WorldWideScience

Sample records for tes aerosol products

  1. Solutions Network Formulation Report. Integration of OMI and TES Aerosol Products into the EPA Regional Planning Organizations' FASTNET Aerosol Tracking and Analysis Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, Kelly; Andrews, Jane C.

    2006-01-01

    Every year, more than 280 million visitors tour our Nation s most treasured parks and wilderness areas. Unfortunately, many visitors are unable to see the spectacular vistas they expect because of white or brown haze in the air. Most of this haze is not natural; it is air pollution, carried by the wind often hundreds of miles from its origin. Some of the pollutants have been linked to serious health problems, such as asthma and other lung disorders, and even premature death. In addition, nitrates and sulfates contribute to acid rain formation, which contaminates rivers and lakes and erodes buildings and historical monuments. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency RPOs (Regional Planning Organizations) have been tasked with monitoring and determining the nature and origin of haze in Class I scenic areas, and finding ways to reduce haze in order to improve visibility in these areas. The RPOs have developed an Internet-based air quality DST (Decision Support Tool) called FASTNET (Fast Aerosol Sensing Tools for Natural Event Tracking). While FASTNET incorporates a few satellite datasets, most of the data utilized by this DST comes from ground-based instrument networks. The problem is that in many areas the sensors are sparsely located, with long distances between them, causing difficulties in tracking haze over the United States, determining its source, and analyzing its content. Satellite data could help to fill in the data gaps and to supplement and verify ground-recorded air quality data. Although satellite data are now being used for air quality research applications, such data are not routinely used for environmental decision support, in part because of limited resources, difficulties with interdisciplinary data interpretation, and the need for advanced inter-agency partnerships. As a result, the validation and verification of satellite data for air quality operational system applications has been limited This candidate solution evaluates the usefulness of OMI

  2. In vitro production of Toxocara canis excretory-secretory (TES) antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Divyamol; Jeyathilakan, N; Abdul Basith, S; Senthilkumar, T M A

    2016-09-01

    Toxocara canis is a widespread gastrointestinal nematode parasite of dogs and cause Toxocara larva migrans, an important zoonotic disease in humans on ingestion of infective eggs. Toxocarosis is one of the few human parasitic diseases whose serodiagnosis uses a standardized antigen, T. canis excretory secretory antigen (TES). The present study describes collection of T. canis adult worm, collection and embryonation of T. canis eggs, hatching and separation of T. canis larvae, in vitro maintenance of T. canis second stage larvae for production of TES, concentration of culture fluid TES and yield of TES in correlation with various methods cited in literature.

  3. Global Carbon Monoxide Products from Combined AIRS, TES and MLS Measurements on A-Train Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Juying X.; Yang, R.; Wei, Z.; Carminati, F.; Tangborn, A.; Sun, Z.; Lahoz, W.; Attie, J. L.; El Amraoui, L.; Duncan, B.

    2014-01-01

    This study tests a novel methodology to add value to satellite data sets. This methodology, data fusion, is similar to data assimilation, except that the background modelbased field is replaced by a satellite data set, in this case AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder) carbon monoxide (CO) measurements. The observational information comes from CO measurements with lower spatial coverage than AIRS, namely, from TES (Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer) and MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder). We show that combining these data sets with data fusion uses the higher spectral resolution of TES to extend AIRS CO observational sensitivity to the lower troposphere, a region especially important for air quality studies. We also show that combined CO measurements from AIRS and MLS provide enhanced information in the UTLS (upper troposphere/lower stratosphere) region compared to each product individually. The combined AIRS-TES and AIRS-MLS CO products are validated against DACOM (differential absorption mid-IR diode laser spectrometer) in situ CO measurements from the INTEX-B (Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment: MILAGRO and Pacific phases) field campaign and in situ data from HIPPO (HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations) flights. The data fusion results show improved sensitivities in the lower and upper troposphere (20-30% and above 20%, respectively) as compared with AIRS-only version 5 CO retrievals, and improved daily coverage compared with TES and MLS CO data.

  4. Aerosols and fission product transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megaw, W.J.

    1987-12-01

    A survey is presented of current knowledge of the possible role of aerosols in the consequences of in- and out-of-core LOCAs and of end fitting failures in CANDU reactors. An extensive literature search has been made of research on the behaviour of aerosols in possible accidents in water moderated and cooled reactors and the results of various studies compared. It is recommended that further work should be undertaken on the formation of aerosols during these possible accidents and to study their subsequent behaviour. It is also recommended that the fission products behaviour computer code FISSCON II should be re-examined to determine whether it reflects the advances incorporated in other codes developed for light water reactors which have been extensively compared. 47 refs

  5. MISR Aerosol Climatology Product V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MISR Aerosol Climatology Product is 1) the microphysical and scattering characteristics of pure aerosol upon which routine retrievals are based; 2) mixtures of pure...

  6. A multi-sensor upper tropospheric ozone product (MUTOP based on TES Ozone and GOES water vapor: derivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Felker

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES, a hyperspectral infrared instrument on the Aura satellite, retrieves a vertical profile of tropospheric ozone. However, polar-orbiting instruments like TES provide limited nadir-view coverage. This work illustrates the value of these observations when taken in context with geostationary imagery describing synoptic-scale weather patterns. The goal of this study is to create map-view products of upper troposphere (UT ozone through the integration of TES ozone measurements with two synoptic dynamic tracers of stratospheric influence: specific humidity derived from the GOES Imager water vapor absorption channel, and potential vorticity (PV from an operational forecast model. As a mixing zone between tropospheric and stratospheric reservoirs, the upper troposphere (UT exhibits a complex chemical makeup. Determination of ozone mixing ratios in this layer is especially difficult without direct in situ measurement. However, it is well understood that UT ozone is correlated with dynamical tracers like low specific humidity and high potential vorticity. Blending the advantages of two remotely sensed quantities (GOES water vapor and TES ozone is at the core of the Multi-sensor Upper Tropospheric Ozone Product (MUTOP.

    Our results suggest that 72 % of TES-observed UT ozone variability can be explained by its correlation with dry air and high PV. MUTOP reproduces TES retrievals across the GOES-West domain with a root mean square error (RMSE of 18 ppbv (part per billion by volume. There are several advantages to this multi-sensor derived product approach: (1 it is calculated from two operational fields (GOES specific humidity and GFS PV, so maps of layer-average ozone can be created and used in near real-time; (2 the product provides the spatial resolution and coverage of a geostationary image as it depicts the variable distribution of ozone in the UT; and (3 the 6 h temporal resolution of the derived

  7. A multi-sensor upper tropospheric ozone product (MUTOP) based on TES Ozone and GOES water vapor: derivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felker, S. R.; Moody, J. L.; Wimmers, A. J.; Osterman, G.; Bowman, K.

    2011-07-01

    The Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES), a hyperspectral infrared instrument on the Aura satellite, retrieves a vertical profile of tropospheric ozone. However, polar-orbiting instruments like TES provide limited nadir-view coverage. This work illustrates the value of these observations when taken in context with geostationary imagery describing synoptic-scale weather patterns. The goal of this study is to create map-view products of upper troposphere (UT) ozone through the integration of TES ozone measurements with two synoptic dynamic tracers of stratospheric influence: specific humidity derived from the GOES Imager water vapor absorption channel, and potential vorticity (PV) from an operational forecast model. As a mixing zone between tropospheric and stratospheric reservoirs, the upper troposphere (UT) exhibits a complex chemical makeup. Determination of ozone mixing ratios in this layer is especially difficult without direct in situ measurement. However, it is well understood that UT ozone is correlated with dynamical tracers like low specific humidity and high potential vorticity. Blending the advantages of two remotely sensed quantities (GOES water vapor and TES ozone) is at the core of the Multi-sensor Upper Tropospheric Ozone Product (MUTOP). Our results suggest that 72 % of TES-observed UT ozone variability can be explained by its correlation with dry air and high PV. MUTOP reproduces TES retrievals across the GOES-West domain with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 18 ppbv (part per billion by volume). There are several advantages to this multi-sensor derived product approach: (1) it is calculated from two operational fields (GOES specific humidity and GFS PV), so maps of layer-average ozone can be created and used in near real-time; (2) the product provides the spatial resolution and coverage of a geostationary image as it depicts the variable distribution of ozone in the UT; and (3) the 6 h temporal resolution of the derived product imagery allows

  8. Multi-Sensor Aerosol Products Sampling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrenko, M.; Ichoku, C.; Leptoukh, G.

    2011-01-01

    Global and local properties of atmospheric aerosols have been extensively observed and measured using both spaceborne and ground-based instruments, especially during the last decade. Unique properties retrieved by the different instruments contribute to an unprecedented availability of the most complete set of complimentary aerosol measurements ever acquired. However, some of these measurements remain underutilized, largely due to the complexities involved in analyzing them synergistically. To characterize the inconsistencies and bridge the gap that exists between the sensors, we have established a Multi-sensor Aerosol Products Sampling System (MAPSS), which consistently samples and generates the spatial statistics (mean, standard deviation, direction and rate of spatial variation, and spatial correlation coefficient) of aerosol products from multiple spacebome sensors, including MODIS (on Terra and Aqua), MISR, OMI, POLDER, CALIOP, and SeaWiFS. Samples of satellite aerosol products are extracted over Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) locations as well as over other locations of interest such as those with available ground-based aerosol observations. In this way, MAPSS enables a direct cross-characterization and data integration between Level-2 aerosol observations from multiple sensors. In addition, the available well-characterized co-located ground-based data provides the basis for the integrated validation of these products. This paper explains the sampling methodology and concepts used in MAPSS, and demonstrates specific examples of using MAPSS for an integrated analysis of multiple aerosol products.

  9. Attachment of gaseous fission products to aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skyrme, G.

    1985-01-01

    Accidents may occur in which the integrity of fuel cladding is breached and volatile fission products are released to the containment atmosphere. In order to assess the magnitude of the subsequent radiological hazard it is necessary to know the transport behaviour of such fission products. It is frequently assumed that the fission products remain in the gaseous phase. There is a possibility, however, that they may attach themselves to particles and hence substantially modify their transport properties. This paper provides a theoretical assessment of the conditions under which gaseous fission products may be attached to aerosol particles. Specific topics discussed are: the mass transfer of a gaseous fission product to an isolated aerosol particle in an infinite medium; the rate at which the concentration of fission products in the gas phase diminishes within a container as a result of deposition on a population of particles; and the distribution of deposited fission product between different particle sizes in a log-normal distribution. It is shown that, for a given mass, small particles are more efficient for fission product attachment, and that only small concentrations of such particles may be necessary to achieve rapid attachment. Conditions under which gaseous fission products are not attached to particles are also considered, viz, the competing processes of deposition onto the containment walls and onto aerosol particles, and the possibility of the removal of aerosols from the containment by various deposition processes, or agglomeration, before attachment takes place. (author)

  10. Attachment behavior of fission products to solution aerosol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takamiya, Koichi; Tanaka, Toru; Nitta, Shinnosuke; Itosu, Satoshi; Sekimoto, Shun; Oki, Yuichi; Ohtsuki, Tsutomu [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Osaka (Japan)

    2016-12-15

    Various characteristics such as size distribution, chemical component and radioactivity have been analyzed for radioactive aerosols released from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. Measured results for radioactive aerosols suggest that the potential transport medium for radioactive cesium was non-sea-salt sulfate. This result indicates that cesium isotopes would preferentially attach with sulfate compounds. In the present work the attachment behavior of fission products to aqueous solution aerosols of sodium salts has been studied using a generation system of solution aerosols and spontaneous fission source of {sup 248}Cm. Attachment ratios of fission products to the solution aerosols were compared among the aerosols generated by different solutions of sodium salt. A significant difference according as a solute of solution aerosols was found in the attachment behavior. The present results suggest the existence of chemical effects in the attachment behavior of fission products to solution aerosols.

  11. Interactions of fission product vapours with aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, C.G.; Newland, M.S. [AEA Technology, Winfrith (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-01

    Reactions between structural and reactor materials aerosols and fission product vapours released during a severe accident in a light water reactor (LWR) will influence the magnitude of the radiological source term ultimately released to the environment. The interaction of cadmium aerosol with iodine vapour at different temperatures has been examined in a programme of experiments designed to characterise the kinetics of the system. Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) is a technique that is particularly amenable to the study of systems involving elemental iodine because of the high intensity of the fluorescence lines. Therefore this technique was used in the experiments to measure the decrease in the concentration of iodine vapour as the reaction with cadmium proceeded. Experiments were conducted over the range of temperatures (20-350{sup o}C), using calibrated iodine vapour and cadmium aerosol generators that gave well-quantified sources. The LIF results provided information on the kinetics of the process, whilst examination of filter samples gave data on the composition and morphology of the aerosol particles that were formed. The results showed that the reaction of cadmium with iodine was relatively fast, giving reaction half-lives of approximately 0.3 s. This suggests that the assumption used by primary circuit codes such as VICTORIA that reaction rates are mass-transfer limited, is justified for the cadmium-iodine reaction. The reaction was first order with respect to both cadmium and iodine, and was assigned as pseudo second order overall. However, there appeared to be a dependence of aerosol surface area on the overall rate constant, making the precise order of the reaction difficult to assign. The relatively high volatility of the cadmium iodide formed in the reaction played an important role in determining the composition of the particles. (author) 23 figs., 7 tabs., 22 refs.

  12. Production and evaluation of the recombinant antigen TES-30 of Toxocara canis for the immunodiagnosis of toxocariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olave, Ana M; Mesa, Jairo A; Botero, Jorge H; Patiño, Edwin B; García, Gisela M; Alzate, Juan F

    2016-03-03

    Toxocara canis is a pathogenic nematode of canines which can be accidentally transmitted to humans. Although serology is the most important diagnostic tool for this zoonosis, diagnostic kits use crude excretion/secretion antigens, most of them being glycoproteins which are not species-specific and may cross-react with antibodies generated against other parasites.  To produce the rTES-30 recombinant antigen of Toxocara canis and evaluate it in the immunodiagnosis of toxocariasis.  The gene that codes for TES-30 was cloned in the expression vector pET28a (+) using single-stranded oligonucleotides united by PCR. The protein rTES-30 was purified by Ni2+ affinity chromotography. Seroreactivity of rTES-30 was evaluated by immunoblot. Given that there is no gold standard test, the behaviour of the antigen was compared with the method that is routinely used to immunodiagnose toxocariasis, i.e., the conventional ELISA technique using excretion/secretion antigens.  The rTES-30 was produced from an Escherichia coli LB culture which yielded 2.25 mg/L of the antigen with a purity of 95%. The results obtained showed 73% (46/63) concordance of reactivity between the rTES-30 immunoblot and the conventional ELISA, and 100% concordance with the nonreactive sera (21). Nineteen of the 21 sera positive for other parasitoses reacted with ELISA, while only seven of these were positive with the rTES-30 immunoblot. Concordance between the ELISA and the immunoblot was moderate (kappa coefficient: 0.575; 95% CI: 0.41- 0.74).  The data presented show the potential of the rTES-30 inmunoblot for confirmation of possible ELISA positives, not only in epidemiological studies, but also as a candidate for the development of diagnostic tests for ocular toxocariasis in Colombia.

  13. Coherent Evaluation of Aerosol Data Products from Multiple Satellite Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichoku, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Aerosol retrieval from satellite has practically become routine, especially during the last decade. However, there is often disagreement between similar aerosol parameters retrieved from different sensors, thereby leaving users confused as to which sensors to trust for answering important science questions about the distribution, properties, and impacts of aerosols. As long as there is no consensus, and the inconsistencies are not well characterized and understood, there will be no way of developing reliable model inputs and climate data records from satellite aerosol measurements. Fortunately, the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) is providing well-calibrated globally representative ground-based aerosol measurements corresponding to the satellite-retrieved products. Through a recently developed web-based Multi-sensor Aerosol Products Sampling System (MAPSS), we are utilizing the advantages offered by collocated AERONET and satellite products to characterize and evaluate aerosol retrieval from multiple sensors. Indeed, MAPSS and its companion statistical tool AeroStat are facilitating detailed comparative uncertainty analysis of satellite aerosol measurements from Terra-MODIS, Aqua-MODIS, Terra-MISR, Aura-OMI, Parasol-POLDER, and Calipso-CALIOP. In this presentation, we will describe the strategy of the MAPSS system, its potential advantages for the aerosol community, and the preliminary results of an integrated comparative uncertainly analysis of aerosol products from multiple satellite sensors.

  14. Production flux of sea spray aerosol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Leeuw, G.; Lewis, E.; Andreas, E. L.; Anguelova, M. D.; Fairall, C. W.; O’Dowd, C.; Schulz, M.; Schwartz, S. E.

    2011-05-07

    Knowledge of the size- and composition-dependent production flux of primary sea spray aerosol (SSA) particles and its dependence on environmental variables is required for modeling cloud microphysical properties and aerosol radiative influences, interpreting measurements of particulate matter in coastal areas and its relation to air quality, and evaluating rates of uptake and reactions of gases in sea spray drops. This review examines recent research pertinent to SSA production flux, which deals mainly with production of particles with r{sub 80} (equilibrium radius at 80% relative humidity) less than 1 {micro}m and as small as 0.01 {micro}m. Production of sea spray particles and its dependence on controlling factors has been investigated in laboratory studies that have examined the dependences on water temperature, salinity, and the presence of organics and in field measurements with micrometeorological techniques that use newly developed fast optical particle sizers. Extensive measurements show that water-insoluble organic matter contributes substantially to the composition of SSA particles with r{sub 80} < 0.25 {micro}m and, in locations with high biological activity, can be the dominant constituent. Order-of-magnitude variation remains in estimates of the size-dependent production flux per white area, the quantity central to formulations of the production flux based on the whitecap method. This variation indicates that the production flux may depend on quantities such as the volume flux of air bubbles to the surface that are not accounted for in current models. Variation in estimates of the whitecap fraction as a function of wind speed contributes additional, comparable uncertainty to production flux estimates.

  15. Production of Toxocara cati TES-120 Recombinant Antigen and Comparison with its T. canis Homolog for Serodiagnosis of Toxocariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahabiun, Farzaneh; Sadjjadi, Seyed Mahmoud; Yunus, Muhammad Hafiznur; Rahumatullah, Anizah; Moghaddam, Mohammad Hosein Falaki; Saidin, Syazwan; Noordin, Rahmah

    2015-08-01

    Toxocariasis is a cosmopolitan zoonotic disease caused by the infective larvae of Toxocara canis and T. cati. Diagnosis in humans is usually based on clinical symptoms and serology. Immunoglobulin G (IgG)-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits using T. canis excretory-secretory (TES) larval antigens are commonly used for serodiagnosis. Differences in the antigens of the two Toxocara species may influence the diagnostic sensitivity of the test. In this study, T. cati recombinant TES-120 (rTES-120) was cloned, expressed, and compared with its T. canis homolog in an IgG4-western blot. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of T. cati rTES-120 were 70% (33/47) and 100% (39/39), respectively. T. canis rTES-120 showed 57.4% sensitivity and 94.4% specificity. When the results of assays using rTES-120 of both species were considered, the diagnostic sensitivity was 76%. This study shows that using antigens from both Toxocara species may improve the serodiagnosis of toxocariasis. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  16. TES/MLS Aura L2 CO V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TES TML2CO Global Survey Standard Products are derived from TES (Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer) nadir and MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder) limb measurements from...

  17. Multi-sensor Aerosol Products Sampling System (MAPSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Petrenko

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Global and local properties of atmospheric aerosols have been extensively observed and measured using both spaceborne and ground-based instruments, especially during the last decade. Unique properties retrieved by the different instruments contribute to an unprecedented availability of the most complete set of complimentary aerosol measurements ever acquired. However, some of these measurements remain underutilized, largely due to the complexities involved in analyzing them synergistically. To characterize the inconsistencies and bridge the gap that exists between the sensors, we have established a Multi-sensor Aerosol Products Sampling System (MAPSS, which consistently samples and generates the spatial statistics (mean, standard deviation, direction and rate of spatial variation, and spatial correlation coefficient of aerosol products from multiple spaceborne sensors, including MODIS (on Terra and Aqua, MISR, OMI, POLDER, CALIOP, and SeaWiFS. Samples of satellite aerosol products are extracted over Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET locations as well as over other locations of interest such as those with available ground-based aerosol observations. In this way, MAPSS enables a direct cross-characterization and data integration between Level-2 aerosol observations from multiple sensors. In addition, the available well-characterized co-located ground-based data provides the basis for the integrated validation of these products. This paper explains the sampling methodology and concepts used in MAPSS, and demonstrates specific examples of using MAPSS for an integrated analysis of multiple aerosol products.

  18. In Vivo Tes of Dicofol on Cocoon Production and Viability of Earthworm Pontoscolex corethrurus Fr. Mull

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumarmin, R.; Huda, N. K.; Yuniarti, E.

    2018-04-01

    The uncontrol using of pesticides, harmful to the environment, health, and it would have impact to non-target animal as earthworm. This study describes the effect of the Dicofol to cocoon production and viability of earthworm Pontoscolex corethrurus Fr. Mull., has been done in-July - Augustus 2016 at the zoology laboratory of Biology Department of Universitas Negeri Padang. The experiment used the Completely Randomized Design (4 treatments 6 replications). The treatments are with 0 g / l (P1), 0.002 g / L (P2), 0.004 g / L (P3), and 0.006 g / L (P4) and 0.008 g / L of Dicofol that diluted to water. The Data of production and viability of earthworm cocoons Pontoscolex corethrurus Fr. Mull collected during 30 days in alternate day. Data analyzed by ANOVA and Duncan New Multiple Range Test at p number of cocoons production at P1 30 cocoons (the highest), 16 cocoons P2, P3 7 cocoons, and the P4 and P5 0 cocoons (the Lowest). The average percentage of cocoons viability were highest in P1, and P2 (100%); P3 (10%) and the cancel at P4 and P5 (0%). It can conclude that the pesticide Dicofol decreased the production and viability of the earthworm cocoons Pontoscolex corethrurus Fr. Mull.

  19. VALIDITAS TES CLOZE, TES-C, DAN PENILAIAN DIRI SEBAGAI ALAT UKUR KEMAMPUAN MEMBACA TEKS BAHASA INGGRIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suharso Suharso

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui validitas tes cloze (CL dan tes-C (C sebagai alat ukur kemampuan membaca teks bahasa Inggris dengan tes Reading Comprehension (RC dari TOEFL sebagai tolok ukur dan mengetahui validitas penilaian diri (PD dengan mengacu pada ketiga tes tersebut. Populasi penelitian meliputi mahasiswa yang mengambil mata kuliah Reading I, III, dan V pada semester gasal tahun akademik 2006/2007 di Program Studi Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris, Fakultas Bahasa dan Seni, Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta. Sampel penelitian terdiri atas 121 mahasiswa yang dipilih dengan menggunakan teknik sampel acak gugus. Data kemampuan membaca dikumpulkan dengan tes RC, CL dan C. Data PD dikumpulkan dengan tiga kuesioner PD yang menggunakan model Likert. Data penelitian dianalisis dengan menggunakan teknik korelasi Pearson product moment. Hasil analisis data menunjukkan bahwa ada korelasi yang positif antara skor tes RC dan skor tes CL, antara skor tes RC dan tes C, dan antara skor PD dan ketiga skor tes membaca tersebut. Kata kunci:      tes reading comprehension, tes cloze, tes-c, penilaian diri, validitas

  20. Experiences using the latest generation of satellite aerosol products in a global aerosol data assimilation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyer, E. J.; Zhang, J.; McHardy, T. M.; Shi, Y.; Lynch, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System (NAAPS) produces short-term forecasts of aerosol mass concentration and optical properties. These forecasts are initialized by the Navy Variational Data Assimilation System for Aerosol (NAVDAS-AOD). This system requires observations of aerosol optical depth (AOD) which are unbiased, and free from outliers to the extent possible. With a new generation of AOD data products from MODIS Collection 6 (including Dark Target and Deep Blue algorithms) as well as from NPP VIIRS, the applicability of these products for use in NAVDAS-AOD and their impact on analysis and forecast of aerosols in NAAPS has been evaluated in detail. This talk describes the evaluation of these products, the pre-processing used for quality assurance and quality control of these products for use in NAVDAS-AOD, and the impacts of assimilation of these products on the NAAPS model. Discussion of product characteristics that impact the data assimilation application is also included, as well as prospects for future aerosol products that could lead to improved utilization in atmospheric forecast models.

  1. Short Communication Validation of aerosol products derived from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aerosol products derived from the ocean colour missions SeaWiFS and MODIS (Aqua and Terra) were assessed with AERONET field measurements collected at sites in Mozambique (Inhaca) and Kenya (Malindi). The median of absolute relative differences between satellite and AERONET aerosol optical thickness τa ...

  2. A study of the attachment of thoron decay products to aerosols using an aerosol centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, V.B.; Kotrappa, P.; Bhanti, D.P.

    1980-01-01

    An aerosol centrifuge is used for the study of the attachment of thoron decay products to aerosol particles under dynamic flow conditions. The number concentration of aerosols was kept high (10 5 to 10 6 particles cm -3 ) as compared to the number of decay product atoms (10 2 to 10 3 cm -3 ) as is usually the case in a mine atmosphere. The polydispersed aerosols flow in and out of a chamber containing a steady source of thoron and the aerosols tagged with the decay products were separated into different size groups by an aerosol centrifuge (Lovelace Aerosol Particle Separator). The average activity per particle was fitted as a power function of the radius in the form of Asub(p) = aRsup(b). The average value of b was found to be 1.08 +- 0.054 for particles in the radii range 0.25 to 1.35 μm and 1.34 +- 0.12 for particles in the radii range 0.1 to 0.33 μm. (author)

  3. Retrieving aerosol in a cloudy environment: aerosol product availability as a function of spatial resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Remer

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The challenge of using satellite observations to retrieve aerosol properties in a cloudy environment is to prevent contamination of the aerosol signal from clouds, while maintaining sufficient aerosol product yield to satisfy specific applications. We investigate aerosol retrieval availability at different instrument pixel resolutions using the standard MODIS aerosol cloud mask applied to MODIS data and supplemented with a new GOES-R cloud mask applied to GOES data for a domain covering North America and surrounding oceans. Aerosol product availability is not the same as the cloud free fraction and takes into account the techniques used in the MODIS algorithm to avoid clouds, reduce noise and maintain sufficient numbers of aerosol retrievals. The inherent spatial resolution of each instrument, 0.5×0.5 km for MODIS and 1×1 km for GOES, is systematically degraded to 1×1, 2×2, 1×4, 4×4 and 8×8 km resolutions and then analyzed as to how that degradation would affect the availability of an aerosol retrieval, assuming an aerosol product resolution at 8×8 km. The analysis is repeated, separately, for near-nadir pixels and those at larger view angles to investigate the effect of pixel growth at oblique angles on aerosol retrieval availability. The results show that as nominal pixel size increases, availability decreases until at 8×8 km 70% to 85% of the retrievals available at 0.5 km, nadir, have been lost. The effect at oblique angles is to further decrease availability over land but increase availability over ocean, because sun glint is found at near-nadir view angles. Finer resolution sensors (i.e., 1×1, 2×2 or even 1×4 km will retrieve aerosols in partly cloudy scenes significantly more often than sensors with nadir views of 4×4 km or coarser. Large differences in the results of the two cloud masks designed for MODIS aerosol and GOES cloud products strongly reinforce that cloud masks must be developed with specific purposes in mind and

  4. MODIS 3km Aerosol Product: Algorithm and Global Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remer, L. A.; Mattoo, S.; Levy, R. C.; Munchak, L.

    2013-01-01

    After more than a decade of producing a nominal 10 km aerosol product based on the dark target method, the MODIS aerosol team will be releasing a nominal 3 km product as part of their Collection 6 release. The new product differs from the original 10 km product only in the manner in which reflectance pixels are ingested, organized and selected by the aerosol algorithm. Overall, the 3 km product closely mirrors the 10 km product. However, the finer resolution product is able to retrieve over ocean closer to islands and coastlines, and is better able to resolve fine aerosol features such as smoke plumes over both ocean and land. In some situations, it provides retrievals over entire regions that the 10 km product barely samples. In situations traditionally difficult for the dark target algorithm, such as over bright or urban surfaces the 3 km product introduces isolated spikes of artificially high aerosol optical depth (AOD) that the 10 km algorithm avoids. Over land, globally, the 3 km product appears to be 0.01 to 0.02 higher than the 10 km product, while over ocean, the 3 km algorithm is retrieving a proportionally greater number of very low aerosol loading situations. Based on collocations with ground-based observations for only six months, expected errors associated with the 3 km land product are determined to be greater than for the 10 km product: 0.05 0.25 AOD. Over ocean, the suggestion is for expected errors to be the same as the 10 km product: 0.03 0.05 AOD. The advantage of the product is on the local scale, which will require continued evaluation not addressed here. Nevertheless, the new 3 km product is expected to provide important information complementary to existing satellite-derived products and become an important tool for the aerosol community.

  5. A study of the attachment of thoron decay products to aerosols using an aerosol centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakrishnan, V.

    1979-01-01

    The physical attachment of radioactive decay products (particulate, not gas) to polydisperse fluorescein aerosal particles in two size ranges 0.1 μM-0.33 μM radius and 0.25 μM-1.35 μM radius has been studied under dynamic conditions with a view to find the fraction of thoron decay products attached to the aerosals and the particle size distribution of the host aerosols in the atmosphere of uranium mines. The experimental set-up and procedure are described. An aerosol cloud of fluorescein was introduced into a reaction chamber containing a steady source of thoron and decay products were allowed to interact and attach to the aerosols in the chamber. To simulate conditions normally encountered in uranium mining and milling operations, the concentration of aerosol particles was kept high as compared to the number of decay products. The Lovelace Aerosol Particle Separator, which is an advanced, continuous centrifugal aerosol separator, was used to sample and separate the tagged aerosols into various size groups. The radioactivity associated with each group was determined. The results show the same dependence of attachment of decay products on the size of aerosol particles as predicted by the diffusion theory proposed by Lassen and Rau (1960), even though the experimental conditions of the present study do not conform to those required to satisfy the above mentioned diffusion theory. The method employed in this work to study attachment is reproducible and simple and can be adopted in uranium and thorium mines and associated processing industries. (M.G.B.)

  6. Small scale studies of production of fissium aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindqvist, O.; Rydberg, J.

    1983-02-01

    A small scale study concerning the production and analysis of fission product aerosols formed at various temperatures as a function of the chemical composition of the fissium/corium mixture at the source is presented. CsOH, CsJ and Te are the main aerosol components to be expected. The thermodynamic characterization of occuring Te-iodides and other phases is of great importance for reactor core meltdown chemistry and for the evaluation of the aerosol transport tests. Elemental iodine seems not to be released in significant amounts in reducing atmosphere. Analysis data concerning elements, phases, themral analysis and gases are presented. (G.B.)

  7. SeTES: A self-teaching expert system for the analysis, design, and prediction of gas production from unconventional gas resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moridis, George J.; Reagan, Matthew T.; Anderson Kuzma, Heidi; Blasingame, Thomas A.; Wayne Huang, Y.; Santos, Ralph; Boyle, Katie L.; Freeman, Craig M.; Ilk, Dilhan; Cossio, Manuel; Bhattacharya, Srimoyee; Nikolaou, Michael

    2013-08-01

    SeTES is a self-teaching expert system that (a) can incorporate evolving databases involving any type and amount of relevant data (geological, geophysical, geomechanical, stimulation, petrophysical, reservoir, production, etc.) originating from unconventional gas reservoirs, i.e., tight sands, shale or coalbeds, (b) can continuously update its built-in public database and refine the its underlying decision-making metrics and process, (c) can make recommendations about well stimulation, well location, orientation, design, and operation, (d) offers predictions of the performance of proposed wells (and quantitative estimates of the corresponding uncertainty), and (e) permits the analysis of data from installed wells for parameter estimation and continuous expansion of its database. Thus, SeTES integrates and processes information from multiple and diverse sources to make recommendations and support decision making at multiple time-scales, while expanding its internal database and explicitly addressing uncertainty. It receives and manages data in three forms: public data, that have been made available by various contributors, semi-public data, which conceal some identifying aspects but are available to compute important statistics, and a user's private data, which can be protected and used for more targeted design and decision making. It is the first implementation of a novel architecture that allows previously independent analysis methods and tools to share data, integrate results, and intelligently and iteratively extract the most value from the dataset. SeTES also presents a new paradigm for communicating research and technology to the public and distributing scientific tools and methods. It is expected to result in a significant improvement in reserve estimates, and increases in production by increasing efficiency and reducing uncertainty.

  8. Organic Aerosol Component (OACOMP) Value-Added Product Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fast, J; Zhang, Q; Tilp, A; Shippert, T; Parworth, C; Mei, F

    2013-08-23

    Significantly improved returns in their aerosol chemistry data can be achieved via the development of a value-added product (VAP) of deriving OA components, called Organic Aerosol Components (OACOMP). OACOMP is primarily based on multivariate analysis of the measured organic mass spectral matrix. The key outputs of OACOMP are the concentration time series and the mass spectra of OA factors that are associated with distinct sources, formation and evolution processes, and physicochemical properties.

  9. Production of Highly Charged Pharmaceutical Aerosols Using a New Aerosol Induction Charger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golshahi, Laleh; Longest, P Worth; Holbrook, Landon; Snead, Jessica; Hindle, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Properly charged particles can be used for effective lung targeting of pharmaceutical aerosols. The objective of this study was to characterize the performance of a new induction charger that operates with a mesh nebulizer for the production of highly charged submicrometer aerosols to bypass the mouth-throat and deliver clinically relevant doses of medications to the lungs. Variables of interest included combinations of model drug (albuterol sulfate) and charging excipient (NaCl) as well as strength of the charging field (1-5 kV/cm). Aerosol charge and size were measured using a modified electrical low pressure impactor system combined with high performance liquid chromatography. At the approximate mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of the aerosol (~0.4 μm), the induction charge on the particles was an order of magnitude above the field and diffusion charge limit. The nebulization rate was 439.3 ± 42.9 μl/min, which with a 0.1% w/v solution delivered 419.5 ± 34.2 μg of medication per minute. A new correlation was developed to predict particle charge produced by the induction charger. The combination of the aerosol induction charger and predictive correlations will allow for the practical generation and control of charged submicrometer aerosols for targeting deposition within the lungs.

  10. Fission product and aerosol behaviour within the containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beard, A.M.; Benson, C.G.; Bowsher, B.R.; Dickinson, S.; Nichols, A.L.

    1990-04-01

    Experimental studies have been undertaken to characterise the behaviour of fission products in the containment of a pressurised water reactor during a severe accident. The following aspects of fission product transport have been studied: (a) aerosol nucleation, (b) vapour transport processes, (c) chemical forms of high-temperature vapours, (d) interaction of fission product vapours with aerosols generated from within the reactor core, (e) resuspension processes, (f) chemistry in the containment. Chemical effects have been shown to be important in defining and quantifying fission product source terms in a wide range of accident sequences. Both the chemical forms of the fission product vapours and their interactions with reactor materials aerosols could have a major effect on the magnitude and physicochemical forms of the radioactive emission from a severe reactor accident. Only the main conclusions are presented in this summary document; detailed technical aspects of the work are described in separate reports listed in the annex

  11. Evaluation of the MERIS aerosol product over land with AERONET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vidot

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS launched in February 2002 on-board the ENVISAT spacecraft is making global observations of top-of-atmosphere (TOA radiances. Aerosol optical properties are retrieved over land using Look-Up Table (LUT based algorithm and surface reflectances in the blue and the red spectral regions. We compared instantaneous aerosol optical thicknesses retrieved by MERIS in the blue and the red at locations containing sites within the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET. Between 2002 and 2005, a set of 500 MERIS images were used in this study. The result shows that, over land, MERIS aerosol optical thicknesses are well retrieved in the blue and poorly retrieved in the red, leading to an underestimation of the Angstrom coefficient. Correlations are improved by applying a simple criterion to avoid scenes probably contaminated by thin clouds. To investigate the weakness of the MERIS algorithm, ground-based radiometer measurements have been used in order to retrieve new aerosol models, based on their Inherent Optical Properties (IOP. These new aerosol models slightly improve the correlation, but the main problem of the MERIS aerosol product over land can be attributed to the surface reflectance model in the red.

  12. MISR Aerosol Product Attributes and Statistical Comparisons with MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Ralph A.; Nelson, David L.; Garay, Michael J.; Levy, Robert C.; Bull, Michael A.; Diner, David J.; Martonchik, John V.; Paradise, Susan R.; Hansen, Earl G.; Remer, Lorraine A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) aerosol product attributes are described, including geometry and algorithm performance flags. Actual retrieval coverage is mapped and explained in detail using representative global monthly data. Statistical comparisons are made with coincident aerosol optical depth (AOD) and Angstrom exponent (ANG) retrieval results from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument. The relationship between these results and the ones previously obtained for MISR and MODIS individually, based on comparisons with coincident ground-truth observations, is established. For the data examined, MISR and MODIS each obtain successful aerosol retrievals about 15% of the time, and coincident MISR-MODIS aerosol retrievals are obtained for about 6%-7% of the total overlap region. Cloud avoidance, glint and oblique-Sun exclusions, and other algorithm physical limitations account for these results. For both MISR and MODIS, successful retrievals are obtained for over 75% of locations where attempts are made. Where coincident AOD retrievals are obtained over ocean, the MISR-MODIS correlation coefficient is about 0.9; over land, the correlation coefficient is about 0.7. Differences are traced to specific known algorithm issues or conditions. Over-ocean ANG comparisons yield a correlation of 0.67, showing consistency in distinguishing aerosol air masses dominated by coarse-mode versus fine-mode particles. Sampling considerations imply that care must be taken when assessing monthly global aerosol direct radiative forcing and AOD trends with these products, but they can be used directly for many other applications, such as regional AOD gradient and aerosol air mass type mapping and aerosol transport model validation. Users are urged to take seriously the published product data-quality statements.

  13. MISR Global Aerosol Product Assessment by Comparison with AERONET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitley, B. J.; Kahn, R. A.

    2010-12-01

    Barbara J. Gaitley1, Ralph Kahn2, 1Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena CA 91109; 818-354-0552; 2NASA Goddard Space Flight Center; e-mail: barbara.gaitley@jpl.nasa.gov As a further step in validating the NASA Earth Observing System Terra satellite’s Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) aerosol products, an extensive statistical comparison between MISR optical depth and Angstrom exponent and Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) retrievals has been completed. Angstrom exponent was interpreted in terms of components and mixtures used by the retrieval algorithm. Specific examples illustrating the analysis approach will be shown. Eight years of data from 81 geographically diverse sites having good long-term measurement records were first stratified based on locations where six broad aerosol air mass type categories are likely to occur: maritime, biomass burning, desert dust, urban pollution, continental and mixed dust+smoke aerosols. The number of actual coincident measurements was constrained by requiring that the AERONET direct sun aerosol optical depth (AOD) data was obtained within a two-hour window centered on the MISR overpass time. 5156 coincident observations are included in this AOD data set. AERONET direct sun data were averaged over the measurements obtained within this window, and were then interpolated to the MISR characteristic wavelengths to facilitate comparison. All AERONET measurements are Level 2.0, Version 2 data. A previous, systematic comparison of MISR and AERONET aerosol optical depth data [Kahn, Gaitley et al., JGR 110, 2005] identified specific, suggested improvements to the early post-launch MISR Standard Aerosol retrieval algorithms. Most of these suggestions were implemented in the uniformly reprocessed MISR Version 22 aerosol products used in the current study. We documented the performance of the current MISR products based on the comparison statistics. For example, agreement between AERONET and

  14. A New Stratospheric Aerosol Product from CALIPSO Lidar Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, J.; Vaughan, M.; Trepte, C. R.; Winker, D. M.; Vernier, J. P.; Pitts, M. C.; Young, S. A.; Liu, Z.; Lucker, P.; Tackett, J. L.; Omar, A. H.

    2014-12-01

    Stratospheric aerosols are derived from precursor SO2 and OCS gases transported from the lower troposphere. Volcanic injections can also enhance aerosol loadings far above background levels. The latter can exert a significant influence on the Earth's radiation budget for major and even minor eruptions. Careful measurements are needed, therefore, to monitor the distribution and evolution of stratospheric aerosols for climate related studies. The Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) mission has been acquiring profile measurements of clouds and aerosols since 2006, leading to major advances in our understanding of tropospheric aerosol and cloud properties and the processes that control them. The CALIPSO products have also enabled new insights into polar stratospheric clouds and stratospheric aerosols. Vernier et al (2009,JGR,114,D00H10) reported on the construction of a modified CALIPSO lidar product that corrected minor artifacts with the original lidar calibration that affected stratospheric aerosol investigations. A significantly improved CALIPSO Lidar Version 4 Level 1 product has been recently released addressing these calibration issues and has resulted in enhanced signal levels and a highly stable record over the span of the mission. Based on this product, a new 3D gridded stratospheric CALIPSO data product is under development and being targeted for release in 2015. A key emphasis of this new product is to bridge the measurement gap between the SAGE II and SAGE III data record (1984-2005) and the start of measurements from the new SAGE III instrument to be deployed on the International Space Station in 2016. The primary parameters delivered in the CALIPSO stratospheric data products will be attenuated scattering ratio and aerosol extinction profiles, both averaged over one month intervals and binned into an equal angle grid of constant latitude and longitude with a vertical resolution of 900m. We will present the overall

  15. Organic Aerosol Component (OACOMP) Value-Added Product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fast, J [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Zhang, Q; tilp, A [Brookhaven National Laboratory; Shippert, T [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Parworth, C; Mei, F [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2013-08-23

    Organic aerosol (OA, i.e., the organic fraction of particles) accounts for 10–90% of the fine aerosol mass globally and is a key determinant of aerosol radiative forcing. But atmospheric OA is poorly characterized and its life cycle insufficiently represented in models. As a result, current models are unable to simulate OA concentrations and properties accurately. This deficiency represents a large source of uncertainty in quantification of aerosol effects and prediction of future climate change. Evaluation and development of aerosol models require data products generated from field observations. Real-time, quantitative data acquired with aerosol mass spectrometers (AMS) (Canagaratna et al. 2007) are critical to this need. The AMS determines size-resolved concentrations of non-refractory (NR) species in submicrometer particles (PM1) with fast time resolution suitable for both ground-based and aircraft deployments. The high-resolution AMS (HR-AMS), which is equipped with a high mass resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer, can be used to determine the elemental composition and oxidation degrees of OA (DeCarlo et al. 2006).

  16. On the New Satellite Aerosol Measurements for Atmospheric Applications: VIIRS Aerosol Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H.; Laszlo, I.; Kondragunta, S.; Liu, H.; Huang, J.; Cronk, H. Q.; Remer, L. A.; Sayer, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) is the USA's next generation polar-orbiting operational environmental satellite system. JPSS will provide operational continuity of satellite-based observations and products for the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) mission. JPSS/NPP will provide a continuation of major long-term observations by the Earth Observing System such as Terra, Aqua, and Aura to enhance our understanding of the climate change processes. Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is a multi-spectral scanning radiometer (22 bands between 0.4μm and 12μm) on-board JPSS/NPP with spatial resolution for 16 bands at 750m and 5 bands at 325m. The spatial resolution of Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) Environment Data Record (EDR) is 6 km at nadir compared to 10km at nadir for Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Separate algorithms are used for aerosol retrieval over land and ocean. The over-land aerosol algorithm is based on MODIS surface Reflectance (MOD09 Collection 5) algorithm and the over-ocean algorithm is derived from the MODIS Aerosol (MOD04 Collection 5) algorithm. AOT and aerosol type are retrieved simultaneously by minimizing the difference between observed and calculated reflectance in multiple channels. VIIRS aerosol products include AOT, Aerosol Particle Size Parameter (APSP), and suspended matter. At the time of this presentation, the beta release of VIIRS aerosol data is expected to be available to the community to allow users to gain familiarity with data formats and parameters. The beta release of VIIRS aerosol products is expected to include AOT EDR of both over land and ocean and the APSP (Angstrom Exponent) EDR over ocean. To understand the present performance of VIIRS aerosol products at beta level and the difference of AOT retrievals between VIIRS and MODIS for long-term climatic applications, this study will focus on comparisons between VIIRS AOT and that of AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET

  17. CATS Cloud and Aerosol Level 2 Heritage Edition Data Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodier, S. D.; Vaughan, M.; Yorks, J. E.; Palm, S. P.; Selmer, P. A.; Hlavka, D. L.; McGill, M. J.; Trepte, C. R.

    2017-12-01

    The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) instrument was developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and deployed to the International Space Station (ISS) in January 2015. The CATS elastic backscatter lidars have been operating continuously in one of two science modes since February 2015. One of the primary science objectives of CATS is to continue the CALIPSO aerosol and cloud profile data record to provide continuity of lidar climate observations during the transition from CALIPSO to EarthCARE. To accomplish this, the CATS project at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and the CALIPSO project at NASA's Langley Research Center (LaRC) closely collaborated to develop and deliver a full suite of CALIPSO-like level 2 data products using the latest version of the CALIPSO level 2 Version 4 algorithms for the CATS data acquired while operating in science mode 1 (Multi-beam backscatter detection at 1064 and 532 nm, with depolarization measurement at both wavelengths). In this work, we present the current status of the CATS Heritage (i.e. CALIPSO-like) level 2 data products derived from the recent released CATS Level 1B V2-08 data. Extensive comparisons are performed between the three data sets (CALIPSO V4.10 Level 2, CATS Level 2 Operational V2-00 and CATS Heritage V1.00) for cloud and aerosol measurements (e.g., cloud-top height cloud-phase, cloud-layer occurrence frequency and cloud-aerosol discrimination) along the ISS path. In addition, global comparisons (between 52°S and 52°N) of aerosol extinction profiles derived from the CATS Level 2 Operational products and CALIOP V4 Level 2 products are presented. Comparisons of aerosol optical depths retrieved from active sensors (CATS and CALIOP) and passive sensors (MODIS) will provide context for the extinction profile comparisons.

  18. INTENSITAS COPYING ANSWER PADA TES KEMAMPUAN MATEMATIKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nursalam Nursalam

    2012-07-01

    Abstrak: Seorang peserta tes akan menjawab tes dengan tiga asumsi yaitu peserta tes akan menjawab suatu butir pertanyaan karena mengetahui, peserta menjawab tes dengan menebak, dan peserta menjawab tes karena menyalin jawaban dari peserta lain (menyontek. Akan tetapi jika peserta tes tidak memiliki akses untuk menyontek maka peserta hanya akan memberikan jawaban dengan asumsi pertama dan kedua. Artikel ini membahas intensitas menyontek sebelum pelaksanaan tes, pada saat pelaksanan tes, dan ketika tes dilaksanakan secara tiba-tiba.Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa intensitas menyontek paling tinggi dilakukan oleh peserta tes pada saat ujian berlansung kemudian ketika ujian dilakukan secara tiba-tiba atau mendadak dan terakhir adalah sebelum pelaksanaan tes.

  19. TES/MLS Aura L2 CO Special Observation V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TES TML2COS Special Observation Products are derived from TES (Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer) nadir and MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder) limb measurements from the...

  20. Aerosol properties of indoor radon decay products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martell, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    Lung cancer risks attributable to indoor radon are highly dependent on the properties of radon progeny aerosols which, in turn, are dependent on the nature and concentration of small particles in indoor air. In clean filtered air, radon progeny are attached to small hygroscopic particles of high mobility which are rapidly deposited on surfaces. By contrast, radon progeny attached to cigarette smoke are on large particles of low mobility which persist in air. Radon progeny ingaled by smokers are largely associated with smoke particles from 0.5 to 4.0 μm diameter. Such particles are selectively deposited at bronchial bifurcations and are highly resistant to dissolution. The attached radon progeny undergo a substantial degree of radioactive decay at deposition sites before clearance which gives rise to large alpha radiation doses in small volumes of bronchial epithelium. These processes provide new insights on mechanisms of bronchial cancer induction and on relative risks of lung cancer in smokers, passive smokers, and other non-smokers. (Author)

  1. PENGEMBANGAN TES BAKAT TERPADU ONLINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Candiasa

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Pengembangan tes bakat online didasari ide untuk memperluas otomasi layanan pendidikan, melengkapi e-learning yang sudah berkembang dengan baik untuk otomasi pembelajaran. Kelebihan tes bakat online yang dikembangkan adalah dapat digunakan setiap saat, dan tidak terlalu terikat tempat, serta tidak memerlukan petugas yang memahami evaluasi. Selain itu, tes bakat online dapat menyajikan variasi tes yang berbeda setiap kali diakses, serta dapat memberikan informasi hasil tes secara otomatis langsung setelah peserta tes memvalidasi jawabannya. Kata kunci: tes bakat online, otomasi layanan pendidikan Abstract Development of online aptitude test based on idea of widening automation on educational service, completing existing various e-learning model for instructional automation. There are some advantages of online aptitude test. It can be used anytime and anywhere by everyone. Furthermore, it can present various package of test every time it is accessed and automatically gives score and feedback immediately after tester finish answer the test. Keywords: online aptitude test, automation of educational service

  2. AIP1OGREN: Aerosol Observing Station Intensive Properties Value-Added Product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koontz, Annette [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Flynn, Connor [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-09-15

    The aip1ogren value-added product (VAP) computes several aerosol intensive properties. It requires as input calibrated, corrected, aerosol extensive properties (scattering and absorption coefficients, primarily) from the Aerosol Observing Station (AOS). Aerosol extensive properties depend on both the nature of the aerosol and the amount of the aerosol. We compute several properties as relationships between the various extensive properties. These intensive properties are independent of aerosol amount and instead relate to intrinsic properties of the aerosol itself. Along with the original extensive properties we report aerosol single-scattering albedo, hemispheric backscatter fraction, asymmetry parameter, and Ångström exponent for scattering and absorption with one-minute averaging. An hourly averaged file is produced from the 1-minute files that includes all extensive and intensive properties as well as submicron scattering and submicron absorption fractions. Finally, in both the minutely and hourly files the aerosol radiative forcing efficiency is provided.

  3. MISR Level 3 Component Global Aerosol Product covering a month V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MISR Level 3 Component Global Aerosol Product covering a month contains a statistical summary of column aerosol 555 nanometer optical depth, and a monthly...

  4. The Collection 6 'dark-target' MODIS Aerosol Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Robert C.; Mattoo, Shana; Munchak, Leigh A.; Kleidman, Richard G.; Patadia, Falguni; Gupta, Pawan; Remer, Lorraine

    2013-01-01

    Aerosol retrieval algorithms are applied to Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors on both Terra and Aqua, creating two streams of decade-plus aerosol information. Products of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and aerosol size are used for many applications, but the primary concern is that these global products are comprehensive and consistent enough for use in climate studies. One of our major customers is the international modeling comparison study known as AEROCOM, which relies on the MODIS data as a benchmark. In order to keep up with the needs of AEROCOM and other MODIS data users, while utilizing new science and tools, we have improved the algorithms and products. The code, and the associated products, will be known as Collection 6 (C6). While not a major overhaul from the previous Collection 5 (C5) version, there are enough changes that there are significant impacts to the products and their interpretation. In its entirety, the C6 algorithm is comprised of three sub-algorithms for retrieving aerosol properties over different surfaces: These include the dark-target DT algorithms to retrieve over (1) ocean and (2) vegetated-dark-soiled land, plus the (3) Deep Blue (DB) algorithm, originally developed to retrieve over desert-arid land. Focusing on the two DT algorithms, we have updated assumptions for central wavelengths, Rayleigh optical depths and gas (H2O, O3, CO2, etc.) absorption corrections, while relaxing the solar zenith angle limit (up to 84) to increase pole-ward coverage. For DT-land, we have updated the cloud mask to allow heavy smoke retrievals, fine-tuned the assignments for aerosol type as function of season location, corrected bugs in the Quality Assurance (QA) logic, and added diagnostic parameters such as topographic altitude. For DT-ocean, improvements include a revised cloud mask for thin-cirrus detection, inclusion of wind speed dependence in the retrieval, updates to logic of QA Confidence flag (QAC) assignment, and

  5. Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) Version 3 Aerosol Optical Depth and Inversion Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, D. M.; Holben, B. N.; Eck, T. F.; Smirnov, A.; Sinyuk, A.; Schafer, J.; Sorokin, M. G.; Slutsker, I.

    2017-12-01

    The Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) surface-based aerosol optical depth (AOD) database has been a principal component of many Earth science remote sensing applications and modelling for more than two decades. During this time, the AERONET AOD database had utilized a semiautomatic quality assurance approach (Smirnov et al., 2000). Data quality automation developed for AERONET Version 3 (V3) was achieved by augmenting and improving upon the combination of Version 2 (V2) automatic and manual procedures to provide a more refined near real time (NRT) and historical worldwide database of AOD. The combined effect of these new changes provides a historical V3 AOD Level 2.0 data set comparable to V2 Level 2.0 AOD. The recently released V3 Level 2.0 AOD product uses Level 1.5 data with automated cloud screening and quality controls and applies pre-field and post-field calibrations and wavelength-dependent temperature characterizations. For V3, the AERONET aerosol retrieval code inverts AOD and almucantar sky radiances using a full vector radiative transfer called Successive ORDers of scattering (SORD; Korkin et al., 2017). The full vector code allows for potentially improving the real part of the complex index of refraction and the sphericity parameter and computing the radiation field in the UV (e.g., 380nm) and degree of linear depolarization. Effective lidar ratio and depolarization ratio products are also available with the V3 inversion release. Inputs to the inversion code were updated to the accommodate H2O, O3 and NO2 absorption to be consistent with the computation of V3 AOD. All of the inversion products are associated with estimated uncertainties that include the random error plus biases due to the uncertainty in measured AOD, absolute sky radiance calibration, and retrieved MODIS BRDF for snow-free and snow covered surfaces. The V3 inversion products use the same data quality assurance criteria as V2 inversions (Holben et al. 2006). The entire AERONET V3

  6. Resistance of Aerosolized Bacterial Viruses to Four Germicidal Products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Turgeon

    Full Text Available Viral diseases can spread through a variety of routes including aerosols. Yet, limited data are available on the efficacy of aerosolized chemicals to reduce viral loads in the air. Bacteriophages (phages are often used as surrogates for hazardous viruses in aerosol studies because they are inexpensive, easy to handle, and safe for laboratory workers. Moreover, several of these bacterial viruses display physical characteristics similar to pathogenic human and animal viruses, like morphological size, type of nucleic acids, capsid morphology, and the presence of an envelope. In this study, the efficacy of four chemicals was evaluated on four airborne phages at two different relative humidity levels. Non-tailed bacteriophages MS2 (single-stranded RNA, ϕ6 (double-stranded RNA, enveloped, PR772 (double-stranded DNA, and ϕX174 (single-stranded DNA were first aerosolized in a 55L rotative environmental chamber at 19°C with 25% and 50% relative humidity. Then, hydrogen peroxide, Eugenol (phenylpropene used in commercial perfumes and flavorings, Mist® (automobile disinfectant containing Triethylene glycol, and Pledge® (multisurface disinfectant containing Isopropanol, n-Alkyl Dimethyl Benzyl Amonium Chlorides, and n-Alkyl Dimethyl Ethylbenzyl Ammonium Chloride were nebulized with the phages using a separate nebulizer. Aerosols were maintained in suspension during 10 minutes, 1 hour, and 2 hours. Viral aerosols were sampled using an SKC BioSampler and samples were analyzed using qPCR and plaque assays. The resistance levels of the four phages varied depending on the relative humidity (RH and germicidal products tested. Phage MS2 was the most stable airborne virus under the environmental conditions tested while phage PR772 was the least stable. Pledge® and Eugenol reduced the infectivity of all airborne phages tested. At 25% RH, Pledge® and Eugenol were more effective at reducing infectivity of RNA phages ϕ6 and MS2. At 50% RH, Pledge® was the most

  7. Validation of multi-angle imaging spectroradiometer aerosol products in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Liu; X. Xia; Z. Li; P. Wang; M. Min; WeiMin Hao; Y. Wang; J. Xin; X. Li; Y. Zheng; Z. Chen

    2010-01-01

    Based on AErosol RObotic NETwork and Chinese Sun Hazemeter Network data, the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) level 2 aerosol optical depth (AOD) products are evaluated in China. The MISR retrievals depict well the temporal aerosol trend in China with correlation coefficients exceeding 0.8 except for stations located in northeast China and at the...

  8. Development, Production and Evaluation of Aerosol Climate Data Records from European Satellite Observations (Aerosol_cci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Popp

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Producing a global and comprehensive description of atmospheric aerosols requires integration of ground-based, airborne, satellite and model datasets. Due to its complexity, aerosol monitoring requires the use of several data records with complementary information content. This paper describes the lessons learned while developing and qualifying algorithms to generate aerosol Climate Data Records (CDR within the European Space Agency (ESA Aerosol_cci project. An iterative algorithm development and evaluation cycle involving core users is applied. It begins with the application-specific refinement of user requirements, leading to algorithm development, dataset processing and independent validation followed by user evaluation. This cycle is demonstrated for a CDR of total Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD from two subsequent dual-view radiometers. Specific aspects of its applicability to other aerosol algorithms are illustrated with four complementary aerosol datasets. An important element in the development of aerosol CDRs is the inclusion of several algorithms evaluating the same data to benefit from various solutions to the ill-determined retrieval problem. The iterative approach has produced a 17-year AOD CDR, a 10-year stratospheric extinction profile CDR and a 35-year Absorbing Aerosol Index record. Further evolution cycles have been initiated for complementary datasets to provide insight into aerosol properties (i.e., dust aerosol, aerosol absorption.

  9. Toward a Coherent Detailed Evaluation of Aerosol Data Products from Multiple Satellite Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichoku, Charles; Petrenko, Maksym; Leptoukh, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosols represent one of the greatest uncertainties in climate research. Although satellite-based aerosol retrieval has practically become routine, especially during the last decade, there is often disagreement between similar aerosol parameters retrieved from different sensors, leaving users confused as to which sensors to trust for answering important science questions about the distribution, properties, and impacts of aerosols. As long as there is no consensus and the inconsistencies are not well characterized and understood, there will be no way of developing reliable climate data records from satellite aerosol measurements. Fortunately, the most globally representative well-calibrated ground-based aerosol measurements corresponding to the satellite-retrieved products are available from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). To adequately utilize the advantages offered by this vital resource, an online Multi-sensor Aerosol Products Sampling System (MAPSS) was recently developed. The aim of MAPSS is to facilitate detailed comparative analysis of satellite aerosol measurements from different sensors (Terra-MODIS, Aqua-MODIS, TerraMISR, Aura-OMI, Parasol-POLDER, and Calipso-CALIOP) based on the collocation of these data products over AERONET stations. In this presentation, we will describe the strategy of the MASS system, its potential advantages for the aerosol community, and the preliminary results of an integrated comparative uncertainly analysis of aerosol products from multiple satellite sensors.

  10. Production of satellite-derived aerosol climate data records: current status of the ESA Aerosol_cci project

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leeuw, Gerrit; Holzer-Popp, Thomas; Pinnock, Simon

    2015-04-01

    and the Aerosol_cci team Within the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) project Aerosol_cci (Phase 1: 2010 -2014; Phase 2: 2014-2017) intensive work has been conducted to improve algorithms for the retrieval of aerosol information from European sensors ATSR (3 algorithms), PARASOL, MERIS (3 algorithms), synergetic AATSR/SCIAMACHY, OMI and GOMOS. Whereas OMI and GOMOS were used to derive absorbing aerosol index and stratospheric extinction profiles, respectively, Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and Ångström coefficient were retrieved from the other sensors. The cooperation between the project partners, including both the retrieval teams and independent validation teams, has resulted in a strong improvement of most algorithms. In particular the AATSR retrieved AOD is qualitatively similar to that from MODIS, usually taken as the standard, MISR and SeaWiFS. This conclusion has been reached form several different ways of validation of the L2 and L3 products, using AERONET sun photometer data as the common ground-truth for the application of both 'traditional' statistical techniques and a 'scoring' technique using spatial and temporal correlations. Quantitatively, the limited AATSR swath width of 500km results in a smaller amount of data. Nevertheless, the assimilation of AATSR-retrieved AOD, together with MODIS data, contributes to improving the in the ECMWF climate model results. In addition to the multi-spectral AOD, and thus the Ångström Exponent, also a per-pixel uncertainty is provided and validated. By the end of Aerosol_cci Phase 1 the ATSR algorithms have been applied to both ATSR-2 and AATSR resulting in an AOD time series of 17 years. In phase 2 this work is continued with a focus on the further improvement of the ATSR algorithms as well as those for the other instruments and algorithms, mentioned above, which in phase 1 were considered less mature. The first efforts are on the further characterization of the uncertainties and on better understanding of the

  11. 21 CFR 700.16 - Use of aerosol cosmetic products containing zirconium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of aerosol cosmetic products containing... SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.16 Use of aerosol cosmetic products containing zirconium. (a) Zirconium-containing complexes have been used as an ingredient...

  12. Evaluating MODIS Collection 6 Dark Target Over Water Aerosol Products for Multi-sensor Data Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Y.; Zhang, J.; Reid, J. S.; Hyer, E. J.; McHardy, T. M.; Lee, L.

    2014-12-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aerosol products have been widely used in aerosol related climate, visibility, and air quality studies for more than a decade. Recently, the MODIS collection 6 (c6) aerosol products from MODIS-Aqua have been released. The reported changes between Collection 5 and Collection 6 include updates in the retrieving algorithms and a new cloud filtering process for the over-ocean products. Thus it is necessary to fully evaluate the collection 6 products for applications that require high quality MODIS aerosol optical depth data, such as operational aerosol data assimilation. The uncertainties in the MODIS c6 DT over ocean products are studied through both inter-comparing with the Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) aerosol products and by evaluation against ground truth. Special attention is given to the low bias in MODIS DT products due to the misclassifications of heavy aerosol plumes as clouds. Finally, a quality assured data assimilation grade aerosol optical product is constructed for aerosol data assimilation related applications.

  13. Minimum aerosol layer detection sensitivities and their subsequent impacts on aerosol optical thickness retrievals in CALIPSO level 2 data products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Travis D.; Campbell, James R.; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Tackett, Jason L.; Vaughan, Mark A.; Zhang, Jianglong; Marquis, Jared W.

    2018-01-01

    Due to instrument sensitivities and algorithm detection limits, level 2 (L2) Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) 532 nm aerosol extinction profile retrievals are often populated with retrieval fill values (RFVs), which indicate the absence of detectable levels of aerosol within the profile. In this study, using 4 years (2007-2008 and 2010-2011) of CALIOP version 3 L2 aerosol data, the occurrence frequency of daytime CALIOP profiles containing all RFVs (all-RFV profiles) is studied. In the CALIOP data products, the aerosol optical thickness (AOT) of any all-RFV profile is reported as being zero, which may introduce a bias in CALIOP-based AOT climatologies. For this study, we derive revised estimates of AOT for all-RFV profiles using collocated Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Dark Target (DT) and, where available, AErosol RObotic NEtwork (AERONET) data. Globally, all-RFV profiles comprise roughly 71 % of all daytime CALIOP L2 aerosol profiles (i.e., including completely attenuated profiles), accounting for nearly half (45 %) of all daytime cloud-free L2 aerosol profiles. The mean collocated MODIS DT (AERONET) 550 nm AOT is found to be near 0.06 (0.08) for CALIOP all-RFV profiles. We further estimate a global mean aerosol extinction profile, a so-called noise floor, for CALIOP all-RFV profiles. The global mean CALIOP AOT is then recomputed by replacing RFV values with the derived noise-floor values for both all-RFV and non-all-RFV profiles. This process yields an improvement in the agreement of CALIOP and MODIS over-ocean AOT.

  14. Regional and monthly and clear-sky aerosol direct radiative effect (and forcing derived from the GlobAEROSOL-AATSR satellite aerosol product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the GlobAEROSOL-AATSR dataset, estimates of the instantaneous, clear-sky, direct aerosol radiative effect and radiative forcing have been produced for the year 2006. Aerosol Robotic Network sun-photometer measurements have been used to characterise the random and systematic error in the GlobAEROSOL product for 22 regions covering the globe. Representative aerosol properties for each region were derived from the results of a wide range of literature sources and, along with the de-biased GlobAEROSOL AODs, were used to drive an offline version of the Met Office unified model radiation scheme. In addition to the mean AOD, best-estimate run of the radiation scheme, a range of additional calculations were done to propagate uncertainty estimates in the AOD, optical properties, surface albedo and errors due to the temporal and spatial averaging of the AOD fields. This analysis produced monthly, regional estimates of the clear-sky aerosol radiative effect and its uncertainty, which were combined to produce annual, global mean values of (−6.7 ± 3.9 W m−2 at the top of atmosphere (TOA and (−12 ± 6 W m−2 at the surface. These results were then used to give estimates of regional, clear-sky aerosol direct radiative forcing, using modelled pre-industrial AOD fields for the year 1750 calculated for the AEROCOM PRE experiment. However, as it was not possible to quantify the uncertainty in the pre-industrial aerosol loading, these figures can only be taken as indicative and their uncertainties as lower bounds on the likely errors. Although the uncertainty on aerosol radiative effect presented here is considerably larger than most previous estimates, the explicit inclusion of the major sources of error in the calculations suggest that they are closer to the true constraint on this figure from similar methodologies, and point to the need for more, improved estimates of both global aerosol loading and aerosol optical properties.

  15. Oxygenated products of sesquiterpenes in secondary organic aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eijck, A.; Kampf, C.; Hoffmann, T.

    2012-04-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) has a huge impact on air quality and climate change. It influences the Earth radiative budget through absorbing, scattering and reflecting radiation as well as the formation of clouds because the particulates can act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Furthermore, it plays an important role for human health. SOA is formed from gaseous precursors which get oxidized by ozone, OH- and NO3-radicals in the atmosphere. Due to their low vapor pressure these degradation products can nucleate to form new particles or they can condense on existing aerosol particles. Despite the major progress in research during the last few years the actual chemical composition as well as the contribution of various volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the formation of secondary organic aerosol is still partially unknown. Recent studies indicate that sesquiterpenes play an important role in the formation of SOA because of the low volatility of their oxygenated products (Lee et al., 2006). Their emission is estimated to be about 14,8 Tg per year (Henze et al., 2008), however, these emission rates remain highly uncertain due to the lack of quantitative emission rate measurements. In addition, the knowledge about the actual atmospheric degradation mechanism and the main oxidation products of sesquiterpenes is quite limited. β-Caryophyllene, α-humulene, α-farnesene and β-farnesene are the most abundant sequiterpenes in many sesquiterpene emission profiles. But also aromadendren, α-bergamotene and δ-cadinene and germacrene-D can contribute significantly to some emission profiles (Duhl et al., 2008). To determine the major oxygenated products of sesquiterpenes in SOA, reaction chamber experiments with different sesquiterpenes and ozone were performed in a 100 L reaction chamber. To measure the time dependent formation of initial oxidation products, an APCI-IT-MS was directly connected to the reaction chamber. After 2 hours the APCI-IT-MS was replaced by a

  16. Resolution and Content Improvements to MISR Aerosol and Land Surface Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garay, M. J.; Bull, M. A.; Diner, D. J.; Hansen, E. G.; Kalashnikova, O. V.

    2015-12-01

    Since early 2000, the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument on NASA's Terra satellite has been providing operational Level 2 (swath-based) aerosol optical depth (AOD) and particle property retrievals at 17.6 km spatial resolution and atmospherically corrected land surface products at 1.1 km resolution. The performance of the aerosol product has been validated against ground-based Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) observations, model comparisons, and climatological assessments. This product has played a major role in studies of the impacts of aerosols on climate and air quality. The surface product has found a variety of uses, particularly at regional scales for assessing vegetation and land surface change. A major development effort has led to the release of an update to the operational (Version 22) MISR Level 2 aerosol and land surface retrieval products, which has been in production since December 2007. The new release is designated Version 23. The resolution of the aerosol product has been increased to 4.4 km, allowing more detailed characterization of aerosol spatial variability, especially near local sources and in urban areas. The product content has been simplified and updated to include more robust measures of retrieval uncertainty and other fields to benefit users. The land surface product has also been updated to incorporate the Version 23 aerosol product as input and to improve spatial coverage, particularly over mountainous terrain and snow/ice-covered surfaces. We will describe the major upgrades incorporated in Version 23 and present validation of the aerosol product against both the standard AERONET historical database, as well as high spatial density AERONET-DRAGON deployments. Comparisons will also be shown relative to the Version 22 aerosol and land surface products. Applications enabled by these product updates will be discussed.

