-Loustau, Alexandre; Aptula, Aynur; Bal-Price, Anna; Benfenati, Emilio; Bernauer, Ulrike; Bessems, Jos; Bois, Frederic Y; Boobis, Alan; Brandon, Esther; Bremer, Susanne; Broschard, Thomas; Casati, Silvia; Coecke, Sandra; Corvi, Raffaella; Cronin, Mark; Daston, George; Dekant, Wolfgang; Felter, Susan; Grignard, Elise; Gundert-Remy, Ursula; Heinonen, Tuula; Kimber, Ian; Kleinjans, Jos; Komulainen, Hannu; Kreiling, Reinhard; Kreysa, Joachim; Leite, Sofia Batista; Loizou, George; Maxwell, Gavin; Mazzatorta, Paolo; Munn, Sharon; Pfuhler, Stefan; Phrakonkham, Pascal; Piersma, Aldert; Poth, Albrecht; Prieto, Pilar; Repetto, Guillermo; Rogiers, Vera; Schoeters, Greet; Schwarz, Michael; Serafimova, Rositsa; Tähti, Hanna; Testai, Emanuela; van Delft, Joost; van Loveren, Henk; Vinken, Mathieu; Worth, Andrew; Zaldivar, José-Manuel

    2011-05-01

    The 7th amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive prohibits to put animal-tested cosmetics on the market in Europe after 2013. In that context, the European Commission invited stakeholder bodies (industry, non-governmental organisations, EU Member States, and the Commission's Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety) to identify scientific experts in five toxicological areas, i.e. toxicokinetics, repeated dose toxicity, carcinogenicity, skin sensitisation, and reproductive toxicity for which the Directive foresees that the 2013 deadline could be further extended in case alternative and validated methods would not be available in time. The selected experts were asked to analyse the status and prospects of alternative methods and to provide a scientifically sound estimate of the time necessary to achieve full replacement of animal testing. In summary, the experts confirmed that it will take at least another 7-9 years for the replacement of the current in vivo animal tests used for the safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients for skin sensitisation. However, the experts were also of the opinion that alternative methods may be able to give hazard information, i.e. to differentiate between sensitisers and non-sensitisers, ahead of 2017. This would, however, not provide the complete picture of what is a safe exposure because the relative potency of a sensitiser would not be known. For toxicokinetics, the timeframe was 5-7 years to develop the models still lacking to predict lung absorption and renal/biliary excretion, and even longer to integrate the methods to fully replace the animal toxicokinetic models. For the systemic toxicological endpoints of repeated dose toxicity, carcinogenicity and reproductive toxicity, the time horizon for full replacement could not be estimated.

  1. Global testing under sparse alternatives: ANOVA, multiple comparisons and the higher criticism

    OpenAIRE

    Arias-Castro, Ery; Candès, Emmanuel J.; Plan, Yaniv

    2011-01-01

    Testing for the significance of a subset of regression coefficients in a linear model, a staple of statistical analysis, goes back at least to the work of Fisher who introduced the analysis of variance (ANOVA). We study this problem under the assumption that the coefficient vector is sparse, a common situation in modern high-dimensional settings. Suppose we have $p$ covariates and that under the alternative, the response only depends upon the order of $p^{1-\\alpha}$ of those, $0\\le\\alpha\\le1$...

  2. JET neutral beam duct Optical Interlock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ash, A.D.; Jones, T.T.C.; Surrey, E.; Ćirić, D.; Hall, S.I.; Young, D.; Afzal, M.; Hackett, L.; Day, I.E.; King, R.

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Optical Interlocks were installed on the JET NBI system as part of the EP2 upgrade. • The system protects the JET tokamak and NBI systems from thermal load damage. • Balmer-α beam emission is used to monitor the neutral beam-line pressure. • We demonstrate an improved trip delay of 2 ms compared to 50 ms before EP2. - Abstract: The JET Neutral Beam Injection (NBI) system is the most powerful neutral beam plasma heating system currently operating. Optical Interlocks were installed on the beam lines in 2011 for the JET Enhancement Project 2 (EP2), when the heating power was increased from 23 MW to 34 MW. JET NBI has two beam lines. Each has eight positive ion injectors operating in deuterium at 80 kV–125 kV (accelerator voltage) and up to 65 A (beam current). Heating power is delivered through two ducts where the central power density can be more than 100 MW/m{sup 2}. In order to deliver this safely, the beam line pressure should be below 2 × 10{sup −5} mbar otherwise the power load on the duct from the re-ionised fraction of the beam is excessive. The new Optical Interlock monitors the duct pressure by measuring the Balmer-α beam emission (656 nm). This is proportional to the instantaneous beam flux and the duct pressure. Light is collected from a diagnostic window and focused into 1-mm diameter fibres. The Doppler shifted signal is selected using an angle-tuned interference filter. The light is measured by a photo-multiplier module with a logarithmic amplifier. The interlock activation time of 2 ms is sufficient to protect the system from a fully re-ionised beam—a significant improvement on the previous interlock. The dynamic range is sufficient to see bremsstrahlung emission from JET plasma and not saturate during plasma disruptions. For high neutron flux operations the optical fibres within the biological shield can be annealed to 350 °C. A self-test is possible by illuminating the diagnostic window with a test lamp and measuring

  3. On the High-dimensional Power of Linear-time Kernel Two-Sample Testing under Mean-difference Alternatives

    OpenAIRE

    Ramdas, Aaditya; Reddi, Sashank J.; Poczos, Barnabas; Singh, Aarti; Wasserman, Larry

    2014-01-01

    Nonparametric two sample testing deals with the question of consistently deciding if two distributions are different, given samples from both, without making any parametric assumptions about the form of the distributions. The current literature is split into two kinds of tests - those which are consistent without any assumptions about how the distributions may differ (\\textit{general} alternatives), and those which are designed to specifically test easier alternatives, like a difference in me...

  4. Experimental and Numerical Study on Performance of Ducted Hydrokinetic Turbines with Pre-Swirl Stator Blades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gish, Andrew

    2015-11-01

    Ducts (also called shrouds) have been shown to improve performance of hydrokinetic turbines in some situations, bringing the power coefficient (Cp) closer to the Betz limit. Here we investigate optimization of the duct design as well as the addition of stator blades upstream of the turbine rotor to introduce pre-swirl in the flow. A small scale three-bladed turbine was tested in a towing tank. Three cases (bare turbine, with duct, and with duct and stators) were tested over a range of flow speeds. Important parameters include duct cross-sectional shape, blade-duct gap, stator cross-sectional shape, and stator angle. For each test, Cp was evaluated as a function of tip speed ratio (TSR). Experimental results were compared with numerical simulations. Results indicate that ducts and stators can improve performance at slower flow speeds and lower the stall speed compared to a bare turbine, but may degrade performance at higher speeds. Ongoing efforts to optimize duct and stator configurations will be discussed.

  5. Cardiomyocyte H9c2 cells present a valuable alternative to fish lethal testing for azoxystrobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Elsa T.; Pardal, Miguel Â.; Laizé, Vincent; Cancela, M. Leonor; Oliveira, Paulo J.; Serafim, Teresa L.

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims at identifying, among six mammalian and fish cell lines, a sensitive cell line whose in vitro median inhibitory concentration (IC_5_0) better matches the in vivo short-term Sparus aurata median lethal concentration (LC_5_0). IC_5_0_s and LC_5_0 were assessed after exposure to the widely used fungicide azoxystrobin (AZX). Statistical results were relevant for most cell lines after 48 h of AZX exposure, being H9c2 the most sensitive cells, as well as the ones which provided the best prediction of fish toxicity, with a LC_5_0_,_9_6_h/IC_5_0_,_4_8_h = 0.581. H9c2 cell proliferation upon 72 h of AZX exposure revealed a LC_5_0_,_9_6_h/IC_5_0_,_7_2_h = 0.998. Therefore, identical absolute sensitivities were attained for both in vitro and in vivo assays. To conclude, the H9c2 cell-based assay is reliable and represents a suitable ethical alternative to conventional fish assays for AZX, and could be used to get valuable insights into the toxic effects of other pesticides. - Highlights: • Fish toxicity data are still considered standard information in ecotoxicology. • Alternatives to animal testing have become an important topic of research. • Cell-based assays are currently a promising in vitro alternative. • Comparative studies to accelerate the validation of cell-based methods are required. • H9c2 cell line proved to produce in vitro reliable toxicity results for azoxystrobin. - The application of cell-based assays for environmental toxicity studies would greatly reduce the number of fish needed for toxicity testing without any loss of reliability.

  6. Annual Report, Fall 2016: Alternative Chemical Cleaning of Radioactive High Level Waste Tanks - Corrosion Test Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyrwas, R. B.

    2016-01-01

    The testing presented in this report is in support of the investigation of the Alternative Chemical Cleaning program to aid in developing strategies and technologies to chemically clean radioactive High Level Waste tanks prior to tank closure. The data and conclusions presented here were the examination of the corrosion rates of A285 carbon steel and 304L stainless steel exposed to two proposed chemical cleaning solutions: acidic permanganate (0.18 M nitric acid and 0.05M sodium permanganate) and caustic permanganate. (10 M sodium hydroxide and 0.05M sodium permanganate). These solutions have been proposed as a chemical cleaning solution for the retrieval of actinides in the sludge in the waste tanks, and were tested with both HM and PUREX sludge simulants at a 20:1 ratio.

  7. Annual Report, Fall 2016: Alternative Chemical Cleaning of Radioactive High Level Waste Tanks - Corrosion Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyrwas, R. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-01

    The testing presented in this report is in support of the investigation of the Alternative Chemical Cleaning program to aid in developing strategies and technologies to chemically clean radioactive High Level Waste tanks prior to tank closure. The data and conclusions presented here were the examination of the corrosion rates of A285 carbon steel and 304L stainless steel exposed to two proposed chemical cleaning solutions: acidic permanganate (0.18 M nitric acid and 0.05M sodium permanganate) and caustic permanganate. (10 M sodium hydroxide and 0.05M sodium permanganate). These solutions have been proposed as a chemical cleaning solution for the retrieval of actinides in the sludge in the waste tanks, and were tested with both HM and PUREX sludge simulants at a 20:1 ratio.

  8. Alternative buffer material. Status of the ongoing laboratory investigation of reference materials and test package 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svensson, Daniel; Dueck, Ann; Nilsson, Ulf; Olsson, Siv; Sanden, Torbjoern; Lydmark, Sara; Jaegerwall, Sara; Pedersen, Karsten; Hansen, Staffan

    2011-07-01

    Bentonite clay is part of the Swedish KBS-3 design of final repositories for high level radioactive waste. Wyoming bentonite with the commercial name MX-80 (American Colloid Co) has long been the reference for buffer material in the KBS-3 concept. Extending the knowledge base of alternative buffer materials will make it possible to optimize regarding safety, availability and cost. For this reason the field experiment Alternative Buffer Material (ABM) was started at Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory during 2006. The experiment includes three medium-scale test packages, each consisting of a central steel tube with heaters, and a buffer of compacted clay. Eleven different clays were chosen for the buffers to examine effects of smectite content, interlayer cations and overall iron content. Also bentonite pellets with and without additional quartz are being tested. The buffer in package 1 had been subjected to wetting by formation water and heating for more than two years (at 130 deg C for ∼ 1 year) when it was retrieved and analyzed. The main purposes of the project were to characterise the clays with respect to hydro-mechanical properties, mineralogy and chemical composition and to identify any differences in behaviour or long term stability. The diversity of clays and the heater of steel also make the experiment suitable for studies of iron-bentonite interactions. This report concerns the work accomplished up to now and is not to be treated as any final report of the project

  9. Alternative buffer material. Status of the ongoing laboratory investigation of reference materials and test package 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Daniel [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Dueck, Ann; Nilsson, Ulf; Olsson, Siv; Sanden, Torbjoern [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden); Lydmark, Sara; Jaegerwall, Sara; Pedersen, Karsten [Microbial Analytics Sweden AB, Moelnlycke (Sweden); Hansen, Staffan [LTH Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden)

    2011-07-15

    Bentonite clay is part of the Swedish KBS-3 design of final repositories for high level radioactive waste. Wyoming bentonite with the commercial name MX-80 (American Colloid Co) has long been the reference for buffer material in the KBS-3 concept. Extending the knowledge base of alternative buffer materials will make it possible to optimize regarding safety, availability and cost. For this reason the field experiment Alternative Buffer Material (ABM) was started at Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory during 2006. The experiment includes three medium-scale test packages, each consisting of a central steel tube with heaters, and a buffer of compacted clay. Eleven different clays were chosen for the buffers to examine effects of smectite content, interlayer cations and overall iron content. Also bentonite pellets with and without additional quartz are being tested. The buffer in package 1 had been subjected to wetting by formation water and heating for more than two years (at 130 deg C for {approx} 1 year) when it was retrieved and analyzed. The main purposes of the project were to characterise the clays with respect to hydro-mechanical properties, mineralogy and chemical composition and to identify any differences in behaviour or long term stability. The diversity of clays and the heater of steel also make the experiment suitable for studies of iron-bentonite interactions. This report concerns the work accomplished up to now and is not to be treated as any final report of the project.

  10. Evaluation of multiplex polymerase chain reaction as an alternative to conventional antibiotic sensitivity test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Rathore

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was designed to evaluate the potential of the use of multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR as an alternative to conventional antibiotic sensitivity test. Materials and Methods: Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (total = 36 from clinical cases presented to Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex of College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences (CVAS, Navania, Udaipur, were characterized by morphological, cultural, and biochemical methods. Then, the isolates were further subjected to molecular characterization by PCR targeting S. aureus-specific sequence (107 bp. Phenotypic antibiotic sensitivity pattern was analyzed by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method against 11 commonly used antibiotics in veterinary medicine in and around Udaipur region. The genotypic antibiotic sensitivity pattern was studied against methicillin, aminoglycosides, and tetracycline targeting the gene mecA, aacA-aphD, and tetK by multiplex PCR. Results: There was 100% correlation between the phenotype and genotype of aminoglycoside resistance, more than 90% correlation for methicillin resistance, and 58.3% in the case tetracycline resistance. Conclusion: As there is a good correlation between phenotype and genotype of antibiotic resistance, multiplex PCR can be used as an alternative to the conventional antibiotic susceptibility testing, as it can give a rapid and true prediction of antibiotic sensitivity pattern.

  11. Parametric investigation of fracture of EBR-II ducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, P.S.; Moustakakis, B.

    1977-01-01

    Results of preliminary static and dynamic finite element fracture mechanics analyses that were conducted to analytically simulate the dynamic fracture behavior of EBR-II ducts are presented. The loads considered are those that may arise because of rapid release of fission gases from a failed fuel element inside a duct, obtained from some previous tests and a recent analytical model. In spite of the motivation for the present work, the analytical procedures described may have a wider general application in the fail-safe design of structures

  12. Diagnostic performance of CT and MRI in distinguishing intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct from cholangiocarcinoma with intraductal papillary growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yubao; Zhong, Xiaomei; Yan, Lifen; Zheng, Junhui; Liu, Zaiyi; Liang, Changhong

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of CT and MRI for distinguishing intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB) from cholangiocarcinoma (CC) with intraductal papillary growth (IPG). Forty-two patients with either IPNB or CC with IPG proven by histopathology were independently reviewed in retrospect. Strict criteria for diagnosis of IPNB included presence of the designated imaging features as follows: local dilatation of the bile duct, nodule within the dilated bile duct, growing along the interior wall of bile duct. Any lesion that was not consistent with the criteria was classified as CC with IPG. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for characterization of IPNB were calculated, and k test was used to assess the level of agreement. Two imaging reviewers correctly identified 21 of 26 (80.8 %) and 22 of 26 (84.6 %) IPNB cases, respectively. Alternatively, they correctly identified 14 of 16 (87.5 %) and 15 of 16 (93.8 %) CC with IPG, respectively. Agreement between the two reviewers was perfect (k = 0.81) for the diagnosis of IPNB and differentiation from CC with IPG. By using our designated diagnostic criteria of CT and MRI, IPNB can be accurately identified and possible to be distinguished from CC with IPG. (orig.)

  13. Diagnostic performance of CT and MRI in distinguishing intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct from cholangiocarcinoma with intraductal papillary growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yubao; Zhong, Xiaomei; Yan, Lifen; Zheng, Junhui; Liu, Zaiyi; Liang, Changhong [Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangzhou (China)

    2015-07-15

    We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of CT and MRI for distinguishing intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB) from cholangiocarcinoma (CC) with intraductal papillary growth (IPG). Forty-two patients with either IPNB or CC with IPG proven by histopathology were independently reviewed in retrospect. Strict criteria for diagnosis of IPNB included presence of the designated imaging features as follows: local dilatation of the bile duct, nodule within the dilated bile duct, growing along the interior wall of bile duct. Any lesion that was not consistent with the criteria was classified as CC with IPG. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for characterization of IPNB were calculated, and k test was used to assess the level of agreement. Two imaging reviewers correctly identified 21 of 26 (80.8 %) and 22 of 26 (84.6 %) IPNB cases, respectively. Alternatively, they correctly identified 14 of 16 (87.5 %) and 15 of 16 (93.8 %) CC with IPG, respectively. Agreement between the two reviewers was perfect (k = 0.81) for the diagnosis of IPNB and differentiation from CC with IPG. By using our designated diagnostic criteria of CT and MRI, IPNB can be accurately identified and possible to be distinguished from CC with IPG. (orig.)

  14. Strip-coat decontamination of ducting interiors with SEAMIST trademark -safe and fast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, C.

    1994-01-01

    The SEAMIST trademark system was invented for sampling and instrumentation of boreholes. However, the SEAMIST trademark pneumatically driven everting membrane has the ability to install absorbent liner materials for wicking and recovery of hazardous fluids (e.g., PCB'S) from ducting. The most useful vent cleaning technique is the installation of a stripcoat saturated duct liner which is then peeled from the liner retrieving contaminated particles (e. g., uranium, plutonium,...), much like the stripcoat which is used to clean glove boxes. Because of the everting SEAMIST trademark hole liner's ability to traverse ducting of many combinations of diameters, slope, turns, and obstructions, the stripcoat application method is exceptionally fast, (>10 ft/min.). This paper describes the method of installation, the prototype tests, the science, and the first results of a full scale test. This unusual method of cleaning ducting results in major advantages in safety, cost, and speed of the cleaning process. Comparisons are made with the traditional methods of sand blasting and washing. Additional benefits of the method are the ability to assess the distribution of the contamination of the ducting and to also use the everting membrane for a video camera examination of the cleaned duct coupled with contamination sensors, such as radiation logging tools. The technique can be extended to clean all manner of contamination in ducting such as microbial residues in hospitals. Very large ducts (12--120 inch dia.), are especially easily cleaned while still in place in the building

  15. HAARP-Induced Ionospheric Ducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milikh, Gennady; Vartanyan, Aram

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that strong electron heating by a powerful HF-facility can lead to the formation of electron and ion density perturbations that stretch along the magnetic field line. Those density perturbations can serve as ducts for ELF waves, both of natural and artificial origin. This paper presents observations of the plasma density perturbations caused by the HF-heating of the ionosphere by the HAARP facility. The low orbit satellite DEMETER was used as a diagnostic tool to measure the electron and ion temperature and density along the satellite orbit overflying close to the magnetic zenith of the HF-heater. Those observations will be then checked against the theoretical model of duct formation due to HF-heating of the ionosphere. The model is based on the modified SAMI2 code, and is validated by comparison with well documented experiments.

  16. Data Exploration and Analysis of Alternative Learning System Accreditation and Equivalency Test Result Using Data Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talingdan, J. A.; Trinidad, J. T., Jr.; Palaoag, T. D.

    2018-03-01

    Alternative Learning System (ALS) is a subsystem of Depatment of Education (DepEd) that serves as an option of learners who cannot afford to go in a formal education. The research focuses on the data exploration and analysis of ALS accreditation and equivalency test result using data mining. The ALS 2014 to 2016 A & E test results in the secondary level were used as data sets in the study. The A & E test results revealed that the passing rate is doubled per year. The results were clustered using k- means clustering algorithm and they were grouped into good, medium, and low standard learners to identify students need exceptional stuff for enhancement. From the clustered data, it was found out that the strand they are weak in is strand 4 which is the Development of Self and a Sense of Community with a general average of 84.23. It also revealed that the essay type of exam got the lowest score with a general average of 2.14 compared to the multiple type of exam that covers the five learning strands. Furthermore, decision tree and naive bayes were also employed in the study to predict the performance of the learners in the A & E test and determine which is better to use for prediction. It was concluded that naive bayes performs better because the accuracy rate is higher than the decision tree algorithm.

  17. Workshop on acceleration of the validation and regulatory acceptance of alternative methods and implementation of testing strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piersma, A. H.; Burgdorf, T.; Louekari, K.

    2018-01-01

    concerning the regulatory acceptance and implementation of alternative test methods and testing strategies, with the aim to develop feasible solutions. Classical validation of alternative methods usually involves one to one comparison with the gold standard animal study. This approach suffers from...... the reductionist nature of an alternative test as compared to the animal study as well as from the animal study being considered as the gold standard. Modern approaches combine individual alternatives into testing strategies, for which integrated and defined approaches are emerging at OECD. Furthermore, progress......-focused hazard and risk assessment of chemicals requires an open mind towards stepping away from the animal study as the gold standard and defining human biologically based regulatory requirements for human hazard and risk assessment....

  18. ENIAK. Development of a non-motor injector coking test facility for alternative fuels; ENIAK. Entwicklung eines nichtmotorischen Injektorverkokungspruefstands fuer alternative Kraftstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Hajo; Schloss, Heide vom; Yang, Zhi; Grote, Melanie [OWI Oel-Waerme-Institut GmbH, Aachen (Germany). Gruppe Anwendungstechnik

    2013-10-01

    Poor Biodiesel quality, contamination with copper and zinc as well as undesired reactions between (several) additives and biodiesel components are known causes for nozzle fouling. Therefore, among other things, all additives have to pass a no-harm test. The standard fouling tests are two engine tests: the XUD9-test (CEC F-23-01) and the DW-10-test (CEC DF 98-08). The XUD9 is a cost efficient, fast and proven testing method. It uses, however, an obsolete indirect injection diesel engine. The newer DW10 test is complex, costly and designed for high stress. This reduces the engine life and leads to a fuel consumption of approximately 1,000 l per test, both contributing to the high costs of the test. The main goal of the project ENIAK is the development, assembly, commissioning, and evaluation of a non-engine fuel injector test. It uses four complete common rail systems. The injection takes place in four self-designed reactors instead of an engine, and the fuel is not combusted, but re-condensed and pumped in a circle. If the test method proves to be as reliable as expected, it can be used as an alternative test method for injector fouling with low requirements regarding infrastructure on the testing site and sample volume. The project is funded by the the federal ministry of consumer protection, food and agriculture via FNR (''Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe'', Agency for Renewable Resources). (orig.)

  19. Progress in Tissue Specimens Alternative for the Driver Genes Testing of Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan SUN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Target treatment based on driver genes in advanced non-small cell lung cancer is very important currently. Tumor tissues is the gold standard for driver genes testing. However, most of patients could not get the gene information for lack of enough tissues. To explore the tissue specimens alternatives is a hot spot in clinical work. This report reviews the tissue specimen alternatives of driver gene testing in non-small cell lung cancer.

  20. The effects of multiple features of alternatively spliced exons on the KA/KS ratio test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Feng-Chi

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evolution of alternatively spliced exons (ASEs is of primary interest because these exons are suggested to be a major source of functional diversity of proteins. Many exon features have been suggested to affect the evolution of ASEs. However, previous studies have relied on the KA/KS ratio test without taking into consideration information sufficiency (i.e., exon length > 75 bp, cross-species divergence > 5% of the studied exons, leading to potentially biased interpretations. Furthermore, which exon feature dominates the results of the KA/KS ratio test and whether multiple exon features have additive effects have remained unexplored. Results In this study, we collect two different datasets for analysis – the ASE dataset (which includes lineage-specific ASEs and conserved ASEs and the ACE dataset (which includes only conserved ASEs. We first show that information sufficiency can significantly affect the interpretation of relationship between exons features and the KA/KS ratio test results. After discarding exons with insufficient information, we use a Boolean method to analyze the relationship between test results and four exon features (namely length, protein domain overlapping, inclusion level, and exonic splicing enhancer (ESE frequency for the ASE dataset. We demonstrate that length and protein domain overlapping are dominant factors, and they have similar impacts on test results of ASEs. In addition, despite the weak impacts of inclusion level and ESE motif frequency when considered individually, combination of these two factors still have minor additive effects on test results. However, the ACE dataset shows a slightly different result in that inclusion level has a marginally significant effect on test results. Lineage-specific ASEs may have contributed to the difference. Overall, in both ASEs and ACEs, protein domain overlapping is the most dominant exon feature while ESE frequency is the weakest one in affecting

  1. NASA and ESA Collaboration on Hexavalent Chrome Alternatives: Pretreatments Only Final Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Kurt R.

    2015-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium (hex chrome or CR(VI)) is a widely used element within applied coating systems because of its self-healing and corrosion-resistant properties. The replacement of hex chrome in the processing of aluminum for aviation and aerospace applications remains a goal of great significance. Aluminum is the major manufacturing material of structures and components in the space flight arena. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the European Space Agency (ESA) are engaged in a collaborative effort to test and evaluate alternatives to hexavalent chromium containing corrosion coating systems. NASA and ESA share common risks related to material obsolescence associated with hexavalent chromium used in corrosion-resistant coatings.

  2. Quadcopter thrust optimization with ducted-propeller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuantama Endrowednes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In relation to quadcopter body frame model, propeller can be categorized into propeller with ducted and without ducted. This study present differences between those two using CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics method. Both categories utilize two blade-propeller with diameter of 406 (mm. Propeller rotation generates acceleration per time unit on the volume of air. Based on the behavior of generated air velocity, ducted propeller can be modeled into three versions. The generated thrust and performance on each model were calculated to determine the best model. The use of ducted propeller increases the total weight of quadcopter and also total thrust. The influence of this modeling were analyzed in detail with variation of angular velocity propeller from 1000 (rpm to 9000 (rpm. Besides the distance between propeller tip and ducted barrier, the size of ducted is also an important part in thrust optimization and total weight minimization of quadcopter.

  3. Silver zeolite antimicrobial activity in aluminium heating, ventilation and air conditioning system ducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzetto, R; Mansi, A; Panatto, D; Rizzitelli, E; Tinteri, C; Sasso, T; Gasparini, R; Crovari, P

    2008-03-01

    Air pollution in confined environments is a serious health problem, in that most people spend long periods indoors (in homes, offices, classrooms etc.). Some people (children, the elderly, heart disease patients, asthmatic or allergic subjects) are at greater risk because of their conditions of frailty. The growing use of air-conditioning systems in many public and private buildings aggravates this health risk, especially when these systems are not correctly installed or regularly serviced. The aim of our study was to verify the capacity of Ag+ ions to stop the growth of bacteria and moulds inside the ducts of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning system ducts (HVAC) systems when these ducts were lined with active Ag+ ions zeolite-coated panels. A Y-shaped HVAC model with two branches was used; one branch was made of traditional galvanized iron, as was the whole system, while the other was lined with active Ag+ zeolite-coated polyurethane panels. During the test, samples of dust present inside both ducts were collected and seeded in liquid and solid media to detect bacteria and moulds. The presence of bacteria was also sought in the air emerging from the outlets of both ducts. Tests made on samples of particulate collected from the two different ducts revealed a lower total bacterial load in the samples collected from the Ag+ zeolite-coated duct than in the samples from the traditional Zn galvanized duct. In addition, the values of bacterial load found in the air emerging from the Ag+ ions zeolite-lined duct were 5 times lower than those found in the air from the traditional galvanized iron duct. The utilization of Ag+ zeolite-coated panels in air-conditioning systems could improve the quality of the emerging air in comparison with traditional installations in galvanized iron. This innovation could prove particularly advantageous in the event of accidents during the installation of air-conditioning systems or of contaminated aerosols coming from outside.

  4. Techniques for cutting irradiated fuel ducts at FFTF/IEM cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payzant, W.H.

    1991-01-01

    Two remotely controlled mill-type cutters have been used in the Fast Flux Test Facility Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell to assist in the disassembly of 18 fuel assemblies. These cutters slit the outer duct of the fuel assemblies, which allows the ducts to be removed and provides access to the encased fuel pins. The cutters were developed by Westinghouse Hanford Company and thoroughly tested by cutting prototypic ducts. During actual use, however, occasional loss of cutting depth control occurred. A discussion of the control problems and the operation and design techniques developed for their resolution is presented in this paper

  5. Techniques for cutting irradiated fuel ducts at FFTF/IEM cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payzant, W.H.

    1990-09-01

    Two remotely controlled mill-type cutters have been used in the Fast Flux Test Facility Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell to assist in the disassembly of 18 fuel assemblies. These cutters slit the outer duct of the fuel assemblies, which allows the ducts to be removed and provides access to the encased fuel pins. The cutters were developed by Westinghouse Hanford Company and thoroughly tested by cutting prototypic ducts. During actual use, however, occasional loss of cutting depth control occurred. A discussion of the control problems and the operation and design techniques developed for their resolution is presented. 3 refs., 7 figs

  6. Thermal neutrons streaming in straight duct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jehouani, A.; Boulkheir, M.; Ichaoui, R.

    2000-01-01

    The neutron streaming in duct is due to two phenomena: a) direct propagation and b) reflection on duct wall. We have used the Monte Carlo method to evaluate the ratio of the reflected neutrons flux by the duct wall to the total flux at the exit of the duct for iron and aluminium. Ten neutrons energy groups are considered between 10 -5 eV and 10 eV. A Fortran program is developed to evaluate the neutron double differential albedo. It is shown that the two following approximations are largely justified: i) Three collisions in the duct wall are sufficient to attain the asymptotic limit of the multiscattered neutron double differential albedo ii) The points of entry and exit of the neutron in the duct wall may be considered the same for the multiscattered neutrons. For a punctual source at the mouth of the duct, we have determined the direct and the reflected part of the total thermal neutron flux at the exit of the duct for different lengths and different radius of the duct. For a punctual source, we have found that the major contribution to the total flux of neutrons at the exit is due to the neutron reflection by walls and the reflection contribution decreases when the neutron energy decreases. For a constant length of the duct, the reflected part decreases when the duct radius increases while for the disk shaped source we have found the opposite phenomena. The transmitted neutron flux distribution at the exit of the duct are determined for disk shaped source for different neutron energy and for different distance from the exit center. (author)

  7. Molecular Mechanisms of Bile Duct Development

    OpenAIRE

    Zong, Yiwei; Stanger, Ben Z.

    2010-01-01

    The mammalian biliary system, consisting of the intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts, is responsible for transporting bile from the liver to the intestine. Bile duct dysfunction, as is seen in some congenital biliary diseases such as Alagille syndrome and biliary atresia, can lead to the accumulation of bile in the liver, preventing the excretion of detoxification products and ultimately leading to liver damage. Bile duct formation requires coordinated cell-cell interactions, resulting in...

  8. Persistent Mullerian Duct Syndrome with Transverse Testicular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eastham JA, McEvoy K, Sullivan R, Chandrasoma P. A case of simultaneous bilateral nonseminomatous testicular tumors in persistent müllerian duct syndrome. J Urol 1992;148:407-8. 8. Shinmura Y, Yokoi T, Tsutsui Y. A case of clear cell adenocarcinoma of the müllerian duct in persistent müllerian duct syndrome: The first ...

  9. Parotid salivary duct stenosis following caudal maxillectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestrinho, Lisa A; Faísca, Pedro B; Niza, Maria M R E

    2014-01-01

    Parotid salivary duct dilation was diagnosed in a 9-year-old male dog. The dog had undergone caudal maxillectomy on the ipsilateral side 2-years prior to presentation. Treatment consisted of parotid salivary duct excision and superficial parotidectomy that lead to the resolution of clinical signs. Transient facial neuropraxia was observed immediately after surgery and resolved spontaneously after 2-weeks. Parotid salivary duct dilation should be considered as a chronic postoperative complication following caudal maxillectomy.

  10. NASA and ESA Collaboration on Hexavalent Chrome Alternatives - Pretreatments with Primers Screening Final Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothgeb, Matthew J.; Kessel, Kurt R.

    2015-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium (hex chrome or Cr(VI)) is a widely used element within applied coating systems because of its self-healing and corrosion-resistant properties. The replacement of hex chrome in the processing of aluminum for aviation and aerospace applications remains a goal of great significance. Aluminum is the major manufacturing material of structures and components in the space flight arena. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the European Space Agency (ESA) are engaged in a collaborative effort to test and evaluate alternatives to hexavalent chromium containing corrosion coating systems. NASA and ESA share common risks related to material obsolescence associated with hexavalent chromium used in corrosion-resistant coatings. In the United States, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) studies have concluded that hexavalent chromium is carcinogenic and poses significant risk to human health. On May 5, 2011, amendments to the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS) were issued in the Federal Register. Subpart 223.73 prohibits contracts from requiring hexavalent chromium in deliverables unless certain exceptions apply. Subpart 252.223-7008 provides the contract clause prohibiting contractors and subcontractors from using or delivering hexavalent chromium in a concentration greater than 0.1 percent by weight for all new contracts associated with supplies, maintenance and repair services, and construction materials. ESA faces its own increasingly stringent regulations within European directives such as Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical (REACH) substances and the Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive (RoHS) which have set a mid-2017 sunset date for hexavalent chromium. NASA and ESA continue to search for an alternative to hexavalent chromium in coatings applications that meet their performance requirements in corrosion protection, cost, operability, and health and

  11. Field Testing of Alternative Cookstove Performance in a Rural Setting of Western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veena Muralidharan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Nearly three billion people use solid fuels for cooking and heating, which leads to extremely high levels of household air pollution and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Many stove manufacturers have developed alternative cookstoves (ACSs that are aimed at reducing emissions and fuel consumption. Here, we tested a traditional clay chulha cookstove (TCS and five commercially available ACSs, including both natural draft (Greenway Smart Stove, Envirofit PCS-1 and forced draft stoves (BioLite HomeStove, Philips Woodstove HD4012, and Eco-Chulha XXL, in a test kitchen in a rural village of western India. Compared to the TCS, the ACSs produced significant reductions in particulate matter less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5 and CO concentrations (Envirofit: 22%/16%, Greenway: 24%/42%, BioLite: 40%/35%, Philips: 66%/55% and Eco-Chulha: 61%/42%, which persisted after normalization for fuel consumption or useful energy. PM2.5 and CO concentrations were lower for forced draft stoves than natural draft stoves. Furthermore, the Philips and Eco-Chulha units exhibited higher cooking efficiency than the TCS. Despite significant reductions in concentrations, all ACSs failed to achieve PM2.5 levels that are considered safe by the World Health Organization (ACSs: 277–714 μg/m3 or 11–28 fold higher than the WHO recommendation of 25 μg/m3.

