Welten, S.C.M.; Zeelenberg, M.; Breugelmans, S.M.
We examined an account of vicarious shame that explains how people can experience a self-conscious emotion for the behaviour of another person. Two divergent processes have been put forward to explain how another's behaviour links to the self. The group-based emotion account explains vicarious shame
Moore, Abigail J; Merges, Dominik; Kadereit, Joachim W
Serpentine soils harbour a unique flora that is rich in endemics. We examined the evolution of serpentine endemism in Minuartia laricifolia, which has two ecologically distinct subspecies with disjunct distributions: subsp. laricifolia on siliceous rocks in the western Alps and eastern Pyrenees and subsp. ophiolitica on serpentine in the northern Apennines. We analysed AFLPs and chloroplast sequences from 30 populations to examine their relationships and how their current distributions and ecologies were influenced by Quaternary climatic changes. Minuartia laricifolia was divided into four groups with a BAPS cluster analysis of the AFLP data, one group consisted only of subsp. ophiolitica, while three groups were found within subsp. laricifolia: Maritime Alps, north-western Alps and central Alps. The same groups were recovered in a neighbour-joining tree, although subsp. ophiolitica was nested within the Maritime Alps group of subsp. laricifolia. Subspecies ophiolitica contained three different chloroplast haplotypes, which were also found in the Maritime Alps group of subsp. laricifolia. Given its high genetic diversity, subsp. ophiolitica appears to have arisen from subsp. laricifolia by vicariance instead of by long-distance dispersal. Genetic and geographic evidence point to the Maritime Alps populations of subsp. laricifolia as the closest relatives of subsp. ophiolitica. We hypothesize that M. laricifolia was also able to grow on nonserpentine rocks in the northern Apennines during glacial periods when the vegetation was more open, but that only the serpentine-adapted populations were able to persist until the present due to their competitive exclusion from more favourable habitats. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Matthias Kropf; Hans Peter Comes; Joachim W. Kadereit
• Here, we investigated the origin and genetic diversity of four alpine plant species co-occurring in the Spanish Sierra Nevada and other high mountains in south-western Europe by analysis of amplified...
Reynolds, Gemma; Wasely, David; Dunne, Güler; Askew, Chris
Research with children has demonstrated that both positive vicarious learning (modelling) and positive verbal information can reduce children's acquired fear responses for a particular stimulus. However, this fear reduction appears to be more effective when the intervention pathway matches the initial fear learning pathway. That is, positive verbal information is a more effective intervention than positive modelling when fear is originally acquired via negative verbal information. Research has yet to explore whether fear reduction pathways are also important for fears acquired via vicarious learning. To test this, an experiment compared the effectiveness of positive verbal information and positive vicarious learning interventions for reducing vicariously acquired fears in children (7-9 years). Both vicarious and informational fear reduction interventions were found to be equally effective at reducing vicariously acquired fears, suggesting that acquisition and intervention pathways do not need to match for successful fear reduction. This has significant implications for parents and those working with children because it suggests that providing children with positive information or positive vicarious learning immediately after a negative modelling event may prevent more serious fears developing.
Portik, Daniel M; Papenfuss, Theodore J
The Arabian Peninsula is home to a unique fauna that has assembled and evolved throughout the course of major geophysical events, including the separation of the Arabian Plate from Africa and subsequent collision with Eurasia. Opportunities for faunal exchanges with particular continents occurred in temporally distinct periods, and the presence of African, Western Eurasian, and South Asian derived taxa on the Arabian Peninsula signifies the complexity of these historical biogeographic events. The six true toad species (family Bufonidae) endemic to Arabian Peninsula present a considerable taxonomic and biogeographic challenge because they are part of a global bufonid radiation, including several genera surrounding the Arabian Peninsula, and difficult to discriminate morphologically. As they could be derived from African, Western Eurasian, or South Asian toad groups, elucidating their evolutionary relationships has important implications for historical biogeography. Here, we analyze a global molecular data set of 243 bufonid lineages, with an emphasis on new sampling from the Horn of Africa, Western Eurasia, South Asia, and the Arabian Peninsula, to reconstruct the evolutionary relationships of the Arabian species. We produce a robust time-calibrated phylogeny to infer the biogeographic history of this group on and around the Arabian Peninsula. Our phylogenetic analyses indicate two of the endemic Arabian toad species, "Bufo" tihamicus and "Bufo" arabicus, evolved independently within the African genus Amietophrynus. We confirm the Arabian species Duttaphrynus dhufarensis is of South Asian origin, but do not find evidence for the Asian genus Duttaphrynus being present in the Horn of Africa, discrediting a previously proposed Asian bufonid dispersal event to Africa. We also do not find evidence of the African genus Amietophrynus occurring in South Asia, suggesting that unlike many other vertebrate taxa, toads have not used the Arabian Peninsula as a stepping-stone for
Tabor, Pamela Diane
There is growing knowledge of the effects of stress on professionals, including various negative symptoms that may mirror the biopsychosocial effects exhibited by the victims of trauma. Multiple concepts including burn out, compassion fatigue, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and secondary traumatic stress, are terms that have been incorrectly interchanged with the term vicarious traumatization (VT). Clarity of vicarious victimization and understanding contributing factors is imperative in order to facilitate future research and implement timely and effective interventions, as well as sculpt evidence based practice. This concept anaylsis, complete with a concept map, discusses VT; related terminology; symptomology; prevention and relevant interventions; and discusses opportunities for personal/professional growth for nurses and especially forensic nurses working with victims of violence. © 2011 International Association of Forensic Nurses.
Veller, Marco Gerardus Petrus van
In vicariance biogeography, the present distribution of species over areas is explained with different historical processes. Vicariance is one of these processes and involves speciation by the formation of isolating barriers between areas. By assuming this process, a scenario for the history of
Paulus, Frieder M.; Müller-Pinzler, Laura; Westermann, Stefan; Krach, Sören
In the introduction to the special issue “The Neural Underpinnings of Vicarious Experience” the editors state that one “may feel embarrassed when witnessing another making a social faux pas”. In our commentary we address this statement and ask whether this example introduces a vicarious or an empathic form of embarrassment. We elaborate commonalities and differences between these two forms of emotional experiences and discuss their underlying mechanisms. We suggest that both, vicarious and empathic emotions, originate from the simulation processes mirroring and mentalizing that depend on anchoring and adjustment. We claim the term “empathic emotion” to be reserved exclusively for incidents where perceivers and social targets have shared affective experience, whereas “vicarious emotion” offers a wider scope and also includes non-shared affective experiences. Both are supposed to be highly functional in social interactions. PMID:23720621
Splevins, Katie A; Cohen, Keren; Joseph, Stephen; Murray, Craig; Bowley, Jake
An emerging evidence base indicates that posttraumatic growth might be experienced vicariously by those working alongside trauma survivors. In this study we explored the vicarious experiences of eight interpreters working in a therapeutic setting with asylum seekers and refugees. We adopted a qualitative approach, using semistructured interviews and interpretative phenomenological analysis. Four interrelated themes emerged from the findings: feeling what your client feels, beyond belief, finding your own way to deal with it, and a different person. Although all participants experienced distress, they also perceived themselves to have grown in some way. The implications for a theory of vicarious posttraumatic growth are discussed, along with clinical applications.
Recent molecular studies have cited the general incompleteness of the fossil record to support claims that most extant avian orders diverged in the mid-Cretaceous, some 40 m.y. before their first fossil appearances in the early Cenozoic. To evaluate these assertions, I used gap analysis to estimate confidence intervals for the beginnings of the observed stratigraphic ranges for the related extant avian orders Strigiformes (owls), Caprimulgiformes (goatsuckers), and Apodiformes (swifts, hummingbirds), and for the origin of the common ancestor to this larger megaclade. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals for the origins of these groups extend no more than 2 m.y. before the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary and are contained within the Paleocene for strigiforms, apodiforms, and the common ancestor to the megaclade. The confidence level that these orders diverged from a common ancestor after the K-T boundary exceeds 99%. Thus, the quality of the fossil record is consistent with the classical view that trophically diverse extant bird orders arose and diversified rapidly following the widespread extinction of other terrestrial groups at the K-T boundary.
Full Text Available What makes one individual’s experience vicarious is that it is both similar to, and caused by, another’s psychological state. Vicarious responses are mediated by the observation of another’s goal-directed or expressive action. While the evidence from cognitive neuroscience suggests the ubiquity of vicarious responses to others’ goals, intentions, sensations and emotions, the question is: is the general function of vicarious responses to understand another’s mind? In this paper, I argue for a dual view of the function of vicarious responses: while empathetic responses are other-directed, contagious responses are self-centered.
Morgan, Phillip David James
This article seeks to explore the pressing unanswered commercial issue: whether or not a parent company can potentially be vicariously liable for its subsidiary's torts. It is currently undecided in English law, however, the theory of vicarious liability as recently expounded by the Supreme Court, as well as the development of new categories of vicarious liability, point towards vicarious liability for legal persons. This article argues that a legal (or natural) person may employ, or be in a ...
Suryaprakasa Rao Salla
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pyrexia of Unknown Origin (PUO/Fever of Unknown Origin (FUO was defined in 1961 by Petersdorf RG and Beeson PB2 as the following- A temperature greater than 38.3°C (101°F on several occasions; more than 3 weeks' duration of illness; and failure to reach a diagnosis despite 1 week of inpatient investigation. The aim of the study is to study the spectrum of cases of Pyrexia of Unknown Origin (PUO/Fever of Unknown Origin (FUO in a tertiary care hospital in coastal Andhra Pradesh. MATERIALS AND METHODS All patients with PUO admitted under the Department of General Medicine in the NRI Institute of Medical Sciences (Anil Neerukonda Hospital Sangivalasa, Visakhapatnam, during the period from 1st September, 2016, to 31st August, 2017, and who fulfil inclusion and exclusion criteria of classic PUO defined by Durrack and AC street1 were selected for the study. RESULTS The present study included 34 patients with pyrexia of unknown origin in which the patients’ age ranged from 15 years to 77 years. Most of the cases, 41.2% were in the age group 21 to 40 years and 35.3% in the age group 41 to 60 yrs. This indicates PUO is common in middle age group in our study. CONCLUSION Noninfectious causes like collagen vascular disease and neoplasms are becoming important differential diagnosis. But, in India, infections like tuberculosis, enteric fever are still the most common cause of FUO.
Experiential learning theory stresses the primacy of personal experience and the literature suggests that direct clinical experience is required in order for learning to take place. However, raw or first hand experience may not be the only mechanisms by which students engage in experiential learning. There is a growing body of literature within higher education which suggests that students are able to use another's experience to learn: vicarious learning. This literature review aims to outline vicarious learning within a nursing context. Many of the studies regarding vicarious learning are situated within Higher Education in general, however, within the United States these relate more specifically to nursing students. The literature indicates the increasing global interest in this area. This paper reveals that whilst the literature offers a number of examples illustrating how vicarious learning takes place, opinion on the role of the lecturer is divided and requires further exploration and clarification. The implications for nurse education are discussed.
Rosenthal, Ted L.
From a review of the literature on modeling processes, observational learning, social learning theory, and vicarious concept learning by young children, the author draws guidelines for the teaching of abstractions to preschoolers. (SJL)
Process Exemplar (HOPE) algorithm, which along with other absorption and backscattering values, estimates bottom albedo and water depth. Vicarious...algorithm, which along with other absorption and backscattering values, estimates bottom albedo and water depth. Vicarious calibration uses in situ...the 1 km or 250 m spatial resolution of MODIS , this higher spatial resolution allows HICO data to be used to generate more relevant information
Sander, Rebecca L; Scott, Ian A; Aggarwal, Leena
The study aims to (i) profile clinical characteristics, risk estimates of acute coronary syndrome (ACS), use and yield of non-invasive cardiac testing, discharge diagnosis and 30-day outcomes among patients admitted with acute chest pain of possible coronary origin; and (ii) construct a risk stratification algorithm that informs management decisions. This is a retrospective cohort study of 130 consecutive patients admitted to a tertiary hospital medical assessment unit between 24 January and 22 March 2012. Estimates of ACS risk were based on Australian guidelines and Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) scores. Patients were of mean age 61 years, 45% had known coronary artery disease (CAD), 58% presented with typical ischaemic pain, 82% had intermediate to high ACS risk and 61% underwent testing. Myocardial ischaemia was cardiologist-confirmed discharge diagnosis in 29% of patients, and was associated with known CAD, typical pain, multiple risk factors and high TIMI risk scores (P patients capable of rapid discharge from EDs without further investigation, and classifying the remainder into risk groups that informs choice of investigations and need for telemetry. In patients with indeterminate chest pain, clinical features and risk scores identify most with myocardial ischaemia. An algorithm is presented that might inform triaging, early discharge, choice of testing and need for telemetry. © 2013 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.
Fadul Abul Gebbayin, Omer. I. M.; Zhong, Ningning; Ali Ibrahim, Gulfan; Ali Alzain, Mohamed
Source rock screening analysis was performed on four stratigraphic units from the Muglad basin namely; Abu Gabra, Zarqa, Ghazal, and Baraka formations using pyrolysis and Vitrinite Reflectance (Ro). Results, integrated with the chromatographic and isotopic data from these rocks extracts and a Tertiary oil from El Mahafir-1 wild cat, were used to determine the origin of the oil. A good organic source within the Middle Abu Gabra Formation is observed in wells El Toor-6 and Neem Deep-1 (TOC, 1.0-2.0% & S2 5.0-10.0 mg C/g rock), with mixed kerogens I, II, & III, and thermally mature (% Ro = 0.74-0.94). The Campanian-Early Maastrichtian sequence, i.e. Zarqa and Ghazal formations are generally poor (TOC, environment (Pr/Ph, 1.3-3.0). Abu Gabra further shows low C29/C30 hopanes (0.45-0.54), low C28 steranes (21-26%) with high Gammacerane index (20.3). In contrast, the environment during the Late Cretaceous was strongly reducing (Pr/Ph, 0.37-1.0), associated with a wide organic diversity, both in space and time and is characterized by dominant algal input at some areas and or stratigraphic intervals [Elevated tricyclics, higher C29/C30 hopanes (0.5-1.14), and relatively low Gammacerane indices (4.6-14.4)], while mixed with abundant terrigenous material at others. A direct correlation between El Mahafir oil and the Abu Gabra extracts is thus inferred based on: its mixed organic source nature, oxic to sub-oxic depositional environment (Pr/Ph 1.22), relatively low C29/C30 hopanes (0.54), low C28 steranes (29%), and a high gammacerane index (20.5). This is largely supported by the maturity modeling results which suggest generation is only from the Abu Gabra at this location.
Kawakami, Ai; Furukawa, Kiyoshi; Okanoya, Kazuo
Why do we listen to sad music? We seek to answer this question using a psychological approach. It is possible to distinguish perceived emotions from those that are experienced. Therefore, we hypothesized that, although sad music is perceived as sad, listeners actually feel (experience) pleasant emotions concurrent with sadness. This hypothesis was supported, which led us to question whether sadness in the context of art is truly an unpleasant emotion. While experiencing sadness may be unpleasant, it may also be somewhat pleasant when experienced in the context of art, for example, when listening to sad music. We consider musically evoked emotion vicarious, as we are not threatened when we experience it, in the way that we can be during the course of experiencing emotion in daily life. When we listen to sad music, we experience vicarious sadness. In this review, we propose two sides to sadness by suggesting vicarious emotion. PMID:24910621
Steve W. C. Chang
Full Text Available What happens to others profoundly influences our own behavior. Such other-regarding outcomes can drive observational learning, as well as motivate cooperation, charity, empathy, and even spite. Vicarious reinforcement may serve as one of the critical mechanisms mediating the influence of other-regarding outcomes on behavior and decision-making in groups. Here we show that rhesus macaques spontaneously derive vicarious reinforcement from observing rewards given to another monkey, and that this reinforcement can motivate them to subsequently deliver or withhold rewards from the other animal. We exploited Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning to associate rewards to self (M1 and/or rewards to another monkey (M2 with visual cues. M1s made more errors in the instrumental trials when cues predicted reward to M2 compared to when cues predicted reward to M1, but made even more errors when cues predicted reward to no one. In subsequent preference tests between pairs of conditioned cues, M1s preferred cues paired with reward to M2 over cues paired with reward to no one. By contrast, M1s preferred cues paired with reward to self over cues paired with reward to both monkeys simultaneously. Rates of attention to M2 strongly predicted the strength and valence of vicarious reinforcement. These patterns of behavior, which were absent in nonsocial control trials, are consistent with vicarious reinforcement based upon sensitivity to observed, or counterfactual, outcomes with respect to another individual. Vicarious reward may play a critical role in shaping cooperation and competition, as well as motivating observational learning and group coordination in rhesus macaques, much as it does in humans. We propose that vicarious reinforcement signals mediate these behaviors via homologous neural circuits involved in reinforcement learning and decision-making.
This is the final version of the article. It first appeared from Springer via http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11133-016-9337-4 Given that literature on the intra- and inter-generational transmission of traumas is mainly based on secondary literature and focuses on the transmission of trauma memory in terms of the historical knowledge of group trauma, this article develops the theory of vicarious group trauma and tests this theory by exploring vicarious traumatization in the everyday lives of Je...
Glasby, G P; Kunzendorf, H
A review of the scenarios for the Cretaceous/ Tertiary (K/T) boundary event is presented and a coherent hypothesis for the origin of the event is formulated. Many scientists now accept that the event was caused by a meteorite impact at Chicxulub in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Our investigations show that the oceans were already stressed by the end of the Late Cretaceous as a result of the long-term drop in atmospheric CO2, the long-term drop in sea level and the frequent development of oceanic anoxia. Extinction of some marine species was already occurring several million years prior to the K/T boundary. The biota were therefore susceptible to change. The eruption of the Deccan Traps, which began at 66.2 Ma, coincides with the K/T boundary events. It erupted huge quantities of H2SO4, HCl, CO2, dust and soot into the atmosphere and led to a significant drop in sea level and marked changes in ocean temperature. The result was a major reduction in oceanic productivity and the creation of an almost dead ocean. The volcanism lasted almost 0.7 m.y. Extinction of biological species was graded and appeared to correlate with the main eruptive events. Elements such as Ir were incorporated into the volcanic ash, possibly on soot particles. This horizon accumulated under anoxic conditions in local depressions and became the marker horizon for the K/T boundary. An oxidation front penetrated this horizon leading to the redistribution of elements. The eruption of the Deccan Traps is the largest volcanic event since the Permian-Triassic event at 245 Ma. It followed a period of 36 m.y. in which the earth's magnetic field failed to reverse. Instabilities in the mantle are thought to be responsible for this eruption and therefore for the K/T event. We therefore believe that the K/T event can be explained in terms of the effects of the Deccan volcanism on an already stressed biosphere. The meteorite impact at Chicxulub took place after the onset of Deccan volcanism. It probably
Gold, Steven R.; And Others
Explored whether vicarious emotional reactions of macho males reflect a lack of empathy and a tendency to respond with anger. Male subjects (n=107) viewed videotapes of a crying, quiescent, and smiling baby, respectively. Macho males reported more anger and less empathy for the crying baby than did less macho males. (RJM)
Krishnan, Anjali; Woo, Choong-Wan; Chang, Luke J; Ruzic, Luka; Gu, Xiaosi; López-Solà, Marina; Jackson, Philip L; Pujol, Jesús; Fan, Jin; Wager, Tor D
Understanding how humans represent others’ pain is critical for understanding pro-social behavior. ‘Shared experience’ theories propose common brain representations for somatic and vicarious pain, but other evidence suggests that specialized circuits are required to experience others’ suffering. Combining functional neuroimaging with multivariate pattern analyses, we identified dissociable patterns that predicted somatic (high versus low: 100%) and vicarious (high versus low: 100%) pain intensity in out-of-sample individuals. Critically, each pattern was at chance in predicting the other experience, demonstrating separate modifiability of both patterns. Somatotopy (upper versus lower limb: 93% accuracy for both conditions) was also distinct, located in somatosensory versus mentalizing-related circuits for somatic and vicarious pain, respectively. Two additional studies demonstrated the generalizability of the somatic pain pattern (which was originally developed on thermal pain) to mechanical and electrical pain, and also demonstrated the replicability of the somatic/vicarious dissociation. These findings suggest possible mechanisms underlying limitations in feeling others’ pain, and present new, more specific, brain targets for studying pain empathy. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15166.001 PMID:27296895
Previous studies on burnout and vicarious traumatization are reviewed and summarized with a list of signs and symptoms. From the author's own observations two histories of caregivers working with torture survivors are described which exemplify the risk,implications and consequences of secondary trauma. Contributing factors in the social and political framework in which caregivers operate are analyzed and possible means of prevention suggested, particularly focussing on the conflict of roles when providing evaluations on trauma victims for health and immigration authorities. Caregivers working with victims of violence carry a high risk of suffering from burnout and vicarious traumatization unless preventive factors are considered such as: self care, solid professional training in psychotherapy, therapeutic self-awareness, regular self-examination by collegial and external supervision, limiting caseload, continuing professional education and learning about new concepts in trauma, occasional research sabbaticals, keeping a balance between empathy and a proper professional distance to clients, protecting oneself against being mislead by clients with fictitious PTSD. An institutional setting should be provided in which the roles of therapists and evaluators are separated. Important factors for burnout and vicarious traumatization are the lack of social recognition for caregivers and the financial and legal outsider status of many centers. Therefore politicians and social insurance carriers should be urged to integrate facilities for traumatized refugees into the general health care system and centers should work on more alliances with the medical mainstream and academic medicine.
Cameron, Kenneth L.; Hanson, Gilbert N.
The mid-Tertiary volcanic sequence of the central Sierra Madre Occidental in Chihuahua, Mexico, is about one kilometer thick and is composed predominantly of rhyolitic ignimbrites. Basaltic andesite to dacitic lavas are interbedded with the rhyolites, but they are of minor volumetric importance. Rare earth element (REE) data are used to constrain a crustal anatexis model for the origin of the voluminous ignimbrites and to test a fractional crystallization model. The REE patterns indicate that if the rhyolites were formed by direct crustal anatexis, the residue from partial melting could contain no more than a few percent garnet or about 20% hornblende. This eliminates residues with the mineralogy of amphibolite, eclogite, or garnet granulite, but melting of a garnet-free granulite source is permitted. The crustal anatexis model is difficult to evaluate critically because of a lack of knowledge concerning the mid-Tertiary geothermal gradient and the composition of the crust beneath the Sierra Madre Occidental. In contrast, the fractional crystallization model can be tested rigorously. Rayleigh fractionation calculations are used to closely model REE patterns in the basaltic andesite to rhyolite series. The minerals involved are those occurring as phenocryst phases, and the mineral proportions were generated by leastsquares major element calculations. The results of the calculations are consistent with the hypothesis that the voluminous rhyolites originated by plagioclase-dominated crystal fractionation.
Avenanti, Alessio; Candidi, Matteo; Urgesi, Cosimo
.... While this suggests a simulative mechanism mediating the perception of others' actions, one cannot use such evidence to make inferences about the functional significance of vicarious activations...
Frey, Lisa L; Beesley, Denise; Abbott, Deah; Kendrick, Elizabeth
There is little research related to sexual assault and domestic violence advocates' experiences, with the bulk of the literature focused on stressors and systemic barriers that negatively impact efforts to assist survivors. However, advocates participating in these studies have also emphasized the positive impact they experience consequent to their work. This study explores the positive impact. Vicarious resilience, personal trauma experiences, peer relational quality, and perceived organizational support in advocates (n = 222) are examined. Also, overlap among the conceptual components of vicarious resilience is explored. The first set of multiple regressions showed that personal trauma experiences and peer relational health predicted compassion satisfaction and vicarious posttraumatic growth, with organizational support predicting only compassion satisfaction. The second set of multiple regressions showed that (a) there was significant shared variance between vicarious posttraumatic growth and compassion satisfaction; (b) after accounting for vicarious posttraumatic growth, organizational support accounted for significant variance in compassion satisfaction; and (c) after accounting for compassion satisfaction, peer relational health accounted for significant variance in vicarious posttraumatic growth. Results suggest that it may be more meaningful to conceptualize advocates' personal growth related to their work through the lens of a multidimensional construct such as vicarious resilience. Organizational strategies promoting vicarious resilience (e.g., shared organizational power, training components) are offered, and the value to trauma-informed care of fostering advocates' vicarious resilience is discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
In this second paper the red beds outcropping in the northern part of the Duero basin have been treated regarding their mineral and pebble composition, chemical parameters, and surface textures of quartz sand grains, taking as basis the results reported in the first paper. These deposits originate
McCulloch, Graham A; Wallis, Graham P; Waters, Jonathan M
The origin of the New Zealand "beech gap," a low-diversity zone in the central South Island corresponding with a disjunction in the distribution of many taxa, has been the focus of biogeographical debate for many decades. Here, we use comparative phylogeographic analysis (COI; H3) of six alpine stonefly genera (116 individuals, 102 localities) to test a vicariant evolutionary hypothesis for the origin of this "biotic gap." We find strikingly similar phylogeographic patterns in all six genera, with the deepest genetic divergences always found between samples north and south of the beech gap. The magnitude of north-south genetic differentiation for COI is similar across all six genera (ranging from 0.074 to 0.091), with a test for simultaneous vicariance confirming that divergence is consistent with a single evolutionary event. The concordant cladogenesis detected across multiple taxa is consistent with vicariant isolation caused by the onset of glaciation in the late Pliocene. This study thus indicates an important cladogenetic role for glaciation, an abiotic evolutionary process that is more typically associated with loss of biodiversity.
Ming-Li Zhang; Stewart C. Sanderson; Yan-Xia Sun; Byalt V. Vyacheslav; Xiao-Li Hao
Atraphaxis has approximately 25 species and a distribution center in Central Asia. It has been previously used to hypothesize an origin from montane forest. We sampled 18 species covering three sections within the genus and sequenced five cpDNA spacers, atpB-rbcL, psbK-psbI, psbAtrnH, rbcL, and trnL-trnF. BEAST was used to reconstruct phylogenetic relationship and time...
Askew, Chris; Field, Andy P
Forty years on from the initial idea that fears could be learnt vicariously through observing other people's responses to a situation or stimulus, this review looks at the evidence for this theory as an explanatory model of clinical fear. First, we review early experimental evidence that fears can be learnt vicariously before turning to the evidence from both primate and human research that clinical fears can be acquired in this way. Finally, we review recent evidence from research on non-anxious children. Throughout the review we highlight problems and areas for future research. We conclude by exploring the likely underlying mechanisms in the vicarious learning of fear and the resulting clinical implications.
Meneses, Lorena; Morocho, Shirley; Castellanos, Alejandra; Cuesta, Sebastián
Vicarious nucleophilic substitution reactions are a versatile way of introducing substituents into aromatic and heteroaromatic electron-deficient compounds. In this project, a kinetic study of these reactions by applying quantum mechanics concepts, such as reaction force, force constant, and electronic reaction flow was proposed. Furthermore, absolute theoretical scales of electrophilicity by applying density functional theory electronic indices were established to classify a series of five and six-membered nitroheteroarenes, and nitrobenzenes with substituents in ortho, meta and para positions. The theoretical model was validated by comparison with experimental kinetic results. Calculations using B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) level of theory allowed analysis of the reactivity patterns and the mechanisms of these chemical reactions. The theoretical scale properly accounts for the activating/deactivating effects promoted by the substituents and agrees with the ability of these substituents to accept or donate electrons, electron acceptor substituents are those that increase electrophilicity, and electron donors those that reduce it.
Apps, Matthew A J; Lesage, Elise; Ramnani, Narender
Reinforcement learning (RL) theory posits that learning is driven by discrepancies between the predicted and actual outcomes of actions (prediction errors [PEs]). In social environments, learning is often guided by similar RL mechanisms. For example, teachers monitor the actions of students and provide feedback to them. This feedback evokes PEs in students that guide their learning. We report the first study that investigates the neural mechanisms that underpin RL signals in the brain of a teacher. Neurons in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) signal PEs when learning from the outcomes of one's own actions but also signal information when outcomes are received by others. Does a teacher's ACC signal PEs when monitoring a student's learning? Using fMRI, we studied brain activity in human subjects (teachers) as they taught a confederate (student) action-outcome associations by providing positive or negative feedback. We examined activity time-locked to the students' responses, when teachers infer student predictions and know actual outcomes. We fitted a RL-based computational model to the behavior of the student to characterize their learning, and examined whether a teacher's ACC signals when a student's predictions are wrong. In line with our hypothesis, activity in the teacher's ACC covaried with the PE values in the model. Additionally, activity in the teacher's insula and ventromedial prefrontal cortex covaried with the predicted value according to the student. Our findings highlight that the ACC signals PEs vicariously for others' erroneous predictions, when monitoring and instructing their learning. These results suggest that RL mechanisms, processed vicariously, may underpin and facilitate teaching behaviors. Copyright © 2015 Apps et al.
McCarthy, Kate; Sturt, Jackie; Adams, Ann
.... Factors affecting patient treatment decisions are currently unknown. The objective of this article is to explore data from a wider study in specific relation to the types of vicarious learning experiences reported by pre-dialysis patients...
James, Mark; McArdle, David
This article analyses two recent English cases concerning the law on vicarious liability for acts of violence and considers their significance in respect of on-field acts of violence in contact sports. It provides an overview of how the law of negligence has developed in the specific context of sports injuries (including the application of the defence of volenti) and critiques the application of vicarious liability to sports cases. This is followed by a consideration of the wider law on vicar...
The paper focuses on the role of vicarious narratives in employees’ sense‐making in relation to organisational change. The paper addresses the following research question: How do employees use vicarious narratives to makes sense of organisational change, and of their own role in the organisation?....... While the analysis of vicarious narratives in the interviews is the primary focus, the analysis is informed by ethnographic analysis of the full data set.......The paper focuses on the role of vicarious narratives in employees’ sense‐making in relation to organisational change. The paper addresses the following research question: How do employees use vicarious narratives to makes sense of organisational change, and of their own role in the organisation...... of the stories becomes a symbol of belonging to a corporate culture while at the same time contributing to creating that culture. The paper therefore also examines the ways in which vicarious narratives are part of the process of creating corporate culture and identity. The data for the paper has been collected...
Krebes, L; Blank, M; Jürss, K; Zettler, M L; Bastrop, R
We have examined the genetic diversity using mitochondrial COI and ND2 sequence data from 306 specimens of the amphi-Atlantic-distributed amphipod Gammarus duebeni. Marine populations from the Atlantic Ocean, the Baltic and North Sea, as well as freshwater populations from Ireland, Cornwall and Brittany were analysed. G. duebeni is a complex of five allopatric lineages. Freshwater populations result from multiple invasions of marine ancestors, represented by distinct lineages. We interpret the recent distribution of lineages as the outcome of a series of spatio-temporal vicariant events caused by Pleistocene glaciations and sea level changes. The freshwater lineages are therefore regarded as 'glacial relicts'. Furthermore, inter-specific competition with, for example, Gammarus pulex (which is absent in Ireland and western Brittany) may be another important determinant in the distribution of freshwater G. duebeni. In Ireland and Brittany, three freshwater refugia are suggested. The significantly limited gene flow detected among marine populations is more likely due to inter-specific competition than to salinity. The G. duebeni-complex represents a model system for the study of allopatric speciation accompanied by major habitat shifts. The pattern of spatio-temporal origins of the freshwater entities we describe here provides an excellent system for investigating evolutionary adaptations to the freshwater environment. Our data did not confirm the presently used subspecies classification but are only preliminary in the absence of nuclear genetic analyses. Copyright (c) 2009. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Korall, Petra; Pryer, Kathleen M
Scaly tree ferns, Cyatheaceae, are a well-supported group of mostly tree-forming ferns found throughout the tropics, the subtropics and the south-temperate zone. Fossil evidence shows that the lineage originated in the Late Jurassic period. We reconstructed large-scale historical biogeographical patterns of Cyatheaceae and tested the hypothesis that some of the observed distribution patterns are in fact compatible, in time and space, with a vicariance scenario related to the break-up of Gondwana. Tropics, subtropics and south-temperate areas of the world. The historical biogeography of Cyatheaceae was analysed in a maximum likelihood framework using Lagrange. The 78 ingroup taxa are representative of the geographical distribution of the entire family. The phylogenies that served as a basis for the analyses were obtained by Bayesian inference analyses of mainly previously published DNA sequence data using MrBayes. Lineage divergence dates were estimated in a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo framework using beast. Cyatheaceae originated in the Late Jurassic in either South America or Australasia. Following a range expansion, the ancestral distribution of the marginate-scaled clade included both these areas, whereas Sphaeropteris is reconstructed as having its origin only in Australasia. Within the marginate-scaled clade, reconstructions of early divergences are hampered by the unresolved relationships among the Alsophila , Cyathea and Gymnosphaera lineages. Nevertheless, it is clear that the occurrence of the Cyathea and Sphaeropteris lineages in South America may be related to vicariance, whereas transoceanic dispersal needs to be inferred for the range shifts seen in Alsophila and Gymnosphaera . The evolutionary history of Cyatheaceae involves both Gondwanan vicariance scenarios as well as long-distance dispersal events. The number of transoceanic dispersals reconstructed for the family is rather few when compared with other fern lineages. We suggest that a causal
Full Text Available For on-orbit calibration of the Beijing-1 multispectral imagers (Beijing-1/MS, a field calibration campaign was performed at the Dunhuang calibration site during September and October of 2008. Based on the in situ data and images from Beijing-1 and Terra/Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, three vicarious calibration methods (i.e., reflectance-based, irradiance-based, and cross-calibration were used to calculate the top-of-atmosphere (TOA radiance of Beijing-1. An analysis was then performed to determine or identify systematic and accidental errors, and the overall uncertainty was assessed for each individual method. The findings show that the reflectance-based method has an uncertainty of more than 10% if the aerosol optical depth (AOD exceeds 0.2. The cross-calibration method is able to reach an error level within 7% if the images are selected carefully. The final calibration coefficients were derived from the irradiance-based data for 6 September 2008, with an uncertainty estimated to be less than 5%.
Ahn, Hoyong; Kim, Jinsoo; Jin, Cheonggil; Choi, Chuluong
This paper presents a vicarious radiometric calibration of the Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite-3 (KOMPSAT-3) performed by the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) and the Pukyong National University Remote Sensing Group (PKNU RSG) in 2012 and 2014. Correlations between top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiances and the spectral band responses of the KOMPSAT-3 sensors at the Zuunmod, Mongolia and Goheung, South Korea sites were significant for multispectral bands. KOMPSAT-3 calibration coefficients for all bands estimated in 2012 continued to agree well with calibration coefficients estimated in 2014 (within 1.5%). The average difference in TOA reflectance between KOMPSAT-3 and Landsat-8 image over the Libya 4, Libya site in the red-green-blue (RGB) region was under 3%, whereas in the NIR band, the TOA reflectance of KOMPSAT-3 was lower than the that of Landsat-8 due to the difference in the band passes of two sensors. The KOMPSAT-3 sensor includes a band pass near 940 nm that can be strongly absorbed by water vapor and therefore displayed low reflectance. To overcome this, we need to undertake a detailed analysis using rescale methods, such as the spectral bandwidth adjustment factor (SBAF).
Full Text Available People vicariously experience embarrassment when observing others' public pratfalls or etiquette violations. In two consecutive studies we investigated the subjective experience and the neural correlates of vicarious embarrassment for others in a broad range of situations. We demonstrated, first, that vicarious embarrassment was experienced regardless of whether the observed protagonist acted accidentally or intentionally and was aware or unaware that he/she was in an embarrassing situation. Second, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, we showed that the anterior cingulate cortex and the left anterior insula, two cortical structures typically involved in vicarious feelings of others' pain, are also strongly implicated in experiencing the 'social pain' for others' flaws and pratfalls. This holds true even for situations that engage protagonists not aware of their current predicament. Importantly, the activity in the anterior cingulate cortex and the left anterior insula positively correlated with individual differences in trait empathy. The present findings establish the empathic process as a fundamental prerequisite for vicarious embarrassment experiences, thus connecting affect and cognition to interpersonal processes."When we are living with people who have a delicate sense of propriety, we are in misery on their account when anything unbecoming is committed. So I always feel for and with Charlotte when a person is tipping his chair. She cannot endure it." [Elective Affinities, J. W. Goethe].
Full Text Available The study of the neural basis of emotional empathy has received a surge of interest in recent years but mostly employing human neuroimaging. A simpler animal model would pave the way for systematic single cell recordings and invasive manipulations of the brain regions implicated in empathy. Recent evidence has been put forward for the existence of empathy in rodents. In this study, we describe a potential model of empathy in female rats, in which we studied interactions between two rats: a witness observes a demonstrator experiencing a series of footshocks. By comparing the reaction of witnesses with or without previous footshock experience, we examine the role of prior experience as a modulator of empathy. We show that witnesses having previously experienced footshocks, but not naïve ones, display vicarious freezing behavior upon witnessing a cage-mate experiencing footshocks. Strikingly, the demonstrator's behavior was in turn modulated by the behavior of the witness: demonstrators froze more following footshocks if their witness froze more. Previous experiments have shown that rats emit ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs when receiving footshocks. Thus, the role of USV in triggering vicarious freezing in our paradigm is examined. We found that experienced witness-demonstrator pairs emitted more USVs than naïve witness-demonstrator pairs, but the number of USVs was correlated with freezing in demonstrators, not in witnesses. Furthermore, playing back the USVs, recorded from witness-demonstrator pairs during the empathy test, did not induce vicarious freezing behavior in experienced witnesses. Thus, our findings confirm that vicarious freezing can be triggered in rats, and moreover it can be modulated by prior experience. Additionally, our result suggests that vicarious freezing is not triggered by USVs per se and it influences back onto the behavior of the demonstrator that had elicited the vicarious freezing in witnesses, introducing a paradigm
Atsak, Piray; Orre, Marie; Bakker, Petra; Cerliani, Leonardo; Roozendaal, Benno
The study of the neural basis of emotional empathy has received a surge of interest in recent years but mostly employing human neuroimaging. A simpler animal model would pave the way for systematic single cell recordings and invasive manipulations of the brain regions implicated in empathy. Recent evidence has been put forward for the existence of empathy in rodents. In this study, we describe a potential model of empathy in female rats, in which we studied interactions between two rats: a witness observes a demonstrator experiencing a series of footshocks. By comparing the reaction of witnesses with or without previous footshock experience, we examine the role of prior experience as a modulator of empathy. We show that witnesses having previously experienced footshocks, but not naïve ones, display vicarious freezing behavior upon witnessing a cage-mate experiencing footshocks. Strikingly, the demonstrator's behavior was in turn modulated by the behavior of the witness: demonstrators froze more following footshocks if their witness froze more. Previous experiments have shown that rats emit ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) when receiving footshocks. Thus, the role of USV in triggering vicarious freezing in our paradigm is examined. We found that experienced witness-demonstrator pairs emitted more USVs than naïve witness-demonstrator pairs, but the number of USVs was correlated with freezing in demonstrators, not in witnesses. Furthermore, playing back the USVs, recorded from witness-demonstrator pairs during the empathy test, did not induce vicarious freezing behavior in experienced witnesses. Thus, our findings confirm that vicarious freezing can be triggered in rats, and moreover it can be modulated by prior experience. Additionally, our result suggests that vicarious freezing is not triggered by USVs per se and it influences back onto the behavior of the demonstrator that had elicited the vicarious freezing in witnesses, introducing a paradigm to study empathy
Full Text Available Objective: Haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis renal replacement treatment options are in clinical equipoise, although the cost of haemodialysis to the National Health Service is £16,411/patient/year greater than peritoneal dialysis. Treatment decision-making takes place during the pre-dialysis year when estimated glomerular filtration rate drops to between 15 and 30 mL/min/1.73 m2. Renal disease can be familial, and the majority of patients have considerable health service experience when they approach these treatment decisions. Factors affecting patient treatment decisions are currently unknown. The objective of this article is to explore data from a wider study in specific relation to the types of vicarious learning experiences reported by pre-dialysis patients. Methods: A qualitative study utilised unstructured interviews and grounded theory analysis during the participant’s pre-dialysis year. The interview cohort comprised 20 pre-dialysis participants between 24 and 80 years of age. Grounded theory design entailed thematic sampling and analysis, scrutinised by secondary coding and checked with participants. Participants were recruited from routine renal clinics at two local hospitals when their estimated glomerular filtration rate was between 15 and 30 mL/min/1.73 m2. Results: Vicarious learning that contributed to treatment decision-making fell into three main categories: planned vicarious leaning, unplanned vicarious learning and historical vicarious experiences. Conclusion: Exploration and acknowledgement of service users’ prior vicarious learning, by healthcare professionals, is important in understanding its potential influences on individuals’ treatment decision-making. This will enable healthcare professionals to challenge heuristic decisions based on limited information and to encourage analytic thought processes.
McCarthy, Kate; Sturt, Jackie; Adams, Ann
Haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis renal replacement treatment options are in clinical equipoise, although the cost of haemodialysis to the National Health Service is £16,411/patient/year greater than peritoneal dialysis. Treatment decision-making takes place during the pre-dialysis year when estimated glomerular filtration rate drops to between 15 and 30 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Renal disease can be familial, and the majority of patients have considerable health service experience when they approach these treatment decisions. Factors affecting patient treatment decisions are currently unknown. The objective of this article is to explore data from a wider study in specific relation to the types of vicarious learning experiences reported by pre-dialysis patients. A qualitative study utilised unstructured interviews and grounded theory analysis during the participant's pre-dialysis year. The interview cohort comprised 20 pre-dialysis participants between 24 and 80 years of age. Grounded theory design entailed thematic sampling and analysis, scrutinised by secondary coding and checked with participants. Participants were recruited from routine renal clinics at two local hospitals when their estimated glomerular filtration rate was between 15 and 30 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Vicarious learning that contributed to treatment decision-making fell into three main categories: planned vicarious leaning, unplanned vicarious learning and historical vicarious experiences. Exploration and acknowledgement of service users' prior vicarious learning, by healthcare professionals, is important in understanding its potential influences on individuals' treatment decision-making. This will enable healthcare professionals to challenge heuristic decisions based on limited information and to encourage analytic thought processes.
Full Text Available to estimate Top-Of-Atmosphere (TOA) spectral radiance. A vicarious calibration field campaign was executed in Argentina to support monitoring of the radiometric response of the multispectral imager aboard SumbandilaSat. Results obtained using two Radiative...
Lind, Majse; Thomsen, Dorthe Kirkegaard
The present study investigates functions of personal and vicarious life stories focusing on identity and empathy. Two-hundred-and-forty Danish high school students completed two life story questionnaires: One for their personal life story and one for a close other’s life story. In both questionna......The present study investigates functions of personal and vicarious life stories focusing on identity and empathy. Two-hundred-and-forty Danish high school students completed two life story questionnaires: One for their personal life story and one for a close other’s life story. In both...... questionnaires, they identified up to 10 chapters and self-rated the chapters on valence and valence of causal connections. In addition, they completed measures of identity disturbance and empathy. More positive personal life stories were related to lower identity disturbance and higher empathy. Vicarious life...... stories showed a similar pattern with respect to identity but surprisingly were unrelated to empathy. In addition, we found positive correlations between personal and vicarious life stories for number of chapters, chapter valence, and valence of causal connections. The study indicates that both personal...
Gollwitzer, M.; Skitka, L.J.; Wisneski, D.; Sjöström, D.; Liberman, P.; Nazir, S.J.; Bushman, B.J.
Three hypotheses were derived from research on vicarious revenge and tested in the context of the assassination of Osama bin Laden in 2011. In line with the notion that revenge aims at delivering a message (the "message hypothesis"), Study 1 shows that Americans' vengeful desires in the aftermath of
Esther H. Yesudas
Full Text Available Vicarious pain is defined as the observation of individuals in pain. There is growing neuroimaging evidence suggesting that the cingulate cortex plays a significant role in self-experienced pain processing. Yet, very few studies have directly tested the distinct functions of the cingulate cortex for vicarious pain. In this review, one EEG and eighteen neuroimaging studies reporting cingulate cortex activity during pain observation were discussed. The data indicate that there is overlapping neural activity in the cingulate cortex during self- and vicarious pain. Such activity may contribute to shared neural pain representations that permit inference of the affective state of individuals in pain, facilitating empathy. However, the exact location of neuronal populations in which activity overlaps or differs for self- and observed pain processing requires further confirmation. This review also discusses evidence suggesting differential functions of the cingulate cortex in cognitive, affective, and motor processing during empathy induction. While affective processing in the cingulate cortex during pain observation has been explored relatively more often, its attention and motor roles remain underresearched. Shedding light on the neural correlates of vicarious pain and corresponding empathy in healthy populations can provide neurobiological markers and intervention targets for empathic deficits found in various clinical disorders.