  17. Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TES focuses on the troposphere, the layer of atmosphere that stretches from the ground to the altitude at which airplanes fly. With very high spectral resolution,...

  18. Secondary organic aerosol production from modern diesel engine emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Samy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Secondary organic aerosol (SOA production was observed at significant levels in a series of modern diesel exhaust (DE aging experiments conducted at the European Outdoor Photoreactor/Simulation Chamber (EUPHORE. The greatest production occurred in DE with toluene addition experiments (>40%, followed by DE with HCHO (for OH radical generation experiments. A small amount of SOA (3% was observed for DE in dark with N2O5 (for NO3 radical production experiments. The analysis for a limited number (54 of polar organic compounds (POC was conducted to assess the composition of modern DE and the formation of photochemical transformation products. Distinct POC formation in light versus dark experiments suggests the role of OH initiated reactions in these chamber atmospheres. A trend of increasing concentrations of dicarboxylic acids in light versus dark experiments was observed when evaluated on a compound group basis. The four toluene addition experiments in this study were performed at different [tol]o/[NOx]o ratios and displayed an average SOA %yield (in relation to toluene of 5.3±1.6%, which is compared to past chamber studies that evaluated the impact of [tol]o/[NOx]o on SOA production in more simplified mixtures.

  19. Roles of production, consumption and trade in global and regional aerosol radiative forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J.; Tong, D.; Davis, S. J.; Ni, R.; Tan, X.; Pan, D.; Zhao, H.; Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; Feng, T.; Zhang, Q.; Yan, Y.; Hu, Y.; Li, J.; Liu, Z.; Jiang, X.; Geng, G.; He, K.; Huang, Y.; Guan, D.

    2016-12-01

    Anthropogenic aerosols exert strong radiative forcing on the climate system. Prevailing view regards aerosol radiative forcing as a result of emissions from regions' economic production, with China and other developing regions having the largest contributions to radiative forcing at present. However, economic production is driven by global demand for computation, and international trade allows for separation of regions consuming goods and services from regions where goods and related aerosol pollution are produced. It has recently been recognized that regions' consumption and trade have profoundly altered the spatial distribution of aerosol emissions and pollution. Building upon our previous work, this study quantifies for the first time the roles of trade and consumption in aerosol climate forcing attributed to different regions. We contrast the direct radiative forcing of aerosols related to regions' consumption of goods and services against the forcing due to emissions produced in each region. Aerosols assessed include black carbon, primary organic aerosol, and secondary inorganic aerosols including sulfate, nitrate and ammonium. We find that global aerosol radiative forcing due to emissions produced in East Asia is much stronger than the forcing related to goods and services ultimately consumed in that region because of its large net export of emissions-intensive goods. The opposite is true for net importers like Western Europe and North America: global radiative forcing related to consumption is much greater than the forcing due to emissions produced in these regions. Overall, trade is associated with a shift of radiative forcing from net importing to net exporting regions. Compared to greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, the short atmospheric lifetimes of aerosols cause large localized differences in radiative forcing. International efforts to reduce emissions in the exporting countries will help alleviate trade-related climate and health impacts of

  20. Compressed gas domestic aerosol valve design using high viscous product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Nourian

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Most of the current universal consumer aerosol products using high viscous product such as cooking oil, antiperspirants, hair removal cream are primarily used LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas propellant which is unfriendly environmental. The advantages of the new innovative technology described in this paper are: i. No butane or other liquefied hydrocarbon gas is used as a propellant and it replaced with Compressed air, nitrogen or other safe gas propellant. ii. Customer acceptable spray quality and consistency during can lifetime iii. Conventional cans and filling technology There is only a feasible energy source which is inert gas (i.e. compressed air to replace VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds and greenhouse gases, which must be avoided, to improve atomisation by generating gas bubbles and turbulence inside the atomiser insert and the actuator. This research concentrates on using "bubbly flow" in the valve stem, with injection of compressed gas into the passing flow, thus also generating turbulence. The new valve designed in this investigation using inert gases has advantageous over conventional valve with butane propellant using high viscous product (> 400 Cp because, when the valving arrangement is fully open, there are negligible energy losses as fluid passes through the valve from the interior of the container to the actuator insert. The use of valving arrangement thus permits all pressure drops to be controlled, resulting in improved control of atomising efficiency and flow rate, whereas in conventional valves a significant pressure drops occurs through the valve which has a complex effect on the corresponding spray.

  1. Fission product vapour - aerosol interactions in the containment: simulant fuel studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beard, A.M.; Benson, C.G.; Bowsher, B.R.

    1988-12-01

    Experiments have been conducted in the Falcon facility to study the interaction of fission product vapours released from simulant fuel samples with control rod aerosols. The aerosols generated from both the control rod and fuel sample were chemically distinct and had different deposition characteristics. Extensive interaction was observed between the fission product vapours and the control rod aerosol. The two dominant mechanisms were condensation of the vapours onto the aerosol, and chemical reactions between the two components; sorption phenomena were believed to be only of secondary importance. The interaction of fission product vapours and reactor materials aerosols could have a major impact on the transport characteristics of the radioactive emission from a degrading core. (author)

  2. Fission product partitioning in aerosol release from simulated spent nuclear fuel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Lemma, F.G.; Colle, J.Y.; Rasmussen, G.; Konings, R.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Aerosols created by the vaporization of simulated spent nuclear fuel (simfuel) were produced by laser heating techniques and characterised by a wide range of post-analyses. In particular attention has been focused on determining the fission product behaviour in the aerosols, in order to improve the

  3. Particle Property Data Quality Flags for the MISR Aerosol Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitley, B. J.; Kahn, R. A.; Garay, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    The MISR instrument aboard the NASA Earth Observing System's Terra satellite has the unique capability to retrieve aerosol properties under favorable conditions. General aerosol type retrieval quality guidelines are provided in the MISR Data Quality Statement and related publications. The retrieved value of aerosol type is more sensitive to scene conditions than aerosol optical depth, and more difficult to validate, as there is very little coincident aerosol type validation data. Here we report on the steps we are taking to provide an aerosol-type data quality flag, to be provided with each individual retrieval result. Due to the lack of validation data for comparison, our main approach is to evaluate the self-consistency of aerosol type retrieval values for regions where particular aerosol types are known to dominate. Some factors affecting aerosol type retrieval quality that can be assessed pre-retrieval are the number of MISR cameras available, the range of scattering angles viewed, and surface conditions such as shallow water or seasonal coastal runoff. Factors that must be assessed post-retrieval include values of retrieved aerosol optical depth and the number and type of mixtures successfully passing the MISR algorithm acceptance criteria. Regional monthly plots with MISR measurements binned at 0.5 degree resolution and color-coded stratification of one or more parameters are the main tools for identifying locations and times where different aerosol types are retrieved. The statistics of individual MISR values such as mid-visible AOD, number and type of mixtures passing, number of cameras used, the range and maximum scattering angles, are studied as joint distributions on a region-by-region basis. From these, a synthesis of the self-consistency and agreement with expectation is made, effectively indicating the quality of the aerosol type constrains to the extent possible, and thresholds for assigning quality flags are assessed. Multiple-month summaries

  4. Simulation of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument aerosol index using the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System aerosol reanalysis products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Colarco

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We provide an analysis of the commonly used Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI aerosol index (AI product for qualitative detection of the presence and loading of absorbing aerosols. In our analysis, simulated top-of-atmosphere (TOA radiances are produced at the OMI footprints from a model atmosphere and aerosol profile provided by the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-5 Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications aerosol reanalysis (MERRAero. Having established the credibility of the MERRAero simulation of the OMI AI in a previous paper we describe updates in the approach and aerosol optical property assumptions. The OMI TOA radiances are computed in cloud-free conditions from the MERRAero atmospheric state, and the AI is calculated. The simulated TOA radiances are fed to the OMI near-UV aerosol retrieval algorithms (known as OMAERUV is compared to the MERRAero calculated AI. Two main sources of discrepancy are discussed: one pertaining to the OMI algorithm assumptions of the surface pressure, which are generally different from what the actual surface pressure of an observation is, and the other related to simplifying assumptions in the molecular atmosphere radiative transfer used in the OMI algorithms. Surface pressure assumptions lead to systematic biases in the OMAERUV AI, particularly over the oceans. Simplifications in the molecular radiative transfer lead to biases particularly in regions of topography intermediate to surface pressures of 600 and 1013.25 hPa. Generally, the errors in the OMI AI due to these considerations are less than 0.2 in magnitude, though larger errors are possible, particularly over land. We recommend that future versions of the OMI algorithms use surface pressures from readily available atmospheric analyses combined with high-spatial-resolution topographic maps and include more surface pressure nodal points in their radiative transfer lookup tables.

  5. Simulation of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument aerosol index using the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System aerosol reanalysis products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colarco, Peter R.; Gassó, Santiago; Ahn, Changwoo; Buchard, Virginie; da Silva, Arlindo M.; Torres, Omar

    2017-11-01

    We provide an analysis of the commonly used Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aerosol index (AI) product for qualitative detection of the presence and loading of absorbing aerosols. In our analysis, simulated top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiances are produced at the OMI footprints from a model atmosphere and aerosol profile provided by the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-5) Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications aerosol reanalysis (MERRAero). Having established the credibility of the MERRAero simulation of the OMI AI in a previous paper we describe updates in the approach and aerosol optical property assumptions. The OMI TOA radiances are computed in cloud-free conditions from the MERRAero atmospheric state, and the AI is calculated. The simulated TOA radiances are fed to the OMI near-UV aerosol retrieval algorithms (known as OMAERUV) is compared to the MERRAero calculated AI. Two main sources of discrepancy are discussed: one pertaining to the OMI algorithm assumptions of the surface pressure, which are generally different from what the actual surface pressure of an observation is, and the other related to simplifying assumptions in the molecular atmosphere radiative transfer used in the OMI algorithms. Surface pressure assumptions lead to systematic biases in the OMAERUV AI, particularly over the oceans. Simplifications in the molecular radiative transfer lead to biases particularly in regions of topography intermediate to surface pressures of 600 and 1013.25 hPa. Generally, the errors in the OMI AI due to these considerations are less than 0.2 in magnitude, though larger errors are possible, particularly over land. We recommend that future versions of the OMI algorithms use surface pressures from readily available atmospheric analyses combined with high-spatial-resolution topographic maps and include more surface pressure nodal points in their radiative transfer lookup tables.

  6. Vertical resolved separation of aerosol types using CALIPSO level-2 product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakaki, Elina; Balis, Dimitris; Amiridis, Vassilis

    2011-11-01

    A lidar-based method was used to separate profiles of optical parameters due to different aerosol types over different European Aerosol Research LIdar NETwork (EARLINET) stations. The method makes uses of particle backscatter profiles at 532 nm and vertically resolved linear particle depolarization ratio measurements at the same wavelength. Values of particle depolarization ratio of 'pure' aerosol types (Saharan dust, biomass burning aerosols, anthropogenic aerosols, Volcanic ash aerosols) were taken from literature. Cases of CALIPSO space-borne lidar system were selected on the basis of different mixing state of the atmosphere over EARLINET stations. To identify the origin of air-masses four-day air mass back trajectories were computed using HYbrid Single-Particle Langrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model, for different arrival heights, for the location and time under study was used. Also, the Dust REgional Atmospheric Modeling (DREAM) model was used to identify cases where dust from Saharan region was affecting the place under study. For our analysis we have used Atmospheric Volume Description (AVD), Cloud-Aerosol Discrimination (CAD) and extinction Quality Control (QC) flags to screen out CALIOP data. The method was applied for different horizontal resolution of 5, 25, 45 and 105 km. The height-resolved lidar results were finally compared with column-integrated products obtained with Aerosol Robotic Network Sun photometer (AERONET) in order to see to what extent Sun photometer columnar data are representative when different aerosol layers are present in the atmosphere.

  7. MISR Level 3 FIRSTLOOK Global Aerosol product in netCDF format covering a month V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MISR Level 3 FIRSTLOOK Global Aerosol Product in netCDF format covering a month contains a statistical summary of column aerosol 555 nanometer optical depth, and...

  8. MISR Level 3 FIRSTLOOK Global Aerosol product in netCDF format covering a day V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MISR Level 3 FIRSTLOOK Global Aerosol Product in netCDF format covering a day contains a statistical summary of column aerosol 555 nanometer optical depth, and a...

  9. Ozone-driven secondary organic aerosol production chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iinuma, Yoshiteru; Kahnt, Ariane; Mutzel, Anke; Böge, Olaf; Herrmann, Hartmut

    2013-04-16

    Acidic sulfate particles are known to enhance secondary organic aerosol (SOA) mass in the oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) through accretion reactions and organosulfate formation. Enhanced phase transfer of epoxides, which form during the BVOC oxidation, into the acidified sulfate particles is shown to explain the latter process. We report here a newly identified ozone-driven SOA production chain that increases SOA formation dramatically. In this process, the epoxides interact with acidic sulfate particles, forming a new generation of highly reactive VOCs through isomerization. These VOCs partition back into the gas phase and undergo a new round of SOA forming oxidation reactions. Depending on the nature of the isomerized VOCs, their next generation oxidation forms highly oxygenated terpenoic acids or organosulfates. Atmospheric evidence is presented for the existence of marker compounds originating from this chain. The identified process partly explains the enhanced SOA formation in the presence of acidic particles on a molecular basis and could be an important source of missing SOA precursor VOCs that are currently not included in atmospheric models.

  10. Nanosized aerosols from consumer sprays: experimental analysis and exposure modeling for four commercial products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Christiane; Hagendorfer, Harald; von Goetz, Natalie; Kaegi, Ralf; Gehrig, Robert; Ulrich, Andrea; Scheringer, Martin; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2011-08-01

    Consumer spray products are already on the market in the cosmetics and household sector, which suggest by their label that they contain engineered nanoparticles (ENP). Sprays are considered critical for human health, because the lungs represent a major route for the uptake of ENP into the human body. To contribute to the exposure assessment of ENP in consumer spray products, we analyzed ENP in four commercially available sprays: one antiperspirant, two shoe impregnation sprays, and one plant-strengthening agent. The spray dispersions were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) and (scanning-) transmission electron microscopy ((S)TEM). Aerosols were generated by using the original vessels, and analyzed by scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and (S)TEM. On the basis of SMPS results, the nanosized aerosol depositing in the respiratory tract was modeled for female and male consumers. The derived exposure levels reflect a single spray application. We identified ENP in the dispersions of two products (shoe impregnation and plant spray). Nanosized aerosols were observed in three products that contained propellant gas. The aerosol number concentration increased linearly with the sprayed amount, with the highest concentration resulting from the antiperspirant. Modeled aerosol exposure levels were in the range of 1010 nanosized aerosol components per person and application event for the antiperspirant and the impregnation sprays, with the largest fraction of nanosized aerosol depositing in the alveolar region. Negligible exposure from the application of the plant spray (pump spray) was observed.

  11. Characterization of particulate products for aging of ethylbenzene secondary organic aerosol in the presence of ammonium sulfate seed aerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mingqiang; Zhang, Jiahui; Cai, Shunyou; Liao, Yingmin; Zhao, Weixiong; Hu, Changjin; Gu, Xuejun; Fang, Li; Zhang, Weijun

    2016-09-01

    Aging of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles formed from OH- initiated oxidation of ethylbenzene in the presence of high mass (100-300μg/m(3)) concentrations of (NH4)2SO4 seed aerosol was investigated in a home-made smog chamber in this study. The chemical composition of aged ethylbenzene SOA particles was measured using an aerosol laser time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ALTOFMS) coupled with a Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) clustering algorithm. Experimental results showed that nitrophenol, ethyl-nitrophenol, 2,4-dinitrophenol, methyl glyoxylic acid, 5-ethyl-6-oxo-2,4-hexadienoic acid, 2-ethyl-2,4-hexadiendioic acid, 2,3-dihydroxy-5-ethyl-6-oxo-4-hexenoic acid, 1H-imidazole, hydrated N-glyoxal substituted 1H-imidazole, hydrated glyoxal dimer substituted imidazole, 1H-imidazole-2-carbaldehyde, N-glyoxal substituted hydrated 1H-imidazole-2-carbaldehyde and high-molecular-weight (HMW) components were the predominant products in the aged particles. Compared to the previous aromatic SOA aging studies, imidazole compounds, which can absorb solar radiation effectively, were newly detected in aged ethylbenzene SOA in the presence of high concentrations of (NH4)2SO4 seed aerosol. These findings provide new information for discussing aromatic SOA aging mechanisms. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Seasonal and spatial changes in trace gases over megacities from Aura TES observations: two case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady-Pereira, Karen E.; Payne, Vivienne H.; Neu, Jessica L.; Bowman, Kevin W.; Miyazaki, Kazuyuki; Marais, Eloise A.; Kulawik, Susan; Tzompa-Sosa, Zitely A.; Hegarty, Jennifer D.

    2017-08-01

    The Aura Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) is collecting closely spaced observations over 19 megacities. The objective is to obtain measurements that will lead to better understanding of the processes affecting air quality in and around these cities, and to better estimates of the seasonal and interannual variability. We explore the TES measurements of ozone, ammonia, methanol and formic acid collected around the Mexico City metropolitan area (MCMA) and in the vicinity of Lagos (Nigeria). The TES data exhibit seasonal signals that are correlated with Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) CO and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aerosol optical depth (AOD), with in situ measurements in the MCMA and with Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS)-Chem model output in the Lagos area. TES was able to detect an extreme pollution event in the MCMA on 9 April 2013, which is also evident in the in situ data. TES data also show that biomass burning has a greater impact south of the city than in the caldera where Mexico City is located. TES measured enhanced values of the four species over the Gulf of Guinea south of Lagos. Since it observes many cities from the same platform with the same instrument and applies the same retrieval algorithms, TES data provide a very useful tool for easily comparing air quality measures of two or more cities. We compare the data from the MCMA and Lagos, and show that, while the MCMA has occasional extreme pollution events, Lagos consistently has higher levels of these trace gases.

  13. Overview and preliminary results of the Surface Ocean Aerosol Production (SOAP campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Law

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Establishing the relationship between marine boundary layer (MBL aerosols and surface water biogeochemistry is required to understand aerosol and cloud production processes over the remote ocean and represent them more accurately in earth system models and global climate projections. This was addressed by the SOAP (Surface Ocean Aerosol Production campaign, which examined air–sea interaction over biologically productive frontal waters east of New Zealand. This overview details the objectives, regional context, sampling strategy and provisional findings of a pilot study, PreSOAP, in austral summer 2011 and the following SOAP voyage in late austral summer 2012. Both voyages characterized surface water and MBL composition in three phytoplankton blooms of differing species composition and biogeochemistry, with significant regional correlation observed between chlorophyll a and DMSsw. Surface seawater dimethylsulfide (DMSsw and associated air–sea DMS flux showed spatial variation during the SOAP voyage, with maxima of 25 nmol L−1 and 100 µmol m−2 d−1, respectively, recorded in a dinoflagellate bloom. Inclusion of SOAP data in a regional DMSsw compilation indicates that the current climatological mean is an underestimate for this region of the southwest Pacific. Estimation of the DMS gas transfer velocity (kDMS by independent techniques of eddy covariance and gradient flux showed good agreement, although both exhibited periodic deviations from model estimates. Flux anomalies were related to surface warming and sea surface microlayer enrichment and also reflected the heterogeneous distribution of DMSsw and the associated flux footprint. Other aerosol precursors measured included the halides and various volatile organic carbon compounds, with first measurements of the short-lived gases glyoxal and methylglyoxal in pristine Southern Ocean marine air indicating an unidentified local source. The application of a real-time clean sector

  14. Aerosol Production from Charbroiled and Wet-Fried Meats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedziela, R. F.; Blanc, L. E.

    2012-12-01

    Previous work in our laboratory focused on the chemical and optical characterization of aerosols produced during the dry-frying of different meat samples. This method yielded a complex ensemble of particles composed of water and long-chain fatty acids with the latter dominated by oleic, stearic, and palmitic acids. The present study examines how wet-frying and charbroiling cooking methods affect the physical and chemical properties of their derived aerosols. Samples of ground beef, salmon, chicken, and pork were subject to both cooking methods in the laboratory, with their respective aerosols swept into a laminar flow cell where they were optically analyzed in the mid-infrared and collected through a gas chromatography probe for chemical characterization. This presentation will compare and contrast the nature of the aerosols generated in each cooking method, particularly those produced during charbroiling which exposes the samples, and their drippings, to significantly higher temperatures. Characterization of such cooking-related aerosols is important because of the potential impact of these particles on air quality, particularly in urban areas.

  15. Production Mechanism, Number Concentration, Size Distribution, Chemical Composition, and Optical Properties of Sea Spray Aerosols Workshop, Summer 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meskhidze, Nicholas [NCSU

    2013-10-21

    The objective of this workshop was to address the most urgent open science questions for improved quantification of sea spray aerosol-radiation-climate interactions. Sea spray emission and its influence on global climate remains one of the most uncertain components of the aerosol-radiation-climate problem, but has received less attention than other aerosol processes (e.g. production of terrestrial secondary organic aerosols). Thus, the special emphasis was placed on the production flux of sea spray aerosol particles, their number concentration and chemical composition and properties.

  16. Utilizing Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) Special Observations to Study Air Quality Over Megacities: A Case Study of Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterman, G. B.; Neu, J. L.; Cady-Pereira, K.; Fu, D.; Payne, V.; Pfister, G.

    2016-12-01

    Since the beginning of 2013, the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) on the NASA Aura spacecraft has been making special "transect" observations over 19 large cities across the globe. In all there are over 50 transect observations of each city, allowing for studying the chemistry of the troposphere during different seasons and differing atmospheric conditions. The cities that have been observed include, Beijing, Delhi and Mexico City. In addition, the TES group at JPL has been developing new data products using combined radiances from other satellite instruments. They have produced an ozone data product using a combination of TES and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) radiances. There has also been progress in creating an ozone product from combining OMI and Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) radiances using the TES retrieval framework. This product offers the possibility of better spatial coverage than the TES or TES/OMI products. We have selected an observation from October 13, 2013 over Mexico City for doing a case study where high values of ozone were seen in the lower troposphere in retrievals from TES and TES/OMI. Other trace gases measured by TES, carbon monoxide, methanol, and formic acid were also enhanced over the city. TES was also able to capture downwind conditions where the trace gases were no longer enhanced except for formic acid and peroxyacetyl nitrate which showed elevated values. We will utilize trajectory analysis, the TES data as well as combined TES-OMI retrievals, the new combined AIRS-OMI retrievals of ozone to examine this case in more detail to understand possible broader scale effects of Mexico City pollution. Model results will be utilized to provide further context in understanding the atmospheric conditions being studied. We feel the TES special observations of megacities will provide an opportunity to study the effects of local sources versus broader regional sources on pollutions of these large cities.

  17. MODIFICATION OF SURFACE KONDENSITSIONNYH AEROSOLS WELDING AND METALLURGICHESKIH PRODUCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Ennan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemical modification of surface kondensitsionnyh aerosols (KA which formation when heat treatment metals (process of weld, foundry processes with application chlorosilanes are suggested. Adsorbtion vapor of water on modification powders KA decreases and changes in varies from modifier and conditions modification are setted.

  18. Aerosol characteristics and particle production in the upper troposphere over the Amazon Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Andreae

    2018-01-01

    findings suggest a conceptual model, where production of new aerosol particles takes place in the continental UT from biogenic volatile organic material brought up by deep convection and converted to condensable species in the UT. Subsequently, downward mixing and transport of upper tropospheric aerosol can be a source of particles to the PBL, where they increase in size by the condensation of biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC oxidation products. This may be an important source of aerosol particles for the Amazonian PBL, where aerosol nucleation and new particle formation have not been observed. We propose that this may have been the dominant process supplying secondary aerosol particles in the pristine atmosphere, making clouds the dominant control of both removal and production of atmospheric particles.

  19. Aerosol characteristics and particle production in the upper troposphere over the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreae, Meinrat O.; Afchine, Armin; Albrecht, Rachel; Amorim Holanda, Bruna; Artaxo, Paulo; Barbosa, Henrique M. J.; Borrmann, Stephan; Cecchini, Micael A.; Costa, Anja; Dollner, Maximilian; Fütterer, Daniel; Järvinen, Emma; Jurkat, Tina; Klimach, Thomas; Konemann, Tobias; Knote, Christoph; Krämer, Martina; Krisna, Trismono; Machado, Luiz A. T.; Mertes, Stephan; Minikin, Andreas; Pöhlker, Christopher; Pöhlker, Mira L.; Pöschl, Ulrich; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Sauer, Daniel; Schlager, Hans; Schnaiter, Martin; Schneider, Johannes; Schulz, Christiane; Spanu, Antonio; Sperling, Vinicius B.; Voigt, Christiane; Walser, Adrian; Wang, Jian; Weinzierl, Bernadett; Wendisch, Manfred; Ziereis, Helmut

    2018-01-01

    Airborne observations over the Amazon Basin showed high aerosol particle concentrations in the upper troposphere (UT) between 8 and 15 km altitude, with number densities (normalized to standard temperature and pressure) often exceeding those in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) by 1 or 2 orders of magnitude. The measurements were made during the German-Brazilian cooperative aircraft campaign ACRIDICON-CHUVA, where ACRIDICON stands for Aerosol, Cloud, Precipitation, and Radiation Interactions and Dynamics of Convective Cloud Systems and CHUVA is the acronym for Cloud Processes of the Main Precipitation Systems in Brazil: A Contribution to Cloud Resolving Modeling and to the GPM (global precipitation measurement), on the German High Altitude and Long Range Research Aircraft (HALO). The campaign took place in September-October 2014, with the objective of studying tropical deep convective clouds over the Amazon rainforest and their interactions with atmospheric trace gases, aerosol particles, and atmospheric radiation. Aerosol enhancements were observed consistently on all flights during which the UT was probed, using several aerosol metrics, including condensation nuclei (CN) and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentrations and chemical species mass concentrations. The UT particles differed sharply in their chemical composition and size distribution from those in the PBL, ruling out convective transport of combustion-derived particles from the boundary layer (BL) as a source. The air in the immediate outflow of deep convective clouds was depleted of aerosol particles, whereas strongly enhanced number concentrations of small particles ( 90 nm) particles in the UT, which consisted mostly of organic matter and nitrate and were very effective CCN. Our findings suggest a conceptual model, where production of new aerosol particles takes place in the continental UT from biogenic volatile organic material brought up by deep convection and converted to condensable

  20. 21 CFR 700.14 - Use of vinyl chloride as an ingredient, including propellant of cosmetic aerosol products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... propellant of cosmetic aerosol products. 700.14 Section 700.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.14 Use of vinyl chloride as an ingredient, including propellant of cosmetic aerosol products...

  1. Effect of Clouds on Sulfate Production and Aerosol Optical Depths in Western Pennsylvania During August 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, W. I.; Chapman, E. G.; Fast, J. D.

    2005-12-01

    A new comprehensive model is being applied to better understand the effect of clouds on sulfate aerosol production and the resultant change in aerosol optical depths (AODs) over western Pennsylvania during August 2004. The modeled period corresponds with a series of measurements made by the Department of Energy's G-1 aircraft and a suite of ground observations taken during the International Consortium of Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation Project (ICARTT). The model setup employs three two-way interacting grids with grid point spacings of 18, 6, and 2 km. The 2 km grid encompasses western Pennsylvania and portions of states to the south and west, including several coal-fired power plants along the Ohio River valley and southern Pennsylvania border. The 18 km grid encompasses a large portion of eastern North America. The purpose of this larger domain is to provide realistic chemical and aerosol boundary conditions to the interior grid and to allow transport from the interior grid to the surrounding region to study the local interactions of emissions from Pittsburgh and nearby power plants with clouds, and their impact on aerosol formation and transformation processes downwind of Pennsylvania. In addition to direct radiative feedbacks coupled to the MOSAIC sectional aerosol module in WRF-Chem, testing is currently underway on cloud-aerosol modules that have been implemented. They allow investigation of the aerosol indirect effect over multiple spatial scales, and consist of a nucleation routine for cloud droplets in the Lin et al. microphysics scheme, a process for performing aerosol phase transitions between interstitial and cloud phases, an aqueous chemistry scheme, and wet aerosol scavenging. Because of the frequency of clouds, the ICARTT campaign is a favorable candidate for testing new cloud-aerosol modules, particularly the aqueous-phase oxidation of sulfur dioxide. The model will be evaluated using measurements of lidar-based AODs as a

  2. Radioactive aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlain, A.C.

    1991-01-01

    Radon. Fission product aerosols. Radioiodine. Tritium. Plutonium. Mass transfer of radioactive vapours and aerosols. Studies with radioactive particles and human subjects. Index. This paper explores the environmental and health aspects of radioactive aerosols. Covers radioactive nuclides of potential concern to public health and applications to the study of boundary layer transport. Contains bibliographic references. Suitable for environmental chemistry collections in academic and research libraries

  3. Aerosol and Cloud Observations and Data Products by the GLAS Polar Orbiting Lidar Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinhirne, J. D.; Palm, S. P.; Hlavka, D. L.; Hart, W. D.; Mahesh, A.; Welton, E. J.

    2005-01-01

    The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) launched in 2003 is the first polar orbiting satellite lidar. The instrument was designed for high performance observations of the distribution and optical scattering cross sections of clouds and aerosol. The backscatter lidar operates at two wavelengths, 532 and 1064 nm. Both receiver channels meet and exceed their design goals, and beginning with a two month period through October and November 2003, an excellent global lidar data set now exists. The data products for atmospheric observations include the calibrated, attenuated backscatter cross section for cloud and aerosol; height detection for multiple cloud layers; planetary boundary layer height; cirrus and aerosol optical depth and the height distribution of aerosol and cloud scattering cross section profiles. The data sets are now in open release through the NASA data distribution system. The initial results on global statistics for cloud and aerosol distribution has been produced and in some cases compared to other satellite observations. The sensitivity of the cloud measurements is such that the 70% global cloud coverage result should be the most accurate to date. Results on the global distribution of aerosol are the first that produce the true height distribution for model inter-comparison.

  4. Near-Cloud Aerosol Properties from the 1 Km Resolution MODIS Ocean Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnai, Tamas; Marshak, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    This study examines aerosol properties in the vicinity of clouds by analyzing high-resolution atmospheric correction parameters provided in the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) ocean color product. The study analyzes data from a 2 week long period of September in 10 years, covering a large area in the northeast Atlantic Ocean. The results indicate that on the one hand, the Quality Assessment (QA) flags of the ocean color product successfully eliminate cloud-related uncertainties in ocean parameters such as chlorophyll content, but on the other hand, using the flags introduces a sampling bias in atmospheric products such as aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and Angstrom exponent. Therefore, researchers need to select QA flags by balancing the risks of increased retrieval uncertainties and sampling biases. Using an optimal set of QA flags, the results reveal substantial increases in optical thickness near clouds-on average the increase is 50% for the roughly half of pixels within 5 km from clouds and is accompanied by a roughly matching increase in particle size. Theoretical simulations show that the 50% increase in 550nm AOT changes instantaneous direct aerosol radiative forcing by up to 8W/m2 and that the radiative impact is significantly larger if observed near-cloud changes are attributed to aerosol particles as opposed to undetected cloud particles. These results underline that accounting for near-cloud areas and understanding the causes of near-cloud particle changes are critical for accurate calculations of direct aerosol radiative forcing.

  5. Production of aerosols by optical catapulting: Imaging, performance parameters and laser-induced plasma sampling rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelhamid, M.; Fortes, F.J.; Fernández-Bravo, A.; Harith, M.A.; Laserna, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    Optical catapulting (OC) is a sampling and manipulation method that has been extensively studied in applications ranging from single cells in heterogeneous tissue samples to analysis of explosive residues in human fingerprints. Specifically, analysis of the catapulted material by means of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) offers a promising approach for the inspection of solid particulate matter. In this work, we focus our attention in the experimental parameters to be optimized for a proper aerosol generation while increasing the particle density in the focal region sampled by LIBS. For this purpose we use shadowgraphy visualization as a diagnostic tool. Shadowgraphic images were acquired for studying the evolution and dynamics of solid aerosols produced by OC. Aluminum silicate particles (0.2–8 μm) were ejected from the substrate using a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm, while time-resolved images recorded the propagation of the generated aerosol. For LIBS analysis and shadowgraphy visualization, a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm and 532 nm was employed, respectively. Several parameters such as the time delay between pulses and the effect of laser fluence on the aerosol production have been also investigated. After optimization, the particle density in the sampling focal volume increases while improving the aerosol sampling rate till ca. 90%. - Highlights: • Aerosol generation by optical catapulting has been successfully optimized. • We study the evolution and dynamics of solid aerosols produced by OC. • We use shadowgraphy visualization as a diagnostic tool. • Effects of temporal conditions and laser fluence on the elevation of the aerosol cloud have been investigated. • The observed LIBS sampling rate increased from 50% reported before to approximately 90%

  6. [A simple testing installation for the production of aerosols with constant bacteria-contaminated concentrations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, M; Lehmhus, H; Oldenburg, B; Orlowski, C; Ohgke, H

    1983-04-01

    A simple experimental set for the production and investigation of bacterially contaminated solid-state aerosols with constant concentration is described. The experimental set consists mainly of a fluidized bed-particle generator within a modified chamber for formaldehyde desinfection. The special conditions for the production of a defined concentration of particles and microorganisms are to be found out empirically. In a first application aerosol-sizing of an Andersen sampler is investigated. The findings of Andersen (1) are confirmed with respect to our experimental conditions.

  7. Laser Remote Sensing from ISS: CATS Cloud and Aerosol Level 2 Data Products (Heritage Edition)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodier, Sharon; Palm, Steve; Vaughan, Mark; Yorks, John; McGill, Matt; Jensen, Mike; Murray, Tim; Trepte, Chip

    2016-01-01

    With the recent launch of the Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) we have the opportunity to acquire a continuous record of space based lidar measurements spanning from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) era to the start of the EarthCARE mission. Utilizing existing well-validated science algorithms from the CALIPSO mission, we will ingest the CATS data stream and deliver high-quality lidar data sets to the user community at the earliest possible opportunity. In this paper we present an overview of procedures necessary to generate CALIPSO-like lidar level 2 data products from the CATS level 1 data products.

  8. Impact of aerosols on solar energy production - Scenarios from the Sahel Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neher, Ina; Meilinger, Stefanie; Crewell, Susanne

    2017-04-01

    Solar energy is one option to serve the rising global energy demand with low environmental impact. Building an energy system with a considerable share of solar power requires long-term investment and a careful investigation of potential sites. Therefore, understanding the impacts from varying regionally and locally determined meteorological conditions on solar energy production will influence energy yield projections. Aerosols reduce global solar radiation due to absorption and scattering and therewith solar energy yields. Depending on aerosol size distribution they reduce the direct component of the solar radiation and modify the direction of the diffuse component compared to standard atmospheric conditions without aerosols. The aerosol size distribution and composition in the atmosphere is highly variable due to meteorological and land surface conditions. A quantitative assessment of aerosol effects on solar power yields and its relation to land use change is of particular interest for developing countries countries when analyzing the potential of local power production. This study aims to identify the effect of atmospheric aerosols in three different land use regimes, namely desert, urban/polluted and maritime on the tilted plane of photovoltaic energy modules. Here we focus on the Sahel zone, i.e. Niamey, Niger (13.5 N;2.1 E), located at the edge of the Sahara where also detailed measurements of the atmospheric state are available over the year 2006. Guided by observations a model chain is used to determine power yields. The atmospheric aerosol composition will be defined by using the Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds (OPAC) library. Direct and diffuse radiation (up- and downward component) are then calculated by the radiative transfer model libRadtran which allows to calculate the diffuse component of the radiance from different azimuth and zenith angles. Then the diffuse radiance will be analytically transformed to an east, south and west facing

  9. On the Complex Coupling Between the Production of Ozone and Secondary Organic Aerosol in Polluted Urban Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, D. R.; Stockwell, W. R.; Morris, V. R.; Fitzgerald, R. M.

    2016-12-01

    The major photochemical processes that produce ozone and aerosols are coupled together strongly in the polluted urban atmosphere. Aerosols are either directly emitted or formed through the same kind of chemistry that leads to the production of ozone. The aerosols produced through atmospheric chemistry are known as secondary aerosols and they may be composed of inorganic (nitrates, sulfates) or organic compounds. Wind blown dust and soot are two examples of primary aerosols. The component of secondary inorganic aerosols includes compounds such as ammonium nitrate, ammonium bisulfate and ammonium sulfate. Secondary organic aerosols are a very important component of PM with strong implications for health. The formation of secondary organic aerosol is linked with ozone photochemistry through the reactions of volatile organic compounds (VOC). The oxidation of VOC produces radicals that convert nitric oxide to nitrogen dioxide that photolyze to produce ozone. Larger VOC (those with more carbon atoms) undergo a number of oxidation cycles that add oxygen atoms to large organic molecules. The vapor pressure of many of these highly oxidized compounds is sufficiently low that they condense to produce secondary organic aerosols. The Community Multi-scale Air Quality model (CMAQ) and other chemical simulations have been made to quantify the relationship between varying emissions of VOC and NOx and the production of inorganic and secondary organic aerosols. The results from this analysis will be presented.

  10. The Influence of Aerosol Concentration on Changes in the Volumetric Activities of Indoor Radon Short-Term Decay Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Politova

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the influence of aerosol concentration on changes in the volumetric activities of indoor radon short-term decay products. The concentration of aerosol in the air, equilibrium factors and unattached fraction were measured under normal living conditions when the concentration of aerosol increases, i.e. burning a candle or frankincense in accommodations, smoke-filled accommodations, a steamy kitchen etc. It has been established that when the concentration of aerosol in the air rises, the number of free atoms of radon short-term decay products attached to aerosol particles also increases, and therefore higher volumetric activity of alpha particles is fixed. A tight positive connection of the correlation between equilibrium factor (F and aerosol particle concentration in the air of accommodations as well as a negative correlation between unattached fraction and an equilibrium factor have been determined.Article in Lithuanian

  11. Aerosol production in the surf zone and effects on IR extinction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neele, F.P.; Leeuw, G. de; Eijk, A.M.J. van; Vignati, E.; Hill, M.K.; Smith, M.H.

    1998-01-01

    The aerosol production in the surfzone, as determined from measurements, at two sites along the Califomia coast is presented. The data used were collected during three EOPACE (Electro-Optical Propagation Assessment in Coastal Environments) measurement campaigns in 1996 and 7997. Particle counters

  12. Aerosol, gas, and swarf production during underwater cutting of reactor core internals using electron discharge machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Atsushi; Yokoi, Hiroto

    2007-01-01

    Secondary products (aerosol, gas and swarf) are released in the work area when cutting nuclear reactor components are underwater during component replacement. We studied the characteristics and behavior of the secondary products produced during cutting of highly radioactive metals using electric discharge machinery (EDM) underwater. The ratio of the weight of the aerosol produced to the melted weight of a workpiece that was cut using EDM, both with a Ag/W alloy electrode and a carbon electrode, was about 1x10 -3 . The aerosol had a high concentration of manganese with a high vapor pressure. The production ratio was expressed as the aerosol production rate (ppm)=-4.6x10 -2 Tb + 1.4x10 2 (Tb: boiling point (K)). The EDM cutting produced metal vapors which condensed into particles. Air-borne nickel carbonyl was produced during the EDM cutting of nickel and carbon monoxide with a carbon electrode, and a high efficiency particulate air filter and a charcoal filter were used effectively. In the case of a Ag/W electrode, the swarf contained oxide particles of around 20 μm and hydroxide particles with a diameter of around 10 μm. The water clean-up system was able to purify water with over 95% filtration efficiency using a 1 μm pore-pleated filter cartridge. (author)

  13. Separation of Atmospheric and Surface Spectral Features in Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael D.; Bandfield, Joshua L.; Christensen, Philip R.

    2000-01-01

    We present two algorithms for the separation of spectral features caused by atmospheric and surface components in Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) data. One algorithm uses radiative transfer and successive least squares fitting to find spectral shapes first for atmospheric dust, then for water-ice aerosols, and then, finally, for surface emissivity. A second independent algorithm uses a combination of factor analysis, target transformation, and deconvolution to simultaneously find dust, water ice, and surface emissivity spectral shapes. Both algorithms have been applied to TES spectra, and both find very similar atmospheric and surface spectral shapes. For TES spectra taken during aerobraking and science phasing periods in nadir-geometry these two algorithms give meaningful and usable surface emissivity spectra that can be used for mineralogical identification.

  14. PRN 93-4: Ban on Aerosol Products Containing CFCs and HCFCs under the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    This notice alerts pesticide registrants to a rule under the Clean Air Act banning distribution and sale of aerosol and pressurized products, including pesticide products, that contain chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs).

  15. Production of aerosols by optical catapulting: Imaging, performance parameters and laser-induced plasma sampling rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhamid, M.; Fortes, F. J.; Fernández-Bravo, A.; Harith, M. A.; Laserna, J. J.

    2013-11-01

    Optical catapulting (OC) is a sampling and manipulation method that has been extensively studied in applications ranging from single cells in heterogeneous tissue samples to analysis of explosive residues in human fingerprints. Specifically, analysis of the catapulted material by means of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) offers a promising approach for the inspection of solid particulate matter. In this work, we focus our attention in the experimental parameters to be optimized for a proper aerosol generation while increasing the particle density in the focal region sampled by LIBS. For this purpose we use shadowgraphy visualization as a diagnostic tool. Shadowgraphic images were acquired for studying the evolution and dynamics of solid aerosols produced by OC. Aluminum silicate particles (0.2-8 μm) were ejected from the substrate using a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm, while time-resolved images recorded the propagation of the generated aerosol. For LIBS analysis and shadowgraphy visualization, a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm and 532 nm was employed, respectively. Several parameters such as the time delay between pulses and the effect of laser fluence on the aerosol production have been also investigated. After optimization, the particle density in the sampling focal volume increases while improving the aerosol sampling rate till ca. 90%.

  16. Influence of 239Pu aerosol production temperature on biological responses in Chinese hamsters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, A. L.; Peters, R.F.; Mewhinney, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    Studies on the retention, distribution and effects of inhaled 239 Pu particles produced at different temperatures are continuing in an effort to assess the consequences of accidental inhalation exposures under various conditions. Three groups of Chinese hamsters, 381 animals per group, were exposed to aerosols of 239 Pu which had been treated in a heating column at either 50, 600 or 1150 0 C. Retention and distribution of the plutonium through 600 days after exposure reflected the relative insolubility of the aerosols heated at 1150 and 600 0 C, and the relative solubility of the aerosol heated at 50 0 C. Animals exposed to either of the insoluble aerosols had 80 to 90 percent of the sacrifice body burden in the lung at 400 days after exposure whereas animals exposed to the aerosol heated at 50 0 C had only 10 percent of the sacrifice body burden in the lung at 400 days. Translocation was mainly to the liver. To date, survival of the animals seemed to depend primarily on activity level, with production temperature exerting an influence only at the highest activities

  17. Application of Earth Sciences Products for use in Next Generation Numerical Aerosol Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    measurements from the global AERONET monitoring network, coupled with land surface products for albedo and snow . These were used to perform a detailed...quality-assurance and quality-control procedures for over-land MODIS aerosol product and AVHRR, and expand assimilation to all traditional dark-target...APPROACH Work performed in FY10 focused on the development of prognostic error models for MODIS over- land data and our internal CALIOP

  18. Seasonal and spatial changes in trace gases over megacities from Aura TES observations: two case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. Cady-Pereira

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Aura Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES is collecting closely spaced observations over 19 megacities. The objective is to obtain measurements that will lead to better understanding of the processes affecting air quality in and around these cities, and to better estimates of the seasonal and interannual variability. We explore the TES measurements of ozone, ammonia, methanol and formic acid collected around the Mexico City metropolitan area (MCMA and in the vicinity of Lagos (Nigeria. The TES data exhibit seasonal signals that are correlated with Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS CO and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS aerosol optical depth (AOD, with in situ measurements in the MCMA and with Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-Chem model output in the Lagos area. TES was able to detect an extreme pollution event in the MCMA on 9 April 2013, which is also evident in the in situ data. TES data also show that biomass burning has a greater impact south of the city than in the caldera where Mexico City is located. TES measured enhanced values of the four species over the Gulf of Guinea south of Lagos. Since it observes many cities from the same platform with the same instrument and applies the same retrieval algorithms, TES data provide a very useful tool for easily comparing air quality measures of two or more cities. We compare the data from the MCMA and Lagos, and show that, while the MCMA has occasional extreme pollution events, Lagos consistently has higher levels of these trace gases.

  19. Fragrance materials in asthma: a pilot study using a surrogate aerosol product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vethanayagam, Dilini; Vliagoftis, Harissios; Mah, Dennell; Beach, Jeremy; Smith, Ladd; Moqbel, Redwan

    2013-11-01

    Many household products contain fragrances. Little is known about exposure to fragrances on human health, particularly within the airways. This study aimed to evaluate how common household fragrance products (i.e. air fresheners, cleaning products) affect people with asthma, who frequently report sensitivity to these products. Many of these products have volatile organic compounds or semi-volatile organic compounds. This study evaluated nine fragrance materials in an aerosol formulation to assess effects on airway physiology, airway inflammation and symptom perception in normal controls and those with asthma. The effects of fragrances were evaluated in people without asthma, people with mild asthma and people with moderate asthma in a four-way crossover placebo-controlled study. Subjects were exposed twice to a fragranced aerosol and twice to a placebo aerosol (15 and 30 min each). Subjects completed a questionnaire for 29 symptoms during and up to 3 h after each exposure scenario. Spirometry was performed prior to and 3 h post-exposure; sputum induction was conducted 3 h post-exposure. Nasal symptoms showed the greatest frequency of response in all three subject groups, and moderate asthmatics reported the greatest symptom severity and symptom types. No significant differences were noted in physiology or cellular inflammation. A trend for increased symptoms was noted in moderate asthmatics, suggesting that asthma severity may play a factor in fragrance sensitivity.

  20. Collection and dissemination of TES system information for the paper and pulp industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, M. W.; Edde, H.

    1980-01-01

    A survey of U.S. and international paper and pulp mills using thermal energy storage (TES) systems as a part of their production processes was conducted to obtain sufficient operating data to conduct a benefits analysis encompassing: (1) an energy conservation assessment, (2) an economic benefits analysis, and (3) an environmental impact assessment. An information dissemination plan was then proposed to effectively present the benefits of TES to the U.S. paper and pulp industry.

  1. Long-term stability of TES satellite radiance measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. C. Connor

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES Level 2 (L2 retrieval products for the purpose of assessing long term changes in atmospheric trace gas composition requires knowledge of the overall radiometric stability of the Level 1B (L1B radiances. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the stability of the radiometric calibration of the TES instrument by analyzing the difference between measured and calculated brightness temperatures in selected window regions of the spectrum. The Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO profiles for temperature and water vapor and the Real-Time Global Sea Surface Temperature (RTGSST are used as input to the Optimal Spectral Sampling (OSS radiative transfer model to calculate the simulated spectra. The TES reference measurements selected cover a 4-year period of time from mid 2005 through mid 2009 with the selection criteria being; observation latitudes greater than −30° and less than 30°, over ocean, Global Survey mode (nadir view and retrieved cloud optical depth of less than or equal to 0.01. The TES cloud optical depth retrievals are used only for screening purposes and no effects of clouds on the radiances are included in the forward model. This initial screening results in over 55 000 potential reference spectra spanning the four year period. Presented is a trend analysis of the time series of the residuals (observation minus calculations in the TES 2B1, 1B2, 2A1, and 1A1 bands, with the standard deviation of the residuals being approximately equal to 0.6 K for bands 2B1, 1B2, 2A1, and 0.9 K for band 1A1. The analysis demonstrates that the trend in the residuals is not significantly different from zero over the 4-year period. This is one method used to demonstrate that the relative radiometric calibration is stable over time, which is very important for any longer term analysis of TES retrieved products (L2, particularly well-mixed species such as carbon dioxide and methane.

  2. TES (Thermal Energy Storage) Video News Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    TES is an in-space technology experiment that flew on STS-62. Its intent is to investigate the behavior of two different thermal energy storage materials as they undergo repeated melting and freezing in the microgravity environment.

  3. Training Exit Survey (TES) Individual Campus

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The TES Individual dataset contains information at the individual-level about the persons who attend a GLS funded training event. This dataset includes variables...

  4. Monoterpene oxidation products and organosulfates in aerosols during BEARPEX 2007 and 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasius, Marianne; Kristensen, Kasper; Worton, David R.; Goldstein, Allen H.

    2010-05-01

    Organosulfate esters of oxidation products of monoterpenes and isoprene have been identified in aerosols from both laboratory and field studies. While the exact route of formation of organosulfates is still ambiguous, these compounds pose an interesting coupling between anthropogenic emissions and biogenic oxidation products in secondary organic aerosols (SOA). We present measurements of monoterpene oxidation products, organosulfates and nitroxy organosulfates in aerosols collected during the Biosphere Effects on Aerosols and Photochemistry Experiment (BEARPEX) in California during late summer 2007 and summer 2009. The study site was located in a Ponderosa pine plantation affected by regional transport of air pollutants. Particles (PM2.5) were collected as one night-time and two daytime samples per day using a high volume sampler. After extraction of filters, polar organic compounds were analysed by HPLC coupled through an electrospray inlet to a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (qTOF-MS). Standards of adipic, cis-pinic and pinonic acids were used for quantification, while camphor sulphonic acid was used as a surrogate standard for organosulfate compounds. Organosulfate esters can be identified from their MS-fragments (HSO4- and SO3-) and the isotopic pattern of sulphur. Concentrations of adipic acid and the terpene oxidation products cis-pinic acid and pinonic acid (from α- and β-pinene) were quantified. The relative concentrations between samples of terpenylic acid, diterpenylic acid and 2-hydroxyterpenylic acid were also investigated. Organosulfate esters and nitroxy organosulfate esters of α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene and isoprene, as well as their oxidation products, were identified based on their molecular mass and fragmentation patterns. Concentrations of some nitroxy organosulfate esters generally increased during night compared to day-time. Their formation thus seems to be related to reactions involving nitrate radicals at night-time.

  5. Design considerations for TES and QET sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrera, B.

    2000-01-01

    We summarize some of the effects that must be taken into account in the design of superconducting Transition Edge Sensors (TES) and Quasiparticle-trap-assisted Electrothermal-feedback Transition-edge-sensors (QET). For the TES these include determining time constants, maintaining voltage bias, avoid electrothermal oscillations, critical current limitations, and saturation. For QET phonon sensors, voltage bias was conceived to allow the simultaneous biasing of parallel TESs with different transition temperatures, and preventing normal-superconducting phase separation

  6. Laser Remote Sensing from ISS: CATS Cloud and Aerosol Level 2 Data Products (Heritage Edition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodier Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the recent launch of the Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS we have the opportunity to acquire a continuous record of space based lidar measurements spanning from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO era to the start of the EarthCARE mission. Utilizing existing well-validated science algorithms from the CALIPSO mission, we will ingest the CATS data stream and deliver high-quality lidar data sets to the user community at the earliest possible opportunity. In this paper we present an overview of procedures necessary to generate CALIPSO-like lidar level 2 data products from the CATS level 1 data products.

  7. An Observing System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) Investigating the OMI Aerosol Products Using Simulated Aerosol and Atmospheric Fields from the NASA GEOS-5 Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colarco, P. R.; Gasso, S.; Jethva, H. T.; Buchard, V.; Ahn, C.; Torres, O.; daSilva, A.

    2016-12-01

    Output from the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System, version 5 (GEOS-5) Earth system model is used to simulate the top-of-atmosphere 354 and 388 nm radiances observed by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) onboard the Aura spacecraft. The principle purpose of developing this simulator tool is to compute from the modeled fields the so-called OMI Aerosol Index (AI), which is a more fundamental retrieval product than higher level products such as the aerosol optical depth (AOD) or absorbing aerosol optical depth (AAOD). This lays the groundwork for eventually developing a capability to assimilate either the OMI AI or its radiances, which would provide further constraint on aerosol loading and absorption properties for global models. We extend the use of the simulator capability to understand the nature of the OMI aerosol retrieval algorithms themselves in an Observing System Simulation Experiment (OSSE). The simulated radiances are used to calculate the AI from the modeled fields. These radiances are also provided to the OMI aerosol algorithms, which return their own retrievals of the AI, AOD, and AAOD. Our assessment reveals that the OMI-retrieved AI can be mostly harmonized with the model-derived AI given the same radiances provided a common surface pressure field is assumed. This is important because the operational OMI algorithms presently assume a fixed pressure field, while the contribution of molecular scattering to the actual OMI signal in fact responds to the actual atmospheric pressure profile, which is accounted for in our OSSE by using GEOS-5 produced atmospheric reanalyses. Other differences between the model and OMI AI are discussed, and we present a preliminary assessment of the OMI AOD and AAOD products with respect to the known inputs from the GEOS-5 simulation.

  8. [Analysis of phthalates in aromatic and deodorant aerosol products and evaluation of exposure risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yoshiki; Sugaya, Naeko; Nakagawa, Tomoo; Morita, Masatoshi

    2015-01-01

    We established an analytical method for the detection of seven phthalates, dimethyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate (DEP), benzyl butyl phthalate, di-i-butyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate (DBP), diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), and di-n-octhyl phthalate, using an ultra high performance liquid chromatograph equipped with a photodiode array detector. This method is quick, with minimal contamination, and was applied to the analysis of aromatic and deodorant aerosol products. Phthalates were detected in 15 of 52 samples purchased from 1999 to 2012 in Yokohama. Three types of phthalate (DEP, DBP, DEHP) were detected, and their concentrations ranged from 0.0085-0.23% DEP in nine samples, 0.012-0.045% DBP in four samples, and 0.012-0.033% DEHP in four samples. No other phthalate esters were detected. Furthermore, we estimated phthalate exposure via breathing in commonly used aromatic and deodorant aerosol products, then evaluated the associated risk. The estimated levels of phthalate exposure were lower than the tolerated daily limit, but the results indicated that aromatic and deodorant aerosol products could be a significant source of phthalate exposure.

  9. Fission product aerosol removal test by containment spray under accident management conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagasaka, Hideo [Nuclear Power Engineering Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Yokobori, Seiichi

    1998-05-01

    This paper summarizes the test results of fission product (FP) removal by containment spray simulating accident management (AM) condition. The features of AM conditions concerning FP transport are characterized by (1) low flow spray affecting the steam condensation degradation due to larger water droplets, (2) high humidity condition due to steam generation as a result of debris cooling and (3) continual fresh water supply from outside water source. The objectives of the test program are to provide data demonstrating the effective aerosol removal by the containment spray and to provide the data for qualification of the integral system analysis code such as MELCOR. The Tests were conducted using full-height simulation containment vessels of GIRAFFE (1/720 volumetric scaling ratio) so that real FP removal phenomena was preserved as in a reactor. Vessel heat loss was compensated by heaters on the outer surface of the vessels. CsI was selected as a typical FP aerosol. Steam generated by decay heat, CsI aerosol and spray water were supplied continuously to the drywell as transient boundary conditions. A system integration test simulating BWR low pressure vessel failure sequence during about 10 hours were successfully accomplished. Even under low spray flow condition, maximum drywell pressure was kept relatively low, though it was a little bit higher than the design pressure. After spray initiation, aerosol concentration decreased rapidly in the entire region of drywell. In the upper drywell, aerosol was removed by diffusiophoresis associated with steam condensation, while in the lower drywell it was removed by impaction. By modifying the FP removal model in the MELCOR, calculated FP concentration transient as well as pressure transient agreed well with test data. (J.P.N.)

  10. Surface biofunctionalization and production of miniaturized sensor structures using aerosol printing technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunwald, Ingo; Groth, Esther; Wirth, Ingo; Schumacher, Julian; Maiwald, Marcus; Zoellmer, Volker; Busse, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    The work described in this paper demonstrates that very small protein and DNA structures can be applied to various substrates without denaturation using aerosol printing technology. This technology allows high-resolution deposition of various nanoscaled metal and biological suspensions. Before printing, metal and biological suspensions were formulated and then nebulized to form an aerosol which is aerodynamically focused on the printing module of the system in order to achieve precise structuring of the nanoscale material on a substrate. In this way, it is possible to focus the aerosol stream at a distance of about 5 mm from the printhead to the surface. This technology is useful for printing fluorescence-marked proteins and printing enzymes without affecting their biological activity. Furthermore, higher molecular weight DNA can be printed without shearing. The advantages, such as printing on complex, non-planar 3D structured surfaces, and disadvantages of the aerosol printing technology are also discussed and are compared with other printing technologies. In addition, miniaturized sensor structures with line thicknesses in the range of a few micrometers are fabricated by applying a silver sensor structure to glass. After sintering using an integrated laser or in an oven process, electrical conductivity is achieved within the sensor structure. Finally, we printed BSA in small micrometre-sized areas within the sensor structure using the same deposition system. The aerosol printing technology combined with material development offers great advantages for future-oriented applications involving biological surface functionalization on small areas. This is important for innovative biomedical micro-device development and for production solutions which bridge the disciplines of biology and electronics.

  11. A Novel Aerosol Method for the Production of Hydrogel Particles

    OpenAIRE

    Guzman-Villanueva, Diana; Smyth, Hugh D. C.; Herrera-Ruiz, Dea; El-Sherbiny, Ibrahim M.

    2011-01-01

    A novel method of generating hydrogel particles for various applications including drug delivery purposes was developed. This method is based on the production of hydrogel particles from sprayed polymeric nano/microdroplets obtained by a nebulization process that is immediately followed by gelation in a crosslinking fluid. In this study, particle synthesis parameters such as type of nebulizer, type of crosslinker, air pressure, and polymer concentration were investigated for their impact on t...

  12. Development, Application, and Transition of Aerosol and Trace Gas Products Derived from Next-Generation Satellite Observations to Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Emily; Naeger, Aaron; Zavodsky, Bradley; McGrath, Kevin; LaFontaine, Frank

    2016-01-01

    NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has a history of successfully transitioning unique observations and research capabilities to the operational weather community to improve short-term forecasts. SPoRTstrives to bridge the gap between research and operations by maintaining interactive partnerships with end users to develop products that match specific forecast challenges, provide training, and assess the products in the operational environment. This presentation focuses on recent product development, application, and transition of aerosol and trace gas products to operations for specific forecasting applications. Recent activities relating to the SPoRT ozone products, aerosol optical depth composite product, sulfur dioxide, and aerosol index products are discussed.

  13. A Novel Aerosol Method for the Production of Hydrogel Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Guzman-Villanueva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel method of generating hydrogel particles for various applications including drug delivery purposes was developed. This method is based on the production of hydrogel particles from sprayed polymeric nano/microdroplets obtained by a nebulization process that is immediately followed by gelation in a crosslinking fluid. In this study, particle synthesis parameters such as type of nebulizer, type of crosslinker, air pressure, and polymer concentration were investigated for their impact on the mean particle size, swelling behavior, and morphology of the developed particles. Spherical alginate-based hydrogel particles with a mean particle size in the range from 842 to 886 nm were obtained. Using statistical analysis of the factorial design of experiment it was found that the main factors influencing the size and swelling values of the particles are the alginate concentration and the air pressure. Thus, it was demonstrated that the method described in the current study is promising for the generation of hydrogel particles and it constitutes a relatively simple and low-cost system.

  14. A Novel Aerosol Method for the Production of Hydrogel Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Villanueva, Diana; Smyth, Hugh D C; Herrera-Ruiz, Dea; El-Sherbiny, Ibrahim M

    2011-01-01

    A novel method of generating hydrogel particles for various applications including drug delivery purposes was developed. This method is based on the production of hydrogel particles from sprayed polymeric nano/microdroplets obtained by a nebulization process that is immediately followed by gelation in a crosslinking fluid. In this study, particle synthesis parameters such as type of nebulizer, type of crosslinker, air pressure, and polymer concentration were investigated for their impact on the mean particle size, swelling behavior, and morphology of the developed particles. Spherical alginate-based hydrogel particles with a mean particle size in the range from 842 to 886 nm were obtained. Using statistical analysis of the factorial design of experiment it was found that the main factors influencing the size and swelling values of the particles are the alginate concentration and the air pressure. Thus, it was demonstrated that the method described in the current study is promising for the generation of hydrogel particles and it constitutes a relatively simple and low-cost system.

  15. Production, Organic Characterization, and Phase Transformations of Marine Particles Aerosolized from a Laboratory Mesocosm Phytoplankton Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, P. A.; Knopf, D. A.; Aller, J. Y.; Radway, J.; Kilthau, W.

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that particles emitted from bubble bursting and wave breaking of ocean waters with high biological activity can contain sea salts associated with organic material, with smaller particles containing a larger mass fraction of organics than larger particles. This likely indicates a link between phytoplankton productivity in oceans and particulate organic material in marine air. Once aerosolized, particles with significant amount of organic material can affect cloud activation and formation of ice crystals, among other atmospheric processes, thus influencing climate. This is significant for clouds and climate particularly over nutrient rich polar seas, in which concentrations of biological organisms can reach up to 109 cells per ml during spring phytoplankton blooms. Here we present results of bubble bursting aerosol production from a seawater mesocosm containing artificial seawater, natural seawater and unialgal cultures of three representative phytoplankton species. These phytoplankton (Thalassiosira pseudonana, Emilianaia huxleyi, and Nannochloris atomus), possessed siliceous frustules, calcareous frustules and no frustules, respectively. Bubbles were generated employing recirculating impinging water jets or glass frits. Dry and humidified aerosol size distributions and bulk aerosol organic composition were measured as a function of phytoplankton growth, and chlorophyll composition and particulate and dissolved organic carbon in the water were determined. Finally, particles were collected on substrates for ice nucleation and water uptake experiments, their elemental compositions were determined using computer controlled scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (CCSEMEDAX), and their carbon speciation was determined using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). Particle size distributions exposed to dry and humidified air employing

  16. Gas phase emissions from cooking processes and their secondary aerosol production potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Felix; Platt, Stephen; Bruns, Emily; Termime-roussel, Brice; Detournay, Anais; Mohr, Claudia; Crippa, Monica; Slowik, Jay; Marchand, Nicolas; Baltensperger, Urs; Prevot, Andre; El Haddad, Imad

    2014-05-01

    Long before the industrial evolution and the era of fossil fuels, high concentrations of aerosol particles were alluded to in heavily populated areas, including ancient Rome and medieval London. Recent radiocarbon measurements (14C) conducted in modern megacities came as a surprise: carbonaceous aerosol (mainly organic aerosol, OA), a predominant fraction of particulate matter (PM), remains overwhelmingly non-fossil despite extensive fossil fuel combustion. Such particles are directly emitted (primary OA, POA) or formed in-situ in the atmosphere (secondary OA, SOA) via photochemical reactions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Urban levels of non-fossil OA greatly exceed the levels measured in pristine environments strongly impacted by biogenic emissions, suggesting a contribution from unidentified anthropogenic non-fossil sources to urban OA. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) techniques applied to ambient aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS, Aerodyne) data identify primary cooking emissions (COA) as one of the main sources of primary non-fossil OA in major cities like London (Allan et al., 2010), New York (Sun et al., 2011) and Beijing (Huang et al., 2010). Cooking processes can also emit VOCs that can act as SOA precursors, potentially explaining in part the high levels of oxygenated OA (OOA) identified by the AMS in urban areas. However, at present, the chemical nature of these VOCs and their secondary aerosol production potential (SAPP) remain virtually unknown. The approach adopted here involves laboratory quantification of PM and VOC emission factors from the main primary COA emitting processes and their SAPP. Primary emissions from deep-fat frying, vegetable boiling, vegetable frying and meat cooking for different oils, meats and vegetables were analysed under controlled conditions after ~100 times dilution. A high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and a high resolution proton transfer time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR

  17. Aerosolized essential oils and individual natural product compounds as brown treesnake repellents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Larry; Shivik, John

    2002-08-01

    Chemical irritants useful as repellents for brown treesnakes (Boiga irregularis) were identified. Exposure to various compounds produced a range of intensities for locomotory behavior in snakes. Essential oils comprised of 10 g liter-1 solutions of cedarwood, cinnamon, sage, juniper berry, lavender and rosemary each were potent snake irritants. Brown treesnakes exposed to a 2-s burst of aerosol of these oils exhibited prolonged, violent undirected locomotory behavior. In contrast, exposure to a 10 g liter-1 concentration of ginger oil aerosol caused snakes to locomote, but in a deliberate, directed manner. We also tested specific compounds, all derivative of food and flavor ingredients. 10 g liter-1 solutions delivered as aerosols of m-anisaldehyde, trans-anethole, cineole, cinnamaldehyde, citral, ethyl phenylacetate, eugenol, geranyl acetate or methyl salicylate all acted as potent irritants for brown treesnakes. The individual ingredients were classified using cluster analysis into groups that promoted different levels of response by snakes. This study is the first to systematically investigate the irritant potential of natural products for snakes. These data will be useful in the development of practical pest management tools for snakes.

  18. Chemical vs. herbal formulations as pre-procedural mouth rinses to combat aerosol production: A randomized controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Koduganti Rekha Rani; Manasa Ambati; Jammula Surya Prasanna; Indumathy Pinnamaneni; Panthula Veerendranath Reddy; Dasari Rajashree

    2014-01-01

    Background: Disease transmission and barrier techniques are the key concerns during ultrasonic instrumentation as this procedure has the hazard of aerosol production which has a multitude of deleterious effects on the body. The aerosol produced can affect both the patient and the clinician. The aim of this study was to assess the importance of pre-procedural rinsing before scaling by ultrasonic instrumentation and to compare the efficacy of commercially available herbal mouth rinse and a Chlo...

  19. Influence of local production and vertical transport on the organic aerosol budget over Paris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, R. H. H.; Tsimpidi, A. P.; Karydis, V. A.; Pozzer, A.; Lelieveld, J.; Crippa, M.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Ait-Helal, W.; Borbon, A.; Sauvage, S.; Locoge, N.

    2017-08-01

    We performed a case study of the organic aerosol (OA) budget during the MEGAPOLI campaign during summer 2009 in Paris. We combined aerosol mass spectrometer, gas phase chemistry, and atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) data and applied the MXL/MESSy column model. We find that during daytime, vertical mixing due to ABL growth has opposing effects on secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and primary organic aerosol (POA) concentrations. POA concentrations are mainly governed by dilution due to boundary layer expansion and transport of POA-depleted air from aloft, while SOA concentrations are enhanced by entrainment of SOA-rich air from the residual layer (RL). Further, local emissions and photochemical production control the diurnal cycle of SOA. SOA from intermediate volatility organic compounds constitutes about half of the locally formed SOA mass. Other processes that previously have been shown to influence the urban OA budget, such as aging of semivolatile and intermediate volatility organic compounds (S/IVOC), dry deposition of S/IVOCs, and IVOC emissions, are found to have minor influences on OA. Our model results show that the modern carbon content of the OA is driven by vertical and long-range transport, with a minor contribution from local cooking emissions. SOA from regional sources and resulting from aging and long-lived precursors can lead to high SOA concentrations above the ABL, which can strongly influence ground-based observations through downward transport. Sensitivity analysis shows that modeled SOA concentrations in the ABL are equally sensitive to ABL dynamics as to SOA concentrations transported from the RL.