  12. Percutaneous closure of patent arterial ducts in patients from high altitude: a sub-Saharan experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endale Tefera

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Successful duct closure was achieved in the vast majority of patients, even though the ducts were larger and significant number of them had pulmonary hypertension in this high altitude group. There was a relatively higher incidence of residual shunts and device migration in this series, generally due to the nonavailability of optimal device and surgical support. Long-term follow-up is required before we can draw conclusions with regard to the sustainability of drop in PA pressures. Septal Occluder devices may be a possible alternative for large tubular or window-type ducts with severe pulmonary hypertension, where there may be concerns about the size and stability of duct occluder devices.

  13. An alternative to the traditional cold pressor test: the cold pressor arm wrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcelli, Anthony John

    2014-01-16

    Recently research on the relationship between stress and cognition, emotion, and behavior has greatly increased. These advances have yielded insights into important questions ranging from the nature of stress' influence on addiction(1) to the role of stress in neural changes associated with alterations in decision-making(2,3). As topics being examined by the field evolve, however, so too must the methodologies involved. In this article a practical and effective alternative to a classic stress induction technique, the cold pressor test (CPT), is presented: the cold pressor arm wrap (CPAW). CPT typically involves immersion of a participant's dominant hand in ice-cold water for a period of time(4). The technique is associated with robust activation of the sympatho-adrenomedullary (SAM) axis (and release of catecholamines; e.g. adrenaline and noradrenaline) and mild-to-moderate activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis with associated glucocorticoid (e.g. cortisol) release. While CPT has been used in a wide range of studies, it can be impractical to apply in some research environments. For example use of water during, rather than prior to, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has the potential to damage sensitive and expensive equipment or interfere with acquisition of MRI signal. The CPAW is a practical and effective alternative to the traditional CPT. Composed of a versatile list of inexpensive and easily acquired components, CPAW makes use of MRI-safe gelpacs cooled to a temperature similar to CPT rather than actual water. Importantly CPAW is associated with levels of SAM and HPA activation comparable to CPT, and can easily be applied in a variety of research contexts. While it is important to maintain specific safety protocols when using the technique, these are easy to implement if planned for. Creation and use of the CPAW will be discussed.

  14. Nasopalatine duct cyst: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saikrishna Pasupuleti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nasopalatine duct cyst (NPDC is the most common non-odontogenic cyst of oral cavity. Clinically, Nasopalatine duct cyst manifests as an asymptomatic swelling of the palate or the upper lip. Radiographically, it is seen as a heart-shaped radiolucency and can be confused with periapical pathology. The aim of this article is to report a case of a nasopalatine duct cyst in a 36-year-old patient which was misinterpreted for a periapical cyst. Diagnosis of a Nasopalatine duct cyst can be given through clinical, radiographical, and histopathological examination.

  15. Alternatives to the use of animals in safety testing as required by the EU-Cosmetics Directive 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Ingredients of cosmetic products are no longer allowed to be tested by animal experimentation (EU-Cosmetics Directive 76/768 EEC). For several toxicological endpoints this testing ban applies since March 11, 2009, while repeated dose toxicity tests and the test on skin sensitisation will follow on March 11, 2013. All currently available alternatives meeting the requirements of the first deadline are compiled in the following.

  16. Flow characteristics of developing laminar steady flows in a straight duct connected to a square curved duct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Hyun Chull [Chosun Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-05-01

    In the present study, the characteristics of developing steady laminar flows of a straight duct connected to a 180 .deg. curved duct were examined in the entrance region through experimental measurement. Flow characteristics such as shear stress distributions, pressure distributions and friction coefficient experimentally in a square cross-sectional straight duct by using the PIV system. For the PIV measurement by particles produced from mosquito coils particles. The experimental data were obtained at 9 points dividing the test sections by 400 mm. Experimental results can be summarized as follows. Critical Reynolds number, Re{sub cr} which indicates transition from laminar steady flow to transition steady flow was 2,150. Shear stress per unit length on the wall was stronger than that in the fully developed flow region. This was attributed to the fact that shear stress and pressure loss in the curvature of a duct were increased. Pressure distributions were gradually decreased irrespective of Reynolds number in the whole test section. This trends were in a good agreement with the reference results. Pipe friction coefficient in the steady state flow region was calculate from method of least squares. The co-relationship between fiction coefficient and Reynolds number was established as follow; {lambda}=56/Re.

  17. Testing Constancy of the Error Covariance Matrix in Vector Models against Parametric Alternatives using a Spectral Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yukay

    I consider multivariate (vector) time series models in which the error covariance matrix may be time-varying. I derive a test of constancy of the error covariance matrix against the alternative that the covariance matrix changes over time. I design a new family of Lagrange-multiplier tests against...... to consider multivariate volatility modelling....

  18. Pilot testing of environment-friendly low-emission alternative drive components for city buses. Phase 1. Technical final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doemeland, H.; Haase, G.; Sarnes, J.; Schultheis, S.; Schuenemann, M.; Strauss, A.; Voss, K.; Aepler, E.; Stachel, K.; Wolter, M.; Lenz, W.

    1993-05-01

    The report describes pilot tests of environment-friendly, low-emission city buses with alternative drive systems. The following problems are discussed: Natural gas as primary energy source, natural gas drives, safety requirements, measurement and testing technology for natural gas engines, environmental effects, operating concepts, operating cost. (HW) [de

  19. Using Alternative Approaches to Prioritize Testing for the Universe of Chemicals with Potential for Human Exposure (WC9)

    Science.gov (United States)

    One use of alternative methods is to target animal use at only those chemicals and tests that are absolutely necessary. We discuss prioritization of testing based on high-throughput screening assays (HTS), QSAR modeling, high-throughput toxicokinetics (HTTK), and exposure modelin...

  20. Alternative short tests for inspection and maintenance of in-use cars with respect to their emissions performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samaras, Z.; Zachariadis, T.; Joumard, R.; Vernet, I.; Hassel, D.; Weber, F.-J.; Rijkeboer, R.C.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the first results of a project aimed at evaluation of a number of short tests that can be alternatively used for Inspection and Maintenance of in-use cars emissions performance. For this purpose, a large number of in-use cars from four European countries was tested according to a

  1. The effect of alternative work schedules (AWS) on performance during acquisition based testing at the U.S. Army Aberdeen Test Center

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Alicia J.

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This project analyzed the effects of an alternate work schedule (AWS) on the performance of acquisition based testing conducted at the U.S. Army Aberdeen Test Center (ATC), a subordinate test center to the U.S. Army Test and Evaluation Command. The literature review uncovered how an AWS improved employee work and life balance and performance at three separate external companies. Other potential AWS success factors such as employee abse...

  2. Implicit and explicit attitudes towards conventional and complementary and alternative medicine treatments: Introduction of an Implicit Association Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, James A; Hohmann, Cynthia; Lister, Kelsi; Albertyn, Riani; Bradshaw, Renee; Johnson, Christine

    2016-06-01

    This study examined associations between anticipated future health behaviour and participants' attitudes. Three Implicit Association Tests were developed to assess safety, efficacy and overall attitude. They were used to examine preference associations between conventional versus complementary and alternative medicine among 186 participants. A structural equation model suggested only a single implicit association, rather than three separate domains. However, this single implicit association predicted additional variance in anticipated future use of complementary and alternative medicine beyond explicit. Implicit measures should give further insight into motivation for complementary and alternative medicine use. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Testing multi-alternative decision models with non-stationary evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsetsos, Konstantinos; Usher, Marius; McClelland, James L

    2011-01-01

    Recent research has investigated the process of integrating perceptual evidence toward a decision, converging on a number of sequential sampling choice models, such as variants of race and diffusion models and the non-linear leaky competing accumulator (LCA) model. Here we study extensions of these models to multi-alternative choice, considering how well they can account for data from a psychophysical experiment in which the evidence supporting each of the alternatives changes dynamically during the trial, in a way that creates temporal correlations. We find that participants exhibit a tendency to choose an alternative whose evidence profile is temporally anti-correlated with (or dissimilar from) that of other alternatives. This advantage of the anti-correlated alternative is well accounted for in the LCA, and provides constraints that challenge several other models of multi-alternative choice.

  4. [Test your decision-making. When to do endodontic retreatment? Some therapeutic alternatives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryanpour, S; D'Hoore, W; Van Nieuwenhuysen, J P

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the present article was to propose examples of treatment alternatives for the management of 14 clinical cases. All these cases involved endodontically treated teeth and have been managed by the same practitioner. In this paper, the authors tried to show the variety of treatment alternatives as well as the complexity of the decision-making process and, not to consider that proposed alternatives were the most adequate.

  5. State of the art on alternative methods to animal testing from an industrial point of view: ready for regulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Rachel; De Wever, Bart; Fuchs, Horst W; Gaca, Marianna; Hill, Erin; Krul, Cyrille; Poth, Albrecht; Roggen, Erwin L

    2014-01-01

    Despite changing attitudes towards animal testing and current legislation to protect experimental animals, the rate of animal experiments seems to have changed little in recent years. On May 15-16, 2013, the In Vitro Testing Industrial Platform (IVTIP) held an open meeting to discuss the state of the art in alternative methods, how companies have, can, and will need to adapt and what drives and hinders regulatory acceptance and use. Several key messages arose from the meeting. First, industry and regulatory bodies should not wait for complete suites of alternative tests to become available, but should begin working with methods available right now (e.g., mining of existing animal data to direct future studies, implementation of alternative tests wherever scientifically valid rather than continuing to rely on animal tests) in non-animal and animal integrated strategies to reduce the numbers of animals tested. Sharing of information (communication), harmonization and standardization (coordination), commitment and collaboration are all required to improve the quality and speed of validation, acceptance, and implementation of tests. Finally, we consider how alternative methods can be used in research and development before formal implementation in regulations. Here we present the conclusions on what can be done already and suggest some solutions and strategies for the future.

  6. Evaluation of Acoustic Emission NDE of Composite Crew Module Service Module/Alternate Launch Abort System (CCM SM/ALAS) Test Article Failure Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Michael R.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2010-01-01

    Failure tests of CCM SM/ALAS (Composite Crew Module Service Module / Alternate Launch Abort System) composite panels were conducted during July 10, 2008 and July 24, 2008 at Langley Research Center. This is a report of the analysis of the Acoustic Emission (AE) data collected during those tests.

  7. Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... test is used to detect diseases of the liver or bile ducts. It is also done with other tests (such ... and bilirubin tests) to tell the difference between liver or bile duct disorders and bone disease. It may also be ...

  8. Measure Guideline: Sealing and Insulating of Ducts in Existing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, R.; Puttagunta, S.

    2011-12-01

    This document begins with a discussion on potential cost and performance benefits of duct sealing and insulating. It continues with a review of typical duct materials and components and the overall procedures for assessing and improving the duct system.

  9. Measure Guideline. Sealing and Insulating Ducts in Existing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, R. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Puttagunta, S. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2011-12-01

    This document begins with a discussion on potential cost and performance benefits of duct sealing and insulating. It continues with a review of typical duct materials and components and the overall procedures for assessing and improving the duct system.

  10. The mucosal toxicity of different benzalkonium chloride analogues evaluated with an alternative test using slugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaens, E; Dierckens, K; Bauters, T G; Nelis, H J; van Goethem, F; Vanparys, P; Remon, J P

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the mucosal toxicity of different benzalkonium chloride (BAC) analogues using slugs as the alternative test organism. The effect of different BAC analogues on the mucosal tissue of slugs was determined from the protein, lactate dehydrogenase, and alkaline phosphatase released from the foot mucosa after treatment. Additionally, mucus production and reduction in body weight of the slugs were measured. The eye irritation potency of the molecules was evaluated with the Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) assay. The antimicrobial activity of the different BAC analogues was also assessed. All BAC analogues induced severe damage to the mucosal epithelium of the slugs, and the irritation increased with decreasing alkyl chain length: BAC-C16 or = BAC-C16 > BAC-C12. The BAC-C14 exhibited higher activity than the BAC-mix. The toxicity and activity of BAC analogues depend on the alkyl chain length. The use of BAC-C14 as a conservative agent in pharmaceutical preparations instead of the BAC-mix should be considered.

  11. Report on noninvasive prenatal testing: classical and alternative approaches [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateryna S. Pantiukh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Concerns of traditional prenatal aneuploidy testing methods, such as low accuracy of noninvasive and health risks associated with invasive procedures, were overcome with the introduction of novel noninvasive methods based on genetics (NIPT. These were rapidly adopted into clinical practice in many countries after a series of successful trials of various independent submethods. Here we present results of own NIPT trial carried out in Moscow, Russia. 1012 samples were subjected to the method aimed at measuring chromosome coverage by massive parallel sequencing. Two alternative approaches are ascertained: one based on maternal/fetal differential methylation and another based on allelic difference. While the former failed to provide stable results, the latter was found to be promising and worthy of conducting a large-scale trial. One critical point in any NIPT approach is the determination of fetal cell-free DNA fraction, which dictates the reliability of obtained results for a given sample. We show that two different chromosome Y representation measures—by real-time PCR and by whole-genome massive parallel sequencing—are practically interchangeable (r=0.94. We also propose a novel method based on maternal/fetal allelic difference which is applicable in pregnancies with fetuses of either sex. Even in its pilot form it correlates well with chromosome Y coverage estimates (r=0.74 and can be further improved by increasing the number of polymorphisms.

  12. Reward rate optimization in two-alternative decision making: empirical tests of theoretical predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simen, Patrick; Contreras, David; Buck, Cara; Hu, Peter; Holmes, Philip; Cohen, Jonathan D

    2009-12-01

    The drift-diffusion model (DDM) implements an optimal decision procedure for stationary, 2-alternative forced-choice tasks. The height of a decision threshold applied to accumulating information on each trial determines a speed-accuracy tradeoff (SAT) for the DDM, thereby accounting for a ubiquitous feature of human performance in speeded response tasks. However, little is known about how participants settle on particular tradeoffs. One possibility is that they select SATs that maximize a subjective rate of reward earned for performance. For the DDM, there exist unique, reward-rate-maximizing values for its threshold and starting point parameters in free-response tasks that reward correct responses (R. Bogacz, E. Brown, J. Moehlis, P. Holmes, & J. D. Cohen, 2006). These optimal values vary as a function of response-stimulus interval, prior stimulus probability, and relative reward magnitude for correct responses. We tested the resulting quantitative predictions regarding response time, accuracy, and response bias under these task manipulations and found that grouped data conformed well to the predictions of an optimally parameterized DDM.

  13. Corrosion test by alternated immersion. Evaluation of the real meaning of the values of electrode potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rend M, J.L.; Valencia, G.

    1996-01-01

    In the rehearsal of alternate immersion, type CEBELCOR, is usually carried out the pursuit of the variation of the potential of the electrode of the sample of interest. With the time, the obtained data become an important tool in the analysis of the evolution of the answer of the material it attacks corrosive of the means, with the time of material exhibition, with the advance of the exhibition that in it finishes instance it refers to different superficial conditions. In this work the chemical and thermodynamic aspects of the system potential the layout of the diagrams of electrode potential and the differences are revised in the capacity protector versus pH, or Pourbaix diagrams, the analysis is revised usually accepted in the determination of the biggest or smaller capacity protector in a quantity of energy required for the removal of a rust, starting from the difference in the potential in the electron of the atomic structure of the element or moment in that the test tube enters in the composed solution that is oxidized and the inclusion of the electron in the simulator and the value in the moment of the exit. With base in the first approach to the thermodynamic relationships and the corrosion phenomena, the investigation is analyzed by the GROUP OF CORROSION AND PROTECTION of the Antioquia University. It is shown as, for studies in similar materials and in means with small differences, the use of the potentials, loses validity like tool for comparative evaluations

  14. Porous silicon mass spectrometry as an alternative confirmatory assay for compliance testing of methadone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinan, Taryn M; Neldner, Declan; Stockham, Peter; Kobus, Hilton; Della Vedova, Christopher B; Voelcker, Nicolas H

    2017-05-01

    Porous silicon based surface-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (pSi SALDI-MS) is an analytical technique well suited for high throughput analysis of low molecular weight compounds from biological samples. A potential application of this technology is the compliance monitoring of opioid addiction programmes, where methadone is used as a pharmacological treatment for drugs such as heroin. Here, we present the detection and quantification of methadone and 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP) from water and clinical samples (saliva, urine, and plasma) from opioid dependent participants using pSi SALDI-MS. A one-step solvent phase extraction using chloroform was developed for the detection of methadone from clinical samples for analysis by pSi SALDI-MS. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was used as a comparative technique for the quantification of methadone from clinical saliva and plasma samples. In all cases, we obtained a good correlation of pSi SALDI-MS and LC-MS results, suggesting that pSi SALDI-MS may be an alternative procedure for high-throughput screening and quantification for application in opioid compliance testing. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Sirc-cvs cytotoxicity test: an alternative for predicting rodent acute systemic toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagaki, Masato; Wakuri, Shinobu; Hirota, Morihiko; Tanaka, Noriho; Itagaki, Hiroshi

    2006-10-01

    An in vitro crystal violet staining method using the rabbit cornea-derived cell line (SIRC-CVS) has been developed as an alternative to predict acute systemic toxicity in rodents. Seventy-nine chemicals, the in vitro cytotoxicity of which was already reported by the Multicenter Evaluation of In vitro Toxicity (MEIC) and ICCVAM/ECVAM, were selected as test compounds. The cells were incubated with the chemicals for 72 hrs and the IC(50) and IC(35) values (microg/mL) were obtained. The results were compared to the in vivo (rat or mouse) "most toxic" oral, intraperitoneal, subcutaneous and intravenous LD(50) values (mg/kg) taken from the RTECS database for each of the chemicals by using Pearson's correlation statistics. The following parameters were calculated: accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, prevalence, positive predictability, and negative predictability. Good linear correlations (Pearson's coefficient; r>0.6) were observed between either the IC(50) or the IC(35) values and all the LD(50) values. Among them, a statistically significant high correlation (r=0.8102, p50) values and the oral LD(50) values. By using the cut-off concentrations of 2,000 mg/kg (LD(50)) and 4,225 microg/mL (IC(50)), no false negatives were observed, and the accuracy was 84.8%. From this, it is concluded that this method could be used to predict the acute systemic toxicity potential of chemicals in rodents.

  16. E-cigarettes and the need and opportunities for alternatives to animal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    E-cigarettes have become within only one decade an important commodity, changing the market of the most mass-killing commercial product. While a few years ago estimates suggested that in the course of the 21st century one billion people would die prematurely from tobacco consumption, e-cigarettes continuously gaining popularity promise 10-30fold lower health effects, possibly strongly changing this equation. However, they still are not a harmless life-style drug. Acceptability simply depends on whether we compare their use to smoking or to not-smoking. In the absence of long-term follow-up health data of users, additional uncertainty comes from the lack of safety data, though this uncertainty likely only is whether they represent 3 or 10% of the risk of their combustible counterpart. This means that there is little doubt that they represent a prime opportunity for smokers to switch, but also that their use by non-smokers should be avoided where possible. The real safety concerns, however, are that e-cigarettes expose their users to many compounds, contaminants and especially flavors (more than 7,000 according to recent counts), which have mostly not been tested, especially not for long-term inhalation exposure. Neither the precautionary traditional animal testing nor post-marketing surveillance will offer us data of sufficient quality or sufficiently fast to support product development and regulatory decisions. Thus, alternative methods lend themselves to fill this gap, making this new product category a possible engine for new method development and its implementation and validation.

  17. Ducted wind turbine optimization : A numerical approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dighe, V.V.; De Oliveira Andrade, G.L.; van Bussel, G.J.W.

    2017-01-01

    The practice of ducting wind turbines has shown a beneficial effect on the overall performance, when compared to an open turbine of the same rotor diameter1. However, an optimization study specifically for ducted wind turbines (DWT’s) is missing or incomplete. This work focuses on a numerical

  18. Visualization of the thoracic duct by lymphoscintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baulieu, F.; Baulieu, J.L.; Itti, R.; Tours Univ., 37

    1987-01-01

    Imaging of the thoracic duct is usually performed by radiological lymphography. However, this procedure, which uses an oil based dye injected directly into the lymph channels, has some adverse effects. In this paper we note that lymphoscintigraphy, a physiological and non invasive method, may visualize thoracic duct abnormalities, and might be particularly usefull when radiological lymphography is contraindicated. (orig.)

  19. Vacuum exhaust duct used for thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachikawa, Nobuo; Kondo, Mitsuaki; Honda, Tsutomu.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention concerns a vacuum exhaust duct used for a thermonuclear device. A cylindrical metal liners is lined with a gap to the inside of a vacuum exhaust duct main body. Bellows are connected to both ends of the metal liners and the end of the bellows is welded to the vacuum exhaust duct main body. Futher, a heater is mounted to the metal liner on the side of the vacuum exhaust duct main body, and the metal liner is heated by the heater to conduct baking for the vacuum exhaust duct main body. Accordingly, since there is no requirement for elevating the temperature of the vacuum exhaust duct upon conducting baking, the vacuum exhaust duct scarcely suffers substantial deformation due to heat expansion. Further, there is also no substantial deformation for the bellows disposed between the outer circumference of the vacuum vessel and a portion of a vacuum exhaust duct, so that the durability of the bellows is greatly improved. (I.S.)

  20. The experimental distention of dissected bile duct for the restoration of its continuity in dogs using a device of own construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakabadze, Z; Berishvili, E; Długosz, J W

    2003-01-01

    The segmental resection of constricted bile duct and end-to-end biliary anastomosis could be an attractive alternative in the treatment of benign biliary tract stricture. The aim of this study was to restore the anatomical integrity of the hepatic-common bile duct after an artificially produced defect while maintaining the large duodenal papilla, using microsurgical technique. The experiments were carried out on 25 mongrel dogs. The common bile duct was ligated in all of the animals during laparotomy, as a model of bile duct obstruction in humans. Relaparotomy was performed 3 days after the initial operation. The segment of bile duct, 4 cm in length was resected together with the ligature. The continuous bile flow into the duodenum was assured by a polyvinyl catheter introduced into both ends of dissected bile duct. The proximal end of the hepatic-common bile duct was fixed to a device constructed by us for the distention of the bile duct (DDBD). The anterior part of the device was exteriorized through a separate fistula and fixed to the abdominal wall. The hepatic-common bile duct distention was gradually continued during 18 days, by pulling out the mobile part of the device. After 18 days the device was removed and the distended proximal end of the hepatic-common bile duct was anastomosed end-to-end with its distal end. The sequels of this procedure were observed for up to 6 months. The hepatic-common bile duct was distended 4 cm within 18 days. The histopathological examination has shown partial damage of the duct framework due to the distention and tension. However the patency of the duct was preserved and the recovery of normal structures were observed after the device was removed and anastomosis fashioned. This method, developed by us, offers the possibility of restoring the integrity of injured extrahepatic bile ducts, allowing effective treatment of benign biliary strictures.

  1. Helium-cooled pebble bed test blanket module alternative design and fabrication routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lux, M.

    2007-01-01

    According to first results of the recently started European DEMO study, a new blanket integration philosophy was developed applying so-called multi-module segments. These consist of a number of blanket modules flexibly mounted onto a common vertical manifold structure that can be used for replacing all modules in one segment at one time through vertical remote-handling ports. This principle gives new freedom in the design choices applied to the blanket modules itself. Based on the alternative design options considered for DEMO also the ITER test blanket module was newly analyzed. As a result of these activities it was decided to keep the major principles of the reference design like stiffening grid, breeder unit concept and perpendicular arrangement of pebble beds related to the First Wall because of the very positive results of thermo-mechanical and neutronics studies. The present paper gives an overview on possible further design optimization and alternative fabrication routes. One of the most significant improvements in terms of the hydraulic performance of the Helium cooled reactor can be reached with a new First Wall concept. That concept is based on an internal heat transfer enhancement technique and allows drastically reducing the flow velocity in the FW cooling channels. Small ribs perpendicular to the flow direction (transverse-rib roughness) are arranged on the inner surface of the First Wall cooling channels at the plasma side. In the breeder units cooling plates which are mostly parallel but bent into U-shape at the plasma-side are considered. In this design all flow channels are parallel and straight with the flow entering on one side of the parallel plate sections and exiting on the other side. The ceramic pebble beds are embedded between two pairs of such type of cooling plates. Different modifications could possibly be combined, whereby the most relevant discussed in this paper are (i) rib-cooled First Wall channels, (ii) U-bent cooling plates for

  2. Comparative prospective randomized trial: laparoscopic versus open common bile duct exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Grubnik

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Single-stage laparoscopic procedures for common bile duct (CBD stones are an alternative treatmentoption to two-stage endo-laparoscopic treatment and to open choledocholithotomy. Several reports have demonstratedthe feasibility, safety, efficiency and cost-effectiveness of laparoscopic techniques.Aim: To analyse the safety and benefits of laparoscopic compared to open common bile duct (CBD exploration.Material and methods: The prospective randomized trial included a total of 256 patients with CBD stones operated from2005 to 2009 in a single centre. The male/female ratio was 82/174, with a median age 62.3 ±5.8 years (range 27 to 87years. There were two groups of patients. Group I: laparoscopic CBD exploration (138 patients. Group II: open CBD exploration(118 patients. Patient comorbidity was assessed by means of the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA classification;ASA II – 109 patients, ASA III – 59 patients. Bile duct stones were visualized preoperatively by means of US examinationin 129 patients, by means of ERCP in 26 patients, and by magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCPin 72 patients. Preoperative evaluation was done through medical history, biochemical tests and ultrasonography.Results: The mean duration of laparoscopic procedures was 82 min (range 40-160 min. The mean duration of openprocedures was 90 min (range 60-150 min. Mean blood loss was much lower in the laparoscopic group than in theopen group (20 ±2 v.s 285 ±27, p < 0.01. Postoperative complications were observed in 7 patients of the laparoscopicgroup and in 15 patients in the open group (p < 0.01. Laparoscopic common bile duct exploration was performedthrough a trans-cystic approach in 76 patients and via choledochotomy in 62 patients. The transcystic approach wassuccessful in 76 patients (74.5%. External drainage was used in 25 (32.8% patients with the transcystic approach.Conclusions: Laparoscopic CBD exploration can be performed with

  3. Application of MO-type gapless flange to beam duct for high-current accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suetsugu, Y.; Shirai, M.; Ohtsuka, M.

    2004-01-01

    The MO-type flange, which can provide a gapless connection between flanges, was studied experimentally aiming to apply it to the beam duct for high-current accelerators. The test flange showed a good vacuum sealing property, although the aperture had a complicated shape, that is, the combination of a circular beam duct and a rectangular antechamber. The structural analysis well reproduced the observed deformation of flange, and utilized to optimize the structure. The MO-type flange is a promising one for the connection flange of the beam duct for future accelerators. (author)

  4. Analysis of the velocity distribution in different types of ventilation system ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peszyński, Kazimierz; Olszewski, Lukasz; Smyk, Emil; Perczyński, Daniel

    2018-06-01

    The paper presents the results obtained during the preliminary studies of circular and rectangular ducts before testing the properties elements (elbows, tees, etc.)of rectangular with rounded corners ducts. The fundamental problem of the studies was to determine the flow rate in the ventilation duct. Due to the size of the channel it was decided to determine the flow rate based on the integration of flow velocity over the considered cross-section. This method requires knowledge of the velocity distribution in the cross section. Approximation of the measured actual profile by the classic and modified Prandtl power-law velocity profile was analysed.

  5. Analysis of the velocity distribution in different types of ventilation system ducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peszyński Kazimierz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results obtained during the preliminary studies of circular and rectangular ducts before testing the properties elements (elbows, tees, etc.of rectangular with rounded corners ducts. The fundamental problem of the studies was to determine the flow rate in the ventilation duct. Due to the size of the channel it was decided to determine the flow rate based on the integration of flow velocity over the considered cross-section. This method requires knowledge of the velocity distribution in the cross section. Approximation of the measured actual profile by the classic and modified Prandtl power-law velocity profile was analysed.

  6. Compressor Calorimeter Test of R-410A Alternative: R-32/134a Mixture Using a Scroll Compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrestha, Som S [ORNL; Sharma, Vishaldeep [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL

    2014-02-01

    As a contribution to the AHRI Low-GWP Alternative Refrigerants Evaluation Program (AREP), this study compares the performance of lower-GWP alternative refrigerant R-32 + R-134a mixture, to that of refrigerant R-410A (baseline) in a scroll compressor designed for air-conditioning and heat pump applications. These comparisons were carried out via compressor calorimeter tests performed on a compressor designed for refrigerant R-410A and having a nominal rated capacity of 21,300 Btu/hr. Tests were conducted over a suction dew point temperature range of 10 F to 55 F in 5 F increments and a discharge dew point temperature range of 70 F to 140 F in 10 F increments. All the tests were performed with 20 F superheat, 40 F superheat, and 65 F suction temperature. A liquid subcooling level of 15 F was maintained for all the test conditions. The tests showed that the discharge temperature of the alternative refrigerant was higher than that of R-410A at all test conditions. Also, the energy efficiency ratio (EER) and cooling capacity of compressor using the alternative refrigerant were slightly lower in comparison to that of R-410A.

  7. A new 3D reconstituted human corneal epithelium model as an alternative method for the eye irritation test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyoung-Mi; Lee, Su-Hyon; Ryu, Yang-Hwan; Jang, Won-Hee; Jung, Haeng-Sun; Han, Ju-Hee; Seok, Seung-Hyeok; Park, Jae-Hak; Son, Youngsook; Park, Young-Ho; Lim, Kyung-Min

    2011-02-01

    Many efforts are being made to develop new alternative in vitro test methods for the eye irritation test. Here we report a new reconstructed human corneal epithelial model (MCTT HCE model) prepared from primary-cultured human limbal epithelial cells as a new alternative in vitro eye irritation test method. In histological and immunohistochemical observation, MCTT HCE model displayed a morphology and biomarker expressions similar to intact human cornea. Moreover, the barrier function was well preserved as measured by high transepithelial electrical resistance, effective time-50 for Triton X-100, and corneal thickness. To employ the model as a new alternative method for eye irritation test, protocol refinement was performed and optimum assay condition was determined including treatment time, treatment volume, post-incubation time and rinsing method. Using the refined protocol, 25 reference chemicals with known eye irritation potentials were tested. With the viability cut-off value at 50%, chemicals were classified to irritant or non-irritant. When compared with GHS classification, the MCTT HCE model showed the accuracy of 88%, sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 77%. These results suggest that the MCTT HCE model might be useful as a new alternative eye irritation test method. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cholangiographic evaluation of bile duct carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, D.A.; MacCarty, R.L.; Gaffey, T.A.

    1983-01-01

    Cholangiograms and clinical histories of 82 patients with biopsy-proved bile duct carcinoma were reviewed. The carcinomas were classified according to morphologic findings and clinical outcome. Ulcerative colitis and antecedent inflammatory disease of the biliary tree, particularly primary sclerosing cholangitis, seem to predispose to the development of bile duct carcinoma. Focal stenotic lesions were the most common morphologic type (62/82). Polypoid carcinomas and diffuse sclerosing carcinomas were less common and of about equal frequency. Prognosis was best for patients with polypoid carcinomas and worst for those with diffuse sclerosing carcinomas. In 69 cases (84%), the tumors involved the intrahepatic or proximal extrahepatic ducts, makin curative resection difficult or impossible. Patients with carcinomas limited to the more distal extrahepatic bile ducts had a longer average survival and a higher probability of surgical cure. Proper management of patients with bile duct carcinoma requires a complete and accurate cholangiographic evaluation of the morphology, location, and extent of the disease

  9. Differentiation of benign and malignant hilar bile duct stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaolei; Yang, Zhiying; Tan, Haidong; Shao, Chen; Liu, Liguo; Si, Shuang; Xu, Li; Sun, Yongliang

    2016-06-15

    Failure to differentiate benign and malignant hilar bile duct stenosis may lead to inappropriate treatment. We retrospectively analyzed the methods for differentiation. A total of 53 patients with hilar bile duct stenosis were included, comprising 41 malignant cases (hilar cholangiocarcinoma) and 12 benign cases (six primary sclerosing cholangitis and six IgG4-associated sclerosing cholangitis). Data of clinical histories, laboratory tests, imaging studies, and liver pathologies were collected, and comparison was made between benign and malignant groups. Compared with malignant group, patients in the benign group were more likely to have multiorgan involvement of clinical histories (P < 0.001). There was no difference on bilirubin, liver enzyme, and serum tumor marker between the two groups, whereas serum IgG4 levels were higher in the benign group (P = 0.003). Patients in the benign group were more likely to have pancreatic changes (P < 0.001) and multiple-segmental bile duct stenosis (P < 0.001) on imaging. Compared with the malignant group, patients in the benign group were more likely to show severe periportal inflammation in noninvolved liver (P < 0.001), fibrosis around intrahepatic bile duct (P < 0.001), and more IgG4-positive plasma cells (P < 0.001) on liver pathology. Benign lesion should be considered for patients with history of multiorgan involvement, pancreas changes, or multiple-segmental bile duct stenosis on imaging. Liver biopsy could be helpful for differential diagnosis before surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Elimination of Whole Effluent Toxicity NPDES Permit Limits through the Use of an Alternative Testing Species and Reasonable Potential Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PAYNE, W.L.

