WorldWideScience

Sample records for terrorist attack wastewater

  1. The Timing of Terrorist Attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    I use a simple optimal stopping model to derive policy relevant insights on the timing of one-shot attacks by small autonomous terrorist units or “lone wolf” individuals. A main insight is that an increase in proactive counterterrorism measures can lead to a short term increase in the number...

  2. Rhode Island School Terrorist Attack Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, Michael W. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the state of safety and terrorist attack preparedness in Rhode Island Schools as determined by Rhode Island school leader perceptions. The study is descriptive in nature as it gathers data to describe a particular event or situation. Using a researcher generated survey based on terrorist preparedness guidelines and suggestions…

  3. Smoking behaviour under intense terrorist attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keinan-Boker, Lital; Kohn, Robert; Billig, Miriam; Levav, Itzhak

    2011-06-01

    Smoking is one of the varied psychological reactions to stress. This study examined the rate and changes in cigarette smoking among former Gaza and current West Bank Jewish settlers subjected to direct and indirect terrorist attacks during the Al-Aksa Intifada. The relationship with degree of religious observance and emotional distress was explored as well. In this cross-sectional study, the respondents were settlers randomly selected and interviewed by telephone (N = 706). The interview schedule included socio-demographic items, information on direct exposure to terrorist attacks (e.g. threat to life or physical integrity, personal losses, property damage) and on steady and changes in smoking habits, and a scale to measure emotional distress. In contrast with the country population, a larger percentage of settlers who smoked increased the number of cigarettes consumed with exposure to terrorism (10 and 27%, respectively). Respondents who were injured or had their home damaged reported a higher rate of smoking during the preceding year (30 and 20%, respectively). Emotional distress was related to cigarette smoking, but not in the controlled analysis. Religious observance had no effect. Direct or indirect exposure to terrorist attacks had an impact on smoking prevalence rates and on changes in smoking habits. Studies investigating reactions to traumatic events should include a detailed section on smoking while mental health interventions should address the needs of smokers.

  4. Assessing Terrorist Motivations for Attacking Critical Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackerman, G; Abhayaratne, P; Bale, J; Bhattacharjee, A; Blair, C; Hansell, L; Jayne, A; Kosal, M; Lucas, S; Moran, K; Seroki, L; Vadlamudi, S

    2006-12-04

    Certain types of infrastructure--critical infrastructure (CI)--play vital roles in underpinning our economy, security and way of life. These complex and often interconnected systems have become so ubiquitous and essential to day-to-day life that they are easily taken for granted. Often it is only when the important services provided by such infrastructure are interrupted--when we lose easy access to electricity, health care, telecommunications, transportation or water, for example--that we are conscious of our great dependence on these networks and of the vulnerabilities that stem from such dependence. Unfortunately, it must be assumed that many terrorists are all too aware that CI facilities pose high-value targets that, if successfully attacked, have the potential to dramatically disrupt the normal rhythm of society, cause public fear and intimidation, and generate significant publicity. Indeed, revelations emerging at the time of this writing about Al Qaida's efforts to prepare for possible attacks on major financial facilities in New York, New Jersey, and the District of Columbia remind us just how real and immediate such threats to CI may be. Simply being aware that our nation's critical infrastructure presents terrorists with a plethora of targets, however, does little to mitigate the dangers of CI attacks. In order to prevent and preempt such terrorist acts, better understanding of the threats and vulnerabilities relating to critical infrastructure is required. The Center for Nonproliferation Studies (CNS) presents this document as both a contribution to the understanding of such threats and an initial effort at ''operationalizing'' its findings for use by analysts who work on issues of critical infrastructure protection. Specifically, this study focuses on a subsidiary aspect of CI threat assessment that has thus far remained largely unaddressed by contemporary terrorism research: the motivations and related factors that

  5. Reducing the Risks. In the aftermath of a terrorist attack, wastewater utilities may have to contend with decontamination water containing chemical, biological, or radiological substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Linda P.; Hornback, Chris; Strom, Daniel J.

    2006-08-01

    In the aftermath of a chemical, biological, or radiological (CBR) attack, decontamination of people and infrastructure will be needed. Decontamination inevitably produces wastewater, and wastewater treatment plants (WTPs) need to know how to handle decontamination wastewater. This article describes CBR substances; planning, coordinating, and communicating responses across agencies; planning within a utility; coordination with local emergency managers and first responders; mitigating effects of decontamination wastewater; and mitigating effects on utility personnel. Planning for Decontamination Wastewater: A Guide for Utilities, the document on which this article is based, was developed under a cooperative agreement from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by the National Association of Clean Water Agencies (NACWA) and its contractor, CH2MHILL, Inc.

  6. Optimal counterterrorism and the recruitment effect of large terrorist attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    We analyze a simple dynamic model of the interaction between terrorists and authorities. Our primary aim is to study optimal counterterrorism and its consequences when large terrorist attacks lead to a temporary increase in terrorist recruitment. First, we show that an increase in counterterrorism...... makes it more likely that terrorist cells plan small rather than large attacks and therefore may increase the probability of a successful attack. Analyzing optimal counterterrorism we see that the recruitment effect makes authorities increase the level of counterterrorism after large attacks. Therefore......, in periods following large attacks a new attack is more likely to be small compared to other periods. Finally, we analyze the long-run consequences of the recruitment effect. We show that it leads to more counterterrorism, more small attacks, and a higher sum of terrorism damage and counterterrorism costs...

  7. Visual framing of terrorist attacks over the years

    OpenAIRE

    Chomátová, Nikola

    2017-01-01

    Diploma thesis Visual framing of terrorist attacks over the years focuses on how the selected terrorist attacks are presented in four Czech daily newspapers. The theoretical part of the thesis is focused on visual framing - which is based on the theoretical grounds of the concept of framing - and the visual presentation of terrorist attacks in the media. The aim of the research is to compare the visual framing of the attack in London in July 2005 and in Paris in 2015 using a quantitative cont...

  8. Personality and Fear of Terrorist attacks in Ghana: The mediating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aimed at determining whether or not neuroticism would account for more variance in predicting risk perception and fear of terrorist attack in Ghana compared to conscientiousness. Moreover, it sought to examine the mediating effect of risk perception on the relationship between neuroticism and fear of terrorist ...

  9. Understanding public confidence in government to prevent terrorist attacks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, T. E.; Ramaprasad, A,; Samsa, M. E.; Decision and Information Sciences; Univ. of Illinois at Chicago

    2008-04-02

    A primary goal of terrorism is to instill a sense of fear and vulnerability in a population and to erode its confidence in government and law enforcement agencies to protect citizens against future attacks. In recognition of its importance, the Department of Homeland Security includes public confidence as one of the principal metrics used to assess the consequences of terrorist attacks. Hence, a detailed understanding of the variations in public confidence among individuals, terrorist event types, and as a function of time is critical to developing this metric. In this exploratory study, a questionnaire was designed, tested, and administered to small groups of individuals to measure public confidence in the ability of federal, state, and local governments and their public safety agencies to prevent acts of terrorism. Data was collected from three groups before and after they watched mock television news broadcasts portraying a smallpox attack, a series of suicide bomber attacks, a refinery explosion attack, and cyber intrusions on financial institutions, resulting in identity theft. Our findings are: (a) although the aggregate confidence level is low, there are optimists and pessimists; (b) the subjects are discriminating in interpreting the nature of a terrorist attack, the time horizon, and its impact; (c) confidence recovery after a terrorist event has an incubation period; and (d) the patterns of recovery of confidence of the optimists and the pessimists are different. These findings can affect the strategy and policies to manage public confidence after a terrorist event.

  10. Assessing Terrorist Motivations for Attacking Critical "Chemical" Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackerman, G; Bale, J; Moran, K

    2004-12-14

    Certain types of infrastructure--critical infrastructure (CI)--play vital roles in underpinning our economy, security, and way of life. One particular type of CI--that relating to chemicals--constitutes both an important element of our nation's infrastructure and a particularly attractive set of potential targets. This is primarily because of the large quantities of toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) it employs in various operations and because of the essential economic functions it serves. This study attempts to minimize some of the ambiguities that presently impede chemical infrastructure threat assessments by providing new insight into the key motivational factors that affect terrorist organizations propensity to attack chemical facilities. Prepared as a companion piece to the Center for Nonproliferation Studies August 2004 study--''Assessing Terrorist Motivations for Attacking Critical Infrastructure''--it investigates three overarching research questions: (1) why do terrorists choose to attack chemical-related infrastructure over other targets; (2) what specific factors influence their target selection decisions concerning chemical facilities; and (3) which, if any, types of groups are most inclined to attack chemical infrastructure targets? The study involved a multi-pronged research design, which made use of four discrete investigative techniques to answer the above questions as comprehensively as possible. These include: (1) a review of terrorism and threat assessment literature to glean expert consensus regarding terrorist interest in targeting chemical facilities; (2) the preparation of case studies to help identify internal group factors and contextual influences that have played a significant role in leading some terrorist groups to attack chemical facilities; (3) an examination of data from the Critical Infrastructure Terrorist Incident Catalog (CrITIC) to further illuminate the nature of terrorist attacks against chemical

  11. Major depressive disorder following terrorist attacks: a systematic review of prevalence, course and correlates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Salguero, José M; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo; Iruarrizaga, Itziar; Cano-Vindel, Antonio; Galea, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    ...) after terrorist attacks. A systematic review was performed. Studies included assessed the impact of human-made, intentional, terrorist attacks in direct victims and/or persons in general population and evaluated MDD based on diagnostic criteria...

  12. Mass casualty response in the 2008 Mumbai terrorist attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Nobhojit; Kapil, Vikas; Subbarao, Italo; Ashkenazi, Isaac

    2011-12-01

    The November 26-29, 2008, terrorist attacks on Mumbai were unique in its international media attention, multiple strategies of attack, and the disproportionate national fear they triggered. Everyone was a target: random members of the general population, iconic targets, and foreigners alike were under attack by the terrorists. A retrospective, descriptive study of the distribution of terror victims to various city hospitals, critical radius, surge capacity, and the nature of specialized medical interventions was gathered through police, legal reports, and interviews with key informants. Among the 172 killed and 304 injured people, about four-fifths were men (average age, 33 years) and 12% were foreign nationals. The case-fatality ratio for this event was 2.75:1, and the mortality rate among those who were critically injured was 12%. A total of 38.5% of patients arriving at the hospitals required major surgical intervention. Emergency surgical operations were mainly orthopedic (external fixation for compound fractures) and general surgical interventions (abdominal explorations for penetrating bullet/shrapnel injuries). The use of heavy-duty automatic weapons, explosives, hostages, and arson in these terrorist attacks alerts us to new challenges to medical counterterrorism response. The need for building central medical control for a coordinated response and for strengthening public hospital capacity are lessons learned for future attacks. These particular terrorist attacks had global consequences, in terms of increased security checks and alerts for and fears of further similar "Mumbai-style" attacks. The resilience of the citizens of Mumbai is a critical measure of the long-term effects of terror attacks.

  13. Protecting chemical plants against terrorist attacks: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khakzad Rostami, N.; Reniers, G.L.L.M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Protection of hazardous establishments such as chemical plants intentional incidents has drawn attention from safety and security experts since 9/11 terrorist attacks in the U.S. Although major steps have been taken since, the recent intentional incidents in two chemical plants in France in June and

  14. Reducing the attractiveness of chemical plants to terrorist attacks: dehorning rhinos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khakzad Rostami, N.

    2017-01-01

    The terrorist attacks to two French chemical facilities in June and July 2015 raised the flag about the attractiveness of chemical plants to terrorist groups and the imminent risk of similar attacks in western countries. Although the 9/11 terrorist attacks in the US put the security of chemical

  15. Estimates of radiological risk from a terrorist attack using plutonium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, Marco; Manti, Lorenzo

    2002-06-01

    The possible use of radioactivity dispersal devices by terrorist groups has been recently reported in the news. In this paper, we discuss the threat of terrorist attacks by plutonium, with particular attention to the dispersal of plutonium by explosion or fire. Doses resulting from inhalation of radioactive aerosol induced by a plutonium explosion or fire are simulated using a Gaussian plume model (the HOTSPOT code) for different meteorological conditions. Ground contamination and resuspension of dust are also considered in the simulations. Our simulations suggest that acute effects from a plutonium dispersal attack are very unlikely. For late stochastic effects, the explosion poses a greater hazard than fire. However, even in the worst-case scenario, the dispersed plutonium would cause relatively few excess cancers (around 80 in a city of 2 million inhabitants) after many years from the explosion, and these excess cancers would remain undetected against the background of cancer fatalities.

  16. Prepared for the unthinkable: EDs respond to terrorist attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-11-01

    The response to the terrorist attacks at the World Trade Center and the Pentagon provided many key lessons for disaster preparedness. Volunteer physicians were not used in most cases, but EDs recognized the need for a system to check credentials. Communication from disater sites was problem. Injured patients went to the nearest hospital, even if it was not the most appropriate hospital. Experts recommend using existing disaster plans as templates to design or update your own.

  17. Reducing the attractiveness of chemical plants to terrorist attacks: dehorning rhinos

    OpenAIRE

    Khakzad Rostami, N.

    2017-01-01

    The terrorist attacks to two French chemical facilities in June and July 2015 raised the flag about the attractiveness of chemical plants to terrorist groups and the imminent risk of similar attacks in western countries. Although the 9/11 terrorist attacks in the US put the security of chemical infrastructures in a spotlight, the majority of previous attempts have since been made toward threat assessment and vulnerability assessment of chemical plants yet overlooking their attractiveness as a...

  18. Learning from history: The Glasgow Airport terrorist attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Gillies

    Glasgow Airport was the target of a terrorist attack on 30th June, 2007. Many people within Scotland had come to believe that Scotland was immune from terrorism. This perception was in large part informed by Scotland's experience during the protracted Troubles in Northern Ireland, during which the Provisional Irish Republican Army's mainland bombing campaign focused on targets in England, sparing both Scotland and Wales. While Glasgow Airport did not expect such an attack to take place, meticulous planning, organising and testing of plans had taken place to mitigate the unlikely event of such an attack. The attack stands up as a shining example of robust business continuity management, where the airport reopened for business as usual in less than 24 hours from the time of the attack. Little is known about how the airport handled the situation in conjunction with other responding agencies as people tend to want to focus on high-profile disasters only. Yet countless such incidents are happening worldwide on a daily basis, in which there are excellent learning opportunities, and, taken in the spirit of converting hindsight into foresight, the likelihood of similar incidents could potentially be reduced in the future.

  19. Media participation and mental health in terrorist attack survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoresen, Siri; Jensen, Tine K; Dyb, Grete

    2014-12-01

    Terrorism and disasters receive massive media attention, and victims are often approached by reporters. Not much is known about how terror and disaster victims perceive the contact with media and whether such experiences influence mental health. In this study, we describe how positive and negative experiences with media relate to posttraumatic stress (PTS) reactions among survivors of the 2011 Utøya Island terrorist attack in Norway. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 285 survivors (47.0% female and 53.0% male) 14-15 months after the terrorist attack. Most survivors were approached by reporters (94%), and participated in media interviews (88%). The majority of survivors evaluated their media contact and participation as positive, and media participation was unrelated to PTS reactions. Survivors who found media participation distressing had more PTS reactions (quite distressing: B = 0.440, extremely distressing: B = 0.611, p = .004 in adjusted model). Perceiving media participation as distressing was slightly associated with lower levels of social support (r = -.16, p = .013), and regretting media participation was slightly associated with feeling let down (r = .18, p = .004). Reporters should take care when interviewing victims, and clinicians should be aware of media exposure as a potential additional strain on victims. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  20. Analysis of Al-Qaeda Terrorist Attacks to Investigate Rational Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Hepworth

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have been conducted to demonstrate the collective rationality of traditional terrorist groups; this study seeks to expand this and apply collective rationality to Islamic terrorist groups. A series of statistical analyses were conducted on terrorist attacks carried out by Al-Qaeda and affiliated terrorist organization; these were then compared to two more conventional terrorist groups: the Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE. When viewed through the context of the groups’ various motivations and objectives, the results of these analyses demonstrates collective rationality for those terrorist groups examined. 

  1. Threat Assessment of Potential Terrorist Attacks to the Transport Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Nowacki

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents threat assessment of potential terrorist attacks to the transport infrastructure. The range of transportation infrastructure has spread and includes railway, inland waterways, road, maritime, air, intermodal transport infrastructure and intelligent transport systems (ITS. ITS service is the provision of an ITS application through a well-defined organisational and operational framework with the aim of contributing to the user safety, efficiency, comfort and/or to facilitate or support transport and travel operations. Terrorism means acts of violence committed by groups that view themselves as victimized by some notable historical wrong. Although these groups have no formal connection with governments, they usually have the financial and moral backing of sympathetic governments. Typically, they stage unexpected attacks on civilian targets, including transport infrastructure, with the aim of sowing fear and confusion. Based on the analyses, transportation infrastructure is potentially threatened with terrorism attacks, especially road and rail infrastructure (about 23 %, and to a smaller degree the maritime and air transport infrastructure (about 2 %. There were 90,3% of incidents involve land transport (74,5% – vehicles, 9,5% – buses, 6,3% - rail covered the 41-year period 1967-2007 in the USA. Legal steps to fight terrorism have been taken on the international level, furthermore, some institutions have been established for this purpose.

  2. Islamic State and Its Attitude to the Terrorist Attacks on the Energy Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Tichý

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this article is both to analyze the importance of the terrorist attacks on energy infrastructure and industry for strategy of militant terrorist organization Islamic State against the background of the influence of Islam and to describe a specific example and manifestations of the terrorist activities focused on energy sector in the Middle East and North Africa. In the theoretical level, the article is based on the concept of terrorist attack on energy sector and relation between energy and Sunni Islam. In methodological level, the article is based on the case study method framing terrorist attacks of Islamic State on energy industry and infrastructure in Iraq, Syria and Libya.

  3. Fear of Terrorism in New York After the September 11 Terrorist Attacks: Implications for Emergency Mental Health and Preparedness

    OpenAIRE

    Boscarino, Joseph A.; Figley, Charles R.; Adams, Richard E.

    2003-01-01

    To examine the public’s response to future terrorist attacks, we surveyed 1,001 New Yorkers in the community one year after the September 11 attacks. Overall, New Yorkers were very concerned about future terrorist attacks and also concerned about attacks involving biological or nuclear weapons. In addition, while most New Yorkers reported that if a biological or nuclear attack occurred they would evaluate available information before evacuating, a significant number reported they would immedi...

  4. Exploring the effect of terrorist attacks on markets

    OpenAIRE

    Halkos, George; Zisiadou, Argyro

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the determinants of terrorist unexpected events and if these events can affect economic markets. Based on the existing literature and the methodologies already been used, our purpose is to draw some attention to specific events, which may create losses to investors or even to countries. Specifically, after a thoughtful consideration of the existing relative studies, we discuss a number of empirical findings concerning the main determinants of terrorism. In ...

  5. Vulnerability analysis and critical areas identification of the power systems under terrorist attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuliang; Zhang, Jianhua; Zhao, Mingwei; Min, Xu

    2017-05-01

    This paper takes central China power grid (CCPG) as an example, and analyzes the vulnerability of the power systems under terrorist attacks. To simulate the intelligence of terrorist attacks, a method of critical attack area identification according to community structures is introduced. Meanwhile, three types of vulnerability models and the corresponding vulnerability metrics are given for comparative analysis. On this basis, influence of terrorist attacks on different critical areas is studied. Identifying the vulnerability of different critical areas will be conducted. At the same time, vulnerabilities of critical areas under different tolerance parameters and different vulnerability models are acquired and compared. Results show that only a few number of vertex disruptions may cause some critical areas collapse completely, they can generate great performance losses the whole systems. Further more, the variation of vulnerability values under different scenarios is very large. Critical areas which can cause greater damage under terrorist attacks should be given priority of protection to reduce vulnerability. The proposed method can be applied to analyze the vulnerability of other infrastructure systems, they can help decision makers search mitigation action and optimum protection strategy.

  6. The Financial Impact of Terrorist Attacks on the Value of the Oil and Gas Industry: An International Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holwerda, David; Scholtens, Bert; Dorsman, André; Arslan-Ayaydin, Özgür; Baha Karan, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Energy firms operate in a strategic industry and their operations are vulnerable to terrorist attacks. We investigate how terrorism impacts stock returns of these firms. We analyze the effect of 105 terrorist attacks on oil and gas companies during 2001–2012. We find that there is no evidence that

  7. The terrorist attacks on the .S in September 2 1 pushed resident ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tracie1

    The terrorist attacks on the .S in September 2 1 pushed resident Bush to move on the war footing; hence, the .S. National Security Strategy, announced in September 2 2, appears to endorse a doctrine of pre emptive war that is highly unilateral, and takes its radar on the global fight against terrorism. Thus, what came to be ...

  8. After a terrorist attack: Challenges for political and administrative leadership in norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Christensen (Tom); P. Laegreid (Per); L.H. Rykkja (Lise Hellebø)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis article addresses the challenges that the terrorist attacks on 22 July 2011 in Norway created for central government and, more particularly, for the political and police leadership. The emphasis is on 'meaning making', focusing on how the leaders played out their reactions in the

  9. Attention and Memory in School-Age Children Surviving the Terrorist Attack in Beslan, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrimin, Sara; Moscardino, Ughetta; Capello, Fabia; Axia, Giovanna

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of terrorism on children's cognitive functioning and school learning. The primary purpose of this study was to report on cognitive functioning among school-age children 20 months after a terrorist attack against their school. Participants included 203 directly and indirectly exposed children from Beslan and 100…

  10. Social Work Students' Experiences and Training Needs after the September 11, 2001 Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colarossi, Lisa; Berlin, Scott; Harold, Rena D.; Heyman, Janna

    2007-01-01

    The terrorist attacks of 9/11/01 created a major life disruption for citizens near and far from New York. This study describes field work experiences of social work students in two different geographic locations inside and outside of New York in the six months after 9/11 in terms of their: (1) reports of client problems, (2) receipt of special…

  11. Response of the International Community to Terrorist Attacks in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While terrorism has undoubtedly become a fixed reality on the world stage, its nature and scope continue to change shape from one historical epoch, context and environment to another. Recent decades have witnessed groups of radicalised Islamist fundamentalists unleash all manner of terror attacks on various societies, ...

  12. Catastrophizing, rumination, and reappraisal prospectively predict adolescent PTSD symptom onset following a terrorist attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenness, Jessica L; Jager-Hyman, Shari; Heleniak, Charlotte; Beck, Aaron T; Sheridan, Margaret A; McLaughlin, Katie A

    2016-08-24

    Disruptions in emotion regulation are a transdiagnostic risk factor for psychopathology. However, scant research has examined whether emotion regulation strategies are related to the onset of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms among youths exposed to trauma. We investigated whether pretrauma emotion regulation strategies prospectively predicted PTSD symptom onset after the 2013 Boston Marathon terrorist attack among adolescents and whether these associations were moderated by the degree of exposure to media coverage of the attack. A sample of 78 Boston-area adolescents (mean age = 16.72 years, 65% female) who previously participated in studies assessing emotion regulation and psychopathology were recruited following the terrorist attack. Within 4 weeks of the attack, we assessed self-reported PTSD symptoms and attack-related media exposure via an online survey. We examined the association of pretrauma emotion regulation strategies with PTSD symptom onset after adjustment for pretrauma internalizing symptoms and violence exposure. Greater pretrauma engagement in rumination predicted onset of PTSD symptoms following the attack. Adolescents who engaged in catastrophizing also had greater PTSD symptoms postattack, but only when exposed to high levels of media coverage of the attacks; the same pattern was observed for adolescents who engaged in low levels of cognitive reappraisal. Engagement in specific emotion regulation strategies prior to a traumatic event predicts the onset of PTSD symptoms among youths exposed to trauma, extending transdiagnostic models of emotion regulation to encompass trauma-related psychopathology in children and adolescents. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Stock Market Reaction to Terrorist Attacks: Empirical Evidence from a Front Line State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Tahir Suleman

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The world financial markets have reacted in a highly consistent pattern to the incident of 9/11 in the United States, suicide blasts at night clubs at Bali in 2002, the Madrid and London train bombings in 2004-2005 and a series of continuous blasts and suicide attacks in Pakistan. In this study, we examined the effect of terrorist attack news on returns and volatility for the Karachi Stock Exchange. We employ the EGARCH model proposed by Engle and Ng (1993as it allows good and bad news to have a different impact on volatility. Our results indicate that terrorist attack news has negative impact on the returns of all the sector indices. However, news of these events increased the volatility of KSE100 index and financial sector index. Further it is concluded that the results of oil and gas, and industry are not statistically significant in response to terrorist attack news, indicating that such type of news does not affect the volatility of these two sectors. Moreover, volatility asymmetry is negative in all of the sectors including KSE100 confirming leverage effect.

  14. Public perceptions of the threat of terrorist attack in Australia and anticipated compliance behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Garry; Taylor, Melanie; Barr, Margo; Jorm, Louisa; Giffin, Michael; Ferguson, Ray; Agho, Kingsley; Raphael, Beverley

    2009-08-01

    To determine the perceived threat of terrorist attack in Australia and preparedness to comply with public safety directives. A representative sample of 2,081 adults completed terrorism perception questions as part of the New South Wales Population Health Survey. Overall, 30.3% thought a terrorist attack in Australia was highly likely, 42.5% were concerned that self or family would be directly affected and 26.4% had changed the way they lived due to potential terrorist attacks. Respondents who spoke a language other than English at home were 2.47 times (Odds Ratios (OR=2.47, 95% CI:1.58-3.64, pterrorism. Those with high psychological distress perceived higher terrorism likelihood and greater concern that self or family would be directly affected (OR=1.84, 95% CI:1.05-3.22, p=0.034). Evacuation willingness was high overall but those with poor self-rated health were significantly less willing to leave their homes during a terrorism emergency. Despite not having experienced recent terrorism within Australia, perceived likelihood of an attack was higher than in comparable western countries. Marginalisation of migrant groups associated with perceived terrorism threat may be evident in the current findings. This baseline data will be useful to monitor changes in population perceptions over time and determine the impact of education and other preparedness initiatives.

  15. Lone Actor Terrorist Attack Planning and Preparation: A Data-Driven Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuurman, Bart; Bakker, Edwin; Gill, Paul; Bouhana, Noémie

    2017-10-23

    This article provides an in-depth assessment of lone actor terrorists' attack planning and preparation. A codebook of 198 variables related to different aspects of pre-attack behavior is applied to a sample of 55 lone actor terrorists. Data were drawn from open-source materials and complemented where possible with primary sources. Most lone actors are not highly lethal or surreptitious attackers. They are generally poor at maintaining operational security, leak their motivations and capabilities in numerous ways, and generally do so months and even years before an attack. Moreover, the "loneness" thought to define this type of terrorism is generally absent; most lone actors uphold social ties that are crucial to their adoption and maintenance of the motivation and capability to commit terrorist violence. The results offer concrete input for those working to detect and prevent this form of terrorism and argue for a re-evaluation of the "lone actor" concept. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Forensic Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  16. Do police reduce crime? Estimates using the allocation of police forces after a terrorist attack

    OpenAIRE

    Schargrodsky, Ernesto; Di Tella, Rafael

    2003-01-01

    An important challenge in the crime literature is to isolate causal effects of police on crime. Following a terrorist attack on the main Jewish center in the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina, in July 1994, all Jewish institutions (including schools, synagogues, and clubs) were given 24-hour police protection. Thus, this hideous event induced a geographical allocation of police forces that can be presumed to be exogenous in a crime regression. Using data on the location of car thefts before ...

  17. Effect of 7 July 2005 terrorist attacks in London on suicide in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salib, Emad; Cortina-Borja, Mario

    2009-01-01

    A reduction in suicide in England and Wales has been reported after the attacks of 11 September 2001 in the USA. It may be plausible therefore to expect a much greater impact on suicide in the UK in response to the events of 7 July 2005, caused by the first suicide terrorist attack by Islamic extremists on British soil. To examine the effect of the 7 July 2005 terrorist attacks in London on suicide rates in England and Wales. Analysis of number of suicide (ICD-10 codes X60-X84) and undetermined injury deaths (ICD-10 codes Y10-Y34) reported in England and Wales in the 12 weeks before and after 7 July 2005. We used Shewhart Control Charts based on Poisson rates to explore adjusted daily and weekly suicide rates and rate differences with respect to 7 July 2005. A brief but significant reduction in daily suicide rate was observed a few days after the terrorist attack in London on 7 July 2005. Further reduction was also observed on the 21 July 2005, coinciding with the second wave of attacks. No similar reduction in suicide was seen during the same period in the previous 4 years. Poisson regression models with indicator variables for each day in July 2005 revealed a reduction of 40% of the expected daily rate for these 2 days only. We found no evidence of any longer-term effect on suicide. The study findings are contrary to our expectation and only weakly support Durkheim's theory that periods of national threat lower the suicide rate through the impact on social cohesion. It is possible that previous experience of IRA terrorism in the UK may have limited the effect of the 7 July 2005 attacks on suicide in England and Wales. The shock value of suicide terrorism and its psychological potency appear to diminish over time as the tactic becomes overused.

  18. Children's Mental Health in the Context of Terrorist Attacks, Ongoing Threats, and Possibilities of Future Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Jonathan S; Bry, Laura J; Poznanski, Bridget; Golik, Alejandra M

    2016-09-01

    Over the past two decades, the field has witnessed tremendous advances in our understanding of terrorism and its impacts on affected youth. It is now well established that a significant proportion of exposed youth show elevated PTSD symptoms in the months following a terrorist attack. In more recent years, research has expanded beyond confirming our understanding of the association between direct terrorism exposure and child PTSD symptoms by elucidating (a) links between terrorism exposure and non-PTSD clinical outcomes (e.g., externalizing problems, substance use), (b) individual differences associated with divergent patterns of risk and resilience, (c) the clinical correlates of media-based contact with terrorism, (d) clinical outcomes associated with exposure to recurrent terrorist attacks, and (e) exposure to extended contexts of uncertainty and the possibilities of future terrorism. Researchers studying the effects of terrorism and political violence on youth have increasingly examined a much broader range of regions in the world, affording needed opportunities to consider the generalizability of prior findings to youth living in different political contexts, in less developed regions of the world, and/or in regions with different rates of recurrent terrorism. In order to understand and, in turn, best meet the clinical needs of the majority of terrorism-affected youth across the globe, more targeted research on exposed youth is needed in developing regions of the world and regions enduring more recurrent terrorist attacks.

  19. Tracking and Analyzing Individual Distress Following Terrorist Attacks Using Social Media Streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Ru; Margolin, Drew; Wen, Xidao

    2017-08-01

    Risk research has theorized a number of mechanisms that might trigger, prolong, or potentially alleviate individuals' distress following terrorist attacks. These mechanisms are difficult to examine in a single study, however, because the social conditions of terrorist attacks are difficult to simulate in laboratory experiments and appropriate preattack baselines are difficult to establish with surveys. To address this challenge, we propose the use of computational focus groups and a novel analysis framework to analyze a social media stream that archives user history and location. The approach uses time-stamped behavior to quantify an individual's preattack behavior after an attack has occurred, enabling the assessment of time-specific changes in the intensity and duration of an individual's distress, as well as the assessment of individual and social-level covariates. To exemplify the methodology, we collected over 18 million tweets from 15,509 users located in Paris on November 13, 2015, and measured the degree to which they expressed anxiety, anger, and sadness after the attacks. The analysis resulted in findings that would be difficult to observe through other methods, such as that news media exposure had competing, time-dependent effects on anxiety, and that gender dynamics are complicated by baseline behavior. Opportunities for integrating computational focus group analysis with traditional methods are discussed. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  20. [And if it happened to children? Adapting medical care during terrorist attacks with multiple pediatric victims].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alix-Séguin, L; Lodé, N; Orliaguet, G; Chamorro, E; Kerroué, F; Lorge, C; Moreira, A

    2017-03-01

    In light of the recent terrorist attacks in Europe, we need to reconsider the organization of rescue and medical management and plan for an attack involving multiple pediatric victims. To ensure quick surgical management, but also to minimize risk for on-site teams (direct threats from secondary terrorist attacks targeting deployed emergency services), it is crucial to evacuate patients in a swift but orderly fashion. Children are vulnerable targets in terrorist attacks. Their anatomical and physiological characteristics make it likely that pediatric victims will suffer more brain injuries and require more, often advanced, airway management. Care of multiple pediatric victims would also prove to be a difficult emotional challenge. Civilian medical teams have adapted the military-medicine principles of damage control in their medical practice using the MARCHE algorithm (Massive hemorrhage, Airway, Respiration [breathing], Circulation, Head/Hypothermia, Evacuation). They have also learned to adapt the level of care to the level of safety at the scene. Prehospital damage control principles should now be tailored to the treatment of pediatric patients in extraordinary circumstances. Priorities are given to hemorrhage control and preventing the lethal triad (coagulopathy, hypothermia, and acidosis). Managing hemorrhagic shock involves quickly controlling external bleeding (tourniquets, hemostatic dressing), using small volumes for fluid resuscitation (10-20ml/kg of normal saline), quickly introducing a vasopressor (noradrenaline 0.1μg/kg/min then titrate) after one or two fluid boluses, and using tranexamic acid (15mg/kg over 10min for loading dose, maximum 1g over 10min). Prehospital resources specifically dedicated to children are limited, and it is therefore important that everyone be trained and prepared for a scene with multiple pediatric patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Americans Respond Politically to 9/11: Understanding the Impact of the Terrorist Attacks and Their Aftermath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddy, Leonie; Feldman, Stanley

    2011-01-01

    The 9/11 terrorist attacks have had profound effect on U.S. domestic and foreign security policy, leading to several expensive wars and the erosion of civil liberties (under the USA PATRIOT Act). We review evidence on political reactions to the 9/11 attacks and conclude that subjective reactions to terrorism played an important role in shaping…

  2. The Representation of Islam in Western Media: The Coverage of Norway Terrorist Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad A. Alghamdi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Undeniably mass media have become the primary source of information and communication for the majority of, if not all, members of modern societies. The nature of the information thus communicated and the manner in which it is dispensed through media certainly have a profound influence on people’s perceptions of the world around them. The relation between the media, on one hand, and culture, social life, and politics on the other, is an interesting one in which media fulfills dual functions, reflecting and also shaping issues occurring within these three domains (Bell & Garrett, 1998. In the initial media coverage of the 2011 Norway terrorist attacks, some western media authors, inaccurately and unjustly, held Muslims and Islamic groups as being responsible for the attacks. Using Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA, this study seeks to ascertain how language was manipulated in this coverage of the terrorist attacks in order to give expression to blind prejudice against Islam and Muslims. As findings of the analyses reveal, the tones of allegation in these articles and reports differed dramatically from one article to another ranging from tones of mere suspicion to those of overt accusation. The varying degrees of uncertainty or assertion of the authors’ statements were reflected in the varied linguistic forms and devices used within the discourse.

  3. The Treatment of Images in 11-M Terrorist Attacks. Terrorism and Violence in the Press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra. Emma Torres Romay

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we want to analyze the pictures publishing in the Spanish and international newspapers before the Madrid terrorist attack, March, 11. With this research we get some ideas about freedom speech limits: the respect of the privacy and, in special, the respect of the pain. At the same time, we´ll remark the importance of the photography in the press and their communication power. For this research we used the March, 11 and 12 newspapers of most important Spanish editors and the digital edition of international press.

  4. An assessment of the terrorist threat to use a nuclear or radiological device in an attack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kingshott, B.F. [Grand Valley State University, 275C DeVos Center, 401 West Fulton Street, Grand Rapids, MI 49504 (United States)]. E-mail: kingshob@gvsu.edu

    2006-07-01

    This paper will discuss terrorism from the perspective of a terrorist organisation acquiring nuclear material to build weapons and how security of radiological material world wide will minimise the risk of such devices being used. It will discuss the need to improve security at nuclear waste processing and storage sites and the adequacy of current security. It will also discuss the phenomenon of suicide attacks by the bomb carriers and the role of the media in informing and educating the general public of the consequences should such a device containing nuclear material be detonated. (author)

  5. Introduction: 9/11. The Socio-Political consequences of terrorist attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Yordan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Este dossier especial explora las consecuencias socio-políticas de los ataques terroristas. Los primeros dos artículos examinan el impacto que los eventos del 11 de septiembre de 2001 han tenido sobre los discursos culturales en el mundo occidental. ¿Cúal es la reacción de las democracias al ataque terrorista? Tras los ataques del 11 de septiembre la mayoría de la población hubiera esperado que el gobierno pasara a desarrollar leyes que restringieran las libertades individuales y dieran a las autoridades amplios poderes para rastrear los terroristas y sus acólitos. Los siguientes dos artículos examinan las diferentes formas en que el 11 de septiembre han influenciado la política exterior americana contemporánea. En el último artículo William Messner y Carlos Yordan observan las reacciones estadounidenses a los ataques del 11 de septiembre y la implantación del Consejo de Seguridad para lograr un nuevo sistema global anti-terrorista.Palabras clave: 11/S, Estados Unidos, consecuencias socio-políticas, discursos políticos, Política de Seguridad americana contemporánea.___________________________ABSTRACT:This special issue explores the sociopolitical consequences of terrorist attacks. The first two articles examine the impact the events of 11 September 2009(9/11 had on cultural discourses in the West. What are democracies’ reactions to a terrorists attack? Following the 9/11 attacks, most people would expect the government to pass legislation that would restrict individual liberties and give the authorities wide powers to track terrorists and its supporters. Then, the next two articles examine the different ways the 9/11 attacks influenced contemporary American foreign policy. In the last article, William Messmer and Carlos Yordan look at the United Nations’ reactions to the 9/11 attacks and the Security Council’s establishment of new global counter-terrorism system.Keywords: 9/11; USA; United Nations; sociopolitical

  6. A project to develop restoration methods for buildings and facilities after a terrorist attack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingas, M.F. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Div]|[Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). River Road Environmental Technology Centre; Volchek, K.; Hornof, M.; Boudreau, L.; Punt, M. [SAIC Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Payette, P.; Best, M. [Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Garbutt, M.; Krishnan, J.; Wagener, S.; Bernard, K. [Health Canada, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Cousins, T.; Haslip, D. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    A multi-agent project was initiated to review site restoration after a terrorist attack. The objective was to acquire and compile information on all known restoration procedures for buildings, exteriors of buildings, their interior contents, and adjacent areas such as parking lots, lawns and vehicles. All procedures were then tested and validated. Restoration procedures included pickup, neutralization, decontamination, removal and final destruction/deposition of the contaminant, cleaning material and contaminated debris resulting from the terrorist act. This research and development project considered chemical, biological and nuclear contamination with the intent to develop methods to decontaminate and restore buildings after a chemical, biological and radiological (CBR) attack. Ideas were collected from work conducted around the world. The efficacy of best candidates was tested along with all selected chemical target items. The project also involved the preparation of procedures for decontamination and restoration. Ultimately, a tradeoff decision basis will be developed to provide information on abandonment and quarantine versus cleanup. The study revealed that there are several technologies that can be used for the decontamination of structures and equipment after acts of terrorism, however, no one technique will work for all contaminants on all surfaces. The selection of a decontamination method depends on the contaminant, the surface being decontaminated and economic, social and health factors. The amount of waste generated by decontamination is a major feasibility factor. 25 refs., 6 tabs.

  7. [Analysis on the individual-response behavior and the influence factors to violent terrorist attacks among undergraduates in Guangzhou].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yunfeng; Rao, Jiaming; Wang, Haiqing; Zhang, Siheng; Li, Yang; Wang, Shengyong; Dong, Xiaomei

    2015-04-01

    To analyze related behaviors of individual preparedness and influencing factors on violent terrorist attacks among undergraduates. A total of 1 800 undergraduates from 5 colleges or universities in Guangzhou were selected, using the stratified cluster method. A questionnaire involving the response to violent terrorist attack behavior was used to assess the individual preparedness behaviors among undergraduates. A self-made questionnaire was applied to collect information on demographic factors, cognitive and preparedness behaviors. The mean score of individual preparedness behavior among undergraduates was 13.49 ± 5.02 while information on seeking behavior was 4.27 ± 1.64, avoidance behavior was 5.97 ± 2.16 and violent terrorist attack response behaviors was 23.73 ± 7.21, with 30.0 percent of undergraduates behaved properly. Significant differences were found in the scores of behaviors on the response to violent terrorist attack with different gender, major they pursue or religious belief (P undergraduates involved in this study. Results from the logistic regression analysis revealed that persons being girls (OR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.06-2.01), with bigger perceived probability (OR = 1.60, 95% CI: 1.12-2.30), with higher alertness (OR = 3.77, 95% CI: 2.15-6.61), with stronger coping confidence (OR = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.24-0.48) and bigger affective response (OR1 = 3.42, 95% CI: 2.40-4.86; OR2 = 0.23, 95% CI: 0.13-0.41), would present more prominent behavior responses when facing the violent terrorist attack. Individual response behaviors to violent terrorist attacks among undergraduates were relatively ideal. Perceived probability, alertness, coping confidence and affective response appeared to be independent influencing factors related to response behaviors against violent terrorist attack. In colleges and universities, awareness on violent terrorist attacks should be strengthened among undergraduates. Focus should target on psychological education dealing with

  8. Construction of War Discourse on International News Agencies: Case Study Terrorist attacks November 13th 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel TORRES-TOUKOUMIDIS

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes warmongering rhetoric presented by international agencies Reuters, Al Arabiya, Al Jazeera and Associated Press (AP of the information related to the terrorist attacks in Paris on November 13th, 2015 for 15 days after the event. We have started from a quantitative and qualitative analysis of 550 information units using the software MAXQDA (v. 11.0.11. Subsequently, the semantic criteria of media discourse: functionality, significance and direction of the goal was applied on the selected sample. The results demonstrate the prevailing demonization of Islam, the exaltation of fear and panic in the discursive construction and it highlighted the spectacle of the information as a communicative strategy on the rhetorical guidance.

  9. A case study of conspiracy theories about Charlie Hebdo terrorist attack

    CERN Document Server

    Golo, Natasa

    2015-01-01

    The results of the public opinion poll performed in January 2015, just after the terrorist attack on the French satirical weekly magazine Charlie Hebdo and the kosher supermarket in Paris, when 17 people were killed, showed that a significant number of French citizens held conspiratorial beliefs about it (17 %). This gave reason to an alternative analysis of public opinion, presented in this paper. We collected 990 on-line articles mentioning Charlie Hebdo from Le Monde web site (one of the leading French news agencies), and looked at the ones that contained words related with conspiracy (in French: `complot', `conspiration' or `conjuration'). Then we analyzed the readers response, performing a semantic analysis of the 16490 comments posted on-line as reaction to the above articles. We identified 2 attempts to launch a conspiratorial rumour. A more recent Le Monde article, which reflects on those early conspiratorial attempts from a rational perspective, and the commentary thereon, showed that the readers hav...

  10. Building Social Scenarios. Self-Fulfilling Prophecies In The Terrorist Attacks In France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Chiorean

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In nowadays Europe a wind of terror of an intensity comparable to that of the belligerent periods walks freely and occasionally strikes the apparent tranquility of our lives. Islamic fundamentalist attacks seemingly coming from nowhere without prior psychological preparation manage to create hardly measurable effects. Media and consequently public opinion resonate dramatically to a reality that is destabilizing the social political economic cultural individual or group balance in many parts of this bewildered and concerned Europe. It is a tense context in which fear and terror annihilate rationality and freedom of expression being able to maintain a toxic atmosphere of information and independent media can serve conjecturally unintentionally even to the harmful interests of those terrorist groups.

  11. The effect of the September 11 terrorist attacks on suicide and deliberate self-harm : A time trend study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Lange, AW; Neeleman, J

    2004-01-01

    Suicide rates may be affected by world news. Our objective was to investigate the possible impact of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, on suicidal behavior in the Netherlands. There was evidence of an increase in rates of suicide and deliberate self-harm in the weeks immediately following

  12. Parents' Emotion-Related Beliefs and Behaviours in Relation to Children's Coping with the 11 September 2001 Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halberstadt, Amy G.; Thompson, Julie A.; Parker, Alison E.; Dunsmore, Julie C.

    2008-01-01

    To assess relationships between parental socialization of emotion and children's coping following an intensely emotional event, parents' beliefs and behaviours regarding emotion and children's coping strategies were investigated after a set of terrorist attacks. Parents (n = 51) filled out the Parents' Beliefs about Negative Emotions questionnaire…

  13. The Reporting of the September 11th Terrorist Attacks in American Social Studies Textbooks: A Muslim Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Mohammed M.; Thomas, Michael K.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes the reporting of the September 11th terrorist attacks in social studies textbooks from a Muslim perspective and reports on findings from a study of the responses of American Muslim children to the treatment of the events of September 11th in social studies textbooks. Constructivist grounded theory was used to centralize the…

  14. Classroom Communication and National Crises: Student Information Needs in the Aftermath of the 2001 Terrorist Attacks on the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, Robert R.; Hemphill, Michael R.