Using a case study approach, this quantitative and descriptive analysis explored the incidence and consequences of sexual violence, particularly rape, occurring among Nigerian university students' acquaintance. It discusses the concept of vicarious trauma as a form of post-traumatic stress response sometimes ...
Moulden, Heather M; Firestone, Philip
This article reviews the descriptive and empirical literature examining vicarious traumatization in therapists treating sexual offenders. Vicarious traumatization in sexual offender therapists is described, including an examination of the relationships between vicarious traumatization and client, therapist, and setting and therapy characteristics. Special attention is given to those unique factors that contribute to the development of vicarious traumatization in this group, as well as consideration of why therapists treating offenders or victims may differ in their experience and development of vicarious traumatization. Evidence from the research reviewed suggests that sexual offender therapists do experience symptoms of vicarious traumatization. Factors most strongly associated with the development of vicarious traumatization in sexual offender therapists include professional experience, treatment setting, and coping strategies employed by the therapists. Implications and recommendations for professionals and policymakers are discussed.
Shu, Jocelyn; Hassell, Samuel; Weber, Jochen; Ochsner, Kevin N; Mobbs, Dean
With depictions of others facing threats common in the media, the experience of vicarious anxiety may be prevalent in the general population. However, the phenomenon of vicarious anxiety-the experience of anxiety in response to observing others expressing anxiety-and the interpersonal mechanisms underlying it have not been fully investigated in prior research. In 4 studies, we investigate the role of empathy in experiencing vicarious anxiety, using film clips depicting target victims facing threats. In Studies 1 and 2, trait emotional empathy was associated with greater self-reported anxiety when observing target victims, and with perceiving greater anxiety to be experienced by the targets. Study 3 extended these findings by demonstrating that trait empathic concern-the tendency to feel concern and compassion for others-was associated with experiencing vicarious anxiety, whereas trait personal distress-the tendency to experience distress in stressful situations-was not. Study 4 manipulated state empathy to establish a causal relationship between empathy and experience of vicarious anxiety. Participants who took an empathic perspective when observing target victims, as compared to those who took an objective perspective using reappraisal-based strategies, reported experiencing greater anxiety, risk-aversion, and sleep disruption the following night. These results highlight the impact of one's social environment on experiencing anxiety, particularly for those who are highly empathic. In addition, these findings have implications for extending basic models of anxiety to incorporate interpersonal processes, understanding the role of empathy in social learning, and potential applications for therapeutic contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Sinclair, Helen A H; Hamill, Conal
It is widely documented that nurses experience work-related stress [Quine, L., 1998. Effects of stress in an NHS trust: a study. Nursing Standard 13 (3), 36-41; Charnley, E., 1999. Occupational stress in the newly qualified staff nurse. Nursing Standard 13 (29), 32-37; McGrath, A., Reid, N., Boore, J., 2003. Occupational stress in nursing. International Journal of Nursing Studies 40, 555-565; McVicar, A., 2003. Workplace stress in nursing: a literature review. Journal of Advanced Nursing 44 (6), 633-642; Bruneau, B., Ellison, G., 2004. Palliative care stress in a UK community hospital: evaluation of a stress-reduction programme. International Journal of Palliative Nursing 10 (6), 296-304; Jenkins, R., Elliott, P., 2004. Stressors, burnout and social support: nurses in acute mental health settings. Journal of Advanced Nursing 48 (6), 622-631], with cancer nursing being identified as a particularly stressful occupation [Hinds, P.S., Sanders, C.B., Srivastava, D.K., Hickey, S., Jayawardene, D., Milligan, M., Olsen, M.S., Puckett, P., Quargnenti, A., Randall, E.A., Tyc, V., 1998. Testing the stress-response sequence model in paediatric oncology nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing 28 (5), 1146-1157; Barnard, D., Street, A., Love, A.W., 2006. Relationships between stressors, work supports and burnout among cancer nurses. Cancer Nursing 29 (4), 338-345]. Terminologies used to capture this stress are burnout [Pines, A.M., and Aronson, E., 1988. Career Burnout: Causes and Cures. Free Press, New York], compassion stress [Figley, C.R., 1995. Compassion Fatigue. Brunner/Mazel, New York], emotional contagion [Miller, K.I., Stiff, J.B., Ellis, B.H., 1988. Communication and empathy as precursors to burnout among human service workers. Communication Monographs 55 (9), 336-341] or simply the cost of caring (Figley, 1995). However, in the mental health field such as psychology and counselling, there is terminology used to captivate this impact, vicarious traumatisation. Vicarious
Full Text Available The main hypotheses proposed to explain barrier formation separating populations and causing the differentiation of species in Amazonia during the course of geological history are based on different factors, as follow: (1 Changes in the distribution of land and sea or in the landscape due to tectonic movements or sea level fluctuations (Paleogeography hypothesis, (2 the barrier effect of Amazonian rivers (River hypothesis, (3 a combination of the barrier effect of broad rivers and vegetational changes in northern and southern Amazonia (River-refuge hypothesis, (4 the isolation of humid rainforest blocks near areas of surface relief in the periphery of Amazonia separated by dry forests, savannas and other intermediate vegetation types during dry climatic periods of the Tertiary and Quaternary (Refuge hypothesis, (5 changes in canopy-density due to climatic reversals (Canopy-density hypothesis (6 the isolation and speciation of animal populations in small montane habitat pockets around Amazonia due to climatic fluctuations without major vegetational changes (Museum hypothesis, (7 competitive species interactions and local species isolations in peripheral regions of Amazonia due to invasion and counterinvasion during cold/warm periods of the Pleistocene (Disturbance-vicariance hypothesis and (8 parapatric speciation across steep environmental gradients without separation of the respective populations (Gradient hypothesis. Several of these hypotheses probably are relevant to a different degree for the speciation processes in different faunal groups or during different geological periods. The basic paleogeography model refers mainly to faunal differentiation during the Tertiary and in combination with the Refuge hypothesis. Milankovitch‡ cycles leading to global main hypotheses proposed to explain barrier formation separating populations and causing the differentiation of species in Amazonia during the course of geological history are based on
Full Text Available The role of tertiary conformational changes associated to ligand binding was explored using the allosteric enzyme glucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcN6P deaminase from Escherichia coli (EcGNPDA as an experimental model. This is an enzyme of amino sugar catabolism that deaminates GlcN6P, giving fructose 6-phosphate and ammonia, and is allosterically activated by N-acetylglucosamine 6-phosphate (GlcNAc6P. We resorted to the nanoencapsulation of this enzyme in wet silica sol-gels for studying the role of intrasubunit local mobility in its allosteric activation under the suppression of quaternary transition. The gel-trapped enzyme lost its characteristic homotropic cooperativity while keeping its catalytic properties and the allosteric activation by GlcNAc6P. The nanoencapsulation keeps the enzyme in the T quaternary conformation, making possible the study of its allosteric activation under a condition that is not possible to attain in a soluble phase. The involved local transition was slowed down by nanoencapsulation, thus easing the fluorometric analysis of its relaxation kinetics, which revealed an induced-fit mechanism. The absence of cooperativity produced allosterically activated transitory states displaying velocity against substrate concentration curves with apparent negative cooperativity, due to the simultaneous presence of subunits with different substrate affinities. Reaction kinetics experiments performed at different tertiary conformational relaxation times also reveal the sequential nature of the allosteric activation. We assumed as a minimal model the existence of two tertiary states, t and r, of low and high affinity, respectively, for the substrate and the activator. By fitting the velocity-substrate curves as a linear combination of two hyperbolic functions with Kt and Kr as KM values, we obtained comparable values to those reported for the quaternary conformers in solution fitted to MWC model. These results are discussed in the
Full Text Available This paper applies philosopher Graham Harman's object-oriented theory of "vicarious causation" to an analysis of the multi-modal media phenomenon known as "Game of Thrones." Examining the manner in which George R.R. Martin's best-selling series of fantasy novels has been adapted into a board game, a video game, and a hit HBO television series, it uses the changes entailed by these processes to trace the contours of vicariously generative relations. In the course of the resulting analysis, it provides new suggestions concerning the eidetic dimensions of Harman's causal model, particularly with regard to causation in linear networks and in differing types of game systems.
JOHN R. VOIT; COLIN G. DRURY
As organizations become larger it becomes increasingly difficult to share lessons-learned across their disconnected units allowing individuals to learn vicariously from each other's experiences. This lesson-learned information is often unsolicited by the recipient group or individual and required an individual or group to react to the information to yield benefits for the organization. Data was collected using 39 interviews and 582 survey responses that proved the effects of information usefu...
Golkar, Armita; Tjaden, Cathelijn; Kindt, Merel
Previous studies have suggested that fear memories can be updated when recalled, a process referred to as reconsolidation. Given the beneficial effects of model-based safety learning (i.e. vicarious extinction) in preventing the recovery of short-term fear memory, we examined whether consolidated long-term fear memories could be updated with safety learning accomplished through vicarious extinction learning initiated within the reconsolidation time-window. We assessed this in a final sample of 19 participants that underwent a three-day within-subject fear-conditioning design, using fear-potentiated startle as our primary index of fear learning. On day 1, two fear-relevant stimuli (reinforced CSs) were paired with shock (US) and a third stimulus served as a control (CS). On day 2, one of the two previously reinforced stimuli (the reminded CS) was presented once in order to reactivate the fear memory 10 min before vicarious extinction training was initiated for all CSs. The recovery of the fear memory was tested 24 h later. Vicarious extinction training conducted within the reconsolidation time window specifically prevented the recovery of the reactivated fear memory (p = 0.03), while leaving fear-potentiated startle responses to the non-reactivated cue intact (p = 0.62). These findings are relevant to both basic and clinical research, suggesting that a safe, non-invasive model-based exposure technique has the potential to enhance the efficiency and durability of anxiolytic therapies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Halevi, Eytan; Idisis, Yael
This study comprises a first attempt to explain and predict vicarious traumatization among therapists by means of Bowen's Family Systems Theory (Bowen, 1978), especially with reference to the phenomenon "differentiation of self," a central feature of his theory. A sample of 134 individual and group therapists who work in public and private clinics completed a series of questionnaires that provided data regarding demographic information, differentiation of self, and a belief scale that measures the existence of vicarious trauma. The findings indicate a strong negative correlation between vicarious traumatization and differentiation of self. In addition, participant age and "being in therapy" were both found to correlate with differentiation of self and vicarious traumatization. These findings point to the importance of differentiation of self as a resilience factor protecting against vicarious trauma, and have the potential to contribute to the development of tools for efficiently and accurately assessing predisposition toward vicarious traumatization among therapists. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Masia, C L; Chase, P N
Beginning in the 1960s, social learning theorists argued that behavioral learning principles could not account for behavior acquired through observation. Such a viewpoint is still widely held today. This rejection of behavioral principles in explaining vicarious learning was based on three phenomena: (1) imitation that occurred without direct reinforcement of the observer's behavior; (2) imitation that occurred after a long delay following modeling; and (3) a greater probability of imitation of the model's reinforced behavior than of the model's nonreinforced or punished behavior. These observations convinced social learning theorists that cognitive variables were required to explain behavior. Such a viewpoint has progressed aggressively, as evidenced by the change in name from social learning theory to social cognitive theory, and has been accompanied by the inclusion of information-processing theory. Many criticisms of operant theory, however, have ignored the full range of behavioral concepts and principles that have been derived to account for complex behavior. This paper will discuss some problems with the social learning theory explanation of vicarious learning and provide an interpretation of vicarious learning from a contemporary behavior analytic viewpoint.
Devilly, Grant J; Wright, Renee; Varker, Tracey
The aim of the present study was to perform an assessment for secondary traumatic stress (STS), vicarious trauma (VT) and workplace burnout for Australian mental health professionals involved in clinical practice. Recruited directly by mail, randomly selected participants were invited to submit a questionnaire by post or online. Of the 480 participants contacted, 152 mental health professionals completed the questionnaire, which contained measures of STS, VT and burnout. Exposure to patients' traumatic material did not affect STS, VT or burnout, contradicting the theory of the originators of STS and VT. Rather, it was found that work-related stressors best predicted therapist distress. These findings have significant implications for the direction of research and theory development in traumatic stress studies, calling into question the existence of secondary trauma-related phenomena and enterprises aimed at treating the consultants.
Deng, Tao; Nie, Ze-Long; Drew, Bryan T; Volis, Sergei; Kim, Changkyun; Xiang, Chun-Lei; Zhang, Jian-Wen; Wang, Yue-Hua; Sun, Hang
Despite considerable progress, many details regarding the evolution of the Arcto-Tertiary flora, including the timing, direction, and relative importance of migration routes in the evolution of woody and herbaceous taxa of the Northern Hemisphere, remain poorly understood. Meehania (Lamiaceae) comprises seven species and five subspecies of annual or perennial herbs, and is one of the few Lamiaceae genera known to have an exclusively disjunct distribution between eastern Asia and eastern North America. We analyzed the phylogeny and biogeographical history of Meehania to explore how the Arcto-Tertiary biogeographic hypothesis and two possible migration routes explain the disjunct distribution of Northern Hemisphere herbaceous plants. Parsimony and Bayesian inference were used for phylogenetic analyses based on five plastid sequences (rbcL, rps16, rpl32-trnH, psbA-trnH, and trnL-F) and two nuclear (ITS and ETS) gene regions. Divergence times and biogeographic inferences were performed using Bayesian methods as implemented in BEAST and S-DIVA, respectively. Analyses including 11 of the 12 known Meehania taxa revealed incongruence between the chloroplast and nuclear trees, particularly in the positions of Glechoma and Meehania cordata, possibly indicating allopolyploidy with chloroplast capture in the late Miocene. Based on nrDNA, Meehania is monophyletic, and the North American species M. cordata is sister to a clade containing the eastern Asian species. The divergence time between the North American M. cordata and the eastern Asian species occurred about 9.81 Mya according to the Bayesian relaxed clock methods applied to the combined nuclear data. Biogeographic analyses suggest a primary role of the Arcto-Tertiary flora in the study taxa distribution, with a northeast Asian origin of Meehania. Our results suggest an Arcto-Tertiary origin of Meehania, with its present distribution most probably being a result of vicariance and southward migrations of populations during
Krishnan, Anjali; Woo, Choong-Wan; Chang, Luke J; Ruzic, Luka; Gu, Xiaosi; López-Solà, Marina; Jackson, Philip L; Pujol, Jesús; Fan, Jin; Wager, Tor D
.... 'Shared experience' theories propose common brain representations for somatic and vicarious pain, but other evidence suggests that specialized circuits are required to experience others' suffering...
Beck, Cheryl Tatano; Eaton, Carrie Morgan; Gable, Robert K
To investigate vicarious posttraumatic growth in labor and delivery nurses who cared for women during traumatic births. A convergent parallel mixed-methods design was used. The sample consisted of 467 labor and delivery nurses who completed the quantitative portion and 295 (63%) who completed the qualitative portion of this mixed-methods study via the Internet. The Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses sent out e-mails to members who were labor and delivery nurses with a link to the electronic survey. Labor and delivery nurses completed the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory and the Core Beliefs Inventory in the quantitative portion. For the qualitative portion, the nurses were asked to describe their experiences of any positive changes in their beliefs or life as a result of their care for women during traumatic births. Labor and delivery nurses who cared for women during traumatic births reported a moderate amount of vicarious posttraumatic growth as indicated by their Posttraumatic Growth Inventory scores. Appreciation of Life was the dimension of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory that reflected the highest growth, followed by Relating to Others, Personal Strength, Spiritual Change, and New Possibilities. In the qualitative findings, Relating to Others was also the dimension of posttraumatic growth most frequently described. We compared our results with those of previous studies in which researchers assessed vicarious posttraumatic growth in clinicians, and we found that labor and delivery nurses who cared for women during traumatic births experienced growth levels that were scored between the lowest and highest reported levels of therapists and social workers. Nurses need to be aware of the potential to experience this growth despite the significant stress and unpredictability of the labor and delivery environment, which could decrease burnout and improve retention rates. Copyright © 2016 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health
Barsi, Julia A.; Shott, John R.; Raqueno, Nina G.; Markham, Brian L.; Radocinski, Robert G.
Launched in February 2013, the Landsat-8 carries on-board the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS), a two-band thermal pushbroom imager, to maintain the thermal imaging capability of the Landsat program. The TIRS bands are centered at roughly 10.9 and 12 micrometers (Bands 10 and 11 respectively). They have 100 m spatial resolution and image coincidently with the Operational Land Imager (OLI), also on-board Landsat-8. The TIRS instrument has an internal calibration system consisting of a variable temperature blackbody and a special viewport with which it can see deep space; a two point calibration can be performed twice an orbit. Immediately after launch, a rigorous vicarious calibration program was started to validate the absolute calibration of the system. The two vicarious calibration teams, NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT), both make use of buoys deployed on large water bodies as the primary monitoring technique. RIT took advantage of cross-calibration opportunity soon after launch when Landsat-8 and Landsat-7 were imaging the same targets within a few minutes of each other to perform a validation of the absolute calibration. Terra MODIS is also being used for regular monitoring of the TIRS absolute calibration. The buoy initial results showed a large error in both bands, 0.29 and 0.51 W/sq m·sr·micrometers or -2.1 K and -4.4 K at 300 K in Band 10 and 11 respectively, where TIRS data was too hot. A calibration update was recommended for both bands to correct for a bias error and was implemented on 3 February 2014 in the USGS/EROS processing system, but the residual variability is still larger than desired for both bands (0.12 and 0.2 W/sq m·sr·micrometers or 0.87 and 1.67 K at 300 K). Additional work has uncovered the source of the calibration error: out-of-field stray light. While analysis continues to characterize the stray light contribution, the vicarious calibration work proceeds. The additional data have
Julia A. Barsi
Full Text Available Launched in February 2013, the Landsat-8 carries on-board the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS, a two-band thermal pushbroom imager, to maintain the thermal imaging capability of the Landsat program. The TIRS bands are centered at roughly 10.9 and 12 μm (Bands 10 and 11 respectively. They have 100 m spatial resolution and image coincidently with the Operational Land Imager (OLI, also on-board Landsat-8. The TIRS instrument has an internal calibration system consisting of a variable temperature blackbody and a special viewport with which it can see deep space; a two point calibration can be performed twice an orbit. Immediately after launch, a rigorous vicarious calibration program was started to validate the absolute calibration of the system. The two vicarious calibration teams, NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL and the Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT, both make use of buoys deployed on large water bodies as the primary monitoring technique. RIT took advantage of cross-calibration opportunity soon after launch when Landsat-8 and Landsat-7 were imaging the same targets within a few minutes of each other to perform a validation of the absolute calibration. Terra MODIS is also being used for regular monitoring of the TIRS absolute calibration. The buoy initial results showed a large error in both bands, 0.29 and 0.51 W/m2·sr·μm or −2.1 K and −4.4 K at 300 K in Band 10 and 11 respectively, where TIRS data was too hot. A calibration update was recommended for both bands to correct for a bias error and was implemented on 3 February 2014 in the USGS/EROS processing system, but the residual variability is still larger than desired for both bands (0.12 and 0.2 W/m2·sr·μm or 0.87 and 1.67 K at 300 K. Additional work has uncovered the source of the calibration error: out-of-field stray light. While analysis continues to characterize the stray light contribution, the vicarious calibration work proceeds. The additional data have not changed
The American Academy of Pediatrics and World Health Organization recommend responsive feeding (RF) to promote healthy eating behaviors in early childhood. This project developed and tested a vicarious learning video to teach parents RF practices. A RF vicarious learning video was developed using com...
Karremans, J.C.T.M.; Stroebe, W.; Claus, J.
With his claim to have increased sales of Coca Cola and popcorn in a movie theatre through subliminal messages flashed on the screen, James Vicary raised the possibility of subliminal advertising. Nobody has ever replicated Vicary's findings and his study was a hoax. This article reports two
This research systematically examines the theme of vicarious substitution in Shūsaku Endō’s literary work. It aims at enriching the traditional concepts of vicarious substitution. This study results in the following typology of vicarious substituion in Endo's literature: Christ-figures, including
Four groups with 16 observers each participated in a differential, vicarious conditioning experiment with skin conductance responses as the dependent variable. The information available to the observer about the model's unconditioned stimulus and response was varied in a 2 X 2 factorial design. Results clearly showed that information about the model's unconditioned stimulus (a high or low dB level) was not necessary for vicarious instigation, but that information about the unconditioned response (a high or low emotional aversiveness) was necessary. Data for conditioning of responses showed almost identical patterns to those for vicarious instigation. To explain the results, a distinction between factors necessary for the development and elicitation of vicariously instigated responses was introduced, and the effectiveness of information about the model's response on the elicitation of vicariously instigated responses was considered in terms of an expansion of Bandura's social learning theory.
Taylor, Julie; Bradbury-Jones, Caroline; Breckenridge, Jenna P; Jones, Christine; Herber, Oliver Rudolf
To provide a snapshot of how vicarious trauma is considered within the published nursing research literature. Vicarious trauma (secondary traumatic stress) has been the focus of attention in nursing practice for many years. The most pertinent areas to invoke vicarious trauma in research have been suggested as abuse/violence and death/dying. What is not known is how researchers account for the risks of vicarious trauma in research. Focused mapping review and synthesis. Empirical studies meeting criteria for abuse/violence or death/dying in relevant Scopus ranked top nursing journals (n = 6) January 2009 to December 2014. Relevant papers were scrutinised for the extent to which researchers discussed the risk of vicarious trauma. Aspects of the studies were mapped systematically to a pre-defined template, allowing patterns and gaps in authors' reporting to be determined. These were synthesised into a coherent profile of current reporting practices and from this, a new conceptualisation seeking to anticipate and address the risk of vicarious trauma was developed. Two thousand five hundred and three papers were published during the review period, of which 104 met the inclusion criteria. Studies were distributed evenly by method (52 qualitative; 51 quantitative; one mixed methods) and by focus (54 abuse/violence; 50 death/dying). The majority of studies (98) were carried out in adult populations. Only two papers reported on vicarious trauma. The conceptualisation of vicarious trauma takes account of both sensitivity of the substantive data collected, and closeness of those involved with the research. This might assist researchers in designing ethical and protective research and foreground the importance of managing risks of vicarious trauma. Vicarious trauma is not well considered in research into clinically important topics. Our proposed framework allows for consideration of these so that precautionary measures can be put in place to minimise harm to staff. © 2016
Thompson, Mindi N; Nitzarim, Rachel S; Her, Pa; Dahling, Jason J
The experiences of vicarious unemployment (VU) among 17 undergraduate student participants who had a primary caregiver who was involuntarily unemployed were explored using grounded theory (Charmaz, 2006; Glaser & Strauss, 1967). Data from semistructured interviews with 15 women and 2 men revealed the nuanced nature of experiences with unemployment among those who experience it vicariously. Struggles related to increased family stress and experiences with stigma were common across participants. As participants reflected upon these challenges, they both lamented the costs associated with the struggles and expressed appreciation for the lessons that they have learned. They emerged from their VU experiences with increased financial and job market awareness, which informed their hope for a life that is free from the struggles endured in their families. Participants expressed confidence in their ability to cultivate financial security for their own families, stable employment, and opportunities to pursue work that will allow them to give back to others. Implications for counseling and directions for future research are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
ORIGINAL ARTICLES c(~rvical spine injury outcome- a review of 101 cases treated in a tertiary referral unit. K Friielingsdorf, R N Dunn. Cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating event for the patient and family. It has a huge impact on society because of the intensive resources required to manage the patient in both.
Giummarra, Melita J; Fitzgibbon, Bernadette M
Ward and Bannisy's proposed conceptual framework-Threshold Theory and Self-Other Theory-for mirror touch synesthesia are welcomed as an explanation of mechanisms giving rise to innocuous vicarious phenomena. Herein we propose that these vicarious, or synesthetic, experiences should be considered along a spectrum of experiences, from innocuous through to noxious or threatening sensations. In particular, we would like to see these theories considered within a broader framework to explain the multitude of vicarious experiences that seem to share fundamental neurophysiological and trait characteristics.
Jenkins, Sharon Rae; Baird, Stephanie
Vicarious trauma (VT) and secondary traumatic stress (STS) or compassion fatigue both describe effects of working with traumatized persons on therapists. Despite conceptual similarities, their emphases differ: cognitive schemas vs. posttraumatic symptoms and burnout, respectively. The TSI Belief Scale (TSI-BSL) measures VT; the Compassion Fatigue Self-Test (CFST) for Psychotherapists measures STS. Neither has substantial psychometric evidence yet, nor has their association been studied. Results for 99 sexual assault and domestic violence counselors show concurrent validity between TSI-BSL and CFST, moderate convergence with burnout but useful discrimination, and strong convergence with general distress, but adequate independent shared variance. Counselors with interpersonal trauma histories scored higher on CFST, but not TSI-BSL or burnout, consistent with the CFST's emphasis on trauma symptomatology.
Bett, David; Murdoch, Lauren H; Wood, Emma R; Dudchenko, Paul A
In decision-making, an immediate reward is usually preferred to a delayed reward, even if the latter is larger. We tested whether the hippocampus is necessary for this form of temporal discounting, and for vicarious trial-and-error at the decision point. Rats were trained on a recently developed, adjustable delay-discounting task (Papale et al. (2012) Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 12:513-526), which featured a choice between a small, nearly immediate reward, and a larger, delayed reward. Rats then received either hippocampus or sham lesions. Animals with hippocampus lesions adjusted the delay for the larger reward to a level similar to that of sham-lesioned animals, suggesting a similar valuation capacity. However, the hippocampus lesion group spent significantly longer investigating the small and large rewards in the first part of the sessions, and were less sensitive to changes in the amount of reward in the large reward maze arm. Both sham- and hippocampus-lesioned rats showed a greater amount of vicarious trial-and-error on trials in which the delay was adjusted. In a nonadjusting version of the delay discounting task, animals with hippocampus lesions showed more variability in their preference for a larger reward that was delayed by 10 s compared with sham-lesioned animals. To verify the lesion behaviorally, rat were subsequently trained on a water maze task, and rats with hippocampus lesions were significantly impaired compared with sham-lesioned animals. The findings on the delay discounting tasks suggest that damage to the hippocampus may impair the detection of reward magnitude. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Di Caro, Giuseppe; Marchesi, Federica
Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes influence colorectal cancer progression. We have recently documented that tertiary lymphoid tissue in the colorectal cancer microenvironment orchestrates lymphocyte infiltration and that tertiary lymphoid tissue and lymphocytes cooperate in a coordinated antitumor immune response to improve patient outcome. Thus, tertiary lymphoid tissue represents a potential target in the design of tailored immune-based therapeutic approaches. PMID:25083321
Golkar, Armita; Selbing, Ida; Flygare, Oskar; Ohman, Arne; Olsson, Andreas
Information about what is dangerous and safe in the environment is often transferred from other individuals through social forms of learning, such as observation. Past research has focused on the observational, or vicarious, acquisition of fears, but little is known about how social information can promote safety learning. To address this issue, we studied the effects of vicarious-extinction learning on the recovery of conditioned fear. Compared with a standard extinction procedure, vicarious extinction promoted better extinction and effectively blocked the return of previously learned fear. We confirmed that these effects could not be attributed to the presence of a learning model per se but were specifically driven by the model's experience of safety. Our results confirm that vicarious and direct emotional learning share important characteristics but that social-safety information promotes superior down-regulation of learned fear. These findings have implications for emotional learning, social-affective processes, and clinical practice.
Silver, Robert J.; Conyne, Robert K.
Tests the hypothesis that if direct small group experience was shown to be relatively more effective than vicarious experience in heightening attraction, then a significant assumption of T-group theory would receive support. Results support the hypothesis. (Author)
Bartish, Igor; Antonelli, A.; Richardson, J. E.; Swenson, U.
Roč. 38, č. 1 (2011), s. 177-190 ISSN 0305-0270 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : molecular dating * Neotropics * vicariance Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 4.544, year: 2011
Dupré, Kathryne E; Dawe, Kimberly-Anne; Barling, Julian
While there is a large body of research on the effects of being a direct target of workplace aggression, there is far less research on the vicarious experience of aggression at work, despite the fact that more people experience workplace aggression vicariously (i.e., observe it or hear about it) than they do directly. In this study, we develop and test a model of the effects of direct and vicarious exposure to aggression that is directed at employees by customers. Structural equation modeling provided support for the proposed model, in which direct and vicarious workplace aggression influences the perceived risk of future workplace aggression, which in turn affects organizational attachment (affective commitment and turnover intentions) and individual well-being (psychological and physical). Conceptual research and policy implications are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.
Mazziotta, Agostino; Mummendey, Amélie; Stephen C Wright
Abstract This contribution examines the role of vicarious contact (observing in-group members having successful cross-group contact) as a tool to improve intergroup relations. Expanding previous research on indirect intergroup contact, vicarious contact (1) integrates and applies concepts of social-cognitive theory (Bandura, 1986) to the field of intergroup contact research; (2) broadens the study of indirect contact effects to the observation of successful cross-group interactions...
Mervin W. Nielson
Full Text Available The zoogeographical distribution of 42 cicadellid subfamilies and their assigned tribes and genera is compiled with distributional maps and proposed dispersal pathways of genera that are shared interzoogeographically. Possible origin of the subfamilies and tribes is proposed in an ancestral context from which the more modern extant groups evolved whereas origin of genera is in a more modern context. Notwithstanding their complex biogeography, the distributional data of the higher groups indicate that all of the cosmopolitan and near cosmopolitan subfamilies arose during early Cretaceous or possibly the late Jurassic period (140-116 m.y.a. when continental drift was in its early stages. Nearly all of the New World and some Old World subfamilies are considered of more recent origin (late Cretaceous-Tertiary. Ninety percent of the known genera (2,126 are endemic to their respective zoogeographical region and subregion, thus indicating relatively high host specificity and low rate of dispersal. The majority (76% of known extant genera are pantropical in origin, suggesting early or possible Gondwanaland origin of their ancestors. Dispersal pathways of genera shared by more than one zoogeographical region were generally south to north (Neotropical/Nearctic, Oriental/Palaearctic or west to east (Palaearctic/Nearctic, Oriental/Australian, from regions of high diversity to regions of low diversity and from warmer climates to cooler climates. The most diverse and richest leafhopper fauna are present in the Neotropical and Ethiopian regions although taxal affinities between them are poorest. The most depauperate fauna are in the Nearctic region and in Australia, reflecting the impact of isolating and ecological factors on distribution and radiation. Ecological barriers were more evident between the Ethiopian and Oriental fauna than between any other zoogeographical combination. Taxal affinities appeared to be correlated with close continental proximities
Morelli, Sylvia A; Sacchet, Matthew D; Zaki, Jamil
Individuals experience reward not only when directly receiving positive outcomes (e.g., food or money), but also when observing others receive such outcomes. This latter phenomenon, known as vicarious reward, is a perennial topic of interest among psychologists and economists. More recently, neuroscientists have begun exploring the neuroanatomy underlying vicarious reward. Here we present a quantitative whole-brain meta-analysis of this emerging literature. We identified 25 functional neuroimaging studies that included contrasts between vicarious reward and a neutral control, and subjected these contrasts to an activation likelihood estimate (ALE) meta-analysis. This analysis revealed a consistent pattern of activation across studies, spanning structures typically associated with the computation of value (especially ventromedial prefrontal cortex) and mentalizing (including dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and superior temporal sulcus). We further quantitatively compared this activation pattern to activation foci from a previous meta-analysis of personal reward. Conjunction analyses yielded overlapping VMPFC activity in response to personal and vicarious reward. Contrast analyses identified preferential engagement of the nucleus accumbens in response to personal as compared to vicarious reward, and in mentalizing-related structures in response to vicarious as compared to personal reward. These data shed light on the common and unique components of the reward that individuals experience directly and through their social connections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lockwood, Patricia L
Empathy, the ability to vicariously experience and to understand the affect of other people, is fundamental for successful social-cognitive ability and behaviour. Empathy is thought to be a critical facilitator of prosocial behaviour and is disrupted in a number of psychiatric and neurological disorders. Research has begun to uncover the neural basis of such 'vicarious experience', which has been studied as a proxy measure of empathy. Together, these studies have identified portions of the insula and anterior cingulate cortex as critically involved. A key debate is whether overlapping or non-overlapping brain areas respond to personal and vicarious experience. This review will highlight emerging evidence for both types of brain response. Importantly, animal models have suggested that there are central divisions between the anterior cingulate gyrus and anterior cingulate sulcus that may be crucial for understanding social behaviour. Attention to this specific anatomy of vicarious processing could therefore help shed light on the functional profile of empathy. Studies in individuals with psychopathy and autism spectrum disorders have found that vicarious experience is atypical. However, the precise nature of these atypicalities is mixed. Understanding the mechanisms of vicarious experience can enhance our knowledge of the neural basis of empathy and, ultimately, help those with disorders of social cognition and behaviour. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Young, Kurtis A; Gandevia, Simon C; Giummarra, Melita J
Up to a third of the population experiences pain when seeing another in pain. The mechanisms underlying such vicarious sensory experiences are thought to reflect hyperactive mirror systems (threshold theory) or dysfunctional processing and representation of oneself versus others (self/other theory). This study investigated whether the tendency to experience vicarious pain corresponds to disinhibited physiological reactivity toward other's emotions, and/or greater empathic mimicry of other's physiological state (respiratory behavior) during fear, pain, and positive emotion. Fifty healthy individuals aged 18-55 years (23 vicarious pain responders) completed empathy- and anxiety-related questionnaires, and a film task. Respiration was measured noninvasively with piezoelectric respiration belts while participants viewed emotional film clips depicting three emotions (fear/pain/positive) interspersed with neutral clips. The emotional stimuli depicted scenes in which the characters showed increases or decreases in respiration. The results suggest that vicarious pain responders do not mimic emotional respiratory behavior. Rather, vicarious pain responders had a significantly slower respiration rate for all emotional stimuli (MDiff = 1.40 respiratory cycles, SE = .68), compared to nonresponders. However, this was associated with heightened trait anxiety. The findings suggest vicarious pain is associated with acute distress, rather than empathic mimicry of the emotional states of another. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.
/um for all sUAS flights. Differences in estimated temperatures between original thermal image and the vicarious calibration procedure reported here were estimated from −5 °C to 10 °C for early morning, and from 0 to 20 °C for Landsat overpass and mid-afternoon times.
UAS flights. Differences in estimated temperatures between original thermal image and the vicarious calibration procedure reported here were estimated from -5 °C to 10 °C for early morning, and from 0 to 20 °C for Landsat overpass and mid-afternoon times.
Engineering reviews. Quality of electric power supply. Guide of overvoltages desensitization in industrial and tertiary environment. Part 1: origin and effects of overvoltages; Les cahiers de l`ingenierie. Qualite de l`alimentation electrique. Guide de desensibilisation aux surtensions en milieu industriel et tertiaire. 1. partie: origine et effets des surtensions
Schmitt, A.; Deflandre, T.
The aim of this guide is to describe the various overvoltage phenomena that can occur on power distribution and users network and to propose suitable solutions to these problems. The study of several cases taken in the industrial and tertiary sectors illustrates the description of these phenomena. The following topics are described successively: the definitions relative to overvoltages (classification, consequences, modes, electromagnetic coupling, harmonic deformation of the voltage wave, choice of low voltage materials for users), the permanent and temporary low frequency overvoltages (adjustment of AC HV/LV transformers, different neutral regimes, single-phase ground defect, electric resonance, ferro-resonance), the overvoltages due to maneuvering, the coupling of internal or external user`s network origin, the overvoltages and power electronics, the harmonic voltages (effects, impedance, standards), the electrostatic discharges, the effects of lightning etc.. (J.S.) 9 refs.
Kochi, Camila; Liu, Hesong; Zaidi, Safiyya; Atrooz, Fatin; Dantoin, Phoebe; Salim, Samina
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a serious psychological condition, which can develop both from physically experiencing and also from witnessing traumatic events. There is evidence that physical exercise can have a positive impact on the symptoms of PTSD. Relevant to this, in our previous pre-clinical work, beneficial effects of treadmill exercise were reported on PTSD-like behaviors in a social defeat paradigm, a rat model of direct physical trauma. However, the role of exercise on vicariously acquired PTSD-like phenotype was not examined. In this study, we utilized a rodent PTSD model, which mimics both the physical as well as the witness experience of trauma, and examined the impact of moderate treadmill exercise in mitigating vicariously acquired PTSD-like behaviors in rats. Our PTSD model is a modified social defeat paradigm, which involves aggressive encounters between a large Long-Evans male rat (resident) and a smaller Sprague-Dawley male rat (intruder), resulting in intruder social defeat. The cage mate of the intruder is positioned to witness intruder defeat. Rats were grouped as control (CON), social defeat (SD), exercise (EX), trauma witness (TW), and exercise prior to trauma witness (EX-TW). After acclimatization for 7days, the exercised groups were subjected to a daily 30-min treadmill exercise regimen for 14days. On day 21, the SD group was exposed for 7days of social defeat, while the TW groups witnessed social defeat. On days 28-34, behavioral and cognitive tests including short-term (STM) and long-term (LTM) memory function, anxiety- and depression-like behaviors were conducted. TW and SD rats demonstrated the highest levels of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors, while EX-TW rats did not exhibit anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. TW and SD rats showed no impairments in STM. However, TW and SD rats showed impairments in LTM, and exercise rescued LTM impairments in EX-TW rats. This study demonstrates that rats subjected to direct
Nimmo, Arohaina; Huggard, Peter
Compassion fatigue, vicarious traumatisation and secondary traumatic stress, are all terms used to describe the potential emotional impact on health professionals of working with traumatised patients and clients...
Goldstein, Noah J; Cialdini, Robert B
Self-perception theory posits that people sometimes infer their own attributes by observing their freely chosen actions. The authors hypothesized that in addition, people sometimes infer their own attributes by observing the freely chosen actions of others with whom they feel a sense of merged identity--almost as if they had observed themselves performing the acts. Before observing an actor's behavior, participants were led to feel a sense of merged identity with the actor through perspective-taking instructions (Study 1) or through feedback indicating that their brainwave patterns overlapped substantially with those of the actor (Studies 2-4). As predicted, participants incorporated attributes relevant to an actor's behavior into their own self-concepts, but only when they were led to feel a sense of merged identity with the actor and only when the actor's behavior seemed freely chosen. These changes in relevant self-perceptions led participants to change their own behaviors accordingly. Implications of these vicarious self-perception processes for conformity, perspective-taking, and the long-term development of the self-concept are discussed. 2007 APA, all rights reserved
Wondra, Joshua D; Ellsworth, Phoebe C
Empathy, feeling what others feel, is regarded as a special phenomenon that is separate from other emotional experiences. Emotion theories say little about feeling emotions for others and empathy theories say little about how feeling emotions for others relates to normal firsthand emotional experience. Current empathy theories focus on how we feel emotions for others who feel the same thing, but not how we feel emotions for others that they do not feel, such as feeling angry for someone who is sad or feeling embarrassed for someone who is self-assured. We propose an appraisal theory of vicarious emotional experiences, including empathy, based on appraisal theories of emotion. According to this theory, emotions for others are based on how we evaluate their situations, just as firsthand emotions are based on how we evaluate our own situations. We discuss how this framework can predict empathic emotion matching and also the experience of emotions for others that do not match what they feel. The theory treats empathy as a normal part of emotional experience. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Harrison, Richard L; Westwood, Marvin J
This qualitative study identified protective practices that mitigate risks of vicarious traumatization (VT) among mental health therapists. The sample included six peer-nominated master therapists, who responded to the question, "How do you manage to sustain your personal and professional well-being, given the challenges of your work with seriously traumatized clients?" Data analysis was based upon Lieblich, Tuval-Mashiach, and Zilber's (1998) typology of narrative analysis. Findings included nine major themes salient across clinicians' narratives of protective practices: countering isolation (in professional, personal and spiritual realms); developing mindful self-awareness; consciously expanding perspective to embrace complexity; active optimism; holistic self-care; maintaining clear boundaries; exquisite empathy; professional satisfaction; and creating meaning. Findings confirm and extend previous recommendations for ameliorating VT and underscore the ethical responsibility shared by employers, educators, professional bodies, and individual practitioners to address this serious problem. The novel finding that empathic engagement with traumatized clients appeared to be protective challenges previous conceptualizations of VT and points to exciting new directions for research, theory, training, and practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).
Askew, Chris; Reynolds, Gemma; Fielding-Smith, Sarah; Field, Andy P
One of the challenges to conditioning models of fear acquisition is to explain how different individuals can experience similar learning events and only some of them subsequently develop fear. Understanding factors moderating the impact of learning events on fear acquisition is key to understanding the etiology and prevention of fear in childhood. This study investigates these moderators in the context of vicarious (observational) learning. Two experiments tested predictions that the acquisition or inhibition of fear via vicarious learning is driven by associative learning mechanisms similar to direct conditioning. In Experiment 1, 3 groups of children aged 7 to 9 years received 1 of 3 inhibitive information interventions-psychoeducation, factual information, or no information (control)-prior to taking part in a vicarious fear learning procedure. In Experiment 2, 3 groups of children aged 7 to 10 years received 1 of 3 observational learning interventions-positive modeling (immunization), observational familiarity (latent inhibition), or no prevention (control)-before vicarious fear learning. Results indicated that observationally delivered manipulations inhibited vicarious fear learning, while preventions presented via written information did not. These findings confirm that vicarious learning shares some of the characteristics of direct conditioning and can explain why not all individuals will develop fear following a vicarious learning event. They also suggest that the modality of inhibitive learning is important and should match the fear learning pathway for increased chances of inhibition. Finally, the results demonstrate that positive modeling is likely to be a particularly effective method for preventing fear-related observational learning in children. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Terrighena, Esslin L; Lu, Ge; Yuen, Wai Ping; Lee, Tatia Mc; Keuper, Kati
The observation of pain in others may enhance or reduce self-pain, yet the boundary conditions and factors that determine the direction of such effects are poorly understood. The current study set out to show that visual stimulus awareness plays a crucial role in determining whether vicarious pain primarily activates behavioral defense systems that enhance pain sensitivity and stimulate withdrawal or appetitive systems that attenuate pain sensitivity and stimulate approach. We employed a mixed factorial design with the between-subject factors exposure time (subliminal vs optimal) and vicarious pain (pain vs no pain images), and the within-subject factor session (baseline vs trial) to investigate how visual awareness of vicarious pain images affects subsequent self-pain in the cold-pressor test. Self-pain tolerance, intensity and unpleasantness were evaluated in a sample of 77 healthy participants. Results revealed significant interactions of exposure time and vicarious pain in all three dependent measures. In the presence of visual awareness (optimal condition), vicarious pain compared to no-pain elicited overall enhanced self-pain sensitivity, indexed by reduced pain tolerance and enhanced ratings of pain intensity and unpleasantness. Conversely, in the absence of visual awareness (subliminal condition), vicarious pain evoked decreased self-pain intensity and unpleasantness while pain tolerance remained unaffected. These findings suggest that the activation of defense mechanisms by vicarious pain depends on relatively elaborate cognitive processes, while - strikingly - the appetitive system is activated in highly automatic manner independent from stimulus awareness. Such mechanisms may have evolved to facilitate empathic, protective approach responses toward suffering individuals, ensuring survival of the protective social group.