  20. PENYETARAAN TES MODEL CAMPURAN BUTIR DIKOTOMUS DAN POLITOMUS PADA TES PRESTASI BELAJAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartono Kartono

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengungkapkan signifikansi dan kualifikasi: (1 level pada faktor banyaknya butir anchor, banyaknya kategori butir politomus, ukuran sampel, dan metode transformasi yang digunakan; dan (2 kombinasi level antar-faktor yang mempengaruhi hasil penyetaraan tes model campuran 3PL/GPCM. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian simulasi. Data dibangkitkan berdasarkan data empirik dari tes bentuk campuran yang terdiri atas 30 butir pilihan ganda dan 5 butir uraian. Data bangkitan adalah butir politomus 5 kategori, ukuran sampel 1000, 2000, dan 3000, dan 25 replikasi. Analisis meliputi: analisis butir, konstanta penyetaraan, kriteria evaluasi dengan RMSD, uji signifikansi faktor, uji signifikansi perbedaan level, dan kualifikasi kombinasi level. Hasil penelitian adalah sebagai berikut. (1 Banyaknya butir anchor berpengaruh pada hasil penyetaraan tes, yaitu 40% pada level pertama dan 20% pada level kedua. (2 Banyaknya kategori butir politomus berpengaruh pada hasil penyetaraan tes pada dua level, yaitu 5 kategori pada level pertama, 4 atau 3 kategori pada level kedua. (3 Ukuran sampel berpengaruh pada hasil penyetaraan tes, yaitu 3000 pada level pertama, 2000 pada level kedua, dan 1000 pada level ketiga. (4 Metode transformasi berpengaruh pada hasil penyetaran tes, yaitu metode HA atau SL pada level pertama, RR pada level kedua, dan RS pada level ketiga. Kata kunci: penyetaraan tes, model dikotomus, politomus, anchor, kategori

  1. Quantifying VOC-Reaction Tracers, Ozone Production, and Continuing Aerosol Production Rates in Urban and Far-Downwind Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatfield, Robert; Ren, X.; Brune, W.; Fried, A.; Schwab, J.

    2008-01-01

    We have found a surprisingly informative decomposition of the complex question of smoggy ozone production (basically, [HO2] in a more locally determined field of [NO]) in the process of linked investigations of modestly smoggy Eastern North America (by NASA aircraft, July 2004) and rather polluted Flushing, NYC (Queens College, July, 2001). In both rural and very polluted situations, we find that a simple contour graph parameterization of the local principal ozone production rate can be estimated using only the variables [NO] and j(sub rads) [HCHO]: Po(O3) = c (j(sub rads) [HCHO])(sup a) [HCHO](sup b). Here j(sub rads) is the photolysis of HCHO to radicals, presumably capturing many harder-UV photolytic processes and the principle ozone production is that due to HO2; mechanisms suggest that ozone production due to RO2 is closely correlated, often suggesting a limited range of different proportionality factors. The method immediately suggests a local interpretation for concepts of VOC limitation and NOx limitation. We believe that the product j(sub rads) [HCHO] guages the oxidation rate of observed VOC mixtures in a way that also provides [HO2] useful for the principle ozone production rate k [HO2] [NO], and indeed, all ozone chemical production. The success of the method suggests that dominant urban primary-HCHO sources may transition to secondary plume-HCHO sources in a convenient way. Are there other, simple, near-terminal oxidized VOC's which help guage ozone production and aerosol particle formation? Regarding particles, we report on, to the extent NASA Research resources allow, on appealing relationships between far-downwind (Atlantic PBL) HCHO and very fine aerosol (including sulfate. Since j(sub rads) [HCHO] provides a time-scale, we may understand distant-plume particle production in a more quantitative manner. Additionally we report on a statistical search in the nearer field for relationships between glyoxals (important near-terminal aromatic and isoprene

  2. TES/Aura L2 Ozone Lite Nadir V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TES Aura L2 O3 data consist of information for one molecular species for an entire Global Survey or Special Observation. TES Level 2 data contain retrieved...

  3. TES/Aura L2 HNO3 Limb V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TES Aura L2 HNO3 data consist of information for one molecular species for an entire Global Survey or Special Observation. TES Level 2 data contain retrieved...

  4. TES/Aura L2 HDO Lite Nadir V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TES Aura L2 HDO data consist of information for one molecular species for an entire Global Survey or Special Observation. TES Level 2 data contain retrieved...

  5. TES/Aura L2 HDO Limb V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TES Aura L2 HDO data consist of information for one molecular species for an entire Global Survey or Special Observation. TES Level 2 data contain retrieved...

  6. TES/Aura L2 NO2 Limb V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TES Aura L2 NO2 data consist of information for one molecular species for an entire Global Survey or Special Observation. TES Level 2 data contain retrieved...

  7. TES/Aura L2 O3 Limb V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TES Aura L2 O3 data consist of information for one molecular species for an entire Global Survey or Special Observation. TES Level 2 data contain retrieved...

  8. Production of monodisperse respirable aerosols of 241AmO2 and evaluation of in vitro dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, H.A.; Raabe, O.G.; Peterson, P.K.

    1974-01-01

    A method is described for production of monodisperse (sigma//sub g/ less than 1.2) particles of 241 AmO 2 for use in inhalation experiments with dogs and rodents. The effects of physical and chemical factors on the production of polydisperse aerosols of 241 AmO 2 were studied and evaluated. The best aerosol was achieved when a suspension of americium hydroxide with 2.5 mg Am/ml at pH = 7.3 was aerosolized and passed through two heating columns in succession, the first at 300 0 C and the second at 1050 0 C. The particles were roughly spherical and had densities near 8 gm/cm 3 ; the aerosol AMAD and sigma/sub g/ were about 1.5 μm and 1.7, respectively. Monodisperse particles were separated and collected with the Lovelace Aerosol Particle Separator (LAPS) and subsequently suspended in deionized water with pH adjusted to 10.2 with NH 3 for nebulization to produce monodisperse aerosols for inhalation exposures. Particles collected on filters during inhalation experiments were used for evaluation of in vitro dissolution rates with two systems and various forms of a lung fluid simulant. The important role of phosphate ions in such dissolution systems was demonstrated, suggesting the potential for the equally important role of free phosphate in retarding dissolution of AmO 2 particles in the lung. (U.S.)

  9. Reactive oxidation products promote secondary organic aerosol formation from green leaf volatiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Hamilton

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Green leaf volatiles (GLVs are an important group of chemicals released by vegetation which have emission fluxes that can be significantly increased when plants are damaged or stressed. A series of simulation chamber experiments has been conducted at the European Photoreactor in Valencia, Spain, to investigate secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation from the atmospheric oxidation of the major GLVs cis-3-hexenylacetate and cis-3-hexen-1-ol. Liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry was used to identify chemical species present in the SOA. Cis-3-hexen-1-ol proved to be a more efficient SOA precursor due to the high reactivity of its first generation oxidation product, 3-hydroxypropanal, which can hydrate and undergo further reactions with other aldehydes resulting in SOA dominated by higher molecular weight oligomers. The lower SOA yields produced from cis-3-hexenylacetate are attributed to the acetate functionality, which inhibits oligomer formation in the particle phase. Based on observed SOA yields and best estimates of global emissions, these compounds may be calculated to be a substantial unidentified global source of SOA, contributing 1–5 TgC yr−1, equivalent to around a third of that predicted from isoprene. Molecular characterization of the SOA, combined with organic mechanistic information, has provided evidence that the formation of organic aerosols from GLVs is closely related to the reactivity of their first generation atmospheric oxidation products, and indicates that this may be a simple parameter that could be used in assessing the aerosol formation potential for other unstudied organic compounds in the atmosphere.

  10. Factors Affecting Aerosol Radiative Forcing from Both Production-based and Consumption-based View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Lin, J.; Ni, R.

    2017-12-01

    Aerosol radiative forcing (RF) is determined by emissions and various chemical-transport-radiative processes in the atmosphere, a multi-factor problem whose individual contributors have not been well quantified. This problem becomes more complicated when taking into account the role of international trade, which means reallocated aerosol RF due to separation of regions producing goods and emissions and regions consuming those goods. Here we analyze major factors affecting RF of secondary inorganic aerosols (SIOAs, including sulfate, nitrate and ammonium), primary organic aerosol (POA) and black carbon (BC), extending the work of Lin et al. (2016, Nature Geoscience). We contrast five factors determining production-based (RFp, due to a region's production of goods) and consumption-based (RFc, due to a region's consumption) forcing by 11 major regions, including population size, per capita output, emission intensity (emission per output), chemical efficiency (mass per unit emission) and radiative efficiency (RF per unit mass). Comparing across the 11 regions, East Asia produces the strongest RFp and RFc of SIOA and BC and the second largest RFp and RFc of POA primarily due to its high emission intensity. Although Middle East and North Africa has low emissions, its RFp is strengthened by its largest chemical efficiency for POA and BC and second largest chemical efficiency for SIOA. However, RFp of South-East Asia and Pacific is greatly weakened by its lowest chemical efficiency. Economic trade means that net importers (Western Europe, North America and Pacific OECD) have higher RFc than RFp by 50-100%. And such forcing difference is mainly due to the high emission intensity of the exporters supplying these regions. For North America, SIOA's RFc is 50% stronger than RFp, for that emission intensity of SIOA is 5.2 times in East Asia and 2.5 times in Latin America and Caribbean compared with that in North America, and the chemical efficiency in the top four exporters are

  11. Evaluation of factors controlling global secondary organic aerosol production from cloud processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, C.; Liu, J.; Carlton, A. G.; Fan, S.; Horowitz, L. W.; Levy, H., II; Tao, S.

    2013-02-01

    Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) exert a significant influence on ambient air quality and regional climate. Recent field, laboratorial and modeling studies have confirmed that in-cloud processes contribute to a large fraction of SOA production with large space-time heterogeneity. This study evaluates the key factors that govern the production of cloud-process SOA (SOAcld) on a global scale based on the GFDL coupled chemistry-climate model AM3 in which full cloud chemistry is employed. The association between SOAcld production rate and six factors (i.e., liquid water content (LWC), total carbon chemical loss rate (TCloss), temperature, VOC/NOx, OH, and O3) is examined. We find that LWC alone determines the spatial pattern of SOAcld production, particularly over the tropical, subtropical and temperate forest regions, and is strongly correlated with SOAcld production. TCloss ranks the second and mainly represents the seasonal variability of vegetation growth. Other individual factors are essentially uncorrelated spatiotemporally to SOAcld production. We find that the rate of SOAcld production is simultaneously determined by both LWC and TCloss, but responds linearly to LWC and nonlinearly (or concavely) to TCloss. A parameterization based on LWC and TCloss can capture well the spatial and temporal variability of the process-based SOAcld formation (R2 = 0.5) and can be easily applied to global three dimensional models to represent the SOA production from cloud processes.

  12. The optical, physical and chemical properties of the products of glyoxal uptake on ammonium sulfate seed aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Trainic

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The heterogeneous reaction between gas phase glyoxal and ammonium sulfate (AS aerosols, a proxy for inorganic atmospheric aerosol, was studied in terms of the dependence of the optical, physical and chemical properties of the product aerosols on initial particle size and ambient relative humidity (RH. Our experiments imitate an atmospheric scenario of a dry particle hydration at ambient RH conditions in the presence of glyoxal gas followed by efflorescence due to decrease of the ambient RH. The reactions were studied under different RH conditions, starting from dry conditions (~20% RH and up to 90% RH, covering conditions prevalent in many atmospheric environments, and followed by consequent drying of the reacted particles before their analysis by the aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS, cavity ring down (CRD and scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS systems. At λ = 355 nm, the reacted aerosols demonstrate a substantial growth in optical extinction cross section, as well as in mobility diameter under a broad range of RH values (35–90%. The ratio of the product aerosol to seed aerosol geometric cross section reached up to ~3.5, and the optical extinction cross-section up to ~250. The reactions show a trend of increasing physical and optical growth with decreasing seed aerosol size, from 100 nm to 300 nm, as well as with decreasing RH values from 90% to ~40%. Optically inactive aerosols, at the limit of the Mie range (100 nm diameter become optically active as they grow due to the reaction. AMS analyses of the reaction of 300 nm AS at RH values of 50%, 75% and 90% show that the main products of the reaction are glyoxal oligomers, formed by acetal formation in the presence of AS. In addition, imidazole formation, which is a minor channel, is observed for all reactions, yielding a product which absorbs at λ = 290 nm, with possible implications on the radiative properties of the product aerosols. The ratio of absorbing substances (C-N compounds

  13. A Comparison of Parameterizations of Secondary Organic Aerosol Production: Global Budget and Spatiotemporal Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Chen, Z.; Horowitz, L. W.; Carlton, A. M. G.; Fan, S.; Cheng, Y.; Ervens, B.; Fu, T. M.; He, C.; Tao, S.

    2014-12-01

    Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) have a profound influence on air quality and climate, but large uncertainties exist in modeling SOA on the global scale. In this study, five SOA parameterization schemes, including a two-product model (TPM), volatility basis-set (VBS) and three cloud SOA schemes (Ervens et al. (2008, 2014), Fu et al. (2008) , and He et al. (2013)), are implemented into the global chemical transport model (MOZART-4). For each scheme, model simulations are conducted with identical boundary and initial conditions. The VBS scheme produces the highest global annual SOA production (close to 35 Tg·y-1), followed by three cloud schemes (26-30 Tg·y-1) and TPM (23 Tg·y-1). Though sharing a similar partitioning theory to the TPM scheme, the VBS approach simulates the chemical aging of multiple generations of VOCs oxidation products, resulting in a much larger SOA source, particularly from aromatic species, over Europe, the Middle East and Eastern America. The formation of SOA in VBS, which represents the net partitioning of semi-volatile organic compounds from vapor to condensed phase, is highly sensitivity to the aging and wet removal processes of vapor-phase organic compounds. The production of SOA from cloud processes (SOAcld) is constrained by the coincidence of liquid cloud water and water-soluble organic compounds. Therefore, all cloud schemes resolve a fairly similar spatial pattern over the tropical and the mid-latitude continents. The spatiotemporal diversity among SOA parameterizations is largely driven by differences in precursor inputs. Therefore, a deeper understanding of the evolution, wet removal, and phase partitioning of semi-volatile organic compounds, particularly above remote land and oceanic areas, is critical to better constrain the global-scale distribution and related climate forcing of secondary organic aerosols.

  14. Kinetics, Mechanism, and Secondary Organic Aerosol Yield of Aqueous Phase Photo-oxidation of α-Pinene Oxidation Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljawhary, Dana; Zhao, Ran; Lee, Alex K Y; Wang, Chen; Abbatt, Jonathan P D

    2016-03-10

    Formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) involves atmospheric oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), the majority of which are emitted from biogenic sources. Oxidation can occur not only in the gas-phase but also in atmospheric aqueous phases such as cloudwater and aerosol liquid water. This study explores for the first time the aqueous-phase OH oxidation chemistry of oxidation products of α-pinene, a major biogenic VOC species emitted to the atmosphere. The kinetics, reaction mechanisms, and formation of SOA compounds in the aqueous phase of two model compounds, cis-pinonic acid (PIN) and tricarballylic acid (TCA), were investigated in the laboratory; TCA was used as a surrogate for 3-methyl-1,2,3-butanetricarboxylic acid (MBTCA), a known α-pinene oxidation product. Aerosol time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometry (Aerosol-ToF-CIMS) was used to follow the kinetics and reaction mechanisms at the molecular level. Room-temperature second-order rate constants of PIN and TCA were determined to be 3.3 (± 0.5) × 10(9) and 3.1 (± 0.2) × 10(8) M(-1) s(-1), respectively, from which were estimated their condensed-phase atmospheric lifetimes. Aerosol-ToF-CIMS detected a large number of products leading to detailed reaction mechanisms for PIN and MBTCA. By monitoring the particle size distribution after drying, the amount of SOA material remaining in the particle phase was determined. An aqueous SOA yield of 40 to 60% was determined for PIN OH oxidation. Although recent laboratory studies have focused primarily on aqueous-phase processing of isoprene-related compounds, we demonstrate that aqueous formation of SOA materials also occurs from monoterpene oxidation products, thus representing an additional source of biogenically driven aerosol formation.

  15. Fission product aerosol removal test by containment spray under accident management conditions (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Atsushi; Nagasaka, Hideo; Yokobori, Seiichi; Akinaga, Makoto

    2000-01-01

    In order to demonstrate the effective FP aerosol removal by containment spray under Japanese AM conditions, two system integral tests and two separate effect tests were carried out using a full-height simulation test facility. In case of PWR LOCA, aerosol concentration in the upper containment vessel decreased even under low spray flow rate. In case of BWR LOCA with water injection into RPV, the aerosol concentration in the entire vessel also decreased rapidly after aerosol supply stopping. In both cases, the removal rate estimated from the NUREG-1465 was coincided with test results. The aerosol washing effect by spray was confirmed to be predominant by conducting suppression chamber isolation test. It turned out that the effect of aerosol solubility and density on aerosol removal by spray was quite small by conducting insoluble aerosol injection test. After the modification of aerosol removal model by the spray and hygroscopic aerosol model in original MELCOR 1.8.4, calculated aerosol concentration transient in the containment vessel agreed well with the test data. (author)

  16. Tes Potensi Akademik Online Berbasis Web

    OpenAIRE

    Irfansyah, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Tugas ini bertujuan untuk membangun suatu aplikasi web tes potensi akademik yang dapat digunakan untuk mengukur kemampuan seseorang di dalam potensi akademik. Aplikasi web ini disusun dengan menggunakan PHP dan MySQL, xampp-win32-1.7.2 yang merangkum Web Server Apache, Web scripting PHP, dan Database MySQL. Dan juga HTML (Hypertext Markup Language), CSS (Cascading Style Sheet), aplikasi Macromedia Dreamweaver 8 sebagai Web Editor, serta menggunakan Web Browser yang berguna untuk menampilkan h...

  17. Methane from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Vivienne; Worden, John; Kulawik, Susan; Frankenberg, Christian; Bowman, Kevin; Wecht, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    TES V5 CH4 captures latitudinal gradients, regional variability and interannual variation in the free troposphere. V5 joint retrievals offer improved sensitivity to lower troposphere. Time series extends from 2004 to present. V5 reprocessing in progress. Upper tropospheric bias. Mitigated by N2O correction. Appears largely spatially uniform, so can be corrected. How to relate free-tropospheric values to surface emissions.

  18. Secondary Organic Aerosol Production over Seoul, South Korea, during KORUS-AQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nault, B.; Campuzano Jost, P.; Day, D. A.; Schroder, J. C.; Blake, D. R.; Brune, W. H.; Choi, Y.; DiGangi, J. P.; Fried, A.; Huey, L. G.; Knote, C. J.; Montzka, D. D.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Jimenez, J. L.; Armin, W.

    2017-12-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is rapidly produced over and downwind of urban areas, causing important effects on health, visibility, and climate. However, multiple studies over different cities have shown that the production of SOA over urban areas cannot be accounted for when only using traditional volatile compounds (e.g., aromatics). Non-traditional anthropogenic volatile compounds—semi- and intermediate-volatile organic compounds (S/IVOC) are needed to account the observed urban SOA production. At this time, only a few megacities have been well characterized for urban SOA production; however, urban SOA production has not been well characterized in a megacity embedded in a region of rapid economic growth and energy consumption. In this study, we utilize observations from the NASA DC-8 over Seoul, South Korea, during the NASA/NIER 2016 KORean United States-Air Quality (KORUS-AQ) study to investigate the influence of transported OA and SOA precursors to Seoul versus the influence of local emissions of SOA precursors on the observed SOA production. We utilize the ambient gas-phase and OA observations over Seoul and the Western Sea along with Oxidation Flow Reactor (OFR) observations and FLEXPART tracer analysis to investigate the influence of transport versus local emissions. We find that the contribution of transported OA and SOA precursors to Seoul, during the campaign, was minor and had a small impact on the observed SOA production. Using the observed traditional volatile compounds, along with estimates of S/IVOC, brought near closure for the observed SOA production. We found that greater than 90% of the SOA production can be accounted for by reactive organic compounds with OH lifetimes less than 1 day, consistent with several previous megacity studies, further suggesting that local SOA precursor emissions are dominant. Our study highlights the need to further investigate and account for speciated S/IVOC measurements, as these represented an estimated 60

  19. Compositional evolution of particle-phase reaction products and water in the heterogeneous OH oxidation of model aqueous organic aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Chim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Organic compounds present at or near the surface of aqueous droplets can be efficiently oxidized by gas-phase OH radicals, which alter the molecular distribution of the reaction products within the droplet. A change in aerosol composition affects the hygroscopicity and leads to a concomitant response in the equilibrium amount of particle-phase water. The variation in the aerosol water content affects the aerosol size and physicochemical properties, which in turn governs the oxidation kinetics and chemistry. To attain better knowledge of the compositional evolution of aqueous organic droplets during oxidation, this work investigates the heterogeneous OH-radical-initiated oxidation of aqueous methylsuccinic acid (C5H8O4 droplets, a model compound for small branched dicarboxylic acids found in atmospheric aerosols, at a high relative humidity of 85 % through experimental and modeling approaches. Aerosol mass spectra measured by a soft atmospheric pressure ionization source (Direct Analysis in Real Time, DART coupled with a high-resolution mass spectrometer reveal two major products: a five carbon atom (C5 hydroxyl functionalization product (C5H8O5 and a C4 fragmentation product (C4H6O3. These two products likely originate from the formation and subsequent reactions (intermolecular hydrogen abstraction and carbon–carbon bond scission of tertiary alkoxy radicals resulting from the OH abstraction occurring at the methyl-substituted carbon site. Based on the identification of the reaction products, a kinetic model of oxidation (a two-product model coupled with the Aerosol Inorganic–Organic Mixtures Functional groups Activity Coefficients (AIOMFAC model is built to simulate the size and compositional changes of aqueous methylsuccinic acid droplets during oxidation. Model results show that at the maximum OH exposure, the droplets become slightly more hygroscopic after oxidation, as the mass fraction of water is predicted to increase from

  20. Compositional evolution of particle-phase reaction products and water in the heterogeneous OH oxidation of model aqueous organic aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chim, Man Mei; Cheng, Chiu Tung; Davies, James F.; Berkemeier, Thomas; Shiraiwa, Manabu; Zuend, Andreas; Nin Chan, Man

    2017-12-01

    Organic compounds present at or near the surface of aqueous droplets can be efficiently oxidized by gas-phase OH radicals, which alter the molecular distribution of the reaction products within the droplet. A change in aerosol composition affects the hygroscopicity and leads to a concomitant response in the equilibrium amount of particle-phase water. The variation in the aerosol water content affects the aerosol size and physicochemical properties, which in turn governs the oxidation kinetics and chemistry. To attain better knowledge of the compositional evolution of aqueous organic droplets during oxidation, this work investigates the heterogeneous OH-radical-initiated oxidation of aqueous methylsuccinic acid (C5H8O4) droplets, a model compound for small branched dicarboxylic acids found in atmospheric aerosols, at a high relative humidity of 85 % through experimental and modeling approaches. Aerosol mass spectra measured by a soft atmospheric pressure ionization source (Direct Analysis in Real Time, DART) coupled with a high-resolution mass spectrometer reveal two major products: a five carbon atom (C5) hydroxyl functionalization product (C5H8O5) and a C4 fragmentation product (C4H6O3). These two products likely originate from the formation and subsequent reactions (intermolecular hydrogen abstraction and carbon-carbon bond scission) of tertiary alkoxy radicals resulting from the OH abstraction occurring at the methyl-substituted carbon site. Based on the identification of the reaction products, a kinetic model of oxidation (a two-product model) coupled with the Aerosol Inorganic-Organic Mixtures Functional groups Activity Coefficients (AIOMFAC) model is built to simulate the size and compositional changes of aqueous methylsuccinic acid droplets during oxidation. Model results show that at the maximum OH exposure, the droplets become slightly more hygroscopic after oxidation, as the mass fraction of water is predicted to increase from 0.362 to 0.424; however, the

  1. GOCI Yonsei aerosol retrieval version 2 aerosol products: improved algorithm description and error analysis with uncertainty estimation from 5-year validation over East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, M.; Kim, J.; Lee, J.; KIM, M.; Park, Y. J.; Holben, B. N.; Eck, T. F.; Li, Z.; Song, C. H.

    2017-12-01

    The Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) Yonsei aerosol retrieval (YAER) version 1 algorithm was developed for retrieving hourly aerosol optical depth at 550 nm (AOD) and other subsidiary aerosol optical properties over East Asia. The GOCI YAER AOD showed comparable accuracy compared to ground-based and other satellite-based observations, but still had errors due to uncertainties in surface reflectance and simple cloud masking. Also, it was not capable of near-real-time (NRT) processing because it required a monthly database of each year encompassing the day of retrieval for the determination of surface reflectance. This study describes the improvement of GOCI YAER algorithm to the version 2 (V2) for NRT processing with improved accuracy from the modification of cloud masking, surface reflectance determination using multi-year Rayleigh corrected reflectance and wind speed database, and inversion channels per surface conditions. Therefore, the improved GOCI AOD ( ) is similar with those of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) AOD compared to V1 of the YAER algorithm. The shows reduced median bias and increased ratio within range (i.e. absolute expected error range of MODIS AOD) compared to V1 in the validation results using Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) AOD ( ) from 2011 to 2016. The validation using the Sun-Sky Radiometer Observation Network (SONET) over China also shows similar results. The bias of error ( is within -0.1 and 0.1 range as a function of AERONET AOD and AE, scattering angle, NDVI, cloud fraction and homogeneity of retrieved AOD, observation time, month, and year. Also, the diagnostic and prognostic expected error (DEE and PEE, respectively) of are estimated. The estimated multiple PEE of GOCI V2 AOD is well matched with actual error over East Asia, and the GOCI V2 AOD over Korea shows higher ratio within PEE compared to over China and Japan. Hourly AOD products based on the

  2. Dimers and organosulfates derived from biogenic oxidation products in aerosols during the Biosphere Effects on Aerosols and Photochemistry Experiment (BEARPEX) in California 2007 and 2009 (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasius, M.; Worton, D. R.; Kristensen, K.; Nguyen, Q.; Surratt, J.; Enggrob, K. L.; Bouvier-Brown, N. C.; Farmer, D.; Docherty, K. S.; Platt, S.; Bilde, M.; Nøjgaard, J. K.; Seinfeld, J.; Jimenez, J. L.; Goldstein, A.

    2010-12-01

    Oxidation products of biogenic volatile organic compounds, such as monoterpenes and isoprene, contribute to biogenic secondary organic aerosol (BSOA). The organosulfate derivatives of these compounds are formed through heterogeneous reactions involving sulphur compounds, with a considerable contribution from anthropogenic sources. Organosulfate derivatives of biogenic oxidation products thus belong to a new group of anthropogenic enhanced biogenic SOA (ABSOA). The Biosphere Effects on Aerosols and Photochemistry Experiment (BEARPEX) during summers of 2007 and 2009 provided an excellent platform at Blodgett Forest, California (a ponderosa pine plantation) for studying ABSOA. Typically, polluted air masses were transported upslope from the California Central Valley during day, while night conditions were influenced by downslope transport of air masses, low local atmospheric mixing and formation of a shallow boundary layer. We collected particle samples (PM2.5) as one nighttime and two daytime samples per day. After extraction of filters in polar organic solvents (i.e. acetonitrile or methanol), organic aerosol constituents were analyzed by HPLC coupled through an electrospray inlet to a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (qTOF-MS). Organosulfates and nitrooxy organosulfates derived from oxidation products of α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene and isoprene were identified based on their molecular mass and MS fragmentation patterns. Measurements by High Resolution Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (HR-ToF-AMS) show high mass loadings of nitrate in the night and morning samples with highest levels of the nitrooxy organosulfates with MW 295 and MW 297. This may indicate that elevated levels of nitrate and nitrooxy organosulfates are formed in the same polluted air mass, probably through nitrate radical reactions. Terpenylic acid, diterpenylic acid acetate, and methylbutane tricarboxylic acid were found at concentrations comparable to pinic acid. A dimer of

  3. The Statistical Evolution of Multiple Generations of Oxidation Products in the Photochemical Aging of Chemically Reduced Organic Aerosol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Kevin R.; Smith, Jared D.; Kessler, Sean; Kroll, Jesse H.

    2011-10-03

    The heterogeneous reaction of hydroxyl radicals (OH) with squalane and bis(2-ethylhexyl) sebacate (BES) particles are used as model systems to examine how distributions of reactionproducts evolve during the oxidation of chemically reduced organic aerosol. A kinetic model of multigenerational chemistry, which is compared to previously measured (squalane) and new(BES) experimental data, reveals that it is the statistical mixtures of different generations of oxidation products that control the average particle mass and elemental composition during thereaction. The model suggests that more highly oxidized reaction products, although initially formed with low probability, play a large role in the production of gas phase reaction products.In general, these results highlight the importance of considering atmospheric oxidation as a statistical process, further suggesting that the underlying distribution of molecules could playimportant roles in aerosol formation as well as in the evolution of key physicochemical properties such as volatility and hygroscopicity.

  4. Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational Experiment (TARFOX) MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) Level-1B Data Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative ForcingObservational Experiment (TARFOX) was to Determine the directradiative impact and (chemical, physical,...

  5. Secondary organic aerosol from ozone-initiated reactions with terpene-rich household products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, Beverly; Coleman, Beverly K.; Lunden, Melissa M.; Destaillats, Hugo; Nazaroff, William W.

    2008-01-01

    We analyzed secondary organic aerosol (SOA) data from a series of small-chamber experiments in which terpene-rich vapors from household products were combined with ozone under conditions analogous to product use indoors. Reagents were introduced into a continuously ventilated 198 L chamber at steady rates. Consistently, at the time of ozone introduction, nucleation occurred exhibiting behavior similar to atmospheric events. The initial nucleation burst and growth was followed by a period in which approximately stable particle levels were established reflecting a balance between new particle formation, condensational growth, and removal by ventilation. Airborne particles were measured with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS, 10 to 400 nm) in every experiment and with an optical particle counter (OPC, 0.1 to 2.0 ?m) in a subset. Parameters for a three-mode lognormal fit to the size distribution at steady state were determined for each experiment. Increasing the supply ozone level increased the steady-state mass concentration and yield of SOA from each product tested. Decreasing the air-exchange rate increased the yield. The steady-state fine-particle mass concentration (PM1.1) ranged from 10 to> 300 mu g m-3 and yields ranged from 5percent to 37percent. Steady-state nucleation rates and SOA mass formation rates were on the order of 10 cm-3 s-1 and 10 mu g m-3 min-1, respectively.

  6. Estimating precipitation susceptibility in warm marine clouds using multi-sensor aerosol and cloud products from A-Train satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bai

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Precipitation susceptibility to aerosol perturbation plays a key role in understanding aerosol–cloud interactions and constraining aerosol indirect effects. However, large discrepancies exist in the previous satellite estimates of precipitation susceptibility. In this paper, multi-sensor aerosol and cloud products, including those from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO, CloudSat, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System (AMSR-E from June 2006 to April 2011 are analyzed to estimate precipitation frequency susceptibility SPOP, precipitation intensity susceptibility SI, and precipitation rate susceptibility SR in warm marine clouds. We find that SPOP strongly depends on atmospheric stability, with larger values under more stable environments. Our results show that precipitation susceptibility for drizzle (with a −15 dBZ rainfall threshold is significantly different than that for rain (with a 0 dBZ rainfall threshold. Onset of drizzle is not as readily suppressed in warm clouds as rainfall while precipitation intensity susceptibility is generally smaller for rain than for drizzle. We find that SPOP derived with respect to aerosol index (AI is about one-third of SPOP derived with respect to cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC. Overall, SPOP demonstrates relatively robust features throughout independent liquid water path (LWP products and diverse rain products. In contrast, the behaviors of SI and SR are subject to LWP or rain products used to derive them. Recommendations are further made for how to better use these metrics to quantify aerosol–cloud–precipitation interactions in observations and models.

  7. Validation and understanding of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer aerosol products (C5) using ground-based measurements from the handheld Sun photometer network in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhanqing Li; Feng Niu; Kwon-Ho Lee; Jinyuan Xin; Wei Min Hao; Bryce L. Nordgren; Yuesi Wang; Pucai Wang

    2007-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) currently provides the most extensive aerosol retrievals on a global basis, but validation is limited to a small number of ground stations. This study presents a comprehensive evaluation of Collection 4 and 5 MODIS aerosol products using ground measurements from the Chinese Sun Hazemeter Network (CSHNET). The...

  8. TES/Aura L1B Spectra Limb V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TES Level 1B Spectra data contain radiometric calibrated spectral radiances and their corresponding noise equivalent spectral radiances (NESR). The geolocation,...

  9. Antenna-Coupled TES Bolometer Arrays for CMB Polarimetry

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop and test transition edge sensor (TES) bolometer arrays for precision polarimetry of cosmic microwave background (CMB). Verify that critical antenna...

  10. Long-term dust aerosol production from natural sources in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Pavla; Arnalds, Olafur; Olafsson, Haraldur

    2017-02-01

    Iceland is a volcanic island in the North Atlantic Ocean with maritime climate. In spite of moist climate, large areas are with limited vegetation cover where >40% of Iceland is classified with considerable to very severe erosion and 21% of Iceland is volcanic sandy deserts. Not only do natural emissions from these sources influenced by strong winds affect regional air quality in Iceland ("Reykjavik haze"), but dust particles are transported over the Atlantic ocean and Arctic Ocean >1000 km at times. The aim of this paper is to place Icelandic dust production area into international perspective, present long-term frequency of dust storm events in northeast Iceland, and estimate dust aerosol concentrations during reported dust events. Meteorological observations with dust presence codes and related visibility were used to identify the frequency and the long-term changes in dust production in northeast Iceland. There were annually 16.4 days on average with reported dust observations on weather stations within the northeastern erosion area, indicating extreme dust plume activity and erosion within the northeastern deserts, even though the area is covered with snow during the major part of winter. During the 2000s the highest occurrence of dust events in six decades was reported. We have measured saltation and Aeolian transport during dust/volcanic ash storms in Iceland, which give some of the most intense wind erosion events ever measured. Icelandic dust affects the ecosystems over much of Iceland and causes regional haze. It is likely to affect the ecosystems of the oceans around Iceland, and it brings dust that lowers the albedo of the Icelandic glaciers, increasing melt-off due to global warming. The study indicates that Icelandic dust may contribute to the Arctic air pollution. Long-term records of meteorological dust observations from Northeast Iceland indicate the frequency of dust events from Icelandic deserts. The research involves a 60-year period and

  11. Visibility in the Netherlands during New Year's fireworks: The role of soot and salty aerosol products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, H. ten; Henzing, B.; Otjes, R.; Weijers, E.

    2018-01-01

    The visibility on New Year's nights in the Netherlands is low during stagnant weather. This is due to the scattering and absorption of light by the aerosol-smoke from the fireworks. We made an assessment of the responsible aerosol-species. The investigation took place during the New Year's night of

  12. New 4.4 km-resolution aerosol product from NASA's Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer: A user's guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastan, A.; Garay, M. J.; Witek, M. L.; Seidel, F.; Bull, M. A.; Kahn, R. A.; Diner, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    The NASA Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument on NASA's Terra satellite has provided an 18-year-and-growing aerosol data record. MISR's V22 aerosol product has been used extensively in studies of regional and global climate and the health effects of particulate air pollution. The MISR team recently released a new version of this product (V23), which increases the spatial resolution from 17.6 km to 4.4 km, improves performance versus AERONET, and provides better spatial coverage, more accurate cloud screening, and improved radiometric conditioning relative to V22. The product formatting was also completely revamped to improve clarity and usability. Established and prospective users of the MISR aerosol product are invited to learn about the features and performance of the new product and to participate in one-on-one demonstrations of how to obtain, visualize, and analyze the new product. Because the aerosol product is used in generating atmospherically-corrected surface bidirectional reflectance factors, improvements in MISR's 1.1 km resolution land surface product are a by-product of the updated aerosol retrievals. Illustrative comparisons of the V22 and V23 aerosol and surface products will be shown.

  13. A system for the production and delivery of monodisperse salbutamol aerosols to the lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddiscombe, Martyn F; Usmani, Omar S; Barnes, Peter J

    2003-03-26

    An aerosol system is described for the generation and delivery of measured doses of monodisperse therapeutic drug particles to the human lungs. The system comprises a spinning top aerosol generator (STAG), aerosol chamber and inhalation control unit. Monodisperse aerosols allow drug particle size effects to be studied as the dose is within a narrow size distribution and when combined with controlled inhalation may lead to more precise targeting of therapeutic drug to the airways. Using the STAG, particles in the size range 1.5-12 microm were generated and their mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) and concentration measured using an aerodynamic particle sizer (APS). The application and validation of the system with the bronchodilator drug salbutamol sulphate is described, and its potential use in the study of aerosol particle size effects is discussed. Copyright 2003 Elsevier Science B.V.

  14. Gas-phase products and secondary organic aerosol formation from the ozonolysis and photooxidation of myrcene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böge, Olaf; Mutzel, Anke; Iinuma, Yoshiteru; Yli-Pirilä, Pasi; Kahnt, Ariane; Joutsensaari, Jorma; Herrmann, Hartmut

    2013-11-01

    In this study, the ozone and OH-radical reactions of myrcene were investigated in an aerosol chamber (at 292-295 K and 50% relative humidity) to examine the gas-phase oxidation products and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. The ozone reaction studies were performed in the presence and absence of CO, which serves as an OH radical scavenger. In the photooxidation experiments OH radicals were generated by photolysis of methyl nitrite. The ozonolysis of myrcene in the presence of CO resulted in a substantial yield of 4-vinyl-4-pentenal (55.3%), measured as m/z 111 plus m/z 93 using proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) and confirmed unambiguously as C7H10O by denuder measurements and HPLC/ESI-TOFMS analysis of its 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) derivative. Additionally, the formation of two different organic dicarbonyls with m/z 113 and a molecular formula of C6H8O2 were observed (2.1%). The yields of these dicarbonyls were higher in the ozonolysis experiments without an OH scavenger (5.4%) and even higher (13.8%) in the myrcene OH radical reaction. The formation of hydroxyacetone as a direct product of the myrcene reaction with ozone with a molar yield of 17.6% was also observed. The particle size distribution and volume concentrations were monitored and facilitated the calculation of SOA yields, which ranged from 0 to 0.01 (ozonolysis in the presence of CO) to 0.39 (myrcene OH radical reaction). Terpenylic acid was found in the SOA samples collected from the ozonolysis of myrcene in the absence of an OH scavenger and the OH radical-initiated reaction of myrcene but not in samples collected from the ozonolysis in the presence of CO as an OH radical scavenger, suggesting that terpenylic acid formation involves the reaction of myrcene with an OH radical. A reaction mechanism describing the formation of terpenylic acid is proposed.

  15. Characterization of Wildfire-Induced Aerosol Emissions From the Maritime Continent Peatland and Central African Dry Savannah with MISR and CALIPSO Aerosol Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Huikyo; Jeong, Su-Jong; Kalashnikova, Olga; Tosca, Mika; Kim, Sang-Woo; Kug, Jong-Seong

    2018-03-01

    Aerosol plumes from wildfires affect the Earth's climate system through regulation of the radiative budget and clouds. However, optical properties of aerosols from individual wildfire smoke plumes and their resultant impact on regional climate are highly variable. Therefore, there is a critical need for observations that can constrain the partitioning between different types of aerosols. Here we present the apparent influence of regional ecosystem types on optical properties of wildfire-induced aerosols based on remote sensing observations from two satellite instruments and three ground stations. The independent observations commonly show that the ratio of the absorbing aerosols is significantly lower in smoke plumes from the Maritime Continent than those from Central Africa, so that their impacts on regional climate are different. The observed light-absorbing properties of wildfire-induced aerosols are explained by dominant ecosystem types such as wet peatlands for the Maritime Continent and dry savannah for Central Africa, respectively. These results suggest that the wildfire-aerosol-climate feedback processes largely depend on the terrestrial environments from which the fires originate. These feedbacks also interact with climate under greenhouse warming. Our analysis shows that aerosol optical properties retrieved based on satellite observations are critical in assessing wildfire-induced aerosols forcing in climate models. The optical properties of carbonaceous aerosol mixtures used by state-of-the-art chemistry climate models may overestimate emissions for absorbing aerosols from wildfires over the Maritime Continent.

  16. New insights in the production of aerosol antibiotics. Evaluation of the optimal aerosol production system for ampicillin-sulbactam, meropenem, ceftazidime, cefepime and piperacillin-tazobactam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarogoulidis, Paul; Kioumis, Ioannis; Ritzoulis, Christos; Petridis, Dimitris; Darwiche, Kaid; Porpodis, Konstantinos; Spyratos, Dionysis; Parrish, Scott; Browning, Robert; Li, Qiang; Turner, J Francis; Freitag, Lutz; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2013-10-15

    Several aerosol antibiotics are on the market and several others are currently being evaluated. Aim of the study was to evaluate the aerosol droplet size of five different antibiotics for future evaluation as an aerosol administration. The nebulizers Sunmist(®), Maxineb(®) and Invacare(®) were used in combination with four different "small <6 ml" residual cups and two "large <10 ml" with different loadings 2-4-6-8 ml (8 ml only for large residual cups) with five different antibiotic drugs (ampicilln-sulbactam, meropenem, ceftazidime, cefepime and piperacillin-tazobactam). The Mastersizer 2000 (Malvern) was used to evaluate the produced droplet size from each combination Significant effect on the droplet size produced the different antibiotic (F=96.657, p<0.001) and the residual cup design (F=68.535, p<0.001) but not the different loading amount (p=0.127) and the nebulizer (p=0.715). Interactions effects were found significant only between antibiotic and residual cup (F=16.736, p<0.001). No second order interactions were found statistically significant. Our results firstly indicate us indirectly that the chemical formulation of the drug is the main factor affecting the produced droplet size and secondly but closely the residual cup design. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Chemical and cellular oxidant production induced by naphthalene secondary organic aerosol (SOA): effect of redox-active metals and photochemical aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuet, Wing Y; Chen, Yunle; Fok, Shierly; Gao, Dong; Weber, Rodney J; Champion, Julie A; Ng, Nga L

    2017-11-09

    Exposure to air pollution is a leading global health risk. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) constitute a large portion of ambient particulate matter (PM). In this study, the water-soluble oxidative potential (OP) determined by dithiothreitol (DTT) consumption and intracellular reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) production was measured for SOA generated from the photooxidation of naphthalene in the presence of iron sulfate and ammonium sulfate seed particles. The measured intrinsic OP varied for aerosol formed using different initial naphthalene concentrations, however, no trends were observed between OP and bulk aerosol composition or seed type. For all experiments, aerosol generated in the presence of iron-containing seed induced higher ROS/RNS production compared to that formed in the presence of inorganic seed. This effect was primarily attributed to differences in aerosol carbon oxidation state [Formula: see text]. In the presence of iron, radical concentrations are elevated via iron redox cycling, resulting in more oxidized species. An exponential trend was also observed between ROS/RNS and [Formula: see text] for all naphthalene SOA, regardless of seed type or aerosol formation condition. This may have important implications as aerosol have an atmospheric lifetime of a week, over which [Formula: see text] increases due to continued photochemical aging, potentially resulting in more toxic aerosol.

  18. Aerosol and product yields from NO{sub 3} radical-initiated oxidation o/f selected monoterpenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallquist, M.; Ljungstroem, E. [Univ. of Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry; Waengberg, I. [Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Goeteborg (Sweden); Barnes, I.; Becker, K.H. [Bergische Univ. Gesamthochschule Wuppertal (Germany). Inst. fuer Physikalische Chemie

    1999-02-15

    Atmospheric transformation of monoterpenes gives products that may cause environmental consequences. In this work the NO{sub 3} radical-initiated oxidation of the monoterpenes {alpha}-pinene, {beta}-pinene, {Delta}{sup 3}-carene, and limonene has been investigated. All experiments were conducted in EUPHORE, the EUropean PHOto REactor facility in Valencia, Spain. The aerosol and product yields were measured in experiments with a conversion of the terpenes in the interval from 7 to 400 ppb. The lower end of the concentrations used are close to those measured in ambient pine forest air. Products were measured using long path in situ FTIR. Aerosol yields were obtained using a DMA-CPC system. The aerosol mass yields measured at low concentrations were <1, 10, 15, and 17% for {alpha}-pinene, {beta}-pinene, {Delta}{sup 3}-carene, and limonene, respectively. The total molar alkylnitrate yields were calculated to be 19, 61, 66, and 48%, and molar carbonyl compound yields were estimated to be 71, 14, 29, and 69% for {alpha}-pinene, {beta}-pinene, {Delta}{sup 3}-carene, and limonene, respectively. The aerosol yields were strongly dependent on the amounts of terpene reacted, whereas the nitrate and carbonyl yields do not depend on the amount of terpene converted. The principal carbonyl compound from {alpha}pinene oxidation was pinonaldehyde. In the case of limonene, endolim was tentatively identified and appears to be a major product. The reactions with {beta}-pinene and {Delta}{sup 3}-carene yielded 1--2% of nopinone and 2--3% caronaldehyde, respectively. The results show that it is not possible to use generalized descriptions of terpene chemistry, e.g., in mathematical models.

  19. OMI/Aura Aerosol product Multi-wavelength Algorithm Zoomed 1-Orbit L2 Swath 13x12km V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The reprocessed OMI/Aura Level-2 Zoomed Aerosol data product OMAEROZ at 13x12 km resolution has been made available from the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and...

  20. OMI/Aura Aerosol product Multi-wavelength Algorithm Zoomed 1-Orbit L2 Swath 13x12km V003 (OMAEROZ) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The reprocessed OMI/Aura Level-2 Zoomed Aerosol data product OMAEROZ at 13x12 km resolution have been made available from the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and...

  1. Development of Data-Assimilation-Quality MODIS and MISR Over Ocean Aerosol Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    such as carbon dioxide ( CO2 ), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), non-methane halocarbons (NMHC), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) (IPCC 2007). However...fine mode aerosols are located at Central and South America, South Africa, and the South Asian islands (e.g. Indonesia ) as a result of biomass burning...Carbonaceous Aerosol Emissions and Climate Impacts, Science 307, 1454 (2005); DOI: 10.1126/science.l 104359. Wang, J. and S. A. Christopher, (2003

  2. Ozone and secondary organic aerosol production by interaction between and organophosphorous pesticide and biogenic VOCs mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrás, Esther; Ródenas, Mila; Vera, Teresa; Muñoz, Amalia

    2017-04-01

    Pesticides are the chemical compounds most widely used worldwide, and their toxicological characteristics can have harmful effects on human health. The entry into the atmosphere of pesticides occurs during application or subsequent processes. Once they are emitted, they can be distributed in the gas phase or particulate phase. However, most of them are in both phases, since they are semi-volatile compounds. As with other organic compounds, pesticides' removal in the atmosphere can be mainly accomplished by wet or dry deposition, by photolysis or by reaction with hydroxyl radicals (OH), nitrate radicals (NO3) and ozone (O3) [1]. All these processes give rise to the formation of other products, which could become more harmful than the starting compounds. It is therefore necessary to know all these processes to estimate the impact of pesticides in the atmosphere. In addition, it is important to study how the pesticides interact with organic compounds naturally emitted by crops and their possible impact on the formation of secondary organic aerosols, ozone and other compounds. In this work, the gas phase atmospheric degradation of an organothiophosphate insecticide has been investigated at the large outdoor European Photoreactor (EUPHORE) in the presence of a biogenic compound mixture typical from orange trees emissions. Its photolysis has been studied under sunlight conditions, in the presence of different concentration ratios of chlorpyrifos and biogenic VOCs mixture and in the absence of initial inorganic seeds. Reaction with ozone has also been studied. Gaseous phase compounds were determined by a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR), Proton Transfer Reaction - Mass Spectrometry (PTRMS), Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS) and NOx, O3 and SO2 monitors. Aerosol mass concentration was measured using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and a tapered element oscillating monitor (TEOM). Chemical

  3. Tropospheric Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buseck, P. R.; Schwartz, S. E.

    2003-12-01

    within the atmosphere. Therefore, the few existing approaches to chemical transformation and aerosol evolution rest heavily on assumptions, for example, that particles are adequately represented as spheres and are homogeneous in composition as a function of particle size, although both assumptions are known to be inaccurate (e.g., Buseck and Pósfai, 1999; Buseck et al., 2002).This chapter provides an overview of the loading, geographical distribution, and chemical and physical properties of both natural and anthropogenic atmospheric aerosols and of the processes controlling their production, reaction, transport, and ultimate removal - the "life cycle" of tropospheric aerosols. More detailed treatment may be found in texts by Junge (1963), Friedlander (1977), Twomey (1977), Hinds (1982, 1999), Seinfeld and Pandis (1998), and Jacob (1999). We highlight here the effects of aerosols on climate. The effects of aerosols on health, visibility, heterogeneous chemistry, and ozone are examined by Heintzenberg et al. (2003), Jacob (2000), Kreidenweis (1995), Anastasio and Martin (2001), Pósfai and Molnár (2000), and Prospero et al. (2002). A detailed overview of tropospheric aerosols and their environmental effects is given by EPA (2002). Kaufman et al. (2002) provide an overview of satellite measurement of aerosols pertinent to climate change.

  4. Optimal A-Train Data Utilization: A Use Case of Aura OMI L2G and MERRA-2 Aerosol Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jian; Shen, Suhung; Wei, Jennifer; Meyer, David J.

    2017-01-01

    Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aboard NASA's Aura mission measures ozone column and profile, aerosols, clouds, surface UV irradiance, and the trace gases including NO2, SO2, HCHO, BrO, and OClO using UltraViolet electromagnetic spectrum (280 - 400 nm) with a daily global coverage and a pixel spatial resolution of 13 km × 24 km at nadir, and it's been one of the key instruments to study the Earth's atmospheric composition and chemistry. The second Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA-2) is NASA's atmospheric reanalysis using an upgraded version of Goddard Earth Observing System Model, version 5 (GEOS-5) data assimilation system. Compared to its predecessor MERRA, MERRA-2 is enhanced with more aspects of the Earth system among which is aerosol assimilation. When comparing between satellite pixel measurements and modeled grid data, how to properly handle counterpart pairing is critical considering their spatial and temporal variations. The comparison between satellite and model data by simply using Level 3 (L3) products may result biases due to lack of detailed temporal information. It has been preferred to inter-compare or implement satellite derived physical quantity (i.e., Level 2 (L2) Swath type) directly with/to model measurements with higher temporal and spatial resolution as possible. However, this has posed a challenge in the community to handle. Rather than directly handling the L2 or L3 data, there is a Level 2G (L2G) product conserving L2 pixel scientific data quality but in Grid type with the global coverage. In this presentation, we would like to demonstrate the optimal utilization of OMI L2G daily aerosol products by comparing with MERRA-2 hourly aerosol simulations matched well in both space and time.

  5. Determinan Perilaku Tes HIV pada Ibu Hamil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanik Setiyawati

    2015-04-01

    pengetahuan tentang HIV dan AIDS, persepsi kerentanan diri dan sikap ibu. Ada hubungan antara PITC, ketersediaan sumber informasi tentang HIV dan AIDS dari keluarga dan kader kesehatan dengan perilaku tes HIV pada ibu hamil. PITC merupakan variabel yang paling berpengaruh terhadap perilaku tes HIV pada ibu hamil. Determinant of HIV Testing Behavior among Pregnant Women Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS is one of highlighted issues in accomplishing Millenium Development Goals (MDGs target. Pregnant women with HIV will transmit the virus to their babies. HIV testing is such an opening gate of HIV status that is very important to be conducted on pregnant women. This study aimed to determine the determinant of HIV testing behaviour among pregnant women including education level, knowledge level, perception of selfvulnerability to be HIV-infected, attitudes, Provider-Initiated Testing and Counseling (PITC and availability of information (family and health workers. This study was cross sectional using a survey method. This study was conducted in Mantrijeron and Sleman Primary Health Care that had HIV testing facilities and executed prevention of mother to child transmission program. The subjects of this study were pregnant women visiting such primary health care on August up to October 2014, as much as 54 people. Data collecting used questionnaire. Analysed used were univariate, biviariate, and multivariate. The results showed no relation between educational level, knowledge level about HIV and AIDS, perception of self-vulnerability and attitudes of women.There was a relation between PITC, information source availability about HIV and AIDS from the family and health workers with HIV testing behaviour among pregnant women. PITC is the most influencing variable toward HIV testing behaviour among pregnant women.

  6. Comparison of ground based indices (API and AQI) with satellite based aerosol products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Sheng; Cao, Chun-Xiang; Singh, Ramesh P

    2014-08-01

    Air quality in mega cities is one of the major concerns due to serious health issues and its indirect impact to the climate. Among mega cities, Beijing city is considered as one of the densely populated cities with extremely poor air quality. The meteorological parameters (wind, surface temperature, air temperature and relative humidity) control the dynamics and dispersion of air pollution. China National Environmental Monitoring Centre (CNEMC) started air pollution index (API) as of 2000 to evaluate air quality, but over the years, it was felt that the air quality is not well represented by API. Recently, the Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) started using a new index "air quality index (AQI)" from January 2013. We have compared API and AQI with three different MODIS (MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging SpectroRadiometer, onboard the Terra/Aqua satellites) AOD (aerosol optical depth) products for ten months, January-October, 2013. The correlation between AQI and Aqua Deep Blue AOD was found to be reasonably good as compared with API, mainly due to inclusion of PM2.5 in the calculation of AQI. In addition, for every month, the correlation coefficient between AQI and Aqua Deep Blue AOD was found to be relatively higher in the month of February to May. According to the monthly average distribution of precipitation, temperature, and PM10, the air quality in the months of June-September was better as compared to those in the months of February-May. AQI and Aqua Deep Blue AOD show highly polluted days associated with dust event, representing true air quality of Beijing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Simulating Aqueous-Phase Isoprene-Epoxydiol (IEPOX) Secondary Organic Aerosol Production During the 2013 Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The lack of statistically robust relationships between IEPOX (isoprene epoxydiol)-derived SOA (IEPOX SOA) and aerosol liquid water and pH observed during the 2013 Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) emphasizes the importance of modeling the whole system to understand the co...

  8. Formation and occurrence of dimer esters of pinene oxidation products in atmospheric aerosols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, K.; Enggrob, Kirsten; King, Stephanie Michelle

    2013-01-01

    The formation of carboxylic acids and dimer esters from alpha-pinene oxidation was investigated in a smog chamber and in ambient aerosol samples collected during the Biosphere Effects on Aerosols and Photochemistry Experiment (BEARPEX). Chamber experiments of alpha-pinene ozonolysis in dry air...... precursors. However, the sampling time resolution precluded conclusive evidence regarding formation from gas- or particle-phase processes. CCN activities of the particles formed in the smog chamber displayed a modest variation during the course of experiments, with kappa values in the range 0......-diaterpenyl ester was found at higher concentrations under higher temperature conditions, both in the smog-chamber study and in ambient air aerosol samples, and exhibited much higher concentrations at night relative to day-time in line with previous results. We conclude that analysis of pinyl dimer esters provides...

  9. Aerosol typing - key information from aerosol studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mona, Lucia; Kahn, Ralph; Papagiannopoulos, Nikolaos; Holzer-Popp, Thomas; Pappalardo, Gelsomina

    2016-04-01

    Aerosol typing is a key source of aerosol information from ground-based and satellite-borne instruments. Depending on the specific measurement technique, aerosol typing can be used as input for retrievals or represents an output for other applications. Typically aerosol retrievals require some a priori or external aerosol type information. The accuracy of the derived aerosol products strongly depends on the reliability of these assumptions. Different sensors can make use of different aerosol type inputs. A critical review and harmonization of these procedures could significantly reduce related uncertainties. On the other hand, satellite measurements in recent years are providing valuable information about the global distribution of aerosol types, showing for example the main source regions and typical transport paths. Climatological studies of aerosol load at global and regional scales often rely on inferred aerosol type. There is still a high degree of inhomogeneity among satellite aerosol typing schemes, which makes the use different sensor datasets in a consistent way difficult. Knowledge of the 4d aerosol type distribution at these scales is essential for understanding the impact of different aerosol sources on climate, precipitation and air quality. All this information is needed for planning upcoming aerosol emissions policies. The exchange of expertise and the communication among satellite and ground-based measurement communities is fundamental for improving long-term dataset consistency, and for reducing aerosol type distribution uncertainties. Aerosol typing has been recognized as one of its high-priority activities of the AEROSAT (International Satellite Aerosol Science Network, http://aero-sat.org/) initiative. In the AEROSAT framework, a first critical review of aerosol typing procedures has been carried out. The review underlines the high heterogeneity in many aspects: approach, nomenclature, assumed number of components and parameters used for the

  10. Short overview on the definitions and significance of the late phase fission product aerosol/vapour source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, J.; Kajimoto, M.; Hashimoto, K.; Soda, K.

    1994-09-01

    Fission product once deposited on the surface structure or dissolved in the water in a containment may be resuspended and/or re-vaporized and/or re-entrained during the course of a severe accident. These phenomena are supposed to take place in several situations such as rapid pressure decrease due to the containment failure or containment venting, or hydrogen combustion in containment. The mechanism of resuspension, revaporization or re-entrainment is either hydraulic, thermal, chemical or both. These phenomena, generally referred as 'resuspension' would pose some safety concern on a long-term release of fission products to the environment. This late phase fission product aerosol/vapor release was placed as one of unresolved issues in the analysis of severe accident phenomena, since this additional fission product source at or near the time of containment failure might reduce the benefits gained by delayed failure of the containment. The present paper gives an overview on the definition and significance of the late phase aerosol/vapor fission product source in severe accident condition, at the light of the various experimental and analytical efforts conducted to understand these phenomena

  11. A critical examination of spatial biases between MODIS and MISR aerosol products – application for potential AERONET deployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. F. Eck

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET data are the primary benchmark for evaluating satellite-retrieved aerosol properties. However, despite its extensive coverage, the representativeness of the AERONET data is rarely discussed. Indeed, many studies have shown that satellite retrieval biases have a significant degree of spatial correlation that may be problematic for higher-level processes or inverse-emissions-modeling studies. To consider these issues and evaluate relative performance in regions of few surface observations, cross-comparisons between the Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD products of operational MODIS Collection 5.1 Dark Target (DT and operational MODIS Collection 5.1 Deep Blue (DB with MISR version 22 were conducted. Through such comparisons, we can observe coherent spatial features of the AOD bias while sidestepping the full analysis required for determining when or where either retrieval is more correct. We identify regions where MODIS to MISR AOD ratios were found to be above 1.4 and below 0.7. Regions where lower boundary condition uncertainty is likely to be a dominant factor include portions of Western North America, the Andes mountains, Saharan Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, and Central Asia. Similarly, microphysical biases may be an issue in South America, and specific parts of Southern Africa, India Asia, East Asia, and Indonesia. These results help identify high-priority locations for possible future deployments of both in situ and ground based remote sensing measurements. The Supplement includes a kml file.

  12. Production of N2O5and ClNO2through Nocturnal Processing of Biomass-Burning Aerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, Adam T; Goldberger, Lexie; Jahl, Lydia; Thornton, Joel; Sullivan, Ryan C

    2018-01-16

    Biomass burning is a source of both particulate chloride and nitrogen oxides, two important precursors for the formation of nitryl chloride (ClNO 2 ), a source of atmospheric oxidants that is poorly prescribed in atmospheric models. We investigated the ability of biomass burning to produce N 2 O 5 (g) and ClNO 2 (g) through nocturnal chemistry using authentic biomass-burning emissions in a smog chamber. There was a positive relationship between the amount of ClNO 2 formed and the total amount of particulate chloride emitted and with the chloride fraction of nonrefractory particle mass. In every fuel tested, dinitrogen pentoxide (N 2 O 5 ) formed quickly, following the addition of ozone to the smoke aerosol, and ClNO 2 (g) production promptly followed. At atmospherically relevant relative humidities, the particulate chloride in the biomass-burning aerosol was rapidly but incompletely displaced, likely by the nitric acid produced largely by the heterogeneous uptake of N 2 O 5 (g). Despite this chloride acid displacement, the biomass-burning aerosol still converted on the order of 10% of reacted N 2 O 5 (g) into ClNO 2 (g). These experiments directly confirm that biomass burning is a potentially significant source of atmospheric N 2 O 5 and ClNO 2 to the atmosphere.

  13. Investigating the composition of organic aerosol resulting from cyclohexene ozonolysis: low molecular weight and heterogeneous reaction products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Hamilton

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition of organic aerosol formed from the gas phase ozonolysis of cyclohexene has been investigated in a smog chamber experiment. Comprehensive gas chromatography with time of flight mass spectrometric detection was used to determine that dicarboxylic acids and corresponding cyclic anhydrides dominated the small gas phase reaction products found in aerosol sampled during the first hour after initial aerosol formation. Structural analysis of larger more polar molecules was performed using liquid chromatography with ion trap tandem mass spectrometry. This indicated that the majority of identified organic mass was in dimer form, built up from combinations of the most abundant small acid molecules, with frequent indication of the inclusion of adipic acid. Trimers and tetramers potentially formed via similar acid combinations were also observed in lower abundances. Tandem mass spectral data indicated dimers with either acid anhydride or ester functionalities as the linkage between monomers. High-resolution mass spectrometry identified the molecular formulae of the most abundant dimer species to be C10H16O6, C11H18O6, C10H14O8 and C11H16O8 and could be used in some cases to reduce uncertainty in exact chemical structure determination by tandem MS.

  14. Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds and subsequent photochemical production of secondary organic aerosol in mesocosm studies of temperate and tropical plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyche, K. P.; Ryan, A. C.; Hewitt, C. N.; Alfarra, M. R.; McFiggans, G.; Carr, T.; Monks, P. S.; Smallbone, K. L.; Capes, G.; Hamilton, J. F.; Pugh, T. A. M.; MacKenzie, A. R.

    2014-12-01

    Silver birch (Betula pendula) and three Southeast Asian tropical plant species (Ficus cyathistipula, Ficus benjamina and Caryota millis) from the pantropical fig and palm genera were grown in a purpose-built and environment-controlled whole-tree chamber. The volatile organic compounds emitted from these trees were characterised and fed into a linked photochemical reaction chamber where they underwent photo-oxidation under a range of controlled conditions (relative humidity or RH ~65-89%, volatile organic compound-to-NOx or VOC / NOx ~3-9 and NOx ~2 ppbV). Both the gas phase and the aerosol phase of the reaction chamber were monitored in detail using a comprehensive suite of on-line and off-line chemical and physical measurement techniques. Silver birch was found to be a high monoterpene and sesquiterpene but low isoprene emitter, and its emissions were observed to produce measurable amounts of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) via both nucleation and condensation onto pre-existing seed aerosol (YSOA 26-39%). In contrast, all three tropical species were found to be high isoprene emitters with trace emissions of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. In tropical plant experiments without seed aerosol there was no measurable SOA nucleation, but aerosol mass was shown to increase when seed aerosol was present. Although principally isoprene emitting, the aerosol mass produced from tropical fig was mostly consistent (i.e. in 78 out of 120 aerosol mass calculations using plausible parameter sets of various precursor specific yields) with condensation of photo-oxidation products of the minor volatile organic compounds (VOCs) co-emitted; no significant aerosol yield from condensation of isoprene oxidation products was required in the interpretations of the experimental results. This finding is in line with previous reports of organic aerosol loadings consistent with production from minor biogenic VOCs co-emitted with isoprene in principally isoprene-emitting landscapes in Southeast

  15. Aqueous aerosol SOA formation: impact on aerosol physical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Joseph L; Kim, Derek D; Schwier, Allison N; Li, Ruizhi; McNeill, V Faye

    2013-01-01

    Organic chemistry in aerosol water has recently been recognized as a potentially important source of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) material. This SOA material may be surface-active, therefore potentially affecting aerosol heterogeneous activity, ice nucleation, and CCN activity. Aqueous aerosol chemistry has also been shown to be a potential source of light-absorbing products ("brown carbon"). We present results on the formation of secondary organic aerosol material in aerosol water and the associated changes in aerosol physical properties from GAMMA (Gas-Aerosol Model for Mechanism Analysis), a photochemical box model with coupled gas and detailed aqueous aerosol chemistry. The detailed aerosol composition output from GAMMA was coupled with two recently developed modules for predicting a) aerosol surface tension and b) the UV-Vis absorption spectrum of the aerosol, based on our previous laboratory observations. The simulation results suggest that the formation of oligomers and organic acids in bulk aerosol water is unlikely to perturb aerosol surface tension significantly. Isoprene-derived organosulfates are formed in high concentrations in acidic aerosols under low-NO(x) conditions, but more experimental data are needed before the potential impact of these species on aerosol surface tension may be evaluated. Adsorption of surfactants from the gas phase may further suppress aerosol surface tension. Light absorption by aqueous aerosol SOA material is driven by dark glyoxal chemistry and is highest under high-NO(x) conditions, at high relative humidity, in the early morning hours. The wavelength dependence of the predicted absorption spectra is comparable to field observations and the predicted mass absorption efficiencies suggest that aqueous aerosol chemistry can be a significant source of aerosol brown carbon under urban conditions.

  16. TES/Aura L3 Methane Daily Gridded V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Daily atmospheric temperature and VMR for the atmospheric species are provided at 2 deg. lat. X 4 deg. long. spatial grids and at a subset of TES standard pressure...

  17. TES/Aura L2 Supplemental Profiles V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Input data to the TES radiance forward model. These are profiles generated from climatology databases to be used in the forward model calculation but are not...

  18. TES/Aura L3 CO Monthly Gridded V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Monthly averages of atmospheric temperature and VMR for atmospheric species are provided at 2 deg. lat. X 4 deg. long. spatial grids and at a subset of TES standard...

  19. TES/Aura L3 CO Monthly Gridded V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TES Aura L3 CO data consist of daily atmospheric temperature and VMR for the atmospheric species. Data are provided at 2 degree latitude X 4 degree longitude...

  20. Training Exit Survey (TES) Individual State and Tribe

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The TES Individual dataset contains information at the individual-level about the persons who attend a GLS funded training event. This dataset includes variables...

  1. TES/Aura L2 Atmospheric Temperatures Limb V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TES Level 2 data contain retrieved species (or temperature) profiles at the observation targets and the estimated errors. The geolocation, quality and other data...

  2. TES/Aura L2 Ammonia Lite Nadir V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TES Level 2 data contain retrieved species (or temperature) profiles at the observation targets and the estimated errors. The geolocation, quality and some other...

  3. TES/Aura L2 Methane Lite Nadir V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TES Level 2 data contain retrieved species (or temperature) profiles at the observation targets and the estimated errors. The geolocation, quality and some other...

  4. TES/Aura L3 CO Daily Gridded V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Daily atmospheric temperature and VMR for the atmospheric species are provided at 2 deg. lat. X 4 deg. long. spatial grids and at a subset of TES standard pressure...