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about students' reactions to their university's attempt to manage their informational and emotional needs during a time of national crisis. A survey of students immediately following the 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States found that students wanted the university to stay open and function as a place for sense making…

  15. Fear of Terrorism in New York After the September 11 Terrorist Attacks: Implications for Emergency Mental Health and Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscarino, Joseph A.; Figley, Charles R.; Adams, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    To examine the public’s response to future terrorist attacks, we surveyed 1,001 New Yorkers in the community one year after the September 11 attacks. Overall, New Yorkers were very concerned about future terrorist attacks and also concerned about attacks involving biological or nuclear weapons. In addition, while most New Yorkers reported that if a biological or nuclear attack occurred they would evaluate available information before evacuating, a significant number reported they would immediately evacuate, regardless of police or public health communications to the contrary. The level of public concern was significantly higher on all measures among New York City and Long Island residents (downstate) compared to the rest of the state. A model predicting higher fear of terrorism indicated that downstate residents, women, those 45 to 64 years old, African Americans and Hispanics, those with less education/income, and those more likely to flee, were more fearful of future attacks. In addition, making disaster preparations and carefully evaluating emergency information also predicted a higher level of fear as well. A second model predicting who would flee suggested that those more likely to evaluate available information were less likely to immediately evacuate, while those with a higher fear of future attacks were more likely to flee the area. Given these findings and the possibility of future attacks, mental health professionals need to be more involved in preparedness efforts, especially related to the psychological impact of attacks involving weapons of mass destruction. PMID:14730761

  16. Fear of terrorism in New York after the September 11 terrorist attacks: implications for emergency mental health and preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscarino, Joseph A; Figley, Charles R; Adams, Richard E

    2003-01-01

    To examine the public's response to future terrorist attacks, we surveyed 1,001 New Yorkers in the community one year after the September 11 attacks. Overall, New Yorkers were very concerned about future terrorist attacks and also concerned about attacks involving biological or nuclear weapons. In addition, while most New Yorkers reported that if a biological or nuclear attack occurred they would evaluate available information before evacuating, a significant number reported they would immediately evacuate, regardless of police or public health communications to the contrary. The level of public concern was significantly higher on all measures among New York City and Long Island residents (downstate) compared to the rest of the state. A model predicting higher fear of terrorism indicated that downstate residents, women, those 45 to 64 years old, African Americans and Hispanics, those with less education/income, and those more likely to flee, were more fearful of future attacks. In addition, making disaster preparations and carefully evaluating emergency information also predicted a higher level of fear as well. A second model predicting who would flee suggested that those more likely to evaluate available information were less likely to immediately evacuate, while those with a higher fear of future attacks were more likely to flee the area. Given these findings and the possibility of future attacks, mental health professionals need to be more involved in preparedness efforts, especially related to the psychological impact of attacks involving weapons of mass destruction.

  17. Some limitations of "Risk = Threat x Vulnerability x Consequence" for risk analysis of terrorist attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Louis Anthony Tony

    2008-12-01

    Several important risk analysis methods now used in setting priorities for protecting U.S. infrastructures against terrorist attacks are based on the formula: Risk = Threat x Vulnerability x Consequence. This article identifies potential limitations in such methods that can undermine their ability to guide resource allocations to effectively optimize risk reductions. After considering specific examples for the Risk Analysis and Management for Critical Asset Protection (RAMCAP) framework used by the Department of Homeland Security, we address more fundamental limitations of the product formula. These include its failure to adjust for correlations among its components, nonadditivity of risks estimated using the formula, inability to use risk-scoring results to optimally allocate defensive resources, and intrinsic subjectivity and ambiguity of Threat, Vulnerability, and Consequence numbers. Trying to directly assess probabilities for the actions of intelligent antagonists instead of modeling how they adaptively pursue their goals in light of available information and experience can produce ambiguous or mistaken risk estimates. Recent work demonstrates that two-level (or few-level) hierarchical optimization models can provide a useful alternative to Risk = Threat x Vulnerability x Consequence scoring rules, and also to probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) techniques that ignore rational planning and adaptation. In such two-level optimization models, defender predicts attacker's best response to defender's own actions, and then chooses his or her own actions taking into account these best responses. Such models appear valuable as practical approaches to antiterrorism risk analysis.

  18. Persistent paranoid delusions following the September 11 terrorist attacks in a man with no pre-existing mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Roy R; Beddingfield, John J

    2006-03-01

    The effects of modern day terrorism on mental health are not well understood. Described here is a 51-year-old male with no pre-existing mental illness who developed paranoid delusions related to the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks shortly after they occurred. After about two years of treatment with quetiapine the patient was no longer delusional about terrorism but experienced extensive paranoid delusions about commonly encountered persons, requiring treatment which continues to the current time. Clinicians should be aware of the possible impact of terrorist activities on the mental health of vulnerable individuals.

  19. Americans respond politically to 9/11: understanding the impact of the terrorist attacks and their aftermath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddy, Leonie; Feldman, Stanley

    2011-09-01

    The 9/11 terrorist attacks have had profound effect on U.S. domestic and foreign security policy, leading to several expensive wars and the erosion of civil liberties (under the USA PATRIOT Act). We review evidence on political reactions to the 9/11 attacks and conclude that subjective reactions to terrorism played an important role in shaping support for national security policy in the wake of 9/11. Support for a strong national security policy was most pronounced among Americans who perceived the nation as at threat from terrorism and felt angry at terrorists. In contrast, Americans who were personally affected by the attacks were more likely to feel anxious about terrorism, and this anxiety translated into less support for overseas military action. In addition, Americans who felt insecure after the 9/11 attacks and perceived a high future threat of terrorism were more likely than others to support strong foreign and domestic national security policies. Overall, research on American political reactions to 9/11 suggests that support for a strong government response to terrorism is most likely when members of a population perceive a high risk of future terrorism and feel angry at terrorists. © 2011 American Psychological Association

  20. Reactions of Indian adolescents to the 9/11 terrorist attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Munni; Malhi, Prahbhjot

    2005-03-01

    There is information about the impact of disasters and trauma on children, but little is known about the effects of terrorism particularly in India. (i) To assess the knowledge of the 9/11 terrorist attacks to the school going adolescents of India who were miles away from the actual incident. (ii) To compare the reactions to this event among the boys and girls. The study used a survey design with a self-report questionnaire administered to 406 students in 6 schools of standards 9-12. The questionnaire was administered within 3 weeks of occurrence of this event. The mean age of the subjects was 16.34 years (SD= 1.22; range= 13-20) and 44.1% were boys. All the students were aware about this event. Awareness that the twin towers were hit was in 81.06 but only 51.94% knew that Pentagon was also hit. All the children knew who the prime suspect was although only 12.62% were aware about the country to which he belonged. The source of knowledge of the events was the television in 74.7% of the adolescents and 17.95% of them viewed foreign news channels additionally to the Indian channels to gather details about the event. Newspaper, radio and internet were the sources of information in 44.17%, 3.4% and 3.5% children respectively. Of the adolescents who gathered information from the television, 84.7% agreed that there had been an increase in their TV viewing time since the event and it was more than one hour per day in 47.5% of them. None of the students supported the terrorist attacks. The number of students with negative stressors was significantly more than the ones who were unaffected (p 0.0001). The girls were significantly more affected than the boys and while the former expressed anger the latter were more fearful and sad. (p 0.05) The idea of USA going for war against Afghanistan was supported by 69.4% and one third of them believed that such an event might adversely affect India. The adolescents who had witnessed the events on television were more fearful and

  1. Estimation of terrorist attack resistibility of dual-purpose cask TP-117 with DU (depleted uranium) gamma shield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseev, O.G.; Matveev, V.Z.; Morenko, A.I.; Il' kaev, R.I.; Shapovalov, V.I. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center - All-Russian Research Inst. of Experimental Physics, Sarov (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    Report is devoted to numerical research of dual-purpose unified cask (used for SFA transportation and storage) resistance to terrorist attacks. High resistance of dual-purpose unified cask has been achieved due to the unique design-technological solutions and implementation of depleted uranium in cask construction. In suggested variant of construction depleted uranium fulfils functions of shielding and constructional material. It is used both in metallic and cermet form (basing on steel and depleted uranium dioxide). Implementation of depleted uranium in cask construction allows maximal load in existing overall dimensions of the cask. At the same time: 1) all safety requirements (IAEA) are met, 2) dual-purpose cask with SFA has high resistance to terrorist attacks.

  2. Social integration buffers stress in New York police after the 9/11 terrorist attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzer, Ralf; Bowler, Rosemarie M; Cone, James E

    2014-01-01

    Being socially integrated is regarded as a protective factor enabling people to cope with adversity. The stress-buffering effect reflects an interaction between stress and a social coping resource factor on subsequent outcomes. This study, based on 2943 police officers, examines mental health outcomes among officers who responded to the 9/11 terrorist attack on the World Trade Center. The Wave 1 data collection took place between September 2003 and November 2004 with a follow-up study (Wave 2) conducted from November 2006 through December 2007. A moderated mediation model was specified that uses event exposure as a distal predictor, earlier stress response as a mediator, and later stress response as an outcome, and social integration as a moderator of this relationship. The mediation hypothesis was confirmed, and moderation occurred at two stages. First, there was a multiplicative relationship between exposure levels and social integration: The higher the exposure level, the more stress responses occur, but this effect was buffered by a high level of social integration. Second, Wave 1 stress interacted with social integration on Wave 2 stress: The more the police officers were socially integrated, the lower the Wave 2 stress, which happened in a synergistic manner. The findings contribute to the understanding of mediating and moderating mechanisms that result in health outcomes such as posttraumatic stress disorder or resilience.

  3. The 9/11 terrorist attack and posttraumatic stress disorder revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslau, Naomi; Bohnert, Kipling M; Koenen, Karestan C

    2010-08-01

    Research published in the aftermath of the 9/11 terrorist attack reported elevated rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the US population (4.3%-17.0%), attributable to indirect exposure through the media. We use data from a national survey conducted in 2004 to 2005 (National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions Wave 2) (n = 34,653). The list of traumatic events covered in the survey included indirect exposure to 9/11 through media coverage. Respondents who endorsed more than 1 traumatic event were asked to single out "the worst event" they had ever experienced. The worst event (or the only event) was the index event for diagnosing PTSD. Indirect experience of 9/11 had the lowest PTSD risk of all the traumatic events in the list, 1.3%. In the subset that endorsed only 9/11 indirect exposure (n = 3981), the PTSD risk was 0.3%. Of the total sample, 0.7% experienced PTSD in relation to indirect 9/11. Explanations for the lower estimates are discussed.

  4. The spectrum of human reactions to terrorist attacks with weapons of mass destruction: early management considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGiovanni, Cleto

    2003-01-01

    Residents of a community who are intentionally exposed to a hazardous biological, chemical, or radiological agent (including medical first-responders and other civil defense personnel who live in that community) will exhibit a spectrum of psychological reactions that will impact the management of the incident. These reactions will range from a variety of behaviors of normal people under abnormal circumstances that either will help or hinder efforts to contain the threatening agent, deliver medical care, and reduce the morbidity, mortality, and costs associated with the disaster, to the development of new, or exacerbation of preexisting, mental disorders. Anticipating the decisions that people will make and actions they will take as the crisis develops is hindered by the limited number of previous disasters that bear crucial similarities to a terrorist attack with a weapon of mass destruction. Such actions, therefore, could serve as models to predict community reactions. One result of a study that attempted to fill in these gaps suggested that medical first-responders and their spouses/significant others may require separately crafted information and advice to reduce the potential for disharmony within the family that could affect job performance during the crisis. For those persons who exhibit emotional lability or cognitive deficits, evaluation of their psychiatric signs and symptoms may be more difficult than imagined, especially with exposure to nerve agents. Appreciation of these difficulties, and possession of the skill to sort through them, will be required of those assigned to triage stations. The allocation and utilization of mental health resources as the incident unfolds will be the responsibility of local consequence managers; these managers should be aware of the results of a recently-held workshop that attempted to reach consensus among experts in disaster mental health, based on the peer-reviewed literature, on the efficacy and safety of various

  5. The Role of Behavioral Responses in the Total Economic Consequences of Terrorist Attacks on U.S. Air Travel Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Adam; Avetisyan, Misak; Rosoff, Heather; Burns, William J; Slovic, Paul; Chan, Oswin

    2017-07-01

    U.S. airports and airliners are prime terrorist targets. Not only do the facilities and equipment represent high-value assets, but the fear and dread that is spread by such attacks can have tremendous effects on the U.S. economy. This article presents the methodology, data, and estimates of the macroeconomic impacts stemming from behavioral responses to a simulated terrorist attack on a U.S. airport and on a domestic airliner. The analysis is based on risk-perception surveys of these two scenarios. The responses relate to reduced demand for airline travel, shifts to other modes, spending on nontravel items, and savings of potential travel expenditures by U.S. resident passengers considering flying domestic routes. We translate these responses to individual spending categories and feed these direct impact results into a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of the U.S. economy to ascertain the indirect and total impacts on both the airline industry and the economy as a whole. Overall, the estimated impacts on GDP of both types of attacks exceed $10B. We find that the behavioral economic impacts are almost an order of magnitude higher than the ordinary business interruption impacts for the airliner attack and nearly two orders of magnitude higher for the airport attack. The results are robust to sensitivity tests on the travel behavior of U.S. residents in response to terrorism. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  6. Selected birth defects among males following the United States terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Parvati; Yang, Wei; Shaw, Gary M; Catalano, Ralph; Bruckner, Tim A

    2017-10-02

    The terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001 (hereafter referred to as 9/11) preceded an increase in male fetal deaths and reduced male live births among exposed gestational cohorts across several geographic locations in the United States, including California. We analyze whether the extreme stressor of 9/11 may have selected against frail males in utero by testing if the prevalence of male births with selected defects in California fell among cohorts exposed to the stressor during gestation. We used data from the California Birth Defects Monitoring Program from July 1985 to January 2004 (223 conception cohorts). We included six birth defects that as a group of phenotypes disproportionately affect males. We applied time-series methods and defined as "exposed to 9/11" the cohorts conceived in February, March, April, May, June, July, and August 2001. Three of the seven monthly conception cohorts exposed to 9/11 in utero show lower than expected odds of live born males with the studied defects: February 2001 (odds ratio [OR] = 0.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.21-0.71), May 2001 (OR = 0.36; 95% CI, 0.16-0.81), and August 2001 (OR = 0.51; 95% CI, 0.28-0.93). The population-wide stressor of 9/11 precedes a reduction in the risk of live born males with selected birth defects. Our analysis contributes to the understanding of adaptation to stress among pregnant women exposed to large and unexpected ambient stressors. Results further support the notion that the prevalence of live born defects may reflect temporal variation in cohort selection in utero against frail males. Birth Defects Research 109:1277-1283, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. "Evita Una Muerte, Esta en Tus Manos" Program: Bystander First Aid Training for Terrorist Attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajuelo Castro, J J; Meneses Pardo, J C; Salinas Casado, P L; Hernandez Martin, P; Montilla Canet, R; Del Campo Cuesta, J L; Incera Bustio, G; Martin Ayuso, D

    2017-01-01

    The latest terrorist attacks in Europe and in the rest of the world, and the military experience in the most recent conflicts leave us with several lessons learned. The most important is that the fate of the wounded rests in the hands of the one who applies the first dressing, because the victims usually die within the first 10 minutes, before professional care providers or police personnel arrive at the scene. A second lesson is that the primary cause of preventable death in these types of incidents involving explosives and firearms is massive hemorraghe. There is a need to develop a training oriented to citizens so they can identify and use available resources to avoid preventable deaths that occur in this kind of incidents, especially massive hemorrhage. A 7-hour training intervention program was developed and conducted between January and May 2017. Data were collected from participants' answers on a multiple-choice test before and after undertaking the training. Improved mean score for at least 75% of a group's members on the posttraining test was considered reflective of adequate knowledge. A total of 173 participants (n = 74 men [42.8%]; n = 99 women [57.2%]) attended the training. They were classified into three groups: a group of citizens/ first responders with no prior health training, a group of health professionals, and a group of nursing students. Significant differences (ρ < .05) between mean pre- and post-training test scores occurred in each of the three groups. There was a clear improvement in the knowledge of the students after the training when pre- and post-training test scores were compared within the three groups. The greatest improvement was seen in the citizens/first responders group. 2017.

  8. Protecting water and wastewater infrastructure from cyber attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panguluri, Srinivas; Phillips, William; Cusimano, John

    2011-12-01

    Multiple organizations over the years have collected and analyzed data on cyber attacks and they all agree on one conclusion: cyber attacks are real and can cause significant damages. This paper presents some recent statistics on cyber attacks and resulting damages. Water and wastewater utilities must adopt countermeasures to prevent or minimize the damage in case of such attacks. Many unique challenges are faced by the water and wastewater industry while selecting and implementing security countermeasures; the key challenges are: 1) the increasing interconnection of their business and control system networks, 2) large variation of proprietary industrial control equipment utilized, 3) multitude of cross-sector cyber-security standards, and 4) the differences in the equipment vendor's approaches to meet these security standards. The utilities can meet these challenges by voluntarily selecting and adopting security standards, conducting a gap analysis, performing vulnerability/risk analysis, and undertaking countermeasures that best meets their security and organizational requirements. Utilities should optimally utilize their limited resources to prepare and implement necessary programs that are designed to increase cyber-security over the years. Implementing cyber security does not necessarily have to be expensive, substantial improvements can be accomplished through policy, procedure, training and awareness. Utilities can also get creative and allocate more funding through annual budgets and reduce dependence upon capital improvement programs to achieve improvements in cyber-security.

  9. Securing public transportation systems an integrated decision analysis framework for the prevention of terrorist attacks as example

    CERN Document Server

    Brauner, Florian

    2017-01-01

    Florian Brauner addresses the risk reduction effects of security measures (SecMe) as well as economic and social effects using terrorist threats in public transportation as use case. SecMe increase the level of security but cause interferences and restrictions for customers (e.g. privacy). This study identifies the interferences and analyzes the acceptance with an empirical survey of customers. A composite indicator for the acceptance of different SecMe is developed and integrated into a risk management framework for multi-criteria decision analysis achieving the right balance of risk reduction, costs, and social acceptance. Contents Assessment of Security Measures for Risk Management Measurement of Objective Effectiveness of Security Measures Against Terrorist Attacks Determination of Subjective Effects of Security Measures (Customer Acceptance Analysis) Cost Analysis of Security Measures Multi-Criteria Decision Support Systems Target Groups Scientists with Interest in Civil Security Research Providers and S...

  10. Ranking terrorists in networks : A sensitivity analysis of Al Qaeda’s 9/11 attack

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Husslage, B.G.M.; Borm, Peter; Burg, T.; Hamers, Herbert

    All over the world intelligence services are collecting data concerning possible terrorist threats. This information is usually transformed into network structures in which the nodes represent the individuals in the data set and the links possible connections between these individuals.

  11. Ranking Terrorists in Networks : A Sensitivity Analysis of Al Qaeda’s 9/11 Attack

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Husslage, B.G.M.; Borm, P.E.M.; Burg, T.; Hamers, H.J.M.; Lindelauf, R.

    2014-01-01

    All over the world intelligence services are collecting data concerning possible terrorist threats. This information is usually transformed into network structures in which the nodes represent the individuals in the data set and the links possible connections between these individuals.

  12. Crisis-induced depression, physical activity and dietary intake among young adults: evidence from the 9/11 terrorist attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Yang, Muzhe

    2013-03-01

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we provide evidence that young adults respond to crisis-induced depression by exercising less and having breakfast less often. Exogenous variation in the crisis-induced depression is obtained through a unique event in our sample period - the 9/11 terrorist attacks. We compare those who were interviewed just before and just after 9/11 and find a significant and sharp increase in the symptoms of depression. We also provide evidence that this increase is not a September effect, but an effect of the external traumatic event. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Narratives from caregivers of children surviving the terrorist attack in Beslan: issues of health, culture, and resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscardino, Ughetta; Axia, Giovanna; Scrimin, Sara; Capello, Fabia

    2007-04-01

    Acts of terrorism have an extremely negative impact on the mental health of children and families. The school siege in Beslan, Russia, in 2004, represents a particularly traumatizing event as it was directed specifically at children and involved the entire community. This qualitative study aims to: (a) examine caregiver reactions to the terrorist attack in Beslan as reported 3 months after the traumatic event; (b) determine the extent to which indigenous cultural values and religious belief systems play a role in Beslan's caregivers' reactions to such event; and (c) identify variables that may function as sources of resilience to caregivers. A convenience sample of 17 primary caregivers from Beslan with at least one child who survived the school siege were asked to participate in semi-structured interviews. Narratives generated from the interviews were qualitatively analyzed using a thematic approach; nine major themes were identified. Caregivers' concerns centered on children's physical and psychological well-being, the reorganization of family life, and the disruption of community ties. Cultural values of pride, heroism, courage, and revenge emerged as relevant aspects shaping caregivers' reactions to the traumatic event. Possible sources of resilience included the willingness to return to normality, social support, and the reaffirmation of positive, culturally shared values in face of the perceived threat of future terrorist attacks. Findings are discussed in terms of their theoretical implications on the effects of trauma on children and families as well as interventions with highly traumatized populations in diverse cultural settings.

  14. The Vulnerability of the United States Railroad System to Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    and belief in my ability to complete this project. A final thank you to my wife Tamara, for her abiding love , encouragement, helping me to clearly......will allow their deployment anywhere. These K-9 teams provide a psychological , physical, and visual deterrent against criminal and terrorist threats

  15. The challenge of preparation for a chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear terrorist attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander David

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is not a new phenomenon, but, in the contemporary scene, it has established itself in a manner which commands the most serious attention of the authorities. Until relatively recently, the major threat has been through the medium of conventional weaponry and explosives. Their obvious convenience of use and accessibility guarantees that such methods will continue to represent a serious threat. However, over the last few years, terrorists have displayed an enthusiasm for higher levels of carnage, destruction and publicity. This trend leads inexorably to the conclusion that chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN methods will be pursued by terrorist organisations, particularly those which are well organised, are based on immutable ideological principles, and have significant financial backing. Whilst it is important that the authorities and the general public do not risk over-reacting to such a threat (otherwise, they will do the work of the terrorists for them, it would be equally ill-advised to seek comfort in denial. The reality of a CBRN event has to be accepted and, as a consequence, the authorities need to consider (and take seriously how individuals and the community are likely to react thereto and to identify (and rehearse in a realistic climate what steps would need to be taken to ameliorate the effects of such an event.

  16. The challenge of preparation for a chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear terrorist attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, D A; Klein, S

    2006-01-01

    Terrorism is not a new phenomenon, but, in the contemporary scene, it has established itself in a manner which commands the most serious attention of the authorities. Until relatively recently, the major threat has been through the medium of conventional weaponry and explosives. Their obvious convenience of use and accessibility guarantees that such methods will continue to represent a serious threat. However, over the last few years, terrorists have displayed an enthusiasm for higher levels of carnage, destruction and publicity. This trend leads inexorably to the conclusion that chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) methods will be pursued by terrorist organisations, particularly those which are well organised, are based on immutable ideological principles, and have significant financial backing. Whilst it is important that the authorities and the general public do not risk over-reacting to such a threat (otherwise, they will do the work of the terrorists for them), it would be equally ill-advised to seek comfort in denial. The reality of a CBRN event has to be accepted and, as a consequence, the authorities need to consider (and take seriously) how individuals and the community are likely to react thereto and to identify (and rehearse in a realistic climate) what steps would need to be taken to ameliorate the effects of such an event.

  17. Pre-attack stress-load, appraisals, and coping in children’s responses to the 9/11 terrorist attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengua, Liliana J.; Long, Anna C.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Appraisal and coping following a disaster are important factors in children’s post-traumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. However, little is known about predictors of disaster coping responses. This study examined stress-load, appraisals and coping styles measured prior to the September 11 terrorist attacks as predictors of 9/11-specific appraisals, coping and PTS. Methods A community sample of children and parents (N = 143) participating in an ongoing study were interviewed by phone approximately 1 month following 9/11. Results Pre-attack stress-load, appraisal and coping styles predicted children’s 9/11-specific appraisals, coping, and PTS. 9/11-specific threat appraisals and avoidant coping predicted higher PTS and mediated the effects of pre-attack stress-load and threat appraisal. Conclusions Pre-disaster stress-load, appraisal and coping styles predict disaster-specific appraisal and coping, which in turn, contribute to PTS. Coping interventions might mitigate PTS symptoms following a disaster. PMID:17176377

  18. Long-Term Memory for the Terrorist Attack of September 11: Flashbulb Memories, Event Memories, and the Factors that Influence Their Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, William; Phelps, Elizabeth A.; Buckner, Randy L.; Budson, Andrew E.; Cuc, Alexandru; Gabrieli, John D. E.; Johnson, Marcia K.; Lustig, Cindy; Lyle, Keith B.; Mather, Mara; Meksin, Robert; Mitchell, Karen J.; Ochsner, Kevin N.; Schacter, Daniel L.; Simons, Jon S.; Vaidya, Chandan J.

    2009-01-01

    More than 3,000 individuals from 7 U.S. cities reported on their memories of learning of the terrorist attacks of September 11, as well as details about the attack, 1 week, 11 months, and/or 35 months after the assault. Some studies of flashbulb memories examining long-term retention show slowing in the rate of forgetting after a year, whereas…

  19. Prevalence and Correlates of Sleep Problems in Adult Israeli Jews Exposed to Actual or Threatened Terrorist or Rocket Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Patrick A.; Chipman, Katie J.; Canetti, Daphna; Johnson, Robert J.; Hobfoll, Stevan E.

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of, and to identify correlates of clinically significant sleep problems in adult Israeli citizens exposed to chronic terrorism and war trauma or threat thereof. Methods: A population-based, cross-sectional study of 1001 adult Israeli citizens interviewed by phone between July 15 and August 26, 2008. The phone survey was conducted in Hebrew and assessed demographics, trauma/stressor exposure, probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), probable depression, and sleep problems. Probable PTSD and depression were assessed with the PTSD Symptom Scale (PSS) and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), respectively, following DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. Sleep problems in the past month were assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), on which a global composite score ≥ 6 indicates a clinical-level sleep problem. Results: Prevalence of probable PTSD and depression was 5.5% and 5.8%, respectively. Prevalence of clinically significant sleep problems was 37.4% overall, but was significantly higher for probable PTSD (81.8%) and probable depression (79.3%) subgroups. Independent correlates of poor sleep included being female, older, less educated, experiencing major life stressors, and experiencing psychosocial resource loss. Psychosocial resource loss due to terrorist attacks emerged as the strongest potentially modifiable risk factor for sleep problems. Conclusions: Sleep problems are common among Israeli adults living under chronic traumatic threat and trauma exposure. Given the continuing threat of war, interventions that bolster psychosocial resources may play an important role in preventing or alleviating sleep problems in this population. Citation: Palmieri PA; Chipman KJ; Canetti D; Johnson RJ; Hobfoll SE. Prevalence and correlates of sleep problems in adult Israeli Jews exposed to actual or threatened terrorist or rocket attacks. J Clin Sleep Med 2010;6(6):557-564. PMID:21206544

  20. Terrorist Attacks in Mumbai, India, and Implications for U.S. Interests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kronstadt, K. A

    2008-01-01

    On the evening of November 26, 2008, a number of well-trained militants came ashore from the Arabian Sea on small boats and attacked numerous high-profile targets in Mumbai, India, with automatic weapons and explosives...

  1. The role of occupational health nurses in terrorist attacks employing radiological dispersal devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Suzanne Lobaton; Beaton, Randal D

    2009-03-01

    The potential for biological, chemical, radiological, or nuclear terrorism has been widely acknowledged since the events of September 11, 2001. Terrorists' use of a radiological dispersal device (RDD), or dirty bomb, is considered to be a threat for which Americans must prepare. Occupational health nurses must have the knowledge and skill set to plan for, respond to, and recover from a radiologic event potentially affecting significant numbers of first responders as well as businesses and their workers. This article describes the hazards related to RDDs and provides resources supporting occupational health nurses' roles in such events occurring near or at their workplaces. Occupational health nurses are prepared to assess and treat RDD causalities using current information to identify signs and symptoms of exposed and contaminated RDD victims. Decontamination, treatment, and recovery methods for workers and businesses affected by an RDD event are described.

  2. [Defusing of victims of the terrorist attacks in Paris. Elements of assessment one-month post-event].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, N; Cheucle, E; Faure, P; Digard, F; Dalphin, C; Pachiaudi, V; Simond, M; Darbon, R; Collinet, C; Habibi, R; Gueugniaud, P-Y

    2016-12-29

    The terrorist attacks (fusillades and suicide attacks) in Paris on 13 November 2015 have had a major psychic impact on all individuals directly or secondarily exposed to them. Medico-psychological unit (CUMP) of the Paris Île-de-France region's immediate care services were immediately mobilized and rapidly strengthened by all regional medico-psychological units (CUMP) throughout the country. Psychological assistance has been provided in several key points of Paris and specifically in the 11th district City Hall of Paris where Lyon's Medico-psychological unit was located. These specific immediate psychological assistances, referred to as a "defusing process" by the medico-psychological unit (CUMP), are mostly devoted to provide the victims with an entry point to a psychological healthcare relationship and give them a first sense of soothing and relief even though they do not prevent further psychological care follow up for the victims. Nonetheless, the potential therapeutic effect of this "defusing process" has not yet been sufficiently established nor demonstrated by any scientific study. A phoning survey was carried out one-month post-terrorist attacks and interviewed the 129 victims who benefited from the "defusing process" conducted by Lyon's medico-psychological unit (CUMP) in order to collect data and assess its effects. These people, whether directly exposed, bereaved relatives or witnesses, whose average age is 35, are mostly living in the Île-de-France region. Most of them present a high score on the IES-R scale, whether they were directly exposed, bereaved relatives or witnesses. Almost all of them (96.5%) experienced at least one medical care contact within this one-month post-trauma period with psychotropic medication for 37% of them. Regarding the defusing conducted by Lyon's medico-psychological unit (CUMP) in the 11th district City Hall of Paris, it appears that 93% of the victims who were looked after indicated that they were satisfied and 87.4% of

  3. Improving Resource Allocation Decisions to Reduce the Risk of Terrorist Attacks on Passenger Rail Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    uniformed personnel supplemented with canines and heavy weapons, deters active shooter attacks. This defense also has an effect on preventing...life- cycle cost (based on a five-year time horizon) that accounts for both investment and recurring costs. Return on investment (ROI) is the ratio of

  4. The terrorist attacks on the .S in September 2 1 pushed resident ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tracie1

    The unipolar moment promoted unilaterlist tendencies of assertiveness and arrogant hegemony, although .... suicide in carrying out their attack; the precepts of deterrence were now called into question. By contrast, even at ..... exercise the privilege of nuclear regional leadership in their different domains. The fuss of nuclear ...

  5. Estimation of health hazards resulting from a radiological terrorist attack in a city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Kasper Grann; Mikkelsen, Torben; Astrup, Poul

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, the concern for protection of urban populations against terror attacks involving radiological, biological or chemical substances has attracted increasing attention. It sets new demands to decision support and consequence assessment tools, where the focus has traditionally been on...

  6. The economic impacts of the September 11 terrorist attacks: a computable general equilibrium analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oladosu, Gbadebo A [ORNL; Rose, Adam [University of Southern California, Los Angeles; Bumsoo, Lee [University of Illinois; Asay, Gary [University of Southern California

    2009-01-01

    This paper develops a bottom-up approach that focuses on behavioral responses in estimating the total economic impacts of the September 11, 2001, World Trade Center (WTC) attacks. The estimation includes several new features. First, is the collection of data on the relocation of firms displaced by the attack, the major source of resilience in muting the direct impacts of the event. Second, is a new estimate of the major source of impacts off-site -- the ensuing decline of air travel and related tourism in the U.S. due to the social amplification of the fear of terrorism. Third, the estimation is performed for the first time using Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) analysis, including a new approach to reflecting the direct effects of external shocks. This modeling framework has many advantages in this application, such as the ability to include behavioral responses of individual businesses and households, to incorporate features of inherent and adaptive resilience at the level of the individual decision maker and the market, and to gauge quantity and price interaction effects across sectors of the regional and national economies. We find that the total business interruption losses from the WTC attacks on the U.S. economy were only slightly over $100 billion, or less than 1.0% of Gross Domestic Product. The impacts were only a loss of $14 billion of Gross Regional Product for the New York Metropolitan Area.

  7. Time-lagged relationships between leadership behaviors and psychological distress after a workplace terrorist attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkeland, Marianne Skogbrott; Nielsen, Morten Birkeland; Knardahl, Stein; Heir, Trond

    2016-05-01

    The impact of leadership practices on employee health may be especially evident after extreme events that have physical, psychological, or material consequences for the members of an organization. In this prospective study, we aimed to examine the association between leadership behavior and psychological distress in employees who had experienced a workplace terror attack. Ten and 22 months after the 2011 Oslo bombing attack targeting their workplace, ministerial employees (n = 2272) responded to a questionnaire assessing fair, empowering, supportive, and laissez-faire leadership, as well as psychological distress. Cross-sectional and time-lagged associations between the constructs were tested using structural equation modeling. Cross-sectionally, higher levels of supportive leadership were associated with lower levels of psychological distress. Longitudinally, negative relationships were found between psychological distress and subsequent ratings of fair and empowering leadership. Supportive leadership was associated with employees' psychological health after trauma, but seems not to have long-term effects on subsequent psychological distress. Rather, psychological distress may lead the employees to perceive their leaders as more negative across time.

  8. Predictors of the impact of the September 11th terrorist attacks on victims of intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Victoria A; Arnkoff, Diane B; Glass, Carol R; Mete, Mihriye; Dutton, Mary Ann

    2011-10-01

    This study examined the role of several hypothesized predictors of the impact of a potentially traumatic event, the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 (9/11), on a sample of women experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) and related posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). We found that IPV-related PTSS mediated the relationship between IPV and 9/11-related PTSS, confirming the hypothesis that severity of symptoms related to prior trauma plays a role in the development and severity of PTSS related to subsequent potentially traumatic events. Media exposure and threat appraisal were significantly positively associated with 9/11-related PTSS, whereas social support was significantly negatively associated with 9/11-related PTSS, with none of these variables serving as moderators of the relationship between IPV-related and 9/11-related PTSS. Our results suggest that trauma-related psychiatric history is an important factor in the development of PTSS subsequent to an additional potentially traumatic event, even after adjusting for relevant variables occurring at the time of that event. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  9. Longitudinal mental health impact among police responders to the 9/11 terrorist attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, Rosemarie M; Harris, Matthew; Li, Jiehui; Gocheva, Vihra; Stellman, Steven D; Wilson, Katherine; Alper, Howard; Schwarzer, Ralf; Cone, James E

    2012-04-01

    Among police responders enrolled in the World Trade Center Health Registry (WTCHR), Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) was almost twice as prevalent among women as men 2-3 years after the 9/11 attacks. Police participants in the WTCHR Wave 1 survey 2-3 years after 9/11/01, were reassessed for probable PTSD at Wave 2, 5-6 years after 9/11/01, using PCL DSM-IV criteria. Police participants in the Wave 2 survey included 2,527 men, 413 women. The prevalence of "Probable PTSD" was 7.8% at Wave 1 and 16.5% at Wave 2. Mean PCL scores increased from 25.1 to 29.9 for men and 28.6 to 32.2 for women. Prevalence of PTSD was higher for women than for men at Wave 1 (χ(2)  = 10.882, P = 0.002), but not Wave 2 (χ(2)  = 2.416, P = 0.133). Other risk factors included losing one's job after 9/11 and being disabled. Prevalence of probable PTSD among police doubled between 2003-2004 and 2006-2007. After the 2-year time span, the gender difference was no longer significant; prevalence of PTSD symptoms increased and there was a substantial amount of co-morbidity with other mental health problems. Further development of prevention and intervention strategies for police responders with symptoms of PTSD is needed. The observed upward trend in PCL scores over time in police officers with PCL scores less than 44, suggests that PTSD prevention and intervention strategies should be applied to all police affected by the 9/11 attacks, not limited just to those with PTSD symptoms. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Significance of a Level-2, "selective, secondary evacuation" hospital during a peripheral town terrorist attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Dagan; Pinkert, Moshe; Leiba, Adi; Oren, Meir; Haspel, Jacob; Levi, Yehezkel; Goldberg, Avishay; Bar-Dayan, Yaron

    2007-01-01

    Mass-casualty incidents (MCIs) can occur outside of major metropolitan areas. In such circumstances, the nearest hospital seldom is a Level-1 Trauma Center. Moreover, emergency medical services (EMS) capabilities in such areas tend to be limited, which may compromise prehospital care and evacuation speed. The objective of this study was to extract lessons learned from the medical response to a terrorist event that occurred in the marketplace of a small Israeli town on 26 October 2005. The lessons pertain to the management of primary and secondary evacuation and the operational practices by the only hospital in the town, which is designated as a Level-2 Trauma Center. Data were collected during the event by Home Front Command Medical Department personnel. After the event, formal and informal debriefings were conducted with EMS personnel, the hospitals involved, and the Ministry of Health. The medical response components, interactions (mainly primary triage and secondary distribution), and the principal outcomes were analyzed. The event is described according to Disastrous Incidents Systematic Analysis Through Components, Interactions, Results (DISAST-CIR) methodology. The suicide bomber and four victims died at the scene, and two severely injured patients later died in the hospital. A total of 58 wounded persons were evacuated, including eight severely injured, two moderately injured, and 48 mildly injured. Forty-nine of the wounded arrived to the nearby Hillel Yafe Hospital, including all eight of the severely injured victims, the two moderately injured, and 39 of the mildly injured. Most of the mildly injured victims were evacuated in private cars by bystanders. Five other area hospitals were alerted, three of which primarily received the mildly injured victims. Two distant, Level-1 Trauma Centers also were alerted; each received one severely injured patient from Hillel Yafe Hospital during the secondary distribution process. Emergency medical services personnel

  11. Lessons Learnt from the Westgate Shopping Mall Terrorist Attack in Nairobi, Kenya: Involving the Meetings, Incentives, Conferences and Exhibitions Sector in Crisis Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Schroeder

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The terrorist attacks in Nairobi Kenya have been widely disseminated by the world media, thus, affecting the long-term interests of stakeholders. The tourism industry is made up of a vast number of these stakeholders, with the operating sector alone including the accommodation, tourism services, transportation, entertainment, food services, adventure and outdoor recreation, attractions, meetings, incentive, conventions, and exhibitions (MICE, and travel trade sectors. Within each operating sector, there is also a variety of different stakeholders in various segments and organisations. The purpose of this manuscript is to examine tourism crisis communications surrounding the Westgate Shopping Mall attacks in Kenya. The main research question which guided this study was: did tourism communications surrounding the Westgate Shopping Mall attacks follow best practices for tourism crisis communications? Accordingly, this paper used participant observation to highlight communications surrounding the attacks from the perspective of a conference planner and a conference attendee.

  12. Attention orientation in parents exposed to the 9/11 terrorist attacks and their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Kara M; Mandell, Donald J; Musa, George J; Britton, Jennifer C; Sankin, Lindsey S; Mogg, Karin; Bradley, Brendan P; Ernst, Monique; Doan, Thao; Bar-Haim, Yair; Leibenluft, Ellen; Pine, Daniel S; Hoven, Christina W

    2011-05-15

    While trauma affects both parents and their children, minimal research examines the role of information-processing perturbations in shaping reactions to trauma experienced by parents and, in turn, the effect this trauma has on their children. This study examines familial associations among trauma, psychopathology, and attention bias. Specifically, group differences in psychopathology and attention bias were examined in both adults and their children based on trauma exposure. In addition, the association between attention bias in parents and attention bias in their children was examined. Parents exposed to the 9/11 World Trade Center attacks and their children were recruited from the New York City Metropolitan area. Levels of trauma exposure, psychiatric symptoms, and attention bias to threat, as measured with the dot-probe task, were each assessed in 90 subjects, comprising of 45 parents and one of their children. These measures were examined in parents and their children separately; each parent and child was categorized on the presence of high or low levels of trauma exposure. Although trauma exposure did not relate to psychopathology, parents who were highly exposed to trauma showed greater attention bias towards threat than parents with low trauma exposure. However, the children of high trauma-exposed parents did not show enhanced attention bias towards threat, though threat bias in the high trauma-exposed parents did negatively correlate with threat bias in their children. This association between trauma and attention bias in parents was found four-to-five years after 9/11, suggesting that trauma has enduring influences on threat processing. Larger, prospective studies might examine relationships within families among traumatic exposures, psychopathology, and information-processing functions. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  13. Increased Incidence Rate of Trauma- and Stressor-Related Disorders in Denmark After the September 11, 2001, Terrorist Attacks in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Bertel T; Østergaard, Søren D; Sønderskov, Kim M; Dinesen, Peter T

    2016-10-01

    The terrorist attacks that occurred on September 11, 2001 (hereafter referred to as 9/11) in the United States had a profound impact on the physical and mental health of Americans, but the effects beyond the United States are largely unknown. To understand the wider aftermath, we examined the consequences of the 9/11 attacks on mental disorders in the Kingdom of Denmark. Utilizing population data from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register from 1995 to 2012, we used a time-series intervention approach to estimate the change in the incidence rate of mental disorders after the 9/11 attacks. Based on analyses of 1,448,250 contacts with psychiatric services, we found that the attacks were followed by an immediate 16% increase in the incidence rate of trauma- and stressor-related disorders. This surge dissipated approximately a year after 9/11. In contrast, no similar increases were found for other disorders. This is consistent with the prominent role of external stressors in the etiology of trauma- and stressor-related disorders. The results indicate that the effects of 9/11 on mental disorders extended across the Atlantic Ocean to Denmark. Thus, the impact of terrorist attacks on mental health is likely not limited to inhabitants of the country under attack; it also extends to people far away and without immediate relation to it. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. The day Norway cried: Proximity and distress in Norwegian citizens following the 22nd July 2011 terrorist attacks in Oslo and on Utøya Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siri Thoresen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Terrorism may create fear and stress reactions not only in the direct victims, but also in the general population. Objective: This study investigated emotional responses in the Norwegian population following the 22nd July 2011 terrorist attacks. We hypothesized that Oslo residents would report a higher level of fear responses compared with people living outside Oslo and that proximity would be associated with early distress and later post-traumatic stress reactions. Method: Representative samples were drawn from the Norwegian Population Registry. Telephone interviews were conducted 4–5 months after the attacks. The response rate for the Oslo sample (N=465 was 24% of the total sample, and 43% of those who were actually reached by phone and asked to participate. Corresponding figures for the sample living outside Oslo (N=716 were 19% and 30%. Results: Our results show strong immediate emotional responses, particularly sadness and a feeling of unreality, in both samples. Jumpiness and other fear responses were significantly higher among Oslo residents. Current level of risk perception was low 4–5 months after the attacks; however, a significant minority reported to feel less safe than before. Geographical and psychological proximity were associated with early emotional responses. Psychological proximity was significantly associated with post-traumatic stress reactions, while measures of geographical proximity were not. Immediate emotional responses, first-week reactions, and first-week jumpiness were uniquely and significantly associated with post-traumatic stress reactions. Post-traumatic stress reactions were elevated in ethnic minorities. Conclusions: The terrorist attacks seem to have had a significant effect on the Norwegian population, creating sadness and insecurity, at least in the short term. Proximity to the terrorist attacks was strongly associated with distress in the population, and early distress was strongly related

  15. Does acute maternal stress in pregnancy affect infant health outcomes? Examination of a large cohort of infants born after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001

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    Conlin Ava Marie S

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infants in utero during the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 may have been negatively affected by maternal stress. Studies to date have produced contradictory results. Methods Data for this retrospective cohort study were obtained from the Department of Defense Birth and Infant Health Registry and included up to 164,743 infants born to active-duty military families. Infants were considered exposed if they were in utero on September 11, 2001, while the referent group included infants gestating in the same period in the preceding and following year (2000 and 2002. We investigated the association of this acute stress during pregnancy with the infant health outcomes of male:female sex ratio, birth defects, preterm birth, and growth deficiencies in utero and in infancy. Results No difference in sex ratio was observed between infants in utero in the first trimester of pregnancy on September 11, 2001 and infants in the referent population. Examination of the relationship between first-trimester exposure and birth defects also revealed no significant associations. In adjusted multivariable models, neither preterm birth nor growth deficiencies were significantly associated with the maternal exposure to the stress of September 11 during pregnancy. Conclusion The findings from this large population-based study suggest that women who were pregnant during the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 had no increased risk of adverse infant health outcomes.