Nazarewicz, Julia; Verdejo-Garcia, Antonio; Giummarra, Melita J
This study investigated the psychophysiological correlates of the subjective experience of vicarious pain; that is, a spontaneous experience of pain when seeing another in pain. Forty-nine healthy, otherwise pain-free individuals aged 18-55 years completed empathy and anxiety questionnaires and were classified into three groups: vicarious responders with high anxiety (n = 11), vicarious responders with low anxiety (n = 22), and nonresponders (n = 16). Electrophysiological recordings of heart rate variability (HRV) during paced breathing and cognitive stress (serial sevens task) were completed before participants viewed short videos of athletes in states of pain or happiness, taken from Australian League Football matches. Change in beats per minute, relative to neutral scenes, were analyzed for the first 4 s after onset of the painful or happy event. Anxious responders had lower HF-HRV than both other groups, implicating poor parasympathetic regulation specific to states of stress. Both vicarious responder groups had elevated HR at the event onset, regardless of valence. After viewing painful injuries, nonanxious vicarious responders showed sustained HR over time, anxious responders showed HR acceleration with a peak at 3 s after the injury onset, and nonresponders showed a pattern of marked HR deceleration. These findings suggest that vicarious pain in anxious responders is associated with poorly regulated sympathetic arousal via insufficient inhibitory parasympathetic activity, whereas nonanxious persons show sustained arousal. Clearly, multiple mechanisms in the central and peripheral nervous system must play a role in vicarious pain states, and the different manifestations are likely to lead to very different behavioral consequences. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.
Terrighena, Esslin L; Lu, Ge; Yuen, Wai Ping; Lee, Tatia MC; Keuper, Kati
The observation of pain in others may enhance or reduce self-pain, yet the boundary conditions and factors that determine the direction of such effects are poorly understood. The current study set out to show that visual stimulus awareness plays a crucial role in determining whether vicarious pain primarily activates behavioral defense systems that enhance pain sensitivity and stimulate withdrawal or appetitive systems that attenuate pain sensitivity and stimulate approach. We employed a mixed factorial design with the between-subject factors exposure time (subliminal vs optimal) and vicarious pain (pain vs no pain images), and the within-subject factor session (baseline vs trial) to investigate how visual awareness of vicarious pain images affects subsequent self-pain in the cold-pressor test. Self-pain tolerance, intensity and unpleasantness were evaluated in a sample of 77 healthy participants. Results revealed significant interactions of exposure time and vicarious pain in all three dependent measures. In the presence of visual awareness (optimal condition), vicarious pain compared to no-pain elicited overall enhanced self-pain sensitivity, indexed by reduced pain tolerance and enhanced ratings of pain intensity and unpleasantness. Conversely, in the absence of visual awareness (subliminal condition), vicarious pain evoked decreased self-pain intensity and unpleasantness while pain tolerance remained unaffected. These findings suggest that the activation of defense mechanisms by vicarious pain depends on relatively elaborate cognitive processes, while – strikingly – the appetitive system is activated in highly automatic manner independent from stimulus awareness. Such mechanisms may have evolved to facilitate empathic, protective approach responses toward suffering individuals, ensuring survival of the protective social group. PMID:28831270
Reynolds, Gemma; Field, Andy P; Askew, Chris
Vicarious fear learning refers to the acquisition of fear via observation of the fearful responses of others. The present study aims to extend current knowledge by exploring whether second-order vicarious fear learning can be demonstrated in children. That is, whether vicariously learnt fear responses for one stimulus can be elicited in a second stimulus associated with that initial stimulus. Results demonstrated that children's (5-11 years) fear responses for marsupials and caterpillars increased when they were seen with fearful faces compared to no faces. Additionally, the results indicated a second-order effect in which fear-related learning occurred for other animals seen together with the fear-paired animal, even though the animals were never observed with fearful faces themselves. Overall, the findings indicate that for children in this age group vicariously learnt fear-related responses for one stimulus can subsequently be observed for a second stimulus without it being experienced in a fear-related vicarious learning event. These findings may help to explain why some individuals do not recall involvement of a traumatic learning episode in the development of their fear of a specific stimulus.
Kubiak, Dariusz; Osyczka, Piotr
To date, the lichens Chrysothrix candelaris and Varicellaria hemisphaerica have been classified as accurate primeval lowland forest indicators. Both inhabit particularly valuable remnants of oak-hornbeam forests in Europe, but tend toward a specific kind of vicariance on a local scale. The present study was undertaken to determine habitat factors responsible for this phenomenon and verify the indicative and conservation value of these lichens. The main spatial and climatic parameters that, along with forest structure, potentially affect their distribution patterns and abundance were analysed in four complexes with typical oak-hornbeam stands in NE Poland. Fifty plots of 400 m 2 each were chosen for detailed examination of stand structure and epiphytic lichens directly associated with the indicators. The study showed that the localities of the two species barely overlap within the same forest community in a relatively small geographical area. The occurrence of Chrysothrix candelaris depends basically only on microhabitat space provided by old oaks and its role as an indicator of the ecological continuity of habitat is limited. Varicellaria hemisphaerica is not tree specific but a sufficiently high moisture of habitat is essential for the species and it requires forests with high proportion of deciduous trees in a wide landscape scale. Local landscape-level habitat continuity is more important for this species than the current age of forest stand. Regardless of the indicative value, localities of both lichens within oak-hornbeam forests deserve the special protection status since they form unique assemblages of exclusive epiphytes, including those with high conservation value.
Parada, Robert J., Jr.; Thome, Kurtis J.; Santer, Richard P.
The ability to conduct in-flight absolute radiometric calibrations of ocean color sensors will determine their usefulness in the decade to come. On-board calibration systems are often integrated into the overall system design of such sensors and have claimed uncertainly levels from 2-3 percent, but independent means of system calibration are desirable to confirm that such systems are operating properly. Vicarious methods are an attractive means of this verification. Due to the high sensitivity of ocean color sensors, the use for bright reflectance surfaces often results in sensor saturation. Low reflectance targets, such as water bodies, should therefore be used. This paper presents the results of sensitivity studies of the reflectance- and radiance-based approaches when applied to a water target and method uncertainties for calibrations of the Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS). The paper also present the results of a field campaign which took place at Lake Tahoe in June 1995. This lake represents a typical oligotrophic water body and has the advantage of being located at a high elevation where tropospheric aerosol loading is low. Aircraft-based radiance data and surface measurements of reflectance are sued to calibrate SeaWiFS- simulated bands from Advanced VIsible and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data. Atmospheric characterization is obtained using solar extinction measurements, surface-level atmospheric pressure readings, and columnar gaseous absorber amounts at sensor overpass. The measured radiances are transferred to the top of the atmosphere using a radiative transfer code which fully computes the contributions of multiple scattering by the atmosphere. The results are compared to those obtained form a laboratory-based calibration of AVIRIS.
Melchers, Martin; Markett, Sebastian; Montag, Christian; Trautner, Peter; Weber, Bernd; Lachmann, Bernd; Buss, Pauline; Heinen, Rebekka; Reuter, Martin
Vicarious embarrassment (VE) is an emotion triggered by the observation of others' pratfalls or social norm violations. Several explanatory approaches have been suggested to explain the source of this phenomenon, including perspective taking abilities or ingroup identification. Knowledge about its biological bases, however, is scarce. To gain a better understanding, the present study investigated neural activation patterns in response to video clips from reality TV shows. Reality TV is well known for presenting social norm violations, flaws and pratfalls of its protagonists in real life situations thereby qualifying as an ecological valid trigger for VE. N = 60 healthy participants viewed stand stills from previously watched video clips taken from German reality TV-shows while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. The clips were preselected for high versus low VE content in a pilot study. Besides the investigation of differences in brain activation elicited by VE versus control stand stills (blocked design contrast), we performed additional exploratory functional connectivity analyses (psychophysiological interaction; PPI) to detect VE related brain networks. Compared to the low VE condition, participants in the high VE condition showed a higher activation in the middle temporal gyrus, the supramarginal gyrus, the right inferior frontal gyrus and the gyrus rectus. Functional connectivity analyses confirmed increased connectivity of these regions with the anterior cingulate in the VE condition. Moreover, self-ratings of VE and brain activity were correlated positively. Reality TV formats with high VE content activate brain regions associated with Theory of Mind, but also with empathic concern and social identity. Therefore, our results support the idea that the ability to put oneself in other person's shoes is a major prerequisite for VE. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kubiak, Dariusz; Osyczka, Piotr
To date, the lichens Chrysothrix candelaris and Varicellaria hemisphaerica have been classified as accurate primeval lowland forest indicators. Both inhabit particularly valuable remnants of oak-hornbeam forests in Europe, but tend toward a specific kind of vicariance on a local scale. The present study was undertaken to determine habitat factors responsible for this phenomenon and verify the indicative and conservation value of these lichens. The main spatial and climatic parameters that, along with forest structure, potentially affect their distribution patterns and abundance were analysed in four complexes with typical oak-hornbeam stands in NE Poland. Fifty plots of 400 m2 each were chosen for detailed examination of stand structure and epiphytic lichens directly associated with the indicators. The study showed that the localities of the two species barely overlap within the same forest community in a relatively small geographical area. The occurrence of Chrysothrix candelaris depends basically only on microhabitat space provided by old oaks and its role as an indicator of the ecological continuity of habitat is limited. Varicellaria hemisphaerica is not tree specific but a sufficiently high moisture of habitat is essential for the species and it requires forests with high proportion of deciduous trees in a wide landscape scale. Local landscape-level habitat continuity is more important for this species than the current age of forest stand. Regardless of the indicative value, localities of both lichens within oak-hornbeam forests deserve the special protection status since they form unique assemblages of exclusive epiphytes, including those with high conservation value.
Baird, Stephanie; Jenkins, Sharon Rae
This study investigated three occupational hazards of therapy with trauma victims: vicarious trauma and secondary traumatic stress (or "compassion fatigue"), which describe therapists' adverse reactions to clients' traumatic material, and burnout, a stress response experienced in many emotionally demanding "people work" jobs. Among 101 trauma counselors, client exposure workload and being paid as a staff member (vs. volunteer) were related to burnout sub-scales, but not as expected to overall burnout or vicarious trauma, secondary traumatic stress, or general distress. More educated counselors and those seeing more clients reported less vicarious trauma. Younger counselors and those with more trauma counseling experience reported more emotional exhaustion. Findings have implications for training, treatment, and agency support systems.
This study examined the effects of vicarious experiences of nature, environmental attitudes, and recreation benefits sought by participants on their support for funding of natural resources and alternative energy options. Using a national scenic trail user survey, results demonstrated that vicarious experiences of nature influenced environmental…
Heard-Garris, N J; Cale, M; Camaj, L; Hamati, M C; Dominguez, T P
Racism is a pervasive stressor. Although most research focuses on direct targets, racism can also have unintended victims. Because children's lives are inevitably linked to the experiences of other individuals, and they are in critical phases of development, they are especially vulnerable to such stressors. Despite the growing body of literature on children's direct exposure to racism, little is known about the relationship between vicarious racism (i.e. secondhand exposure to racism) and child health. To examine the state of this literature, we performed a systematic review and screened 1371 articles drawn from 7 databases, with 30 studies meeting inclusion criteria. For these 30, we reviewed research methodology, including conceptualization and measurement of vicarious exposure, sample characteristics, significant associations with child health outcomes, and mediators and/or moderators of those associations. Most studies were published after 2011 in urban areas in the U.S., employed longitudinal designs, and focused on African American populations. Socioemotional and mental health outcomes were most commonly reported with statistically significant associations with vicarious racism. While all studies examined racism indirectly experienced by children, there was no standard definition of vicarious racism used. We organize the findings in a schematic diagram illustrating indirectly-experienced racism and child health outcomes to identify current gaps in the literature and ways in which to bridge those gaps. To further the field, vicarious racism should be uniformly defined and directly measured using psychometrically validated tools. Future studies should consider using children as the informants and follow children into early adulthood to better understand causal mechanisms. Given the recent national exposure to racially-charged events, a deeper understanding of the association between vicarious racism and child health is crucial in fueling research
Deng, Tao; Nie, Ze-Long; Drew, Bryan T.; Volis, Sergei; Kim, Changkyun; Xiang, Chun-Lei; Zhang, Jian-Wen; Wang, Yue-Hua; Sun, Hang
Despite considerable progress, many details regarding the evolution of the Arcto-Tertiary flora, including the timing, direction, and relative importance of migration routes in the evolution of woody and herbaceous taxa of the Northern Hemisphere, remain poorly understood. Meehania (Lamiaceae) comprises seven species and five subspecies of annual or perennial herbs, and is one of the few Lamiaceae genera known to have an exclusively disjunct distribution between eastern Asia and eastern North America. We analyzed the phylogeny and biogeographical history of Meehania to explore how the Arcto-Tertiary biogeographic hypothesis and two possible migration routes explain the disjunct distribution of Northern Hemisphere herbaceous plants. Parsimony and Bayesian inference were used for phylogenetic analyses based on five plastid sequences (rbcL, rps16, rpl32-trnH, psbA-trnH, and trnL-F) and two nuclear (ITS and ETS) gene regions. Divergence times and biogeographic inferences were performed using Bayesian methods as implemented in BEAST and S-DIVA, respectively. Analyses including 11 of the 12 known Meehania taxa revealed incongruence between the chloroplast and nuclear trees, particularly in the positions of Glechoma and Meehania cordata, possibly indicating allopolyploidy with chloroplast capture in the late Miocene. Based on nrDNA, Meehania is monophyletic, and the North American species M. cordata is sister to a clade containing the eastern Asian species. The divergence time between the North American M. cordata and the eastern Asian species occurred about 9.81 Mya according to the Bayesian relaxed clock methods applied to the combined nuclear data. Biogeographic analyses suggest a primary role of the Arcto-Tertiary flora in the study taxa distribution, with a northeast Asian origin of Meehania. Our results suggest an Arcto-Tertiary origin of Meehania, with its present distribution most probably being a result of vicariance and southward migrations of populations during
Cook, Carrie L; Fox, Kathleen A
Fear of crime research has primarily focused on fear of crime in general or on fear of specific types of violent crimes. This study builds from this line of research by focusing exclusively on the night fear of six types of property crimes, including fear of burglary while away from home, vehicle theft, bicycle theft, property theft, vandalism, and vehicle burglary. This study examines the effects of victimization, vicarious victimization, and perceived risk on fear of property crime. Survey data from college students reveal that victimization and vicarious victimization were not significant predictors of fear of property crime, whereas perceived risk was a consistent and significant predictor of fear of all property crimes.
Adler, H M
"Talking" therapy is examined as an interpersonal transaction. The personal-experience narrative is used as a vehicle through which the patient and therapist coprocess a mutual experience. Within the narrative transaction, the patient is able to vicariously re-experience and reconfigure the narrated events as he/she believes the therapist is experiencing them. Nonverbal symbolic modes of communication such as music, movement, and art also provide media through which patients and therapists can coprocess a mutual experience. The vicarious coprocessing of experience is a therapeutic factor common to talking therapy, music therapy, art therapy, movement therapy, conventional social interaction, and some healing practices in other cultures.
Rix, Michael G; Harvey, Mark S
The rainforests, wet sclerophyll forests and temperate heathlands of the Australian mesic zone are home to a diverse and highly endemic biota, including numerous old endemic lineages restricted to refugial, mesic biomes. A growing number of phylogeographic studies have attempted to explain the origins and diversification of the Australian mesic zone biota, in order to test and better understand the mode and tempo of historical speciation within Australia. Assassin spiders (family Archaeidae) are a lineage of iconic araneomorph spiders, characterised by their antiquity, remarkable morphology and relictual biogeography on the southern continents. The Australian assassin spider fauna is characterised by a high diversity of allopatric species, many of which are restricted to individual mountains or montane systems, and all of which are closely tied to mesic and/or refugial habitats in the east and extreme south-west of mainland Australia. We tested the phylogeny and vicariant biogeography of the Australian Archaeidae (genus Austrarchaea Forster & Platnick), using a multi-locus molecular approach. Fragments from six mitochondrial genes (COI, COII, tRNA-K, tRNA-D, ATP8, ATP6) and one nuclear protein-coding gene (Histone H3) were used to infer phylogenetic relationships and to explore the phylogeographic origins of the diverse Australian fauna. Bayesian analyses of the complete molecular dataset, along with differentially-partitioned Bayesian and parsimony analyses of a smaller concatenated dataset, revealed the presence of three major Australian lineages, each with non-overlapping distributions in north-eastern Queensland, mid-eastern Australia and southern Australia, respectively. Divergence date estimation using mitochondrial data and a rate-calibrated relaxed molecular clock revealed that major lineages diverged in the early Tertiary period, prior to the final rifting of Australia from East Antarctica. Subsequent speciation occurred during the Miocene (23-5.3 million
Full Text Available Psychological reactance occurs in response to threats posed to perceived behavioral freedoms. Research has shown that people can also experience vicarious reactance. They feel restricted in their own freedom even though they are not personally involved in the restriction but only witness the situation. The phenomenon of vicarious reactance is especially interesting when considered in a cross-cultural context because the cultural specific self-construal plays a crucial role in understanding people’s response to self- and vicariously experienced restrictions. Previous studies and our pilot study (N = 197 could show that people with a collectivistic cultural background show higher vicarious reactance compared to people with an individualistic cultural background. But does it matter whether people experience the vicarious restriction for an in-group or an out-group member? Differentiating vicarious-in-group and vicarious-out-group restrictions, Study 1 (N = 159 suggests that people with a more interdependent self-construal show stronger vicarious reactance only with regard to in-group restrictions but not with regard to out-group restrictions. In contrast, participants with a more independent self-construal experience stronger reactance when being self-restricted compared to vicariously-restricted. Study 2 (N = 180 replicates this pattern conceptually with regard to individualistic and collectivistic cultural background groups. Additionally, participants’ behavioral intentions show the same pattern of results. Moreover a mediation analysis demonstrates that cultural differences in behavioral intentions could be explained through people´s self-construal differences. Thus, the present studies provide new insights and show consistent evidence for vicarious reactance depending on participants’ culturally determined self-construal.
Full Text Available The second tertiary combined model experiment zone has been developed in Block B, Field L. The percolation feature of the second tertiary combined develop model shows great importance to rational and efficient development of the reservoir. In order to clearly illuminate its percolation feature, the typical reservoir numerical model is built by Eclipse, which is a reservoir numerical simulation software. The percolation features of original and added perforation interval under the second tertiary combined model are studied, and the variation features of general water-cut, recovery percentage, wellbore pressure, reservoir pressure and water saturation on condition of higher injection rate under the second tertiary combined model are analyzed. The research indicates that the second tertiary combined enhances the recovery of remaining oil on top of thick reservoir by developing and enhancing original perforation interval under water drive, then improves development results by polymer flooding, and gains higher recovery rate by synthetic action of water driver and polymer flooding.
Jamal, Sophie A; Miller, Paul D
We reviewed the etiology and management of secondary and tertiary hyperparathyroidism. Secondary hyperparathyroidism is characterized by an increase in parathyroid hormone (PTH) that is appropriate and in response to a stimulus, most commonly low serum calcium. In secondary hyperparathyroidism, the serum calcium is normal and the PTH level is elevated. Tertiary hyperparathyroidism is characterized by excessive secretion of PTH after longstanding secondary hyperparathyroidism, in which hypercalcemia has ensued. Tertiary hyperparathyroidism typically occurs in men and women with chronic kidney disease usually after kidney transplant. The etiology and treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism is relatively straightforward whereas data on the management of tertiary hyperparathyroidism is limited to a few small trials with short follow-up. Copyright © 2013 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bukontaite, Rasa; Miller, Kelly B; Bergsten, Johannes
Aciliini presently includes 69 species of medium-sized water beetles distributed on all continents except Antarctica. The pattern of distribution with several genera confined to different continents of the Southern Hemisphere raises the yet untested hypothesis of a Gondwana vicariance origin. The monophyly of Aciliini has been questioned with regard to Eretini, and there are competing hypotheses about the intergeneric relationship in the tribe. This study is the first comprehensive phylogenetic analysis focused on the tribe Aciliini and it is based on eight gene fragments. The aims of the present study are: 1) to test the monophyly of Aciliini and clarify the position of the tribe Eretini and to resolve the relationship among genera within Aciliini, 2) to calibrate the divergence times within Aciliini and test different biogeographical scenarios, and 3) to evaluate the utility of the gene CAD for phylogenetic analysis in Dytiscidae. Our analyses confirm monophyly of Aciliini with Eretini as its sister group. Each of six genera which have multiple species are also supported as monophyletic. The origin of the tribe is firmly based in the Southern Hemisphere with the arrangement of Neotropical and Afrotropical taxa as the most basal clades suggesting a Gondwana vicariance origin. However, the uncertainty as to whether a fossil can be used as a stem-or crowngroup calibration point for Acilius influenced the result: as crowngroup calibration, the 95% HPD interval for the basal nodes included the geological age estimate for the Gondwana break-up, but as a stem group calibration the basal nodes were too young. Our study suggests CAD to be the most informative marker between 15 and 50 Ma. Notably, the 2000 bp CAD fragment analyzed alone fully resolved the tree with high support. 1) Molecular data confirmed Aciliini as a monophyletic group. 2) Bayesian optimizations of the biogeographical history are consistent with an influence of Gondwana break-up history, but were
Trénel, Philipp; Gustafsson, Mats; Baker, W.J.
The Ceroxyloideae is a small but heterogeneous subfamily of palms (Arecaceae, Palmae). It includes a Caribbean lineage (tribe Cyclospathae), a southern hemisphere disjunction (tribe Ceroxyleae), and an amphi-Andean element (tribe Phytelepheae), until recently considered a distinct subfamily (Phyt...... proposed. Radiation in this tribe coincides largely with the major uplift of the Andes, favoring Andean orogeny over Pleistocene climatic changes as a possible speciation-promoting factor in this tribe........ Austral interplate dispersal of Oraniopsis to Australia could have occurred, but apparently only in the mid-Eocene/early Oligocene interval after global cooling had begun. Our data do not support Pleistocene climatic changes as drivers for speciation in the Andean-centered Phytelepheae as previously...
The Constitutional Court judgement in F v Minister of Safety and Security 1 is a ground-breaking judgement in two important respects: firstly, it finally does away with the fiction that an employee acts within the course and scope of her employment in the so-called deviation cases in the law of vicarious liability, and secondly it ...
Faso, Daniel J.; Neal-Beevers, A. Rebecca; Carlson, Caryn L.
Hope is shown to provide resiliency for parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) against the negative effects related to extreme parenting stressors. The broad positivity of hope may overlook opposing parental feelings about their child that may be important for well-being. Vicarious futurity (VF) is the hope and despair a parent…
Mental health professionals in all settings work with clients who are affected by trauma. Traumatic events expose mental health professionals to the negative psychological and emotional impact of witnessing and listening to client stories. Vicarious trauma is the emotional consequence of this empathic engagement with clients. The purpose of this…
Attitude change as a function of the observation of vicarious reinforcement and friendliness : hostility in a debate / Lutz von Rosenstiel ; Gisela Stocker- Kreichgauer. - In: Group decision making / ed. by Gisela Stocker-Kreichgauer ... - London u.a. : Acad. Press, 1982. - S. 241-255. - (European monographs in social psychology ; 25)
Mosner, Maya G.; Kinard, Jessica L.; McWeeny, Sean; Shah, Jasmine S.; Markiewitz, Nathan D.; Damiano-Goodwin, Cara R.; Burchinal, Margaret R.; Rutherford, Helena J. V.; Greene, Rachel K.; Treadway, Michael T.; Dichter, Gabriel S.
This study investigated vicarious effort-based decision-making in 50 adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) compared to 32 controls using the Effort Expenditure for Rewards Task. Participants made choices to win money for themselves or for another person. When choosing for themselves, the ASD group exhibited relatively similar patterns…
Dunne, Güler; Askew, Chris
Children can learn to fear stimuli vicariously, by observing adults' or peers' responses to them. Given that much of school-age children's time is typically spent with their peers, it is important to establish whether fear learning from peers is as effective or robust as learning from adults, and also whether peers can be successful positive models for reducing fear. During a vicarious fear learning procedure, children (6 to 10 years; N = 60) were shown images of novel animals together with images of adult or peer faces expressing fear. Later they saw their fear-paired animal again together with positive emotional adult or peer faces. Children's fear beliefs and avoidance for the animals increased following vicarious fear learning and decreased following positive vicarious counterconditioning. There was little evidence of differences in learning from adults and peers, demonstrating that for this age group peer models are effective models for both fear acquisition and reduction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Veldhuis, Tinka M.; Gordijn, Ernestine H.; Veenstra, Rene; Lindenberg, Siegwart
Rejection can convey that one is seen as inferior and not worth bothering with. Is it possible for people to feel vicariously rejected in this sense and have reactions that are similar to those following personal rejection, such as feeling humiliated, powerless, and angry? A study on personal
Green, Gina; Osborne, J. Grayson
Examines the theories of Aronfreed, Bandura, Berger, and Hygge. Also reviews experimental evidence published since 1962 which supports theories of observational learning of emotional behavior. While the theories posit that different conditions are necessary to vicarious instigation, most research does not test the theories in any direct way.…
Way, Ineke; VanDeusen, Karen M.; Martin, Gail; Applegate, Brooks; Jandle, Deborah
This study compared vicarious trauma in a random sample of male and female clinicians who treat survivors (n=95) and those who treat offenders (n=252). A national survey was conducted with members of the Association for the Treatment of Sexual Abusers (ATSA) and the American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children (APSAC). These data were…
Schauben, Laura J.; Frazier, Patricia A.
The effects on counselors of working with sexual violence survivors were studied with 118 psychologists and 30 sexual violence counselors. Counselors with a higher percentage of survivors in their case loads reported more disrupted beliefs, more symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, and more self-reported vicarious trauma. (SLD)
Kadambi, Michaela A.; Truscott, Derek
Vicarious trauma, traumatic stress and burnout were investigated among three separate groups of mental health professionals working primarily with three different client populations (sexual violence, cancer, general practice). Participants (N=221) completed the Traumatic Stress Institute Belief Scale Revision M (TSI), the Maslach Burnout Inventory…
Truong, Kimberly A.; Museus, Samuel D.; McGuire, Keon M.
In this article, the authors examine the role of vicarious racism in the experiences of doctoral students of color. The researchers conducted semi-structured individual interviews with 26 doctoral students who self-reported experiencing racism and racial trauma during their doctoral studies. The analysis generated four themes that detail the…
Smith, Lauren E.; Bernal, Darren R.; Schwartz, Billie S.; Whitt, Courtney L.; Christman, Seth T.; Donnelly, Stephanie; Wheatley, Anna; Guillaume, Casta; Nicolas, Guerda; Kish, Jonathan; Kobetz, Erin
This study documents the vicarious psychological impact of the 2010 earthquake in Haiti on Haitians living in the United States. The role of coping resources--family, religious, and community support--was explored. The results highlight the importance of family and community as coping strategies to manage such trauma.
Full Text Available Esslin L Terrighena,1,2 Ge Lu,1 Wai Ping Yuen,1 Tatia M C Lee,1–4 Kati Keuper1,2,5 1Department of Psychology, Laboratory of Neuropsychology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; 2Laboratory of Social Cognitive Affective Neuroscience, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; 3The State Key Laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Hong Kong; 4Institute of Clinical Neuropsychology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; 5Institute for Biomagnetism and Biosignalanalysis, University of Münster, Münster, Germany Abstract: The observation of pain in others may enhance or reduce self-pain, yet the boundary conditions and factors that determine the direction of such effects are poorly understood. The current study set out to show that visual stimulus awareness plays a crucial role in determining whether vicarious pain primarily activates behavioral defense systems that enhance pain sensitivity and stimulate withdrawal or appetitive systems that attenuate pain sensitivity and stimulate approach. We employed a mixed factorial design with the between-subject factors exposure time (subliminal vs optimal and vicarious pain (pain vs no pain images, and the within-subject factor session (baseline vs trial to investigate how visual awareness of vicarious pain images affects subsequent self-pain in the cold-pressor test. Self-pain tolerance, intensity and unpleasantness were evaluated in a sample of 77 healthy participants. Results revealed significant interactions of exposure time and vicarious pain in all three dependent measures. In the presence of visual awareness (optimal condition, vicarious pain compared to no-pain elicited overall enhanced self-pain sensitivity, indexed by reduced pain tolerance and enhanced ratings of pain intensity and unpleasantness. Conversely, in the absence of visual awareness (subliminal condition, vicarious pain evoked decreased self-pain intensity and unpleasantness while pain tolerance remained unaffected. These
Vandenbroucke, S; Crombez, G; Loeys, T; Goubert, L
In this study, we investigated the effects of observing pain and touch in others on vicarious somatosensory experiences and the detection of subtle somatosensory stimuli. Furthermore, the effect of taking a first- versus a third-person perspective was investigated. Undergraduates (N = 57) viewed videos depicting hands being pricked (pain), hands being touched by a cotton swab (touch), and control scenes (same approaching movement of a hand as in the other video categories, but without the painful/touching object) while experiencing vibrotactile stimuli themselves on the left, on the right, or on both hands. Participants reported the location at which they felt a somatosensory stimulus. The vibrotactile stimuli and visual scenes were applied in a spatially congruent or incongruent way, and other trials were presented without vibrotactile stimuli. The videos were depicted in first-person perspective and third-person perspective (i.e., the videos were shown upside down). We calculated the proportions of correct responses and false alarms (i.e., numbers of trials on which a vicarious somatosensory experience was reported congruent or incongruent to the site of the visual information). Pain-related scenes facilitated the detection of tactile stimuli and augmented the number of vicarious somatosensory experiences, as compared with observing the touch or control videos. Detection accuracy was higher for videos depicted in first-person perspective than for those in third-person perspective. Perspective had no effect on the number of vicarious somatosensory experiences. This study indicates that somatosensory detection is particularly enhanced during the observation of pain-related scenes, as compared to the observation of touch or control videos. These research findings further demonstrate that perspective taking impacts somatosensory detection, but not the report of vicarious experiences.
This research systematically examines the theme of vicarious substitution in Shūsaku Endō’s literary work. It aims at enriching the traditional concepts of vicarious substitution. This study results in the following typology of vicarious substituion in Endo's literature: Christ-figures, including holy fools, animals that seem to die instead of persons, objects, such as a cross or a fumie and doppelgangers. It is argued that the autobiographical, confessional way of writing as found in Endō’s ...
Mąkosza, Mieczysław; Bester, Karol; Cmoch, Piotr
α-Chlorocarbanions generated via base-induced vicarious nucleophilic substitution reaction of alkyl dichloroacetates with nitroarenes react with Michael acceptors to give esters of cyclopropane carboxylic acids substituted with p-nitroaromatic rings.
In his review of the palaeozoology of Java, K. Martin could in 1919, record 49 foraminifera from tertiary strata of Java, on the strength of a critical study of the existant literature, and especially on the strength of his own studies and knowledge of the above mentioned fossils (Bibl. 49). In
Bowers, J.; Arnone, R. A.; Fargion, G. S.; Ladner, S. D.; Lawson, A.; Martinolich, P.
NASA ocean color scientists have established a methodology for vicarious calibration of ocean color sensors using the Marine Optical Buoy (MOBY). This system level calibration forces agreement between remotely sensed water leaving radiance (Lt) and the expected in situ response (vLt). Vicarious calibration generally requires a long time series of coincident satellite and in situ data in order to establish robust calibration. Since November 2011, NRL has been using the VIIRS measured Lt and the AERONET-OC derived vLt, to monitor spectral offsets, also known as spectral gain (Lt/vLt), for the VIIRS sensor at each wavelength, guided by previously established techniques. In the absence of a long time series, we have established practicable offsets to explore applying blue water gains established at the MOBY site and coastal water gains from the WaveCis AERONET-OC site in the Gulf of Mexico.
Hernández, Pilar; Gangsei, David; Engstrom, David
This study explores the formulation of a new concept: vicarious resilience. It addresses the question of how psychotherapists who work with survivors of political violence or kidnapping are affected by their clients'stories of resilience. It focuses on the psychotherapists' interpretations of their clients' stories, and how they make sense of the impact that these stories have had on their lives. In semistructured interviews, 12 psychotherapists who work with victims of political violence and kidnapping were interviewed about their perceptions of their clients' overcoming of adversity. A phenomenological analysis of the transcripts was used to describe the themes that speak about the effects of witnessing how clients cope constructively with adversity. These themes are discussed to advance the concept of vicarious resilience and how it can contribute to sustaining and empowering trauma therapists.
Czapla-Myers, J.; Leisso, N.
The Remote Sensing Group at the University of Arizona has operated the Radiometric Calibration Test Site (RadCaTS) at Railroad Valley, Nevada, since 2004. It is an approach to ground-based vicarious calibration that does not require on-site personnel to make surface and atmospheric measurements during a satellite overpass. It was originally developed in 2002 in an attempt to increase the amount of data collected throughout the year while maintaining the accuracy of in-situ measurements. RadCaTS currently consists of four ground-viewing radiometers to measure surface reflectance, a Cimel sun photometer to make atmospheric measurements, and a weather station to measure ambient conditions. The data from these instruments are used in MODTRAN 5 to determine the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) spectral radiance for a given overpass time, and the results are compared to the sensor under test. The work presented here describes the RadCaTS instrumentation suite and automated processing scheme used to determine the surface reflectance and TOA spectral radiance. The instruments used to measure surface and atmospheric properties are presented, followed by a discussion of their spatial layout and their radiometric calibration. The RadCaTS ground-based results are compared to those from Aqua and Terra MODIS overpasses in 2008, and Landsat 7 ETM+ overpasses in 2009.
Escudero, Marcial; Valcárcel, Virginia; Vargas, Pablo; Luceño, Modesto
Plant disjunctions have provided one of the most intriguing distribution patterns historically addressed by biogeographers. Carex sect. Spirostachyae (Cyperaceae) displays an interesting pattern of disjunction to evaluate these scenarios, with species occurring in the main continental landmasses and in oceanic islands of the two hemispheres. Internal transcribed spacer and 5'-trnK intron plastid gene sequences were analyzed to determine (1) the times of diversification using penalized likelihood, and (2) reconstructions of the regions using maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches of origin of sect. Spirostachyae and internal main lineages. The times for the diversification of sect. Spirostachyae are dated to between the end of the Eocene and the Oligocene, whereas the two main lineages are dated to between the end of the Oligocene and the beginning of Miocene. The phylogenetic analyses reveal a Mediterranean-Eurasian center of differentiation for sect. Spirostachyae and subsection Spirostachyae, whereas no clear, single ancestral area could be inferred for subsection Elatae. Both long-distance dispersal and ecological vicariance appear to have been involved in the evolutionary history of the disjunct distribution of the main lineages of sect. Spirostachyae. These organisms appear to have a special ability to colonize remote areas (through transoceanic and interhemispherical colonizations), but special long-distance dispersal mechanisms are not evident.
Allopatric speciation. Speciation occurs in geographic isolation (no gene flow). - Rivers & Oceans. - Mountain ranges. - Deserts. - Land (in case of aquatic organisms) ... biogeography. - belief in a stable earth. - concept of phylogeny unknown. Identification of centres-of-origin. Kodandaramaiah 2009. Evolutionary Biology ...
Askew, Chris; Reynolds, Gemma; Fielding-Smith, Sarah; Field, Andy P
One of the challenges to conditioning models of fear acquisition is to explain how different individuals can experience similar learning events and only some of them subsequently develop fear. Understanding factors moderating the impact of learning events on fear acquisition is key to understanding the etiology and prevention of fear in childhood. This study investigates these moderators in the context of vicarious (observational) learning. Two experiments tested predictions that the acquisit...
Jankoski, Jo Ann
This article reports on a qualitative, multicase study of child welfare professionals who discussed the changes they experienced because of the work they do. It was concluded that vicarious trauma was the cause. This study was grounded in the constructive self-development theory, a developmental and interpersonal theory with a trauma focus that explains the impact of trauma on an individual's psychological development, identity, and adaptation.
K Chandrasekhar; Bhaduri, Saradindu
Recently, it has been suggested that the process of economic development should ideally be viewed as a socioeconomic transformation. Such a view requires a comprehensive understanding of how agents learn and change their behaviour. However, these aspects have only been inadequately addressed in development theory. This paper argues that social-cognitive vicarious learning theories can become a useful methodological tool by incorporating a triadic interaction between personal factors (beliefs,...
Full Text Available Children are becoming less likely to have direct contact with nature. This ongoing loss of human interactions with nature, the extinction of experience, is viewed as one of the most fundamental obstacles to addressing global environmental challenges. However, the consequences for biodiversity conservation have been examined very little. Here, we conducted a questionnaire survey of elementary schoolchildren and investigated effects of the frequency of direct (participating in nature-based activities and vicarious experiences of nature (reading books or watching TV programs about nature and talking about nature with parents or friends on their affective attitudes (individuals’ emotional feelings toward and willingness to conserve biodiversity. A total of 397 children participated in the surveys in Tokyo. Children’s affective attitudes and willingness to conserve biodiversity were positively associated with the frequency of both direct and vicarious experiences of nature. Path analysis showed that effects of direct and vicarious experiences on children’s willingness to conserve biodiversity were mediated by their affective attitudes. This study demonstrates that children who frequently experience nature are likely to develop greater emotional affinity to and support for protecting biodiversity. We suggest that children should be encouraged to experience nature and be provided with various types of these experiences.
Shimada, Sotaro; Matsumoto, Madoka; Takahashi, Hidefumi; Yomogida, Yukihito; Matsumoto, Kenji
The vicarious reward we receive from watching likable others obtaining a positive outcome is a pervasive phenomenon, yet its neural correlates are poorly understood. Here, we conducted a series of functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments to test the hypothesis that the brain areas responsible for action observation and reward processing work in a coordinated fashion during vicarious reward. In the first experiment (manipulation phase), the participant was instructed to cheer for a particular player in a two-player competitive game (Rock-Paper-Scissors). This manipulation made participants feel more unity with that player and resulted in unity-related activation in the premotor area during action observation. In the following main experiment, the participant witnessed the previously cheered-for or non-cheered-for player succeed in a new solitary game (a stopwatch game). The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) was activated when the cheered-for player succeeded in the game but not when the other player did. Interestingly, this vmPFC activation was functionally connected with premotor activation only during the cheered-for player's success. These results suggest that vicarious reward is processed in the vmPFC-premotor network, which is activated specifically by the success of the other person with whom the individual feels unity and closeness. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press.
Dunne, Güler; Askew, Chris
Evidence shows that anxiety runs in families. One reason may be that children are particularly susceptible to learning fear from their parents. The current study compared children's fear beliefs and avoidance preferences for animals following positive or fearful modeling by mothers and strangers in vicarious learning and unlearning procedures. Children aged 6 to 10 years (N = 60) were exposed to pictures of novel animals either alone (control) or together with pictures of their mother or a stranger expressing fear or happiness. During unlearning (counterconditioning), children saw each animal again with their mother or a stranger expressing the opposite facial expression. Following vicarious learning, children's fear beliefs increased for animals seen with scared faces and this effect was the same whether fear was modeled by mothers or strangers. Fear beliefs and avoidance preferences decreased following positive counterconditioning and increased following fear counterconditioning. Again, learning was the same whether the model was the child's mother or a stranger. These findings indicate that children in this age group can vicariously learn and unlearn fear-related cognitions from both strangers and mothers. This has implications for our understanding of fear acquisition and the development of early interventions to prevent and reverse childhood fears and phobias.
Ledoux, Tracey; Robinson, Jessica; Baranowski, Tom; O'Connor, Daniel P
The American Academy of Pediatrics and World Health Organization recommend responsive feeding (RF) to promote healthy eating behaviors in early childhood. This project developed and tested a vicarious learning video to teach parents RF practices. A RF vicarious learning video was developed using community-based participatory research methods. Fifty parents of preschoolers were randomly assigned to watch Happier Meals or a control video about education. Knowledge and beliefs about RF practices were measured 1 week before and immediately after intervention. Experimental group participants also completed measures of narrative engagement and video acceptability. Seventy-four percent of the sample was White, 90% had at least a college degree, 96% were married, and 88% made >$50,000/year. RF knowledge increased ( p = .03) and positive beliefs about some unresponsive feeding practices decreased ( ps < .05) more among experimental than control parents. Knowledge and belief changes were associated with video engagement ( ps < .05). Parents perceived Happier Meals as highly relevant, applicable, and informative. Community-based participatory research methods were instrumental in developing this vicarious learning video, with preliminary evidence of effectiveness in teaching parents about RF. Happier Meals is freely available for parents or community health workers to use when working with families to promote healthy eating behaviors in early childhood.
Genuineness, concern for others, and empathy are characteristics used to describe the professional social worker. To this end, the social worker tirelessly works on behalf of and in collaboration with the client to move them from stagnant life situations into positive life situations. While the fundamental principles of social work are wonderful, the result for some workers is job burnout and/or vicarious trauma. The concepts of job burnout, its antecedents, and manifestations are thoroughly discussed in this article to provide a holistic overview of this phenomenon. The six antecedents: workload, control, values, fairness, reward, and community are discussed and linked to the manifestations of job burnout. When working with individuals who have been exposed to the depravity of life, the professional can take on the client's vulnerabilities, victimizations, and stress. The common term for this phenomenon is vicarious trauma. Professionals who work with trauma victims can often have issues in their personal and professional life as evidenced by reduced professional efficacy, increased emotional concerns, and physical concerns. The purpose of the author in this article is to provide an overview of job burnout, vicarious trauma, and a discussion about self-care responsibilities.
Soga, Masashi; Gaston, Kevin J; Yamaura, Yuichi; Kurisu, Kiyo; Hanaki, Keisuke
Children are becoming less likely to have direct contact with nature. This ongoing loss of human interactions with nature, the extinction of experience, is viewed as one of the most fundamental obstacles to addressing global environmental challenges. However, the consequences for biodiversity conservation have been examined very little. Here, we conducted a questionnaire survey of elementary schoolchildren and investigated effects of the frequency of direct (participating in nature-based activities) and vicarious experiences of nature (reading books or watching TV programs about nature and talking about nature with parents or friends) on their affective attitudes (individuals' emotional feelings) toward and willingness to conserve biodiversity. A total of 397 children participated in the surveys in Tokyo. Children's affective attitudes and willingness to conserve biodiversity were positively associated with the frequency of both direct and vicarious experiences of nature. Path analysis showed that effects of direct and vicarious experiences on children's willingness to conserve biodiversity were mediated by their affective attitudes. This study demonstrates that children who frequently experience nature are likely to develop greater emotional affinity to and support for protecting biodiversity. We suggest that children should be encouraged to experience nature and be provided with various types of these experiences.
Tornabene, L; Valdez, S; Erdmann, M V; Pezold, F L
Here, multi-locus sequence data are coupled with observations of live colouration to recognize a new species, Eviota punyit from the Coral Triangle, Indian Ocean and Red Sea. Relaxed molecular clock divergence time estimation indicates a Pliocene origin for the new species, and the current distribution of the new species and its sister species Eviota sebreei supports a scenario of vicariance across the Indo-Pacific Barrier, followed by subsequent range expansion and overlap in the Coral Triangle. These results are consistent with the 'centre of overlap' hypothesis, which states that the increased diversity in the Coral Triangle is due in part to the overlapping ranges of Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean faunas. These findings are discussed in the context of other geminate pairs of coral reef fishes separated by the Indo-Pacific Barrier. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.
Lee, Raymond L; Laven, Philip
Naturally occurring tertiary rainbows are extraordinarily rare and only a handful of reliable sightings and photographs have been published. Indeed, tertiaries are sometimes assumed to be inherently invisible because of sun glare and strong forward scattering by raindrops. To analyze the natural tertiary's visibility, we use Lorenz-Mie theory, the Debye series, and a modified geometrical optics model (including both interference and nonspherical drops) to calculate the tertiary's (1) chromaticity gamuts, (2) luminance contrasts, and (3) color contrasts as seen against dark cloud backgrounds. Results from each model show that natural tertiaries are just visible for some unusual combinations of lighting conditions and raindrop size distributions.