  5. Simulated nutrient dissolution of Asian aerosols in various atmospheric waters: Potential links to marine primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingyan; Bi, Yanfeng; Zhang, Guosen; Liu, Sumei; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Zhaomeng; Ren, Jingling; Zhang, Guiling

    2017-09-01

    To probe the bioavailability and environmental mobility of aerosol nutrient elements (N, P, Si) in atmospheric water (rainwater, cloud and fog droplets), ten total suspended particulate (TSP) samples were collected at Fulong Mountain, Qingdao from prevailing air mass trajectory sources during four seasons. Then, a high time-resolution leaching experiment with simulated non-acidic atmospheric water (non-AAW, Milli-Q water, pH 5.5) and subsequently acidic atmospheric water (AAW, hydrochloric acid solution, pH 2) was performed. We found that regardless of the season or source, a monotonous decreasing pattern was observed in the dissolution of N, P and Si compounds in aerosols reacted with non-AAW, and the accumulated dissolved curves of P and Si fit a first-order kinetic model. No additional NO3- + NO2- dissolved out, while a small amount of NH4+ in Asian dust (AD) samples was released in AAW. The similar dissolution behaviour of P and Si from non-AAW to AAW can be explained by the Transition State Theory. The sources of aerosols related to various minerals were the natural reasons that affected the amounts of bioavailable phosphorus and silicon in aerosols (i.e., solubility), which can be explained by the dissolution rate constant of P and Si in non-AAW with lower values in mineral aerosols. The acid/particle ratio and particle/liquid ratio also have a large effect on the solubility of P and Si, which was implied by Pearson correlation analysis. Acid processing of aerosols may have great significance for marine areas with limited P and Si and post-acidification release increases of 1.1-10-fold for phosphorus and 1.2-29-fold for silicon. The decreasing mole ratio of P and Si in AAW indicates the possibility of shifting from a Si-limit to a P-limit in aerosols in the ocean, which promotes the growth of diatoms prior to other algal species.

  6. Interannual Variability of Dust and Ice in the Mars Atmosphere: Comparison of MRO Mars Climate Sounder Retrievals with MGS-TES Limb Sounding Retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, J. H.; McConnochie, T. H.; Kleinbohl, A.; Schofield, J. T.; Kass, D.; Heavens, N. G.; Benson, J.; McCleese, D. J.

    2011-01-01

    Dust and ice play important roles in Martian atmospheric dynamics on all time scales. Dust loading in particular exerts an important control on atmospheric temperatures and thereby on the strength of the atmospheric circulation in any given year. We present the first comparisons of MGS-TES aerosol opacity profiles with MRO-MCS aerosol opacity profiles. While the differences in vertical resolution are significant (a factor of 2), we find good agreement at particular seasons between nightside zonal average dust opacity profiles from the two instruments. Derived water ice opacities are likewise similar but show greater variability.

  7. Impact of Zr metal and coking reactions on the fission product aerosol release during MCCI [Molten Core Concrete Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.; Davis, R.E.; Khatib-Rahbar, M.

    1987-01-01

    During a core meltdown accident in a light water reactor, molten core materials (corium) could leave the reactor vessel and interact with concrete. In this paper, the impact of the zirconium content of the corium pool and the coking reaction on the release of fission products during Molten Core Concrete Interactions (MCCI) are quantified using CORCON/MOD2 and VANESA computer codes. Detailed calculations show that the total aerosol generation is proportional to the zirconium content of the corium pool. Among the twelve fission product groups treated by the VANESA code, CsI, CsO 2 and Nb 2 O 5 are completely released over the course of the core/concrete interaction, while an insignificant quantity of Mo, Ru and ZrO 2 are predicted to be released. The release of BaO, SrO and CeO 2 increase with increased Zr content, while the releases of Te and La 2 O 3 are relatively unaffected by the Zr content of the corium pool. The impact of the coking reaction on the radiological releases is estimated to be significant; while the impact of the coking reaction on the aerosol production is insignificant

  8. Applicability of the electrical low pressure impactor to size determination of aerosols attached to radon decay products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yuji; Tokonami, Shinji; Yamasaki, Keizo

    2005-06-01

    Aerosol size information is very important for the risk estimation of radon exposure. Recently, a cascade impactor called the electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI) was developed and commercialized. The impactor, which covers a wide diameter range from 0.03to10μm, gives number-weighted size distribution in real time by an electrical detection method. Prior to size measurements of the radon decay products being available, the effects of impaction substrates on size classification were studied. Tested substrate materials were stainless steel plate and aluminum foil, and those surfaces were as follows: (1) untreated, (2) covered with double sided adhesive tape, and (3) silicon grease coated. A large difference was observed among the measured size distributions. Compared with other sizing methods, it was found that the use of grease coated substrates did not interfere with the electrical measurements in the ELPI and also prevented particle rebound or redispersion. It was also confirmed that the coatings caused no damage to energy spectrum analysis in spite of the weak penetration power of radon's alpha ray. Using the ELPI allows size distribution data on aerosol number and activity to be independently determined for the same impactor sample. The ELPI will be useful for the size determination of radon decay products, and thus information on the attachment of radon decay products will be forthcoming.

  9. Secondary Organic Aerosol Production from Gasoline Vehicle Exhaust: Effects of Engine Technology, Cold Start, and Emission Certification Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunliang; Lambe, Andrew T; Saleh, Rawad; Saliba, Georges; Robinson, Allen L

    2018-02-06

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from dilute exhaust from 16 gasoline vehicles was investigated using a potential aerosol mass (PAM) oxidation flow reactor during chassis dynamometer testing using the cold-start unified cycle (UC). Ten vehicles were equipped with gasoline direct injection engines (GDI vehicles) and six with port fuel injection engines (PFI vehicles) certified to a wide range of emissions standards. We measured similar SOA production from GDI and PFI vehicles certified to the same emissions standard; less SOA production from vehicles certified to stricter emissions standards; and, after accounting for differences in gas-particle partitioning, similar effective SOA yields across different engine technologies and certification standards. Therefore the ongoing, dramatic shift from PFI to GDI vehicles in the United States should not alter the contribution of gasoline vehicles to ambient SOA and the natural replacement of older vehicles with newer ones certified to stricter emissions standards should reduce atmospheric SOA levels. Compared to hot operations, cold-start exhaust had lower effective SOA yields, but still contributed more SOA overall because of substantially higher organic gas emissions. We demonstrate that the PAM reactor can be used as a screening tool for vehicle SOA production by carefully accounting for the effects of the large variations in emission rates.

  10. Are BiTEs the "missing link" in cancer therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryadevara, Carter M; Gedeon, Patrick C; Sanchez-Perez, Luis; Verla, Terence; Alvarez-Breckenridge, Christopher; Choi, Bryan D; Fecci, Peter E; Sampson, John H

    2015-06-01

    Conventional treatment for cancer routinely includes surgical resection and some combination of chemotherapy and radiation. These approaches are frequently accompanied by unintended and highly toxic collateral damage to healthy tissues, which are offset by only marginal prognostic improvements in patients with advanced cancers. This unfortunate balance has driven the development of novel therapies that aim to target tumors both safely and efficiently. Over the past decade, mounting evidence has supported the therapeutic utility of T-cell-centered cancer immunotherapy, which, in its various iterations, has been shown capable of eliciting highly precise and robust antitumor responses both in animal models and human trials. The identification of tumor-specific targets has further fueled a growing interest in T-cell therapies given their potential to circumvent the non-specific nature of traditional treatments. Of the several strategies geared toward achieving T-cell recognition of tumor, bispecific antibodies (bsAbs) represent a novel class of biologics that have garnered enthusiasm in recent years due to their versatility, specificity, safety, cost, and ease of production. Bispecific T-cell Engagers (BiTEs) are a subclass of bsAbs that are specific for CD3 on one arm and a tumor antigen on the second. As such, BiTEs function by recruiting and activating polyclonal populations of T-cells at tumor sites, and do so without the need for co-stimulation or conventional MHC recognition. Blinatumomab, a well-characterized BiTE, has emerged as a promising recombinant bscCD19×CD3 construct that has demonstrated remarkable antitumor activity in patients with B-cell malignancies. This clinical success has resulted in the rapid extension of BiTE technology against a greater repertoire of tumor antigens and the recent US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) accelerated approval of blinatumomab for the treatment of a rare form of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). In this review

  11. Production Mechanisms, Number Concentration, Size Distribution. Chemical Composition, and Optical Properties of Sea Spray Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meskhidze, Nicholas; Petters, Markus; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Bates. Tim; O'Dowd, Colin; Reid, Jeff; Lewis, Ernie R.; Gantt, Brett; Anguelova, Magdalena D.; Bhave, Prakash V.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Over forty scientists from six countries convened in Raleigh, NC on June 4-6 2012 to review the status and prospects of sea spray aerosol research. Participants were researchers from the oceanography and atmospheric science communities, including academia, private industry, and government agencies. The recommendations from the working groups are summarized in a science prioritization matrix that is meant to prioritize the research agenda and identify areas of investigation by the magnitude of their impact on proposed science questions. Str

  12. Validation of SeaWiFS and MODIS Aqua/Terra aerosol products in coastal regions of European marginal seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Mélin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aerosol products associated with the ocean colour missions SeaWiFS andMODIS (both Aqua and Terra are assessed with AERONET field measurementscollected in four European marginal seas for which fairly large uncertainties inocean colour in-water products have been documented: the northern Adriatic, theBaltic, Black and North Seas. On average, more than 500 match-ups are foundfor each basin and satellite mission, showing an overall consistency of validationstatistics across the three missions. The median absolute relative differencebetween satellite and field values of aerosol optical thickness τaat 443 nm varies from 12% to 15% for the three missions at the northernAdriatic and Black Sea sites, and from 13% to 26% for the Baltic and North Sea sites. It is in the interval 16-31% for the near-infrared band. The spectral shape of τaiswell reproduced with a median bias of the Ängström exponent varyingbetween -15% and +14%, which represents a clear improvement with respectto previous versions of the atmospheric correction scheme. These results showthat the uncertainty associated with τa in the considered coastalwaters of the European marginal seas is comparable to global validationstatistics

  13. A study of reactions of sulfur dioxide in the gaseous phase. Production and evolution of aerosols resulting from these reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulaud, Denis

    1977-01-01

    The reactions of sulfur dioxide in the gaseous phase with atmospheric pollutants (NO x ; hydrocarbons) were studied. Experiments showed that NO 2 contribution was significant and suggested that SO 2 transformation into sulfuric acid and sulfates might occur through oxidising agents mainly hydroxyl (OH) and hydro-peroxyl (HO 2 ) radicals. The production and evolution of the resulting aerosols was also studied. It was demonstrated that the effect of water vapour on particle production was significant and that primary embryos were formed from the hetero-molecular homogeneous nucleation acting on water vapour and very likely on sulfuric acid. There was a semi-quantitative agreement between our experimental results and some theoretical investigations on nucleation rate of the system (H 2 O - H 2 SO 4 ). The subsequent growth of particles was studied in a simulation chamber. Finally a model of sulfuric acid vapour evolution in presence of atmospheric aerosols made it possible to extend the previous results as far as possible to the case of atmosphere and then to compare the importance of homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation of the vapours according to atmospheric conditions. (author) [fr

  14. Effect of MODIS Terra Radiometric Calibration Improvements on Collection 6 Deep Blue Aerosol Products: Validation and Terra/Aqua Consistency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayer, A. M.; Hsu, N. C.; Bettenhausen, C.; Jeong, M.-J.; Meister, G.

    2015-01-01

    The Deep Blue (DB) algorithm's primary data product is midvisible aerosol optical depth (AOD). DB applied to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measurements provides a data record since early 2000 for MODIS Terra and mid-2002 for MODIS Aqua. In the previous data version (Collection 5, C5), DB production from Terra was halted in 2007 due to sensor degradation; the new Collection 6 (C6) has both improved science algorithms and sensor radiometric calibration. This includes additional calibration corrections developed by the Ocean Biology Processing Group to address MODIS Terra's gain, polarization sensitivity, and detector response versus scan angle, meaning DB can now be applied to the whole Terra record. Through validation with Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data, it is shown that the C6 DB Terra AOD quality is stable throughout the mission to date. Compared to the C5 calibration, in recent years the RMS error compared to AERONET is smaller by approximately 0.04 over bright (e.g., desert) and approximately 0.01-0.02 over darker (e.g., vegetated) land surfaces, and the fraction of points in agreement with AERONET within expected retrieval uncertainty higher by approximately 10% and approximately 5%, respectively. Comparisons to the Aqua C6 time series reveal a high level of correspondence between the two MODIS DB data records, with a small positive (Terra-Aqua) average AOD offset Terra DB AOD data remain stable (to better than 0.01 AOD) throughout the mission to date, suitable for quantitative scientific analyses.

  15. Fission product removal by containment spray - influence of the distance between the drops on the aerosol collection efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauchet, N.

    2000-01-01

    This work is within the framework of the studies that are conducted at the IPSN concerning the loss of coolant in a nuclear reactor. During this kind of accident, a spray system in the reactor containment induces the scrubbing of fission products in the atmosphere, and allows the decrease of their concentration in the containment. Our objective is to study the influence of the distance between the drops of their aerosol collection efficiency. This is not taken into account in the existing models. We stimulate the various aerosol collection mechanisms with one free falling drop using computational fluid dynamics codes. The mechanisms are: deposition by brownian diffusion, impaction and interception of the particles by the drop, and collection of particles in the presence of steam condensation at the surface of the drop. These phenomena are studied for drops ranging in diameter from 100 to 700 micrometers, falling in a saturated air-steam mixture whose temperature varies between 20 and 140 degrees Celsius, and total pressure varies between 1 and 5 bars. We validate these models with results available in the literature and with experimental results CARAIDAS. Then we apply these models to the case of three aligned drops, which constitutes a case for which the proximity of the drops has a strong influence on the collection of aerosols. While varying the distance between the drop from 5 to 25 drop diameters, we can highlight the modification of the collection efficiency of each mechanism related to the disturbance of the velocity and concentration fields in the vicinity of the drops. We note that the strongest variations of efficiency observed are in the field of impaction, and that the steam condensation at the surface of the drops limits the decrease. (authors)

  16. A Big Data Approach for Situation-Aware estimation, correction and prediction of aerosol effects, based on MODIS Joint Atmosphere product (collection 6) time series data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A. K.; Toshniwal, D.

    2017-12-01

    The MODIS Joint Atmosphere product, MODATML2 and MYDATML2 L2/3 provided by LAADS DAAC (Level-1 and Atmosphere Archive & Distribution System Distributed Active Archive Center) re-sampled from medium resolution MODIS Terra /Aqua Satellites data at 5km scale, contains Cloud Reflectance, Cloud Top Temperature, Water Vapor, Aerosol Optical Depth/Thickness, Humidity data. These re-sampled data, when used for deriving climatic effects of aerosols (particularly in case of cooling effect) still exposes limitations in presence of uncertainty measures in atmospheric artifacts such as aerosol, cloud, cirrus cloud etc. The effect of uncertainty measures in these artifacts imposes an important challenge for estimation of aerosol effects, adequately affecting precise regional weather modeling and predictions: Forecasting and recommendation applications developed largely depend on these short-term local conditions (e.g. City/Locality based recommendations to citizens/farmers based on local weather models). Our approach inculcates artificial intelligence technique for representing heterogeneous data(satellite data along with air quality data from local weather stations (i.e. in situ data)) to learn, correct and predict aerosol effects in the presence of cloud and other atmospheric artifacts, defusing Spatio-temporal correlations and regressions. The Big Data process pipeline consisting correlation and regression techniques developed on Apache Spark platform can easily scale for large data sets including many tiles (scenes) and over widened time-scale. Keywords: Climatic Effects of Aerosols, Situation-Aware, Big Data, Apache Spark, MODIS Terra /Aqua, Time Series

  17. Study of the attachment between the decay products of 220Rn and monodisperse aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, J.

    1974-10-01

    Attachment can be described in terms of one of two theories, viz. the diffusion theory or the kinetic theory. The diffusion theory is based on the transport of radioactive atoms by means of the process of diffusion. An attachment proportional to the radius R of the aerosol particles for the size range used in these experiments, is predicted by this theory. The kinetic theory is based on intermolecular collisions as described by the kinetic theory of gasses. This theory predicts an attachment that is proportional to R 2 . Both these relationships have been established by other researchers. However, the author believes that they have not taken several important parameters into consideration in their experiments, several such parameters were also not properly controlled in their experiments. In the present investigation the attachment flux for the attachment of thorium B atoms (of an approximate concentration of 4x10 3 atoms/cm 3 ) to monodisperes polystyrene aerosols (of a radius from 0,5 to 2,5 μm) in the concentration range 1-30 particles/cm 3 , was directly measured. Steps were taken to prevent the formation of radiolytic nuclei, and all the relevant parameters were measured during the experiments. The attachment between the radioactive atoms and the aerosols was found to be directly proportional to the particle concentration N, as well as to R 2 . The sticking probability of atoms to a particle was found to be of the order of 0,1. The results show that the attachment was found; this was attributed to the attachment of radioactive atoms to agglomerate vapour molecules

  18. Production of labelled particles for the simulation of aerosols from nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kientzel, J.M.; Gauchet, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    A ferric oxide and mixed Fe, Al, Mg oxides were labelled by radionuclides with various biological behaviour ( 140 La, 131 I, 134 Cs). Fine powders (particle size distribution 1μm) were thus obtained that were used for the emission of aerosols by fluidization. The carrier solubility and the labelling lability were studied. The carrier solubility was undirectly related to the oxide formation temperature. Finally, the internal labelling of the substrate hardly affected the solubility of the chemical forms of the radionuclides investigated [fr

  19. Chemical vs. herbal formulations as pre-procedural mouth rinses to combat aerosol production: A randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koduganti Rekha Rani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Disease transmission and barrier techniques are the key concerns during ultrasonic instrumentation as this procedure has the hazard of aerosol production which has a multitude of deleterious effects on the body. The aerosol produced can affect both the patient and the clinician. The aim of this study was to assess the importance of pre-procedural rinsing before scaling by ultrasonic instrumentation and to compare the efficacy of commercially available herbal mouth rinse and a Chlorhexidine gluconate mouth rinse with a control group. The study was conducted from 1 st February to 15 th April 2012 in a tertiary referral care hospital. The study was approved by the institutional ethical committee. This was a randomized single blinded interventional study, where in 36 patients equally divided into three groups participated. Material and Methods: Thirty six patients were recruited in this study aged between 18-35 years. All patients had plaque index scores between1.5-3.0, and were categorized into three groups. Patients with systemic diseases and on antibiotic therapy were excluded. Group A or control group underwent scaling with water as pre-procedural rinse, Group B used 20 ml of 0.2% Chlorhexidine and group C were administered 18 ml of a herbal pre-procedural rinse. Aerosol splatter produced during the procedure were collected on blood agar plates and sent for microbiologic analysis for the assessment of bacterial Colony Forming Units (CFUs. The mean CFUs and standard deviation (SD for each group were measured. Post hoc test was used to compare the differences between three groups, Control (A Chlorhexidine (B and Herbal (C. Results: The mean Colony Forming Units (CFUs for control group was 114.50, Chlorhexidine group was 56.75 and herbal rinse group was 47.38. Conclusion: Pre-procedural rinsing was found to be effective in reducing aerosol contamination during ultrasonic scaling though no statistically significant difference was found

  20. An Investigation of the Longitudinal Proximity Effect in Superconducting and Normal Metal TES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ari-David; Chervenak, James A.; Jethava, Nikhil S.; Kletetschka, Gunther; Mikula, Vilem

    2010-01-01

    As the TES volume and (effective) Tc become very small - for volume > the TES Tc, connected at opposite ends of TES approaches zero, superconductivity is induced parallel to the current flow, or longitudinally, and results in a much higher effective TES Te. Here we present effective Te measurements of Mo/Au TES bounded by Nb leads as a function of L which ranges between 4 and 36 micrometer. We observe that the effective Te is suppressed for current density of order 10(exp -6) A/sq micrometers. We also explore the possibility of using a normal metal TES.

  1. NACOWA experiments on LMFBR cover gas aerosols, heat transfer, and fission product enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minges, J.; Schuetz, W.

    1993-12-01

    Fifteen different NACOWA test series were carried out. The following items were investigated: sodium mass concentration in the cover gas, sodium aerosol particle size, radiative heat transfer across the cover gas, total heat transfer across the cover gas, sodium deposition on the cover plate, temperature profiles across the cover gas, phenomena if the argon cover gas is replaced by helium, enrichment of cesium, iodine, and zinc in the aerosol and in the deposits. The conditions were mainly related to the design parameters of the EFR. According to the first consistent design, a pool temperature of 545 C and a roof temperature of only 120 C were foreseen at a cover gas height of 85 cm. The experiments were carried out in a stainless steel test vessel of 0.6 m diameter and 1.14 m height. Pool temperature (up to 545 C), cover gas height (12.5 cm, 33 cm, and others), and roof temperature (from 110 C to 450 C) were the main parameters. (orig./HP) [de

  2. Application of the CALIOP Layer Product to Evaluate the Vertical Distribution of Aerosols Estimated by Global Models: AeroCom Phase I Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffi, Brigitte; Schulz, Michael; Breon, Francois-Marie; Griesfeller, Jan; Winker, David; Balkanski, Yves; Bauer, Susanne; Berntsen, Terje; Chin, Mian; Collins, William D.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) layer product is used for a multimodel evaluation of the vertical distribution of aerosols. Annual and seasonal aerosol extinction profiles are analyzed over 13 sub-continental regions representative of industrial, dust, and biomass burning pollution, from CALIOP 2007-2009 observations and from AeroCom (Aerosol Comparisons between Observations and Models) 2000 simulations. An extinction mean height diagnostic (Z-alpha) is defined to quantitatively assess the models' performance. It is calculated over the 0-6 km and 0-10 km altitude ranges by weighting the altitude of each 100 m altitude layer by its aerosol extinction coefficient. The mean extinction profiles derived from CALIOP layer products provide consistent regional and seasonal specificities and a low inter-annual variability. While the outputs from most models are significantly correlated with the observed Z-alpha climatologies, some do better than others, and 2 of the 12 models perform particularly well in all seasons. Over industrial and maritime regions, most models show higher Z-alpha than observed by CALIOP, whereas over the African and Chinese dust source regions, Z-alpha is underestimated during Northern Hemisphere Spring and Summer. The positive model bias in Z-alpha is mainly due to an overestimate of the extinction above 6 km. Potential CALIOP and model limitations, and methodological factors that might contribute to the differences are discussed.

  3. Proteomic analysis of Toxocara canis excretory and secretory (TES) proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperotto, Rita Leal; Kremer, Frederico Schmitt; Aires Berne, Maria Elisabeth; Costa de Avila, Luciana F; da Silva Pinto, Luciano; Monteiro, Karina Mariante; Caumo, Karin Silva; Ferreira, Henrique Bunselmeyer; Berne, Natália; Borsuk, Sibele

    2017-01-01

    Toxocariasis is a neglected disease, and its main etiological agent is the nematode Toxocara canis. Serological diagnosis is performed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using T. canis excretory and secretory (TES) antigens produced by in vitro cultivation of larvae. Identification of TES proteins can be useful for the development of new diagnostic strategies since few TES components have been described so far. Herein, we report the results obtained by proteomic analysis of TES proteins using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) approach. TES fractions were separated by one-dimensional SDS-PAGE and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The MS/MS spectra were compared with a database of protein sequences deduced from the genome sequence of T. canis, and a total of 19 proteins were identified. Classification according to the signal peptide prediction using the SignalP server showed that seven of the identified proteins were extracellular, 10 had cytoplasmic or nuclear localization, while the subcellular localization of two proteins was unknown. Analysis of molecular functions by BLAST2GO showed that the majority of the gene ontology (GO) terms associated with the proteins present in the TES sample were associated with binding functions, including but not limited to protein binding (GO:0005515), inorganic ion binding (GO:0043167), and organic cyclic compound binding (GO:0097159). This study provides additional information about the exoproteome of T. canis, which can lead to the development of new strategies for diagnostics or vaccination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Lightning NOx emissions over the USA constrained by TES ozone observations and the GEOS-Chem model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. Pickering

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Improved estimates of NOx from lightning sources are required to understand tropospheric NOx and ozone distributions, the oxidising capacity of the troposphere and corresponding feedbacks between chemistry and climate change. In this paper, we report new satellite ozone observations from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES instrument that can be used to test and constrain the parameterization of the lightning source of NOx in global models. Using the National Lightning Detection (NLDN and the Long Range Lightning Detection Network (LRLDN data as well as the HYPSLIT transport and dispersion model, we show that TES provides direct observations of ozone enhanced layers downwind of convective events over the USA in July 2006. We find that the GEOS-Chem global chemistry-transport model with a parameterization based on cloud top height, scaled regionally and monthly to OTD/LIS (Optical Transient Detector/Lightning Imaging Sensor climatology, captures the ozone enhancements seen by TES. We show that the model's ability to reproduce the location of the enhancements is due to the fact that this model reproduces the pattern of the convective events occurrence on a daily basis during the summer of 2006 over the USA, even though it does not well represent the relative distribution of lightning intensities. However, this model with a value of 6 Tg N/yr for the lightning source (i.e.: with a mean production of 260 moles NO/Flash over the USA in summer underestimates the intensities of the ozone enhancements seen by TES. By imposing a production of 520 moles NO/Flash for lightning occurring in midlatitudes, which better agrees with the values proposed by the most recent studies, we decrease the bias between TES and GEOS-Chem ozone over the USA in July 2006 by 40%. However, our conclusion on the strength of the lightning source of NOx is limited by the fact that the contribution from the stratosphere is underestimated in the GEOS-Chem simulations.

  5. Ballistic projectile metallurgical issues and fundamentals: Aerosol production in rod penetration erosion and erosion phenomena associated with railgun development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Brenda I.

    The issue is derived from ballistic erosion as it relates to nanoparticle production and respiration of these particles as a health concern ballistic erosion and ballistic erosion as it relates to railgun performance. A common thread between these two issues is dynamic recrystallization (DRX). DRX has been demonstrated to be the dominant mechanism for solid-state flow associated with ballistic projectile/target penetration and interaction, friction-stir welding phenomena, and other high-strain rate deformation phenomena. Aerosol particulates collected on filters from ballistic penetration and erosion events for W-Ni-Co and W-Ni-Fe kinetic energy rod projectiles penetrating steel target plates were observed to be highly cytotoxic after 48 h exposure to human epithelial A549 lung cells. The aerosol consisted of micron-size Fe particulates and nanoparticulate aggregates consisting of W, Ni or W, Co and some Fe, characterized by SEM and TEM, and using energy-dispersive (X-ray) spectrometry by (EDS) for elemental analysis and mapping. Cytotoxic assays of micron and nano-size, manufactured metal particulates of W, Ni, Fe, and Co demonstrated that only the nanoparticulate elements demonstrated measurable cytotoxicity. Aluminum projectile (or armature) tribomaterial deposition onto copper conducting rails in an experimental solid-armature railgun system was observed, by optical, SEM and TEM. The extreme deformation at the aluminum/copper interface creates a solid-state flow regime by dynamic recrystallization which also leads to the erosion-product deposition. Melting of the low-temperature aluminum deposit also contributes to the rail damage and degradation of electromagnetic behavior. The creation of nano-grains by dynamic recrystallization allows for mixing at the aluminum/copper interface, and there is no evidence for traditional alloying.

  6. TES/Aura L2 H2O Limb V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TES Aura L2 H2O data consist of information for one molecular species for an entire Global Survey or Special Observation. TES Level 2 data contain retrieved...

  7. TES/Aura L2 H2O Lite Nadir V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TES Aura L2 H2O data consist of information for one molecular species for an entire Global Survey or Special Observation. TES Level 2 data contain retrieved...

  8. TES/Aura L2 H2O Limb Special Observation V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TES Aura L2 H2O data consist of information for one molecular species for an entire Global Survey or Special Observation. TES Level 2 data contain retrieved...

  9. TES/Aura L2 O3 Limb Special Observation V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TES Aura L2 O3 data consist of information for one molecular species for an entire Global Survey or Special Observation. TES Level 2 data contain retrieved...

  10. TES/Aura L2 HDO Limb Special Observation V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TES Aura L2 HDO data consist of information for one molecular species for an entire Global Survey or Special Observation. TES Level 2 data contain retrieved...

  11. TES/Aura L2 NO2 Limb Special Observation V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TES Aura L2 NO2 data consist of information for one molecular species for an entire Global Survey or Special Observation. TES Level 2 data contain retrieved...

  12. TES/Aura L2 HNO3 Limb Special Observation V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TES Aura L2 HNO3 data consist of information for one molecular species for an entire Global Survey or Special Observation. TES Level 2 data contain retrieved...

  13. TES/Aura L2 Formic Acid Lite Nadir V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TES Aura L2 Formic Acid data consist of information for one molecular species for an entire Global Survey or Special Observation. TES Level 2 data contain...

  14. Novel Magnetically-Tuned TES For Imaging X-ray Spectroscopy Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The magnetically-tuned TES (or MTES) takes characteristics that we have only recently come to understand are present and important in all state-of-the-art TES...

  15. On Markovian traffic with applications to TES processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Jagerman

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Markov processes are an important ingredient in a variety of stochastic applications. Notable instances include queueing systems and traffic processes offered to them. This paper is concerned with Markovian traffic, i.e., traffic processes whose inter-arrival times (separating the time points of discrete arrivals form a real-valued Markov chain. As such this paper aims to extend the classical results of renewal traffic, where interarrival times are assumed to be independent, identically distributed. Following traditional renewal theory, three functions are addressed: the probability of the number of arrivals in a given interval, the corresponding mean number, and the probability of the times of future arrivals. The paper derives integral equations for these functions in the transform domain. These are then specialized to a subclass, TES+, of a versatile class of random sequences, called TES (Transform-Expand-Sample, consisting of marginally uniform autoregressive schemes with modulo-1 reduction, followed by various transformations. TES models are designed to simultaneously capture both first-order and second-order statistics of empirical records, and consequently can produce high-fidelity models. Two theoretical solutions for TES+ traffic functions are derived: an operator-based solution and a matric solution, both in the transform domain. A special case, permitting the conversion of the integral equations to differential equations, is illustrated and solved. Finally, the results are applied to obtain instructive closed-form representations for two measures of traffic burstiness: peakedness and index of dispersion, elucidating the relationship between them.

  16. Frequency-domain multiplexing of TES microcalorimeter array with CABBAGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyomoto, N.; Ichitsubo, T.; Mitsuda, K.; Yamasaki, N.Y.; Fujimoto, R.; Oshima, T.; Futamoto, K.; Takei, Y.; Fujimori, T.; Yoshida, K.; Ishisaki, Y.; Morita, U.; Koga, T.; Shinozaki, K.; Sato, K.; Takai, N.; Ohashi, T.; Miyazaki, T.; Nakayama, S.; Tanaka, K.; Morooka, T.; Chinone, K.

    2004-01-01

    Properties of Transition-Edge Sensor (TES) microcalorimeters operated with AC bias are studied utilizing the calorimeter Wheatstone bridge circuit called Calorimeter Bridge Biased by an AC Generator (CABBAGE). The CABBAGE eliminates the AC carrier significantly, thus enables us to study the AC responses of the TES with high sensitivity. We tested two kinds of TES devices operating at 110 and 440 mK, respectively. With the 110 mK device biased with 25 kHz, an energy resolution of 28 eV is obtained for Mn Kα line. On the other hand, we multiplexed the signals from two 440 mK device biased with 50 and 20 kHz, respectively, and obtained 167 and 271 eV energy resolutions. Even at the balance point of the bridge, AC signal did not disappear and odd-order harmonics were observed. They are considered to arise from the current dependence of the TES resistance, which is characterized by β≡d log R/d log I. Numerical solution for the CABBAGE response can reproduce the experimental results well if β=0.24±0.02. Since the harmonics may cause severe problem in the SQUID operation even after attenuated by a band-pass filter, especially at high bias frequency operation such as several hundred kHz, it is important to make β small

  17. Organic aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penner, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    Organic aerosols scatter solar radiation. They may also either enhance or decrease concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei. This paper summarizes observed concentrations of aerosols in remote continental and marine locations and provides estimates for the sources of organic aerosol matter. The anthropogenic sources of organic aerosols may be as large as the anthropogenic sources of sulfate aerosols, implying a similar magnitude of direct forcing of climate. The source estimates are highly uncertain and subject to revision in the future. A slow secondary source of organic aerosols of unknown origin may contribute to the observed oceanic concentrations. The role of organic aerosols acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) is described and it is concluded that they may either enhance or decrease the ability of anthropogenic sulfate aerosols to act as CCN

  18. On the volatility and production mechanisms of newly formed nitrate and water soluble organic aerosol in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Hennigan

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of atmospheric gases and fine particle chemistry were made in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA at a site ~30 km down wind of the city center. Ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3 dominated the inorganic aerosol fraction and showed a distinct diurnal signature characterized by rapid morning production and a rapid mid-day concentration decrease. Between the hours of 08:00–12:45, particulate water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC concentrations increased and decreased in a manner consistent with that of NO3, and the two were highly correlated (R2=0.88 during this time. A box model was used to analyze these behaviors and showed that, for both NO3 and WSOC, the concentration increase was caused primarily (~75–85% by secondary formation, with a smaller contribution (~15–25% from the entrainment of air from the free troposphere. For NO3, a majority (~60% of the midday concentration decrease was caused by dilution from boundary layer expansion, though a significant fraction (~40% of the NO3 loss was due to particle evaporation. The WSOC concentration decrease was due largely to dilution (~75%, but volatilization did have a meaningful impact (~25% on the decrease, as well. The results provide an estimate of ambient SOA evaporation losses and suggest that a significant fraction (~35% of the fresh MCMA secondary organic aerosol (SOA measured at the surface volatilized.

  19. Human "Footprints" in the Atmosphere: Anthropogenic Evidence in MOPITT and TES Atmospheric Chemistry Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, L. A.

    2005-05-01

    The Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) experiment was launched on board the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra Satellite in December 1999 and has accumulated more than five years of global carbon monoxide measurements. Available MOPITT data products include Level 1 radiances and Level 2 derived CO total column and mixing ratio profiles at a horizontal resolution of about 22 km at nadir and a vertical resolution of about 4 km. The primary sources of CO are biomass burning and industrial pollution, making CO an indicator of the anthropogenic influence on the atmosphere. MOPITT is the first instrument to make long-term global measurements of this species and is providing a better understanding of its transport, sources and sinks. A number of visual results will be included in this presentation. The Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) instrument is a high-resolution imaging infrared Fourier-transform spectrometer that operates in both nadir and limb-sounding modes. TES is flying aboard Aura, the third of NASA's EOS satellites, which was launched in July 2004. Tropospheric ozone is a pollutant and a greenhouse gas. It has both natural and anthropogenic sources. TES makes global 3-D measurements of ozone and other chemical species involved in its formation and destruction, including water vapor, methane, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and nitric acid. The spatial resolution is 0.5 x 5 km in the nadir and 2.3 x 23 km in the limb. Level 1B spectral radiance data are currently available, and the Level 2 species data products will be publicly available in Summer 2005. Preliminary visual results will be shown. These data are available free of charge from the NASA Langley Atmospheric Sciences Data Center. Additional information can be found at http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov.

  20. Aerosols from biomass combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nussbaumer, T.

    2001-07-01

    This report is the proceedings of a seminar on biomass combustion and aerosol production organised jointly by the International Energy Agency's (IEA) Task 32 on bio energy and the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE). This collection of 16 papers discusses the production of aerosols and fine particles by the burning of biomass and their effects. Expert knowledge on the environmental impact of aerosols, formation mechanisms, measurement technologies, methods of analysis and measures to be taken to reduce such emissions is presented. The seminar, visited by 50 participants from 11 countries, shows, according to the authors, that the reduction of aerosol emissions resulting from biomass combustion will remain a challenge for the future.

  1. Atmospheric aerosol system: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prospero, J.M.; Charlson, R.J.; Mohnen, V.; Jaenicke, R.; Delany, A.C.; Moyers, J.; Zoller, W.; Rahn, K.

    1983-01-01

    Aerosols could play a critical role in many processes which impact on our lives either indirectly (e.g., climate) or directly (e.g., health). However, our ability to assess these possible impacts is constrained by our limited knowledge of the physical and chemical properties of aerosols, both anthropogenic and natural. This deficiency is attributable in part to the fact that aerosols are the end product of a vast array of chemical and physical processes. Consequently, the properties of the aerosol can exhibit a great deal of variability in both time and space. Furthermore, most aerosol studies have focused on measurements of a single aerosol characteristic such as composition or size distribution. Such information is generally not useful for the assessment of impacts because the degree of impact may depend on the integral properties of the aerosol, for example, the aerosol composition as a function of particle size. In this overview we discuss recent work on atmospheric aerosols that illustrates the complex nature of the aerosol chemical and physical system, and we suggest strategies for future research. A major conclusion is that man has had a great impact on the global budgets of certain species, especially sulfur and nitrogen, that play a dominant role in the atmospheric aerosol system. These changes could conceivably affect climate. Large-scale impacts are implied because it has recently been demonstrated that natural and pollutant aerosol episodes can be propagated over great distances. However, at present there is no evidence linking anthropogenic activities with a persistent increase in aerosol concentrations on a global scale. A major problem in assessing man's impact on the atmospheric aerosol system and on global budgets is the absence of aerosol measurements in remote marine and continental areas

  2. Compact SAW aerosol generator

    OpenAIRE

    Winkler, A.; Harazim, S.; Collins, D.J.; Br?nig, R.; Schmidt, H.; Menzel, S.B.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we discuss and demonstrate the principle features of surface acoustic wave (SAW) aerosol generation, based on the properties of the fluid supply, the acoustic wave field and the acoustowetting phenomena. Furthermore, we demonstrate a compact SAW-based aerosol generator amenable to mass production fabricated using simple techniques including photolithography, computerized numerical control (CNC) milling and printed circuit board (PCB) manufacturing. Using this device, we present ...

  3. Seasonal Monitoring and Estimation of Regional Aerosol Distribution over Po Valley, Northern Italy, Using a High-Resolution MAIAC Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvani, Barbara; Pierce, R. Bradley; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Wang, Yujie; Ghermandi, Grazia; Teggi, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the new 1-km-resolved Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm is employed to characterize seasonal AOD-PM10 correlations over northern Italy. The accuracy of the new dataset is assessed versus the widely used Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Collection 5.1 Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) data, retrieved at 0.55 microns with spatial resolution of 10 km (MYD04). We focused on evaluating the ability of these two products to characterize both temporal and spatial distributions of aerosols within urban and suburban areas. Ground PM10 measurements were obtained from 73 of the Italian Regional Agency for Environmental Protection (ARPA) monitoring stations, spread across northern Italy, for a three-year period from 2010 to 2012. The Po Valley area (northern Italy) was chosen as the study domain because of severe urban air pollution, resulting from the highest population and industrial manufacturing density in the country, being located in a valley where two surrounding mountain chains favor the stagnation of pollutants. We found that the global correlations between PM10 and AOD are R(sup 2) = 0.83 and R(sup 2) = 0.44 for MYD04_L2 and for MAIAC, respectively, suggesting for a greater sensitiveness of the high-resolution product to small-scale deviations. However, the introduction of Relative Humidity (RH) and Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) depth corrections gave a significant improvement to the PM AOD correlation, which led to similar performance: R(sup 2) = 0.96 for MODIS and R(sup 2) = 0.95 for MAIAC. Furthermore, the introduction of the PBL information in the corrected AOD values was found to be crucial in order to capture the clear seasonal cycle shown by measured PM10 values. The study allowed us to define four seasonal linear correlations that estimate PM10 concentrations satisfactorily from the remotely sensed MAIAC AOD retrieval. Overall, the results show that the high resolution provided by MAIAC

  4. Transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TES) for treatment of constipation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Ruey Terng; Lee, Way Seah; Ang, Hak Lee; Teo, Kai Ming; Yik, Yee Ian; Lai, Nai Ming

    2016-11-11

    Childhood constipation is a common problem with substantial health, economic and emotional burdens. Existing therapeutic options, mainly pharmacological, are not consistently effective, and some are associated with adverse effects after prolonged use. Transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TES), a non-pharmacological approach, is postulated to facilitate bowel movement by modulating the nerves of the large bowel via the application of electrical current transmitted through the abdominal wall. Our main objective was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of TES when employed to improve bowel function and constipation-related symptoms in children with constipation. We searched MEDLINE (PubMed) (1950 to July 2015), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library, Issue 7, 2015), EMBASE (1980 to July 2015), the Cochrane IBD Group Specialized Register, trial registries and conference proceedings to identify applicable studies . Randomized controlled trials that assessed any type of TES, administered at home or in a clinical setting, compared to no treatment, a sham TES, other forms of nerve stimulation or any other pharmaceutical or non-pharmaceutical measures used to treat constipation in children were considered for inclusion. Two authors independently assessed studies for inclusion, extracted data and assessed risk of bias of the included studies. We calculated the risk ratio (RR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) for categorical outcomes data and the mean difference (MD) and corresponding 95% CI for continuous outcomes. We evaluated the overall quality of the evidence supporting the outcomes assessed in this review using the GRADE criteria. One study from Australia including 46 children aged 8 to 18 years was eligible for inclusion. There were multiple reports identified, including one unpublished report, that focused on different outcomes of the same study. The study had unclear risk of selection bias, high risks of

  5. TES/Aura L2 Ancillary Product V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Atmospheric vertical profile estimates and associated errors (diagonals and covariance matrices), along with retrieved surface temperature, cloud effective optical...

  6. TES/Aura L2 Ancillary Product V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Atmospheric vertical profile estimates and associated errors (diagonals and covariance matrices), along with retrieved surface temperature, cloud effective optical...

  7. Comparative In Vitro Toxicity Profile of Electronic and Tobacco Cigarettes, Smokeless Tobacco and Nicotine Replacement Therapy Products: E-Liquids, Extracts and Collected Aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Misra

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigs continues to increase worldwide in parallel with accumulating information on their potential toxicity and safety. In this study, an in vitro battery of established assays was used to examine the cytotoxicity, mutagenicity, genotoxicity and inflammatory responses of certain commercial e-cigs and compared to tobacco burning cigarettes, smokeless tobacco (SLT products and a nicotine replacement therapy (NRT product. The toxicity evaluation was performed on e-liquids and pad-collected aerosols of e-cigs, pad-collected smoke condensates of tobacco cigarettes and extracts of SLT and NRT products. In all assays, exposures with e-cig liquids and collected aerosols, at the doses tested, showed no significant activity when compared to tobacco burning cigarettes. Results for the e-cigs, with and without nicotine in two evaluated flavor variants, were very similar in all assays, indicating that the presence of nicotine and flavors, at the levels tested, did not induce any cytotoxic, genotoxic or inflammatory effects. The present findings indicate that neither the e-cig liquids and collected aerosols, nor the extracts of the SLT and NRT products produce any meaningful toxic effects in four widely-applied in vitro test systems, in which the conventional cigarette smoke preparations, at comparable exposures, are markedly cytotoxic and genotoxic.

  8. Comparative in vitro toxicity profile of electronic and tobacco cigarettes, smokeless tobacco and nicotine replacement therapy products: e-liquids, extracts and collected aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Manoj; Leverette, Robert D; Cooper, Bethany T; Bennett, Melanee B; Brown, Steven E

    2014-10-30

    The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) continues to increase worldwide in parallel with accumulating information on their potential toxicity and safety. In this study, an in vitro battery of established assays was used to examine the cytotoxicity, mutagenicity, genotoxicity and inflammatory responses of certain commercial e-cigs and compared to tobacco burning cigarettes, smokeless tobacco (SLT) products and a nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) product. The toxicity evaluation was performed on e-liquids and pad-collected aerosols of e-cigs, pad-collected smoke condensates of tobacco cigarettes and extracts of SLT and NRT products. In all assays, exposures with e-cig liquids and collected aerosols, at the doses tested, showed no significant activity when compared to tobacco burning cigarettes. Results for the e-cigs, with and without nicotine in two evaluated flavor variants, were very similar in all assays, indicating that the presence of nicotine and flavors, at the levels tested, did not induce any cytotoxic, genotoxic or inflammatory effects. The present findings indicate that neither the e-cig liquids and collected aerosols, nor the extracts of the SLT and NRT products produce any meaningful toxic effects in four widely-applied in vitro test systems, in which the conventional cigarette smoke preparations, at comparable exposures, are markedly cytotoxic and genotoxic.

  9. Study of MPLNET-Derived Aerosol Climatology over Kanpur, India, and Validation of CALIPSO Level 2 Version 3 Backscatter and Extinction Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Amit; Tripathi, S. N.; Kaul, D. S.; Welton, Ellsworth J.

    2012-01-01

    The level 2 aerosol backscatter and extinction profiles from the NASA Micropulse Lidar Network (MPLNET) at Kanpur, India, have been studied from May 2009 to September 2010. Monthly averaged extinction profiles from MPLNET shows high extinction values near the surface during October March. Higher extinction values at altitudes of 24 km are observed from April to June, a period marked by frequent dust episodes. Version 3 level 2 Cloud Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) aerosol profile products have been compared with corresponding data from MPLNET over Kanpur for the above-mentioned period. Out of the available backscatter profiles, the16 profiles used in this study have time differences less than 3 h and distances less than 130 km. Among these profiles, four cases show good comparison above 400 m with R2 greater than 0.7. Comparison with AERONET data shows that the aerosol type is properly identified by the CALIOP algorithm. Cloud contamination is a possible source of error in the remaining cases of poor comparison. Another source of error is the improper backscatter-to-extinction ratio, which further affects the accuracy of extinction coefficient retrieval.

  10. Perancangan Web Tes Potensi Akademik Online Berbasis PHP Dan MYSQL

    OpenAIRE

    Fachreza, Ricky

    2014-01-01

    Tugas ini bertujuan untuk membangun suatu aplikasi web tes potensi akademik yang dapat digunakan untuk mengukur kemampuan seseorang di dalam potensi akademik. Aplikasi web ini disusun dengan menggunakan PHP dan MySQL, xampp-win32-1.7.2 yang merangkum Web Server Apache, Web scripting PHP, dan Database MySQL. Dan Macromedia Dreamweaver 8 sebagai Web Editor, serta menggunakan Web Browser yang berguna untuk menampilkan halaman website. Aplikasi web ini bekerja untuk dapat menyajikan informasi ten...

  11. PENILAIAN PEMAHAMAN REPRESENTASI GRAFIK MATERI OPTIKA GEOMETRI MENGGUNAKAN TES DIAGNOSTIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wawan Bunawan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak: Tujuan penelitian adalah mengembangkan dan menerapkan tes diagnostik pilihan ganda tiga tingkat untuk mengukur pemahaman representasi grafik mahasiswa terkait esensi inkuiri sains dan materi optika geometri. Penelitian menggunakan metode campuran melibatkan 83 mahasiswa calon guru fisika di satu LPTK Sumatera Utara. Instrumen tes diagnostik terlebih dahulu didesain kemudian disempurnakan selama proses, direvisi, dan digunakan untuk mendeteksi dan menilai pemahaman representasi grafik mahasiswa calon guru fisika. Instrumen tes telah dikembangkan untuk dapat mendiagnosis dan memperbaiki kesalahan-kesalahan yang dilakukan calon guru fisika terkait dengan keterampilan mengonstruk grafik, menemukan kesulitan-kesulitan dalam membaca dan menginterpretasi grafik. Analisis data dilakukan secara kualitatif dan kuantitatif. Hasil studi menunjukkan pembacaan grafik dan keterampilan menginterpretasi grafik calon guru fisika masih belum memadai dan juga kemahiran dalam menganalisis grafik bergantung pada jenis grafik dan level atau tipe pertanyaan yang dikembangkan. Kata Kunci: representasi grafik, optik geometri, diagnostik tes ASSESSING OF UNDERSTANDING GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION CONTENT GEOMETRICAL OPTIC USING DIAGNOSTIC TEST Abstract: The purpose of this study is to develop and apply three tier multiple choice diagnostic test to measure student’s understanding of graphical representation about essential features of inquiry and content geometrical optic. The study was conducted using mixed methods and carried out with 83 prephysics teachers at a University of Teachers Education in North Sumatera. The diagnostic instrument was designed and then progressively refined, revised, and implemented to detect and assess student’s understanding of graphical representation. Test instrument was developed to diagnose and correct the mistakes made by pre-service physics teachers about construction graphic skills, difficulties in the reading and interpretation

  12. OH- Initiated Heterogeneous Oxidation of Saturated Organic Aerosols in the Presence of SO2: Uptake Kinetics and Product Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards-Henderson, N. K.; Ward, M.; Goldstein, A. H.; Wilson, K. R.

    2014-12-01

    Gas-phase oxidation mechanisms for organic gases are often used as a starting point to understand heterogeneous oxidation. The reaction of a simple alkane hydrocarbon by OH proceeds through hydrogen abstraction and under ambient conditions leads to peroxy radical (RO2) formation. RO2 can further react to form: (1) smaller molecular weight products (i.e. fragmentation) via alkoxy radical formation and dissociation and/or (2) higher molecular weight products with oxygenated functional groups (i.e. functionalization). The ability to perturb these two pathways (functionalization vs. fragmentation) is critical for understanding the detailed reaction mechanism that control atmospheric aging chemistry of particles. At high temperatures the presence of sulfur dioxide (SO2) during organic-OH gas-phase oxidation enhances the fragmentation pathway leading to increased alkoxy formation. It is unknown if a comparative affect occurs at room temperature during a heterogeneous reaction. We used the heterogeneous reaction of OH radicals with sub-micron squalane particles in the presence and absence of SO2 as a model system to explore changes in individual mechanistic pathways. Detailed kinetic measurements were made in a flow tube reactor using a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization aerosol mass spectrometer and oxidation products are identified from samples collected on quartz filters using thermal desorption two-dimensional chromatographic separation and ionization by either VUV (10.5 eV) or electron impact (70 eV), with detection by high resolution time of flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-VUV/EI-HRTOFMS). In the presence of SO2 the yields of alcohols were enhanced compared to without SO2, suggesting that the alkoxy formation pathway was dominant. The results from this work will provide an experimentally-confirmed kinetic framework that could be used to model atmospheric aging mechanisms.

  13. Sea Spray Aerosols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butcher, Andrew Charles

    entrainment may account for the large discrepancy in energy input for the two systems. In the third study, the temperature dependence of sea spray aerosol production is probed with the use of a highly stable temperature controlled plunging jet. Similar to previous studies, particle production increases...... of a cloud condensation nuclei ounter. Proxy solutions with high inorganic salt concentrations and some organics produce sea spray aerosol particles with little change in cloud condensation activity relative to pure salts. Comparison is made between a frit based method for bubble production and a plunging...... a relationship between plunging jet particle ux, oceanic particle ux, and energy dissipation rate in both systems. Previous sea spray aerosol studies dissipate an order of magnitude more energy for the same particle ux production as the open ocean. A scaling factor related to the energy expended in air...

  14. Parametric Characterization of TES Detectors Under DC Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, Meng P.; Smith, Stephen James; Kilbourne, Caroline A.; Adams, Joseph S.; Bandler, Simon R.; Betancourt-Martinez, Gabriele L.; Chervenak, James A.; Datesman, Aaron M.; Eckart, Megan E.; Ewin, Audrey J.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The X-ray integrated field unit (X-IFU) in European Space Agency's (ESA's) Athena mission will be the first high-resolution X-ray spectrometer in space using a large-format transition-edge sensor microcalorimeter array. Motivated by optimization of detector performance for X-IFU, we have conducted an extensive campaign of parametric characterization on transition-edge sensor (TES) detectors with nominal geometries and physical properties in order to establish sensitivity trends relative to magnetic field, dc bias on detectors, operating temperature, and to improve our understanding of detector behavior relative to its fundamental properties such as thermal conductivity, heat capacity, and transition temperature. These results were used for validation of a simple linear detector model in which a small perturbation can be introduced to one or multiple parameters to estimate the error budget for X-IFU. We will show here results of our parametric characterization of TES detectors and briefly discuss the comparison with the TES model.

  15. Impact of Manaus City on the Amazon Green Ocean atmosphere: ozone production, precursor sensitivity and aerosol load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Kuhn

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available As a contribution to the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia – Cooperative LBA Airborne Regional Experiment (LBA-CLAIRE-2001 field campaign in the heart of the Amazon Basin, we analyzed the temporal and spatial dynamics of the urban plume of Manaus City during the wet-to-dry season transition period in July 2001. During the flights, we performed vertical stacks of crosswind transects in the urban outflow downwind of Manaus City, measuring a comprehensive set of trace constituents including O3, NO, NO2, CO, VOC, CO2, and H2O. Aerosol loads were characterized by concentrations of total aerosol number (CN and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN, and by light scattering properties. Measurements over pristine rainforest areas during the campaign showed low levels of pollution from biomass burning or industrial emissions, representative of wet season background conditions. The urban plume of Manaus City was found to be joined by plumes from power plants south of the city, all showing evidence of very strong photochemical ozone formation. One episode is discussed in detail, where a threefold increase in ozone mixing ratios within the atmospheric boundary layer occurred within a 100 km travel distance downwind of Manaus. Observation-based estimates of the ozone production rates in the plume reached 15 ppb h−1.

    Within the plume core, aerosol concentrations were strongly enhanced, with ΔCN/ΔCO ratios about one order of magnitude higher than observed in Amazon biomass burning plumes. ΔCN/ΔCO ratios tended to decrease with increasing transport time, indicative of a significant reduction in particle number by coagulation, and without substantial new particle nucleation occurring within the time/space observed. While in the background atmosphere a large fraction of the total particle number served as CCN (about 60–80% at 0.6% supersaturation, the CCN/CN ratios within the

  16. A fibre-optic UV system for H$_{2}$SO$_{4}$ production in aerosol chambers causing minimal thermal effects

    CERN Document Server

    Kupc, A; Onnela, A; Duplissy, J; Mathot, S; Danielczok, A; Walther, H; Minginette, P; Rondo, L; Ickes, L; Curtius, J; Wagner, P E; Amorim, A; Lima, J M; Ehrhart, S; Kurten, A

    2011-01-01

    A novel fibre-optic UV illumination system for sulphuric acid (H(2)SO(4)) production has been developed. The illumination system described in this paper provides sufficient ultraviolet light (UV) power while causing practically no thermal effect on the aerosol chamber (temperature variation <0.005 degrees C at full UV illumination). A similar thermal stability has not been achieved in other comparable experimental set-ups so far. The spectrum provided by the fibre-optic UV system corresponds to the UVB region, illuminates the chamber in a reasonably uniform way and is comparable to the ground level actinic flux. The UV system has been installed for the Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets (CLOUD) chamber experiments at CERN. Precise, easily-adjustable and reproducible concentrations of H(2)SO(4) were generated by adjusting the UV light intensity. This paper gives an overview on the design of this new system as well as insights on its performance and application. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM encapsulated using a novel impinging aerosol method in fruit food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohail, Asma; Turner, Mark S; Prabawati, Elisabeth Kartika; Coombes, Allan G A; Bhandari, Bhesh

    2012-07-02

    This study investigated the effect of microencapsulation on the survival of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and their acidification in orange juice at 25°C for nine days and at 4°C over thirty five days of storage. Alginate micro beads (10-40 μm) containing the probiotics were produced by a novel dual aerosol method of alginate and CaCl(2) cross linking solution. Unencapsulated L. rhamnosus GG was found to have excellent survivability in orange juice at both temperatures. However unencapsulated L. acidophilus NCFM showed significant reduction in viability. Encapsulation of these two bacteria did not significantly enhance survivability but did reduce acidification at 25°C and 4°C. In agreement with this, encapsulation of L. rhamnosus GG also reduced acidification in pear and peach fruit-based foods at 25°C, however at 4°C difference in pH was insignificant between free and encapsulated cells. In conclusion, L. rhamnosus GG showed excellent survival in orange juice and microencapsulation has potential in reducing acidification and possible negative sensory effects of probiotics in orange juice and other fruit-based products. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry and Molecular Characterization of Aqueous Photochemistry Products of Common Types of Secondary Organic Aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romonosky, Dian E.; Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia; Nizkorodov, Sergey

    2015-03-19

    A significant fraction of atmospheric organic compounds is predominantly found in condensed phases, such as aerosol particles and cloud droplets. Many of these compounds are photolabile and can degrade through direct photolysis or indirect photooxidation processes on time scales that are comparable to the typical lifetimes of aqueous droplets (hours) and particles (days). This paper presents a systematic investigation of the molecular level composition and the extent of aqueous photochemical processing in different types of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from biogenic and anthropogenic precursors including α-pinene, β-pinene, β-myrcene, d- limonene, α-humulene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene, and guaiacol, oxidized by ozone (to simulate a remote atmosphere) or by OH in the presence of NOx (to simulate an urban atmosphere). Chamber- and flow tube-generated SOA samples were collected, extracted in a methanol/water solution, and photolyzed for 1 h under identical irradiation conditions. In these experiments, the irradiation was equivalent to about 3-8 h of exposure to the sun in its zenith. The molecular level composition of the dissolved SOA was probed before and after photolysis with direct-infusion electrospray ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry (ESI-HR-MS). The mass spectra of unphotolyzed SOA generated by ozone oxidation of monoterpenes showed qualitatively similar features, and contained largely overlapping subsets of identified compounds. The mass spectra of OH/NOx generated SOA had more unique visual appearance, and indicated a lower extent of products overlap. Furthermore, the fraction of nitrogen containing species (organonitrates and nitroaromatics) was highly sensitive to the SOA precursor. These observations suggest that attribution of high-resolution mass spectra in field SOA samples to specific SOA precursors should be more straightforward under OH/NOx oxidation conditions compared to the ozone driven oxidation. Comparison of the SOA constituents

  19. Biogenic oxidized organic functional groups in aerosol particles from a mountain forest site and their similarities to laboratory chamber products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Schwartz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Submicron particles collected at Whistler, British Columbia, at 1020 m a.s.l. during May and June 2008 on Teflon filters were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR and X-ray fluorescence (XRF techniques for organic functional groups (OFG and elemental composition. Organic mass (OM concentrations ranged from less than 0.5 to 3.1 μg m−3, with a project mean and standard deviation of 1.3±1.0 μg m−3 and 0.21±0.16 μg m−3 for OM and sulfate, respectively. On average, organic hydroxyl, alkane, and carboxylic acid groups represented 34%, 33%, and 23% of OM, respectively. Ketone, amine and organosulfate groups constituted 6%, 5%, and <1% of the average organic aerosol composition, respectively. Measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOC, including isoprene and monoterpenes from biogenic VOC (BVOC emissions and their oxidation products (methyl-vinylketone / methacrolein, MVK/MACR, were made using co-located proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS. We present chemically-specific evidence of OFG associated with BVOC emissions. Positive matrix factorization (PMF analysis attributed 65% of the campaign OM to biogenic sources, based on the correlations of one factor to monoterpenes and MVK/MACR. The remaining fraction was attributed to anthropogenic sources based on a correlation to sulfate. The functional group composition of the biogenic factor (consisting of 32% alkane, 25% carboxylic acid, 21% organic hydroxyl, 16% ketone, and 6% amine groups was similar to that of secondary organic aerosol (SOA reported from the oxidation of BVOCs in laboratory chamber studies, providing evidence that the magnitude and chemical composition of biogenic SOA simulated in the laboratory is similar to that found in actual atmospheric conditions. The biogenic factor OM is also correlated to dust elements, indicating that dust may act as a non-acidic SOA sink. This role is supported by the organic functional

  20. Quantitative assessment of surf-produced sea spray aerosol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neele, F.P.; De Leeuw, G.; Jansen, M.; Stive, M.J.F.

    1998-01-01

    The first results are presented from a quantitative model describing the aerosol production in the surf zone. A comparison is made with aerosol produced in the surf zone as measured during EOPACE experiments in La Jolla and Monterey. The surf aerosol production was derived from aerosol concentration

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF AN INNOVATIVE SPRAY DISPENSER TO REDUCE INDOOR AIR EMISSIONS FROM AEROSOL CONSUMER PRODUCTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report presents the operating principles and performance of a new type of spray nozzle. This nozzle, termed a "ligament-controlled effervescent atomizer," was developed to allow consumer product manufacturers to replace volatile organic compound (VOC) solvents with water, and...

  2. Washout study of fission products under aerosol form by a droplets pulverization of PWR water spray containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchand, Denis

    2008-05-01

    The study investigated the physical phenomena involved in the aerosols washout by water droplets for thermal hydraulic conditions representative of a severe accident in a PWR simulated into the TOSQAN vessel. A aerosols characterization (WELAS, turbidity-meter) coupled with the spray characteristics measurements (PDA, PIV), provided detailed information allowing to obtain reproducible results showing that aerosols collection dynamics has two phases characterized by two distinct removal rates. The average elementary collection efficiency per aerosols class was estimated according to the water flow rates and the droplets temperature injection. The comparison between the numerical approach (ASTEC's code) and the experimental results on the collected mass by the droplets showed a good agreement at the test beginning, then a light dissension after a certain time related on the experimental limits of measurement and the limits of the code. (author)

  3. Special aerosol sources for certification and test of aerosol radiometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belkina, S.K.; Zalmanzon, Y.E.; Kuznetsov, Y.V.; Rizin, A.I.; Fertman, D.E.

    1991-01-01

    The results are presented of the development and practical application of new radionuclide source types (Special Aerosol Sources (SAS)), that meet the international standard recommendations, which are used for certification and test of aerosol radiometers (monitors) using model aerosols of plutonium-239, strontium-yttrium-90 or uranium of natural isotope composition and certified against Union of Soviet Socialist Republics USSR national radioactive aerosol standard or by means of a reference radiometer. The original technology for source production allows the particular features of sampling to be taken into account as well as geometry and conditions of radionuclides radiation registration in the sample for the given type of radiometer. (author)

  4. Special aerosol sources for certification and test of aerosol radiometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belkina, S.K.; Zalmanzon, Y.E.; Kuznetsov, Y.V.; Rizin, A.I.; Fertman, D.E. (Union Research Institute of Instrumentation, Moscow (USSR))

    1991-01-01

    The results are presented of the development and practical application of new radionuclide source types (Special Aerosol Sources (SAS)), that meet the international standard recommendations, which are used for certification and test of aerosol radiometers (monitors) using model aerosols of plutonium-239, strontium-yttrium-90 or uranium of natural isotope composition and certified against Union of Soviet Socialist Republics USSR national radioactive aerosol standard or by means of a reference radiometer. The original technology for source production allows the particular features of sampling to be taken into account as well as geometry and conditions of radionuclides radiation registration in the sample for the given type of radiometer. (author).

  5. Primary gas- and particle-phase emissions and secondary organic aerosol production from gasoline and diesel off-road engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Timothy D; Tkacik, Daniel S; Presto, Albert A; Zhang, Mang; Jathar, Shantanu H; Nguyen, Ngoc T; Massetti, John; Truong, Tin; Cicero-Fernandez, Pablo; Maddox, Christine; Rieger, Paul; Chattopadhyay, Sulekha; Maldonado, Hector; Maricq, M Matti; Robinson, Allen L

    2013-12-17

    Dilution and smog chamber experiments were performed to characterize the primary emissions and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from gasoline and diesel small off-road engines (SOREs). These engines are high emitters of primary gas- and particle-phase pollutants relative to their fuel consumption. Two- and 4-stroke gasoline SOREs emit much more (up to 3 orders of magnitude more) nonmethane organic gases (NMOGs), primary PM and organic carbon than newer on-road gasoline vehicles (per kg of fuel burned). The primary emissions from a diesel transportation refrigeration unit were similar to those of older, uncontrolled diesel engines used in on-road vehicles (e.g., premodel year 2007 heavy-duty diesel trucks). Two-strokes emitted the largest fractional (and absolute) amount of SOA precursors compared to diesel and 4-stroke gasoline SOREs; however, 35-80% of the NMOG emissions from the engines could not be speciated using traditional gas chromatography or high-performance liquid chromatography. After 3 h of photo-oxidation in a smog chamber, dilute emissions from both 2- and 4-stroke gasoline SOREs produced large amounts of semivolatile SOA. The effective SOA yield (defined as the ratio of SOA mass to estimated mass of reacted precursors) was 2-4% for 2- and 4-stroke SOREs, which is comparable to yields from dilute exhaust from older passenger cars and unburned gasoline. This suggests that much of the SOA production was due to unburned fuel and/or lubrication oil. The total PM contribution of different mobile source categories to the ambient PM burden was calculated by combining primary emission, SOA production and fuel consumption data. Relative to their fuel consumption, SOREs are disproportionately high total PM sources; however, the vastly greater fuel consumption of on-road vehicles renders them (on-road vehicles) the dominant mobile source of ambient PM in the Los Angeles area.

  6. Global Validation of MODIS C6 and C6.1 Merged Aerosol Products over Diverse Vegetated Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Bilal

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Collections 6 and 6.1 merged Dark Target (DT and Deep Blue (DB aerosol products (DTBC6 and DTBC6.1 at 0.55 µm were validated from 2004–2014 against Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET Version 2 Level 2.0 AOD obtained from 68 global sites located over diverse vegetated surfaces. These surfaces were categorized by static values of monthly Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI observations obtained for the same time period from the MODIS level-3 monthly NDVI product (MOD13A3, i.e., partially/non–vegetated (NDVIP ≤ 0.3, moderately–vegetated (0.3 < NDVIM ≤ 0.5 and densely–vegetated (NDVID > 0.5 surfaces. The DTBC6 and DTBC6.1 AOD products are accomplished by the NDVI criteria: (i use the DT AOD retrievals for NDVI > 0.3, (ii use the DB AOD retrievals for NDVI < 0.2, and (iii use an average of the DT and DB AOD retrievals or the available one with highest quality assurance flag (DT: QAF = 3; DB: QAF ≥ 2 for 0.2 ≤ NDVI ≤ 0.3. For comparison purpose, the DTBSMS AOD retrievals were included which were accomplished using the Simplified Merge Scheme, i.e., use an average of the DTC6.1 and DBC6.1 AOD retrievals or the available one for all the NDVI values. For NDVIP surfaces, results showed that the DTBC6 and DTBC6.1 AOD retrievals performed poorly over North and South America in terms of the agreement with AERONET AOD, and over Asian region in terms of retrievals quality as the small percentage of AOD retrievals were within the expected error (EE = ± (0.05 + 0.15 × AOD. For NDVIM surfaces, retrieval errors and poor quality in DTBC6 and DTBC6.1 were observed for Asian, North American and South American sites, whereas good performance, was observed for European and African sites. For NDVID surfaces, DTBC6 does not perform well over the Asian and North American sites, although it contains retrievals only from the DT algorithm which was developed for dark surfaces

  7. Chemical characteristics of organic aerosol in Bab-Ezzouar (Algiers). Contribution of bituminous product manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassaa, N; Meklati, B Y; Cecinato, A; Marino, F

    2001-10-01

    The organic compositions of atmospheric particulate matter from Bab-Ezzouar (Algiers) have been investigated to assess the air pollution levels suspected to be caused by asphalt product and yeast manufactures. After a medium-volume air sampling, soxhlet extraction, alumina elution and HPLC separation, the extracts were analysed by high-resolution gas chromatography (HRGC) and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The composition of n-alkane and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) fractions reflected the petrogenic origin from the emission of asphalt materials production in addition to vascular plant wax emissions. In contrast, microbial activities seemed to play the main role for the presence of n-alkanoic acids at Bab-Ezzouar. The sole nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAH) observed, i.e., 2-nitrofluoranthene (2NFA), was very likely to arise from gas-phase photochemical reaction of parent PAH in the atmosphere. The total aerial levels ranged from 75 to 206 ng m(-3) for n-alkanes, from 153 to 345 ng m(-3) for n-alkanoic acids and from 44 to 100 ng m(-3) for PAH and NPAH. Although the samples were collected during the hot season, the levels of these pollutants seemed to be important and of environmental concern, especially for PAH species.

  8. Estimation of aerosol complex refractive indices for both fine and coarse modes simultaneously based on AERONET remote sensing products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Climate change assessment, especially model evaluation, requires a better understanding of complex refractive indices (CRIs of atmospheric aerosols – separately for both fine and coarse modes. However, the widely used aerosol CRI obtained by the global Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET corresponds to total-column aerosol particles without separation for fine and coarse modes. This paper establishes a method to separate CRIs of fine and coarse particles based on AERONET volume particle size distribution (VPSD, aerosol optical depth (AOD and absorbing AOD (AAOD. The method consists of two steps. First a multimodal log-normal distribution that best approximates the AERONET VPSD is found. Then the fine and coarse mode CRIs are found by iterative fitting of AERONET AODs to Mie calculations. The numerical experiment shows good performance for typical water-soluble, biomass burning and dust aerosol types, and the estimated uncertainties on the retrieved sub-mode CRIs are about 0.11 (real part and 78 % (imaginary part. The 1-year measurements at the AERONET Beijing site are processed, and we obtain CRIs of 1.48–0.010i (imaginary part at 440 nm is 0.012 for fine mode particles and 1.49–0.004i (imaginary part at 440 nm is 0.007 for coarse mode particles, for the period of 2014–2015. Our results also suggest that both fine and coarse aerosol mode CRIs have distinct seasonal characteristics; in particular, CRIs of fine particles in winter season are significantly higher than summer due to possible anthropogenic influences.