    2004-01-01

    The cladoceran, Ceriodaphnia dubia (C. dubia), is required by the State of South Carolina to be used in whole effluent toxicity (WET) compliance tests in order to meet limits contained within National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits. Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) experienced WET test failures for no clear reason over a long period of time. Toxicity identification examinations on effluents did not indicate the presence of toxicants; therefore, the WET test itself was brought under suspicion. Research was undertaken with an alternate cladoceran, Daphnia ambigua (D. ambigua). It was determined that this species survives better in soft water, so approval was obtained from regulating authorities to use this ''alternate'' species in WET tests. The result was better test results and elimination of non-compliances. The successful use of D. ambigua allowed WSRC to gain approval from the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) to remove WET limits from the NPDES permit

  11. Knowledge sharing to facilitate regulatory decision-making in regard to alternatives to animal testing: Report of an EPAA workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Tzutzuy; Beken, Sonja; Chlebus, Magda; Ellis, Graham; Griesinger, Claudius; De Jonghe, Sandra; Manou, Irene; Mehling, Annette; Reisinger, Kerstin; Rossi, Laura H; van Benthem, Jan; van der Laan, Jan Willem; Weissenhorn, Renate; Sauer, Ursula G

    2015-10-01

    The European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA) convened a workshop Knowledge sharing to facilitate regulatory decision-making. Fifty invited participants from the European Commission, national and European agencies and bodies, different industry sectors (chemicals, cosmetics, fragrances, pharmaceuticals, vaccines), and animal protection organizations attended the workshop. Four case studies exemplarily revealed which procedures are in place to obtain regulatory acceptance of new test methods in different sectors. Breakout groups discussed the status quo identifying the following facilitators for regulatory acceptance of alternatives to animal testing: Networking and communication (including cross-sector collaboration, international cooperation and harmonization); involvement of regulatory agencies from the initial stages of test method development on; certainty on prerequisites for test method acceptance including the establishment of specific criteria for regulatory acceptance. Data sharing and intellectual property issues affect many aspects of test method development, validation and regulatory acceptance. In principle, all activities should address replacement, reduction and refinement methods (albeit animal testing is generally prohibited in the cosmetics sector). Provision of financial resources and education support all activities aiming at facilitating the acceptance and use of alternatives to animal testing. Overall, workshop participants recommended building confidence in new methodologies by applying and gaining experience with them. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Alternate site testing for HbA1c using the Primus CLC330 GHb analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipov, G; Charles, P; Beng, C; Phillips, P J

    1997-04-01

    To determine whether the Primus high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) is suited to alternate site testing (AST) for HbA1c in a hospital diabetes outpatient clinic. Patients were attending the clinic for routine management of their diabetes. A number of diabetic patients with uremia (n = 11) were also investigated. HbA1c levels were measured in the outpatient setting by the Primus HPLC and in a more limited study the DCA-2000 instrument using the new 6-min assay cartridge. HbA1c measurements were also performed with Pierce affinity minicolumns and a Bio-Rad Variant HPLC. The Primus HPLC assay had low imprecision of 2.3, 1.6, and 1.0% for HbA1c levels of 4.7, 7.3, and 11.1%, respectively, and was not prone to interference by carbamylated hemoglobin as found for the ion-exchange Variant HPLC method. Method comparison studies showed that the bias and proportional error between the Pierce affinity minicolumn procedure (standardized with respect to an external quality control program) and the Primus HPLC (Y) was -0.4 and 1.2% respectively (n = 32). Similarly the bias and proportional error between the Primus and DCA-2000 methods was 0.7 and -2.5%. The Primus was shown to give falsely elevated HbA1c concentrations if the time between sequential injections was > 28 min. The Primus HPLC has a decided advantage over specialty AST instruments, like the DCA-2000, in not only meeting AST requirements but also allowing rapid automated batch processing of all laboratory HbA1c samples.

  13. Floral and mating system divergence in secondary sympatry: testing an alternative hypothesis to reinforcement in Clarkia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe Runquist, Ryan D.; Moeller, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Reproductive character displacement (RCD) is often an important signature of reinforcement when partially cross-compatible taxa meet in secondary sympatry. In this study, floral evolution is examined during the Holocene range expansion of Clarkia xantiana subsp. parviflora from eastern Pleistocene refugia to a western zone of sympatry with its sister taxon, subsp. xantiana. Floral divergence between the two taxa is greater in sympatry than allopatry. The goal was to test an alternative hypothesis to reinforcement – that floral divergence of sympatric genotypes is simply a by-product of adaptation to pollination environments that differ between the allopatric and sympatric portions of the subspecies' range. Methods Floral trait data from two common garden studies were used to examine floral divergence between sympatric and allopatric regions and among phylogeographically defined lineages. In natural populations of C. x. parviflora, the magnitude of pollen limitation and reproductive assurance were quantified across its west-to-east range. Potted sympatric and allopatric genotypes were also reciprocally translocated between geographical regions to distinguish between the effects of floral phenotype versus contrasting pollinator environments on reproductive ecology. Key Results Sympatric populations are considerably smaller flowered with reduced herkogamy. Pollen limitation and the reproductive assurance value of selfing are greater in sympatric than in allopatric populations. Most significantly, reciprocal translocation experiments showed these differences in reproductive ecology cannot be attributed to contrasting pollinator environments between the sympatric and allopatric regions, but instead reflect the effects of flower size on pollinator attraction. Conclusions Floral evolution occurred during the westward range expansion of parviflora, particularly in the zone of sympatry with xantiana. No evidence was found that strongly reduced flower

  14. Floral and mating system divergence in secondary sympatry: testing an alternative hypothesis to reinforcement in Clarkia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe Runquist, Ryan D; Moeller, David A

    2014-01-01

    Reproductive character displacement (RCD) is often an important signature of reinforcement when partially cross-compatible taxa meet in secondary sympatry. In this study, floral evolution is examined during the Holocene range expansion of Clarkia xantiana subsp. parviflora from eastern Pleistocene refugia to a western zone of sympatry with its sister taxon, subsp. xantiana. Floral divergence between the two taxa is greater in sympatry than allopatry. The goal was to test an alternative hypothesis to reinforcement - that floral divergence of sympatric genotypes is simply a by-product of adaptation to pollination environments that differ between the allopatric and sympatric portions of the subspecies' range. Floral trait data from two common garden studies were used to examine floral divergence between sympatric and allopatric regions and among phylogeographically defined lineages. In natural populations of C. x. parviflora, the magnitude of pollen limitation and reproductive assurance were quantified across its west-to-east range. Potted sympatric and allopatric genotypes were also reciprocally translocated between geographical regions to distinguish between the effects of floral phenotype versus contrasting pollinator environments on reproductive ecology. Sympatric populations are considerably smaller flowered with reduced herkogamy. Pollen limitation and the reproductive assurance value of selfing are greater in sympatric than in allopatric populations. Most significantly, reciprocal translocation experiments showed these differences in reproductive ecology cannot be attributed to contrasting pollinator environments between the sympatric and allopatric regions, but instead reflect the effects of flower size on pollinator attraction. Floral evolution occurred during the westward range expansion of parviflora, particularly in the zone of sympatry with xantiana. No evidence was found that strongly reduced flower size in sympatric parviflora (and RCD between

  15. Effects of cholestasis on learning and locomotor activity in bile duct ligated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Nasrin; Alaei, Hojjatallah; Nasehi, Mohammad; Radahmadi, Maryam; Mohammad Reza, Zarrindast

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive functions are impaired in patients with liver disease. Bile duct ligation causes cholestasis that impairs liver function. This study investigated the impact of cholestasis progression on the acquisition and retention times in the passive avoidance test and on the locomotor activity of rats. Cholestasis was induced in male Wistar rats by ligating the main bile duct. Locomotor activity, learning and memory were assessed by the passive avoidance learning test at day 7, day 14, and day 21 post-bile duct ligation. The serum levels of bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase were measured. The results showed that acquisition time and locomotor activity were not affected at day 7 and day 14, but they were significantly (P locomotor activity were impaired at 21 days after bile duct ligation following the progression of cholestasis.

  16. Development of full scale testing of an alternate foundation system for post and panel retaining walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    The alternate post system offers benefits such as ease of construction, reduced construction time, and : lower wall costs. While this system seems feasible, there are concerns regarding its performance, in : particular the amount of bending in the po...

  17. An Alternative Corrosion Resistance Test Method for Solar Cells and Interconnection Materials Limiting the Number of Long-lasting and Expensive Damp-Heat Climate Chamber Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Aken, B.B.; Gouwen, R.J.; Veldman, D.; Bende, E.E.; Eerenstein, W. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-06-15

    Damp-heat testing of PV modules is a time-consuming process, taking months. We present an alternative test method: electrochemical noise (EcN) measurements. Data acquisition times vary between minutes for direct exposure to several tens of hours for encapsulated samples. EcN measurements are presented for several solar cell concepts and different environments. We have found that the degradation in damp-heat testing is proportional to the electrochemical noise signal. In conclusion, the electrochemical noise measurements are a fast, versatile tool to test the corrosion resistance of solar cells, which can be tested for different environments including encapsulation.

  18. Impedance Eduction in Large Ducts Containing Higher-Order Modes and Grazing Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Willie R.; Jones, Michael G.

    2017-01-01

    Impedance eduction test data are acquired in ducts with small and large cross-sectional areas at the NASA Langley Research Center. An improved data acquisition system in the large duct has resulted in increased control of the acoustic energy in source modes and more accurate resolution of higher-order duct modes compared to previous tests. Two impedance eduction methods that take advantage of the improved data acquisition to educe the liner impedance in grazing flow are presented. One method measures the axial propagation constant of a dominant mode in the liner test section (by implementing the Kumarsean and Tufts algorithm) and educes the impedance from an exact analytical expression. The second method solves numerically the convected Helmholtz equation and minimizes an objective function to obtain the liner impedance. The two methods are tested first on data synthesized from an exact mode solution and then on measured data. Results show that when the methods are applied to data acquired in the larger duct with a dominant higher-order mode, the same impedance spectra are educed as that obtained in the small duct where only the plane wave mode propagates. This result holds for each higher-order mode in the large duct provided that the higher-order mode is sufficiently attenuated by the liner.

  19. A tiered approach to the use of alternatives to animal testing for the safety assessment of cosmetics: skin irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, Martin; Jones, Penny; Goebel, Carsten; Dufour, Eric; Rowland, Joanna; Araki, Daisuke; Costabel-Farkas, Margit; Hewitt, Nicola J; Hibatallah, Jalila; Kirst, Annette; McNamee, Pauline; Schellauf, Florian; Scheel, Julia

    2009-07-01

    Evaluation of the skin irritancy and corrosivity potential of an ingredient is a necessity in the safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients. To date, there are two formally validated alternatives to the rabbit Draize test for skin corrosivity in place, namely the rat skin transcutaneous electrical resistance (TER) assay and the Human Skin Model Test using EpiSkin, EpiDerm and SkinEthic reconstructed human epidermal equivalents. For skin irritation, EpiSkin, EpiDerm and SkinEthic are validated as stand-alone test replacements for the rabbit Draize test. Data from these tests are rarely considered in isolation and are evaluated in combination with other factors to establish the overall irritating or corrosive potential of an ingredient. In light of the deadlines established in the Cosmetics Directive for cessation of animal testing for cosmetic ingredients, a COLIPA scientific meeting was held in Brussels on 30th January, 2008 to review the use of alternative approaches and to set up a decision tree approach for their integration into tiered testing strategies for hazard and safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients and their use in products. In conclusion, the safety assessments for skin irritation/corrosion of new chemicals for use in cosmetics can be confidently accomplished using exclusively alternative methods.

  20. ITER L 7 duct remote handling equipment design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millard, J.

    1996-09-01

    The operation, design and interfaces of the 'Duct Vehicle' and it's associated remote handling equipment are briefly described in this document. This equipment is being designed by Spar Aerospace Ltd. for the Divertor Test Platform as part of ITER Research and Development Project L-7. Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project funds this work as part of the Canadian Contribution to ITER. This document describes the equipment design status at the September 1996 design review. 23 figs

  1. 40 CFR 80.583 - What alternative sampling and testing requirements apply to importers who transport motor vehicle...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements apply to importers who transport motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel fuel, or ECA marine fuel... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel... alternative sampling and testing requirements apply to importers who transport motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM...

  2. Validity of Alternative Fitnessgram Upper Body Tests of Muscular Strength and Endurance among Seventh and Eighth Grade Males and Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobayan, Kalani; Patterson, Debra; Sherman, Clay; Wiersma, Lenny

    2014-01-01

    In a society in which obesity levels have tripled in the past 30 years, the importance of increased fitness levels within the academic setting has become even more critical. The purpose of this study was to investigate the validity of alternative Fitnessgram upper body tests of muscular strength and endurance among seventh and eighth grade males…

  3. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT XVIII, ALTERNATOR AND REGULATOR SERVICING AND TESTING, AND AN INTRODUCTION TO TRANSISTOR REGULATORS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED AS A REVIEW OF THE OPERATING PRINCIPLES AND SERVICING PROCEDURES FOR GENERATORS AND AS AN INTRODUCTION TO TRANSISTOR CONTROLLED VOLTAGE REGULATION FOR GENERATORS USED ON DIESEL POWERED EQUIPMENT. TOPICS ARE (1) REVIEW OF GENERATOR PRINCIPLES, AC AND DC, (2) SERVICING AND TESTING ALTERNATORS, AND (3)…

  4. 75 FR 32295 - Expedited Approval of Alternative Test Procedures for the Analysis of Contaminants Under the Safe...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... Approval of Alternative Test Procedures for the Analysis of Contaminants Under the Safe Drinking Water Act... methods for use in measuring the levels of contaminants in drinking water and determining compliance with... required to measure contaminants in drinking water samples. In addition, EPA Regions as well as States and...

  5. Using Two-Tier Test to Identify Primary Students' Conceptual Understanding and Alternative Conceptions in Acid Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayrak, Beyza Karadeniz

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify primary students' conceptual understanding and alternative conceptions in acid-base. For this reason, a 15 items two-tier multiple choice test administered 56 eighth grade students in spring semester 2009-2010. Data for this study were collected using a conceptual understanding scale prepared to include…

  6. Bile Duct Adenoma with Oncocytic Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. Johannesen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bile duct adenomas are benign bile duct proliferations usually encountered as an incidental finding. Oncocytic bile duct neoplasms are rare and the majority are malignant. A 61-year-old male with a diagnosis of colorectal adenocarcinoma was undergoing surgery when a small white nodule was discovered on the surface of the right lobe of his liver. This lesion was composed of cytologically bland cells arranged in tightly packed glands. These cells were immunopositive for cytokeratin 7, negative for Hep Par 1, contained mucin, and had a Ki67 proliferation index of 8%. The morphology, immunophenotype, presence of mucin, and normal appearing bile ducts, as well as the increased Ki67 proliferation rate, were consistent with a bile duct adenoma with oxyphilic (oncocytic change. Oncocytic tumors in the liver are rare; the first described in 1992. Only two bile duct adenomas with oncocytic change have been reported and neither of them had reported mucin production or the presence of normal appearing bile ducts within the lesion.

  7. Financial Aspects of Bile Duct Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaz Alı, Ozgkıour; Ibis, Abdil Cem; Gurtekin, Basak

    2017-11-04

    BACKGROUND Major bile duct injury is the most worrisome complication of cholecystectomy. There is no detailed data about the incidence or treatment-related costs of bile duct injuries in Turkey. We aimed to determine prevalence and therapeutic costs of patients with major biliary duct injuries managed in our department, and further estimate a projection of these parameters at the national level. MATERIAL AND METHODS All patients admitted due to bile duct injury during cholecystectomy from 2011 to 2014 were included. Healthcare costs were calculated by summing of their all treatment-related costs in Istanbul Medical Faculty. We collected 2014-2015 data on number of patients diagnosed with cholecystitis in Turkey, the number of cholecystectomies, and the number of the interventions performed following these initial surgeries, which were obtained from the Turkish Social Security Institution. RESULTS Forty-nine patients were enrolled and bilioenteric diversion was performed in 39 patients: 20.4% of patients had Bismuth II, 38.8% had Bismuth III, and 40.8% had Bismuth IV biliary stricture. Comparison of stricture types with total costs, days of hospitalization, and outpatient clinic costs revealed significant differences. Mean total cost of corrective surgeries was 9199 TRY. We estimated that 1.5% to 2.4% of patients who underwent cholecystectomy in Turkey have bile duct injury (including 0.3% with major bile duct injury). CONCLUSIONS New preventive strategies should be used to avoid bile duct injuries, which have a huge financial impact on the national economy.

  8. "None of the above" as a correct and incorrect alternative on a multiple-choice test: implications for the testing effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odegard, Timothy N; Koen, Joshua D

    2007-11-01

    Both positive and negative testing effects have been demonstrated with a variety of materials and paradigms (Roediger & Karpicke, 2006b). The present series of experiments replicate and extend the research of Roediger and Marsh (2005) with the addition of a "none-of-the-above" response option. Participants (n=32 in both experiments) read a set of passages, took an initial multiple-choice test, completed a filler task, and then completed a final cued-recall test (Experiment 1) or multiple-choice test (Experiment 2). Questions were manipulated on the initial multiple-choice test by adding a "none-of-the-above" response alternative (choice "E") that was incorrect ("E" Incorrect) or correct ("E" Correct). The results from both experiments demonstrated that the positive testing effect was negated when the "none-of-the-above" alternative was the correct response on the initial multiple-choice test, but was still present when the "none-of-the-above" alternative was an incorrect response.

  9. [Salivary gland drainage into the thyroglossal duct].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siem, G; Natvig, K; Kolbenstvedt, A; Lømo, J

    2001-01-20

    Failure in regression of the thyroglossal duct is one of the most common reasons for midline swellings in the neck. Several authors have described recurrent thyroglossal duct remnants with persisting draining sinuses. However, few have described accessory salivary glands that drain into the thyroglossal duct. In this article we report two such cases with midline salivary glands in the floor of the mouth. These two patients were subsequently successfully treated with radical tissue resection in the area between the hyoid bone and foramen cecum. Preoperative fistulography or sinography was useful to demonstrate the ductal ramification of the salivary glands, and use of methylene blue during surgery proved of significant value for the result.

  10. GGT (Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase) Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in most diseases that cause damage to the liver or bile ducts. This test measures the level of GGT in ... Get Tested? When you have symptoms of a liver or bile duct disorder or as follow up when you have ...

  11. Alternatives to the Six-Minute Walk Test in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Mainguy, Vincent; Malenfant, Simon; Neyron, Anne-Sophie; Saey, Didier; Maltais, François; Bonnet, Sébastien; Provencher, Steeve

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The physiological response during the endurance shuttle walk test (ESWT), the cycle endurance test (CET) and the incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT) remains unknown in PAH. We tested the hypothesis that endurance tests induce a near-maximal physiological demand comparable to incremental tests. We also hypothesized that differences in respiratory response during exercise would be related to the characteristics of the exercise tests. METHODS: Within two weeks, twenty-one PAH pati...

  12. Building America Case Study: Compact Buried Ducts in a Hot-Humid Climate House, Lady's Island, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-02-01

    A system of compact, buried ducts provides a high-performance and cost-effective solution for delivering conditioned air throughout the building. This report outlines research activities that are expected to facilitate adoption of compact buried duct systems by builders. The results of this research would be scalable to many new house designs in most climates and markets, leading to wider industry acceptance and building code and energy program approval. The primary research question with buried ducts is potential condensation at the outer jacket of the duct insulation in humid climates during the cooling season. Current best practices for buried ducts rely on encapsulating the insulated ducts with closed-cell spray polyurethane foam insulation to control condensation and improve air sealing. The encapsulated buried duct concept has been analyzed and shown to be effective in hot-humid climates. The purpose of this project is to develop an alternative buried duct system that performs effectively as ducts in conditioned space - durable, energy efficient, and cost-effective - in a hot-humid climate (IECC warm-humid climate zone 3A) with three goals that distinguish this project: 1) Evaluation of design criteria for buried ducts that use common materials and do not rely on encapsulation using spray foam or disrupt traditional work sequences, 2) Establishing design criteria for compact ducts and incorporate those with the buried duct criteria to further reduce energy losses and control installed costs, and 3) Developing HVAC design guidance for performing accurate heating and cooling load calculations for compact buried ducts.

  13. Laser ablation of a biliary duct for treatment of a persistent biliary-cutaneous fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicher, Chad A; Adelson, Anthony B; Himmelberg, Jeffrey A; Chintalapudi, Udaya

    2008-02-01

    A persistent biliary-cutaneous fistula detected after biliary drainage catheter removal could not be resolved with diversionary techniques and Gelfoam and fibrin glue administration in the fistulous tract. As an alternative approach for treatment of the fistula, obliteration of the contributing bile duct with laser ablation was performed.

  14. Evaluation of the streaming-matrix method for discrete-ordinates duct-streaming calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, B.A.; Urban, W.T.; Dudziak, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    A new deterministic streaming technique called the Streaming Matrix Hybrid Method (SMHM) is applied to two realistic duct-shielding problems. The results are compared to standard discrete-ordinates and Monte Carlo calculations. The SMHM shows promise as an alternative deterministic streaming method to standard discrete-ordinates

  15. Reliability and equivalence of alternate forms for the Symbol Digit Modalities Test: implications for multiple sclerosis clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Ralph H B; Smerbeck, Audrey; Parikh, Rajavi; Rodgers, Jonathan; Cadavid, Diego; Erlanger, David

    2012-09-01

    Cognitive impairment is common in multiple sclerosis (MS), but is seldom assessed in clinical trials investigating the effects of disease-modifying therapies. The Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) is a particularly promising tool due to its sensitivity and robust correlation with brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and vocational disability. Unfortunately, there are no validated alternate SDMT forms, which are needed to mitigate practice effects. The aim of the study was to assess the reliability and equivalence of SDMT alternate forms. Twenty-five healthy participants completed each of five alternate versions of the SDMT - the standard form, two versions from the Rao Brief Repeatable Battery, and two forms specifically designed for this study. Order effects were controlled using a Latin-square research design. All five versions of the SDMT produced mean values within 3 raw score points of one another. Three forms were very consistent, and not different by conservative statistical tests. The SDMT test-retest reliability using these forms was good to excellent, with all r values exceeding 0.80. For the first time, we find good evidence that at least three alternate versions of the SDMT are of equivalent difficulty in healthy adults. The forms are reliable, and can be implemented in clinical trials emphasizing cognitive outcomes.

  16. Environmental Technology Verification: Supplement to Test/QA Plan for Biological and Aerosol Testing of General Ventilation Air Cleaners; Bioaerosol Inactivation Efficiency by HVAC In-Duct Ultraviolet Light Air Cleaners

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Air Pollution Control Technology Verification Center has selected general ventilation air cleaners as a technology area. The Generic Verification Protocol for Biological and Aerosol Testing of General Ventilation Air Cleaners is on the Environmental Technology Verification we...

  17. Study of natural convection heat transfer characteristics. (1) Influence of ventilation duct height

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakamatsu, Mitsuo; Iwaki, Chikako; Ikeda, Tatsumi; Morooka, Shinichi; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Nakada, Kotaro; Masaki, Yoshikazu

    2008-01-01

    Natural cooling system has been investigated in waste storage. It is important to evaluate the flow by natural draft enough to removal the decay heat from the waste. In this study, we carried out the fundamental experiment of ventilation duct height effect for natural convection on vertical cylindrical heater in atmospheric air. The scale of test facility is about 4m height with single heater. The heating value is varied in the range of 33-110W, where Rayleigh number is over 10 10 . Natural convection flow rate were calculated by measured velocity with thermo anemometer in the inlet duct. The temperature of the cylindrical heater wall and fluid were measured with thermocouples. It was found that the heat transfer coefficient difference between long duct and short duct is small in this experiment. (author)

  18. Locating and Quantifying Broadband Fan Sources Using In-Duct Microphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Robert P.; Walker, Bruce E.; Sutliff, Daniel L.

    2010-01-01

    In-duct beamforming techniques have been developed for locating broadband noise sources on a low-speed fan and quantifying the acoustic power in the inlet and aft fan ducts. The NASA Glenn Research Center's Advanced Noise Control Fan was used as a test bed. Several of the blades were modified to provide a broadband source to evaluate the efficacy of the in-duct beamforming technique. Phased arrays consisting of rings and line arrays of microphones were employed. For the imaging, the data were mathematically resampled in the frame of reference of the rotating fan. For both the imaging and power measurement steps, array steering vectors were computed using annular duct modal expansions, selected subsets of the cross spectral matrix elements were used, and the DAMAS and CLEAN-SC deconvolution algorithms were applied.

  19. Development of an alternative testing strategy for the fish early life-stage (FELS) test using the AOP framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currently, the fish early life-stage (FELS) test (OECD 210) is the primary guideline used to estimate chronic toxicity of regulated chemicals. Although already more cost-efficient than adult fish tests, the FELS test has some important drawbacks. Both industry and regulatory inst...

  20. Flow Through a Rectangular-to-Semiannular Diffusing Transition Duct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Jeff; Wendt, Bruce J.; Reichert, Bruce A.; Okiishi, Theodore H.

    1997-01-01

    Rectangular-to-semiannular diffusing transition ducts are critical inlet components on supersonic airplanes having bifucated engine inlets. This paper documents measured details of the flow through a rectangular-to-semiannular transition duct having an expansion area ratio of 1.53. Three-dimensional velocity vectors and total pressures at the exit plane of the diffuser are presented. Surface oil-flow visualization and surface static pressure data are shown. The tests were conducted with an inlet Mach number of 0.786 and a Reynolds number based on the inlet centerline velocity and exit diameter of 3.2 x 10(exp 6). The measured data are compared with previously published computational results. The ability of vortex generators to reduce circumferential total pressure distortion is demonstrated.

  1. Alternatives to Kronig-Kramers Transformation and Testing, and Estimation of Distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boukamp, Bernard A.; Ross macdonald, J.

    1994-01-01

    Two alternatives to Kronig-Kramers analysis of small-signal ac immittance data are discussed and illustrated using both synthetic and experimental data. The first, a derivative method of approximating imaginary-part response from real-part data, is found to be too approximate in regions where the

  2. Reward Rate Optimization in Two-Alternative Decision Making: Empirical Tests of Theoretical Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simen, Patrick; Contreras, David; Buck, Cara; Hu, Peter; Holmes, Philip; Cohen, Jonathan D.

    2009-01-01

    The drift-diffusion model (DDM) implements an optimal decision procedure for stationary, 2-alternative forced-choice tasks. The height of a decision threshold applied to accumulating information on each trial determines a speed-accuracy tradeoff (SAT) for the DDM, thereby accounting for a ubiquitous feature of human performance in speeded response…

  3. Utilizing alternative developmental and neurotoxicity screening methods to prioritize compounds for further mammalian testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to their toxicity and persistence in the environment, brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are being phased out of commercial use, leading to the increased use of alternative chemicals such as the organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs). Due to the structural similarity of th...

  4. Experimental and theoretical investigations on the dynamic response of EBR-II ducts under pressure pulse loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, P.S.; Srinivas, S.

    1975-01-01

    In order to assess the potential damage to hexagonal subassembly ducts (cans) that may result from rapid gas release from a failed element the EBR-II project has conducted experiments and analyses. Additional experimental and analytical investigations are now being conducted to assure fail-safety of the ducts. Fail-safety is defined as the ability of a duct to withstand pressure pulses from failed elements during all reactor conditions without damage to adjacent ducts or any other problems in fuel handling. The results of 93 EBR-II duct tests conducted primarily by Koenig have been reported previously. The results of empirical correlations of some of these tests to determine the influence of several variables on the pressure pulse experienced by a duct and on the duct deformation are presented. The variables include the type of gas contained in the simulated element (tube), the element and duct materials, the presence or absence of flow restrictors in the element, and the way gas was released. 8 references. (auth)

  5. Transmission of wave energy in curved ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostafinski, W.

    1973-01-01

    A formation of wave energy flow was developed for motion in curved ducts. A parametric study over a range of frequencies determined the ability of circular bends to transmit energy for the case of perfectly rigid walls.

  6. Octreotide inhibits hepatic fibrosis, bile duct proliferation and bacterial translocation in obstructive jaundice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkçapar, Nuran; Bayar, Sancar; Koyuncu, Ayhan; Ceyhan, Koray

    2003-01-01

    The protective effect of octreotide on bacterial translocation, bile duct epithelial proliferation and hepatic fibrosis was studied in an experimental obstructive jaundice model. Forty-five healthy Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into three groups. Group I (n = 15): Median laparotomy and common bile duct manipulation performed (Sham group). Group II (n = 15): Laparotomy and common bile duct ligation performed. Group III (n = 15): After laparotomy and common bile duct ligation octreotide (Sandostatin, sandoz) was given. Simultaneously group I and II received 3 cc 0.9% NaCl and group III received 20 micrograms/kg/daily octreotide subcutaneously every 8 hours during 9 days. Two days after the procedure all rats were opened under ether anesthesia and sterile conditions. Group I had simple laparotomy but group II and III also had common bile duct ligation by 5/0 prolene. Seven days after the surgery (9th day after treatment) all rats underwent laparotomy and tests for bacterial translocation, liver biochemical tests and histopathologic analysis of liver and small bowel were carried out. In group II cecal population levels of bacteria were significantly higher than group I and group III (p fibrosis in response to biliary obstruction. This experimental study showed that octreotide is effective in preventing bacterial translocation, bile duct proliferation and hepatic fibrosis in obstructive jaundice.

  7. Alternatives to the six-minute walk test in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Mainguy

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The physiological response during the endurance shuttle walk test (ESWT, the cycle endurance test (CET and the incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT remains unknown in PAH. We tested the hypothesis that endurance tests induce a near-maximal physiological demand comparable to incremental tests. We also hypothesized that differences in respiratory response during exercise would be related to the characteristics of the exercise tests. METHODS: Within two weeks, twenty-one PAH patients (mean age: 54(15 years; mean pulmonary arterial pressure: 42(12 mmHg completed two cycling exercise tests (incremental cardiopulmonary cycling exercise test (CPET and CET and three field tests (ISWT, ESWT and six-minute walk test (6MWT. Physiological parameters were continuously monitored using the same portable telemetric device. RESULTS: Peak oxygen consumption (VO(2peak was similar amongst the five exercise tests (p = 0.90 by ANOVA. Walking distance correlated markedly with the VO(2peak reached during field tests, especially when weight was taken into account. At 100% exercise, most physiological parameters were similar between incremental and endurance tests. However, the trends overtime differed. In the incremental tests, slopes for these parameters rose steadily over the entire duration of the tests, whereas in the endurance tests, slopes rose sharply from baseline to 25% of maximum exercise at which point they appeared far less steep until test end. Moreover, cycling exercise tests induced higher respiratory exchange ratio, ventilatory demand and enhanced leg fatigue measured subjectively and objectively. CONCLUSION: Endurance tests induce a maximal physiological demand in PAH. Differences in peak respiratory response during exercise are related to the modality (cycling vs. walking rather than the progression (endurance vs. incremental of the exercise tests.

  8. Alternatives to the six-minute walk test in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainguy, Vincent; Malenfant, Simon; Neyron, Anne-Sophie; Saey, Didier; Maltais, François; Bonnet, Sébastien; Provencher, Steeve

    2014-01-01

    The physiological response during the endurance shuttle walk test (ESWT), the cycle endurance test (CET) and the incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT) remains unknown in PAH. We tested the hypothesis that endurance tests induce a near-maximal physiological demand comparable to incremental tests. We also hypothesized that differences in respiratory response during exercise would be related to the characteristics of the exercise tests. Within two weeks, twenty-one PAH patients (mean age: 54(15) years; mean pulmonary arterial pressure: 42(12) mmHg) completed two cycling exercise tests (incremental cardiopulmonary cycling exercise test (CPET) and CET) and three field tests (ISWT, ESWT and six-minute walk test (6MWT)). Physiological parameters were continuously monitored using the same portable telemetric device. Peak oxygen consumption (VO(2peak)) was similar amongst the five exercise tests (p = 0.90 by ANOVA). Walking distance correlated markedly with the VO(2peak) reached during field tests, especially when weight was taken into account. At 100% exercise, most physiological parameters were similar between incremental and endurance tests. However, the trends overtime differed. In the incremental tests, slopes for these parameters rose steadily over the entire duration of the tests, whereas in the endurance tests, slopes rose sharply from baseline to 25% of maximum exercise at which point they appeared far less steep until test end. Moreover, cycling exercise tests induced higher respiratory exchange ratio, ventilatory demand and enhanced leg fatigue measured subjectively and objectively. Endurance tests induce a maximal physiological demand in PAH. Differences in peak respiratory response during exercise are related to the modality (cycling vs. walking) rather than the progression (endurance vs. incremental) of the exercise tests.

  9. Submandibular duct sialolithiasis an unusual presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafi, M.; Jafferi, S.; Jafferi, S.

    2006-01-01

    Multiple calculi in a submandibular gland duct is an uncommon occurrence. One such case occurring in a young boy of 25 years is reported here where thirteen very small stones of 1-3 mm of maximum diameter were lined up in the Wharton's duct in such a way that they were difficult to appreciate on inspection and palpation. Successful exploration was done in two steps. (author)

  10. Hollow-duct radiation delivery system investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kramer D.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of hollow-duct structure for high-power laser-diode-array radiation delivery into the end-pumped large-aperture gain media is reported. A ray tracing method has been used to evaluate the performance of the structure designed for maximum transmission efficiency and output beam profile homogeneity. Variable hollow-duct lengths as well as emanating angles of laser-diode-array have been taken into account.

  11. Testing of Alternative Abrasives for Water-Jet Cutting at C Tank Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krogstad, Eirik J.

    2013-08-01

    Legacy waste from defense-related activities at the Hanford Site has predominantly been stored in underground tanks, some of which have leaked; others may be at risk to do so. The U.S. Department of Energy’s goal is to empty the tanks and transform their contents into more stable waste forms. To do so requires breaking up, and creating a slurry from, solid wastes in the bottoms of the tanks. A technology developed for this purpose is the Mobile Arm Retrieval System. This system is being used at some of the older single shell tanks at C tank farm. As originally planned, access ports for the Mobile Arm Retrieval System were to be cut using a high- pressure water-jet cutter. However, water alone was found to be insufficient to allow effective cutting of the steel-reinforced tank lids, especially when cutting the steel reinforcing bar (“rebar”). The abrasive added in cutting the hole in Tank C-107 was garnet, a complex natural aluminosilicate. The hardness of garnet (Mohs hardness ranging from H 6.5 to 7.5) exceeds that of solids currently in the tanks, and was regarded to be a threat to Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant systems. Olivine, an iron-magnesium silicate that is nearly as hard as garnet (H 6.5 to 7), has been proposed as an alternative to garnet. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory proposed to test pyrite (FeS2), whose hardness is slightly less (H 6 to 6.5) for 1) cutting effectiveness, and 2) propensity to dissolve (or disintegrate by chemical reaction) in chemical conditions similar to those of tank waste solutions. Cutting experiments were conducted using an air abrader system and a National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material (SRM 1767 Low Alloy Steel), which was used as a surrogate for rebar. The cutting efficacy of pyrite was compared with that of garnet and olivine in identical size fractions. Garnet was found to be most effective in removing steel from the target; olivine and pyrite were less

  12. A Comparison of Simulation Capabilities for Ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, William A [ORNL; Smith, Matt K [ORNL; Gu, Lixing [Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC); New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL

    2014-11-01

    Typically, the cheapest way to install a central air conditioning system in residential buildings is to place the ductwork in the attic. Energy losses due to duct-attic interactions can be great, but current whole-house models are unable to capture the dynamic multi-mode physics of the interactions. The building industry is notoriously fragmented and unable to devote adequate research resources to solve this problem. Builders are going to continue to put ducts in the attic because floor space is too expensive to closet them within living space, and there are both construction and aesthetic issues with other approaches such as dropped ceilings. Thus, there is a substantial need to publicly document duct losses and the cost of energy used by ducts in attics so that practitioners, builders, homeowners and state and federal code officials can make informed decisions leading to changes in new construction and additional retrofit actions. Thus, the goal of this study is to conduct a comparison of AtticSim and EnergyPlus simulation algorithms to identify specific features for potential inclusion in EnergyPlus that would allow higher-fidelity modeling of HVAC operation and duct transport of conditioned air. It is anticipated that the resulting analysis from these simulation tools will inform energy decisions relating to the role of ducts in future building energy codes and standards.