Full Text Available A person whose privacy has been infringed upon through the unlawful, culpable processing of his or her personal information can sue the infringer's employer based on vicarious liability or institute action based on the Protection of Personal Information Act 4 of 2013 (POPI. Section 99(1 of POPI provides a person (a "data subject" whose privacy has been infringed upon with the right to institute a civil action against the responsible party. POPI defines the responsible party as the person who determines the purpose of and means for the processing of the personal information of data subjects. Although POPI does not equate a responsible party to an employer, the term "responsible party" is undoubtedly a synonym for "employer" in this context. By holding an employer accountable for its employees' unlawful processing of a data subject's personal information, POPI creates a form of statutory vicarious liability. Since the defences available to an employer at common law and developed by case law differ from the statutory defences available to an employer in terms of POPI, it is necessary to compare the impact this new statute has on employers. From a risk perspective, employers must be aware of the serious implications of POPI. The question that arises is whether the Act perhaps takes matters too far. This article takes a critical look at the statutory defences available to an employer in vindication of a vicarious liability action brought by a data subject in terms of section 99(1 of POPI. It compares the defences found in section 99(2 of POPI and the common-law defences available to an employer fending off a delictual claim founded on the doctrine of vicarious liability. To support the argument that the statutory vicarious liability created by POPI is too harsh, the defences contained in section 99(2 of POPI are further analogised with those available to an employer in terms of section 60(4 of the Employment Equity Act 55 of 1998 (EEA and other
Available at http://www.ijhr.org. Original Research Article. Economic Evaluation pf Antibacterial Usage in Ear, Nose and Throat Infections in a Nigerian Teaching Hospital. Abstract. Purpose: To carry out economic evaluation of antibacterial usage for. Ear, Nose and Throat infections in a tertiary health care facility in. Nigeria.
Kim, W.; Liang, S.; Cao, C.
Vicarious calibration refers to calibration techniques that do not depend on onboard calibration devices. Although sensors and onboard calibration devices undergo rigorous validation processes before launch, performance of sensors often degrades after the launch due to exposure to the harsh space environment and the aging of devices. Such in-flight changes of devices can be identified and adjusted through vicarious calibration activities where the sensor degradation is measured in reference to exterior calibration sources such as the Sun, the Moon, and the Earth surface. Sonoran desert is one of the best calibration sites located in the North America that are available for vicarious calibration of GOES-R satellite. To accurately calibrate sensors onboard GOES-R satellite (e.g. advanced baseline imager (ABI)), the temporal stability of Sonoran desert needs to be assessed precisely. However, short-/mid-term variations in top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance caused by meteorological variables such as water vapor amount and aerosol loading are often difficult to retrieve, making the use of TOA reflectance time series for the stability assessment of the site. In this paper, we address this issue of normalization of TOA reflectance time series using a time series analysis algorithm - seasonal trend decomposition procedure based on LOESS (STL) (Cleveland et al, 1990). The algorithm is basically a collection of smoothing filters which leads to decomposition of a time series into three additive components; seasonal, trend, and remainder. Since this non-linear technique is capable of extracting seasonal patterns in the presence of trend changes, the seasonal variation can be effectively identified in the time series of remote sensing data subject to various environmental changes. The experiment results performed with Landsat 5 TM data show that the decomposition results acquired for the Sonoran Desert area produce normalized series that have much less uncertainty than those
Lin, Wen-Hsu; Cochran, John K; Mieczkowski, Thomas
Using a national probability sample of adolescents (12–17), this study applies general strain theory to how violent victimization, vicarious violent victimization, and dual violent victimization affect juvenile violent/property crime and drug use. In addition, the mediating effect and moderating effect of depression, low social control, and delinquent peer association on the victimization–delinquency relationship is also examined. Based on SEM analyses and contingency tables, the results indicate that all three types of violent victimization have significant and positive direct effects on violent/property crime and drug use. In addition, the expected mediating effects and moderating effects are also found. Limitations and future directions are discussed.
Guo, Yan-Yan; Luo, Yi-Bo; Liu, Zhong-Jian; Wang, Xiao-Quan
Intercontinental disjunctions between tropical regions, which harbor two-thirds of the flowering plants, have drawn great interest from biologists and biogeographers. Most previous studies on these distribution patterns focused on woody plants, and paid little attention to herbs. The Orchidaceae is one of the largest families of angiosperms, with a herbaceous habit and a high species diversity in the Tropics. Here we investigate the evolutionary and biogeographical history of the slipper orchids, which represents a monophyletic subfamily (Cypripedioideae) of the orchid family and comprises five genera that are disjunctly distributed in tropical to temperate regions. A relatively well-resolved and highly supported phylogeny of slipper orchids was reconstructed based on sequence analyses of six maternally inherited chloroplast and two low-copy nuclear genes (LFY and ACO). We found that the genus Cypripedium with a wide distribution in the northern temperate and subtropical zones diverged first, followed by Selenipedium endemic to South America, and finally conduplicate-leaved genera in the Tropics. Mexipedium and Phragmipedium from the neotropics are most closely related, and form a clade sister to Paphiopedilum from tropical Asia. According to molecular clock estimates, the genus Selenipedium originated in Palaeocene, while the most recent common ancestor of conduplicate-leaved slipper orchids could be dated back to the Eocene. Ancestral area reconstruction indicates that vicariance is responsible for the disjunct distribution of conduplicate slipper orchids in palaeotropical and neotropical regions. Our study sheds some light on mechanisms underlying generic and species diversification in the orchid family and tropical disjunctions of herbaceous plant groups. In addition, we suggest that the biogeographical study should sample both regional endemics and their widespread relatives. PMID:22685605
Guo, Yan-Yan; Luo, Yi-Bo; Liu, Zhong-Jian; Wang, Xiao-Quan
Intercontinental disjunctions between tropical regions, which harbor two-thirds of the flowering plants, have drawn great interest from biologists and biogeographers. Most previous studies on these distribution patterns focused on woody plants, and paid little attention to herbs. The Orchidaceae is one of the largest families of angiosperms, with a herbaceous habit and a high species diversity in the Tropics. Here we investigate the evolutionary and biogeographical history of the slipper orchids, which represents a monophyletic subfamily (Cypripedioideae) of the orchid family and comprises five genera that are disjunctly distributed in tropical to temperate regions. A relatively well-resolved and highly supported phylogeny of slipper orchids was reconstructed based on sequence analyses of six maternally inherited chloroplast and two low-copy nuclear genes (LFY and ACO). We found that the genus Cypripedium with a wide distribution in the northern temperate and subtropical zones diverged first, followed by Selenipedium endemic to South America, and finally conduplicate-leaved genera in the Tropics. Mexipedium and Phragmipedium from the neotropics are most closely related, and form a clade sister to Paphiopedilum from tropical Asia. According to molecular clock estimates, the genus Selenipedium originated in Palaeocene, while the most recent common ancestor of conduplicate-leaved slipper orchids could be dated back to the Eocene. Ancestral area reconstruction indicates that vicariance is responsible for the disjunct distribution of conduplicate slipper orchids in palaeotropical and neotropical regions. Our study sheds some light on mechanisms underlying generic and species diversification in the orchid family and tropical disjunctions of herbaceous plant groups. In addition, we suggest that the biogeographical study should sample both regional endemics and their widespread relatives.
Full Text Available Intercontinental disjunctions between tropical regions, which harbor two-thirds of the flowering plants, have drawn great interest from biologists and biogeographers. Most previous studies on these distribution patterns focused on woody plants, and paid little attention to herbs. The Orchidaceae is one of the largest families of angiosperms, with a herbaceous habit and a high species diversity in the Tropics. Here we investigate the evolutionary and biogeographical history of the slipper orchids, which represents a monophyletic subfamily (Cypripedioideae of the orchid family and comprises five genera that are disjunctly distributed in tropical to temperate regions. A relatively well-resolved and highly supported phylogeny of slipper orchids was reconstructed based on sequence analyses of six maternally inherited chloroplast and two low-copy nuclear genes (LFY and ACO. We found that the genus Cypripedium with a wide distribution in the northern temperate and subtropical zones diverged first, followed by Selenipedium endemic to South America, and finally conduplicate-leaved genera in the Tropics. Mexipedium and Phragmipedium from the neotropics are most closely related, and form a clade sister to Paphiopedilum from tropical Asia. According to molecular clock estimates, the genus Selenipedium originated in Palaeocene, while the most recent common ancestor of conduplicate-leaved slipper orchids could be dated back to the Eocene. Ancestral area reconstruction indicates that vicariance is responsible for the disjunct distribution of conduplicate slipper orchids in palaeotropical and neotropical regions. Our study sheds some light on mechanisms underlying generic and species diversification in the orchid family and tropical disjunctions of herbaceous plant groups. In addition, we suggest that the biogeographical study should sample both regional endemics and their widespread relatives.
Werdell, P Jeremy; Bailey, Sean W; Franz, Bryan A; Morel, André; McClain, Charles R
Recent advances in global biogeochemical research demonstrate a critical need for long-term ocean color satellite data records of consistent high quality. To achieve that quality, spaceborne instruments require on-orbit vicarious calibration, where the integrated instrument and atmospheric correction system is adjusted using in situ normalized water-leaving radiances, such as those collected by the marine optical buoy (MOBY). Unfortunately, well-characterized time-series of in situ data are scarce for many historical satellite missions, in particular, the NASA coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) and the ocean color and temperature scanner (OCTS). Ocean surface reflectance models (ORMs) accurately reproduce spectra observed in clear marine waters, using only chlorophyll a (C(a)) as input, a measurement for which long-term in situ time series exist. Before recalibrating CZCS and OCTS using modeled radiances, however, we evaluate the approach with the Sea-viewing Wide-Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS). Using annual C(a) climatologies as input into an ORM, we derive SeaWiFS vicarious gains that differ from the operational MOBY gains by less than +/-0.9% spectrally. In the context of generating decadal C(a) climate data records, we quantify the downstream effects of using these modeled gains by generating satellite-to-in situ data product validation statistics for comparison with the operational SeaWiFS results. Finally, we apply these methods to the CZCS and OCTS ocean color time series.
Hackel, Leor M; Zaki, Jamil; Van Bavel, Jay J
People frequently engage in more prosocial behavior toward members of their own groups, as compared to other groups. Such group-based prosociality may reflect either strategic considerations concerning one's own future outcomes or intrinsic value placed on the outcomes of in-group members. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment, we examined vicarious reward responses to witnessing the monetary gains of in-group and out-group members, as well as prosocial behavior towards both types of individuals. We found that individuals' investment in their group-a motivational component of social identification-tracked the intensity of their responses in ventral striatum to in-group (vs out-group) members' rewards, as well as their tendency towards group-based prosociality. Individuals with strong motivational investment in their group preferred rewards for an in-group member, whereas individuals with low investment preferred rewards for an out-group member. These findings suggest that the motivational importance of social identity-beyond mere similarity to group members-influences vicarious reward and prosocial behavior. More broadly, these findings support a theoretical framework in which salient social identities can influence neural representations of subjective value, and suggest that social preferences can best be understood by examining the identity contexts in which they unfold. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.
Herda, Daniel; McCarthy, Bill
There is a growing body of evidence linking racial discrimination and juvenile crime, and a number of theories explain this relationship. In this study, we draw on one popular approach, Agnew's general strain theory, and extend prior research by moving from a focus on experienced discrimination to consider two other forms, anticipated and vicarious discrimination. Using data on black, white, and Hispanic youth, from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN), we find that experienced, anticipated, and to a lesser extent, vicarious discrimination, significantly predict violent crime independent of a set of neighborhood, parental, and individual level controls, including prior violent offending. Additional analyses on the specific contexts of discrimination reveal that violence is associated with the anticipation of police discrimination. The effects tend to be larger for African American than Hispanic youth, but the differences are not statistically significant. These findings support the thesis that, like other strains, discrimination may not have to be experienced directly to influence offending. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
T.; Desa , E.; Mascarenhas, A.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Naik, P.; Nayak S.R. Cross Calibration of IRS-P4 OCM Satellite Sensor. In Proceedings of SPIE, Goa...II vicarious techniques, Appl. Opt. 2001, 40, 6701–6718. Remote Sens. 2012, 4 1739 23. Suresh, T.; Desa , E.; Mascarenhas, A.; Matondkar
van der Meij, Marjoleine G.; Kupper, Frank; Beers, Pieter J.; Broerse, Jacqueline E. W.
E-learning and storytelling approaches can support informal vicarious learning within geographically widely distributed multi-stakeholder collaboration networks. This case study evaluates hybrid e-learning and video-storytelling approach "TransLearning" by investigation into how its storytelling e-tool supported informal vicarious…
Ford, Matthew W.; Kent, Daniel W.; Devoto, Steven
Web-based financial commentary, in which experts routinely express market-related thought processes, is proposed as a means for college students to learn vicariously about financial markets. Undergraduate business school students from a regional university were exposed to expert market commentary from a single financial Web site for a 6-week…
VanDeusen, Karen M.; Way, Ineke
This study examined vicarious trauma effects in male and female clinicians who treat sexual abuse survivors (n = 111) and sexual offenders (n = 272). The national survey was conducted using a random sample of clinical members of two professional organizations. Analyses tested the relationships between demographic variables, maltreatment history,…
Miller, Riane N; Fagan, Abigail A; Wright, Emily M
General strain theory (GST) hypothesizes that youth are more likely to engage in delinquency when they experience vicarious victimization, defined as knowing about or witnessing violence perpetrated against others, but that this relationship may be attenuated for those who receive social support from significant others. Based on prospective data from youth aged 8 to 17 participating in the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN), this article found mixed support for these hypotheses. Controlling for prior involvement in delinquency, as well as other risk and protective factors, adolescents who reported more vicarious victimization had an increased likelihood of alcohol use in the short term, but not the long term, and victimization was not related to tobacco or marijuana use. Peer support did not moderate the relationship between vicarious victimization and substance use, but family support did. In contrast to strain theory's predictions, the relationship between vicarious victimization and substance use was stronger for those who had higher compared with lower levels of family support. Implications of these findings for strain theory and future research are discussed.
Parada, Robert John, Jr.
The ability to conduct in-flight, absolute radiometric calibrations of ocean color sensors will determine their usefulness in the decade to come. On-board calibration systems are often integrated into the overall design of such sensors and have claimed uncertainty levels below 5%. Independent means of system calibration are needed to confirm that the sensor is accurately calibrated. Vicarious (i.e. ground-referencing) methods are an attractive way to conduct this verification. This research describes the development of in-flight, absolute radiometric calibration methods which reference dark (i.e. low-reflectance) sites. The high sensitivity of ocean color sensors results in saturation over bright surfaces. Low-reflectance targets, such as water bodies, are therefore required for their vicarious calibration. Sensitivity analyses of the reflectance-based and radiance-based techniques, when applied to a water target, are performed. Uncertainties in atmospheric parameters, surface reflectance measurements, and instrument characterization are evaluated for calibrations of a representative ocean color sensor. For a viewing geometry near the sun glint region, reflectance-based uncertainties range between 1.6% and 2.3% for visible and near-IR wavelengths; radiance-based uncertainties range between 6.8% and 20.5%. These studies indicate that better characterization of aerosol parameters is desired and that radiometer pointing accuracy must be improved to make the radiance-based method useful. The uncertainty estimates are evaluated using data from a field campaign at Lake Tahoe in June, 1995. This lake is located on the California-Nevada border and has optical characteristics similar to oceanic waters. Aircraft-based radiance data and surface measurements of water reflectance are used to calibrate visible and near infrared bands of the Airborne Visible/InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS). The vicariously-derived calibration coefficients are compared to those obtained
Papale, Andrew E.; Zielinski, Mark C.; Frank, Loren; Jadhav, Shantanu P.; Redish, A. David
Summary Current theories posit that memories encoded during experiences are subsequently consolidated into longer-term storage. Hippocampal sharp-wave ripple (SWR) events have been linked to this consolidation process during sleep, but SWRs also occur during awake immobility, where their role remains unclear. We report that awake SWR rates at the reward site are inversely related to the prevalence of vicarious trial and error (VTE) behaviors, thought to be involved in deliberation processes. SWR rates were diminished immediately after VTE behaviors and an increase in the rate of SWR events at the reward site predicted a decrease in subsequent VTE behaviors at the choice point. Furthermore, SWR disruptions increased VTE behaviors. These results suggest an inverse relationship between SWRs and VTE behaviors, and suggest that awake SWRs and associated planning and memory consolidation mechanisms are engaged specifically in the context of higher levels of behavioral certainty. PMID:27866796
Buckley, Gary I; Malouff, John M
In this study, the authors evaluated the effectiveness of a video, developed for this study and using principles of cognitive learning theory, to produce positive attitudinal change toward mental health treatment. The participants were 35 men and 45 women who were randomly assigned to watch either an experimental video, which included 3 positive 1st-person accounts of psychotherapy or a control video that focused on the psychological construct of self. Pre-intervention, post-intervention, and 2-week follow-up levels of attitude toward mental health treatment were measured using the Attitude Toward Seeking Professional Help Scale (E. H. Fischer & J. L. Turner, 1970). The experimental video group showed a significantly greater increase in positive attitude than did the control group. These results support the effectiveness of using the vicarious reinforcement elements of cognitive learning theory as a basis for changing attitudes toward mental health treatment.
Askew, Chris; Dunne, Güler; Özdil, Zehra; Reynolds, Gemma; Field, Andy P
Enhanced fear learning for fear-relevant stimuli has been demonstrated in procedures with adults in the laboratory. Three experiments investigated the effect of stimulus fear-relevance on vicarious fear learning in children (aged 6-11 years). Pictures of stimuli with different levels of fear-relevance (flowers, caterpillars, snakes, worms, and Australian marsupials) were presented alone or together with scared faces. In line with previous studies, children's fear beliefs and avoidance preferences increased for stimuli they had seen with scared faces. However, in contrast to evidence with adults, learning was mostly similar for all stimulus types irrespective of fear-relevance. The results support a proposal that stimulus preparedness is bypassed when children observationally learn threat-related information from adults.
Michiel M. Spapé
Full Text Available The Simon effect refers to an incompatibility between stimulus and response locations resulting in a conflict situation and, consequently, slower responses. Like other conflict effects, it is commonly reduced after repetitions, suggesting an executive control ability, which flexibly rewires cognitive processing and adapts to conflict. Interestingly, conflict is not necessarily individually defined: the Social Simon effect refers to a scenario where two people who share a task show a conflict effect where a single person does not. Recent studies showed these observations might converge into what could be called vicarious conflict adaptation, with evidence indicating that observing someone else’s conflict may subsequently reduce one’s own. While plausible, there is reason for doubt: both the social aspect of the Simon Effect, and the degree to which executive control accounts for the conflict adaptation effect, have become foci of debate in recent studies. Here, we present two experiments that were designed to test the social dimension of the effect by varying the social relationship between the actor and the co-actor. In Experiment 1, participants performed a conflict task with a virtual co-actor, while the actor-observer relationship was manipulated as a function of the similarity between response modalities. In Experiment 2, the same task was performed both with a virtual and with a human co-actor, while heart-rate measurements were taken to measure the impact of observed conflict on autonomous activity. While both experiments replicated the interpersonal conflict adaptation effects, neither showed evidence of the critical social dimension. We consider the findings as demonstrating that vicarious conflict adaptation does not rely on the social relationship between the actor and co-actor.
Martins, Felipe M; Templeton, Alan R; Pavan, Ana C O; Kohlbach, Beatriz C; Morgante, João S
The common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus is an excellent model organism for studying ecological vicariance in the Neotropics due to its broad geographic range and its preference for forested areas as roosting sites...
Priest, Naomi; Perry, Ryan; Ferdinand, Angeline; Kelaher, Margaret; Paradies, Yin
... health and development over time. This study examines associations between self-reported direct and vicarious racial discrimination experiences and loneliness and depressive symptoms over time among Australian school students...
Choularia, Zoe; Hutchison, Craig; Karatzias, Thanos
Primary objective: The authors sought to summarise and evaluate evidence regarding vicarious traumatisation (VT) in practitioners working with adult survivors of sexual violence and/or child sexual abuse (CSA). Methods and selection criteria: Relevant publications were identified from systematic literature searches of PubMed and PsycINFO. Studies were selected for inclusion if they examined vicarious traumatisation resulting from sexual violence and/or CSA work and were published in English b...
Technol. Arts Res. J., April-June 2015, 4(2): 164-180. 168. Table 2: Actinomycetes with potent antimicrobial activity and their origin (soil). Isolates. Origin (soil). PO-01, PO-02. Mandagadde. PO-03, PO-04. Mahishi. PO-05. Bejjavalli. PO-06. Kudumallige. PO-07, PO-08. Maaluru. PO-09, PO-10 Thirthahalli. PO-11. Kaimara.
van der Mescht, Luther; Matthee, Sonja; Matthee, Conrad A
In parasitic taxa, life history traits such as microhabitat preference and host specificity can result in differential evolutionary responses to similar abiotic events. The present study investigates the influence of vicariance and host association on the genetic structure of two generalist flea species, Listropsylla agrippinae, and Chiastopsylla rossi. The taxa differ in the time spent on the host (predominantly fur vs. nest) and level of host specificity. A total of 1056 small mammals were brushed to collect 315 fleas originating from 20 geographically distinct localities in South Africa. Phylogeographic genetic structure of L. agrippinae and C. rossi were determined by making use of 315 mitochondrial COII and 174 nuclear EF1-α sequences. Both parasites show significant genetic differentiation among the majority of the sampling sites confirming limited dispersal ability for fleas. The generalist fur flea with a narrower host range, L. agrippinae, displayed geographic mtDNA spatial genetic structure at the regional scale and this pattern is congruent with host vicariance. The dating of the divergence between the L. agrippinae geographic clades co-insides with paleoclimatic changes in the region approximately 5.27 Ma and this provides some evidence for a co-evolutionary scenario. In contrast, the more host opportunistic nest flea, C. rossi, showed a higher level of mtDNA and nDNA spatial genetic structure at the inter-populational scale, most likely attributed to comparatively higher restrictions to dispersal. In the present study, the evolutionary history of the flea species could best be explained by the association between parasite and host (time spent on the host). The phylogeographic pattern of the fur flea with a narrower host range correspond to host spatial genetic structures, while the pattern in the host opportunistic nest flea correspond to higher genetic divergences between sampling localities that may also be associated with higher effective
Cornil, Yann; Chandon, Pierre
Using archival and experimental data, we showed that vicarious defeats experienced by fans when their favorite football team loses lead them to consume less healthy food. On the Mondays following a Sunday National Football League (NFL) game, saturated-fat and food-calorie intake increase significantly in cities with losing teams, decrease in cities with winning teams, and remain at their usual levels in comparable cities without an NFL team or with an NFL team that did not play. These effects are greater in cities with the most committed fans, when the opponents are more evenly matched, and when the defeats are narrow. We found similar results when measuring the actual or intended food consumption of French soccer fans who had previously been asked to write about or watch highlights from victories or defeats of soccer teams. However, these unhealthy consequences of vicarious defeats disappear when supporters spontaneously self-affirm or are given the opportunity to do so.
Miller, Riane N.; Fagan, Abigail A.; Emily M. Wright
General strain theory (GST) hypothesizes that youth are more likely to engage in delinquency when they experience vicarious victimization, defined as knowing about or witnessing violence perpetrated against others, but that this relationship may be attenuated for those who receive social support from significant others. Based on prospective data from youth aged 8 to 17 participating in the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN), this article found mixed support for thes...
Heikkilä, Maria; Kaila, Lauri; Mutanen, Marko; Peña, Carlos; Wahlberg, Niklas
Although the taxonomy of the ca 18 000 species of butterflies and skippers is well known, the family-level relationships are still debated. Here, we present, to our knowledge, the most comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the superfamilies Papilionoidea, Hesperioidea and Hedyloidea to date based on morphological and molecular data. We reconstructed their phylogenetic relationships using parsimony and Bayesian approaches. We estimated times and rates of diversification along lineages in order to reconstruct their evolutionary history. Our results suggest that the butterflies, as traditionally understood, are paraphyletic, with Papilionidae being the sister-group to Hesperioidea, Hedyloidea and all other butterflies. Hence, the families in the current three superfamilies should be placed in a single superfamily Papilionoidea. In addition, we find that Hedylidae is sister to Hesperiidae, and this novel relationship is supported by two morphological characters. The families diverged in the Early Cretaceous but diversified after the Cretaceous–Palaeogene event. The diversification of butterflies is characterized by a slow speciation rate in the lineage leading to Baronia brevicornis, a period of stasis by the skippers after divergence and a burst of diversification in the lineages leading to Nymphalidae, Riodinidae and Lycaenidae. PMID:21920981
Heikkilä, Maria; Kaila, Lauri; Mutanen, Marko; Peña, Carlos; Wahlberg, Niklas
Although the taxonomy of the ca 18 000 species of butterflies and skippers is well known, the family-level relationships are still debated. Here, we present, to our knowledge, the most comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the superfamilies Papilionoidea, Hesperioidea and Hedyloidea to date based on morphological and molecular data. We reconstructed their phylogenetic relationships using parsimony and Bayesian approaches. We estimated times and rates of diversification along lineages in order to reconstruct their evolutionary history. Our results suggest that the butterflies, as traditionally understood, are paraphyletic, with Papilionidae being the sister-group to Hesperioidea, Hedyloidea and all other butterflies. Hence, the families in the current three superfamilies should be placed in a single superfamily Papilionoidea. In addition, we find that Hedylidae is sister to Hesperiidae, and this novel relationship is supported by two morphological characters. The families diverged in the Early Cretaceous but diversified after the Cretaceous-Palaeogene event. The diversification of butterflies is characterized by a slow speciation rate in the lineage leading to Baronia brevicornis, a period of stasis by the skippers after divergence and a burst of diversification in the lineages leading to Nymphalidae, Riodinidae and Lycaenidae.
diversified, and commercialized agricultural sector. This transformation will likely generate significant demand for agricultural professionals with new qualifications to facilitate commercialization of smallholder production, as .... classroom practices are out-of-touch with modern educational methods. Potential solutions to ...
adjuvant chemotherapy. Table 1. Patterns of presentation in malignant melanoma. *Excision .... trauma, exposure to agricultural chemicals, presence of pre-existing moles on the sole and high total body naevus ... the only adjuvant treatment given to our patients. This methylating agent is the reference agent of choice in ...
Coates, Celia; Malouff, John M; Rooke, Sally E
The authors evaluated an application of social cognitive theory principles intended to increase adherence to a problem-solving intervention. The study included 132 adult volunteers who wanted to reduce their distress levels. All participants received group training in problem-solving methods. Before attempting to solve at least 1 distressing problem in their lives over the next 3 weeks, participants were randomly assigned to either (a) a modeling with vicarious reinforcement condition in which they received 3 personal anecdotes written by individuals who had successfully applied problem-solving methods to a real problem or (b) a control condition in which they received a fact sheet about problem solving. Word counts of problem-solving writing, self-reports of adherence, and observer ratings of adherence showed that participants in the vicarious reinforcement condition demonstrated significantly higher adherence than did those in the control condition. These results provide support for the effectiveness of symbolic modeling and vicarious reinforcement in increasing adherence to problem-solving methods by individuals who want to decrease their distress.
Kim, Hyo Jung
Although vicarious experience with certain illnesses has been found to be influential on people's illness perceptions and related behaviors, the concept of vicarious experience has been understudied in health communication research. This study aims to ground possible effects of vicarious illness experience (VIE) into theory, specifically concerning the developments in gain versus loss framing literature. An experiment using 154 African American participants (mean age = 46 years) found that participants who had close women affected by breast cancer and those who had no close women affected by breast cancer responded to gain- versus loss-framed breast cancer screening (BCS) messages differently. Compared to the loss frame, the gain frame was more effective for participants with VIE in increasing their favorable attitudes toward BCS, BCS recommendation intentions, and memory of the BCS message. In contrast, when compared to the gain frame, the loss frame was more effective for those without VIE in increasing their cognitive elaboration of the BCS message. The findings suggest the strategic potential of VIE in developing health interventions, and they also provide practical implications for health communication practitioners into how to strategically use gain versus loss framing in accordance with their target publics.
Schmidt, Brandy; Papale, Andrew; Redish, A David; Markus, Etan J
Navigation can be accomplished through multiple decision-making strategies, using different information-processing computations. A well-studied dichotomy in these decision-making strategies compares hippocampal-dependent "place" and dorsal-lateral striatal-dependent "response" strategies. A place strategy depends on the ability to flexibly respond to environmental cues, while a response strategy depends on the ability to quickly recognize and react to situations with well-learned action-outcome relationships. When rats reach decision points, they sometimes pause and orient toward the potential routes of travel, a process termed vicarious trial and error (VTE). VTE co-occurs with neurophysiological information processing, including sweeps of representation ahead of the animal in the hippocampus and transient representations of reward in the ventral striatum and orbitofrontal cortex. To examine the relationship between VTE and the place/response strategy dichotomy, we analyzed data in which rats were cued to switch between place and response strategies on a plus maze. The configuration of the maze allowed for place and response strategies to work competitively or cooperatively. Animals showed increased VTE on trials entailing competition between navigational systems, linking VTE with deliberative decision-making. Even in a well-learned task, VTE was preferentially exhibited when a spatial selection was required, further linking VTE behavior with decision-making associated with hippocampal processing.
Askew, Chris; Hagel, Anna; Morgan, Julie
Models of social anxiety suggest that negative social experiences contribute to the development of social anxiety, and this is supported by self-report research. However, there is relatively little experimental evidence for the effects of learning experiences on social cognitions. The current study examined the effect of observing a social performance situation with a negative outcome on children's (8 to 11 years old) fear-related beliefs and cognitive processing. Two groups of children were each shown 1 of 2 animated films of a person trying to score in basketball while being observed by others; in 1 film, the outcome was negative, and in the other, it was neutral. Children's fear-related beliefs about performing in front of others were measured before and after the film and children were asked to complete an emotional Stroop task. Results showed that social fear beliefs increased for children who saw the negative social performance film. In addition, these children showed an emotional Stroop bias for social-anxiety-related words compared to children who saw the neutral film. The findings have implications for our understanding of social anxiety disorder and suggest that vicarious learning experiences in childhood may contribute to the development of social anxiety. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Gillham, T.; Cerveny, B.; Turek, E.
The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is a field test of the concept that air injection can be combined with the Double Displacement Process to produce a tertiary recovery process that is both low cost and economic at current oil prices. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering tertiary oil by gravity drainage. In reservoirs with pronounced bed dip such as those found in West Hackberry and other Gulf Coast salt dome fields, reservoir performance has shown that gravity drainage recoveries average 80% to 90% of the original oil in place while waterdrive recoveries average 50% to 60% of the original oil in place. The target for tertiary oil recovery in the Double Displacement Process is the incremental oil between the 50% to 60% waterdrive recoveries and the 80% to 90% gravity drainage recoveries. In previous field tests, the Double Displacement Process has proven successful in generating tertiary oil recovery. The use of air injection in this process combines the benefits of air`s low cost and universal accessibility with the potential for accelerated oil recovery from the combustion process. If successful, this project will demonstrate that utilizing air injection in the Double Displacement Process will result in an economically viable tertiary process in reservoirs (such as Gulf Coast salt dome reservoirs) where any other tertiary process is presently uneconomic.
in a sustainable way. Therefore, the objective of th was to assess poultry production practice productivity of indigenous and exotic chicken in th area. Original ... systems. Method of Data Collection. The data was collected from the four RKs purposively selected from each agro-ecology, 15 households who owned flock of ...
Herbeck, E.F.; Heintz, R.C.; Hastings, J.R.
Secondary recovery projects initiated annually by Atlantic Richfield Co. in the U.S. show a general trend somewhat characteristic of all U.S. producers. Why did the number of project starts decline. Simply because there was a lack of prospects for Atlantic Richfield to apply waterflooding economically. This raises the question of what is the next step to maintain U.S. oil producing rates. One answer is to recover a third crop of oil from those fields which have already undergone secondary recovery. It is becoming evident that tertiary recovery must be undertaken while the existing wells and surface equipment are still intact and usable. Very few prospects are expected to be so profitable that economics will permit redrilling of wells and replacement of surface equipment, but tertiary recovery will be applicable to many of the existing oil fields. Engineers and production personnel at all organizational levels must make an effort to recognize those fields under their supervision which are candidates for tertiary recovery applications.
Kim, Byung Seup; Ryu, Han Suk; Kang, Kyung Ho; Park, Sung Jun
Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare disease of unknown etiology. This study presents a case of parathyroid carcinoma in a patient with tertiary hyperparathyroidism. Despite a successful kidney transplantation, the intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) level of the patient was elevated consistently and could not be controlled by medical therapy. Due to the development of tertiary hyperparathyroidism with bone pain and osteoporosis, subtotal parathyroidectomy was performed 4 months after the kidney transplantation. Histological evaluation revealed that one of four parathyroid lesions was a parathyroid carcinoma, while the others were diffuse hyperplasia. Postoperative laboratory studies indicated a decreased level of iPTH. A positron emission tomography-computed tomography performed 6 months after the operation revealed no evidence of local recurrence or distant metastasis. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.
Yeom, J. M.
The KOrea Multi-Purpose SATellite-3 (KOMPSAT-3A) developed by Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) is the first sub-meter optical satellite of South Korea with IR sensor. This paper describe the first radiometric characteristics of KOMPSAT-3A by carrying out vicarious calibration with reference to well-known surface tarps. The field campaigns are performed to measure spectral of surface tarps with hand-held ASD spectroradiometer. When performing field measurement, KOMPSAT-3A multispectral images are acquired at same time to reduce atmospheric and observation geometric discrepancies. The estimated spectral of surface reflectance from tarps are used as input values of 6S radiative transfer model to predict radiance at sensor level. The present study, 6S radiative transfer model is used by inputting various initial parameters such as spectral response function of KOMPSAT-3A, atmospheric condition, and relative sensor-target-solar geometry. In the case of atmospheric products, multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) measurements and MODIS atmospheric products such as aerosol optical depth, water vapor and amount of ozone are used for interpreting solar radiation scattering and absorption effects. For first field campaign, the gain coefficients from each of multispectral bands are estimated by comparing predicted radiance at sensor level and digital number (DN) of KOMPSAT-3A based on leaner least square fit. To analysis firstly estimated radiometric calibration, surface reflectance of tarps in second field campaign is used as reference target to validate its radiometric characteristics. And second field campaign measurements are also used to upgrade KOMPSAT-3A DN to radiance coefficients. Reliable radiometric values are suggested by using surface tarps, MFRSR and MODIS products, indicating those information are useful for KOMPSAT-3A user group for continuous variables of quantitative applications.
Hoddinott, Pat; Kroll, Thilo; Raja, Amalraj; Lee, Amanda Jane
Vicarious experience gained through seeing women breastfeed may influence infant feeding decisions and self-efficacy. Our aim was to measure the attributes of seeing breastfeeding and to investigate how these relate to feeding intention (primary outcome) and behaviour (secondary outcome). First, we developed a Seeing Breastfeeding Scale (SBS), which consisted of five attitudes (Cronbach's alpha of 0.86) to most recently observed breastfeeding: 'I felt embarrassed'; 'I felt uncomfortable'; 'I did not know where to look'; and 'It was lovely' and 'It didn't bother me'. Test-retest reliability showed agreement (with one exception, kappas ranged from 0.36 to 0.71). Second, we conducted a longitudinal survey of 418 consecutive pregnant women in rural Scotland. We selected the 259 women who had never breastfed before for further analysis. Following multiple adjustments, women who agreed that 'It was lovely to see her breastfeed' were more than six times more likely to intend to breastfeed compared with women who disagreed with the statement [odds ratio (OR) 6.72, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.85-15.82]. Women who completed their full-time education aged 17 (OR 3.09, 95% CI 1.41-6.77) or aged 19 (OR 7.41 95% CI 2.51-21.94) were more likely to initiate breastfeeding. Women who reported seeing breastfeeding within the preceding 12 months were significantly more likely to agree with the statement 'It was lovely to see her breastfeed' (P = 0.02). Positive attitudes to recently seen breastfeeding are more important determinants of feeding intention than age of first seeing breastfeeding, the relationship to the person seen and seeing breastfeeding in the media.
Full Text Available Introduced in 2011, the supervised vicarious calibration (SVC approach is a promising approach to radiometric calibration and atmospheric correction of airborne hyperspectral (HRS data. This paper presents a comprehensive study by which the SVC method has been systematically examined and a complete protocol for its practical execution has been established—along with possible limitations encountered during the campaign. The technique was applied to multi-sourced HRS data in order to: (1 verify the at-sensor radiometric calibration and (2 obtain radiometric and atmospheric correction coefficients. Spanning two select study sites along the southeast coast of France, data were collected simultaneously by three airborne sensors (AisaDUAL, AHS and CASI-1500i aboard two aircrafts (CASA of National Institute for Aerospace Technology INTA ES and DORNIER 228 of NERC-ARSF Centre UK. The SVC ground calibration site was assembled along sand dunes near Montpellier and the thematic data were acquired from other areas in the south of France (Salon-de-Provence, Marseille, Avignon and Montpellier on 28 October 2010 between 12:00 and 16:00 UTC. The results of this study confirm that the SVC method enables reliable inspection and, if necessary, in-situ fine radiometric recalibration of airborne hyperspectral data. Independent of sensor or platform quality, the SVC approach allows users to improve at-sensor data to obtain more accurate physical units and subsequently improved reflectance information. Flight direction was found to be important, whereas the flight altitude posed very low impact. The numerous rules and major outcomes of this experiment enable a new standard of atmospherically corrected data based on better radiometric output. Future research should examine the potential of SVC to be applied to super-and-hyperspectral data obtained from on-orbit sensors.
This article investigates the effect of others' prior nonprejudiced behavior on an individual's subsequent behavior. Five studies supported the hypothesis that people are more willing to express prejudiced attitudes when their group members' past behavior has established nonprejudiced credentials. Study 1a showed that participants who were told that their group was more moral than similar other groups were more willing to describe a job as better suited for Whites than for African Americans. In Study 1b, when given information on group members' prior nondiscriminatory behavior (selecting a Hispanic applicant in a prior task), participants subsequently gave more discriminatory ratings to the Hispanic applicant for a position stereotypically suited for majority members (Whites). In Study 2, moral self-concept mediated the effect of others' prior nonprejudiced actions on a participant's subsequent prejudiced behavior such that others' past nonprejudiced actions enhanced the participant's moral self-concept, and this inflated moral self-concept subsequently drove the participant's prejudiced ratings of a Hispanic applicant. In Study 3, the moderating role of identification with the credentialing group was tested. Results showed that participants expressed more prejudiced attitudes toward a Hispanic applicant when they highly identified with the group members behaving in nonprejudiced manner. In Study 4, the credentialing task was dissociated from the participants' own judgmental task, and, in addition, identification with the credentialing group was manipulated rather than measured. Consistent with prior studies, the results showed that participants who first had the opportunity to view an in-group member's nonprejudiced hiring decision were more likely to reject an African American man for a job stereotypically suited for majority members. These studies suggest a vicarious moral licensing effect. 2011 APA, all rights reserved
Hirschsprung's disease over a nine year period in a Tertiary pediatric surgical centre in Nigeria was performed. Results: From .... burns in the hospital. .Table 1: Symptomtomatologys in 31 neonates. Symptom. No (%). Delayed passage of meconium. 27(87). Abdominal distension. 22(71). Bilious vomiting. 22(71). Fever.
All the 52 patients were postpartum; 16(30.8%) were suitable for HDU care. Of the HDU eligible ... staffing (midwifery, obstetric, anesthesia) providing ..... Bhat PBR, Navada MH, Rao SV and Nagaratna G. (2013). Evaluation of obstetric admissions to intensive care unit of a tertiary referral center in coastal India. J Crit Care ...
pancreatitis among chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients in a tertiary ... most important risk factors in adults are gallstones and excessive alcohol .... Ultrasound findings at presentation. Number of patients (%). Normal ultrasound. 29 (67.4%). Gall stones. 7 (16.27%). Multiple polyps in gall bladder. 4 (9.3%). Edematous wall ...
Thomas, Rhiannon B; Wilson, John P
Understanding the effects of prolonged contact, in a professional role, with trauma victims has led to conceptualizations of helper stress. Various terms such as compassion fatigue, vicarious traumatization, secondary traumatic stress reactions, empathic strains, burn out, and Type land Type II countertransference have been proposed These terms required conceptual classification to make a proper diagnosis and classification of their impact on the helping process. It is proposed that Traumatoid States is a more inclusive and accurate term to define sub-types of occupationally-related stress response syndromes (OSRS).
Liu, Yi; Zang, Xuelian; Chen, Lihan; Assumpção, Leonardo; Li, Hong
The growth of online shopping increases consumers' dependence on vicarious sensory experiences, such as observing others touching products in commercials. However, empirical evidence on whether observing others' sensory experiences increases purchasing intention is still scarce. In the present study, participants observed others interacting with products in the first- or third-person perspective in video clips, and their neural responses were measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We investigated (1) whether and how vicariously touching certain products affected purchasing intention, and the neural correlates of this process; and (2) how visual perspective interacts with vicarious tactility. Vicarious tactile experiences were manipulated by hand actions touching or not touching the products, while the visual perspective was manipulated by showing the hand actions either in first- or third-person perspective. During the fMRI scanning, participants watched the video clips and rated their purchasing intention for each product. The results showed that, observing others touching (vs. not touching) the products increased purchasing intention, with vicarious neural responses found in mirror neuron systems (MNS) and lateral occipital complex (LOC). Moreover, the stronger neural activities in MNS was associated with higher purchasing intention. The effects of visual perspectives were found in left superior parietal lobule (SPL), while the interaction of tactility and visual perspective was shown in precuneus and precuneus-LOC connectivity. The present study provides the first evidence that vicariously touching a given product increased purchasing intention and the neural activities in bilateral MNS, LOC, left SPL and precuneus are involved in this process. Hum Brain Mapp 39:332-343, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to address questions concerning the historical biogeography of the genus Mercurialis in the subfamily Acalyphoideae. Applying a molecular clock to obtained rbcL phylogeny, we estimated the minimal age of divergence of genus Mercurialis to ~65-66 Ma, placing it at the Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary. We used ancestral area analysis and dispersal-vicariance analysis to infer the center of origin of the genus. Contrary to previous hypothesis, our results show that Mercurialis originated in Indomalaya and migrated westward, while the Mediterranean area was most probably the center of ecological diversification and further speciation. Evolutionary events of vicariance and dispersals were reconstructed in a proposed scenario of divergence of Mercurialis within Acalyphoideae. .
Gillham, T.; Cerveny, B.; Turek, E.
The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is a field test of the idea that air injection can be combined with the Double Displacement Process to produce a low cost tertiary recovery process which is economic at current oil prices. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering tertiary oil by gravity drainage. The Double Displacement Process is based upon the concept that in fields such as West Hackberry waterdrive recoveries are typically 50%-60% of the original oil in place while gravity drainage recoveries average 80%-90% of the original oil in place. Therefore, by injecting a gas into a watered out reservoir, a gas cap will form and additional oil can be recovered due to gravity drainage. Although the Double Displacement Process has been shown to be successful in recovering tertiary oil in other fields, this project will be the first to utilize air injection in the Double Displacement Process. The use of air injection in this process combines the benefits of air`s low cost and universal accessibility with the potential for accelerated oil recovery due to the combustion process. If successful, this project will demonstrate that the use of air injection in the Double Displacement Process will result in an economically viable tertiary process in reservoirs where tertiary oil recovery is presently uneconomical.
Upchurch, Paul; Hunn, Craig A; Norman, David B
As the supercontinent Pangaea fragmented during the Mesozoic era, dinosaur faunas were divided into isolated populations living on separate continents. It has been predicted, therefore, that dinosaur distributions should display a branching ('vicariance') pattern that corresponds with the sequence and timing of continental break-up. Several recent studies, however, minimize the importance of plate tectonics and instead suggest that dispersal and regional extinction were the main controls on dinosaur biogeography. Here, in order to test the vicariance hypothesis, we apply a cladistic biogeographical method to a large dataset on dinosaur relationships and distributions. We also introduce a methodological refinement termed 'time-slicing', which is shown to be a key step in the detection of ancient biogeographical patterns. These analyses reveal biogeographical patterns that closely correlate with palaeogeography. The results provide the first statistically robust evidence that, from Middle Jurassic to mid-Cretaceous times, tectonic events had a major role in determining where and when particular dinosaur groups flourished. The fact that evolutionary trees for extinct organisms preserve such distribution patterns opens up a new and fruitful direction for palaeobiogeographical research.
