WorldWideScience

Sample records for terrorist acts importancia

  1. Motives of terrorist acts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Marko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is a relatively new phenomenon, and data on terrorist motivations and psychological profiles of terrorists are fairly scarce and limited. In theory, there is a large number of quantitative analyses of collective violence, murder, and crime, however, none of these can be identified with terrorism. Most current studies do not consider a great heterogeneity of terrorists, and numerous practical, conceptual, and psychological barriers slow down the science of learning about terrorism. Psychology, as a science of behavior, certainly makes a great contribution to the study of terrorism as a very complex phenomenon. The aim of this paper is to analyze and synthesize social and psychological determinants which contribute to the development of terrorist motives, and to elaborate on those facts which have been discussed in scientific and professional literature so far.

  2. Defender's Edge: Utilizing Intelligent Agent Technology to Anticipate Terrorist Acts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scheiber, Lane

    2003-01-01

    ...), to the problem of anticipating terrorist acts. Two areas in which IAs could play a significant role are in the development and maintenance of a real-time picture of terrorist activity, and in predicting potential occurrences of terrorist acts...

  3. Definition of Terrorist Act under Eth Law

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wondwossen_D_K

    advanced legal system and rule of law. This article is ..... environmental causes could fall within the terrorism Act 2000 definition.20 ..... Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Seizure of Aircraft, done at ..... control of any public services.

  4. TERRITORIAL RISK ASSESMENT AFTER TERRORIST ACT: EXPRESS MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Biliaiev

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The paper involves the development of a method to assess the territorial risk in the event of a terrorist attack using a chemical agent. Methodology. To describe the process of chemical agent scattering in the atmosphere, ejected in the event of a terrorist attack, the equation of mass transfer of an impurity in atmospheric air is used. The equation takes into account the velocity of the wind flow, atmospheric diffusion, the intensity of chemical agent emission, the presence of buildings near the site of the emission of a chemically hazardous substance. For numerical integration of the modeling equation, a finite difference method is used. A feature of the developed numerical model is the possibility of assessing the territorial risk in the event of a terrorist attack under different weather conditions and the presence of buildings. Findings. A specialized numerical model and software package has been developed that can be used to assess the territorial risk, both in the case of terrorist attacks, with the use of chemical agents, and in case of extreme situations at chemically hazardous facilities and transport. The method can be implemented on small and medium-sized computers, which allows it to be widely used for solving the problems of the class under consideration. The results of a computational experiment are presented that allow estimating possibilities of the proposed method for assessing the territorial risk in the event of a terrorist attack using a chemical agent. Originality. An effective method of assessing the territorial risk in the event of a terrorist attack using a chemically hazardous substance is proposed. The method can be used to assess the territorial risk in an urban environment, which allows you to obtain adequate data on possible damage areas. The method is based on the numerical integration of the fundamental mass transfer equation, which expresses the law of conservation of mass in a liquid medium. Practical

  5. FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS OF THE STATE POLICY FOR THE PREVENTION OF TERRORIST ACTS IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola Bunchuk

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article’s objective is to determine the mechanism for implementing the financial instruments of the state policy to counter terrorist acts in the territory not controlled by Ukrainian authorities in Donetsk and Luhansk regions. Methodology. Within the scientific research, for the most effective approaches at the national level to prevent the threat of international terrorism, under the conditions of the deep internal political crisis and extremely difficult economic situation, in order to improve the efficiency of public administration in developing and implementing the anti-terrorism state policies in Ukraine, the paper analyses international and domestic regulations on preventing the terrorist financing, considers factors that affect the deterioration of the social and economic situation of the temporarily occupied parts of Donbas. Results of the research allow formulating the definition of financial instruments of antiterrorist policies, the paper develops and proposes a series of organizational measures in order to prevent the terrorist financing in Ukraine. Practical implications. Based on the above, we propose an option of classification of main illegal mechanisms that may be used to finance terrorist activities in the territories of Donetsk and Luhansk regions uncontrolled by Ukrainian authorities, dividing them into internal and external. Given the above studied factors and classification of financing of terrorist acts in eastern Ukraine, we can assume that for the purpose of evading duty payable to relevant state bodies of Ukraine, external supplies of inventories in the uncontrolled areas of the Donetsk region, which are later obtained by illegal armed groups, are possibly carried out as follows: on behalf of a commercial entity registered in a foreign country for the Ukrainian commercial entity, registered in settlements located in the uncontrolled territory; crossing of international transit traffic that moves through the

  6. The correlation between diversion (Article 113 of the Criminal Code of Ukraine and terrorist act (Article 258 of the Criminal Code of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Андрій Сергійович Климосюк

    2018-03-01

    During the investigating of the punishability for these crimes, it was found that in some cases the actual infliction of harm by a s diversion causes the necessity for additional qualifications by Part 2 of Art. 115 or Part 3 of Art. 258 of the Criminal Code of Ukraine. It is proved that the norm of diversion can be competed with the norm of a terrorist act as a whole (Article 113 of the Criminal Code of Ukraine and as part of the whole (Article 258 of the Criminal Code of Ukraine, and in such cases the preference in enforcement should be qualified as a diversion. Examples given in this article are an illustrations of an ideal and actual set of diversion e and terrorist act.