  9. Molecular distributions of dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids and α-dicarbonyls in biomass burning aerosols: implications for photochemical production and degradation in smoke layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hoffer

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Aerosols in the size class <2.5 μm (6 daytime and 9 nighttime samples were collected at a pasture site in Rondônia, Brazil, during the intensive biomass burning period of 16–26 September 2002 as part of the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia – Smoke, Aerosols, Clouds, Rainfall and Climate (LBA-SMOCC. Homologous series of dicarboxylic acids (C2–C11 and related compounds (ketocarboxylic acids and α-dicarbonyls were identified using gas chromatography (GC and GC/mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Among the species detected, oxalic acid was found to be the most abundant, followed by succinic, malonic and glyoxylic acids. Average concentrations of total dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids and α-dicarbonyls in the aerosol samples were 2180, 167 and 56 ng m−3, respectively. These are 2–8, 3–11 and 2–16 times higher, respectively, than those reported in urban aerosols, such as in 14 Chinese megacities. Higher ratios of dicarboxylic acids and related compounds to biomass burning tracers (levoglucosan and K+ were found in the daytime than in the nighttime, suggesting the importance of photochemical production. On the other hand, higher ratios of oxalic acid to other dicarboxylic acids and related compounds normalized to biomass burning tracers (levoglucosan and K+ in the daytime provide evidence for the possible degradation of dicarboxylic acids (≥C3 in this smoke-polluted environment. Assuming that these and related compounds are photo-chemically oxidized to oxalic acid in the daytime, and given their linear relationship, they could account for, on average, 77% of the formation of oxalic acid. The remaining portion of oxalic acid may have been directly emitted from biomass burning as suggested by a good correlation with the biomass burning tracers (K+, CO and ECa and organic carbon (OC. However, photochemical production from other precursors could not be excluded.

  10. Stratospheric aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, J.; Ivanov, V.A.

    1993-01-01

    Stratospheric aerosol measurements can provide both spatial and temporal data of sufficient resolution to be of use in climate models. Relatively recent results from a wide range of instrument techniques for measuring stratospheric aerosol parameters are described. Such techniques include impactor sampling, lidar system sensing, filter sampling, photoelectric particle counting, satellite extinction-sensing using the sun as a source, and optical depth probing, at sites mainly removed from tropospheric aerosol sources. Some of these techniques have also had correlative and intercomparison studies. The main methods for determining the vertical profiles of stratospheric aerosols are outlined: lidar extinction measurements from satellites; impactor measurements from balloons and aircraft; and photoelectric particle counter measurements from balloons, aircraft, and rockets. The conversion of the lidar backscatter to stratospheric aerosol mass loading is referred to. Absolute measurements of total solar extinction from satellite orbits can be used to extract the aerosol extinction, and several examples of vertical profiles of extinction obtained with the SAGE satellite are given. Stratospheric mass loading can be inferred from extinction using approximate linear relationships but under restrictive conditions. Impactor sampling is essentially the only method in which the physical nature of the stratospheric aerosol is observed visually. Vertical profiles of stratospheric aerosol number concentration using impactor data are presented. Typical profiles using a dual-size-range photoelectric dustsonde particle counter are given for volcanically disturbed and inactive periods. Some measurements of the global distribution of stratospheric aerosols are also presented. Volatility measurements are described, indicating that stratospheric aerosols are composed primarily of about 75% sulfuric acid and 25% water

  11. Aerosol emission monitoring in the production of silicon carbide nanoparticles by induction plasma synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Drew; Leparoux, Marc; Jaeggi, Christian; Buha, Jelena; Pui, David Y. H.; Wang, Jing

    2013-12-01

    In this study, the synthesis of silicon carbide (SiC) nanoparticles in a prototype inductively coupled thermal plasma reactor and other supporting processes, such as the handling of precursor material, the collection of nanoparticles, and the cleaning of equipment, were monitored for particle emissions and potential worker exposure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of engineering controls and best practice guidelines developed for the production and handling of nanoparticles, identify processes which result in a nanoparticle release, characterize these releases, and suggest possible administrative or engineering controls which may eliminate or control the exposure source. No particle release was detected during the synthesis and collection of SiC nanoparticles and the cleaning of the reactor. This was attributed to most of these processes occurring in closed systems operated at slight underpressure. Other tasks occurring in more open spaces, such as the disconnection of a filter assembly from the reactor system and the use of compressed air for the cleaning of filters where synthesized SiC nanoparticles were collected, resulted in releases of submicrometer particles with a mode size of 170-180 nm. Observation of filter samples under scanning electron microscope confirmed that the particles were agglomerates of SiC nanoparticles.

  12. Characterizing and Modeling the Noise and Complex Impedance of Feedhorn-Coupled TES Polarimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, J. W.; Austermann, J. E.; Beall, J. A.; Becker, D.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Britton, J.; Chang, C. L.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Cho, H. M.; Crites, A. T.; Essinger-Hileman, T.; Everett, W.; Halverson, N. W.; Henning, J. W.; Hilton, G. C.; Irwin, K. D.; McMahon, J.; Mehl, J.; Meyer, S. S.; Niemack, M. D.; Parker, L. P.; Simon, S. M.; Staggs, S. T.; Visnjic, C.; Yoon, K. W.; Zhao, Y.

    2009-12-01

    We present results from modeling the electrothermal performance of feedhorn-coupled transition edge sensor (TES) polarimeters under development for use in cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization experiments. Each polarimeter couples radiation from a corrugated feedhorn through a planar orthomode transducer, which transmits power from orthogonal polarization modes to two TES bolometers. We model our TES with two- and three-block thermal architectures. We fit the complex impedance data at multiple points in the TES transition. From the fits, we predict the noise spectra. We present comparisons of these predictions to the data for two TESes on a prototype polarimeter.

  13. Uji Validitas Tes Buatan Dosen Mata Kuliah Fiqh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Realita Realita

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The effort to design an accurate and exact instrument is urgent for lecturers to get objective information of students’ achievement. The accuracy of information or data gained related to students’ result of learning influences severely on policy that will be decided. Unfortunately, the accuracy of information expected can not be get easily. This is caused by the less qualified instrument of test used. Related to this case, not all of instrument of test given by lecturer to students are in line with learning indicators constructed. Therefore, it is important to do a research to explore the issue. The research was aimed to know the validity of test items of Fiqh subject–and also the related subject. The result of research was got based on the document analysis–sillaby and Lesson plan/SAP, and final examination sheets of Fiqh I, Fiqh II, Fiqh III, Fiqh Muqarran, Masail Fiqhiyah, Ushul Fiqh II, Ushul Fiqh III as well. They were in academic year 2012–2013 of PAI major. The documents were analysed by using descriptive analysis qualitative technique. The data analysis was done by lecturer who is expert in the field of Kurikulum Pendidikan Agama Islam and assessment. The findings shows that the test items of the subjects were valid based on the aspect of learning material scope, construction, and language/culture. Upaya untuk merancang sebuah instrumen yang akurat dan tepat sangat mendesak bagi dosen untuk mendapatkan informasi yang obyektif seputar prestasi siswa. Keakuratan informasi atau data yang diperoleh terkait dengan hasil belajar sangat berpengaruh pada kebijakan yang akan diputuskan. Sayangnya, keakuratan informasi diharapkan tidak didapat dengan mudah. Hal ini disebabkan oleh penggunaan instrumen yang kurang memenuhi syarat ketika dilakukan tes. Terkait hal ini, tidak semua instrumen tes yang diberikan oleh dosen kepada mahasiswa yang sejalan dengan indikator pembelajaran dibangun. Oleh karena itu, penting untuk dilakukan penelitian

  14. DELFIC-TES, Gamma Doses from Nuclear Explosion Radioactive Clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: DELFIC-TES computes the transit gamma exposure from the airborne cloud resulting from a nuclear burst for fixed targets located on or above the earth's surface. 2 - Method of solution - The system is based on a method of producing 'snapshots' of the moving cloud of airborne particles during the transport process of DELFIC. Each particle in each snapshot is then assigned an activity and these data are used to calculate transit exposure by employing an energy-dependent buildup factor technique

  15. Tumor production in Syrian hamsters following inhalation of PuO2--ZrO2 aerosol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.G.; Smith, D.M.

    1978-01-01

    Syrian golden hamsters of both sexes were exposed to aerosols of ZrO 2 containing PuO 2 . The starting material in the aerosol generator also had a small amount of 57 Co added as a tracer. The mixture of all three constituents was nebulized and the droplets passed through a heating column at 1000 0 C. Aerosol sampling was accomplished with a cascade impactor and electrostatic precipitator. The median aerodynamic diameters in all inhalation runs were approximately 2 μm with a geometric standard deviation of 2. One exposed group of 60 hamsters had 6-day lung burdens averaging 100 nCi. This group had a lung tumor incidence of 44% with an even distribution of adenomas and carcinomas. Two other groups had average 6-day lung burdens of 80 to 90 nCi plus 55 nCi of intravenously injected spheres localized in the lung. These animals had tumor incidences of approximately 30%

  16. Annual cycle and temperature dependence of pinene oxidation products and other water-soluble organic compounds in coarse and fine aerosol samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Müller, L.; Winterhalter, R.; Moortgat, G. K.; Hoffmann, T.; Pöschl, U.

    2010-05-01

    Filter samples of fine and coarse particulate matter were collected over a period of one year and analyzed for water-soluble organic compounds, including the pinene oxidation products pinic acid, pinonic acid, 3-methyl-1,2,3-butanetricarboxylic acid (3-MBTCA) and a variety of dicarboxylic acids (C5-C16) and nitrophenols. Seasonal variations and other characteristic features are discussed with regard to aerosol sources and sinks and data from other studies and regions. The ratios of adipic acid (C6) and phthalic acid (Ph) to azelaic acid (C9) indicate that the investigated aerosols samples were mainly influenced by biogenic sources. An Arrhenius-type correlation was found between the 3-MBTCA concentration and inverse temperature. Model calculations suggest that the temperature dependence is largely due to enhanced emissions and OH radical concentrations at elevated temperatures, whereas the influence of gas-particle partitioning appears to play a minor role. Enhanced ratios of pinic acid to 3-MBTCA indicate strong chemical aging of the investigated aerosols in summer and spring. Acknowledgment: The authors would like to thank M. Claeys for providing synthetic 3-methyl-1,2,3-butanetricarboxylic acid standards for LC-MS analysis and J. Fröhlich for providing filter samples and related information.

  17. Photo-oxidation products of α-pinene in coarse, fine and ultrafine aerosol: A new high sensitive HPLC-MS/MS method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltracco, Matteo; Barbaro, Elena; Contini, Daniele; Zangrando, Roberta; Toscano, Giuseppa; Battistel, Dario; Barbante, Carlo; Gambaro, Andrea

    2018-05-01

    Oxidation products of α-pinene represent a fraction of organic matter in the environmental aerosol. α-pinene is one of most abundant monoterpenes released in the atmosphere by plants, located typically in boreal, temperate and tropical forests. This primary compound reacts with atmospheric oxidants, such as O3, O2, OH radicals and NOx, through the major tropospheric degradation pathway for many monoterpenes under typical atmospheric condition. Although several studies identified a series of by-products deriving from the α-pinene photo-oxidation in the atmosphere, such as pinic and cis-pinonic acid, the knowledge of the mechanism of this process is partially still lacking. Thus, the investigation of the distribution of these acids in the different size aerosol particles provides additional information on this regard. The aim of this study is twofold. First, we aim to improve the existing analytical methods for the determination of pinic and cis-pinonic acid in aerosol samples, especially in terms of analytical sensitivity and limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ). We even attempted to increase the knowledge of the α-pinene photo-oxidation processes by analysing, for the first time, the particle-size distribution up to nanoparticle level of pinic and cis-pinonic acid. The analysis of aerosol samples was carried out via high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The instrumental LOD values of cis-pinonic and pinic acid are 1.6 and 1.2 ng L-1 while LOQ values are 5.4 and 4.1 ng L-1, respectively. Samples were collected by MOUDI II™ cascade impactor with twelve cut-sizes, from March to May 2016 in the urban area of Mestre-Venice (Italy). The range concentrations in the aerosol samples were from 0.1 to 0.9 ng m-3 for cis-pinonic acid and from 0.1 to 0.8 ng m-3 for pinic acid.

  18. Brown Carbon Production in Ammonium- or Amine-Containing Aerosol Particles by Reactive Uptake of Methylglyoxal and Photolytic Cloud Cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Haan, David O; Hawkins, Lelia N; Welsh, Hannah G; Pednekar, Raunak; Casar, Jason R; Pennington, Elyse A; de Loera, Alexia; Jimenez, Natalie G; Symons, Michael A; Zauscher, Melanie; Pajunoja, Aki; Caponi, Lorenzo; Cazaunau, Mathieu; Formenti, Paola; Gratien, Aline; Pangui, Edouard; Doussin, Jean-François

    2017-07-05

    The effects of methylglyoxal uptake on the physical and optical properties of aerosol containing amines or ammonium sulfate were determined before and after cloud processing in a temperature- and RH-controlled chamber. The formation of brown carbon was observed upon methylglyoxal addition, detected as an increase in water-soluble organic carbon mass absorption coefficients below 370 nm and as a drop in single-scattering albedo at 450 nm. The imaginary refractive index component k 450 reached a maximum value of 0.03 ± 0.009 with aqueous glycine aerosol particles. Browning of solid particles occurred at rates limited by chamber mixing (sulfate seeds was triggered by cloud events with chamber lights on, suggesting photosensitized brown carbon formation. Despite these changes in optical aerosol characteristics, increases in dried aerosol mass were rarely observed (<1 μg/m 3 in all cases), consistent with previous experiments on methylglyoxal. Under dry, particle-free conditions, methylglyoxal reacted (presumably on chamber walls) with methylamine with a rate constant k = (9 ± 2) × 10 -17 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1 at 294 K and activation energy E a = 64 ± 37 kJ/mol.

  19. Biogenic oxidized organic functional groups in aerosol particles from a mountain forest site and their similarities to laboratory chamber products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, R. E.; Russell, L. M.; Sjostedt, S. J.; Vlasenko, A.; Slowik, J. G.; Abbatt, J. P. D.; MacDonald, A. M.; Li, S. M.; Liggio, J.; Toom-Sauntry, D.; Leaitch, W. R.

    2010-06-01

    Submicron particles collected at Whistler, British Columbia, at 1020 m a.s.l. during May and June 2008 on Teflon filters were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) techniques for organic functional groups (OFG) and elemental composition. Organic mass (OM) concentrations ranged from less than 0.5 to 3.1 μg m-3, with a project mean and standard deviation of 1.3±1.0 μg m-3 and 0.21±0.16 μg m-3 for OM and sulfate, respectively. On average, organic hydroxyl, alkane, and carboxylic acid groups represented 34%, 33%, and 23% of OM, respectively. Ketone, amine and organosulfate groups constituted 6%, 5%, and volatile organic compounds (VOC), including isoprene and monoterpenes from biogenic VOC (BVOC) emissions and their oxidation products (methyl-vinylketone / methacrolein, MVK/MACR), were made using co-located proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). We present chemically-specific evidence of OFG associated with BVOC emissions. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis attributed 65% of the campaign OM to biogenic sources, based on the correlations of one factor to monoterpenes and MVK/MACR. The remaining fraction was attributed to anthropogenic sources based on a correlation to sulfate. The functional group composition of the biogenic factor (consisting of 32% alkane, 25% carboxylic acid, 21% organic hydroxyl, 16% ketone, and 6% amine groups) was similar to that of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) reported from the oxidation of BVOCs in laboratory chamber studies, providing evidence that the magnitude and chemical composition of biogenic SOA simulated in the laboratory is similar to that found in actual atmospheric conditions. The biogenic factor OM is also correlated to dust elements, indicating that dust may act as a non-acidic SOA sink. This role is supported by the organic functional group composition and morphology of single particles, which were analyzed by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy near edge X

  20. Primary emissions and secondary aerosol production potential from woodstoves for residential heating: Influence of the stove technology and combustion efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Amelie; Stefenelli, Giulia; Bruns, Emily A.; Pieber, Simone M.; Temime-Roussel, Brice; Slowik, Jay G.; Prévôt, André S. H.; Wortham, Henri; El Haddad, Imad; Marchand, Nicolas

    2017-11-01

    To reduce the influence of biomass burning on air quality, consumers are encouraged to replace their old woodstove with new and cleaner appliances. While their primary emissions have been extensively investigated, the impact of atmospheric aging on these emissions, including secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation, remains unknown. Here, using an atmospheric smog chamber, we aim at understanding the chemical nature and quantify the emission factors of the primary organic aerosols (POA) from three types of appliances for residential heating, and to assess the influence of aging thereon. Two, old and modern, logwood stoves and one pellet burner were operated under typical conditions. Emissions from an entire burning cycle (past the start-up operation) were injected, including the smoldering and flaming phases, resulting in highly variable emission factors. The stoves emitted a significant fraction of POA (up to 80%) and black carbon. After ageing, the total mass concentration of organic aerosol (OA) increased on average by a factor of 5. For the pellet stove, flaming conditions were maintained throughout the combustion. The aerosol was dominated by black carbon (over 90% of the primary emission) and amounted to the same quantity of primary aerosol emitted by the old logwood stove. However, after ageing, the OA mass was increased by a factor of 1.7 only, thus rendering OA emissions by the pellet stove almost negligible compared to the other two stoves tested. Therefore, the pellet stove was the most reliable and least polluting appliance out of the three stoves tested. The spectral signatures of the POA and aged emissions by a High Resolution - Time of Flight - Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (Electron Ionization (EI) at 70 eV) were also investigated. The m/z 44 (CO2+) and high molecular weight fragments (m/z 115 (C9H7+), 137 (C8H9O2+), 167 (C9H11O3+) and 181 (C9H9O4+, C14H13+)) correlate with the modified combustion efficiency (MCE) allowing us to discriminate further

  1. MODIS/Aqua Near Real Time (NRT) Aerosol 5-Min L2 Swath - 3km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS level-2 atmospheric aerosol product provides retrieved ambient aerosol optical properties (e.g., optical thickness and size distribution), mass...

  2. MODIS/Aqua Aerosol 5-Min L2 Swath 3km V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS level-2 atmospheric aerosol product provides retrieved ambient aerosol optical properties (e.g., optical thickness and size distribution), mass...

  3. MODIS/Terra Near Real Time (NRT) Aerosol 5-Min L2 Swath 3km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS level-2 atmospheric aerosol product provides retrieved ambient aerosol optical properties (e.g., optical thickness and size distribution), mass...

  4. MODIS/Terra Aerosol 5-Min L2 Swath 3km V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS level-2 atmospheric aerosol product provides retrieved ambient aerosol optical properties (e.g., optical thickness and size distribution), mass...

  5. Veikala lojalitātes programmas iOS lietotne

    OpenAIRE

    Freibergs, Kristaps

    2013-01-01

    Pasaulē izmantoto tehnoloģiju klāstam augot, ir pieaudzis arī mobilo ierīču piedāvājums un to iespējas. Salīdzinoši lielu daļu tirgus ir iekarojusi Apple Inc. ar savu produkciju, tai skaitā iPhone viedtālruņiem. Šajā kvalifikācijas darbā tiek aprakstīta un izstrādāta iPhone ierīces lietotne veikala lojalitātes programmas realizācijai. Lietotnes mērķis ir popularizēt konkrēto veikalu, piedāvājot dažādas lietotājam saistošas funkcijas, tai skaitā, apskatīt tuvākos veikalus, izveidot iepirkumu g...

  6. Multiplexed TES Bolometers on FIBRE, SPIFI, and SAFIRE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staguhn, J. G.; Benford, D. J.; Irwin, K. D.; Moseley, S. H.; Pajot, F.; Shafer, R. A.; Stacey, G. J.

    2001-12-01

    We have produced a variety of Transition Edge Sensor (TES) bolometers using superconducting bilayers (MoAu and MoCu) with transitions between 300-500 mK. These have produced NEPs as low as 3x 10-17 W Hz-1/2. SQUID based time division multiplexers allow efficient readout with little noise cost. The multiplexed TESes were used in their first astronomical application in a recent observation with the FIBRE (Fabry Perot Interferometer Research Experiment) at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. We present lab results of improved performance devices and discuss designs for applications in large arrays (8x32 and larger) in the upcoming SPIFI and SAFIRE instruments.

  7. Analisis Daya Beda Soal, Taraf Kesukaran, Validitas Butir Tes, Interpretasi Hasil Tes dan Validitas Ramalan dalam Evaluasi Pendidikan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujianto Solichin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Daya beda soal adalah kemampuan suatu soal untuk membedakan antara siswa yang pandai (berkemampuan tinggi dengan siswa yang kurang pintar (berkemampuan rendah. Angka yang menunjukkan besarnya daya beda disebut indeks diskriminasi, yang mana berkisar antara 0,00 sampai 1,00. Bilangan yang menunjukkan sukar dan mudahnya sesuatu soal disebut indeks kesukaran (difficulty index. Besarnya indeks kesukaran antara 0,00 sampai dengan 1,0. Indeks kesukaran ini menunjukkan taraf kesukaran soal. Soal dengan indeks kesukaran 0,0 menunjukkan bahwa soal itu terlalu sukar, sebaliknya indeks 1,0 menunjukkan bahwa soalnya terlalu mudah. Validitas ramalan (predictive validity merupakan suatu tes yang diharapkan mampu meramalkan keberhasilan studi para calon mahasiswa dalam mengikuti program pendidikan di suatu perguruan tinggi pada masa-masa yang akan datang. Adapun yang menjadi permasalahan di sini adalah bagaimana cara yang dapat ditempuh agar kita dapat sampai pada kesimpulan bahwa suatu tes telah memiliki validitas ramalan? Analisis soal sesungguhnya bertujuan untuk mengadakan identifikasi soal-soal yang baik, kurang baik, dan soal yang jelek. Dengan analisis soal dapat diperoleh informasi tentang kejelekan sebuah soal dan “petunjuk” untuk mengadakan perbaikan dalam pembelajaran. Kualitas tes dan butir soal sangat ditentukan oleh: (1 validitas, (2 reliabilitas, (3 objektivitas, (4 praktikabilitas, (5 daya pembeda, (6 taraf atau derajad kesukaran, (7 efektivitas pilihan, dan (8 efisiensi. What is meant here is the ability of the question to distinguish between clever students and not-clever students. Figures indicating the magnitude of discriminating ability are called discriminative indices, which range from 0.00 to 1.00. Numbers that indicate difficult and easy questions are called difficulty indexes. The magnitude of the index of difficulty between 0.00 to 1.0. This difficult index indicates the difficulty level of the question. Questions with a .07

  8. DSMC multicomponent aerosol dynamics: Sampling algorithms and aerosol processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniswaamy, Geethpriya

    The post-accident nuclear reactor primary and containment environments can be characterized by high temperatures and pressures, and fission products and nuclear aerosols. These aerosols evolve via natural transport processes as well as under the influence of engineered safety features. These aerosols can be hazardous and may pose risk to the public if released into the environment. Computations of their evolution, movement and distribution involve the study of various processes such as coagulation, deposition, condensation, etc., and are influenced by factors such as particle shape, charge, radioactivity and spatial inhomogeneity. These many factors make the numerical study of nuclear aerosol evolution computationally very complicated. The focus of this research is on the use of the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) technique to elucidate the role of various phenomena that influence the nuclear aerosol evolution. In this research, several aerosol processes such as coagulation, deposition, condensation, and source reinforcement are explored for a multi-component, aerosol dynamics problem in a spatially homogeneous medium. Among the various sampling algorithms explored the Metropolis sampling algorithm was found to be effective and fast. Several test problems and test cases are simulated using the DSMC technique. The DSMC results obtained are verified against the analytical and sectional results for appropriate test problems. Results show that the assumption of a single mean density is not appropriate due to the complicated effect of component densities on the aerosol processes. The methods developed and the insights gained will also be helpful in future research on the challenges associated with the description of fission product and aerosol releases.

  9. Atmospheric oxidation of 1,3-butadiene: characterization of gas and aerosol reaction products and implications for PM2.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaoui, M.; Lewandowski, M.; Docherty, K.; Offenberg, J. H.; Kleindienst, T. E.

    2014-12-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) was generated by irradiating 1,3-butadiene (13BD) in the presence of H2O2 or NOx. Experiments were conducted in a smog chamber operated in either flow or batch mode. A filter/denuder sampling system was used for simultaneously collecting gas- and particle-phase products. The chemical composition of the gas phase and SOA was analyzed using derivative-based methods (BSTFA, BSTFA + PFBHA, or DNPH) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the derivative compounds. The analysis showed the occurrence of more than 60 oxygenated organic compounds in the gas and particle phases, of which 31 organic monomers were tentatively identified. The major identified products include glyceric acid, d-threitol, erythritol, d-threonic acid, meso-threonic acid, erythrose, malic acid, tartaric acid, and carbonyls including glycolaldehyde, glyoxal, acrolein, malonaldehyde, glyceraldehyde, and peroxyacryloyl nitrate (APAN). Some of these were detected in ambient PM2.5 samples, and could potentially serve as organic markers of 13BD. Furthermore, a series of oligoesters were detected and found to be produced through chemical reactions occurring in the aerosol phase between compounds bearing alcoholic groups and compounds bearing acidic groups. SOA was analyzed for organic mass to organic carbon (OM /OC) ratio, effective enthalpy of vaporization (Δ Hvapeff), and aerosol yield. The average OM /OC ratio and SOA density were 2.7 ± 0.09 and 1.2 ± 0.05, respectively. The average Δ Hvapeff was -26.08 ± 1.46 kJ mol-1, a value lower than that of isoprene SOA. The average laboratory SOA yield measured in this study at aerosol mass concentrations between 22.5 and 140.2 μg m-3 was 0.025 ± 0.011, a value consistent with the literature (0.021-0.178). While the focus of this study has been examination of the particle-phase measurements, the gas-phase photooxidation products have also been

  10. Winter- and summertime continental influences on tropospheric O3 and CO observed by TES over the western North Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Talbot

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The distributions of tropospheric ozone (O3 and carbon monoxide (CO, and the synoptic factors regulating these distributions over the western North Atlantic Ocean during winter and summer were investigated using profile retrievals from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES for 2004–2006. Seasonal composites of TES retrievals, reprocessed to remove the influence of the a priori on geographical and seasonal structure, exhibited strong seasonal differences. At the 681 hPa level during winter months of December, January and February (DJF the composite O3 mixing ratios were uniformly low (~45 ppbv, but continental export was evident in a channel of enhanced CO (100–110 ppbv flowing eastward from the US coast. In summer months June, July, and August (JJA O3 mixing ratios were variable (45–65 ppbv and generally higher due to increased photochemical production. The summer distribution also featured a channel of enhanced CO (95–105 ppbv flowing northeastward around an anticyclone and exiting the continent over the Canadian Maritimes around 50° N. Offshore O3-CO slopes were generally 0.15–0.20 mol mol−1 in JJA, indicative of photochemical O3 production. Composites for 4 predominant synoptic patterns or map types in DJF suggested that export to the lower free troposphere (681 hPa level was enhanced by the warm conveyor belt airstream of mid-latitude cyclones while stratospheric intrusions increased TES O3 levels at 316 hPa. A major finding in the DJF data was that offshore 681 hPa CO mixing ratios behind cold fronts could be enhanced up to >150 ppbv likely by lofting from the surface via shallow convection resulting from rapid destabilization of cold air flowing over much warmer ocean waters. In JJA composites for 3 map types showed that the general export pattern of the seasonal composites was associated with a synoptic pattern featuring the Bermuda High. However, weak cyclones and frontal troughs could enhance offshore 681 hPa CO

  11. BrCl production in NaBr/NaCl/HNO3/O3 solutions representative of sea-salt aerosols in the marine boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disselkamp, R. S.; Chapman, E. G.; Barchet, W. R.; Colson, S. D.; Howd, C. D.

    Atomic bromine and chlorine liberated from sea-salt aerosol is thought to play an important role in chemistry of the marine boundary layer. Despite numerous modeling studies, no prior experimental investigations of the oxidation of halide species contained in simulated, or actual, sea-salt solutions have been performed. We present laboratory data that examines chemistry in NaBr/NaCl/HNO3/O3 solutions at 290 K. Ozonation experiments were performed by flowing ozone in air through a nitric acid/salt solution and monitoring pH with time using an ion-sensitive electrode. The rate of oxidation was observed to be first order in ozone concentration and to have a non-first order bromide concentration dependence. Ion Chromatography was used to measure both bromide disappearance as well as oxidation products formed during the course of the reactions studied. Our measurements of the oxidation rate versus ion concentration indicate that the high ionic strength present in sea-salt aerosol will possess unique kinetics different from dilute solution behavior. In addition, our results are consistent with the reaction sequence O3 + H+ + Br- → O2 + HOBr and HOBr + Cl- + H+ → BrCl + H2O. These observations support the HOBr mediated Cl- oxidation process proposed previously (Vogt et al., 1996).

  12. Procedures and findings of examination of air contamination by alpha-active plutonium aerosols: primary and secondary products of Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaziev, Ya.I.; Petrenko, G.I.; Chumichyev, V.B.; Valetova, N.K.; Shkuro, V.N.; Polukhina, A.M.

    1991-01-01

    Atmospheric contamination pattern by Pu-radionuclides over a 30 km zone of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1987-1988 has been examined. Aerosol samples were analyzed for isotopic composition by using gamma- and alpha-spectrometric, and radiochemical methods. Preliminary analysis of isotopic and fractional composition of aerosols carried out earlier indicated that over the first few months after the Chernobyl accident the relative contribution of 238,239,240 Pu to air contamination was lowered as compared with beta-active products. At present, however, alpha-active plutonium isotopes became the dominant radioactive contaminants of the atmosphere and the concentrations of 238,239,240 Pu inhaled fractions turned out to be lower than the limiting permissible values based on the USSR radiation safety standards for radioactive contamination of the atmosphere for the limited part of population exposed to radionuclides. Nevertheless, it is necessary to know even moderate levels of atmospheric contamination by Pu-radionuclides, since their long impacts on the personnel operating in the 30 km zone of the Chernobyl NPP and population residing in the adjavent regions have not been studied properly. So, the risks for population health of such impacts cannot be generally excluded from consideration. (author) 4 refs.; 5 tabs

  13. Baseband Feedback Frequency-Division Multiplexing with Low-Power dc-SQUIDs and Digital Electronics for TES X-Ray Microcalorimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, K.; Takei, Y.; Yamamoto, R.; Yamasaki, N. Y.; Mitsuda, K.; Hidaka, M.; Nagasawa, S.; Kohjiro, S.; Miyazaki, T.

    2014-08-01

    We are developing frequency-division multiplexing (FDM) systems with baseband feedback for TES X-ray microcalorimeter arrays for use with the DIOS mission. To meet the requirement of limited cooling capacity at cryogenic temperatures, we developed low-power and FDM-optmized dc-SQUIDs. To make maximum use of the SQUIDs, we also developed digital electronics using FPGA evaluation boards and ADC/DAC FMC daughter cards, and evaluated signal-to-noise ratios and gain-bandwidth products.

  14. A 4-D climatology (1979–2009 of the monthly tropospheric aerosol optical depth distribution over the Mediterranean region from a comparative evaluation and blending of remote sensing and model products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Nabat

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s several spaceborne sensors have been used to retrieve the aerosol optical depth (AOD over the Mediterranean region. In parallel, AOD climatologies coming from different numerical model simulations are now also available, permitting to distinguish the contribution of several aerosol types to the total AOD. In this work, we perform a comparative analysis of this unique multi-year database in terms of total AOD and of its apportionment by the five main aerosol types (soil dust, sea-salt, sulfate, black and organic carbon. We use 9 different satellite-derived monthly AOD products: NOAA/AVHRR, SeaWiFS (2 products, TERRA/MISR, TERRA/MODIS, AQUA/MODIS, ENVISAT/MERIS, PARASOL/POLDER and MSG/SEVIRI, as well as 3 more historical datasets: NIMBUS7/CZCS, TOMS (onboard NIMBUS7 and Earth-Probe and METEOSAT/MVIRI. Monthly model datasets include the aerosol climatology from Tegen et al. (1997, the climate-chemistry models LMDz-OR-INCA and RegCM-4, the multi-model mean coming from the ACCMIP exercise, and the reanalyses GEMS and MACC. Ground-based Level-2 AERONET AOD observations from 47 stations around the basin are used here to evaluate the model and satellite data. The sensor MODIS (on AQUA and TERRA has the best average AOD scores over this region, showing a relevant spatio-temporal variability and highlighting high dust loads over Northern Africa and the sea (spring and summer, and sulfate aerosols over continental Europe (summer. The comparison also shows limitations of certain datasets (especially MERIS and SeaWiFS standard products. Models reproduce the main patterns of the AOD variability over the basin. The MACC reanalysis is the closest to AERONET data, but appears to underestimate dust over Northern Africa, where RegCM-4 is found closer to MODIS thanks to its interactive scheme for dust emissions. The vertical dimension is also investigated using the CALIOP instrument. This study confirms differences of vertical distribution between

  15. Aerosol retrieval algorithm for the characterization of local aerosol using MODIS L1B data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahab, A M; Sarker, M L R

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosol plays an important role in radiation budget, climate change, hydrology and visibility. However, it has immense effect on the air quality, especially in densely populated areas where high concentration of aerosol is associated with premature death and the decrease of life expectancy. Therefore, an accurate estimation of aerosol with spatial distribution is essential, and satellite data has increasingly been used to estimate aerosol optical depth (AOD). Aerosol product (AOD) from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data is available at global scale but problems arise due to low spatial resolution, time-lag availability of AOD product as well as the use of generalized aerosol models in retrieval algorithm instead of local aerosol models. This study focuses on the aerosol retrieval algorithm for the characterization of local aerosol in Hong Kong for a long period of time (2006-2011) using high spatial resolution MODIS level 1B data (500 m resolution) and taking into account the local aerosol models. Two methods (dark dense vegetation and MODIS land surface reflectance product) were used for the estimation of the surface reflectance over land and Santa Barbara DISORT Radiative Transfer (SBDART) code was used to construct LUTs for calculating the aerosol reflectance as a function of AOD. Results indicate that AOD can be estimated at the local scale from high resolution MODIS data, and the obtained accuracy (ca. 87%) is very much comparable with the accuracy obtained from other studies (80%-95%) for AOD estimation

  16. Sea Spray Aerosols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butcher, Andrew Charles

    emissions produced directly from bubble bursting as the result of air entrainment from breaking waves and particles generated from secondary emissions of volatile organic compounds. In the first paper, we study the chemical properties of particles produced from several sea water proxies with the use...... of a cloud condensation nuclei ounter. Proxy solutions with high inorganic salt concentrations and some organics produce sea spray aerosol particles with little change in cloud condensation activity relative to pure salts. Comparison is made between a frit based method for bubble production and a plunging...... a relationship between plunging jet particle ux, oceanic particle ux, and energy dissipation rate in both systems. Previous sea spray aerosol studies dissipate an order of magnitude more energy for the same particle ux production as the open ocean. A scaling factor related to the energy expended in air...

  17. Peningkatan Prestasi/Nilai Peserta Didik Topik Produktifitas Melalui Teknik Tes Unjuk Kerja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Suasaningdyah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan dalam penelitian ini yaitu untuk meningkatkan prestasi/nilai peserta didik dalam menguasai mata pelajaran IPS topik produktifitas, mengetahui  faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi pelaksanaannya. Jenis penelitian ini adalah Penelitian Tindakan Kelas. Subyek penelitiannya adalah peserta didik  kelas VII E SMPN 33 Surabaya  semester genap Tahun Pelajaran 2006 – 2007 yang berjumlah 38, dan obyek penelitiannya adalah nilai yang diperoleh setelah melakukan unjuk kerja. Prosedur yang dilakukan terbagi dalam bentuk siklus I dan siklus II,  setiap siklus terdiri atas  perencanaan, tindakan pelaksanaan, pengamatan dan refleksi. Analisis yang digunakan analisis deskriptif kualitatif. Hipotesis yang diajukan yaitu, teknik tes unjuk kerja dapat meningkatkan prestasi/nilai peserta didik dalam menguasai mata pelajaran IPS topik produktifitas di kelas VII E SMPN 33 Surabaya.  Hasil analisis terhadap nilai siswa Siklus I rata-rata  72,95. Siklus II rata-rata 79,21. Nilai peserta didik setelah mengalami 2 siklus tetap tinggi, walaupun dilakukan perubahan spesialisasi kerja, serta merubah skor dari hasil produksi dibagi 2 menjadi dibagi 4 pada putaran 3 siklus II. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian ini, melalui teknik tes unjuk kerja dapat meningkatkan prestasi/nilai peserta didik sehingga hipotesa dapat diterima.  Kata Kunci: Prestasi/Nilai, Aktivitas peserta didik, Unjuk kerja    Namely hearts Interest Research singer to review increasing Achievement / Value Learners hearts Mastering Lessons eyes IPS Topics productivity, determine the factors affecting the implementation. Research operates Singer is a Class Action Research. The subject of his research is Learners Class VII E SMPN 33 Surabaya semester of Academic Year 2006-2007 evens That amounted to 38, and the object of research is a Value That TIN taxable income do performance. The procedure is performed divided hearts Shape CYCLES CYCLE I and II, EACH CYCLE consists differences Planning

  18. Toxicity of atmospheric aerosols on marine phytoplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paytan, A.; Mackey, K.R.M.; Chen, Y.; Lima, I.D.; Doney, S.C.; Mahowald, N.; Labiosa, R.; Post, A.F.

    2009-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosol deposition is an important source of nutrients and trace metals to the open ocean that can enhance ocean productivity and carbon sequestration and thus influence atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and climate. Using aerosol samples from different back trajectories in incubation experiments with natural communities, we demonstrate that the response of phytoplankton growth to aerosol additions depends on specific components in aerosols and differs across phytoplankton species. Aerosol additions enhanced growth by releasing nitrogen and phosphorus, but not all aerosols stimulated growth. Toxic effects were observed with some aerosols, where the toxicity affected picoeukaryotes and Synechococcus but not Prochlorococcus.We suggest that the toxicity could be due to high copper concentrations in these aerosols and support this by laboratory copper toxicity tests preformed with Synechococcus cultures. However, it is possible that other elements present in the aerosols or unknown synergistic effects between these elements could have also contributed to the toxic effect. Anthropogenic emissions are increasing atmospheric copper deposition sharply, and based on coupled atmosphere-ocean calculations, we show that this deposition can potentially alter patterns of marine primary production and community structure in high aerosol, low chlorophyll areas, particularly in the Bay of Bengal and downwind of South and East Asia.

  19. TES/Aura L3 CO2 Daily Gridded V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Daily atmospheric vertical profile estimates and VMR for the atmospheric species are provided at 2 deg. lat. X 4 deg. long. spatial grids and at a subset of TES...

  20. TES/Aura L3 CH4 Monthly Gridded V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TES Aura L3 CH4 data consist of monthly averages of atmospheric Methane for atmospheric species. Data are provided at 2 degree latitude X 4 degree longitude...

  1. TES/Aura L3 CO2 Lite Monthly Gridded V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TES Aura L3 CO2 data consist of daily atmospheric temperature and VMR for the atmospheric species. Data are provided at 2 degree latitude X 4 degree longitude...

  2. TES/Aura L3 H2O Monthly Gridded V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TES Aura L3 H2O data consist of daily atmospheric temperature and VMR for the atmospheric species. Data are provided at 2 degree latitude X 4 degree longitude...

  3. TES/Aura L3 Atmospheric Temperatures Monthly Gridded V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TES Aura L3 ATM data consist of daily atmospheric temperature and VMR for the atmospheric species. Data are provided at 2 degree latitude X 4 degree longitude...

  4. TES/Aura L2 Carbon Dioxide Lite Nadir V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TES Level 2 data contain retrieved species (or temperature) profiles at the observation targets and the estimated errors. The geolocation, quality and other data...

  5. TES/Aura L2 Carbon Monoxide Lite Nadir V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TES Level 2 data contain retrieved species (or temperature) profiles at the observation targets and the estimated errors. The geolocation, quality and some other...

  6. TES/Aura L2 CH4 Limb Special Observation V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TES Level 2 data contain retrieved species (or temperature) profiles at the observation targets and the estimated errors. The geolocation, quality and other data...

  7. TES/Aura L2 Atmospheric Temperatures Limb Special Observation V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TES Level 2 data contain retrieved species (or temperature) profiles at the observation targets and the estimated errors. The geolocation, quality and other data...

  8. TES/Aura L2 Atmospheric Temperature Lite Nadir V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TES Level 2 data contain retrieved species (or temperature) profiles at the observation targets and the estimated errors. The geolocation, quality and some other...

  9. TES/Aura L2 Instantaneous Radiative Kernel Nadir V007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Using TES radiances, Jacobians and ozone profiles with hemispherical integration, it is possible to compute the TOA (top-of-atmosphere) flux from the infrared ozone...

  10. TES/Aura L2 Instantaneous Radiative Kernel Nadir Special Observation V007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Using TES radiances, Jacobians and ozone profiles with hemispherical integration, it is possible to compute the TOA (top-of-atmosphere) flux from the infrared ozone...

  11. TES/Aura L3 CH4 Daily Gridded V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Daily atmospheric temperature and VMR for the atmospheric species are provided at 2 deg. lat. X 4 deg. long. spatial grids and at a subset of TES standard pressure...

  12. TES/Aura L3 HNO3 Daily Gridded V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Daily atmospheric temperature and VMR for the atmospheric species are provided at 2 deg. lat. X 4 deg. long. spatial grids and at a subset of TES standard pressure...

  13. TES/Aura L3 CH4 Daily Gridded V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TES Aura L3 CH4 data consist of daily averages of atmospheric Methane for atmospheric species. Data are provided at 2 degree latitude X 4 degree longitude...

  14. TES/Aura L3 HNO3 Monthly Gridded V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TES Aura L3 ATD data consist of monthly atmospheric temperature and VMR for the atmospheric species. Data are provided at 2 degree latitude X 4 degree longitude...

  15. Radiation Tolerance Evaluation of the Ti/Au Bilayer TES Microcalorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishisaki, Y.; Enokijima, Y.; Ezoe, Y.; Ohashi, T.; Akamatsu, H.; Yamamoto, R.; Takei, Y.; Mitsuda, K.; Yamasaki, N. Y.; Yamada, S.

    2014-08-01

    We have developed Ti/Au bilayer transition-edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeters for future X-ray astrophysical satellite missions such as DIOS. One possible concern on the space use of TES microcalorimeters is its radiation tolerance. We have evaluated the performance of a Ti/Au bilayer (30/40 nm thick) TES microcalorimeter with 1.5 m thick Au absorber, before and after irradiation of 150 MeV proton beam with a total dose of 10 krad, corresponding to 10 years in the low Earth orbit. No significant changes on transition temperature, sensitivity, normal resistance, and critical current were observed. The energy resolution for 5.9 keV X-rays was 5.6 0.3 eV (FWHM) after the irradiation, which was slightly worse than 5.1 0.3 eV before the irradiation. We consider that our TES has sufficient radiation tolerance in orbit.

  16. TES/Aura L3 HNO3 Daily Gridded V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Daily atmospheric temperature and VMR for the atmospheric species are provided at 2 deg. lat. X 4 deg. long. spatial grids and at a subset of TES standard pressure...

  17. TES/Aura L3 H2O Daily Gridded V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Daily atmospheric temperature and VMR for the atmospheric species are provided at 2 deg. lat. X 4 deg. long. spatial grids and at a subset of TES standard pressure...

  18. TES/Aura L2 Supplemental Profiles Special Observation V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Input data to the TES radiance forward model. These are profiles generated from climatology databases to be used in the forward model calculation but are not...

  19. TES/Aura L3 H2O Daily Gridded V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Daily atmospheric temperature and VMR for the atmospheric species are provided at 2 deg. lat. X 4 deg. long. spatial grids and at a subset of TES standard pressure...

  20. TES/Aura L3 H2O Monthly Gridded V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Monthly averages of atmospheric temperature and VMR for atmospheric species are provided at 2 deg. lat. X 4 deg. long. spatial grids and at a subset of TES standard...

  1. Characterization of Kilopixel TES detector arrays for PIPER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Rahul; Ade, Peter; Benford, Dominic; Bennett, Charles; Chuss, David; Costen, Nicholas; Coughlin, Kevin; Dotson, Jessie; Eimer, Joseph; Fixsen, Dale; Gandilo, Natalie; Halpern, Mark; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Hilton, Gene; Hinshaw, Gary; Irwin, Kent; Jhabvala, Christine; Kimball, Mark; Kogut, Al; Lazear, Justin; Lowe, Luke; Manos, George; McMahon, Jeff; Miller, Timothy; Mirel, Paul; Moseley, Samuel Harvey; Pawlyk, Samuel; Rodriguez, Samelys; Sharp, Elmer; Shirron, Peter; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Sullivan, Dan; Switzer, Eric; Taraschi, Peter; Tucker, Carole; Walts, Alexander; Wollack, Edward

    2018-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Polarization ExploreR (PIPER) is a balloon-borne instrument optimized to measure the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) at large angular scales. It will map 85% of the sky in four frequency bands centered at 200, 270, 350, and 600 GHz to characterize dust foregrounds and constrain the tensor-to-scalar ratio, r. The sky is imaged on to 32x40 pixel arrays of time-domain multiplexed Transition-Edge Sensor (TES) bolometers operating at a bath temperature of 100 mK to achieve background-limited sensitivity. Each kilopixel array is indium-bump-bonded to a 2D superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) time-domain multiplexer (MUX) chip and read out by warm electronics. Each pixel measures total incident power over a frequency band defined by bandpass filters in front of the array, while polarization sensitivity is provided by the upstream Variable-delay Polarization Modulators (VPMs) and analyzer grids. We present measurements of the detector parameters from the laboratory characterization of the first kilopixel science array for PIPER including transition temperature, saturation power, thermal conductivity, time constant, and noise performance. We also describe the testing of the 2D MUX chips, optimization of the integrated readout parameters, and the overall pixel yield of the array. The first PIPER science flight is planned for June 2018 from Palestine, Texas.

  2. Bismuth X-ray absorber studies for TES microcalorimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadleir, J.E. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States) and University of Illinois Physics Department, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)]. E-mail: sadleir@milkyway.gsfc.nasa.gov; Bandler, S.R. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Brekosky, R.P. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Chervenak, J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Figueroa-Feliciano, E. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Finkbeiner, F. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Iyomoto, N. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kelley, R.L. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kilbourne, C.A. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); King, J.M. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Porter, F.S. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Robinson, I.K. [University of Illinois Physics Department, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Saab, T. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Talley, D.J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2006-04-15

    Bismuth's large atomic number and low carrier density makes it an attractive X-ray absorber material for microcalorimeters. Bismuth's long Fermi wavelength and long mean free paths have motivated much interest in the fabrication of high quality bismuth films to study quantum size effects. Despite such incentives, fabrication of high quality bismuth films has proven difficult, and measured properties of such films are highly variable in the literature. Implementing a bismuth deposition process for TES (superconducting Transition Edge Sensor) device fabrication presents additional challenges particularly at interfaces due to the inherent granularity and surface roughness of its films, its low melting point, and its tendency to diffuse and form undesired intermetallic phases. We report observations of Bi-Cu and Bi-Au diffusion in our devices correlating with large shifts in T{sub c} (superconducting transition temperature). Using SEM and in situ R vs T annealing experiments we have been able to study these diffusion processes and identify their activation temperatures.

  3. Aerosol Lidar and MODIS Satellite Comparisons for Future Aerosol Loading Forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeYoung, Russell; Szykman, James; Severance, Kurt; Chu, D. Allen; Rosen, Rebecca; Al-Saadi, Jassim

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge of the concentration and distribution of atmospheric aerosols using both airborne lidar and satellite instruments is a field of active research. An aircraft based aerosol lidar has been used to study the distribution of atmospheric aerosols in the California Central Valley and eastern US coast. Concurrently, satellite aerosol retrievals, from the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instrument aboard the Terra and Aqua satellites, were take over the Central Valley. The MODIS Level 2 aerosol data product provides retrieved ambient aerosol optical properties (e.g., optical depth (AOD) and size distribution) globally over ocean and land at a spatial resolution of 10 km. The Central Valley topography was overlaid with MODIS AOD (5x5 sq km resolution) and the aerosol scattering vertical profiles from a lidar flight. Backward air parcel trajectories for the lidar data show that air from the Pacific and northern part of the Central Valley converge confining the aerosols to the lower valley region and below the mixed layer. Below an altitude of 1 km, the lidar aerosol and MODIS AOD exhibit good agreement. Both data sets indicate a high presence of aerosols near Bakersfield and the Tehachapi Mountains. These and other results to be presented indicate that the majority of the aerosols are below the mixed layer such that the MODIS AOD should correspond well with surface measurements. Lidar measurements will help interpret satellite AOD retrievals so that one day they can be used on a routine basis for prediction of boundary layer aerosol pollution events.

  4. Gestion des côtes marocaines : renforcement des capacités d ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Gestion des côtes marocaines : renforcement des capacités d'adapter aux changements climatiques. Les répercussions de la hausse du niveau de la mer, de l'inondation des côtes et des ondes de tempête constituent un enjeu de plus en plus important en matière de politiques pour les planificateurs, les autorités locales ...

  5. Atmospheric oxidation of 1,3-butadiene: characterization of gas and aerosol reaction products and implication for PM2.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaoui, M.; Lewandowski, M.; Docherty, K.; Offenberg, J. H.; Kleindienst, T. E.

    2014-06-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) was generated by irradiating 1,3-butadiene (13BD) in the presence of H2O2 or NOx. Experiments were conducted in a smog chamber operated in either flow or batch mode. A filter/denuder sampling system was used for simultaneously collecting gas- and particle-phase products. The chemical composition of the gas phase and SOA was analyzed using derivative-based methods (BSTFA, BSTFA + PFBHA, or DNPH) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the derivative compounds. The analysis showed the occurrence of more than 60 oxygenated organic compounds in the gas and particle phases, of which 31 organic monomers were tentatively identified. The major identified products include glyceric acid, d-threitol, erythritol, d-threonic acid, meso-threonic acid, erythrose, malic acid, tartaric acid, and carbonyls including glycolaldehyde, glyoxal, acrolein, malonaldehyde, glyceraldehyde, and peroxyacryloyl nitrate (APAN). Some of these were detected in ambient PM2.5 samples and could potentially serve as organic markers of 1,3-butadiene (13BD). Furthermore, a series of oligoesters were detected and found to be produced from esterification reactions among compounds bearing alcoholic groups and compounds bearing acidic groups. Time profiles are provided for selected compounds. SOA was analyzed for organic mass to organic carbon (OM / OC) ratio, effective enthalpy of vaporization (ΔHvapeff), and aerosol yield. The average OM / OC ratio and SOA density were 2.7 ± 0.09 and 1.2 ± 0.05, respectively. The average ΔHvapeff was 26.1 ± 1.5 kJ mol-1, a value lower than that of isoprene SOA. The average laboratory SOA yield measured in this study at aerosol mass concentrations between 22.5 and 140.2 μg m-3 was 0.025 ± 0.011, a value consistent with the literature (0.021-0.178). While the focus of this study has been examination of the particle-phase measurements, the gas

  6. TES ammonia retrieval strategy and global observations of the spatial and seasonal variability of ammonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. W. Shephard

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Presently only limited sets of tropospheric ammonia (NH3 measurements in the Earth's atmosphere have been reported from satellite and surface station measurements, despite the well-documented negative impact of NH3 on the environment and human health. Presented here is a detailed description of the satellite retrieval strategy and analysis for the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES using simulations and measurements. These results show that: (i the level of detectability for a representative boundary layer TES NH3 mixing ratio value is ~0.4 ppbv, which typically corresponds to a profile that contains a maximum level value of ~1 ppbv; (ii TES NH3 retrievals generally provide at most one degree of freedom for signal (DOFS, with peak sensitivity between 700 and 900 mbar; (iii TES NH3 retrievals show significant spatial and seasonal variability of NH3 globally; (iv initial comparisons of TES observations with GEOS-CHEM estimates show TES values being higher overall. Important differences and similarities between modeled and observed seasonal and spatial trends are noted, with discrepancies indicating areas where the timing and magnitude of modeled NH3 emissions from agricultural sources, and to lesser extent biomass burning sources, need further study.

  7. TOMS Absorbing Aerosol Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Washington University St Louis — TOMS_AI_G is an aerosol related dataset derived from the Total Ozone Monitoring Satellite (TOMS) Sensor. The TOMS aerosol index arises from absorbing aerosols such...

  8. APLIKASI TES KEPRIBADIAN UNTUK PENEMPATAN KARYAWAN MENGGUNAKAN METODE MBTI (MYERS-BRIGGS TYPEINDICATORBERBASISWEB (STUDI KASUS: PT. WINATA PUTRA MANDIRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiftin Noviyanto

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Penempatan karyawan merupakan salah satu fungsi terpenting dalam Manajemen Sumber Daya Manusia. Penempatan karyawan yang tepat sesuai dengan harapan, bakat dan kepribadian karyawan, akan mampu meningkatkan motivasi, produltifitas dan kepuasan kerja. Salah satu tes penunjang penempatan karyawan adalah tes kepribadian. Tes kepribadian yang dilakukan menggunakan metode Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI. Pelaksanaan tes yang dilakukan manual dan terpisah antara kantor pusat dan kantor cabang membuat PT. Winata Putra Mandiri memerlukan waktu yang lama untuk melihat keseluruhan hasil tes seluruh karyawan. Tujuan penelitian ini membuat aplikasi tes kepribadian yang dapat diakses melalui internet adalah agar karyawan dapat melihat hasil tes kepribadian secara langsung dan cepat serta dapat mengintegrasikan hasil tes dari kantor pusat dan kantor cabang. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan berbagai metode antara lain : Studi kepustakaan, metode interview dan browsing. Model proses yang digunakan adalah waterfall yang terdiri dari analisa kebutuhan sistem, perancangan, implementasi dan pengujian. Pada perancangan sistem dimulai dari perancangan proses, perancangan tabel, perancangan menu dan perancangan interface. Pada tahap implementasi menggunakan PHPMyAdmin untuk membangun basisdata dan PHP untuk teknologi Serverside. Tahap terakhir adalah pengujian sistem yang dilakukan dengan Black Box Test dan Alpha Test. Hasil penelitian ini berupa aplikasi tes kepribadian menggunakan metode Myers- Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI berbasis web yang dapat membantu PT. Winata Putra Mandiri dalam mengintegrasikan hasil tes seluruh karyawan baik dari kantor pusat maupun kantor cabang

  9. Characterization of aerosols produced by surgical procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, H.C.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Lundgren, D.L.; Guilmette, R.A.; Snipes, M.B.; Jones, R.K. [Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Turner, R.S. [Lovelace Health Systems, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-07-01

    In many surgeries, especially orthopedic procedures, power tools such as saws and drills are used. These tools may produce aerosolized blood and other biological material from bone and soft tissues. Surgical lasers and electrocautery tools can also produce aerosols when tissues are vaporized and condensed. Studies have been reported in the literature concerning production of aerosols during surgery, and some of these aerosols may contain infectious material. Garden et al. (1988) reported the presence of papilloma virus DNA in the fumes produced from laser surgery, but the infectivity of the aerosol was not assessed. Moon and Nininger (1989) measured the size distribution and production rate of emissions from laser surgery and found that particles were generally less than 0.5 {mu}m diameter. More recently there has been concern expressed over the production of aerosolized blood during surgical procedures that require power tools. In an in vitro study, the production of an aerosol containing the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was reported when power tools were used to cut tissues with blood infected with HIV. Another study measured the size distribution of blood aerosols produced by surgical power tools and found blood-containing particles in a number of size ranges. Health care workers are anxious and concerned about whether surgically produced aerosols are inspirable and can contain viable pathogens such as HIV. Other pathogens such as hepatitis B virus (HBV) are also of concern. The Occupational Safety and Health funded a project at the National Institute for Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute to assess the extent of aerosolization of blood and other tissues during surgical procedures. This document reports details of the experimental and sampling approach, methods, analyses, and results on potential production of blood-associated aerosols from surgical procedures in the laboratory and in the hospital surgical suite.

  10. Parameterization of the formation potential of secondary organic aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosjean, Daniel; Seinfeld, John H.

    Urban particulate matter (PM10) concentrations often include a large contribution from secondary aerosols, i.e. sulfate, nitrate and organic aerosols, which are formed in situ by chemical reactions of their gas phase precursors, SO x, NO x and reactive organic gases (ROG), respectively. For secondary organic aerosols, the results of smog chamber experiments are used to estimate the fraction of ROG that is converted into aerosols, called the fractional aerosol coefficient. An 'emission parameter' for secondary organic aerosol can thus be calculated for each ROG. This emission parameter is simply taken as the product of the ROG emission factor and the fractional aerosol coefficient. The secondary organic aerosol emission parameters thus estimated can then be modeled as if secondary organic aerosols formed photochemically in urban air were primary emissions.

  11. Informing Aerosol Transport Models With Satellite Multi-Angle Aerosol Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbacher, J.; Patadia, F.; Petrenko, M.; Martin, M. Val; Chin, M.; Gaitley, B.; Garay, M.; Kalashnikova, O.; Nelson, D.; Scollo, S.

    2011-01-01

    As the aerosol products from the NASA Earth Observing System's Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) mature, we are placing greater focus on ways of using the aerosol amount and type data products, and aerosol plume heights, to constrain aerosol transport models. We have demonstrated the ability to map aerosol air-mass-types regionally, and have identified product upgrades required to apply them globally, including the need for a quality flag indicating the aerosol type information content, that varies depending upon retrieval conditions. We have shown that MISR aerosol type can distinguish smoke from dust, volcanic ash from sulfate and water particles, and can identify qualitative differences in mixtures of smoke, dust, and pollution aerosol components in urban settings. We demonstrated the use of stereo imaging to map smoke, dust, and volcanic effluent plume injection height, and the combination of MISR and MODIS aerosol optical depth maps to constrain wildfire smoke source strength. This talk will briefly highlight where we stand on these application, with emphasis on the steps we are taking toward applying the capabilities toward constraining aerosol transport models, planet-wide.

  12. Development and practice of a Telehealthcare Expert System (TES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hanjun; Hsu, Yeh-Liang; Hsu, Ming-Shinn; Cheng, Chih-Ming

    2013-07-01

    Expert systems have been widely used in medical and healthcare practice for various purposes. In addition to vital sign data, important concerns in telehealthcare include the compliance with the measurement prescription, the accuracy of vital sign measurements, and the functioning of vital sign meters and home gateways. However, few expert system applications are found in the telehealthcare domain to address these issues. This article presents an expert system application for one of the largest commercialized telehealthcare practices in Taiwan by Min-Sheng General Hospital. The main function of the Telehealthcare Expert System (TES) developed in this research is to detect and classify events based on the measurement data transmitted to the database at the call center, including abnormality of vital signs, violation of vital sign measurement prescriptions, and malfunction of hardware devices (home gateway and vital sign meter). When the expert system detects an abnormal event, it assigns an "urgent degree" and alerts the nursing team in the call center to take action, such as phoning the patient for counseling or to urge the patient to return to the hospital for further tests. During 2 years of clinical practice, from 2009 to 2011, 19,182 patients were served by the expert system. The expert system detected 41,755 events, of which 22.9% indicated abnormality of vital signs, 75.2% indicated violation of measurement prescription, and 1.9% indicated malfunction of devices. On average, the expert system reduced by 76.5% the time that the nursing team in the call center spent in handling the events. The expert system helped to reduce cost and improve quality of the telehealthcare service.

  13. Potential of select intermediate-volatility organic compounds and consumer products for secondary organic aerosol and ozone formation under relevant urban conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weihua; Li, Lijie; Chen, Chia-li; Kacarab, Mary; Peng, Weihan; Price, Derek; Xu, Jin; Cocker, David R.

    2018-04-01

    Emissions of certain low vapor pressure-volatile organic compounds (LVP-VOCs) are considered exempt to volatile organic compounds (VOC) regulations due to their low evaporation rates. However, these compounds may still play a role in ambient secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and ozone formation. The LVP-VOCs selected for this work are categorized as intermediate-volatility organic compounds (IVOCs) according to their vapor pressures and molecular formulas. In this study, the evaporation rates of 14 select IVOCs are investigated with half of them losing more than 95% of their mass in less than one month. Further, SOA and ozone formation are presented from 11 select IVOCs and 5 IVOC-containing generic consumer products under atmospherically relevant conditions using varying radical sources (NOx and/or H2O2) and a surrogate reactive organic gas (ROG) mixture. Benzyl alcohol (0.41), n-heptadecane (0.38), and diethylene glycol monobutyl ether (0.16) are determined to have SOA yields greater than 0.1 in the presence of NOx and a surrogate urban hydrocarbon mixture. IVOCs also influence ozone formation from the surrogate urban mixture by impacting radical levels and NOx availability. The addition of lab created generic consumer products has a weak influence on ozone formation from the surrogate mixture but strongly affects SOA formation. The overall SOA and ozone formation of the generic consumer products could not be explained solely by the results of the pure IVOC experiments.

  14. PhyLM: A Mission Design Concept for an Optical/Lidar Instrument to Measure Ocean Productivity and Aerosols from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervin, Janette C.; Behrenfeld, Michael; McClain, Charles R.; Spinhirne, James; Purves, Lloyd; Wood, H. John; Roberto, Michael R.

    2004-01-01

    The Physiology Lidar-Multispectral Mission (PhyLM) is intended to explore the complex ecosystems of our global oceans. New "inversion" methods and improved understanding of marine optics have opened the door to quantifying a range of critical ocean properties. This new information could revolutionize our understanding of global ocean processes, such as phytoplankton growth, harmful algal blooms, carbon fluxes between major pools and the productivity equation. The new science requires new measurements not addressed by currently planned space missions. PhyLM will combine active and advanced passive remote sensing technologies to quantify standing stocks and fluxes of climate-critical components of the Ocean carbon cycle to meet these science providing multispectral bands from the far UV through the near infrared (340 - 1250 nm) at a ground resolution of 250 m. Improved detectors, filters, mirrors, digitization and focal plane design will offer an overall higher-quality data product. The unprecedented accuracy and precision of the absolute water-leaving radiances will support inversion- based quantification of an expanded set of ocean carbon cycle components. The dual- wavelength (532 & 1064 nm) Nd:Yag Lidar will enhance the accuracy and precision of the passive data by providing aerosol profiles for atmospheric correction and coincident active measurements of backscattering. The Lidar will also examine dark-side fluorescence as an additional approach to quantifying phytoplankton biomass in highly productive regions.

  15. Comparison of sodium aerosol codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunbar, I.H.; Fermandjian, J.; Bunz, H.; L'homme, A.; Lhiaubet, G.; Himeno, Y.; Kirby, C.R.; Mitsutsuka, N.

    1984-01-01

    Although hypothetical fast reactor accidents leading to severe core damage are very low probability events, their consequences are to be assessed. During such accidents, one can envisage the ejection of sodium, mixed with fuel and fission products, from the primary circuit into the secondary containment. Aerosols can be formed either by mechanical dispersion of the molten material or as a result of combustion of the sodium in the mixture. Therefore considerable effort has been devoted to study the different sodium aerosol phenomena. To ensure that the problems of describing the physical behaviour of sodium aerosols were adequately understood, a comparison of the codes being developed to describe their behaviour was undertaken. The comparison consists of two parts. The first is a comparative study of the computer codes used to predict aerosol behaviour during a hypothetical accident. It is a critical review of documentation available. The second part is an exercise in which code users have run their own codes with a pre-arranged input. For the critical comparative review of the computer models, documentation has been made available on the following codes: AEROSIM (UK), MAEROS (USA), HAARM-3 (USA), AEROSOLS/A2 (France), AEROSOLS/B1 (France), and PARDISEKO-IIIb (FRG)

  16. Satellite Remote Sensing: Aerosol Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Ralph A.

    2013-01-01

    Aerosols are solid or liquid particles suspended in the air, and those observed by satellite remote sensing are typically between about 0.05 and 10 microns in size. (Note that in traditional aerosol science, the term "aerosol" refers to both the particles and the medium in which they reside, whereas for remote sensing, the term commonly refers to the particles only. In this article, we adopt the remote-sensing definition.) They originate from a great diversity of sources, such as wildfires, volcanoes, soils and desert sands, breaking waves, natural biological activity, agricultural burning, cement production, and fossil fuel combustion. They typically remain in the atmosphere from several days to a week or more, and some travel great distances before returning to Earth's surface via gravitational settling or washout by precipitation. Many aerosol sources exhibit strong seasonal variability, and most experience inter-annual fluctuations. As such, the frequent, global coverage that space-based aerosol remote-sensing instruments can provide is making increasingly important contributions to regional and larger-scale aerosol studies.