Hunter, Sally V
The therapeutic bond is at the heart of effective therapy, yet few studies have examined therapists' experience of this bond. Using a qualitative study design, this exploratory study examines the experiences of couple and family therapists in relation to their perceptions of the satisfactions and risks involved in the therapeutic bond. The research was conducted using grounded theory methodology and eight in-depth interviews were conducted with therapists working in five counseling agencies in Sydney, Australia. Therapists described the importance of the 3 component parts of the therapeutic bond: the empathic connection between therapist and client; the role investment of the client; and the mutual affirmation experienced by both therapist and client in the therapeutic process. Walking in sacred spaces with the client was seen as both enriching and challenging for the therapist. The therapeutic bond gave therapists intense satisfaction and posed risks for them, especially when working with traumatic client experiences. However, the findings suggest that the experience of compassion satisfaction and the development of vicarious resilience counter-balanced the intense difficulty of bearing witness to clients' traumatic experiences and the potential for vicarious traumatization. The implications for sustaining couple and family therapists in their work are discussed. © FPI, Inc.
Shiel Robert E
Full Text Available A nine-year-old male entire Labrador was diagnosed with pituitary dependent hyperadrenocorticism. Following seven months of successful mitotane therapy, the dog presented with marked weight gain, seborrhoea and alopecia. Routine clinicopathological analyses revealed marked hypercholesterolaemia. Serum total and free thyroxine (T4 concentrations were below their respective reference ranges. Serum thyroid stimulating hormone (cTSH concentration was within reference range. TSH and thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH response tests revealed adequate stimulation of total T4 in both, and cTSH in the latter test. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass arising from the pituitary fossa, with suprasellar extension. A diagnosis of tertiary hypothyroidism was made. Following four weeks of levothyroxine therapy, circulating cholesterol concentration had declined, weight loss had ensued and dermatological abnormalities had improved. Euthanasia was performed four months later due to the development of neurological signs. A highly infiltrative pituitary adenoma, with effacement of the overlying hypothalamus was identified on post mortem examination. Tertiary hypothyroidism has not been previously reported in dogs.
The following report is the Project Management Plan for the fifth year of the West Hackberry Tertiary Project. The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is one of four mid-term projects selected by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the DOE`s Class 1 Program for the development of advance recovery technologies in fluvial dominated deltaic reservoirs. The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is a field test of the idea that air injection can be combined with the Double Displacement Process to produce a low cost tertiary recovery process which is economic at current oil prices. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering tertiary oil by gravity drainage. The Double Displacement Process is based upon the concept that in fields such as West Hackberry waterdrive recoveries are typically 50%-60% of the original oil in place while gravity drainage recoveries average 80%-90% of the original oil in place. Therefore, by injecting a gas into a watered out reservoir, a gas cap will form an additional oil can be recovered due to gravity drainage. Although the Double Displacement Process has been shown to be successful in recovering tertiary oil in other fields, this project will be the first to utilize air injection in the Double Displacement Process. The use of air injection in this process combines the benefits of air`s low cost and universal accessibility with the potential for accelerated oil recovery due to the combustion process. If successful, this project will demonstrate that the use of air injection in the Double Displacement Process will result in an economically viable tertiary process in reservoirs where tertiary oil recovery is presently uneconomical.
Nov 15, 1996 ... Public health surveillanre: Historical origins, methods and evaluation. Bull World .... collected by the National Intelligence Service from the truck ... ORIGINAL ARTICLES. Table I. Origin of respondents. Place of origin. Number. Percentage. Durban. 75. 20.8. East Rand. 49. 13.6. Johannesburg. 50. 13.9.
We define the geographic distributions of embedded evolutionary mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages (clades) within a broadly distributed, arid- dwelling toad, Bufo punctatus, and evaluate these patterns as they relate to hypothesized vicariant events leading to the formation of b...
Krach, Sören; Kamp-Becker, Inge; Einhäuser, Wolfgang; Sommer, Jens; Frässle, Stefan; Jansen, Andreas; Rademacher, Lena; Müller-Pinzler, Laura; Gazzola, Valeria; Paulus, Frieder M
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by substantial social deficits. The notion that dysfunctions in neural circuits involved in sharing another's affect explain these deficits is appealing, but has received only modest experimental support. Here we evaluated a complex paradigm on the vicarious social pain of embarrassment to probe social deficits in ASD as to whether it is more potent than paradigms currently in use. To do so we acquired pupillometry and fMRI in young adults with ASD and matched healthy controls. During a simple vicarious physical pain task no differences emerged between groups in behavior, pupillometry, and neural activation of the anterior insula (AIC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). In contrast, processing complex vicarious social pain yielded reduced responses in ASD on all physiological measures of sharing another's affect. The reduced activity within the AIC was thereby explained by the severity of autistic symptoms in the social and affective domain. Additionally, behavioral responses lacked correspondence with the anterior cingulate and anterior insula cortex activity found in controls. Instead, behavioral responses in ASD were associated with hippocampal activity. The observed dissociation echoes the clinical observations that deficits in ASD are most pronounced in complex social situations and simple tasks may not probe the dysfunctions in neural pathways involved in sharing affect. Our results are highly relevant because individuals with ASD may have preserved abilities to share another's physical pain but still have problems with the vicarious representation of more complex emotions that matter in life. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Schmitz, M.; Bernau, S.; Germann, K. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer angewandte Geowissenschaften, Abt. Oekonomische Geologie; Pernak, P. [Dr. Fechter GmbH, Umweltlabor und Ingenieurbuero, Berlin (Germany); Rotard, W. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Technischen Umweltschutz, Abt. Klimachemie
Since 1999 dioxin of possibly natural origin has repeatedly been found in kaolinitic clays of different countries. Until today it is not generally agreed how the dioxin was generated. The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between the dioxin content and the mineralogical composition of clays as well as the distribution of dioxin in different grain size fractions and its behaviour within a profile of Tertiary kaolinitic clays from Germany. The study may provide a hypothesis of dioxin formation, based on the genesis of the clays.
Full Text Available Although the multimodal stimulation provided by modern audiovisual video games is pleasing by itself, the rewarding nature of video game playing depends critically also on the players’ active engagement in the gameplay. The extent to which active engagement influences dopaminergic brain reward circuit responses remains unsettled. Here we show that striatal reward circuit responses elicited by successes (wins and failures (losses in a video game are stronger during active than vicarious gameplay. Eleven healthy males both played a competitive first-person tank shooter game (active playing and watched a pre-recorded gameplay video (vicarious playing while their hemodynamic brain activation was measured with 3-tesla functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Wins and losses were paired with symmetrical monetary rewards and punishments during active and vicarious playing so that the external reward context remained identical during both conditions. Brain activation was stronger in the orbitomedial prefrontal cortex (omPFC during winning than losing, both during active and vicarious playing conditions. In contrast, both wins and losses suppressed activations in the midbrain and striatum during active playing; however, the striatal suppression, particularly in the anterior putamen, was more pronounced during loss than win events. Sensorimotor confounds related to joystick movements did not account for the results. Self-ratings indicated losing to be more unpleasant during active than vicarious playing. Our findings demonstrate striatum to be selectively sensitive to self-acquired rewards, in contrast to frontal components of the reward circuit that process both self-acquired and passively received rewards. We propose that the striatal responses to repeated acquisition of rewards that are contingent on game related successes contribute to the motivational pull of video-game playing.
Kätsyri, Jari; Hari, Riitta; Ravaja, Niklas; Nummenmaa, Lauri
Although the multimodal stimulation provided by modern audiovisual video games is pleasing by itself, the rewarding nature of video game playing depends critically also on the players' active engagement in the gameplay. The extent to which active engagement influences dopaminergic brain reward circuit responses remains unsettled. Here we show that striatal reward circuit responses elicited by successes (wins) and failures (losses) in a video game are stronger during active than vicarious gameplay. Eleven healthy males both played a competitive first-person tank shooter game (active playing) and watched a pre-recorded gameplay video (vicarious playing) while their hemodynamic brain activation was measured with 3-tesla functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Wins and losses were paired with symmetrical monetary rewards and punishments during active and vicarious playing so that the external reward context remained identical during both conditions. Brain activation was stronger in the orbitomedial prefrontal cortex (omPFC) during winning than losing, both during active and vicarious playing. In contrast, both wins and losses suppressed activations in the midbrain and striatum during active playing; however, the striatal suppression, particularly in the anterior putamen, was more pronounced during loss than win events. Sensorimotor confounds related to joystick movements did not account for the results. Self-ratings indicated losing to be more unpleasant during active than vicarious playing. Our findings demonstrate striatum to be selectively sensitive to self-acquired rewards, in contrast to frontal components of the reward circuit that process both self-acquired and passively received rewards. We propose that the striatal responses to repeated acquisition of rewards that are contingent on game related successes contribute to the motivational pull of video-game playing.
Lo, Eugenia Y Y; Duke, Norman C; Sun, Mei
Mangroves are key components of coastal ecosystems in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. However, the patterns and mechanisms of modern distribution of mangroves are still not well understood. Historical vicariance and dispersal are two hypothetic biogeographic processes in shaping the patterns of present-day species distributions. Here we investigate evolutionary biogeography of mangroves in the Indo-West Pacific (IWP) and western Atlantic-East Pacific (AEP) regions using a large sample of populations of Rhizophora (the most representative mangrove genus) and a combination of chloroplast and nuclear DNA sequences and genome-wide ISSR markers. Our comparative analyses of biogeographic patterns amongst Rhizophora taxa worldwide support the hypothesis that ancient dispersals along the Tethys Seaway and subsequent vicariant events that divided the IWP and AEP lineages resulted in the major disjunctions. We dated the deep split between the Old and New World lineages to early Eocene based on fossil calibration and geological and tectonic changes. Our data also provide evidence for other vicariant processes within the Indo-West Pacific region in separating conspecific lineages of SE Asia and Australia-Pacific at the Oligocene-Miocene boundary. Close genetic affinities exist between extant Fijian and American lineages; East African and Australian lineages; and Australian and Pacific lineages; indicating relatively more recent oceanic long-distance dispersal events. Our study demonstrates that neither vicariance nor dispersal alone could explain the observed global occurrences of Rhizophora, but a combination of vicariant events and oceanic long-distance dispersals can account for historical diversification and present-day biogeographic patterns of mangroves.
Pojanowski, Jeffrey A; Walsh, Kevin C
... originalist. This insight animates what many have begun to call the "positive turn" in originalism. Defenses of originalism in this vein are "positive" in that they are based on the status of the Constitution, and constitutional law, as positive law...
Full Text Available PRESENT VEGETATION AND FLORA OF NORTHERN AFRICA, THEIR MEANING IN RELATION TO THEIR ORIGIN, EVOLUTION AND MIGRATIONS OF FLORAS AND THE STRUCTURES OF PAST VEGETATION In the light of recent works and biogeographic synthesis, the Mediterranean flora appears more and more as a heterogeneous entity, reflecting, to a great extent, the palaeogeographic and palaeoclimatic history of the region. In particular, the co-existence of elements of southern stock and of northerly elements, presently points to the possibilities of exchange which occurred very early in the Tertiary between the Gondwanian type of floras or the less tropical types and the Laurasian floras.The tropical elements are numerous and can be linked to various entities according to their age; a pantropical entity comprising in particular, Tetraclinis and Warionia, but also various families, is common to all the tropical regions and, without any doubt, contemporary with the dismemberment of Gondwana; a north-tropical entity peculiarly common to California and the Mediterranean region; a palaeotropical entity strongly heterogeneous and complex. One finds there: — thermophilous sclerophyll types often linked to the African rainforest species, — old xerophilous types, distributed in South Africa and north of the Equator (randflora, — endemic taxa of high African mountains, showing affinities with Ethiopian species or of the high African mountains, — taxa more recently arrived or even common sahelian species settled during the last pluvial. The elements of extratropical stock are composed of autochthonal or Mediterraneo-Tertiary elements, and of northern elements. The Mediterraneo-Tertiary elements are the remnants of differentiated floras generally in situ on the banks of the Tethys and on the micro-plates which occur there. The role of the Iberian micro-plate is particularly important in the western Magreb. It is advisable to associate them with various species belonging to the
Bautista, Nazan Uludag
This study investigated the effectiveness of an Early Childhood Education science methods course that focused exclusively on providing various mastery (i.e., enactive, cognitive content, and cognitive pedagogical) and vicarious experiences (i.e., cognitive self-modeling, symbolic modeling, and simulated modeling) in increasing preservice elementary teachers' self-efficacy beliefs. Forty-four preservice elementary teachers participated in the study. Analysis of the quantitative (STEBI-b) and qualitative (informal surveys) data revealed that personal science teaching efficacy and science teaching outcome expectancy beliefs increased significantly over the semester. Enactive mastery, cognitive pedagogical mastery, symbolic modeling, and cognitive self-modeling were the major sources of self-efficacy. This list was followed by cognitive content mastery and simulated modeling. This study has implications for science teacher educators.
Zerach, Gad; Shalev, Tal Ben-Itzchak
This study examined posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (PTSD), secondary traumatization (ST) and vicarious posttraumatic growth (VG) among Israeli psychiatric nurses (PN) who were compared to community nurses (CN). Furthermore, we examined the contribution of PN perceptions of the etiology of their patients' mental illness to their PTSD, ST and VG. Results show that PN reported higher levels of both PTSD and ST symptoms, but lower levels of VG, as compare to CN. While ST symptoms were positively related to VG among CN, PTSD and ST symptoms were negatively associated among PN. Finally, exposure to patients' violence, PTSD or ST symptoms, and illness attribution dimensions of 'powerful others', predicted nurses' VG. PN are an at-risk population for work-related stress residues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Brenda M Sabo
Full Text Available The work environment significantly affects the physical, psychological, emotional and/or spiritual wellbeing of individuals is unquestionable. Adverse effects have been noted among healthcare professionals working with clients experiencing pain and suffering often associated with cancer, palliative or end-of-life care; however, little is known about how or in which manner the nurse-patient-family relationship may affect the psychosocial health and wellbeing of nurses working in these areas. Three concepts have been highlighted as most frequently associated with the adverse consequences of caring work: these are compassion fatigue (secondary traumatic stress, burnout and vicarious traumatization. The following discussion investigates these concepts and their implications on palliative and hematological cancer nursing practice.
Fretz, Barbara L.
A study investigated how Accelerated Learning (AL), a teaching methodology that purports to increase the quantity and improve the quality of learning, affected tertiary students' knowledge of and skills in writing and their feelings towards writing. AL has its origins in G. Lozanov's "suggestopedia." Believing that formal teaching…
Original Research Article. Potential drug-drug interactions in the neurology ward of a tertiary care hospital in Peshawar, Pakistan. Roheena Zafar1, Kamran A Chishti1 and Muhammad Zahoor2. 1Department of Pharmacy, Sarhad University of Science and Information Technology, Peshawar, 2Department of Chemistry,.
Makadia, Rakhee; Sabin-Farrell, Rachel; Turpin, Graham
The study investigated the relationship between exposure to trauma work and well-being (general psychological distress, trauma symptoms, and disrupted beliefs) in trainee clinical psychologists. It also assessed the contribution of individual and situational factors to well-being. A Web-based survey was employed. The survey comprised the General Health Questionnaire, Secondary Traumatic Stress Scale, Trauma and Attachment Belief Scale, Trauma Screening Questionnaire, and specific questions about exposure to trauma work and other individual and situational factors. The link to the online survey was sent via email to trainee clinical psychologists attending courses throughout the UK RESULTS: Five hundred sixty-four trainee clinical psychologists participated. Most trainees had a caseload of one to two trauma cases in the previous 6 months; the most common trauma being sexual abuse. Exposure to trauma work was not related to general psychological distress or disrupted beliefs but was a significant predictor of trauma symptoms. Situational factors contributed to the variance in trauma symptoms; level of stress of clinical work and quality of trauma training were significant predictors of trauma symptoms. Individual and situational factors were also found to be significant predictors of general psychological distress and disrupted beliefs. This study provides support for secondary traumatic stress but lacks evidence to support belief changes in vicarious traumatization or a relationship between exposure to trauma work and general psychological distress. The measurement and validity of vicarious traumatization is discussed along with clinical, theoretical implications, and suggestions for future research. Secondary traumatic stress is a potential risk for trainee clinical psychologists. Training courses should (a) focus on quality of trauma training as it may be protective; (b) advocate coping strategies to reduce stress of clinical work, as the level of stress of
López-Solà, Marina; Koban, Leonie; Krishnan, Anjali; Wager, Tor D
In a previous study (Krishnan, 2016) we identified a whole-brain pattern, the Vicarious Pain Signature (VPS), which predicts vicarious pain when participants observe pictures of strangers in pain. Here, we test its generalization to observation of pain in a close significant other. Participants experienced painful heat (Self-Pain) and observed their romantic partner in pain (Partner-Pain). We measured whether (i) the VPS would respond selectively to Partner-Pain and (ii) the Neurologic Pain Signature (NPS), a measure validated to track somatic pain, would selectively respond to Self-Pain, despite the high interpersonal closeness between partners. The Partner-Pain condition activated the VPS (t = 4.71, p = 0.00005), but not the NPS (t = -1.03, p = 0.308). The Self-Pain condition activated the NPS (t = 13.70, p VPS (t = -1.03 p = 0.308). Relative VPS-NPS response differences strongly discriminated Partner-Pain vs. Self-Pain (cross-validated accuracy=97%, p VPS responses during Partner-Pain (r = 0.388, p = 0.050) and greater unpleasantness when observing the romantic partner in pain (r = 0.559, p = 0.003). The VPS generalizes across empathy paradigms and to an interactive social setting, and strongly activates when observing a close significant other in pain. VPS responses may be modulated by relevant interpersonal relationship factors. Self-Pain and Partner-Pain evoke non-overlapping large-scale neural representations. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Bartle, Naomi C; Harvey, Kate
Breastfeeding confers important health benefits to both infants and their mothers, but rates are low in the United Kingdom and other developed countries despite widespread promotion. This study examined the relationships between personal and vicarious experience of infant feeding, self-efficacy, the theory of planned behaviour variables of attitudes and subjective norm, and the likelihood of breastfeeding at 6-8 weeks post-natally. A prospective questionnaire study of both first-time mothers (n = 77) and experienced breastfeeders (n = 72) recruited at an antenatal clinic in South East England. Participants completed a questionnaire at 32 weeks pregnant assessing personal and vicarious experience of infant feeding (breastfeeding, formula-feeding, and maternal grandmother's experience of breastfeeding), perceived control, self-efficacy, intentions, attitudes (to breastfeeding and formula-feeding), and subjective norm. Infant feeding behaviour was recorded at 6-8 weeks post-natally. Multiple linear regression modelled the influence of vicarious experience on attitudes, subjective norm, and self-efficacy (but not perceived control) and modelled the influence of attitude, subjective norm, self-efficacy, and past experience on intentions to breastfeed. Logistic regression modelled the likelihood of breastfeeding at 6-8 weeks. Previous experience (particularly personal experience of breastfeeding) explained a significant amount of variance in attitudes, subjective norm, and self-efficacy. Intentions to breastfeed were predicted by subjective norm and attitude to formula-feeding and, in experienced mothers, self-efficacy. Breastfeeding at 6 weeks was predicted by intentions and vicarious experience of formula-feeding. Vicarious experience, particularly of formula-feeding, has been shown to influence the behaviour of first-time and experienced mothers both directly and indirectly via attitudes and subjective norm. Interventions that reduce exposure to formula
formation of reproductive health clubs in our tertiary institutions and training of peer group educators in all our communities ... social issue in.the developing worldl. In Nigeria .... and alcohol (illicit gin and stout-6. 1%). .... They are cheap, readily.
Geffen, C. A.
The technology of tertiary oil recovery methods is described and potential economic and environmental constraints to future commercial application are identified. Oil recoverable by tertiary techniques represents a domestic resource of between 11- and 42-billion barrels. Estimates of additional oil supplies from tertiary methods by the year 2000 range from 1 to 8 million barrels per day, depending on the price of oil and the rate of technological development. The principal constraints to large-scale application of tertiary methods at the present time include environmental, economic and technological concerns. Regulatory action associated with the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977 currently delay the expansion of thermal recovery operations in California and may discourage future projects. The high production costs of tertiary projects also hamper process implementation. Further testing and research is necessary to develop the technology of tertiary recovery methods and prove these techniques successful on a field-wide scale. To enable tertiary oil recovery to play a significant role in augmenting domestic energy supplies, further research and development is necessary. More accurate methods of determining reservoir structure and residual oil saturations are required, as well as means for assuring the technical feasibility and success of a tertiary method in different reservoir types. Technical process limitations must also be resolved. The severity of potential environmental impacts and constraints identified in this report should be determined. These concerns include the air pollutant emissions from steam generation in thermal processes; acceptable methods of brine disposal; damage due to runoff or accidental discharge of oil-rich chemicals into surface waters; the impacts of fluid injection on deep aquifers and the prevailing geological structure; and an adequate supply of high quality fresh water.
Somnay, Yash R; Weinlander, Eric; Alfhefdi, Amal; Schneider, David; Sippel, Rebecca S; Chen, Herbert
Tertiary hyperparathyroidism (3HPT) is defined as the persistent hyperproduction of parathyroid hormone and resulting hypercalcemia after renal transplantation. Here, we examine the utility of radioguided parathyroidectomy (RGP) in patients with 3HPT. We reviewed a prospective surgery database containing 80 3HPT patients who underwent RGP from January 2001-July 2014 at our institution. We evaluated patient demographics, operative management, radioguided neoprobe utilization, and operative outcomes. Data are reported as mean ± standard error of the mean. The mean age of the patients was 52 ± 1 y, and 46% were male. A total of 69 patients had hyperplasia and received subtotal parathyroidectomy, whereas 5 patients had double adenomas and 6 patients had single adenomas. The average calcium level among 3HPT patients was 10.8 ± 0.1 mg/dL preoperatively and 8.7 ± 0.1 mg/dL postoperatively. In vivo radioguided counts normalized to background counts averaged 145 ± 4%, whereas ex vivo counts normalized to background counts averaged 69 ± 5%. All but one ex vivo count was >20%. Ectopically located glands were successfully localized in 38 patients using the gamma probe. Ex vivo percentage did not correlate with parathyroid gland weight, preoperative parathyroid hormone, or preoperative calcium. Our radioguided approach achieved normocalcemia in 96% of 3HPT patients undergoing RGP; two patients developed recurrent disease. In this series, all enlarged parathyroid glands were localized and resected using the gamma probe. Thus, RGP reliably localizes adenomatous, hyperplastic, and ectopically located glands in patients with 3HPT, resulting in high cure rate after resection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
origin of the double-snake emblem is shrouded in the mists ... Serpents are mythologically associated with the origin of the world and creation .... philosophy, became influential in suggesting that the planet. Mercury (Hermes) was vitally important to earth. The name mercurius philosophorum was subsequently given by the.
Ratko Zelenika; Mirjana Grèiæ; Helga Pavliæ Skender
Trade logistics, traffic logistics, transport logistics and warehouse logistics are just some of the tertiary logistics which enables production processes of all economic sector products and services. Tertiary logistics representing the tertiary economic sector is the most sofisticated and the most important logistics due to the characteristics of the tertiary sector as a service sector that promotes business conditions in all economic sectors. Accordingly, tertiary logistics has a crucial ro...
Andrew, Naomi C.; Harvey, Kate
\\ud Objectives\\ud \\ud Breastfeeding confers important health benefits to both infants and their mothers, but rates are low in the United Kingdom and other developed countries despite widespread promotion. This study examined the relationships between personal and vicarious experience of infant feeding, self-efficacy, the theory of planned behaviour variables of attitudes and subjective norm, and the likelihood of breastfeeding at 6–8 weeks post-natally.\\ud \\ud \\ud Design\\ud \\ud A prospective ...
Williams, Simon N; Thakore, Bhoomi K; McGee, Richard
Many recent mentoring initiatives have sought to help improve the proportion of underrepresented racial and ethnic minorities (URMs) in academic positions across the biomedical sciences. However, the intractable nature of the problem of underrepresentation suggests that many young scientists may require supplemental career development beyond what many mentors are able to offer. As an adjunct to traditional scientific mentoring, we created a novel academic career "coaching" intervention for PhD students in the biomedical sciences. To determine whether and how academic career coaches can provide effective career-development-related learning experiences for URM PhD students in the biomedical sciences. We focus specifically on vicarious learning experiences, where individuals learn indirectly through the experiences of others. The intervention is being tested as part of a longitudinal randomized control trial (RCT). Here, we describe a nested qualitative study, using a framework approach to analyze data from a total of 48 semi-structured interviews from 24 URM PhD students (2 interviews per participant, 1 at baseline, 1 at 12-month follow-up) (16 female, 8 male; 11 Black, 12 Hispanic, 1 Native-American). We explored the role of the coach as a source of vicarious learning, in relation to the students' goal of being future biomedical science faculty. Coaches were resources through which most students in the study were able to learn vicariously about how to pursue, and succeed within, an academic career. Coaches were particularly useful in instances where students' research mentors are unable to provide such vicarious learning opportunities, for example because the mentor is too busy to have career-related discussions with a student, or because they have, or value, a different type of academic career to the type the student hopes to achieve. Coaching can be an important way to address the lack of structured career development that students receive in their home training
Priest, Naomi; Perry, Ryan; Ferdinand, Angeline; Kelaher, Margaret; Paradies, Yin
Racism and racial discrimination are increasingly acknowledged as a critical determinant of health and health inequalities. However, patterns and impacts of racial discrimination among children and adolescents remain under-investigated, including how different experiences of racial discrimination co-occur and influence health and development over time. This study examines associations between self-reported direct and vicarious racial discrimination experiences and loneliness and depressive symptoms over time among Australian school students. Across seven schools, 142 students (54.2% female), age at T1 from 8 to 15 years old (M = 11.14, SD = 2.2), and from diverse racial/ethnic and migration backgrounds (37.3% born in English-speaking countries as were one or both parents) self-reported racial discrimination experiences (direct and vicarious) and mental health (depressive symptoms and loneliness) at baseline and 9 months later at follow up. A full cross-lagged panel design was modelled using MPLUS v.7 with all variables included at both time points. A cross-lagged effect of perceived direct racial discrimination on later depressive symptoms and on later loneliness was found. As expected, the effect of direct discrimination on both health outcomes was unidirectional as mental health did not reciprocally influence reported racism. There was no evidence that vicarious racial discrimination influenced either depressive symptoms or loneliness beyond the effect of direct racial discrimination. Findings suggest direct racial discrimination has a persistent effect on depressive symptoms and loneliness among school students over time. Future work to explore associations between direct and vicarious discrimination is required.
Vandenbroucke, S; Bardi, L; Lamm, C; Goubert, L
This study investigated the effects of observing pain and touch in others upon vicarious somatosensory experiences and the detection of subtle somatosensory stimuli. Furthermore, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) was used to assess the role of the right temporoparietal junction (rTPJ), as this brain region has been suggested to be involved in perspective taking and self-other distinction. Undergraduates (N = 22) viewed videos depicting hands being touched, hands being pricked, and control scenes (same approaching movement as in the other video categories but without the painful/touching object), while experiencing vibrotactile stimuli themselves on the left, right, or both hands. Participants reported the location at which they felt a somatosensory stimulus. Vibrotactile stimuli and visual scenes were applied in a congruent or incongruent way. During three separate testing sessions, excitability of the rTPJ was modulated with tDCS (cathodal, anodal, or sham). We calculated the proportion of correct responses and false alarms (i.e., number of trials in which a vicarious somatosensory experience was reported congruent to the site of the visual information). Pain-related scenes facilitated the correct detection of tactile stimuli and augmented the number of vicarious somatosensory experiences compared with observing touch or control videos. Stimulation of the rTPJ had no reliable influence upon detection accuracy or the number of vicarious errors. This study indicates that the observation of pain-related scenes compared to the observation of touch or control videos increases the likelihood that a somatosensory stimulus is detected. Contrary to our expectations, the rTPJ did not modulate detection accuracy.
Marbach, T.; Fougnie, B.; Lacan, A.; Schlüssel, P.
The Multi-Viewing -Channel -Polarization Imager (3MI), planned to fly on the Metop-SG satellite as part of the EPS-SG programme in the timeframe beyond 2020, is a radiometer dedicated to aerosol and cloud characterization for climate monitoring, atmospheric composition, air quality and numerical weather prediction. The purpose of the 3MI is to provide multi-spectral (12 channels between 410 and 2130 nm), multi-polarization (-60°, 0°, and +60°), and multi-angular (10 to 14 views) images of the Earth top of atmosphere outgoing radiance. 3MI does not have an onboard calibration facility and its radiometric and geometric performance will rely on vicarious calibration. The aim of this paper is to present the state of the art of vicarious calibration methods applicable to 3MI. The 3MI measurement principle is based on the French atmospheric mission PARASOL (Polarization and Anisotropy of Reflectances for Atmospheric Sciences coupled with Observations from a Lidar) heritage . This allows adapting the vicarious calibration methods of the PARASOL mission to the needs of 3MI. However, the monitoring of the SWIR (short wave infrared) channels will be a new challenge for the 3MI calibration as this spectral range was not present on PARASOL. The cross-calibration with other instruments flying on the same satellite will support the calibration of 3MI. Indeed the Metop-SG payload includes two other optical instruments covering the same spectral regions. METimage and Sentinel-5 will both be equipped with on-board calibration capabilities and provide valuable measurements for vicarious calibration of 3MI. Further cross-calibration with Earth observation instruments on other satellites, will be studied.
Williams, Simon N.; Thakore, Bhoomi K.; McGee, Richard
Introduction Many recent mentoring initiatives have sought to help improve the proportion of underrepresented racial and ethnic minorities (URMs) in academic positions across the biomedical sciences. However, the intractable nature of the problem of underrepresentation suggests that many young scientists may require supplemental career development beyond what many mentors are able to offer. As an adjunct to traditional scientific mentoring, we created a novel academic career “coaching” intervention for PhD students in the biomedical sciences. Objective To determine whether and how academic career coaches can provide effective career-development-related learning experiences for URM PhD students in the biomedical sciences. We focus specifically on vicarious learning experiences, where individuals learn indirectly through the experiences of others. Method The intervention is being tested as part of a longitudinal randomized control trial (RCT). Here, we describe a nested qualitative study, using a framework approach to analyze data from a total of 48 semi-structured interviews from 24 URM PhD students (2 interviews per participant, 1 at baseline, 1 at 12-month follow-up) (16 female, 8 male; 11 Black, 12 Hispanic, 1 Native-American). We explored the role of the coach as a source of vicarious learning, in relation to the students’ goal of being future biomedical science faculty. Results Coaches were resources through which most students in the study were able to learn vicariously about how to pursue, and succeed within, an academic career. Coaches were particularly useful in instances where students’ research mentors are unable to provide such vicarious learning opportunities, for example because the mentor is too busy to have career-related discussions with a student, or because they have, or value, a different type of academic career to the type the student hopes to achieve. Implications Coaching can be an important way to address the lack of structured career
ORIGINAL ARTICLES . -. RISK FACTORS FOR TEENAGE. PREGNANCY AMONG SEXUALLY. ACTIVE BLACK ADOLESCENTS IN. CAPETOWN. A case control study. Caesar Vundule, Fidelia Maforah, Rachel Jewkes, Esme. Jordaan. Motivation. Teenage pregnancy is an important health and social problem in South ...
ORIGINAL ARTICLES. REVIEW ARTICLE. THE INDIVIDUALISED NEEDS FOR. SERVICE ASSESSMENT (INSA). FOR CHILDREN AND. ADOLESCENTS WITH SERIOUS. EMOTIONAL DISTURBANCE. Alan JFlisher, Rent? C Grosser, Christina W Haven. The Individualised Needs for Service Assessment (INSA) for.
Wood, Hannah Marie; Matzke, Nicholas J; Gillespie, Rosemary G; Griswold, Charles E
Incorporation of fossils into biogeographic studies can have a profound effect on the conclusions that result, particularly when fossil ranges are nonoverlapping with extant ranges. This is the case in archaeid spiders, where there are known fossils from the Northern Hemisphere, yet all living members are restricted to the Southern Hemisphere. To better understand the biogeographic patterns of archaeid spiders and their palpimanoid relatives, we estimate a dated phylogeny using a relaxed clock on a combined molecular and morphological data set. Dating information is compared with treating the archaeid fossil taxa as both node calibrations and as noncontemporaneous terminal tips, both with and without additional calibration points. Estimation of ancestral biogeographic ranges is then performed, using likelihood and Bayesian methods to take into account uncertainty in phylogeny and in dating. We find that treating the fossils as terminal tips within a Bayesian framework, as opposed to dating the phylogeny based only on molecular data with the dates coming from node calibrations, removes the subjectivity involved in assigning priors, which has not been possible with previous methods. Our analyses suggest that the diversification of the northern and southern archaeid lineages was congruent with the breakup of Pangaea into Laurasia and Gondwanaland. This analysis provides a rare example, and perhaps the most strongly supported, where a dated phylogeny confirms a biogeographical hypothesis based on vicariance due to the breakup of the ancient continental plates.
Serra, I A; Innocenti, A M; Di Maida, G; Calvo, S; Migliaccio, M; Zambianchi, E; Pizzigalli, C; Arnaud-Haond, S; Duarte, C M; Serrao, E A; Procaccini, G
The Mediterranean Sea is a two-basin system, with the boundary zone restricted to the Strait of Sicily and the narrow Strait of Messina. Two main population groups are recognized in the Mediterranean endemic seagrass Posidonia oceanica, corresponding to the Western and the Eastern basins. To address the nature of the East-West cleavage in P. oceanica, the main aims of this study were: (i) to define the genetic structure within the potential contact zone (i.e. the Strait of Sicily) and clarify the extent of gene flow between the two population groups, and (ii) to investigate the role of present water circulation patterns vs. past evolutionary events on the observed genetic pattern. To achieve these goals, we utilized SSR markers and we simulated, with respect to current regime, the possible present-day dispersal pattern of Posidonia floating fruits using 28-day numerical Lagrangian trajectories. The results obtained confirm the presence of the two main population groups, without any indices of reproductive isolation, with the break zone located at the level of the Southern tip of Calabria. The populations in the Strait of Sicily showed higher affinity with Western than with Eastern populations. This pattern of genetic structure probably reflects historical avenues of recolonization from relict glacial areas and past vicariance events, but seems to persist as a result of the low connectivity among populations via marine currents, as suggested by our dispersal simulation analysis.
Olsson, Andreas; Kopsida, Eleni; Sorjonen, Kimmo; Savic, Ivanka
The abilities to "read" other peoples' intentions and emotions, and to learn from their experiences, are critical to survival. Previous studies have highlighted the role of sex hormones, notably testosterone and estrogen, in these processes. Yet it is unclear how these hormones affect social cognition and emotion using acute hormonal administration. In the present double-blind placebo-controlled study, we administered an acute exogenous dose of testosterone or estrogen to healthy female and male volunteers, respectively, with the aim of investigating the effects of these steroids on social-cognitive and emotional processes. Following hormonal and placebo treatment, participants made (a) facial dominance judgments, (b) mental state inferences (Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test), and (c) learned aversive associations through watching others' emotional responses (observational fear learning [OFL]). Our results showed that testosterone administration to females enhanced ratings of facial dominance but diminished their accuracy in inferring mental states. In men, estrogen administration resulted in an increase in emotional (vicarious) reactivity when watching a distressed other during the OFL task. Taken together, these results suggest that sex hormones affect social-cognitive and emotional functions at several levels, linking our results to neuropsychiatric disorders in which these functions are impaired. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Dinnat, Emmanuel P.; Boutin, Jacqueline; Yin, Xiaobin; Le Vine, David M.
Two spaceborne instruments share the scientific objective of mapping the global Sea Surface Salinity (SSS). ESA's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and NASA's Aquarius use L-band (1.4 GHz) radiometry to retrieve SSS. We find that SSS retrieved by SMOS is generally lower than SSS retrieved by Aquarius, except for very cold waters where SMOS SSS is higher overall. The spatial distribution of the differences in SSS is similar to the distribution of sea surface temperature. There are several differences in the retrieval algorithm that could explain the observed SSS differences. We assess the impact of the dielectric constant model and the ancillary sea surface salinity used by both missions for calibrating the radiometers and retrieving SSS. The differences in dielectric constant model produce differences in SSS of the order of 0.3 psu and exhibit a dependence on latitude and temperature. We use comparisons with the Argo in situ data to assess the performances of the model in various regions of the globe. Finally, the differences in the ancillary sea surface salinity products used to perform the vicarious calibration of both instruments are relatively small (0.1 psu), but not negligible considering the requirements for spaceborne remote sensing of SSS.
Mason, Tyler B; Maduro, Ralitsa S; Derlega, Valerian J; Hacker, Desi S; Winstead, Barbara A; Haywood, Jacqueline E
This research focused on how race-based rejection sensitivity (RS-Race) and components of racial identity intensify negative psychological reactions to an incident of vicarious racism. We examined how these individual difference variables directly and/or indirectly predicted African American students' reactions to the trial of George Zimmerman in the killing of the African American teenager, Trayvon Martin. In Study 1, 471 African American students completed measures of RS-Race, thought intrusions about the Zimmerman trial, and outcome variables (negative affect about the Zimmerman trial and forgiveness for Mr. Zimmerman). In Study 2, 304 African American students completed measures of racial identity (centrality, private regard, and public regard), thought intrusions about the Zimmerman trial, negative affect, and forgiveness. In Study 1, higher RS-Race was either directly and/or indirectly (via thought intrusions) related to more negative affect and lower forgiveness. In Study 2, high racial centrality and low public regard either directly and/or indirectly (via thought intrusions) predicted more negative affect and lower forgiveness. RS-Race and specific components of racial identity are likely to sensitize African Americans to incidents of racism that happen to other African Americans, leading to negative psychological reactions when these events occur. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Schmidt, Christina Haandbæk
Original pedagogues Distention between competences and originality By Christina Haandbæk Schmidt, ph. d. student Aarhus University, Denmark This presentation concerns a Ph.D. project (Sept. 2012 –Sept. 2015) about pedagogues in day care facilities and their struggles to develop and retain...... of pedagogues and in everyday life in daycare facilities. The competence term includes at least two discourses of interest; a pedagogical competence discourse and a political jurisdiction discourse which forms a distention between authenticity and competence. In order that pedagogues may regain their autonomy I...... shall argue that it is necessary for the pedagogues to know how they are constituted by the regimes of power on one side and on the other side are forced to create themselves. This knowledge could transform pedagogues into what I suggest calling ‘original pedagogues’, who have an authentic, ethic...
von Rintelen, Thomas; Stelbrink, Björn; Marwoto, Ristiyanti M; Glaubrecht, Matthias
The complex geological history of the Indonesian island Sulawesi has shaped the origin and subsequent diversification of its taxa. For the endemic freshwater snail Tylomelania a vicariant origin from the Australian margin has been hypothesized. Divergence time estimates from a mtDNA phylogeny based on a comprehensive island-wide sampling of Tylomelania fit regional tectonic constraints and support the 'out-of-Australia' vicariance hypothesis. The Banggai-Sula region of the Sula Spur, the Australian promontory colliding with West Sulawesi during the Miocene, is identified as a possible source area for the colonization of Sulawesi by the ancestor of Tylomelania. The molecular phylogeny also shows a rapid diversification of Tylomelania into eight major lineages with very little overlap in their distribution on the island. Haplotype networks provide further evidence for a strong spatial structure of genetic diversity in Tylomelania. Distribution boundaries of the major lineages do at best partially coincide with previously identified contact zones for other endemic species groups on Sulawesi. This pattern has likely been influenced by the poor dispersal capabilities and altitudinal distribution limits of this strict freshwater inhabitant. We suggest that late Miocene and Pliocene orogeny in large parts of Sulawesi has been the vicariant event driving primary diversification in Tylomelania.
Thomas von Rintelen
Full Text Available The complex geological history of the Indonesian island Sulawesi has shaped the origin and subsequent diversification of its taxa. For the endemic freshwater snail Tylomelania a vicariant origin from the Australian margin has been hypothesized. Divergence time estimates from a mtDNA phylogeny based on a comprehensive island-wide sampling of Tylomelania fit regional tectonic constraints and support the 'out-of-Australia' vicariance hypothesis. The Banggai-Sula region of the Sula Spur, the Australian promontory colliding with West Sulawesi during the Miocene, is identified as a possible source area for the colonization of Sulawesi by the ancestor of Tylomelania. The molecular phylogeny also shows a rapid diversification of Tylomelania into eight major lineages with very little overlap in their distribution on the island. Haplotype networks provide further evidence for a strong spatial structure of genetic diversity in Tylomelania. Distribution boundaries of the major lineages do at best partially coincide with previously identified contact zones for other endemic species groups on Sulawesi. This pattern has likely been influenced by the poor dispersal capabilities and altitudinal distribution limits of this strict freshwater inhabitant. We suggest that late Miocene and Pliocene orogeny in large parts of Sulawesi has been the vicariant event driving primary diversification in Tylomelania.
Original Article. Laparoscopic repair of penetrating injury of the diaphragm: an experience from a district hospital ... of eight patients with diaphragmatic injury, and thereby laparotomy was avoided. The procedure converted to open surgery in one .... The splenic laceration was minor and superficial and did not require any.
the nectar(s) from which it originates. December 2004, Vol. 94, No. 12 SAMJ. The Nigerian citrus honey sample used in this study contains about 40% fructose and 31% glucose. These figures compare well with those for honey produced in Spain and the USA (Table 1). The honey sample promoted the clearance of alcohol ...
eclampsia, prelabour rupture of membranes, chorioamnionitis, and antepartum haemorrhage of unknown origin. The gestational age was recorded if it was regarded as accurate, namely early ultrasound measurements were available or. ~ the estimation of uterine size coincided with the estimated gestational age according ...
ORIGINAL ARTICLES. Table IlL Type of sharp object, procedure, and mechanism of percutaneous injury among interns. Sharp object (N = 168)*. Hollow needle. Suturing needle. Other. Procedure (N = 177). Phlebotomy. Suturing. Intravenous catheterisation. Arterial puncture. Capillary puncture. Other. Could not recall.
ORIGINAL ARTICLES. SOUTH AFRICAN CAUSE-OF-. DEATH PROFILE IN TRANSITION -. 1996 AND FUTURE TRENDS. Debbie Bradshaw, Michelle Schneider, Rob Darrington,. David E Bourne, Ria Laubscher. This paper describes the South African cause-of-death profile in 1996, the latest year for which routine data ...
ORIGINAL ARTICLE. M. Adjei-Frempong1, B. Minkah2, L. Quaye3, S.E.K. Acquah4, A. Opoku2 and M. Imrana2. Correspondence: M. Adjei-Frempong, Department of Mo- lecular Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah. University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana. E-mail: email@example.com.
ORIGINAL ARTICLE. A. Boakye-Yiadom1, S. O. Shittu2, J. B. Dutt2, P. P. M. Dapare3 and A. Alhassan4. Correspondence: A. Boakye-Yiadom, Department of. Community Health, School of Allied Health Sciences, Uni- versity for Development Studies, Tamale, Ghana doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jmbs.v4i2.5. INTRODUCTION.
ORIGINAL ARTICLE. V. Mogre1, J. A. Atibilla2 and B. N-A. Kandoh2. Correspondence: Mr. Victor Mogre, Department of Human Biology, School of Medicine and Health. Science, University for Development Studies, Tama- le, Ghana E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. INTRODUCTION. Breakfast is crucial to all humans since ...
equivalence of an innovator versus a generic formulation of inhaled beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) in adults with moderate asthm.a. Few studies comparing generic inhaled formulations and the original products have been reported.15. P ATIENTS AND METH ODS. Patients. Thirty-six non-smoking moderate-to-severe ...
vague knowledge of why they are given, and for what illnesses. The most common knowledge was of measles and polio, but there was only limited knowledge of BCG, DPT and other immunisations. Childhood illnesses were seen as multi-causal in origin, but there was a marked absence of germ theory in explaining them.