  7. Prison Radicalization in County Jails: Disrupting Terrorist Acts Through Information Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    States Attorney’s Office, March 26, 2014, http://www.justice.gov/usao/ cae /news/docs/2014/2014_03/03-26-14Teausant.html. 11 Leslie Holland, “California...have reached an all-time high as a result of the Public Safety Realignment Act. In the first quarter of 2014, the average daily population reached...by the ACLU, the Sheriff’s Department has recently made significant improvements regarding the treatment of Muslim inmates. Previously, other faiths

  8. 76 FR 39408 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security/ALL-030 Use of the Terrorist Screening...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... of Investigation (FBI)/Terrorist Screening Center (TSC) is providing a near real time, synchronized... appropriate clearances or permissions. Retention and disposal: The WLS will maintain a near real time mirror... difficulties they experienced during their travel screening at transportation hubs such as airports and train...

  9. The Path to Terrorist Violence: A Threat Assessment Model for Radical Groups at Risk of Escalation to Acts of Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    Weathermen was the applause they gave to the murder of movie actress Sharon Tate and her friends by Charles Manson and his “family”…the Weathermen... vs . wrong. Typical statements include “We must always be on the side of good and fight evil.” Truthfulness, truth-speaking and truth-acting; not...identified thirty-four variables in four major categories: (1) Historical, Cultural and Contextual Variables; (2) Key Actors 54 Affecting the

  10. Profile of a Terrorist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    than those questions dealing with terrorists and their methods. Explosives are used routinely and plastique has entered the terrorist’s preferred...to handle. (12:23) The female Lebanese terrorist, May Mansin, easily concealed plastique in a body cavity and proceeded to blow a hole into the side

  11. 9/11, Act II : A Fine-Grained Analysis of Regional Variations in Traffic Fatalities in the Aftermath of the Terrorist Attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Gaissmaier, Wolfgang; Gigerenzer, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    Terrorists can strike twice - first, by directly killing people, and second, through dangerous behaviors induced by fear in people's minds. Previous research identified a substantial increase in U.S. traffic fatalities subsequent to the September 11 terrorist attacks, which were accounted for as due to a substitution of driving for flying, induced by fear of dread risks. Here, we show that this increase in fatalities varied widely by region, a fact that was best explained by regional variatio...

  12. 9/11, Act II: a fine-grained analysis of regional variations in traffic fatalities in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaissmaier, Wolfgang; Gigerenzer, Gerd

    2012-12-01

    Terrorists can strike twice--first, by directly killing people, and second, through dangerous behaviors induced by fear in people's minds. Previous research identified a substantial increase in U.S. traffic fatalities subsequent to the September 11 terrorist attacks, which were accounted for as due to a substitution of driving for flying, induced by fear of dread risks. Here, we show that this increase in fatalities varied widely by region, a fact that was best explained by regional variations in increased driving. Two factors, in turn, explained these variations in increased driving. The weaker factor was proximity to New York City, where stress reactions to the attacks were previously shown to be greatest. The stronger factor was driving opportunity, which was operationalized both as number of highway miles and as number of car registrations per inhabitant. Thus, terrorists' second strike exploited both fear of dread risks and, paradoxically, an environmental structure conducive to generating increased driving, which ultimately increased fatalities.

  13. Understanding Terrorist Ideology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cragin, Kim

    2007-01-01

    This variation, by its very nature, makes it somewhat difficult to identify overarching patterns in how terrorist ideologies might motivate individuals and sympathetic communities on a global level...

  14. Public opinion and terrorist acts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malečková, Jitka; Stanišić, Dragana

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 27, Sup. 1 (2011), S107-S121 ISSN 0176-2680 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : support for terrorism * public opinion * international terrorism Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.437, year: 2011

  15. On Terrorists and Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kellen, Konrad

    1982-01-01

    ...; it examines their socioeconomic backgrounds and their driving ideologies; and it probes into elements that may aid the cohesion of terrorist groups, as well as at elements that drive toward disintegration...

  16. Terrorists and Suicide Attacks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cronin, Audrey K

    2003-01-01

    Suicide attacks by terrorist organizations have become more prevalent globally, and assessing the threat of suicide attacks against the United States and its interests at home and abroad has therefore...

  17. Combatting the Terrorist Threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-22

    have supplied many terrorist groups with plastique and other explosives to build bombs. 3 Using these explosives they have produced vehicle bombs which...deceptive, if not dangerously naive.1 5 State Supported Terrorism State supported terrorism is not a new concept , however, it has only recently been...terrorist incidents. The product of that study was the tri-level US anti- terrorism program concept . 3 The program structure is shown in Figure 11. President

  18. Importance of the radioactive or nuclear component and its conjunction with conventional risks in social phenomena resulting from terrorist acts; Importancia da componente radioactiva e ou nuclear e sua conjuncao com riscos convencionais, em fenomenos sociais decorrentes de accoes terroristas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Francisco Miguel da Rocha Grave [Coronel, Portuguese Army, Ministerio da Defesa Nacional (Portugal)

    2009-05-15

    The current strategic environment has attenuated the traditional threats of military nature. However, several instability factors result on new risks and potential threats. A review is made on the current threats and risk scenarios and the capacities for intervention of the Portuguese Army in scenarios involving the use of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons.