  16. Chemical or Biological Terrorist Attacks: An Analysis of the Preparedness of Hospitals for Managing Victims Affected by Chemical or Biological Weapons of Mass Destruction

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    Russell L. Bennett

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of a terrorist attack employing the use of chemical or biological weapons of mass destruction (WMD on American soil is no longer an empty threat, it has become a reality. A WMD is defined as any weapon with the capacity to inflict death and destruction on such a massive scale that its very presence in the hands of hostile forces is a grievous threat. Events of the past few years including the bombing of the World Trade Center in 1993, the Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City in 1995 and the use of planes as guided missiles directed into the Pentagon and New York’s Twin Towers in 2001 (9/11 and the tragic incidents involving twentythree people who were infected and five who died as a result of contact with anthrax-laced mail in the Fall of 2001, have well established that the United States can be attacked by both domestic and international terrorists without warning or provocation. In light of these actions, hospitals have been working vigorously to ensure that they would be “ready” in the event of another terrorist attack to provide appropriate medical care to victims. However, according to a recent United States General Accounting Office (GAO nationwide survey, our nation’s hospitals still are not prepared to manage mass causalities resulting from chemical or biological WMD. Therefore, there is a clear need for information about current hospital preparedness in order to provide a foundation for systematic planning and broader discussions about relative cost, probable effectiveness, environmental impact and overall societal priorities. Hence, the aim of this research was to examine the current preparedness of hospitals in the State of Mississippi to manage victims of terrorist attacks involving chemical or biological WMD. All acute care hospitals in the State were selected for inclusion in this study. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were utilized for data collection

  17. Chemical or biological terrorist attacks: an analysis of the preparedness of hospitals for managing victims affected by chemical or biological weapons of mass destruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Russell L

    2006-03-01

    The possibility of a terrorist attack employing the use of chemical or biological weapons of mass destruction (WMD) on American soil is no longer an empty threat, it has become a reality. A WMD is defined as any weapon with the capacity to inflict death and destruction on such a massive scale that its very presence in the hands of hostile forces is a grievous threat. Events of the past few years including the bombing of the World Trade Center in 1993, the Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City in 1995 and the use of planes as guided missiles directed into the Pentagon and New York's Twin Towers in 2001 (9/11) and the tragic incidents involving twentythree people who were infected and five who died as a result of contact with anthrax-laced mail in the Fall of 2001, have well established that the United States can be attacked by both domestic and international terrorists without warning or provocation. In light of these actions, hospitals have been working vigorously to ensure that they would be "ready" in the event of another terrorist attack to provide appropriate medical care to victims. However, according to a recent United States General Accounting Office (GAO) nationwide survey, our nation's hospitals still are not prepared to manage mass causalities resulting from chemical or biological WMD. Therefore, there is a clear need for information about current hospital preparedness in order to provide a foundation for systematic planning and broader discussions about relative cost, probable effectiveness, environmental impact and overall societal priorities. Hence, the aim of this research was to examine the current preparedness of hospitals in the State of Mississippi to manage victims of terrorist attacks involving chemical or biological WMD. All acute care hospitals in the State were selected for inclusion in this study. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were utilized for data collection and analysis. Six hypotheses were tested. Using a questionnaire

  18. Chemical or Biological Terrorist Attacks: An Analysis of the Preparedness of Hospitals for Managing Victims Affected by Chemical or Biological Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Russell L.

    2006-01-01

    The possibility of a terrorist attack employing the use of chemical or biological weapons of mass destruction (WMD) on American soil is no longer an empty threat, it has become a reality. A WMD is defined as any weapon with the capacity to inflict death and destruction on such a massive scale that its very presence in the hands of hostile forces is a grievous threat. Events of the past few years including the bombing of the World Trade Center in 1993, the Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City in 1995 and the use of planes as guided missiles directed into the Pentagon and New York’s Twin Towers in 2001 (9/11) and the tragic incidents involving twenty-three people who were infected and five who died as a result of contact with anthrax-laced mail in the Fall of 2001, have well established that the United States can be attacked by both domestic and international terrorists without warning or provocation. In light of these actions, hospitals have been working vigorously to ensure that they would be “ready” in the event of another terrorist attack to provide appropriate medical care to victims. However, according to a recent United States General Accounting Office (GAO) nationwide survey, our nation’s hospitals still are not prepared to manage mass causalities resulting from chemical or biological WMD. Therefore, there is a clear need for information about current hospital preparedness in order to provide a foundation for systematic planning and broader discussions about relative cost, probable effectiveness, environmental impact and overall societal priorities. Hence, the aim of this research was to examine the current preparedness of hospitals in the State of Mississippi to manage victims of terrorist attacks involving chemical or biological WMD. All acute care hospitals in the State were selected for inclusion in this study. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were utilized for data collection and analysis. Six hypotheses were tested. Using a

  19. The psychological impact of terrorist attacks: examining a dose-response relationship between exposure to 9/11 and Axis I mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Christine A; Bolton, James M; Sareen, Jitender

    2010-11-01

    Previous research has suggested a dose-response relationship between exposure to the 9/11 terrorist attacks and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. However, this relationship has not been examined with other Axis I mental disorders. This study examined whether the incidence of Axis I mental disorders was associated with level of exposure to the 9/11 terrorist attacks. Data came from the Wave 2 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC-2; N=34,653, ages 20+) collected between 2004 and 2005. This survey utilized a fully structured face-to-face interview to assess the presence of DSM-IV Axis I disorders since Wave 1 of the NESARC, collected between 2001 and 2002. Multiple logistic regression analyses were employed to examine the relationship between the level of exposure to 9/11 and the prevalence of Axis I disorders since Wave 1. In adjusted models, higher levels of exposure increased the odds of having new onset PTSD, any anxiety disorder, and any mental disorder. Compared to participants who were not exposed to 9/11, those who directly experienced 9/11 had six times the odds of having PTSD, 2.5 times the odds of having any anxiety disorder, and nearly twice the odds of having any mental disorder. Results suggest that there is a dose-response relationship between level of exposure to the 9/11 attacks and PTSD. Furthermore, higher levels of exposure increase the odds of having any anxiety disorder and any Axis I mental disorder.

  20. Terrorist attacks and the male-to-female ratio at birth: The Troubles in Northern Ireland, the Rodney King riots, and the Breivik and Sandy Hook shootings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Victor

    2015-12-01

    Males are usually born in excess of females. The ratio is often expressed as M/F (male divided by total births). A wide variety of factors have been shown to influence M/F. Terrorist attacks reduce M/F. This study was carried out in order to ascertain whether individual terrorist attacks influenced M/F in relevant populations. The following events were studied: the Troubles in Northern Ireland, the Los Angeles Riots (the Rodney King affair), the Breivik shooting (Norway), and the Sandy Hook shooting (Connecticut). Northern Ireland M/F was significantly lower during the Troubles (1969-1998) than during the period before (p=0.0006). There was a very sharp dip in 1978 (p≤0.004) during this particular year of renewed violence and heavy civilian attacks. Rodney King riots-late April 1992 M/F dipped significantly in August 1992, 4months after the riots (p=0.044). Breivik Shooting-22/07/2011 M/F dipped significantly in December 2011, 5months after the event (p=0.004). Sandy Hook Shooting-14/12/2012 M/F dipped significantly in April 2013, 4months after the event (p=0.009). M/F dips follow catastrophic or tragic events if these are felt to be momentous enough by a given population. All of the above events caused significant population stress. The M/F dips noted may have been caused by population stress which is known to lead to the culling of frail/small male foetuses. The dips noted are comparable to a substantial proportion of quoted values for perinatal mortality, potentially elevating this a public health issue. 1. The male-to-female ratio at birth is decreased by stressful events. 2. This is due to an excess of male foetal losses in established pregnancies. 3. Such losses in response to acute events are transient. 4. This ratio may be a useful indicator of population stress. RESEARCH DIRECTIONS: 1. Gender ratios in populations could be routinely monitored in order to assess the impact of stressful events that may reduce the male-to-female birth ratio. Copyright

  1. The benefits of expressive writing after the Madrid terrorist attack: Implications for emotional activation and positive affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Itziar; Páez, Darío

    2008-02-01

    This study examined the effects of expressive narrative writing in 607 participants. Compared with a control group, the participants randomly assigned to write about their feelings and thoughts after the Madrid train attack on M11 report less negative emotions related to the recall of the collective trauma at a 2-month follow-up after the attacks. However, no effects were found on positive affect, probably because the study had only one writing session of brief duration. Stronger feelings of joy, use of positive words, and low use of negative words in the narratives predicted low emotional activation at follow-up.

  2. Istanbul Stock Market’s Reaction To Terrorist Attacks / İstanbul Borsasının Terörist Saldırılara Reaksiyonu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos CHRISTOFIS

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Terrorist attacks can have a multitude of economic consequences that may adversely affect a number of economic sectors and activities including capital markets. This paper examines the impact of three major terrorist incidents on the Istanbul Stock Exchange, one of the major emerging markets internationally. The reaction of both the general index as well as sectorial indices is investigated. The findings reported herein indicate that the impact, although significant in certain cases, had only short-lived effects since the market rebound was fairly quick. Of the sectorial indices, the tourist industry is found to be more adversely affected by these events.

  3. A national longitudinal study of the psychological consequences of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks: reactions, impairment, and help-seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Bradley D; Elliott, Marc N; Jaycox, Lisa H; Collins, Rebecca L; Berry, Sandra H; Klein, David J; Schuster, Mark A

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the evolution of psychological and behavioral reactions following the September 2001 terrorist attacks in a nationally representative sample, and describes where people turned for support, information, and counseling. From November 9 to November 28, 2001, we resurveyed 395 (71%) of the original 560 adults 19 years or older within the United States who participated in our national random-digit-dialing telephone survey conducted on September 14 to September 16, 2001, about their terrorism-related psychological distress and behavior. Sixteen percent of adults had persistent distress, reporting one or more substantial distress symptoms in both September and November. Adults with persistent distress reported accomplishing less at work (65%); avoiding public gathering places (24%); and using alcohol, medications, or other drugs to relax, sleep, or feel better because of worries about terrorism (38%). Seventy-five percent talked with family and friends; however, 43% reported sometimes feeling unable to share their terrorism-related thoughts and feelings with others because it made others uncomfortable. Few reported receiving counseling or information about psychological distress from general medical providers (11%). These findings suggest that a significant number of adults across the country were continuing to experience terrorism-related distress and disruption of their daily lives approximately 2 months after September 11; many turned to family and friends for support, but at times many felt uncomfortable doing so, and few used clinicians as a source of information or support. Clinicians and policymakers should consider how the healthcare system and other community organizations might provide a coordinated community-wide response for individuals needing information and counseling following terrorist events.

  4. Screening for Generalized Anxiety Disorder Symptoms in the Wake of Terrorist Attacks: A Study in Primary Care

    OpenAIRE

    Ghafoori, Bita; Neria, Yuval; Gameroff, Marc J.; Olfson, Mark; Lantigua, Rafael; Shea, Steven; Weissman, Myrna M.

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the mental health impact of terrorism beyond posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. The associations between exposure to the September 11, 2001 (9/11) attacks in New York City and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) symptoms were examined in a sample of 929 primary care patients. After controlling for PTSD, depression, panic and substance use disorders, and pre-9/11 trauma, patients who screened positive (vs. negative) for GAD symptoms were roughly twice as ...

  5. Exploring Terrorist Targeting Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Israeli embassies, the British and Australian high commissions and commercial complexes housing some 250 Western business interests. For further...hospitals, restaurants, nightclubs, cinema complexes, (and cynically referred to as the “traffic lights of death”), the schematic delineates the extant...been detained for plotting terrorist attacks in pursuit of the international jihadist cause, including Willie Brigette ( Australian , arrested in 2003

  6. INTERNATIONALLY LEGAL MEASURES TO COMBAT TERRORIST FINANCING

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    Yuniarti Yuniarti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Following the terrorist attacks in the USA on September 11th, 2001, it was discovered that money laundering was a significant source of finance for terrorists. Although, the amount of money that involve is not as involve as in drug and gun trafficking, terrorist financing had been the most important substance to be monitor. Further, various legal measures have been taken internationally in order to combat terrorist financing. This research analyses the legal measures that have been taken internationally and at EU level to combat terrorist financing. Key words: Money Laundering, Terrorist Financing, International Legal measures, EU.

  7. A focus group study of the impact of trauma exposure in the 9/11 terrorist attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Carol S; Barney, Carissa J; Pollio, David E

    2015-04-01

    Much of the mental health research that has emerged from the September 11 (9/11) attacks has been focused on posttraumatic stress disorder and its symptoms. To better understand the broader experience of individuals following a disaster, focus groups were conducted with individuals from affected companies both at Ground Zero and elsewhere in New York City. Twenty-one focus groups with a total of 140 participants were conducted in the second post-9/11 year. Areas of identified concern were coded into the following themes: Disaster Experience, Emotional Responses, Workplace Issues, Coping, and Issues of Public Concern. Discussions of focus groups included material represented in all five themes in companies both at Ground Zero and elsewhere. The emphasis and the content within these themes varied between the Ground Zero and other companies. Content suggesting symptoms of PTSD represented only a minority of the material, especially in the company groups not at Ground Zero. This study's findings revealed an array of psychosocial concerns following the 9/11 attacks among employees of companies in New York City that extended far beyond PTSD. This study's results provide further evidence that trauma exposure is central to individuals' post-disaster experience and focus, and to individuals' adjustment and experience after disaster.

  8. Health status and health care utilization following collective trauma: a 3-year national study of the 9/11 terrorist attacks in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, E Alison; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2011-08-01

    The September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks (9/11) presented a unique opportunity to assess the physical health impact of collective stress in the United States. This study prospectively examined rates of physical ailments and predictors of health care utilization in a U.S. nationally representative sample over three years following the attacks. A sample of adults (N = 2592) completed a survey before 9/11/01 that assessed MD-diagnosed physical and mental health ailments. Follow-up surveys were administered at one (N = 1923), two (N = 1576), and three (N = 1950) years post-9/11 to assess MD-diagnosed physical health ailments (e.g., cardiovascular, endocrine) and health care utilization. Reports of physical ailments increased 18% over three years following 9/11. 9/11-related exposure, lifetime and post-9/11 stress, MD-diagnosed depression/anxiety, smoking status, age, and female gender predicted increased incidence of post-9/11 ailments, after controlling for pre-9/11 health. After adjusting for covariates (demographics, somatization, smoking status, pre-9/11 mental and physical health, lifetime and post-9/11 stress, and degree of 9/11-related exposure), increases in MD-diagnosed cardiovascular, endocrine, gastrointestinal, and hematology-oncology ailments predicted greater utilization of health care services over two years. After the collective stress of 9/11, rates of physical ailments increased and predicted greater health care utilization in a U.S. national sample. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Searching for and finding meaning in collective trauma: results from a national longitudinal study of the 9/11 terrorist attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updegraff, John A; Silver, Roxane Cohen; Holman, E Alison

    2008-09-01

    The ability to make sense of events in one's life has held a central role in theories of adaptation to adversity. However, there are few rigorous studies on the role of meaning in adjustment, and those that have been conducted have focused predominantly on direct personal trauma. The authors examined the predictors and long-term consequences of Americans' searching for and finding meaning in a widespread cultural upheaval--the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001--among a national probability sample of U.S. adults (N=931). Searching for meaning at 2 months post-9/11 was predicted by demographics and high acute stress response. In contrast, finding meaning was predicted primarily by demographics and specific early coping strategies. Whereas searching for meaning predicted greater posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms across the following 2 years, finding meaning predicted lower PTS symptoms, even after controlling for pre-9/11 mental health, exposure to 9/11, and acute stress response. Mediation analyses suggest that finding meaning supported adjustment by reducing fears of future terrorism. Results highlight the role of meaning in adjustment following collective traumas that shatter people's fundamental assumptions about security and invulnerability.

  10. Radiology response in the emergency department during a mass casualty incident: a retrospective study of the two terrorist attacks on 22 July 2011 in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Victoria Solveig; Eggesboe, Heidi B.; Enden, Tone [Oslo University Hospital, Division of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo (Norway); Gaarder, Christine [Oslo University Hospital, Department of Traumatology, Oslo (Norway); Naess, Paal Aksel [Oslo University Hospital, Department of Traumatology, Oslo (Norway); Oslo University Hospital, Department of Paediatric Surgery, Oslo (Norway); University of Oslo, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Oslo (Norway)

    2017-07-15

    To describe the use of radiology in the emergency department (ED) in a trauma centre during a mass casualty incident, using a minimum acceptable care (MAC) strategy in which CT was restricted to potentially severe head injuries. We retrospectively studied the initial use of imaging on patients triaged to the trauma centre following the twin terrorist attacks in Norway on 22 July 2011. Nine patients from the explosion and 15 from the shooting were included. Fourteen patients had an Injury Severity Score >15. During the first 15 h, 22/24 patients underwent imaging in the ED. All 15 gunshot patients had plain films taken in the ED, compared to three from the explosion. A CT was performed in 18/24 patients; ten of these were completed in the ED and included five non-head CTs, the latter representing deviations from the MAC strategy. No CT referrals were delayed or declined. Mobilisation of radiology personnel resulted in a tripling of the staff. Plain film and CT capacity was never exceeded despite deviations from the MAC strategy. An updated disaster management plan will require the radiologist to cancel non-head CTs performed in the ED until no additional MCI patients are expected. (orig.)

  11. Injury, intense dust exposure, and chronic disease among survivors of the World Trade Center terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alper, Howard E; Yu, Shengchao; Stellman, Steven D; Brackbill, Robert M

    2017-12-01

    The World Trade Center attack of September 11, 2001 in New York City (9/11) exposed thousands of people to intense concentrations of hazardous materials that have resulted in reports of increased levels of asthma, heart disease, diabetes, and other chronic diseases along with psychological illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Few studies have discriminated between health consequences of immediate (short-term or acute) intense exposures versus chronic residential or workplace exposures. We used proportional hazards methods to determine adjusted hazard ratios (AHRs) for associations between several components of acute exposures (e.g., injury, immersion in the dust cloud) and four chronic disease outcomes: asthma, other non-neoplastic lung diseases, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes, in 8701 persons free of those conditions prior to exposure and who were physically present during or immediately after the World Trade Center attacks. Participants were followed prospectively up to 11 years post-9/11. Heart disease exhibited a dose-response association with sustaining injury (1 injury type: AHR =2.0, 95% CI (Confidence Interval) 1.1-3.6; 2 injury types: AHR = 3.1, 95% CI 1.2-7.9; 3 or more injury types: AHR = 6.8, 95% CI 2.0-22.6), while asthma and other lung diseases were both significantly associated with dust cloud exposure (AHR = 1.3, 95% CI 1.0-1.6). Diabetes was not associated with any of the predictors assessed in this study. In this study we demonstrated that the acute exposures of injury and dust cloud that were sustained on 9/11/2001 had significant associations with later heart and respiratory diseases. Continued monitoring of 9/11 exposed persons' health by medical providers is warranted for the foreseeable future.

  12. Risk factors for persistence of lower respiratory symptoms among community members exposed to the 2001 World Trade Center terrorist attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Hannah T; Friedman, Stephen M; Reibman, Joan; Goldring, Roberta M; Miller Archie, Sara A; Ortega, Felix; Alper, Howard; Shao, Yongzhao; Maslow, Carey B; Cone, James E; Farfel, Mark R; Berger, Kenneth I

    2017-01-01

    Objectives We studied the course of lower respiratory symptoms (LRS; cough, wheeze or dyspnoea) among community members exposed to the 9/11/2001 World Trade Center (WTC) attacks during a period of 12–13 years following the attacks, and evaluated risk factors for LRS persistence, including peripheral airway dysfunction and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Methods Non-smoking adult participants in a case-control study of post-9/11-onset LRS (exam 1, 2008–2010) were recruited for follow-up (exam 2, 2013–2014). Peripheral airway function was assessed with impulse oscillometry measures of R5 and R5-20. Probable PTSD was a PTSD checklist score ≥44 on a 2006–2007 questionnaire. Results Of 785 exam 1 participants, 545 (69%) completed exam 2. Most (321, 59%) were asymptomatic at all assessments. Among 192 participants with initial LRS, symptoms resolved for 110 (57%) by exam 2, 55 (29%) had persistent LRS and 27 (14%) had other patterns. The proportion with normal spirometry increased from 65% at exam 1 to 85% at exam 2 in the persistent LRS group (p<0.01) and was stable among asymptomatic participants and those with resolved LRS. By exam 2, spirometry results did not differ across symptom groups; however, R5 and R5-20 abnormalities were more common among participants with persistent LRS (56% and 46%, respectively) than among participants with resolved LRS (30%, p<0.01; 27%, p=0.03) or asymptomatic participants (20%, p<0.001; 8.2%, p<0.001). PTSD, R5 at exam 1, and R5-20 at exam 1 were each independently associated with persistent LRS. Conclusions Peripheral airway dysfunction and PTSD may contribute to LRS persistence. Assessment of peripheral airway function detected pulmonary damage not evident on spirometry. Mental and physical healthcare for survivors of complex environmental disasters should be coordinated carefully. PMID:28341697

  13. Risk factors for persistence of lower respiratory symptoms among community members exposed to the 2001 World Trade Center terrorist attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Hannah T; Friedman, Stephen M; Reibman, Joan; Goldring, Roberta M; Miller Archie, Sara A; Ortega, Felix; Alper, Howard; Shao, Yongzhao; Maslow, Carey B; Cone, James E; Farfel, Mark R; Berger, Kenneth I

    2017-06-01

    We studied the course of lower respiratory symptoms (LRS; cough, wheeze or dyspnoea) among community members exposed to the 9/11/2001 World Trade Center (WTC) attacks during a period of 12-13 years following the attacks, and evaluated risk factors for LRS persistence, including peripheral airway dysfunction and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Non-smoking adult participants in a case-control study of post-9/11-onset LRS (exam 1, 2008-2010) were recruited for follow-up (exam 2, 2013-2014). Peripheral airway function was assessed with impulse oscillometry measures of R5 and R5-20. Probable PTSD was a PTSD checklist score ≥44 on a 2006-2007 questionnaire. Of 785 exam 1 participants, 545 (69%) completed exam 2. Most (321, 59%) were asymptomatic at all assessments. Among 192 participants with initial LRS, symptoms resolved for 110 (57%) by exam 2, 55 (29%) had persistent LRS and 27 (14%) had other patterns. The proportion with normal spirometry increased from 65% at exam 1 to 85% at exam 2 in the persistent LRS group (p<0.01) and was stable among asymptomatic participants and those with resolved LRS. By exam 2, spirometry results did not differ across symptom groups; however, R5 and R5-20 abnormalities were more common among participants with persistent LRS (56% and 46%, respectively) than among participants with resolved LRS (30%, p<0.01; 27%, p=0.03) or asymptomatic participants (20%, p<0.001; 8.2%, p<0.001). PTSD, R5 at exam 1, and R5-20 at exam 1 were each independently associated with persistent LRS. Peripheral airway dysfunction and PTSD may contribute to LRS persistence. Assessment of peripheral airway function detected pulmonary damage not evident on spirometry. Mental and physical healthcare for survivors of complex environmental disasters should be coordinated carefully. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly

  14. Factors associated with poor control of 9/11-related asthma 10–11 years after the 2001 World Trade Center terrorist attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Hannah T.; Stellman, Steven D.; Reibman, Joan; Farfel, Mark R.; Brackbill, Robert M.; Friedman, Stephen M.; Li, Jiehui; Cone, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To identify key factors associated with poor asthma control among adults in the World Trade Center (WTC) Health Registry, a longitudinal study of rescue/recovery workers and community members who were directly exposed to the 2001 WTC terrorist attacks and their aftermath. Methods: We studied incident asthma diagnosed by a physician from 12 September 2001 through 31 December 2003 among participants aged ≥18 on 11 September 2001, as reported on an enrollment (2003–2004) or follow-up questionnaire. Based on modified National Asthma Education and Prevention Program criteria, asthma was considered controlled, poorly-controlled, or very poorly-controlled at the time of a 2011–2012 follow-up questionnaire. Probable post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and generalized anxiety disorder were defined using validated scales. Self-reported gastroesophageal reflux symptoms (GERS) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) were obtained from questionnaire responses. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with poor or very poor asthma control. Results: Among 2445 participants, 33.7% had poorly-controlled symptoms and 34.6% had very poorly-controlled symptoms in 2011–2012. Accounting for factors including age, education, body mass index, and smoking, there was a dose–response relationship between the number of mental health conditions and poorer asthma control. Participants with three mental health conditions had five times the odds of poor control and 13 times the odds of very poor control compared to participants without mental health comorbidities. GERS and OSA were significantly associated with poor or very poor control. Conclusions: Rates of poor asthma control were very high in this group with post-9/11 diagnosed asthma. Comprehensive care of 9/11-related asthma should include management of mental and physical health comorbidities. PMID:25539137

  15. Factors associated with poor control of 9/11-related asthma 10-11 years after the 2001 World Trade Center terrorist attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Hannah T; Stellman, Steven D; Reibman, Joan; Farfel, Mark R; Brackbill, Robert M; Friedman, Stephen M; Li, Jiehui; Cone, James E

    2015-01-01

    To identify key factors associated with poor asthma control among adults in the World Trade Center (WTC) Health Registry, a longitudinal study of rescue/recovery workers and community members who were directly exposed to the 2001 WTC terrorist attacks and their aftermath. We studied incident asthma diagnosed by a physician from 12 September 2001 through 31 December 2003 among participants aged ≥18 on 11 September 2001, as reported on an enrollment (2003-2004) or follow-up questionnaire. Based on modified National Asthma Education and Prevention Program criteria, asthma was considered controlled, poorly-controlled, or very poorly-controlled at the time of a 2011-2012 follow-up questionnaire. Probable post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and generalized anxiety disorder were defined using validated scales. Self-reported gastroesophageal reflux symptoms (GERS) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) were obtained from questionnaire responses. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with poor or very poor asthma control. Among 2445 participants, 33.7% had poorly-controlled symptoms and 34.6% had very poorly-controlled symptoms in 2011-2012. Accounting for factors including age, education, body mass index, and smoking, there was a dose-response relationship between the number of mental health conditions and poorer asthma control. Participants with three mental health conditions had five times the odds of poor control and 13 times the odds of very poor control compared to participants without mental health comorbidities. GERS and OSA were significantly associated with poor or very poor control. Rates of poor asthma control were very high in this group with post-9/11 diagnosed asthma. Comprehensive care of 9/11-related asthma should include management of mental and physical health comorbidities.

  16. Radiology response in the emergency department during a mass casualty incident: a retrospective study of the two terrorist attacks on 22 July 2011 in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Victoria Solveig; Eggesbø, Heidi B; Gaarder, Christine; Næss, Pål Aksel; Enden, Tone

    2017-07-01

    To describe the use of radiology in the emergency department (ED) in a trauma centre during a mass casualty incident, using a minimum acceptable care (MAC) strategy in which CT was restricted to potentially severe head injuries. We retrospectively studied the initial use of imaging on patients triaged to the trauma centre following the twin terrorist attacks in Norway on 22 July 2011. Nine patients from the explosion and 15 from the shooting were included. Fourteen patients had an Injury Severity Score >15. During the first 15 h, 22/24 patients underwent imaging in the ED. All 15 gunshot patients had plain films taken in the ED, compared to three from the explosion. A CT was performed in 18/24 patients; ten of these were completed in the ED and included five non-head CTs, the latter representing deviations from the MAC strategy. No CT referrals were delayed or declined. Mobilisation of radiology personnel resulted in a tripling of the staff. Plain film and CT capacity was never exceeded despite deviations from the MAC strategy. An updated disaster management plan will require the radiologist to cancel non-head CTs performed in the ED until no additional MCI patients are expected. • Minimum acceptable care (MAC) should replace normal routines in mass casualty incidents. • MAC implied reduced use of imaging in the emergency department (ED). • CT in ED was restricted to suspected severe head injuries during MAC. • The radiologist should cancel all non-head CTs in the ED during MAC.

  17. Terrorist Precursor Crimes: Issues and Options for Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Neil, Siobhan

    2007-01-01

    ... not. Terrorist precursor crimes, offenses committed to facilitate a particular attack or promote a terrorist campaign's objectives, are thought to be often carried out far away from the primary theater...

  18. Unusual but potential agents of terrorists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstege, Christopher P; Bechtel, Laura K; Reilly, Tracey H; Wispelwey, Bram P; Dobmeier, Stephen G

    2007-05-01

    Emergency personnel are tasked with the daunting job of being the first to evaluate and manage victims of a terrorist attack. Numerous potential chemical agents could be used by terrorists. The challenge for first responders and local hospital emergency personnel is to prepare for a terrorist event that might use one or more of these agents. As part of that preparation, emergency physicians should have a basic understanding of potential chemical terrorist agents. It is beyond the scope of this article to review all potential terrorist agents. Rather, four potential agents have been chosen for review: sodium monofluoroacetate, trichothecene mycotoxins, vomiting agents, and saxitoxin.

  19. Terrorist threat and perceived Islamic support for terrorist attacks as predictors of personal and institutional out-group discrimination and support for anti-immigration policies: evidence from 9 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doosje, B.; Zimmermann, A.; Küpper, B.; Zick, A.; Meertens, R.

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, research has shown that subtle and blatant prejudices are important predictors of out-group discrimination and support for anti-immigration policies. The present paper shows that, when controlling for these types of prejudices and for political conservatism, terrorist threat and

  20. Attack of the Uber Terrorists

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marni Soupcoff

    2014-01-01

      When the author first heard about Uber, Lyft, and other creative new ridesharing and car-hire companies, he felt sure they would be characterized as a bad idea by those enjoying the benefits of the current taxi cartel...

  1. Gastroesophageal reflux symptoms and comorbid asthma and posttraumatic stress disorder following the 9/11 terrorist attacks on World Trade Center in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiehui; Brackbill, Robert M; Stellman, Steven D; Farfel, Mark R; Miller-Archie, Sara A; Friedman, Stephen; Walker, Deborah J; Thorpe, Lorna E; Cone, James

    2011-11-01

    Excess gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) was reported in several populations exposed to the September 11 2001 (9/11) terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center (WTC). We examined new onset gastroesophageal reflux symptoms (GERS) since 9/11 and persisting up to 5-6 years in relation to 9/11-related exposures among the WTC Health Registry enrollees, and potential associations with comorbid asthma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This is a retrospective analysis of 37,118 adult enrollees (i.e., rescue/recovery workers, local residents, area workers, and passersby in lower Manhattan on 9/11) who reported no pre-9/11 GERS and who participated in two Registry surveys 2-3 and 5-6 years after 9/11. Post-9/11 GERS (new onset since 9/11) reported at first survey, and persistent GERS (post-9/11 GERS reported at both surveys) were analyzed using log-binomial regression. Cumulative incidence was 20% for post-9/11 GERS and 13% for persistent GERS. Persistent GERS occurred more often among those with comorbid PTSD (24%), asthma (13%), or both (36%) compared with neither of the comorbid conditions (8%). Among enrollees with neither asthma nor PTSD, the adjusted risk ratio (aRR) for persistent GERS was elevated among: workers arriving at the WTC pile on 9/11 (aRR=1.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-2.1) or working at the WTC site > 90 days (aRR=1.6; 1.4-2.0); residents exposed to the intense dust cloud on 9/11 (aRR=1.5; 1.0-2.3), or who did not evacuate their homes (aRR=1.7; 1.2-2.3); and area workers exposed to the intense dust cloud (aRR=1.5; 1.2-1.8). Disaster-related environmental exposures may contribute to the development of GERS. GERS may be accentuated in the presence of asthma or PTSD.

  2. Real Time Big Data Analytics for Predicting Terrorist Incidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toure, Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    Terrorism is a complex and evolving phenomenon. In the past few decades, we have witnessed an increase in the number of terrorist incidents in the world. The security and stability of many countries is threatened by terrorist groups. Perpetrators now use sophisticated weapons and the attacks are more and more lethal. Currently, terrorist incidents…

  3. Underfunding in Terrorist Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Jacob N.; Siegel, David A.

    A review of international terrorist activity reveals a pattern of financially strapped operatives working for organizations that seem to have plenty of money. To explain this observation, and to examine when restricting terrorists’ funds will reduce their lethality, we model a hierarchical terror organization in which leaders delegate financial and logistical tasks to middlemen, but cannot perfectly monitor them for security reasons. These middlemen do not always share their leaders’ interests: the temptation exists to skim funds from financial transactions. When middlemen are sufficiently greedy and organizations suffer from sufficiently strong budget constraints, leaders will not fund attacks because the costs of skimming are too great. Using general functional forms, we find important nonlinearities in terrorists’ responses to government counter-terrorism. Restricting terrorists’ funds may be ineffective until a critical threshold is reached, at which point cooperation within terrorist organizations begins to break down and further government actions have a disproportionately large impact.

  4. Lone-Actor Terrorist Target Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Paul; Corner, Emily

    2016-09-01

    Lone-actor terrorist attacks have risen to the forefront of the public's consciousness in the past few years. Some of these attacks were conducted against public officials. The rise of hard-to-detect, low-tech attacks may lead to more public officials being targeted. This paper explores whether different behavioral traits are apparent within a sample of lone-actor terrorists who plotted against high-value targets (including public officials) than within a sample of lone actors who plotted against members of the public. Utilizing a unique dataset of 111 lone-actor terrorists, we test a series of hypotheses related to attack capability and operational security. The results indicate that very little differentiates those who attack high-value targets from those who attack members of the public. We conclude with a series of illustrations to theorize why this may be the case. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Why Terrorists Overestimate the Odds of Victory 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Abrahms

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is puzzling behavior for political scientists. On one hand, terrorist attacks generally hail from the politically aggrieved. On the other hand, a growing body of scholarship finds the tactic politically counterproductive. Unlike guerrilla attacks on military targets, terrorist attacks on civilian targets lower the odds of governments making  concessions. This article proposes and tests a psychological theory to account for why militant groups engage in terrorism, given the political costs of attacking civilians.

  6. Following the terrorist attacks recently committed in the United States of America, and according to the recommendations of the Council of the European Union, the CERN staff observed 3 minutes of silence on Friday 14 September 2001 at 12h00, as a sign of deepest sympathy for all the victims and their families, and of solidarity with the American people

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2001-01-01

    Following the terrorist attacks recently committed in the United States of America, and according to the recommendations of the Council of the European Union, the CERN staff observed 3 minutes of silence on Friday 14 September 2001 at 12h00, as a sign of deepest sympathy for all the victims and their families, and of solidarity with the American people

  7. Conduct of Occupational Health During Major Disasters: A Comparison of Literature on Occupational Health Issues in the World Trade Center Terrorist Attack and the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, Hiroyuki; Mori, Koji

    2017-01-01

    Workers who respond to large-scale disasters can be exposed to health hazards that do not exist in routine work. It is assumed that learning from past cases is effective for preparing for and responding to such problems, but published information is still insufficient. Accordingly, we conducted a literature review about the health issues and occupational health activities at the World Trade Center (WTC) terrorist attack and at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident to investigate how occupational health activities during disasters should be conducted. Seven studies about the WTC attack were extracted and categorized into the following topics: "in relation to emergency systems including occupational health management"; "in relation to improvement and prevention of health effects and occupational hygiene"; and "in relation to care systems aimed at mitigating health effects." Studies about the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident have been used in a previous review. We conclude that, to prevent health effects in workers who respond to large-scale disasters, it is necessary to incorporate occupational health regulations into the national response plan, and to develop practical support functions that enable support to continue for an extended period, training systems for workers with opportunities to report accidents, and care systems to mitigate the health effects.

  8. Research Methods in Child Disaster Studies: A Review of Studies Generated by the September 11, 2001, Terrorist Attacks; the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami; and Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Weems, Carl F.; Scott, Brandon G.; Nitiéma, Pascal; Noffsinger, Mary A.; Pfefferbaum, Rose L.; Varma, Vandana; Chakraburtty, Amarsha

    2013-01-01

    Background: A comprehensive review of the design principles and methodological approaches that have been used to make inferences from the research on disasters in children is needed. Objective: To identify the methodological approaches used to study children's reactions to three recent major disasters--the September 11, 2001, attacks; the…

  9. Traumatic stress symptoms after the November 13th 2015 Terrorist Attacks among Young Adults: The relation to media and emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfort, Emmanuel; Afzali, Mohammad Hassan

    2017-05-01

    A major terror attack occurred in the Paris region on 13th November 2015. This event was widely showed, described, and commented in the media. Media consumption may lead to a widespread diffusion of trauma-related symptoms following a collective trauma. These effects may depend on the type of media and emotion regulation strategies used by the media consumer. Trauma history, traumatic symptoms, media consumption, psychological distress, and emotion regulation strategies of 451 young adults were assessed by an online survey. Findings reveal the joint role of social networks use and dysfunctional emotion regulation strategies on anxiety, depression, and somatization symptoms and also on cognitive and emotional alteration among traumatic symptoms. Consistent with the emotional contagion hypothesis, individuals who reported spending more time on social networks were also those who were experiencing more psychological distress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Adolescent behavior and PTSD 6–7 years after the World Trade Center terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Mana; Li, Jiehui; Farfel, Mark R; Maslow, Carey B; Osahan, Sukhminder; Stellman, Steven D

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral problems and psychopathologies were reported in children exposed to the World Trade Center (WTC) attacks in New York City within 2–3 y post-disaster. Little is known of subsequent 9/11 related behavioral and emotional problems. We assessed risk factors for behavioral difficulties and probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in 489 adolescent enrollees ages 11–18 y of age in the World Trade Center Health Registry cohort using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and DISC Predictive Scales (DPS), respectively, as reported by the adolescents. Associations between parental PTSD and adolescent PTSD and behavioral problems were studied in a subset of 166 adolescent-parent pairs in which the parent was also a Registry enrollee. Nearly one-fifth (17.4%) of the adolescents, all of whom were 5–12 y old at the time of the attacks, scored in the abnormal (5.7%) or borderline (11.7%) range of total SDQ. Problems were more frequent in minority, low-income, and single-parent adolescents. Abnormal and borderline SDQ scores were significantly associated with direct WTC exposures and with WTC-related injury or death of a family member. Adolescent PTSD was significantly associated with WTC exposure and with fear of one's own injury or death, and with PTSD in the parent (OR = 5.6; 95% CI 1.1–28.4). This adolescent population should be monitored for persistence or worsening of these problems. Co-occurrence of parent and child mental health symptoms following a disaster may have implications for healthcare practitioners and for disaster response planners. PMID:28229007

  11. The development of a quick-running prediction tool for the assessment of human injury owing to terrorist attack within crowded metropolitan environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    In the aftermath of the London ‘7/7’ attacks in 2005, UK government agencies required the development of a quick-running tool to predict the weapon and injury effects caused by the initiation of a person borne improvised explosive device (PBIED) within crowded metropolitan environments. This prediction tool, termed the HIP (human injury predictor) code, was intended to: — assist the security services to encourage favourable crowd distributions and densities within scenarios of ‘sensitivity’;— provide guidance to security engineers concerning the most effective location for protection systems;— inform rescue services as to where, in the case of such an event, individuals with particular injuries will be located;— assist in training medical personnel concerning the scope and types of injuries that would be sustained as a consequence of a particular attack;— assist response planners in determining the types of medical specialists (burns, traumatic amputations, lungs, etc.) required and thus identify the appropriate hospitals to receive the various casualty types.This document describes the algorithms used in the development of this tool, together with the pertinent underpinning physical processes. From its rudimentary beginnings as a simple spreadsheet, the HIP code now has a graphical user interface (GUI) that allows three-dimensional visualization of results and intuitive scenario set-up. The code is underpinned by algorithms that predict the pressure and momentum outputs produced by PBIEDs within open and confined environments, as well as the trajectories of shrapnel deliberately placed within the device to increase injurious effects. Further logic has been implemented to transpose these weapon effects into forms of human injury depending on where individuals are located relative to the PBIED. Each crowd member is subdivided into representative body parts, each of which is assigned an abbreviated injury score after a particular

  12. The BBC, Daily Telegraph and Wikinews timelines of the terrorist attacks of 7th July 2006 in London: a comparison with contemporary discussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Thelwall

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We assess the extent to which published media timelines reflect contemporary electronic discussions of major media events, using the London Attacks of July 2005 as a case study. The main objective is to judge whether timelines could, in principle, be automatically generated from contemporary debates. A secondary objective is to analyse the reasons for differences between contemporary debates and retrospective media timelines. Method. Our method exploits the new opportunities for large-scale analysis afforded by electronic news feeds and blogs. We compared published media timelines with blog postings and news stories related to the London attacks of July, 2005. Rich Site Summary (RSS technology was used to gather data from 19,587 blog and news sites. For the period of July 7 to July 31 we identified an average of 275 sources a day that posted new information containing the word 'London'. These postings, a combination of blogging and news stories, formed the raw data for our analysis. In particular, we extracted and counted the individual words used in the postings. Analysis. We compared contemporary word usage statistics from our RSS data with the text of three published media timelines, particularly seeking words and types of words that were present in one but not the other. Results. We found that the timelines tended to ignore the role of communication during the event itself, to use less emotionally charged language, and to gloss over to some extent the wider context of the event. Hence some aspects (frames of the unfolding discussion were ignored by the timelines. Moreover, all sources included a range of relatively trivial details, the timelines apparently using them as concept markers (metonymy for broader issues. Conclusion. . It seems that it would be difficult to automatically generate media timelines from contemporary discussions because of frame changes, and because of changes in terminology and the difficulty in

  13. The mental health consequences of disaster-related loss: findings from primary care one year after the 9/11 terrorist attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neria, Yuval; Olfson, Mark; Gameroff, Marc J; Wickramaratne, Priya; Gross, Raz; Pilowsky, Daniel J; Blanco, Carlos; Manetti-Cusa, Julián; Lantigua, Rafael; Shea, Steven; Weissman, Myrna M

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the long-term psychiatric consequences, pain interference in daily activities, work loss, and functional impairment associated with 9/11-related loss among low-income, minority primary care patients in New York City. A systematic sample of 929 adult patients completed a survey that included a sociodemographic questionnaire, the PTSD Checklist, the PRIME-MD Patient Health Questionnaire, and the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-12 (SF-12). Approximately one-quarter of the sample reported knowing someone who was killed in the attacks of 9/11, and these patients were sociodemographically similar to the rest of the sample. Compared to patients who had not experienced 9/11-related loss, patients who experienced loss were roughly twice as likely (OR = 1.97, 95%; CI = 1.40, 2.77) to screen positive for at least one mental disorder, including major depressive disorder (MDD; 29.2%), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; 19.4%), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; 17.1%). After controlling for pre-9/11 trauma, 9/11-related loss was significantly related to extreme pain interference, work loss, and functional impairment. The results suggest that disaster-related mental health care in this clinical population should emphasize evidence-based treatments for mood and anxiety disorders.

  14. The meaning of collective terrorist threat : Understanding the subjective causes of terrorism reduces its negative psychological impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Peter; Postmes, Tom; Koeppl, Julia; Conway, Lianne; Fredriksson, Tom

    This article hypothesized that the possibility to construct intellectual meaning of a terrorist attack (i.e., whether participants can cognitively understand why the perpetrators did their crime) reduces the negative psychological consequences typically associated with increased terrorist threat.

  15. wastewaters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DRINIE

    2003-10-04

    Oct 4, 2003 ... system without affecting the biochemical reactions in the reactor, whereas .... Results of inert COD experiment for the Study A. Time. Reactor 1. Reactor 2. Fed with raw. Fed with filtered wastewater wastewater. (COD, mg·l-1). (COD .... rate limiting process component for heterotrophic growth in the. IIDWTP.

  16. A Conceptual Framework for Analyzing Terrorist Groups,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    Libyan 17 18 8 29 63 6 Other Middle East 7 11 17 7 7 6 Other European 6 10 8 7 8 6 Sub-Sahara African 7 25 68 22 12 6 Other 6 7 7 17 12 6 grow to be...VIOLENCE, BY REGION, 1980-1982 Inter- Attacks Total national on Terrorist Group Incidents’ Incidentsb Americans Latin America MIR ( Movimiento de...details. (Use separate entries for each person, Bla, Bib, etc.) 67 ____ 4- 68 A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR ANALYZING TERRORIST GROUPS B2. Names of other key

  17. wastewater

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mtui-Combined chemical and biological treatment of recalcitrant industrial effluets. Tzitzi M, Vayenas DV and Lyberatos G 1994 Pretreatment of textile industry wastewater with ozone. Water Sci. Tech. 29(9): 151-160. Walter RH and Sherman RM 1974 Ozonation of lactic acid fermentation effluent. J. Water Poll. Control Fed.

  18. Stopping Suicide Attacks: Optimal Strategies and Unintended Consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Michael McBride; Gary Richardson

    2010-01-01

    Governments fighting terrorists have many tactical options, yet these options often yield unintended and counterproductive consequences. This paper models a terrorist organization, a religious group from which the terrorists recruit suicide bombers, and the society in which the terrorists are embedded. The model illuminates how the choice of anti-insurgent tactics influences the incidence of attacks, paying particular attention to the direct and indirect (unintended) consequences of the gover...