ORIGINAL ARTICLES m:R. ~. UNDERRECOGNITION AND. UNDERTREATMENT OF ASTHMA. IN CAPE TOWN PRIMARY SCHOOL. CHILDREN. R I Ehrlich, E Jordaan, D du Toit, J A Volmink,. E Weinberg, M Zwarenstein. Background. In view of the high local prevalence of asthma, the extent of recognition and appropriate ...
ORIGINAL ARTICLES. RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES. The NMSS rationale is similar to that for public health surveillance generally, and the procedure consists of four activities.• These are: (I) the ongoing and systematic collection of data; (il) the consolidation and analysis of collected data;. (iiz) the dissemination of ...
ORIGINAL ARTICLES. FIREARM-RELATED INJURIES AND. DEATHS AMONG CHILDREN AND. ADOLESCENTS IN CAPE TOWN -. 1992 -1996. Alyssa Wigton. Objective. To determ.i.lle the epidemiological profile of fireann- related injuries among children and adolescents in Cape. Town during recent years in order to ...
ORIGINAL ARTICLES. References. 1. UNAIDS. Report on the Global HTV/AIDS Epidemic. Geneva: June 2000. 2. Connor E..\\1, Sperling RS, Gelber R. et al. Reduction of maternal-infant transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 with zidovu dine treatment. N Eng! J Med 1994; 331:1173-1180. 3. Undegren ML ...
ORIGINAL ARTICLES. MOLECULAR GENETICS. IMPROVES THE MANAGEMENT OF. HEREDITARY NON-POLYPOSIS. COLORECTALCANCER. R S Ramesar, M V Madden, R Felix, C J Harocopos,. C A Westbrook, G Jones, J P Cruse, P A Goldberg. Background. The syndrome of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal ...
ORIGINAL ARTICLES. SPECIAL ARTICLE. SOCIAL HEALTH INSURANCE AND. TAX-BASED FUNDING OF HEALTH. Olive Shisana. The changes likely to occur in South Africa's health care funding have been outlined elsewhere.' Indeed, South Africa is going through major transformation of the health care system.
ORIGINAL ARTICLES. BARRIERS TO ACCESSING FREE. CONDOMS AT PUBLIC HEALTH. FACILITIES ACROSS SOUTH. AFRICA. Francesca Little, Landon Myer, Catherine Mathews. Objectives. Lack of access to public sector condoms still presents a fundamentalbarrier to condom use in most of. South Africa. This study ...
ORIGINAL ARTICLES. CRITICAL CARE FOCUS. AETIOLOGY AND OUTCOME OF. SEVERE COMMUNITY-ACQUIRED. PNEUMONIA IN CHILDREN. ADMITTED TO A PAEDIATRIC. INTENSIVE CARE UNIT. S D Delport, T Brisley. Objective. To determine the aetiological agents and outcome of severe community-acquired ...
ORIGINAL ARTICLES detectable cause of curable 'essential' hypertension. JAMA 1965; 193: 100-106. 7. Hiramatsu K~ Yamada T, Yukimura Y, et al. A screening test to identify aldosterone-producing adenoma by measuring plasma renin activity. Results in hypertensive patients. Arch Intern. Med 1981; 141' 1589-1593. 8.
ORIGINAL ARTICLES. Death and injury on duty- a study of South African police officers. Frank Plani, Douglas M Bowley, Jacques Goosen. Objectives. Sections of contemporary South African society are characterised by high levels of crime and interpersonal conflict. The South African Police Service (SAPS) is in the.
ORIGINAL ARTICLES. WHAT IS THE INFANT MORTALITY. RATE IN SOUTH AFRICA? THE NEED FOR IMPROVED DATA. Nadine Nannan, Debbie Bradshaw, Robert Mazur, Sim.phiwe. Maphumulo. Objectives. To review recent infant mortality and birth registration data in South Africa and to investigate geographical ...
ORIGINAL ARTICLES. NON-FATAL SUICIDAL BEHAVIOUR. IN WOMEN - THE ROLE OF. SPOUSAL SUBSTANCE ABUSE AND. MARITAL VIOLENCE. A L Pillay, M B W van der Veen, D R Wassenaar. Objective. To investigate the precipitants of non-fatal suicidal behaviour in women using a gender-based comparison.
ORIGINAL ARTICLES. Health financing reform in Kenya- assessing the social health insurance proposal. Guy Carrin, Chris James, Michael Adelhardt, Ole Doetinchem, Peter Eriki, Mohammed Hassan, Henri van den Hombergh,. Joses Kirigia, Burkard Koemm, Rolf Korte, Rudiger Krech, Cristopher Lankers, Jan van Lente, ...
ORIGINAL ARTICLES. Q. MEASLES ELIMINATION - IS IT. ACHIEVABLE? LESSONS FROM AN. IMMUNISATION COVERAGE. SURVEY. D N Durrheim, G A Ogunbanjo. Objectives. To detennine routine measles coverage at district level and to explore reasons for immunisation failure in. Mpumalanga Province, South Africa ...
Aug 6, 2000 ... ORIGINAL ARTICLES. References. 1. Nath H. When does bronchial arterial embolisation fail to control haemoptysis? .... has already recommended the development of DTP-hepatitis B vaccine (HBV) combinations ... clear, particularly in developing countries where the disease occurs in young children, with.
Anthropology: The Study of Social and. Cultural Originality. Prologue. I was invited to reﬂect on the theoretical foundations of anthropology, as prac- ticed in Africa 'over the last century', but found intellectual artisanship to be a more compelling topic. As Gupta and Ferguson (1997) point out, adherence to a particular logic of ...
ORIGINAL ARTICLES. A mass campaign too often? Results of a vaccination coverage survey in the Dikgale-Soekmekaar district. Carla van Turennout, ]oris Vandelanotte, Marjan van den Akker, AnneMarie Depoorter. Objectives. To determine the routine and mass immunisation coverage in children aged between 12 and ...
Cochrane systematic review in order to ascertain its efficacy and safety and to ... eclampsia, prelabour rupture of membranes, chorioamnionitis, and antepartum haemorrhage of unknown origin. The gestational age was recorded if it was regarded as accurate, namely early ultrasound measurements were available or. ~.
ORIGINAL ARTICLES. Dual protection in sexually active women. Immo Kleinschmidt, Baker Ndugga Maggwa, Jennifer Smit,Mags E Beksinska, Helen Rees. Objective. To determine the prevalence and co-factors associated with the practice of dual protection against sexually transmitted infections (STis) and unwanted.
ORIGINAL ARTICLES failure, breath-holding spells and even strokeY The decreased attention span and learning associated with iron deficiency may have adverse effects on cognitive and psychomotor development.'-' Furthermore, appropriate treatment of iron deficiency is effective and safe, It would therefore seem worth.
2013 Sep;6(3):169-72. Original Article. AJNT. Abstract. Introduction: Affective disorders, particularly depression, are the commonest and probably the most important psychopathological complication of end stage renal disease (ESRD). Depression has the potential to alter adversely the medical outcome of ESRD patients.
Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation. 2013 Sep;6(3):153-60. Original Article. AJNT. Abstract. Introduction: Dense Deposit Disease (DDD) is a devastating renal disease that leads to renal failure within. 10 years of diagnosis in about half of affected patients. In this study, we evaluated the relative prevalence and.
the teaching of this new knowledge to health workers, and finally making the ... use in developing countries and again in 19952 to include the concept of ... ORIGINAL ARTICLES. Table I. Basic data and perinatal care indices for the PPIP sentinel sites, 2000 - 2002. Metropolitan. Cities and towns. Rural areas areas (N). (N).
ORIGINAL ARTICLES. Key issues in clinic functioning - a case study of two ... Department of Behavioural Medicine, Nelson R Mandela School of Medicine, Univer- sity of KwaZulu-Natal. B M Harvey, BA Hons, MA ... Conclusions. This research provides lessons regarding key issues in clinic functioning which can make a ...
ORIGINAL ARTICLES. Sexual behaviour of Cape Town high-school students. Alan J Flisher, Priscilla Reddy, Martie Muller, Carl Lombard. Objectives. To document prevalence rates for selected aspects of sexual behaviour among Cape Town high-school students and to conduct a survival analysis of age at first intercourse.
Dec 12, 1997 ... ORIGINAL ARTICLES. «. SPECIAL ARTICLE which are situated in rural areas, has aimed to build the ... a Significant rise in public sector salaries for doctors in 1995, the deployment of 300 Cuban doctors in ..... The transport of patients and referral system need particular attention. Retention of CS doctors in ...
Dec 23, 2014 ... 2School of Animal and Range Sciences, Haramaya University, P.O. Box 138, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia ... beings also consume. However, the nutritional merit of the fruits as livestock feed, particularly for pigs' was not studied yet. There was. Original Research .... The pork sample for sensory test was taken from.
woman from Abdera who had a breast tumour and a bloody ... our modem concepts, which originated as late as the 19th .... Phumata empua were suppurating lesions (possibly even tuberculous lymph nodes). Phumata sklera were hard tumours in the breast which did not suppurate, but became increasingly harder and ...
of microbial origin are a major health problem associated ... mine total counts of bacterial species responsible for the contamination of the street vending food .... liquid food or per g for solid food sample analyzed. Bacterial identification. The MacConkey and Blood agar plates were examined for bacterial growth. Growth ...
ORIGINAL ARTICLES. UNPAID COMMUNITY. VOLUNTEERS - EFFECTIVE. PROVIDERS OF DIRECTLY. OBSERVED THERAPY (DOT) IN. RURAL SOUTH AFRICA. R D Barker, F J C Millard, M E Nthangeni. Objective. To il).ustrate successes and difficulties for the South. African National Tuberculosis Progranune in a ...
Vaccination against hepatitis B virus is an important means of controlling the infection, but its role ... Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a serious complication for the haemodialysis patient and the unit in which he or .... black patients, 35% in those of mixed racial origin, and 0% in white patients. There was no difference in the ...
www.ljm.org.ly. Libyan J Med, AOP: 081122. Page 23. Original Article. Prevalence of Gall Bladder Stones among Type 2 Diabetic. Patients in Benghazi Libya: A Case-control Study. Elmehdawi RR1, Elmajberi SJ2, Behieh A(3), Elramli A3. 1Department of internal medicine, Al-Arab medical University. 2Benghazi diabetes ...
Pyron, R Alexander
Amphibia comprises over 7000 extant species distributed in almost every ecosystem on every continent except Antarctica. Most species also show high specificity for particular habitats, biomes, or climatic niches, seemingly rendering long-distance dispersal unlikely. Indeed, many lineages still seem to show the signature of their Pangaean origin, approximately 300 Ma later. To date, no study has attempted a large-scale historical-biogeographic analysis of the group to understand the distribution of extant lineages. Here, I use an updated chronogram containing 3309 species (∼ 45% of extant diversity) to reconstruct their movement between 12 global ecoregions. I find that Pangaean origin and subsequent Laurasian and Gondwanan fragmentation explain a large proportion of patterns in the distribution of extant species. However, dispersal during the Cenozoic, likely across land bridges or short distances across oceans, has also exerted a strong influence. Finally, there are at least three strongly supported instances of long-distance oceanic dispersal between former Gondwanan landmasses during the Cenozoic. Extinction from intervening areas seems to be a strong factor in shaping present-day distributions. Dispersal and extinction from and between ecoregions are apparently tied to the evolution of extraordinarily adaptive expansion-oriented phenotypes that allow lineages to easily colonize new areas and diversify, or conversely, to extremely specialized phenotypes or heavily relictual climatic niches that result in strong geographic localization and limited diversification. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Hamilton, John; Tee, Singwhat
This empirical research surveys first year tertiary business students across different campuses regarding their perceived views concerning traditional, blended and flexible instructional approaches. A structural equation modeling approach shows traditional instructional modes deliver lower levels of student-perceived learning quality, learning…
This paper analyses the Harmonized Tertiary Institution Salary Structure (HATISS IV) used in Nigeria. The irregularities in the structure are highlighted. A model that assumes a polynomial trend for the zero step salary, and exponential trend for the incremental rates, is suggested for the regularization of the structure.
An updated guideline for tertiary ELT in China has shifted the emphasis to the development of learners' ability to communicate in English. Using group work and getting learners actively involved in the actual use of English are highlighted more than before. This article focuses on adapting cooperative learning methods for ELT with tertiary…
Veitch, Gemma E.
Binding the anion: A highly enantioselective iodolactonization of 5-hexenoic acids has been achieved using a tertiary aminourea-catalyst. The use of catalytic iodine in this process is critical to enhancing both the reactivity and enantioselectivity of the stoichiometric I+source.The mechanism is proposed to involve binding of an iodonium imidate intermediate by the H-bond donor catalyst. PMID:20803601
National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2011
Sourcing data from the National VET Provider Collection and the Higher Education Statistics Collection, this publication provides a summary of participation in tertiary education and training in Australia. It covers participation in Australian Qualifications Framework certificate I qualifications through to doctorates by research, as well as…
Abstract. Designing efficient phosphorus-based ligands to make catalysts for homogeneous catalysis has been a great challenge for chemists. Despite a plethora of phosphorus ligands ranging from simple tertiary phosphines to polyphosphines are known, the enthusiasm to generate new ones is mainly due to the demand.
This paper highlights the importance of Cameroon\\'s tertiary institutions\\' cooperation links with other African Universities given the rebirth of Organisation of African Unity as African Union, and the New Partnership for Africa Development (NEPAD). The present system of recruiting international students is haphazardly been ...
Community enlightenment about emergency contraception using specifically designed programmes, the formation of reproductive health clubs in our tertiary institutions and training of peer group educators in all our communities are advocated. Patent medicine dealers in our communities should have basic training in ...
The study focused on sexual promiscuity among female undergraduates and the attendant health implications. It was carried out in the tertiary institutions in Imo State using 415 final year degree students drawn from four institutions in the State. Three research questions were formulated to guide the study. The design was a ...
AIDS training course presented either by the medical school or an AIDS training centre. In view of the perceived lack of training in general counselling, this would perhaps be most effective as part of a formal general counselling programme for all undergraduates. In a tertiary hospital one has the added benefit of a large.
Full Text Available The tertiary education is a critic mechanism for the socio-economic progress, for individuals who aspire a brighter future and it is also considered an important catalyzer of the economic mobility (Department of Treasury and Department of Education, 2012, 2. Based on the positive role and impact that the tertiary education has on the sustainable development, President Obama once stated that it is of damage to treat education as a luxurious public service. In line with the general considerations about the tertiary education in the U.S. the parallel comparison with Albania comes as a direct interpretation of utopia in the education policy-making. As policies are usually drafted based on data and findings, in the case of Albania there is a lack of data on expenses on tertiary education as share of GDP. This stands also for the main limitation of the paper.
Chernyshov Alexander V.
Full Text Available The article investigates the origins of music in electronic regular broadcasting, which conditions have appeared in the XIX century. They stand out in the "telephone concerts", "phonograph concerts" and the proto-sound films (T.Edison, W.Dickson, Ch.Pathé, O.Messter. In the early twentieth century, a clear prototype of mediamusic playing by the music of "silent" films, which has been divided on the on-screen and offscreen sound layers, the method of compilation, the basics of synchronization between musical sound and off-music montage-structures. In addition, the origins of music of electronic mass media can be regarded as attempts to understand the "musical" noise features, which subsequently materialize in the phenomenon of "noisemusic" of media audio-score (L.Russolo, Ars.Avraamov, D.Vertov, W.Ruttmann, N.Voinov, P.Schaeffer. Are considered Russian, European and North American experiences.
This report describes how tertiary education contributes to building up a country's capacity for participation in an increasingly knowledge-based world economy and investigates policy options for tertiary education that have the potential to enhance economic growth and reduce poverty. It examines the following questions: What is the importance of tertiary education for economic and social ...
Manini, Barbara; Cardone, Daniela; Ebisch, Sjoerd J H; Bafunno, Daniela; Aureli, Tiziana; Merla, Arcangelo
Maternal attunement with an infant's emotional states is thought to represent a distinctive feature of the human primary bond. It implies the mother's ability of empathizing with her child in order to fulfil the child's needs in an immediate and appropriate manner. Thus, it is particularly involved in stressful situations. By assuming that maternal attunement embodies a direct sharing of physiological responses with the child, we compared the autonomic response of mothers observing their own distressed child with those of other women observing an unknown child involved in an ecological distressful condition (mishap paradigm). The hypothesis was that the adult's response was more attuned with the child's response in the former group than in the latter group. The autonomic response was non-invasively evaluated through the recording of the thermal facial imprints by means of thermal infrared (IR) imaging. Nine mother-child dyads and 9 woman-unknown child dyads were studied. We found marked similarities between the facial temperature dynamics of women and children along the experimental procedure, thus providing evidence for a direct emotional sharing within the adult-child dyad. The evidence for common dynamics in the time course of the temperatures was assessed through correlation analysis and, nevertheless, resulted stronger in the mother-child dyads than in the other women-child dyads. In addition, temporal analysis showed a faster response in mothers than in other women, thus confirming our study hypothesis. Besides confirming the extraordinary capability of IR imaging to preserve ecological context in the study of social or non-verbal interactions, these results suggest that maternity appears to potentiate the emotional attunement with the child. Although based on preliminary results, this study opens new perspectives in the study of the factors modulating vicarious socio-emotional processes.
Full Text Available Maternal attunement with an infant's emotional states is thought to represent a distinctive feature of the human primary bond. It implies the mother’s ability of empathizing with her child in order to fulfil the child’s needs in an immediate and appropriate manner. Thus, it is particularly involved in stressful situations. By assuming that maternal attunement embodies a direct sharing of physiological responses with the child, we compared the autonomic response of mothers observing their own distressed child with those of other women observing an unknown child involved in an ecological distressful condition (mishap paradigm. The hypothesis was that the adult’s response was more attuned with the child’s response in the former group than in the latter group. The autonomic response was non-invasively evaluated through the recording of the thermal facial imprints by means of thermal infrared (IR imaging. Nine mother-child dyads and nine woman-unknown child dyads were studied. We found marked similarities between the facial temperature dynamics of women and children along the experimental procedure, thus providing evidence for a direct emotional sharing within the adult-child dyad. The evidence for common dynamics in the time course of the temperatures was assessed through correlation analysis and, nevertheless, resulted stronger in the mother-child dyads than in the other women–child dyads. In addition, temporal analysis showed a faster response in mothers than in other women, thus confirming our study hypothesis. Besides confirming the extraordinary capability of thermal infrared imaging to preserve ecological context in the study of social or non-verbal interactions, these results suggest that maternity appears to potentiate the emotional attunement with the child. Although based on preliminary results, this study opens new perspectives in the study of the factors modulating vicarious socio-emotional processes.
Smíd, Jiří; Carranza, Salvador; Kratochvíl, Lukáš; Gvoždík, Václav; Nasher, Abdul Karim; Moravec, Jiří
The geological history of the Arabian Peninsula has played a crucial role in shaping current diversity and distribution patterns of many Arabian and African faunal elements. The gecko genus Hemidactylus is not an exception. In this study, we provide an insight into the phylogeny and systematics of 45 recognized species of the so-called Arid clade of the genus Hemidactylus from Arabia, the Horn of Africa, the Levant and Iran. The material comprises 358 specimens sequenced for up to two mitochondrial (12S rRNA, cytochrome b) and four nuclear (mc1r, cmos, rag1, rag2) genes with 4766 bp of the concatenated alignment length. A robust calibrated phylogeny and reconstruction of historical biogeography are inferred. We link the history of this genus with major geological events that occurred in the region within the last 30 million years. Two basal divergences correspond with the break-ups of the Arabian and African landmasses and subsequent separation of Socotra from the Arabian mainland, respectively, segregating the genus by means of vicariance. Formation of the Red Sea led to isolation and subsequent radiation in the Arabian Peninsula, which was followed by multiple independent expansions: 13.1 Ma to Iran; 9.8 Ma to NE Africa; 8.2 to Socotra Archipelago; 7-7.3 Ma two colonizations to the Near East; 5.9 Ma to NE Africa; and 4.1 to Socotra. Moreover, using multiple genetic markers we detected cryptic diversity within the genus, particularly in south-western Arabia and the Ethiopian highlands, and confirmed the existence of at least seven new species in the area. These findings highlight the role of Arabia and the Horn of Africa as an important Hemidactylus diversity hotspot.
Šmíd, Jiří; Carranza, Salvador; Kratochvíl, Lukáš; Gvoždík, Václav; Nasher, Abdul Karim; Moravec, Jiří
The geological history of the Arabian Peninsula has played a crucial role in shaping current diversity and distribution patterns of many Arabian and African faunal elements. The gecko genus Hemidactylus is not an exception. In this study, we provide an insight into the phylogeny and systematics of 45 recognized species of the so-called Arid clade of the genus Hemidactylus from Arabia, the Horn of Africa, the Levant and Iran. The material comprises 358 specimens sequenced for up to two mitochondrial (12S rRNA, cytochrome b) and four nuclear (mc1r, cmos, rag1, rag2) genes with 4766 bp of the concatenated alignment length. A robust calibrated phylogeny and reconstruction of historical biogeography are inferred. We link the history of this genus with major geological events that occurred in the region within the last 30 million years. Two basal divergences correspond with the break-ups of the Arabian and African landmasses and subsequent separation of Socotra from the Arabian mainland, respectively, segregating the genus by means of vicariance. Formation of the Red Sea led to isolation and subsequent radiation in the Arabian Peninsula, which was followed by multiple independent expansions: 13.1 Ma to Iran; 9.8 Ma to NE Africa; 8.2 to Socotra Archipelago; 7–7.3 Ma two colonizations to the Near East; 5.9 Ma to NE Africa; and 4.1 to Socotra. Moreover, using multiple genetic markers we detected cryptic diversity within the genus, particularly in south-western Arabia and the Ethiopian highlands, and confirmed the existence of at least seven new species in the area. These findings highlight the role of Arabia and the Horn of Africa as an important Hemidactylus diversity hotspot. PMID:23724016
Full Text Available The geological history of the Arabian Peninsula has played a crucial role in shaping current diversity and distribution patterns of many Arabian and African faunal elements. The gecko genus Hemidactylus is not an exception. In this study, we provide an insight into the phylogeny and systematics of 45 recognized species of the so-called Arid clade of the genus Hemidactylus from Arabia, the Horn of Africa, the Levant and Iran. The material comprises 358 specimens sequenced for up to two mitochondrial (12S rRNA, cytochrome b and four nuclear (mc1r, cmos, rag1, rag2 genes with 4766 bp of the concatenated alignment length. A robust calibrated phylogeny and reconstruction of historical biogeography are inferred. We link the history of this genus with major geological events that occurred in the region within the last 30 million years. Two basal divergences correspond with the break-ups of the Arabian and African landmasses and subsequent separation of Socotra from the Arabian mainland, respectively, segregating the genus by means of vicariance. Formation of the Red Sea led to isolation and subsequent radiation in the Arabian Peninsula, which was followed by multiple independent expansions: 13.1 Ma to Iran; 9.8 Ma to NE Africa; 8.2 to Socotra Archipelago; 7-7.3 Ma two colonizations to the Near East; 5.9 Ma to NE Africa; and 4.1 to Socotra. Moreover, using multiple genetic markers we detected cryptic diversity within the genus, particularly in south-western Arabia and the Ethiopian highlands, and confirmed the existence of at least seven new species in the area. These findings highlight the role of Arabia and the Horn of Africa as an important Hemidactylus diversity hotspot.
This study investigates the effects of the three major factors of Suggestopedia--music, relaxation and suggestion--on the students' affect and development of communicative competence in tertiary Japanese language classes. A review of literature on Suggestopedia, the original form of Accelerated Learning (AL), shows that its effects are…
Travassos, W.A.S. [PETROBRAS, Belem, PA (Brazil). Distrito de Exploracao do Norte; Morais Barbosa Filho, C. de [PETROBRAS, Manaus, AM (Brazil). Distrito de Exploracao da Amazonia Ocidental
Studies of a deformed sedimentary zone occurred during the tertiary period on the Amazon Basin, its localization on the region of the Tapajos River are discussed. The origin, characteristics and identification of these zone through seismic, gravimetric and aero-magnetometric surveys are also presented. 17 figs., 25 refs.
Full Text Available History that comes to us as a chronology of events is really a collective existence that is evolving through several stages to develop Individuality in all members of the society. The human community, nation states, linguistic groups, local castes and classes, and families are the intermediate stages in development of the Individual. The social process moves through phases of survival, growth, development and evolution. In the process it organizes the consciousness of its members at successive levels from social external manners, formed behavior, value-based character and personality to culminate in the development of Individuality. Through this process, society evolves from physicality to Mentality. The power of accomplishment in society and its members develops progressively through stages of skill, capacity, talent, and ability. Original thinking is made possible by the prior development of thinking that organizes facts into information. The immediate result of the last world war was a shift in reliance from physical force and action to mental conception and mental activity on a global scale. At such times no problem need defy solution, if only humanity recognizes the occasion for thinking and Original Thinking. The apparently insoluble problems we confront are an opportunity to formulate a comprehensive theory of social evolution. The immediate possibility is to devise complete solutions to all existing problems, if only we use the right method of thought development.
Serdari, Aikaterini; Lois, Euripides; Stournas, Stamoulis [National Technical Univ. of Athens, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Athens (Greece)
This paper presents experimental results regarding the impact of adding different tertiary amides of fatty acids to mineral diesel fuel; an assessment of the behaviour of these compounds as possible diesel fuel extenders is also included. Measurements of cetane number, cold flow properties (cloud point, pour point and CFPP), density, kinematic viscosity, flash point and distillation temperatures are reported, while initial experiments concerning the effects on particulate emissions are also described. Most of the examined tertiary fatty amides esters have very good performance and they can be easily prepared from fatty acids (biomass). Such compounds or their blends could be used as mineral diesel fuel or even fatty acid methylesters (FAME, biodiesel) substitutes or extenders. (Author)
Thomson, Charles B; Greaves, Ian
Missed injury in the context of major trauma remains a persistent problem, both from a clinical and medico-legal point-of-view. Estimates of the incidence vary widely, dependent on the precise parameters of the studied population, the definition of missed injury and the extent of follow-up, but may be as high as 38%. The tertiary survey, in which formal repeated examination of the patient is undertaken after initial resuscitation and treatment have taken place, has been suggested as a way of identifying injuries not found at presentation. This paper appraises the concept of the tertiary survey, and also reviews the literature on missed injury in order to identify the risk factors, the types of injury and the reasons for error.
Full Text Available The effects of the composite coagulants on coagulation sedimentation for the preserved wastewater was investigated by changing the composite coagulant dosages, and the coagulant was composed of polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS, polyaluminium chloride (PAC, and polyaluminum ferric silicate (PAFSC, while the effect of the tertiary treatment process on the preserved wastewater was tested, which was exceeded the standard seriously. The results showed that 400 mg/L was the optimum composite coagulant dosage. The removal rates of salt and sugar were as high as 99.1% and 99.5% respectively, and the removal rates of CODCr and SS were 99.3% and 96.0%, respectively after the preserved wastewater was treated by the tertiary treatment technology, which both reached the primary standard of “The Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard” (GB8978-1996.
Coll, Richard K.; Treagust, David F.
There has been little research into learners' mental models of chemical bonding at any level, let alone the tertiary level. Undergraduate and graduate students encounter a plethora of sophisticated and highly abstract mental models for chemical bonding, and this study sought to investigate if there are preferred mental models for the concept of covalent bonding for secondary, undergraduate, and graduate chemistry learners. In particular, it was of interest to see whether exposure to increasingly sophisticated mental models at different points in a chemistry education showed up in patterns of preference and use of models in interpreting common physical properties and phenomena. The study revealed that, despite evidencing expertise in a number of highly complex and mathematically sophisticated mental models, tertiary students, including graduates (MSc and PhD), show a strong preference for simple realistic mental models. Furthermore, the students struggled to use their mental models to explain the physical properties of covalently bonded substances.
Debout, D.G.; Luttrell, P.E.; Seo, J.H.
Regional studies of the Frio Formation along the Texas Gulf Coast were conducted to evaluate potential geothermal energy from deep, geopressured sandstone reservoirs. Published regional cross sections, unpublished cross sections provided by several major oil companies, and extensive micropaleontological and electrical-log files at the Bureau of Economic Geology served as basic data. These sections are meant to show gross regional distribution of sand and shale facies both laterally and vertically throughout the entire Tertiary section along the Texas Gulf Coast.
Reavley Nicola J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Heavy alcohol consumption among adolescents and young adults is an issue of significant public concern. With approximately 50% of young people aged 18-24 attending tertiary education, there is an opportunity within these settings to implement programs that target risky drinking. The aim of the current study was to survey students and staff within a tertiary education institution to investigate patterns of alcohol use, alcohol-related problems, knowledge of current National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC guidelines for alcohol consumption and intentions to seek help for alcohol problems. Methods Students of an Australian metropolitan university (with staff as a comparison group participated in a telephone interview. Questions related to knowledge of NHMRC guidelines, drinking behaviour, alcohol-related problems and help-seeking intentions for alcohol problems. Level of psychological distress was also assessed. Results Of the completed interviews, 774 (65% were students and 422 (35% were staff. While staff were more likely to drink regularly, students were more likely to drink heavily. Alcohol consumption was significantly higher in students, in males and in those with a history of earlier onset drinking. In most cases, alcohol-related problems were more likely to occur in students. The majority of students and staff had accurate knowledge of the current NHMRC guidelines, but this was not associated with lower levels of risky drinking. Psychological distress was associated with patterns of risky drinking in students. Conclusions Our findings are consistent with previous studies of tertiary student populations, and highlight the disconnect between knowledge of relevant guidelines and actual behaviour. There is a clear need for interventions within tertiary education institutions that promote more effective means of coping with psychological distress and improve help-seeking for alcohol problems, particularly among
Wawa Puja Prabawa
Full Text Available Speaking is considered to be difficult thing, moreover English as a foreign language. Students' performance depends on their personalities. Students who have low participation in speaking activity in the classroom lose their opportunity to practice their speaking skill which may cause poor speaking skill and achievement. However, some of students are active in speaking activity in the classroom that leads them to have good skill and achievement in speaking. This study attempts to reveal: (1 speaking strategies used by Indonesian tertiary students in terms of speaking English and strategies to improve their speaking ability, and (2 to identify speaking strategies mostly used by the students when they speak English and improve their speaking ability. This study is a descriptive research since its purpose is to describe the Indonesian tertiary students’ learning strategies in learning speaking English. The data from 15 tertiary students, who have good performance and achievement in speaking, from one of schools of higher education in Cimahi were collected using a 21 items questionnaire of a modified version of Strategy Inventory Language Learning (SILL and 5 items interview questions. The result of the study revealed that some speaking strategies are used in terms of speaking English and improve speaking ability, namely cognitive, metacognitive and compensation strategy. In the type of speaking strategy that mostly used by the student in terms of speaking English is compensation strategy, while cognitive strategy was indicated as the mostly speaking strategies used by the Indonesian tertiary students in improving their speaking ability. Considering to the study conducted, it is recommended to students that they should know what strategies that appropriate and can help them in learning speaking English. The students should be able to choose strategies they need in learning and analyze which strategies that give better effect on their own learning.
Alhammoud, Bahjat; Bouvet, Marc; Jackson, Jan; Arias, Manuel; Thepaut, Olivier; Lafrance, Bruno; Gascon, Ferran; Cadau, Enrico; Berthelot, Beatrice; Francesconi, Benjamin
In the frame of the Sentinel-2 Mission Performance Centre (MPC) activities, in order to assess the S2A/MSI data quality and to monitor its evolution, DIMITRI is used to perform the vicarious validation of the Level-1C products. DIMITRI consists on several vicarious calibration methodologies for EO optical sensors: Rayleigh scattering, Sun-Glint, PICS and sensor-to- sensor inter-calibration.The first results of S2A/MSI from both Rayleigh and PICS methodologies are consistent and show an excellent quality of the L1C products. The cross- mission Intercomparison with LANDSAT-8/OLI over PICS shows good agreement within the ±5% mission requirements. The Intercomparison with concomitant ground-based TOA-reflectance over the Railroad Valley site shows a good agreement with a relative difference of 5%-10%. The uncertainties over the estimated calibration coefficients overall the results are found to be less than 5% for most of the S2A/MSI spectral bands.
Huttunen, Sanna; Hedenäs, Lars; Ignatov, Michael S; Devos, Nicolas; Vanderpoorten, Alain
Competing hypotheses that rely either on a stepping-stone dispersal via the North Atlantic or the Bering land bridges, or more recent transoceanic dispersal, have been proposed to explain the disjunct distribution of Mediterranean flora in southern Europe and western North America. These hypotheses were tested with molecular dating using a phylogeny of the moss genus Homalothecium based on ITS, atpB-rbcL, and rpl16 sequence data. The monophyly of two main lineages in Western Palearctic (Europe, central Asia and north Africa) and North America is consistent with the ancient vicariance hypothesis. The monophyly of Madeiran H. sericeum accessions supports the recognition of the Macaronesian endemic H. mandonii. A range of absolute rates of molecular evolution documented in land plants was used as probabilistic calibration prior by a Bayesian inference implementing a relaxed-clock model to derive ages for the nodes of interest. Our age estimates for the divergence of the American and Western Palearctic Homalothecium clade (5.7 Ma, IC 3.52-8.26) and the origin of H. mandonii (2.52 Myr IC 0.86-8.25) are not compatible with the ancient vicariance hypothesis. Age estimates suggests that species distributions result from rare instances of dispersal and subsequent sympatric diversification. The calibrated phylogeny indicates that Homalothecium has undergone a fast radiation during the last 4 Myr, which is consistent with the low levels of morphological divergence among sibling species.
Pronin, Sergey V; Reiher, Christopher A; Shenvi, Ryan A
The SN2 reaction (bimolecular nucleophilic substitution) is a well-known chemical transformation that can be used to join two smaller molecules together into a larger molecule or to exchange one functional group for another. The SN2 reaction proceeds in a very predictable manner: substitution occurs with inversion of stereochemistry, resulting from the 'backside attack' of the electrophilic carbon by the nucleophile. A significant limitation of the SN2 reaction is its intolerance for tertiary carbon atoms: whereas primary and secondary alcohols are viable precursor substrates, tertiary alcohols and their derivatives usually either fail to react or produce stereochemical mixtures of products. Here we report the stereochemical inversion of chiral tertiary alcohols with a nitrogenous nucleophile facilitated by a Lewis-acid-catalysed solvolysis. The method is chemoselective against secondary and primary alcohols, thereby complementing the selectivity of the SN2 reaction. Furthermore, this method for carbon-nitrogen bond formation mimics a putative biosynthetic step in the synthesis of marine terpenoids and enables their preparation from the corresponding terrestrial terpenes. We expect that the general attributes of the methodology will allow chiral tertiary alcohols to be considered viable substrates for stereoinversion reactions.
Martins, Felipe M; Templeton, Alan R; Pavan, Ana C O; Kohlbach, Beatriz C; Morgante, João S
The common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus is an excellent model organism for studying ecological vicariance in the Neotropics due to its broad geographic range and its preference for forested areas as roosting sites. With the objective of testing for Pleistocene ecological vicariance, we sequenced a mitocondrial DNA (mtDNA) marker and two nuclear markers (RAG2 and DRB) to try to understand how Pleistocene glaciations affected the distribution of intraspecific lineages in this bat. Five reciprocally monophyletic clades were evident in the mitochondrial gene tree, and in most cases with high bootstrap support: Central America (CA), Amazon and Cerrado (AMC), Pantanal (PAN), Northern Atlantic Forest (NAF) and Southern Atlantic Forest (SAF). The Atlantic forest clades formed a monophyletic clade with high bootstrap support, creating an east/west division for this species in South America. On the one hand, all coalescent and non-coalescent estimates point to a Pleistocene time of divergence between the clades. On the other hand, the nuclear markers showed extensive sharing of haplotypes between distant localities, a result compatible with male-biased gene flow. In order to test if the disparity between the mitochondrial and nuclear markers was due to the difference in mutation rate and effective size, we performed a coalescent simulation to examine the feasibility that, given the time of separation between the observed lineages, even with a gene flow rate close to zero, there would not be reciprocal monophyly for a neutral nuclear marker. We used the observed values of theta and an estimated mutation rate for the nuclear marker gene to perform 1000 iterations of the simulation. The results of this simulation were inconclusive: the number of iterations with and without reciprocal monophyly of one or more clades are similar. We therefore conclude that the pattern exhibited by the common vampire bat, with marked geographical structure for a mitochondrial marker and no
Morgante João S
Full Text Available Abstract Background The common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus is an excellent model organism for studying ecological vicariance in the Neotropics due to its broad geographic range and its preference for forested areas as roosting sites. With the objective of testing for Pleistocene ecological vicariance, we sequenced a mitocondrial DNA (mtDNA marker and two nuclear markers (RAG2 and DRB to try to understand how Pleistocene glaciations affected the distribution of intraspecific lineages in this bat. Results Five reciprocally monophyletic clades were evident in the mitochondrial gene tree, and in most cases with high bootstrap support: Central America (CA, Amazon and Cerrado (AMC, Pantanal (PAN, Northern Atlantic Forest (NAF and Southern Atlantic Forest (SAF. The Atlantic forest clades formed a monophyletic clade with high bootstrap support, creating an east/west division for this species in South America. On the one hand, all coalescent and non-coalescent estimates point to a Pleistocene time of divergence between the clades. On the other hand, the nuclear markers showed extensive sharing of haplotypes between distant localities, a result compatible with male-biased gene flow. In order to test if the disparity between the mitochondrial and nuclear markers was due to the difference in mutation rate and effective size, we performed a coalescent simulation to examine the feasibility that, given the time of separation between the observed lineages, even with a gene flow rate close to zero, there would not be reciprocal monophyly for a neutral nuclear marker. We used the observed values of theta and an estimated mutation rate for the nuclear marker gene to perform 1000 iterations of the simulation. The results of this simulation were inconclusive: the number of iterations with and without reciprocal monophyly of one or more clades are similar. Conclusions We therefore conclude that the pattern exhibited by the common vampire bat, with marked
Edwards, D L; Keogh, J S; Knowles, L L
Identifying explicit hypotheses regarding the factors determining genetic structuring within species can be difficult, especially in species distributed in historically dynamic regions. To contend with these challenges, we use a framework that combines species distribution models, environmental data and multi-locus genetic data to generate and explore phylogeographic hypotheses for reptile species occupying the coastal sand-dune and sand-plain habitats of the south-western Australian biodiversity hotspot, a community which has both a high diversity of endemics and has varied dramatically in spatial extent over time. We use hierarchical amova, summary statistic and distance-based analyses to explicitly test specific phylogeographic hypotheses. Namely, we test if biogeographic vicariance across barriers, habitat stability, population isolation along a linear habitat or fragmentation across different environments can explain genetic divergence within five co-distributed squamate reptile species. Our results show that patterns of genetic variation reflect complex and species-specific interactions related to the spatial distribution of habitats present currently and during repeated glacial minima, as opposed to being associated with historical factors such as habitat stability between glacial and inter-glacial periods or vicariant barriers. We suggest that the large impact of habitat characteristics over time (i.e. relative levels of habitat connectivity, climatic gradients and spatial heterogeneity of soil types) reflects the ecological restrictions of the sand-dune and sand-plain reptile communities and may explain the lack of concordance across taxa. The study demonstrates the general utility of the approach for assemblage-level, as well as single species, phylogeographic study, including its usefulness for exploring biologically informed hypotheses about what factors have influenced patterns of genetic variation. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Coates, Hamish; Friedman, Tim
This paper reports findings from the first national Australian study of the predictive validity of the Special Tertiary Admissions Test (STAT). Background on tertiary admissions procedures in Australia is presented, followed by information on STAT and the research methods. The results affirm that STAT, through the provision of baseline and…
Background: Endourology is rapidly advancing in developed countries. However, the level of practice in public tertiary hospitals in developing countries is abysmally low. Objective: To review the current practice of endourology in a Nigerian public tertiary hospital and discuss the challenges faced during the study period.
Tertiary education is a major outlet for the provision of high manpower for national development. This paper therefore highlighted the challenges of tertiary education in Nigeria, early perspectives of mentoring undergraduates, the rationale for academic mentoring, the role of a mentor, and the role of library as catalyst in the ...
The study examined the opinions of Nigerian students in tertiary institutions on their ideal family size. It was conducted among students in four tertiary institutions in Edo State of Nigeria. A sample size of 454 final year students was randomly drawn from the halls of residence in the institutions using the stratified sampling ...
Cost Minimization Analysis of antimicrobial therapy in a tertiary health care institution in a developing economy country was carried out. The most applicable tool for generic equivalent drugs was used in Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, a tertiary healthcare Institution in Nigeria, between 2005 and 2007. Relevant ...
This contribution draws on the notion of English as a lingua franca, especially as discussed in James (2006) and Smit (2010), to conceptualise English-medium tertiary education in settings where English functions as additional language and where tertiary education has a history of being undertaken in other, usually ...
The magnetic shielding and its polarizabilities, have been calculated for tertiary butyl alcohol and tertiary butyl amine. These have been used to rationalise the solvent shifts of the proton spectra of the interesting cosolvent systems with water recently measured by Kipkemboi, et al. Continuum solvation calculations and ...
Adebanjo, Margaret Adewunmi
This paper examines crime and its management in Nigerian tertiary institutions. Tertiary institutions today have become arenas for crime activities such as rape, cultism, murder, theft, internet fraud, drug abuse, and examination malpractices. This paper delves into what crime is, and its causes; and the positions of the law on crime management.…
Discipline and ethics are twin issues that tend to undermine the provision of quality education in tertiary institutions in Nigeria. This is because the overall goals of tertiary institutions as enunciated in the National Policy of. Education can hardly be achieved by all the stakeholders without strict conformity and adherence to the ...
... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tertiary incentive crude oil. 212.78 Section 212.78 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL MANDATORY PETROLEUM PRICE REGULATIONS Producers of Crude Oil § 212.78 Tertiary incentive crude oil. Annual prepaid expenses report. By January 31 of each year after 1980, the project...
Juliana Mika Kato
Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the epidemiology, clinical features and survival rate of patients undergoing orbital exenteration (OE in a tertiary referral hospital. Methods : we conducted a retrospective study of all patients undergoing OE at the Hospital das Clínicas, FMUSP between January 2007 and December 2012. We collected data records related to gender, age, origin, length of stay, duration of the disease, other treatments related to the disease, number of procedures outside of the face related to the disease, follow-up and histological diagnosis. Results : we treated 37 patients in the study period. The average survival in one year was 70%, in two years, 66.1%, and 58.3% in three years. There was no significant difference in the one-year survival related to histological diagnosis (p=0.15, days of hospitalization (p=0.17, gender (p=0.43, origin (p=0.78, disease duration (p=0.27 or the number of operations for the tumor (p=0.31. Mortality was higher in elderly patients (p=0.02. The average years of life lost was 33.9 in patients under 60 years, 14.7 in patients in the 61-80 years range and 11.3 in patients over 80 years. Conclusion : the present series of cases is significant in terms of prevalence of orbital exenteration; on the other hand, it shows one of the lowest survival rates in the literature. This suggests an urgent need for improved health care conditions to prevent deforming, radical resections.
Di Caro, Giuseppe; Castino, Giovanni Francesco; Bergomas, Francesca; Cortese, Nina; Chiriva-Internati, Maurizio; Grizzi, Fabio; Mantovani, Alberto; Marchesi, Federica
Recruitment of immune and inflammatory cells in the microenvironment of solid tumors is highly heterogeneous and follows patterns, varying according to the organ of origin and stage of disease, with critical roles in the process of cancer onset and progression. While adaptive cells are endowed with anti-tumor activities, inflammatory components of the immune infiltrate orchestrate an immunosuppressive microenvironment that reveals ambivalent functions of the immune contexture in the tumor milieu. The balance between opposing pro-tumoral and anti-tumoral immune pathways, which occur concomitantly in the tumor microenvironment, and the regulatory networks of these phenomena have been the target of several immunotherapeutic strategies. While the scarcity of adaptive immune effectors in tumors correlates with dismal prognosis, the pathways of activation of tumor-specific lymphocytes are yet to be fully elucidated. Recently, the occurrence of tertiary lymphoid tissue was revealed to be critical in mediating the dynamics of T cell recruitment and local activation of immune cells in the tumor microenvironment. Thus, tertiary lymphoid tissue assessment and targeting emerge as a promising approach for the design of novel prognostic immune signatures and immunotherapeutic strategies. The immunological behavior of tertiary lymphoid tissue, its occurrence in the tumor immune microenvironment and its clinical relevance are discussed here.