  19. Religious cover to terrorist movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, M.K.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Terrorism is the use of force or the threat of force against civilian populations to achieve political objectives. The terrorists create fear, response and disruption. People fighting for freedom who have no bombs - no airplanes would resort to such atrocities as beheading even though killing of innocent people is strictly prohibited in all the religions practiced on this earth. It is done out of political madness and not religious fervor so it was said that the fight against terrorism is not a military problem, nor is it a diplomatic one, but a cultural one. Terrorism is not associated to any particular faith or discipline but it is rooted deeply in poor education and resource system. Some frustrated individuals with no employment seek easy ways to form groups and cause harassment in neighborhoods and it expands to the local and national level. The scientific community must now resolve to confront the dangers facing civilized countries through employing the scientific culture, which means scientific excellence and solidarity, to overcome ignorance in the face of global terrorism. The developed nations have adopted to collect information, do research, have tools to act and take action. States must improve the timely cross-border sharing of national security intelligence information, under appropriate circumstances, between intelligence and law enforcement agencies to better prevent and disrupt terrorist activities and to prosecute terrorists. Some world's leaders have agreed to use the national security intelligence information in investigation and prosecution process as a vital component in the battle against terrorism. Political leaders, rulers, administrator, school counselors and teachers should think of how the problems could be solved if they meet the needs and hopes of their inhabitants, provide proper education to build good moral values and also address their concerns. (author)

  20. Religious cover to terrorist movement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaidi, M K [US Department of Energy, Idaho Radiological and Environmental Sciences Laboratory (RESL), Idaho Falls (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Full text: Terrorism is the use of force or the threat of force against civilian populations to achieve political objectives. The terrorists create fear, response and disruption. People fighting for freedom who have no bombs - no airplanes would resort to such atrocities as beheading even though killing of innocent people is strictly prohibited in all the religions practiced on this earth. It is done out of political madness and not religious fervor so it was said that the fight against terrorism is not a military problem, nor is it a diplomatic one, but a cultural one. Terrorism is not associated to any particular faith or discipline but it is rooted deeply in poor education and resource system. Some frustrated individuals with no employment seek easy ways to form groups and cause harassment in neighborhoods and it expands to the local and national level. The scientific community must now resolve to confront the dangers facing civilized countries through employing the scientific culture, which means scientific excellence and solidarity, to overcome ignorance in the face of global terrorism. The developed nations have adopted to collect information, do research, have tools to act and take action. States must improve the timely cross-border sharing of national security intelligence information, under appropriate circumstances, between intelligence and law enforcement agencies to better prevent and disrupt terrorist activities and to prosecute terrorists. Some world's leaders have agreed to use the national security intelligence information in investigation and prosecution process as a vital component in the battle against terrorism. Political leaders, rulers, administrator, school counselors and teachers should think of how the problems could be solved if they meet the needs and hopes of their inhabitants, provide proper education to build good moral values and also address their concerns. (author)

  1. On Deceiving Terrorists

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-12-01

    developed. By way of contrast, the last two categories—theoretical works and doctrine—attempt to transcend the contextual limits of the first two... Busqueda , the Colombian National Police “Search Bloc,” which was tasked with apprehending Escobar (Bowden, 2001). Deceiving Terrorists Chain Network

  2. Underfunding in Terrorist Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Jacob N.; Siegel, David A.

    A review of international terrorist activity reveals a pattern of financially strapped operatives working for organizations that seem to have plenty of money. To explain this observation, and to examine when restricting terrorists’ funds will reduce their lethality, we model a hierarchical terror organization in which leaders delegate financial and logistical tasks to middlemen, but cannot perfectly monitor them for security reasons. These middlemen do not always share their leaders’ interests: the temptation exists to skim funds from financial transactions. When middlemen are sufficiently greedy and organizations suffer from sufficiently strong budget constraints, leaders will not fund attacks because the costs of skimming are too great. Using general functional forms, we find important nonlinearities in terrorists’ responses to government counter-terrorism. Restricting terrorists’ funds may be ineffective until a critical threshold is reached, at which point cooperation within terrorist organizations begins to break down and further government actions have a disproportionately large impact.

  3. Malevolent Creativity in Terrorist Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Paul; Horgan, John; Hunter, Samuel T.; Cushenbery, Lily D.

    2013-01-01

    Terrorist organizations are both imitative and innovative in character. While the drivers of imitation have been extensively modeled using concepts such as contagion and diffusion, creativity and innovation remain relatively underdeveloped ideas in the context of terrorist behavior. This article seeks to redress this deficiency by presenting a…

  4. The human body as a terrorist weapon: hunger strikes and suicide bombers

    OpenAIRE

    Mollica, Marcello; Dingley, James

    2007-01-01

    This article argues that a major factor in terrorist acts is an appeal to the actor's own community at an emotional and symbolic level, through acts of sacrifice, particularly self-sacrifice. Although other aims also exist, a prime concern is to recall the actor's home audience to the struggle, because the actor regards himself as acting on their behalf. This utilizes the imagery and symbolism of traditional religion, implying a strong communal and non-material impetus to terrorist acts, rath...

  5. Saudi Arabia: Terrorist Financing Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blanchard, Christoper M; Prados, Alfred B

    2007-01-01

    According to the U.S. State Department 2007 International Narcotics Control Strategy Report, Saudi donors and unregulated charities have been a major source of financing to extremist and terrorist groups over the past 25 years...