  17. Karakteristik Pengembangan Tes Keterampilan Berpiki Kritis Bumi dan Antariksa Untuk Calon Guru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufik Ramlan Ramalis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this study was to analyze the characteristics of the f critical thinking skills test and measurement errors according to classical test theory and item response theory. The test is based on the basic concepts and essential principles of the Earth Space, with reference to the core critical thinking skills. The research method used a mixed methods design with embedded experimental models. The analysis in this study is based on 41 responses of students teacher prospective who have taken IPBA courses at the Physics education department of FPMIPA UPI. Based on classical test theory indicates that of 18 test items were analyzed 15 items were good quality, reliability index of 0.89. From information function and standard error measurement of item response theory, the overall conclusion of this evaluation is that the model 2PL is better to use when evaluating the test. Keywords: critical thinking skills, earth and space, classical test theory, item response theory Abstrak Tujuan penelitian ini untuk menganalisis karakteristik tes keterampilan berpikir kritis serta kesalahan pengukuran menurut teori tes klasik dan teori respons item. Tes disusun berdasarkan konsep dasar dan prinsip esensial sains Bumi dan Antariksa, dengan mengacu pada inti keterampilan berpikir kritis. Metode penelitiannya menggunakan mixed methods dengan desain embedded experimental model. Analisis dalam penelitian ini didasarkan pada respons 41 mahasiswa calon guru yang telah mengambil matakuliah IPBA di departemen pendidikan Fisika FPMIPA UPI. Berdasarkan teori tes klasik menunjukkan bahwa dari 18 item tes yang dianalisis 15 item yang berkualitas baik, indeks reliabilitas 0,89. Dari fungsi informasi dan pengukuran kesalahan baku pada teori respons item, kesimpulan keseluruhan dari evaluasi ini adalah bahwa model 2PL adalah lebih baik untuk digunakan ketika mengevaluasi tes. Kata-kata kunci: keterampilan berpikir kritis, bumi dan antariksa, teori tes klasik

  18. Konstruksi Instrumen Tes Keterampilan Berpikir Kritis Terkait Materi Suhu dan Kalor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desti Ritdamaya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkonstruksi instrumen tes yang mengases keterampilan berpikir kritis siswa Sekolah Menengah Atas pada materi suhu dan kalor. Metode penelitian menggunakan mixed method dengan desain sequential exploratory yang terdiri atas : 1 tahap studi pendahuluan; 2 tahap perancangan dan penelaahan instrumen tes; 3 tahap pengujian instrumen tes yang melibatkan 187 siswa Sekolah Menengah Atas. Instrumen tes yang dikonstruksi dalam bentuk essai, terdiri atas 22 soal memuat 5 indikator dan 8 sub indikator keterampilan berpikir kritis yang dikemukakan oleh Ennis, dengan soal-soal yang bersifat kualitatif dan kontekstual. Kualitas instrumen tes yang dikonstruksi valid dan memiliki reliabilitas dengan kriteria tinggi. Berdasarkan hasil uji hipotesis beda 2 nilai rata-rata, diperoleh hasil yaitu instrumen tes yang dikonstruksi dapat membedakan keterampilan berpikir kritis antara siswa yang mendapatkan proses pembelajaran yang melatihkan keterampilan berpikir kritis dengan siswa yang mendapatkan proses pembelajaran yang tidak melatihkan keterampilan berpikir kritis.   Kata kunci : instrumen tes keterampilan berpikir kritis, suhu dan kalor   Abstract This study was aimed to construct a test instrument for assess critical thinking skills of high school students on the concept heat and temperature. The research using a mixed method with sequential exploratory design, consisting of: 1 the preliminary study phase; 2 the design and review phase; 3 testing phase involving 187 high school students. Test instruments in the form of essays, consisting of 22 questions contain 5 indicator and 8 sub indicators of critical thinking skills expressed by Ennis, with the questions that are qualitative and contextual. The quality test instruments is valid and high reliability. Based on the results of hypothesis testing two different average values, the result is test instrument can distinguish between the critical thinking skills of students

  19. Genesis of elevated aerosol loading over the Indian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prijith, S. S.; Rao, P. V. N.; Mohan, Mannil

    2016-05-01

    Elevated aerosols assume importance as the diabatic heating due to aerosol absorption is more intense at higher altitudes where the atmosphere becomes thinner. Indian region, especially its central and northern latitudes, experiences significant loading of elevated aerosols during pre-monsoon and summer months. Genesis of elevated aerosol loading over Indian region is investigated in the present study, using multi-year satellite observations from Cloud Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) along with reanalysis winds from MERRA. Central India is observed to have prominent aerosols loading at higher altitudes during pre-monsoon season, whereas it is during summer months over north-west India. Further analysis reveals that the elevated aerosols over Indian region in pre-monsoon and summer months are significantly contributed by transported mineral dust from the arid continental regions at west. In addition to the mineral dust advection, aerosols at higher altitudes over Indian region are enriched by strong convection and associated vertical transport of surface level aerosols. Vertical transport of aerosols observed over Indian region during pre-monsoon and summer months is aided by intense convergence at the surface level and divergence at the upper level. Moreover, aerosol source/sink strength estimated using aerosol flux continuity equation show significant aerosol production over central India during pre-monsoon. Strong vertical transport prevails during pre-monsoon uplifts the locally produced aerosols, with considerable anthropogenic fraction, to higher altitudes where their impacts would be more intense.

  20. Aerosol scrubbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheely, W.F.

    1986-01-01

    The Submerged Gravel Scrubber is an air cleaning system developed by the Department of Energy's Liquid Metal Reactor Program. The Scrubber System has been patented by the Department of Energy. This technology is being transferred to industry by the DOE. Its basic principles can be adapted for individual applications and the commercialized version can be used to perform a variety of tasks. The gas to be cleaned is percolated through a continuously washed gravel bed. The passage of the gas through the gravel breaks the stream into many small bubbles rising in a turbulent body of water. These conditions allow very highly efficient removal of aerosols from the gas

  1. Calibration of aerosol radiometers. Special aerosol sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belkina, S.K.; Zalmanzon, Yu.E.; Kuznetsov, Yu.V.; Fertman, D.E.

    1988-01-01

    Problems of calibration of artificial aerosol radiometry and information-measurement systems of radiometer radiation control, in particular, are considered. Special aerosol source is suggested, which permits to perform certification and testing of aerosol channels of the systems in situ without the dismantling

  2. Simatik : Aplikasi Simulasi Bank Soal Tes Potensi Akademik (TPA Berbasis Multi Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Hendra Yudha Saputra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak---Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk : (1 menghasilkan rancang bangun dan implementasi Simatik : Aplikasi Simulasi Bank Soal Tes Potensi Akademik (TPA Berbasis Multi Platform, (2 Mengetahui respon dari Pengguna terhadap Simatik : Aplikasi Simulasi Bank Soal Tes Potensi Akademik (TPA Berbasis Multi Platform. Dalam perancangannya, aplikasi ini akan menggunakan arsitektur client-server untuk melakukan proses pertukaran data. Perancangan dilakukan dengan menggunakan model fungsional berupa UML. Model fungsional berupa UML tersebut diimplementasikan dalam sebuah framework yaitu Phonegap dengan bahasa pemrograman HTML5. Untuk mengetahui respon terhadap Simatik : Aplikasi Simulasi Bank Soal Tes Potensi Akademik (TPA Berbasis Multi Platform ini diperoleh dengan menggunakan metode angket. Hasil akhirnya yaitu berupa Aplikasi Simatik berbasis Multi Platform yang dapat diinstall pada perangkat mobile untuk digunakan dalam latihan soal-soal yang terkait dengan Tes Potensi Akademik (TPA. Berdasarkan hasil uji usability, aplikasi Simatik berbasis Multi Platform ini mendapatkan persentase hasil sebesar 95,6 % dengan kategori sangat baik yang berarti dalam pengoperasiannya aplikasi ini mudah untuk digunakan dan dapat berfungsi sesuai dengan fungsi seharusnya. Kata Kunci : Phonegap, Multi Platform, Client Server, Mobile, Tes Potensi Akademik (TPA, Simatik   Abstract--- This research is purpose to : (1 produce generate design and implementation Simatik : Aplikasi Simulasi Bank Soal Tes Potensi Akademik (TPA Berbasis Multi Platform (2 To knowing the response of users to Simatik : Aplikasi Simulasi Bank Soal Tes Potensi Akademik (TPA Berbasis Multi Platform. In its design, this application will use the client-server architecture to make the exchange process of data. The design were done by using a functional model UML form. The functional model UML form is implemented within a framework that is phonegap with HTML 5 programming languages. To determine the

  3. Evaluation of Simulated Marine Aerosol Production Using the WaveWatchIII Prognostic Wave Model Coupled to the Community Atmosphere Model within the Community Earth System Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, M. S. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). School of Engineering and Applied Sciences; Keene, William C. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Sciences; Zhang, J. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences; Reichl, B. [Univ. of Rhode Island, Narragansett, RI (United States). Graduate School of Oceanography; Shi, Y. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences; Hara, T. [Univ. of Rhode Island, Narragansett, RI (United States). Graduate School of Oceanography; Reid, J. S. [Naval Research Lab. (NRL), Monterey, CA (United States); Fox-Kemper, B. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States). Earth, Environmental and Planetary Sciences; Craig, A. P. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Erickson, D. J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Computer Science and Mathematics Division; Ginis, I. [Univ. of Rhode Island, Narragansett, RI (United States). Graduate School of Oceanography; Webb, A. [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Ocean Technology, Policy, and Environment

    2016-11-08

    Primary marine aerosol (PMA) is emitted into the atmosphere via breaking wind waves on the ocean surface. Most parameterizations of PMA emissions use 10-meter wind speed as a proxy for wave action. This investigation coupled the 3rd generation prognostic WAVEWATCH-III wind-wave model within a coupled Earth system model (ESM) to drive PMA production using wave energy dissipation rate – analogous to whitecapping – in place of 10-meter wind speed. The wind speed parameterization did not capture basin-scale variability in relations between wind and wave fields. Overall, the wave parameterization did not improve comparison between simulated versus measured AOD or Na+, thus highlighting large remaining uncertainties in model physics. Results confirm the efficacy of prognostic wind-wave models for air-sea exchange studies coupled with laboratory- and field-based characterizations of the primary physical drivers of PMA production. No discernible correlations were evident between simulated PMA fields and observed chlorophyll or sea surface temperature.

  4. Single Pixel Characterization of X-Ray TES Microcalorimeter Under AC Bias at MHz Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottardi, L.; Blandler, S. R.; Porter, F. S.; Sadleir, J. E.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Bailey, C. N.; Finkbeiner, F. M.; Chervenak, J. A.; Adams, J. S.; Eckart, M. E.; hide

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present the progress made at SRON in the read-out of GSFC x-ray transition-edge sensor (TES) micro-calorimeters in the frequency domain. The experiments reported so far, whose aim was to demonstrate an energy resolution of 2eV at 6 keV with a TES acting as a modulator, were carried out at frequencies below 700 kHz using a standard flux locked loop (FLL) SQUID read-out scheme. The TES read-out suffered from the use of sub-optimal circuit components, large parasitic inductances, low quality factor resonators and poor magnetic field shielding. We have developed a novel experimental set-up, which allows us to test several read-out schemes in a single cryogenic run. In this set-up, the TES pixels are coupled via superconducting transformers to 18 high-Q lithographic LC filters with resonant frequencies ranging between 2 and 5 MHz. The signal is amplified by a two-stage SQUID current sensor and baseband feedback is used to overcome the limited SQUID dynamic range. We study the single pixel performance as a function of TES bias frequency, voltage and perpendicular magnetic field.

  5. Study of uranium mine aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barzic, J.-Y.

    1976-05-01

    With a view to radiation protection of uranium-miners a study was made of the behaviour of radioactive and non-radioactive aerosols in the atmosphere of an experimental mine where temperature, pressure, relative himidity and ventilation are kept constant and in the air of a working area where the nature of the aerosol is dependent on the stage of work. Measurements of radon and daughter products carried out in various points of working areas showed that the gas was quickly diluted, equilibrium between radon and its daughter products (RaA, RaB, RaC) was never reached and the radon-aerosol contact was of short duration (a few minutes). Using a seven-stage Andersen impactor particle size distribution of the mine aerosol (particle diameter >0.3μm) was studied. The characteristic diameters were determined for each stage of the Andersen impactor and statistical analysis verified that aerosol distributions on the lower stages of the impactor were log-normal in most cases. Finally, determination of size distribution of α-radioactivity showed it was retained on fine particles. The percentage of free α-activity was evaluated using a diffusion battery [fr

  6. Total aerosol effect

    OpenAIRE

    Lohmann, Ulrike; Rotstayn, Leon; Storelvmo, Trude; Jones, Andrew; Menon, Surabi; Quaas, Johannes; Ekman, Annica M. L.; Koch, Dorothy; Ruedy, Reto A.

    2015-01-01

    Uncertainties in aerosol radiative forcings, especially those associated with clouds, contribute to a large extent to uncertainties in the total anthropogenic forcing. The interaction of aerosols with clouds and radiation introduces feedbacks which can affect the rate of precipitation formation. In former assessments of aerosol radiative forcings, these effects have not been quantified. Also, with global aerosol-climate models simulating interactively aerosols and cloud microphysical prope...

  7. Fission product chemistry and aerosol behaviour in the primary circuit of a pressurised water reactor under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowsher, B.R.

    1985-09-01

    Three key accident sequences are considered covering a representative range of different environments of pressure, flow, temperature history and degree of zircaloy oxidation, and their principle thermal hydraulic and physical characteristics affecting chemistry behaviour are identified. Inventories, chemical forms and timing of fission product release are summarized together with the major sources of structural materials and their release characteristics. Chemistry of each main fission product species is reviewed from available experimental and/or theoretical data. Studies modelling primary circuit fission product behaviour are reviewed. Requirements for further study are assessed. (UK)

  8. Water-resistant cellulosic filter for aerosol entrapment and water purification, Part I: production of water-resistant cellulosic filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydarifard, Solmaz; Nazhad, Mousa M; Xiao, Huining; Shipin, Oleg; Olson, James

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic filters are neither biodegradable nor produced from renewable sources. Thus, their disposal has serious environmental impacts. There is a growing desire to produce filters from cellulosic fibers that are renewable, biodegradable, cheap and most importantly recyclable if the contamination is removed. Foam-laid process in papermaking is a promising process for the production of specialty papers. Filters produced using this process are capable of providing products with high specific surface area and tortuous structure favorable for entrapping particulate matters, while providing excellent permeability for incoming gas or liquid. Although the end product fulfills completely the requirement of a filter in a dry environment, it fails completely if it is exposed to a moist environment. This work reports on converting the hydrophilic cellulosic filter into a hydrophobic product without disturbing its original structure.

  9. 76 FR 60530 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Plastic Aerosol...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ..., and food and beverage products. PARG may work with a standard setting organization that may develop a..., IL; Berry Plastics Corporation, Evansville, IN; Clorox Service Company, Ocala, FL; Diversified CPC...

  10. Recent Patents on Nano-Enhanced Materials for Use in Thermal Energy Storage (TES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Gerard; Barreneche, Camila; Solé, Aran; Juliá, José Enrique; Cabeza, Luisa F

    2017-07-10

    Thermal energy storage (TES) systems using phase change materials (PCM) have been lately studied and are presented as one of the key solutions for the implementation of renewable energies. These systems take advantage of the latent heat of phase change of PCM during their melting/ solidification processes to store or release heat depending on the needs and availability. Low thermal conductivity and latent heat are the main disadvantages of organic PCM, while corrosion, subcooling and thermal stability are the prime problems that inorganic PCM present. Nanotechnology can be used to overcome these drawbacks. Nano-enhanced PCM are obtained by the dispersion of nanoparticles in the base material and thermal properties such as thermal conductivity, viscosity and specific heat capacity, within others, can be enhanced. This paper presents a review of the patents regarding the obtaining of nano-enhanced materials for thermal energy storage (TES) in order to realize the development nanotechnologies have gained in the TES field. Patents regarding the synthesis methods to obtain nano-enhanced phase materials (NEPCM) and TES systems using NEPCM have been found and are presented in the paper. The few existing number of patents found is a clear indicator of the recent and thus low development nanotechnology has in the TES field so far. Nevertheless, the results obtained with the reviewed inventions already show the big potential that nanotechnology has in TES and denote a more than probable expansion of its use in the next years. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  11. Characterizing the secondary organic aerosol products of ozone and α-pinene using ultrahigh-resolution FT-ICR mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, A.; Offenberg, J. H.; Fisseha, R.; Kundu, S.; Rahn, T.; Mazzoleni, L. R.

    2011-12-01

    Three samples of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) were generated by reacting a-pinene and ozone in the presence of variable concentrations of hydroxyl radical scavenging cyclohexane and were characterized by ultrahigh-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT ICR MS). The reactions were performed in the presence of different concentrations of hydroxyl radical scavenger. This provided an opportunity to examine the molecular level differences of SOA. More than 900 chemical formulas for negative ions were identified over the mass range of 100 to 820 u. The experimental reproducibility of the SOA composition and the technical reproducibility of the mass spectra were evaluated. Similar chemical formulas with similar relative abundances were observed in all three experiments. A few exceptions were particular high relative abundance signals such as m/z 357, 367 and 539, whose production efficiency increased in the presence of cyclohexane, and m/z 185, 199, 215, 231 and 261, whose production efficiency decreased in the presence of cyclohexane. In general, the composition of a-pinene SOA was only slightly influenced by the concentration of the hydroxyl radical scavenger, cyclohexane. The negative ion spectra of the SOA contained four groups of peaks over the following mass ranges: 150 products suggest they resulted from a complex mixture of accretions, such as reactions of neutral molecules with hydroperoxy or criegee radicals, hemi-acetal reactions, aldol condensations or esterification reactions. To provide insight into the formation mechanisms, the molecular structures of selected group II compounds (300 < n < 475) were investigated using ultra-high resolution MS2.

  12. APLIKASI TES ONLINE MENGGUNAKAN HANDPHONE DENGAN PLATFORM JAVA DAN KONEKSI GPRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Handojo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, cellular phone improves so fast and already supported by GPRS and Java technology. With this facilities enabling internet connection to computer server via cellular phone. This is the background idea to develop online test application using cellular phone to as alternative media. In this research, an online test application has been developed which enable users to take a particular test that consists of multiple choice items with either single or multi answers and essay items, whether it has reading text or not, and see their test result via their own cellular phones. This application will utilize GPRS connection to communicate with the server. This application was developed by using Java programming language. The Java platform being used is Java 2 Micro Edition (J2ME on the cellular phone application and Java Server Page (JSP for the server application. This application has been tested and running well on Nokia 6600, Nokia 7610, Nokia N73, Ben-Q Siemens EF51, and Motorola L6 phone using ProXL, IM3, Mentari, and Simpati communication providers. Although the communication speeds are varied among providers, the application is running as intended. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Saat ini perkembangan handphone semakin berkembang, merupakan sesuatu yang telah umum suatu handphone yang menyediakan fasilitas koneksi General Packet Radio Service (GPRS dan fasilitas teknologi Java. Dengan adanya fasilitas Java dan GPRS ini memungkinkan adanya koneksi online menggunakan handphone ke suatu komputer server melalui internet. Hal ini mendasari pembuatan aplikasi tes online menggunakan handphone sebagai media alternatif dalam penyelenggaraan dan pengerjaan tes yang selama ini umumnya menggunakan media kertas ataupun komputer. Pada penelitian ini dikembangkan aplikasi tes online yang memungkinkan peserta handphone untuk mengerjakan tes yang terdiri dari soal multiple choice dengan single maupun multi answer, dan soal essay baik yang memiliki teks

  13. Aerosol transport in severe reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fynbo, P.; Haeggblom, H.; Jokiniemi, J.

    1990-03-01

    Computer codes with different aerosol models were used for calculation of fission product transport and the results are compared. Experimental results from LACE, DEMONA and Marviken-V are compared with the calculations. The theory of aerosol nucleation and its influence on the fission product transport is discussed. The behaviour of hygroscopic aerosols is studied. The pool scrubbing models in the codes SPARC and SUPRA are reviewed and some calculational results are reported. The present status of knowledge in this field is assessed on the background of an international review. (orig./HP)

  14. Analysis and evaluation of the ASTEC model basis on fission product and aerosol release phenomena from melts. 3. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agethen, K.; Koch, M.K.

    2016-04-01

    The present report is the 3 rd Technical Report within the research project ''ASMO'' founded by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi 1501433) and projected at the Chair of Energy Systems and Energy Economics (LEE) within the workgroup Reactor Simulation and Safety at the Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (RUB). The focus in this report is set on the release of fission products and the contribution to the source term, which is formed in the late phase after failure of the reactor pressure vessel during MCCI. By comparing the RUB simulation results including the fission product release rates with further simulations of GRS and VEIKI it can be indicated that the simulations have a high sensitivity in respect to the melting point temperature. It can be noted that the release rates are underestimated for most fission product species with the current model. Especially semi-volatile fission products and the lanthanum release is underestimated by several orders of magnitude. Based on the ACE experiment L2, advanced considerations are presented concerning the melt temperature, the gas temperature, the segregation and a varied melt configuration. Furthermore, the influence of the gas velocity is investigated. This variation of the gas velocity causes an underestimation of the release rates compared to the RUB base calculation. A model extension to oxidic species for lanthanum and ruthenium shows a significant improvement of the simulation results. In addition, the MEDICIS module has been enhanced to document the currently existing species, are displayed in a *.ist-file. This expansion shows inconsistencies between the melt composition and the fission product composition. Based on these results, there are still some difficulties regarding the release of fission products in the MEDICIS module and the interaction with the material data base (MOB) which needs further investigation.

  15. A systems toxicology approach for comparative assessment: Biological impact of an aerosol from a candidate modified-risk tobacco product and cigarette smoke on human organotypic bronchial epithelial cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskandar, Anita R; Mathis, Carole; Schlage, Walter K; Frentzel, Stefan; Leroy, Patrice; Xiang, Yang; Sewer, Alain; Majeed, Shoaib; Ortega-Torres, Laura; Johne, Stephanie; Guedj, Emmanuel; Trivedi, Keyur; Kratzer, Gilles; Merg, Celine; Elamin, Ashraf; Martin, Florian; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Peitsch, Manuel C; Hoeng, Julia

    2017-03-01

    This study reports a comparative assessment of the biological impact of a heated tobacco aerosol from the tobacco heating system (THS) 2.2 and smoke from a combustible 3R4F cigarette. Human organotypic bronchial epithelial cultures were exposed to an aerosol from THS2.2 (a candidate modified-risk tobacco product) or 3R4F smoke at similar nicotine concentrations. A systems toxicology approach was applied to enable a comprehensive exposure impact assessment. Culture histology, cytotoxicity, secreted pro-inflammatory mediators, ciliary beating, and genome-wide mRNA/miRNA profiles were assessed at various time points post-exposure. Series of experimental repetitions were conducted to increase the robustness of the assessment. At similar nicotine concentrations, THS2.2 aerosol elicited lower cytotoxicity compared with 3R4F smoke. No morphological change was observed following exposure to THS2.2 aerosol, even at nicotine concentration three times that of 3R4F smoke. Lower levels of secreted mediators and fewer miRNA alterations were observed following exposure to THS2.2 aerosol than following 3R4F smoke. Based on the computational analysis of the gene expression changes, 3R4F (0.13 mg nicotine/L) elicited the highest biological impact (100%) in the context of Cell Fate, Cell Proliferation, Cell Stress, and Inflammatory Network Models at 4 h post-exposure. Whereas, the corresponding impact of THS2.2 (0.14 mg nicotine/L) was 7.6%. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Experimental modeling of aerosols produced by microorganisms in working area air as risk factor exerting hazardous impacts on health of workers employed at biotechnological production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Dudchik

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Scientific foundation and practices in the sphere of hygienic and ecological standardization concerning biological factors of the environment have a number of peculiarities and are methodically less developed than chemical factors standardization. Efficient industrial control over maximum permissible concentrations of standardized microorganisms-producers in working area air is based on validated instrumental techniques of quantitative assessment. Our goal was to create experimental models for microorganisms-producers' aerosols of a multi-component microbe specimen in working area air as a risk factor causing impacts on health of workers employed at biotechnological production; another task was to work out a procedure for measuring Pseudomonas aurantiaca B-162/255.17concentration and cells and spores of Bacillus sp. BB58-3 strain in working area air. We gave grounds for a technology aimed at quantitative determination of microorganisms-producers in working area air in a modeling experiment; it was based on conventional stages and tech-niques accepted in microbiological practices, namely air samples taking via aspiration technique allowing for a volume taken; cultivation under conditions which are optimal for examined microorganisms-producers in a nutrient medium with reduced composition; calculation of evolved colonies with specific morphological features; morphologic identification of microorganisms and colonies; calculation of microorganisms' quantity on dishes with recalculation per 1 m3 of air. Bas-ing on the detected regular concentration dependences of microbe contamination dynamics in air we worked out a proce-dure for quantitative determination of microorganisms-producers; we also performed metrological estimate of opera-tional properties for assessing microorganisms-producers of a multi-component microbe specimen as a risk factor caus-ing hazardous impacts on health of workers employed at biotechnological production. We validated our

  17. Factors Affecting Aerosol Radiative Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Lin, J.; Ni, R.

    2016-12-01

    Rapid industrial and economic growth has meant large amount of aerosols in the atmosphere with strong radiative forcing (RF) upon the climate system. Over parts of the globe, the negative forcing of aerosols has overcompensated for the positive forcing of greenhouse gases. Aerosol RF is determined by emissions and various chemical-transport-radiative processes in the atmosphere, a multi-factor problem whose individual contributors have not been well quantified. In this study, we analyze the major factors affecting RF of secondary inorganic aerosols (SIOAs, including sulfate, nitrate and ammonium), primary organic aerosol (POA), and black carbon (BC). We analyze the RFof aerosols produced by 11 major regions across the globe, including but not limited to East Asia, Southeast Asia, South Asia, North America, and Western Europe. Factors analyzed include population size, per capita gross domestic production (GDP), emission intensity (i.e., emissionsper unit GDP), chemical efficiency (i.e., mass per unit emissions) and radiative efficiency (i.e., RF per unit mass). We find that among the 11 regions, East Asia produces the largest emissions and aerosol RF, due to relatively high emission intensity and a tremendous population size.South Asia produce the second largest RF of SIOA and BC and the highest RF of POA, in part due to its highest chemical efficiency among all regions. Although Southeast Asia also has large emissions,its aerosol RF is alleviated by its lowest chemical efficiency.The chemical efficiency and radiative efficiency of BC produced by the Middle East-North Africa are the highest across the regions, whereas its RF is loweredbyasmall per capita GDP.Both North America and Western Europe have low emission intensity, compensating for the effects on RF of large population sizes and per capita GDP. There has been a momentum to transfer industries to Southeast Asia and South Asia, and such transition is expected to continue in the coming years. The resulting

  18. Common Bias Readout for TES Array on Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, R.; Sakai, K.; Maehisa, K.; Nagayoshi, K.; Hayashi, T.; Muramatsu, H.; Nakashima, Y.; Mitsuda, K.; Yamasaki, N. Y.; Takei, Y.; Hidaka, M.; Nagasawa, S.; Maehata, K.; Hara, T.

    2016-07-01

    A transition edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeter array as an X-ray sensor for a scanning transmission electron microscope system is being developed. The technical challenge of this system is a high count rate of ˜ 5000 counts/second/array. We adopted a 64 pixel array with a parallel readout. Common SQUID bias, and common TES bias are planned to reduce the number of wires and the resources of a room temperature circuit. The reduction rate of wires is 44 % when a 64 pixel array is read out by a common bias of 8 channels. The possible degradation of the energy resolution has been investigated by simulations and experiments. The bias fluctuation effects of a series connection are less than those of a parallel connection. Simple calculations expect that the fluctuations of the common SQUID bias and common TES bias in a series connection are 10^{-7} and 10^{-3}, respectively. We constructed 8 SQUIDs which are connected to 8 TES outputs and a room temperature circuit for common bias readout and evaluated experimentally. Our simulation of crosstalk indicates that at an X-ray event rate of 500 cps/pixel, crosstalk will broaden a monochromatic line by about 0.01 %, or about 1.5 eV at 15 keV. Thus, our design goal of 10 eV energy resolution across the 0.5-15 keV band should be achievable.

  19. Pengembangan Sistem E-Learning yang Adaptif untuk Pelatihan dan Tes TOEFL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofian Arifianto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available TOEFL (Test of English as a Foreign Language memiliki 3 bagian jenis soal, Listening Comprehension, Structure & Write Expression dan Reading Comprehension. Untuk saat ini, kebanyakan TOEFL dilakukan dengan manual, yaitu dengan pengerjaan dengan kertas dan membutuhkan waktu beberapa hari agar bisa mengetahui hasil tes tersebut. Dalam artikel ini, LMS Dokeos dikembangkan dengan beberapa perubahan, sehingga didapatkan suatu sistem yang adaptif yang mampu menganalisis kelemahan user dan memberikan soal yang menjadi kelemahan. Dokeos sendiri dibangun dengan bahasa pemrograman PHP&MySQL. Pada sistem ini ada 2 macam tes, Pretest dan posttest. Pretest merupakan suatu latihan TOEFL. Sedangkan Posttest merupakan TOEFL yang sesungguhnya. Posttest bisa dilakukan setelah user lulus dari pretest. Nilai untuk kelulusan dalam  pretest dan posttest ini adalah 477. Pada pretest, sistem bisa menganalisis kelemahan seorang user berdasarkan nilai tes yang telah didapat dari tiap section. Pengguna juga bisa memonitor nilai yang didapatkan pada saat pretest. Sedangkan pada posttest, terdapat pin yang digunakan sebagai hak akses untuk melakukan tes. Dengan begitu, diharapkan aplikasi ini bisa lebih aman dan efisien dalam menghemat waktu dan biaya

  20. High-temperature thermocline TES combining sensible and latent heat - CFD modeling and experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavattoni, Simone A.; Geissbühler, Lukas; Barbato, Maurizio C.; Zanganeh, Giw; Haselbacher, Andreas; Steinfeld, Aldo

    2017-06-01

    The concept of combined sensible/latent heat thermal energy storage (TES) has been exploited to mitigate an intrinsic thermocline TES systems drawback of heat transfer fluid outflow temperature reduction during discharging. In this study, the combined sensible/latent TES prototype under investigation is constituted by a packed bed of rocks and a small amount of encapsulated phase change material (AlSi12) as sensible heat and latent heat sections respectively. The thermo-fluid dynamics behavior of the combined TES prototype was analyzed by means of a computational fluid dynamics approach. Due to the small value of the characteristic vessel-to-particles diameter ratio, the effect of radial void-fraction variation, also known as channeling, was accounted for. Both the sensible and the latent heat sections of the storage were modeled as porous media under the assumption of local thermal non-equilibrium (LTNE). The commercial code ANSYS Fluent 15.0 was used to solve the model's constitutive conservation and transport equations obtaining a fairly good agreement with reference experimental measurements.

  1. Crystallization of the acyl-CoA thioesterase TesB from Yersinia pestis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swarbrick, Crystall M. D.; Patterson, Edward I.; Forwood, Jade K.

    2013-01-01

    The expression, purification, crystallization and diffraction of the acyl-CoA thioesterase TesB from Y. pestis are reported. X-ray crystallographic diffraction data to 2.0 Å resolution were collected at the Australian Synchrotron. Yersinia pestis is a highly virulent human pathogen and is the causative agent of bubonic plague. Spread through the bite of infected fleas, plague epidemics have marked important events in history, including the Justinian plague (6th century), the Black Death (14th century) which decimated nearly one quarter of the European population, and more recently the Orientalis plague (1894). To date, deaths are still being reported and, without treatment, the disease kills most people within 4 days. One of the thioesterases from Y. pestis, TesB, is a broad-range acyl-CoA thioesterase and is highly conserved within prokaryotes and throughout evolution, sharing sequence similarity with the HIV Nef binding protein ACOT8. Here the expression, purification, crystallization and diffraction of TesB are reported. TesB has been recombinantly expressed and crystallized using the vapour-diffusion hanging-drop technique at pH 7.0 and 290 K. After optimization, crystals diffracted to 2.0 Å resolution at the Australian Synchrotron and belong to the space group P12 1 1 (a = 73.55, b = 170.82, c = 101.98 Å), with eight molecules likely to be present in the asymmetric unit

  2. AEROSOL AND GAS MEASUREMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measurements provide fundamental information for evaluating and managing the impact of aerosols on air quality. Specific measurements of aerosol concentration and their physical and chemical properties are required by different users to meet different user-community needs. Befo...

  3. Aerosols and environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbeck, Ian; Lazaridis, Mihalis

    2010-02-01

    The number of publications on atmospheric aerosols has dramatically increased in recent years. This review, predominantly from a European perspective, summarizes the current state of knowledge of the role played by aerosols in environmental pollution and, in addition, highlights gaps in our current knowledge. Aerosol particles are ubiquitous in the Earth's atmosphere and are central to many environmental issues; ranging from the Earth's radiative budget to human health. Aerosol size distribution and chemical composition are crucial parameters that determine their dynamics in the atmosphere. Sources of aerosols are both anthropogenic and natural ranging from vehicular emissions to dust resuspension. Ambient concentrations of aerosols are elevated in urban areas with lower values at rural sites. A comprehensive understanding of aerosol ambient characteristics requires a combination of measurements and modeling tools. Legislation for ambient aerosols has been introduced at national and international levels aiming to protect human health and the environment.

  4. Allophane on Mars: Evidence from IR Spectroscopy and TES Spectral Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Douglas W.; Rampe, E. B.; Kraft, M. D.; Sharp. T. G.; Golden, D. C.; Christensen, P. C.

    2010-01-01

    Allophane is an alteration product of volcanic glass and a clay mineral precursor that is commonly found in basaltic soils on Earth. It is a poorly-crystalline or amorphous, hydrous aluminosilicate with Si/Al ratios ranging from approx.0.5-1 [Wada, 1989]. Analyses of thermal infrared (TIR) spectra of the Martian surface from TES show high-silica phases at mid-to-high latitudes that have been proposed to be primary volcanic glass [Bandfield et al., 2000; Bandfield, 2002; Rogers and Christensen, 2007] or poorly-crystalline secondary silicates such as allophane or aluminous amorphous silica [Kraft et al., 2003; Michalski et al., 2006; Rogers and Christensen, 2007; Kraft, 2009]. Phase modeling of chemical data from the APXS on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit suggest the presence of allophane in chemically weathered rocks [Ming et al., 2006]. The presence of allophane on Mars has not been previously tested with IR spectroscopy because allophane spectra have not been available. We synthesized allophanes and allophanic gels with a range of Si/Al ratios to measure TIR emission and VNIR reflectance spectra and to test for the presence of allophane in Martian soils. VNIR reflectance spectra of the synthetic allophane samples have broad absorptions near 1.4 m from OH stretching overtones and 1.9 m from a combination of stretching and bending vibrations in H2O. Samples have a broad absorption centered near 2.25 microns, from AlAlOH combination bending and stretching vibrations, that shifts position with Si/Al ratio. Amorphous silica (opaline silica or primary volcanic glass) has been identified in CRISM spectra of southern highland terrains based on the presence of 1.4, 1.9, and broad 2.25 m absorptions [Mustard et al., 2008]; however, these absorptions are also consistent with the presence of allophane. TIR emission spectra of the synthetic allophanes show two spectrally distinct types: Si-rich and Al-rich. Si-rich allophanes have two broad absorptions centered near 1080

  5. STUDI SIMULASI MENGGUNAKAN FUZZY C-MEANS DALAM MENGKLASIFIKASI KONSTRUK TES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rukli Rukli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tulisan ini memperkenalkan metode fuzzy c-means dalam mengklasifikasi konstruk tes. Untuk memverifikasi sifat unidimensional suatu tes biasanya menggunakan analisis faktor sebagai bagian dari statistik parametrik dengan beberapa persyaratan yang ketat sedangkan metode fuzzy c-means termasuk metode heuristik yang tidak memerlukan persyaratan yang ketat. Studi simulasi penelitian ini menggunakan dua metode yakni analisis faktor menggunakan program SPSS dan fuzzy c-means menggunakan program Matlab. Data simulasi menggunakan tipe data dikotomi dan politomi yang dibangkitkan lewat prog-ram Microsoft Office Excel dengan desain 2 kategori, yakni: tiga butir soal dengan banyak peserta tes 10, dan 30 butir soal dengan banyak peserta tes 100. Hasil simulasi menunjukkan bahwa metode fuzzy c-means lebih memberikan gambaran pengelompokan secara deskriptif dan dinamis pada semua desain yang telah dibuat dalam memverifikasi unidimensional pada suatu tes. Kata kunci: fuzzy c-means, analisis faktor, unidimensional _____________________________________________________________ SIMULATION STUDY USING FUZZY C-MEANS FOR CLASIFYING TEST CONSTRUCTION Abstract This paper introduces the fuzzy c-means method for classifying the test constructs. To verify the unidimensional a test typically uses factor analysis as part of parametric statistics with some strict requirements, while fuzzy c-means methods including method heuristic that do not require strict require-ments. Simulation comparison between the method of factor analysis using SPSS program and fuzzy c-means methods using Matlab. Simulation data using data type dichotomy and politomus generated through Microsoft Office Excel programs each with a number of 3 items using the number of participants 10 tests, while the number of 30 test items using the number as many as 100 participants. The simulation results show that the fuzzy c-means method provides a more descriptive and dyna-mic grouping of all the designs that

  6. Polarographic determination of Iodide and Iodate, in Solutions Coming from Aerosols in Fission Products Containment Studies in Nuclear Power Stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, M.; Ballesteros, O.; Fernandez, M.; Clavero, M.A.; Gonzalez, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    A polarographic method is described for the iodine species determination, iodide and iodate in water solutions. the iodate can be determined by differential pulse polarography. Calibration curves and the detection and determination limits have been obtained. Iodides is oxidized to iodate with sodium hypochlorite and the excess of oxidizing agent is destroyed with sodium sulphide. The concentration of iodide is calculated as the difference between the concentration of iodate in the sample before and after the oxidation. As an application, species of iodine in samples coming from the experimental plants GIRS (Gaseous Iodine Removal by Sprays) of Nuclear Fission Department of the CIEMAT, dedicated to fission products containment studies in nuclear power station, were determined. (Author) 10 refs

  7. Climatic impacts of anthropogenic aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iversen, T. [Oslo Univ. (Norway)

    1996-03-01

    This paper was read at the workshop ``The Norwegian Climate and Ozone Research Programme`` held on 11-12 March 1996. Anthropogenic production of aerosols is mainly connected with combustion of fossil fuel. Measured by particulate mass, the anthropogenic sulphate production is the dominating source of aerosols in the Northern Hemisphere. Particles emitted in mechanical processes, fly ash etc. are less important because of their shorter atmospheric residence time. Possible climatological effects of anthropogenic aerosols are usually classified in two groups: direct and indirect. Direct effects are alterations of the radiative heating budget due to the aerosol particles in clear air. Indirect effects involve the interaction between particles and cloud processes. A simplified one-layer radiation model gave cooling in the most polluted mid-latitude areas and heating due to soot absorption in the Arctic. This differential trend in heating rates may have significant effects on atmospheric meridional circulations, which is important for the atmosphere as a thermodynamic system. Recently the description of sulphur chemistry in the hemispheric scale dispersion model has been improved and will be used in a model for Mie scattering and absorption

  8. Attachment of radon progeny to cigarette-smoke aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biermann, A.H.; Sawyer, S.R.

    1995-05-01

    The daughter products of radon gas are now recognized as a significant contributor to radiation exposure to the general public. It is also suspected that a synergistic effect exists with the combination cigarette smoking and radon exposure. We have conducted an experimental investigation to determine the physical nature of radon progeny interactions with cigarette smoke aerosols. The size distributions of the aerosols are characterized and attachment rates of radon progeny to cigarette-smoke aerosols are determined. Both the mainstream and sidestream portions of the smoke aerosol are investigated. Unattached radon progeny are very mobile and, in the presence of aerosols, readily attach to the particle surfaces. In this study, an aerosol chamber is used to contain the radon gas, progeny and aerosol mixture while allowing the attachment process to occur. The rate of attachment is dependent on the size distribution, or diffusion coefficient, of the radon progeny as well as the aerosol size distribution. The size distribution of the radon daughter products is monitored using a graded-screen diffusion battery. The diffusion battery also enables separation of the unattached radon progeny from those attached to the aerosol particles. Analysis of the radon decay products is accomplished using alpha spectrometry. The aerosols of interest are size fractionated with the aid of a differential mobility analyzer and cascade impactor. The measured attachment rates of progeny to the cigarette smoke are compared to those found in similar experiments using an ambient aerosol. The lowest attachment coefficients observed, ∼10 -6 cm 3 /s, occurred for the ambient aerosol. The sidestream and mainstream smoke aerosols exhibited higher attachment rates in that order. The results compared favorably with theories describing the coagulation process of aerosols

  9. Attachment of radon progeny to cigarette-smoke aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermann, A.H.; Sawyer, S.R.

    1995-05-01

    The daughter products of radon gas are now recognized as a significant contributor to radiation exposure to the general public. It is also suspected that a synergistic effect exists with the combination cigarette smoking and radon exposure. We have conducted an experimental investigation to determine the physical nature of radon progeny interactions with cigarette smoke aerosols. The size distributions of the aerosols are characterized and attachment rates of radon progeny to cigarette-smoke aerosols are determined. Both the mainstream and sidestream portions of the smoke aerosol are investigated. Unattached radon progeny are very mobile and, in the presence of aerosols, readily attach to the particle surfaces. In this study, an aerosol chamber is used to contain the radon gas, progeny and aerosol mixture while allowing the attachment process to occur. The rate of attachment is dependent on the size distribution, or diffusion coefficient, of the radon progeny as well as the aerosol size distribution. The size distribution of the radon daughter products is monitored using a graded-screen diffusion battery. The diffusion battery also enables separation of the unattached radon progeny from those attached to the aerosol particles. Analysis of the radon decay products is accomplished using alpha spectrometry. The aerosols of interest are size fractionated with the aid of a differential mobility analyzer and cascade impactor. The measured attachment rates of progeny to the cigarette smoke are compared to those found in similar experiments using an ambient aerosol. The lowest attachment coefficients observed, {approximately}10{sup {minus}6} cm{sup 3}/s, occurred for the ambient aerosol. The sidestream and mainstream smoke aerosols exhibited higher attachment rates in that order. The results compared favorably with theories describing the coagulation process of aerosols.

  10. Aerosols and Climate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    atmosphere, aerosols have the potential to significantly influ- ence the climate. The global impact of aerosol is assessed as the change imposed on planetary radiation measured in Wm-2, which alters the global temperature. Effect of aerosols on the solar radiation (also called radiative forcing) can be broadly classified into ...

  11. Aerosols and Climate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Large warming by elevated aerosols · AERONET – Global network (NASA) · Slide 25 · Slide 26 · Slide 27 · Slide 28 · Slide 29 · Slide 30 · Slide 31 · Long-term trends - Trivandrum · Enhanced warming over Himalayan-Gangetic region · Aerosol Radiative Forcing Over India _ Regional Aerosol Warming Experiment ...

  12. Aerosols and Climate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aerosols and Climate · Slide 2 · Slide 3 · Slide 4 · Slide 5 · Slide 6 · Principal efforts in improving the understanding of Climate impact of aerosols - · Slide 8 · Observations of Aerosol – from space (Spatial variation) · AOD around Indian region from AVHRR · Dust absorption efficiency over Great Indian Desert from Satellite ...

  13. Aerosol retrieval experiments in the ESA Aerosol_cci project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Holzer-Popp

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Within the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI project Aerosol_cci (2010–2013, algorithms for the production of long-term total column aerosol optical depth (AOD datasets from European Earth Observation sensors are developed. Starting with eight existing pre-cursor algorithms three analysis steps are conducted to improve and qualify the algorithms: (1 a series of experiments applied to one month of global data to understand several major sensitivities to assumptions needed due to the ill-posed nature of the underlying inversion problem, (2 a round robin exercise of "best" versions of each of these algorithms (defined using the step 1 outcome applied to four months of global data to identify mature algorithms, and (3 a comprehensive validation exercise applied to one complete year of global data produced by the algorithms selected as mature based on the round robin exercise. The algorithms tested included four using AATSR, three using MERIS and one using PARASOL. This paper summarizes the first step. Three experiments were conducted to assess the potential impact of major assumptions in the various aerosol retrieval algorithms. In the first experiment a common set of four aerosol components was used to provide all algorithms with the same assumptions. The second experiment introduced an aerosol property climatology, derived from a combination of model and sun photometer observations, as a priori information in the retrievals on the occurrence of the common aerosol components. The third experiment assessed the impact of using a common nadir cloud mask for AATSR and MERIS algorithms in order to characterize the sensitivity to remaining cloud contamination in the retrievals against the baseline dataset versions. The impact of the algorithm changes was assessed for one month (September 2008 of data: qualitatively by inspection of monthly mean AOD maps and quantitatively by comparing daily gridded satellite data against daily averaged AERONET sun

  14. Aerosol retrieval experiments in the ESA Aerosol_cci project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer-Popp, T.; de Leeuw, G.; Griesfeller, J.; Martynenko, D.; Klüser, L.; Bevan, S.; Davies, W.; Ducos, F.; Deuzé, J. L.; Graigner, R. G.; Heckel, A.; von Hoyningen-Hüne, W.; Kolmonen, P.; Litvinov, P.; North, P.; Poulsen, C. A.; Ramon, D.; Siddans, R.; Sogacheva, L.; Tanre, D.; Thomas, G. E.; Vountas, M.; Descloitres, J.; Griesfeller, J.; Kinne, S.; Schulz, M.; Pinnock, S.

    2013-08-01

    Within the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) project Aerosol_cci (2010-2013), algorithms for the production of long-term total column aerosol optical depth (AOD) datasets from European Earth Observation sensors are developed. Starting with eight existing pre-cursor algorithms three analysis steps are conducted to improve and qualify the algorithms: (1) a series of experiments applied to one month of global data to understand several major sensitivities to assumptions needed due to the ill-posed nature of the underlying inversion problem, (2) a round robin exercise of "best" versions of each of these algorithms (defined using the step 1 outcome) applied to four months of global data to identify mature algorithms, and (3) a comprehensive validation exercise applied to one complete year of global data produced by the algorithms selected as mature based on the round robin exercise. The algorithms tested included four using AATSR, three using MERIS and one using PARASOL. This paper summarizes the first step. Three experiments were conducted to assess the potential impact of major assumptions in the various aerosol retrieval algorithms. In the first experiment a common set of four aerosol components was used to provide all algorithms with the same assumptions. The second experiment introduced an aerosol property climatology, derived from a combination of model and sun photometer observations, as a priori information in the retrievals on the occurrence of the common aerosol components. The third experiment assessed the impact of using a common nadir cloud mask for AATSR and MERIS algorithms in order to characterize the sensitivity to remaining cloud contamination in the retrievals against the baseline dataset versions. The impact of the algorithm changes was assessed for one month (September 2008) of data: qualitatively by inspection of monthly mean AOD maps and quantitatively by comparing daily gridded satellite data against daily averaged AERONET sun photometer

  15. Properties of radioactive aerosols produced by interactions of indoor radon decay products with cigarette smoke and burning cigarettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martell, E.A.; Sweder, K.S.

    1984-01-01

    Risks of lung cancer to smokers, attributable in part to exposure to indoor radon decay products, are dependent on properties of radon progeny-tagged smoke particles. The authors have investigated the properties and interactions of radon progeny-tagged smoke particles as they pass through burning cigarettes into mainstream smoke, using /sup 212/Pb-tagged smoke particles as tracers, cascade impactors for particle size determinations, and low-level β/sup -/ counting techniques. /sup 212/Pb-tagged particles of submicron size are destroyed in the burning zone of cigarettes. However, /sup 212/Pb-tagged smoke particles exceeding 1.0 μm diameter pass readily through the burning zone and tobacco rod into mainstream smoke. /sup 212/ Pb- tagged particles in mainstream smoke have an activity median aerodynamic diameter between 1.0 and 2.0 μm diameter. Particles > 2.0 μm diameter carry about 10 percent of the total activity, are selectively deposited at the carina of bifurcations, and are resistant to dissolution in lung fluid. These results indicate that indoor radon progeny on large particles in mainstream smoke can contribute substantially to the cumulative alpha radiation dose at ''hot spots'' in the bronchi of smokers

  16. Global Scale Attribution of Anthropogenic and Natural Dust Sources and their Emission Rates Based on MODIS Deep Blue Aerosol Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginoux, Paul; Prospero, Joseph M.; Gill, Thomas E.; Hsu, N. Christina; Zhao, Ming

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of the global dust cycle is limited by a dearth of information about dust sources, especially small-scale features which could account for a large fraction of global emissions. Here we present a global-scale high-resolution (0.1 deg) mapping of sources based on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Deep Blue estimates of dust optical depth in conjunction with other data sets including land use. We ascribe dust sources to natural and anthropogenic (primarily agricultural) origins, calculate their respective contributions to emissions, and extensively compare these products against literature. Natural dust sources globally account for 75% of emissions; anthropogenic sources account for 25%. North Africa accounts for 55% of global dust emissions with only 8% being anthropogenic, mostly from the Sahel. Elsewhere, anthropogenic dust emissions can be much higher (75% in Australia). Hydrologic dust sources (e.g., ephemeral water bodies) account for 31% worldwide; 15% of them are natural while 85% are anthropogenic. Globally, 20% of emissions are from vegetated surfaces, primarily desert shrublands and agricultural lands. Since anthropogenic dust sources are associated with land use and ephemeral water bodies, both in turn linked to the hydrological cycle, their emissions are affected by climate variability. Such changes in dust emissions can impact climate, air quality, and human health. Improved dust emission estimates will require a better mapping of threshold wind velocities, vegetation dynamics, and surface conditions (soil moisture and land use) especially in the sensitive regions identified here, as well as improved ability to address small-scale convective processes producing dust via cold pool (haboob) events frequent in monsoon regimes.

  17. Aerosol transport in severe reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fynbo, P.; Haeggblom, H.; Jokiniemi, J.

    1990-01-01

    Aerosol behaviour in the reactor containment was studied in the case of severe reactor accidents. The study was performed in a Nordic group during the years 1985 to 1988. Computer codes with different aerosol models were used for calculation of fission product transport and the results are compared. Experimental results from LACE, DEMONA and Marviken-V are compared with the calculations. The theory of aerosol nucleation and its influence on the fission product transport is discussed. The behaviour of hygroscopic aerosols is studied. The pool scrubbing models in the codes SPARC and SUPRA are reviewed and some knowledge in this field is assessed on the background of an international rewiew. (author) 60 refs

  18. Electrically Driven Technologies for Radioactive Aerosol Abatement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David W. DePaoli; Ofodike A. Ezekoye; Costas Tsouris; Valmor F. de Almeida

    2003-01-28

    The purpose of this research project was to develop an improved understanding of how electriexecy driven processes, including electrocoalescence, acoustic agglomeration, and electric filtration, may be employed to efficiently treat problems caused by the formation of aerosols during DOE waste treatment operations. The production of aerosols during treatment and retrieval operations in radioactive waste tanks and during thermal treatment operations such as calcination presents a significant problem of cost, worker exposure, potential for release, and increased waste volume.

  19. Kinetics of the photolytic production of aerosols from SO2 and NH3 in humid air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Seier; Wedel, Stig; Livbjerg, Hans

    1994-01-01

    The reaction of SO2 and NH3 in humid air to produce an aerosol of ammonium sulfate is studied in a photolytic laboratory reactor. The reaction is shown to be controlled by ultraviolet irradiation in the wavelength range of 240-330 nm and is initiated by excitation of SO2. It is found that NH3 has...... a strong catalytic effect on the photolytic oxidation of SO2 and surprisingly high values of the quantum yield are observed with NH3 concentration in the range of 20-400 ppm. The reaction rate increases with decreasing temperature. An overall mechanism for the formation of aerosol particles is proposed...

  20. Threshold electrical stimulation (TES) in ambulant children with CP: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dali, Christine í; Hansen, Flemming Juul; Pedersen, Søren Anker

    2002-01-01

    stimulation (TES). Two thirds received active and one third received inactive stimulators. For the primary outcome we constructed a set of plausible motor function tests and studied the change in summary indices of the performance measurements. Tests were videotaped and assessed blindly to record qualitative......). There was no significant difference between active and placebo treatment in any of the tested groups, nor combined. Visual and subjective assessments favoured TES (ns), whereas objective indices showed the opposite trend. We conclude that TES in these patients did not have any significant clinical effect during the test...

  1. Monitoring the Impacts of Wildfires on Forest Ecosystems and Public Health in the Exo-Urban Environment Using High-Resolution Satellite Aerosol Products from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Amy K; Kondragunta, Shobha; Zhang, Hai; Hoff, Raymond M

    2015-01-01

    Increasing development of exo-urban environments and the spread of urbanization into forested areas is making humans and forest ecosystems more susceptible to the risks associated with wildfires. Larger and more damaging wildfires are having a negative impact on forest ecosystem services, and smoke from wildfires adversely affects the public health of people living in exo-urban environments. Satellite aerosol measurements are valuable tools that can track the evolution of wildfires and monitor the transport of smoke plumes. Operational users, such as air quality forecasters and fire management officials, can use satellite observations to complement ground-based and aircraft measurements of wildfire activity. To date, wildfire applications of satellite aerosol products, such as aerosol optical depth (AOD), have been limited by the relatively coarse resolution of available AOD data. However, the new Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite has high-resolution AOD that is ideally suited to monitoring wildfire impacts on the exo-urban scale. Two AOD products are available from VIIRS: the 750-m × 750-m nadir resolution Intermediate Product (IP) and the 6-km × 6-km resolution Environmental Data Record product, which is aggregated from IP measurements. True color (red, green, and blue [RGB]) imagery and a smoke mask at 750-m × 750-m resolution are also available from VIIRS as decision aids for wildfire applications; they serve as counterparts to AOD measurements by providing visible information about areas of smoke in the atmosphere. To meet the needs of operational users, who do not have time to process raw data files and need access to VIIRS products in near-real time (NRT), VIIRS AOD and RGB NRT imagery are available from the Infusing satellite Data into Environmental Applications (IDEA) web site. A key feature of IDEA is an interactive visualization tool that allows users to

  2. DESAIN INSTRUMEN TES DIAGNOSTIK PENDETEKSI MISKONSEPSI UNTUK ANALISIS PEMAHAMAN KONSEP KIMIA MAHASISWA CALON GURU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Susilaningsih

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak   ___________________________________________________________________   Penelitian ini bertujuan mendesain instrumen tes diagnostik pendeteksi miskonsepsi, untuk menganalisis pemahaman konsep dasar kimia mahasiswa calon guru. Instrumen tes ini sangat dibutuhkan oleh mahasiswa untuk mengetahui, menganalisis sejauh mana pemahaman konsep-konsep dasar kimia yang telah diberikan dalam perkuliahan. Pemahaman konsep dasar kimia saat ini harus diupayakan secara maksimal, untuk menghasilkan outcome sesuai profil lulusan mahasiswa prodi Pendidikan Kimia, untuk menjadi Pendidik, fasilisator pembelajaran yang  kreatif, inovatif, dan sebagai peneliti dibidang kependidikan. Metode Penelitian didesain sedemikian rupa dengan langkah-langkah mulai dari pemilihan materi yang sulit dipahami, menyusun kisi-kisi soal, desain instrumen tes pendeteksi miskonsepsi model three tier multiple choice, untuk multi level sampai mikroskopis, ujicoba,  analisis data uji coba, dan  penyempurnaan desain.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa berdasarkan data uji coba instrument tes valid dan reliabel. Hasil analisis pemahaman konsep dasar kimia mahasiswa calon guru pada ujian akhir semester dengan instrument tes yang sudah disempurnakan menunjukkan 25 dari 50 mahasiswa (50% paham konsep dasar kimia, 20 dari 50 mahasiswa (40% mis konsepsi,  dan 5 dari 50 mahasiswa (10% tidak paham konsep dasar kimia. Saran diperlukan penyempurnaan desain tes diagnostic pendeteksi miskonsepsi, dan perluasan cakupan materi dasar kimia.   Abstract   ___________________________________________________________________   This research aims to design a diagnostic test instrument detection of misconceptions, to analyze the understanding of the basic concepts of chemistry student teachers. This test instrument is needed by the students to identify, analyze the extent to which understanding of the basic concepts of chemistry that has been given in lectures. Understanding of the basic

  3. Status of the ORNL Aerosol Release and Transport Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    The behavior of aerosols assumed to be characteristic of those generated during light water reactor (LWR) accident sequences and released into containment is being studied. Recent activities in the ORNL Aerosol Release and Transport Project include studies of (1) the thermal hydraulic conditions existing during Nuclear Safety Pilot Plant (NSPP) aerosol tests in steam-air environments, (2) the thermal output and aerosol mass generation rates for plasma torch aerosol generators, and (3) the influence of humidity on the shape of agglomerated aerosols of various materials. A new Aerosol-Moisture Interaction Test (AMIT) facility was prepared at the NSPP site to accommodate the aerosol shape studies; several tests with Fe 2 O 3 aerosol have been conducted. In addition to the above activities a special study was conducted to determine the suitability of the technique of aerosol production by plasma torch under the operating conditions of future tests of the LWR Aerosol Containment Experiments (LACE) at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory. 3 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs

  4. PIXE Analysis of Indoor Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher; Turley, Colin; Moore, Robert; Battaglia, Maria; Labrake, Scott; Vineyard, Michael

    2011-10-01

    We have performed a proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis of aerosol samples collected in academic buildings at Union College to investigate the air quality in these buildings and the effectiveness of their air filtration systems. This is also the commissioning experiment for a new scattering chamber in the Union College Ion-Beam Analysis Laboratory. The aerosol samples were collected on Kapton foils using a nine-stage cascade impactor that separates particles according to their aerodynamic size. The foils were bombarded with beams of 2.2-MeV protons from the Union College 1.1-MV Pelletron Accelerator and the X-ray products were detected with an Amptek silicon drift detector. After subtracting the contribution from the Kapton foils, the X-ray energy spectra of the aerosol samples were analyzed using GUPIX software to determine the elemental concentrations of the samples. We will describe the collection of the aerosol samples, discuss the PIXE analysis, and present the results.

  5. MODIS/Terra Aerosol 5-Min L2 Swath 10km V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS level-2 atmospheric aerosol product (MOD04_L2) continues to provide full global coverage of aerosol properties from the Dark Target (DT) and Deep Blue (DB)...

  6. MODIS/Aqua Aerosol 5-Min L2 Swath 10km V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS level-2 atmospheric aerosol product (MYD04_L2) continues to provide full global coverage of aerosol properties from the Dark Target (DT) and Deep Blue (DB)...

  7. MODIS/Aqua Near Real Time (NRT) Aerosol 5-Min L2 Swath 10km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS level-2 atmospheric aerosol product (MYD04_L2) continues to provide full global coverage of aerosol properties from the Dark Target (DT) and Deep Blue (DB)...

  8. MODIS/Terra Near Real Time (NRT) Aerosol 5-Min L2 Swath 10km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS level-2 atmospheric aerosol product (MOD04_L2) continues to provide full global coverage of aerosol properties from the Dark Target (DT) and Deep Blue (DB)...

  9. MODIS/Aqua Aerosol 5-Min L2 Swath 10km V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Aqua Aerosol 5-Min L2 Swath 10km (MYD04_L2) product continues to provide full global coverage of aerosol properties from the Dark Target (DT) and Deep Blue...

  10. Aerosol Transmission of Filoviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berhanu Mekibib

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Filoviruses have become a worldwide public health concern because of their potential for introductions into non-endemic countries through international travel and the international transport of infected animals or animal products. Since it was first identified in 1976, in the Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire and Sudan, the 2013–2015 western African Ebola virus disease (EVD outbreak is the largest, both by number of cases and geographical extension, and deadliest, recorded so far in medical history. The source of ebolaviruses for human index case(s in most outbreaks is presumptively associated with handling of bush meat or contact with fruit bats. Transmission among humans occurs easily when a person comes in contact with contaminated body fluids of patients, but our understanding of other transmission routes is still fragmentary. This review deals with the controversial issue of aerosol transmission of filoviruses.

  11. Aerosol Transmission of Filoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekibib, Berhanu; Ariën, Kevin K

    2016-05-23

    Filoviruses have become a worldwide public health concern because of their potential for introductions into non-endemic countries through international travel and the international transport of infected animals or animal products. Since it was first identified in 1976, in the Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire) and Sudan, the 2013-2015 western African Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak is the largest, both by number of cases and geographical extension, and deadliest, recorded so far in medical history. The source of ebolaviruses for human index case(s) in most outbreaks is presumptively associated with handling of bush meat or contact with fruit bats. Transmission among humans occurs easily when a person comes in contact with contaminated body fluids of patients, but our understanding of other transmission routes is still fragmentary. This review deals with the controversial issue of aerosol transmission of filoviruses.

  12. Aerosol vertical distribution characteristics over the Tibetan Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Z Q; Han, Y X; Zhao, Q; Li, J

    2014-01-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II) aerosol products are widely used in climatic characteristic studies and stratospheric aerosol pattern research. Some SAGE II products, e.g., temperature, aerosol surface area density, 1020 nm aerosol extinction coefficient and dust storm frequency, from ground-based observations were analysed from 1984 to 2005. This analysis explored the time and spatial variations of tropospheric and stratospheric aerosols on the Tibet Plateau. The stratospheric aerosol extinction coefficient increased more than two orders of magnitude because of a large volcanic eruption. However, the tropospheric aerosol extinction coefficient decreased over the same period. Removing the volcanic eruption effect, the correlation coefficient for stratospheric AOD (Aerosol Optical Depth) and tropospheric AOD was 0.197. Moreover, the correlation coefficient for stratospheric AOD and dust storm frequency was 0.315. The maximum stratospheric AOD was attained in January, the same month as the tropospheric AOD, when the Qaidam Basin was the centre of low tropospheric AOD and the large mountains coincided with high stratospheric AOD. The vertical structure generated by westerly jet adjustment and the high altitude of the underlying surface of the Tibetan Plateau were important factors affecting winter stratospheric aerosols

  13. A method for determination of the retention of inhaled aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreyling, W.G.

    1983-03-01

    A method is described by which activity distributions were measured in the lungs of beagles after inhalation of radiolabelled aerosols. This was the first time that the retention function of the various regions of the lungs was measured for periods of several months to several years on the basis of the time variations of the activity distribution. Retention in the respiratory tract is a function of the aerosol and its materials characteristics; in consequence, the author had to develop a method of aerosol production and analysis to ensure production of aerosols with specially selected physical and chemical properties. Determintion of retention curves of a certain aerosol as a function of its aerosol parameters is a new method of interpreting the purification processes of the repsiratory tract. (orig.) [de

  14. Atmospheric Oxidation of 1,3-Butadiene: Characterization of gas and aerosol reaction products and implication for PM2.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) was generated by irradiating 1,3-butadiene (13BD) in the presence of H2O2 or NOx. Experiments were conducted in a smog chamber operated in either flow or batch mode. A filter/denuder sampling system was used for simultaneously collecting gas and pa...

  15. A joint data record of tropospheric ozone from Aura-TES and MetOp-IASI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oetjen, Hilke; Payne, Vivienne H.; Neu, Jessica L.; Kulawik, Susan S.; Edwards, David P.; Eldering, Annmarie; Worden, Helen M.; Worden, John R.

    2016-08-01

    The Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) on Aura and Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) on MetOp-A together provide a time series of 10 years of free-tropospheric ozone with an overlap of 3 years. We characterise the differences between TES and IASI ozone measurements and find that IASI's coarser vertical sensitivity leads to a small (instruments can be merged, after correcting for the offset, in order to study decadal-scale changes in tropospheric ozone. We calculate time series of regional monthly mean ozone in the free troposphere over eastern Asia, the western United States (US), and Europe, carefully accounting for differences in spatial sampling between the instruments. We show that free-tropospheric ozone over Europe and the western US has remained relatively constant over the past decade but that, contrary to expectations, ozone over Asia in recent years does not continue the rapid rate of increase observed from 2004 to 2010.

  16. Determination of Net Martian Polar Dust Flux from MGS-TES Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmon, M. A.; Murphy, J. R.

    2003-01-01

    Using atmospheric dust abundance and atmospheric temperature observation data from the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) on board the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), the net flux of dust into and out of the Martian polar regions will be examined. Mars polar regions possess layered terrain , believed to be comprised of a mixture of ice and dust, with the different layers possibly representing different past climate regimes. These changes in climate may reflect changes in the deposition of dust and volatiles through impacts, volcanism, changes in resources of ice and dust, and response to Milankovitch type cycles (changes in eccentricity of orbit, obliquity and precession of axis). Understanding how rapidly such layers can be generated is an important element to understanding Mars climate history. This study uses the observed vertical temperature data and dust content measurements from TES to analyze the sign (gain or loss) of dust at high latitudes.

  17. TES-Based X-Ray Microcalorimeter Performances Under AC Bias and FDM for Athena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akamatsu, H.; Gottardi, L.; de Vries, C. P.; Adams, J. S.; Bandler, S. R.; Bruijn, M. P.; Chervenak, J. A.; Eckart, M. E.; Finkbeiner, F. M.; Gao, J. R.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Athena is a European X-ray observatory, scheduled for launch in 2028. Athena will employ a high-resolution imaging spectrometer called X-ray integral field unit (X-IFU), consisting of an array of 4000 transition edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeter pixels. For the readout of X-IFU, we are developing frequency domain multiplexing, which is the baseline readout system. In this paper, we report on the performance of a TES X-ray calorimeter array fabricated at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) at MHz frequencies for the baseline of X-IFU detector. During single-pixel AC bias characterization, we measured X-ray energy resolutions (at 6 keV) of about 2.9 eV at both 2.3 and 3.7 MHz. Furthermore, in the multiplexing mode, we measured X-ray energy resolutions of about 2.9 eV at 1.3 and 1.7 MHz.

  18. Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) Satellite Validations of Ammonia, Methanol, Formic Acid, and Carbon Monoxide over the Canadian Oil Sands

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The URLs link to the data archive of the Troposphere Emission Spectrometer (TES) retrievals. These include the transects included in the Canadian Tar Sands study. A...

  19. Reflectance and Thermal Infrared Spectroscopy of Mars: Relationship Between ISM and TES for Compositional Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Joseph (Technical Monitor); Mustard, John

    2004-01-01

    Reflectance spectroscopy has demonstrated that high albedo surfaces on Mars contain heavily altered materials with some component of hematite, poorly crystalline ferric oxides, and an undefined silicate matrix. The spectral properties of many low albedo regions indicate crystalline basalts containing both low and high calcium pyroxene, a mineralogy consistent with the basaltic SNC meteorites. The Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) experiment on the Mars Geochemical Surveyor has acquired critical new data relevant to surface composition and mineralogy, but in a wavelength region that is complementary to reflectance spectroscopy. The essence of the completed research was to analyze TES data in the context of reflectance data obtained by the French ISM imaging spectrometer experiment in 1989. This approach increased our understanding of the complementary nature of these wavelength regions for mineralogic determinations using actual observations of the martian surface. The research effort focused on three regions of scientific importance: Syrtis Major-Isidis Basin, Oxia Palus-Arabia, and Valles Marineris. In each region distinct spatial variations related to reflectance, and in derived mineralogic information and interpreted compositional units were analyzed. In addition, specific science questions related to the composition of volcanics and crustal evolution, soil compositions and pedogenic processes, and the relationship between pristine lithologies and weathering provided an overall science-driven framework for the work. The detailed work plan involved colocation of TES and ISM data, extraction of reflectance and emissivity spectra from areas of known reflectance variability, and quantitative analysis using factor analysis and statistical techniques to determine the degree of correspondence between these different wavelength regions. Identified coherent variations in TES spectroscopy were assessed against known atmospheric effects to validate that the variations

  20. Assembly, characterization, and operation of large-scale TES detector arrays for ACTPol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Christine Goodwin

    2016-01-01

    The Polarization-sensitive Receiver for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACTPol) is designed to measure the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature and polarization anisotropies on small angular scales. Measurements of the CMB temperature and polarization anisotropies have produced arguably the most important cosmological data to date, establishing the LambdaCDM model and providing the best constraints on most of its parameters. To detect the very small fluctuations in the CMB signal across the sky, ACTPol uses feedhorn-coupled Transition-Edge Sensor (TES) detectors. A TES is a superconducting thin film operated in the transition region between the superconducting and normal states, where it functions as a highly sensitive resistive thermometer. In this thesis, aspects of the assembly, characterization, and in-field operation of the ACTPol TES detector arrays are discussed. First, a novel microfabrication process for producing high-density superconducting aluminum/polyimide flexible circuitry (flex) designed to connect large-scale detector arrays to the first stage of readout is presented. The flex is used in parts of the third ACTPol array and is currently being produced for use in the AdvACT detector arrays, which will begin to replace the ACTPol arrays in 2016. Next, we describe methods and results for the in-lab and on-telescope characterization of the detectors in the third ACTPol array. Finally, we describe the ACTPol TES R(T,I) transition shapes and how they affect the detector calibration and operation. Methods for measuring the exact detector calibration and re-biasing functions, taking into account the R(T,I) transition shape, are presented.

  1. Domestic demand-side management (DSM): Role of heat pumps and thermal energy storage (TES) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arteconi, A.; Hewitt, N.J.; Polonara, F.