  19. Cyber Attacks and Combat Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carataș Maria Alina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyber terrorism is an intangible danger, a real over the corner threat in the life of individuals,organizations, and governments and is getting harder to deal with its damages. The motivations forthe cyber-attacks are different, depending on the terrorist group, from cybercrime to hacktivism,attacks over the authorities’ servers. Organizations constantly need to find new ways ofstrengthening protection against cyber-attacks, assess their cyber readiness, expand the resiliencecapacity and adopts international security regulations.

  20. A note on the effectiveness of national anti-terrorist policies. Evidence from ETA.

    OpenAIRE

    Gil-Alana, L.A.; Barros, C.P. (Carlos P.)

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses the effectiveness of anti-terrorism policies implemented by the Spanish government to counteract ETA terrorist attacks. The aim is to investigate what the best policy is for counteracting terrorist groups: proactive political/retaliatory deterrence policies or reactive political/retaliatory deterrence policies. Counting models are used and the results show that proactive political policies are the most effective.

  1. Reid et al.'s distance bounding protocol and mafia fraud attacks over noisy channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitrokotsa, A.; Dimitrakakis, C.; Peris-Lopez, P.; Hernandez-Castro, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Distance bounding protocols are an effective countermeasure against relay attacks including distance fraud, mafia fraud and terrorist fraud attacks. Reid et al. proposed the first symmetric key distance bounding protocol against mafia and terrorist fraud attacks [1]. However, [2] claims that this is

  2. Terror breeds terrorists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zulueta, Felicity

    2006-01-01

    Terrorism can be carried out by the state or by its citizens. The latter may be labelled 'freedom fighters' or 'terrorists' depending on the political context. One of the most important aetiological factors driving Islamic terrorists is the experience of alienation and shame. This sense of being made to feel totally invalidated, of feeling worthless in the eyes of the other, is at the root of rage and violent revenge, implying that the way the current 'War on Terror' is being fought by the United States and the United Kingdom can only lead to more terrorism and danger for our society.

  3. Combatting the Terrorist Threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-22

    US State Department in its Patterns of GMo hal Terrorism: 1983 stated that the Soviet Union has provided training, arms, and other direct and indi...Stephen, eds. Responding to the Terrorist Threa. New York: Pergamon Press, 1980. Sterling, Claire. The Terror Network. New York: Reader’s Digest Press

  4. Distance hijacking attacks on distance bounding protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Cremers, Cas; Rasmussen, Kasper Bonne; Čapkun, Srdjan

    2011-01-01

    Distance bounding protocols are typically analyzed with respect to three types of attacks: Distance Fraud, Mafia Fraud, and Terrorist Fraud. We define a fourth main type of attacks on distance bounding protocols, called Distance Hijacking attacks. We show that many proposed distance bounding protocols are vulnerable to these attacks, and we propose solutions to make these protocols resilient to Distance Hijacking. Additionally, we generalize Distance Hijacking to Location Hijacking, to which ...

  5. An Analysis of Media’s Role: Case Study of Army Public School (APS Peshawar Attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qureshi Rameesha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at analyzing the role of media during and after terrorist attacks by examining the media handling of APS Peshawar attack. The sample consisted of males and females selected on convenience basis from universities of Rawalpindi and Islamabad. It was hypothesized that (1 Extensive media coverage of terrorist attacks leads to greater publicity/recognition of terrorist groups (2 Media coverage of APS Peshawar attack increased fear and anxiety in public (3 Positive media handling/coverage of APS Peshawar attack led to public solidarity and peace. The results indicate that i Media coverage of terrorist attacks does help terrorist groups to gain publicity and recognition amongst public ii Media coverage of Aps Peshawar attack did not increase fear/anxiety in fact it directed the Pakistani nation towards public solidarity and peace.

  6. The Current Legal Framework of the Use of Force against Terrorist Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra PERISIC

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Events that took place on 9/11, when symbols of American nation were destroyed by hijacked civilian airplanes, raised the issue of the effectiveness of the currently existing legal framework which regulates terrorist activities. Prior to that event, dealing with terrorist activities was mostly regulated by conventions, many of which were ratified by no more than couple of states. However, it became questionable whether these instruments are sufficient to fight terrorists who are not only immune to a threat of sanctions, but are even ready to sacrifice their lives. After the attacks took place, the United States launched against Afghanistan an armed action, ending up in a more than a decade long occupation, holding Taliban regime responsible for the attacks undertaken by Al-Qaida. The United States response to the 9/11 raised an important question: what is the legal response to terrorist attacks? This article explores the current legal framework of the use of force in response to terrorist attacks, especially with regard to distinguishing terrorist acts which are attributable to a certain state, from those which are undertaken by a terrorist group, not associated with any particular state.

  7. A Physicist Looks at the Terrorist Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Richard

    2009-05-01

    Many people fear a terrorist nuclear device, smuggled into the United States, as the one weapon that could surpass the destruction and impact of 9-11. I'll review the design of nuclear weapons, with emphasis on the kinds that can be developed by rogue nations, terrorist groups, and high-school students. Saddam, prior to the first gulf war, was developing a uranium bomb, similar to the one that destroyed Hiroshima. His calutrons (named after my university) were destroyed by the United Nations. The North Korean nuclear weapon was, like the U.S. bomb used on Nagasaki, based on plutonium. Its test released the energy equivalent of about 400 tons of TNT. Although some people have speculated that they were attempting to build a small bomb, it is far more likely that this weapon was a fizzle, with less than 1 percent of the plutonium exploded. In contrast, the energy released from burning jet fuel at the 9-11 World Trade Center attack was the equivalent of 900 tons of TNT for each plane -- over twice that of the North Korean Nuke. The damage came from the fact that gasoline delivers 10 kilocalories per gram, about 15 times the energy of an equal weight of TNT. It is this huge energy per gram that also accounts for our addiction to gasoline; per gram, high performance lithium-ion computer batteries carry only 1 percent as much energy. A dirty bomb (radiological weapon) is also unattractive to terrorists because of the threhold effect: doses less than 100 rem produce no radiation illness and will leave no dead bodies at the scene. That may be why al Qaeda instructed Jose Padilla to abandon his plans for a dirty bomb attack in Chicago, and to try a fossil fuel attack (natural gas) instead. I will argue that the biggest terrorist threat is the conventional low-tech one, such as an airplane attack on a crowded stadium using the explosive fuel that they can legally buy at the corner station.

  8. A Bayesian belief network of threat anticipation and terrorist motivations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olama, Mohammed M.; Allgood, Glenn O.; Davenport, Kristen M.; Schryver, Jack C.

    2010-04-01

    Recent events highlight the need for efficient tools for anticipating the threat posed by terrorists, whether individual or groups. Antiterrorism includes fostering awareness of potential threats, deterring aggressors, developing security measures, planning for future events, halting an event in process, and ultimately mitigating and managing the consequences of an event. To analyze such components, one must understand various aspects of threat elements like physical assets and their economic and social impacts. To this aim, we developed a three-layer Bayesian belief network (BBN) model that takes into consideration the relative threat of an attack against a particular asset (physical layer) as well as the individual psychology and motivations that would induce a person to either act alone or join a terrorist group and commit terrorist acts (social and economic layers). After researching the many possible motivations to become a terrorist, the main factors are compiled and sorted into categories such as initial and personal indicators, exclusion factors, and predictive behaviors. Assessing such threats requires combining information from disparate data sources most of which involve uncertainties. BBN combines these data in a coherent, analytically defensible, and understandable manner. The developed BBN model takes into consideration the likelihood and consequence of a threat in order to draw inferences about the risk of a terrorist attack so that mitigation efforts can be optimally deployed. The model is constructed using a network engineering process that treats the probability distributions of all the BBN nodes within the broader context of the system development process.

  9. The game-theoretic national interstate economic model : an integrated framework to quantify the economic impacts of cyber-terrorist behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This study suggests an integrated framework to quantify cyber attack impacts on the U.S. airport security system. A cyber attack by terrorists on the U.S. involves complex : strategic behavior by the terrorists because they could plan to invade an ai...

  10. Television Journalism During Terror Attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    This article views television news coverage of ongoing terrorist attacks and their immediate aftermath as a special genre within journalism, and describes norms connected with the genre. The description is based on qualitative analyses of the coverage on the major American networks in the fi rst 24...

  11. Television journalism during terror attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    2008-01-01

    This article views television news coverage of ongoing terrorist attacks and their immediate aftermath as a special genre within journalism, and describes norms connected with the genre. The description is based on qualitative analyses of the coverage on major American networks the first 24 hours...

  12. The meaning of collective terrorist threat: understanding the subjective causes of terrorism reduces its negative psychological impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Peter; Postmes, Tom; Koeppl, Julia; Conway, Lianne; Fredriksson, Tom

    2011-05-01

    This article hypothesized that the possibility to construct intellectual meaning of a terrorist attack (i.e., whether participants can cognitively understand why the perpetrators did their crime) reduces the negative psychological consequences typically associated with increased terrorist threat. Concretely, the authors investigated the effect of intellectual meaning (induced by providing additional information about potential economic, cultural, and historical reasons for the terrorist attack) on perceived terrorist threat and associated emotional well-being. Study 1 revealed that pictures of terrorist attacks elicited less experienced terrorist threat when they were presented with background information about the terrorists' motives (meaning provided) rather than without additional background information (no meaning provided). Study 2 replicated this effect with a different manipulation of terrorist threat (i.e., newspaper article) and clarified the underlying psychological process: Participants in the high terror salience condition with meaning provided experienced less terrorist threat and thus more emotional well-being in the face of crisis than participants in the high terror salience condition without meaning provided. Theoretical and practical implications in the context of psychological health and mass media effects are discussed.

  13. The Meaning of Collective Terrorist Threat: Understanding the Subjective Causes of Terrorism Reduces Its Negative Psychological Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Peter; Postmes, Tom; Koeppl, Julia; Conway, Lianne; Fredriksson, Tom

    2011-01-01

    This article hypothesized that the possibility to construct intellectual meaning of a terrorist attack (i.e., whether participants can cognitively understand why the perpetrators did their crime) reduces the negative psychological consequences typically associated with increased terrorist threat. Concretely, the authors investigated the effect of…

  14. Distance hijacking attacks on distance bounding protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Cremers, Cas; Rasmussen, Kasper Bonne; Čapkun, Srdjan

    2011-01-01

    Distance bounding protocols are typically analyzed with respect to three types of attacks: Distance Fraud, Mafia Fraud, and Terrorist Fraud. We define and analyze a fourth main type of attack on distance bounding protocols, called Distance Hijacking. We show that many proposed distance bounding protocols are vulnerable to this type of attack, and we propose solutions to make these protocols resilient to Distance Hijacking. We further show that verifying distance bounding protocols using exist...

  15. A Geographic Information Science (GISc) Approach to Characterizing Spatiotemporal Patterns of Terrorist Incidents in Iraq, 2004-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, Richard M [ORNL; Siebeneck, Laura K. [University of Utah; Hepner, George F. [University of Utah

    2011-01-01

    As terrorism on all scales continues, it is necessary to improve understanding of terrorist and insurgent activities. This article takes a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) approach to advance the understanding of spatial, social, political, and cultural triggers that influence terrorism incidents. Spatial, temporal, and spatiotemporal patterns of terrorist attacks are examined to improve knowledge about terrorist systems of training, planning, and actions. The results of this study aim to provide a foundation for understanding attack patterns and tactics in emerging havens as well as inform the creation and implementation of various counterterrorism measures.

  16. Forensic Seismology: constraints on terrorist bombings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, T. C.; Koper, K. D.

    2002-05-01

    Seismology has long been used as a tool to monitor and investigate explosions, both accidental and intentional. Seismic records can be used to provide a precise chronology of events, estimate the energy release in explosions and produce constraints to test various scenarios for the explosions. Truck bombs are a popular tool of terrorists, and at least two such attacks have been recorded seismically. On August 7, 1998 a truck bomb was detonated near the US embassy in Nairobi, Kenya. The bomb seriously damaging a dozen buildings, injuring more than 4000 people and causing 220 fatalities. The explosion was recorded on a short-period seismometer located north of the blast site; the blast seismogram contained body waves, Rayleigh waves and vibrations associated with the air blast. Modeling of the body and surfaces wave allowed an estimate of the origin time of the bombing, which it turn could be used as a constraint the timing of the air blasts. The speed of the air waves from an explosion depend on the air temperature and the size, or yield, of the explosion. In an effort to fully utilize the seismic recordings from such attacks, we analyzed the seismic records from a series of controlled truck bomb explosions carried out at White Sand Missile Range in New Mexico. We developed a new set of scaling laws that relate seismic and acoustic observations directly to the explosive mass (yield). These relationships give a yield of approximately 3000 kg of TNT equivalent for the Nairobi bomb. The terrorist bombing of the Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City in 1995 was also recorded on seismometers. One of these records showed 2 discrete surface wavetrains separated by approximately 10 seconds. Some groups seized on the seismic recordings as evidence that there were 2 explosions, and that the US government was actually behind the bombing. However, the USGS monitored the demolition of the remainder of the Murrah Building and showed that the collapse also produced 2 surface

  17. Knowledge and Attitude of Iranian Red Crescent Society Volunteers in Dealing with Chemical Attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadjafi, Maryam; Hamzeh Pour, Siavash

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and preparedness of Mahabad Red Crescent Society volunteers in dealing with chemical attacks. This prospective cross-sectional study was conducted on 120 Red Crescent Society volunteers in Mahabad City, Iran, during 2014-2015.The knowledge of the volunteers was evaluated and rated using a questionnaire as poor, moderate, and good. Also, the attitude of the volunteers towards the chemical attacks and their preparedness were rated as appropriate and inappropriate using a questionnaire. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software version 21. From a total of 120 volunteers, 62.5% were males. The mean age of the volunteers was 32.0 ± 8.2 years. None of the volunteers had adequate knowledge regarding management of the consequences of chemical terrorist attacks. Only 10 volunteers (8.3%) had appropriate attitude and 7 (5.8%) stated their preparedness for being sent to the crisis zone. Also, 116 volunteers (96.7%) declared that Mahabad Red Crescent Society has an inappropriate level of preparedness to encounter chemical terrorism attacks and release of chemical agents related to petrochemical industrial chlorine resources into the water and wastewater. The findings of the present study show poor knowledge and inappropriate attitude of Mahabad Red Crescent Society volunteers, and rescuers in encountering probable chemical attacks and industrial accidents. Furthermore, the Red Crescent Society had an inappropriate level of preparedness in the field of chemical terrorism from the viewpoint of the studied volunteers.

  18. The Need for Situational Awareness in a CBRNE Attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Nelms

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Six years before the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, and eight years before the United States went to war with Saddam Hussein for his alleged concealment of chemical and biological weapons caches, Japan's Tokyo subway was struck by one of the most vicious terror attacks in modern history.  The 1995 Sarin terrorist attack represents an important case study for post-9/11 emergency managers because it highlights the key issues first responders and public health officials face when confronted with a CBRNE ('C'hemical, 'B'iological, 'R'adiological, 'N'uclear, 'E'xplosive mass-casualty attack.

  19. Security awareness for public bus transportation : case studies of attacks against the Israeli public bus system [research brief].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Government regulators and transportation operators of public bus systems are concerned about terrorist attacks. Bus attacks in Israel between late September 2000 and the end of 2006, a period known as the Second Intifada, are particularly well known....

  20. Reducing the Vulnerability of Electric Power Grids to Terrorist Attacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross Baldick; Thekla Boutsika; Jin Hur; Manho Joung; Yin Wu; Minqi Zhong

    2009-01-31

    This report describes the development of a cascading outage analyzer that, given an initial disturbance on an electric power system, checks for thermal overloads, under-frequency and over-frequency conditions, and under-voltage conditions that would result in removal of elements from the system. The analyzer simulates the successive tripping of elements due to protective actions until a post-event steady state or a system blackout is reached.

  1. Are We Doing Enough to Prevent a Nuclear Terrorist Attack?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    designed to manage and secure, as well as combat the smuggling of nuclear materials. Many of the programs have matured into multi-lateral and...natural and manmade sources of radiation, such as cat litter, bananas , or granite that may trigger the detector. Once a radioactive source is located

  2. Enhancing U.S. Defenses Against Terrorist Air Attacks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    .... Air Force, law enforcement authorities, the Federal Aviation Administration, airport security personnel, and many other agencies share responsibility for closing gaps in our national air defenses...

  3. Exploring First Responder Tactics in a Terrorist Chemical Attack

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Foo, Kong Pin G

    2008-01-01

    The use of agent-based simulation (ABS) allows government emergency planners to analyze urban counterterrorist operations and observe environmental behaviors that may not obviously demonstrate themselves in live simulation...

  4. Exploring First Responder Tactics in a Terrorist Chemical Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Singapore Police Force SAF Singapore Armed Forces TATP Tri-acetone Tri-peroxide TOPOFF Top Official, US TRAC United States Army Training and...for two cases. (1) Man-Portable Device. A 7-8.5 kg device, with a primary payload made of TNT/RDX or tri-acetone-tri-peroxide ( TATP ) is...selected for this device. TATP can be homemade, has a high detonation velocity, and has a 0.83 relative effectiveness factor, compared to TNT; i.e

  5. Terrorist Approach to Information Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-01

    government leaders by terrorizing their populace. Albert Bandera suggests “terrorists try to exercise influence over targeted officials or nations...information about prisoners held in Pakistan and Guantanamo Bay , and jihad poetry” (p. 7). 83 A well known example of al Qa’ida auto propaganda

  6. Disrupting Threat Finances: Utilization of Financial Information to Disrupt Terrorist Organization in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    Patrick D., Captain, and Colonel Michael J. Meese. The Financial Front in the Global War on Terrorism. Edited by R. D. Howard and R. L. Sawyer. Westpoint...Laundering: The Scope of the Problem and Attempts to Combat It.” Tennessee Law Review, 1995. Suskind, Ron . The One Percent Doctrine. New York, NY...prosecuting those responsible for terrorist acts; (5) responding to WMD attacks; (6) managing kidnapping for ransom crimes; and (7) responding to terrorist

  7. Computer Attack and Cyber Terrorism: Vulnerabilities and Policy Issues for Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, Clay

    2003-01-01

    Persistent computer security vulnerabilities may expose U.S. critical infrastructure and government computer systems to possible cyber attack by terrorists, possibly affecting the economy or other areas of national security...

  8. Heart Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Each year almost 800,000 Americans have a heart attack. A heart attack happens when blood flow to the heart suddenly ... it's important to know the symptoms of a heart attack and call 9-1-1 if you or ...

  9. Computational social network modeling of terrorist recruitment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, Nina M.; Turnley, Jessica Glicken (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Smrcka, Julianne D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Ko, Teresa H.; Moy, Timothy David (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Wu, Benjamin C.

    2004-10-01

    The Seldon terrorist model represents a multi-disciplinary approach to developing organization software for the study of terrorist recruitment and group formation. The need to incorporate aspects of social science added a significant contribution to the vision of the resulting Seldon toolkit. The unique addition of and abstract agent category provided a means for capturing social concepts like cliques, mosque, etc. in a manner that represents their social conceptualization and not simply as a physical or economical institution. This paper provides an overview of the Seldon terrorist model developed to study the formation of cliques, which are used as the major recruitment entity for terrorist organizations.

  10. Computing Optimal Mixed Strategies for Terrorist Plot Detection Games with the Consideration of Information Leakage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li MingChu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The terrorist’s coordinated attack is becoming an increasing threat to western countries. By monitoring potential terrorists, security agencies are able to detect and destroy terrorist plots at their planning stage. Therefore, an optimal monitoring strategy for the domestic security agency becomes necessary. However, previous study about monitoring strategy generation fails to consider the information leakage, due to hackers and insider threat. Such leakage events may lead to failure of watching potential terrorists and destroying the plot, and cause a huge risk to public security. This paper makes two major contributions. Firstly, we develop a new Stackelberg game model for the security agency to generate optimal monitoring strategy with the consideration of information leakage. Secondly, we provide a double-oracle framework DO-TPDIL for calculation effectively. The experimental result shows that our approach can obtain robust strategies against information leakage with high feasibility and efficiency.

  11. RFID Distance Bounding Protocol with Mixed Challenges to Prevent Relay Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chong Hee; Avoine, Gildas

    RFID systems suffer from different location-based attacks such as distance fraud, mafia fraud and terrorist fraud attacks. Among them mafia fraud attack is the most serious since this attack can be mounted without the notice of both the reader and the tag. An adversary performs a kind of man-in-the-middle attack between the reader and the tag. It is very difficult to prevent this attack since the adversary does not change any data between the reader and the tag. Recently distance bounding protocols measuring the round-trip time between the reader and the tag have been researched to prevent this attack.

  12. Definition of Terrorist Act under Eth Law

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wondwossen_D_K

    Abstract. While regional and international human rights institutions claim that the definition of a terrorist act under the Anti-terrorism Proclamation No. 652/2009 is overly broad as a result of which citizens not involved in a genuinely terrorist act are prosecuted and jailed, the Ethiopian government defends the law pointing ...

  13. Dutch politicians' coping with terrorist threat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijdam, Mirjam J.; Gersons, Berthold P. R.; Olff, Miranda

    2010-01-01

    The psychosocial effects of terrorist threat and close protection have never been studied systematically in political leaders. We conducted a study among 12 Dutch politicians and their partners who were living under terrorist threat and close protection in the aftermath of two political murders.

  14. Attack surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gruschka, Nils; Jensen, Meiko

    2010-01-01

    The new paradigm of cloud computing poses severe security risks to its adopters. In order to cope with these risks, appropriate taxonomies and classification criteria for attacks on cloud computing are required. In this work-in-progress paper we present one such taxonomy based on the notion...... of attack surfaces of the cloud computing scenario participants....

  15. A Review of Sources on Terrorist Financing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamet ALIU

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism financing is one of the most complex problems the democratic world is facing today. The transfer of funds to support terrorist activities has created enormous challenges across the world. This has fuelled several inter-religious and nationalist hate, and as such has put many nations into war with terrorist organisations. The main objective of this study is to review the sources of terrorist financing. The paper relies on secondary data that were drawn from various books, journals, as well as from institutional materials relevant to the issues raised. It concludes that terrorists are exploiting established financial systems at the global level to move their finances, and that informal systems remain the biggest challenge to thwart terrorist activities.

  16. Analytical technique to address terrorist threats by chemical weapons of mass destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Patrick M.

    1997-01-01

    Terrorism is no longer an issue without effect on the American mind. We now live with the same concerns and fears that have been commonplace in other developed and third world countries for a long time. Citizens of other countries have long lived with the specter of terrorism and now the U.S. needs to be concerned and prepared for terrorist activities.T he terrorist has the ability to cause great destructive effects by focusing their effort on unaware and unprepared civilian populations. Attacks can range from simple explosives to sophisticated nuclear, chemical and biological weapons. Intentional chemical releases of hazardous chemicals or chemical warfare agents pose a great threat because of their ready availability and/or ease of production, and their ability to cause widespread damage. As this battlefront changes from defined conflicts and enemies to unnamed terrorists, we must implement the proper analytical tools to provide a fast and efficient response. Each chemical uses in a terrorists weapon leaves behind a chemical signature that can be used to identify the materials involved and possibly lead investigators to the source and to those responsible. New tools to provide fast and accurate detection for battlefield chemical and biological agent attack are emerging. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) is one of these tools that has found increasing use by the military to respond to chemical agent attacks. As the technology becomes smaller and more portable, it can be used by law enforcement personnel to identify suspected terrorist releases and to help prepare the response; define contaminated areas for evacuation and safety concerns, identify the proper treatment of exposed or affected civilians, and suggest decontamination and cleanup procedures.

  17. The Nation That Cried Lone Wolf: A Data-Driven Analysis of Individual Terrorists in the United States Since 9/11

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Kitchen of Your Mom” in the Inspire online magazine. Inspire magazine is an important terrorist device because it can be accessed in the United States...terrorist messages and ideals. 24. October 2007—Unknown Two hand grenades that had been fashioned into pipe bombs were thrown outside the Mexican ...City was hit with an improvised explosive on March 6, 2008. The blast was similar to the October 80 2007 attack on the Mexican Consulate and the

  18. A generative model for predicting terrorist incidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Dinesh C.; Verma, Archit; Felmlee, Diane; Pearson, Gavin; Whitaker, Roger

    2017-05-01

    A major concern in coalition peace-support operations is the incidence of terrorist activity. In this paper, we propose a generative model for the occurrence of the terrorist incidents, and illustrate that an increase in diversity, as measured by the number of different social groups to which that an individual belongs, is inversely correlated with the likelihood of a terrorist incident in the society. A generative model is one that can predict the likelihood of events in new contexts, as opposed to statistical models which are used to predict the future incidents based on the history of the incidents in an existing context. Generative models can be useful in planning for persistent Information Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) since they allow an estimation of regions in the theater of operation where terrorist incidents may arise, and thus can be used to better allocate the assignment and deployment of ISR assets. In this paper, we present a taxonomy of terrorist incidents, identify factors related to occurrence of terrorist incidents, and provide a mathematical analysis calculating the likelihood of occurrence of terrorist incidents in three common real-life scenarios arising in peace-keeping operations

  19. Heart Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pain Fatigue Heart attack Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  20. Heart attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heart attack. A stent is a small, metal mesh tube that opens up (expands) inside a coronary ... e228. PMID: 25260718 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25260718 . Anderson JL. ST segment elevation acute myocardial ...

  1. How would you handle a terrorist act involving weapons of mass destruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-01

    The American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP), the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations, and the American Medical Association are focusing on preparation for terrorist attacks using weapons of mass destruction, which include nuclear, chemical, or biologic agents. A nuclear or chemical terrorism incident combines the problem of treating mass casualties with that of decontaminating patients. Joint Commission surveyors are asking about domestic terrorism preparedness. ACEP will offer a training course within 18 months for physicians, nurses, and paramedics.

  2. Austria and the Threats from Islamist Radicalisation and Terrorist Involvement: An Overview of Governmental and Non-Governmental Initiatives and Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Götsch

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Unlike other European countries, Austria has so far been spared from terrorist attacks in the context of radical Islamism. However, the perceived threat, several criminal cases of terrorist involvement as well as being indirectly affected by attacks in other countries led to a high level of public and governmental attention to the issues of radicalisation, terrorist involvement and deradicalisation in Austria. Due to strong public pressure and growing recognition of the existing problem and hazard areas by governmental and non-governmental actors, a number of (1 initiatives providing support and counselling in case of radicalisation have been launched (e.g. Extremism Information Centre; DERAD or extended. Furthermore, (2 governmental agencies and political stakeholders have been pushing for enhanced means for the criminal prosecution and conviction of criminal offenses in the context of terrorism. The article presents an overview and review of new and renewed initiatives as well as (planned policy changes countering radicalisation and deradicalisation and terrorist involvement (support of terrorist organisations, membership, plans for terrorist attacks, etc. and thus a summarising insight into the case of Austria.

  3. Schools in the Shadow of Terrorism: Psychosocial Adjustment and Interest in Interventions following Terror Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Erika; Vernberg, Eric M.; Pfefferbaum, Rose L.; Gill, Dodie C.; Schorr, John; Boudreaux, Angela; Gurwitch, Robin H.; Galea, Sandro; Pfefferbaum, Betty

    2010-01-01

    Following terrorist events, teachers and nonteaching school personnel are important in helping children recover, yet little is known about their willingness to assist with this. We surveyed 399 employees from a Washington, D.C.-area school district following terror attacks (September 11, 2001, attacks; sniper shootings) about their exposure,…

  4. The Dynamic Terrorist Threat: An Assessment of Group Motivations and Capabilities in a Changing World

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    reconnaissance, with a team sent to survey, plan, and prepare for the attack with help from local dissi- ______________ 104“El Silencio de las Armas...and “Farc se Movilizan al Sur de Bolívar,” El Tiempo , July 16, 2000. 56 The Dynamic Terrorist Threat often funnel food and shelter to its members and...1998. “Farc se Movilizan al Sur de Bolívar,” El Tiempo , July 16, 2000. Farrell, Nick, “US Fears Nuclear Cyber Terror Attacks,” vnunet.com, June 27

  5. When Do Governments Concede to Terrorists

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    two factors. What is problematic with many of the studies in the literature is that they do not test for this relationship (Abrahms, 2012; Tucker...not make concessions to terrorists. B. WHEN GOVERNMENTS MAKE CONCESSIONS According to relevant literature within the field, governments do make...knowing that the United States did not make concessions to terrorists (Pillar, p. 40). The remaining hostages were later rescued by Peruvian military

  6. About Heart Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More About Heart Attacks Updated:Jan 27,2017 A heart attack is ... coronary artery damage leads to a heart attack . Heart Attack Questions and Answers What is a heart attack? ...

  7. PROSECUTING SOMALIA PIRATES AS TERRORISTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ODHIAMBO E.O.S., ONKWARE K., KASSILLY J., NTABO O. M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article starts from the assumption that piracy resembles terrorism in many aspects and attempts to support it through both a theoretical investigation and practical examples. The argument it makes is that Somali pirates should be prosecuted as terrorists. Moreover, it emphasizes the idea that for Somalia’s neighboring countries and not only the implementation of such an approach consists in resorting to the antiterrorist conventions already in place. Thus, for example, Kenya Navy as a piracyfi ghting agency should rely on these conventions to justify the capture and prosecution of pirates in Kenyan courts. In this respect, we emphasize the idea that only by resorting to an established international legal framework can Kenya identify the tools to counter pirates’ actions within legal limits. Moreover, this should be paralleled by efforts towards rebuilding Somalia and its institutions if long-term solutions are to be envisaged in the eradication of piracy in the Indian Ocean. In conclusion, the article looks at the concepts of piracy, terrorism and development in the Horn of Africa, suggests that piracy is a form of Terrorism and, makes a series of recommendations.

  8. Terrorist Application of Operational Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-02-04

    posted on the Cannabis News website.20 Other adversaries will no doubt exploit U.S. vulnerabilities as well, necessitating a greater outlay of...accidental bombing of the Chinese embassy in Belgrade in May 1999, and Iraqi SCUD missile attacks on Israel during the Gulf War.28 Normally space works to a...define his adversary’s center of gravity; he must cultivate and protect his own while minimizing his vulnerabilities. At the operational level of war

  9. Cyber Attacks and Terrorism: A Twenty-First Century Conundrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albahar, Marwan

    2017-01-05

    In the recent years, an alarming rise in the incidence of cyber attacks has made cyber security a major concern for nations across the globe. Given the current volatile socio-political environment and the massive increase in the incidence of terrorism, it is imperative that government agencies rapidly realize the possibility of cyber space exploitation by terrorist organizations and state players to disrupt the normal way of life. The threat level of cyber terrorism has never been as high as it is today, and this has created a lot of insecurity and fear. This study has focused on different aspects of cyber attacks and explored the reasons behind their increasing popularity among the terrorist organizations and state players. This study proposes an empirical model that can be used to estimate the risk levels associated with different types of cyber attacks and thereby provide a road map to conceptualize and formulate highly effective counter measures and cyber security policies.

  10. In Their Own Words? Methodological Considerations in the Analysis of Terrorist Autobiographies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Beth Altier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the growth of terrorism literature in the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks, there remain several methodological challenges to studying certain aspects of terrorism. This is perhaps most evident in attempts to uncover the attitudes, motivations, and intentions of individuals engaged in violent extremism and how they are sometimes expressed in problematic behavior. Such challenges invariably stem from the fact that terrorists and the organizations to which they belong represent clandestine populations engaged in illegal activity. Unsurprisingly, these qualities make it difficult for the researcher to identify and locate willing subjects of study—let alone a representative sample. In this research note, we suggest the systematic analysis of terrorist autobiographies offers a promising means of investigating difficult-to-study areas of terrorism-related phenomena. Investigation of autobiographical accounts not only offers additional data points for the study of individual psychological issues, but also provides valuable perspectives on the internal structures, processes, and dynamics of terrorist organizations more broadly. Moreover, given most autobiographies cover critical events and personal experiences across the life course, they provide a unique lens into how terrorists perceive their world and insight into their decision-making processes. We support our advocacy of this approach by highlighting its methodological strengths and shortcomings.

  11. Stress-related changes in toddlers and their mothers following the attack of September 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Anne; McDonough, Susan C; MacKenzie, Michael J; Follett, Chantal; Sameroff, Arnold

    2013-10-01

    Unlike other forms of disaster, terrorism is not confined to a particular place or time, and recent evidence indicates that the 9/11 terrorist attack was a significant macrolevel stressor affecting the health and mental health of United States citizens. No studies, however, have reported symptoms in toddlers and their mothers both before and after the attacks. To address this gap, we examined the effects of the 9/11 terrorist attacks on mothers and their 33-month-old toddlers. The attacks occurred during data collection at 33 months of a longitudinal study. Thirty-three-month-old toddlers and mothers who were assessed after the attacks were compared with those assessed before the attacks. When changes were examined from a previous wave of data collected at 15 months, those in the after-attack group showed poorer health, lower child acceptance, and marginally more anxiety, and their toddlers cried more and slept less, whereas the before-attack group showed no changes. Our findings contribute to research documenting widespread effects of the 9/11 terrorist attack on stress-related symptoms and suggest that greater attention must be placed on the needs of our youngest citizens and their caregivers. © 2013 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  12. European Airlines' TFP and the 2001 Attack: Towards Safety in a Risk Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelides, Panayotis; Theologou, Kostas; Vouldis, Angelos

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze in terms of security the complexity of European Air Transport after the 2001 terrorist attack, taking into account Total Factor Productivity (T.F.P.) change. Our approach regards European Air Transport as a complex system of airplanes, airports and control. The investigation is based on recent data from the Amadeus database for the largest European (EU-27) air transportation companies (1997-2005). The paper employs the Cobb-Douglas specification of the production function and, in this context, tests the hypothesis that the 2001 terrorist attack had a significant influence on the performance of the EU-27 air transportation companies. An interesting finding is that except for some companies that were negatively influenced, several others were positively influenced by the 2001 terrorist attack. The technological level of the companies included in our dataset remained almost unchanged. The empirical findings are discussed and some suggestions are made regarding policy issues.

  13. Immigration: Terrorist Grounds for Exclusion and Removal of Aliens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garcia, Michael J; Wasem, Ruth E

    2007-01-01

    ...., legal permanent residents) or temporarily as nonimmigrants. Notably, any alien who engages in terrorist activity, or is a representative or member of a designated foreign terrorist organization, is generally inadmissible...

  14. Immigration: Terrorist Grounds for Exclusion and Removal Aliens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garcia, Michael J; Wasem, Ruth E

    2008-01-01

    ...., legal permanent residents) or temporarily as nonimmigrants. Notably, any alien who engages in terrorist activity, or is a representative or member of a designated foreign terrorist organization, is generally inadmissible...

  15. Wastewater Outfalls

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Outfalls which discharge wastewater from wastewater treatment facilities with individual NPDES permits. It does not include NPDES general permits.

  16. Precipitating the decline of terrorist groups : a systems analysis

    OpenAIRE

    DeGhetto, Todd H.

    1994-01-01

    This thesis shows how a government actor can use systems theory to hasten the decline of a terrorist group. Tle author assumes terrorist groups are social organizations, therefore terrorist groups come to value organizational survival over ideological or programmatic achievements. The same determinants that cause social organizations to decline will cause terrorist organizations to decline. Using systems theory to model terrorism as a system, it is possible to show how to influence these dete...

  17. Combined Heuristic Attack Strategy on Complex Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Šimon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Usually, the existence of a complex network is considered an advantage feature and efforts are made to increase its robustness against an attack. However, there exist also harmful and/or malicious networks, from social ones like spreading hoax, corruption, phishing, extremist ideology, and terrorist support up to computer networks spreading computer viruses or DDoS attack software or even biological networks of carriers or transport centers spreading disease among the population. New attack strategy can be therefore used against malicious networks, as well as in a worst-case scenario test for robustness of a useful network. A common measure of robustness of networks is their disintegration level after removal of a fraction of nodes. This robustness can be calculated as a ratio of the number of nodes of the greatest remaining network component against the number of nodes in the original network. Our paper presents a combination of heuristics optimized for an attack on a complex network to achieve its greatest disintegration. Nodes are deleted sequentially based on a heuristic criterion. Efficiency of classical attack approaches is compared to the proposed approach on Barabási-Albert, scale-free with tunable power-law exponent, and Erdős-Rényi models of complex networks and on real-world networks. Our attack strategy results in a faster disintegration, which is counterbalanced by its slightly increased computational demands.

  18. Dutch Suspects of Terrorist Activity: A Study of Their Biographical Backgrounds Based on Primary Sources.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten van Leyenhorst

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available With the impending defeat of ISIS in Syria and Iraq, supporters of terrorist groups, among them home-grown supporters and returning foreign fighters, have become a huge security threat to their country of return. Some have committed attacks in western countries, even while under the surveillance of authorities. Counter-terrorism is confronted with enormous challenges. One of the most prominent issues is the absence of evidence based knowledge on early warning signs. Experts on radicalization and terrorism have emphasized that neither typologies of terrorists nor accurate descriptions of generalizable risks can be made. This leads to opportunities for those who are willing to prepare and commit acts of terrorism to do so, without the agencies in charge of monitoring such individuals being able to accurately identify relevant threats. An additional deficiency in counter-terrorism research, is its dependency on historic and secondary source material. One of various actors in the Netherlands tasked to evaluate and mitigate relevant risks of terrorist suspects and offenders, is the Dutch Probation Service (DPS. In response to today’s prevailing terrorist threat, a specialized section of the DPS is set up to identify and supervise potential problem behaviour of those who are suspected or convicted of terrorism. The authors have been involved in this Unit Terrorism, Extremism and Radicalization (TER for years. As professionals of TER, the authors have had unique access to both judicial data, such as police files and prosecutor’s data, as to experts in the Dutch field of counter-terrorism. The authors have analysed the pre-sentencing advices of twenty-six clients of the DPS. These files are comprised of several socio-economic, historical, psychopathological and behavioural indicators. The goals are to learn from the analysis of the biographical backgrounds of the suspects and to stimulate the debate on management and supervision of terrorist

  19. Terror i tvillingtårnene – dystopi og ironi? 9/11 i Darlah og En terrorist i senga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lersbryggen Mørk, Kjersti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Terror in the Twin Towers – dystopia and irony? 9/11 in Darlah and En terrorist i senga. Through globalization of our media society, children as well as adults are endlessly exposed to information and images from all over the world. In Norway, signs of the terrorist attack on the Twin Towers in USA on September 11th 2001 are now to be found in literature for children and young adults. With globalization theory and post-colonial theory I will examine how two novels present global challenges in general and 9/11 in particular. What does globalization mean for the construction of identity? Who are “we”, and who are “the others”? The novel for young adults, Darlah – 172 timer på månen [Darlah – 172 hours on the moon] (2008 by Johan Harstad, is a dystopia where 9/11 points forward to a full scale catastrophe for humanity. En terrorist i senga [There's a terrorist in my bed] (2008, a novel for children by Endre Lund Eriksen, makes explicit references to 9/11 – but with playfulness and ironic revelation of xenophobia. Both books use aliens from outer space as “the other”, but where Darlah presents a pessimistic view of our global future, En terrorist i senga is optimistic on behalf of the humankind.

  20. Simulation of a terrorist attack with intent to a source of Iridium-192 and Radium Sulphate-226: procedures for radiation emergency actions; Simulacao de uma intencao de atentado terrorista com uma fonte de Iridio-192 e Sulfato de Radio-226: procedimentos para acoes de emergencia radiologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, Bruno Dias de

    2013-07-01

    The accomplishment of major public events comprises a previous radiological safety planning network, since both public safety and safeguards criteria are based upon risk factors, to which individuals and even the environment may be exposed to, moreover in radiological, nuclear and/or terrorist threats. Therefore, a preventive and extensive local radiological survey must be performed, aiming the detection of unexpected radioactive material, being it a sealed or unsealed source or even in the dispersed form. Once confirmed its presence, protective actions must be started up, with monitoring and restraint of the source/material, followed by dose and dose rate assessment in environment, as well as contamination in air and in surfaces in general. As a consequence, such measures must be carried out at once, according to specific protocols adopted by the responding team, as soon as the incident is confirmed. Aiming a better qualification in the attendance of major events, a simulated scenario is proposed in this study, comprising an incident with the malicious presence of a radioactive source in the Mario Filho Stadium (Maracana). (author)

  1. Small to Mid-Size Sporting Events: Are We Prepared to Recover from an Attack?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian M. Harrell

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a fictional deadly attack by a lone-wolf terrorist during a high school football event in a small town, here in the United States. The authors begin by describing an attack and then focus on the response from the medical community, city, county, state, and federal government officials. Next, the authors make several recommendations on what actions are needed to develop an effective plan to combat terrorist activities during a small- to mid-size sports event. Among the actions needed, the authors focus on the following: response planning, emergency action plan, incident command, policies and procedures, and security staff training.

  2. 40 years of terrorist bombings - A meta-analysis of the casualty and injury profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, D S; McMenemy, L; Stapley, S A; Patel, H D L; Clasper, J C

    2016-03-01

    Terrorists have used the explosive device successfully globally, with their effects extending beyond the resulting injuries. Suicide bombings, in particular, are being increasingly deployed due to the devastating effect of a combination of high lethality and target accuracy. The aim of this study was to identify trends and analyse the demographics and casualty figures of terrorist bombings worldwide. Analysis of the Global Terrorism Database (GTD) and a PubMed/Embase literature search (keywords "terrorist", and/or "suicide", and/or "bombing") from 1970 to 2014 was performed. 58,095 terrorist explosions worldwide were identified in the GTD. 5.08% were suicide bombings. Incidents per year are increasing (PEurope (13.2%) ranked 4th. The literature search identified 41 publications reporting 167 incidents of which 3.9% detailed building collapse (BC), 60.8% confined space (CS), 23.5% open space (OS) and 11.8% semi-confined space (SC) attacks. 60.4% reported on suicide terrorist attacks. Overall 32 deaths and 180 injuries per incident were seen, however significantly more deaths occurred in explosions associated with a BC. Comparing OS and CS no difference in the deaths per incident was seen, 14.2(SD±17.828) and 15.63 (SD±10.071) respectively. However OS explosions resulted in significantly more injuries, 192.7 (SD±141.147), compared to CS, 79.20 (SD±59.8). Extremity related wounds were the commonest injuries seen (32%). Terrorist bombings continue to be a threat and are increasing particularly in the Middle East. Initial reports, generated immediately at the scene by experienced coordination, on the type of detonation (suicide versus non-suicide), the environment of detonation (confined, open, building collapse) and the number of fatalities, and utilising the Kill:Wounded ratios found in this meta-analysis, can be used to predict the number of casualties and their likely injury profile of survivors to guide the immediate response by the medical services and the

  3. THE REPRISAL ATTACKS BY AL-SHABAAB AGAINST KENYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O.S.ODHIAMBO

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The incursion of Kenya Defence Forces (KDF into Somalia was met by a series of threats from the Al-Shabaab that it would increase the attacks against Kenya if the troops were not withdrawn. The capture of Kismayu by KDF has weakened the nerve of Al-Shabaab but has not eliminated the imminent danger of a substantive terror attack. Since the incursion by KDF, Kenya has succumbed to a sequence of grenade and Improvised Explosive Devices attacks, roadside bombs, landmines and raids by fighters using small arms and light weapons and Rocket Propelled Grenades against Kenyans mostly in North Eastern, Coastal and Nairobi counties, marking the resurgence of terrorism in the country. We argue that Kenya is more vulnerable to Al-Shabaab terrorists attack than before the KDF incursion by citing the frequencies of reprisal attacks from October 2011 to January 2013. Hence, our troops should be withdrawn and deployed within our boundary.

  4. MARTYRS OR TERRORISTS: SUICIDE BOMBING IN ISLAMIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alfa

    Martyrs or Terrorists: Suicide Bombing in Islamic. Kilani & Suberu. Defining Jihad, Martyrdom and Terrorism. The twin institutions of Jihad and Shahid (martyrdom) had existed in Islam from the nascent period of Islamic history and civilization. The word Jihad is derived from the verbal root Jahada which means struggle.