Kono, Reika; Clark, Robert A; Demer, Joseph L
The orbital layer of each rectus extraocular muscle (EOM) inserts on connective tissue, and the global layer inserts on the eyeball. The active-pulley hypothesis (APH) proposes that a condensation of this connective tissue constitutes a pulley serving as the functional origin of the rectus EOM, and that this pulley makes coordinated, gaze-related translations along the EOM axis to implement a linear ocular motor plant. This study was designed to measure gaze-related shifts in EOM pulley locations. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in eight normal volunteers in 2-mm thickness coronal planes perpendicular to the orbital axis for nine cardinal gaze directions. Intravenous gadodiamide contrast was administered to define EOM tendons anterior to the globe equator. Paths of EOMs, defined by their area centroids, were transformed into an oculocentric coordinate system. Sharp inflections in EOM paths in secondary and tertiary gaze positions defined pulley locations which were then correlated with gaze direction and compared with theoretical predictions. Rectus pulley positions were consistent with a central primary position. In tertiary gaze positions, each of the four rectus pulleys translated posteriorly with EOM contraction and anteriorly with EOM relaxation by a significant (P pulley model. The APH prediction of coordinated anteroposterior shifting of EOM pulleys with gaze is quantitatively supported by changes in EOM path inflections among tertiary-gaze positions. Human rectus pulleys move to shift the ocular rotational axis to attain commutative behavior of the ocular motor plant.
to the Bologna model in order to ease mobility (at least within Europe). This paper which is based on some very preliminary findings from an ongoing research project exploring internationalization of university education in Denmark, discusses educational strategies of students attending internationalized English......Over the past ten years the number of students who go abroad to pursue tertiary education has more than doubled, from 1, 9 million in 2000 to 4.1 million in 2010 (OECD 2012). This growing number of students studying abroad contributes to the overall flow of individuals and ideas across borders...... at lesser known universities in smaller European countries such as Sweden, Norway, Denmark and the Netherlands where the national language is not one of the major world languages but where courses and educations are increasingly offered in English and where the educational structures are adapted...
Everett, T. Stephen
A general Grignard procedure is presented for the synthesis of aliphatic, tertiary alcohols containing six to nine carbons. Without revealing the specific starting materials, students are challenged to identify their unknown products from physical (boiling points, refractive indices) and spectral (infrared O-H, C-H and fingerprint regions) data. Once a product is identified retro-synthetic considerations point to which alkyl halide and ketone were required as starting materials. This laboratory exercise in organic synthesis incorporates anhydrous techniques, distillation, and infrared analysis. RX + Mg ---> [RMgX] + R'R"C=O ---> [RR'R"COMgX] ---> RR'R"COH Criteria RX = C2-C5 1' alkyl bromide (unbranched) R'R"C=O = C3-C5 ketone RR'R"COH = C6-C9 3' alcohol
comparing it with a control group, in Spain. They stated that the slightly lowered lipid variations observed, excluding antiretroviral therapy, hepatic and nutritional effects might be due to HIV action. This study however does not support this assumption. Elevations in serum TChol and TGL levels, along with dyslipidemia that ...
Billi, John E; Pai, Chih-Wen; Spahlinger, David A
When tertiary health centers face capacity constraint, one feasible strategy to meet service demand is outsourcing clinical services to qualified community providers. Clinical outsourcing enables tertiary health centers to meet the expectations of service timeliness and provides good opportunities to collaborate with other health care providers. However, outsourcing may result in dependence and loss of control for the tertiary health centers. Other parties involved in clinical outsourcing such as local partners, patients, and payers may also encounter potential risks as well as enjoy benefits in an outsourcing arrangement. Recommendations on selecting potential outsourcing partners are given to minimize the risks associated with an outsourcing contract. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Tertiary oil recovery is America's energy ace-in-the-hole and the technology developed here over the past decade could well offer the rest of the world a big incremental boost in its future oil supplies. While U.S. producers are carefully engineering fields that have finished secondary phases of oil production, international operators are commencing pressure maintenance projects by water and gas injection, the first stage of improved oil recovery. Oil recovery authorities who have dealt with the problem for decades estimate that from 25 to 50 billion bbl could be recovered by relatively new sophisticated processes initially developed in the research laboratory and tested in the field. There are 4 basic processes that indicate promise of commercial applications. These are (1) hydrocarbon miscible which includes high-pressure gas drive, rich gas or LPG driven by gas; (2) carbon dioxide miscible with CO/sub 2/ driven by gas or water; (3) chemical flooding, such as surfactant, micellar slugs driven by an aqueous polymer solution; and (4) thermal processes.
Honza, Eiichi (Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan))
Most of the terranes in eastern Asia appear to be relics of arcs, oceanic islands, and subduction complexes. They have collided and accreted from the inner (northwestern) side in China since the Silurian. They are characterized by three stages of Pacific and Tethys evolution. The first collision is related to the Pacific domain in the Permian in which these movements are not clearly reconstructed. The second collision is related to the closure of the Paleo-Tethys in the Late Triassic to Early Jurassic. The third is related to closure of the Neo-Tethys and the subsequent collision of India in the Tertiary. Southeast Asia is in one of the most enigmatic plate boundaries in the world, forming many small plates, collisions, and consumptions. This complication is also suggested to be a result of the northward movement of Australia since its break-up from Gondwanaland in the Cretaceous. During their evolution, most of them have associated with arcs. These arcs also have formed superimpositions on the older exotic blocks of terranes. They are reconstructed on the base of the regular duration on the formation of arcs and backarc basins, which can be seen in the Western Pacific Arc Chain.
Instrumental vaginal delivery - an assessment of use in a tertiary care centre. Constance E SHEHU. Joel C OMEMBELEDE. Dept of Obstetrics &. Gynaecology, Usmanu. Danfodiyo, University. Teaching Hospital Sokoto. NIGERIA. Author for Correspondence. Constance E SHEHU. Dept of Obstetrics &. Gynaecology, Usmanu.
Information pertaining to the 1999 Acute and Chronic Ambient Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria for Methyl Tertiary-Butyl Ether (MTBE) for freshwater and salt water. Information includes the safe levels of MTBE that should protect the majority of species.
Advocates the use of stylistics for teaching English-as-a-Foreign-Language at the tertiary level. Describes stylistics, discusses discourse conventions and grammatical structure, and examines stylistic analysis of a Shakespearian sonnet and a poem. (Author/VWL)
A direct synthesis of tertiary amines is presented that proceeds expeditiously via N-alkylation of amines using alkyl halides in alkaline aqueous medium. This environmentally benign reaction is accelerated upon exposure to microwave irradiation resulting in shortened reaction tim...
demographical characteristics and feto-maternal outcome in unbooked mothers who delivered at a tertiary referral ... Data obtained from the theatre records, delivery registers and case notes were analysed using the statistical package SPSS 20.
Full Text Available The theory of human capital clearly states that the investments into the education bring many benefits and are worth the cost. The OECD Education at a Glance analysis provides support for both public and private investing in tertiary education as the net present value is positive for all observed countries. Considering the benefits of education, a growth in tertiary education should be viewed very positively. In this context, the European Strategy Europe 2020 set up one of its main goals for EU27 countries as follows: to increase the educated population so that it reaches 40% (tertiary educated people aged 30-34. This article, on an example of Slovakia, provides an analysis of both positive and negative impact of increased tertiary attainment.
) in tertiary institutions in Lagos state of Nigeria were analysed to determine the relationship between social activities and manifest anxiety. Social activities in the study were measured in terms of freshmen adjustment to religious activities and ...
Tertiary Index term. Geosciences. Solid earth. Tectonics. Structural Geology. Geodynamics. Seismology. Exploration geophysics. Seismic hazards. Geomagnetism. Mineralogy. Petrology. Metamorphic. Igneous. Sedimentary. Fossil fuels. Petroleum and coal. Isotope geology. Geochronology. Isotope geology. Landform and.
Sharma, Shweta; Sridhar, V. N.; Prajapati, R. P.; Rao, K. M.; Mathur, A. K.
In this work, vicarious calibration coefficients for all the four bands (green, red, NIR and SWIR) of Resourcesat-2 AWiFS sensor for four dates during Dec 2013-Nov 2014 and for seven bands (blue, green, red, NIR, SWIR1, SWIR2 and PAN) of OLI sensor onboard Landsat-8 for six dates during Dec 2013-Feb 2015 were estimated using field measured reflectance and measured atmospheric parameters during sensor image acquisition over Rann of Kutch site in Gujarat. The top of atmosphere (TOA) at-satellite radiances for all the bands were simulated using 6S radiative transfer code with field measured reflectance, synchronous atmospheric measurements and respective sensor's spectral response functions as an input. These predicted spectral radiances were compared with the radiances from the respective sensor's image in the respective band over the calibration site. Cross-calibration between the sensors AWiFS and OLI was also attempted using near-simultaneous same day image acquisition. Effect of spectral band adjustment factor was also studied with OLI sensor taken as reference sensor. Results show that the variation in average estimated radiance ratio for the AWiFS sensor was found to be within 10% for all the bands, whereas, for OLI sensor, the variation was found to be within 6% for all the bands except green and SWIR2 for which the variation was 8% and 11% respectively higher than the 5% uncertainty of the OLI sensor specification for TOA spectral radiance. At the 1σ level, red, NIR, SWIR1 and Panchromatic bands of OLI sensor showed close agreement between sensor-measured and vicarious TOA radiance resulting no change in calibration coefficient and hence indicating no sensor degradation. Two sets of near-simultaneous SBAFs were derived from respective ground measured target reflectance profiles and applied to the AWiFS and it was observed that overall, SBAF compensation provides a significant improvement in sensor agreement. The reduction in the difference between AWiFS and
Clark, Dennis K.; Yarbrough, Mark A.; Feinholz, Mike; Flora, Stephanie; Broenkow, William; Kim, Yong Sung; Johnson, B. Carol; Brown, Steven W.; Yuen, Marilyn; Mueller, James L.
The Marine Optical Buoy (MOBY) is the centerpiece of the primary ocean measurement site for calibration of satellite ocean color sensors based on independent in situ measurements. Since late 1996, the time series of normalized water-leaving radiances L(sub WN)(lambda) determined from the array of radiometric sensors attached to MOBY are the primary basis for the on-orbit calibrations of the USA Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), the Japanese Ocean Color and Temperature Sensor (OCTS), the French Polarization Detection Environmental Radiometer (POLDER), the German Modular Optoelectronic Scanner on the Indian Research Satellite (IRS1-MOS), and the USA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS). The MOBY vicarious calibration L(sub WN)(lambda) reference is an essential element in the international effort to develop a global, multi-year time series of consistently calibrated ocean color products using data from a wide variety of independent satellite sensors. A longstanding goal of the SeaWiFS and MODIS (Ocean) Science Teams is to determine satellite-derived L(sub WN)(labda) with a relative combined standard uncertainty of 5 %. Other satellite ocean color projects and the Sensor Intercomparison for Marine Biology and Interdisciplinary Oceanic Studies (SIMBIOS) project have also adopted this goal, at least implicitly. Because water-leaving radiance contributes at most 10 % of the total radiance measured by a satellite sensor above the atmosphere, a 5 % uncertainty in L(sub WN)(lambda) implies a 0.5 % uncertainty in the above-atmosphere radiance measurements. This level of uncertainty can only be approached using vicarious-calibration approaches as described below. In practice, this means that the satellite radiance responsivity is adjusted to achieve the best agreement, in a least-squares sense, for the L(sub WN)(lambda) results determined using the satellite and the independent optical sensors (e.g. MOBY). The end result of this approach is to
Dransfield, Peter; Conrad, Finn
As authors we take the view that mechatronics, as it relates to fluid power, has three levels which we designate as primary, secondary and tertiary. A brief review of the current status of fluid power, hydraulic and pneumatic, and of electronic control of it is presented and discussed. The focus...... is then on tertiary-level mechatronic fluid power and the challenges to it being applied successfully....
The theory of human capital clearly states that the investments into the education bring many benefits and are worth the cost. The OECD Education at a Glance analysis provides support for both public and private investing in tertiary education as the net present value is positive for all observed countries. Considering the benefits of education, a growth in tertiary education should be viewed very positively. In this context, the European Strategy Europe 2020 set up one of its main goals for ...
The objective of the research was to give a comparative characteristic of parameters of humoral and cellular immunity in the development of secondary and tertiary peritonitis.Materials and methods. The research enrolled 109 patients with secondary peritonitis, 20 of whom developed tertiary peritonitis. Changes in humoral and cellular immunity were evaluated by serial blood tests for the determination of leukocyte count, the relative number of lymphocytes, Ig A, M, and G levels, as well as by ...
Quast, Ralf; Govaerts, Yves; Rüthrich, Frank; Giering, Ralf
The Meteosat Visible and Infrared (MVIRI) sensors on board Meteosat First Generation (MFG) geostationary satellites (1982 - today) acquire radiance every 30 minutes in a broad spectral band, ranging approximately from 0.4 to 1.1 µm and referred to as the visible (VIS) band.The original objective of the MFG programme was the acquisition of Earth images to provide the meteorological community with information on atmospheric circulation and weather. One of the objectives of the H2020 Fidelity an...
Quast, Ralf; Govarts, Yves; Rüthrich, Frank; Giering, Ralf
The Meteosat Visible and Infrared (MVIRI) sensors on board Meteosat First Generation (MFG) geostationary satellites (1982 - today) acquire radiance every 30 minutes in a broad spectral band, ranging approximately from 0.4 to 1.1 μm and referred to as the visible (VIS) band. The original objective of the MFG programme was the acquisition of Earth images to provide the meteoro- logical community with information on atmospheric circulation and weather. One of the ...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Hyponatraemia is defined as a serum sodium level less than 135 mEq/L. High mortality among the patients of hyponatraemia is secondary to the underlying medical condition. Frequency is high in elderly patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was conducted at a tertiary care centre (Basaveshwar Teaching and General Hospital, Gulbarga, from the period September 2014 to August 2016. These patients were evaluated for the underlying cause of hyponatraemia, which included detailed history and physical examination followed by appropriate laboratory investigations. Patients were followed up till the hyponatraemia was treated or patients were discharged from the hospital. RESULTS 100 patients of hyponatraemia were included in the study. 46% of the patients were asymptomatic. 33% patients had lethargy, 28% patients had postural dizziness and 19% had abnormal behaviour. Overall incidence of hyponatraemia was 4.58% in the hospitalised population, whereas its incidence in ICU patients was 22.4%. Twelve patients of symptomatic severe hyponatraemia were treated with hypertonic saline infusion, 25% patients were given loop diuretics with oral supplementation of sodium chloride for free water excretion in SIADH cases and in patients with hypervolaemia, hyponatraemia, fluid restriction was advised to 44 patients, oral supplementation of sodium chloride was given in 36 patients and 64 patients received normal saline. 9 patients included in the study died, 5 of which had advanced cirrhosis of liver as underlying cause. One patient developed Osmotic Demyelination Syndrome (ODS. CONCLUSION The possible cause of hyponatraemia should always be sought as outcome in severe hyponatraemia is governed by aetiology, and not by the serum sodium level. Treatment of severe symptomatic hyponatraemia with hypertonic saline is safe if recommendation for the rate of correction of hyponatraemia is strictly followed.
Full Text Available The second tertiary combined model is applied to develop the second and third type reservoirs which have more oil layer quantity and strong anisotropism, compared to the regular main reservoir with polymer injection, whose seepage characteristics of polymer-injection-after-water-drive shows a remarkable difference, in addition. This development appears to have a larger effect on the remaining oil development and production. Simulating the second tertiary combined model by reservoir numerical simulation under different polymer molecular weight, polymer concentration, polymer injection rate on the polymer injection period, conclusions of the influenced seepage characteristics of original and added perforated interval pressure and water saturation are drawn. The conclusion shows that the polymer molecular weight could influence water saturation of added perforated interval; polymer concentration makes a significant impact on reservoir pressure; polymer injection rate has a great influence on the separate rate of original and added perforated interval. This research provides firm science evidence to the theory of the second tertiary combined model to develop and enhance oil injection-production rate.
Pauwels, Maxime; Vekemans, Xavier; Godé, Cécile; Frérot, Hélène; Castric, Vincent; Saumitou-Laprade, Pierre
Arabidopsis halleri is a pseudometallophyte involved in numerous molecular studies of the adaptation to anthropogenic metal stress. In order to test the representativeness of genetic accessions commonly used in these studies, we investigated the A. halleri population genetic structure in Europe. Microsatellite and nucleotide polymorphisms from the nuclear and chloroplast genomes, respectively, were used to genotype 65 populations scattered over Europe. The large-scale population structure was characterized by a significant phylogeographic signal between two major genetic units. The localization of the phylogeographic break was assumed to result from vicariance between large populations isolated in southern and central Europe, on either side of ice sheets covering the Alps during the Quaternary ice ages. Genetic isolation was shown to be maintained in western Europe by the high summits of the Alps, whereas admixture was detected in the Carpathians. Considering the phylogeographic literature, our results suggest a distinct phylogeographic pattern for European species occurring in both mountain and lowland habitats. Considering the evolution of metal adaptation in A. halleri, it appears that recent adaptations to anthropogenic metal stress that have occurred within either phylogeographic unit should be regarded as independent events that potentially have involved the evolution of a variety of genetic mechanisms. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.
Boissin, E; Stöhr, S; Chenuil, A
Over the last decade, cryptic speciation has been discovered in an increasing number of taxa. Species complexes are useful models for the understanding of speciation processes. Motivated by the discovery of brooding specimens in the common Atlanto-Mediterranean broadcast spawning brittle star, Ophioderma longicauda, a recent study revealed the occurrence of divergent mitochondrial lineages. We analysed 218 specimens from 23 locations spread over the geographic range of the species with partial Cytochrome c Oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences. A subset of this sample was also surveyed with the internal transcribed spacer of the ribosomal DNA cluster (nuclear ITS-1). Our study revealed six highly divergent mitochondrial lineages, and the ITS-1 data confirmed that they most likely represent a species complex. Geographic ranges, abundances and genetic structures are contrasted among the putative cryptic species. Lineages in which brooding specimens have been found form a monophyletic group and are restricted to the Eastern Mediterranean basin, an oligotrophic zone. A phylogeny-trait association analysis revealed a phylogenetic signal for low 'chlorophyll a' values (our proxy for oligotrophy). An ecological shift related to the hyper oligotrophy of the Eastern Mediterranean region is therefore likely to have played a role in the evolution of brooding. This study revealed that a complex mixture of vicariance, population expansion, adaptive divergence and possibly high local diversification rates resulting from brooding has shaped the evolution of this species complex. The dating analysis showed that these events probably occurred in the Pleistocene epoch. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Alison K. S. Wee
Full Text Available Patterns of genetic structure are essential for a comprehensive understanding of the evolution and biogeography of a species. Here, we investigated the genetic patterns of one of the most widespread and abundant mangrove species in the Indo-West Pacific, Sonneratia alba J. Sm., in order to gain insights into the ecological and evolutionary drivers of genetic structure in mangroves. We employed 11 nuclear microsatellite loci and two chloroplast regions to genotyped 25 S. alba populations. Our objectives were to (1 assess the level of genetic diversity and its geographic distribution; and (2 determine the genetic structure of the populations. Our results revealed significant genetic differentiation among populations. We detected a major genetic break between Indo-Malesia and Australasia, and further population subdivision within each oceanic region in these two major clusters. The phylogeographic patterns indicated a strong influence of vicariance, oceanic barriers and geographic distance on genetic structure. In addition, we found low genetic diversity and high genetic drift at range edge. This study advances the scope of mangrove biogeography by demonstrating a unique scenario whereby a widespread species has limited dispersal and high genetic divergence among populations.
Full Text Available Fishes of the order Characiformes are a diverse and economically important teleost clade whose extant members are found exclusively in African and Neotropical freshwaters. Although their transatlantic distribution has been primarily attributed to the Early Cretaceous fragmentation of western Gondwana, vicariance has not been tested with temporal information beyond that contained in their fragmentary fossil record and a recent time-scaled phylogeny focused on the African family Alestidae. Because members of the suborder Citharinoidei constitute the sister lineage to the entire remaining Afro-Neotropical characiform radiation, we inferred a time-calibrated molecular phylogeny of citharinoids using a popular Bayesian approach to molecular dating in order to assess the adequacy of current vicariance hypotheses and shed light on the early biogeographic history of characiform fishes. Given that the only comprehensive phylogenetic treatment of the Citharinoidei has been a morphology-based analysis published over three decades ago, the present study also provided an opportunity to further investigate citharinoid relationships and update the evolutionary framework that has laid the foundations for the current classification of the group. The inferred chronogram is robust to changes in calibration priors and suggests that the origins of citharinoids date back to the Turonian (ca 90 Ma of the Late Cretaceous. Most modern citharinoid genera, however, appear to have originated and diversified much more recently, mainly during the Miocene. By reconciling molecular-clock- with fossil-based estimates for the origins of the Characiformes, our results provide further support for the hypothesis that attributes the disjunct distribution of the order to the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean. The striking overlap in tempo of diversification and biogeographic patterns between citharinoids and the African-endemic family Alestidae suggests that their evolutionary
Kondraskov, Paulina; Schütz, Nicole; Schüßler, Christina; de Sequeira, Miguel Menezes; Guerra, Arnoldo Santos; Caujapé-Castells, Juli; Jaén-Molina, Ruth; Marrero-Rodríguez, Águedo; Koch, Marcus A; Linder, Peter; Kovar-Eder, Johanna; Thiv, Mike
The Macaronesian laurel forests (MLF) are dominated by trees with a laurophyll habit comparable to evergreen humid forests which were scattered across Europe and the Mediterranean in the Paleogene and Neogene. Therefore, MLF are traditionally regarded as an old, 'Tertiary relict' vegetation type. Here we address the question if key taxa of the MLF are relictual. We evaluated the relict hypothesis consulting fossil data and analyses based on molecular phylogenies of 18 representative species. For molecular dating we used the program BEAST, for ancestral trait reconstructions BayesTraits and Lagrange to infer ancestral areas. Our molecular dating showed that the origins of four species date back to the Upper Miocene while 14 originated in the Plio-Pleistocene. This coincides with the decline of fossil laurophyllous elements in Europe since the middle Miocene. Ancestral trait and area reconstructions indicate that MLF evolved partly from pre-adapted taxa from the Mediterranean, Macaronesia and the tropics. According to the fossil record laurophyllous taxa existed in Macaronesia since the Plio- and Pleistocene. MLF are composed of species with a heterogeneous origin. The taxa dated to the Pleistocene are likely not 'Tertiary relicts'. Some species may be interpreted as relictual. In this case, the establishment of most species in the Plio-Pleistocene suggests that there was a massive species turnover before this time. Alternatively, MLF were largely newly assembled through global recruitment rather than surviving as relicts of a once more widespread vegetation. This process may have possibly been triggered by the intensification of the trade winds at the end of the Pliocene as indicated by proxy data.
Salmi, Jamil; Bassett, Roberta Malee
While the share of the tertiary education age cohort (19-25) which is being given the opportunity to study has increased worldwide over the past two decades, this does not in fact translate into reduced inequality. For many young people, especially in the developing world, major obstacles such as disparities in terms of gender, minority population membership or disabilities as well as academic and financial barriers are still standing in their way. The authors of this article propose a conceptual framework to analyse equity issues in tertiary education and document the scope, significance and consequences of disparities in tertiary education opportunities. They throw some light on the main determinants of these inequalities and offer suggestions about effective equity promotion policies directed towards widening participation and improving the chances of success of underprivileged youths in order to create societies which uphold humanistic values.
Brandt, C.; Bahl, J.C.; Heegaard, N.H.
AIM: Assays for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of total tau, phospho-tau protein and beta-amyloid 1-42 have been available for some years. The aim of the study was to assess the usability of these biomarkers in a mixed population of tertiary dementia referral patients in a university-based memory......, the sensitivity of a single abnormal value was between 33 and 66%. The specificity was high except when discriminating AD from amnestic mild cognitive impairment. Two or more abnormal markers further increased the specificity and decreased the sensitivity. CONCLUSION: In a tertiary setting, abnormal CSF biomarker...
Duhs, Ted; Duhs, Alan
Exports of tertiary education services have become a growth industry for the Queensland economy. Since a policy change in 1987 from an aid to a trade approach to overseas students, fee paying overseas students have risen from a mere 5.9 per cent of all overseas students in 1987, to 89.6 per cent in 1995. Exports of tertiary education services from the Queensland economy now rival wool and wheat in importance. A number of marketing and policy issues arise in the context of further change in th...
Full Text Available Sexual harassment is not a new phenomenon in tertiary institutions. It has been receiving considerable attention in research and the media and public awareness has increased dramatically. However, the term sexual harassment is not used uniformly across the globe because countries have defined it differently. Consequently, prevalence of sexual harassment in education varies across cultures. This paper examines sexual harassment from a comparative perspective. It specifically focuses on the definition of sexual harassment, incidence of sexual harassment of students in tertiary institutions, effects of sexual harassment on victims; and victims’ responses to sexual harassment. It also offers suggestions for curtailing sexual harassment in these institutions.
Full Text Available The percomorph order Gobioidei comprises over 2200 species worldwide distributed that occupy most freshwater, brackish and marine environments, and show a spectacular variety in morphology, ecology, and behaviour. However, phylogenetic relationships among many gobioid groups still remain poorly understood. Such is the case of Gobiidae, a rapidly radiating lineage that encompass an unusually high diversity of species (nearly 2000, including the largely endemic European species whose origin and ancestry remain uncertain. The resolution and accuracy of previous molecular phylogenetic studies has been limited due to the use of only a few (generally mitochondrial molecular markers and/or the absence of representatives of several key lineages. Our study (built on Agorreta et al. 2013 is the first to include multiple nuclear and mitochondrial genes for nearly 300 terminal taxa representing the vast diversity of gobioid lineages. We have used this information to reconstruct a robust phylogeny of Gobioidei, and we are now investigating the historical biogeography and diversification times of European gobies with a time-calibrated molecular phylogeny. Robustness of the inferred phylogenetic trees is significantly higher than that of previous studies, hence providing the most compelling molecular phylogenetic hypotheses for Gobioidei thus far. The family Eleotrididae branches off the gobioid tree after the Rhyacichthyidae + Odontobutidae clade followed by the Butidae as the sister-group of the Gobiidae. Several monophyletic groups are identified within the two major Gobiidae subclades, the gobionelline-like and the gobiine-like gobiids. The European gobies cluster in three distinct lineages (Pomatoschistus-, Aphia-, and Gobius-lineages, each with different affinities with gobiids from the Indo-Pacific and perhaps the New World. Our ongoing more-detailed study on European gobies will reveal whether their origin is related to vicariant events linked to the
Ramos, Ana Carolina Simões; De Lemos-Filho, José Pires; Lovato, Maria Bernadete
The phylogeography of Hymenaea courbaril var. stilbocarpa from Atlantic Forest and riverine forests of the Cerrado biome in central and southeastern Brazil was investigated. The data were compared with those of its congeneric Hymenaea stigonocarpa, a typical tree from savanna. In the Cerrado, H. courbaril var. stilbocarpa is found in sites contiguous with those of H. stigonocarpa, and they share common life-history attributes. The psbC/trnS3 region of the chloroplast DNA was sequenced in 149 individuals of H. courbaril var. stilbocarpa. High genetic variation was found in this species, with the identification of 18 haplotypes, similarly to what was found in H. stigonocarpa with 23 haplotypes in the same geographic region. Populations of H. courbaril var. stilbocarpa could be structured in 3 phylogeographic groups. Spatial analysis of molecular variation indicated that 46.4% of the genetic variation was due to differences among these groups. Three haplotypes were shared by H. courbaril var. stilbocarpa and H. stigonocarpa, and only 10.5% of the total genetic variation could be attributed to between-species difference. We surmise that during the glacial times, H. courbaril var. stilbocarpa populations must have gone extinct in most parts of the southern of its present-day occurrence area. After climate amelioration, these areas were probably recolonized from northern and eastern. The relatively similar phylogeographic structure of vicariant Hymenaea species suggests that they were subjected to the same impacts during the Quaternary climatic fluctuations. The sharing of haplotypes and the genetic similarity between the 2 Hymenaea species suggest the existence of ancestral polymorphism and/or hybridization.
Matsuda, Eiko; Hubert, Julien; Ikegami, Takashi
Vicarious trial-and-error (VTE) is a behavior observed in rat experiments that seems to suggest self-conflict. This behavior is seen mainly when the rats are uncertain about making a decision. The presence of VTE is regarded as an indicator of a deliberative decision-making process, that is, searching, predicting, and evaluating outcomes. This process is slower than automated decision-making processes, such as reflex or habituation, but it allows for flexible and ongoing control of behavior. In this study, we propose for the first time a robotic model of VTE to see if VTE can emerge just from a body-environment interaction and to show the underlying mechanism responsible for the observation of VTE and the advantages provided by it. We tried several robots with different parameters, and we have found that they showed three different types of VTE: high numbers of VTE at the beginning of learning, decreasing numbers afterward (similar VTE pattern to experiments with rats), low during the whole learning period, and high numbers all the time. Therefore, we were able to reproduce the phenomenon of VTE in a model robot using only a simple dynamical neural network with Hebbian learning, which suggests that VTE is an emergent property of a plastic and embodied neural network. From a comparison of the three types of VTE, we demonstrated that 1) VTE is associated with chaotic activity of neurons in our model and 2) VTE-showing robots were robust to environmental perturbations. We suggest that the instability of neuronal activity found in VTE allows ongoing learning to rebuild its strategy continuously, which creates robust behavior. Based on these results, we suggest that VTE is caused by a similar mechanism in biology and leads to robust decision making in an analogous way. PMID:25050548
Matsuda, Eiko; Hubert, Julien; Ikegami, Takashi
Vicarious trial-and-error (VTE) is a behavior observed in rat experiments that seems to suggest self-conflict. This behavior is seen mainly when the rats are uncertain about making a decision. The presence of VTE is regarded as an indicator of a deliberative decision-making process, that is, searching, predicting, and evaluating outcomes. This process is slower than automated decision-making processes, such as reflex or habituation, but it allows for flexible and ongoing control of behavior. In this study, we propose for the first time a robotic model of VTE to see if VTE can emerge just from a body-environment interaction and to show the underlying mechanism responsible for the observation of VTE and the advantages provided by it. We tried several robots with different parameters, and we have found that they showed three different types of VTE: high numbers of VTE at the beginning of learning, decreasing numbers afterward (similar VTE pattern to experiments with rats), low during the whole learning period, and high numbers all the time. Therefore, we were able to reproduce the phenomenon of VTE in a model robot using only a simple dynamical neural network with Hebbian learning, which suggests that VTE is an emergent property of a plastic and embodied neural network. From a comparison of the three types of VTE, we demonstrated that 1) VTE is associated with chaotic activity of neurons in our model and 2) VTE-showing robots were robust to environmental perturbations. We suggest that the instability of neuronal activity found in VTE allows ongoing learning to rebuild its strategy continuously, which creates robust behavior. Based on these results, we suggest that VTE is caused by a similar mechanism in biology and leads to robust decision making in an analogous way.
Full Text Available Vicarious trial-and-error (VTE is a behavior observed in rat experiments that seems to suggest self-conflict. This behavior is seen mainly when the rats are uncertain about making a decision. The presence of VTE is regarded as an indicator of a deliberative decision-making process, that is, searching, predicting, and evaluating outcomes. This process is slower than automated decision-making processes, such as reflex or habituation, but it allows for flexible and ongoing control of behavior. In this study, we propose for the first time a robotic model of VTE to see if VTE can emerge just from a body-environment interaction and to show the underlying mechanism responsible for the observation of VTE and the advantages provided by it. We tried several robots with different parameters, and we have found that they showed three different types of VTE: high numbers of VTE at the beginning of learning, decreasing numbers afterward (similar VTE pattern to experiments with rats, low during the whole learning period, and high numbers all the time. Therefore, we were able to reproduce the phenomenon of VTE in a model robot using only a simple dynamical neural network with Hebbian learning, which suggests that VTE is an emergent property of a plastic and embodied neural network. From a comparison of the three types of VTE, we demonstrated that 1 VTE is associated with chaotic activity of neurons in our model and 2 VTE-showing robots were robust to environmental perturbations. We suggest that the instability of neuronal activity found in VTE allows ongoing learning to rebuild its strategy continuously, which creates robust behavior. Based on these results, we suggest that VTE is caused by a similar mechanism in biology and leads to robust decision making in an analogous way.
Lim, Siew Yee; Chapman, Elaine
The Academic Motivation Scale ( ams) is a comprehensive and widely used instrument for assessing motivation based on the self-determination theory. Currently, no such comprehensive instrument exists to assess the different domains of motivation (stipulated by the self-determination theory) in mathematics education at the pre-tertiary level (grades 11 and 12) in Asia. This study adapted the ams for this use and assessed the properties of the adapted instrument with 1610 students from Singapore. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses indicated a five-factor structure for the modified instrument (the three original ams intrinsic subscales collapsed into a single factor). Additionally, the modified instrument exhibited good internal consistency (mean α = .88), and satisfactory test-retest reliability over a 1-month interval (mean r xx = .73). The validity of the modified ams was further demonstrated through correlational analyses among scores on its subscales, and with scores on other instruments measuring mathematics attitudes, anxiety and achievement.
Abstract. An investigation was conducted into the problems militating against students' enrolment in ceramics education at tertiary institutions in. Nigeria. The design of the study was a descriptive survey. The target population of the study was 8234 (eight thousand, two hundred and thirty four) students of four faculties in ...
Maternal mortality audit in a tertiary health institution in Nigeria: Lessons from direct causes and its drivers. ... Materials and Methods: It was a prospective audit of all consecutive maternal deaths in the hospital over a three-year period. ... Possible strategies to improve health financing and referral system are proffered.
Nigeria, with over one hundred and fifty tertiary institutions, has witnessed unprecedented violent behaviours occasioned by students' involvement in campus cultism. Peace on campus has been shattered due to this development of violent behaviour. Blood-letting arising from either murder or manslaughter has become ...
Early behavioural problems in children may place them at risk of alcohol abuse in later life. The study investigated the association between childhood conduct problem and alcohol abuse of students in tertiary institutions in Nigeria. The data for this cross sectional study was collected from a randomly selected sample of ...
Kayode Ajayi – Department of Educational Management & Business. Education, Olabisi Onabanjo University, ... way, it is said to be negative in perspective. Similarly, when discipline is viewed as a way of ... of this group. In the process of conforming. Pursuing Discipline and Ethical Issues in Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria ...
We found that (i) proportionately different labour market performance engagements existed among tertiary institution graduates; (ii) more graduates were engaged in government than private sector and self sector employments and (iii) retrogressively common entrepreneurial practices, introvert personality trait, cognitive ...
succession of Jabal Hafit, Al Ain, United Arab Emi- rates and Arabian Peninsula; Bullettino della Societ`a. Palaeontologica Italiana 42(3) 242–265. Canu F and Bassler R S 1920 North American early Tertiary. Bryozoa; United States National Museum Bulletin 106. 1–879. Canu F and Bassler R S 1929 Contribution to the ...
Background: Postoperative nausea and vomiting is one of the most distressing morbidities associated with surgery. This descriptive prospective study was conducted to determine the incidence, predictors and management of postoperative nausea and vomiting among patients attending a tertiary hospital in north-western ...
Washing hand with soap and water is said to be the single most important intervention against hospital acquired infections. This study aimed to explore perceptions, attitudes and hand washing practices amongst doctors in a tertiary institution in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. This was a descriptive cross sectional survey carried out ...
The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is increasing globally. It also constitutes one of the common indications for admission into the medical wards of most hospitals. This study is aimed at examining diabetes –related admission and outcomes in a tertiary hospital located in a semi –urban community in Delta state, ...
Kaufmann, Kristine Lee; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Augustesen, Anders Hust
The tertiary clay at Moesgaard Museum near Aarhus in the eastern part of Jutland in Denmark is a highly plastic, glacially disturbed nappe of Viborg Clay. The clay is characterised as a swelling soil, which could lead to damaging of the building due to additional heave of the soil. To take...
The research set out to establish the views of students about service provision in higher and tertiary education institutions. A case study approach was used. Important parameters such as tangibles, reliability, responsiveness, assurance and empathy were used to obtain students' views about quality of service provision in ...
Oesophageal squamous cell cancer in a South African tertiary hospital: a risk factor and presentation analysis. ... Methodology: Information on patients managed at Inkosi Albert Luthuli Central Hospital (IALCH), Durban, South Africa, between 1 October 2013 and 31 December 2014 was retrieved from a prospective ...
Background: Septic abortion is still a challenging problem and a major cause of maternal mortality and morbidity in developing countries. Aim: The present study was conducted to estimate incidence, causes, risk factors, associated microorganisms, and treatment modalities of cases of septic abortion managed in a tertiary ...
Sexual harassment is a recurring decimal in tertiary institutions. The paper therefore investigates the effects of sexual harassment on the academic performance of female students, using Delta State University, Abraka, as case study. The participants were randomly selected 200level – 500level students from various ...
Objective: Liver disease is an important cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Its pattern varies in different geographical locations. This study aimed to determine the pattern and risk factors of liver disease in a Nigerian tertiary hospital. Study Design: Retrospective Study Site: University of Nigeria teaching hospital ...
... User Education Programme. There were 300 respondents, 100 from each of three academic institutions. The criticisms, problems highlighted by the respondents and suggestions for improvement are discussed. Keywords: education, institution, nigeria, tertiary, user. Lagos Journal of Library and Information Science Vol.
The study investigated the influence of acculturation, networking and school management support on social justice building among university academic staffs of tertiary institutions. A descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. The sample for the study was three hundred (300) randomly selected academic ...
Breast Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology in a Nigerian Tertiary Hospital. ... The sociodemographic data; cytology result, final histology result and the clinical staging for breast cancer were analyzed. Results: Eight hundred and ... false negative. Also, multi-disciplinary audits of difficult case should be part of the work routine.
Objective. To determine the characteristics of obstetric patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) at a tertiary hospital in the Limpopo Province, South Africa. Methods. Hospital files of all obstetric patients admitted to the Pietersburg provincial referral hospital ICU from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2012 were ...
Working in a non-motivating environment is a nagging issue in various tertiary institutions in Cross River State .This dampens staff morale a great deal. However, the provision of motivation in work places will be a great boost to staff morale especially in Vocational Education. This paper discusses the meaning of motivation, ...
The study investigated ways of managing tertiary institutions for the promotion of lifelong learning in Cross River State, Nigeria. One research question was raised and one hypothesis formulated to guide the study. Multistage sampling procedure was adopted for the study. Stratified random sampling technique and simple ...
This paper examined the state of physical facilities in Nigerian tertiary institutions in comparison with cost of facilities management in the institutions. This was achieved by determining the availability of physical facilities in the institution, assessment of the various facilities managers in the institution, and determining if the ...
Obesity and associated factors in young adults attending tertiary institutions in south-eastern Nigeria. Patricia Ogechi Ukegbu, Ada Charity Uwaegbute, Chinyere Akudo Echendu, Chukwunonso Ejike, Julie Uche Anyika-Elekeh, Victoria Uzoamaka Asumugha, Solomon Abasiekong Kuyik, Shola Omodamiro, Blessing Nwofia, ...
To compare the quality of antihypertensive prescriptions at 2 different health care levels in a hypertensive Nigerian population.We carried out a retrospective comparative analysis of the quality and pattern of antihypertensive and low-dose aspirin prescription in a tertiary and two secondary health care institutions providing ...
McNaughton, Susan M.
Analysis of a sample of assessment tasks used in New Zealand first-year clinical and final-year secondary school Biology and Chemistry National Certificate of Educational Achievement summative assessments was conducted to assess whether similarities and differences existed in secondary and tertiary competency discourses. Findings suggested…
The paper presents the results of a comprehensive major element, trace element, and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic study of Mid-Tertiary volcanic sequences from the northwestern flood basalt province in Ethiopia. The volcanic rocks studied range in composition from basanites, alkaline basalts, and ankaramites, which form the 1st ...
The tendency towards decreasing class attendance by students is a concern for many tertiary institutions. Various factors contribute to the motivation of students, which in turn directly or indirectly influence them to attend lectures. The aim of the study is mainly to investigate which factors are related to the problem of low ...
Dealing with difference and dissensus within the tertiary environment. Mollie Painter-Morland. Abstract. An important challenge that many South African organisations face, is to find a way of dealing with difference that allows for unity amidst diversity. To make this possible, institutional frameworks should function as guiding ...
Background: In order to make good decisions about their sexual and reproductive health, young people need reliable information. This study assessed the effect of health education on the knowledge and attitude of tertiary school students towards sexually transmitted infections. Methods: The study employed a ...
Objective: To evaluate hand washing attitude and practices among Dentists and Dental Students treating patients in a Nigerian Tertiary Dental Clinic. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of Dentists and Dental Students treating patients in University of Benin Teaching Hospital was conducted between February ...
Tertiary Education and Gender Disparities in a Dollarised Economy: A Case Study of the Faculty of Social Studies at the University of Zimbabwe. ... devastating impacts on the female students. This is being caused by the 'second class citizen' treatment given to the girl child by most families as caused by gender stereotypes.
Agbonifoh, Julia Adesua
Against the background of the dangers posed by breast cancer world-wide, and the importance of its early detection and therefore breast self examination (BSE), this study investigated the practice of BSE among female students in tertiary institutions in Edo state. A sample of 723 participants selected through a combination of multi-stage,…
One research question guided the study while one null hypothesis was tested at 0.05 level of significance using t-test statistics. A structured questionnaire ... Identified strategies should be adopted by the institutions to ensure the effectiveness of mentoring in public and private tertiary institutions in Anambra State. Key words: ...
This paper examines whether initial asset distribution affects the composition of government expenditure on education. Using a cross-section of developing countries, it is found that a country's initial asset inequality is positively and significantly associated with the ratio of tertiary education expenditure to government education expenditure,…
of African descent to be four times greater than in. Spectrum of Glaucoma Presentation in a. Nigerian Tertiary Hospital. Olusola Olawoye1,2, Sarimiye Tarella1. 1Department of Ophthalmology, University College Hospital, Ibadan, 2Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine,. University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.
Nduka-Ozo, Stella Ngozi
This study reviewed the nature of peace in Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria using Ebonyi State University as a case study. The purpose of the study was to review the various factors responsible for lack of peace. The sample was drawn from the three hundred level students of the Faculty of Education. Thirty students were selected from each of the…
Background: The burden of communicable diseases is high, now the burden of non-communicable disease is also growing hence it important that the distributions of different disease in Tertiary Hospital is known. Unprecedented changes have occurred in the structure of the society that have impacted on health and ...
This study examines the attrition and achievement of a sample of 295 students in an on-campus tertiary bridging program at a regional university. A logistic regression analysis using enrolment status, age and the number of absences from scheduled classes at week three of the semester as predictor variables correctly predicted 92.8 percent of…
susceptibility to fluconazole and voriconazole in a tertiary hospital. Methods: A total of 300 subjects comprising of 200 HIV patients and 100 non-HIV individuals were used for this study. Clean catch midstream were collected from each individual and processed using standard microbiological techniques. Emergent Candida ...
Olasunkanmi, Abari Ayodeji; Olufunke, Oyetola Idowu; Adetayo, Okunuga Adedapo
Entrepreneurship Education has recently become a global phenomenon in the development of world youths for self employment and self-reliance. The Nigerian nation cannot afford to be left out and left behind in this new trend in education both at the secondary and tertiary levels. However, while the Universal Basic Education (UBE) curriculum has…
This study is intended to determine the pattern and rational use of drugs in the elderly diabetic patients in a tertiary health care facility in Western Nigeria. This was a retrospective study involving 173 case files of elderly diabetic patients treated in the Endocrinology Clinic of Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital ...