  13. Surveyor assay to diagnose persistent Müllerian duct syndrome in Miniature Schnauzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young June; Kwon, Hyuk Jin; Byun, Hyuk Soo; Yeom, Donguk; Choi, Jea-Hong; Kim, Joong-Hyun; Shim, Hosup

    2017-12-31

    Persistent Müllerian duct syndrome (PMDS) is a pseudohermaphroditism in males characterized by the presence of Müllerian duct derivatives. As PMDS dogs often lack clinical symptoms, a molecular diagnosis is essential to identify the syndrome in these animals. In this study, a new molecular method using DNA mismatch-specific Surveyor nuclease was developed. The Surveyor nuclease assay identified the AMHR2 mutation that produced PMDS in a Miniature Schnauzer as accurately as that obtained by using the conventional method based on restriction digestion. As an alternative to the current molecular diagnostic method, the new method may result in increased accuracy when detecting PMDS.

  14. Numerical investigation of fully-developed magneto-hydro-dynamic flows in ducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dajeh, D. A.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper a numerical study is presented for fuly developed magnetic-hydrodynamic flows in ducts under a uniform transverse implied magnetic field. Afinite different scheme comprising of modified ADI 'Alternating Direction Implicit' method and a SOUR 'Sucessive-Over and under relaxation' method are used to solve the set of governing equations. Computations are carried out for a different shape of ducts over a wide range of Hartman number, up to five thousands, which is an important parameter in the nuclear fusion reactor design. (author).16 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  15. The fish embryo toxicity test as an animal alternative method in hazard and risk assessment and scientific research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embry, Michelle R.; Belanger, Scott E.; Braunbeck, Thomas A.; Galay-Burgos, Malyka; Halder, Marlies; Hinton, David E.; Leonard, Marc A.; Lillicrap, Adam; Norberg-King, Teresa; Whale, Graham

    2010-01-01

    Animal alternatives research has historically focused on human safety assessments and has only recently been extended to environmental testing. This is particularly for those assays that involve the use of fish. A number of alternatives are being pursued by the scientific community including the fish embryo toxicity (FET) test, a proposed replacement alternative to the acute fish test. Discussion of the FET methodology and its application in environmental assessments on a global level was needed. With this emerging issue in mind, the ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) and the European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) held an International Workshop on the Application of the Fish Embryo Test as an Animal Alternative Method in Hazard and Risk Assessment and Scientific Research in March, 2008. The workshop included approximately 40 scientists and regulators representing government, industry, academia, and non-governmental organizations from North America, Europe, and Asia. The goal was to review the state of the science regarding the investigation of fish embryonic tests, pain and distress in fish, emerging approaches utilizing fish embryos, and the use of fish embryo toxicity test data in various types of environmental assessments (e.g., hazard, risk, effluent, and classification and labeling of chemicals). Some specific key outcomes included agreement that risk assessors need fish data for decision-making, that extending the FET to include eluethereombryos was desirable, that relevant endpoints are being used, and that additional endpoints could facilitate additional uses beyond acute toxicity testing. The FET was, however, not yet considered validated sensu OECD. An important action step will be to provide guidance on how all fish tests can be used to assess chemical hazard and to harmonize the diverse terminology used in test guidelines adopted over the past decades. Use of the FET in context of effluent assessments

  16. The fish embryo toxicity test as an animal alternative method in hazard and risk assessment and scientific research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Embry, Michelle R., E-mail: membry@ilsi.org [ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute, 1156 15th Street, NW, Suite 200, Washington, DC 20005 (United States); Belanger, Scott E., E-mail: belanger.se@pg.com [Procter and Gamble, Central Product Safety, PO Box 538707, Miami Valley Innovation Center, Cincinnati, OH 45253-8707 (United States); Braunbeck, Thomas A., E-mail: braunbeck@zoo.uni-heidelberg.de [University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 230, Heidelberg D -69120 (Germany); Galay-Burgos, Malyka, E-mail: malyka.galay-burgos@ecetoc.org [European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC), 4 Avenue E. Van Nieuwenhuyse B-1160, Brussels (Belgium); Halder, Marlies, E-mail: marlies.halder@jrc.ec.europa.eu [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, In-Vitro Methods Unit TP-580 Ispra 21027 (Italy); Hinton, David E., E-mail: dhinton@duke.edu [Duke University, Nicholas School of the Environment, PO Box 90328, Durham, NC 27708, Unites States (United States); Leonard, Marc A., E-mail: mleonard@rd.loreal.com [L' Oreal Recherche Avancee, Unite d' Ecotoxicologie, 1 av. E. Schueller, 93601 Aulnay sous bois (France); Lillicrap, Adam, E-mail: Adam.lillicrap@niva.no [AstraZeneca, Freshwater Quarry, Brixham TQ5 8BA (United Kingdom); Norberg-King, Teresa, E-mail: norberg-king.teresa@epa.gov [U.S. EPA, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, 6201 Congdon Boulevard, Duluth, MN 55804-1636 (United States); Whale, Graham, E-mail: graham.whale@shell.com [Shell Global Solutions, Analytical Technology, P.O. Box 1, Chester CH1 3SH (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-15

    Animal alternatives research has historically focused on human safety assessments and has only recently been extended to environmental testing. This is particularly for those assays that involve the use of fish. A number of alternatives are being pursued by the scientific community including the fish embryo toxicity (FET) test, a proposed replacement alternative to the acute fish test. Discussion of the FET methodology and its application in environmental assessments on a global level was needed. With this emerging issue in mind, the ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) and the European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) held an International Workshop on the Application of the Fish Embryo Test as an Animal Alternative Method in Hazard and Risk Assessment and Scientific Research in March, 2008. The workshop included approximately 40 scientists and regulators representing government, industry, academia, and non-governmental organizations from North America, Europe, and Asia. The goal was to review the state of the science regarding the investigation of fish embryonic tests, pain and distress in fish, emerging approaches utilizing fish embryos, and the use of fish embryo toxicity test data in various types of environmental assessments (e.g., hazard, risk, effluent, and classification and labeling of chemicals). Some specific key outcomes included agreement that risk assessors need fish data for decision-making, that extending the FET to include eluethereombryos was desirable, that relevant endpoints are being used, and that additional endpoints could facilitate additional uses beyond acute toxicity testing. The FET was, however, not yet considered validated sensu OECD. An important action step will be to provide guidance on how all fish tests can be used to assess chemical hazard and to harmonize the diverse terminology used in test guidelines adopted over the past decades. Use of the FET in context of effluent assessments

  17. Older women with dementia can perform fast alternating forearm movements and performance is correlated with tests of lower extremity function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bramell-Risberg E

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Eva Bramell-Risberg,1 Gun-Britt Jarnlo,2 Sölve Elmståhl11Division of Geriatric Medicine, 2Division of Physiotherapy, Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund, SwedenBackground: The purpose of this work was to study the performance and reliability of a test of fast alternating forearm movements and its relationship with measures of lower extremity function in older women with dementia.Methods: Fast alternating movements was studied in 26 female patients (mean age 81.7 ± 5.9 years with dementia and 34 controls (mean age 87.5 ± 4.7 years. Subgroup analyses for those aged 80–89 years were performed due to significant differences in the mean ages of the study groups. Test–retest reliability for alternating forearm movements was studied in 11 patients (mean age 80.3 ± 6.7 years and 10 controls (mean age 87.4 ± 1.6 years. Pulses generated were transformed to an analog signal shown on a modified electrocardiogram. Numbers of cycles at 10 and 15 seconds were calculated for the right and left hand. Walking 2 × 15 m and the Get-Up-and Go (GUG test were performed at self-selected and maximal speed. Associations between tests of upper and lower extremity function were sought in eight patients (mean age 85 ± 2.7 years and 16 controls (mean age 85.1 ± 2.8 years and also according to types of dementia in nine patients with probable Alzheimer's disease and 10 patients with other types of dementia.Results: Patients with dementia could perform the test and had significantly fewer cycles (P = 0.02–0.006 at both 10 and 15 seconds compared with controls after age adjustment. A higher number of cycles was associated with higher self-selected walking speeds in patients (r = -0.79. Test–retest reliability for alternating forearm movements was high for both patients (intraclass correlation 0.88–0.94 and controls (intraclass correlation 0.74–0.94.Conclusion: Alternating forearm movements at fast speed can be used as a reliable test in both

  18. [The exploration on optimization of two alternatives between roll test and Dix-Hallpike test in benign paroxysmal positional vertigo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, R; Chen, T S; Wang, W; Xu, K X; Li, S S; Wen, C; Liu, Q; Lin, P

    2017-06-07

    Objective: To analyze the objective characteristics of roll test and Dix-Hallpike test in benign paroxysmal positional vertigo(BPPV)patients, discussing the premier solution of positional test. Methods: A total of 230 patients with BPPV, whereas 170 posterior semicircular canal canalithiasis (PSC-Can) BPPV and 60 horizontal semicircular canal canalithiasis (HSC-Can) BPPV were involved respectively. The induced nystagmus in roll test and Dix-Hallpike test was recorded by video nystagmuo graph (VNG), and the direction, intensity and time characteristics of nystagmus were compared in various BPPV.SPSS19.0 software was used for statistical analysis. Results: Vertically upward nystagmus was induced by hanging in 170 PSC-Can Dix-Hallpike test, and the nystagmus reversed and turned weaker when the subjects came to sit. The intensity of nystagmus at turning to lesion side by hanging and sitting were (30.3±14.1)°/s and (12.6±7.5)°/s respectively, the difference was statistically significant ( t =20.153, P <0.05). However, no nystagmus was induced in PSC-Can roll test. Horizontal nystagmus in the same direction with turning was induced in 60 HSC-Can roll test. The intensity of nystagmus at turning to lesion side and normal side was (42.0±18.0)°/s and (20.3±8.7)°/s respectively, the difference was statistically significant ( t =12.731, P <0.05). Furthermore, horizontal nystagmus in the same direction with turning was induced in 57 HSC-Can Dix-Hallpike. The coherence was 95% with the results of roll test. Conclusions: Dix-Hallpike test can not only be used to diagnose PSC-Can, but also induce nystagmus in HSC-Can effectively. Whereas the roll test only show significance in diagnosing HSC-Can. To avoid uncomfortable stimulation to patients as much as possible, we suggest to use Dix-Hallpike test at first, and to judge whether using roll test based on the result of the horizontal nystagmus.

  19. Focused evaluation of selected remedial alternatives for the underground test area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS), located in Nye County in southern Nevada, was the location of 928 nuclear tests conducted between 1951 and 1992. Of the total tests, 824 were nuclear tests performed underground. This report describes the approach taken to determine whether any specific, proven, cost-effective technologies currently exist to aid in the removal of the radioactive contaminants from the groundwater, in the stabilization of these contaminants, and in the removal of the source of the contaminants

  20. Percutaneous closure of patent arterial ducts in patients from high altitude: a sub-Saharan experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tefera, Endale; Qureshi, Shakeel A; Bermudez-Cañete, Ramòn; Rubio, Lola

    2015-01-01

    surgical support. Long-term follow-up is required before we can draw conclusions with regard to the sustainability of drop in PA pressures. Septal Occluder devices may be a possible alternative for large tubular or window-type ducts with severe pulmonary hypertension, where there may be concerns about the size and stability of duct occluder devices.

  1. 19 CFR 101.9 - Test programs or procedures; alternate requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... basis for selecting participants. (b) NCAP testing. For purposes of conducting an approved test program or procedure designed to evaluate planned components of the National Customs Automation Program (NCAP... publication requirement. For tests affecting the NCAP, notice shall be published in the Federal Register not...

  2. Potassium hydroxide: an alternative reagent to perform the modified apt test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicaiza, Henry; Hellstrand, Karl; Lerer, Trudy; Smith, Sharon; Sylvester, Francisco

    2014-09-01

    We tested the performance of potassium hydroxide (KOH) in the modified Apt test under different experimental conditions using sodium hydroxide as a positive control. Like sodium hydroxide, KOH differentiated fresh fetal and adult blood stains on a cloth but not dried blood. KOH may be used to perform the Apt test at the bedside. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Performance Prediction of Centrifugal Compressor for Drop-In Testing Using Low Global Warming Potential Alternative Refrigerants and Performance Test Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo Hoon Park

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As environmental regulations to stall global warming are strengthened around the world, studies using newly developed low global warming potential (GWP alternative refrigerants are increasing. In this study, substitute refrigerants, R-1234ze (E and R-1233zd (E, were used in the centrifugal compressor of an R-134a 2-stage centrifugal chiller with a fixed rotational speed. Performance predictions and thermodynamic analyses of the centrifugal compressor for drop-in testing were performed. A performance prediction method based on the existing ASME PTC-10 performance test code was proposed. The proposed method yielded the expected operating area and operating point of the centrifugal compressor with alternative refrigerants. The thermodynamic performance of the first and second stages of the centrifugal compressor was calculated as the polytropic state. To verify the suitability of the proposed method, the drop-in test results of the two alternative refrigerants were compared. The predicted operating range based on the permissible deviation of ASME PTC-10 confirmed that the temperature difference was very small at the same efficiency. Because the drop-in test of R-1234ze (E was performed within the expected operating range, the centrifugal compressor using R-1234ze (E is considered well predicted. However, the predictions of the operating point and operating range of R-1233zd (E were lower than those of the drop-in test. The proposed performance prediction method will assist in understanding thermodynamic performance at the expected operating point and operating area of a centrifugal compressor using alternative gases based on limited design and structure information.

  4. Probing Aircraft Flight Test Hazard Mitigation for the Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails & Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) Research Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails & Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) Project Integration Manager requested in July 2012 that the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) form a team to independently assess aircraft structural failure hazards associated with the ACCESS experiment and to identify potential flight test hazard mitigations to ensure flight safety. The ACCESS Project Integration Manager subsequently requested that the assessment scope be focused predominantly on structural failure risks to the aircraft empennage raft empennage.

  5. Development of sample assay system equipped with 3He Alternative Neutron Detectors (ASAS). (2) Results of ASAS measurement test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanigawa, Masafumi; Mukai, Yasunobu; Kurita, Tsutomu; Makino, Risa; Nakamura, Hironobu; Tobita, Hiroshi; Ohzu, Akira; Kureta, Masatoshi; Seya, Michio

    2015-01-01

    Against the background of the serious shortage of 3 He gas, design and development of a new detector equipped ZnS/ 10 B 2 O 3 ceramic scintillation neutron detectors in JAEA, with the support of the government (the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology). The design of the alternative 3 He detector is referred from INVS (INVentory Sample assay system (HLNCC (High Level Neutron Coincidence Counter) type)) which is being used for the verification of MOX powder etc. and is named it as ASAS (Alternative Sample Assay System). In order to prove the Pu quantitative performance as an alternative technology, several measurement tests and comparison test with INVS were conducted using ASAS. In these tests, evaluation of fundamental performance (counting efficiency and die-away time) and uncertainty evaluations were implemented. As a result, although fundamental performance of ASAS was not achieved to the one of INVS, we could confirm that ASAS has almost the same Pu quantitative performance including measurement uncertainty as that of INVS. (author)

  6. Robust inference from multiple test statistics via permutations: a better alternative to the single test statistic approach for randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganju, Jitendra; Yu, Xinxin; Ma, Guoguang Julie

    2013-01-01

    Formal inference in randomized clinical trials is based on controlling the type I error rate associated with a single pre-specified statistic. The deficiency of using just one method of analysis is that it depends on assumptions that may not be met. For robust inference, we propose pre-specifying multiple test statistics and relying on the minimum p-value for testing the null hypothesis of no treatment effect. The null hypothesis associated with the various test statistics is that the treatment groups are indistinguishable. The critical value for hypothesis testing comes from permutation distributions. Rejection of the null hypothesis when the smallest p-value is less than the critical value controls the type I error rate at its designated value. Even if one of the candidate test statistics has low power, the adverse effect on the power of the minimum p-value statistic is not much. Its use is illustrated with examples. We conclude that it is better to rely on the minimum p-value rather than a single statistic particularly when that single statistic is the logrank test, because of the cost and complexity of many survival trials. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Single Mode Theory for Impedance Eduction in Large-Scale Ducts with Grazing Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Willie R.; Gerhold, Carl H.; Jones, Michael G.; June, Jason C.

    2014-01-01

    An impedance eduction theory for a rigid wall duct containing an acoustic liner with an unknown impedance and uniform grazing flow is presented. The unique features of the theory are: 1) non-planar waves propagate in the hard wall sections of the duct, 2) input data consist solely of complex acoustic pressures acquired on a wall adjacent to the liner, and 3) multiple higher-order modes may exist in the direction perpendicular to the liner and the opposite rigid wall. The approach is to first measure the axial propagation constant of a dominant higher-order mode in the liner sample section. This axial propagation constant is then used in conjunction with a closed-form solution to a reduced form of the convected Helmholtz equation and the wall impedance boundary condition to educe the liner impedance. The theory is validated on a conventional liner whose impedance spectrum is educed in two flow ducts with different cross sections. For the frequencies and Mach numbers of interest, no higher-order modes propagate in the hard wall sections of the smaller duct. A benchmark method is used to educe the impedance spectrum in this duct. A dominant higher-order vertical mode propagates in the larger duct for similar test conditions, and the current theory is applied to educe the impedance spectrum. Results show that when the theory is applied to data acquired in the larger duct with a dominant higher-order vertical mode, the same impedance spectra is educed as that obtained in the small duct where only the plane wave mode is present and the benchmark method is used. This result holds for each higher-order vertical mode that is considered.

  8. Modified rendezvous intrahepatic bile duct cannulation technique to pass a PTBD catheter in ERCP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae Hoon; Park, Sang-Heum; Lee, Sae Hwan; Lee, Chang-Kyun; Lee, Suck-Ho; Chung, Il-Kwun; Kim, Hong Soo; Kim, Sun-Joo

    2010-11-14

    The rendezvous procedure combines an endoscopic technique with percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD). When a selective common bile duct cannulation fails, PTBD allows successful drainage and retrograde access for subsequent rendezvous techniques. Traditionally, rendezvous procedures such as the PTBD-assisted over-the-wire cannulation method, or the parallel cannulation technique, may be available when a bile duct cannot be selectively cannulated. When selective intrahepatic bile duct (IHD) cannulation fails, this modified rendezvous technique may be a feasible alternative. We report the case of a modified rendezvous technique, in which the guidewire was retrogradely passed into the IHD through the C2 catheter after end-to-end contact between the tips of the sphincterotome and the C2 catheter at the ampulla's orifice, in a 39-year-old man who had been diagnosed with gallbladder carcinoma with a metastatic right IHD obstruction. Clinically this procedure may be a feasible and timesaving technique.

  9. A possible alternative to the error prone modified Hodge test to correctly identify the carbapenemase producing Gram-negative bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S S Jeremiah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The modified Hodge test (MHT is widely used as a screening test for the detection of carbapenemases in Gram-negative bacteria. This test has several pitfalls in terms of validity and interpretation. Also the test has a very low sensitivity in detecting the New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM. Considering the degree of dissemination of the NDM and the growing pandemic of carbapenem resistance, a more accurate alternative test is needed at the earliest. Aims: The study intends to compare the performance of the MHT with the commercially available Neo-Sensitabs - Carbapenemases/Metallo-β-Lactamase (MBL Confirmative Identification pack to find out whether the latter could be an efficient alternative to the former. Settings and Design: A total of 105 isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae resistant to imipenem and meropenem, collected prospectively over a period of 2 years were included in the study. Subjects and Methods: The study isolates were tested with the MHT, the Neo-Sensitabs - Carbapenemases/MBL Confirmative Identification pack and polymerase chain reaction (PCR for detecting the blaNDM-1 gene. Results: Among the 105 isolates, the MHT identified 100 isolates as carbapenemase producers. In the five isolates negative for the MHT, four were found to produce MBLs by the Neo-Sensitabs. The Neo-Sensitabs did not have any false negatives when compared against the PCR. Conclusions: The MHT can give false negative results, which lead to failure in detecting the carbapenemase producers. Also considering the other pitfalls of the MHT, the Neo-Sensitabs - Carbapenemases/MBL Confirmative Identification pack could be a more efficient alternative for detection of carbapenemase production in Gram-negative bacteria.

  10. A possible alternative to the error prone modified Hodge test to correctly identify the carbapenemase producing Gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremiah, S S; Balaji, V; Anandan, S; Sahni, R D

    2014-01-01

    The modified Hodge test (MHT) is widely used as a screening test for the detection of carbapenemases in Gram-negative bacteria. This test has several pitfalls in terms of validity and interpretation. Also the test has a very low sensitivity in detecting the New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM). Considering the degree of dissemination of the NDM and the growing pandemic of carbapenem resistance, a more accurate alternative test is needed at the earliest. The study intends to compare the performance of the MHT with the commercially available Neo-Sensitabs - Carbapenemases/Metallo-β-Lactamase (MBL) Confirmative Identification pack to find out whether the latter could be an efficient alternative to the former. A total of 105 isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae resistant to imipenem and meropenem, collected prospectively over a period of 2 years were included in the study. The study isolates were tested with the MHT, the Neo-Sensitabs - Carbapenemases/MBL Confirmative Identification pack and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detecting the blaNDM-1 gene. Among the 105 isolates, the MHT identified 100 isolates as carbapenemase producers. In the five isolates negative for the MHT, four were found to produce MBLs by the Neo-Sensitabs. The Neo-Sensitabs did not have any false negatives when compared against the PCR. The MHT can give false negative results, which lead to failure in detecting the carbapenemase producers. Also considering the other pitfalls of the MHT, the Neo-Sensitabs--Carbapenemases/MBL Confirmative Identification pack could be a more efficient alternative for detection of carbapenemase production in Gram-negative bacteria.

  11. Cholestasis progression effects on long-term memory in bile duct ligation rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Hosseini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : There is evidence that cognitive functions are affected by some liver diseases such as cholestasis. Bile duct ligation induces cholestasis as a result of impaired liver function and cognition. This research investigates the effect of cholestasis progression on memory function in bile duct ligation rats. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups, which include: control group for BDL-7, control group for BDL-21, sham group (underwent laparotomy without bile duct ligation, BDL-7 group (7 days after bile duct ligation, and BDL-21 group (21 days after bile duct ligation. Step-through passive avoidance test was employed to examine memory function. In all groups, short-term (7 days after foot shock and long-term memories (21 days after foot shock were assessed. Results: Our results showed that liver function significantly decreased with cholestasis progression (P < 0.01. Also our findings indicated BDL-21 significantly impaired acquisition time (P < 0.05. Memory retrieval impaired 7 (P < 0.05 and 21 days (P < 0.001 after foot shock in BDL-7 and BDL-21 groups, respectively. Conclusion: Based on these findings, liver function altered in cholestasis and memory (short-term and long-term memory impaired with cholestasis progression in bile duct ligation rats. Further studies are needed to better insight the nature of progression of brain damage in cholestatic disease.

  12. Time course of collagen peak in bile duct-ligated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarcin, Orhan; Basaranoglu, Metin; Tahan, Veysel; Tahan, Gülgün; Sücüllü, Ilker; Yilmaz, Nevin; Sood, Gagan; Snyder, Ned; Hilman, Gilbert; Celikel, Cigdem; Tözün, Nurdan

    2011-04-28

    One of the most useful experimental fibrogenesis models is the "bile duct-ligated rats". Our aim was to investigate the quantitative hepatic collagen content by two different methods during the different stages of hepatic fibrosis in bile duct-ligated rats on a weekly basis. We questioned whether the 1-wk or 4-wk bile duct-ligated model is suitable in animal fibrogenesis trials. Of the 53 male Wistar rats, 8 (Group 0) were used as a healthy control group. Bile duct ligation (BDL) had been performed in the rest. Bile duct-ligated rates were sacrificed 7 days later in group 1 (10 rats), 14 days later in group 2 (9 rats), 21 days later in group 3(9 rats) and 28 days later in group 4 (9 rats). Eight rats underwent sham-operation (Sham). Hepatic collagen measurements as well as serum levels of liver enzymes and function tests were all analysed. The peak level of collagen was observed biochemically and histomorphometricly at the end of third week (P fibrosis in bile duct-ligated rats is transient, i.e. reverses spontaneously after 3 weeks. This contrasts any situation in patients where hepatic fibrosis is progressive and irreversible as countless studies performed by many investigators in the same animal model.

  13. Time course of collagen peak in bile duct-ligated rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snyder Ned

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the most useful experimental fibrogenesis models is the "bile duct-ligated rats". Our aim was to investigate the quantitative hepatic collagen content by two different methods during the different stages of hepatic fibrosis in bile duct-ligated rats on a weekly basis. We questioned whether the 1-wk or 4-wk bile duct-ligated model is suitable in animal fibrogenesis trials. Methods Of the 53 male Wistar rats, 8 (Group 0 were used as a healthy control group. Bile duct ligation (BDL had been performed in the rest. Bile duct-ligated rates were sacrificed 7 days later in group 1 (10 rats, 14 days later in group 2 (9 rats, 21 days later in group 3(9 rats and 28 days later in group 4 (9 rats. Eight rats underwent sham-operation (Sham. Hepatic collagen measurements as well as serum levels of liver enzymes and function tests were all analysed. Results The peak level of collagen was observed biochemically and histomorphometricly at the end of third week (P Conclusion We have shown that fibrosis in bile duct-ligated rats is transient, i.e. reverses spontaneously after 3 weeks. This contrasts any situation in patients where hepatic fibrosis is progressive and irreversible as countless studies performed by many investigators in the same animal model.

  14. UNDERGROUND AIR DUCT TO CONTROL RISING MOISTURE IN HISTORIC BUILDINGS: IMPROVED DESIGN AND ITS DRYING EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Pazderka

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The underground air ducts along peripheral walls of a building are a remediation method, which principle is to enable an air flow along the moist building structure’s surface to allow a sufficient evaporation of moisture from the structure. This measure reduces the water transport (rising moisture into the higher parts of the wall where the high water content in masonry is undesirable. Presently, underground air ducts are designed as masonry structures, which durability in contact with ground moisture is limited. The article describes a new design of an underground air duct, which is based on specially shaped concrete blocks (without wet processes, because the blocks are completely precast. The air duct from concrete blocks is situated completely below the ground surface (exterior or below the floor (interior. Thanks to this, the system is invisible and does not disturb the authentic look of rehabilitated historic buildings. The efficiency of the air duct technical solution was verified by the results of tests (based on the measured moisture values conducted on a laboratory model. The experimental study showed that the moisture in the masonry equipped with the presented underground air duct had decreased considerably compared to the reference sample, namely by 43 % on average. The experimental study was numerically validated through numerical simulations performed with the program WUFI 2D.

  15. Repair of a common bile duct defect with a decellularized ureteral graft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yao; Xiong, Xian-Ze; Zhou, Rong-Xing; Deng, Yi-Lei; Jin, Yan-Wen; Lu, Jiong; Li, Fu-Yu; Cheng, Nan-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the feasibility of repairing a common bile duct defect with a decellularized ureteral graft in a porcine model. METHODS Eighteen pigs were randomly divided into three groups. An approximately 1 cm segment of the common bile duct was excised from all the pigs. The defect was repaired using a 2 cm long decellularized ureteral graft over a T-tube (T-tube group, n = 6) or a silicone stent (stent group, n = 6). Six pigs underwent bile duct reconstruction with a graft alone (stentless group). The surviving animals were euthanized at 3 mo. Specimens of the common bile ducts were obtained for histological analysis. RESULTS The animals in the T-tube and stent groups survived until sacrifice. The blood test results were normal in both groups. The histology results showed a biliary epithelial layer covering the neo-bile duct. In contrast, all the animals in the stentless group died due to biliary peritonitis and cholangitis within two months post-surgery. Neither biliary epithelial cells nor accessory glands were observed at the graft sites in the stentless group. CONCLUSION Repair of a common bile duct defect with a decellularized ureteral graft appears to be feasible. A T-tube or intraluminal stent was necessary to reduce postoperative complications. PMID:28082809

  16. The testicular sperm ducts and genital kidney of male Ambystoma maculatum (Amphibia, Urodela, Ambystomatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Dustin S; Aldridge, Robert D; Rheubert, Justin L; Gribbins, Kevin M; Sever, David M; Trauth, Stanley E

    2013-03-01

    The ducts associated with sperm transport from the testicular lobules to the Wolffian ducts in Ambystoma maculatum were examined with transmission electron microscopy. Based on the ultrastructure and historical precedence, new terminology for this network of ducts is proposed that better represents primary hypotheses of homology. Furthermore, the terminology proposed better characterizes the distinct regions of the sperm transport ducts in salamanders based on anatomy and should, therefore, lead to more accurate comparisons in the future. While developing the above ontology, we also tested the hypothesis that nephrons from the genital kidney are modified from those of the pelvic kidney due to the fact that the former nephrons function in sperm transport. Our ultrastructural analysis of the genital kidney supports this hypothesis, as the basal plasma membrane of distinct functional regions of the nephron (proximal convoluted tubule, distal convoluted tubule, and collecting tubule) appear less folded (indicating decreased surface area and reduced reabsorption efficiency) and the proximal convoluted tubule possesses ciliated epithelial cells along its entire length. Furthermore, visible luminal filtrate is absent from the nephrons of the genital kidney throughout their entire length. Thus, it appears that the nephrons of the genital kidney have reduced reabsorptive capacity and ciliated cells of the proximal convoluted tubule may increase the movement of immature sperm through the sperm transport ducts or aid in the mixing of seminal fluids within the ducts. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Optimized Matching Lift Unit Transmission Ratio of Engine Driven Ducted Fan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Senlin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As a kind of VTOL technology, ducted fan is not only used by many kinds of aircrafts, but also one of the trends of the future aircraft lift system, and attracts more and more attention. For an engine driven ducted fan lift unit, involving the engine and ducted fan matching problem, the form of transmission and transmission ratio are the key design parameters. In order to design and develop a ducted fan aircraft reasonably, a thrust test platform was set up to connect the engine with the ducted fan through the belt driving. The matching relationship between the engine and the transmission system was experimentally studied and the optimal transmission ratio was determined. The results showed that the optimal transmission ratio for the engine 1 is 2.2:1, and for the engine 2, the optimal transmission ratio should be 2.95:1 based on the current ducted and movable blade aerofoil design. At this time, the lift will exceed 130 kg•f, meeting the aircraft's original design requirements.

  18. Testing and preformance measurement of straight vegetable oils as an alternative fuel for diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshminarayanan, Arunachalam

    Rising fuel prices, growing energy demand, concerns over domestic energy security and global warming from greenhouse gas emissions have triggered the global interest in bio-energy and bio-fuel crop development. Backlash from these concerns can result in supply shocks of traditional fossil fuels and create immense economic pressure. It is thus widely argued that bio-fuels would particularly benefit developing countries by off-setting their dependencies on imported petroleum. Domestically, the transportation sector accounts for almost 40% of liquid fuel consumption, while on-farm application like tractors and combines for agricultural purposes uses close to an additional 18%. It is estimated that 40% of the farm budget can be attributed to the fuel costs. With the cost of diesel continuously rising, farmers are now looking at using Straight Vegetable Oil (SVO) as an alternative fuel by producing their own fuel crops. This study evaluates conventional diesel compared to the use of SVO like Camelina, Canola and Juncea grown on local farms in Colorado for their performance and emissions on a John Deere 4045 Tier-II engine. Additionally, physical properties like density and viscosity, metal/mineral content, and cold flow properties like CFPP and CP of these oils were measured using ASTM standards and compared to diesel. It was found that SVOs did not show significant differences compared to diesel fuel with regards to engine emissions, but did show an increase in thermal efficiency. Therefore, this study supports the continued development of SVO production as a viable alternative to diesel fuels, particularly for on-farm applications. The need for providing and developing a sustainable, economic and environmental friendly fuel alternative has taken an aggressive push which will require a strong multidisciplinary education in the field of bio-energy. Commercial bio-energy development has the potential to not only alleviate the energy concerns, but also to give renewed

  19. A fast alternative to core plug tests for optimising injection water salinity for EOR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassenkam, Tue; Andersson, Martin Peter; Hilner, Emelie Kristin Margareta

    2014-01-01

    of the clays which would lead to permanent reservoir damage but evidence of effectiveness at moderate salinity would offer the opportunity to dispose of produced water. The goal is to define boundary conditions so injection water salinity is high enough to prevent reservoir damage and low enough to induce...... the low salinity effect while keeping costs and operational requirements at a minimum. Traditional core plug testing for optimising conditions has some limitations. Each test requires a fresh sample, core testing requires sophisticated and expensive equipment, and reliable core test data requires several...... experiments can be done relatively quickly on very little material, it gives the possibility of testing salinity response on samples from throughout a reservoir and for gathering statistics. Our approach provides a range of data that can be used to screen core plug testing conditions and to provide extra data...

  20. Ultrasound appearance of chronic mammary duct ectasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duchesne, N. [Ottawa Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: nathalie_duchesne_22@yahoo.ca; Skolnik, S. [Univ. of Toronto, Dept. of Family Medicine, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Bilmer, S. [Ottawa Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2005-12-15

    Mammary duct ectasia (MDE), also called periductal mastitis, mammary dysplasia, or plasma cell mastitis, is a benign condition of the mammary gland first described by Haagensen in 1951. The etiology of MDE is unknown and its pathogenesis still controversial; the periductal inflammation could be either the cause or the result of dilated damaged ducts. The process is usually bilateral and asymptomatic, with only a small percentage of patients presenting with symptoms that may include long course of tumour formation, usually subareolar breast lumps, nipple discharge, nipple retraction, mastalgia, and mammary abscess or fistulas. Mammographic presentation of MDE is well known; its features include periductal calcification, benign intraductal calcification, and retroareolar duct dilatation. The periductal calcification results from dystrophic calcification and forms calcified rings or very dense, oval, elongated calcifications, each with a central lucency representing the dilated duct. Intraductal calcifications of duct ectasia represent inspissated intraductal material and are typically of uniform high density, often needle-like, and occasionally branching. Occasionally, there are no mammographic findings, and the diagnosis must rely on sonographic features. Appearance of MDE on ultrasonography (US) depends on the stage of the disease and the contents of the dilated ducts. The acute presentation has been demonstrated in the literature more often than has its chronic counterpart. In the former, duct content can vary from anechoic to isoechoic with surrounding fatty tissue. In chronic MDE, episodes of inflammation are longer. This tends to result in secretions that have a more solid, cheesy texture, partly due to cholesterol crystals, foam cells, and inflammatory cells. For both types of MDE, the appearance can mimic high-grade ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) on US. In this essay, 2 chronic MDE cases are presented and their US appearance discussed. Our goal is to explore

  1. Ultrasound appearance of chronic mammary duct ectasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchesne, N.; Skolnik, S.; Bilmer, S.