  5. Supplemental Proceedings of the Annual Symposium on the Role of Behavioral Science in Physical Security (10th) - Outthinking the Terrorist: An International Challenge Held at Springfield, Virginia on 23-24 April 1985,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-24

    more of its citizens through terrorist attacks in Lebanon Europe , which experiences about 40 percent of all interna- alone than it did worldwide through...use of "diplomatic" of same, to create a climate of teror , to publicise a cause, and facilities, weapons supply, and so on. to coerce a wider target...region (e.g., the Irish Republican rorist alliance by extreme leftist groups in Western Army-the IRA-and the Basque and Corsican terrorists). Europe

  6. Risk Due to Radiological Terror Attacks With Natural Radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Steinhäusler; Stan, Rydell; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

    2008-08-01

    The naturally occurring radionuclides radium (Ra-226) and polonium (Po-210) have the potential to be used for criminal acts. Analysis of international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (CSTO), operated at the University of Salzburg, shows that several acts of murder and terrorism with natural radionuclides have already been carried out in Europe and Russia. Five different modes of attack (T) are possible: (1) Covert irradiation of an individual in order to deliver a high individual dose; (2) Covert irradiation of a group of persons delivering a large collective dose; (3) Contamination of food or drink; (4) Generation of radioactive aerosols or solutions; (5) Combination of Ra-226 with conventional explosives (Dirty Bomb). This paper assesses the risk (R) of such criminal acts in terms of: (a) Probability of terrorist motivation deploying a certain attack mode T; (b) Probability of success by the terrorists for the selected attack mode T; (c) Primary damage consequence (C) to the attacked target (activity, dose); (d) Secondary damage consequence (C') to the attacked target (psychological and socio-economic effects); (e) Probability that the consequences (C, C') cannot be brought under control, resulting in a failure to manage successfully the emergency situation due to logistical and/or technical deficits in implementing adequate countermeasures. Extensive computer modelling is used to determine the potential impact of such a criminal attack on directly affected victims and on the environment.

  7. Ancestry Analysis in the 11-M Madrid Bomb Attack Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Christopher; Prieto, Lourdes; Fondevila, Manuel; Salas, Antonio; G?mez-Tato, Antonio; ?lvarez-Dios, Jos?; Alonso, Antonio; Blanco-Verea, Alejandro; Bri?n, Mar?a; Montesino, Marta; Carracedo, ?ngel; Lareu, Mar?a Victoria

    2009-01-01

    The 11-M Madrid commuter train bombings of 2004 constituted the second biggest terrorist attack to occur in Europe after Lockerbie, while the subsequent investigation became the most complex and wide-ranging forensic case in Spain. Standard short tandem repeat (STR) profiling of 600 exhibits left certain key incriminatory samples unmatched to any of the apprehended suspects. A judicial order to perform analyses of unmatched samples to differentiate European and North African ancestry became a...

  8. Countering Al-Shabaab: A Case to Minimize Transnational Terrorist Threats Against Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    terrorists after the death of Al-Qaeda member Nabhan Saleh in 2009, who was among the masterminds of the two U.S. Embassy bombings in Nairobi and Dar es ...National Congress AQAP Al-Qaeda in the Arab Peninsula AQI Al-Qaeda in Iraq ARS Alliance for the Re-liberation of Somalia AU African Union COG... salaam in 1998. See Bill Roggio, “Uganda Attack Carried out by Shabaab Cell Named after Slain Al-Qaeda Leader,” The Long war Journal, July 15, 2010

  9. Dynamical Adaptation in Terrorist Cells/Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Ahmed, Zaki

    2010-01-01

    Typical terrorist cells/networks have dynamical structure as they evolve or adapt to changes which may occur due to capturing or killing of a member of the cell/network. Analytical measures in graph theory like degree centrality, betweenness and closeness centralities are very common and have long...... history of their successful use in revealing the importance of various members of the network. However, modeling of covert, terrorist or criminal networks through social graph dose not really provide the hierarchical structure which exist in these networks as these networks are composed of leaders...... and followers etc. In this research we analyze and predict the most likely role a particular node can adapt once a member of the network is either killed or caught. The adaptation is based on computing Bayes posteriori probability of each node and the level of the said node in the network structure....

  10. Linguistic evaluation of terrorist scenarios: example application.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darby, John L.

    2007-03-01

    In 2005, a group of international decision makers developed a manual process for evaluating terrorist scenarios. That process has been implemented in the approximate reasoning Java software tool, LinguisticBelief, released in FY2007. One purpose of this report is to show the flexibility of the LinguisticBelief tool to automate a custom model developed by others. LinguisticBelief evaluates combinations of linguistic variables using an approximate reasoning rule base. Each variable is comprised of fuzzy sets, and a rule base describes the reasoning on combinations of variables fuzzy sets. Uncertainty is considered and propagated through the rule base using the belief/plausibility measure. This report documents the evaluation and rank-ordering of several example terrorist scenarios for the existing process implemented in our software. LinguisticBelief captures and propagates uncertainty and allows easy development of an expanded, more detailed evaluation, neither of which is feasible using a manual evaluation process. In conclusion, the Linguistic-Belief tool is able to (1) automate an expert-generated reasoning process for the evaluation of the risk of terrorist scenarios, including uncertainty, and (2) quickly evaluate and rank-order scenarios of concern using that process.

  11. Hidden Markov Models for the Activity Profile of Terrorist Groups

    CERN Document Server

    Raghavan, Vasanthan; Tartakovsky, Alexander G

    2012-01-01

    The main focus of this work is on developing models for the activity profile of a terrorist group, detecting sudden spurts and downfalls in this profile, and in general, tracking it over a period of time. Toward this goal, a d-state hidden Markov model (HMM) that captures the latent states underlying the dynamics of the group and thus its activity profile is developed. The simplest setting of d = 2 corresponds to the case where the dynamics are coarsely quantized as Active and Inactive, respectively. Two strategies for spurt detection and tracking are developed here: a model-independent strategy that uses the exponential weighted moving-average (EWMA) filter to track the strength of the group as measured by the number of attacks perpetrated by it, and a state estimation strategy that exploits the underlying HMM structure. The EWMA strategy is robust to modeling uncertainties and errors, and tracks persistent changes (changes that last for a sufficiently long duration) in the strength of the group. On the othe...

  12. Forensic Analysis of Terrorist Counter-Financing to Combat Nuclear Proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drame, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Toler, L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Bachner, Katherine [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The single greatest threat to U.S. homeland security remains the proliferation of nuclear weapons, especially among terrorists and other non-state actors who are not governed by the Non-Proliferation Treaty. One of the most important tools for combating terrorism among such rogue actors is counter-financing. Without funding, terrorists cannot acquire, maintain, or deploy nuclear weapons. According to the official report of the 9/11 Commission, counter-financing could have prevented the attacks of September 11, 2001. Unfortunately, no single country can defeat global terrorism. Successful counter-financing requires significant international cooperation. Since 2001, the United States and the European Union, despite vastly different approaches to intelligence gathering, have shared information through the Terrorist Finance Tracking Program (TFTP). That shared information allows authorities to trace suspicious transactions, identify culprits, and map out global terrorist networks. The TFTP successfully thwarted a 2011 plot to assassinate the Saudi Arabian Ambassador to the U.S. and multiple threats during the 2012 Summer Olympics in London; it also aided in the investigation of the 2013 Boston Marathon bombing. That program is necessary but not sufficient. To strengthen our ability to detect and disrupt terrorist plotting and prevent nuclear proliferation, we must expand and coordinate two additional transnational measures: (1) the Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunications (SWIFT), a standardized global messaging network for financial institutions to quickly, accurately, and securely send and receive money transfer instructions, and (2) International Bank Account Numbers (IBAN) to identify individual accounts involved in international transactions. Both initiatives were incompletely adopted in the wake of 9/11, but most global banks use one or neither. More fully implementing and coordinating these two systems would allow for coherent information

  13. Criminality-oriented terrorist learning: an interactive model

    OpenAIRE

    Eser, Ercan

    2016-01-01

    This thesis, focusing on the reasons beyond immediate terrorist and criminal events, studies ‘how’ and ‘why’ terrorist organizations (TOs) and organized crime groups (OCGs) act, react and evolve. It adopts a ‘criminality oriented approach’ that puts discrete pieces of terrorism under a microscopic examination and explains terrorist learning of criminality: how tacit knowledge required for terror tactics and organized crime is processed and saved in the secret domains of TOs and OCGs and how t...

  14. Detection of Hidden Hostile/Terrorist Groups in Harsh Territories by Using Animals as Mobile Biological Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuncay Ercan

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is the greatest threat to national security and cannot be defeated by conventional military force alone. In critical areas such as Iraq, Afghanistan and Turkey, regular forces cannot reach these hostile/terrorist groups, the instigators of terrorism. These groups have a clear understanding of the relative ineffectiveness of counter-guerrilla operations and rely on guerrilla warfare to avoid major combat as their primary means of continuing the conflict with the governmental structures. In Internal Security Operations, detection of terrorist and hostile groups in their hiding places such as caves, lairs, etc. can only be achieved by professionally trained people such as Special Forces or intelligence units with the necessary experience and tools suitable for collecting accurate information in these often harsh, rugged and mountainous countries. To assist these forces, commercial micro-sensors with wireless interfaces could be utilized to study and monitor a variety of phenomena and environments from a certain distance for military purposes. In order to locate hidden terrorist groups and enable more effective use of conventional military resources, this paper proposes an active remote sensing model implanted into animals capable of living in these environments. By using these mobile sensor devices, improving communications for data transfer from the source, and developing better ways to monitor and detect threats, terrorist ability to carry out attacks can be severely disrupted.

  15. Will it Ever be Possible to Profile the Terrorist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A Rae

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available 'This paper critiques the claim that terrorists can be profiled – that is to say that terrorists possess distinguishable attributes that can be conceivably identified by an observer. In doing so, the most prominent profiling parameters - racial, gender, age, pathological, psychological and socioeconomic – are investigated. The above approaches are found to have little to no applied value in identifying terrorists from a societal population. The dominant criticisms of these methods emphasise their crude reductionism, an absence of internal and external validity, and their lack of practical application. Current evidence indicates that the profiling of terrorists is a futile venture.'

  16. Mining emotional profiles using e-mail messages for earlier warnings of potential terrorist activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galitsky, Boris; Kovalerchuk, Boris

    2006-04-01

    We develop a software system Text Scanner for Emotional Distress (TSED) for helping to detect email messages which are suspicious of coming from people under strong emotional distress. It has been confirmed by multiple studies that terrorist attackers have experienced a substantial emotional distress at some points before committing a terrorist attack. Therefore, if an individual in emotional distress can be detected on the basis of email texts, some preventive measures can be taken. The proposed detection machinery is based on extraction and classification of emotional profiles from emails. An emotional profile is a formal representation of a sequence of emotional states through a textual discourse where communicative actions are attached to these emotional states. The issues of extraction of emotional profiles from text and reasoning about it are discussed and illustrated. We then develop an inductive machine learning and reasoning framework to relate an emotional profile to the class "Emotional distress" or "No emotional distress", given a training dataset where the class is assigned by an expert. TSED's machine learning is evaluated using the database of structured customer complaints.

  17. Characteristics of Lone-Wolf Violent Offenders: a Comparison of Assassins and School Attackers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark McCauley

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on the idea that lone-wolf terrorists may have characteristics in common with two other types of lone-actor violent offenders:  assassins and school attackers.  We used data from U.S. Government-sponsored reports to compare the characteristics of these two groups.  Despite obvious demographic differences, results indicate four characteristics common for both school attackers and assassins: perceived grievance, depression, a personal crisis (‘unfreezing’, and history of weapons use outside the military.  These characteristics may be useful in distinguishing lone-wolfs from group-based terrorists.

  18. Systems Approach to Terrorism: Countering the Terrorist Training Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    No 20843 vol. 30, 12 April 1991, cited in Beril Dedeoglu, “ Bermuda Triangle : Comparing Official Definitions of Terrorist Activity,” Terrorism and...30, 12 April 1991, cited in Beril Dedeoglu, “ Bermuda Triangle : Comparing Official Definitions of Terrorist Activity,” Terrorism and Political

  19. Transition from Terrorist Event Management to Consequence Management, Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-31

    simulations, exercises and games designed to ,rl 𔃺)e terrorist consequence management is developed.’ The seven tasks, w.t, Ts 2 and 5 deemed to be the rost ...should, and is expected to, provide leadership in this regard. There exists a variety of experience and planning for responding to terrorist events. The

  20. National Intelligence Estimate: The Terrorist Threat to the US Homeland

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    .... Among the key judgments in this NIE are the following: the U.S. Homeland will face a persistent and evolving terrorist threat over the next 3 years, with the main threat coming from Islamic terrorist groups and cells, especially al-Qa'ida...

  1. Who sets the Agenda: The Author or the Terrorist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Leif

    2012-01-01

    Definitions of terrorism. Terorism in the 1980s, i.e. taking hostages and exploding bombs outside the US. UNA-bomber and Oklahoma bomber. Relations between author and terrorist in and outside USA before 9/11. Relations between terrorist and press. President Bush's rhetoric and various reactions...

  2. Agent Based Modeling on Organizational Dynamics of Terrorist Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Modeling organizational dynamics of terrorist network is a critical issue in computational analysis of terrorism research. The first step for effective counterterrorism and strategic intervention is to investigate how the terrorists operate with the relational network and what affects the performance. In this paper, we investigate the organizational dynamics by employing a computational experimentation methodology. The hierarchical cellular network model and the organizational dynamics model are developed for modeling the hybrid relational structure and complex operational processes, respectively. To intuitively elucidate this method, the agent based modeling is used to simulate the terrorist network and test the performance in diverse scenarios. Based on the experimental results, we show how the changes of operational environments affect the development of terrorist organization in terms of its recovery and capacity to perform future tasks. The potential strategies are also discussed, which can be used to restrain the activities of terrorists.

  3. Terrorist Threats in the Basque Country: its Impact on the Psychosocial Sphere of Victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Martín-Peña

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The ceasefire of armed activities announced by ETA (Basque Homeland and Freedom in 2011 has fostered a debate about the violence and the victims of the terrorist organization. During those years, the violence perpetrated by ETA was characterized by bomb attacks and assassinations. In addition to this blatant violent behavior, a low-intensity violence was also taking place in the Basque Country, consisting of terrorist threats against their targets. There is, however, a lack of evidence-based research into this phenomenon. This investigation studies the impact of terrorist threats on the psychosocial functioning of people threatened by ETA in the Basque Country. Seventy-six people targeted by ETA completed self-reported survey. Terrorist threats and their derived psychosocial consequences were assessed by this way. The findings point out a relationship between terrorist threats and their psychosocial effects, which greatly affected the immediate environment of the targets too. The implications of these findings are discussed. El cese de la actividad armada anunciado por ETA (Euskadi ta Askatasuna – Euskadi y Libertad en 2011 ha promovido un debate sobre la violencia y las víctimas de la organización terrorista. Durante esos años, la violencia perpetrada por ETA se caracterizó por ataques con bombas y asesinatos. Además de este comportamiento claramente violento, en el País Vasco también se estaba produciendo una violencia de baja intensidad, consistente en amenazas terroristas contra sus objetivos. Sin embargo, no hay una investigación basada en la evidencia sobre este fenómeno. Esta investigación estudia el impacto de las amenazas terroristas en el funcionamiento psicosocial de las personas amenazadas por ETA en el País Vasco. Setenta y seis personas amenazadas por ETA completaron una encuesta de autoevaluación. Se evaluaron de esta forma las amenazas terroristas y sus consecuencias psicosociales derivadas. Los resultados indicaron

  4. `Googling' Terrorists: Are Northern Irish Terrorists Visible on Internet Search Engines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, P.

    In this chapter, the analysis suggests that Northern Irish terrorists are not visible on Web search engines when net users employ conventional Internet search techniques. Editors of mass media organisations traditionally have had the ability to decide whether a terrorist atrocity is `newsworthy,' controlling the `oxygen' supply that sustains all forms of terrorism. This process, also known as `gatekeeping,' is often influenced by the norms of social responsibility, or alternatively, with regard to the interests of the advertisers and corporate sponsors that sustain mass media organisations. The analysis presented in this chapter suggests that Internet search engines can also be characterised as `gatekeepers,' albeit without the ability to shape the content of Websites before it reaches net users. Instead, Internet search engines give priority retrieval to certain Websites within their directory, pointing net users towards these Websites rather than others on the Internet. Net users are more likely to click on links to the more `visible' Websites on Internet search engine directories, these sites invariably being the highest `ranked' in response to a particular search query. A number of factors including the design of the Website and the number of links to external sites determine the `visibility' of a Website on Internet search engines. The study suggests that Northern Irish terrorists and their sympathisers are unlikely to achieve a greater degree of `visibility' online than they enjoy in the conventional mass media through the perpetration of atrocities. Although these groups may have a greater degree of freedom on the Internet to publicise their ideologies, they are still likely to be speaking to the converted or members of the press. Although it is easier to locate Northern Irish terrorist organisations on Internet search engines by linking in via ideology, ideological description searches, such as `Irish Republican' and `Ulster Loyalist,' are more likely to

  5. Solidarity under Attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meret, Susi; Goffredo, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    https://www.opendemocracy.net/can-europe-make-it/susi-meret-sergio-goffredo/solidarity-under-attack......https://www.opendemocracy.net/can-europe-make-it/susi-meret-sergio-goffredo/solidarity-under-attack...

  6. Social engineering attack framework

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mouton, F

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available link. A social engineering attack targets this weakness by; using various manipulation techniques in order to elicit sensitive; information. The field of social engineering is still in its infancy; stages with regards to formal definitions and attack...

  7. Pericarditis - after heart attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include: A previous heart attack Open heart surgery Chest trauma A heart attack that has affected the thickness of your heart muscle Symptoms Symptoms include: Anxiety Chest pain from the swollen pericardium rubbing on the ...

  8. Heart attack first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that carries oxygen to the heart is blocked. The heart muscle ...

  9. Transient Ischemic Attack

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ischemic Attack TIA , or transient ischemic attack, is a "mini stroke" that occurs when a blood clot blocks an artery for a short time. The only difference between a stroke ...

  10. Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and arsenic can have acute and chronic toxic effects on species. other substances such as some pharmaceutical and personal care products, primarily entering the environment in wastewater effluents, may also pose threats to human health, aquatic life and wildlife. Wastewater treatment The major ...

  11. Lone-Wolf Terrorist Radicalization and the Prisoner’s Dilemma: Ensuring Mutual Cooperation Between at-Risk Muslim Americans and Local Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    local, lone-wolf terrorism is limited when compared to the body of work on international, group-based terrorism.10 Considering the ramifications of 9...believed being placed on the no-fly list was his parents’ doing, because they were holding him back from terrorist radicalization.143 “I was betrayed by...know their bodies are torn everywhere. Like, like when I see the (UI).147 As Mohamud continued to coordinate an attack on the lighting ceremony

  12. Composite Dos Attack Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Ramanauskaitė

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Preparation for potential threats is one of the most important phases ensuring system security. It allows evaluating possible losses, changes in the attack process, the effectiveness of used countermeasures, optimal system settings, etc. In cyber-attack cases, executing real experiments can be difficult for many reasons. However, mathematical or programming models can be used instead of conducting experiments in a real environment. This work proposes a composite denial of service attack model that combines bandwidth exhaustion, filtering and memory depletion models for a more real representation of similar cyber-attacks. On the basis of the introduced model, different experiments were done. They showed the main dependencies of the influence of attacker and victim’s properties on the success probability of denial of service attack. In the future, this model can be used for the denial of service attack or countermeasure optimization.

  13. Individual Well-Being and the Allocation of Time Before and After the Boston Marathon Terrorist Bombing

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Andrew E.; Stancanelli, Elena G. F.

    2016-01-01

    There is a small literature on the economic costs of terrorism. We consider the effects of the Boston marathon bombing on Americans’ well-being and time allocation. We exploit data from the American Time Use Survey and Well-Being Module in the days around the terrorist attack to implement a regression-discontinuity design. The bombing led to a significant and large drop of about 1.5 points in well-being, on a scale of one to six, for residents of the States close to Boston. The happiness of A...

  14. Psychological distress and prejudice following terror attacks in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Robin; Kaniasty, Krzysztof; Sun, Shaojing; Ben-Ezra, Menachem

    2017-08-01

    Terrorist attacks have the capacity to threaten our beliefs about the world, cause distress across populations and promote discrimination towards particular groups. We examined the impact of two different types of attacks in the same city and same year on psychological distress and probable posttraumatic stress symptoms, and the moderating effects of religion or media use on distress/posttraumatic symptoms and inter-group relations. Two panel surveys four weeks after the January 2015 Charlie Hebdo attack (N = 1981) and the November 2015 Bataclan concert hall/restaurant attacks (N = 1878), measured intrinsic religiosity, social and traditional media use, psychological distress (K6), probable posttraumatic stress symptoms (proposed ICD-11), symbolic racism and willingness to interact with Muslims by non-Muslims. Prevalence of serious mental illness (K6 score > 18) was higher after November 2015 attacks (7.0% after the first attack, 10.2% the second, χ2 (1) = 5.67, p media use and religiosity were associated with distress, as was the interaction between event and religiosity. Distress was then associated with racism symbolism and willingness to interact with Muslims. Implications are considered for managing psychological trauma across populations, and protecting inter-group harmony. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. FACTORS IN STRENGHTNING OF TERRORIST ACTIVITY OF “ISLAMIC STATE” GROUPING ACROSS EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita Aleksandrovich Lobanov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available XXI century was marked by the strengthening of globalization and integration processes in whole world. This led to the fact that the international community, especially European countries, faced the number of new threats to the spread of Islamic terrorism, the most urgent of which is the activity of “Islamic State” grouping. In this context it’s important to determine the reasons of intense activity growth of IS and its influence in Europe. The article analyzes the factors, contributing to the spread of terrorism. Also it gives some recommendations, implementation of which, according to the author, could decrease the level of terrorist threat. The purpose of the research is to determine factors of growing influence of “Islamic State” and increasing number of terrorist attacks in European countries. The author concludes that IS problem is a comprehensive threat, to prevent which a number of efforts – both within the European continent and in Middle East – is required. It also requires a systematic approach and a high level of consolidation and coordination within the international community.

  16. Breivik--the Norwegian terrorist case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syse, Aslak

    2014-01-01

    On July 22, 2011, there were two murderous attacks in Norway. Both assaults - the bombing of governmental buildings in Oslo City center and the lethal shooting down of young members of the Labour Party on an island - were planned and accomplished by a lone perpetrator. These episodes give rise to several interesting questions. What happened really, and how could it happen? Was the perpetrator sane or insane? What was the ideological background for the attacks? It is unnecessary to discuss in any detail whether or not these acts should be categorized as terrorism. However, there is good reason to consider what these terror attacks imply for Norwegian society at large. What significance did the attacks have for Norwegian democracy, and did they have any impact on the 2013 parliamentary elections? What will be the future for the offender, both in the short term and in years to come? What will happen to the Norwegian insanity defense? These questions are addressed in this article. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Closing the Gap: Measuring the Social Identity of Terrorists

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ludwick, Keith W

    2008-01-01

    .... From that, it is further possible to use the resulting social profile to compare terrorist groups against each other in order to develop predictive models as to the propensity of violence of a particular group...

  18. Survival of the Fittest: Why Terrorist Groups Endure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph K. Young

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Why do terrorist groups endure? This question is relevant to scholars and policy makers alike. In the past, this issue was not been addressed in a systematic fashion. Recent work investigates this question using data on transnational groups and finds that factors associated with the home country can influence the duration the group endures. Applying the theory of outbidding to terrorist group survival, we argue that strategic competition among groups predicts group duration. Using the Global Terrorism Database, we develop a dataset using the terrorist group as the unit of analysis to model the duration of group activity and thus include the largest sample of groups yet. Controlling for previous explanations of both group duration and terrorism, we find a robust effect for the impact that group competition has on terrorist group survival.

  19. Terrorist Capabilities for Cyberattack: Overview and Policy Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rollins, John; Wilson, Clay

    2005-01-01

    ... organizations and consider attempting a cyberattack against the critical infrastructure. Cybercrime increased dramatically between 2004 and 2005, and several recent terrorist events appear to have been funded partially through online credit card fraud...

  20. Closing the Gap: Measuring the Social Identity of Terrorists

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ludwick, Keith W

    2008-01-01

    .... However, using two well-established theories from social psychology, Social Identity Theory and Social Distance Theory, allows the development of a practical model to develop a social profile of a terrorist group...

  1. US foreign policy towards West Africa after September 11 attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Akinwande, FO

    2014-01-01

    The United States foreign policy towards West Africa experienced a significant shift after the terrorist attacks of US strategic institutions in September 11, 2001. This was marked by the securitization of US foreign policy beyond the military-security context of security into other aspects of US security strategy after the Cold War. In that context, political, economic and environmental sectors became part of US security agenda, as reflected in the post-9/11 US\\ud War on Terror in global reg...

  2. Something Old, Something New. Guerillas, Terrorists, and Intelligence Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-01

    Guerrillas, Terrorists, and Intelligence Analysis Lieutenant Colonel Lester W. Grau, U.S. Army, Retired Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Military Review, July - August 2004. Something Old, Something New. Guerillas, Terrorists, and Intelligence Analysis . 5a. CONTRACT...travels and rest stops. INTELLIGENCE ANALYSIS 44 July -August 2004 l MILITARY REVIEW They point to the efficacy of torture and extraordi- nary means

  3. Agent Based Modeling on Organizational Dynamics of Terrorist Network

    OpenAIRE

    Bo Li; Duoyong Sun; Renqi Zhu; Ze Li

    2015-01-01

    Modeling organizational dynamics of terrorist network is a critical issue in computational analysis of terrorism research. The first step for effective counterterrorism and strategic intervention is to investigate how the terrorists operate with the relational network and what affects the performance. In this paper, we investigate the organizational dynamics by employing a computational experimentation methodology. The hierarchical cellular network model and the organizational dynamics model ...

  4. Comparison of expressive writing after the terrorist attacks of September 11th and March 11th

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itziar Fernández

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio descriptivo de poblaciones mediante encuesta examina la escritura expresiva tras los atentados terroristas del 11 de septiembre de 2001 y del 11 de marzo de 2004. Las narraciones de 325 estadounidenses y de 333 españoles fueron analizadas a través del programa lingüístico (Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count ¿ LIWC. El propósito de este artículo fue analizar, a través de la escritura expresiva, los pronombres, pensamientos, sentimientos y procesos sociales que se generan tras los atentados terroristas. Los análisis lingüísticos constataron que los españoles escribieron más sobre procesos sociales y que en sus textos reflejaron más pronombres de la segunda y tercera persona, mientras que los estadounidenses utilizaron más pronombres de la primera persona. Los análisis correlacionales indicaron que las emociones se vinculaban con los procesos cognitivos, corroborando la asociación entre los sentimientos y los pensamientos. Los resultados también mostraron que, entre ambas naciones, la dinámica del compartir socio-emocional y pensar sobre los atentados terroristas fue similar, para el periodo comprendido entre la 3ª y 8ª semana tras los atentados. Finalmente, se analizaron y discutieron las diferencias entre las culturas individualista y colectivista.

  5. CTC Sentinel. Special Issue, January 2010. AQAP in Yemen and the Christmas Day Terrorist Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    however, raise the rhetoric slightly, calling for “total war on all Crusaders in the peninsula.” It is difficult to know why the group decided to...ida in Yemen seems to understand that there is no one knockout blow that will force Westerners out of Yemen and bring the government to its knees

  6. A Chronology of Terrorist Attacks and Other Criminal Actions Against Maritime Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    over in the name of the Independent Junta of Liberation led by General Humberto Delgardo, "the legally-elected President of the - Portuguese Republic...guerrillas were opposed to Gulf because it was giving the ruling pro -Marxist Angolan Popular Liberation Movement $2 million daily in oil royalties "to...tanker sailed to Greece to undergo repairs. No group claimed responsibility for the bombing, but there have been frequent clashes between pro -Iranian

  7. Data-Based Detection of Potential Terrorist Attacks: Statistical and Graphical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    232--243 (2006). Du, Yunzhi; Davisson , Muriel T.; Kafadar, Karen; Gardiner, Katheleen: "A-to-I pre-mRNA editing of the serotonin 2C receptor...Computational Biology 14(1): 97-112 (2007). 16 • Du, Yunzhi; Davisson , Muriel T.; Kafadar, Karen; Gardiner, Katheleen: “A-to-I pre-mRNA editing of the...and Information Practice 2008 3(4), 18–33. Du, Yunzhi; Davisson , Muriel T.; Kafadar, Karen; Gardiner, Katheleen: “A-to-I pre-mRNA editing of the

  8. The relationship between posttraumatic stress symptoms and narrative structure among adolescent terrorist-attack survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Filkuková

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The structure of trauma narratives is considered to be related to posttraumatic stress symptomatology and thus the capacity to make a coherent narrative after stressful events is crucial for mental health. Objective: The aim of this study is to understand more of the relationship between narrative structure and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS. More specifically, we investigated whether internal and external focus, organization, fragmentation, and length differed between two groups of adolescent survivors of a mass shooting, one group with low levels of PTSS and one group with high levels of PTSS. Method: The sample comprised 30 adolescents who survived the shooting at Utøya Island in Norway in 2011. They were interviewed 4–5 months after the shooting and provided a free narrative of the event. PTSS were assessed using the UCLA Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index (PTSD-RI. Results: We found that survivors with high levels of PTSS described more external events and fewer internal events in their narratives compared with survivors with low levels of symptoms. The analysis also showed that especially narratives containing more descriptions of dialogue and fewer organized thoughts were related to higher levels of PTSS. The groups did not differ in levels of narrative fragmentation or in length of the narratives. Conclusion: Specific attributes of narrative structure proved to be related to the level of PTSS. On the basis of our results, we can recommend that practitioners focus especially on two elements of the trauma narratives, namely, the amount of external events, particularly dialogues, within the narrative and the number of organized thoughts. Participants with high levels of PTSS provided trauma narratives with low amount of organized (explanatory thoughts accompanied by detailed descriptions of dialogues and actions, which is indicative for “here and now” quality of recall and a lack of trauma processing.

  9. The current state of affairs for disaster planning for a nuclear terrorist attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffman, Thomas E

    2009-01-01

    The author presents current thinking on the effects of an atomic bomb blast from a medical point of view and will argue that current US Federal plans for a nuclear disaster are simply crude, insufficient, disarticulated, and principally relies on martial law as a means of crowd control. The simple physics of a fusion reaction bomb is discussed along with the plans of other countries, apparently "secret"American plans, which show a poor knowledge of the physics of nuclear bombs as well as poor insight into what will be needed to help the maximum number of citizens. An alternative plan involving computer modeling and educating the public to the effects of a fission explosion are presented. The key issue of statewide planning is discussed, as the Federal government has dumped medical problems on "the local level."

  10. Small-Scale Terrorist Attacks Using Chemical and Biological Agents: An Assessment Framework and Preliminary Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-05-20

    mustard has been used for cancer chemotherapy. CRS-17 55 The list of chemicals found on the three schedules of the Chemical Weapons Convention can be...straw or decaying animal carcasses. Pulmonary tularemia causes respiratory failure, shock and death. The mortality rate for pulmonic or septicemic cases

  11. Underlying Reasons for Success and Failure of Terrorist Attacks: Selected Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-04

    raised in a poor family.12 He had weak vision due to infantile glaucoma and attended a school for the blind, where he emerged as a leader, because he... Democratic Party, and this too could have influenced the level of investigation to which Asahara and his group were subject.64 Security environment: At...injustices inflicted on Muslims around the world by the West. He views civilians in democratic countries that perpetuate these perceived atrocities as

  12. Strengthening Hospital Surge Capacity in the Event of Explosive or Chemical Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Orthopedics 8 1.95% Emergency Medicine 7 1.70% Ear, Nose, and Throat 7 1.70% Urology 5 1.22% Dental 5 1.22% Neurology 4 0.97% Podiatry 1 0.24...1.15% Ear, Nose, and Throat 2 1.15% Ophthalmology 1 0.57% Podiatry 1 0.57% Plastic Surgery 1 0.57% Table 2. Disciplines of Attending...obstetrics-gynecology, ophthalmology, podiatry , plastics, orthopedics, urology, ear-nose-throat, and dentistry. A total of 293 respondents are identified

  13. Analysis of Protection Measures for Naval Vessels Berthed at Harbor Against Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    B.E. ( Electronics ), NUST Pakistan, 2005 Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE IN OPERATIONS...assets in the Campeche Sound (Master’s thesis). Retrieved from Calhoun: http://calhoun.nps.edu/handle/10945/1745 Tsilis, T. (2011). Counter- piracy

  14. Triage for Civil Support. Using Military Medical Assets to Respond to Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    direct support of Air Force, DoD, and international aerospace operations; provides peacetime and contingency support in hyperbarics , human...South Carolina’s seaboard after 1989’s Hurricane Hugo, treated 500,000 acres of Minnesota to prevent a mosquito-borne equine encephalitis outbreak in...prevaccinated). At Gwinnett Medical Center, Patient 3 has a negative test for malaria, no response to empirical therapy , and is beginning to develop a papular

  15. Wastewater Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Wastewater districts layer is part of a larger dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  16. Wastewater Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoltek, J., Jr.; Melear, E. L.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. This review covers: (1) process application; (2) coagulation and solids separation; (3) adsorption; (4) ion exchange; (5) membrane processes; and (6) oxidation processes. A list of 123 references is also presented. (HM)

  17. Wastewater reuse

    OpenAIRE

    Milan R. Radosavljević; Vanja M. Šušteršič

    2013-01-01

    Water scarcity and water pollution are some of the crucial issues that must be addressed within local and global perspectives. One of the ways to reduce the impact of water scarcity  and to minimizine water pollution is to expand water and wastewater reuse. The local conditions including regulations, institutions, financial mechanisms, availability of local technology and stakeholder participation have a great influence on the decisions for wastewater reuse. The increasing awareness of food s...

  18. Nocturnal panic attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes Fabiana L.; Nardi Antonio E.; Nascimento Isabella; Valença Alexandre M.; Zin Walter A

    2002-01-01

    The panic-respiration connection has been presented with increasing evidences in the literature. We report three panic disorder patients with nocturnal panic attacks with prominent respiratory symptoms, the overlapping of the symptoms with the sleep apnea syndrome and a change of the diurnal panic attacks, from spontaneous to situational pattern. The implication of these findings and awareness to the distinct core of the nocturnal panic attacks symptoms may help to differentiate them from sle...

  19. Transient Ischemic Attack

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... stroke symptoms. Popular Topics TIA Cardiac Catheter Cholesterol Heart Attack Stent © 2018, American Heart Association, Inc. All rights reserved. Unauthorized use prohibited. ...

  20. Seven Deadliest Network Attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Prowell, Stacy; Borkin, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Do you need to keep up with the latest hacks, attacks, and exploits effecting networks? Then you need Seven Deadliest Network Attacks. This book pinpoints the most dangerous hacks and exploits specific to networks, laying out the anatomy of these attacks including how to make your system more secure. You will discover the best ways to defend against these vicious hacks with step-by-step instruction and learn techniques to make your computer and network impenetrable. Attacks detailed in this book include: Denial of Service War Dialing Penetration "Testing" Protocol Tunneling Spanning Tree At

  1. Seven deadliest USB attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Do you need to keep up with the latest hacks, attacks, and exploits effecting USB technology? Then you need Seven Deadliest USB Attacks. This book pinpoints the most dangerous hacks and exploits specific to USB, laying out the anatomy of these attacks including how to make your system more secure. You will discover the best ways to defend against these vicious hacks with step-by-step instruction and learn techniques to make your computer and network impenetrable. Attacks detailed in this book include: USB Hacksaw USB Switchblade USB Based Virus/Malicous Code Launch USB Device Overflow RAMdum

  2. Seven Deadliest Microsoft Attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Kraus, Rob; Borkin, Mike; Alpern, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    Do you need to keep up with the latest hacks, attacks, and exploits effecting Microsoft products? Then you need Seven Deadliest Microsoft Attacks. This book pinpoints the most dangerous hacks and exploits specific to Microsoft applications, laying out the anatomy of these attacks including how to make your system more secure. You will discover the best ways to defend against these vicious hacks with step-by-step instruction and learn techniques to make your computer and network impenetrable. Windows Operating System-Password AttacksActive Directory-Escalat

  3. Heart attack - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... attack Heart bypass surgery Heart bypass surgery - minimally invasive Heart pacemaker High blood cholesterol levels High blood pressure Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator Smoking - tips on how to ...

  4. Transient Ischemic Attack

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... stroke symptoms. Popular Topics TIA Cardiac Catheter Cholesterol Heart Attack Stent © 2017, American Heart Association, Inc. All rights reserved. Unauthorized use prohibited. ...

  5. Explosive attack: Lessons learned in Seyed Al Shohada mosque attack, April 2008, Shiraz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Paydar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The threat of explosive attacks has become a worldwide problem. Bombing is the preferred method of attacks. These attacks result in specific physical and psychiatric trauma. In this paper, we present an epidemiologic description of the physical injuries of patients who survived the explosive attack in Seyed Al Shohada mosque April 2008 Shiraz, Iran. Materials and Methods: All medical records of the patients admitted at Shiraz Hospitals on April 2008 due to Seyed Al Shohada mosque bombing attacks, Shiraz, Iran, were reviewed. Results: A total of 202 patients were referred to the hospitals over 24 h following the terrorist attack. One hundred sixty-four patients were admitted for short periods of observation (<24 h. Thirty-eight patients needed more than 1 day of hospitalization. The mean age of the patients was 26.2 (range 2 to 51 years. One hundred thirty-five (66.8% patients were males. Twenty-six (12.8% were children. Burn was the most prevalent cause of admission. Five (13.5% patients needed chest tube insertion and eight (21% needed skin grafts due to burn. Overall, 12 patients expired (5%. Three (25% of them were children (2 and 6, and 11 years old. Mortality rate was significantly higher among the children than adults (P value <0.05. The most important cause of death was head trauma which was seen in five (41.6% of the expired patients followed by burn (including air way burn in four (33%, and internal bleeding in three (25%. Patients with head trauma had significantly a higher rate of mortality than other patients (P value <0.05. Discussion: Following a bombing attack, numerous victims were brought to the emergency unit suffering from a combination of multi-organ injuries caused by the blast, penetrating injuries caused by shrapnel and other debris, and burns. It is important for a physician to be familiar with the clinical features and treatments of explosive attacks victims. Early management of patients at the scene and

  6. Mental health needs in New York state following the september 11th attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Herman, Daniel; Felton, Chip; Susser, Ezra

    2002-01-01

    In October 2001, the New York State Office of Mental Health and the Department of Epidemiology of the Mailman School of Public Health of Columbia University conducted a rapid assessment of the nature and magnitude of mental health needs in the state resulting from the September 11th terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center. This effort was carried out during a period of great turmoil and uncertaintyas New Yorkers responded to the shocking events of this unprecedented disaster. Using the li...

  7. Plants under dual attack

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponzio, C.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Though immobile, plants are members of complex environments, and are under constant threat from a wide range of attackers, which includes organisms such as insect herbivores or plant pathogens. Plants have developed sophisticated defenses against these attackers, and include chemical responses such

  8. Transient Ischemic Attack

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Transient Ischemic Attack TIA , or transient ischemic attack, is a "mini stroke" that occurs when a blood clot blocks an artery for a short time. The only ... TIA is that with TIA the blockage is transient (temporary). TIA symptoms occur rapidly and last a ...

  9. Reducing Mortality from Terrorist Releases of Chemical and Biological Agents: I. Filtration for Ventilation Systems in Commercial Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thatcher, Tracy L.; Daisey, Joan M.

    1999-09-01

    There is growing concern about potential terrorist attacks involving releases of chemical and/or biological (CB) agents, such as sarin or anthrax, in and around buildings. For an external release, the CB agent can enter the building through the air intakes of a building's mechanical ventilation system and by infiltration through the building envelope. For an interior release in a single room, the mechanical ventilation system, which often recirculates some fraction of the air within a building, may distribute the released CB agent throughout the building. For both cases, installing building systems that remove chemical and biological agents may be the most effective way to protect building occupants. Filtration systems installed in the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems of buildings can significantly reduce exposures of building occupants in the event of a release, whether the release is outdoors or indoors. Reduced exposures can reduce the number of deaths from a terrorist attack. The purpose of this report is to provide information and examples of the design of filtration systems to help building engineers retrofit HVAC systems. The report also provides background information on the physical nature of CB agents and brief overviews of the basic principles of particle and vapor filtration.

  10. Increased incidence rates of trauma and stressor related disorders in Denmark following the 9/11 attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bertel Teilfeldt; Østergaard, Søren Dinesen; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    2016-01-01

    The terrorist attacks that occurred on September 11, 2001 (hereafter referred to as 9/11) in the United States had a profound impact on the physical and mental health of Americans, but the effects beyond the United States are largely unknown. To understand the wider aftermath, we examined...... the consequences of the 9/11 attacks on mental disorders in the Kingdom of Denmark. Utilizing population data from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register from 1995 to 2012, we used a time-series intervention approach to estimate the change in the incidence rate of mental disorders after the 9/11 attacks...

  11. Mathematical Attacks on RSA Cryptosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Imad K. Salah; Abdullah Darwish; Saleh Oqeili

    2006-01-01

    In this paper some of the most common attacks against Rivest, Shamir, and Adleman (RSA) cryptosystem are presented. We describe the integer factoring attacks, attacks on the underlying mathematical function, as well as attacks that exploit details in implementations of the algorithm. Algorithms for each type of attacks are developed and analyzed by their complexity, memory requirements and area of usage.

  12. Mental health cost of terrorism: Study of the Charlie Hebdo attack in Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongyoung; Albert Kim, Young-I

    2017-05-15

    This study examines whether a terrorist attack in a developed country, which does not cause major damage to its capital stocks, affects the mental health of its residents. By exploiting variations in survey dates of the European Social Survey, we use a difference-in-differences strategy to show that the attack adversely affects subjective well-being and mental health measures of French respondents. These negative effects are stronger for immigrants and low-income individuals. The impact is less dramatic for politically extreme right-wing supporters. The distance from origin has little impact on these measures. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Wastewater reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan R. Radosavljević

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity and water pollution are some of the crucial issues that must be addressed within local and global perspectives. One of the ways to reduce the impact of water scarcity  and to minimizine water pollution is to expand water and wastewater reuse. The local conditions including regulations, institutions, financial mechanisms, availability of local technology and stakeholder participation have a great influence on the decisions for wastewater reuse. The increasing awareness of food safety and the influence of the countries which import food are influencing policy makers and agriculturists to improve the standards of wastewater reuse in agriculture. The environmental awareness of consumers has been putting pressure on the producers (industries to opt for environmentally sound technologies including those which conserve water and reduce the level of pollution. It may be observed that we have to move forwards to implement strategies and plans for wastewater reuse. However, their success and sustainability will depend on political will, public awareness and active support from national and international agencies to create favorable    environment for the promotion of environmentally sustainable technologies. Wastewater treatment has a long history, especially in agriculture, but also in industry and households. Poor quality of wastewater can pose a significant risk to the health of farmers and users of agricultural products. The World Health Organization (WHO is working on a project for the reuse of wastewater in agriculture. To reduce effects of human activities to the minimum, it is necessary to provide such technical and technological solutions that would on the one hand ensure complying with  the existing regulations and legislation, and on the other hand provide economically viable systems as seen through investments and operating costs. The use of wastewater The practice of using wastewater varies from country to country. Its

  14. Sub Saharan African Terrorist Groups’ use of the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart Bertram

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent actions by French military forces in Niger and the global prominence of terrorist groups such as Al Shabaab and Boko Haram, have highlighted the growing counter terrorist focus on the countries of Sub Saharan Africa. Additionally in a post Bin Laden world and with the immanent withdrawal of coalition combat troops from Afghanistan, there is the possibility of Africa as a continent becoming the new front in the Global War on Terror ('Mben' et al., 2013. However, it is a mistake to assume that Africa’s story is uniformly one of violence and death. Vibrant cultures and a rugged entrepreneurial spirit have combined with a robust Internet backbone, to create the embryonic emergence of high tech hotspots across Africa. With rising IT literacy levels, more and more Africans are becoming connected to the information super highway on a daily basis (Graham, 2010. A tiny minority of these Africans are terrorists.

  15. Nocturnal panic attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes Fabiana L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The panic-respiration connection has been presented with increasing evidences in the literature. We report three panic disorder patients with nocturnal panic attacks with prominent respiratory symptoms, the overlapping of the symptoms with the sleep apnea syndrome and a change of the diurnal panic attacks, from spontaneous to situational pattern. The implication of these findings and awareness to the distinct core of the nocturnal panic attacks symptoms may help to differentiate them from sleep disorders and the search for specific treatment.