    2013-01-01

    Heat pumps are seen as a promising technology for load management in the built environment, in combination with the smart grid concept. They can be coupled with thermal energy storage (TES) systems to shift electrical loads from high-peak to off-peak hours, thus serving as a powerful tool in demand-side management (DSM). This paper analyzes heat pumps with radiators or underfloor heating distribution systems coupled with TES with a view to showing how a heat pump system behaves and how it influences the building occupants' thermal comfort under a DSM strategy designed to flatten the shape of the electricity load curve by switching off the heat pump during peak hours (16:00–19:00). The reference scenario for the analysis was Northern Ireland (UK). The results showed that the heat pump is a good tool for the purposes of DSM, also thanks to the use of TES systems, in particular with heating distribution systems that have a low thermal inertia, e.g. radiators. It proved possible to achieve a good control of the indoor temperature, even if the heat pump was turned off for 3 h, and to reduce the electricity bill if a “time of use” tariff structure was adopted. -- Highlights: ► Heat pump heating systems with thermal energy storage are considered. ► System behavior is investigated during a DSM strategy for reducing peak energy demand. ► Heat pump heating systems demonstrate to be able to have an active role in DSM programs. ► A TES system must be coupled with the heat pump in presence of low thermal inertia heating distribution systems. ► Central role played by incentives schemes to promote this technology

  2. Changes in the production rate of secondary aerosol particles in Central Europe in view of decreasing SO2 emissions between 1996 and 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. J. Lehtinen

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In anthropogenically influenced atmospheres, sulphur dioxide (SO2 is the main precursor of gaseous sulphuric acid (H2SO4, which in turn is a main precursor for atmospheric particle nucleation. As a result of socio-economic changes, East Germany has seen a dramatic decrease in anthropogenic SO2 emissions between 1989 and present, as documented by routine air quality measurements in many locations. We have attempted to evaluate the influence of changing SO2 concentrations on the frequency and intensity of new particle formation (NPF using two different data sets (1996–1997; 2003–2006 of experimental particle number size distributions (diameter range 3–750 nm from the atmospheric research station Melpitz near Leipzig, Germany. Between the two periods SO2 concentrations decreased by 65% on average, while the frequency of NPF events dropped by 45%. Meanwhile, the average formation rate of 3 nm particles decreased by 68% on average. The trends were statistically significant and therefore suggest a connection between the availability of anthropogenic SO2 and freshly formed new particles. In contrast to the decrease in new particle formation, we found an increase in the mean growth rate of freshly nucleated particles (+22%, suggesting that particle nucleation and subsequent growth into larger sizes are delineated with respect to their precursor species. Using three basic parameters, the condensation sink for H2SO4, the SO2 concentration, and the global radiation intensity, we were able to define the characteristic range of atmospheric conditions under which particle formation events take place at the Melpitz site. While the decrease in the concentrations and formation rates of the new particles was rather evident, no similar decrease was found with respect to the generation of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN; particle diameter >100 nm as a result of atmospheric nucleation events. On the contrary, the production of CCN following nucleation events

  3. Performance of an X-ray single pixel TES microcalorimeter under DC and AC biasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottardi, L.; Kuur, J. van der; Korte, P. A. J. de; Den Hartog, R.; Dirks, B.; Popescu, M.; Hoevers, H. F. C.; Bruijn, M.; Borderias, M. Parra; Takei, Y.

    2009-01-01

    We are developing Frequency Domain Multiplexing (FDM) for the read-out of TES imaging microcalorimeter arrays for future X-ray missions like IXO. In the FDM configuration the TES is AC voltage biased at a well defined frequencies (between 0.3 to 10 MHz) and acts as an AM modulating element. In this paper we will present a full comparison of the performance of a TES microcalorimeter under DC bias and AC bias at a frequency of 370 kHz. In both cases we measured the current-to-voltage characteristics, the complex impedance, the noise, the X-ray responsivity, and energy resolution. The behaviour is very similar in both cases, but deviations in performances are observed for detector working points low in the superconducting transition (R/R N <0.5). The measured energy resolution at 5.89 keV is 2.7 eV for DC bias and 3.7 eV for AC bias, while the baseline resolution is 2.8 eV and 3.3 eV, respectively.

  4. Experimental investigation of thermal de-stratification in rock bed TES systems for high temperature applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okello, Denis; Nydal, Ole J.; Banda, Eldad J.K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • High thermal stratifications exists rock bed TES when charge with high temperature heat. • Faster thermal degradation occurs in highly stratified bed irrespective of the bed length. • Average rate of heat loss as a function of storage time increases with increasing average bed temperature. - Abstract: Solar energy fluctuates so much that it cannot promote continuous use. Integration of Thermal Energy Storage (TES) with solar energy collection devices has the potential of making solar energy available on demand. Thermal energy can be stored in a bed of rocks at temperatures suitable for applications like cooking, boiling space heating, etc. During charging, temperature stratification is observed in the bed. In a stratified system, if the heat is used immediately, then it is possible to extract heat at reasonably high temperature from the top. For cases where the system is to be used after sometime (later at night or the following morning), the high temperature heat at the top is observed to degrade as the system tries to establish thermal equilibrium irrespective of the bed height. The average rate of heat loss from the TES unit to the ambient is found to increase with increasing average bed temperatures

  5. High-Temperature Phase Change Materials (PCM) Candidates for Thermal Energy Storage (TES) Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, J. C.

    2011-09-01

    It is clearly understood that lower overall costs are a key factor to make renewable energy technologies competitive with traditional energy sources. Energy storage technology is one path to increase the value and reduce the cost of all renewable energy supplies. Concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies have the ability to dispatch electrical output to match peak demand periods by employing thermal energy storage (TES). Energy storage technologies require efficient materials with high energy density. Latent heat TES systems using phase change material (PCM) are useful because of their ability to charge and discharge a large amount of heat from a small mass at constant temperature during a phase transformation like melting-solidification. PCM technology relies on the energy absorption/liberation of the latent heat during a physical transformation. The main objective of this report is to provide an assessment of molten salts and metallic alloys proposed as candidate PCMs for TES applications, particularly in solar parabolic trough electrical power plants at a temperature range from 300..deg..C to 500..deg.. C. The physical properties most relevant for PCMs service were reviewed from the candidate selection list. Some of the PCM candidates were characterized for: chemical stability with some container materials; phase change transformation temperatures; and latent heats.

  6. Complementary Measurement of Thermal Architecture of NbSi TES with Alpha Particle and Complex Impedance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, J.; Miniussi, A.; Piat, M.; Prêle, D.; Pajot, F.; Decourcelle, T.; Voisin, F.; Bélier, B.; Coron, N.; Ghribi, A.; Marnieros, S.; Perbost, C.

    2014-08-01

    As shown by the Planck mission (Planck Collaboration. Astronomy and astrophysics. arXiv1303.5071P, 2013), background limited bolometers in a space environment are very sensitive to high energy particles. In order to not degrade their sensitivity, it is necessary to reduce this unwanted signal. To achieve this goal, a good understanding of the detector's thermal architecture is mandatory. To investigate this question, we used an particle source in front of our niobium silicon (NbSi) alloy Transition edge sensors (TES). The number of time constants required to fit the data and the way these time constants behave as we change the bias power gave us a good insight on the TES thermal architecture. Indeed we expect a decrease of the detector time constant due to the electro-thermal feedback properties. We will first present some standard characterizations of NbSi TES using a simple thermal model and how they indicate the presence of multiple thermal decouplings. Then we will show the results of the particles measurements and how we used them to build our thermal model for Complex Impedance fitting. All this work has been done for the QUBIC experiment, a B-modes instrument.

  7. Large Arrays of TES X-ray Microcalorimeters for Dark Baryon Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezoe, Yuichiro; Yoshitake, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Kumi; Ishisaki, Yoshitaka; Akamatsu, Hiroki; Ohashi, Takaya; Yamasaki, Noriko Y.; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Takano, Takayuki; Maeda, Ryutaro

    2009-12-01

    Arrays of transition edge sensor (TES) X-ray microcalorimeters can provide a high energy resolution and a large area necessary for future dark baryon search missions such as DIOS (Diffuse Intergalactic Oxygen Surveyor). In the current design, the energy resolution of 2 eV at 0.3-1.5 keV and the geometrical area of 1 cm2 are required for DIOS. As an R&D study, we fabricated a 16×16 Ti/Au bilayer TES array without an absorber, and achieved the energy resolution of 4.4±0.2 eV at 5.9 keV. Considering the recent experimental results on so-called excess noise, we investigated a detailed design of the TES array for DIOS. We concluded that we need a at least 20×20 pixel array consisting of 250 μm-square TESs and 500 μm-square mushroom-type Bi/Au absorbers. We discussed technical issues to manufacture such a large format array.

  8. PENGARUH BERPIKIR KREATIF DENGAN MODEL PROBLEM BASED LEARNING (PBL TERHADAP PRESTASI BELAJAR FISIKA SISWA DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN TES OPEN ENDED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Hartini

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui apakah ada pengaruh pemikiran kreatif dengan menggunakan model Pembelajaran Berbasis Masalah ( PBL terhadap prestasi belajar siswa dengan tes fisika terbuka berakhir . Hipotesis penelitian ini adalah ada pengaruh pemikiran kreatif dengan model PBL prestasi fisika siswa melalui tes terbuka berakhir . Penelitian ini dilakukan di Al - Hidayah MTs Cinangka kelas VIII pada semester kedua tahun akademik 2012/2013 . Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah Pre - Eksperimental . Dengan target dari populasi siswa seluruh MTs Al - Hidayah Cinangka , sedangkan populasi keterjangkauan siswa kelas VIII . Teknik pengumpulan data menggunakan instrumen tes seperti penelitian berakhir terbuka dalam bentuk narasi . Instrumen penelitian sebelum diberikan kepada objek penelitian dilakukan sebelum uji validitas instrumen tes, uji reliabilitas , uji dan uji tingkat kesulitan membedakan . Uji validitas rumus product moment diperoleh 17 pertanyaan yang valid dan 3 pertanyaan yang tidak valid, sedangkan uji reliabilitas dengan alpha formula untuk rhitung = 0,81 > 0.361 = r tabel. Sebelum data dianalisis terlebih dahulu diuji normalitas dengan persyaratan tes dan uji uji homogenitas Lilliefors menggunakan uji Bartlet . Uji normalitas diperoleh Lhitung = 0,091 < 0,161 = Ltabel dapat disimpulkan bahwa sampel terdistribusi secara normal . Hasil perhitungan yang diperoleh X2 hitung = 6,83991 , dan X2 tabel = 30,1 tabel dapat disimpulkan dalam dua kelas X2 hitung < X2 tabel . Dengan demikian H0 diterima dan kelas dalam keadaan homogen . Deskripsi hasil analisis data diperoleh nilai rata-rata untuk pre -test dari 49,3 , sedangkan nilai rata-rata 79,2 untuk post-test berarti ada peningkatan prestasi siswa . Sedangkan Hipotesis pengujian menggunakan uji-t diperoleh thitung = 2.53 > 1,994 = t tabel dengan menggunakan tingkat signifikansi = 0,05 . Ini berarti terima H0 , maka hasil penelitian ini disimpulkan bahwa terdapat

  9. Marine Aerosols and Clouds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Sarah D; Thornton, Daniel C O

    2018-01-03

    The role of marine bioaerosols in cloud formation and climate is currently so uncertain that even the sign of the climate forcing is unclear. Marine aerosols form through direct emissions and through the conversion of gas-phase emissions to aerosols in the atmosphere. The composition and size of aerosols determine how effective they are in catalyzing the formation of water droplets and ice crystals in clouds by acting as cloud condensation nuclei and ice nucleating particles, respectively. Marine organic aerosols may be sourced both from recent regional phytoplankton blooms that add labile organic matter to the surface ocean and from long-term global processes, such as the upwelling of old refractory dissolved organic matter from the deep ocean. Understanding the formation of marine aerosols and their propensity to catalyze cloud formation processes are challenges that must be addressed given the major uncertainties associated with aerosols in climate models.

  10. Marine Aerosols and Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Sarah D.; Thornton, Daniel C. O.

    2018-01-01

    The role of marine bioaerosols in cloud formation and climate is currently so uncertain that even the sign of the climate forcing is unclear. Marine aerosols form through direct emissions and through the conversion of gas-phase emissions to aerosols in the atmosphere. The composition and size of aerosols determine how effective they are in catalyzing the formation of water droplets and ice crystals in clouds by acting as cloud condensation nuclei and ice nucleating particles, respectively. Marine organic aerosols may be sourced both from recent regional phytoplankton blooms that add labile organic matter to the surface ocean and from long-term global processes, such as the upwelling of old refractory dissolved organic matter from the deep ocean. Understanding the formation of marine aerosols and their propensity to catalyze cloud formation processes are challenges that must be addressed given the major uncertainties associated with aerosols in climate models.

  11. Evidence of Convective Redistribution of Carbon Monoxide in Aura Tropospheric Emission Sounder (TES) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyin, Michael; Douglass, Anne; Schoeberl, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Vertical convective transport is a key element of the tropospheric circulation. Convection lofts air from the boundary layer into the free troposphere, allowing surface emissions to travel much further, and altering the rate of chemical processes such as ozone production. This study uses satellite observations to focus on the convective transport of CO from the boundary layer to the mid and upper troposphere. Our hypothesis is that strong convection associated with high rain rate regions leads to a correlation between mid level and upper level CO amounts. We first test this hypothesis using the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) chemistry and transport model. We find the correlation is robust and increases as the precipitation rate (the strength of convection) increases. We next examine three years of CO profiles from the Tropospheric Emission Sounder (TES) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) instruments aboard EOS Aura. Rain rates are taken from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) 3B-42 multi-satellite product. Again we find a correlation between mid-level and upper tropospheric CO, which increases with rain rate. Our result shows the critical importance of tropical convection in coupling vertical levels of the troposphere in the transport of trace gases. The effect is seen most clearly in strong convective regions such as the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone.

  12. Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) Satellite Validations of Ammonia, Methanol, Formic Acid, and Carbon Monoxide over the Canadian Oil Sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    The URLs link to the data archive of the Troposphere Emission Spectrometer (TES) retrievals. These include the transects included in the Canadian Tar Sands study. A brief description of TES is listed below. TES is a spectrometer that measures the infrared-light energy (radiance) emitted by Earth's surface and by gases and particles in Earth's atmosphere. Every substance warmer than absolute zero emits infrared radiation at certain signature wavelengths. Spectrometers measure this radiation as a means of identifying the substances.TES has very high spectral resolution, which gives it the ability to pinpoint the wavelengths at which the substances are emitting. This enables precise identification of the substances, and also provides information about their location in the atmosphere. Emission wavelengths can vary with temperature and pressure, so seeing the emissions with great precision enables scientists to infer the temperature and pressure of the chemicals from which they came. This, in turn, implies that the chemicals being observed are at a certain altitude where those temperatures and pressures apply. The ability to determine the altitude of the observed chemicals enables TES to distinguish radiation from the upper and lower atmosphere, and focus on the lower layer - the troposphere.Since it observes light in the infrared range of the electromagnetic spectrum, similar to night-vision goggles, TES can observe both day and night. Its spectral range overlaps t

  13. Aerosol climate change effects on land ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, N; Yue, X; Harper, K L

    2017-08-24

    A coupled global aerosol-carbon-climate model is applied to assess the impacts of aerosol physical climate change on the land ecosystem services gross primary productivity (GPP) and net primary productivity (NPP) in the 1996-2005 period. Aerosol impacts are quantified on an annual mean basis relative to the hypothetical aerosol-free world in 1996-2005, the global climate state in the absence of the historical rise in aerosol pollution. We examine the separate and combined roles of fast feedbacks associated with the land and slow feedbacks associated with the ocean. We consider all fossil fuel, biofuel and biomass burning aerosol emission sources as anthropogenic. The effective radiative forcing for aerosol-radiation interactions is -0.44 W m -2 and aerosol-cloud interactions is -1.64 W m -2 . Aerosols cool and dry the global climate system by -0.8 °C and -0.08 mm per day relative to the aerosol-free world. Without aerosol pollution, human-induced global warming since the preindustrial would have already exceeded the 1.5 °C aspirational limit set in the Paris Agreement by the 1996-2005 decade. Aerosol climate impacts on the global average land ecosystem services are small due to large opposite sign effects in the tropical and boreal biomes. Aerosol slow feedbacks associated with the ocean strongly dominate impacts in the Amazon and North American Boreal. Aerosol cooling of the Amazon by -1.2 °C drives NPP increases of 8% or +0.76 ± 0.61 PgC per year, a 5-10 times larger impact than estimates of diffuse radiation fertilization by biomass burning aerosol in this region. The North American Boreal suffers GPP and NPP decreases of 35% due to aerosol-induced cooling and drying (-1.6 °C, -0.14 mm per day). Aerosol-land feedbacks play a larger role in the eastern US and Central Africa. Our study identifies an eco-climate teleconnection in the polluted earth system: the rise of the northern hemisphere mid-latitude reflective aerosol pollution layer causes long range

  14. Modeling Photosensitized Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation in Laboratory and Ambient Aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, William G; Rao, Yi; Dai, Hai-Lung; McNeill, V Faye

    2017-07-05

    Photosensitized reactions involving imidazole-2-carboxaldehyde (IC) have been experimentally observed to contribute to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) growth. However, the extent of photosensitized reactions in ambient aerosols remains poorly understood and unaccounted for in atmospheric models. Here we use GAMMA 4.0, a photochemical box model that couples gas-phase and aqueous-phase aerosol chemistry, along with recent laboratory measurements of the kinetics of IC photochemistry, to analyze IC-photosensitized SOA formation in laboratory and ambient settings. Analysis of the laboratory results of Aregahegn et al. (2013) suggests that photosensitized production of SOA from limonene, isoprene, α-pinene, β-pinene, and toluene by 3 IC* occurs at or near the surface of the aerosol particle. Reactive uptake coefficients were derived from the experimental data using GAMMA 4.0. Simulations of aqueous aerosol SOA formation at remote ambient conditions including IC photosensitizer chemistry indicate less than 0.3% contribution to SOA growth from direct reactions of 3 IC* with limonene, isoprene, α-pinene, β-pinene, and toluene, and an enhancement of less than 0.04% of SOA formation from other precursors due to the formation of radicals in the bulk aerosol aqueous phase. Other, more abundant photosensitizer species, such as humic-like substances (HULIS), may contribute more significantly to aqueous aerosol SOA production.

  15. Aerosol Absorption Measurements in MILAGRO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.; Arnott, W. P.; Paredes-Miranda, L.; Barnard, J. C.

    2007-12-01

    to carbonyl- and nitro- functional groups on conjugated and aromatic organic structures (e.g. PAH, and terpene derived products). Using 12-hour fine (0.1-1.0 micron) aerosol samples collected in the field on quartz filters, uv/vis and infrared spectra were obtained in the laboratory using integrating spheres and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, respectively. An inter-comparison of the "real-time" measurements made by the photo-acoustic, aethalometer and MAAP techniques have been described. In addition, the in situ aethalometer (seven-channel) results are compared with continuous integrating sphere uv-visible spectra to examine the angstrom absorption coefficient variance. These results will be briefly overviewed and the specific posters detailing these results will be highlighted highlighted. This work was performed as part of the Department of Energy's Megacity Aerosol Experiment - Mexico City under the support of the Atmospheric Science Program. "This researchwas supported by the Office of Science (BER), U. S. Department of Energy, Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER64329.

  16. Photochemical organonitrate formation in wet aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yong Bin; Kim, Hwajin; Kim, Jin Young; Turpin, Barbara J.

    2016-10-01

    Water is the most abundant component of atmospheric fine aerosol. However, despite rapid progress, multiphase chemistry involving wet aerosols is still poorly understood. In this work, we report results from smog chamber photooxidation of glyoxal- and OH-containing ammonium sulfate or sulfuric acid particles in the presence of NOx and O3 at high and low relative humidity. Particles were analyzed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS). During the 3 h irradiation, OH oxidation products of glyoxal that are also produced in dilute aqueous solutions (e.g., oxalic acids and tartaric acids) were formed in both ammonium sulfate (AS) aerosols and sulfuric acid (SA) aerosols. However, the major products were organonitrogens (CHNO), organosulfates (CHOS), and organonitrogen sulfates (CHNOS). These were also the dominant products formed in the dark chamber, indicating non-radical formation. In the humid chamber (> 70 % relative humidity, RH), two main products for both AS and SA aerosols were organonitrates, which appeared at m / z- 147 and 226. They were formed in the aqueous phase via non-radical reactions of glyoxal and nitric acid, and their formation was enhanced by photochemistry because of the photochemical formation of nitric acid via reactions of peroxy radicals, NOx and OH during the irradiation.

  17. Proteinases in excretory-secretory products of Toxocara canis second-stage larvae: zymography and modeling insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Páez, Gonzalo Ernesto; Alba-Hurtado, Fernando; García-Tovar, Carlos Gerardo; Argüello-García, Raúl

    2014-01-01

    Components released in excretory-secretory products of Toxocara canis larvae (TES) include phosphatidylethanolamine-binding proteins (TES26), mucins (TES120, MUC2-5), and C-type lectins (TES32, TES70) and their biochemical, immunological, and diagnostic properties have been extensively studied albeit proteinase activities towards physiological substrates are almost unknown. Proteolytic activities in TES samples were first analyzed by gel electrophoresis with gelatin as substrate. Major activities of ~400, 120, and 32 kDa in TES were relatively similar over a broad pH range (5.5-9.0) and all these were of the serine-type as leupeptin abolished gelatinolysis. Further, the ~400 kDa component degraded all physiological substrates tested (laminin, fibronectin, albumin, and goat IgG) and the 120 kDa component degraded albumin and goat IgG while proteinases of lower MW (45, 32, and 26 kDa) only degraded laminin and fibronectin, preferentially at alkaline pH (9.0). By protein modeling approaches using the known sequences of TES components, only TES26 and MUC4 displayed folding patterns significantly related to reference serine proteinases. These data suggest that most of serine proteinase activities secreted in vitro by infective larvae of T. canis have intriguing nature but otherwise help the parasite to affect multiple components of somatic organs and bodily fluids within the infected host.

  18. Instant foam physics : formation and stability of aerosol whipped cream

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnen, M.E.

    1997-01-01

    The formation and stability of aerosol whipped cream, as an example of an instant foam, were studied from a physical point of view. Instant foam production out of an aerosol can is based on the principle that a soluble gas (laughing gas) is dissolved under elevated pressure (5-10 bar) in

  19. Investigation on aerosol transport in containment cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parozzi, F.; Chatzidakis, S.; Housiadas, C.; Gelain, T.; Nahas, G.; Plumecocq, W.; Vendel, J.; Herranz, L.E.; Hinis, E.; Journeau, C.; Piluso, P.; Malgarida, E.

    2005-01-01

    Under severe accident conditions, the containment leak-tightness could be threatened by energetic phenomena that could yield a release to the environment of nuclear aerosols through penetrating concrete cracks. As few data are presently available to quantify this aerosol leakage, a specific action was launched in the framework of the Santar Project of the European 6 th Framework Programme. In this context, both theoretical and experimental investigations have been managed to develop a model that can readily be applied within a code like Aster (Accident Source Term Evaluation Code). Particle diffusion, settling, turbulent deposition, diffusiophoresis and thermophoresis have been considered as deposition mechanisms inside the crack path. They have been encapsulated in numerical models set up to reproduce experiments with small tubes and capillaries and simulate the plug formation. Then, an original lagrangian approach has been used to evaluate the crack retention under typical PWR accident conditions, comparing its predictions with those given by the eulerian approach implemented in the ECART code. On the experimental side, the paper illustrates an aerosol production and measurement system developed to validate aerosol deposition models into cracks and the results that can be obtained: a series of tests were performed with monodispersed fluorescein aerosols injected into a cracked concrete sample. A key result that should be further explored refers to the high enhancement of aerosol retention that could be due to steam condensation. Recommendations concerning future experimentation are also given in the paper. (author)

  20. Study of photolytic aerosols at stratospheric pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delattre, Patrick.

    1975-07-01

    An experimental study of photolytic aerosol formation at stratospheric pressure (60 Torr) and laboratory temperature, was carried out previous to the exact simulation of photolytic aerosol formation in real stratospheric conditions. An experimental simulation device, techniques of generation of known mixtures of inert gases with SO 2 and NOsub(x) traces at low concentration (below 1 ppm volume) and H 2 O traces (a few ppm), and techniques for the determination and counting of aerosol particles at low pressures were perfected. The following results were achieved: the rate of vapor condensation on nuclei was reduced when total pressure decreased. At low pressure the working of condensation nuclei counters and the formation of photolytic aerosols is influenced by this phenomenon. An explanation is proposed, as well as means to avoid this unpleasant effect on the working of nuclei counters at low pressure. No photolytic aerosol production was ascertained at 60 Torr when water concentration was below 100 ppm whatever the concentration of SO 2 or NOsub(x) traces. With water concentration below 1200ppm and SO 2 trace concentration below 1ppm, the aerosol particles produced could not consist of sulfuric acid drops but probably of nitrosyl sulfate acide crystals [fr

  1. The SPARC Aerosol Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamill, P.; Thomason, L. W.; Peter, T.

    2002-05-01

    Stratospheric Processes and their Role in Climate (SPARC), a project of the WMO/ICSU/IOC World Climate Research Programme, was responsible for the recent SPARC Assessment of Upper Tropospheric and Stratospheric Water Vapour. SPARC has now decided to generate an analogous document for the stratospheric aerosol, using many of the measurements that have been developed in the last twenty years, but relying heavily on the SAGE II data set. The stratospheric aerosol assessment involves a large international collection of atmospheric scientists whose special area of expertise is the stratospheric aerosol. Key questions that have been identified as requiring answers include: How have aerosol properties such as surface area density varied with time? How representative are satellite-based climatologies? What is the non-volcanic bacground for stratospheric aerosol and can a trend in it be detected? How well can models reproduce observed aerosol properties? We report on the ``kickoff" workshop that was held at the CNES headquarters in Paris on November 4-6, 2001. We shall describe some of the interesting results that were based on the SAGE II data set. The assessment will be carried out by five working groups each focussing on one of the following aspects: processes, aerosol precursors, climatology, trends and modeling. The long records from SAGE II, HALOE and other space based instruments will play a prominent role in construction of a climatology. It is expected that a valuable result of this assessment will be a set of ``standard" stratospheric aerosol parameters for use by modelers.

  2. Aerosol in the containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanza, S.; Mariotti, P.

    1986-01-01

    The US program LACE (LWR Aerosol Containment Experiments), in which Italy participates together with several European countries, Canada and Japan, aims at evaluating by means of a large scale experimental activity at HEDL the retention in the pipings and primary container of the radioactive aerosol released following severe accidents in light water reactors. At the same time these experiences will make available data through which the codes used to analyse the behaviour of the aerosol in the containment and to verify whether by means of the codes of thermohydraulic computation it is possible to evaluate with sufficient accuracy variable influencing the aerosol behaviour, can be validated. This report shows and compares the results obtained by the participants in the LACE program with the aerosol containment codes NAVA 5 and CONTAIN for the pre-test computations of the test LA 1, in which an accident called containment by pass is simulated

  3. Arctic Aerosols and Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ingeborg Elbæk

    2017-01-01

    carbon, which is the most efficient aerosol to absorb radiation, is found to be one of the largest contributors to global warming. Aerosols are emitted from both anthropogenic and natural sources and the major components of atmospheric particulate matter include sulfate, organic aerosols, nitrate...... at the Villum Research Station, Station Nord in North Greenland. Laboratory studies of a conventional wood stove showed that particle emissions were strongly dependent on the intensity of burn rate. The burning cycle was divided into three phases, where the first phase, the fuel addition, resulted in short-lived...... but high emissions of levoglucosan and organic aerosols. The second phase, the intermediate phase, was dominated by black carbon and only to a minor extent organic aerosols and levoglucosan. The final burn out phase was generally represented by low concentrations of all species and overall the full cycle...

  4. Résultats de recherches récentes sur la structure géologique des gîtes de houille de la Ruhr Results of Recent Research on the Geological Structure of Coal Beds in the Ruhr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaulfuss R.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Un inventaire exact des gîtes de houille était lié à la réorganisation des rapports de propriété dans la région de la Ruhr (Fondation de la Ruhrkohle AG. Du fait que dans les domaines de gîtes de houille en exploitation les réserves de houille ne suffiront pas à assurer à long terme un rendement d'extraction suffisant, on commença une vaste exploration dans des parties de quartier encore inconnues. Il fut ainsi possible d'élargir considérablement les connaissances sur la situation géologique des gîtes de houille grâce à des études par réflexion sismique, des forages profonds et des enregistrements de forages géophysiques. An accurate inventory of the coal beds was dependent upon the reorganization of property reports in the Ruhr region (Ruhrkohle Fondation AG. Because the working coal fields do not contain sufficient coal reserves to guarantee satisfactory productivity rates on a long-term basis, extensive exploration in previously unexplored parts of the area was undertaken. Thus, it became possible to extend considerably our knowledge of the geological structure of the coal beds through refraction shooting, deep drilling, and the well logging.

  5. Fission product removal by containment spray - influence of the distance between the drops on the aerosol collection efficiency; Influence de la densite spatiale des gouttes d'aspersion sur l'efficacite de collecte des produits de fission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauchet, N

    2000-07-01

    This work is within the framework of the studies that are conducted at the IPSN concerning the loss of coolant in a nuclear reactor. During this kind of accident, a spray system in the reactor containment induces the scrubbing of fission products in the atmosphere, and allows the decrease of their concentration in the containment. Our objective is to study the influence of the distance between the drops of their aerosol collection efficiency. This is not taken into account in the existing models. We stimulate the various aerosol collection mechanisms with one free falling drop using computational fluid dynamics codes. The mechanisms are: deposition by brownian diffusion, impaction and interception of the particles by the drop, and collection of particles in the presence of steam condensation at the surface of the drop. These phenomena are studied for drops ranging in diameter from 100 to 700 micrometers, falling in a saturated air-steam mixture whose temperature varies between 20 and 140 degrees Celsius, and total pressure varies between 1 and 5 bars. We validate these models with results available in the literature and with experimental results CARAIDAS. Then we apply these models to the case of three aligned drops, which constitutes a case for which the proximity of the drops has a strong influence on the collection of aerosols. While varying the distance between the drop from 5 to 25 drop diameters, we can highlight the modification of the collection efficiency of each mechanism related to the disturbance of the velocity and concentration fields in the vicinity of the drops. We note that the strongest variations of efficiency observed are in the field of impaction, and that the steam condensation at the surface of the drops limits the decrease. (authors)

  6. CK2(beta)tes gene encodes a testis-specific isoform of the regulatory subunit of casein kinase 2 in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalmykova, Alla I; Shevelyov, Yuri Y; Polesskaya, Oksana O

    2002-01-01

    An earlier described CK2(beta)tes gene of Drosophila melanogaster is shown to encode a male germline specific isoform of regulatory beta subunit of casein kinase 2. Western-analysis using anti-CK2(beta)tes Ig revealed CK2(beta)tes protein in Drosophila testes extract. Expression of a CK2(beta...... and coimmunoprecipitation analysis of protein extract from Drosophila testes, we demonstrated an association between CK2(beta)tes and CK2alpha. Northern-analysis has shown that another regulatory (beta') subunit found recently in D. melanogaster genome is also testis-specific. Thus, we describe the first example of two...

  7. Fast onset medications through thermally generated aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Joshua D; Wensley, Martin; Lloyd, Peter; Myers, Daniel; Shen, William; Lu, Amy; Hodges, Craig; Hale, Ron; Mufson, Daniel; Zaffaroni, Alejandro

    2004-05-01

    Smoking involves heating a drug to form a mixture of drug vapor and gaseous degradation products. These gases subsequently cool and condense into aerosol particles that are inhaled. Here, we demonstrate rapid and reliable systemic delivery of pure pharmaceutical compounds without degradation products through a related process that also involves inhalation of thermally generated aerosol. Drug is coated as a thin film on a metallic substrate and vaporized by heating the metal. The thin nature of the drug coating minimizes the length of time during which the drug is exposed to elevated temperatures, thereby preventing its thermal decomposition. The vaporized, gas-phase drug rapidly condenses and coagulates into micrometer-sized aerosol particles. For the commonly prescribed antimigraine drug rizatriptan, inhalation of these particles results in nearly instantaneous systemic drug action.

  8. Effect of acidic seed on biogenic secondary organic aerosol growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czoschke, Nadine M.; Jang, Myoseon; Kamens, Richard M.

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) growth in the presence of acid aerosols was studied in twin 500 l Teflon bags and in a 4 m flow reactor. In Teflon bags, isoprene, acrolein and α-pinene were all made to react individually with ozone and exposed to either acid or non-acid inorganic seed aerosols to determine the effect of acid-catalyzed heterogeneous reactions on SOA growth. α-Pinene and ozone were made to react in a flow reactor to assess the immediate effect of mixing an acid aerosol with SOA at high and low relative humidity levels. In all cases, exposure to acid seed aerosol increased the amount of SOA mass produced. Fourier transform infrared spectra of the SOA in acid systems confirmed the transformation of carbonyl functional groups through acid-catalyzed heterogeneous reactions when SOAs formed in acidic environments or were exposed to acidic aerosols. Organic products initially produced from ozonation in the gas phase partition onto the inorganic seed aerosol and react heterogeneously with an acid catalyst forming low vapor pressure products. These acid-catalyzed heterogeneous reactions are implicated in generating the increased SOA mass observed in acidic aerosol systems as they transform predominantly gas phase compounds of high volatility into low vapor pressure predominantly particle phase products.

  9. GOCI Yonsei aerosol retrieval version 2 products: an improved algorithm and error analysis with uncertainty estimation from 5-year validation over East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Choi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI Yonsei aerosol retrieval (YAER version 1 algorithm was developed to retrieve hourly aerosol optical depth at 550 nm (AOD and other subsidiary aerosol optical properties over East Asia. The GOCI YAER AOD had accuracy comparable to ground-based and other satellite-based observations but still had errors because of uncertainties in surface reflectance and simple cloud masking. In addition, near-real-time (NRT processing was not possible because a monthly database for each year encompassing the day of retrieval was required for the determination of surface reflectance. This study describes the improved GOCI YAER algorithm version 2 (V2 for NRT processing with improved accuracy based on updates to the cloud-masking and surface-reflectance calculations using a multi-year Rayleigh-corrected reflectance and wind speed database, and inversion channels for surface conditions. The improved GOCI AOD τG is closer to that of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS and Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS AOD than was the case for AOD from the YAER V1 algorithm. The V2 τG has a lower median bias and higher ratio within the MODIS expected error range (0.60 for land and 0.71 for ocean compared with V1 (0.49 for land and 0.62 for ocean in a validation test against Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET AOD τA from 2011 to 2016. A validation using the Sun-Sky Radiometer Observation Network (SONET over China shows similar results. The bias of error (τG − τA is within −0.1 and 0.1, and it is a function of AERONET AOD and Ångström exponent (AE, scattering angle, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, cloud fraction and homogeneity of retrieved AOD, and observation time, month, and year. In addition, the diagnostic and prognostic expected error (PEE of τG are estimated. The estimated PEE of GOCI V2 AOD is well correlated with the actual error over East Asia, and the

  10. GOCI Yonsei aerosol retrieval version 2 products: an improved algorithm and error analysis with uncertainty estimation from 5-year validation over East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Myungje; Kim, Jhoon; Lee, Jaehwa; Kim, Mijin; Park, Young-Je; Holben, Brent; Eck, Thomas F.; Li, Zhengqiang; Song, Chul H.

    2018-01-01

    The Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) Yonsei aerosol retrieval (YAER) version 1 algorithm was developed to retrieve hourly aerosol optical depth at 550 nm (AOD) and other subsidiary aerosol optical properties over East Asia. The GOCI YAER AOD had accuracy comparable to ground-based and other satellite-based observations but still had errors because of uncertainties in surface reflectance and simple cloud masking. In addition, near-real-time (NRT) processing was not possible because a monthly database for each year encompassing the day of retrieval was required for the determination of surface reflectance. This study describes the improved GOCI YAER algorithm version 2 (V2) for NRT processing with improved accuracy based on updates to the cloud-masking and surface-reflectance calculations using a multi-year Rayleigh-corrected reflectance and wind speed database, and inversion channels for surface conditions. The improved GOCI AOD τG is closer to that of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) AOD than was the case for AOD from the YAER V1 algorithm. The V2 τG has a lower median bias and higher ratio within the MODIS expected error range (0.60 for land and 0.71 for ocean) compared with V1 (0.49 for land and 0.62 for ocean) in a validation test against Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) AOD τA from 2011 to 2016. A validation using the Sun-Sky Radiometer Observation Network (SONET) over China shows similar results. The bias of error (τG - τA) is within -0.1 and 0.1, and it is a function of AERONET AOD and Ångström exponent (AE), scattering angle, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), cloud fraction and homogeneity of retrieved AOD, and observation time, month, and year. In addition, the diagnostic and prognostic expected error (PEE) of τG are estimated. The estimated PEE of GOCI V2 AOD is well correlated with the actual error over East Asia, and the GOCI V2 AOD over South

  11. Melt-Vapor Phase Diagram of the Te-S System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volodin, V. N.; Trebukhov, S. A.; Kenzhaliyev, B. K.; Nitsenko, A. V.; Burabaeva, N. M.

    2018-03-01

    The values of partial pressure of saturated vapor of the constituents of the Te-S system are determined from boiling points. The boundaries of the melt-vapor phase transition at atmospheric pressure and in vacuum of 2000 and 100 Pa are calculated on the basis of partial pressures. A phase diagram that includes vapor-liquid equilibrium fields whose boundaries allow us to assess the behavior of elements upon distillation fractioning is plotted. It is established that the separation of elements is possible at the first evaporation-condensation cycle. Complications can be caused by crystallization of a sulfur solid solution in tellurium.

  12. Development of an aerosol decontamination factor evaluation method using an aerosol spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanai, Taizo, E-mail: t-kanai@criepi.denken.or.jp; Furuya, Masahiro, E-mail: furuya@criepi.denken.or.jp; Arai, Takahiro, E-mail: t-arai@criepi.denken.or.jp; Nishi, Yoshihisa, E-mail: y-nishi@criepi.denken.or.jp

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • Aerosol DF of each diameter is evaluable by using optical scattering method. • Outlet aerosol concentration shows exponential decay by the submergence. • This decay constant depends on the aerosol diameter. • Aerosol DF at water scrubber is described by simple equation. - Abstract: During a severe nuclear power plant accident, the release of fission products into containment and an increase in containment pressure are assumed to be possible. When the containment is damaged by excess pressure or temperature, radioactive materials are released. Pressure suppression pools, containment spray systems and a filtered containment venting system (FCVS) reduce containment pressure and reduce the radioactive release into the environment. These devices remove radioactive materials via various mechanisms. Pressure suppression pools remove radioactive materials by pool scrubbing. Spray systems remove radioactive materials by droplet−aerosol interaction. FCVS, which is installed in the exhaust system, comprises multi-scrubbers (venturi-scrubber, pool scrubbing, static mixer, metal−fiber filter and molecular sieve). For the particulate radioactive materials, its size affects the removal performance and a number of studies have been performed on the removal effect of radioactive materials. This study has developed a new means of evaluating aerosol removal efficiency. The aerosol number density of each effective diameter (light scattering equivalent diameter) is measured using an optical method, while the decontamination factor (DF) of each effective diameter is evaluated by the inlet outlet number density ratio. While the applicable scope is limited to several conditions (geometry of test section: inner diameter 500 mm × height 8.0 m, nozzle shape and air-water ambient pressure conditions), this study has developed a numerical model which defines aerosol DF as a function of aerosol diameter (d) and submergences (x).

  13. Toward a Combined SAGE II-HALOE Aerosol Climatology: An Evaluation of HALOE Version 19 Stratospheric Aerosol Extinction Coefficient Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomason, L. W.

    2012-01-01

    Herein, the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) aerosol extinction coefficient data is evaluated in the low aerosol loading period after 1996 as the first necessary step in a process that will eventually allow the production of a combined HALOE/SAGE II (Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment) aerosol climatology of derived aerosol products including surface area density. Based on these analyses, it is demonstrated that HALOE's 3.46 microns is of good quality above 19 km and suitable for scientific applications above that altitude. However, it is increasingly suspect at lower altitudes and should not be used below 17 km under any circumstances after 1996. The 3.40 microns is biased by about 10% throughout the lower stratosphere due to the failure to clear NO2 but otherwise appears to be a high quality product down to 15 km. The 2.45 and 5.26 micron aerosol extinction coefficient measurements are clearly biased and should not be used for scientific applications after the most intense parts of the Pinatubo period. Many of the issues in the aerosol data appear to be related to either the failure to clear some interfering gas species or doing so poorly. For instance, it is clear that the 3.40micronaerosol extinction coefficient measurements can be improved through the inclusion of an NO2 correction and could, in fact, end up as the highest quality overall HALOE aerosol extinction coefficient measurement. It also appears that the 2.45 and 5.26 micron channels may be improved by updating the Upper Atmosphere Pilot Database which is used as a resource for the removal of gas species otherwise not available from direct HALOE measurements. Finally, a simple model to demonstrate the promise of mixed visible/infrared aerosol extinction coefficient ensembles for the retrieval of bulk aerosol properties demonstrates that a combined HALOE/SAGE II aerosol climatology is feasible and may represent a substantial improvement over independently derived data sets.

  14. Influence of aerosol acidity on the chemical composition of secondary organic aerosol from β-caryophyllene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Knipping

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The secondary organic aerosol (SOA yield of β-caryophyllene photooxidation is enhanced by aerosol acidity. In the present study, the influence of aerosol acidity on the chemical composition of β-caryophyllene SOA is investigated using ultra performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-TOFMS. A number of first-, second- and higher-generation gas-phase products having carbonyl and carboxylic acid functional groups are detected in the particle phase. Particle-phase reaction products formed via hydration and organosulfate formation processes are also detected. Increased acidity leads to different effects on the abundance of individual products; significantly, abundances of organosulfates are correlated with aerosol acidity. To our knowledge, this is the first detection of organosulfates and nitrated organosulfates derived from a sesquiterpene. The increase of certain particle-phase reaction products with increased acidity provides chemical evidence to support the acid-enhanced SOA yields. Based on the agreement between the chromatographic retention times and accurate mass measurements of chamber and field samples, three β-caryophyllene products (i.e., β-nocaryophyllon aldehyde, β-hydroxynocaryophyllon aldehyde, and β-dihydroxynocaryophyllon aldehyde are suggested as chemical tracers for β-caryophyllene SOA. These compounds are detected in both day and night ambient samples collected in downtown Atlanta, GA and rural Yorkville, GA during the 2008 August Mini-Intensive Gas and Aerosol Study (AMIGAS.

  15. tes2).

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The d€teloprnent of efficient rations lbt fat lamb prcduction was invesligated using a variety of succulent feeds. Forty Dohne Me no werc divided ..... more exercise. It is known that the energy requirements of grazrng sheep are approximately l0 to 20% higher than those of housed sheep (Lambourne, l96l; Lang- lands, Corbett ...

  16. A 10-year global gridded Aerosol Optical Thickness Reanalysis for climate and applied applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, P.; Reid, J. S.; Zhang, J.; Westphal, D. L.; Campbell, J. R.; Curtis, C. A.; Hegg, D.; Hyer, E. J.; Sessions, W.; Shi, Y.; Turk, J.

    2013-12-01

    While standalone satellite and model aerosol products see wide utilization, there is a significant need of a best-available fused product on a regular grid for numerous climate and applied applications. Remote sensing and modeling technologies have now advanced to a point where aerosol data assimilation is an operational reality at numerous centers. It is inevitable that, like meteorological reanalyses, aerosol reanalyses will see heavy use in the near future. A first long term, 2003-2012 global 1x1 degree and 6-hourly aerosol optical thickness (AOT) reanalysis product has been generated. The goal of this effort is not only for climate applications, but to generate a dataset that can be used by the US Navy to understand operationally hindering aerosol events, aerosol impacts on numerical weather prediction, and application of electro-optical technologies. The reanalysis utilizes Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System (NAAPS) at its core and assimilates quality controlled collection 5 Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) AOD with minor corrections from Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRaditometer (MISR). A subset of this product includes Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) lidar assimilation since its launch in mid-2006. Surface aerosol sources, including dust and smoke, in the aerosol model have been regionally tuned so that fine and coarse mode AOTs best match those resolve by ground-based Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). The AOT difference between the model and satellite AOT is then used to adjust other aerosol processes, eg., sources, dry deposition, etc. Aerosol wet deposition is constrained with satellite-retrieved precipitation. The final AOT reanalysis is shown to exhibit good agreement with AERONET. Here we review the development of the reanalysis and consider issues particular to aerosol reanalyses that make them distinct from standard meteorological reanalyses. Considerations are also made for extending such work

  17. Comparing the cytotoxicity of electronic cigarette fluids, aerosols and solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, Rachel Z; Wang, Yuhuan; Talbot, Prue

    2017-06-08

    As thousands of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) refill fluids continue to be formulated and distributed, there is a growing need to understand the cytotoxicity of the flavouring chemicals and solvents used in these products to ensure they are safe. The purpose of this study was to compare the cytotoxicity of e-cigarette refill fluids/solvents and their corresponding aerosols using in vitro cultured cells. E-cigarette refill fluids and do-it-yourself products were screened in liquid and aerosol form for cytotoxicity using the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. The sensitivity of human pulmonary fibroblasts, lung epithelial cells (A549) and human embryonic stem cells to liquids and aerosols was compared. Aerosols were produced using Johnson Creek's Vea cartomizer style e-cigarette. A hierarchy of potency was established for the aerosolised products. Our data show that (1) e-cigarette aerosols can produce cytotoxic effects in cultured cells, (2) four patterns of cytotoxicity were found when comparing refill fluids and their corresponding aerosols, (3) fluids accurately predicted aerosol cytotoxicity 74% of the time, (4) stem cells were often more sensitive to aerosols than differentiated cells and (5) 91% of the aerosols made from refill fluids containing only glycerin were cytotoxic, even when produced at a low voltage. Our data show that various flavours/brands of e-cigarette refill fluids and their aerosols are cytotoxic and demonstrate the need for further evaluation of e-cigarette products to better understand their potential health effects. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. TES/Aura L2 Ancillary Special Observation Product V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Atmospheric vertical profile estimates and associated errors (diagonals and covariance matrices), along with retrieved surface temperature, cloud effective optical...

  19. TES/Aura L2 Ancillary Special Observation Product V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Atmospheric vertical profile estimates and associated errors (diagonals and covariance matrices), along with retrieved surface temperature, cloud effective optical...

  20. TES/Aura L2 Ancillary Special Observation Product V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Atmospheric vertical profile estimates and associated errors (diagonals and covariance matrices), along with retrieved surface temperature, cloud effective optical...

  1. The effect of organic aerosol material on aerosol reactivity towards ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batenburg, Anneke; Gaston, Cassandra; Thornton, Joel; Virtanen, Annele

    2015-04-01

    After aerosol particles are formed or emitted into the atmosphere, heterogeneous reactions with gaseous oxidants cause them to 'age'. Aging can change aerosol properties, such as the hygroscopicity, which is an important parameter in how the particles scatter radiation and form clouds. Conversely, heterogeneous reactions on aerosol particles play a significant role in the cycles of various atmospheric trace gases. Organic compounds, a large part of the total global aerosol matter, can exist in liquid or amorphous (semi)solid physical phases. Different groups have shown that reactions with ozone (O3) can be limited by bulk diffusion in organic aerosol, particularly in viscous, (semi)solid materials, and that organic coatings alter the surface interactions between gas and aerosol particles. We aim to better understand and quantify how the viscosity and phase of organic aerosol matter affect gas-particle interactions. We have chosen the reaction of O3 with particles composed of a potassium iodide (KI) core and a variable organic coating as a model system. The reaction is studied in an aerosol flow reactor that consists of a laminar flow tube and a movable, axial injector for the injection of O3. The aerosol-containing air is inserted at the tube's top. The interaction length (and therefore time), between the particles and the O3 can be varied by moving the injector. Alternatively, the production of aerosol particles can be modulated. The remaining O3 concentration is monitored from the bottom of the tube and particle concentrations are measured simultaneously, which allows us to calculate the reactive uptake coefficient γ. We performed exploratory experiments with internally mixed KI and polyethylene glycol (PEG) particles at the University of Washington (UW) in a setup with a residence time around 50 s. Aerosol particles were generated in an atomizer from solutions with varying concentrations of KI and PEG and inserted into the flow tube after they were diluted and

  2. Whitecaps, sea-salt aerosols, and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguelova, Magdalena Dimitrova

    Oceanic whitecaps are the major source of sea-salt aerosols. Because these aerosols are dominant in remote marine air, they control the radiative properties of the clean background atmosphere by scattering sunlight, changing cloud properties and lifetime, and providing media for chemical reactions. Including sea-salt effects in climate models improves predictions, but simulating their generation is first necessary. To make the sea-salt generation function currently used in climate models more relevant for aerosol investigations, this study proposes two modifications. First, the conventional relation between whitecap coverage, W, and the 10-meter wind speed, U10, used in typical generation functions is expanded to include additional factors that affect whitecaps and sea-salt aerosol formation. Second, the sea-salt generation function is extended to smaller sizes; sea-salt aerosol with initial radii from 0.4 to 20 mum can now be modeled. To achieve these goals, this thesis develops a new method for estimating whitecap coverage on a global scale using satellite measurements of the brightness temperature of the ocean surface. Whitecap coverage evaluated with this method incorporates the effects of atmospheric stability, sea-surface temperature, salinity, wind fetch, wind duration, and the amount of surface-active material. Assimilating satellite-derived values for whitecap coverage in the sea-salt generation function incorporates the effects of all environmental factors on sea-salt production and predicts realistic sea-salt aerosol loadings into the atmosphere. An extensive database of whitecap coverage and sea-salt aerosol fluxes has been compiled with the new method and is used to investigate their spatial and temporal characteristics. The composite effect of all environmental factors suggests a more uniform latitudinal distribution of whitecaps and sea-salt aerosols than that predicted from wind speed alone. The effect of sea-surface temperature, TS, is

  3. Comparative gene expression analysis between coronary arteries and internal mammary arteries identifies a role for the TES gene in endothelial cell functions relevant to coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archacki, Stephen R; Angheloiu, George; Moravec, Christine S; Liu, Hui; Topol, Eric J; Wang, Qing Kenneth

    2012-03-15

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. It has been established that internal mammary arteries (IMA) are resistant to the development of atherosclerosis, whereas left anterior descending (LAD) coronary arteries are athero-prone. The contrasting properties of these two arteries provide an innovative strategy to identify the genes that play important roles in the development of atherosclerosis. We carried out microarray analysis to identify genes differentially expressed between IMA and LAD. Twenty-nine genes showed significant differences in their expression levels between IMA and LAD, which included the TES gene encoding Testin. The role of TES in the cardiovascular system is unknown. Here we show that TES is involved in endothelial cell (EC) functions relevant to atherosclerosis. Western blot analysis showed higher TES expression in IMA than in LAD. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses showed that TES was consistently and markedly down-regulated by more than 6-fold at both mRNA and protein levels in patients with CAD compared with controls without CAD (P= 0.000049). The data suggest that reduced TES expression is associated with the development of CAD. Knockdown of TES expression by small-interfering RNA promoted oxidized-LDL-mediated monocyte adhesion to ECs, EC migration and the transendothelial migration of monocytes, while the over-expression of TES in ECs blunted these processes. These results demonstrate association between reduced TES expression and CAD, establish a novel role for TES in EC functions and raise the possibility that reduced TES expression increases susceptibility to the development of CAD.

  4. WITHDRAWN: Transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TES) for treatment of constipation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Ruey Terng; Lee, Way Seah; Ang, Hak Lee; Teo, Kai Ming; Yik, Yee Ian; Lai, Nai Ming

    2016-10-12

    Childhood constipation is a common problem with substantial health, economic and emotional burdens. Existing therapeutic options, mainly pharmacological, are not consistently effective, and some are associated with adverse effects after prolonged use. Transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TES), a non-pharmacological approach, is postulated to facilitate bowel movement by modulating the nerves of the large bowel via the application of electrical current transmitted through the abdominal wall. Our main objective was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of TES when employed to improve bowel function and constipation-related symptoms in children with constipation. We searched MEDLINE (PubMed) (1950 to July 2015), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library, Issue 7, 2015), EMBASE (1980 to July 2015), the Cochrane IBD Group Specialized Register, trial registries and conference proceedings to identify applicable studies . Randomized controlled trials that assessed any type of TES, administered at home or in a clinical setting, compared to no treatment, a sham TES, other forms of nerve stimulation or any other pharmaceutical or non-pharmaceutical measures used to treat constipation in children were considered for inclusion. Two authors independently assessed studies for inclusion, extracted data and assessed risk of bias of the included studies. We calculated the risk ratio (RR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) for categorical outcomes data and the mean difference (MD) and corresponding 95% CI for continuous outcomes. One study from Australia including 46 children aged 8 to 18 years was eligible for inclusion. There were multiple reports identified, including one unpublished report, that focused on different outcomes of the same study. The study had unclear risk of selection bias, high risks of performance, detection and attrition biases, and low risks of reporting biases.There were no significant differences

  5. Array-scale performance of TES X-ray Calorimeters Suitable for Constellation-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbourne, C. A.; Bandler, S. R.; Brown, A. D.; Chervenak, J. A.; Eckart, M. E.; Finkbeiner, F. M.; Iyomoto, N.; Kelley, R. L.; Porter, F. S.; Smith, S. J.; hide

    2008-01-01

    Having developed a transition-edge-sensor (TES) calorimeter design that enables high spectral resolution in high fill-factor arrays, we now present array-scale results from 32-pixel arrays of identical closely packed TES pixels. Each pixel in such an array contains a Mo/Au bilayer with a transition temperature of 0.1 K and an electroplated Au or Au/Bi xray absorber. The pixels in an array have highly uniform physical characteristics and performance. The arrays are easy to operate due to the range of bias voltages and heatsink temperatures over which solution better than 3 eV at 6 keV can be obtained. Resolution better than 3 eV has also been obtained with 2x8 time-division SQUID multiplexing. We will present the detector characteristics and show spectra acquired through the read-out chain from the multiplexer electronics through the demultiplexer software to real-time signal processing. We are working towards demonstrating this performance over the range of count rates expected in the observing program of the Constellation-X observatory. We mill discuss the impact of increased counting rate on spectral resolution, including the effects of crosstalk and optimal-filtering dead time.

  6. Experimental and Numerical Research Activity on a Packed Bed TES System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Cascetta

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of experimental and numerical research activities on a packed bed sensible thermal energy storage (TES system. The TES consists of a cylindrical steel tank filled with small alumina beads and crossed by air used as the heat transfer fluid. Experimental tests were carried out while varying some operating parameters such as the mass flow rate, the inlet–outlet temperature thresholds and the aspect ratio (length over diameter. Numerical simulations were carried out using a one-dimensional model, specifically developed in the Matlab-Simulink environment and a 2D axisymmetric model based on the ANSYS-Fluent platform. Both models are based on a two-equation transient approach to calculate fluid and solid phase temperatures. Thermodynamic properties were considered to be temperature-dependent and, in the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD model, variable porosity of the bed in the radial direction, thermal losses and the effective conductivity of the alumina beads were also considered. The simulation results of both models were compared to the experimental ones, showing good agreement. The one-dimensional model has the advantage of predicting the axial temperature distribution with a very low computational cost, but it does not allow calculation of the correct energy stored when the temperature distribution is strongly influenced by the wall. To overcome this problem a 2D CFD model was used in this work.

  7. Dark Targets, Aerosols, Clouds and Toys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remer, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    Today if you use the Thomson-Reuters Science Citations Index to search for "aerosol*", across all scientific disciplines and years, with no constraints, and you sort by number of citations, you will find a 2005 paper published in the Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences in the top 20. This is the "The MODIS Aerosol Algorithm, Products and Validation". Although I am the first author, there are in total 12 co-authors who each made a significant intellectual contribution to the paper or to the algorithm, products and validation described. This paper, that algorithm, those people lie at the heart of a lineage of scientists whose collaborations and linked individual pursuits have made a significant contribution to our understanding of radiative transfer and climate, of aerosol properties and the global aerosol system, of cloud physics and aerosol-cloud interaction, and how to measure these parameters and maximize the science that can be obtained from those measurements. The 'lineage' had its origins across the globe, from Soviet Russia to France, from the U.S. to Israel, from the Himalayas, the Sahel, the metropolises of Sao Paulo, Taipei, and the cities of east and south Asia. It came together in the 1990s and 2000s at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, using cultural diversity as a strength to form a common culture of scientific creativity that continues to this day. The original algorithm has spawned daughter algorithms that are being applied to new satellite and airborne sensors. The original MODIS products have been fundamental to analyses as diverse as air quality monitoring and aerosol-cloud forcing. AERONET, designed originally for the need of validation, is now its own thriving institution, and the lineage continues to push forward to provide new technology for the coming generations.

  8. Internal dosimetric evaluation due to uranium aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Aguilar Juan; Delgado Avila Gustavo

    1991-01-01

    The present work has like object to carry out the internal dosimetric evaluation to the occupationally exposed personnel, due to the inhalation of aerosols of natural uranium and enriched in the pilot plant of nuclear fuel production of the National Institute of Nuclear Research

  9. Heterogeneous formation of HONO on carbonaceous aerosol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammann, M.; Kalberer, M.; Tabor, K. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)] [and others

    1997-09-01

    Based on an on-line and in situ experimental approach, for the first time heterogeneous production of nitrous acid (HONO) on carbon aerosol at ambient pressure and low NO{sub 2} concentration has been quantified by use of a {sup 13}N tracer technique. (author) 1 fig., 4 refs.

  10. Sodium oxide aerosol filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duverger de Cuy, G.

    1979-01-01

    In the scope of the sodium aerosol trapping research effort by the CEA/DSN, the retention capacity and yield were measured for very high efficiency fiberglass filters and several types of prefilters (cyclone agglomerator, fabric prefilters, water scrubbers). (author)

  11. Evaluation and comparison of aerosol retrieval algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leeuw, G.; Holzer-Popp, T.

    2012-04-01

    The retrieval of aerosol properties from space is an underdetermined problem which can only be solved by using a number of assumptions. These include the treatment of the underlying surface and the description of the aerosol optical properties. In addition the potential influence of clouds on the retrieval results requires a very thorough identification of cloud occurrence to avoid any contamination. Different approaches are used in each aerosol retrieval algorithm to tackle these problems, based on the information available from the sensor used, such as multiple wavelengths and spectral range, one or more viewing angles or polarization. And even for the same instruments, such as the Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) or the MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS), different approaches are used. The European Space Agency (ESA) Climate Change Initiative project aerosol_cci aims at the production of essential climate variables (ECV's) from European Earth Observation instruments (ATSR-2, AATSR, MERIS, SCIAMACHY, POLDER, GOMOS and OMI) providing information on column integrated scattering and absorption properties as well as on stratospheric aerosol. In order to achieve this, differences between the various algorithms used need to be evaluated to provide the best possible products. To study the effect of the choice of the aerosol models used in the retrieval, the algorithms have been used with a variety of aerosol models, using four base models which are combined in several ways. These models have been used together with an aerosol climatology based on AEROCOM model results and AERONET observations which was optionally used to provide a priori information on the occurrence of each aerosol type. The algorithms have been run with either their own cloud mask or with a prescribed common cloud mask. Based on the tests, the best possible algorithms for each EO sensor or each algorithm for the same sensor have been used to provide a test data set for a

  12. Emergency protection from aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristy, G.A.; Chester, C.V.

    1981-07-01

    Expedient methods were developed that could be used by an average person, using only materials readily available, to protect himself and his family from injury by toxic (e.g., radioactive) aerosols. The most effective means of protection was the use of a household vacuum cleaner to maintain a small positive pressure on a closed house during passage of the aerosol cloud. Protection factors of 800 and above were achieved

  13. Threshold electrical stimulation (TES) in ambulant children with CP: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dali, Christine í; Hansen, Flemming Juul; Pedersen, Søren Anker

    2002-01-01

    changes that might not be reflected in performance measurements. We also judged range of motion, degree of spasticity, and muscle growth measured by CT. Fifty seven of 82 outpatients who were able to walk at least with a walker, completed all 12 months of treatment (hemiplegia n=25, diplegia n=32......). There was no significant difference between active and placebo treatment in any of the tested groups, nor combined. Visual and subjective assessments favoured TES (ns), whereas objective indices showed the opposite trend. We conclude that TES in these patients did not have any significant clinical effect during the test...

  14. Incidência e etiologia de uveítes em Curitiba Incidence and etiology of uveitis in Curitiba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Luis Gehlen

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar a incidência e a etiologia dos casos de uveítes em Curitiba-PR. Métodos: Foram estudados 68 casos de uveítes em Curitiba, PR, atendidos no ambulatório de oftalmologia no período de janeiro a abril de 1998 procurando estabelecer o diagnóstico a partir de ampla investigação clínica e laboratorial. Resultados: Em nosso estudo, constatamos que a uveíte posterior foi a mais encontrada (49%, seguindo-se a panuveíte (29% e, com menor freqüência, a uveíte anterior (22%. A etiologia mais freqüente para as uveítes posteriores foi a toxoplasmose, responsável por 88% dos casos. Entre as panuveítes, novamente a toxoplasmose prevaleceu, com 85% e, dentro das uveítes anteriores, a principal causa foi a espondilite anquilosante com 20%. Conclusão: Em Curitiba, há um predomínio de uveítes posteriores e panuveítes, sendo a causa mais comum a toxoplasmose. No entanto, enfatiza-se que existem outras causas importantes de uveítes que devem ser lembradas pelo oftalmologista na investigação clínica.Purpose: To study the incidence and etiology of uveitis in Curitiba, PR, Brazil. Methods: Sixty-eight cases of uveitis were studied in Curitiba, PR between January and April, 1998. Clinical and laboratorial research was performed in order to establish the diagnosis. Results: In this study, we found that posterior uveitis was the most frequent (49%, followed by panuveitis (29%, and, less frequently, anterior uveitis (22%. The major etiology of posterior uveitis was toxoplasmosis, responsible for 88% of the cases; among panuveitis, toxoplasmosis also predomi-nated, representing 85% and, the main cause of anterior uveitis was ankylosing spondilytis with 20%. Conclusions: In Curitiba, posterior uveitis and panuveitis predominate, and the most frequent etiology is toxoplas-mosis. However, its important to emphasize that there are other important causes of uveitis which should be remem-bered by the ophthalmologist during the

  15. Aerosol characterization in a gas mantel factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, K.D. da; Moura, J.J.; Simoes, F.; d'Oliveira, D.; Leite, V.C.B.; Alves, Rex N.; Silva, I.C.M. da.

    1997-01-01

    The workers in a gas mantel manufacturing are exposed to aerosol containing Th and it decay products, which are hazardous to health. For health damage evaluation it is necessary to determine the inhaled particle size, the Th and thoron concentration in the aerosol breathing fraction. A cascade impactor, a stack filter unit and individual air sampler were used to characterize the airborne particles containing Th. The thoron and radon air concentration were determined using Tsivoglu, Kusnetz, Rolle and Two filters methods. (author). 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  16. Processing of Unsaturated Organic Acid Aerosols by Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloisio, S.; Donaldson, D. J.; Eliason, T. L.; Cziczo, D.; Vaida, V.

    2002-05-01

    We present results of in-situ studies of the oxidative "processing" of organic aerosols composed of unsaturated organic compounds. Aerosol samples of 2-octenoic acid and undecylenic acid were exposed to approx. 10 mbar ozone in a room temperature, atmospheric pressure flow tube reactor. In-situ spectroscopic probing of the reaction mixture, as well as GC-MS analysis of the flow tube effluent, shows evidence of efficient oxidation of double bonds in the organic species, with production of gas-phase and aerosol phase ozonolysis products.

  17. Black carbon in aerosol during BIBLE B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liley, J. Ben; Baumgardner, D.; Kondo, Y.; Kita, K.; Blake, D. R.; Koike, M.; Machida, T.; Takegawa, N.; Kawakami, S.; Shirai, T.; Ogawa, T.

    2003-02-01

    The Biomass Burning and Lightning Experiment (BIBLE) A and B campaigns over the tropical western Pacific during springtime deployed a Gulfstream-II aircraft with systems to measure ozone and numerous precursor species. Aerosol measuring systems included a MASP optical particle counter, a condensation nucleus (CN) counter, and an absorption spectrometer for black carbon. Aerosol volume was very low in the middle and upper troposphere during both campaigns, and during BIBLE A, there was little aerosol enhancement in the boundary layer away from urban areas. In BIBLE B, there was marked aerosol enhancement in the lowest 3 km of the atmosphere. Mixing ratios of CN in cloud-free conditions in the upper troposphere were in general higher than in the boundary layer, indicating new particle formation from gaseous precursors. High concentrations of black carbon were observed during BIBLE B, with mass loadings up to 40 μg m-3 representing as much as one quarter of total aerosol mass. Strong correlations with hydrocarbon enhancement allow the determination of a black carbon emission ratio for the fires at that time. Expressed as elemental carbon, it is about 0.5% of carbon dioxide and 6% of carbon monoxide emissions from the same fires, comparable to methane production, and greater than that of other hydrocarbons.

  18. The hygroscopicity of indoor aerosol particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, L.

    1993-07-01

    A system to study the hygroscopic growth of particle was developed by combining a Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (TDMA) with a wetted wall reactor. This system is capable of mimicking the conditions in human respiratory tract, and measuring the particle size change due to the hygroscopic growth. The performance of the system was tested with three kinds of particles of known composition, NaCl, (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 , and (NH 4 )HS0 4 particles. The hygroscopicity of a variety of common indoor aerosol particles was studied including combustion aerosols (cigarette smoking, cooking, incenses and candles) and consumer spray products such as glass cleaner, general purpose cleaner, hair spray, furniture polish spray, disinfectant, and insect killer. Experiments indicate that most of the indoor aerosols show some hygroscopic growth and only a few materials do not. The magnitude of hygroscopic growth ranges from 20% to 300% depending on the particle size and fraction of water soluble components

  19. Aerosol-cloud interactions in mixed-phase convective clouds - Part 1: Aerosol perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miltenberger, Annette K.; Field, Paul R.; Hill, Adrian A.; Rosenberg, Phil; Shipway, Ben J.; Wilkinson, Jonathan M.; Scovell, Robert; Blyth, Alan M.

    2018-03-01

    Changes induced by perturbed aerosol conditions in moderately deep mixed-phase convective clouds (cloud top height ˜ 5 km) developing along sea-breeze convergence lines are investigated with high-resolution numerical model simulations. The simulations utilise the newly developed Cloud-AeroSol Interacting Microphysics (CASIM) module for the Unified Model (UM), which allows for the representation of the two-way interaction between cloud and aerosol fields. Simulations are evaluated against observations collected during the COnvective Precipitation Experiment (COPE) field campaign over the southwestern peninsula of the UK in 2013. The simulations compare favourably with observed thermodynamic profiles, cloud base cloud droplet number concentrations (CDNC), cloud depth, and radar reflectivity statistics. Including the modification of aerosol fields by cloud microphysical processes improves the correspondence with observed CDNC values and spatial variability, but reduces the agreement with observations for average cloud size and cloud top height. Accumulated precipitation is suppressed for higher-aerosol conditions before clouds become organised along the sea-breeze convergence lines. Changes in precipitation are smaller in simulations with aerosol processing. The precipitation suppression is due to less efficient precipitation production by warm-phase microphysics, consistent with parcel model predictions. In contrast, after convective cells organise along the sea-breeze convergence zone, accumulated precipitation increases with aerosol concentrations. Condensate production increases with the aerosol concentrations due to higher vertical velocities in the convective cores and higher cloud top heights. However, for the highest-aerosol scenarios, no further increase in the condensate production occurs, as clouds grow into an upper-level stable layer. In these cases, the reduced precipitation efficiency (PE) dominates the precipitation response and no further

  20. Identifikasi Tes Kemampuan Verbal Siswa Menurut WISC dengan Tema “Suhu dan kalor dalam Kehidupan” di MTs Plus Az Zahro Cilacap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Fatimah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis kemampuan verbal siswa menurut WISC dengan tema “suhu dan kalor dalam kehidupan” berdasarkan standar kurikulum 2013. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian deskriptif dengan subjek penelitian siswa kelas VII MTs Plus Az-Zahro Cilacap. Penelitian dirancang dengan memberikan tes kemampuan verbal menurut WISC yang terdiri dari 6 skala verbal yaitu Information (pengetahuan umum, Comprehension (pemahaman, Arithmetic (berhitung, Similarities (kemiripan, Digit span (rentang angka, dan Vocabulary (perbendaharaan kata. Data hasil pemberian tes menunjukkan bahwa 63,40% peserta didik mampu menyelesaikan soal tes kemampuan verbal di skala pengetahuan umum; 58,29% peserta didik mampu menyelesaikan soal tes kemampuan verbal di skala pemahaman; 38,72% peserta didik mampu menyelesaikan soal tes kemampuan verbal di skala berhitung; 40,43% peserta didik mampu menyelesaikan soal tes kemampuan verbal di skala kemiripan; 28,08% peserta didik mampu menyelesaikan soal tes kemampuan verbal di skala rentang angka; dan 53,19% peserta didik mampu menyelesaikan soal tes kemampuan verbal di skala perbendaharaan kata.