    2005-01-01

    Mammary duct ectasia (MDE), also called periductal mastitis, mammary dysplasia, or plasma cell mastitis, is a benign condition of the mammary gland first described by Haagensen in 1951. The etiology of MDE is unknown and its pathogenesis still controversial; the periductal inflammation could be either the cause or the result of dilated damaged ducts. The process is usually bilateral and asymptomatic, with only a small percentage of patients presenting with symptoms that may include long course of tumour formation, usually subareolar breast lumps, nipple discharge, nipple retraction, mastalgia, and mammary abscess or fistulas. Mammographic presentation of MDE is well known; its features include periductal calcification, benign intraductal calcification, and retroareolar duct dilatation. The periductal calcification results from dystrophic calcification and forms calcified rings or very dense, oval, elongated calcifications, each with a central lucency representing the dilated duct. Intraductal calcifications of duct ectasia represent inspissated intraductal material and are typically of uniform high density, often needle-like, and occasionally branching. Occasionally, there are no mammographic findings, and the diagnosis must rely on sonographic features. Appearance of MDE on ultrasonography (US) depends on the stage of the disease and the contents of the dilated ducts. The acute presentation has been demonstrated in the literature more often than has its chronic counterpart. In the former, duct content can vary from anechoic to isoechoic with surrounding fatty tissue. In chronic MDE, episodes of inflammation are longer. This tends to result in secretions that have a more solid, cheesy texture, partly due to cholesterol crystals, foam cells, and inflammatory cells. For both types of MDE, the appearance can mimic high-grade ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) on US. In this essay, 2 chronic MDE cases are presented and their US appearance discussed. Our goal is to explore

  2. A radiographic study of nasopalatine duct cysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Chan Duck; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae [Dept. of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic features of 35 cases of nasopalatine duct cyst by means of the analysis of periapical and/or occlusal radiograms in 35 persons visited the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University and Chonbuk National University. The obtained results were as follows: 1. The incidence of nasopalatine duct cysts was higher in males (74.3%) than in females (25.7%). 2. The nasopalatine duct cysts were the most frequently occurred in the 4th decades (34.3%). The 6th and 7th decades (17.1%, 17.1%) were next in order to frequency followed by the 5th decades (14.3%), the 3rd decades (8.6%), the 2nd decades (5.7%), and 8th decades (2.9%). 3. In the signs and symptoms of nasopalatine duct cysts, 25.7% were swelling, 17.1% were swelling and tenderness, 20.0% were swelling and pain, and 37.2% were a symptom. 4. In the shape of nasopalatine duct cysts, 40.0% were round type, 48.6% 11.8% were heart type. 5. In symmetry of the nasopalatine duct cysts, 11.4% were 6-10 mm, 48.6% were 11-20 mm, 25.7% were 21-30 mm, and 14.3% were 31-40 mm. 6. In the periphery of nasopalatine duct cysts, 82.9% were distinct, 17.1% were relatively distinct. 7. In the change of root, 51.5% were intact, 17.1% were root divergence, 20.0% were root resorption, and 11.4% were root divergence and resorption.

  3. A radiographic study of nasopalatine duct cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Chan Duck; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic features of 35 cases of nasopalatine duct cyst by means of the analysis of periapical and/or occlusal radiograms in 35 persons visited the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University and Chonbuk National University. The obtained results were as follows: 1. The incidence of nasopalatine duct cysts was higher in males (74.3%) than in females (25.7%). 2. The nasopalatine duct cysts were the most frequently occurred in the 4th decades (34.3%). The 6th and 7th decades (17.1%, 17.1%) were next in order to frequency followed by the 5th decades (14.3%), the 3rd decades (8.6%), the 2nd decades (5.7%), and 8th decades (2.9%). 3. In the signs and symptoms of nasopalatine duct cysts, 25.7% were swelling, 17.1% were swelling and tenderness, 20.0% were swelling and pain, and 37.2% were a symptom. 4. In the shape of nasopalatine duct cysts, 40.0% were round type, 48.6% 11.8% were heart type. 5. In symmetry of the nasopalatine duct cysts, 11.4% were 6-10 mm, 48.6% were 11-20 mm, 25.7% were 21-30 mm, and 14.3% were 31-40 mm. 6. In the periphery of nasopalatine duct cysts, 82.9% were distinct, 17.1% were relatively distinct. 7. In the change of root, 51.5% were intact, 17.1% were root divergence, 20.0% were root resorption, and 11.4% were root divergence and resorption.

  4. Identification of Alternative Vapor Intrusion Pathways Using Controlled Pressure Testing, Soil Gas Monitoring, and Screening Model Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuanming; Holton, Chase; Luo, Hong; Dahlen, Paul; Gorder, Kyle; Dettenmaier, Erik; Johnson, Paul C

    2015-11-17

    Vapor intrusion (VI) pathway assessment and data interpretation have been guided by an historical conceptual model in which vapors originating from contaminated soil or groundwater diffuse upward through soil and are swept into a building by soil gas flow induced by building underpressurization. Recent studies reveal that alternative VI pathways involving neighborhood sewers, land drains, and other major underground piping can also be significant VI contributors, even to buildings beyond the delineated footprint of soil and groundwater contamination. This work illustrates how controlled-pressure-method testing (CPM), soil gas sampling, and screening-level emissions calculations can be used to identify significant alternative VI pathways that might go undetected by conventional sampling under natural conditions at some sites. The combined utility of these tools is shown through data collected at a long-term study house, where a significant alternative VI pathway was discovered and altered so that it could be manipulated to be on or off. Data collected during periods of natural and CPM conditions show that the alternative pathway was significant, but its presence was not identifiable under natural conditions; it was identified under CPM conditions when measured emission rates were 2 orders of magnitude greater than screening-model estimates and subfoundation vertical soil gas profiles changed and were no longer consistent with the conventional VI conceptual model.

  5. The "flying" bile duct: avulsion of the common bile duct in a plane crash survivor.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mohan, H

    2012-02-01

    Blunt trauma is an unusual cause of extrahepatic bile duct injury. This is a case of a 51-year-old gentleman who sustained a significant seatbelt injury in a plane crash. Laparotomy, performed due to persistent abdominal pain, revealed that the common bile duct (CBD) was completely avulsed from the duodenum. Following insertion of drains and transfer to a hepatobiliary centre, the devascularised CBD was excised and replaced with a roux-en-y hepaticojejunostomy. Necrotic tissue was debrided from the pancreatic head. A persistent bile leak developed from the sub-hepatic drain. Repeat laparotomy revealed a bile leak from small ducts on the liver surface. Ligation of the ducts and bioglue sealing of the area were successfully performed. Subsequent to this a pancreatic fistula developed from the main pancreatic duct, which has since resolved. This unusual case illustrates the need for prompt recognition and early repair to optimise outcomes in traumatic CBD injury.

  6. Evaluation of prototype electrofibrous filters for nuclear ventilation ducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, W.; Kuhl, W.D.; Biermann, A.H.; Johnson, J.S.; Lum, B.Y.

    1983-01-01

    Two prototype electrofibrous filters were designed, built and evaluated in laboratory tests and in field installations. These prototypes were designed for use in nuclear ventilation ducts as prefilters to HEPA filters. One prototype is designed to be a permanent component of the ventilation system while the other is a disposable unit. The disposable electrofibrous prefilter was installed in the exhaust stream of a glove box in which barrels of uranium turnings are burned. Preliminary tests show the disposable prefilter is effectively prolonging the HEPA filter life

  7. Evaluation of prototype electrofibrous filters for nuclear-ventilation ducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, W.; Kuhl, W.D.; Biermann, A.H.; Johnson, J.S.; Lum, B.Y.

    1982-01-01

    Two prototypes electrofibrous filters were designed, built and evaluated in laboratory tests and in field installations. These prototypes were designed for use in nuclear ventilation ducts as prefilters to HEPA filters. One prototype is designed to be a permanent component of the ventilation system while the other is a disposable unit. The disposable electrofibrous prefilter was installed in the exhaust stream of a glove box in which barrels of uranium turnings are burned. Preliminary tests show the disposable prefilter is effectively prolonging the HEPA filter life

  8. ITER L 6 equatorial maintenance duct remote handling study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millard, J.

    1996-09-01

    The status and conclusions of a preliminary study of equatorial maintenance duct remote handling is reported. Due to issues with the original duct design a significant portion of the study had to be refocused on equatorial duct layout studies. The study gives an overview of some of the options for design of these ducts and the impact of the design on the equipment to work in the duct. To develop a remote handling concept for creating access through the ducts the following design tasks should be performed: define the operations sequences for equatorial maintenance duct opening and closing; review the remote handling requirements for equatorial maintenance duct opening and closing; design concept for door and pipe handling equipment and to propose preliminary procedures for material handling outsides the duct. 35 figs

  9. On the asymptotic distribution of a unit root test against ESTAR alternatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanck, Christoph

    We derive the null distribution of the nonlinear unit root test proposed in Kapetanios et al. [Kapetanios, G., Shin, Y., Snell, A., 2003. Testing for a unit root in the nonlinear STAR framework, journal of Econometrics 112, 359-379] when nonzero means or both means and deterministic trends are

  10. Evaluation of an alternative in vitro test battery for detecting reproductive toxicants in a grouping context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroese, E.D.; Bosgra, S.; Buist, H.E.; Lewin, G.; Linden, S.C. van der; Man, H.Y.; Piersma, A.H.; Rorije, E.; Schulpen, S.H.W.; Schwarz, M.; Uibel, F.; Vugt-Lussenburg, B.M.A. van; Wolterbeek, A.P.M.; Burg, B. van der

    2015-01-01

    Previously we showed a battery consisting of CALUX transcriptional activation assays, the ReProGlo assay, and the embryonic stem cell test, and zebrafish embryotoxicity assay as 'apical' tests to correctly predict developmental toxicity for 11 out of 12 compounds, and to explain the one false

  11. 76 FR 9777 - Recent Postings of Broadly Applicable Alternative Test Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... Determination to 40 CFR part in lieu of of Nitrogen 60, subpart G, Method 7 with Oxide Emissions Standards of... test Standards of 30-day as specified in Performance for compliance test 60.46b(e). Industrial... Fiberglass Mat Industries. Production. [[Page 9780

  12. An Alternative Approach to Assessing Laboratory and Field Notebooks: The Data Retrieval Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, Hilary; Bedford, Alan; Thomas, Judith; Ashton, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Marking field and laboratory notebooks can be a time consuming and tedious task. This article describes a system whereby the contents of student's notebooks are assessed by testing the students on what they have included and their understanding of what has been done. It also tests the quality of the student's notes--detailed, organised notes…

  13. Establishing a Practical Treadmill Sprint as an Alternative to the Wingate Anaerobic Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKie, Greg L.; Islam, Hashim; Townsend, Logan K.; Howe, Greg J.; Hazell, Tom J.

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the validity and reliability of a 30-second running sprint test using two non-motorized treadmills compared to the established Wingate Anaerobic Test. Twenty-four participants completed three sessions in a randomized order on a: (1) manual mode treadmill (Woodway); (2) specialized interval training treadmill (HiTrainer); and…

  14. Stress Corrosion Cracking of Pipeline Steels in Fuel Grade Ethanol and Blends - Study to Evaluate Alternate Standard Tests and Phenomenological Understanding of SCC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-30

    Main aim of this project was to evaluate alternate standard test methods for stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and compare them with the results from slow strain rate test (SSRT) results under equivalent environmental conditions. Other important aim of...

  15. THE MURINE LOCAL LYMPH NODE ASSAY: AN ALTERNATIVE TEST METHOD FOR THE EVALUATION OF THE POTENTIAL FOR CHEMICALS TO ELICIT ALLERGIC CONTACT DERMATITIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACTThe process that a new toxicology test method must undergo to attain acceptance and regulatory implementation may seem daunting. As the first test method to undergo Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) review, the local...

  16. Characterization of flow in a scroll duct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begg, E. K.; Bennett, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    A quantitative, flow visualization study was made of a partially elliptic cross section, inward curving duct (scroll duct), with an axial outflow through a vaneless annular cutlet. The working fluid was water, with a Re(d) of 40,000 at the inlet to the scroll duct, this Reynolds number being representative of the conditions in an actual gas turbine scroll. Both still and high speed moving pictures of fluorescein dye injected into the flow and illuminated by an argon ion laser were used to document the flow. Strong secondary flow, similar to the secondary flow in a pipe bend, was found in the bottom half of the scroll within the first 180 degs of turning. The pressure field set up by the turning duct was strong enough to affect the inlet flow condition. At 90 degs downstream, the large scale secondary flow was found to be oscillatory in nature. The exit flow was nonuniform in the annular exit. By 270 degs downstream, the flow appeared unorganized with no distinctive secondary flow pattern. Large scale structures from the upstream core region appeared by 90 degs and continued through the duct to reenter at the inlet section.

  17. A tiered approach to the use of alternatives to animal testing for the safety assessment of cosmetics: eye irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamee, Pauline; Hibatallah, Jalila; Costabel-Farkas, Margit; Goebel, Carsten; Araki, Daisuke; Dufour, Eric; Hewitt, Nicola J; Jones, Penny; Kirst, Annette; Le Varlet, Béatrice; Macfarlane, Martin; Marrec-Fairley, Monique; Rowland, Joanna; Schellauf, Florian; Scheel, Julia

    2009-07-01

    The need for alternative approaches to replace the in vivo rabbit Draize eye test for evaluation of eye irritation of cosmetic ingredients has been recognised by the cosmetics industry for many years. Extensive research has lead to the development of several assays, some of which have undergone formal validation. Even though, to date, no single in vitro assay has been validated as a full replacement for the rabbit Draize eye test, organotypic assays are accepted for specific and limited regulatory purposes. Although not formally validated, several other in vitro models have been used for over a decade by the cosmetics industry as valuable tools in a weight of evidence approach for the safety assessment of ingredients and finished products. In light of the deadlines established in the EU Cosmetics Directive for cessation of animal testing for cosmetic ingredients, a COLIPA scientific meeting was held in Brussels on 30th January, 2008 to review the use of alternative approaches and to set up a decision-tree approach for their integration into tiered testing strategies for hazard and safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients and their use in products. Furthermore, recommendations are given on how remaining data gaps and research needs can be addressed.

  18. A Roadmap for the Development of Alternative (Non-Animal) Methods for Systemic Toxicity Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Systemic toxicity testing forms the cornerstone for the safety evaluation of substances. Pressures to move from traditional animal models to novel technologies arise from various concerns, including: the need to evaluate large numbers of previously untested chemicals and new prod...

  19. Experimental Study of Dowel Bar Alternatives Based on Similarity Model Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chichun Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a small-scaled accelerated loading test based on similarity theory and Accelerated Pavement Analyzer was developed to evaluate dowel bars with different materials and cross-sections. Jointed concrete specimen consisting of one dowel was designed as scaled model for the test, and each specimen was subjected to 864 thousand loading cycles. Deflections between jointed slabs were measured with dial indicators, and strains of the dowel bars were monitored with strain gauges. The load transfer efficiency, differential deflection, and dowel-concrete bearing stress for each case were calculated from these measurements. The test results indicated that the effect of the dowel modulus on load transfer efficiency can be characterized based on the similarity model test developed in the study. Moreover, round steel dowel was found to have similar performance to larger FRP dowel, and elliptical dowel can be preferentially considered in practice.

  20. Interlaboratory Comparison Test as an Evaluation of Applicability of an Alternative Edible Oil Analysis by 1H NMR Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zailer, Elina; Holzgrabe, Ulrike; Diehl, Bernd W K

    2017-11-01

    A proton (1H) NMR spectroscopic method was established for the quality assessment of vegetable oils. To date, several research studies have been published demonstrating the high potential of the NMR technique in lipid analysis. An interlaboratory comparison was organized with the following main objectives: (1) to evaluate an alternative analysis of edible oils by using 1H NMR spectroscopy; and (2) to determine the robustness and reproducibility of the method. Five different edible oil samples were analyzed by evaluating 15 signals (free fatty acids, peroxides, aldehydes, double bonds, and linoleic and linolenic acids) in each spectrum. A total of 21 NMR data sets were obtained from 17 international participant laboratories. The performance of each laboratory was assessed by their z-scores. The test was successfully passed by 90.5% of the participants. Results showed that NMR spectroscopy is a robust alternative method for edible oil analysis.

  1. Oral rapid test: an alternative to traditional HIV screening in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisette Paola Irarrazábal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the sensitivity and specificity of an Oral Rapid Test (ORT to that of the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA for HIV testing in Santiago, Chile; to track the number of study participants returning for ELISA testing results; and to analyze the participants' perceptions of the ORT compared to the ELISA. METHODS: A total of 497 people were recruited in Santiago, Chile: 153 had previously tested positive for HIV, and 344 were of unknown status. Participants were tested for HIV using both the ELISA and the ORT to examine and compare specificity and sensitivity. Qualitative data were collected from 22 participants to compare perceptions of the testing experience with ORT versus ELISA. RESULTS: The ELISA reported 184 (37% of the 497 participants as being "positive" for HIV antibodies; the ORT showed 181 (36.4% as being "reactive" for HIV. The ORT showed a sensitivity of 98.4% (95.7%-99.9%, 95% Confidence Interval and specificity of 100%. The Kappa test produced K = 0.983 (P < 0.0001. Of the 344 participants whose HIV status was unknown at the start of the study, 55 failed to return for their ELISA results. Participants positively perceived ORT as having reduced both waiting time and anxiety over obtaining their test results. ORT oral swabbing appeared more practical and less invasive than drawing blood for the ELISA. CONCLUSIONS: The ORT and ELISA were statistically equal in specificity and sensitivity. ORT provides quicker results, potentially ensuring that more people receive them, and does not require handling of or exposure to potentially hazardous blood products. Trial number: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01733927.

  2. Standardisation of defined approaches for skin sensitisation testing to support regulatory use and international adoption: position of the International Cooperation on Alternative Test Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casati, S; Aschberger, K; Barroso, J; Casey, W; Delgado, I; Kim, T S; Kleinstreuer, N; Kojima, H; Lee, J K; Lowit, A; Park, H K; Régimbald-Krnel, M J; Strickland, J; Whelan, M; Yang, Y; Zuang, Valérie

    2018-02-01

    Skin sensitisation is the regulatory endpoint that has been at the centre of concerted efforts to replace animal testing in recent years, as demonstrated by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) adoption of five non-animal methods addressing mechanisms under the first three key events of the skin sensitisation adverse outcome pathway. Nevertheless, the currently adopted methods, when used in isolation, are not sufficient to fulfil regulatory requirements on the skin sensitisation potential and potency of chemicals comparable to that provided by the regulatory animal tests. For this reason, a number of defined approaches integrating data from these methods with other relevant information have been proposed and documented by the OECD. With the aim to further enhance regulatory consideration and adoption of defined approaches, the European Union Reference Laboratory for Alternatives to Animal testing in collaboration with the International Cooperation on Alternative Test Methods hosted, on 4-5 October 2016, a workshop on the international regulatory applicability and acceptance of alternative non-animal approaches, i.e., defined approaches, to skin sensitisation assessment of chemicals used in a variety of sectors. The workshop convened representatives from more than 20 regulatory authorities from the European Union, United States, Canada, Japan, South Korea, Brazil and China. There was a general consensus among the workshop participants that to maximise global regulatory acceptance of data generated with defined approaches, international harmonisation and standardisation are needed. Potential assessment criteria were defined for a systematic evaluation of existing defined approaches that would facilitate their translation into international standards, e.g., into a performance-based Test Guideline. Informed by the discussions at the workshop, the ICATM members propose practical ways to further promote the regulatory use and facilitate

  3. Tests of an alternating current propulsion subsystem for electric vehicles on a road load simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenger, F. J.

    1982-12-01

    The test results of a breadboard version of an ac electric-vehicle propulsion subsystem are presented. The breadboard was installed in the NASA Lewis Research Center Road Load Simulator facility and tested under steady-state and transient conditions. Steady-state tests were run to characterize the system and component efficiencies over the complete speed-torque range within the capability of the propulsion subsystem in the motoring mode of operation. Transient tests were performed to determine the energy consumption of the breadboard over the acceleration and cruise portions of SAE J227 and driving schedules B, C, and D. Tests in the regenerative mode were limited to the low-gear-speed range of the two speed transaxle used in the subsystem. The maximum steady-state subsystem efficiency observed for the breadboard was 81.5 percent in the high-gear-speed range in the motoring mode, and 76 percent in the regenerative braking mode (low gear). The subsystem energy efficiency during the transient tests ranged from 49.2 percent for schedule B to 68.4 percent for Schedule D.

  4. Using Ice Cream for Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus and Impaired Glucose Tolerance: An Alternative to the Oral Glucose Tolerance Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanprasertpinyo, Wandee; Bhirommuang, Nattapimon; Surawattanawiset, Titiporn; Tangsermwong, Thanwarin; Phanachet, Pariya; Sriphrapradang, Chutintorn

    2017-12-01

    Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is a sensitive and reliable test for diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). However, poor patient tolerance of glucose solutions is common. We aim to compare the diagnostic value of an ice cream test with a standard OGTT. A total of 104 healthy adults were randomly assigned to either 75-g OGTT or ice cream, followed by a crossover to the other test. Most patients were females (71%). Mean age was 37 ± 12 years, and body mass index was 24.2 ± 3.9kg/m 2 . Diabetes mellitus and IGT, as diagnosed by 75-g OGTT, were 4.8% and 6.7%, respectively. The 2-hour plasma glucose levels were 110 ± 55.5mg/dL with 75-g glucose and 97.52 ± 40.7mg/dL with ice cream. The correlation coefficient of 2-hour plasma glucose for the 2 tests was 0.82 (95% CI: 0.75-0.87; P ice cream test would have missed 5.76% of those at high risk for diabetes mellitus (impaired fasting glucose and IGT) or diabetes. An ice cream test may serve as an alternative to a 75-g OGTT. Before applying this test in clinical practice, it needs to be validated in a larger population. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Analysis of removal alternatives for the Heavy Water Components Test Reactor at the Savannah River Site. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, M.B.

    1997-04-01

    This engineering study evaluates different alternatives for decontamination and decommissioning of the Heavy Water Components Test Reactor (HWCTR). Cooled and moderated with pressurized heavy water, this uranium-fueled nuclear reactor was designed to test fuel assemblies for heavy water power reactors. It was operated for this purpose from march of 1962 until December of 1964. Four alternatives studied in detail include: (1) dismantlement, in which all radioactive and hazardous contaminants would be removed, the containment dome dismantled and the property restored to a condition similar to its original preconstruction state; (2) partial dismantlement and interim safe storage, where radioactive equipment except for the reactor vessel and steam generators would be removed, along with hazardous materials, and the building sealed with remote monitoring equipment in place to permit limited inspections at five-year intervals; (3) conversion for beneficial reuse, in which most radioactive equipment and hazardous materials would be removed and the containment building converted to another use such as a storage facility for radioactive materials, and (4) entombment, which involves removing hazardous materials, filling the below-ground structure with concrete, removing the containment dome and pouring a concrete cap on the tomb. Also considered was safe storage, but this approach, which has, in effect, been followed for the past 30 years, did not warrant detailed evaluation. The four other alternatives were evaluate, taking into account factors such as potential effects on the environment, risks, effectiveness, ease of implementation and cost. The preferred alternative was determined to be dismantlement. This approach is recommended because it ranks highest in the comparative analysis, would serve as the best prototype for the site reactor decommissioning program and would be most compatible with site property reuse plans for the future.

  6. Implementation of the 3Rs (refinement, reduction, and replacement): validation and regulatory acceptance considerations for alternative toxicological test methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechtman, Leonard M

    2002-01-01

    Toxicological testing in the current regulatory environment is steeped in a history of using animals to answer questions about the safety of products to which humans are exposed. That history forms the basis for the testing strategies that have evolved to satisfy the needs of the regulatory bodies that render decisions that affect, for the most part, virtually all phases of premarket product development and evaluation and, to a lesser extent, postmarketing surveillance. Only relatively recently have the levels of awareness of, and responsiveness to, animal welfare issues reached current proportions. That paradigm shift, although sluggish, has nevertheless been progressive. New and alternative toxicological methods for hazard evaluation and risk assessment have now been adopted and are being viewed as a means to address those issues in a manner that considers humane treatment of animals yet maintains scientific credibility and preserves the goal of ensuring human safety. To facilitate this transition, regulatory agencies and regulated industry must work together toward improved approaches. They will need assurance that the methods will be reliable and the results comparable with, or better than, those derived from the current classical methods. That confidence will be a function of the scientific validation and resultant acceptance of any given method. In the United States, to fulfill this need, the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) and its operational center, the National Toxicology Program Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM), have been constituted as prescribed in federal law. Under this mandate, ICCVAM has developed a process and established criteria for the scientific validation and regulatory acceptance of new and alternative methods. The role of ICCVAM in the validation and acceptance process and the criteria instituted toward that end are described. Also

  7. Analysis of removal alternatives for the Heavy Water Components Test Reactor at the Savannah River Site. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, M.B.

    1997-04-01

    This engineering study evaluates different alternatives for decontamination and decommissioning of the Heavy Water Components Test Reactor (HWCTR). Cooled and moderated with pressurized heavy water, this uranium-fueled nuclear reactor was designed to test fuel assemblies for heavy water power reactors. It was operated for this purpose from march of 1962 until December of 1964. Four alternatives studied in detail include: (1) dismantlement, in which all radioactive and hazardous contaminants would be removed, the containment dome dismantled and the property restored to a condition similar to its original preconstruction state; (2) partial dismantlement and interim safe storage, where radioactive equipment except for the reactor vessel and steam generators would be removed, along with hazardous materials, and the building sealed with remote monitoring equipment in place to permit limited inspections at five-year intervals; (3) conversion for beneficial reuse, in which most radioactive equipment and hazardous materials would be removed and the containment building converted to another use such as a storage facility for radioactive materials, and (4) entombment, which involves removing hazardous materials, filling the below-ground structure with concrete, removing the containment dome and pouring a concrete cap on the tomb. Also considered was safe storage, but this approach, which has, in effect, been followed for the past 30 years, did not warrant detailed evaluation. The four other alternatives were evaluate, taking into account factors such as potential effects on the environment, risks, effectiveness, ease of implementation and cost. The preferred alternative was determined to be dismantlement. This approach is recommended because it ranks highest in the comparative analysis, would serve as the best prototype for the site reactor decommissioning program and would be most compatible with site property reuse plans for the future

  8. Oral cholecystography compared to cholescintigraphy for evaluation of cystic duct patency prior to ESWL treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monrad, H.; Groenvall, S.; Hoegaard, L.

    1994-01-01

    In a prospective, blinded study of 109 patients with cholecystolithiasis, oral cholecystography and 99 Tc m -EHIDA cholescintigraphy were compared in terms of reliability for demonstrating cystic duct patency: one of the prerequisites for extracorporal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) treatment of cholecystolithiasis. Patients with a positive result on one or both tests were regarded as having cystic duct patency. Patients with negative and uncertain result of both tests or one of each were regarded as having no cystic duct patency. Concordance between the two tests was obtained in 93 of 109 patients. The diagnostic reliability of cholescintigraphy and oral cholecystography were 95 and 86%, respectively (P < 0.05), suggesting a more precise determination of gallbladder filling with scintigraphy. (author)

  9. Oral cholecystography compared to cholescintigraphy for evaluation of cystic duct patency prior to ESWL treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monrad, H.; Groenvall, S.; Hoegaard, L. (Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark). Hvidovre Hospital)

    1994-01-01

    In a prospective, blinded study of 109 patients with cholecystolithiasis, oral cholecystography and [sup 99]Tc[sup m]-EHIDA cholescintigraphy were compared in terms of reliability for demonstrating cystic duct patency: one of the prerequisites for extracorporal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) treatment of cholecystolithiasis. Patients with a positive result on one or both tests were regarded as having cystic duct patency. Patients with negative and uncertain result of both tests or one of each were regarded as having no cystic duct patency. Concordance between the two tests was obtained in 93 of 109 patients. The diagnostic reliability of cholescintigraphy and oral cholecystography were 95 and 86%, respectively (P < 0.05), suggesting a more precise determination of gallbladder filling with scintigraphy. (author).

  10. An alternative test of the trade-off theory of capital structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Canarella

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the stochastic behavior of corporate debt ratios utilizing a balanced panel of 2,556 publicly traded U.S. firms during the period 1997-2010. We partition the panel into ten economic sectors and perform panel unit root tests on each sector employing book value and market value measures of debt ratio. First-generation panel unit root tests provide consistent evidence that debt ratios are mean reverting, which supports the trade-off theory. However, these tests rely on the assumption that the debt ratios are cross-sectionally independent, but tests of cross-sectional independence fail to uphold this assumption. Thus, utilizing a second-generation panel unit root test that controls for cross-sectional dependence, we uncover evidence showing that debt ratios are not mean reverting, which contradicts the trade-off hypothesis. We find that the recent macroeconomic developments triggered by the financial crisis and the Great Recession have considerable explanatory power over the dynamics of the debt ratios. In fact, when we exclude the years of the recent global financial crisis, the unit root hypothesis is rejected in one half of the sectors. We interpret these results as indicative that the recent global events may have produced in these sectors a structural change in the underlying data generation process (DGP. Overall, then, we find mixed evidence on the stationarity of debt ratios.

  11. VIGOR TESTS ASSOCIATION AS AN ALTERNATIVE FOR PRECISE AND EFFICIENT ASSESSMENT OF MAIZE SEED QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCOS ALTOMANI NEVES DIAS

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to associate two concepts of seed vigor testing, the aging and seedling growth using image analysis, providing a feasible and time-saving way to evaluate maize seed vigor in large scale. For this purpose, five seed lots with different vigor levels from two single hybrids were used. The seeds were characterized by moisture content, germination, seedling emergence, seedling emergence speed index, accelerated aging and cold tests. The treatments were composed by varying the accelerated aging periods (0, 24, 48, 72 and 96h and seedling growth periods (48 and 72h, before submitting the seedlings to image analysis for seedling root length measurement. Considering the results obtained, the adaptation of accelerated aging test by reducing the aging duration from 96h to 48h, and the replacement of the germination test by seedling root length measurement using image analysis could be considered a potential tool for maize seed vigor assessment. The treatments composed of 48h of seed aging followed by seedlings root length measurements using image analysis provided reliable data, compared to traditional vigor tests and it could be considered an efficient and timesaving approach, associating two different concepts of seed vigor analysis.

  12. Ambient Pressure Test Rig Developed for Testing Oil-Free Bearings in Alternate Gases and Variable Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Steven W.

    1990-01-01

    The Oil-Free Turbomachinery research team at the NASA Glenn Research Center is conducting research to develop turbomachinery systems that utilize high-speed, high temperature foil (air) bearings that do not require an oil lubrication system. Such systems combine the most advanced foil bearings from industry with NASA-developed hightemperature solid-lubricant technology. New applications are being pursued, such as Oil- Free turbochargers, auxiliary power units, and turbine propulsion systems for aircraft. An Oil-Free business jet engine, for example, would be simpler, lighter, more reliable, and less costly to purchase and maintain than current engines. Another application is NASA's Prometheus mission, where gas bearings will be required for the closed-cycle turbine based power-conversion system of a nuclear power generator for deep space. To support these applications, Glenn's Oil-Free Turbomachinery research team developed the Ambient Pressure Test Rig. Using this facility, researchers can load and heat a bearing and evaluate its performance with reduced air pressure to simulate high altitude conditions. For the nuclear application, the test chamber can be purged with gases such as helium to study foil gas bearing operation in working fluids other than air.

  13. Squamous metaplasia of lactiferous ducts (SMOLD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, G.; Dessauvagie, B.; Sterrett, G.; Bourke, A.G.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this review is to illustrate the mammographic and sonographic appearances of squamous metaplasia of the lactiferous ducts (SMOLD) and to discuss the disease processes of this uncommon breast disease, which shows a strong correlation with smoking. The most common mammographic appearance is of a retro-areolar asymmetrical density. Ultrasonography of the symptomatic breast typically shows a retro-areolar, predominately medial, ill-defined, hypoechoic lesion with either abscess or sinus/fistula formation. Duct dilatation and continuity with lactiferous ducts is commonly seen. Increased vascularity is occasionally seen on colour Doppler ultrasound. Pathology tissue confirmation is always required and this can be by histology of a core biopsy or excision specimen, or fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology. Occasionally smears of an associated abundant nipple or sinus discharge may be of value.

  14. Free-piston Stirling engine/linear alternator 1000-hour endurance test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, J.; Dochat, G.

    1985-01-01

    The Free Piston Stirling Engine (FPSE) has the potential to be a long lived, highly reliable, power conversion device attractive for many product applications such as space, residential or remote site power. The purpose of endurance testing the FPSE was to demonstrate its potential for long life. The endurance program was directed at obtaining 1000 operational hours under various test conditions: low power, full stroke, duty cycle and stop/start. Critical performance parameters were measured to note any change and/or trend. Inspections were conducted to measure and compare critical seal/bearing clearances. The engine performed well throughout the program, completing more than 1100 hours. Hardware inspection, including the critical clearances, showed no significant change in hardware or clearance dimensions. The performance parameters did not exhibit any increasing or decreasing trends. The test program confirms the potential for long life FPSE applications.

  15. Microbiologic, radiographic, and anatomic study of the nasolacrimal duct apparatus in the rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculas)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marini, R.P.; Foltz, C.J.; Kersten, D.; Batchelder, M.; Kaser, W.; Li, X.

    1996-01-01

    This study was motivated by the sporadic observation of epiphora in two male rabbits. The epiphora was unilateral and not associated with conjunctivitis or Pasteurella infection. To characterize the cause of epiphora, we studied 15 specific-pathogen-free New Zealand White rabbits. This study group was composed of the two affected males, four unaffected males, and nine unaffected females. Clinical evaluation consisted of bacterial culture of conjunctival specimens, examination of conjunctival scrapings for chlamydial inclusions, culture and cytologic examination of specimens from the nasolacrimal duct, plain and contrast radiography, latex casting, histologic examination, and the Schirmer tear test. Important differences found in the rabbits with epiphora included an opalescent, gritty, nasolacrimal duct flush fluid and marked unilateral dilatation of the duct proximal to a dorsal flexure at the caudal limit of the incisor tooth root. The flush solution from one affected rabbit cleared with ether, suggesting the presence of triglycerides or cholesterol. The organisms most commonly isolated from the conjunctiva were Moraxella sp., Oligella urethralis, Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus sp., and Streptococcus viridans. The organisms most commonly isolated from the nasolacrimal duct flush fluid were Moraxella sp., S. viridans, and Neisseria sp. Culture of the nasolacrimal duct flush fluid yielded microorganisms more consistently than did culture of the conjunctival specimens. All microorganisms isolated from affected rabbits also were isolated from unaffected rabbits. There was no apparent contribution of microorganisms to the development of epiphora, and Schirmer tear test results for affected animals were within the range seen in unaffected animals. Occlusion of the nasolacrimal duct was presumed to be attributable to fat droplets nasolacrimal duct anatomic

  16. The Role of Alternative Testing Strategies in Environmental Risk Assessment of Engineered Nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Rune; Holden, Patricia; Hansen, Steffen Foss

    2017-01-01

    ) workshop in Washington, D.C. and serves as the point of depature for this paper. Here we present the main outcomes by describing and defining the use of ATS for ENMs as well as discussing its future role in environmental risk science. We conclude that diversity in testing should be encouraged to avoid...... chemicals are challenged. Nonetheless, standardized whole organism animal testing is still considered the gold standard for environmental risk assessment. Advancing risk analysis of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) through ATS was discussed in September 2014 at an international Society for Risk Analysis (SRA...... be utilized to skip uncertain environmental extrapolations and give rise to more accurate risk analysis....