  6. Terrorist targeting and energy security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toft, Peter; Duero, Arash; Bieliauskas, Arunas [Institute of Energy, Joint Research Center of the European Commission, P.O. Box 2, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2010-08-15

    Sudden, short-term disruptions seriously endangering energy security can be triggered by a variety of events - among them attacks by terrorists. This study investigates terrorist attack practices against energy infrastructures and discusses how we may understand them. Our results indicate that attacks against energy infrastructures are comparatively few. Also, we find no strong connection between the ideologies of various terrorist groups and their proclivity to attack. In addition, the highly disproportionate number of attacks in a handful of countries highlights the strong geographic concentration of attacks. To explain these findings, we analyze terrorist targeting incentives including intimidation levels, symbolism, attack feasibility, and concerns for stakeholders. We argue that terrorists in general have comparatively few incentives to attack energy supply infrastructures based on our assessment of these factors. Moreover, higher levels of terrorist incidents in states more prone to internal violent conflict may suggest stronger incentives to attack energy infrastructures. When outlining energy security policies, the low frequency of worldwide attacks coupled with the high concentration of attacks in certain unstable countries should be taken into consideration. Energy importing countries could benefit from developing strategies to increase stability in key energy supply and/or transit countries facing risks of internal instability. (author)

  7. Improving Local and State Agency Response to Terrorist Incidents Involving Biological Weapons

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2003-01-01

    .... Because of multiple terrorist acts such as the September II, 2001 attacks on the Pentagon and the World Trade Center, as well as anthrax contaminated mail and the Oklahoma City bombing, there is a...

  8. INTERNATIONALLY LEGAL MEASURES TO COMBAT TERRORIST FINANCING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuniarti Yuniarti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Following the terrorist attacks in the USA on September 11th, 2001, it was discovered that money laundering was a significant source of finance for terrorists. Although, the amount of money that involve is not as involve as in drug and gun trafficking, terrorist financing had been the most important substance to be monitor. Further, various legal measures have been taken internationally in order to combat terrorist financing. This research analyses the legal measures that have been taken internationally and at EU level to combat terrorist financing. Key words: Money Laundering, Terrorist Financing, International Legal measures, EU.

  9. Understanding public confidence in government to prevent terrorist attacks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, T. E.; Ramaprasad, A,; Samsa, M. E.; Decision and Information Sciences; Univ. of Illinois at Chicago

    2008-04-02

    A primary goal of terrorism is to instill a sense of fear and vulnerability in a population and to erode its confidence in government and law enforcement agencies to protect citizens against future attacks. In recognition of its importance, the Department of Homeland Security includes public confidence as one of the principal metrics used to assess the consequences of terrorist attacks. Hence, a detailed understanding of the variations in public confidence among individuals, terrorist event types, and as a function of time is critical to developing this metric. In this exploratory study, a questionnaire was designed, tested, and administered to small groups of individuals to measure public confidence in the ability of federal, state, and local governments and their public safety agencies to prevent acts of terrorism. Data was collected from three groups before and after they watched mock television news broadcasts portraying a smallpox attack, a series of suicide bomber attacks, a refinery explosion attack, and cyber intrusions on financial institutions, resulting in identity theft. Our findings are: (a) although the aggregate confidence level is low, there are optimists and pessimists; (b) the subjects are discriminating in interpreting the nature of a terrorist attack, the time horizon, and its impact; (c) confidence recovery after a terrorist event has an incubation period; and (d) the patterns of recovery of confidence of the optimists and the pessimists are different. These findings can affect the strategy and policies to manage public confidence after a terrorist event.

  10. How and Why Do Terrorist Organizations Use the Internet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Wojtasik

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article gives general characterisation of the ways in which these organizations use modern communication technologies. Currently, every major terrorist organisation maintain robust media wings, which focus on producing videos, publishing magazines and sharing them with the public via the Web. The empirical system of reference is based on the activity of al-Qaeda, her franchise AQAP (al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula and ISIS (the so-called Islamic State. While analysing the media of terrorist organisations, the Lasswell model was applied. This formula is a standard research procedure used for investigating acts of communication by answering the questions: who, says what, in which channel, to whom, with what effect?. The author also present typology of videos produced by jihadist organisations, characterised the most important and active media actions of terrorist organisations and a typology of recipients of such messages. The article presents a number of reasons why the Internet has become such an important tool for terrorists.

  11. Terrorist threats of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jozsef Solymosi; Jozser Ronaky; Zoltan Levai; Arpad Vincze; Laszlo Foldi

    2004-01-01

    More than one year has passed since the terrible terrorist attacks against the United States. The tragic event fundamentally restructured our security policy approach and made requirements of countering terrorism a top priority of the 21st century. In one year a lot of studies were published and the majority of them analyses primarily the beginnings of terrorism then focus on the interrelations of causes and consequences of the attacks against the WTC. In most of the cases the authors can only put their questions most of which have remained unanswered to date. Meanwhile, in a short while after the attacks the secret assessments of threat levels of potential targets and areas were also prepared. One of the high priority fields is the issue of nuclear, biological, and chemical security, in short NBC-security. Here and now we focus on component N, that is the assessment techniques of nuclear security in short, without aiming at completeness. Our definite objective is to make non-expert readers understand - and present a concrete example as it is done in risk analysis - the real danger-level of nuclear facilities and especially the terrorist threat. Our objective is not to give tips to terrorists but to provide them with deterring arguments and at the same time calm worried people. In our communique we give an overview of international practice of nuclear antiterrorism and of preventive nuclear protection in Hungary. (author)