  16. Terrorism, acute stress, and cardiovascular health: a 3-year national study following the September 11th attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, E Alison; Silver, Roxane Cohen; Poulin, Michael; Andersen, Judith; Gil-Rivas, Virginia; McIntosh, Daniel N

    2008-01-01

    The terrorist attacks of 9/11 (September 11, 2001) present an unusual opportunity to examine prospectively the physical health impact of extreme stress in a national sample. To examine the degree to which acute stress reactions to the 9/11 terrorist attacks predict cardiovascular outcomes in a national probability sample over the subsequent 3 years. A national probability sample of 2729 adults (78.1% participation rate), 95.0% of whom had completed a health survey before 9/11 (final health sample, 2592), completed a Web-based assessment of acute stress responses approximately 9 to 14 days after the terrorist attacks. Follow-up health surveys reassessed physician-diagnosed cardiovascular ailments 1 (n = 1923, 84.3% participation rate), 2 (n = 1576, 74.2% participation rate), and 3 (n = 1950, 78.9% participation rate) years following the attacks. Reports of physician-diagnosed cardiovascular ailments over the 3 years following the attacks. Acute stress responses to the 9/11 attacks were associated with a 53% increased incidence of cardiovascular ailments over the 3 subsequent years, even after adjusting for pre-9/11 cardiovascular and mental health status, degree of exposure to the attacks, cardiovascular risk factors (ie, smoking, body mass index, and number of endocrine ailments), total number of physical health ailments, somatization, and demographics. Individuals reporting high levels of acute stress immediately following the attacks reported an increased incidence of physician-diagnosed hypertension (rate ratios, 2.15 at 1 year and 1.75 at 2 years) and heart problems (rate ratios, 2.98 at 1 year and 3.12 at 2 years) over 2 years. Among individuals reporting ongoing worry about terrorism post-9/11, high 9/11-related acute stress symptoms predicted increased risk of physician-diagnosed heart problems 2 to 3 years following the attacks (rate ratios, 4.67 at 2 years and 3.22 at 3 years). Using health data collected before 9/11 as a baseline, acute stress response to

  17. Does war hurt? Effects of media exposure after missile attacks on chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, Sheera F; Rudich, Zvia; Shahar, Golan

    2013-03-01

    This study focused on the effects of exposure to terrorist missile attacks on the physical and mental well being of chronic pain patients. In this prospective and longitudinal design, 55 chronic pain patients treated at a specialty pain clinic completed self-report questionnaires regarding their pain, depression and anxiety pre- and post a three week missile attack on the southern region of Israel. In addition, levels of direct and indirect exposure to the attacks were measured. Results of regression analyses showed that exposure to the attacks through the media predicted an increase in pain intensity and in the sensory component of pain during the pre-post war period, but did not predict depression, anxiety or the affective component of pain. These findings contribute to the understanding of the effects of terrorism on physical and emotional distress and identify chronic pain patients as a vulnerable population requiring special attention during terrorism-related stress.

  18. Heart Attack Payment - State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment for heart attack patients measure – state data. This data set includes state-level data for payments associated with a 30-day episode of care for heart...

  19. Heart Attack Payment - Hospital

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment for heart attack patients measure – provider data. This data set includes provider data for payments associated with a 30-day episode of care for heart...

  20. Transient Ischemic Attack

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... TIA , or transient ischemic attack, is a "mini stroke" that occurs when a blood clot blocks an ... a short time. The only difference between a stroke and TIA is that with TIA the blockage ...

  1. Transient Ischemic Attack

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... immediately for any stroke symptoms. Popular Topics TIA Cardiac Catheter Cholesterol Heart Attack Stent © 2018, American Heart Association, Inc. All rights reserved. Unauthorized use prohibited. ...

  2. Heart Attack Payment - National

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment for heart attack patients measure – national data. This data set includes national-level data for payments associated with a 30-day episode of care for heart...

  3. Cooperating attackers in neural cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shacham, Lanir N; Klein, Einat; Mislovaty, Rachel; Kanter, Ido; Kinzel, Wolfgang

    2004-06-01

    A successful attack strategy in neural cryptography is presented. The neural cryptosystem, based on synchronization of neural networks by mutual learning, has been recently shown to be secure under different attack strategies. The success of the advanced attacker presented here, called the "majority-flipping attacker," does not decay with the parameters of the model. This attacker's outstanding success is due to its using a group of attackers which cooperate throughout the synchronization process, unlike any other attack strategy known. An analytical description of this attack is also presented, and fits the results of simulations.

  4. Facial Dog Attack Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Wei; Patil, Pavan Manohar

    2013-01-01

    The exposed position of the face makes it vulnerable to dog bite injuries. This fact combined with the short stature of children makes them a high-risk group for such attacks. In contrast to wounds inflicted by assaults and accidents, dog bite wounds are deep puncture type wounds compounded by the presence of pathologic bacteria from the saliva of the attacking dog. This, combined with the presence of crushed, devitalized tissue makes these wounds highly susceptible to infection. Key to succe...

  5. Launch under attack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbruner, J.

    1984-01-01

    The strategy of launch under attack calls for launching nuclear weapons on warning that attacking weapons are on their way. The political pressures for adopting this strategy are symptomatic of an increasing instability in the nuclear balance. The author describes a Brookings Institute model, which indicates that the problems of decentralized control and precise timing could lead to failures in retargeting procedures. The major concern is that the strategy imposes powerful incentives for preemption as the most promising means of conducting nuclear war.

  6. Terrorists and Fair Trial: The Right to a Fair Trial for Alleged Terrorists Detained in Guantánamo Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Ambos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper inquires into whether the right to a fair trial can be restricted with regard to alleged terrorists within the framework of the ‘war on terror’. After briefly identifying the relevant sources of this right and its content, possible restrictions are analysed. The paper elaborates, in particular, on international humanitarian law, such as the Third and Fourth Geneva Convention, and international human rights law, such as the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man. It further deals with US constitutional law. We conclude that the right to a fair trial fully applies to alleged terrorists irrespective of the context of their detention (armed conflict or peace or the qualification of these terrorists (de facto or unlawful combatants and thus amounts to a general principle of transnational criminal law.

  7. The attack navigator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probst, Christian W.; Willemson, Jan; Pieters, Wolter

    2016-01-01

    The need to assess security and take protection decisions is at least as old as our civilisation. However, the complexity and development speed of our interconnected technical systems have surpassed our capacity to imagine and evaluate risk scenarios. This holds in particular for risks that are c......The need to assess security and take protection decisions is at least as old as our civilisation. However, the complexity and development speed of our interconnected technical systems have surpassed our capacity to imagine and evaluate risk scenarios. This holds in particular for risks...... that are caused by the strategic behaviour of adversaries. Therefore, technology-supported methods are needed to help us identify and manage these risks. In this paper, we describe the attack navigator: a graph-based approach to security risk assessment inspired by navigation systems. Based on maps of a socio......-technical system, the attack navigator identifies routes to an attacker goal. Specific attacker properties such as skill or resources can be included through attacker profiles. This enables defenders to explore attack scenarios and the effectiveness of defense alternatives under different threat conditions....

  8. Animal biowarfare research: historical perspective and potential future attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Jung-Yong; Park, Jee-Yong; Cho, Yun Sang; Cho, In-Soo

    2012-12-01

    A biological attack on livestock or poultry could result in the loss of valuable animals, costs related to the containment of outbreaks and the disposal of carcasses, lost trade and other economic effects involving suppliers, transporters, distributors and restaurants; however, it is not possible to secure all livestock, and livestock are much less well guarded than human targets. Thus, the vulnerability of the livestock industry to the introduction of biological agents varies for the following reasons: (i) the majority of lethal and contagious biological agents are environmentally resilient, endemic in foreign countries and harmless to humans, making it easier for terrorists to acquire, handle and deploy these pathogens, (ii) with animals concentrated in fewer production facilities and frequently transported between these facilities, a single pathogen introduction could cause widespread infection and (iii) the extent of human travel around the globe makes it difficult to exclude exotic animal diseases as possible biological agents. Historically, many governments have developed and planned to use biological agents for direct attacks on livestock or poultry. In the past, developed nations have actively developed biological weapons to target animals. The potential spectrum of bioterrorism ranges from isolated acts against individuals by individuals to tactical and strategic military attacks and state-sponsored international terrorism intended to cause mass casualties in animals, humans or both. This review provides an overview of the past development and use of biological weapons and describes potential future attacks. 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH

  9. The Tokyo subway sarin attack--lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, T; Hisaoka, T; Yamada, A; Naito, T; Isonuma, H; Okumura, S; Miura, K; Sakurada, M; Maekawa, H; Ishimatsu, S; Takasu, N; Suzuki, K

    2005-09-01

    The sarin gas attack in the Tokyo subway system is reviewed from a clinical toxicology perspective. Based on the lessons learned from this attack, the following areas should be addressed on a global scale. First, an adequate supply of protective equipment is required, including level B protective equipment with a pressure demand breathing apparatus. In addition, a system should be established that enables a possible cause to be determined based on symptoms, physical findings, general laboratory tests, and a simple qualitative analysis for poisonous substances. If an antidote is needed, the system should enable it to be administered to the victims as quickly as possible. Preparation for a large-scale chemical attack by terrorists requires the prior establishment of a detailed decontamination plan that utilizes not only mass decontamination facilities but also public facilities in the area. A system should be established for summarizing, evaluating, and disseminating information on poisonous substances. Finally, a large-scale scientific investigation of the Tokyo sarin attack should be conducted to examine its long-term and subclinical effects and the effects of exposure to asymptomatic low levels of sarin.

  10. Nigeria as a Potential Terrorist Haven Explaining the Convergence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Is Nigeria a possible terrorist haven? This article aims to answer this question from two perspectives: international and domestic terrorism. From the perspective of international terrorism and in the standpoint of Western liberalism, for a foreseeable future Nigeria cannot be a haven for terrorism. This is the impossibility ...

  11. Isolating the Terrorists: The Abu Sayyaf Group Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    Memorandum of Agreement on ancestral Domain (MOA-AD) was scheduled for signing in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia on August 5, 2008. The formal signing was aborted ...integratedY Force manifestly has a proper place, especially given that the immoral use of force is a central characteristic ofterrorism.76 Terrorists commit

  12. Understanding Terrorist Network Topologies and Their Resilience Against Disruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindelauf, R.; Borm, P.E.M.; Hamers, H.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the structural position of covert (terrorist or criminal) networks. Using the secrecy versus information tradeoff characterization of covert networks it is shown that their network structures are generally not small-worlds, in contradistinction to many overt social

  13. The Counter Terrorist Classroom: Religion, Education, and Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearon, Liam

    2013-01-01

    The article identifies international cases--from the United States, Europe, and the United Nations--of an emergent interface of religion, education, and security. This is manifest in the uses of religion in education to counter religious extremism, the notional "counter terrorist classroom." To avoid an over-association of extremism with…

  14. Speculative security: the politics of pursuing terrorist monies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Goede, M.

    2012-01-01

    Since the terrorist acts of September 11, 2001, finance and security have become joined in new ways to produce particular targets of state surveillance. In Speculative Security, Marieke de Goede describes how previously unscrutinized practices such as donations and remittances, especially across

  15. Cyber Attacks, Information Attacks, and Postmodern Warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valuch Jozef

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to evaluate and differentiate between the phenomena of cyberwarfare and information warfare, as manifestations of what we perceive as postmodern warfare. We describe and analyse the current examples of the use the postmodern warfare and the reactions of states and international bodies to these phenomena. The subject matter of this paper is the relationship between new types of postmodern conflicts and the law of armed conflicts (law of war. Based on ICJ case law, it is clear that under current legal rules of international law of war, cyber attacks as well as information attacks (often performed in the cyberspace as well can only be perceived as “war” if executed in addition to classical kinetic warfare, which is often not the case. In most cases perceived “only” as a non-linear warfare (postmodern conflict, this practice nevertheless must be condemned as conduct contrary to the principles of international law and (possibly a crime under national laws, unless this type of conduct will be recognized by the international community as a “war” proper, in its new, postmodern sense.

  16. Cooperating attackers in neural cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shacham, Lanir N.; Klein, Einat; Mislovaty, Rachel; Kanter, Ido; Kinzel, Wolfgang

    2004-06-01

    A successful attack strategy in neural cryptography is presented. The neural cryptosystem, based on synchronization of neural networks by mutual learning, has been recently shown to be secure under different attack strategies. The success of the advanced attacker presented here, called the “majority-flipping attacker,” does not decay with the parameters of the model. This attacker’s outstanding success is due to its using a group of attackers which cooperate throughout the synchronization process, unlike any other attack strategy known. An analytical description of this attack is also presented, and fits the results of simulations.

  17. Seven Deadliest Wireless Technologies Attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Haines, Brad

    2010-01-01

    How can an information security professional keep up with all of the hacks, attacks, and exploits? One way to find out what the worst of the worst are is to read the seven books in our Seven Deadliest Attacks Series. Not only do we let you in on the anatomy of these attacks but we also tell you how to get rid of them and how to defend against them in the future. Countermeasures are detailed so that you can fight against similar attacks as they evolve. Attacks featured in this book include:Bluetooth AttacksCredit Card, Access Card, and Passport AttacksBad Encryption

  18. Nuclear Power Plants and Their Fuel as Terrorist Targets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Douglas M. Chapin; Karl P. Cohen; W. Kenneth Davis; Edwin E. Kintner; Leonard J. Koch; John W. Landis; Milton Levenson; I. Harry Mandil; Zack T. Pate; Theodore Rockwell; Alan Schriesheim; John W. Simpson; Alexander Squire; Chauncey Starr; Henry E. Stone; John J. Taylor; Neil E. Todreas; Bertram Wolfe; Edwin L. Zebroski

    2002-01-01

    In the wake of the 11 September attack on the World Trade Center, a large number of outrageous public statements appeared, claiming that any attack on a nuclear plant or its fuel would be catastrophic...

  19. Change and Continuity in Indonesian Islamist Ideology and Terrorist Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam James Fenton

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The “Islamisation” of Indonesia has exerted a transformative force on every aspect of Indonesian society. That process continues today. It has created streams of change and continuity in thoughts, ideologies and practices, of enormous complexity. Strict doctrinal interpretation of Koranic text is not a new phenomenon, contrary to what some reports in the mass media might suggest. Its roots stretch back at least as far as the 1800s with the outbreak of violent conflicts between those urging a stricter, scripturalist application of Islam, and those adhering to traditionalist and colonialist ideologies --culminating in the Padri war of West Sumatra of 1821-38. Indicating an ostensible continuity of ideology, modern extremist ideologues, such as Abu Bakar Bashir, urge their followers toward violent conflict and terrorist actions based on an ideology of strict “Middle Eastern” interpretation of fundamental Islamic tenets. This paper argues that the strategies of those carrying out radical and violent ideologies are undergoing change, as are the strategies of the authorities tasked with combating them. Radical groups have displayed a shift away from large-scale, attacks on symbolic foreign targets towards low-level violence primarily aimed at law enforcement authorities. Authorities, on the other hand, have shown a greater tendency to shoot dead those suspected of involvement with violent radical groups. This paper will examine the changing strategies of violent radical groups and the continuity, and evolution, of the underlying Islamic ideology that provides religious justification for their violent acts. The paper will argue that engaging Indonesia’s politically active youth in an ideological dialogue on Islamism and democracy provides the best prospect for disengagement from, and breaking the cycle of recruitment for, radical violence and terrorism.[Proses panjang Islamisasi di Indonesia telah menghasilkan kekuatan transformatif di

  20. Women Behind Terrorists (Religiousity, Self Adaptation and Husband-Wife Relationship within Suspected Terrorists Family in Pekalongan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maghfur Maghfur

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Women and their religiosity are questioned along with the proliferation of conflict, violence, and religion-based riots which allegedly involving ‘husband’  suspected  terrorists. This article discusses the religiosity of the wives, the adjustment of wives of suspected terrorists against psychological and social burden, and the patterns of marital relations of terrorist suspects in Pekalongan-Central Java. The result of this phenomenological study revealed that the religiosity of terrorist-suspects’ wives are more dominant is exclusive patterned- if it is compared to moderate or inclusive ones. In terms of adjustment, the wives are just accept the fate and tend to be indifferent to the activities of their husbands. The wives also nullifying the public’s negative perception and judgment, but some are closed to the social interaction. While the pattern of relationships that were frequently built tent to be more owner property and head-complement in characteristics. Wives are positioned as husband’s complement for all activities in the fields of social, religious and political.

  1. The political attack ad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palma Peña-Jiménez, Ph.D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During election campaigns the political spot has a clear objective: to win votes. This message is communicated to the electorate through television and Internet, and usually presents a negative approach, which includes a direct critical message against the opponent, rather than an exposition of proposals. This article is focused on the analysis of the campaign attack video ad purposely created to encourage the disapproval of the political opponent among voters. These ads focus on discrediting the opponent, many times, through the transmission of ad hominem messages, instead of disseminating the potential of the political party and the virtues and manifesto of its candidate. The article reviews the development of the attack ad since its first appearance, which in Spain dates back to 1996, when the famous Doberman ad was broadcast, and examines the most memorable campaign attack ads.

  2. The role of religious fundamentalism in terrorist violence: a social psychological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, M Brooke; Loewenthal, Kate M; Lewis, Christopher Alan; Amlôt, Richard; Cinnirella, Marco; Ansari, Humayan

    2007-06-01

    This paper examines the social-psychological factors often implicated in discussions of terrorist violence/martyrdom, with a particular focus on the role of religion. We offer a brief description of the psychological theories underpinning terrorist research before focusing on social-psychological factors. The roles of psychopathology, irrationality and grievance/threat are examined, followed by empirical research on the beliefs which have been associated with the perpetration and support of terrorist violence, and the social factors which foster those beliefs, including social identity, socially carried interpretations, group leadership and individual differences. Although religion is not a single, simple causal factor in terrorist violence, religious elements often feature strongly in the belief systems associated with terrorist violence, and can also feature in other important fostering factors for terrorist violence, such as the use of rhetoric. Finally, the status of lay explanations of terrorist violence, focusing on the role of religious fundamentalism is examined.

  3. Wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranđel N. Kitanović

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Quality of life on Earth in the future will largely depend on the amount of safe water. As the most fundamental source of life, water is relentlessly consumed and polluted. To halt this trend, many countries are taking extensive measures and investing substantial resources in order to stop the contamination of water and return at least tolerably good water quality to nature. The goal of water purification is to obtain clean water with the sewage sludge as a by-product. Clean water is returned to nature, and further treatment of sludge may be subject to other procedures. The conclusion of this paper is simple. The procedure with purified water is easily achievable, purified water is discharged into rivers, lakes and seas, but the problem of further treatment of sludge remains. This paper presents the basic methods of wastewater treatment and procedures for processing the products from contaminated water. The paper can serve as a basis for further elaboration. Water Pollution In order to ensure normal life of living creatures, the water in which they live or the water they use must have a natural chemical composition and natural features. When, as a result of human activities, the chemical composition of water and the ratio of its chemical elements significantly change, we say that water is polluted. When the pollutants come from industrial plants, we are talking about industrial wastewater, and when they come from households and urban areas, we are talking about municipal wastewater. Both contain a huge amount of pollutants that eventually end up in rivers. Then, thousands of defenseless birds, fish and other animals suffer, and environmental consequences become immeasurable. In addition, the waste fed to the water often ends up in the bodies of marine animals, so they can return to us as food. Thermal water pollution also has multiple effects on the changes in the wildlife composition of aquatic ecosystems. Polluted water can be purified by

  4. Análise da Importância da Taxa de Câmbio e do Ataque Terrorista de 11 de Setembro sobre o Desempenho do Transporte Aéreo Internacional de Passageiros no BrasilThe Importance of Exchange Rate Analysis and the Terrorist Attack of September 11 on the Performance of the International Airborne Transportation sector of Passengers in BrazilAnálisis de la Importancia de la Tasa de Cambio y del Ataque Terrorista del 11 de Septiembre sobre el Desempeño del Transporte Aéreo Internacional de Pasajeros en Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVA, Wesley Vieira da

    2004-09-01

    coefficient, this work aims to demonstrate September 11th event and dollar exchange rate real influence over International Travels Expenses Account in Brazilian Balance of Payment and airborne passengers stream to USA before and after the terrorists attacks. The outcomes from statistics data reject null hypothesis of averages equality between international travels expenses and averages equality between boarded passengers to USA, before and after the event, with 95% trust level. By other hand, the Pearson linear co relational coefficient between dollar exchange rate and international travels expenses was 77, 83%, being significant in 5%.RESUMENLos ataques terroristas cometidos en los EUA el 11/09/2001, que utilizaron como instrumento de destrucción aeronaves comerciales, provocaron grandes cambios políticos y socioeconómicos en todo el mundo, con reflejos que hasta el momento tienen influencia sobre muchos sectores de la economía brasileña. El sentido común indica que este evento agudizó la crisis que afectaba al sector aéreo brasileño desde 1999, en gran parte debido a las oscilaciones en la tasa de cambio de real para dólar norteamericano. Por medio del test paramétrico de diferencias entre medias poblacionales y del coeficiente de correlación linear de Pearson este trabajo se propone demostrar la real influencia del 11 de Septiembre y de la tasa de cambio, sobre la cuenta Viajes Internacionales del balance de pagos brasileño, como también del flujo de pasajeros de transporte aéreo con destino a los EUA antes y después del ataque terrorista. Los resultados estimados a partir de las estadísticas mencionadas rechazaron la hipótesis nula de igualdad de medias entre los gastos con viajes internacionales antes y después del evento, como también se rechazó la misma hipótesis para la cantidad de pasajeros embarcados hacia los EUA con grado de confianza del 95%. Por otro lado, el coeficiente de correlación linear de Pearson entre la tasa de cambio de real por

  5. Heart Attack Recovery FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... smolder — that can be destructive. If you think counseling would help your family deal with your heart attack more ... your lifestyle habits through exercise training, education and counseling to ... or with the help of your doctor, nurse, dietitian or other healthcare ...

  6. Fatal crocodile attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Saurabh; Shee, Biplab; Sukul, Biswajit

    2013-11-01

    Attacks on human beings by various animals leading to varied types of injuries and even death in some cases are not uncommon. Crocodile attacks on humans have been reported from a number of countries across the globe. Deaths in such attacks are mostly due to mechanical injuries or drowning. Bites by the crocodiles often cause the limbs to be separated from the body. The present case refers to an incident of a fatal attack by a crocodile on a 35 years old female where only the mutilated head of the female was recovered. Multiple lacerated wounds over the face and scalp along with fracture of the cranial bones was detected on autopsy. Two distinct bite marks in the form of punched in holes were noted over the parietal and frontal bones. Injuries on the head with its traumatic amputation from the body were sufficient to cause death. However, the presence of other fatal injuries on the unrecovered body parts could not be ruled out. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  7. Temporal Cyber Attack Detection.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingram, Joey Burton [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Draelos, Timothy J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Galiardi, Meghan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Doak, Justin E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Rigorous characterization of the performance and generalization ability of cyber defense systems is extremely difficult, making it hard to gauge uncertainty, and thus, confidence. This difficulty largely stems from a lack of labeled attack data that fully explores the potential adversarial space. Currently, performance of cyber defense systems is typically evaluated in a qualitative manner by manually inspecting the results of the system on live data and adjusting as needed. Additionally, machine learning has shown promise in deriving models that automatically learn indicators of compromise that are more robust than analyst-derived detectors. However, to generate these models, most algorithms require large amounts of labeled data (i.e., examples of attacks). Algorithms that do not require annotated data to derive models are similarly at a disadvantage, because labeled data is still necessary when evaluating performance. In this work, we explore the use of temporal generative models to learn cyber attack graph representations and automatically generate data for experimentation and evaluation. Training and evaluating cyber systems and machine learning models requires significant, annotated data, which is typically collected and labeled by hand for one-off experiments. Automatically generating such data helps derive/evaluate detection models and ensures reproducibility of results. Experimentally, we demonstrate the efficacy of generative sequence analysis techniques on learning the structure of attack graphs, based on a realistic example. These derived models can then be used to generate more data. Additionally, we provide a roadmap for future research efforts in this area.

  8. BIRD ATTACK OCULAR INJURIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaei, Seyed Ali; Soleimani, Mohammad; Behrouz, Mahmoud Jabbarvand

    2017-03-29

    To report 30 patients with bird attack-related eye injuries. This study was performed among patients coming to Farabi Eye Hospital, Tehran, Iran, from 2010 to 2015 with a history of bird attack causing eye injury. The inclusion criteria were a history of bird attack by pecking causing eye injury and having treatment and follow-up record for at least 6 months after treatment. The primary eye examinations included a full ophthalmic examination including evaluation of uncorrected visual acuity and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), anterior segment slit lamp biomicroscopy, and photography. For all patients with penetrating injury, primary repair was undertaken. Thirty patients (10 females and 20 males) with a mean age of 23.3 ± 18.5 years entered the study. The most common zone of injury was zone 1 (P < 0.001), and lensectomy was not needed in majority of patients (P < 0.001). The most common bird causing the injury was mynah (P < 0.001). Those patients with baseline BCVA of less than 20/200 or those with endophthalmitis had statistically worse final BCVA after treatment. Patients attacked by mynah bird had significantly better pretreatment uncorrected visual acuity and BCVA. The most common bird causing the eye injury among the sample of patients from Iran was mynah, which differs with previous studies indicating the rooster attack as the most common cause of eye injury. The authors also found that the most common zone of injury was zone 1, and the presence of endophthalmitis and lower baseline BCVA were significant risk factors for worse visual outcomes.

  9. Bluetooth security attacks comparative analysis, attacks, and countermeasures

    CERN Document Server

    Haataja, Keijo; Pasanen, Sanna; Toivanen, Pekka

    2013-01-01

    This overview of Bluetooth security examines network vulnerabilities and offers a comparative analysis of recent security attacks. It also examines related countermeasures and proposes a novel attack that works against all existing Bluetooth versions.

  10. Interactions within wastewater systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langeveld, J.G.

    2004-01-01

    Wastewater systems consist of sewer systems and wastewater treatment works. As the performance of a wastewater treatment plant is affected by the characteristics, i.e. operation and design, of the contributing sewer systems, knowledge of the interactions between sewers and wastewater treatment works

  11. Epidemiology. DNA identifications after the 9/11 World Trade Center attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesecker, Leslie G; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E; Ballantyne, Jack; Baum, Howard; Bieber, Frederick R; Brenner, Charles; Budowle, Bruce; Butler, John M; Carmody, George; Conneally, P Michael; Duceman, Barry; Eisenberg, Arthur; Forman, Lisa; Kidd, Kenneth K; Leclair, Benoit; Niezgoda, Steven; Parsons, Thomas J; Pugh, Elizabeth; Shaler, Robert; Sherry, Stephen T; Sozer, Amanda; Walsh, Anne

    2005-11-18

    The attack on the World Trade Center on 9/11/2001 challenged current approaches to forensic DNA typing methods. The large number of victims and the extreme thermal and physical conditions of the site necessitated special approaches to the DNA-based identification. Because of these and many additional challenges, new procedures were created or modified from routine forensic protocols. This effort facilitated the identification of 1594 of the 2749 victims. In this Policy Forum, the authors, who were were members of the World Trade Center Kinship and Data Analysis Panel, review the lessons of the attack response from the perspective of DNA forensic identification and suggest policies and procedures for future mass disasters or large-scale terrorist attacks.

  12. Probabilistic Ontology Architecture for a Terrorist Identification Decision Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Handbook on Ontologies in Information Systems.: Springer-Verlag, 2003. [15] Paulo Cesar G. da Costa. (2005, July) PhD George Mason Univeristy. [Online...Probabilistic Ontology Architecture for a Terrorist Identification Decision Support System Topic 3: Data, Information,and Knowledge Topic 5: Modeling...number. 1. REPORT DATE JUN 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Probabilistic Ontology

  13. Striking at the Underbelly: Influencing Would-Be Terrorists

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Husain, The Islamist, 74. 60 movie about Prophet Muhammad was utilized by the terrorists to further their own aims. 6. Economic Deprivation With...him towards the violent path he adopted, but ultimately left. He writes, “To most Arab youths growing up in the 1950s, Nasser represented a dream ...and a symbol: a symbol of Arab nationalism, a dream of Arab unity, of Arab liberation, and of Arab progress. … I was seventeen, and spoiling for a

  14. The Red Brigades: A Description of a Terrorist Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    it necessary and identify by block nlumber) 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse side it necesaary end Identify by block number) CA ATTACHED LJ DD I A...sibility. Jun. 10 Swiss arrest Giustino de Vuono in Lucerne , in connection with murder of Aldo Moro. Jun. 20 Terrorists in Pescara shoot brother of...O’Ballance, Edgar. Language of Violence: The Blood Politics of Terrorism. San Rafael, CA .: Presidio Press, 1979. Parry, Albert. Terrorism From

  15. Generational Changes in Terrorist Movements: The Turkish Case,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-01

    minimal brain 4 See, Teror ve Terorle Mucadelede Durum Degerlendirmesi, Ankara, 1983, p. 135. s Ibid., p. 133. 6 For a brief discussion of the findings...Generational Changes Studies on the terrorist phenomenon in Western Europe have emphasized the nature and the significance of the generational changes...a pattern that was quite similar to the one observed in d Western Europe . The death or the imprisonment of Turkey’s first urban guerrilla activists

  16. Trash can bomb can fall into the hands of terrorists

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Leading scientists from CERN described how if terrorists were able to get their hands on plutonium or uranium, they would be able to manufacture a 'trash can' nuclear bomb simply by inserting the radioactive material into a normal bomb. Once detonated a large area could be contaminated leading to the immediate deaths of many with many more future casualties due to cancers caused by the radiation.

  17. Tactics Used by the Terrorist Organisation Boko Haram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pricopi Marius

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Boko Haram is no regular terrorist organization; although not as widely-known as the Islamic State or Al-Qaeda, Boko Haram has been declared the deadliest terror group of 2014. Fortunately, the organization seems to currently be on the run; and the successes of the Nigerian government in countering it have been founded on a timely understanding of its modus operandi.

  18. Closing the Gap: Measuring the Social Identity of Terrorists

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Introduction a la Psychologie Sociale Vol. 1. Paris: Larousse. 6 David W. Brannan, Philip F. Esler, & N.T. Anders Strindberg, “Talking to...St. Andrews, Scotland: Taylor & Francis, January 2001), Vol. 24, No. 1, 9. 6 • Cognitive component – The individual’s knowledge that he or she is a... Cognitive component – An individual is or becomes radicalized and supports the terrorist organization. This is an awareness of being a member of

  19. The Evolving Terrorist Threat to Southeast Asia. A Net Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    more intrac- table and resilient than in the past.46 In the words of one senior police official, The Malay Muslim conflict today is stronger than it...seeking to fight in Poso and was set up through the Solo branch of KOMPAK, an Islamic charity created in 1998 under the Dewan Dakwah Islam...terms of their parent terrorist organizations’ activities (see, e.g., ICG, 2007d). An additional and equally serious issue concerns the number of

  20. MEXICAN DRUG CARTELS AND TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS, A NEW ALLIANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    planning and training. A second similarity is that both cartels and terrorist organizations depend on corruption for their endeavors. Mexico has a...the southern U.S. and Mexico border with large scale drug trafficking, gun smuggling, human trafficking and smuggling, illegal immigration, and the...threat to U.S. national security. Former U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton stated that Mexico (and the U.S.) face a “narco-terrorist” offensive

  1. A data-stream classification system for investigating terrorist threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Alexia; Dettman, Joshua; Gottschalk, Jeffrey; Kotson, Michael; Vuksani, Era; Yu, Tamara

    2016-05-01

    The role of cyber forensics in criminal investigations has greatly increased in recent years due to the wealth of data that is collected and available to investigators. Physical forensics has also experienced a data volume and fidelity revolution due to advances in methods for DNA and trace evidence analysis. Key to extracting insight is the ability to correlate across multi-modal data, which depends critically on identifying a touch-point connecting the separate data streams. Separate data sources may be connected because they refer to the same individual, entity or event. In this paper we present a data source classification system tailored to facilitate the investigation of potential terrorist activity. This taxonomy is structured to illuminate the defining characteristics of a particular terrorist effort and designed to guide reporting to decision makers that is complete, concise, and evidence-based. The classification system has been validated and empirically utilized in the forensic analysis of a simulated terrorist activity. Next-generation analysts can use this schema to label and correlate across existing data streams, assess which critical information may be missing from the data, and identify options for collecting additional data streams to fill information gaps.

  2. Hotels as a target for terrorism: a study of the Helsinki area hotels’ preparedness for an attack

    OpenAIRE

    Kovalevskiy, Andrey

    2015-01-01

    The threat of terrorism is an issue that is not to be taken lightly in the world of today. The year 2015 has sadly been marked with an unsettlingly high number of acts of terror across the globe that claimed a multitude of civilian lives. The hospitality industry and hotels in particular are especially vulnerable to a potential terrorist attack, and this fact attracted the author’s attention to the issue of the prevention of such attacks and the measures (if any) that the Helsinki hotels are ...

  3. Life After a Heart Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... been stable for a few weeks. Anxiety and Depression After a Heart Attack After a heart attack, ... 2009, this project provided six awards at five academic institutions to identify genetic connections to heart, lung, ...

  4. When women attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Bryan; Davis, Catasha; Coppini, David; Kim, Young Mie; Knisely, Sandra; McLeod, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    The common assumption that female candidates on the campaign trail should not go on the attack, because such tactics contradict gender stereotypes, has not received consistent support. We argue that in some circumstances gender stereotypes will favor female politicians going negative. To test this proposition, this study examines how gender cues affect voter reactions to negative ads in the context of a political sex scandal, a context that should prime gender stereotypes that favor females. Using an online experiment involving a national sample of U.S. adults (N = 599), we manipulate the gender and partisan affiliation of a politician who attacks a male opponent caught in a sex scandal involving sexually suggestive texting to a female intern. Results show that in the context of a sex scandal, a female candidate going on the attack is evaluated more positively than a male. Moreover, while female participants viewed the female sponsor more favorably, sponsor gender had no effect on male participants. Partisanship also influenced candidate evaluations: the Democratic female candidate was evaluated more favorably than her Republican female counterpart.

  5. Network Technologies for Networked Terrorists: Assessing the Value of Information and Communication Technologies to Modern Terrorist Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    monitored and audited, they permit terrorist organizations to exercise a global reach at relatively low cost with relatively low risk.13 12 Adams ( 1986 ...groups disrupted by Canadian authorities and the FBI in mid-2006. See, for example, United States v. Batiste, Abraham, Phanor, Herrera, Augustin...careful group would avoid, some groups have made such mistakes. For example, during the shootout with and subsequent arrest of a Red Brigades member in

  6. Attack Trees with Sequential Conjunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jhawar, Ravi; Kordy, Barbara; Mauw, Sjouke; Radomirović, Sasa; Trujillo-Rasua, Rolando

    2015-01-01

    We provide the first formal foundation of SAND attack trees which are a popular extension of the well-known attack trees. The SAND at- tack tree formalism increases the expressivity of attack trees by intro- ducing the sequential conjunctive operator SAND. This operator enables the modeling of

  7. Replacement Attack: A New Zero Text Watermarking Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashardoost, Morteza; Mohd Rahim, Mohd Shafry; Saba, Tanzila; Rehman, Amjad

    2017-03-01

    The main objective of zero watermarking methods that are suggested for the authentication of textual properties is to increase the fragility of produced watermarks against tampering attacks. On the other hand, zero watermarking attacks intend to alter the contents of document without changing the watermark. In this paper, the Replacement attack is proposed, which focuses on maintaining the location of the words in the document. The proposed text watermarking attack is specifically effective on watermarking approaches that exploit words' transition in the document. The evaluation outcomes prove that tested word-based method are unable to detect the existence of replacement attack in the document. Moreover, the comparison results show that the size of Replacement attack is estimated less accurate than other common types of zero text watermarking attacks.

  8. Structural Learning of Attack Vectors for Generating Mutated XSS Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hsun Wang

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Web applications suffer from cross-site scripting (XSS attacks that resulting from incomplete or incorrect input sanitization. Learning the structure of attack vectors could enrich the variety of manifestations in generated XSS attacks. In this study, we focus on generating more threatening XSS attacks for the state-of-the-art detection approaches that can find potential XSS vulnerabilities in Web applications, and propose a mechanism for structural learning of attack vectors with the aim of generating mutated XSS attacks in a fully automatic way. Mutated XSS attack generation depends on the analysis of attack vectors and the structural learning mechanism. For the kernel of the learning mechanism, we use a Hidden Markov model (HMM as the structure of the attack vector model to capture the implicit manner of the attack vector, and this manner is benefited from the syntax meanings that are labeled by the proposed tokenizing mechanism. Bayes theorem is used to determine the number of hidden states in the model for generalizing the structure model. The paper has the contributions as following: (1 automatically learn the structure of attack vectors from practical data analysis to modeling a structure model of attack vectors, (2 mimic the manners and the elements of attack vectors to extend the ability of testing tool for identifying XSS vulnerabilities, (3 be helpful to verify the flaws of blacklist sanitization procedures of Web applications. We evaluated the proposed mechanism by Burp Intruder with a dataset collected from public XSS archives. The results show that mutated XSS attack generation can identify potential vulnerabilities.

  9. A Glance at Terrorist Organizations from the Perspective of Organizational Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Yılmaz, Sefer

    2013-01-01

    The problem of conceptualizing terrorist organization is still a controversial issue, even though it has been taken place in the literature heavily. In this essay, terrorist organizations will be approached in the context of organizational theories. Terrorist organizations will be introduced as exceptional structures besides being consistent with most of the organizational theories, departing from them in terms of strategies they adapt and life expectancy they experience. According to some th...

  10. Seven Deadliest Unified Communications Attacks

    CERN Document Server

    York, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Do you need to keep up with the latest hacks, attacks, and exploits effecting Unified Communications technology? Then you need Seven Deadliest Unified Communication Attacks. This book pinpoints the most dangerous hacks and exploits specific to Unified Communications, laying out the anatomy of these attacks including how to make your system more secure. You will discover the best ways to defend against these vicious hacks with step-by-step instruction and learn techniques to make your computer and network impenetrable. Attacks featured in this book include: UC Ecosystem Attacks Insecure Endpo

  11. Shuttle Wastewater Solution Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Niklas; Pham, Chau

    2011-01-01

    During the 31st shuttle mission to the International Space Station, STS-129, there was a clogging event in the shuttle wastewater tank. A routine wastewater dump was performed during the mission and before the dump was completed, degraded flow was observed. In order to complete the wastewater dump, flow had to be rerouted around the dump filter. As a result, a basic chemical and microbial investigation was performed to understand the shuttle wastewater system and perform mitigation tasks to prevent another blockage. Testing continued on the remaining shuttle flights wastewater and wastewater tank cleaning solutions. The results of the analyses and the effect of the mitigation steps are detailed in this paper.

  12. The Terrorist as a Belligerent Under International Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    the acccused to the appropriate authorities for disposition. 176 Most countries provide in their penal codes that attacks or attempted attacks... Derecho International, 1962, quoted in Inter-American Juridical Committee, "Statement of Reasons for the Draft Convention on Terrorism and Kidnapping

  13. Attacks on computer systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan V. Vuletić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer systems are a critical component of the human society in the 21st century. Economic sector, defense, security, energy, telecommunications, industrial production, finance and other vital infrastructure depend on computer systems that operate at local, national or global scales. A particular problem is that, due to the rapid development of ICT and the unstoppable growth of its application in all spheres of the human society, their vulnerability and exposure to very serious potential dangers increase. This paper analyzes some typical attacks on computer systems.

  14. Can You Recognize a Heart Attack? Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Can You Recognize a Heart Attack? Updated:Sep 16, ... a Heart Attack Heart Attack Symptoms in Women “Can you recognize a heart attack?” Quiz • Understand Your ...

  15. Recent "phishing" attacks

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2009-01-01

    Over the last few weeks there has been a marked increase in the number of attacks on CERN made by cybercriminals. Typical attacks arrive in the form of e-mail messages purporting to come from the CERN Help Desk, Mail Service, or some similarly official-sounding entity and suggest that there is a problem with your account, such as it being over-quota. They then ask you to click on a link or to reply and give your password. Please don’t! Be cautious of any unexpected messages containing web links even if they appear to come from known contacts. If you happen to click on such a link and if your permission is requested to run or install software, always decline it. NEVER provide your password or other details if these are requested. These messages try to trick you into clicking on Web links which will help them to install malicious software on your computer, and anti-virus software cannot be relied on to detect all cases. In case of questions on this topic, you may contact mailto:helpdesk@cern.ch. CERN Comput...

  16. Psychiatric aspects of terrorist violence: Northern Ireland 1969-1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, P S

    1988-10-01

    For 18 years, Northern Ireland has suffered a changing pattern of civil disorder. Early years were marked by widespread sectarian rioting, shootings, and bombings, which heightened community tension and caused much social and commercial disruption. However, in recent years, terrorist organisations have been more selective in their acts of violence. There are methodological difficulties in assessing the psychological impact of civil disorder and terrorism. But, as well as can be judged from community surveys, hospital admissions and referral data, psychotropic drug usage, suicide and attempted suicide rates, and from assessment of the actual victims of violence, society has not 'broken down' nor has the impact been judged considerable. Possible explanations are discussed.

  17. Metal Removal in Wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez Roldan, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study Copper removal capacity of different algae species and their mixtures from the municipal wastewater. This project was implemented in the greenhouse in the laboratories of Tampere University of Applied Sciences and the wastewater used was the one from the Tampere municipal wastewater treatment plant. Five algae species and three mixtures of them were tested for their Copper removal potential in wastewater in one batch test run. The most efficient algae mixture...

  18. Characterisation of wastewater for modelling of wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bio-process modelling is increasingly used in design, modification and troubleshooting of wastewater treatment plants. (WWTPs). Characterisation of the influent wastewater to a WWTP is an important part of developing such a model. The characterisation required for modelling is more detailed than that routinely employed ...

  19. Characterisation of wastewater for modelling of wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bio-process modelling is increasingly used in design, modification and troubleshooting of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Characterisation of the influent wastewater to a WWTP is an important part of developing such a model. The characterisation required for modelling is more detailed than that routinely employed ...

  20. Tracing Technique for Blaster Attack

    OpenAIRE

    S., Siti Rahayu; Y., Robiah; S., Shahrin; A., Faizal M.; M, Mohd Zaki; R, Irda

    2009-01-01

    Blaster worm of 2003 is still persistent, the infection appears to have successfully transitioned to new hosts as the original systems are cleaned or shut off, suggesting that the Blaster worm, and other similar worms, will remain significant Internet threats for many years after their initial release. This paper is to propose technique on tracing the Blaster attack from various logs in different OSI layers based on fingerprint of Blaster attack on victim logs, attacker logs and IDS alert log...

  1. Attacks on RFID Identification Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Mikhaylov

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is about attacks on RFID systems. Currently antivirus developers are not developing systems that protect from viruses that could exist on RFID tags. Such viruses are considered as not existing because the RFID tag memory is very small. Unfortunately such viruses exist. This article is concerned to such viruses and attacks that hackers could do using such viruses. Based on this article methods to prevent RFID-viruses attacks could be developed.

  2. The Peace Movement and Terrorist Organizations in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-01

    called "Autonomous Left," stragglers of hard-core terrorist groups, low-level anarchists without any existing organization, punks , and homosexuals...received a boost when large-scale protests rocked West Germany. These demonstrators, anarchists linked to the terrorist Red Army Faction (RAF), showed a

  3. The Scope of Definition of a Terrorist Act under Ethiopian Law ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While regional and international human rights institutions claim that the definition of a terrorist act under the Anti-terrorism Proclamation No. 652/2009 is overly broad as a result of which citizens not involved in a genuinely terrorist act are prosecuted and jailed, the Ethiopian government defends the law pointing that it is ...

  4. Kidnapping by Terrorist Groups, 1970-2010: Is Ideological Orientation Relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest, James J. F.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines whether a terrorist group's ideology has a meaningful impact on its involvement in kidnapping. On a global level, incident data (1970-2010) indicate that in the past decade the number of kidnappings by terrorist groups has increased, while Muslim extremists have replaced left-wing/Marxist revolutionaries as the world's…

  5. Seven Deadliest Social Network Attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Timm, Carl

    2010-01-01

    Do you need to keep up with the latest hacks, attacks, and exploits effecting social networks? Then you need Seven Deadliest Social Network Attacks. This book pinpoints the most dangerous hacks and exploits specific to social networks like Facebook, Twitter, and MySpace, laying out the anatomy of these attacks including how to make your system more secure. You will discover the best ways to defend against these vicious hacks with step-by-step instruction and learn techniques to make your computer and network impenetrable. Attacks detailed in this book include: Social Networking Infrastruct

  6. Seven Deadliest Web Application Attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Shema, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Do you need to keep up with the latest hacks, attacks, and exploits effecting web applications? Then you need Seven Deadliest Web Application Attacks. This book pinpoints the most dangerous hacks and exploits specific to web applications, laying out the anatomy of these attacks including how to make your system more secure. You will discover the best ways to defend against these vicious hacks with step-by-step instruction and learn techniques to make your computer and network impenetrable. .. .. Attacks detailed in this book include: ..: ..; Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) ..; Cross-Site Request Fo

  7. Mortality salience, political orientation and minimization of terrorists' secondary emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñuela Sánchez, Raúl; Yela García, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    From the framework of Terror Management Theory, the objective of the present research is to analyze the effect of mortality salience (MS) on the minimization of Muslim terrorists’ secondary emotions (MSE, which can be understood as a particular kind of dehumanization), as a function of political orientation. An experimental design was used, in which the participants (university students, N= 293) were randomly assigned to a control or experimental group, their political orientation was taken note of, and they were asked to attribute emotions to Muslim terrorists. In accordance with the hypotheses, the results indicate that, among those supporting tenets of the political left, MS originates less minimization of secondary emotions of the terrorists (MSE). However, among people who stand on the right, MS inspires greater MSE (that is, a lower attribution of these emotions). These results support the thesis that the effects of MS are not to be found exclusively in conservative people, and that they do not necessarily imply a conservative shift, but constitute a polarization in previous ideological tendencies or cultural worldview.