BACKGROUND: Depression is common in pregnancy in high-income-countries but rarely spoken about in Nigerian Tertiary Obstetric Centres. OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to ascertain the prevalence and risk factors for major depression in pregnancy and puerperium at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching ...
This study was carried out to investigation the needs, problem and prospects of drug production in tertiary health institutions using Lagos University Teaching Hospital as a case study and to recommend solutions to the problems so identified. The use of questionnaires was employed in the study covering all pharmacists in ...
Jones, Sandra; Harvey, Marina; Lefoe, Geraldine
Over the last 20 years, the tertiary education sector has adopted new administrative management approaches, with the aim of improving accountable and strategic focus. Over the same period, the question of how to build leadership capacity to improve learning and teaching and research outcomes has led to discussion on what constitutes academic…
Background: Little is known about the burden of stroke in the northern part of Nigeria as most studies in the country have been in the southern part. The objective of this study was to study the profile of stroke patients and predictors of outcome in a tertiary health centre in Katsina, North-Western Nigeria.. Patients and Method: ...
Pitt, Susan C.; Sippel, Rebecca S.
Synopsis This article reviews the current surgical management of patients with secondary and tertiary hyperparathyroidism. The focus is on innovative surgical strategies that have improved the care of these patients over the past 10 to 15 years. Modalities such as intraoperative parathyroid hormone monitoring and radioguided probe utilization are discussed. PMID:19836494
Metastatic breast cancer in a Nigerian tertiary hospital. ... Background: Late presentation of breast carcinoma is common in resource-limited countries with attendant poor outcome. Objective: To describe the pattern of clinical ... resource limitations. Improved awareness of the disease is advocated to reduce late presentation.
Ning, Huiping; Hornby, Garry
This study was aimed at investigating the impact of cooperative learning on the motivation of tertiary English learners. Participants were from two randomly assigned classes at a university in the north of China. A pre-test-post-test control group design was employed to compare the impact of the cooperative learning approach with that of…
This paper examined peace education as a means of curbing gap in knowledge and dating violence in South-western Nigeria tertiary institutions. Economic, social and psychological problems exert enormous pressures on students making them violent or docile in the face of challenges. These factors combine to make ...
Objective: To audit the completeness of histopathologic reports of Colorectal Cancer for prognostic information in a tertiary care hospital in the light of the minimum reporting standards for colorectal cancer resections recently proposed for use in Nigeria. Material and Methods: Twenty–five histopathology reports of colorectal ...
Trauma admissions among victims of domestic violence at a tertiary care hospital in north-western Tanzania: an urgent call to action. ... Suspecting sexual partner being unfaithful was the most common reason given by victims for domestic violence in 63.4% of cases. Blunt and sharp objects (56.8%) were the most common ...
Background: The Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital (NDUTH) is a young tertiary hospital with recently established department in various specialties. In spite of this it caters for the health needs of a lot of the patients in Bayelsa state and its environs. The aim of this study therefore is to audit the otorhinolaryngological ...
The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of NEC and identify the factors predicting the surgical management and also to determine the mortality due to NEC at our tertiary care neonatal unit in Oman. Materials and methods The parameters studied included sex-based differences, gestational age at birth, birth ...
An Innovation Systems Perspectives on Tertiary-Level Agricultural Education in Sub-Saharan Africa: (Evidence From Ethiopia) ... it should also play a role in building the capacity of organizations and individuals to explore new products and processes that depend on the transmission and adaptation of existing information.
Conclusion: The HEMR system enabled the Pietermaritzburg Metropolitan Department of Surgery to quantify the burden of surgical disease and map district referral patterns. Thirty percent of operative procedures performed were assessed as district-level operations. Potentially correctable deficits identified within the tertiary ...
Amoo, Sikiru A.
This paper examines the quality of teaching and research in developing human resources to facilitate the development of tertiary education in the nation. It discusses the challenges and the roles of research in higher education. The author argues that the combination of content and pedagogical knowledge could help to develop human resources for…
Background: Anaesthetic equipment is a potential vector for the transmission of disease. This study was undertaken to observe current infection control practices among anaesthetic nurses regarding the decontamination of anaesthetic equipment in regional, tertiary and central hospitals in KwaZulu-Natal. Method: All ...
Salmi, Jamil; Bassett, Roberta Malee
While the share of the tertiary education age cohort (19-25) which is being given the opportunity to study has increased worldwide over the past two decades, this does not in fact translate into reduced inequality. For many young people, especially in the developing world, major obstacles such as disparities in terms of gender, minority population…
Background: Voluntary donors who ought to be the main source of donor blood are relatively few in Nigeria. There is therefore a need to study current patterns of blood donation and design strategies for improvement. Objectives: To determine the types , age and sex distribution of blood donors in a tertiary Hospital in ...
Bai, Yang; Niu, Feng; Liu, Lidi; Sha, Hui; Wang, Yimei; Zhao, Song
The incidence of tertiary syphilis involvement in the spinal column with destructive bone lesions is very rare. It is difficult to establish the correct diagnosis from radiographs and histological examination alone. Limited data are available on surgical treatment to tertiary syphilitic spinal lesions. In this article, we report a case of tertiary syphilis in the lumbar spine with osteolytic lesions causing cauda equina compression. A 44-year-old man who suffered with low back pain for 6 months and progressive radiating pain at lower extremity for 1 week. Radiologic findings showed osteolytic lesion and new bone formation in the parts of the bodies of L4 and L5. Serum treponema pallidum hemagglutination (TPHA) test was positive. A surgery of posterior debridement, interbody and posterolateral allograft bone fusion with instrumentation from L3 to S1 was performed. The low back pain and numbness abated after operation. But the follow-up radiographs showed absorption of the bone grafts and failure of instrumentation. A Charcot's arthropathy was formed between L4 and L5. It is challenging to diagnose the tertiary syphilis in the spine. Surgery is a reasonable auxiliary method to antibiotic therapy for patients who suffered with neuropathy. Charcot's arthropathy should be considered as an operative complication.
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) refers to two chronic inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract which is generally believed to be rare in most African countries. The objectives of the current study were to present the experience of three tertiary gastroenterology centers in southern part of Nigeria on ...
Background: This study was carried out to review the incidence, demographic variables and challenges in managing pelvic abscess in a tertiary health institution, the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria. Methods: This was a retrospective study. Gynaecological patients known to have had pelvic ...
Lillo, Thomas Martin [Idaho National Laboratory; Wright, Richard Neil [Idaho National Laboratory
The microstructure of Alloy 617 was characterized following creep tests interrupted at total creep strains ranging from 2-20%. A range of creep temperatures (750-1000oC) and initial creep stresses (10-145 MPa) produced creep test durations ranging from 1 to 5800 hours. Image analysis of optical photomicrographs on longitudinal sections of the gage length was used to document the fraction of creep porosity as a function of creep parameters. Creep porosity was negligible below tertiary creep strains of 10% and increased with tertiary creep strain, thereafter. For a given temperature and total creep strain, creep porosity increased with decreasing creep stress. Creep porosity increased linearly with duration of the creep experiment. TEM performed on the gage sections did not reveal significant creep cavity formation on grain boundaries at the sub-micron level. It was concluded that the onset of tertiary creep did not result from creep cavitation and more likely arose due to the formation of low energy dislocation substructures with increasing tertiary strain.
The paper focuses on the incidence of sexual harassment in tertiary science education and its attendant effects on students and academics. Data from a survey of six higher institutions comprising two universities, two colleges of education and two polytechnics was used. Results indicate high rate of sexual harassment of ...
Gallegos, Danielle; Ramsey, Rebecca; Ong, Kai Wen
Insufficient access to food is known to compromise tertiary studies. Students often belong to groups known to have poor food security such as those renting or relying on government payments. The present study administered a cross-sectional survey incorporating the USDA food security survey module (FSSM) to 810 students at a metropolitan university…
Background: Ectopic pregnancy is a life-threatening gynecological emergency, and a significant cause of maternal morbidity and mortality in Nigeria. Objective: To determine the incidence, clinical presentation, risk factors and management outcomes of ectopic pregnancies in a tertiary health facility. Methods: A retrospective ...
This study aimed at identifying factors that contribute to clients' satisfaction in a tertiary antenatal clinic in Plateau State. Methods: This was a facility-based, cross sectional study where 100 clients of reproductive age (15-45 years) were selected using systematic sampling technique. Data was collected using a structured, ...
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 3. Cretaceous – Tertiary Mass Extinction Meteoritic Versus Volcanic Causes. P V Sukumaran. General Article Volume 3 Issue 3 March 1998 pp 8-17. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:
Wijers, D.; Wieske, L.; Vergouwen, M.D.I; Richard, E.; Stam, J.; Smets, E.M.A.
Although the number of neurological second opinions (SOs) and tertiary referrals (TRs) is increasing, only little is known about expectations and patient satisfaction in this group of patients. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore expectations of patients who get a neurological SO or
Self care activities among patients with diabetes attending a tertiary care hospital in Mangalore Karnataka, India. ... Conclusions: Self‑care practices were found to be unsatisfactory in almost all aspects except for blood sugar monitoring and treatment adherence. As these practices are essential for prevention of ...
Hossain, Md. Shajjad
The goal of this study was to evaluate the assessment criteria of learning in tertiary education of Bangladesh. The study was aimed at identifying percentage of questions during learning assessment of business graduates following cognitive levels of Bloom's in revised Taxonomy and to test whether there was any significant difference in the…
Introduction Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common surgical emergency in the neonatal intensive care unit. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of NEC and identify the factors predicting the surgical management and also to determine the mortality due to. NEC at our tertiary care neonatal unit in ...
The recent need for automated stock control system for bookshops in tertiary institutions was generated by unequal availability of books and stiff scarcity of books in some areas while in other areas books are being wasted or unsold. This research has made use of distributed database systems in developing stock control ...
Conclusion: In the light of the high level of sexual activity detected, it is recommended that family life or sexuality education, starting early, through primary, secondary and tertiary education be institutionalised. This is to equip our youths with correct information to enable them make informed choices about responsible sexual ...
Jan 16, 2013 ... Objective: To determine students' perception of health care services provided in a tertiary institution and assess students' attitude towards ... distance of health facilities, waiting time and quality of. Factors affecting utilization of ... satisfaction has received little research attention, and it is unclear whether the ...
Background: About 19 million children worldwide live with visual impairments resulting from different ocular morbidities. This study aimed to identify the different causes of eye diseases in children visiting a tertiary eye centre at Jimma University Hospital. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of charts of patients of ...
Listening is essential to the leaming process. Students in tertiary institutions of learning need to acquire effective listening and note-taking skiils in order to benefit from lectures. This paper focused on factors militating against effective listening during lectures such as poor rate of presentation, poor communication skills, ...
Background: Cancer is a public health problem worldwide affecting all categories of persons. It is the second common cause of death in developed countries and among the three leading causes of death in developing countries. Objective: To compare the patterns of malignant childhood tumours in two tertiary hospitals in ...
J.N. Iyer Institute of Mathematical Sciences Chennai, India
Nov 8, 2013 ... Euler characteristic class. In early twentieth century, the notion of local product structure, i.e. fiber spaces and their generalizations appeared, in the study of topological spaces (with additional structures). J.N. Iyer. IMSc, Chennai. Tertiary classes–after Chern-Simons theory ...
The main objective of this study was to determine the relationship between library services and user satisfaction in tertiary institution libraries in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Survey research design was considered appropriate and adopted for the study To achieve the purpose of the study, two hypotheses were formulated to ...
Sexuality among youths has become a source of great concern due to its attendant effects. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the sexual behaviours of undergraduates of tertiary institutions in Kwara State. The study also examined whether or not variables of gender and school type had significant influence ...
Nurses' communication of nursing care provision in tertiary health facilities and patient satisfaction are closely related. This has remained a yardstick for measuring success of the services provided in many health facilities. This study investigated the influence of nurses' communication of nursing care on patient satisfaction ...
In the present investigation, 37 numbers of high sulphur tertiary coal samples from Meghalaya, India have been studied on the basis of proximate and ash analysis. Various statistical tools like Bivariant Analysis, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Hierarchical Clustering Analysis (HCA), and also the geochemical ...
Ferri, Rita Borromeo
Since 2003 mathematical modelling in Germany is not only a topic for scientific disciplines in university mathematics courses, but also in school starting with primary school. This paper shows what mathematical modelling means in school and how it can be taught as a basis for complex modeling problems in tertiary education.
The proliferation of computer networks and Internet access opened new communication channels such as blogs, websites, e-mail, social media and mobile apps. In view of the current economic recession in Nigeria, tertiary institutions are turning to information technology for educational and communications solutions to ...
Patryn, Eliza K.; Vrijman, Violette; Nieuwendaal, Carla P.; van der Meulen, Ivanka J. E.; Mourits, Maarten P.; Lapid-Gortzak, Ruth
To review the spectrum of disease, symptomatology, and management offered to patients referred for a second opinion after refractive surgery. A prospective cohort study was done on all patients referred from October 1, 2006, to September 30, 2011, to a tertiary eye clinic after refractive surgery of
Bashir, Sajitha; Luque, Javier
This paper analyzes the evolution in socio-economic and ethnic disparities in tertiary education attainment, participation, and completion and labor market outcomes in the six countries of Central America. There is evidence of differential progress, with Costa Rica, a middle-income country, and Nicaragua, a low-income country, having improved participation of low-income students in tertiar...
Tertiary institutions should realise the gaps and opportunities that could be filled in recreation management training. The current article reviews literature focussing on the importance of recreation participation, the benefits of participation and the impact it has on society in order to lead a quality life. International and national ...
Jan 2, 2013 ... Background: Criteria for a good dental practice as expressed by patients have influence on their behavior in terms of compliance with clinical advice, less pain and anxiety and more utilization of dental care. Objective: To assess the opinion of patients attending the dental clinic of a tertiary hospital ...
Cost analysis of tuberculosis treatment in two tertiary hospitals in South-East Nigeria. ... Abia State University Medical Students' Association Journal ... How free is it? Several governmental and non-governmental agencies support tuberculosis treatment to make the services accessible and affordable to patients.
schools considering that each day gives birth to new challenges, problems and discoveries in the field of science and technology which have invariably altered the way in which certain tasks are carried out. Students of tertiary institutions therefore need to be provided with opportunities to upgrade and expand existing skills, ...
Methodology: Results of colonoscopies performed by surgeons in the endoscopic unit of the Jos University Teaching Hospital, a tertiary medical centre in Plateau State, Nigeria were retrospectively analysed for a period of 6 months. The diagnostic yield and findings were analyzed. Results: A total of 43 colonoscopies were ...
Background: The incidence of ovarian cancer is thought to be increasing in developing countries and little is known about the pattern and incidence of this disease in South‑East Nigeria. Aims: The objectives of the study were to determine the incidence, describe the pattern and management of ovarian cancer at a tertiary ...
Al-Yamani, Abdulrahman; Khamis, Faryal; Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim; Al-Noomani, Hamed; Al-Noomani, Jaleela; Al-Abri, Seif
... in a tertiary care hospital in Oman. Methods: We conducted a retrospective audit of the appropriateness of antimicrobial prescribing in patients admitted to acute care settings in a tertiary care hospital in Oman over a fourweek period...
The time of origin of cool-to-cold-temperate plants of northern affinities in the Latin American biota is unsettled. Two models have been proposed-a Paleogene origin from a once widespread temperate rain forest, and a Neogene origin by introductions from the north which is best supported by new evidence. Fourteen palynofloras of Tertiary age are now available from Mexico and Central America, in addition to numerous others from the southeastern United States and northern South America. Pollen of cool-temperate plants occurs in the Eocene of southeastern United States, but not in northern Mexico, central Panama, or northern South America. In the Miocene this pollen is sparse in deposits from Mexico and Guatemala, rare in Panama, and absent from northern South America. In the Pliocene pollen representing a diverse northern temperate element of ten genera is present in the Pliocene of southeastern Veracruz, Mexico, five in northeastern Guatemala, and two (Myrica, Salix) first appear in northern South America; Alnus and Quercus are added in the Pleistocene. This north-to-south and early-to-late pattern is consistent with the appearance of highlands in southern Central America and northern South America in the Neogene, closure of the isthmian marine portal between 3.5 and 2.5 Ma (million years ago), and the late Cenozoic cooling trend evident in the O/O-based paleotemperature curve.
Wopat, M A; Curry, W E; Robins, J W; Marjaniemi, D K
Tertiary sedimentary rocks in the basins of southwestern Montana were studied to determine their favorability for potential uranium resources. Uranium in the Tertiary sedimentary rocks was probably derived from the Boulder batholith and from silicic volcanic material. The batholith contains numerous uranium occurrences and is the most favorable plutonic source for uranium in the study area. Subjective favorability categories of good, moderate, and poor, based on the number and type of favorable criteria present, were used to classify the rock sequences studied. Rocks judged to have good favorability for uranium deposits are (1) Eocene and Oligocene strata and undifferentiated Tertiary rocks in the western Three Forks basin and (2) Oligocene rocks in the Helena basin. Rocks having moderate favorability consist of (1) Eocene and Oligocene strata in the Jefferson River, Beaverhead River, and lower Ruby River basins, (2) Oligocene rocks in the Townsend and Clarkston basins, (3) Miocene and Pliocene rocks in the Upper Ruby River basin, and (4) all Tertiary sedimentary formations in the eastern Three Forks basin, and in the Grasshopper Creek, Horse Prairie, Medicine Lodge Creek, Big Sheep Creek, Deer Lodge, Big Hole River, and Bull Creek basins. The following have poor favorability: (1) the Beaverhead Conglomerate in the Red Rock and Centennial basins, (2) Eocene and Oligocene rocks in the Upper Ruby River basin, (3) Miocene and Pliocene rocks in the Townsend, Clarkston, Smith River, and Divide Creek basins, (4) Miocene through Pleistocene rocks in the Jefferson River, Beaverhead River, and Lower Ruby River basins, and (5) all Tertiary sedimentary rocks in the Boulder River, Sage Creek, Muddy Creek, Madison River, Flint Creek, Gold Creek, and Bitterroot basins.
Raup, D. M.; Valentine, J. W.
There is some indication that life may have originated readily under primitive earth conditions. If there were multiple origins of life, the result could have been a polyphyletic biota today. Using simple stochastic models for diversification and extinction, we conclude: (1) the probability of survival of life is low unless there are multiple origins, and (2) given survival of life and given as many as 10 independent origins of life, the odds are that all but one would have gone extinct, yielding the monophyletic biota we have now. The fact of the survival of our particular form of life does not imply that it was unique or superior.
Delaney, Jennifer A.; Yu, Patricia
This study extends Trow's theory of higher education development to examine changes in national-level tertiary education graduation rates. Applying Trow's framework we arrive at three stages: (1) elite systems with gross tertiary graduation rates less than 15%, (2) massified systems with gross tertiary graduation rates between 15% and 50%, and (3)…
Martins, Joaquim Oliveira; Boarini, Romina; Strauss, Hubert; de la Maisonneuve, Christine; Saadi, Clarice
This paper assesses how policies and institutions affect private returns to invest in tertiary human capital, the ability of individuals to finance this investment and the institutional characteristics of tertiary education systems. Focusing on core tertiary education services, the paper presents new measures of private returns to tertiary…
AbdulAzeez, Abbas Tunde
This research investigated total quality management practices and quality teacher education in public tertiary institutions in Lagos State. The study was therefore designed to analyse management practices in Lagos state tertiary institutions through total quality management structural framework. The selected public tertiary institutions in Lagos…
Fox, J. Lawrence
Reviews ideas and evidence bearing on the origin of life. Shows that evidence to support modifications of Oparin's theories of the origin of biological constituents from inorganic materials is accumulating, and that the necessary components are readily obtained from the simple gases found in the universe. (AL)
Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Hansen, Casper Worm; Strulik, Holger
The Fetal Origins hypothesis has received considerable empirical support, both within epidemiology and economics. The present study compares the ability of two rival theoretical frameworks in accounting for the kind of path dependence implied by the Fetal Origins Hypothesis. We argue that while...
and Enterococcus faecium isolate of animals origin to an E.faecium isolate to human origin in the intestines of human volunteers. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 2006; 50: 596-599. 12. Ismaeel, N.A. Resistance of bacteria from human faecal flora to antimicrobial agents. Journal of Tropical Medicine Hygiene. 1993 ...
The lateral and vertical distributions of Proterozoic and Paleozoic sedimentary rocks in southern Nevada are the combined products of original stratigraphic relationships and post-depositional faults and folds. This map compilation shows the distribution of the pre-Tertiary rocks in the region including and surrounding the Nevada Test Site. It is based on considerable new evidence from detailed geologic mapping, biostratigraphic control, sedimentological analysis, and a review of regional map relationships. Proterozoic and Paleozoic rocks of the region record paleogeographic transitions between continental shelf depositional environments on the east and deeper-water slope-facies depositional environments on the west. Middle Devonian and Mississippian sequences, in particular, show strong lateral facies variations caused by contemporaneous changes in the western margin of North America during the Antler orogeny. Sections of rock that were originally deposited in widely separated facies localities presently lie in close proximity. These spatial relationships chiefly result from major east- and southeast-directed thrusts that deformed the region in Permian or later time. Somewhat younger contractional structures are identified within two irregular zones that traverse the region. These folds and thrusts typically verge toward the west and northwest and overprint the relatively simple pattern of the older contractional terranes. Local structural complications are significant near these younger structures due to the opposing vergence and due to irregularities in the previously folded and faulted crustal section. Structural and stratigraphic discontinuities are identified on opposing sides of two north-trending fault zones in the central part of the compilation region north of Yucca Flat. The origin and significance of these zones are enigmatic because they are largely covered b Tertiary and younger deposits. These faults most likely results from significant lateral
Hyde, John R; Vetter, Russell D
The evolutionary relationships of the livebearing rockfishes of the genus Sebastes have been a point of interest since their original description. With over 65 species found in the northeast Pacific (NEP), 27 in the northwest Pacific (NWP), seven in the Gulf of California (GC), four in the north Atlantic (NA) and at least two in the southern hemisphere (SH), they represent a fascinating lineage for studies of spatial and temporal patterns of dispersal, vicariance and speciation in the marine environment. Previous studies of Sebastes species have attempted to reconstruct their phylogeny using allozyme patterns or portions of a single mitochondrial gene while incompletely sampling the genus, resulting in a partial picture with low statistical support. In this study, genetic analyses using sequence data (5581 characters) from seven mitochondrial genes (cytochrome b, cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1, 12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, tRNA proline, tRNA threonine and the control region) and two nuclear genes (recombination activating gene 2 and internal transcribed spacer 1), along with a near complete sampling of species, have produced a well supported phylogenetic hypothesis of the relationships between Sebastes species as well as clarifying their position within the scorpaenid subfamily, Sebastinae. Though studies of similar magnitude have been conducted at the family and subfamily level, this represents the most detailed and extensive examination of biogeography and marine speciation within a single, widely distributed marine fish genus. Both Bayesian posterior and maximum parsimony analyses produced highly similar phylogenies suggesting an origin for Sebastes at high-latitudes in the NWP. The majority of previously proposed sub-generic groupings based upon morphology are found to be either para- or polyphletic. Using Bayesian-derived genetic distance measures together with rate smoothing techniques, a molecular clock was applied to the phylogeny. The clock-calibrated data suggest
O marxismo original – desenvolvido por Marx e Engels – geralmente é contraposto ao socialismo utópico como se fosse uma recusa absoluta e total. O objetivo do artigo é discutir a relação entre o marxismo original e o socialismo utópico e com a utopia. A tese defendida no artigo é a de que o caráter antiutópico do marxismo original é uma simplificação, pois o que ele realiza é uma suplantação do utopismo, o que significa manter os seus elementos positivos e negar os seus elementos negativos. P...
Patiño, Jairo; Goffinet, Bernard; Sim-Sim, Manuela; Vanderpoorten, Alain
The disjunction of floras between East Asia, Southeast North America, West North America, and Southwest Eurasia has been interpreted in terms of the fragmentation of a once continuous mixed mesophytic forest that occurred throughout the Northern Hemisphere due to the climatic and geological changes during the late Tertiary. The sword moss, Bryoxiphium, exhibits a distribution that strikingly resembles that of the mesophytic forest elements such as Liriodendron and is considered as the only living member of an early Tertiary flora in Iceland. These hypotheses are tested here using molecular dating analyses and ancestral area estimations. The results suggest that the extant range of Bryoxiphium results from the fragmentation of a formerly wider range encompassing North America and Southeast Asia about 10 million years ago. The split of continental ancestral populations is too recent to match with a continental drift scenario but is spatially and temporally remarkably congruent with that observed in Tertiary angiosperm relict species. The timing of the colonization of Iceland from Macaronesian ancestors, about two million years ago, is, however, incompatible with the hypothesis that Bryoxiphium is the only living member of an early Tertiary flora of the island. Alaska was recurrently colonized from East Asia. The ability of Bryoxiphium to overcome large oceanic barriers is further evidenced by its occurrence on remote oceanic archipelagos. In particular, Madeira was colonized twice independently from American and East Asian ancestors, respectively. The striking range disjunction of Bryoxiphium is interpreted in terms of its mating system, as the taxon exhibits a very singular pattern of spatial segregation of the sexes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Stephen; Sahajanand; Rangalakshmi; Kasim
AIMS : The aim of this retrospective study was to analyze the rate and chara cteristics of acute poisoning cases admitted to adult intensive care unit ( ICU ) in a tertiary care medical college hospital. We report clinical features , demographic data , laboratory results , mortality rate , and the results of our treatment in cases who ca me with the history of poisoning. METHODS: The study was done in patients admitted with his...
AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2017-0055 Engineering of Droplet Manipulation in Tertiary Junction Microfluidic Channels Shalini Gupta INDIAN INSTITUTE OF...2017 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 14 May 2015 to 13 Nov 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Engineering of Droplet Manipulation in...dispersed phase was increased, the critical droplet size for transition also decreased. This multivariate approach can in future be used to engineer
Tan, Zhi-Jie; Chen, Shi-Jie
Accurate quantification of the ionic contribution to RNA folding stability could greatly enhance our ability to understand and predict RNA functions. Recently, motivated by the potential importance of ion correlation and fluctuation in RNA folding, we developed the tightly bound ion (TBI) model. Extensive experimental tests showed that the TBI model can lead to better treatment of multivalent ions than the Poisson-Boltzmann equation. In this study, we use the model to quantify the contribution of salt (Na+ and Mg2+) to the RNA tertiary structure folding free energy. Folding of the RNA tertiary structure often involves intermediates. We focus on the folding transition from an intermediate state to the native state, and compute the electrostatic folding free energy of the RNA. Based on systematic calculations for a variety of RNA molecules, we derive a set of formulas for the electrostatic free energy for tertiary structural folding as a function of the sequence length and compactness of the RNA and the Na+ and Mg2+ concentrations. Extensive comparisons with experimental data suggest that our model and the extracted empirical formulas are quite reliable. PMID:21723828
Taran-Benshoshan, Marina; Ofer, Naomi; Dalit, Vaizel-Ohayon; Aharoni, Avi; Revhun, Menahem; Nitzan, Yeshayahu; Nasser, Abidelfatah M
Wastewater disposal may be a source of environmental contamination by Cryptosporidium and Giardia. This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in raw and treated wastewater effluents. A prevalence of 100% was demonstrated for Giardia cysts in raw wastewater, at a concentration range of 10 to 12,225 cysts L(-1), whereas the concentration of Cryptosporidium oocysts in raw wastewater was 4 to 125 oocysts L(-1). The removal of Giardia cysts by secondary and tertiary treatment processes was greater than those observed for Cryptosporidium oocysts and turbidity. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were present in 68.5% and 76% of the tertiary effluent samples, respectively, at an average concentration of 0.93 cysts L(-1) and 9.94 oocysts L(-1). A higher detection limit of Cryptosporidium oocysts in wastewater was observed for nested PCR as compared to immune fluorescent assay (IFA). C. hominis was found to be the dominant genotype in wastewater effluents followed by C. parvum and C. andersoni or C. muris. Giardia was more prevalent than Cryptosporidium in the studied community and treatment processes were more efficient for the removal of Giardia than Cryptosporidium. Zoonotic genotypes of Cryptosporidium were also present in the human community. To assess the public health significance of Cryptosporidium oocysts present in tertiary effluent, viability (infectivity) needs to be assessed.
Azis, Subandiyah; Kustamar
Mudflow in Siring Village, Sidoarjo Regency, Indonesia, has been in eruption since May 29, 2006. It still shows irregular large bursts which loaded in a sludge reservoir with capacity of 59 million m3. From 2007 until 2015, there were more than 20 studies which concluded that the mudflow could be used as a mixture of building materials. However, the studies were not detailed and needed further research. This research aims to investigate the use of mudflow as tertiary irrigation canal lining material. This research comes with several laboratory tests to obtain a mixture that is solid and water-resistant. The methods that were used are descriptive methods as follows: 1). Sampling of mudflow, to be analyzed in Material Testing Laboratory. 2). Sampling of soil at research site, to be analyzed in Soil Mechanics Laboratory 3). Mixing of materials which are consist of mudflow and other materials and doing strength test in the laboratory. 4). Installation of tertiary irrigation canal lining using materials that have been tested. 5). Observation of lining's strength inactive soil pressure-bearing and its impermeability. It is expected that the results of this research will be applied extensively throughout the tertiary irrigation canals, so mudflow can be utilized as raw materials that are environmentally friendly, which are able to help preserving the environment, also to reduce the removal of sand / rock in the river, which has been used for lining materials, that benefits in preventing damage to the river ecosystem.
The contact between pre-Mesozoic and Tertiary rocks in the western Canyon Range, west-central Utah, has been interpreted as a large, low-angle normal fault that marks the breakaway zone of the hypothesized, basin-forming Sevier Desert detachment. Recent fieldwork suggests that the contact may in fact be depositional along much or all of its length. Deformational fabric in the supposed footwall likely traces to the Mesozoic Sevier orogeny rather than to Tertiary detachment faulting. Kinematic indicators at the range front are not generally consistent with low-angle normal-fault motion; instead, well-exposed high-angle faults are the dominant range-bounding structures. The Tertiary conglomerates of the western Canyon Range foothills, previously viewed as an evolving syntectonic deposit related to detachment faulting, are here reinterpreted as three distinct units that reflect different periods and tectonic settings. The pattern in these conglomerates, and in fault-offset gravity-slide deposits that mantle the western foothills, is consistent with block faulting and rotation along several generations of high-angle structures. Local seismic-reflection data lend qualitative support to this interpretation, and underscore the need to consider alternative working hypotheses for evolution of the Sevier Desert basin.
Sadovsky, Michael G.
A simple model of species origin resulted from dynamic features of a population, solely, is developed. The model is based on the evolution optimality in space distribution, and the selection is gone over the mobility. Some biological issues are discussed.
Sara F Kerr
Full Text Available The hypothesis of a Palaearctic origin of Leishmania in the early Cenozoic, dispersal to the Nearctic in the late Eocene and to the Neotropical in the Pliocene is presented. It is further hypothesized that murid rodents and their immediate ancestors have been important mammalian reservoirs since the origination of Leishmania. Biochemical, molecular, biogeographical, entomological, mammalalogical and ecological support for these hypotheses are reviewed.
Evertts, Adam G.
In bacteria, replication is a carefully orchestrated event that unfolds the same way for each bacterium and each cell division. The process of DNA replication in bacteria optimizes cell growth and coordinates high levels of simultaneous replication and transcription. In metazoans, the organization of replication is more enigmatic. The lack of a specific sequence that defines origins of replication has, until recently, severely limited our ability to define the organizing principles of DNA replication. This question is of particular importance as emerging data suggest that replication stress is an important contributor to inherited genetic damage and the genomic instability in tumors. We consider here the replication program in several different organisms including recent genome-wide analyses of replication origins in humans. We review recent studies on the role of cytosine methylation in replication origins, the role of transcriptional looping and gene gating in DNA replication, and the role of chromatin’s 3-dimensional structure in DNA replication. We use these new findings to consider several questions surrounding DNA replication in metazoans: How are origins selected? What is the relationship between replication and transcription? How do checkpoints inhibit origin firing? Why are there early and late firing origins? We then discuss whether oncogenes promote cancer through a role in DNA replication and whether errors in DNA replication are important contributors to the genomic alterations and gene fusion events observed in cancer. We conclude with some important areas for future experimentation. PMID:23634256
Akter, N; Akkadechanunt, T; Chontawan, R; Klunklin, A
This study examined the level of quality of work life and predictability of years of education, monthly income, years of experience, job stress, organizational commitment and work environment on quality of work life among nurses in tertiary-level hospitals in the People's Republic of Bangladesh. There is an acute shortage of nurses worldwide including Bangladesh. Quality of work life is important for quality of patient care and nurse retention. Nurses in Bangladesh are fighting to provide quality care for emerging health problems for the achievement of sustainable development goals. We collected data from 288 randomly selected registered nurses, from six tertiary-level hospitals. All nurses were requested to fill questionnaire consisted of Demographic Data Sheet, Quality of Nursing Work Life Survey, Expanded Nursing Stress Scale, Questionnaire of Organizational Commitment and Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index. Data were analysed by descriptive statistics and multiple regression. The quality of work life as perceived by nurses in Bangladesh was at moderate level. Monthly income was found as the best predictor followed by work environment, organizational commitment and job stress. A higher monthly income helps nurses to fulfil their personal needs; positive work environment helps to provide quality care to the patients. Quality of work life and predictors measured by self-report only may not reflect the original picture of the quality of work life among nurses. Findings provide information for nursing and health policymakers to develop policies to improve quality of work life among nurses that can contribute to quality of nursing care. This includes the working environment, commitment to the organization and measures to reduce job stress. © 2017 International Council of Nurses.
Son, Jin-Dam; Kwak, Young-Hoon; Bong, Pil-Yoon [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (KR)] (and others)
Since 1992 sedimentary basin analysis to assess petroleum potential of the Cretaceous and Tertiary strata in the Korean onshore and continental shelf have been carried out. The Cretaceous non-marine strata mainly occupy the Gyeongsang Basin in southeastern part of the Korean Peninsula and small basins such as Haenam and Gyeokpo depressions in western coastal areas. The Tertiary strata are mostly distributed in Domi, Cheju, Socotra subbasins, and Okinawa Trough in the South Continental Shelf, and Kunsan and Heuksan basins in the West. The basin evolution and petroleum potential for each basins are characterized as follow. The Cretaceous Gyeongsang sediments were deposited in three subbasins including Milyang, Euisung and Yongyang subbasins. The black shales in Nakdong and Jinju formations are interpreted to contain abundant organic matter during the deposition, thermal maturity reaching up to the zone of dry gas formation. Because porosity and permeability are too low, the sandstones can act as a tight gas reservoir rather than conventional oil and gas reservoir. The latest Cretaceous strata of Haenam and Kyeokpo depressions in western coastal area are correlated into the Yuchon Volcanic Group of the Gyeongsang Basin. Petroleum potential of the Early Cretaceous basin in the West Continental Shelf could be relatively high in terms of sedimentary basin filled with thick lacustrine sediments. The Kunsan basin in the West Continental Shelf originated in the Early Cretaceous time expanded during the Paleocene time followed by regional erosion at the end of Paleocene on which Neogene sediment have been accumulated. The Paleocene-Eocene sublacustrine shales may play an major role as a source and cap rocks. South Continental Shelf Basin is subdivided by Cheju subbasin in the center, Socotra Subbasin to the west, Domi Subbasin to the northeast and Okinawa Trough to the East. The potential hydrocarbon traps associated with anticline, titled fault blocks, fault, unconformity
Waddell, Bradford S; Briski, David C; Meyer, Mark S; Ochsner, John L; Chimento, George F
Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a significant challenge to the orthopedic surgeon, patient, hospital, and insurance provider. Our study compares the financial information of self-originating and referral 2-stage revision hip and knee surgeries at our tertiary referral center for hip or knee PJI over the last 4 years. We performed an in-house retrospective financial review of all patients who underwent 2-stage revision hip or knee arthroplasty for infection between January 2008 and August 2013, comparing self-originating and referral cases. We found an increasing number of referrals over the study period. There was an increased cost of treating hips over knees. All scenarios generated a positive net income; however, referral hip PJIs offered lower reimbursement and net income per case (although not statistically significant), whereas knee PJIs offered higher reimbursement and net income per case (although not statistically significant). With referral centers treating increased numbers of infected joints performed elsewhere, we show continued financial incentive in accepting referrals, although with less financial gain than when treating one's own hip PJI and an increased financial gain when treating referral knee PJIs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Recently, two papers reported the use of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) with polydimethylsiloxane(PDMS)/Carboxen fibers to determine trace levels of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) and tertiary butyl alcohol (tBA) in water. Attempts were made to apply this technique to th...
Mustoe, Anthony M; Brooks, Charles L; Al-Hashimi, Hashim M
Recent studies have shown that basic steric and connectivity constraints encoded at the secondary structure level are key determinants of 3D structure and dynamics in simple two-way RNA junctions. However, the role of these topological constraints in higher order RNA junctions remains poorly understood. Here, we use a specialized coarse-grained molecular dynamics model to directly probe the thermodynamic contributions of topological constraints in defining the 3D architecture and dynamics of transfer RNA (tRNA). Topological constraints alone restrict tRNA's allowed conformational space by over an order of magnitude and strongly discriminate against formation of non-native tertiary contacts, providing a sequence independent source of folding specificity. Topological constraints also give rise to long-range correlations between the relative orientation of tRNA's helices, which in turn provides a mechanism for encoding thermodynamic cooperativity between distinct tertiary interactions. These aspects of topological constraints make it such that only several tertiary interactions are needed to confine tRNA to its native global structure and specify functionally important 3D dynamics. We further show that topological constraints are conserved across tRNA's different naturally occurring secondary structures. Taken together, our results emphasize the central role of secondary-structure-encoded topological constraints in defining RNA 3D structure, dynamics and folding. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.
From 8 December 2011 to 17 February 2012, Geneva University's physics faculty will be holding an exhibition called "L'Origine – un voyage entre la Science et l'Art". Thirty artists from Europe and Africa will be exhibiting their work. The aim of the exhibition is to take the visitor on an imaginary journey to the origins of mankind and to show how science and art approach the same theme from different angles. The works on display will include pieces of Makonde art, a traditional art form native to Mozambique, created by artists of the Nairucu Arts centre. The cultural programme that will run alongside the exhibition will include lectures on contemporary scientific themes aimed at the general public. Visitors will also have the opportunity to discover "L’Origine", a book of poetry by Beatrice Bressan (Ed. Loreleo, Geneva, 2010), which was awarded the third prize in the “Poeti nella società&...
Full Text Available O marxismo original – desenvolvido por Marx e Engels – geralmente é contraposto ao socialismo utópico como se fosse uma recusa absoluta e total. O objetivo do artigo é discutir a relação entre o marxismo original e o socialismo utópico e com a utopia. A tese defendida no artigo é a de que o caráter antiutópico do marxismo original é uma simplificação, pois o que ele realiza é uma suplantação do utopismo, o que significa manter os seus elementos positivos e negar os seus elementos negativos. Para tanto, o texto lança mão da análise da seção do Manifesto Comunista no qual Marx se posiciona diante do socialismo utópico e textos complementares, bem como a análise de comentaristas.
Tupasela, Aaro Mikael; Tamminen, Sakari
The idea of genetic authenticity and origin has been an important issue within genetics for decades for scientific, political, and economic reasons. The question of where species and populations come from, as well as the linking of genetic traits to particular geographical locations, has resurfaced....... Using the case of human and non-human genetics to compare and contrast the various facets associated with genetic identity, we seek to develop a broader picture of the ways in which genetics plays an important role in stabilizing categories of origin....
When a hard object rolls on a soft surface, or vice versa, rolling friction arises from deformation of the soft object or the soft surface. The friction force can be described in terms of an offset in the normal reaction force or in terms of energy loss arising from the deformation. The origin of the friction force itself is not entirely clear. It is investigated qualitatively in this paper by rolling a steel ball on soft foam and by rolling a foam cylinder on a hard surface. The deformation of the foam was observed visually, providing simple insights into the origin of the friction force.
Six-month outcome in patients with myocardial infarction initially admitted to tertiary and nontertiary hospitals. RESCATE Investigators. Recursos Empleados en el Síndrome Coronario Agudo y Tiempos de Espera.
Marrugat, J; Sanz, G; Masiá, R; Valle, V; Molina, L; Cardona, M; Sala, J; Serés, L; Szescielinski, L; Albert, X; Lupón, J; Alonso, J
The aim of the present study was to ascertain whether the degree of accessibility to coronary angiography and revascularization results in differing usages or outcomes, or both, in the setting of a high coverage national health system. The selective use of coronary angiography and revascularization procedures in the management of acute myocardial infarction (MI) remains controversial. A cohort of 1,460 consecutive patients with a first MI admitted to four referral teaching hospitals (one with tertiary facilities) were followed up for 6 months after admission. Only patients initially admitted to each of the study hospitals were retained for analysis in the original hospital's cohort. End points were 6-month mortality and readmission for reinfarction, unstable angina, heart failure or severe ventricular arrhythmia. Patients admitted to the tertiary hospital were more likely to undergo coronary angiography (adjusted relative risk 4.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.37 to 5.45) than those admitted to the nontertiary sites (use rate: 22.1% for nontertiary care, 55.5% for tertiary care). Revascularization procedures were performed in 21.2% of patients in the tertiary hospital and in 8.3% in the nontertiary hospitals (p < 0.0001). Median delay for emergency coronary angiography was shorter in the tertiary hospital (within 1 vs. 2 days, p < 0.0001). Six-month mortality or readmission rates were similar (23.7% and 24.7% for tertiary and nontertiary care, respectively). After adjustment for comorbidity and disease severity, the relative risk of death or readmission for the tertiary hospital was 1.03 (95% CI 0.69 to 1.53) times that of the nontertiary hospitals. Selective use of coronary angiography and revascularization procedures may be as effective as less restricted use in the management of acute MI.
Sapetschnig, Alexandra; Sarkies, Peter; Lehrbach, Nicolas J; Miska, Eric A
In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, different small RNA-dependent gene silencing mechanisms act in the germline to initiate transgenerational gene silencing. Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) can initiate transposon and gene silencing by acting upstream of endogenous short interfering RNAs (siRNAs), which engage a nuclear RNA interference (RNAi) pathway to trigger transcriptional gene silencing. Once gene silencing has been established, it can be stably maintained over multiple generations without the requirement of the initial trigger and is also referred to as RNAe or paramutation. This heritable silencing depends on the integrity of the nuclear RNAi pathway. However, the exact mechanism by which silencing is maintained across generations is not understood. Here we demonstrate that silencing of piRNA targets involves the production of two distinct classes of small RNAs with different genetic requirements. The first class, secondary siRNAs, are localized close to the direct target site for piRNAs. Nuclear import of the secondary siRNAs by the Argonaute HRDE-1 leads to the production of a distinct class of small RNAs that map throughout the transcript, which we term tertiary siRNAs. Both classes of small RNAs are necessary for full repression of the target gene and can be maintained independently of the initial piRNA trigger. Consistently, we observed a form of paramutation associated with tertiary siRNAs. Once paramutated, a tertiary siRNA generating allele confers dominant silencing in the progeny regardless of its own transmission, suggesting germline-transmitted siRNAs are sufficient for multigenerational silencing. This work uncovers a multi-step siRNA amplification pathway that promotes germline integrity via epigenetic silencing of endogenous and invading genetic elements. In addition, the same pathway can be engaged in environmentally induced heritable gene silencing and could therefore promote the inheritance of acquired traits.
... urbanisation, prostitution and large-scale colonial medical campaigns intended to eradicate tropical diseases combined to disastrous effect to fuel the spread of the virus from its origins in Léopoldville to the rest of Africa, the Caribbean and ultimately worldwide. This is an essential new perspective on HIV/ AIDS and on the lessons that must be learned if we are to avoi...
Origin (?) of the Universe. 2. The Expanding Universe. Jayant Narlikar, Director,. Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and. Astrophysics, works on action at a distance in physics, new theories of gravitation and new models of the universe. He has made strong efforts to promote teaching and research in astronomy in.