  12. Transition from Terrorist Event Management to Consequence Management, Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-31

    hUMIEe " BDM/W-82-l1 5-TR AUTO11(o 1. CONTR ACT OR GRANT NumURe) J. C. Evanis, M. K. Pilgrim, C. J. Potter EMW-C-0744 9. PER•O^•ING ORGANIZATIN NAME...should, and is expected to, provide leadership in this regard. There exists a variety of experience and planning for responding to terrorist events. The

  13. The Current Legal Framework of the Use of Force against Terrorist Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra PERISIC

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Events that took place on 9/11, when symbols of American nation were destroyed by hijacked civilian airplanes, raised the issue of the effectiveness of the currently existing legal framework which regulates terrorist activities. Prior to that event, dealing with terrorist activities was mostly regulated by conventions, many of which were ratified by no more than couple of states. However, it became questionable whether these instruments are sufficient to fight terrorists who are not only immune to a threat of sanctions, but are even ready to sacrifice their lives. After the attacks took place, the United States launched against Afghanistan an armed action, ending up in a more than a decade long occupation, holding Taliban regime responsible for the attacks undertaken by Al-Qaida. The United States response to the 9/11 raised an important question: what is the legal response to terrorist attacks? This article explores the current legal framework of the use of force in response to terrorist attacks, especially with regard to distinguishing terrorist acts which are attributable to a certain state, from those which are undertaken by a terrorist group, not associated with any particular state.

  14. The Decision Calculus of Terrorist Leaders

    OpenAIRE

    J. Tyson Chatagnier; Alex Mintz; Yair Samban

    2012-01-01

    This article contributes to the literature on terrorist group decision-making by introducing a new procedure, Applied Decision Analysis, in an attempt to understand how leaders of terrorist organizations make decisions. We examine twenty-three decisions taken by leaders of three terrorist organizations: Al-Qaeda, Hamas, and Hizballah. We also demonstrate the use of the Applied Decision Analysis procedure to uncover the "Decision DNA" or “decision code” of leaders of such organizat...

  15. 48 CFR 252.209-7001 - Disclosure of ownership or control by the government of a terrorist country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) (a) Definitions. As used in this provision— (1) Government of a terrorist country includes the state... the government of which has repeatedly provided support for acts of international terrorism. As of the...

  16. Countering the Nuclear Terrorist Threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vantine, H C

    2002-01-01

    The nuclear/radioactive threat to homeland security posed by terrorists can be broken into four categories. Of highest concern is the use of an improvised nuclear device (IND). An IND, as its name implies, is a nuclear explosive device. It produces nuclear yield, and this nuclear yield has catastrophic effects. An IND is the ultimate terrorist weapon, and terrorist groups are actively attempting to acquire nuclear weapons. Detonation of an IND could dwarf the devastation of the September 11 attack on the World Trade Center. Dealing with the aftermath of an IND would be horrific. Rescue efforts and cleanup would be hazardous and difficult. Workers would have to wear full protection suits and self-contained breathing apparatus. Because of the residual radioactivity, in certain locations they could only work short times before acquiring their ''lifetime'' dose. As with the Chernobyl event, some rescue workers might well expose themselves to lethal doses of radiation, adding to the casualty toll. Enormous volumes of contaminated debris would have to be removed and disposed. If a terrorist group decides not to pursue an actual nuclear device, it might well turn to Radiological Dispersal Devices (RDDs) or ''dirty bombs'' as they are often called. RDDs spread radioactivity but they do not generate nuclear yield. The fabrication of an RDD requires radioactive material and a dispersal mechanism. Radioactive materials are used all over the world for medical, industrial, and research applications. Standards for safe handling and accountability of radioactive material vary around the world. Stories in the press suggest inadequate controls on radiological materials in parts of the world. The effects of an RDD vary widely, and are measured in terms of contamination area, health effects to the exposed population, and economic consequences. Even a negligible, but measurable, exposure would exploit the general public's fear of things radioactive and would have significant

  17. Public health preparedness and response to a radiological terrorist attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Given the potential for intentional malevolent acts, the security of radioactive sources should be ensured. In the event of a terrorist attack using a radioactive source, we should care not only about health concerns of victims, especially including first responders who suffer from radiation injury, but also public health activities with affected people during the long recovery phase. Regarding the radiological public health viewpoint, preventive efforts are also important. In fact, regulatory reform is progressing in Japan according to the code of conduct issued by IAEA. One of the difficulties of countermeasures for the security of radioactive sources in Japan is to establish a disposal facility for disused sealed radioactive sources, since radioactive waste has been additionally a point of contention in society since the nuclear disaster. This paper presents an overview of countermeasures for terrorist attacks using a radioactive source, from the viewpoint of public health in Japan including the results of survey targeted hospitals equipped with blood irradiation machines. (author)

  18. Plutonium - how great is the terrorist threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.L.

    1977-01-01

    The terrorists' problems in stealing the plutonium and fabricating the device are measured against the likely effects of its explosion. Alternatives are discussed and it is concluded that there are many easier ways of killing a large number of people. It is considered impossible to guard absolutely against all possible terrorist threats of mass murder. (U.K.)