  8. The alliance relationship analysis of international terrorist organizations with link prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ling; Fang, Haiyang; Tian, Yanfang; Yang, Tinghong; Zhao, Jing

    2017-09-01

    Terrorism is a huge public hazard of the international community. Alliances of terrorist organizations may cause more serious threat to national security and world peace. Understanding alliances between global terrorist organizations will facilitate more effective anti-terrorism collaboration between governments. Based on publicly available data, this study constructed a alliance network between terrorist organizations and analyzed the alliance relationships with link prediction. We proposed a novel index based on optimal weighted fusion of six similarity indices, in which the optimal weight is calculated by genetic algorithm. Our experimental results showed that this algorithm could achieve better results on the networks than other algorithms. Using this method, we successfully digged out 21 real terrorist organizations alliance from current data. Our experiment shows that this approach used for terrorist organizations alliance mining is effective and this study is expected to benefit the form of a more powerful anti-terrorism strategy.

  9. Attacker profiling in quantitative security assessment based on attack trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenin, Aleksandr; Willemson, Jan; Sari, Dyan Permata

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of research of limiting adversarial budget in attack games, and, in particular, in the failure-free attack tree models presented by Buldas-Stepanenko in 2012 and improved in 2013 by Buldas and Lenin. In the previously presented models attacker’s budget was assumed to be

  10. Mitigation of chemical attacks in enclosed public transportation facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swansiger, William A.; Brockmann, John E.

    1998-12-01

    Public transportation facilities in the United States are vulnerable to attack by terrorists using chemical agents. This paper focuses on the problem of protecting the people in underground subway stations, which are among the most difficult facilities to protect. A nerve agent can produce symptoms in seconds to minutes, so immediate triggering of evacuation alarms and initiation of mitigation measures is necessary to minimize casualties in the station. The question of whether currently available chemical detectors are sufficiently capable and reliable to enable an automated response is addressed and augmentation possibilities are discussed. A number of concepts for mitigating chemical attacks are explored and their applicability to other transportation facilities is discussed. A possible near-term mitigation measure that is reviewed in some detail is the use of water sprays to scrub gasses and aerosols from the air. This technique may have applicability in the station at the point of agent release, as well as for detoxification of the air stream if selective venting is employed. Calculations show that with proper spray nozzle selection, the water pressure and flow rate available at some subway stations for fire suppression is sufficient for effective removal of Sarin from an air stream.

  11. The role of revenge, denial, and terrorism distress in restoring just world beliefs: the impact of the 2008 Mumbai attacks on British and Indian students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Neil; Kamble, Shanmukh V

    2012-01-01

    Just world beliefs for students (N = 413) from India and the United Kingdom were measured. The participants then read a scenario about the 2008 terrorist attacks on Mumbai. The participants were then assessed for terrorism distress and offered multiple strategies (revenge and denial) to restore their just world beliefs. The findings indicate that students resident in India along with those who hold strong just world beliefs felt more distress, held a greater desire for revenge, and demonstrated more denial than the British students and those who had weak beliefs in a just world. These results indicate the important role just world beliefs play in responding to the threat created by mass casualty terrorist attacks. The implications for just world theory are also discussed.

  12. Invisible Trojan-horse attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sajeed, Shihan; Minshull, Carter; Jain, Nitin

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate the experimental feasibility of a Trojan-horse attack that remains nearly invisible to the single-photon detectors employed in practical quantum key distribution (QKD) systems, such as Clavis2 from ID Quantique. We perform a detailed numerical comparison of the attack performance...

  13. Heart Attack Symptoms in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Conditions and Privacy Policy Go Red For Women® presents: View our first-ever short film (opens in new window) by Elizabeth Banks and share with the women you love. Heart Attack • Home • About Heart Attacks ...

  14. [Heart-attack in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Výtisková, T; Suchá, D; Fučíková, Z

    To describe hear-attack on crystal meth addicted pregnant woman. Case report. Acute heart-attack during pregnancy means unexpected obstetric complication. The consequences could be fatal for the mother and the fetus. Although good delivery management and treatment could reduce morbidity and mortality to a minimum.

  15. Invisible Trojan-horse attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajeed, Shihan; Minshull, Carter; Jain, Nitin; Makarov, Vadim

    2017-08-21

    We demonstrate the experimental feasibility of a Trojan-horse attack that remains nearly invisible to the single-photon detectors employed in practical quantum key distribution (QKD) systems, such as Clavis2 from ID Quantique. We perform a detailed numerical comparison of the attack performance against Scarani-Ac´ın-Ribordy-Gisin (SARG04) QKD protocol at 1924 nm versus that at 1536 nm. The attack strategy was proposed earlier but found to be unsuccessful at the latter wavelength, as reported in N. Jain et al., New J. Phys. 16, 123030 (2014). However at 1924 nm, we show experimentally that the noise response of the detectors to bright pulses is greatly reduced, and show by modeling that the same attack will succeed. The invisible nature of the attack poses a threat to the security of practical QKD if proper countermeasures are not adopted.

  16. Superposition Attacks on Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Funder, Jakob Løvstad; Nielsen, Jesper Buus

    2011-01-01

    string model. While our protocol is classical, it is sound against a cheating unbounded quantum prover and computational zero-knowledge even if the verifier is allowed a superposition attack. Finally, we consider multiparty computation and show that for the most general type of attack, simulation based......Attacks on classical cryptographic protocols are usually modeled by allowing an adversary to ask queries from an oracle. Security is then defined by requiring that as long as the queries satisfy some constraint, there is some problem the adversary cannot solve, such as compute a certain piece...... of information. In this paper, we introduce a fundamentally new model of quantum attacks on classical cryptographic protocols, where the adversary is allowed to ask several classical queries in quantum superposition. This is a strictly stronger attack than the standard one, and we consider the security...

  17. Enhancing the NFLs Counter-Terrorism Efforts: Is the Leagues Security Scheme Able to Effectively Thwart Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Programming Network FAA Federal Aviation Administration FBI Federal Bureau of Investigation FBO Football Banning Order FIG Field Intelligence Group FY...DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) The National Football League (NFL) has become the unofficial national pastime in the United...secure major-league regular season football games and their tailgates effectively and in a manner that does not scare away the fan base

  18. An Analysis of IT Governance Practices in the Federal Government: Protecting U.S. Critical Infrastructure from Cyber Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. LeWayne

    2012-01-01

    Much of the governing process in the United States (U.S.) today depends on a reliable and well protected public information technology (IT) infrastructure. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is tasked with the responsibility of protecting the country's IT infrastructure. Critics contend that the DHS has failed to address planning and…

  19. EFFECTS OF TERRORISM IN TOURISM INDUSTRY : A Case Study of 9/11 Terrorist Attacks in World Trade Center

    OpenAIRE

    Ranabhat , Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Rapid growth of tourism industry has been a good sign of business. International tourism is co-operation between countries. The development of global economy is depending upon the global tourism industry. Social network is directly and indirectly affected by terrorism activities. There are push and pull factor in tourism. Terrorism is a pull factor that is considered a negative factor. Terrorism is the biggest factor, which pushes tourism industry down. Terrorism brings fear to tourists, whic...

  20. Israeli Adolescents' Help-Seeking Behaviours in Relation to Terrorist Attacks: The Perceptions of Students, School Counsellors and Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatar, Moshe; Amram, Sima

    2008-01-01

    Exposure to terror seriously threatens the well-being of children and adolescents. School mental health professionals cope simultaneously with the counselling needs of their clients and with their own fears and doubts. This report is based on two studies. The first study was concerned with the perceptions of Israeli adolescents of the place of…

  1. Applying the Israeli Practice of Reconstruction Following a Terrorist Attack as a Model for Cities in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    most primal instincts related to survival. Alertness to danger or potential harm may heighten a response to avert same. Consequently, negative...cornerstone of all primal instincts, one may conclude that issues of personal control and safety are never willingly surrendered. However, in... innovation are offered the solutions to counter decreased resources and funding. “Foresight tells us that the future will challenge us to be even

  2. Suicidal terrorist bombings in Israel--identification of human remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahana, T; Freund, M; Hiss, J

    1997-03-01

    Positive identification of human remains is one of the most important tasks in mass disaster investigations. Religious and jurisdictional demands in Israel, require the identification process to be completed in the shortest possible time. In the 18 suicidal terrorist bombings that took place in Israel between the years 1993-1996, 127 victims and 19 perpetrators were killed, and their severely fragmented bodies were identified within 24 h. The efficient completion of the identification endeavor was enabled by the implementation of a variety of techniques and the close collaboration in the investigation between the different emergency and forensic agencies. This paper presents the mass disaster identification policy and techniques currently used in Israel. The importance of an interdisciplinary approach for the identification of extremely fragmented human remains from mass disasters and the creation of a central data bank of fingerprints and genetic markers is emphasized.

  3. The Clinical Threat Assessment of the Lone-Actor Terrorist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloy, J Reid; Genzman, Jacqueline

    2016-12-01

    The Terrorist Radicalization Assessment Protocol (TRAP-18) is a structured professional judgment instrument for the assessment of individuals who present a concern for lone-actor terrorism. It consists of eight proximal warning behaviors and 10 distal characteristics. Previous research has demonstrated its interrater reliability and some concurrent and postdictive validity. In this article, TRAP-18 is retrospectively applied to the case of US Army psychiatrist and jihadist Malik Nidal Hasan, who committed a mass murder at Fort Hood, Texas in 2009. The strengths and limitations of TRAP-18 as a structured professional judgment instrument for mental health clinicians are discussed, and clinical risk management suggestions are made. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Know thy enemy: Education about terrorism improves social attitudes toward terrorists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theriault, Jordan; Krause, Peter; Young, Liane

    2017-03-01

    Hatred of terrorists is an obstacle to the implementation of effective counterterrorism policies-it invites indiscriminate retaliation, whereas many of the greatest successes in counterterrorism have come from understanding terrorists' personal and political motivations. Drawing from psychological research, traditional prejudice reduction strategies are generally not well suited to the task of reducing hatred of terrorists. Instead, in 2 studies, we explored education's potential ability to reduce extreme negative attitudes toward terrorists. Study 1 compared students in a college course on terrorism (treatment) with wait-listed students, measuring prosocial attitudes toward a hypothetical terrorist. Initially, all students reported extremely negative attitudes; however, at the end of the semester, treatment students' attitudes were significantly improved. Study 2 replicated the effect within a sample of treatment and control classes drawn from universities across the United States. The present work was part of an ongoing research project, focusing on foreign policy and the perceived threat of terrorism; thus classes did not explicitly aim to reduce prejudice, making the effect of treatment somewhat surprising. One possibility is that learning about terrorists "crowds out" the initial pejorative associations-that is, the label terrorism may ultimately call more information to mind, diluting its initial negative associative links. Alternatively, students may learn to challenge how the label terrorist is being applied. In either case, learning about terrorism can decrease the extreme negative reactions it evokes, which is desirable if one wishes to implement effective counterterrorism policies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Bombing alone: tracing the motivations and antecedent behaviors of lone-actor terrorists,.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Paul; Horgan, John; Deckert, Paige

    2014-03-01

    This article analyzes the sociodemographic network characteristics and antecedent behaviors of 119 lone-actor terrorists. This marks a departure from existing analyses by largely focusing upon behavioral aspects of each offender. This article also examines whether lone-actor terrorists differ based on their ideologies or network connectivity. The analysis leads to seven conclusions. There was no uniform profile identified. In the time leading up to most lone-actor terrorist events, other people generally knew about the offender's grievance, extremist ideology, views, and/or intent to engage in violence. A wide range of activities and experiences preceded lone actors' plots or events. Many but not all lone-actor terrorists were socially isolated. Lone-actor terrorists regularly engaged in a detectable and observable range of activities with a wider pressure group, social movement, or terrorist organization. Lone-actor terrorist events were rarely sudden and impulsive. There were distinguishable behavioral differences between subgroups. The implications for policy conclude this article. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  6. Bombing Alone: Tracing the Motivations and Antecedent Behaviors of Lone-Actor Terrorists*,†,‡

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Paul; Horgan, John; Deckert, Paige

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the sociodemographic network characteristics and antecedent behaviors of 119 lone-actor terrorists. This marks a departure from existing analyses by largely focusing upon behavioral aspects of each offender. This article also examines whether lone-actor terrorists differ based on their ideologies or network connectivity. The analysis leads to seven conclusions. There was no uniform profile identified. In the time leading up to most lone-actor terrorist events, other people generally knew about the offender’s grievance, extremist ideology, views, and/or intent to engage in violence. A wide range of activities and experiences preceded lone actors’ plots or events. Many but not all lone-actor terrorists were socially isolated. Lone-actor terrorists regularly engaged in a detectable and observable range of activities with a wider pressure group, social movement, or terrorist organization. Lone-actor terrorist events were rarely sudden and impulsive. There were distinguishable behavioral differences between subgroups. The implications for policy conclude this article. PMID:24313297

  7. Rural hospital mass casualty response to a terrorist shooting spree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waage, S; Poole, J C; Thorgersen, E B

    2013-08-01

    Civilian mass casualty incidents may occur infrequently and suddenly, and are caused by accidents, natural disasters or human terrorist incidents. Most reports deal with trauma centre management in large cities, and data from small local hospitals are scarce. A rural hospital response to a mass casualty incident caused by a terrorist shooting spree was evaluated. An observational study was undertaken to evaluate the triage, diagnosis and management of all casualties received from the Utøya youth camp in Norway on 22 July 2011 by a local hospital, using data from the hospital's electronic records. Descriptive data are presented for patient demographics, injuries and patient flow. The shooting on Utøya youth camp left 69 people dead and 60 wounded. A rural hospital (Ringerike Hospital) triaged 35 patients, of whom 18 were admitted. During the main surge, the hospital triaged and treated 22 patients within 1 h, of whom 13 fulfilled the criteria for activating the hospital trauma team, including five with critical injuries (defined as an Injury Severity Score above 15). Ten computed tomography scans, two focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST) scans and 25 conventional X-rays were performed. During the first 24 h, ten surgical procedures were performed and four chest drains inserted. No patient died. Critical deviation from the major incident plan was needed, and future need for revision is deemed necessary based on the experience. Communication systems and the organization of radiological services proved to be most vulnerable. © 2013 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. On the use of capillary electrophoresis for the determination of inorganic anions and cations, and carbohydrates in residues collected after a simulated suicide bombing attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarazin, Cédric; Delaunay, Nathalie; Costanza, Christine; Eudes, Véronique; Gareil, Pierre

    2013-01-15

    In order to train scientist field investigators after terrorist attacks, the laboratory of the Prefecture de Police of Paris simulated a suicide bombing attack in a bus. After collection of the residues, analyses were carried out to determine the composition of the original explosive charge. This article focuses on the combined use, for the first time, of three new capillary electrophoresis methods for the determination of inorganic anions and cations, and carbohydrates in two representative extracts. Capillary electrophoresis appears as an effective tool to identify and quantify the compounds in real extracts and is fully complementary to chromatographic methods. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Allergens might trigger migraine attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bektas, Hesna; Karabulut, Hayriye; Doganay, Beyza; Acar, Baran

    2017-03-01

    Migraine is a common primary headache disorder. The mechanisms underlying the onset of a migraine attack are not completely understood. Environmental changes and a number of other factors could induce migraine attacks. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the frequency of migraine attacks and allergens. Migraine patients without aura, and healthy individuals similar in age and gender without a history of headache and allergy were prospectively included in the study. The duration of migraine, the frequency of migraine attacks, the medication history, and the symptoms during attacks were questioned. Migraine disability assessment score (MIDAS) and visual analog scale (VAS) scores were obtained. Allergen extracts including dust, fungi, insect, animal epithelium, pollens, and food allergens were applied for allergy tests. 49 migraine patients and 49 healthy individuals were enrolled in the study. There was no significant difference in terms of age and gender. The median migraine disease duration, the number of attacks in a month, and the duration of attacks were, respectively, 5.5 years (1-44), 4 (1-10) day/month, and 24 (4-72) h. The mean MIDAS grade was 2.45 ± 0.14 (1-4), and mean VAS score was 7.89 ± 0.27 (4-10). The positivity of allergy tests was 55.1 % (27/49) in the migraine group and 32.7 % (16/49) in the control group (p < 0.05). The allergy tests were positive for house dust, red birch, hazel tree, olive tree, nettle, and wheat. The frequency of migraine attacks was higher in allergy-test-positive patients than in negative ones in the migraine group (p = 0.001). The migraine patients who had frequent attacks should be examined for allergies.

  10. WILD PIG ATTACKS ON HUMANS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, J.

    2013-04-12

    Attacks on humans by wild pigs (Sus scrofa) have been documented since ancient times. However, studies characterizing these incidents are lacking. In an effort to better understand this phenomenon, information was collected from 412 wild pig attacks on humans. Similar to studies of large predator attacks on humans, data came from a variety of sources. The various attacks compiled occurred in seven zoogeographic realms. Most attacks occurred within the species native range, and specifically in rural areas. The occurrence was highest during the winter months and daylight hours. Most happened under non-hunting circumstances and appeared to be unprovoked. Wounded animals were the chief cause of these attacks in hunting situations. The animals involved were typically solitary, male and large in size. The fate of the wild pigs involved in these attacks varied depending upon the circumstances, however, most escaped uninjured. Most human victims were adult males traveling on foot and alone. The most frequent outcome for these victims was physical contact/mauling. The severity of resulting injuries ranged from minor to fatal. Most of the mauled victims had injuries to only one part of their bodies, with legs/feet being the most frequent body part injured. Injuries were primarily in the form of lacerations and punctures. Fatalities were typically due to blood loss. In some cases, serious infections or toxemia resulted from the injuries. Other species (i.e., pets and livestock) were also accompanying some of the humans during these attacks. The fates of these animals varied from escaping uninjured to being killed. Frequency data on both non-hunting and hunting incidents of wild pig attacks on humans at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, showed quantitatively that such incidents are rare.

  11. Shark Attack Project - Marine Attack at Towed Hydrophone Arrays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kalmijn, Adrianus J

    2005-01-01

    The original objective of the SIO Marine Attack project was to identify the electric and magnetic fields causing sharks to inflict serious damage upon the towed hydrophone arrays of US Navy submarines...

  12. The Proliferation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Terrorist Use, Capability, and Strategic Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, Ryan Jokl [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-10-16

    There has been unparalleled proliferation and technological advancement of consumer unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) across the globe in the past several years. As witnessed over the course of insurgency tactics, it is difficult to restrict terrorists from using widely available technology they perceive as advantageous to their overall strategy. Through a review of the characteristics, consumer market landscape, tactics, and countertactics, as well as operational use of consumer-grade UAVs, this open-source report seeks to provide an introductory understanding of the terrorist-UAV landscape, as well as insights into present and future capabilities. The caveat is evaluating a developing technology haphazardly used by terrorists in asymmetric conflicts.

  13. A theory of terrorist leadership (and its consequences for leadership targeting)

    OpenAIRE

    Freeman, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The article of record as published may be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09546553.2012.751912 States often target terrorist leaders with the belief that the leader’s death or capture will cause the terrorist organization to collapse. Yet the history of this strategy of “leadership targeting” provides a mixed record-for every example of effectiveness, there are similar examples of ineffectiveness. The central question of this article is: what makes a terrorist leader important? Specific...

  14. Multiculturalism & The Charlie Hebdo Attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2016-01-01

    The attack on Charlie Hebdo has by many been linked to multiculturalism. But it is unclear exactly how the connection between multiculturalism and the attack should be understood and whether there indeed is such a connection. The article discusses this by distinguishing between different senses...... of multiculturalism and different ways in which one might think that there is a link between multiculturalism and the attack. On this basis the resulting claims are discussed as to whether they are in fact plausible, which many of them turn out not to be....

  15. Automated Generation of Attack Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigo, Roberto; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2014-01-01

    -prone and impracticable for large systems. Nonetheless, the automated generation of attack trees has only been explored in connection to computer networks and levering rich models, whose analysis typically leads to an exponential blow-up of the state space. We propose a static analysis approach where attack trees...... interesting quantitative problems, that can be solved through an encoding into Satisfiability Modulo Theories. The flexibility and effectiveness of the approach is demonstrated on the study of a national-scale authentication system, whose attack tree is computed thanks to a Java implementation...

  16. The Cyber-Physical Attacker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigo, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    The world of Cyber-Physical Systems ranges from industrial to national interest applications. Even though these systems are pervading our everyday life, we are still far from fully understanding their security properties. Devising a suitable attacker model is a crucial element when studying...... the security properties of CPSs, as a system cannot be secured without defining the threats it is subject to. In this work an attacker scenario is presented which addresses the peculiarities of a cyber-physical adversary, and we discuss how this scenario relates to other attacker models popular in the security...

  17. Some legal challenges posed by remote attack

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    William Boothby

    2012-01-01

      Abstract Attacking from a distance is nothing new, but with the advent of certain new technologies, attacks can be undertaken in which the attacker remains very remote from the scene where force will be employed...

  18. Social Engineering Attack Detection Model: SEADMv2

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mouton, F

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available and is only able to cater for social engineering attacks that use bidirectional communication. Previous research discovered that social engineering attacks can be classified into three different categories, namely attacks that utilise bidirectional...

  19. Small Wastewater Systems Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small communities face barriers to building and maintaining effective wastewater treatment services, challenges include financial/economic limitations, lack of managerial training and geographic isolation/remoteness.

  20. Wastewater Industrial Contributors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Industrial contributors to municipal wastewater treatment facilities in Iowa for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) program.

  1. Attacks on German public figures, 1968-2004: warning behaviors, potentially lethal and non-lethal acts, psychiatric status, and motivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Jens; Meloy, J Reid; Guldimann, Angela; Ermer, Anneliese

    2011-01-01

    Fourteen non-terrorist attackers of public figures in Germany between 1968 and 2004 were intensively studied, with a particular focus on warning behaviors, attack behaviors, and the relationship between psychiatric diagnosis, symptoms, and motivations for the assault. A large proportion of the attackers were severely mentally ill, and most likely to be in the potentially lethal rather than the non-lethal group. A new typology of seven warning behaviors was applied to the data, and all were present, most frequently fixation and pathway warning behavior, and least frequently a direct threat. Psychiatric diagnosis could be closely linked to motivation when analyzed at the level of symptom and content of thought, often delusional. Most of the attacks were directed at political figures, and the majority occurred after 1995. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Genetic attack on neural cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttor, Andreas; Kinzel, Wolfgang; Naeh, Rivka; Kanter, Ido

    2006-03-01

    Different scaling properties for the complexity of bidirectional synchronization and unidirectional learning are essential for the security of neural cryptography. Incrementing the synaptic depth of the networks increases the synchronization time only polynomially, but the success of the geometric attack is reduced exponentially and it clearly fails in the limit of infinite synaptic depth. This method is improved by adding a genetic algorithm, which selects the fittest neural networks. The probability of a successful genetic attack is calculated for different model parameters using numerical simulations. The results show that scaling laws observed in the case of other attacks hold for the improved algorithm, too. The number of networks needed for an effective attack grows exponentially with increasing synaptic depth. In addition, finite-size effects caused by Hebbian and anti-Hebbian learning are analyzed. These learning rules converge to the random walk rule if the synaptic depth is small compared to the square root of the system size.

  3. What Causes a Heart Attack?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heart attack at age 36, it stopped her "dead in her tracks." Jennifer reminds us how heart disease takes too many of our moms, sisters, and friends from us every day. The more we share our stories, the faster ...

  4. What Is a Heart Attack?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood pressure and excess protein in the urine. Preeclampsia is linked to an increased lifetime risk of heart disease, including CHD, heart attack, heart failure , and high blood pressure. Screening and Prevention Lowering your risk factors for coronary heart disease ...

  5. CAS, interdiction, and attack helicopters

    OpenAIRE

    Groenke, Andrew S.

    2005-01-01

    Within days of a major failed strike by attack helicopters during Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) analysts were questioning the value of such platforms on the modern battlefield. As OIF moved from combat to stability operations, helicopter losses from enemy action actually increased seemingly strengthening the argument of those who see the helicopter as unsuitable to some combat operations. Attack helicopter operations have diverged into two distinct categories, interdiction and close air sup...

  6. Software-based Microarchitectural Attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Gruss, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Modern processors are highly optimized systems where every single cycle of computation time matters. Many optimizations depend on the data that is being processed. Software-based microarchitectural attacks exploit effects of these optimizations. Microarchitectural side-channel attacks leak secrets from cryptographic computations, from general purpose computations, or from the kernel. This leakage even persists across all common isolation boundaries, such as processes, containers, and virtual ...

  7. Another Approach to Counter-Terrorism: Terrorists with Guilty Consciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Sociopath Next Door: The Ruthless Versus the Rest of Us, 67. 6 be crowned by death.”30 He then describes his emotions, which are induced by his...involved or witnessed cruel and/or bloody attacks. In many cases, their guilty conscience made them stop their wrongdoings. This mechanism, the

  8. Military Operations Against Terrorist Groups Abroad: Implications for the United States Air Force

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ochmanek, David

    2003-01-01

    .... The purpose of this study is to help defense planners anticipate the types of demands that future operations against terrorists will place on the armed forces of the United States, particularly...

  9. Fandoriana - 3 : terrorist-gossudarstvennik protiv terrorista-revoljutsionera / Boris Tuch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuch, Boris, 1946-

    2005-01-01

    Mängufilm "Riiginõunik" Boriss Akunini romaani järgi : režissöör Filipp Jankovski. Fandorini osas Oleg Menshikov, terrorist Grin - Konstantin Habenski, krahv Pozharski - Nikita Mihhalkov : Venemaa 2005

  10. Asian Organized Crime and Terrorist Activity in Canada, 1999-2002

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Helfand, Neil S

    2003-01-01

    This study is based on open source research into the scope of Asian organized crime and terrorist activity in Canada during the period 1999 to 2002, and the extent of cooperation and possible overlap...

  11. From Terrorist to Persona: Para-Social Interaction and the ETA Website

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yotam Ophir

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The great virtues of the Internet - ease of access, lack of regulation, vast potential audiences, and fast flow of information, among others - have been exploited by terrorist groups. Consequently, the Internet has become a useful and effective platform for terrorist organizations and their supporters. Applying para-social relationships theory, this study examines the ways terrorist groups utilize the Internet to gain sympathy and support for their appeals and goals. The case of ETA’s website (ETA - Euskadi Ta Askatasuna, an armed Basque nationalist and separatist organization, dedicated to Basque prisoners imprisoned in Ireland and fighting extradition to Spain, is used as an illustrative example of the applicability of the para-social theorem. The various tactics adopted for establishing and promoting para-social relationships between media characters and the audiences as revealed in Basque terrorist video clips on YouTube are analyzed.  

  12. Result of Generalization: Bearing the Consequences of Imprecisely Designating Terrorist Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-23

    respectively. The TEL is solely for immigration purposes, and is pursuant to amendments made to 8 U.S.C. §1182 under the USA Patriot Act in 2001.86 The DoS...assisting partner nations in degrading terrorist group capabilities. Financial and immigration sanctions through terrorist group designation assist in...advantage of the FTO list is the stigma attached to a group placed on the list, signifying the official U.S. opposition to the group’s activities

  13. Terrorist Group Dynamics Through the Lens of the Tigantourine Assault in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Chasdi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Algerian terrorist assault in January 2013 that was carried out by Mokhtar Belmokhtar and his “Battalion of Blood” activists against a BP-Norwegian-Algerian-Japanese gas facility in In Amenas, Algeria, is worth considering as it provides a rare glimpse into several key dimensions of terrorist group dynamics that are important for scholars and counter- terrorism practitioners to understand.

  14. Combating Terrorism: A Case Study of Nigeria Against Boko Haram Terrorist Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    www.law.cornell.edu/ wex/federalism#main-menu (accessed March 9, 2014). 4Ibid. 5CIA World Fact Book , Country Studies, “Nigeria Federalism and...research is therefore primarily conducted using published books and articles on NG, terrorism, and BH terrorist group. 10 Definitions Terrorism... illiteracy ), which can be exploited by terrorists. Combining the Direct and Indirect Approaches The combination of direct and indirect approaches in

  15. A computer network attack taxonomy and ontology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Heerden, RP

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available of attacks, means that an attack could be mitigated accordingly. The authors extend a previous, initial taxonomy of computer network attacks which forms the basis of a proposed network attack ontology in this paper. The objective of this ontology...

  16. Analytical Characterization of Internet Security Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellke, Sarah H.

    2010-01-01

    Internet security attacks have drawn significant attention due to their enormously adverse impact. These attacks includes Malware (Viruses, Worms, Trojan Horse), Denial of Service, Packet Sniffer, and Password Attacks. There is an increasing need to provide adequate defense mechanisms against these attacks. My thesis proposal deals with analytical…

  17. Time-dependent analysis of attacks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, Florian; Hermanns, H.; Pulungan, Reza; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette

    The success of a security attack crucially depends on time: the more time available to the attacker, the higher the probability of a successful attack; when given enough time, any system can be compromised. Insight in time-dependent behaviors of attacks and the evolution of the attacker’s success as

  18. Suburban Bliss or Disillusionment - Why Do Terrorists Quit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesbeth van der Heide

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the explanatory value of two theories of desistance – the cessation of criminal behavior – in explaining why 27 individuals left the Islamic State in Syria and Iraq (ISIS. The article focuses specifically on jihadists that turned away from ISIS after March 2011, asking why individuals desist from ISIS and choose to leave the caliphate. A dataset of 27 narratives of desistance was analysed to answer the question to what extent desistance from ISIS by jihadists can be explained by the Laub & Sampson’s life course theory and by Altier, Thorogughood & Horgan’s model of push and pull factors. The primary pathways for desistance are coded according to the two theories. The results show that of the 27 individuals, the majority desisted from the caliphate because of their perception of the excessive use of force by ISIS and their inability to cope with the effects. A minority desisted because of their perception of alternative options outside the terrorist group or because of important life events that happened ‘at home’. Thus, the article concludes that the push and pull factors model is valid in the explanation of desistance from the Islamic State in Syria and Iraq whereas life course theory does not hold explanatory value

  19. RESIST SRP AGAINST WORMHOLE ATTACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Kuchaki Rafsanjani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ad-hoc networks refer to temporary or interim networks which form for special purposes. Actually they are wireless networks with mobile nodes. These networks use no network assisting element for path routing and in these networks available nodes are responsible for path routing. Therefore when malicious nodes want to find a way to interfere with the path routing then the existence of a secure route protocol (SRP can prevent the interference. SRP protocol is one of the secure algorithms of path routing protocol but it is notresistant against wormhole attack. Wormhole attack is considered as a subtle attack in which two malicious nodes make a short connection in network's topology through private or implicit connection and represent two non neighbor nodes as neighbors and prevent the correctoperation of path routing protocol by using this method. One of the methods of preventing wormhole attack is by using packet leashes. We try to decrease the wormhole attack occurrence in this routing protocol by a kind of packet leashes called temporal leashes. We alsowill minimize problems resulting from using temporal leashes by different methods and modifications in its structure.

  20. Network robustness under large-scale attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Qing; Liu, Ruifang; Cui, Shuguang

    2014-01-01

    Network Robustness under Large-Scale Attacks provides the analysis of network robustness under attacks, with a focus on large-scale correlated physical attacks. The book begins with a thorough overview of the latest research and techniques to analyze the network responses to different types of attacks over various network topologies and connection models. It then introduces a new large-scale physical attack model coined as area attack, under which a new network robustness measure is introduced and applied to study the network responses. With this book, readers will learn the necessary tools to evaluate how a complex network responds to random and possibly correlated attacks.

  1. The Revolutionary Left and Terrorist Violence in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    coup, the nation was ruled by a four-man military junta representing all branches of the armed forces plus the national police (the carabineros ). In...event of a revolution. Although the government had specifically ordered the carabineros (national police) not to harass MIR, the miristas went... carabinero officer, as well as a justice of the Chilean Supreme Court. They also attacked the headquarters of the Centro Nacional de Informacion (the

  2. Countering Terrorist Recruitment Through Agile, Targeted Public Diplomacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    attacks in 1998 against the US embassies in Nairobi, Kenya, and Dar es Salaam , Tanzania, killed 212 people—among them 12 Americans—and injured some...be challenges in responding to oversight groups, such as Congress , that are intent on quantifying the results of strategic communications or public...This manuscript is submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the Master of Strategic Studies Degree. The views expressed in this

  3. Characteristics of grey wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Auffarth, Karina Pipaluk Solvejg; Henze, Mogens

    2002-01-01

    The composition of grey wastewater depends on sources and installations from where the water is drawn, e.g. kitchen, bathroom or laundry. The chemical compounds present originate from household chemicals, cooking, washing and the piping. In general grey wastewater contains lower levels of organic...... matter and nutrients compared to ordinary wastewater, since urine, faeces and toilet paper are not included. The levels of heavy metals are however in the same concentration range. The information regarding the content of xenobiotic organic compounds (XOCs) is limited. From this study, 900 different XOCs...

  4. The development and interaction of terrorist and fanatic groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Erika T.

    2013-11-01

    Through the mathematical study of two models we quantify some of the theories of co-development and co-existence of focused groups in the social sciences. This work attempts to develop the mathematical framework behind the social sciences of community formation. By using well developed theories and concepts from ecology and epidemiology we hope to extend the theoretical framework of organizing and self-organizing social groups and communities, including terrorist groups. The main goal of our work is to gain insight into the role of recruitment and retention in the formation and survival of social organizations. Understanding the underlining mechanisms of the spread of ideologies under competition is a fundamental component of this work. Here contacts between core and non-core individuals extend beyond its physical meaning to include indirect interaction and spread of ideas through phone conversations, emails, media sources and other similar mean. This work focuses on the dynamics of formation of interest groups, either ideological, economical or ecological and thus we explore the questions such as, how do interest groups initiate and co-develop by interacting within a common environment and how do they sustain themselves? Our results show that building and maintaining the core group is essential for the existence and survival of an extreme ideology. Our research also indicates that in the absence of competitive ability (i.e., ability to take from the other core group or share prospective members) the social organization or group that is more committed to its group ideology and manages to strike the right balance between investment in recruitment and retention will prevail. Thus under no cross interaction between two social groups a single trade-off (of these efforts) can support only a single organization. The more efforts that an organization implements to recruit and retain its members the more effective it will be in transmitting the ideology to other vulnerable

  5. Mitigating Higher Ed Cyber Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Gary; Ashford, Tina

    2015-01-01

    In this presentation we will discuss the many and varied cyber attacks that have recently occurred in the higher ed community. We will discuss the perpetrators, the victims, the impact and how these institutions have evolved to meet this threat. Mitigation techniques and defense strategies will be covered as will a discussion of effective security…

  6. TENORM: Wastewater Treatment Residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water and wastes which have been discharged into municipal sewers are treated at wastewater treatment plants. These may contain trace amounts of both man-made and naturally occurring radionuclides which can accumulate in the treatment plant and residuals.

  7. Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Individual permits for municipal, industrial, and semi-public wastewater treatment facilities in Iowa for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)...

  8. Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The actual treatment areas for municipal, industrial, and semi-public wastewater treatment facilities in Iowa for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System...

  9. Microalgae and wastewater treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Raouf, N.; Al-Homaidan, A.A.; Ibraheem, I.B.M.

    2012-01-01

    Organic and inorganic substances which were released into the environment as a result of domestic, agricultural and industrial water activities lead to organic and inorganic pollution. The normal primary and secondary treatment processes of these wastewaters have been introduced in a growing number of places, in order to eliminate the easily settled materials and to oxidize the organic material present in wastewater. The final result is a clear, apparently clean effluent which is discharged i...

  10. Terrorists: analogies and differences with mental diseases. A phenomenological-metaphysical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisogni, Primavera

    2010-01-01

    Are islamic terrorists insane? International scholars generally concede that Al Qaeda members are not mentally ill. But, until now, there has not been a shared consensus and a strong argument that can prove it. This paper intends to throw light on the specific dehumanization of terrorists and to show that they are always responsible for their acts, unlike those who are affected by mental diseases. The members of Al Qaeda deny the world of life and take the distance from its sense and value: in their perspective only subversive action makes sense. However they always maintain a transcendent relation with the world (I-you; I-it). Persons with serious mental diseases have generally lost the sense of their self and the transcendence with the world. Terrorists and people with mental illness share a common separation from the world of life: one is voluntary, the other is the consequence of a number of factors (biological, social, etc.). Terrorists and psychotics have nevertheless something in common: the deprivation of the self. A loss of being that--I argue--is at the origin of the ordinariness of terrorists and the experience of void in psychotics. Two symptoms that reveal the condition of an intimate dryness, from a phenomenological and a metaphysical point of view as a consequence of a distorted relation with the world of life. I shall discuss how ordinariness is strictly related with the blurring definition of terrorism.

  11. Trojan Horse Attacking Strategy on Quantum Cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Guihua

    2003-08-01

    Trojan horse attacking strategy on quantum cryptography is investigated, three aspects are involved. First, the mechanism for the Trojan horse attacking strategy on quantum cryptography as well as classic cryptography is studied. Then the fragility of the quantum cryptographic algorithm employing EPR pairs as key against the Trojan horse attacking strategy is analyzed. To prevent the Trojan horse attacking strategy, an improvement scheme which makes use of non-orthogonal entangled states is proposed, results show the improvement scheme is robust to the Trojan horse attacking strategy without reducing the security on other kinds of attacking strategies.

  12. Meaning reconstruction in the face of terror: An examination of recovery and posttraumatic growth among victims of the 9/11 World Trade Center attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Katherine M

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between meaning reconstruction with posttraumatic growth and depreciation in the aftermath of terrorist trauma and loss. A group of individuals (n=118) who were personally affected by the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks were surveyed about their experiences and administered the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory and Impact of Event scales. Subjects were volunteer docents at the Tribute World Trade Center Visitor Center. Results revealed that ability to make sense of one's 9/11 experience was related to recovery but not to posttraumatic growth, whereas ability to find some benefit in the experience was related to growth. In addition, location in downtown Manhattan on September 11, 2001 was related to higher levels of posttraumatic depreciation. Findings suggest that two aspects of meaning reconstruction are differentially related to recovery and posttraumatic growth.

  13. Crony Attack: Strategic Attack’s Silver Bullet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    by distributing a large amount of private goods to the selectorate—the cronies—can be termed kleptocracies . Many govern- ments do indeed resemble...where the high-private goods kleptocracy is a good model. Furthermore, while not an example of crony attack to affect policy change (as opposed to...information about those nearest to the leader. The relationships part is only the start. Kleptocracies , like orga- nized crime leaders, are clever

  14. Biohydrogen production from industrial wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Andrade, Iván; Moreno, Gloria; Kumar, Gopalakrishnan; Buitrón, Germán

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of producing hydrogen from various industrial wastes, such as vinasses (sugar and tequila industries), and raw and physicochemical-treated wastewater from the plastic industry and toilet aircraft wastewater, was evaluated. The results showed that the tequila vinasses presented the maximum hydrogen generation potential, followed by the raw plastic industry wastewater, aircraft wastewater, and physicochemical-treated wastewater from the plastic industry and sugar vinasses, respectively. The hydrogen production from the aircraft wastewater was increased by the adaptation of the microorganisms in the anaerobic sequencing batch reactor.

  15. Mental health needs in New York state following the September 11th attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Daniel; Felton, Chip; Susser, Ezra

    2002-09-01

    In October 2001, the New York State Office of Mental Health and the Department of Epidemiology of the Mailman School of Public Health of Columbia University conducted a rapid assessment of the nature and magnitude of mental health needs in the state resulting from the September 11th terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center. This effort was carried out during a period of great turmoil and uncertainty as New Yorkers responded to the shocking events of this unprecedented disaster. Using the limited data available at the time, we estimated that over 520,000 persons in New York City and the surrounding counties would experience posttraumatic stress disorder resulting from exposure to the attacks, and that more than 129,000 would seek treatment for this disorder during 2002. This assessment is part of an ongoing collaborative process between public and academic partners; the effort is designed to strengthen the capacity of the mental health system to respond to current and future terrorism. Estimates from this initial assessment will be refined over time as further data concerning the impact of the September 11th attacks become available.

  16. THE SECURITY OF CRITICAL ENERGY INFRASTRUCTURE IN THE AGE OF MULTIPLE ATTACK VECTORS: NATO’S MULTI-FACETED APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Dumitru Ducaru

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The current NATO threat landscape is characterized by a combination or “hybrid blend” of unconventional emerging challenges (like cyber and terrorist attacks and re-emerging conventional ones (like Russia’s recent military resurgence and assertiveness, that led to the illegal annexation of Crimea and destabilization in Eastern Ukraine. While the resurgence of the Russian military activity pushed the Alliance in the direction of re-discovering its deterrence and collective defence role, the new, not-traditional, trans-national and essentially non-military treats that generate effects below the threshold of an armed attack require a new paradigm shift with a focus on resilience although the protection of critical energy infrastructure is first and foremost a national responsibility, NATO can contribute to meeting the infrastructure protection challenge on many levels. Given the fact that its core deterrence and defence mandate relies in a great measure on the security of Allies’ energy infrastructure NATO’s role and actions in reducing the vulnerabilities and strengthening the resilience of such infrastructure can only increase. A multi-faceted, multi-stakeholder and networked approach is needed to be able to strengthen defences and resilience of critical infrastructure such as energy. Understanding and defending against cyber or terrorist threat vectors, increased situational awareness, education, training, exercises, trusted partnerships as well as increasing strategic security dialogue and cooperation are key for such a comprehensive/network approach to the challenge.

  17. Clinical and psychological aspects of adolescent involvement in extremist and terrorist activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oshevsky D.S.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the clinical and psychological aspects of including minors in terrorist and extremist activities. In the historical perspective, it was traced how the views on the role of mental disorders in the genesis of such crimes changed. It is shown that terrorist and extremist activity must be viewed as a complex multi-factor phenomenon, in which socio-psychological components play a leading role. It is noted that the psychopathological process can act as a prerequisite for inclusion in such radical groups. Psychoanalytic, sociological, cognitive approaches, theories of social learning and the concept of diffuse ego-identity making attempts to explain the mechanisms of terrorist and extremist activity in minors are analyzed. The problem of insufficient study of the influence of the Internet and social networks on the formation of readiness for admission to adolescents in radical organizations is posed.

  18. Psychometric and demographic predictors of the perceived risk of terrorist threats and the willingness to pay for terrorism risk management programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumpower, Jeryl L; Shi, Liu; Stoutenborough, James W; Vedlitz, Arnold

    2013-10-01

    A 2009 national telephone survey of 924 U.S. adults assessed perceptions of terrorism and homeland security issues. Respondents rated severity of effects, level of understanding, number affected, and likelihood of four terrorist threats: poisoned water supply; explosion of a small nuclear device in a major U.S. city; an airplane attack similar to 9/11; and explosion of a bomb in a building, train, subway, or highway. Respondents rated perceived risk and willingness to pay (WTP) for dealing with each threat. Demographic, attitudinal, and party affiliation data were collected. Respondents rated bomb as highest in perceived risk but gave the highest WTP ratings to nuclear device. For both perceived risk and WTP, psychometric variables were far stronger predictors than were demographic ones. OLS regression analyses using both types of variables to predict perceived risk found only two significant demographic predictors for any threat--Democrat (a negative predictor for bomb) and white male (a significant positive predictor for airline attack). In contrast, among psychometric variables, severity, number affected, and likelihood were predictors of all four threats and level of understanding was a predictor for one. For WTP, education was a negative predictor for three threats; no other demographic variables were significant predictors for any threat. Among psychometric variables, perceived risk and number affected were positive predictors of WTP for all four threats; severity and likelihood were predictors for three; level of understanding was a significant predictor for two. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  19. Estimating the Importance of Terrorists in a Terror Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhajj, Ahmed; Elsheikh, Abdallah; Addam, Omar; Alzohbi, Mohamad; Zarour, Omar; Aksaç, Alper; Öztürk, Orkun; Özyer, Tansel; Ridley, Mick; Alhajj, Reda

    While criminals may start their activities at individual level, the same is in general not true for terrorists who are mostly organized in well established networks. The effectiveness of a terror network could be realized by watching many factors, including the volume of activities accomplished by its members, the capabilities of its members to hide, and the ability of the network to grow and to maintain its influence even after the loss of some members, even leaders. Social network analysis, data mining and machine learning techniques could play important role in measuring the effectiveness of a network in general and in particular a terror network in support of the work presented in this chapter. We present a framework that employs clustering, frequent pattern mining and some social network analysis measures to determine the effectiveness of a network. The clustering and frequent pattern mining techniques start with the adjacency matrix of the network. For clustering, we utilize entries in the table by considering each row as an object and each column as a feature. Thus features of a network member are his/her direct neighbors. We maintain the weight of links in case of weighted network links. For frequent pattern mining, we consider each row of the adjacency matrix as a transaction and each column as an item. Further, we map entries into a 0/1 scale such that every entry whose value is greater than zero is assigned the value one; entries keep the value zero otherwise. This way we can apply frequent pattern mining algorithms to determine the most influential members in a network as well as the effect of removing some members or even links between members of a network. We also investigate the effect of adding some links between members. The target is to study how the various members in the network change role as the network evolves. This is measured by applying some social network analysis measures on the network at each stage during the development. We report

  20. Timing Is Everything with Heart Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and certain time periods. The study was published online recently in the American Heart Journal . Previous research has suggested that highly stressful events, such as earthquakes and World Cup soccer games, may trigger heart attacks. Stress-related heart attacks ...