  17. Alternatives to animal testing in basic and preclinical research of atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwa, Anna; Jevtić, Marijana; Gorreja, Frida; Hedtrich, Sarah

    2018-01-22

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease of increasing prevalence, especially in industrialized countries. Roughly 25% of the children and 1%-3% of adults are affected. Although significant progress has been made in the understanding of the pathogenesis of AD, many aspects remain poorly understood. Moreover, there is a pressing need for improved therapeutic options. Studies to elucidate the pathophysiological pathways of AD and to identify novel therapeutic targets over the last few decades have been conducted almost exclusively in animal models. However, in vitro approaches such as 3D skin disease models have recently emerged due to an increasing awareness of distinct interspecies-related differences that hamper the effective translation of results from animal models to humans. In addition, there is growing political and social pressure to develop alternatives to animal models according to the 3Rs principle (reduction, refinement and replacement of animal models). © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Possibilities of using alternative biotest tests on invertebrates in radiobiology - review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalkova, M.; Benova, K.

    2017-01-01

    The effects of high doses of ionizing radiation have been described by many authors as on vertebrates, as well as on invertebrates. On the other hand, low doses of radiation can have positive effects (so-called radiation hormone). This process involves the activation of many processes, such as seed germination and growth of many plant species, enhancement of enzyme activity, stimulation of bacterial and isolated cell division, prolongation of life of plankton, drosophila, mice and rats exposed to long-term extremely low dose radiation, high doses (so-called adaptive response) and reduced mortality in human oncology patients. The rapid development of leading disciplines such as pharmacology, toxicology, immunology, virology, genetics and others brings a steep rise in animal consumption and legislation and legislation to protect them, with focus on reducing consumption and gradually replacing them with other methods. Within the framework of the European Convention on the protection of vertebrate animals for experimental and other scientific purposes, one of the main requirements is to limit the number of animal experiments to a minimum, whereas all live vertebrates, other than humans, are considered to be animals within the meaning of the 1986 Council of Europe Directive wild and breeding capable larvae, but not fruits or embryos. For this reason, alternative bioassays on invertebrates, plants, but also cell, tissue and organ cultures are increasingly being used. (authors)

  19. The Gluten-Free Diet: Testing Alternative Cereals Tolerated by Celiac Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Sousa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A strict gluten-free diet (GFD is the only currently available therapeutic treatment for patients with celiac disease, an autoimmune disorder of the small intestine associated with a permanent intolerance to gluten proteins. The complete elimination of gluten proteins contained in cereals from the diet is the key to celiac disease management. However, this generates numerous social and economic repercussions due to the ubiquity of gluten in foods. The research presented in this review focuses on the current status of alternative cereals and pseudocereals and their derivatives obtained by natural selection, breeding programs and transgenic or enzymatic technology, potential tolerated by celiac people. Finally, we describe several strategies for detoxification of dietary gluten. These included enzymatic cleavage of gliadin fragment by Prolyl endopeptidases (PEPs from different organisms, degradation of toxic peptides by germinating cereal enzymes and transamidation of cereal flours. This information can be used to search for and develop cereals with the baking and nutritional qualities of toxic cereals, but which do not exacerbate this condition.

  20. Percutaneous treatment of benign bile duct strictures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koecher, Martin [Department of Radiology, University Hospital, I.P.Pavlova 6, 775 20 Olomouc (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: martin.kocher@seznam.cz; Cerna, Marie [Department of Radiology, University Hospital, I.P.Pavlova 6, 775 20 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Havlik, Roman [Department of Surgery, University Hospital, I.P.Pavlova 6, 775 20 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Kral, Vladimir [Department of Surgery, University Hospital, I.P.Pavlova 6, 775 20 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Gryga, Adolf [Department of Surgery, University Hospital, I.P.Pavlova 6, 775 20 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Duda, Miloslav [Department of Surgery, University Hospital, I.P.Pavlova 6, 775 20 Olomouc (Czech Republic)

    2007-05-15

    Purpose: To evaluate long-term results of treatment of benign bile duct strictures. Materials and methods: From February 1994 to November 2005, 21 patients (9 men, 12 women) with median age of 50.6 years (range 27-77 years) were indicated to percutaneous treatment of benign bile duct stricture. Stricture of hepatic ducts junction resulting from thermic injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy was indication for treatment in one patient, stricture of hepaticojejunostomy was indication for treatment in all other patients. Clinical symptoms (obstructive jaundice, anicteric cholestasis, cholangitis or biliary cirrhosis) have appeared from 3 months to 12 years after surgery. Results: Initial internal/external biliary drainage was successful in 20 patients out of 21. These 20 patients after successful initial drainage were treated by balloon dilatation and long-term internal/external drainage. Sixteen patients were symptoms free during the follow-up. The relapse of clinical symptoms has appeared in four patients 9, 12, 14 and 24 months after treatment. One year primary clinical success rate of treatment for benign bile duct stricture was 94%. Additional two patients are symptoms free after redilatation (15 and 45 months). One patient is still in treatment, one patient died during secondary treatment period without interrelation with biliary intervention. The secondary clinical success rate is 100%. Conclusion: Benign bile duct strictures of hepatic ducts junction or biliary-enteric anastomosis are difficult to treat surgically and endoscopically inaccessible. Percutaneous treatment by balloon dilatation and long-term internal/external drainage is feasible in the majority of these patients. It is minimally invasive, safe and effective.

  1. Fluid flow in a spiral microfluidic duct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Brendan; Stokes, Yvonne

    2018-04-01

    We consider the steady, pressure driven flow of a viscous fluid through a microfluidic device having the geometry of a planar spiral duct with a slowly varying curvature and height smaller than width. For this problem, it is convenient to express the Navier-Stokes equations in terms of a non-orthogonal coordinate system. Then, after applying appropriate scalings, the leading order equations admit a relatively simple solution in the central region of the duct cross section. First-order corrections with respect to the duct curvature and aspect ratio parameters are also obtained for this region. Additional correction terms are needed to ensure that no slip and no penetration conditions are satisfied on the side walls. Our solutions allow for a top wall shape that varies with respect to the radial coordinate which allows us to study the flow in a variety of cross-sectional shapes, including trapezoidal-shaped ducts that have been studied experimentally. At leading order, the flow is found to depend on the local height and slope of the top wall within the central region. The solutions are compared with numerical approximations of a classical Dean flow and are found to be in good agreement for a small duct aspect ratio and a slowly varying and small curvature. We conclude that the slowly varying curvature typical of spiral microfluidic devices has a negligible impact on the flow in the sense that locally the flow does not differ significantly from the classical Dean flow through a duct having the same curvature.

  2. A Test of Two Alternative Cognitive Processing Models: Learning Styles and Dual Coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Joshua; Dawson, Bryan L.

    2018-01-01

    This study tested two cognitive models, learning styles and dual coding, which make contradictory predictions about how learners process and retain visual and auditory information. Learning styles-based instructional practices are common in educational environments despite a questionable research base, while the use of dual coding is less…

  3. Testing a parametric function against a nonparametric alternative in IV and GMM settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørgens, Tue; Wurtz, Allan

    This paper develops a specification test for functional form for models identified by moment restrictions, including IV and GMM settings. The general framework is one where the moment restrictions are specified as functions of data, a finite-dimensional parameter vector, and a nonparametric real ...

  4. Comparing Treatment and Control Groups on Multiple Outcomes: Robust Procedures for Testing a Directional Alternative Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lix, Lisa M.; Deering, Kathleen N.; Fouladi, Rachel T.; Manivong, Phongsack

    2009-01-01

    This study considers the problem of testing the difference between treatment and control groups on m [greater than or equal to] 2 measures when it is assumed a priori that the treatment group will perform better than the control group on all measures. Two procedures are investigated that do not rest on the assumptions of covariance homogeneity or…

  5. Analysis of Removal Alternatives for the Heavy Water Components Test Reactor at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, M.B.

    1996-08-01

    This engineering study was developed to evaluate different options for decommissioning of the Heavy Water Components Test Reactor (HWCTR) at the Savannah River Site. This document will be placed in the DOE-SRS Area reading rooms for a period of 30 days in order to obtain public input to plans for the demolition of HWCTR

  6. Testing the theory of emissions trading : Experimental evidence on alternative mechanisms for global carbon trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, Ger; Nentjes, Andries; Smith, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Simulation models and theory prove that emission trading converges to market equilibrium. This paper sets out to test these results using experimental economics. Three experiments are conducted for the six largest carbon emitting industrialized regions. Two experiments use auctions, the first a

  7. Performance-based alternative assessments as a means of eliminating gender achievement differences on science tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Norman Merrill

    1998-09-01

    Historically, researchers have reported an achievement difference between females and males on standardized science tests. These differences have been reported to be based upon science knowledge, abstract reasoning skills, mathematical abilities, and cultural and social phenomena. This research was designed to determine how mastery of specific science content from public school curricula might be evaluated with performance-based assessment models, without producing gender achievement differences. The assessment instruments used were Harcourt Brace Educational Measurement's GOALSsp°ler: A Performance-Based Measure of Achievement and the performance-based portion of the Stanford Achievement Testspcopyright, Ninth Edition. The identified independent variables were test, gender, ethnicity, and grade level. A 2 x 2 x 6 x 12 (test x gender x ethnicity x grade) factorial experimental design was used to organize the data. A stratified random sample (N = 2400) was selected from a national pool of norming data: N = 1200 from the GOALSsp°ler group and N = 1200 from the SAT9spcopyright group. The ANOVA analysis yielded mixed results. The factors of test, gender, ethnicity by grade, gender by grade, and gender by grade by ethnicity failed to produce significant results (alpha = 0.05). The factors yielding significant results were ethnicity, grade, and ethnicity by grade. Therefore, no significant differences were found between female and male achievement on these performance-based assessments.

  8. An alternative to the BDS test: integration across the correlation integral

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kočenda, Evžen

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 3 (2001), s. 337-351 ISSN 0747-4938 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : BDS test Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://search. ebscohost .com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=8533996&site=ehost-live

  9. The Urine Marker Test: An Alternative Approach to Supervised Urine Collection for Doping Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Jensen, Stine Nylansted; Elsborg, Peter; Wetzke, Monika; Woldemariam, Getachew A; Huppertz, Bernd; Keller, Ruprecht; Butch, Anthony W

    2016-01-01

    Urine sample collection for doping control tests is a key component of the World Anti-Doping Agency's fight against doping in sport. However, a substantial number of athletes experience difficulty when having to urinate under supervision. Furthermore, it cannot always be ensured that athletes are actually delivering their own urine. A method that can be used to alleviate the negative impact of a supervised urination procedure and which can also identify urine as coming from a specific athlete is the urine marker test. Monodisperse low molecular weight polyethylene glycols (PEGs) are given orally prior to urination. Urine samples can be traced to the donor by analysis of the PEGs previously given. The objective of this study was to investigate the use of the urine marker during urine doping control testing. Two studies investigated athletes' acceptance of this new method via two questionnaires (n = 253). Furthermore, a third study (n = 91) investigated whether ingestion of the marker can identify the urine as coming from a specific person and whether the marker interferes with the detection of prohibited substances. The results indicate that this new method finds wide acceptance both from athletes who have only heard about the procedure and those who have actually tested the new method. Furthermore, the marker, which can identify urine as coming from a specific person, does not interfere with the detection of prohibited substances.

  10. HANFORD MEDIUM-LOW CURIE WASTE PRETREATMENT ALTERNATIVES PROJECT FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION PILOT SCALE TESTING FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HERTING DL

    2008-09-16

    The Fractional Crystallization Pilot Plant was designed and constructed to demonstrate that fractional crystallization is a viable way to separate the high-level and low-activity radioactive waste streams from retrieved Hanford single-shell tank saltcake. The focus of this report is to review the design, construction, and testing details of the fractional crystallization pilot plant not previously disseminated.

  11. The Different Effects of Family on Objective Career Success across Gender: A Test of Alternative Explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchmeyer, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    Gender gaps in achieved rank and salary, common indicators of objective success, often are attributed to the different family roles and responsibilities of men and women. This study tested three explanations for the different effects of family on careers: that is, choice, performance, and signaling explanations. In a sample of American doctoral…

  12. Robust Means Modeling: An Alternative for Hypothesis Testing of Independent Means under Variance Heterogeneity and Nonnormality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Weihua; Hancock, Gregory R.

    2012-01-01

    This study proposes robust means modeling (RMM) approaches for hypothesis testing of mean differences for between-subjects designs in order to control the biasing effects of nonnormality and variance inequality. Drawing from structural equation modeling (SEM), the RMM approaches make no assumption of variance homogeneity and employ robust…

  13. Recognition versus Resolution: a Comparison of Visual Acuity Results Using Two Alternative Test Chart Optotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan S. Pointer

    2008-01-01

    Conclusions: For normally sighted subjects wearing an optimal refractive correction, a bias was recorded in favour of recognition over resolution acuity: the clinical difference amounted to approximately 40% of one logMAR chart line, with similar high repeatability for either chart optotype. We conclude that the assumption of clinical equivalence between letter and Landolt acuity is reasonable under optimum test conditions.

  14. Alternative (non-animal) methods for cosmetics testing: current status and future prospects-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler, Sarah; Basketter, David; Creton, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    The 7th amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive prohibits to put animal-tested cosmetics on the market in Europe after 2013. In that context, the European Commission invited stakeholder bodies (industry, non-governmental organisations, EU Member States, and the Commission's Scientific Committee...

  15. Animal alternatives for whole effluent toxicity testing: Perspectives from a global workshop (presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since the 1940s, effluent toxicity testing has been utilized to varying degrees in many countries to assess potential ecological impacts and assist in determining necessary treatment options for environmental protection. However, it was only in the early 1980’s that toxicit...

  16. Animal alternatives for whole effluent toxicity testing: Perspectives from a global workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since the 1940’s, effluent toxicity testing has been utilized to varying degrees in many countries to assess potential ecological impacts and assist in determining necessary treatment options for environmental protection. However, it was only in the early 1980’s that ...

  17. Does functional trait diversity predict aboveground biomass and productivity of tropical forests? Testing three alternative hypotheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finegan, B.; Pena Claros, M.; Silva de Oliveira, A.; Ascarrunz, N.; Bret-Harte, M.S.; Carreño Rocabado, I.G.; Casanoves, F.; Diaz, S.; Eguiguren Velepucha, P.; Fernandez, F.; Licona, J.C.; Lorenzo, L.; Salgado Negret, B.; Vaz, M.; Poorter, L.

    2014-01-01

    1. Tropical forests are globally important, but it is not clear whether biodiversity enhances carbon storage and sequestration in them. We tested this relationship focusing on components of functional trait biodiversity as predictors. 2. Data are presented for three rain forests in Bolivia, Brazil

  18. Does functional trait diversity predict aboveground biomass and productivity of tropical forests? Testing three alternative hypotheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finegan, B.; Peña Claros, M.; Oliviera, de A.; Alarcón, A.; Ascarrunz, N.; Bret-Harte, M.S.; Carreño-Rocabado, G.; Casanoves, F.; Díaz, S.; Eguiguren Velepucha, P.; Fernandez, F.; Licona, J.C.; Lorenzo, L.; Salgado Negret, B.; Vaz, M.; Poorter, L.

    2015-01-01

    Tropical forests are globally important, but it is not clear whether biodiversity enhances carbon storage and sequestration in them. We tested this relationship focusing on components of functional trait biodiversity as predictors. Data are presented for three rain forests in Bolivia, Brazil and

  19. Economic potential of alternative land and natural resource uses at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard-Haggard, K.

    1983-03-01

    The economic potentials of several alternative land uses at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) are estimated. Alternatives considered include mining, agriculture, grazing, and hunting. There are two known tungsten ore bodies located in the Oak Spring mining district. The economic potential of the reserves is estimated to be $42,840. It is also possible that there are other economic mineral resources on the NTS whose values are yet unknown. There are an estimated 5000 ha of agricultural land on the Test Site; the cash value of alfalfa grown on this acreage is approximately $564,030. The economic potential of grazing at the Test Site lies somewhere in the range of $10,340 to $41,220. The assumed annual worth of mule deer to hunters is $90,440. The gross potential of hunting at the NTS is probably somewhat higher if trophy species, game birds and fur-bearing animals are also considered. It should be noted that the above values indicate gross worth; no costs are included in the estimates

  20. Bundle duct interaction studies for fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsia, H.T.S.; Kaplan, S.

    1981-06-01

    It is known that the wire-wrapped rods and duct in an LMFBR are undergoing a gradual structural distortion from the initially uniform geometry under the combined effects of thermal expansion and irradiation induced swelling and creep. These deformations have a significant effect on flow characteristics, thus causing changes in thermal behavior such as cladding temperature and temperature distribution within a bundle. The temperature distribution may further enhance or retard irradiation induced deformation of the bundle. This report summarizes the results of the continuing effort in investigating the bundle-duct interaction, focusing on the need for the large development plant

  1. Acoustic power balance in lined ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eversman, W.

    1979-01-01

    It is shown that the two common definitions of acoustic energy density and intensity in uniform unlined ducts carrying uniform flow are compatible to the extent that both energy densities can be used in an appropriate variational principle to derive the convected wave equation. When the duct walls are lined both energy densities must be modified to account for the wall energy density. This results in a new energy conservation equation which utilizes a modified definition of axial power and accounts for wall dissipation. Computations in specific cases demonstrate the validity of the modified acoustic energy relation.

  2. Endolymphatic Thoracic Duct Stent-Graft Reconstruction for Chylothorax: Approach, Technical Success, Safety, and Short-term Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasa, Rajiv N; Chick, Jeffrey Forris Beecham; Hage, Anthony N; Gemmete, Joseph J; Murrey, Douglas C; Srinivasa, Ravi N

    2018-04-01

    To report approach, technical success, safety, and short-term outcomes of thoracic duct stent-graft reconstruction for the treatment of chylothorax. Two patients, 1 (50%) male and 1 (50%) female, with mean age of 38 years (range: 16-59 years) underwent endolymphatic thoracic duct stent-graft reconstruction between September 2016 and July 2017. Patients had radiographic left-sided chylothoraces (n = 2) from idiopathic causes (n = 1) and heart transplantation (n = 1). In both (100%) patients, antegrade lymphatic access was used to opacify the thoracic duct after which retrograde access was used for thoracic duct stent-graft placement. Pelvic lymphangiography technical success, antegrade cisterna chyli cannulation technical success, thoracic duct opacification technical success, retrograde thoracic duct access technical success, thoracic duct stent-graft reconstruction technical success, ethiodized oil volume, contrast volume, estimated blood loss, procedure time, fluoroscopy time, radiation dose, clinical success, complications, deaths, and follow-up were recorded. Pelvic lymphangiography, antegrade cisterna chyli cannulation, thoracic duct opacification, retrograde thoracic duct access, and thoracic duct stent-graft reconstruction were technically successful in both (100%) patients. Mean ethiodized oil volume was 8 mL (range: 5-10 mL). Mean contrast volume was 13 mL (range: 5-20 mL). Mean estimated blood loss was 13 mL (range: 10-15 mL). Mean fluoroscopy time was 50.4 min (range: 31.2-69.7 min). Mean dose area product and reference air kerma were 954.4 μGmy 2 (range: 701-1,208 μGmy 2 ) and 83.5 mGy (range: 59-108 mGy), respectively. Chylothorax resolved in both (100%) patients. There were no minor or major complications directly related to the procedure. Thoracic duct stent-graft reconstruction may be a technically successful and safe alternative to thoracic duct embolization, disruption, and surgical ligation for the treatment of chylothorax

  3. Testing with Values: the Refugee Problem and Political Prospects of the “Alternative for Germany”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Алена Васильевна Федина

    2018-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the reasons for the electoral success of the “Alternative for Germany” party at the federal and state levels in 2016-2017. Looking at the ideological spectrum of German political parties through the research lens of a two-dimensional coordinate system that, alongside the traditional ideological dimension includes the value axis, the author points out the fact that the problem of the refugees, which appeals to the values of the nation, perplexed German parties, as the choice of a particular strategy in regard to the refugees involved high risks of losing a significant number of votes. As a result, those parties, which managed to clearly articulate their system of values, above all the “Alternative”, benefited from this situation. The author states that the rise of the “Alternative” was caused by the “value vacuum” in the party life in Germany stemming from the progressive “open-door” refugee policy introduced by Chancellor Merkel in order to resolve the European refugee crisis. Much consideration is given to the reasons that led the CDU to adopt such an unusual strategy for a predominantly centrist party. In conclusion the author suggests that, in spite of its electoral success, political influence of the “Alternative” will be seriously limited by the unwillingness on the part of other parties to establish contacts and build inter-party ties with an inexperienced political player, which is prone to neglect the achievements of German democracy and does not fit into the framework of modern political mainstream. From the other hand, the tightening of the immigration policy weakens the protest potential of German voters.

  4. Validity study of Animal-City Alternating Form Fluency Test in the identification of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-bo SHI

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To identify the sensitivity and specificity of Animal-City Alternating Form Fluency Test (ACFT differentiating mild cognitive impairment (MCI and Alzheimer's disease (AD from normal controls.  Methods A total of 121 MCI patients, 104 AD patients and 104 healthy controls, who were matched in sex, age and education level, were enrolled in this study. They performed Animal Category Verbal Fluency Test (AFT, City Category Verbal Fluency Test (CFT and ACFT. A series of standard neuropsychological tests were also administered to reflect episodic memory, verbal ability, working memory, executive function and processing speed. The validity and related influencing factors of ACFT was evaluated.  Results Compared with control group, the ACFT correct number in MCI and AD groups reduced significantly (P = 0.000, 0.000. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve revealed the sensitivity and specificity of ACFT in discriminating MCI (P = 0.012, 0.030 and AD (P = 0.004, 0.003 from normal controls were higher than those of AFT and CFT. There was no correlation of correct number in ACFT with age and education (P > 0.05, for all. The correlations of ACFT with Stroop Color-Word Test (SCWT, Digital Symbol Substitution Test (DSST, Shape Trail Test (STT and Digit Span Test (DS, all of which reflected attention and executive function, were significantly closer than those of AFT and CFT (P < 0.05, for all. Conclusions ACFT is more efficient in early cognitive impairment identification than the other traditional category verbal fluency tests. It is a new variant form of category verbal fluency test that could assess cognitive function and could be broadly applied in clinical practice. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.07.010

  5. Testing a potential alternative to traditional identification procedures: Reaction time-based concealed information test does not work for lineups with cooperative witnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerland, Melanie; Wolfs, Andrea C F; Crans, Samantha; Verschuere, Bruno

    2017-11-27

    Direct eyewitness identification is widely used, but prone to error. We tested the validity of indirect eyewitness identification decisions using the reaction time-based concealed information test (CIT) for assessing cooperative eyewitnesses' face memory as an alternative to traditional lineup procedures. In a series of five experiments, a total of 401 mock eyewitnesses watched one of 11 different stimulus events that depicted a breach of law. Eyewitness identifications in the CIT were derived from longer reaction times as compared to well-matched foil faces not encountered before. Across the five experiments, the weighted mean effect size d was 0.14 (95% CI 0.08-0.19). The reaction time-based CIT seems unsuited for testing cooperative eyewitnesses' memory for faces. The careful matching of the faces required for a fair lineup or the lack of intent to deceive may have hampered the diagnosticity of the reaction time-based CIT.

  6. Recognition versus Resolution: a Comparison of Visual Acuity Results Using Two Alternative Test Chart Optotype

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan S. Pointer

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the difference between recognition (letter) and resolution (Landolt) visual acuity (VA) in a group of normally sighted subjects. Is it reasonable to assume that the two acuity measures are clinically equivalent? Methods: A pair of 6 m acuity test charts was produced: one comprised letters and the other Landolt broken rings. Construction of both charts conformed to the logMAR design format. Monocular VA was determined for the dominant eye of 300 screened and normally si...

  7. Proceedings of the Symposium on Current Concepts and Approaches on Animal Test Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    diagnostic laboratory. After publishing a series of papers on bovine tetany and mastitis , he joined the Medical Research Laboratory at Edgewood Arsenal in...Viability (Simons, 1981). f. Bovine Red Blood Cell/Hemolysis (Shadduck et. al., 1987). g. Mouse L929 fNbroblasts-Erythrocin C Staining (Frazier, 1988). h...1983). 3. Bovine Cornea/Corneal Opacity (Muir, 1984). 4. Proposed Mouse Eye/Permeability Test (Maurice and Singh, 1986). IV. INFLAMMATION/IMMUNITY 1

  8. Does functional trait diversity predict aboveground biomass and productivity of tropical forests? Testing three alternative hypotheses

    OpenAIRE

    Finegan, B.; Pena Claros, M.; Silva de Oliveira, A.; Ascarrunz, N.; Bret-Harte, M.S.; Carreño Rocabado, I.G.; Casanoves, F.; Diaz, S.; Eguiguren Velepucha, P.; Fernandez, F.; Licona, J.C.; Lorenzo, L.; Salgado Negret, B.; Vaz, M.; Poorter, L.

    2014-01-01

    1. Tropical forests are globally important, but it is not clear whether biodiversity enhances carbon storage and sequestration in them. We tested this relationship focusing on components of functional trait biodiversity as predictors. 2. Data are presented for three rain forests in Bolivia, Brazil and Costa Rica. Initial above-ground biomass and biomass increments of survivors, recruits and survivors + recruits (total) were estimated for trees ≥10 cm d.b.h. in 62 and 21 1.0-ha plots, respecti...

  9. Recognition versus Resolution: a Comparison of Visual Acuity Results Using Two Alternative Test Chart Optotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pointer, Jonathan S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To quantify the difference between recognition (letter) and resolution (Landolt) visual acuity (VA) in a group of normally sighted subjects. Is it reasonable to assume that the two acuity measures are clinically equivalent? Methods A pair of 6 m acuity test charts was produced: one comprised letters and the other Landolt broken rings. Construction of both charts conformed to the logMAR design format. Monocular VA was determined for the dominant eye of 300 screened and normally sighted optometric patients aged 16 to 40, each wearing an optical refractive (spectacle) correction. Results Letter acuity was superior to Landolt acuity (P≤0.0001). The mean paired acuity difference was -0.041 logMAR (standard deviation 0.034): the 95% limits of agreement were ±0.067 logMAR units or ±3.3 chart optotype. Repeatability was high and similar for each chart type (±2.1 and ±2.4 optotype for letter and Landolt, respectively). Gender, test sequence, and laterality of the dominant eye (left or right) were each non-statistically significant variables. Conclusions For normally sighted subjects wearing an optimal refractive correction, a bias was recorded in favour of recognition over resolution acuity: the clinical difference amounted to approximately 40% of one logMAR chart line, with similar high repeatability for either chart optotype. We conclude that the assumption of clinical equivalence between letter and Landolt acuity is reasonable under optimum test conditions.

  10. CASE REPORTS Thyroglossal duct cyst in adult Nigerians: a report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MacBook

    Thyroglossal duct cyst (TGDC) is the most common paediatric midline neck lesion. It is rare ... modified Sistrunk's operation and histology confirmed the diagnosis of thyroglossal cyst. ... surgical procedure for the treatment of thyroglossal duct ...

  11. Liver and Bile Duct Cancer—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liver cancer includes two major types: hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and intrahepatic bile duct cancer, also known as cholangiocarcinoma. Find evidence-based information on liver and bile duct cancer treatment, causes and prevention, screening, research, genomics and statistics.

  12. New concept of the buildup factor in bent ducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faik Ouahab, Z.; Jehouani, A.; Groetz, J.-E.

    2011-01-01

    A major problem confronting the radiation shielding designer is the accurate determination of neutron streaming through various penetrations in walls, ducts and mazes. The previous studies on neutron transmission were performed through empty ducts. The aim of this work is to evaluate the neutron transmission probability through a filled bent duct and the proposition of a new concept of the buildup factor for neutrons in multilegged ducts. An angular biaising technique is used in the Monte Carlo simulations to accelerate the calculation convergence. Results are first compared with those obtained by the MCNPX code. For an empty bent duct, the neutron transmission is only due to the neutron reflection on the duct wall. For a filled duct, the major contribution is due to the scattering on the atoms filling the duct.

  13. Species-specific considerations in using the fish embryo test as an alternative to identify endocrine disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Viktoria; Zhang, Xiaowei; Hecker, Markus; Schäfers, Christoph; Fischer, Rainer; Fenske, Martina

    2014-10-01

    A number of regulations have been implemented that aim to control the release of potentially adverse endocrine disrupters into the aquatic environment based on evidence from laboratory studies. Currently, such studies rely on testing approaches with adult fish because reliable alternatives have not been validated so far. Fish embryo tests have been proposed as such an alternative, and here we compared two species (medaka and zebrafish) to determine their suitability for the assessment of substances with estrogenic and anti-androgenic activity. Changes in gene expression (in here the phrase gene expression is used synonymously to gene transcription, although it is acknowledged that gene expression is additionally regulated, e.g., by translation and protein stability) patterns between the two species were compared in short term embryo exposure tests (medaka: 7-day post fertilization [dpf]; zebrafish: 48 and 96h post fertilization [hpf]) by using relative quantitative real-time RT-PCR. The tested genes were related to the hypothalamic-gonadal-axis and early steroidogenesis. Test chemicals included 17α-ethinylestradiol and flutamide as estrogenic and anti-androgenic reference compounds, respectively, as well as five additional substances with endocrine activities, namely bisphenol A, genistein, prochloraz, linuron and propanil. Estrogenic responses were comparable in 7-dpf medaka and 48/96-hpf zebrafish embryos and included transcriptional upregulation of aromatase b, vitellogenin 1 as well as steroidogenic genes, suggesting that both species reliably detected exposure to estrogenic compounds. However, anti-androgenic responses differed between the two species, with each species providing specific information concerning the mechanism of anti-androgenic disruption in fish embryos. Although small but significant changes in the expression of selected genes was observed in 48-hpf zebrafish embryos, exposure prolonged to 96hpf was necessary to obtain a response indicative

  14. Persistent Mullerian Duct Syndrome: an interesting case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, S; Sutton, P; Leow, K S; Kosai, N R; Razman, J; Hanafiah, H; Das, S

    2013-01-01

    Transverse testicular ectopia is an uncommon disorder of testicular ectopia. Nearly thirty percent of the cases is associated with Persistent mullerian duct syndrome which is characterized by karyotypically normal males with retained mullerian derivatives. Understanding the natural process of the condition and the association with malignant potential will allow for a better understanding of the optimal surgical approach. This is a case report of young male presented a left sided inguinal hernia in which the sac contained both testes and uterus. The literature review of the syndrome will be discussed.

  15. Friction coefficient measurements of silencers on specialized duct tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehnalek Stanislav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes test methods on air duct track in Laboratory of Environmental Engineering. It focuses on measurement of silencer parameter like is pressure loss coeffcient. Firstly, the paper describe the measurement apparatus with description of calculation method by standard ISO 7235 and energy equation. Then the paper presents three ways how to accomplish measurement because such way is not covered by procedure in standard. Then follows the evaluation of results of measurements on three types of silencer designed for HVAC applications. The article is concluded with discussion over measured data with outline for further research.

  16. Molecular characterization of apocrine salivary duct carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiosea, Simion I; Williams, Lindsay; Griffith, Christopher C; Thompson, Lester D R; Weinreb, Ilan; Bauman, Julie E; Luvison, Alyssa; Roy, Somak; Seethala, Raja R; Nikiforova, Marina N

    2015-06-01

    Contemporary classification and treatment of salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) require its thorough molecular characterization. Thirty apocrine SDCs were analyzed by the Ion Ampliseq Cancer HotSpot panel v2 for mutations in 50 cancer-related genes. Mutational findings were corroborated by immunohistochemistry (eg, TP53, BRAF, β-catenin, estrogen, and androgen receptors) or Sanger sequencing/SNaPshot polymerase chain reaction. ERBB2 (HER2), PTEN, FGFR1, CDKN2A/P16, CMET, EGFR, MDM2, and PIK3CA copy number changes were studied by fluorescence in situ hybridization. TP53 mutations (15/27, 56%), PTEN loss (11/29, 38%, including 2 cases with PTEN mutation), PIK3CA hotspot mutations (10/30, 33%), HRAS hotspot mutations (10/29; 34%), and ERBB2 amplification (9/29, 31%, including 1 case with mutation) represented the 5 most common abnormalities. There was no correlation between genetic changes and clinicopathologic parameters. There was substantial overlap between genetic changes: 8 of 9 cases with ERBB2 amplification also harbored a PIK3CA, HRAS, and TP53 mutation and/or PTEN loss. Six of 10 cases with PIK3CA mutation also had an HRAS mutation. These findings provide a molecular rationale for dual targeting of mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathways in SDC. FGFR1 amplification (3/29, 10%) represents a new potential target. On the basis of studies of breast carcinomas, the efficacy of anti-ERBB2 therapy will likely be decreased in SDC with ERBB2 amplification co-occurring with PIK3CA mutation or PTEN loss. Therefore, isolated ERBB2 testing is insufficient for theranostic stratification of apocrine SDC. On the basis of the prevalence and type of genetic changes, apocrine SDC appears to resemble one subtype of breast carcinoma-"luminal androgen receptor positive/molecular apocrine."

  17. Test Report #33: Compressor Calorimeter Test of R-410A Alternative: R-32/R-134a Mixture Using a Scroll Compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrestha, Som [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sharma, Vishaldeep [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Abdelaziz, Omar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-02-18

    This report investigates the tested performance of lower - GWP candidate refrigerant, 94.07 wt% R - 32 + 5.93 wt % R - 134 a mixture (hereafter referred to as R - 32/134a), as an alternative to baseline refrigerant R - 410 A using a 36,000 Btu/hr compressor calorimeter located at the Heat Exchanger Advanced Testing Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory . These tests were conducted during May and August 2013. R - 410A is a near - azeotropic blend of R - 32 and R - 125 with 0.5/0.5 mass fraction and has a GWP 100 of 2100. R - 32 and R - 134a are pure refrigerants and have GWP 100 of 716 and 1370 1, respectively. Based on the GWP 100 values of pure refrigerants and their mass fraction in the blend, GWP 100 of R - 32/134a, which is under development by National Refrigerant, is 755. This report compares various performance parameters, such as cooling capacity, compressor power, refrigerant mass flow rate, EER, isentropic efficiency and discharge temperature of the alternative refrigerant to that of R - 410 A.