  19. The importance of the treatment of the unsafe acts for the prevention of accidents in petrochemical industry; A importancia do tratamento dos atos inseguros para a prevencao de acidentes na industria petroquimica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meneguetti, Alexander A.; Santos, Helio R.F.; Alevato, Hilda; Lima, Luciana S. [Dupont do Brasil S.A., Paulinia, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Due to the fact that, the workers' behavior is characterized by its complexity and diversity, this issue has been seen as a great 'black box' in discussions regarding the Management Systems of SHE. Associated with this issue other arises: How conscious people? How to engage them with the process? How to improve the risk control? How to motivate the prevention? Most of these responses are discussed in the Social and Human Sciences for many years. However, it is necessary to closer the technical-operational knowledge and the human aspects, applying in the organizations' daily work, to make the working environment more safe. The purpose of this study, therefore, is examining the possibility of reducing accidents through the identification and treatment of deviations (unsafe acts and unsafe conditions), cause the whole accident, be it serious or not, begins with a small deviation. It was used as a reference tool, the Behavior audit and it is based on field's observations, applied into a production unit of a large petrochemical industry in northern Brazil, during the years 2006 and 2007. (author)

  20. Liquid Missile Fuels as Means of Chemical Terrorist Attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superina, V.; Orehovec, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Modern world is faced with numerous terrorist attacks whose goals, methods and means of the conduct are various. It seems that we have entered the era when terrorism, one's own little terrorism, is the easiest and the most painless way of achieving a goal. That is why that such a situation has contributed to the necessity for strengthening individual and collective protection and safety, import and export control, control of the production and illegal sale of the potential means for delivering terrorist act. It has also contributed to the necessity for devising means of the delivery. For more than 10 years, a series of congresses on CB MTS Industry has pointed at chemicals and chemical industry as potential means and targets of terrorism. The specialization and experience of different authors in the field of the missile technology and missile fuels, especially those of Eastern origin, and the threat that was the reality of the war conflicts in 1990s was the reason for making a scientific and expert analysis of the liquid missile fuels as means of terrorism. There are not many experts in the field of NBC protection who are familiar with the toxicity and reaction of liquid missile fuels still lying discarded and unprotected in abandoned barracks all over Europe and Asia. The purpose of this paper is to draw public attention to possible different abuses of liquid missile fuels for a terrorist purpose, as well as to possible consequences and prevention measures against such abuses. (author)

  1. 25 CFR 11.402 - Terroristic threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.402 Terroristic threats. A person is guilty of a misdemeanor if he or she threatens to commit any crime of violence with purpose to terrorize another or to cause evacuation...

  2. Australian Correctional Management Practices for Terrorist Prisoners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Tompson

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Management practices for incarcerated terrorists is an important counterterrorism policy consideration. Moreover, there is a misconception that once incarcerated, terrorists cease to be a risk. If correctional management regimes are implemented poorly, terrorist prisoners may be afforded the opportunity to remain active while incarcerated, including the recruitment of other prisoners, and the planning of future attacks. Equally, they may be viewed as role models or martyrs for sympathisers to aspire to. Despite the magnitude of the consequences, there is no agreed approach to managing Australian terrorist prisoners. As such, a dichotomy of dominant models has emerged; that is, to either segregate terrorist prisoners, or conversely, to disperse them throughout the wider prisoner population. Each strategy presents its own set of benefits and risks. This paper compares the management practices for terrorist prisoners in the states of New South Wales and Victoria to determine the strengths and vulnerabilities of each of these approaches. The paper concludes that policy-makers should consider reassessing current strategies. It suggests that a focus that extends the immediate containment considerations to encompass post-release factors would bring benefits for society.

  3. PROSECUTING SOMALIA PIRATES AS TERRORISTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ODHIAMBO E.O.S., ONKWARE K., KASSILLY J., NTABO O. M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article starts from the assumption that piracy resembles terrorism in many aspects and attempts to support it through both a theoretical investigation and practical examples. The argument it makes is that Somali pirates should be prosecuted as terrorists. Moreover, it emphasizes the idea that for Somalia’s neighboring countries and not only the implementation of such an approach consists in resorting to the antiterrorist conventions already in place. Thus, for example, Kenya Navy as a piracyfi ghting agency should rely on these conventions to justify the capture and prosecution of pirates in Kenyan courts. In this respect, we emphasize the idea that only by resorting to an established international legal framework can Kenya identify the tools to counter pirates’ actions within legal limits. Moreover, this should be paralleled by efforts towards rebuilding Somalia and its institutions if long-term solutions are to be envisaged in the eradication of piracy in the Indian Ocean. In conclusion, the article looks at the concepts of piracy, terrorism and development in the Horn of Africa, suggests that piracy is a form of Terrorism and, makes a series of recommendations.

  4. Importancia de las emociones en el TDAH

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Cascón, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    El TDAH es un trastorno de origen neurobiológico caracterizado por los síntomas de inatención, hiperactividad e impulsividad y que a su vez interfiere y dificulta en el manejo de las distintas emociones. A través de una larga revisión bibliográfica, se ha intentado proporcionar un conocimiento mayor sobre la importancia que tienen las emociones y adquirir una autoregulación de las mismas

  5. The Terrorist and the Media: Partners in Crime or Rituals and Harmless Observers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Ralph E.