  1. Stochastic Model of TCP SYN Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Ramanauskaitė

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A great proportion of essential services are moving into internet space making the threat of DoS attacks even more actual. To estimate the real risk of some kind of denial of service (DoS attack in real world is difficult, but mathematical and software models make this task easier. In this paper we overview the ways of implementing DoS attack models and offer a stochastic model of SYN flooding attack. It allows evaluating the potential threat of SYN flooding attacks, taking into account both the legitimate system flow as well as the possible attack power. At the same time we can assess the effect of such parameters as buffer capacity, open connection storage in the buffer or filte­ring efficiency on the success of different SYN flooding attacks. This model can be used for other type of memory depletion denial of service attacks.Article in Lithuanian

  2. Lifestyle Changes for Heart Attack Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help prevent your first heart attack. Heart-Healthy Lifestyle Changes A heart-healthy lifestyle can help prevent ... to flow to the heart muscle. Heart-Healthy Lifestyle Changes Treatment for a heart attack usually includes ...

  3. Social engineering attack examples, templates and scenarios

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mouton, Francois

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available link. A social engineering attack targets this weakness by using various manipulation techniques to elicit sensitive information. The field of social engineering is still in its early stages with regard to formal definitions, attack frameworks...

  4. Being active after a heart attack (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... best activity when you start exercising after a heart attack. Start slowly, and increase the amount of time ... best activity when you start exercising after a heart attack. Start slowly, and increase the amount of time ...

  5. Intermittent hypoendorphinaemia in migraine attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, E; Salmon, S; Anselmi, B; Spillantini, M G; Cappelli, G; Brocchi, A; Sicuteri, F

    1982-06-01

    Beta-endorphin (RIA method, previous chromatographic extraction) was evaluated in plasma of migraine sufferers in free periods and during attacks. Decreased levels of the endogenous opioid peptide were found in plasma sampled during the attacks but not in free periods. Even chronic headache sufferers exhibited significantly lowered levels of beta-endorphin, when compared with control subjects with a negative personal and family history of head pains. The mechanism of the hypoendorphinaemia is unknown: lowered levels of the neuropeptide, which controls nociception, vegetative functions and hedonia, could be important in a syndrome such as migraine, characterized by pain, dysautonomia and anhedonia. The impairment of monoaminergic synapses ("empty neuron" condition) constantly present in sufferers from serious headaches, could be due to the fact that opioid neuropeptides, because of a receptoral or metabolic impairment, poorly modulate the respective monoaminergic neurons, resulting in imbalance of synaptic neurotransmission.

  6. Network Attack Reference Data Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    fingerprinting tools include QueSO [10] (literally translates to “what OS”) and nmap [11], however there are a number of additional tools available for...Network Attack Reference Data Set J. McKenna and J. Treurniet Defence R&D Canada √ Ottawa TECHNICAL...collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources

  7. Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-503 Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense Acquisition...Mission and Description 6 Executive Summary 7 Threshold Breaches 8 Schedule 9 Performance 12 Track to Budget 14 Cost and Funding...15 Low Rate Initial Production 26 Foreign Military Sales 27 Nuclear Costs 29 Unit Cost 30 Cost Variance 33 Contracts 36

  8. Dual Stage SQL Injection Attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Eve, Martin Paul

    2009-01-01

    I came across quite an interesting SQL Injection scenario today. The software in which the vulnerability resides will remain anonymous until fixed, but an abstracted version of the scenario can safely be outlined below.\\ud \\ud The objective of the software is to restrict user accounts to certain IP addresses when accessing a bulletin board. This shows how this can be bypassed using a dual-stage SQL injection attack.

  9. New Multi-step Worm Attack Model

    OpenAIRE

    Robiah, Y.; Rahayu, S. Siti; Shahrin, S.; Faizal, M. A.; Zaki, M. Mohd; Marliza, R.

    2010-01-01

    The traditional worms such as Blaster, Code Red, Slammer and Sasser, are still infecting vulnerable machines on the internet. They will remain as significant threats due to their fast spreading nature on the internet. Various traditional worms attack pattern has been analyzed from various logs at different OSI layers such as victim logs, attacker logs and IDS alert log. These worms attack pattern can be abstracted to form worms' attack model which describes the process of worms' infection. Fo...

  10. Classifying network attack scenarios using an ontology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Heerden, RP

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available ). ?Spear Phishing? refers to targeted social engineering-type email attacks (Jagatic, 2007). ?Physical? refers to manual methods to gain access, for example physically removing the hard drive or breaking the access door to enter a secure server room... the size and utility of the target. The "Target" class is the physical device or entity targeted by an attack. The "Vulnerability" class describes a target vulnerability used by the attacker. The "Phase" class represents an attack model that subdivides...

  11. Terror attacks influence driving behavior in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecklov, Guy; Goldstein, Joshua R.

    2004-01-01

    Terror attacks in Israel produce a temporary lull in light accidents followed by a 35% spike in fatal accidents on Israeli roads 3 days after the attack. Our results are based on time-series analysis of Israeli traffic flows, accidents, and terror attacks from January 2001 through June 2002. Whereas prior studies have focused on subjective reports of posttraumatic stress, our study shows a population-level behavioral response to violent terror attacks. PMID:15448203

  12. Attack Graph Construction for Security Events Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Alexeevich Chechulin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to investigation of the attack graphs construction and analysis task for a network security evaluation and real-time security event processing. Main object of this research is the attack modeling process. The paper contains the description of attack graphs building, modifying and analysis technique as well as overview of implemented prototype for network security analysis based on attack graph approach.

  13. A First Look on iMiner's Knowledge base and Detecting Hidden Hierarchy of Riyadh Bombing Terrorist Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Memon, Nasrullah

    2007-01-01

    of Investigative Data Mining (IDM). In addition, we present iMiner Information Harvesting System and describe how intelligence agencies could be benefited from detecting hierarchy in non-hierarchical terrorist networks.  In this paper we present results of detection of hidden hierarchy of Riyadh Bombing Terrorist...

  14. Stemming the Growth: Exploring the Risk Factors in Group Membership in Domestic Street Gangs and Foreign Terrorist Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    between childhood and adulthood. Youth is a time of radical change- the great body changes accompanying puberty, the ability of the mind to search one’s...recruited to a terrorist group via personal connections with existing members. No terrorist wants to try to recruit someone who might betray the

  15. Cyberprints: Identifying Cyber Attackers by Feature Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, Benjamin A.

    2012-01-01

    The problem of attributing cyber attacks is one of increasing importance. Without a solid method of demonstrating the origin of a cyber attack, any attempts to deter would-be cyber attackers are wasted. Existing methods of attribution make unfounded assumptions about the environment in which they will operate: omniscience (the ability to gather,…

  16. Attack Tree Generation by Policy Invalidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivanova, Marieta Georgieva; Probst, Christian W.; Hansen, Rene Rydhof

    2015-01-01

    through brainstorming of experts. In this work we formalize attack tree generation including human factors; based on recent advances in system models we develop a technique to identify possible attacks analytically, including technical and human factors. Our systematic attack generation is based...

  17. Attacks and countermeasures on AES and ECC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tange, Henrik; Andersen, Birger

    2013-01-01

    AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) is widely used in LTE and Wi-Fi communication systems. AES has recently been exposed to new attacks which have questioned the overall security of AES. The newest attack is a so called biclique attack, which is using the fact that the content of the state array...

  18. Automated classification of computer network attacks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Heerden, R

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we demonstrate how an automated reasoner, HermiT, is used to classify instances of computer network based attacks in conjunction with a network attack ontology. The ontology describes different types of network attacks through classes...

  19. 47 CFR 76.1612 - Personal attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1612 Personal attack. (a) When, during origination cablecasting of issues of public importance, an attack is made upon the honesty, character, integrity, or like personal... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Personal attack. 76.1612 Section 76.1612...

  20. Radiological Risk Assessment for King County Wastewater Treatment Division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strom, Daniel J.

    2005-08-05

    moisture density gages may get into wastewater and be carried to a treatment plant. Other scenarios might include a terrorist deliberately putting a dispersible radioactive material into wastewater. Alternatively, a botched terrorism preparation of an RDD may result in radioactive material entering wastewater without anyone's knowledge. Drinking water supplies may also be contaminated, with the result that some or most of the radioactivity ends up in wastewater.

  1. Elements of the terrorism reviewed through instrumentum operandi, organizational setup and phases of realization of the terrorist act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlate Dimovski

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is a global threat to all countries regardless their social, economic and religious setting. For the realization of their activities, terrorists use different models. As funds for realization of the terrorist act they use different types of weapons, mainly firearms. Terrorist organizations that practice modern forms of terrorism also use weapons of mass destruction. According to that, they improve the ways of getting funds for the realization of the terrorist acts, its internal organization and the ways of practicing terrorism. In this article, we will give a brief overview of the instrumentum operandi, organizational setup and phases of realization of the terrorist act, with special emphasis on the situation in the Republic of Macedonia.

  2. TERRORIST PHENOMENON’S IMPACT ON THE WORLD ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu UZLAU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available “How much does terrorism cost?” is a question which will not be answered in a near future (short and medium term in a relevant, practical and sweeping manner, because any estimation at this moment would cover only in a small measure the spent amounts and the inflicted costs of the phenomenon. These statistics are not precise, of course; they might be argued or even invalidated, because it is difficult to elaborate an objective situation regarding the real value of the attack expenditures or of the damage done. They are purely informative, highlighting a cruel reality: with a very small budget, huge damage may be done, and even a whole society might be paralyzed.

  3. Calculating Adversarial Risk from Attack Trees: Control Strength and Probabilistic Attackers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Wolter; Davarynejad, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Attack trees are a well-known formalism for quantitative analysis of cyber attacks consisting of multiple steps and alternative paths. It is possible to derive properties of the overall attacks from properties of individual steps, such as cost for the attacker and probability of success. However, in

  4. Microalgal biofilms for wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelee, N.C.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to explore the possibilities of using microalgal biofilms for the treatment of municipal wastewater, with a focus on the post-treatment of municipal wastewater effluent. The potential of microalgal biofilms for wastewater treatment was first investigated using a

  5. Xenobiotic organic compounds in wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Baun, Anders; Henze, Mogens

    2002-01-01

    Information regarding the contents of xenobiotic organic compounds (XOCs) in wastewater is limited, but it has been shown that at least 900 different compounds / compound groups could potentially be present in grey wastewater. Analyses of Danish grey wastewater revealed the presence of several hu...... aquatic toxicity were present and that data for environmental fate could only be retrieved for about half of the compounds....

  6. LCA of Wastewater Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred

    2018-01-01

    The main purpose of wastewater treatment is to protect humans against waterborne diseases and to safeguard aquatic bio-resources like fish. The dominating environmental concerns within this domain are indeed still potential aquatic eutrophication/oxygen depletion due to nutrient/organic matter...... emissions and potential health impacts due to spreading of pathogens. Anyway, the use of treatment for micro-pollutants is increasing and a paradigm shift is ongoing — wastewater is more and more considered as a resource of, e.g. energy, nutrients and even polymers, in the innovations going on. The focus...... of LCA studies addressing wastewater treatment have from the very first published cases, been on energy and resource consumption. In recent time, the use of characterisation has increased and besides global warming potential, especially eutrophication is in focus. Even the toxicity-related impact...

  7. Wastewater Treatment in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsdottir, Ragnhildur

    collection systems, and be more economically and environmentally sustainable than traditional wastewater collection and treatment systems. Possible alternative wastewater treatment methods for Greenlandic communities are dry composting or anaerobic digestion of excreta, collected at household level using dry...... treatment, even by utilizing waste heat from the waste incinerators. For the seweraged parts of the towns it might be most beneficial to maintain the flush toilet solutions, while introducing a treatment step prior to discharging to the recipient, such as simple mechanical treatment which might even...... treatment in these regions. However, designing, constructing and operating wastewater collection systems in the Arctic is challenging because of e.g. permafrost conditions, hard rock surfaces, freezing, limited quantity of water and high costs of electricity, fuel and transportation, as well as a settlement...

  8. Wastewater Treatment Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2008-01-01

    The state-of-the-art level reached in modeling wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is reported. For suspended growth systems, WWTP models have evolved from simple description of biological removal of organic carbon and nitrogen in aeration tanks (ASM1 in 1987) to more advanced levels including...... the practice of WWTP modeling by linking the wastewater treatment line with the sludge handling line in one modeling platform. Application of WWTP models is currently rather time consuming and thus expensive due to the high model complexity, and requires a great deal of process knowledge and modeling expertise...

  9. Wastewater treatment models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2011-01-01

    The state-of-the-art level reached in modeling wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is reported. For suspended growth systems, WWTP models have evolved from simple description of biological removal of organic carbon and nitrogen in aeration tanks (ASM1 in 1987) to more advanced levels including...... of WWTP modeling by linking the wastewater treatment line with the sludge handling line in one modeling platform. Application of WWTP models is currently rather time consuming and thus expensive due to the high model complexity, and requires a great deal of process knowledge and modeling expertise...

  10. Whispering through DDoS attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miralem Mehic

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Denial of service (DoS attack is an attempt of the attacker to disable victim's machine by depleting network or computing resources. If this attack is performed with more than one machine, it is called distributed denial of service (DDoS attack. Covert channels are those channels which are used for information transmission even though they are neither designed nor intended to transfer information at all. In this article, we investigated the possibility of using of DDoS attack for purposes of hiding data or concealing the existing covert channel. In addition, in this paper we analyzed the possibility of detection of such covert communication with the well-known statistical method. Also, we proposed the coordination mechanisms of the attack which may be used. A lot of research has been done in order to describe and prevent DDoS attacks, yet research on steganography on this field is still scarce.

  11. Network Protection Against DDoS Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Dzurenda

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with possibilities of the network protection against Distributed Denial of Service attacks (DDoS. The basic types of DDoS attacks and their impact on the protected network are presented here. Furthermore, we present basic detection and defense techniques thanks to which it is possible to increase resistance of the protected network or device against DDoS attacks. Moreover, we tested the ability of current commercial Intrusion Prevention Systems (IPS, especially Radware DefensePro 6.10.00 product against the most common types of DDoS attacks. We create five scenarios that are varied in type and strength of the DDoS attacks. The attacks intensity was much greater than the normal intensity of the current DDoS attacks.

  12. 75 FR 75904 - Global Terrorism Sanctions Regulations; Terrorism Sanctions Regulations; Foreign Terrorist...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control 31 CFR Parts 594, 595, and 597 Global Terrorism Sanctions Regulations; Terrorism Sanctions Regulations; Foreign Terrorist Organizations Sanctions Regulations AGENCY: Office of... (``OFAC'') of the U.S. Department of the Treasury is amending the Global Terrorism Sanctions Regulations...

  13. A New Forensic Picture Polygraph Technique for Terrorist and Crime Deception System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, R. H. Brian; Axton, JoAnn; Gold, Karen L.

    2006-01-01

    The Forensic Terrorist Detection System called Pinocchio Assessment Profile (PAP) employs standard issue polygraphs for a non-verbal picture technique originated as a biofeedback careers interest instrument. The system can be integrated readily into airport screening protocols. However, the method does not rely on questioning or foreign language…

  14. Determining the effectiveness of protective fences from explosions of terroristic orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komarov Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article provides a general methodology for determining the effectiveness of protective fence against explosive devices of a terroristic nature. It also presents an example of using the developed methodology to create a more optimal solution for protective fence for a particular enclosure.

  15. Iraagi väitel tuleb iga teine terrorist Süüriast / Igor Taro

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Taro, Igor

    2007-01-01

    Bagdadis elurajooni turul hukkus enesetapurünnakus 130 inimest. Iraagi kõrge valitsusametniku sõnul tuleb 50% terrorist üle Süüria piiri. Iraagi peaminister Nuri al-Maliki arvamus. Vt. samas: Mässulised leiavad tuge internetist

  16. Styles of International Mediation in Peace Processes Between States and Terrorist Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    way, both culturally and historically.40 Zartman and Faure seem to have a broader perspective on negotiating with terrorists, and they recommend...called Foreign Minister Holst, who was visiting in Iceland : “Can you meet me discreetly in Stockholm tonight? It is now or never.” That night Holst

  17. The Myth of My Widow: A Dramatistic Analysis of News Portrayals of a Terrorist Victim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lule, Jack

    Dramatistic analysis suggests that the "New York Times" portrayals of the 1985 terrorist killing of Leon Klinghoffer, the 69 year old American tourist on the Achille Laurs, may contain a mythic dimension. Through the myth of the hero, the news stories invoked the symbol of the self, inviting intense identification of the individual…

  18. SQL Injection Attacks and Defense

    CERN Document Server

    Clarke, Justin

    2012-01-01

    SQL Injection Attacks and Defense, First Edition: Winner of the Best Book Bejtlich Read Award "SQL injection is probably the number one problem for any server-side application, and this book unequaled in its coverage." -Richard Bejtlich, Tao Security blog SQL injection represents one of the most dangerous and well-known, yet misunderstood, security vulnerabilities on the Internet, largely because there is no central repository of information available for penetration testers, IT security consultants and practitioners, and web/software developers to turn to for help. SQL Injection Att

  19. Coronary Artery Dissection: Not Just a Heart Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aneurysm More Coronary Artery Dissection: Not Just a Heart Attack Updated:Oct 4,2016 Sometimes a heart attack ... Disease Go Red For Women Types of aneurysms Heart Attack • Home • About Heart Attacks Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) ...

  20. The Charlie Hebdo Attacks on Twitter: A Comparative Analysis of a Political Controversy in English and French

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos Smyrnaios

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we propose an original method combining large-scale network and lexicometric analysis to link identifiable communities of Twitter users with the main discursive themes they used in the aftermath of the Charlie Hebdo attacks in Paris, France in 2015. We used this method to compare tweets and user networks in French and in English. We observed that the majority of the users who tweeted about Charlie Hebdo were people without any particular affiliation, who were shocked by the attacks and immediately expressed themselves through emotionally charged messages. But rather quickly their proportion decreased and they participated less in politically polarizing discussions. On the other hand, we found that smaller, highly politicized, and polarized groups had similar attitudes toward the events: they were less engaged immediately after the attacks in emotional expression of sympathy and shock, but they participated vividly in the following days in polemical discussions or engaged themes. Other findings include the central position of mainstream media and the existence of groups of users that aggregated on the basis of nationality. More generally, our results show clearly that even the most dramatic events such as a terrorist attack with innocent victims do not produce homogeneous reactions online. Rather, political engagement and cultural dispositions are keys to understand different attitudes on Twitter.

  1. Techniques of Wastewater Treatment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the first part of this article, we have learned about the need and importance of wastewater treatment and conven- tional methods of treatment. Currently the need is to develop low power consuming and yet effective techniques to handle complex wastes. As a result, new and advanced techniques are being studied and in ...

  2. Techniques of Wastewater Treatment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Techniques of Wastewater Treatment. 1. Introduction to Effluent Treatment and Industrial Methods. Amol A Kulkarni, Mugdha Deshpande and A B Pandit. Amol A Kulkarni is a PhD student from the Chemi- cal Engineering division in UDCT and is working on the characterization of non-linear dynamics in chemical reactors.

  3. Paper 1: Wastewater characterisation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drinie

    The impact of wastewater prefermentation cannot be evaluated in isolation, based only on the local prefermenter biodegradable organic matter production rate, as represented by the volatile fatty acids concentration increase across the prefermenter. The nutrients ratio changes and solids removal variations from the raw to ...

  4. Vietnam Urban Wastewater Review

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    Vietnam is facing the challenge of trying to keep pace with increasing environmental pollution associated with rapid urbanization, especially in the larger cities. Over the past 20 years, the Government of Vietnam has made considerable effort to develop urban sanitation policies, legislations and regulations, and to invest in urban sanitation including wastewater treatment systems. This st...

  5. Microalgae and wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Raouf, N.; Al-Homaidan, A.A.; Ibraheem, I.B.M.

    2012-01-01

    Organic and inorganic substances which were released into the environment as a result of domestic, agricultural and industrial water activities lead to organic and inorganic pollution. The normal primary and secondary treatment processes of these wastewaters have been introduced in a growing number of places, in order to eliminate the easily settled materials and to oxidize the organic material present in wastewater. The final result is a clear, apparently clean effluent which is discharged into natural water bodies. This secondary effluent is, however, loaded with inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus and causes eutrophication and more long-term problems because of refractory organics and heavy metals that are discharged. Microalgae culture offers an interesting step for wastewater treatments, because they provide a tertiary biotreatment coupled with the production of potentially valuable biomass, which can be used for several purposes. Microalgae cultures offer an elegant solution to tertiary and quandary treatments due to the ability of microalgae to use inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus for their growth. And also, for their capacity to remove heavy metals, as well as some toxic organic compounds, therefore, it does not lead to secondary pollution. In the current review we will highlight on the role of micro-algae in the treatment of wastewater. PMID:24936135

  6. A Clausewitzian Attack on Jihadi Communication Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    of Descartes and Newton. The reductionism by theory provides the foundation to illuminate the essence of sought knowledge in an interactively...close acquaintance with the subject.”33 The reductionist analytical model of this thesis, based on the foundations of Winton, Newton, and Descartes ...enables dissecting terrorist strategies into smaller elements. Descartes , who in his Discourse on Method resolved “to divide all the difficulties

  7. Shoulder injuries from attacking motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagi, Shigeru; Nishimura, Tetsu; Itoh, Masaru; Wada, Yuhei; Watanabe, Naoki

    1997-03-01

    Sports injuries have bothered professional players. Although many medical doctors try to treat injured players, to prevent sports injuries is more important. Hence, it is required to clear a kinematic mechanism of the sport injuries. A shoulder of volleyball attacker or baseball pitcher is often inured by playing motion. The injuries are mainly caused at the end of long head tendon, which is located in the upper side of scapula. Generally, a muscle and tendon have enough strength against tensile force, however, it seems that they are sometimes defeated by the lateral force. It is imagined that the effect of the lateral force has a possibility of injuring the tendon. If we find the influence of the lateral force on the injured portion, the mechanism of injuries must be cleared. In our research, volleyball attacking motion is taken by high speed video cameras. We analyze the motion as links system and obtain an acceleration of an arm and a shoulder from video image data. The generated force at a shoulder joint is calculated and resolved into the lateral and longitudinal forces. Our final goal is to discuss a possibility that the lateral force causes the injuries.

  8. DDOS ATTACK DETECTION SIMULATION AND HANDLING MECHANISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Sanmorino

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we discuss how to handle DDoS attack that coming from the attacker by using detection method and handling mechanism. Detection perform by comparing number of packets and number of flow. Whereas handling mechanism perform by limiting or drop the packets that detected as a DDoS attack. The study begins with simulation on real network, which aims to get the real traffic data. Then, dump traffic data obtained from the simulation used for detection method on our prototype system called DASHM (DDoS Attack Simulation and Handling Mechanism. From the result of experiment that has been conducted, the proposed method successfully detect DDoS attack and handle the incoming packet sent by attacker.

  9. Securing internet by eliminating DDOS attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niranchana, R.; Gayathri Devi, N.; Santhi, H.; Gayathri, P.

    2017-11-01

    The major threat caused to the authorised usage of Internet is Distributed Denial of Service attack. The mechanisms used to prevent the DDoS attacks are said to overcome the attack’s ability in spoofing the IP packets source addresses. By utilising Internet Protocol spoofing, the attackers cause a consequential load over the networks destination for policing attack packets. To overcome the IP Spoofing level on the Internet, We propose an Inter domain Packet Filter (IPF) architecture. The proposed scheme is not based on global routing information. The packets with reliable source addresses are not rejected, the IPF frame work works in such a manner. The spoofing capability of attackers is confined by IPF, and also the filter identifies the source of an attack packet by minimal number of candidate network.

  10. Model checking exact cost for attack scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslanyan, Zaruhi; Nielson, Flemming

    2017-01-01

    Attack trees constitute a powerful tool for modelling security threats. Many security analyses of attack trees can be seamlessly expressed as model checking of Markov Decision Processes obtained from the attack trees, thus reaping the benefits of a coherent framework and a mature tool support....... However, current model checking does not encompass the exact cost analysis of an attack, which is standard for attack trees. Our first contribution is the logic erPCTL with cost-related operators. The extended logic allows to analyse the probability of an event satisfying given cost bounds and to compute...... the exact cost of an event. Our second contribution is the model checking algorithm for erPCTL. Finally, we apply our framework to the analysis of attack trees....

  11. Snow fall and heart attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persinger, M A; Ballance, S E; Moland, M

    1993-03-01

    Total numbers of daily hospital admissions for cardiac emergencies were obtained from 3 hospitals within the Sudbury Basin in Canada for November through March for each of 4 consecutive years (1983-1986). Major diagnostic categories were also differentiated. No statistically significant correlations were found between the amount of snowfall during the day of or the days before or after admissions for the major categories of cardiac emergency. Specific analyses, conducted to reveal possible recondite associations between extreme or cumulative snowfalls and the most extreme days of cardiac emergencies, indicated a chance association. We conclude that the occurrence of heart attacks is independent of snowfall but that, when they occur, they are attributed to shoveling if there has been a recent major snow storm.

  12. Cache timing attacks on recent microarchitectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreou, Alexandres; Bogdanov, Andrey; Tischhauser, Elmar Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    AES or similar algorithms in virtualized environments. This paper applies variants of this cache timing attack to Intel's latest generation of microprocessors. It enables a spy-process to recover cryptographic keys, interacting with the victim processes only over TCP. The threat model is a logically...... separated but CPU co-located attacker with root privileges. We report successful and practically verified applications of this attack against a wide range of microarchitectures, from a two-core Nehalem processor (i5-650) to two-core Haswell (i7-4600M) and four-core Skylake processors (i7-6700). The attack...

  13. FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS OF THE STATE POLICY FOR THE PREVENTION OF TERRORIST ACTS IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola Bunchuk

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article’s objective is to determine the mechanism for implementing the financial instruments of the state policy to counter terrorist acts in the territory not controlled by Ukrainian authorities in Donetsk and Luhansk regions. Methodology. Within the scientific research, for the most effective approaches at the national level to prevent the threat of international terrorism, under the conditions of the deep internal political crisis and extremely difficult economic situation, in order to improve the efficiency of public administration in developing and implementing the anti-terrorism state policies in Ukraine, the paper analyses international and domestic regulations on preventing the terrorist financing, considers factors that affect the deterioration of the social and economic situation of the temporarily occupied parts of Donbas. Results of the research allow formulating the definition of financial instruments of antiterrorist policies, the paper develops and proposes a series of organizational measures in order to prevent the terrorist financing in Ukraine. Practical implications. Based on the above, we propose an option of classification of main illegal mechanisms that may be used to finance terrorist activities in the territories of Donetsk and Luhansk regions uncontrolled by Ukrainian authorities, dividing them into internal and external. Given the above studied factors and classification of financing of terrorist acts in eastern Ukraine, we can assume that for the purpose of evading duty payable to relevant state bodies of Ukraine, external supplies of inventories in the uncontrolled areas of the Donetsk region, which are later obtained by illegal armed groups, are possibly carried out as follows: on behalf of a commercial entity registered in a foreign country for the Ukrainian commercial entity, registered in settlements located in the uncontrolled territory; crossing of international transit traffic that moves through the

  14. Relative Risk Appraisal, the September 11 Attacks, and Terrorism-Related Fears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Randall D.; Bryant, Richard A.; Amsel, Lawrence; Suh, Eun Jung; Cook, Joan M.; Neria, Yuval

    2013-01-01

    There are now replicated findings that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms related to the September 11, 2001, attacks occurred in large numbers of persons who did not fit the traditional definition of exposure to a traumatic event. These data are not explained by traditional epidemiologic “bull’s eye” disaster models, which assume the psychological effects are narrowly, geographically circumscribed, or by existing models of PTSD onset. In this article, the authors develop a researchable model to explain these and other terrorism-related phenomena by synthesizing research and concepts from the cognitive science, risk appraisal, traumatic stress, and anxiety disorders literatures. They propose the new term relative risk appraisal to capture the psychological function that is the missing link between the event and subjective response in these and other terrorism-related studies to date. Relative risk appraisal highlights the core notion from cognitive science that human perception is an active, multidimensional process, such that for unpredictable societal threats, proximity to the event is only one of several factors that influence behavioral responses. Addressing distortions in relative risk appraisal effectively could reduce individual and societal vulnerability to a wide range of adverse economic and ethnopolitical consequences to terrorist attacks. The authors present ways in which these concepts and related techniques can be helpful in treating persons with September 11– or terrorism-related distress or psychopathology. PMID:17516775

  15. Recycling phosphorus from wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Camilla Kjærulff

    from a longterm field experiment were included in combination with 33P isotope techniques. In particular sewage sludges, but also sewage sludge incineration ashes, from different wastewater treatment plants varied substantially in P availability. The variation between different sludges could be partly......, localised applications of sewage sludge and sewage sludge ashes cannot be recommended. Methodological considerations included an evaluation of the WEP (water extractable P) method used in most of the experiments to describe P availability after application to soil, was evaluated. This suggested...... included anaerobically digested and dewatered sewage sludges from six different wastewater treatment plants, thermally dried sewage sludge, four sewage sludge incineration ashes, thermochemically treated sewage sludge ash, struvite, two rejectwater evaporation products, composted household waste, cattle...

  16. Wastewater treatment with algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong Yukshan [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology, Kowloon (China). Research Centre; Tam, N.F.Y. [eds.] [City Univ. of Hong Kong, Kowloon (China). Dept. of Biology and Chemistry

    1998-05-01

    Immobilized algal technology for wastewater treatment purposes. Removal of copper by free and immobilized microalga, Chlorella vulgaris. Biosorption of heavy metals by microalgae in batch and continuous systems. Microalgal removal of organic and inorganic metal species from aqueous solution. Bioaccumulation and biotransformation of arsenic, antimony and bismuth compounds by freshwater algae. Metal ion binding by biomass derived from nonliving algae, lichens, water hyacinth root and spagnum moss. Metal resistance and accumulation in cyanobacteria. (orig.)

  17. The Path to Terrorist Violence: A Threat Assessment Model for Radical Groups at Risk of Escalation to Acts of Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olson, Dean T

    2005-01-01

    .... The Path to Terrorist Violence Model, based on a threat assessment model used in the emerging field of threat management for the judiciary and elected officials, is a valid and reliable assessment...

  18. Cued Panic Attacks in Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Katharine A.; Menard, William; Bjornsson, Andri S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a common and often severe disorder. Clinical observations suggest that panic attacks triggered by BDD symptoms may be common. However, to our knowledge, no study has examined such panic attacks in BDD. We investigated the prevalence, clinical features, and correlates of BDD-triggered panic attacks in individuals with this disorder. Methods Panic attacks and other variables were assessed using reliable and valid measures in 76 individuals with lifetime DSM-IV BDD. Results 28.9% (95% CI, 18.5%–39.4%) of participants reported lifetime panic attacks triggered by BDD symptoms. The most common triggers of such attacks were feeling that others were looking at or scrutinizing the perceived appearance defects (61.9%), looking in the mirror at perceived defects (38.1%), and being in bright light where perceived defects would be more visible (23.8%). The most common panic attack symptoms were palpitations (86.4%), sweating (66.7%), shortness of breath (63.6%), trembling or shaking (63.6%), and fear of losing control or going crazy (63.6%). Compared to participants without such panic attacks, those with BDD-triggered panic attacks had more severe lifetime BDD, social anxiety, and depressive symptoms, as well as poorer functioning and quality of life on a number of measures. They were also less likely to be employed and more likely to have been psychiatrically hospitalized and to have had suicidal ideation due to BDD. Conclusions Panic attacks triggered by BDD-related situations appear common in individuals with this disorder. BDD-triggered panic attacks were associated with greater symptom severity and morbidity. PMID:23653076

  19. Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Vymazal

    2010-01-01

    The first experiments using wetland macrophytes for wastewater treatment were carried out in Germany in the early 1950s. Since then, the constructed wetlands have evolved into a reliable wastewater treatment technology for various types of wastewater. The classification of constructed wetlands is based on: the vegetation type (emergent, submerged, floating leaved, free-floating); hydrology (free water surface and subsurface flow); and subsurface flow wetlands can be further classified accordi...

  20. Generating attacks in SysML activity diagrams by detecting attack surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouchani, Samir; Lenzini, Gabriele

    In the development process of a secure system is essential to detect as early as possible the system’s vulnerable points, the so called attack surfaces, and to estimate how feasible it would be that known attacks breach through them. Even if attack surfaces can be sometimes detected automatically,

  1. Attack Trees for Practical Security Assessment: Ranking of Attack Scenarios with ADTool 2.0

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gadyatskaya, Olga; Jhawar, Ravi; Kordy, P.T.; Lounis, Karim; Mauw, Sjouke; Trujillo-Rasua, Rolando

    2016-01-01

    In this tool demonstration paper we present the ADTool2.0: an open-source software tool for design, manipulation and analysis of attack trees. The tool supports ranking of attack scenarios based on quantitative attributes entered by the user; it is scriptable; and it incorporates attack trees with

  2. Legal responses to 'Terrorist Speech' : a critical evaluation of the law in Turkey in light of regional and international standards

    OpenAIRE

    Cengiz, Ilyas

    2016-01-01

    Much scholarly attention has focused on the incremental extension of criminal liability for ‘terroristic speech’ (reflecting the widely acknowledged preventive turn in criminal law). This thesis examines the case law of Turkey's Yargıtay (Court of Cassation) and Constitutional Court on 'terroristic speech' in the light of regional (the European Court of Human Rights), and international (Human Rights Committee and CERD) standards. While this corpus of human rights law has obtained some positiv...

  3. Offensive Counterterrorism Targeted killing in eliminating terrorist target: the case of the USA and Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermínio Matos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the "global terrorism project", some States have adopted offensive counterterrorism measures which, though within national strategies on security and defense, contemplate the use of military power and the use of lethal force against non-state actors - individuals, groups or terrorist organizations - beyond their national borders. Reformulating the security paradigm has led, in these cases, to policies against terrorism. This is the case of targeted killing - the killing of selected targets - by the USA and Israel. Targeted killing actions - using essentially but not only drones - in Pakistan and Yemen by the American administration, a well as the Israeli response to Palestinian terrorism, are under heated debate in terms of their efficiency and legality. Thus, this paper aims to not only provide an analytical framework on this theme but also analyze the scope and impact of these counter terrorist strategies by the two countries.

  4. Controversies of Conversions: The Potential Terrorist Threat of European Converts to Islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika G. Bartoszewicz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article summarising some findings from a doctoral dissertation discusses European converts to Islam. It explores the conditions under which conversion leads to radicalisation and terrorist violence; it analyses recrudescent concomitances of causal mechanisms of this phenomenon. Furthermore, it explores possible pathways existing between conversion, radicalisation and terrorist violence; identifies key variables pertaining to causal pathways and processes; provides hypotheses regarding the radicalisation pathways, and establishes a typology that can serve as a basis for further studies. By dispelling stereotypes on European New Muslims (ENM this research note offers a new, contextual approach to the issue under consideration. In doing so it invites the reader to reconsider the concepts of “convert”, “radicalisation” and “potential”- concepts crucial for questioning the widely expressed assumptions that European converts to Islam are a homogenous “risk group” and a security threat.

  5. British used Congreve Rockets to Attack Napoleon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Sir William Congreve developed a rocket with a range of about 9,000 feet. The incendiary rocket used black powder, an iron case, and a 16-foot guide stick. In 1806, British used Congreve rockets to attack Napoleon's headquarters in France. In 1807, Congreve directed a rocket attack against Copenhagen.

  6. Playing Attack and Defense with Trusted Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez, Javier; Bonnet, Philippe; Bouganim, Luc

    2014-01-01

    provide trusted storage? This is the question we tackle in this demonstration. We describe how secure devices, equipped with a trusted execution environment, differ from general purpose devices. We illustrate with our demonstration scenario, that it is much more difficult to attack a storage service...... running on a secure device, than to attack the same service running on a general purpose device....

  7. Evaluation of Crosstalk Attacks in Access Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Christoph; Eiselt, Michael; Grobe, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    WDM-PON systems regained interest as low-cost solution for metro and access networks. We present a comparative analysis of resilience of wavelength-selective and wavelength-routed architectures against crosstalk attackers. We compare the vulnerability of these architectures against attacks...

  8. Micromechanics of high temperature hydrogen attack

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlögl, Sabine M.; Giessen, Erik van der

    1999-01-01

    Hydrogen attack is a material degradation process that occurs at elevated temperatures in hydrogen-rich environments, such as found in petro-chemical installations. Weldments in components such as reactor vessels are particularly susceptible to hydrogen attack. This paper discusses a multi-scale

  9. Drammer : Deterministic Rowhammer attacks on mobile platforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Veen, Victor; Fratantonio, Yanick; Lindorfer, Martina; Gruss, Daniel; Maurice, Clémentine; Vigna, Giovanni; Bos, Herbert; Razavi, Kaveh; Giuffrida, Cristiano

    2016-01-01

    Recent work shows that the Rowhammer hardware bug can be used to craft powerful attacks and completely subvert a system. However, existing efforts either describe probabilistic (and thus unreliable) attacks or rely on special (and often unavailable) memory management features to place victim objects

  10. Rotational Rebound Attacks on Reduced Skein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khovratovich, Dmitry; Nikolic, Ivica; Rechberger, Christian

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we combine a recent rotational cryptanalysis with the rebound attack, which results in the best cryptanalysis of Skein, a candidate for the SHA-3 competition. The rebound attack approach was so far only applied to AES-like constructions. For the first time, we show that this approach...

  11. Revisiting attacker model for smart vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petit, Jonathan; Feiri, Michael; Kargl, Frank

    Because of the potential impact on user's life in cooperative automated safety applications, the security of Vehicle-to-X communication (V2X) is mandatory. However, the current attacker model used in literature is often too network-oriented, and it is unclear what realistic attacks could be. In this

  12. Internet Posting of Chemical Worst Case Scenarios: A Roadmap for Terrorists

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-02-10

    of people convinces the rest of us that we are next in line. Rumors, anxiety , and hysteria created by such inevitable incidents may lead to panic...Terrorists Used Weapons of Mass Destruction?’’ (Armed Forces Journal, April 1998). For a solid com- pilation of essays on superterrorism, see Brad...slightest risk with the lives of their husbands, wives, parents, children , or grandchildren.’’ Let me stress that no one here, including those in law

  13. How Terrorist Groups End: Lessons for Countering al Qa’ida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Mexico: Centro de Investigaciones y Estudios Superiores en Antropología Social , 1983; Rodolfo Cardenal, Historia de una Esperanza: Vida de Rutilio...surprising, since there are few al Qa’ida social - welfare services, hospitals, or clinics (a problem of which al Qa’ida’s leaders are aware). In addition...changes within the group, as well as changes within the larger political and social environment. Third, terrorist groups deliberately choose

  14. Innovation in Terrorist Organizations; Strategic Insights: v.10, issue 2 (Summer 2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Schweitzer, Yoram

    2011-01-01

    This article appeared in Strategic Insights (Summer 2011), v.10 no.2, p.17-29 "Between the end of the 1960's and the mid 1980's, the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) and its various offshoots pioneered an innovative terrorist strategy, along with several related tactics. The PFLP's innovation lay, first, in the identification of the global community as the primary target audience for Palestinian activism; second, in the selection of the aviation system as the prime targ...

  15. The Sociology and Psychology of Terrorism: Who Becomes a Terrorist and Why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    differences that separate the psychopath from the political terrorist, although the two may not be mutually exclusive, as in the case of Hindawi. One...involvement. Strentz applies the psychological classification of the antisocial personality, also known as a sociopath or psychopath , to the life-style of this...lead some to believe that they all share psychopathic or sociopathic symptoms. Nevertheless, the question of whether any or all of these guerrilla

  16. Terrorism and the Law of War: Trying Terrorists as War Criminals Before Military Commissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-12-11

    the law of war rather than criminal statutes to prosecute the alleged perpetrators. The report will first present an outline of the sources and...principles of the law of war, including a discussion of whether and how it might apply to the current terrorist crisis. A brief explanation of the background...applying the law of war under United States law, summarize precedent for its application by military commissions, and provide an analysis of the President’s

  17. Cross-Milieu Terrorist Collaboration: Using Game Theory to Assess the Risk of a Novel Threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Gary A; Zhuang, Jun; Weerasuriya, Sitara

    2017-02-01

    This article uses a game-theoretic approach to analyze the risk of cross-milieu terrorist collaboration-the possibility that, despite marked ideological differences, extremist groups from very different milieus might align to a degree where operational collaboration against Western societies becomes possible. Based upon theoretical insights drawn from a variety of literatures, a bargaining model is constructed that reflects the various benefits and costs for terrorists' collaboration across ideological milieus. Analyzed in both sequential and simultaneous decision-making contexts and through numerical simulations, the model confirms several theoretical arguments. The most important of these is that although likely to be quite rare, successful collaboration across terrorist milieus is indeed feasible in certain circumstances. The model also highlights several structural elements that might play a larger role than previously recognized in the collaboration decision, including that the prospect of nonmaterial gains (amplification of terror and reputational boost) plays at least as important a role in the decision to collaborate as potential increased capabilities does. Numerical simulation further suggests that prospects for successful collaboration over most scenarios (including operational) increase when a large, effective Islamist terrorist organization initiates collaboration with a smaller right-wing group, as compared with the other scenarios considered. Although the small number of historical cases precludes robust statistical validation, the simulation results are supported by existing empirical evidence of collaboration between Islamists and right- or left-wing extremists. The game-theoretic approach, therefore, provides guidance regarding the circumstances under which such an unholy alliance of violent actors is likely to succeed. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  18. TERRORIST PROTECTION PLANNING USING A RELATIVE RISK REDUCTION APPROACH, SESSION VIII: TECHNOLOGY FORUM FOCUS GROUPS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    INDUSI,J.P.

    2003-06-16

    Since the events of 9/11, there have been considerable concerns and associated efforts to prevent or respond to acts of terrorism. Very often we hear calls to reduce the threat from or correct vulnerabilities to various terrorist acts. Others fall victim to anxiety over potential scenarios with the gravest of consequences involving hundreds of thousands of casualties. The problem is complicated by the fact that planners have limited, albeit in some cases significant, resources and less than perfect intelligence on potential terrorist plans. However, valuable resources must be used prudently to reduce the overall risk to the nation. A systematic approach to this process of asset allocation is to reduce the overall risk and not just an individual element of risk such as vulnerabilities. Hence, we define risk as a function of three variables: the threat (the likelihood and scenario of the terrorist act), the vulnerability (the vulnerability of potential targets to the threat), and the consequences (health and safety, economic, etc.) resulting from a successful terrorist scenario. Both the vulnerability and consequences from a postulated adversary scenario can be reasonably well estimated. However, the threat likelihood and scenarios are much more difficult to estimate. A possible path forward is to develop scenarios for each potential target in question using experts from many disciplines. This should yield a finite but large number of target-scenario pairs. The vulnerabilities and consequences for each are estimated and then ranked relative to one another. The resulting relative risk ranking will have targets near the top of the ranking for which the threat is estimated to be more likely, the vulnerability greatest, and the consequences the most grave. In the absence of perfect intelligence, this may be the best we can do.

  19. Training Centers for Onsite Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onsite wastewater training centers offer classes, demonstration projects and research facilities for onsite industry professionals. Classes include wastewater management, new technologies and pre-licensing.

  20. Automatic Classification of Attacks on IP Telephony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Safarik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes an algorithm for automatic analysis of attack data in IP telephony network with a neural network. Data for the analysis is gathered from variable monitoring application running in the network. These monitoring systems are a typical part of nowadays network. Information from them is usually used after attack. It is possible to use an automatic classification of IP telephony attacks for nearly real-time classification and counter attack or mitigation of potential attacks. The classification use proposed neural network, and the article covers design of a neural network and its practical implementation. It contains also methods for neural network learning and data gathering functions from honeypot application.