  18. Drug testing with alternative matrices II. Mechanisms of cocaine and codeine deposition in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, R E; Höld, K M; Wilkins, D G; Rollins, D E; Cone, E J

    1999-10-01

    A 10-week inpatient study was performed to evaluate cocaine, codeine, and metabolite disposition in biological matrices collected from volunteers. An initial report described drug disposition in plasma, sebum, and stratum corneum collected from five African-American males. This report focuses on drug disposition in hair and sweat collected from the same five subjects. Following a three-week washout period, three doses of cocaine HCl (75 mg/70 kg, subcutaneous) and three doses of codeine SO4 (60 mg/70 kg, oral) were administered on alternating days in week 4 (low-dose week). The same dosing sequence was repeated in week 8 with doubled doses (high-dose week). Hair was collected by shaving the entire scalp once each week. Hair from the anterior vertex was divided into two portions. One portion was washed with isopropanol and phosphate buffer; the other portion was not washed. Hair was enzymatically digested, samples were centrifuged, and the supernatant was collected. Sweat was collected periodically by placing PharmChek sweat patches on the torso. Drugs were extracted from sweat patches with methanol/0.2 M sodium acetate buffer (75:25, v/v). Supernatants from hair digests, hair washes, and sweat patch extracts were processed by solid-phase extraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis for cocaine, codeine, 6-acetylmorphine, and metabolites. Cocaine and codeine were the primary analytes identified in sweat patches and hair. Drugs were detected in sweat within 8 h after dosing, and drug secretion primarily occurred within 24 h after dosing. No clear relationship was observed between dose and drug concentrations in sweat. Drug incorporation into hair appeared to be dose-dependent. Drugs were detected in hair within 1-3 days after the last drug administration; peak drug concentrations generally occurred in the following 1-2 weeks; thereafter, drug concentrations decreased. Solvent washes removed 50-55% of cocaine and codeine from hair collected 1

  19. Solitary intrahepatic bile-duct cyst presenting with Jaundice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jeong Mi; Chun, Ki Sung; Ha, Hyun Kwon; Shinn, Kyung Sub; Bahk, Yong Whee; Kim, Jun Gi

    1989-01-01

    Caroli's disease is an uncommon condition, and characterized by congenital segmental saccular dilatation of intrahepatic bile ducts. A case of Caroli's disease, manifested by only a large communicating cystic dilatation of left intrahepatic bile duct and causing extrinsic pressure over the extrahepatic bile duct, is presented. The patient was 43-year-old housewife, hospitalized because of abdominal distension and severe jaundice. To relieve jaundice and alleviate surgical intervention, percutaneous drainage of the bile-duct cyst preceded surgery

  20. Testing and evaluation of alternative process systems for immobilizing radioactive mixed particulate waste in cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weingardt, K.M.; Weber, J.R.

    1994-03-01

    Radioactive and Hazardous Mixed Wastes have accumulated at the Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. Ongoing operations and planned facilities at Hanford will also contribute to this waste stream. To meet the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Land Disposal Restrictions most of this waste will need to be treated to permit disposal. In general this treatment will need to include stabilization/solidification either as a sole method or as part of a treatment train. A planned DOE facility, the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Module 2A, is scoped to provide this required treatment for containerized contact-handled (CH), mixed low-level waste (MLLW) at Hanford. An engineering development program has been conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to select the best system for utilizing a cement based process in WRAP Module 2A. Three mixing processes were developed for analysis and testing; in-drum mixing, continuous mixing, and batch mixing. Some full scale tests were conducted and 55 gallon drums of solidified product were produced. These drums were core sampled and examined to evaluate mixing effectiveness. Total solids loading and the order of addition of waste and binder constituents were also varied. The highest confidence approach to meet the WRAP Module 2A waste immobilization system needs appears to be the out-of-drum batch mixing concept. This system is believed to offer the most flexibility and efficiency, given the highly variable and troublesome waste streams feeding the facility

  1. Metodologia alternativa para condução do teste de envelhecimento acelerado em sementes de milho Alternative methodology for the accelerated aging test for corn seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Regina Mudrovitsch de Bittencourt

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Os testes de vigor são rotineiramente empregados em programas internos de controle de qualidade por empresas sementeiras. Para tanto, é necessária a escolha de métodos eficientes que possibilitem a obtenção de respostas rápidas para a tomada de decisões relacionadas ao manuseio, descarte e comercialização dos lotes de sementes. A pesquisa objetivou verificar a redução do período de execução do teste de envelhecimento acelerado (EA em sementes de milho, empregando-se, para a avaliação do desempenho das sementes após o envelhecimento, o teste de tetrazólio - TZ (viabilidade e vigor em substituição ao de germinação (TG em 10 lotes de sementes de sete genótipos de milho, com e sem tratamento fungicida. Os dados obtidos com a metodologia proposta (EA+TZ foram comparados com os valores determinados pelo teste de envelhecimento acelerado realizado com a metodologia tradicional (EA+TG. O uso do teste de tetrazólio (vigor, associado ao teste de envelhecimento acelerado, possibilitou a obtenção de informações semelhantes às fornecidas pelo teste de germinação empregado para o mesmo fim, reduzindo de oito para três dias o tempo necessário para a obtenção dos resultados em sementes de milho.Some vigor tests are routinely used by seed industry for internal programs of seed quality control. Then, it is requested the use of efficient methods to obtain quick answers to take right decisions related to the management, discard and trade of seed lots. This research was carried out in order to study the possibility to short the period to get the accelerated aging test (AA results, using the tetrazolium test (TZ instead of germination test (GT to evaluate the seed performance after the seed aging. Tem corn seed lots were used, with and without fungicide treatment. The data obtained using the alternative method (AA+TZ were compared with those determined by the traditional one (AA+GT. There was discrimination among seed lots using

  2. EU sales ban on new cosmetics tested on animals: impact on alternative methods, WTO implications and animal welfare aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhdel, Irmela W

    2004-06-01

    In 1993, the European Union (EU) adopted Directive 93/35/EEC, calling for a sales ban on new cosmetic products containing ingredients tested on animals after 1 January, 1998, provided that alternative methods had been developed by then. In May 2000, for the second time, the European Commission postponed that ban. The Commission justified the repeated postponement of the sales ban by saying that no animal-free methods were available, although three in vitro methods were scientifically approved in 1997. With three years delay, these methods have been published and therefore "made available" in the EU. OECD acceptance is still awaited. Another reason for the postponement was the fear of possible World Trade Organisation (WTO) conflicts. However, according to WTO rules, the protection of public morality or animal health could justify a restriction of the free trade principle. From the animal welfare point of view, an unqualified EU sales ban, combined with an animal testing ban, would provide the incentive to further promote the development and acceptance of alternative methods and to prove that ethical standards are legitimate concerns under WTO rules.

  3. Persistent Mullerian Duct Syndrome (PMDS With Large Intraabdominal Seminoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Della Harigovind

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Persistent Mullerian Duct Syndrome, a form of male pseudohermaphroditism is characterized by the presence of the Mullerian duct derivatives in an otherwise phenotypically as well as genotypically normal male. We report a case of large intra abdominal seminoma in a male patient with cryptorchidism, along with persistence of Mullerian duct derivatives (uterus.

  4. Common Bile Duct Perforation Due to Tuberculosis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razman Jarmin

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available A young man with HIV presented with biliary peritonitis secondary to spontaneous common bile duct perforation. Investigation revealed that the perforation was due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculosis of the bile duct is uncommon and usually presents with obstructive jaundice due to stricture. Bile duct perforation due to tuberculosis is extremely rare. Its management is discussed.

  5. Common Bile Duct Perforation Due to Tuberculosis: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Razman Jarmin; Shaharin Shaharuddin

    2004-01-01

    A young man with HIV presented with biliary peritonitis secondary to spontaneous common bile duct perforation. Investigation revealed that the perforation was due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculosis of the bile duct is uncommon and usually presents with obstructive jaundice due to stricture. Bile duct perforation due to tuberculosis is extremely rare. Its management is discussed.

  6. Iatrogenic injury of an aberrant right posterior sectoral bile duct

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Figs 1 and 2). A week later, an endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. (ERCP) examination was performed. This showed no filling of the right posterior sectoral ducts but normal opacification of the other ducts. (Figs 3a and b). These findings led to the diagnosis of an aberrant right posterior sectoral bile duct that ...

  7. A case of fascioliasis in common bile duct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, Soo Youn; Park, Cheol Min; Chung, Kyu Byung; Lee, Chang Hong; Park, Seung Chul; Choi, Sang Yong; Lim, Han Jong [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-10-15

    A case of Fascioliasis of common bile duct is confirmed by visualization of adult fluke. Fascioliasis caused by Fasciola hepatica, is common parasitic disease in cattle and sheep. Human is an accidental host. ERCP demonstrated irregular linear conglomerated filling defects in common bile duct. Through surgical intervention, we found adult flukes of F. hepatica and adenomatous hyperplasia of common bile duct.

  8. A case of fascioliasis in common bile duct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, Soo Youn; Park, Cheol Min; Chung, Kyu Byung; Lee, Chang Hong; Park, Seung Chul; Choi, Sang Yong; Lim, Han Jong

    1989-01-01

    A case of Fascioliasis of common bile duct is confirmed by visualization of adult fluke. Fascioliasis caused by Fasciola hepatica, is common parasitic disease in cattle and sheep. Human is an accidental host. ERCP demonstrated irregular linear conglomerated filling defects in common bile duct. Through surgical intervention, we found adult flukes of F. hepatica and adenomatous hyperplasia of common bile duct

  9. A small solitary non-parasitic hepatic cyst causing an intra-hepatic bile duct stricture: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Taeho

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We report an unusual presentation of a small hepatic cyst causing cholangitis. Case presentation A 70-year-old Asian man was hospitalized for aggravated chronic pain in the right upper portion of his abdomen. Fever developed after admission. Laboratory tests revealed elevated hepatobiliary enzymes, inflammatory markers and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 without hyperbilirubinemia. Ultrasound and computed tomography demonstrated dilatation of the left intra-hepatic bile ducts. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography showed that the right intra-hepatic bile ducts were normally filled with contrast medium, but the left intra-hepatic bile ducts were not seen in the confluence. A left hepatectomy was performed because a hidden malignancy could not be excluded. The surgical findings showed no tumor around the bile duct but rather a 2 cm cyst in segment four of Couinaud's category of the liver around the hilum. The pathology report was a solitary non-parasitic hepatic cyst compressing the bile duct. Conclusion A very small solitary hepatic cyst might cause hepatic duct stricture if it is located near the hepatic hilum, and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a hepatic duct stricture.

  10. Testing an Alternative Method for Estimating the Length of Fungal Hyphae Using Photomicrography and Image Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qinhua; Kirschbaum, Miko U F; Hedley, Mike J; Camps Arbestain, Marta

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to develop and test an unbiased and rapid methodology to estimate the length of external arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) hyphae in soil. The traditional visual gridline intersection (VGI) method, which consists in a direct visual examination of the intersections of hyphae with gridlines on a microscope eyepiece after aqueous extraction, membrane-filtration, and staining (e.g., with trypan blue), was refined. For this, (i) images of the stained hyphae were taken by using a digital photomicrography technique to avoid the use of the microscope and the method was referred to as "digital gridline intersection" (DGI) method; and (ii), the images taken in (i) were processed and the hyphal length was measured by using ImageJ software, referred to as the "photomicrography-ImageJ processing" (PIP) method. The DGI and PIP methods were tested using known grade lengths of possum fur. Then they were applied to measure the hyphal lengths in soils with contrasting phosphorus (P) fertility status. Linear regressions were obtained between the known lengths (Lknown) of possum fur and the values determined by using either the DGI (LDGI) (LDGI = 0.37 + 0.97 × Lknown, r2 = 0.86) or PIP (LPIP) methods (LPIP = 0.33 + 1.01 × Lknown, r2 = 0.98). There were no significant (P > 0.05) differences between the LDGI and LPIP values. While both methods provided accurate estimation (slope of regression being 1.0), the PIP method was more precise, as reflected by a higher value of r2 and lower coefficients of variation. The average hyphal lengths (6.5-19.4 m g-1) obtained by the use of these methods were in the range of those typically reported in the literature (3-30 m g-1). Roots growing in P-deficient soil developed 2.5 times as many hyphae as roots growing in P-rich soil (17.4 vs 7.2 m g-1). These tests confirmed that the use of digital photomicrography in conjunction with either the grid-line intersection principle or image processing is a suitable method for the

  11. Separation of Hepatic parenchymal and Intrahepatic bile duct isotope activity: Studies of parenchymal function and bile duct flow using dynamic Tc-99m HIDA SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonas, E.; Naslund, E.; Freedman, J.; Hultcrantz, R.; Slezak, P.; Jacobsson, H.

    2003-01-01

    Currently used liver function tests have several shortcomings. Most of them are either insensitive or non-specific. The ultimate liver function test is probably a dynamic study, using a test substance with exclusive hepatic elimination and bile excretion, detected by means of a non?invasive method enabling sampling from all relevant compartments. In this paper we describe a method which enables measurements of parenchymal function and bile flow in different liver segments. The study was performed on 20 healthy volunteers. Tc-99m HIDA was used as test substrate and repeated Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) registrations as sampling method. Following injection of 120 MBq of Tc-99m HIDA, twelve liver SPECT examinations were performed at 6-minute intervals. Duct-representing peaks on images were detected by cranio-caudal activity scanning. Sampling from parenchyma and bile ducts in liver segments 2 to 8 was performed on consecutive examinations, creating time-activity graphs for parenchyma and ducts. Quantitative analysis of parenchymal and duct curves was performed and the results obtained from the left and right-sided liver segments were compared. Maximum counts/voxel (C max ) of left-sided segments (mean=33.2) were significantly lower than the values from right-sided segments (mean=24.7) and flow of isotope from parenchyma to bile ducts was significantly slower on the left. Furthermore, bile flow in ducts draining left-sided segments was slower than flow on the right side as reflected in significantly longer excretion t 1/2 (28.9 compared to 25.2 minutes) and delayed t max . (21.7 compared to 17.0 minutes). It has been concluded that the new method could provide a differential analysis of tracer flow in the hepatic parenchyma and the bile ducts. This pilot study on normal subjects has revealed interesting differences in both parenchymal accumulation as well as biliary excretion between left and right-sided segments. However, the value of the method

  12. Internal radiotherapy for hilar bile duct cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Munemasa; Ogino, Takashi; Konishi, Hiroshi

    1999-01-01

    By December 1998, 24 patients with non-resected hilar bile duct cancer (mean age of 74) had received bile duct intracavitary irradiation and 13 patients with residual cancer after resection of hilar bile duct cancer had received postoperative intracavitary irradiation. After they were externally irradiated 30 Gy in total by 15 fractions (2 Gy/time, 5 times in a week), intracavitary irradiation using 192-Ir was given 5 times in total (2 times in a week) from 3 weeks after external irradiation under the condition which dose became 8 Gy in depth of 10 mm from radiation source. The cases of postoperative irradiation had 3 times in total. As for 20 patients of non-resected hilar bile duct cancer without metastasis, 50% survival time was 265 days and there was no 5 year survivor. Fifty percents survival time of 4 patients with metastasis was 113 days. The effect of local control was recognized in 20 patients (83.3%). In 13 patients of postoperative irradiation, 50% survival time was 554 days, and survival rate of 3 years was 28%. (K.H.)

  13. 46 CFR 116.610 - Ventilation ducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... incidental to its installation, must be made of noncombustible material. (c) Combustibles and other foreign materials are not allowed within ventilation ducts. However, metal piping and electrical wiring installed in... the wiring does not interfere with the operation of fire dampers. Electrical wiring and piping may not...

  14. Calcium influx pathways in rat pancreatic ducts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hug, M J; Pahl, C; Novak, I

    1996-01-01

    A number of agonists increase intracellular Ca2+ activity, [Ca2+]i, in pancreatic ducts, but the influx/efflux pathways and intracellular Ca2+ stores in this epithelium are unknown. The aim of the present study was to characterise the Ca2+ influx pathways, especially their pH sensitivity, in nati...

  15. MR findings in thyroglossal duct cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blandino, A.; Salvi, L.; Chirico, G.; Scribano, E.; Longo, M.; Pandolfo, I.

    1990-01-01

    Two patients with thyroglossal duct cysts have been studied with CT and MR. The typical CT feature of these cystic upper-neck lesions are depicted in literature, conversely MR findings are not well known. The homogeneous high intensity on T1-weighted images, higher than simple cyst or fluid, is the most typical feature of the thyroglossal cyst. (author). 12 refs.; 5 figs

  16. [Bile duct lesions in laparoscopic cholecystectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siewert, J R; Ungeheuer, A; Feussner, H

    1994-09-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is both resulting in a slightly higher incidence of biliary lesions and a change of prevalence of the type of lesions. Damage to the biliary system occurs in 4 different types: The most severe case is the lesion with a structural defect of the hepatic or common bile duct with (IVa) or without (IVb) vascular injury. Tangential lesions without structural loss of the duct should be denominated as type III (IIIa with additional lesion to the vessels, type IIIb without). Type II comprehends late strictures without obvious intraoperative trauma to the duct. Type I includes immediate biliary fistulae of usually good prognosis. The increasing prevalence of structural defects of the bile ducts appears to be a peculiarity of laparoscopic cholecystectomy necessitating highly demanding operative repair. In the majority of cases, hepatico-jejunostomy or even intraparenchymatous anastomoses are required. Adaptation of well proven principles of open surgery is the best prevention of biliary lesions in laparoscopic cholecystectomy as well as the readiness to convert early to the open procedure.

  17. Whistler instability in a magnetospheric duct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talukdar, I.; Tripathi, V.K.; Jain, V.K.

    1989-01-01

    A whistler wave propagating through a preformed magnetospheric duct is susceptible to growth/amplification by an electron beam. The interaction is non-local and could be of Cerenkov or slow-cyclotron type. First-order perturbation theory is employed to obtain the growth rate for flat and Gaussian beam densities. (author)

  18. Utilizing atomic force spectroscopy to test an alternative electrodynamic theory of superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peronio, Angelo; Giessibl, Franz J. [Institut fuer Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    In the traditional theoretical description of superconductivity, a static electric field cannot penetrate a superconductor, since screening occurs like in a normal metal. This can be traced back to the fact that the London equations, the phenomenological equations describing the electrodynamics of superconductors, are derived within the Coulomb gauge. J. E. Hirsch proposes to use the Lorenz gauge instead [2], deriving a consistent solution where the electric field penetrates the superconductor up to the London penetration depth. We report on initial experiments to test Hirsch's hypothesis, performed with a combined STM/AFM qPlus sensor equipped with a superconducting tip. If a superconductor screens electric fields differently from a normal metal, the electrostatic interaction between tip and sample should change when the tip becomes superconductive.

  19. Cold flow testing of the Space Shuttle Main Engine alternate turbopump development high pressure fuel turbine model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddis, Stephen W.; Hudson, Susan T.; Johnson, P. D.

    1992-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has established a cold airflow turbine test program to experimentally determine the performance of liquid rocket engine turbopump drive turbines. Testing of the SSME alternate turbopump development (ATD) fuel turbine was conducted for back-to-back comparisons with the baseline SSME fuel turbine results obtained in the first quarter of 1991. Turbine performance, Reynolds number effects, and turbine diagnostics, such as stage reactions and exit swirl angles, were investigated at the turbine design point and at off-design conditions. The test data showed that the ATD fuel turbine test article was approximately 1.4 percent higher in efficiency and flowed 5.3 percent more than the baseline fuel turbine test article. This paper describes the method and results used to validate the ATD fuel turbine aerodynamic design. The results are being used to determine the ATD high pressure fuel turbopump (HPFTP) turbine performance over its operating range, anchor the SSME ATD steady-state performance model, and validate various prediction and design analyses.

  20. A roadmap for the development of alternative (non-animal) methods for systemic toxicity testing - t4 report*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basketter, David A; Clewell, Harvey; Kimber, Ian; Rossi, Annamaria; Blaauboer, Bas; Burrier, Robert; Daneshian, Mardas; Eskes, Chantra; Goldberg, Alan; Hasiwa, Nina; Hoffmann, Sebastian; Jaworska, Joanna; Knudsen, Thomas B; Landsiedel, Robert; Leist, Marcel; Locke, Paul; Maxwell, Gavin; McKim, James; McVey, Emily A; Ouédraogo, Gladys; Patlewicz, Grace; Pelkonen, Olavi; Roggen, Erwin; Rovida, Costanza; Ruhdel, Irmela; Schwarz, Michael; Schepky, Andreas; Schoeters, Greet; Skinner, Nigel; Trentz, Kerstin; Turner, Marian; Vanparys, Philippe; Yager, James; Zurlo, Joanne; Hartung, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Systemic toxicity testing forms the cornerstone for the safety evaluation of substances. Pressures to move from traditional animal models to novel technologies arise from various concerns, including: the need to evaluate large numbers of previously untested chemicals and new products (such as nanoparticles or cell therapies), the limited predictivity of traditional tests for human health effects, duration and costs of current approaches, and animal welfare considerations. The latter holds especially true in the context of the scheduled 2013 marketing ban on cosmetic ingredients tested for systemic toxicity. Based on a major analysis of the status of alternative methods (Adler et al., 2011) and its independent review (Hartung et al., 2011), the present report proposes a roadmap for how to overcome the acknowledged scientific gaps for the full replacement of systemic toxicity testing using animals. Five whitepapers were commissioned addressing toxicokinetics, skin sensitization, repeated-dose toxicity, carcinogenicity, and reproductive toxicity testing. An expert workshop of 35 participants from Europe and the US discussed and refined these whitepapers, which were subsequently compiled to form the present report. By prioritizing the many options to move the field forward, the expert group hopes to advance regulatory science.

  1. Alternative Chemical Cleaning Methods for High Level Waste Tanks: Actual Waste Testing with SRS Tank 5F Sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, William D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hay, Michael S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-30

    Solubility testing with actual High Level Waste tank sludge has been conducted in order to evaluate several alternative chemical cleaning technologies for the dissolution of sludge residuals remaining in the tanks after the exhaustion of mechanical cleaning and sludge sluicing efforts. Tests were conducted with archived Savannah River Site (SRS) radioactive sludge solids that had been retrieved from Tank 5F in order to determine the effectiveness of an optimized, dilute oxalic/nitric acid cleaning reagent toward dissolving the bulk non-radioactive waste components. Solubility tests were performed by direct sludge contact with the oxalic/nitric acid reagent and with sludge that had been pretreated and acidified with dilute nitric acid. For comparison purposes, separate samples were also contacted with pure, concentrated oxalic acid following current baseline tank chemical cleaning methods. One goal of testing with the optimized reagent was to compare the total amounts of oxalic acid and water required for sludge dissolution using the baseline and optimized cleaning methods. A second objective was to compare the two methods with regard to the dissolution of actinide species known to be drivers for SRS tank closure Performance Assessments (PA). Additionally, solubility tests were conducted with Tank 5 sludge using acidic and caustic permanganate-based methods focused on the “targeted” dissolution of actinide species.

  2. Research on thermal insulation for hot gas ducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broeckerhoff, P.

    1984-01-01

    The inner surfaces of prestressed reactor vessels and hot gas ducts of Gas Cooled High Temperature Reactors need internal thermal insulation to protect the pressure bearing walls from high temperatures. The design parameters of the insulation depend on the reactor type. In a PNP-plant temperature and pressure of the cooling medium helium are proposed to be 950 deg. C and 40 bars, respectively. The experimental work was started at KFA in 1971 for the HHT-project using three test facilities. At first metallic foil insulation and stuffed fibre insulating systems, the hot gas ducting shrouds of which were made of metal, have been tested. Because of the elevated helium temperature in case of PNP and the resulting lower strength of the metallic parts the interest was directed to rigid ceramic materials for the spacers and the inner shrouds. This led to modified structures designed by the INTERATOM company. Tests were performed at KFA. The main object of the investigations was to study the influence of temperature, pressure and axial pressure gradients on the thermal efficiency of the structures. Moreover, the temperatures within the insulation, at the pressure tube, and at the elements which bear the inner shrouds were measured. Thermal fluxes and effective thermal conductivities in axial and circumferential direction of the pressure tube are given, mainly for the INTERATOM-design with spherical spacers. (author)

  3. Tolerance of bile duct to intraoperative irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sindelar, W.F.; Tepper, J.; Travis, E.L.

    1982-01-01

    In order to determine the effects of intraoperative radiation therapy of the bile duct and surrounding tissues, seven adult dogs were subjected to laparotomy and intraoperative irradiation with 11 MeV electrons. Two animals were treated at each dose level of 2000, 3000, and 4500 rads. A single dog which received a laparotomy and sham irradiation served as a control. The irradiation field consisted of a 5 cm diameter circle encompassing the extrahepatic bile duct, portal vein, hepatic artery, and lateral duodenal wall. The animals were followed clinically for mor than 18 months after treatment, and autopsies were performed on dogs that died to assess radiation-induced complications or tissue damage. All dogs developed fibrosis and mural thickening of the common duct, which appeared by 6 weeks following irradiation and which was dose-related, being mild at low doses and more severe at high doses. Hepatic changes were seen as early as 6 weeks after irradiation, consisting of periportal inflammation and fibrosis. The hepatic changes appeared earliest at the highest doses. Frank biliary cirrhosis eventually developed at all dose levels. Duodenal fibrosis appeared in the irradiation portal, being most severe at the highest doses and in some animals resulting in duodenal obstruction. No changes were observed in irradiated portions of portal vein and hepatic artery at any dose level. It was concluded that intraoperative radiation therapy delivered to the region of the common duct leads to ductal fibrosis, partial biliary obstruction with secondary hepatic changes, and duodenal fibrosis if bowel wall is included in the field. Clinical use of intraoperative radiation therapy to the bile duct in humans may require routine use of biliary and duodenal bypass to prevent obstructive complications

  4. Are Ducted Mini-Splits Worth It?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, Jonathan M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maguire, Jeffrey B [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Metzger, Cheryn E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Zhang, Jason [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2018-02-01

    Ducted mini-split heat pumps are gaining popularity in some regions of the country due to their energy-efficient specifications and their ability to be hidden from sight. Although product and install costs are typically higher than the ductless mini-split heat pumps, this technology is well worth the premium for some homeowners who do not like to see an indoor unit in their living area. Due to the interest in this technology by local utilities and homeowners, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has funded the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop capabilities within the Building Energy Optimization (BEopt) tool to model ducted mini-split heat pumps. After the fundamental capabilities were added, energy-use results could be compared to other technologies that were already in BEopt, such as zonal electric resistance heat, central air source heat pumps, and ductless mini-split heat pumps. Each of these technologies was then compared using five prototype configurations in three different BPA heating zones to determine how the ducted mini-split technology would perform under different scenarios. The result of this project was a set of EnergyPlus models representing the various prototype configurations in each climate zone. Overall, the ducted mini-split heat pumps saved about 33-60% compared to zonal electric resistance heat (with window AC systems modeled in the summer). The results also showed that the ducted mini-split systems used about 4% more energy than the ductless mini-split systems, which saved about 37-64% compared to electric zonal heat (depending on the prototype and climate).

  5. CT findings of thyroglossal duct cyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Oh; Kim, Hong Soo; So, Hyun Soon; Nam, Mee Young; Choi, Jae Ho; Rhee, Hak Song

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the CT findings of thyroglossal duct cysts. Sixteen patients with pathologically proved thyroglossal duct cysts were included in the study. CT scans were assessed retrospectively for shape, size, location, density of the central portions, septations, rim enhancement, changes in the adjacent fascial planes and investment within the strap muscles in the infrahyoid cysts. Thirteen cases of thyroglossal duct cysts were seen as round or oval cystic masses, two cases of them were seen as irregular-shaped lobulated cystic masses, and one case was seen as ovoid soft tissue mass. The cysts were from 1.4 to 5.7 cm in diameter (mean, 2.6 cm). The cyst was infrahyoid in 15 cases and suprahyoid in one case. The cyst was located in midline in eight cases, off midline in four cases, and both midline and off midline in four cases. The density of the central portions ranged from 15 to 82HU (mean, 32HU). Septations were noted in four cases. Rim enhancement was seen in 14 cases (93%), and heterogeneously enhancing soft tissue mass was seen in one case. In four cases, abnormal fascial planes were observed. All but one of the infrahyoid cysts (14/15) were embedded within the strap muscles, and one case of them was located anteriorly to strap muscles. CT permits one to make the diagnosis a thyroglossal duct cyst with a high degree of accuracy, as it can differentiate thyroglossal duct cysts from the other anterior neck masses by their typical location, characteristic morphology, and investment within the strap muscles

  6. Classification of solid industrial waste based on ecotoxicology tests using Daphnia magna: an alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Gerson Matias

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The adequate treatment and final disposal of solid industrial wastes depends on their classification into class I or II. This classification is proposed by NBR 10.004; however, it is complex and time-consuming. With a view to facilitating this classification, the use of assays with Daphnia magna is proposed. These assays make possible the identification of toxic chemicals in the leach, which denotes the presence of one of the characteristics described by NBR 10.004, the toxicity, which is a sufficient argument to put the waste into class I. Ecotoxicological tests were carried out with ten samples of solid wastes of frequent production and, on the basis of the results from EC(I50/48h of those samples in comparison with the official classification of NBR 10.004, limits were established for the classification of wastes into class I or II. A coincidence in the classification of 50% of the analyzed samples was observed. In cases in which there is no coherence between the methods, the method proposed in this work classifies the waste into class I. These data are preliminary, but they reveal that the classification system proposed here is promising because of its quickness and economic viability.

  7. Work-family conflict, locus of control, and women's well-being: tests of alternative pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Noraini M

    2002-10-01

    The author tested for the 3 possible pathways (i.e., direct, moderator, and mediator effects) in which locus of control can influence the relationship between work-family conflict and well-being. The author predicted that work-family conflict would be negatively correlated with well-being. In a sample of 310 Malaysian employed women with families, work-family conflict was a significant predictor of both job satisfaction and distress--negatively related to job satisfaction and positively related to symptoms of distress. More important, the results provided support for the effects of all 3 pathways of control on the relationship between work-family conflict and well-being, depending on the outcome measure: For job satisfaction, locus of control had direct effects, acted as a partial mediator, and played a significant moderating role. In contrast, only the direct effect of locus of control predicted distress. The author discusses those findings with reference to the literature on work-family conflict, locus of control, and the issue of stress-distress specificity.

  8. Bubble retention in synthetic sludge: Testing of alternative gas retention apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rassat, S.D.; Gauglitz, P.A.

    1995-07-01

    Several of the underground storage tanks currently used to store waste at Hanford have been placed on the Flammable Gas Watch List, because the waste is either known or suspected to generate, store, and episodically release flammable gases. The objective of this experimental study is to develop a method to measure gas bubble retention in simulated tank waste and in diluted simulant. The method and apparatus should (1) allow for reasonably rapid experiments, (2) minimize sample disturbance, and (3) provide realistic bubble nucleation and growth. The scope of this experimental study is to build an apparatus for measuring gas retention in simulated waste and to design the apparatus to be compatible with future testing on actual waste. The approach employed for creating bubbles in sludge involves dissolving a soluble gas into the supernatant liquid at an elevated pressure, recirculating the liquid containing the dissolved gas through the sludge, then reducing the pressure to allow bubbles to nucleate and grow. Results have been obtained for ammonia as the soluble gas and SY1-SIM-91A, a chemically representative simulated tank waste. In addition, proof-of-principle experiments were conducted with both ammonia and CO 2 as soluble gases and sludge composed of 90-micron glass beads. Results are described

  9. Testing the theory of emissions trading. Experimental evidence on alternative mechanisms for global carbon trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klaassen, Ger; Nentjes, Andries; Smith, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Simulation models and theory prove that emission trading converges to market equilibrium. This paper sets out to test these results using experimental economics. Three experiments are conducted for the six largest carbon emitting industrialized regions. Two experiments use auctions, the first a single bid auction and the second a Walrasian auction. The third relies on bilateral, sequential trading. The paper finds that, in line with the standard theory, both auctions and bilateral, sequential trading capture a significant part (88% to 99%) of the potential cost savings of emission trading. As expected from trade theory, all experiments show that the market price converges (although not fully) to the market equilibrium price. In contrast to the theory, the results also suggest that not every country might gain from trading. In both the bilateral trading experiment and the Walrasian auction, one country actually is worse off with trade. In particular bilateral, sequential trading leads to a distribution of gains significantly different from the competitive market outcome. This is due to speculative behavior, imperfect foresight and market power

  10. Eucalyptus biodiesel as an alternative to diesel fuel: preparation and tests on DI diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarabet, Lyes; Loubar, Khaled; Lounici, Mohand Said; Hanchi, Samir; Tazerout, Mohand

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, the increasing oil consumption throughout the world induces crucial economical, security, and environmental problems. As a result, intensive researches are undertaken to find appropriate substitution to fossil fuels. In view of the large amount of eucalyptus trees present in arid areas, we focus in this study on the investigation of using eucalyptus biodiesel as fuel in diesel engine. Eucalyptus oil is converted by transesterification into biodiesel. Eucalyptus biodiesel characterization shows that the physicochemical properties are comparable to those of diesel fuel. In the second phase, a single cylinder air-cooled, DI diesel engine was used to test neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends with diesel fuel in various ratios (75, 50, and 25 by v%) at several engine loads. The engine combustion parameters such as peak pressure, rate of pressure rise, and heat release rate are determined. Performances and exhaust emissions are also evaluated at all operating conditions. Results show that neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends present significant improvements of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbon, and particulates emissions especially at high loads with equivalent performances to those of diesel fuel. However, the NOx emissions are slightly increased when the biodiesel content is increased in the blend.

  11. Developing flow in S-shaped ducts. 2: Circular cross-section duct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, A. M. K. P.; Whitelaw, J. H.; Yianneskis, M.

    1984-01-01

    Laser-Doppler velocimetry measured the laminar and turbulent streamwise flow in a S-duct. The wall pressure distribution and one component of cross-stream velocity were also obtained for the turbulent flow case. Boundary layers near the duct inlet were about 25 percent of the hydraulic diameter in the laminar flow and varied around the periphery of the pipe between 10 percent and 20 percent in turbulent flow. Pressure-driven secondary flows develop in the first half of the S-duct and are attenuated and reversed in the second half. For both Reynolds numbers there is a region near the outer wall of the second half of the duct where the sign of the radial vorticity results in an enforcement of the secondary flow which was established in the first half of the S-duct. The core flow migrates, for both Reynolds numbers, to the outside wall of the first half and lies towards the inside wall of the second half of the S-duct at the outlet. The thinner inlet boundary layers in the turbulent flow give rise to weaker secondary motion.