    This paper explores the idea that the media "cause" or strongly motivate acts of terrorism. In an effort to refute this view the paper applies Kenneth Burke's dramatistic theory of communication to show that the motives and behavior of political terrorists can be explained without reference to the media coverage terrorism produces. The…

  6. Clinical and psychological aspects of adolescent involvement in extremist and terrorist activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oshevsky D.S.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the clinical and psychological aspects of including minors in terrorist and extremist activities. In the historical perspective, it was traced how the views on the role of mental disorders in the genesis of such crimes changed. It is shown that terrorist and extremist activity must be viewed as a complex multi-factor phenomenon, in which socio-psychological components play a leading role. It is noted that the psychopathological process can act as a prerequisite for inclusion in such radical groups. Psychoanalytic, sociological, cognitive approaches, theories of social learning and the concept of diffuse ego-identity making attempts to explain the mechanisms of terrorist and extremist activity in minors are analyzed. The problem of insufficient study of the influence of the Internet and social networks on the formation of readiness for admission to adolescents in radical organizations is posed.

  7. Terrorists: analogies and differences with mental diseases. A phenomenological-metaphysical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisogni, Primavera

    2010-01-01

    Are islamic terrorists insane? International scholars generally concede that Al Qaeda members are not mentally ill. But, until now, there has not been a shared consensus and a strong argument that can prove it. This paper intends to throw light on the specific dehumanization of terrorists and to show that they are always responsible for their acts, unlike those who are affected by mental diseases. The members of Al Qaeda deny the world of life and take the distance from its sense and value: in their perspective only subversive action makes sense. However they always maintain a transcendent relation with the world (I-you; I-it). Persons with serious mental diseases have generally lost the sense of their self and the transcendence with the world. Terrorists and people with mental illness share a common separation from the world of life: one is voluntary, the other is the consequence of a number of factors (biological, social, etc.). Terrorists and psychotics have nevertheless something in common: the deprivation of the self. A loss of being that--I argue--is at the origin of the ordinariness of terrorists and the experience of void in psychotics. Two symptoms that reveal the condition of an intimate dryness, from a phenomenological and a metaphysical point of view as a consequence of a distorted relation with the world of life. I shall discuss how ordinariness is strictly related with the blurring definition of terrorism.

  8. La importancia de los organismos electorales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Urruty Navatta

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudia la importancia de los organismos electorales en la consolidación de la democracia como sistema político. Puntualiza que toda elección debe estar precedida de un marco regulatorio de jerarquía constitucional o legal que establezca las reglas de juego del acto electoral. El establecimiento de ese marco regulatorio excede la potestad reglamentaria que debe otorgarse al organismo electoral que prepara el acto eleccionario y la competencia del órgano que debe juzgarla.

  9. Intelligence Constraints on Terrorist Network Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Gordon

    Since 9/11, the western intelligence and law enforcement services have managed to interdict the great majority of planned attacks against their home countries. Network analysis shows that there are important intelligence constraints on the number and complexity of terrorist plots. If two many terrorists are involved in plots at a given time, a tipping point is reached whereby it becomes progressively easier for the dots to be joined and for the conspirators to be arrested, and for the aggregate evidence to secure convictions. Implications of this analysis are presented for the campaign to win hearts and minds.

  10. Terrorist Financing: The 9/11 Commission Recommendation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weiss, Martin A

    2005-01-01

    .... The Commission recommended that the U.S. government shift the focus of its efforts to counter terrorist financing from a strategy based on seizing terrorist assets to a strategy based on exploiting intelligence gathered from financial investigations...

  11. 31 CFR 595.311 - Specially designated terrorist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 595.311 Specially designated terrorist. (a) The term specially designated terrorist means: (1...

  12. Immigration: Terrorist Grounds for Exclusion and Removal Aliens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garcia, Michael J; Wasem, Ruth E

    2008-01-01

    ...., legal permanent residents) or temporarily as nonimmigrants. Notably, any alien who engages in terrorist activity, or is a representative or member of a designated foreign terrorist organization, is generally inadmissible...

  13. Immigration: Terrorist Grounds for Exclusion and Removal of Aliens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garcia, Michael J; Wasem, Ruth E

    2007-01-01

    ...., legal permanent residents) or temporarily as nonimmigrants. Notably, any alien who engages in terrorist activity, or is a representative or member of a designated foreign terrorist organization, is generally inadmissible...

  14. 31 CFR 597.309 - Foreign terrorist organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 597.309 Foreign terrorist organization. The term foreign terrorist... respect to which the Secretary of State has notified Congress of the intention to designate as a foreign...

  15. importancia para la enseñanza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepción González Rodríguez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se realiza una revisión histórica, de aquellos estudios/experiencias relacionados con los procesos de fotosíntesis y respiración que contribuyeron a la desestimación de la “teoría del humus” como modelo de nutrición vegetal. También se incluyen aquellos problemas que preocupaban a los investigadores en ese marco histórico. Se pondrá especial énfasis en la evolución de la formulación de “la fotosíntesis”, ya que en dicho conocimiento se localizó “la clave” que otorgó a los vegetales una importancia vital para la supervivencia de la vida en nuestro planeta. La evolución del conocimiento en ese campo, permitió pasar de un modelo de nutrición vegetal centrado únicamente en el nivel organismo, a la elaboración y aceptación del modelo actual que contempla la nutrición en tres niveles: organismo, celular y ecosistema. Finalmente se muestra la importancia que esta revisión histórica tiene para la enseñanza de este tema.