  1. Realization of nuclear track filters and their applications to the study of environmental aerosol samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Shilun

    1993-01-01

    Detailed study of the behaviours of radon decay products requires the knowledge of environmental aerosols. A combination of devices and instruments have been tested to be superior in study of aerosol characteristics. Nuclear track filters and cascade track filter impactor are basic devices, which bring the functions of α -spectrometer, scanning electron microscope and electron microprobe into full play. This paper describes how to use these devices and instruments to collect aerosols, to determine aerosol radioactivity, size distribution and elemental compositions and to determine the concentration of aerosols in air as a function of aerosol sizes, which are important parameters in dominating the interactions between aerosol and radon decay products. (author). 15 refs, 7 figs

  2. Modification of Local Urban Aerosol Properties by Long-Range Transport of Biomass Burning Aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona S. Stachlewska

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available During August 2016, a quasi-stationary high-pressure system spreading over Central and North-Eastern Europe, caused weather conditions that allowed for 24/7 observations of aerosol optical properties by using a complex multi-wavelength PollyXT lidar system with Raman, polarization and water vapour capabilities, based at the European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET network urban site in Warsaw, Poland. During 24–30 August 2016, the lidar-derived products (boundary layer height, aerosol optical depth, Ångström exponent, lidar ratio, depolarization ratio were analysed in terms of air mass transport (HYSPLIT model, aerosol load (CAMS data and type (NAAPS model and confronted with active and passive remote sensing at the ground level (PolandAOD, AERONET, WIOS-AQ networks and aboard satellites (SEVIRI, MODIS, CATS sensors. Optical properties for less than a day-old fresh biomass burning aerosol, advected into Warsaw’s boundary layer from over Ukraine, were compared with the properties of long-range transported 3–5 day-old aged biomass burning aerosol detected in the free troposphere over Warsaw. Analyses of temporal changes of aerosol properties within the boundary layer, revealed an increase of aerosol optical depth and Ångström exponent accompanied by an increase of surface PM10 and PM2.5. Intrusions of advected biomass burning particles into the urban boundary layer seem to affect not only the optical properties observed but also the top height of the boundary layer, by moderating its increase.

  3. Aerosols produced by evaporation of a uranium wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, C.

    1968-03-01

    This work is devoted to the study of the aerosols formed when an uranium wire is evaporated in a normal or rarefied atmosphere, either with or without a drying agent. The heating of the wire can be either fast or slow. The first part is a study of aerosol production apparatus and of methods of measuring the aerosol. The second part presents the results obtained with various aerosols: the particles produced by the wire are less than one micron; during rapid heating, the granulometric distribution of the aerosol obeys a log-normal law; during slow heating, the distribution has two modes: one near 0.05 micron, the other close to 0.01 micron. (author) [fr

  4. Identitātes stila, pašefektivitātes un audzināšanas stilu saistība jauniešu vecumā.

    OpenAIRE

    Stepiņa, Agita

    2011-01-01

    Pētījuma „Identitātes stila, pašefektivitātes un audzināšanas stilu saistība jauniešu vecumā” mērķis bija noskaidrot kā atšķirīgi identitātes stili saistīti ar pašefektivitāti un mātes audzināšanas stilu. Pētījumā arī tika iekļauti demogrāfiskie un papildus jautājumi, lai noskaidrotu noteiktu informāciju par jauniešiem. Pētījuma izlasi veidoja 60 jaunieši ( 34 sievietes un 26 vīrieši), kuri bija 18-19 gadus veci. Vidējais vecums (M = 18,35) Pētījumā, tika izmantotas trīs metodes: Identi...

  5. Anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing in Asia derived from regional models with atmospheric and aerosol data assimilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Chung

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available An estimate of monthly 3-D aerosol solar heating rates and surface solar fluxes in Asia from 2001 to 2004 is described here. This product stems from an Asian aerosol assimilation project, in which a the PNNL regional model bounded by the NCEP reanalyses was used to provide meteorology, b MODIS and AERONET data were integrated for aerosol observations, c the Iowa aerosol/chemistry model STEM-2K1 used the PNNL meteorology and assimilated aerosol observations, and d 3-D (X-Y-Z aerosol simulations from the STEM-2K1 were used in the Scripps Monte-Carlo Aerosol Cloud Radiation (MACR model to produce total and anthropogenic aerosol direct solar forcing for average cloudy skies. The MACR model and STEM-2K1 both used the PNNL model resolution of 0.45°×0.4° in the horizontal and of 23 layers in the troposphere.

    The 2001–2004 averaged anthropogenic all-sky aerosol forcing is −1.3 Wm−2 (TOA, +7.3 Wm−2 (atmosphere and −8.6 Wm−2 (surface averaged in Asia (60–138° E and Equator–45° N. In the absence of AERONET SSA assimilation, absorbing aerosol concentration (especially BC aerosol is much smaller, giving −2.3 Wm−2 (TOA, +4.5 Wm−2 (atmosphere and −6.8 Wm−2 (surface, averaged in Asia. In the vertical, monthly forcing is mainly concentrated below 600 hPa with maximum around 800 hPa. Seasonally, low-level forcing is far larger in dry season than in wet season in South Asia, whereas the wet season forcing exceeds the dry season forcing in East Asia. The anthropogenic forcing in the present study is similar to that in Chung et al. (2005 in overall magnitude but the former offers fine-scale features and simulated vertical profiles. The interannual variability of the computed anthropogenic forcing is significant and extremely large over major emission outflow areas. Given the interannual variability, the present study's estimate is within the implicated range of

  6. Secondary organic aerosol in the global aerosol - chemistry transport model Oslo CTM2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyle, C. R.; Berntsen, T.; Myhre, G.; Isaksen, I. S. A.

    2007-06-01

    The global chemical transport model Oslo CTM2 has been extended to include the formation, transport and deposition of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Precursor hydrocarbons which are oxidised to form condensible species include both biogenic species such as terpenes and isoprene, as well as species emitted predominantly by anthropogenic activities (toluene, m-xylene, methylbenzene and other aromatics). A model simulation for 2004 gives an annual global SOA production of approximately 55 Tg. Of this total, 2.5 Tg is found to consist of the oxidation products of anthropogenically emitted hydrocarbons, and about 15 Tg is formed by the oxidation products of isoprene. The global production of SOA is increased to about 76 Tg yr-1 by allowing semi-volatile species to condense on ammonium sulphate aerosol. This brings modelled organic aerosol values closer to those observed, however observations in Europe remain significantly underestimated, raising the possibility of an unaccounted for SOA source. Allowing SOA to form on ammonium sulphate aerosol increases the contribution of anthropogenic SOA from about 4.5% to almost 9% of the total production. The importance of NO3 as an oxidant of SOA precursors is found to vary regionally, causing up to 50%-60% of the total amount of SOA near the surface in polluted regions and less than 25% in more remote areas. This study underscores the need for SOA to be represented in a more realistic way in global aerosol models in order to better reproduce observations of organic aerosol burdens in industrialised and biomass burning regions.

  7. Aromatic Structure in Simulates Titan Aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainer, Melissa G.; Loeffler, M. J.; Anderson, C. M.; Hudson, R. L.; Samuelson, R. E.; Moore, M. A.

    2011-01-01

    Observations of Titan by the Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) between 560 and 20 per centimeter (approximately 18 to 500 micrometers) have been used to infer the vertical variations of Titan's ice abundances, as well as those of the aerosol from the surface to an altitude of 300 km [1]. The aerosol has a broad emission feature centered approximately at 140 per centimeter (71 micrometers). As seen in Figure 1, this feature cannot be reproduced using currently available optical constants from laboratory-generated Titan aerosol analogs [2]. The far-IR is uniquely qualified for investigating low-energy vibrational motions within the lattice structures of COITIDlex aerosol. The feature observed by CIRS is broad, and does not likely arise from individual molecules, but rather is representative of the skeletal movements of macromolecules. Since Cassini's arrival at Titan, benzene (C6H6) has been detected in the atmosphere at ppm levels as well as ions that may be polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) [3]. We speculate that the feature may be a blended composite that can be identified with low-energy vibrations of two-dimensional lattice structures of large molecules, such as PAHs or nitrogenated aromatics. Such structures do not dominate the composition of analog materials generated from CH4 and N2 irradiation. We are performing studies forming aerosol analog via UV irradiation of aromatic precursors - specifically C6H6 - to understand how the unique chemical architecture of the products will influence the observable aerosol characteristics. The optical and chemical properties of the aromatic analog will be compared to those formed from CH4/N2 mixtures, with a focus on the as-yet unidentified far-IR absorbance feature. Preliminary results indicate that the photochemically-formed aromatic aerosol has distinct chemical composition, and may incorporate nitrogen either into the ring structure or adjoined chemical groups. These compositional differences are

  8. Secondary organic aerosol in the global aerosol - chemical transport model Oslo CTM2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyle, C. R.; Berntsen, T.; Myhre, G.; Isaksen, I. S. A.

    2007-11-01

    The global chemical transport model Oslo CTM2 has been extended to include the formation, transport and deposition of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Precursor hydrocarbons which are oxidised to form condensible species include both biogenic species such as terpenes and isoprene, as well as species emitted predominantly by anthropogenic activities (toluene, m-xylene, methylbenzene and other aromatics). A model simulation for 2004 gives an annual global SOA production of approximately 55 Tg. Of this total, 2.5 Tg is found to consist of the oxidation products of anthropogenically emitted hydrocarbons, and about 15 Tg is formed by the oxidation products of isoprene. The global production of SOA is increased to about 69 Tg yr-1 by allowing semi-volatile species to partition to ammonium sulphate aerosol. This brings modelled organic aerosol values closer to those observed, however observations in Europe remain significantly underestimated. Allowing SOA to partition into ammonium sulphate aerosol increases the contribution of anthropogenic SOA from about 4.5% to 9.4% of the total production. Total modelled organic aerosol (OA) values are found to represent a lower fraction of the measured values in winter (when primary organic aerosol (POA) is the dominant OA component) than in summer, which may be an indication that estimates of POA emissions are too low. Additionally, for measurement stations where the summer OA values are higher than in winter, the model generally underestimates the increase in summertime OA. In order to correctly model the observed increase in OA in summer, additional SOA sources or formation mechanisms may be necessary. The importance of NO3 as an oxidant of SOA precursors is found to vary regionally, causing up to 50%-60% of the total amount of SOA near the surface in polluted regions and less than 25% in more remote areas, if the yield of condensible oxidation products for β-pinene is used for NO3 oxidation of all terpenes. Reducing the yield

  9. Secondary organic aerosol in the global aerosol – chemical transport model Oslo CTM2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. A. Isaksen

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The global chemical transport model Oslo CTM2 has been extended to include the formation, transport and deposition of secondary organic aerosol (SOA. Precursor hydrocarbons which are oxidised to form condensible species include both biogenic species such as terpenes and isoprene, as well as species emitted predominantly by anthropogenic activities (toluene, m-xylene, methylbenzene and other aromatics. A model simulation for 2004 gives an annual global SOA production of approximately 55 Tg. Of this total, 2.5 Tg is found to consist of the oxidation products of anthropogenically emitted hydrocarbons, and about 15 Tg is formed by the oxidation products of isoprene. The global production of SOA is increased to about 69 Tg yr−1 by allowing semi-volatile species to partition to ammonium sulphate aerosol. This brings modelled organic aerosol values closer to those observed, however observations in Europe remain significantly underestimated. Allowing SOA to partition into ammonium sulphate aerosol increases the contribution of anthropogenic SOA from about 4.5% to 9.4% of the total production. Total modelled organic aerosol (OA values are found to represent a lower fraction of the measured values in winter (when primary organic aerosol (POA is the dominant OA component than in summer, which may be an indication that estimates of POA emissions are too low. Additionally, for measurement stations where the summer OA values are higher than in winter, the model generally underestimates the increase in summertime OA. In order to correctly model the observed increase in OA in summer, additional SOA sources or formation mechanisms may be necessary. The importance of NO3 as an oxidant of SOA precursors is found to vary regionally, causing up to 50%–60% of the total amount of SOA near the surface in polluted regions and less than 25% in more remote areas, if the yield of condensible oxidation products for β-pinene is used for NO3 oxidation of all terpenes

  10. Multiangle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC): 2. Aerosol Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyapustin, A.; Wang, Y.; Laszlo, I.; Kahn, R.; Korkin, S.; Remer, L.; Levy, R.; Reid, J. S.

    2011-01-01

    An aerosol component of a new multiangle implementation of atmospheric correction (MAIAC) algorithm is presented. MAIAC is a generic algorithm developed for the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), which performs aerosol retrievals and atmospheric correction over both dark vegetated surfaces and bright deserts based on a time series analysis and image-based processing. The MAIAC look-up tables explicitly include surface bidirectional reflectance. The aerosol algorithm derives the spectral regression coefficient (SRC) relating surface bidirectional reflectance in the blue (0.47 micron) and shortwave infrared (2.1 micron) bands; this quantity is prescribed in the MODIS operational Dark Target algorithm based on a parameterized formula. The MAIAC aerosol products include aerosol optical thickness and a fine-mode fraction at resolution of 1 km. This high resolution, required in many applications such as air quality, brings new information about aerosol sources and, potentially, their strength. AERONET validation shows that the MAIAC and MOD04 algorithms have similar accuracy over dark and vegetated surfaces and that MAIAC generally improves accuracy over brighter surfaces due to the SRC retrieval and explicit bidirectional reflectance factor characterization, as demonstrated for several U.S. West Coast AERONET sites. Due to its generic nature and developed angular correction, MAIAC performs aerosol retrievals over bright deserts, as demonstrated for the Solar Village Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) site in Saudi Arabia.

  11. Physical metrology of aerosols; Metrologie physique des aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulaud, D.; Vendel, J. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire

    1996-12-31

    The various detection and measuring methods for aerosols are presented, and their selection is related to aerosol characteristics (size range, concentration or mass range), thermo-hydraulic conditions (carrier fluid temperature, pressure and flow rate) and to the measuring system conditions (measuring frequency, data collection speed, cost...). Methods based on aerosol dynamic properties (inertial, diffusional and electrical methods) and aerosol optical properties (localized and integral methods) are described and their performances and applications are compared

  12. The Plinius/Colima CA-U3 test on fission-product aerosol release over a VVER-type corium pool; L'essai Plinius/Colima CA-U3 sur le relachement des aerosols de produits de fission au-dessus d'un bain de corium de type VVER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Journeau, Ch.; Piluso, P.; Correggio, P.; Godin-Jacqmin, L

    2007-07-01

    In a hypothetical case of severe accident in a PWR type VVER-440, a complex corium pool could be formed and fission products could be released. In order to study aerosols release in terms of mechanisms, kinetics, nature or quantity, and to better precise the source term of VVER-440, a series of experiments have been performed in the Colima facility and the test Colima CA-U3 has been successfully performed thanks to technological modifications to melt a prototypical corium at 2760 C degrees. Specific instrumentation has allowed us to follow the evolution of the corium melt and the release, transport and deposition of the fission products. The main conclusions are: -) there is a large release of Cr, Te, Sr, Pr and Rh (>95%w), -) there is a significant release of Fe (50%w), -) there is a small release of Ba, Ce, La, Nb, Nd and Y (<90%w), -) there is a very small release of U in proportion (<5%w) but it is one of the major released species in mass, and -) there is no release of Zr. The Colima experimental results are consistent with previous experiments on irradiated fuels except for Ba, Fe and U releases. (A.C.)

  13. Observationally Constrained Estimates of Aerosol Indirect and Semi-direct Radiative forcing over Indian Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, S.; Dey, S.

    2017-12-01

    Aerosol-cloud interaction continues to be the one of the largest sources of uncertainty in quantifying the aerosol climate forcing (IPCC, 2013). Most of the studies on aerosol-cloud climate interaction over Indian Ocean (like INDOEX, CAIPEEX campaign etc.) are limited to either one particular season or a particular region. Here we developed a theoretical framework to quantify aerosol indirect radiative forcing using MODIS aerosol and cloud products of 15 years (2000-2015) period over the Indian Ocean. This framework relies on the observationally constrained estimate of aerosol-induced change in cloud albedo We partitioned the change in cloud albedo into change in cloud water path (CWP) and effective radius of clouds (Reff) in response to an aerosol optical depth (ta). Cloud albedo response to an increase in ta is most sensitive in the range of CWP between 120-300 gm/m2 for a range of Reff varying from 8-24 mm. Using this framework, aerosol forcing during a transition from indirect to semi-direct effect is calculated. The analysis shows best outputs over the Arabian Sea in comparison with Bay of Bengal and the South Indian Ocean. The results provide observationally constrained estimates of aerosol indirect and semi-direct forcing in the Indian Ocean which can be helpful in evaluating the climate model performance in context of such complex interactions. Keywords: Aerosol-cloud interaction, Aerosol-cloud climate interaction, semi-direct effect, aerosol Indirect effect, Radiative forcing.

  14. Can the Lateral Proximity Effect Be Used to Create the Superconducting Transition of a Micron-Sized TES?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrentine, E. M.; Brandl, D. E.; Brown, A. D.; Denis, K. L.; Fionkbeiner, F. M.; Hsieh, W. T.; Nagler, P. C.; Stevenson, T. R.; Timble, P. T.; U-Yen, K.

    2012-01-01

    Recent measurements of micron-sized Mo/Au bilayer Transition Edge Sensors (TESs) have demonstrated that the TES can behave like an S-S'-S weak link due to the lateral proximity effect from superconducting leads. In this regime the Tc is a function of bias current, and the effective Tc shifts from the bilayer Tc towards the lead Tc. We explore the idea that a micron-sized S-N-S weak link could provide a new method to engineer the TES Tc. This method would be particularly useful when small size requirements for a bilayer TES (such as for a hot-electron microbolometer) lead to undesirable shifts in the bilayer Te. We present measurements of a variety of micron-sized normal Au 'TES' devices with Nb leads. We find no evidence of a superconducting transition in the Au film of these devices, in dramatic contrast to the strong lateral proximity effect seen in micron-sized Mo/Au bilayer devices. The absence of a transition in these devices is also in disagreement with theoretical predictions for S-N-S weak links. We hypothesize that a finite contact resistance between the Nb and Au may be weakening the effect. We conclude that the use of the lateral proximity effect to create a superconducting transition will be difficult given current fabrication procedures.

  15. The Mapping of Temporary Evacuation Site (TES) and Tsunami Evacuation Route in North Pagai Island, Mentawai Islands Regency - Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra, Aprizon; Mutmainah, Herdiana

    2016-11-01

    Mentawai Islands Regency, especially north Pagai island, suffered two earthquakes on April 15 2016. The local government in cooperation with the relevant parties had tried to minimize casualties before the disaster or during the disaster by making an evacuation route to the TES. The purpose of this study was to the mapping of TES and tsunami evacuation route using the approach of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for disaster mitigation of tsunami-potential earthquake in north Pagai island.The research was conducted at 3 locations in the coast of Sikakap village, 4 locations in the coast of Taikako village, 3 locations in the coast of Silabu village, 7 locations in the coast of Saumanganya village, and 3 locations in the coast of Matobe village. The effort taken was to evacuate people to the TES with an average distance of 372.62 m from the beach. The results showed that the feasibility of TES that could accommodate residents, among others, were in the hills behind Sikakap Port, Taikako Silaoinan hills, the hills near the Mapinang Silabu village chief's office and Mapinang hills, Gulukguluk Saumanganya and Panatarat Matobe hills.

  16. Satellite Monitoring Over the Canadian Oil Sands: Highlights from Aura OMI and TES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, Mark W.; McLinden, Chris; Fioletov, Vitali; Cady-Pereira, Karen E.; Krotkov, Nick A.; Boersma, Folkert; Li, Can; Luo, Ming; Bhartia, P. K.; Joiner, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing provides a unique perspective for air quality monitoring in and around the Canadian Oil Sands as a result of its spatial and temporal coverage. Presented are Aura satellite observations of key pollutants including nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), ammonia (NH3), methanol (CH3OH), and formic acid (HCOOH) over the Canadian Oil Sands. Some of the highlights include: (i) the evolution of NO2 and SO2 from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), including comparisons with other nearby sources, (ii) two years of ammonia, carbon monoxide, methanol, and formic acid observations from 240 km North-South Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) transects through the oils sands, and (iii) preliminary insights into emissions derived from these observations.

  17. Status of the GAMMA-FR code validation - TES pipe rupture accident of HCCR TBS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Hyung Gon; Lee, Dong Won; Lee, Eo Hwak; Yoon, Jae Sung; Kim, Suk Kwon; Merrill, Brad J.; Ahn, Mu-Young; Cho, Seungyon

    2015-01-01

    GAMMA-FR code to code validation is conducted and it shows reasonable agreement, however, near wall effect on the effective thermal conductivity needs to be investigated for better results. The GAMMA-FR code was scheduled for validation during the next two years under UCLA-NFRI collaboration. Through this research, GAMMA-FR will be validated with representative fusion experiments and reference accident cases. The GAMMA-FR (Gas Multicomponent Mixture Transient Analysis for Fusion Reactors) code is an in-house system analysis code to predict the thermal hydraulic and chemical reaction phenomena expected to occur during the thermo-fluid transients in a nuclear fusion system. A safety analysis of the Korea TBS (Test Blanket System) for ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) is underway using this code. This paper describes validation strategy of GAMMA-FR and current status of the validation study with respect to 'TES pipe rupture accident of ITER TBM'

  18. Intrinsic Charge Trapping Observed as Surface Potential Variations in diF-TES-ADT Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Benjamin C; McAfee, Terry; Conrad, Brad R; Loth, Marsha A; Anthony, John E; Ade, Harald W; Dougherty, Daniel B

    2016-08-24

    Spatial variations in surface potential are measured with Kelvin probe force microscopy for thin films of 2,8-difluoro-5,11-bis(triethylsilylethynyl)anthradithiophenes (diF-TES-ADT) grown on SiO2 and silane-treated SiO2 substrates by organic molecular beam deposition. The variations are observed both between and within grains of the polycrystalline organic film and are quantitatively different than electrostatic variations on the substrate surfaces. The skewness of surface potential distributions is larger on SiO2 than on HMDS-treated substrates. This observation is attributed to the impact of substrate functionalization on minimizing intrinsic crystallographic defects in the organic film that can trap charge.

  19. Development of a Microwave SQUID-Multiplexed TES Array for MUSTANG-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanchfield, S. M.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aguirre, J.; Brevik, J. A.; Cho, H. M.; Datta, R.; Devlin, M. J.; Dicker, S. R.; Dober, B.; Egan, D.; Ford, P.; Hilton, G.; Hubmayr, J.; Irwin, K. D.; Marganian, P.; Mason, B. S.; Mates, J. A. B.; McMahon, J.; Mello, M.; Mroczkowski, T.; Romero, C.; Tucker, C.; Vale, L.; White, S.; Whitehead, M.; Young, A. H.

    2016-07-01

    MUSTANG-2 is a 90 GHz feedhorn-coupled, microwave SQUID-multiplexed TES bolometer array in the final stages of development for operation on the 100-m Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope. We present the camera design and report the performance during the first season of observation, in which 64 of the available 215 pixels in the focal plane were populated. We highlight the microwave multiplexing readout technology, which is envisioned as a path to read out the next generation of large pixel-count cryogenic focal planes. In this regard, MUSTANG2 is a pathfinder for this multiplexing technology. We present noise spectra which show no detector noise degradation when read out with microwave SQUID multiplexing, and we present first light images of Jupiter and M87, which demonstrate the end-to-end system performance.

  20. Parameter Comparison for Low-Noise MoAu TES Bolometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benford, D. J.; Moseley, S. H.; Staguhn, J. G.; Allen, C. A.; Chervenak, J. A.; Stevenson, T. R.; Hsieh, W.

    2003-01-01

    We describe a comparative investigation of the parameters of MoAu-bilayer Transition Edge Sensor (TES) bolometers designed for infrared detectors. A set of devices with variations in geometry were fabricated at the NASA/GSFC detector development facility. These detectors have different bilayer aspect ratios (providing differing normal state resistances and current densities), and have varieties of normal metal regions to study the effects of geometry on noise. These normal metal regions are oriented either parallel to or transverse to the direction of current flow, or both. The lowest noise detectors are found to have normal metal regions oriented transversely. For about a dozen different devices, we have measured a large set of parameters by means of a suite of tests. These include complex impedance measurements to derive time constants; IV curves to determine resistance and power; thermal conductance measurements; noise measurements as a function of device resistance; and &rect resistance vs. temperature measurements .

  1. Burtveidolu pielietojuma tendences vizuālās identitātes izveidē

    OpenAIRE

    Badūne, Ieva

    2016-01-01

    Diplomdarba tēma ir „Burtveidolu pielietojuma tendences vizuālās identitātes izveidē”. Diplomdarba mērķis ir izstrādāt vizuālo identitāti interjera priekšmetu apgleznošanas darbnīcai „Anna”, kuras logotips ir veidots, izmantojot burtveidolus. Lai veiksmīgi realizētu autores izvirzīto mērķi, tika apkopota teorētiskā literatūra. Tāpat pētīti citu dizaina uzņēmumu no burtveidoliem veidotie logotipi, lai noskaidrotu, kādas ir burtveidolu pielietojuma tendences un risinājumi mūsdienās. Pētījuma re...

  2. Development and characterization of a TES optical imaging array for astrophysics applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burney, J.; Bay, T.J.; Brink, P.L.; Cabrera, B.; Castle, J.P.; Romani, R.W.; Tomada, A.; Nam, S.W.; Miller, A.J.; Martinis, J.; Wang, E.; Kenny, T.; Young, B.A.

    2004-01-01

    Our research group has successfully developed photon detectors capable of both time-stamping and energy-resolving individual photons at very high rates in a wide band from the near-IR through optical and into the near-UV. We have fabricated 32-pixel arrays of these Transition-Edge Sensor (TES) devices and have mounted them in an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator equipped with windows for direct imaging. We have characterized single pixel behavior; we have also begun operating multiple pixels simultaneously, starting the scaling process towards use of the full array. We emphasize the development of a metalized mask for our array that blocks photons from hitting the inter-pixel areas and reflects them onto the TESs. We also present calibration data on detector resolution, electronics noise, and optical alignment

  3. Effect of hydrophilic organic seed aerosols on secondary organic aerosol formation from ozonolysis of α-pinene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chen; Zaveri, Rahul A; Shilling, John E; Alexander, M Lizabeth; Newburn, Matt

    2011-09-01

    Gas-particle partitioning theory is widely used in atmospheric models to predict organic aerosol loadings. This theory predicts that secondary organic aerosol (SOA) yield of an oxidized volatile organic compound product will increase as the mass loading of preexisting organic aerosol increases. In a previous work, we showed that the presence of model hydrophobic primary organic aerosol (POA) had no detectable effect on the SOA yields from ozonolysis of α-pinene, suggesting that the condensing SOA compounds form a separate phase from the preexisting POA. However, a substantial faction of atmospheric aerosol is composed of polar, hydrophilic organic compounds. In this work, we investigate the effects of model hydrophilic organic aerosol (OA) species such as fulvic acid, adipic acid, and citric acid on the gas-particle partitioning of SOA from α-pinene ozonolysis. The results show that only citric acid seed significantly enhances the absorption of α-pinene SOA into the particle-phase. The other two seed particles have a negligible effect on the α-pinene SOA yields, suggesting that α-pinene SOA forms a well-mixed organic aerosol phase with citric acid and a separate phase with adipic acid and fulvic acid. This finding highlights the need to improve the thermodynamics treatment of organics in current aerosol models that simply lump all hydrophilic organic species into a single phase, thereby potentially introducing an erroneous sensitivity of SOA mass to emitted OA species.

  4. In-Flight Performance of the TES Loop Heat Pipe Rejection System: Seven Years in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Jose I.; Na-Nakornpanom, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    The Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) instrument heat rejection system has been operating in space for nearly 8 years since launched on NASA's EOS Aura Spacecraft. The instrument is an infrared imaging fourier transform spectrometer with spectral coverage of 3.2 to 15.4 microns. The loop heat pipe (LHP) based heat rejection system manages all of the instrument components waste heat including the two mechanical cryocoolers and their drive electronics. Five propylene LHPs collect and transport the instrument waste heat to the near room temperature nadir viewing radiators. During the early months of the mission, ice contamination of the cryogenic surfaces including the focal planes led to increased cryocooler loads and the need for periodic decontamination cycles. Focal plane decontamination cycles require power cycling both cryocoolers which also requires the two cryocooler LHPs to turn off and on during each cycle. To date, the cryocooler LHPs have undergone 24 start-ups in orbit successfully. This paper reports on the TES cryocooler loop heat pipe based heat rejection system performance. After a brief overview of the instrument thermal design, the paper presents detailed data on the highly successful space operation of the loop heat pipes since instrument turn-on in 2004. The data shows that the steady-state and transient operation of the LHPs has not changed since 2004 and shows consistent and predictable performance. The LHP based heat rejection system has provided a nearly constant heat rejection heat sink for all of its equipment which has led to exceptional overall instrument performance with world class science.

  5. Analisis Kemampuan Kognitif Mahasiswa pada Konsep Asam-Basa Menggunakan Tes Berdasarkan Taksonomi Bloom Revisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euis Nursa'adah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Concept of acid-base is one concept that has characteristics abstract concept with concrete example. To understanding of these concepts requires knowledge of factual, conceptual, procedural, and Meta-cognitive dimension and also cognitive processes with applying, analyzing, evaluating and creating. Through a descriptive study to analyze the cognitive ability of students to determine how student can solve chemical problems used test based on Bloom's taxonomy revision. This study aims to analyze the cognitive abilities of students on the dimensions of knowledge and processes about acid-base concept. Subjects were 39 students of chemistry education UIN Sunan Gunung Djati Bandung. Based on the results show that students abilities of conceptual knowledge reaches the highest percentage of 80% conceptual, 63% procedural, and Meta-cognitive 70%. While the cognitive processes 85% applying, 79% analyzing, 77% evaluating, and 34% creating.Keywords: Cognitive skill, Acid-Base, Bloom's Taxonomy RevisionAbstrak: Konsep asam basa merupakan salah satu konsep kimia yang memiliki karakteristik abstrak contoh konkret. Pemahaman konsep tersebut membutuhkan pengetahuan faktual, konseptual, prosedural dan metakognitif dengan dimensi proses kognitif mengaplikasikan, menganalisis, mengevaluasi dan mencipta. Melalui penelitian deskriptif dilakukan analisis kemampuan kognitif mahasiswa untuk mendeskripsikan kemampuan mahasiswa dalam memecahkan masalah kimia berdasarkan konsep dasar yang dimilikinya dengan menggunakan perangkat tes berdasarkan taksonomi Bloom revisi pada konsep asam-basa. Penelitian ini melibatkan mahasiswa semester II pendidikan kimia UIN Sunan Gunung Djati Bandung yang berjumlah 39 mahasiswa. Instrumen yang digunakan adalah tes uraian yang sebelumnya divalidasi dan diuji reabilitasnya. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan kemampuan kognitif mahasiswa pada dimensi pengetahuan konseptual mencapai presentase tertinggi sebesar 80%, prosedural 63%, dan

  6. SiGe Integrated Circuit Developments for SQUID/TES Readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prêle, D.; Voisin, F.; Beillimaz, C.; Chen, S.; Piat, M.; Goldwurm, A.; Laurent, P.

    2018-03-01

    SiGe integrated circuits dedicated to the readout of superconducting bolometer arrays for astrophysics have been developed since more than 10 years at APC. Whether for Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) observations with the QUBIC ground-based experiment (Aumont et al. in astro-ph.IM, 2016. arXiv:1609.04372) or for the Hot and Energetic Universe science theme with the X-IFU instrument on-board of the ATHENA space mission (Barret et al. in SPIE 9905, space telescopes & instrumentation 2016: UV to γ Ray, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2232432), several kinds of Transition Edge Sensor (TES) (Irwin and Hilton, in ENSS (ed) Cryogenic particle detection, Springer, Berlin, 2005) arrays have been investigated. To readout such superconducting detector arrays, we use time or frequency domain multiplexers (TDM, FDM) (Prêle in JINST 10:C08015, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-0221/10/08/C08015) with Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices (SQUID). In addition to the SQUID devices, low-noise biasing and amplification are needed. These last functions can be obtained by using BiCMOS SiGe technology in an Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC). ASIC technology allows integration of highly optimised circuits specifically designed for a unique application. Moreover, we could reach very low-noise and wide band amplification using SiGe bipolar transistor either at room or cryogenic temperatures (Cressler in J Phys IV 04(C6):C6-101, 1994. https://doi.org/10.1051/jp4:1994616). This paper discusses the use of SiGe integrated circuits for SQUID/TES readout and gives an update of the last developments dedicated to the QUBIC telescope and to the X-IFU instrument. Both ASIC called SQmux128 and AwaXe are described showing the interest of such SiGe technology for SQUID multiplexer controls.

  7. A novel, highly efficient cavity backshort design for far-infrared TES detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, C.; de Lange, G.; Audley, M. D.; Trappe, N.; Murphy, J. A.; Gradziel, M.; Vreeling, W.-J.; Watson, D.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper we present a new cavity backshort design for TES (transition edge sensor) detectors which will provide increased coupling of the incoming astronomical signal to the detectors. The increased coupling results from the improved geometry of the cavities, where the geometry is a consequence of the proposed chemical etching manufacturing technique. Using a number of modelling techniques, predicted results of the performance of the cavities for frequencies of 4.3-10 THz are presented and compared to more standard cavity designs. Excellent optical efficiency is demonstrated, with improved response flatness across the band. In order to verify the simulated results, a scaled model cavity was built for testing at the lower W-band frequencies (75-100 GHz) with a VNA system. Further testing of the scale model at THz frequencies was carried out using a globar and bolometer via an FTS measurement set-up. The experimental results are presented, and compared to the simulations. Although there is relatively poor comparison between simulation and measurement at some frequencies, the discrepancies are explained by means of higher-mode excitation in the measured cavity which are not accounted for in the single-mode simulations. To verify this assumption, a better behaved cylindrical cavity is simulated and measured, where excellent agreement is demonstrated in those results. It can be concluded that both the simulations and the supporting measurements give confidence that this novel cavity design will indeed provide much-improved optical coupling for TES detectors in the far-infrared/THz band.

  8. High count-rate study of two TES x-ray microcalorimeters with different transition temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Jun; Adams, Joseph S.; Bandler, Simon R.; Betancourt-Martinez, Gabriele L.; Chervenak, James A.; Eckart, Megan E.; Finkbeiner, Fred M.; Kelley, Richard L.; Kilbourne, Caroline A.; Porter, Frederick S.; Sadleir, John E.; Smith, Stephen J.; Wassell, Edward J.

    2017-10-01

    We have developed transition-edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeter arrays with high count-rate capability and high energy resolution to carry out x-ray imaging spectroscopy observations of various astronomical sources and the Sun. We have studied the dependence of the energy resolution and throughput (fraction of processed pulses) on the count rate for such microcalorimeters with two different transition temperatures (T c). Devices with both transition temperatures were fabricated within a single microcalorimeter array directly on top of a solid substrate where the thermal conductance of the microcalorimeter is dependent upon the thermal boundary resistance between the TES sensor and the dielectric substrate beneath. Because the thermal boundary resistance is highly temperature dependent, the two types of device with different T cs had very different thermal decay times, approximately one order of magnitude different. In our earlier report, we achieved energy resolutions of 1.6 and 2.3 eV at 6 keV from lower and higher T c devices, respectively, using a standard analysis method based on optimal filtering in the low flux limit. We have now measured the same devices at elevated x-ray fluxes ranging from 50 Hz to 1000 Hz per pixel. In the high flux limit, however, the standard optimal filtering scheme nearly breaks down because of x-ray pile-up. To achieve the highest possible energy resolution for a fixed throughput, we have developed an analysis scheme based on the so-called event grade method. Using the new analysis scheme, we achieved 5.0 eV FWHM with 96% throughput for 6 keV x-rays of 1025 Hz per pixel with the higher T c (faster) device, and 5.8 eV FWHM with 97% throughput with the lower T c (slower) device at 722 Hz.

  9. Design and Performance of the Multiplexed SQUID/TES Array at Ninety Gigahertz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanchfield, Sara; Ade, Peter; Aguirre, James; Brevik, Justus A.; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Datta, Rahul; Devlin, Mark; Dicker, Simon R.; Dober, Bradley; Duff, Shannon M.; Egan, Dennis; Ford, Pam; Hilton, Gene; Hubmayr, Johannes; Irwin, Kent; Knowles, Kenda; Marganian, Paul; Mason, Brian Scott; Mates, John A. B.; McMahon, Jeff; Mello, Melinda; Mroczkowski, Tony; Romero, Charles; Sievers, Jonathon; Tucker, Carole; Vale, Leila R.; Vissers, Michael; White, Steven; Whitehead, Mark; Ullom, Joel; Young, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    We present the array performance and astronomical images from early science results from MUSTANG-2, a 90 GHz feedhorn-coupled, microwave SQUID-multiplexed TES bolometer array operating on the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT). MUSTANG-2 was installed on the GBT on December 2, 2016 and immediately began commissioning efforts, followed by science observations, which are expected to conclude June 2017. The feedhorn and waveguide-probe-coupled detector technology is a mature technology, which has been used on instrument including the South Pole Telescope, the Atacama Cosmology Telescope, and the Atacama B-mode Search telescope. The microwave SQUID readout system developed for MUSTANG-2 currently reads out 66 detectors with a single coaxial cable and will eventually allow thousands of detectors to be multiplexed. This microwave SQUID multiplexer combines the proven abilities of millimeterwave TES detectors with the multiplexing capabilities of KIDs with no degradation in noise performance of the detectors. Each multiplexing device is read out using warm electronics consisting of a commercially available ROACH board, a DAC/ADC card, and an Intermediate Frequency mixer circuit. The hardware was originally developed by the UC Berkeley Collaboration for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronic Research (CASPER) group, whose primary goal is to develop scalable FPGA-based hardware with the flexibility to be used in a wide range of radio signal processing applications. MUSTANG-2 is the first on-sky instrument to use microwave SQUID multiplexing and is available as a shared-risk/PI instrument on the GBT. In MUSTANG-2's first season 7 separate proposals were awarded a total of 230 hours of telescope time.

  10. Development of ROACH firmware for microwave multiplexed X-ray TES microcalorimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madden, T. J.; Cecil, T. W.; Gades, L. M.; Quaranta, O.; Yan, D.; Miceli, A.; Gard, J. D.

    2016-09-04

    We are developing room temperature electronics based upon the ROACH platform for reading out microwave multiplexed X-ray TES. ROACH is an open-source hardware and software platform featuring a large Xilinx Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), Power PC processor, several 10GB Ethernet SFP+ interfaces, and a collection of daughter boards for analog signal generation and acquisition. The combination of a ROACH board, ADC/DAC conversion daughter boards, and hardware for RF mixing allows for the generation and capture of multiple RF tones for reading out microwave multiplexed x-ray TES microcalorimeters. The FPGA is used to generate multiple tones in base band, from 10MHz to 250MHz, which are subsequently mixed to RF in the multiple GHz range and sent through the microwave multiplexer. The tones are generated in the FPGA by storing a large lookup table in Quad Data Rate (QDR) SRAM modules and playing out the waveform to a DAC board. Once the signal has been modulated to RF, passed through the microwave multiplexer, and has been modulated back to base band, the signal is digitized by an ADC board. The tones are modulated to 0Hz by using a FPGA circuit consisting of a polyphase filter bank, several Xilinx FFT blocks, Xilinx CORDIC blocks (for converting to magnitude and phase), and special phase accumulator circuit for mixing to exactly 0Hz. Upwards of 256 channels can be simultaneously captured and written into a bank of 256 First-In-First-Out (FIFO) memories, with each FIFO corresponding to a channel. Individual channel data can be further processed in the FPGA before being streamed through a 10GB Ethernet fiber-optic interface to a Linux system. The Linux system runs software written in Python and QT C++ for controlling the ROACH system, capturing data, and processing data.

  11. Fission-fragment attachment to aerosols and their transport through capillary tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novick, V.J.; Alvarez, J.L.; Greenwood, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    The transport of radioactive aerosols was studied using equipment, collectively called the Helium jet, that has been constructed to provide basic nuclear physics data on fission product nuclides. The transport of the fission products in the system depends on their attachment to aerosol particles. The system consists of 1) a tube furnace which generates aerosols by the sublimation or evaporation of source material, 2) a helium stream used to transport the aerosols, 3) a 25 m settling tube to eliminate the larger aerosols and smaller aerosols that would deposit in the capillary, 4) a Californium-252 self-fissioning source of fission product nuclides, and 5) a small capillary to carry the radioactive aerosols from the hot cell to the laboratory. Different source materials were aerosolized but NaCl is generally used because it yielded the highest transport efficiencies through the capillary. Particle size measurments were made with NaCl aerosols by using a cascade impactor, an optical light scattering device, and the capillary itself as a diffusion battery by performing radiation measurements and/or electrical conductivity measurements. Both radioactive and nonradioactive aerosols were measured in order to investigate the possibility of a preferential size range for fission product attachment. The measured size distributions were then used to calculate attachment coefficients and finally an attachment time

  12. Stable generator of polydisperse aerosol

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikuška, Pavel

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 32, Suppl. 1 (2001), s. S823-S824 ISSN 0021-8502. [European Aerosol Conference 2001. Leipzig, 03.09.2001-07.09.2001] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4031105 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : aerosol generator * fine aerosol * polydisperse aerosol Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.605, year: 2001

  13. Aerosols and climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellogg, W W

    1980-01-01

    The atmospheric burden of particles, or aerosols, has been measurably increased by human activities, especially in industrialized regions and those where slash-burn agricultural practices are followed. Some of these aerosols are directly produced when fossil fuels or other materials are burned (soot, smoke, fly ash); others are the result of photochemical reactions involving organic molecules, oxides of nitrogen, and sunlight (smog); and a third source is the oxidation of sulfur dioxide, produced when sulfur-bearing fuel is burned, to sulfuric acid thereby forming sulfate particles of droplets. In all cases, the resulting aerosols scatter and absorb both solar and infrared radiation, and therefore they influence the atmospheric heat balance. The question is the way in which they influence it, and the geographical and extent of this influence.

  14. Radioactive aerosol inhalation apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordoni, M.E.; Lieberman, E.

    1987-01-01

    An aerosol inhalation apparatus for supplying an aerosol mist containing radioactive tagged particles to a subject is described comprising a reusable radiation-shielding container having lid means. The contents of the container are readily accessible. A radioactive aerosol inhalation device includes first and second conduit means in the container and passing therethrough, means for communicating with an air passageway of a subject connected to the first and second conduit means externally of the container. Valve means control exhalation from the second conduit means. A nebulizer is within the container connected to the first conduit means. Means are positioned at least in part within the container and in fluid communication with the nebulizer for allowing introduction of radioactive solution from outside the container into the nebulizer

  15. Characterization of a real-time tracer for isoprene epoxydiols-derived secondary organic aerosol (IEPOX-SOA) from aerosol mass spectrometer measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, W. W.; St. Clair, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Substantial amounts of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) can be formed from isoprene epoxydiols (IEPOX), which are oxidation products of isoprene mainly under low-NO conditions. Total IEPOX-SOA, which may include SOA formed from other parallel isoprene oxidation pathways, was quantified by applying positive matrix factorization (PMF) to aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) measurements. The IEPOX-SOA fractions of organic aerosol (OA) in multiple field studies across several continents are summarized...

  16. Aerosols, light, and water: Measurements of aerosol optical properties at different relative humidities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, Daniel

    (RH) at a certain RH divided by sp at a dry value, was used to evaluate the aerosol hygroscopicity. Different empirical fits were evaluated using the f(RH) data. The widely used gamma model was found inappropriate, as it overestimates f(RH) for RHhygroscopic growth. Although the inorganic salts used inthe experiments were non-spherical, the dry measurements were successfully reproduced with the Mie theory using literature values for the dry index of refraction. Moreover, the changes in the particle size distribution and index of refraction were evaluated through classic thermodynamic equilibrium theory producing comparable results with the simulations performed with Mie formalism. The final experiment consisted in the measurements of phase function and degree of linear polarization of ambient aerosols sampled in Baltimore, MD with the PI-Neph. This study was centered on specific case studies where different aerosol conditions were experienced such as clean, haze episode, and transported smoke event. The approach employed consisted of dry and humid observations of ambient aerosols to compare them with total column products by AERONET. A relatively low difference between the phase function and the degree of linear polarization was measured at high and low RH. The small difference found in the scattering elements and their retrievals is attributed to the general aerosol composition in the region. It was observed that a RH increase causes the particles to scatter more light uniformly over all the scattering angles, and also, that the water uptake did not change markedly the particle's polarization properties. The comparison between in-situ and total column derived observations were highly correlated for most of the cases. The size distribution retrievals from the in-situ measurements were very comparable to the size distributions reported by AERONET, but only for the fine modes.

  17. Blowing Snow and Aerosol Composition: Bulk and Single Particle Measurements in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCarlo, P. F.; Giordano, M.

    2017-12-01

    Recent evidence suggests that aerosol concentration and composition in the cryosphere is influenced by blowing snow, though the mechanisms remain unclear. Changes in aerosol composition due to blowing snow may significantly alter local and regional aerosol production, processing, transport, and lifetimes in the cryosphere. This presentation will focus on both bulk composition changes and single particle results from deploying an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) to the Antarctic sea ice during the 2ODIAC campaign, with a focus on blowing snow events. With this first on-line analysis, blowing snow clearly enhances the submicron sea salt (Na and Cl) concentrations in Antarctic aerosols. These bulk composition changes are shown to be independent from air mass origins. Single particle results from the AMS show a variety of chemical species in addition to sulfates in the submicron aerosol mass. K-means cluster analysis also shows distinct changes in the overall aerosol mass spectra during to blowing snow events.

  18. Experimental determination of the attachment coefficients of atoms and ions on monodisperse aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porstendoerfer, J.; Roebig, G.; Ahmed, A.

    1979-01-01

    The attachment coefficients of 212 Pb atoms and ions were measured for aerosols in the diameter range 0.1 to 5 μm. The attachment of the Tn-decay products to the aerosol was carried out in laminar flow through a cylindrical tube. Under the same experimental conditions (but without aerosols) the diffusion coefficient of the atoms was determined. The generation of the monodisperse di-2-ethylhexyl sebacate (DEHS) aerosol was carried out by controlled condensation of vapour upon nuclei. The aerosols had standard deviations of 3 to 5%. The aerosol size distributions and concentrations were determined by means of an aerosol size spectrometer, which measured the intensity of the scattered light from single-particles or droplets. The experimental results agree well with the values of the diffusion attachment theory based on the kinetic theory of gases with the assumption of a sticking probability of the Pb atoms, S = 1. (author)

  19. GRIP LANGLEY AEROSOL RESEARCH GROUP EXPERIMENT (LARGE) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Langley Aerosol Research Group Experiment (LARGE) measures ultrafine aerosol number density, total and non-volatile aerosol number density, dry aerosol size...

  20. Comparative Study of Aerosol and Cloud Detected by CALIPSO and OMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhong; Torres, Omar; McCormick, M. Patrick; Smith, William; Ahn, Changwoo

    2012-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the Aura Satellite detects the presence of desert dust and smoke particles (also known as aerosols) in terms of a parameter known as the UV Aerosol Index (UV AI). The Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) mission measures the vertical distribution of aerosols and clouds. Aerosols and clouds play important roles in the atmosphere and climate system. Accurately detecting their presence, altitude, and properties using satellite radiance measurements is a very important task. This paper presents a comparative analysis of the CALIPSO Version 2 Vertical Feature Mask (VFM) product with the (OMI) UV Aerosol Index (UV AI) and reflectivity datasets for a full year of 2007. The comparison is done at regional and global scales. Based on CALIPSO arid OMI observations, the vertical and horizontal extent of clouds and aerosols are determined and the effects of aerosol type selection, load, cloud fraction on aerosol identification are discussed. It was found that the spatial-temporal correlation found between CALIPSO and OMI observations, is strongly dependent on aerosol types and cloud contamination. CALIPSO is more sensitivity to cloud and often misidentifies desert dust aerosols as cloud, while some small scale aerosol layers as well as some pollution aerosols are unidentified by OMI UV AI. Large differences in aerosol distribution patterns between CALIPSO and OMI are observed, especially for the smoke and pollution aerosol dominated areas. In addition, the results found a significant correlation between CALIPSO lidar 1064 nm backscatter and the OMI UV AI over the study regions.

  1. Aerosol Properties of the Atmospheres of Extrasolar Giant Planets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavvas, P. [Groupe de Spectrométrie Moléculaire et Atmosphérique, UMR CNRS 7331, Université de Reims Champagne Ardenne, Reims (France); Koskinen, T., E-mail: panayotis.lavvas@univ-reims.fr [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2017-09-20

    We use a model of aerosol microphysics to investigate the impact of high-altitude photochemical aerosols on the transmission spectra and atmospheric properties of close-in exoplanets, such as HD 209458 b and HD 189733 b. The results depend strongly on the temperature profiles in the middle and upper atmospheres, which are poorly understood. Nevertheless, our model of HD 189733 b, based on the most recently inferred temperature profiles, produces an aerosol distribution that matches the observed transmission spectrum. We argue that the hotter temperature of HD 209458 b inhibits the production of high-altitude aerosols and leads to the appearance of a clearer atmosphere than on HD 189733 b. The aerosol distribution also depends on the particle composition, photochemical production, and atmospheric mixing. Due to degeneracies among these inputs, current data cannot constrain the aerosol properties in detail. Instead, our work highlights the role of different factors in controlling the aerosol distribution that will prove useful in understanding different observations, including those from future missions. For the atmospheric mixing efficiency suggested by general circulation models, we find that the aerosol particles are small (∼nm) and probably spherical. We further conclude that a composition based on complex hydrocarbons (soots) is the most likely candidate to survive the high temperatures in hot-Jupiter atmospheres. Such particles would have a significant impact on the energy balance of HD 189733 b’s atmosphere and should be incorporated in future studies of atmospheric structure. We also evaluate the contribution of external sources to photochemical aerosol formation and find that their spectral signature is not consistent with observations.

  2. Aerosol Properties of the Atmospheres of Extrasolar Giant Planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavvas, P.; Koskinen, T.

    2017-01-01

    We use a model of aerosol microphysics to investigate the impact of high-altitude photochemical aerosols on the transmission spectra and atmospheric properties of close-in exoplanets, such as HD 209458 b and HD 189733 b. The results depend strongly on the temperature profiles in the middle and upper atmospheres, which are poorly understood. Nevertheless, our model of HD 189733 b, based on the most recently inferred temperature profiles, produces an aerosol distribution that matches the observed transmission spectrum. We argue that the hotter temperature of HD 209458 b inhibits the production of high-altitude aerosols and leads to the appearance of a clearer atmosphere than on HD 189733 b. The aerosol distribution also depends on the particle composition, photochemical production, and atmospheric mixing. Due to degeneracies among these inputs, current data cannot constrain the aerosol properties in detail. Instead, our work highlights the role of different factors in controlling the aerosol distribution that will prove useful in understanding different observations, including those from future missions. For the atmospheric mixing efficiency suggested by general circulation models, we find that the aerosol particles are small (∼nm) and probably spherical. We further conclude that a composition based on complex hydrocarbons (soots) is the most likely candidate to survive the high temperatures in hot-Jupiter atmospheres. Such particles would have a significant impact on the energy balance of HD 189733 b’s atmosphere and should be incorporated in future studies of atmospheric structure. We also evaluate the contribution of external sources to photochemical aerosol formation and find that their spectral signature is not consistent with observations.

  3. Aerosol Properties of the Atmospheres of Extrasolar Giant Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavvas, P.; Koskinen, T.

    2017-09-01

    We use a model of aerosol microphysics to investigate the impact of high-altitude photochemical aerosols on the transmission spectra and atmospheric properties of close-in exoplanets, such as HD 209458 b and HD 189733 b. The results depend strongly on the temperature profiles in the middle and upper atmospheres, which are poorly understood. Nevertheless, our model of HD 189733 b, based on the most recently inferred temperature profiles, produces an aerosol distribution that matches the observed transmission spectrum. We argue that the hotter temperature of HD 209458 b inhibits the production of high-altitude aerosols and leads to the appearance of a clearer atmosphere than on HD 189733 b. The aerosol distribution also depends on the particle composition, photochemical production, and atmospheric mixing. Due to degeneracies among these inputs, current data cannot constrain the aerosol properties in detail. Instead, our work highlights the role of different factors in controlling the aerosol distribution that will prove useful in understanding different observations, including those from future missions. For the atmospheric mixing efficiency suggested by general circulation models, we find that the aerosol particles are small (˜nm) and probably spherical. We further conclude that a composition based on complex hydrocarbons (soots) is the most likely candidate to survive the high temperatures in hot-Jupiter atmospheres. Such particles would have a significant impact on the energy balance of HD 189733 b’s atmosphere and should be incorporated in future studies of atmospheric structure. We also evaluate the contribution of external sources to photochemical aerosol formation and find that their spectral signature is not consistent with observations.

  4. Aerosols and Climate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    exam~le, the transport of dust from Sahara desert over the. Atlantic Ocean by winds. Most of the aerosol sources are located near the Earth's surface and hence their concentration (mass per unit volume) is larger near the surface. Occasionally there may be layers aloft as well depending upon the atmospheric condi- tions.

  5. Quantitative proteomics analysis using 2D-PAGE to investigate the effects of cigarette smoke and aerosol of a prototypic modified risk tobacco product on the lung proteome in C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elamin, Ashraf; Titz, Bjoern; Dijon, Sophie; Merg, Celine; Geertz, Marcel; Schneider, Thomas; Martin, Florian; Schlage, Walter K; Frentzel, Stefan; Talamo, Fabio; Phillips, Blaine; Veljkovic, Emilija; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Vanscheeuwijck, Patrick; Peitsch, Manuel C; Hoeng, Julia

    2016-08-11

    Smoking is associated with several serious diseases, such as lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Within our systems toxicology framework, we are assessing whether potential modified risk tobacco products (MRTP) can reduce smoking-related health risks compared to conventional cigarettes. In this article, we evaluated to what extent 2D-PAGE/MALDI MS/MS (2D-PAGE) can complement the iTRAQ LC-MS/MS results from a previously reported mouse inhalation study, in which we assessed a prototypic MRTP (pMRTP). Selected differentially expressed proteins identified by both LC-MS/MS and 2D-PAGE approaches were further verified using reverse-phase protein microarrays. LC-MS/MS captured the effects of cigarette smoke (CS) on the lung proteome more comprehensively than 2D-PAGE. However, an integrated analysis of both proteomics data sets showed that 2D-PAGE data complement the LC-MS/MS results by supporting the overall trend of lower effects of pMRTP aerosol than CS on the lung proteome. Biological effects of CS exposure supported by both methods included increases in immune-related, surfactant metabolism, proteasome, and actin cytoskeleton protein clusters. Overall, while 2D-PAGE has its value, especially as a complementary method for the analysis of effects on intact proteins, LC-MS/MS approaches will likely be the method of choice for proteome analysis in systems toxicology investigations. Quantitative proteomics is anticipated to play a growing role within systems toxicology assessment frameworks in the future. To further understand how different proteomics technologies can contribute to toxicity assessment, we conducted a quantitative proteomics analysis using 2D-PAGE and isobaric tag-based LC-MS/MS approaches and compared the results produced from the 2 approaches. Using a prototypic modified risk tobacco product (pMRTP) as our test item, we show compared with cigarette smoke, how 2D-PAGE results can complement and support LC-MS/MS data, demonstrating

  6. A case study on biomass burning aerosols: effects on aerosol optical properties and surface radiation levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arola

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available In spring 2006, biomass burning aerosols from eastern Europe were transported extensively to Finland, and to other parts of northern Europe. They were observed as far as in the European Arctic. In the first part of this paper, temporal and spatial evolution and transport of these biomass burning aerosols are monitored with MODIS retrieved aerosol optical depth (AOD imagery at visible wavelengths (0.55 μm. Comparison of MODIS and AERONET AOD is conducted at Tõravere, Estonia. Then trajectory analyses, as well as MODIS Fire Mapper products are used to better understand the type and origin of the air masses. During the studied four-week period AOD values ranged from near zero up to 1.2 at 0.55 μm and the linear correlation between MODIS and AERONET was very high (~0.97. Temporal variability observed within this four-week period was also rather well explained by the trajectory analysis in conjunction with the fire detections produced by the MODIS Rapid Response System. In the second part of our study, the surface measurements of global and UV radiation at Jokioinen, Finland are used to study the effect of this haze episode on the levels of surface radiation. We found reductions up to 35% in noon-time surface UV irradiance (at 340 nm as compared to typical aerosol conditions. For global (total solar radiation, the reduction was always smaller, in line with the expected wavelength dependence of the aerosol effect.

  7. A comparison of minor trace gas retrievals from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) and the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady-Pereira, K. E.; Shephard, M. W.; Henze, D. K.; Millet, D. B.; Gombos, D.; Van Damme, M.; Clarisse, L.; Coheur, P. F.; Pommier, M.; Clerbaux, C.

    2014-12-01

    The advent of hyperspectral infrared instruments orbiting the Earth has allowed for detecting and measuring numerous trace gas species that play important roles in atmospheric chemistry and impact air quality, but for which there is a dearth of information on their distribution and temporal variability. Here we will present global and regional comparisons of measurements from the NASA TES and the European MetOp IASI instruments of three of these gases: ammonia (NH3), formic acid (HCOOH) and methanol (CH3OH). Ammonia is highly reactive and thus very variable in space and time, while the sources and sinks of methanol and formic acid are poorly quantified: thus space-based measurements have the potential of significantly increasing our knowledge of the emissions and distributions of these gases. IASI and TES have many similarities but some significant differences. TES has significantly higher spectral resolution (0.06 cm-1), and its equator crossing times are ~1:30 am and 1:30 pm, local time, while IASI has lower resolution (0.5 cm-1) and an earlier equator crossing time (9:30 am and 9:30 pm), which leads to lower thermal contrast; however IASI provides much greater temporal and spatial coverage due to its cross-track scanning. Added to the instrumental differences are the differences in retrieval algorithms. The IASI team uses simple but efficient methods to estimate total column amounts of the species above, while the TES team performs full optimal estimation retrievals. We will compare IASI and TES total column measurements averaged on a 2.5x2.5 degree global grid for each month in 2009, and we will examine the seasonal cycle in some regions of interest, such as South America, eastern China, and the Midwest and the Central Valley in the US. In regions where both datasets are in agreement this analysis will provide confidence that the results are robust and reliable. In regions where there is disagreement we will look for the causes of the discrepancies, which will

  8. The on-line analysis of aerosol-delivered pharmaceuticals via single particle aerosol mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrical, Bradley D; Balaxi, Maria; Fergenson, David

    2015-07-15

    The use of single particle aerosol mass spectrometry (SPAMS) was evaluated for the analysis of inhaled pharmaceuticals to determine the mass distribution of the individual active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) in both single ingredient and combination drug products. SPAMS is an analytical technique where the individual aerodynamic diameters and chemical compositions of many aerosol particles are determined in real-time. The analysis was performed using a Livermore Instruments SPAMS 3.0, which allowed the efficient analysis of aerosol particles with broad size distributions and can acquire data even under a very large particle load. Data similar to what would normally require roughly three days of experimentation and analysis was collected in a five minute period and analyzed automatically. The results were computed to be comparable to those returned by a typical Next Generation Impactor (NGI) particle size distribution experiment. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. [Jānis Keruss, Ineta Lipša, Inese Runce, Kaspars Zellis. Latvijas Universitātes Vēstures un filozofijas fakultātes vēsture padomju laikā: personības, struktūras, idejas (1944-1991)] / Kristine Wohlfart

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Wohlfart, Kristine, 1968-

    2012-01-01

    Arvustus: Keruss, Jānis, Lipša, Ineta, Runce, Inese, Zellis, Kaspars. Latvijas Universitātes Vēstures un filozofijas fakultātes vēsture padomju laikā: personības, struktūras, idejas (1944-1991). (Riga. LU Akadēmiskais apgāds, 2010)

  10. Growing up MODIS: Towards a mature aerosol climate data record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Robert C.

    2013-05-01

    Aerosols are major players within the Earth's climate system, affecting the radiation budget, clouds and the hydrological cycle. In high concentrations near the surface, aerosols (or particulate matter, PM) affect visibility, impact air quality, and can contribute to poor health. Among others, Yoram Kaufman recognized the importance of aerosols to climate, and helped to design new instrumentation and algorithms to retrieve and quantify global aerosol properties. One instrument, known as the Moderate Imaging Resolution Spectro-radiometer (MODIS), was deployed on the AM-1 satellite (later known as Terra), part of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS). In 1998, armed with an M.S. and job experience in neither aerosols nor satellites, I was looking for a new job. I somehow found my way to the MODIS Aerosol team. It was only a year before Terra launch, and most major decisions about the MODIS aerosol retrieval algorithms had been finalized. Since then, we worked through launch, initial evaluation of the product with AERONET and field deployments, and continued efforts to understand the product and refine retrieval algorithms. I have had opportunities to participate in field experiments, write papers, and earn my PhD. The "second generation" algorithm for aerosol retrieval over land has been hugely successful. We have collected nearly a half-million collocations with AERONET and other dataseis, made new discoveries, and have contributed to research and operational projects globally. Due to the dedication of the entire team, the MODIS aerosol product now is one of the highlights of NASA's EOS program. It is used for climate research and air quality forecasting, as well for applications not even considered before the MODIS era. More recently, a focus is on stitching the MODIS aerosol product into the "climate data record" (CDR) for global aerosol, determining whether the product has sufficient length, consistency and continuity to determine climate variability and change

  11. Toward a combined SAGE II-HALOE aerosol climatology: an evaluation of HALOE version 19 stratospheric aerosol extinction coefficient observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. W. Thomason

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Herein, the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE aerosol extinction coefficient data is evaluated in the low aerosol loading period after 1996 as the first necessary step in a process that will eventually allow the production of a combined HALOE/SAGE II (Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment aerosol climatology of derived aerosol products including surface area density. Based on these analyses, it is demonstrated that HALOE's 3.46 μm is of good quality above 19 km and suitable for scientific applications above that altitude. However, it is increasingly suspect at lower altitudes and should not be used below 17 km under any circumstances after 1996. The 3.40 μm is biased by about 10% throughout the lower stratosphere due to the failure to clear NO2 but otherwise appears to be a high quality product down to 15 km. The 2.45 and 5.26 μm aerosol extinction coefficient measurements are clearly biased and should not be used for scientific applications after the most intense parts of the Pinatubo period. Many of the issues in the aerosol data appear to be related to either the failure to clear some interfering gas species or doing so poorly. For instance, it is clear that the 3.40 μm aerosol extinction coefficient measurements can be improved through the inclusion of an NO2 correction and could, in fact, end up as the highest quality overall HALOE aerosol extinction coefficient measurement. It also appears that the 2.45 and 5.26 μm channels may be improved by updating the Upper Atmosphere Pilot Database which is used as a resource for the removal of gas species otherwise not available from direct HALOE measurements. Finally, a simple model to demonstrate the promise of mixed visible/infrared aerosol extinction coefficient ensembles for the retrieval of bulk aerosol properties demonstrates that a combined HALOE/SAGE II aerosol climatology is feasible and may represent a substantial improvement over independently derived

  12. ISS Ambient Air Quality: Updated Inventory of Known Aerosol Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Marit

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft cabin air quality is of fundamental importance to crew health, with concerns encompassing both gaseous contaminants and particulate matter. Little opportunity exists for direct measurement of aerosol concentrations on the International Space Station (ISS), however, an aerosol source model was developed for the purpose of filtration and ventilation systems design. This model has successfully been applied, however, since the initial effort, an increase in the number of crewmembers from 3 to 6 and new processes on board the ISS necessitate an updated aerosol inventory to accurately reflect the current ambient aerosol conditions. Results from recent analyses of dust samples from ISS, combined with a literature review provide new predicted aerosol emission rates in terms of size-segregated mass and number concentration. Some new aerosol sources have been considered and added to the existing array of materials. The goal of this work is to provide updated filtration model inputs which can verify that the current ISS filtration system is adequate and filter lifetime targets are met. This inventory of aerosol sources is applicable to other spacecraft, and becomes more important as NASA considers future long term exploration missions, which will preclude the opportunity for resupply of filtration products.

  13. NOAA AVHRR Clear-Sky Products over Oceans (ACSPO): Sea Surface Temperature, Clear Sky Radiances, and Aerosol Optical Depth for the Global Ocean, 2011 - present (NCEI Accession 0072979)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The AVHRR Clear-Sky Processor over Oceans, jointly developed between NESDIS STAR and OSDPD, produces AVHRR clear-sky products over oceans. ACSPO generates output...

  14. Satellite remote sensing of Asian aerosols: a case study of clean, polluted, and Asian dust storm days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. H. Lee

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In East Asia, satellite observation is important because aerosols from natural and anthropogenic sources have been recognized as a major source of regional and global air pollution. However, retrieving aerosols properties from satellite observations over land can be difficult because of the surface reflection, complex aerosol composition, and aerosol absorption. In this study, a new aerosol retrieval method called as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS satellite aerosol retrieval (MSTAR was developed and applied to three different aerosol event cases over East Asia. MSTAR uses a separation technique that can distinguish aerosol reflectance from top-of-atmosphere (TOA reflectance. The aerosol optical thickness (AOT was determined by comparing this aerosol reflectance with pre-calculated values. Three case studies show how the methodology identifies discrepancies between measured and calculated values to retrieve more accurate AOT. The comparison between MODIS and the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET showed improvement using the suggested methodology with the cluster-based look-up-tables (LUTs (linear slope = 0.94, R = 0.92 than using operational MODIS collection 5 aerosol products (linear slope = 0.78, R = 0.87. In conclusion, the suggested methodology is shown to work well with aerosol models acquired by statistical clustering of the observation data in East Asia.

  15. American Association for Aerosol Research (AAAR) `95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The Fourteenth annual meeting of the American Association for Aerosol Research was held October 9-13, 1995 at Westin William Penn Hotel in Pittsburgh, PA. This volume contains the abstracts of the papers and poster sessions presented at this meeting, grouped by the session in which they were presented as follows: Radiation Effects; Aerosol Deposition; Collision Simulations and Microphysical Behavior; Filtration Theory and Measurements; Materials Synthesis; Radioactive and Nuclear Aerosols; Aerosol Formation, Thermodynamic Properties, and Behavior; Particle Contamination Issues in the Computer Industry; Pharmaceutical Aerosol Technology; Modeling Global/Regional Aerosols; Visibility; Respiratory Deposition; Biomass and Biogenic Aerosols; Aerosol Dynamics; Atmospheric Aerosols.

  16. OMI/Aura Multi-wavelength Aerosol Optical Depth and Single Scattering Albedo L3 1 day Best Pixel in 0.25 degree x 0.25 degree V3 (OMAEROe) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    </