  12. Comparison of the mouse Embryonic Stem cell Test, the rat Whole Embryo Culture and the Zebrafish Embryotoxicity Test as alternative methods for developmental toxicity testing of six 1,2,4-triazoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong, Esther de; Barenys, Marta; Hermsen, Sanne A.B.; Verhoef, Aart; Ossendorp, Bernadette C.; Bessems, Jos G.M.; Piersma, Aldert H.

    2011-01-01

    The relatively high experimental animal use in developmental toxicity testing has stimulated the search for alternatives that are less animal intensive. Three widely studied alternative assays are the mouse Embryonic Stem cell Test (EST), the Zebrafish Embryotoxicity Test (ZET) and the rat postimplantation Whole Embryo Culture (WEC). The goal of this study was to determine their efficacy in assessing the relative developmental toxicity of six 1,2,4-triazole compounds, flusilazole, hexaconazole, cyproconazole, triadimefon, myclobutanil and triticonazole. For this purpose, we analyzed effects and relative potencies of the compounds in and among the alternative assays and compared the findings to their known in vivo developmental toxicity. Triazoles are antifungal agents used in agriculture and medicine, some of which are known to induce craniofacial and limb abnormalities in rodents. The WEC showed a general pattern of teratogenic effects, typical of exposure to triazoles, mainly consisting of reduction and fusion of the first and second branchial arches, which are in accordance with the craniofacial malformations reported after in vivo exposure. In the EST all triazole compounds inhibited cardiomyocyte differentiation concentration-dependently. Overall, the ZET gave the best correlation with the relative in vivo developmental toxicities of the tested compounds, closely followed by the EST. The relative potencies observed in the WEC showed the lowest correlation with the in vivo developmental toxicity data. These differences in the efficacy between the test systems might be due to differences in compound kinetics, in developmental stages represented and in the relative complexity of the alternative assays.

  13. ALP - blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tissues with higher amounts of ALP include the liver, bile ducts, and bone. A blood test can be done ... and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Bile Duct Diseases Read more Bone Diseases Read more Liver Function Tests Read more A.D.A.M., ...

  14. Long-term follow-up after choledochojejunostomy for bile duct stones with complex clearance of the bile duct

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouma, D. J.; Konsten, J.; Soeters, P. B.; Von Meyenfeldt, M.; Obertop, H.

    1989-01-01

    In this retrospective study, the long-term follow-up of patients undergoing choledochojejunostomy (Roux-en-Y) for bile duct stones with complex clearance of the bile duct is evaluated. Bile duct exploration and subsequent choledochojejunostomy (Roux-en-Y) was performed in 43 patients (median age 67

  15. Testing alternative factor models of PTSD and the robustness of the dysphoria factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elklit, Ask; Armour, Cherie; Shevlin, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This study first aimed to examine the structure of self-reported posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms using three different samples. The second aim of the paper was to test the robustness of the factor analytic model when depression scores were controlled for. Based on previous factor analytic findings and the DSM-IV formulation, six confirmatory factor models were specified and estimated that reflected different symptom clusters. The best fitting model was subsequently re-fitted to the data after including a depression variable. The analyses were based on responses from 973 participants across three samples. Sample 1 consisted of 633 parents who were members of 'The National Association of Infant Death' and who had lost a child. Sample 2 consisted of 227 victims of rape, who completed a questionnaire within 4 weeks of the rape. Each respondent had been in contact with the Centre for Rape Victims (CRV) at the Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark. Sample 3 consisted of 113 refugees resident in Denmark. All participants had been referred to a treatment centre which focused on rehabilitating refugees through treatment for psychosocial integration problems (RRCF: Rehabliterings og Revliderings Centre for Flygtninge). In total 500 participants received a diagnosis of PTSD/sub-clinical PTSD (Sample 1, N=214; 2, N=176; 3, N=110). A correlated four-factor model with re-experiencing, avoidance, dysphoria, and arousal factors provided the best fit to the sample data. The average attenuation in the factor loadings was highest for the dysphoria factor (M=-.26, SD=.11) compared to the re-experiencing (M=-.14, SD=.18), avoidance (M=-.10, SD=.21), and arousal (M=-.09, SD=.13) factors. With regards to the best fitting factor model these results concur with previous research findings using different trauma populations but do not reflect the current DSM-IV symptom groupings. The attenuation of dysphoria factor loadings suggests that dysphoria is a non-specific component of

  16. Closure of the patent ductus arteriosus with the Amplatzer Duct Occluder II: a clinical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagöz, Tevfik; Akin, Alper; Ertuğrul, Ilker; Aykan, Hayrettin Hakan; Alehan, Dursun; Ozer, Sema; Ozkutlu, Süheyla

    2012-12-01

    The aim of our study was to share our clinical experience on cases with patent ductus arteriosus treated with the Amplatzer Duct Occluder II. Between 2008 and 2012, 26 of 31 patients with patent ductus arteriosus underwent successful transcatheter closure of patent ductus arteriosus using the Amplatzer Duct Occluder II. Mean age was 3.3 years and mean weight was 15.7 kilograms. The presence of a residual shunt, left pulmonary artery or aortic obstruction was explored by administering contrast material during the procedure. The patients were discharged 24 hours after the procedure. The procedure was successful in 26 of 31 patients and failed in five patients. According to the Krichenko classification, 26 patients had type A, one patient had type B and 4 patients had type C ductus. The mean narrowest ductus diameter was 3.2 mm and the mean ductus length was 6.7 mm. Complete angiographic occlusion occurred immediately after the procedure in 22 out of 26 patients in whom the ductus was closed successfully with the Amplatzer Duct Occluder II. Complete occlusion was achieved in the remaining patients with residual shunt one month after the procedure. The procedure was preceded by closure with an Amplatzer Duct Occluder I in two patients and an Amplatzer Vascular Plug I in one patient. Amplatzer Duct Occluder II is highly effective in transcatheter closure of patent ductus arteriosus. We think that an alternative closure device and alternative techniques can be attempted in patients with type C ductus. The success rate could increase with accumulating experience.

  17. Morphological studies on the seasonal changes in the epididymal duct of the one-humped camel (camelus dromedarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed El-Zuhry Zayed

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The present work was carried out on 20 testes and epididymis of sexually mature camels to elucidate the gross anatomical, morphometerical, light microscopical and scanning electron microscopical features of the epididymis in different seasons. Anatomically, the epididymal duct of a camel consists of three parts head, body and tail. Histomorphologically, the epididymal duct is subdivided into initial, middle and terminal segments, of which the middle segment is further subdivided into proximal, intermediate and distal parts. There is a gradual decrease in the epithelial height of the epididymal duct from the initial to the terminal segments. This mechanically facilities passage of the sperms toward the terminal segment. High epithelium in the initial segment may indicate a more absorptive power of the epithelium in this segment. The seasonal reproductivety of the epididymal duct in the camel expressed by variations in the weight and volume of the epididymis, total diameter of the epididymal duct, epithelial height, length of the stereocilia, thickness of the muscular coat and cellular distributions in different segments. The spring months offer ideal circumstances for maximal reproductive activity in this species. The cellular components of the epididymal duct epithelium of the camel displays important morphological changes from season to another showing signs of increasing activity during spring in comparison to decreasing activity in other seasons. PAS positive granules are demonstrated in different segments of the epididymal duct and intraepithelial glands in different seasons. These granules are relatively more numerous in spring. The lamina propria surrounding the epididymal duct contains a layer of the elastic fibers which is very thick in winter, thick in spring and thin in other seasons. This increase in thickness of the elastic fibers predisposes for the increase in the total diameter of the epididymal duct in spring. It was conclude

  18. Dilution testing using rapid diagnostic tests in a HIV diagnostic algorithm: a novel alternative for confirmation testing in resource limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, Leslie; Siddiqui, M Ruby; Abebe, Almaz; Piriou, Erwan; Pearce, Neil; Ariti, Cono; Masiga, Johnson; Muluneh, Libsework; Wazome, Joseph; Ritmeijer, Koert; Klarkowski, Derryck

    2015-05-14

    Current WHO testing guidelines for resource limited settings diagnose HIV on the basis of screening tests without a confirmation test due to cost constraints. This leads to a potential risk of false positive HIV diagnosis. In this paper, we evaluate the dilution test, a novel method for confirmation testing, which is simple, rapid, and low cost. The principle of the dilution test is to alter the sensitivity of a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) by dilution of the sample, in order to screen out the cross reacting antibodies responsible for falsely positive RDT results. Participants were recruited from two testing centres in Ethiopia where a tiebreaker algorithm using 3 different RDTs in series is used to diagnose HIV. All samples positive on the initial screening RDT and every 10th negative sample underwent testing with the gold standard and dilution test. Dilution testing was performed using Determine™ rapid diagnostic test at 6 different dilutions. Results were compared to the gold standard of Western Blot; where Western Blot was indeterminate, PCR testing determined the final result. 2895 samples were recruited to the study. 247 were positive for a prevalence of 8.5 % (247/2895). A total of 495 samples underwent dilution testing. The RDT diagnostic algorithm misclassified 18 samples as positive. Dilution at the level of 1/160 was able to correctly identify all these 18 false positives, but at a cost of a single false negative result (sensitivity 99.6 %, 95 % CI 97.8-100; specificity 100 %, 95 % CI: 98.5-100). Concordance between the gold standard and the 1/160 dilution strength was 99.8 %. This study provides proof of concept for a new, low cost method of confirming HIV diagnosis in resource-limited settings. It has potential for use as a supplementary test in a confirmatory algorithm, whereby double positive RDT results undergo dilution testing, with positive results confirming HIV infection. Negative results require nucleic acid testing to rule out false

  19. Novel immunohistochemical markers differentiate intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma from benign bile duct lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Stefanie; Padden, Juliet; Kälsch, Julia; Ahrens, Maike; Pott, Leona; Canbay, Ali; Weber, Frank; Fingas, Christian; Hoffmann, Andreas C; Vietor, Antonie; Schlaak, Joerg F; Eisenacher, Martin; Reis, Henning; Sitek, Barbara; Baba, Hideo A

    2016-07-01

    The distinction between intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) and benign bile duct lesions can be challenging. Using our previously identified potential biomarkers for ICC, we examined whether these are useful for the differential diagnosis of ICC, bile duct adenoma and reactive bile duct proliferations in an immunohistochemical approach and identified a diagnostic marker panel including known biomarkers. Subjects included samples from 77 patients with ICC, 33 patients with bile duct adenoma and 47 patients with ductular reactions in liver cirrhosis. Our previously identified biomarkers (stress-induced phosphoprotein 1 (STIP1), SerpinH1, 14-3-3Sigma) were tested immunohistochemically following comparison with candidates from the literature (cluster of differentiation 56, heat shock protein (HSP)27, HSP70, B-cell-lymphoma2, p53, ki67). The expression of SerpinH1 and 14-3-3Sigma was significantly higher in ICC than in bile duct adenomas and ductular reactions (p5% might be used for the distinction of malignant and non-malignant lesions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. Effects of no stiffness inside unbonded tendon ducts on the behavior of prestressd concrete containment vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Sang Hoon; Kwak, Hyo Gyong [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Rae Young; Noh, Sang Hoon [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    The numerical simulation methodologies to evaluate the structural behaviors of prestressed concrete containment vessels (PCCVs) have been substantially developed in recent decades. However, there remain several issues to be investigated more closely to narrow the gap between test results and numerical simulations. As one of those issues, the effects of no stiffness inside unbonded tendon ducts on the behavior of PCCVs are investigated in this study. Duct holes for prestressing cables' passing are provided inside the containment wall and dome in one to three directions for general PCCVs. The specific stress distribution along the periphery of the prestressing duct hole and the loss of stiffness inside the hole, especially in an unbonded tendon system, are usually neglected in the analysis of PCCVs with the assumption that the duct hole is filled with concrete. However, duct holes are not small enough to be neglected. In this study, the effects of no stiffness inside the unbonded tendon system on the behaviors of PCCVs are evaluated using both analytical and numerical approaches. From the results, the effects of no stiffness in unbonded tendons need to be considered in numerical simulations for PCCVs, especially under internal pressure loading.

  1. Assessment of the form and patency of the pancreatic duct by magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Masaya; Takahashi, Tuyoshi; Yoshida, Muneki; Shimada, Ken; Kakita, Akira; Isobe, Yoshinori

    1999-01-01

    There have been no reliable methods for the assessment of the patency of an end-to-side style pancreaticojejunal anastomosis in Whipple procedure. We evaluated the ability of MR-Cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) to assess the form and patency of the pancreatic duct in 181 patients. The pancreatic duct was displayed on MRCP in 70.9% of the patients. The domostrative rate of the pancreatic duct on MRCP and the PFD test were well correlated (p=0.031). Further, we assessed the patency of pancreaticojejunal anastomosis in Whipple procedure by MRCP following a secretin load. It was considered that the pancreatic duct to be patent when pancreatic excretion into the jejunum had increased and/or the ability to display the pancreatic duct had improved on MRCP following an i.v. load of secretin. A secretin-loading MRCP was suggested to be of much help in the assessment of the patency of pancreaticojejunostomy in patients undergoing Whipple procedure for a long-term follow up. (author)

  2. Assessment of the form and patency of the pancreatic duct by magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitamura, Masaya; Takahashi, Tuyoshi; Yoshida, Muneki; Shimada, Ken; Kakita, Akira; Isobe, Yoshinori [Kitasato Univ., Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Medicine

    1999-02-01

    There have been no reliable methods for the assessment of the patency of an end-to-side style pancreaticojejunal anastomosis in Whipple procedure. We evaluated the ability of MR-Cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) to assess the form and patency of the pancreatic duct in 181 patients. The pancreatic duct was displayed on MRCP in 70.9% of the patients. The domostrative rate of the pancreatic duct on MRCP and the PFD test were well correlated (p=0.031). Further, we assessed the patency of pancreaticojejunal anastomosis in Whipple procedure by MRCP following a secretin load. It was considered that the pancreatic duct to be patent when pancreatic excretion into the jejunum had increased and/or the ability to display the pancreatic duct had improved on MRCP following an i.v. load of secretin. A secretin-loading MRCP was suggested to be of much help in the assessment of the patency of pancreaticojejunostomy in patients undergoing Whipple procedure for a long-term follow up. (author)

  3. Effects of no stiffness inside unbonded tendon ducts on the behavior of prestressd concrete containment vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, Sang Hoon; Kwak, Hyo Gyong; Jung, Rae Young; Noh, Sang Hoon

    2016-01-01

    The numerical simulation methodologies to evaluate the structural behaviors of prestressed concrete containment vessels (PCCVs) have been substantially developed in recent decades. However, there remain several issues to be investigated more closely to narrow the gap between test results and numerical simulations. As one of those issues, the effects of no stiffness inside unbonded tendon ducts on the behavior of PCCVs are investigated in this study. Duct holes for prestressing cables' passing are provided inside the containment wall and dome in one to three directions for general PCCVs. The specific stress distribution along the periphery of the prestressing duct hole and the loss of stiffness inside the hole, especially in an unbonded tendon system, are usually neglected in the analysis of PCCVs with the assumption that the duct hole is filled with concrete. However, duct holes are not small enough to be neglected. In this study, the effects of no stiffness inside the unbonded tendon system on the behaviors of PCCVs are evaluated using both analytical and numerical approaches. From the results, the effects of no stiffness in unbonded tendons need to be considered in numerical simulations for PCCVs, especially under internal pressure loading

  4. Establishment of alternative potency test for botulinum toxin type A using compound muscle action potential (CMAP) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torii, Yasushi; Goto, Yoshitaka; Nakahira, Shinji; Ginnaga, Akihiro

    2014-11-01

    The biological activity of botulinum toxin type A has been evaluated using the mouse intraperitoneal (ip) LD50 test. This method requires a large number of mice to precisely determine toxin activity, and, as such, poses problems with regard to animal welfare. We previously developed a compound muscle action potential (CMAP) assay using rats as an alternative method to the mouse ip LD50 test. In this study, to evaluate this quantitative method of measuring toxin activity using CMAP, we assessed the parameters necessary for quantitative tests according to ICH Q2 (R1). This assay could be used to evaluate the activity of the toxin, even when inactive toxin was mixed with the sample. To reduce the number of animals needed, this assay was set to measure two samples per animal. Linearity was detected over a range of 0.1-12.8 U/mL, and the measurement range was set at 0.4-6.4 U/mL. The results for accuracy and precision showed low variability. The body weight was selected as a variable factor, but it showed no effect on the CMAP amplitude. In this study, potency tests using the rat CMAP assay of botulinum toxin type A demonstrated that it met the criteria for a quantitative analysis method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Treatment guided by rapid diagnostic tests for malaria in Tanzanian children: safety and alternative bacterial diagnoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sykes Alma

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background WHO guidelines for the treatment of young children with suspected malaria have recently changed from presumptive treatment to anti-malarial treatment guided by a blood slide or malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT. However, there is limited evidence of the safety of this policy in routine outpatient settings in Africa. Methods Children 3-59 months of age with a non-severe febrile illness and no obvious cause were enrolled over a period of one year in a malaria endemic area of Tanzania. Treatment was determined by the results of a clinical examination and RDT result, and blood culture and serum lactate were also collected. RDT-negative children were followed up over 14 days. Results Over the course of one year, 965 children were enrolled; 158 (16.4% were RDT-positive and treated with artemether-lumefantrine and 807 (83.4% were RDT-negative and treated with non-anti-malarial medicines. Compared with RDT-positives, RDT-negative children were on average younger with a lower axillary temperature and more likely to have a history of cough or difficulty in breathing. Six (0.6% children became RDT-positive after enrolment, all of whom were PCR-negative for Plasmodium falciparum DNA at enrolment. In addition, 12 (1.2% children were admitted to hospital, one with possible malaria, none of whom died. A bacterial pathogen was identified in 9/965 (0.9% children, eight of whom were RDT-negative and one was RDT-positive, but slide-negative. Excluding three children with Salmonella typhi, all of the children with bacteraemia were ≤12 months of age. Compared to double-read research slide results RDTs had a sensitivity of 97.8% (95%CI 96.9-98.7 and specificity of 96.3% (95%CI 96.3-98.4. Conclusions Use of RDTs to direct the use of anti-malarial drugs in young children did not result in any missed diagnoses of malaria although new infections soon after a consultation with a negative RDT result may undermine confidence in results. Invasive

  6. Dynamic contrast-enhanced CT appearances of the intraductal papillary neoplasms of the bile duct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Fengxiang; Zhou Jianjun; Zeng Mengsu; Zhou Kangrong; Ding Yuqin; He Deming; Shi Yuxin; Zhou Jun

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the dynamic contrast-enhanced CT appearances of intraductal papillary neoplasms of the bile duct and improve its diagnostic accuracy. Methods: Sixteen patients with intraductal papillary neoplasms of the bile duct confirmed histopathologically after surgical operation underwent dynamic contrast-enhanced multi-detector row CT scans. All imaging data were reviewed and analyzed retrospectively in correlation with surgical and pathological findings. CT values of 38 well-visualized lesions in 12 of the 16 patients at the pre-contrast phase, arterial phase and venous phase were measured. Four of the 12 patients with 17 lesions had benign tumors, and 8 of the 12 patients with 21 lesions had malignant tumors. Comparisons of CT values at the three phases between the two groups were carried out using independent sample t test. The bile CT values were measured in these 12 cases, 40 normal volunteers, and 40 subjects with bile duct stones, and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test was applied to compare the bile CT values between tumor group and the normal group and between tumor group and the bile duct stone group. The diameters of the bile ducts proximal to and distal to tumors were also measured, and Fisher exact method was carried to analyze the data. Results: Lesions located at the left lobe in 8 out of the 16 patients, the right lobe in 1 case, both the left and right lobes in 1 case, the hepatic hilum in 1 case, the common bile duct in 3 cases, and both the right lobe and the common bile duct in 2 cases. Eleven lesions appeared as papillary masses, 3 as flat masses, 1 as mixed papillary and flat masses. In one case, tumor mass could not be definitely visualized, and only dilated bile ducts and stones were demonstrated. The mean CT values of the benign tumors were (25.8 ± 8.0), (37.7 ± 10.3) and (51.7 ± 17.1) HU respectively at pre-contrast phase, arterial phase, and venous phase, and the malignant tumors were (38.4 ± 10.2), (56.6 ± 18.0) and (68.4

  7. Parotid Duct Repair with Intubation Tube: Technical Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Muhammed Beşir; Barutca, Seda Asrufoğlu; Keskin, Elif Seda; Atik, Bekir

    2017-01-01

    The parotid duct can be damaged in traumatic injuries and surgical interventions. Early diagnosis and treatment of a duct injury is of great importance because complications such as sialocele and salivary gland fistula may develop if the duct is not surgically repaired. We think the cuff of an intubation tube is an ideal material in parotid duct repair, because of its technical characteristics, easiness of availability, and low-cost. In this paper, we described the use of the cuff cannula of an intubation tube for the diagnosis and treatment of parotid duct laceration, as a low-cost and easy to access material readily available in every operating room. PMID:28713751

  8. Alternative methods for toxicity assessments in fish: comparison of the fish embryo toxicity and the larval growth and survival tests in zebrafish and fathead minnows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, Marlo K Sellin; Stultz, Amy E; Smith, Austin W; Rawlings, Jane M; Belanger, Scott E; Oris, James T

    2014-11-01

    An increased demand for chemical toxicity evaluations has resulted in the need for alternative testing strategies that address animal welfare concerns. The fish embryo toxicity (FET) test developed for zebrafish (Danio rerio) is one such alternative, and the application of the FET test to other species such as the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) has been proposed. In the present study, the performances of the FET test and the larval growth and survival (LGS; a standard toxicity testing method) test in zebrafish and fathead minnows were evaluated. This required that testing methods for the fathead minnow FET and zebrafish LGS tests be harmonized with existing test methods and that the performance of these testing strategies be evaluated by comparing the median lethal concentrations of 2 reference toxicants, 3,4-dicholoraniline and ammonia, obtained via each of the test types. The results showed that procedures for the zebrafish FET test can be adapted and applied to the fathead minnow. Differences in test sensitivity were observed for 3,4-dicholoraniline but not ammonia; therefore, conclusions regarding which test types offer the least or most sensitivity could not be made. Overall, these results show that the fathead minnow FET test has potential as an alternative toxicity testing strategy and that further analysis with other toxicants is warranted in an effort to better characterize the sensitivity and feasibility of this testing strategy. © 2014 SETAC.

  9. Piezosurgery to perform hyoid bone osteotomies in thyroglossal duct cyst surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgarelli, Attilio Carlo; Robiony, Massimo; Consolo, Ugo; Collini, Marco; Bellini, Pierantonio

    2011-11-01

    Ultrasonic bone-cutting surgery has been introduced as a feasible alternative to the conventional sharp instruments used in craniomaxillofacial surgery because of its precision and safety. The device used is unique in that the cutting action occurs when the tool is used on mineralized tissues and stops on soft tissues. This work describes the use of piezosurgery for hyoid bone resection in thyroglossal duct cyst surgery, briefly reviews the literature on the surgical technique, and reports our experience with 12 cases.

  10. Laparoscopic common bile duct exploration; a preferential pathway for elderly patients

    OpenAIRE

    T.E. Platt; K. Smith; S. Sinha; M. Nixon; G. Srinivas; N. Johnson; S. Andrews

    2018-01-01

    Background: Laparoscopic common bile duct exploration (LCBDE) has emerged as a recommended alternative to endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for the management of choledocholithiasis. However, its use in the elderly has been limited, and evidence of its safety and efficacy in these patients is yet to be established. This study describes our experience of LCBDE in elderly patients, analysing the safety and efficacy of this technique in comparison to younger patients. Methods...

  11. Alternative additives; Alternative additiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-08-15

    In this project a number of industrial and agricultural waste products have been characterised and evaluated in terms of alkali-getter performance. The intended use is for biomass-fired power stations aiming at reducing corrosion or slagging related problems. The following products have been obtained, characterised and evaluated: 1) Brewery draff 2) Danish de-gassed manure 3) Paper sludge 4) Moulding sand 5) Spent bleaching earth 6) Anorthosite 7) Sand 8) Clay-sludge. Most of the above alternative additive candidates are deemed unsuitable due to insufficient chemical effect and/or expensive requirements for pre-treatment (such as drying and transportation). 3 products were selected for full-scale testing: de-gassed manure, spent bleaching earth and clay slugde. The full scale tests were undertaken at the biomass-fired power stations in Koege, Slagelse and Ensted. Spent bleaching earth (SBE) and clay sludge were the only tested additive candidates that had a proven ability to react with KCl, to thereby reduce Cl-concentrations in deposits, and reduce the deposit flux to superheater tubes. Their performance was shown to nearly as good as commercial additives. De-gassed manure, however, did not evaluate positively due to inhibiting effects of Ca in the manure. Furthermore, de-gassed manure has a high concentration of heavy metals, which imposes a financial burden with regard to proper disposal of the ash by-products. Clay-sludge is a wet clay slurring, and drying and transportation of this product entails substantial costs. Spent bleaching does not require much pre-treatment and is therefore the most promising alternative additive. On the other hand, bleaching earth contains residual plant oil which means that a range of legislation relating to waste combustion comes into play. Not least a waste combustion fee of 330 DKK/tonne. For all alternative (and commercial) additives disposal costs of the increase ash by-products represents a significant cost. This is

  12. A study on CT features of intrahepatic bile duct abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min Pengqiu; Li Peng; He Zhiyan; Chen Weixia; Liu Yan

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate CT features of intrahepatic bile duct abscess (IBDA) and its pathologic basis. Methods: The CT imaging data of 31 consecutive cases of intrahepatic bile duct abscess proved by surgery or clinical treatments from October 1989 to February 1999 were retrospectively studied. The causes included acute obstructive suppurative cholangitis and retrograde infection due to different etiologies. For all the cases, the CT manifestations of liver abscess, bile duct abnormalities, and their relationship were observed respectively. Results: Manifestations of liver abscess were revealed in all cases (31/31, 100%). The CT manifestations of bile duct abnormalities included signs of etiologies caused bile duct obstruction and other signs including cholangiectasis (29/31, 93.5%), the dilated bile ducts communicated with (5/31, 16.1%) or abut on (8/31, 25.8%) the abscesses, and gas collection in bile ducts (10/31, 32.2%). The signs showing the relationship between liver abscess and bile duct abnormalities were that the abscesses complied with the obstructive site and the dilated bile ducts (15/31, 48.4%), and the liver abscesses located in different (7/31, 22.6%) or same (4/31, 12.9%) liver lobes or segments with gas collection in the dilated bile ducts. Conclusion: The CT manifestations of IBDA included signs of liver abscess, abnormalities of bile ducts, and signs showing their relationship. CT scanning was helpful in making comprehensive and accurate diagnosis of IBDA

  13. Radiologic imaging of bile duct changes by clonorchiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myung Joon; Yoo, Hyung Sik; Lee, Jong Tae; Jung, Soon Hee

    1988-01-01

    The changes of the bile ducts were reviewed retrospectively in 38 patients of clonorchiasis by ultrasonography and/or CT. Diagnosis was made in 13 patients by cholecystectomy and exploration of the common bile duct, another 2 patients by segmentectomy and wedge resection of the liver, and 23 patients by stool examination. 14 of 36 cases done ultrasonography showed the parallel channel sign, and small nodular echoes around the dilated bile ducts. And 3 cases showed the echoes of worm of clonorchis sinensis in the common bile duct. 22 of 36 cases showed the parallel channel signs only. All cases (11) done CT showed diffuse dilatation of the peripheral bile ducts. 5 of 11 cases showed ring or tubular contrast enhancement around the dilated bile ducts. In 2 cases of liver resection, the bile ducts showed adenomatous hyperplasia and severe periductal fibrosis. Proliferation of blood vessels and infiltration of inflammatory cells were also seen. So we consider that the increased echoes of the bile duct wall, small nodular echoes around the bile ducts were attributed to the bile duct dilatation, severe adenomatous hyperplasia and periductal fibrosis. The ring or tubular contrast enhancement of the dilated bile ducts seems to be caused by the marked periductal inflammation resulting in capillary proliferation and the periductal fibrosis.

  14. Radiologic imaging of bile duct changes by clonorchiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myung Joon; Yoo, Hyung Sik; Lee, Jong Tae; Jung, Soon Hee [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-10-15

    The changes of the bile ducts were reviewed retrospectively in 38 patients of clonorchiasis by ultrasonography and/or CT. Diagnosis was made in 13 patients by cholecystectomy and exploration of the common bile duct, another 2 patients by segmentectomy and wedge resection of the liver, and 23 patients by stool examination. 14 of 36 cases done ultrasonography showed the parallel channel sign, and small nodular echoes around the dilated bile ducts. And 3 cases showed the echoes of worm of clonorchis sinensis in the common bile duct. 22 of 36 cases showed the parallel channel signs only. All cases (11) done CT showed diffuse dilatation of the peripheral bile ducts. 5 of 11 cases showed ring or tubular contrast enhancement around the dilated bile ducts. In 2 cases of liver resection, the bile ducts showed adenomatous hyperplasia and severe periductal fibrosis. Proliferation of blood vessels and infiltration of inflammatory cells were also seen. So we consider that the increased echoes of the bile duct wall, small nodular echoes around the bile ducts were attributed to the bile duct dilatation, severe adenomatous hyperplasia and periductal fibrosis. The ring or tubular contrast enhancement of the dilated bile ducts seems to be caused by the marked periductal inflammation resulting in capillary proliferation and the periductal fibrosis.

  15. Nucleonic analysis of a preliminary design for the ETF neutral-beam-injector duct shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, W.T.; Seed, T.J.; Dudziak, D.J.

    1980-01-01

    A nucleonic analysis of the Engineering Test Facility Neutral-Beam-Injector duct shielding has been made using a hybrid Monte Carlo/discrete-ordinates method. This method used Monte Carlo to determine internal and external boundary surface sources for a subsequent discrete-ordinates calculation of the neutron and gamma-ray transport through the shield. The analysis also included determination of the energy and angular distribution of neutrons and gamma rays entering the duct from the torus plasma chamber. Confidence in the hybrid method and the results obtained were provided through a comparison with three-dimensional Monte Carlo results

  16. Numerical model describing the heat transfer between combustion products and ventilation-system duct walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolstad, J.W.; Foster, R.D.; Gregory, W.S.

    1983-01-01

    A package of physical models simulating the heat transfer processes occurring between combustion gases and ducts in ventilation systems is described. The purpose of the numerical model is to predict how the combustion gas in a system heats up or cools down as it flows through the ducts in a ventilation system under fire conditions. The model treats a duct with (forced convection) combustion gases flowing on the inside and stagnant ambient air on the outside. The model is composed of five submodels of heat transfer processes along with a numerical solution procedure to evaluate them. Each of these quantities is evaluated independently using standard correlations based on experimental data. The details of the physical assumptions, simplifications, and ranges of applicability of the correlations are described. A typical application of this model to a full-scale fire test is discussed, and model predictions are compared with selected experimental data

  17. Study on the natural convection heat transfer characteristics in the air duct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y. K.; Lee, Y. B.; Choi, S. K.; Hwang, J. S.; Nam, H. Y. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    Temperature distribution measurements in the mockup apparatus of reactor vessel were performed to determine the effective thermal conductivity of porous media with different geometry and to obtain the experimental data for the heat transfer processes by natural convection occurring in the air duct. The temperature distributions at four separated sections with different arrangements of porous media have different slopes according to the geometrical configuration. From the measured temperature distribution, effective thermal conductivity have been derived using the least square fitting method. The test at air duct was performed to the high heat removal at 3.4kW/m{sup 2} by the natural convection from the outer wall to the air. And also the temperature distributions in the sir duct agree well with the 1/7th power-law turbulent temperature distribution. The obtained heat transfer data have been compared with the Shin`s and Sieger`s correlations. 10 refs., 6 figs. (Author)

  18. Study on the natural convection heat transfer characteristics in the air duct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y K; Lee, Y B; Choi, S K; Hwang, J S; Nam, H Y [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    Temperature distribution measurements in the mockup apparatus of reactor vessel were performed to determine the effective thermal conductivity of porous media with different geometry and to obtain the experimental data for the heat transfer processes by natural convection occurring in the air duct. The temperature distributions at four separated sections with different arrangements of porous media have different slopes according to the geometrical configuration. From the measured temperature distribution, effective thermal conductivity have been derived using the least square fitting method. The test at air duct was performed to the high heat removal at 3.4kW/m{sup 2} by the natural convection from the outer wall to the air. And also the temperature distributions in the sir duct agree well with the 1/7th power-law turbulent temperature distribution. The obtained heat transfer data have been compared with the Shin`s and Sieger`s correlations. 10 refs., 6 figs. (Author)

  19. Combined persistent mullerian duct syndrome, transverse testicular ectopia and mosaic klinefelter's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, A.; Hassan, S.; Zaidi, A.

    2008-01-01

    Persistent Mullerian Duct Syndrome (PMDS), a rare form of male pseudohermaphroditism, is characterized by the persistence of Mullerian duct structures (uterus, fallopian tubes and upper two-thirds of vagina) in otherwise normallyvirilized males (Karyotype 46XY). Patients suffering from PMDS present with cryptorchidism, inguinal hernia and infertility. Diagnosis is established when Mullerian duct structures are discovered either during ultrasonography for localization of undescended testis(s), during surgical exploration for cryptorchidism or herniorrhaphy (hernii uteri inguinalis). Presence of both testes on one side of the scrotum is known as Transverse Testicular Ectopia (TTE). Co-existence of PMDS and transverse testicular ectopia in a patient of mosaic Klinefelter's syndrome (Karyotype 46XY/47XXY) is a unique genetic association. (author)

  20. Optimization of the structural design of HVAC ducts and their supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMatias, I.P.; Barrio, M.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the computerized process of qualification and design based on experience accumulated in structural designs of HVAC systems in nuclear power plants, using CAD/CAE systems. Such computerization has drastically reduced the number of manhours employed to generate the information necessary to issue duct and support fabrication drawings. During the analysis stage, the requirements for qualification of ducts and supports contained in CONAGT ANSI/ASME AG-1 have been considered. The data package applicable to the process consists of a set of computer programs which may be used independently or combined. A significant portion of such programs governs the graphic design. Moreover, analyses are performed on results of the different types of tests carried out to date, and on those necessary to determine the mechanisms of failures in ducts, and in order to be able to calibrate design criteria currently in use