  16. Real Time Big Data Analytics for Predicting Terrorist Incidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toure, Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    Terrorism is a complex and evolving phenomenon. In the past few decades, we have witnessed an increase in the number of terrorist incidents in the world. The security and stability of many countries is threatened by terrorist groups. Perpetrators now use sophisticated weapons and the attacks are more and more lethal. Currently, terrorist incidents…

  17. Dynamical Adaptation in Terrorist Cells/Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Ahmed, Zaki

    2010-01-01

    Typical terrorist cells/networks have dynamical structure as they evolve or adapt to changes which may occur due to capturing or killing of a member of the cell/network. Analytical measures in graph theory like degree centrality, betweenness and closeness centralities are very common and have long...

  18. Combatting Commercial Terrorists: The PKK Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Kurdistan Workers’ Party, drug trafficking, human trafficking, cigarette smuggling, prostitution, extortion, money laundering , Turkey 15. NUMBER OF...91 F. MONEY LAUNDERING ............................................................... 93 G. CONCLUSION...opportunity to launder illegal money . Also, donations from a sympathetic population is another source of money and legitimacy for terrorist

  19. When Do Governments Concede to Terrorists

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    crisis, 146 people were taken hostage by the terrorist group Tupac Amaru (MRTA) at the Japanese Embassy in Peru . Six of those were American...hispanic_heritage/article-9475994 FARC-EP. (2009). Chronology of resistance: FARC-EP, a history of struggle. Retrieved from http://resistencia- colombia.org...index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=463: chronology - of-resistance-farc-ep-a-history-of-struggle&catid=50&Itemid=85 Gladwell, M. (2000). The

  20. Will it ever be possible to profile the terrorist?

    OpenAIRE

    Rae, Jonathan A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper critiques the claim that terrorists can be profiled – that is to say that terrorists possess distinguishable attributes that can be conceivably identified by an observer. In doing so, the most prominent profiling parameters - racial, gender, age, pathological, psychological and socioeconomic – are investigated. The above approaches are found to have little to no applied value in identifying terrorists from a societal population. The dominant criticisms of these methods emphasise th...

  1. Detecting Hidden Hierarchy of Non Hierarchical Terrorist Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Memon, Nasrullah

    measures (and combinations of them) to identify key players (important nodes) in terrorist networks. Our recently introduced techniques and algorithms (which are also implemented in the investigative data mining toolkit known as iMiner) will be particularly useful for law enforcement agencies that need...... to analyze terrorist networks and prioritize their targets. Applying recently introduced mathematical methods for constructing the hidden hierarchy of "nonhierarchical" terrorist networks; we present case studies of the terrorist attacks occurred / planned in the past, in order to identify hidden hierarchy...

  2. 31 CFR 594.310 - Specially designated global terrorist; SDGT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GLOBAL TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 594.310 Specially designated global terrorist; SDGT. The term specially...

  3. Terrorist Capabilities for Cyberattack: Overview and Policy Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rollins, John; Wilson, Clay

    2005-01-01

    .... Persistent Internet and computer security vulnerabilities, which have been widely publicized, may gradually encourage terrorists to develop new computer skills, or develop alliances with criminal...

  4. Will it Ever be Possible to Profile the Terrorist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A Rae

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available 'This paper critiques the claim that terrorists can be profiled – that is to say that terrorists possess distinguishable attributes that can be conceivably identified by an observer. In doing so, the most prominent profiling parameters - racial, gender, age, pathological, psychological and socioeconomic – are investigated. The above approaches are found to have little to no applied value in identifying terrorists from a societal population. The dominant criticisms of these methods emphasise their crude reductionism, an absence of internal and external validity, and their lack of practical application. Current evidence indicates that the profiling of terrorists is a futile venture.'

  5. Licensing issues in the context of terrorist attacks on nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danwitz, T. von

    2002-01-01

    The terrorist attack on the World Trade Center in September 2001 has prompted enhanced nuclear risk awareness among the German population. But in the current public debate about the safety of nuclear power plants in Germany in times of new dimensions of danger, aspects such as the role of the constitutional law, the German Atomic Energy Act, and the regulatory system governing nuclear power plant licensing in the context of protection and safety have not been addressed. The author therefore discusses the German nuclear power plant licensing law and administrative regime, elaborating on the significance attributed in those bodies of law to risks like terrorist attacks on nuclear power plants. (orig./CB) [de

  6. Personality and Fear of Terrorist attacks in Ghana: The mediating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aimed at determining whether or not neuroticism would account for more variance in predicting risk perception and fear of terrorist attack in Ghana compared to conscientiousness. Moreover, it sought to examine the mediating effect of risk perception on the relationship between neuroticism and fear of terrorist ...

  7. Family Therapy of Terroristic Trauma: Psychological Syndromes and Treatment Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laurence

    2003-01-01

    Reviews pertinent literature on terroristic trauma and combines this information with the author's experience in treating adults, children, and family victims and survivors of recent terrorist attacks. Describes the psychological syndromes resulting from terrorism and discusses the relevant individual and family therapy modalities for treating…

  8. Israeli Adolescents' Coping Strategies in Relation to Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatar, Moshe; Amram, Sima

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to terrorism seriously threatens the well-being of children and adolescents. Israeli citizens have witnessed massive ongoing terrorist attacks during the last few years. The present research, conducted among 330 Israeli adolescents, examined coping strategies in relation to terrorist attacks. We found that adolescents utilize more…

  9. Money, media and the anti-politics of terrorist finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Goede, M.

    2008-01-01

    This article offers a critical analysis of the anti-politics of terrorist finance, understood as the particularly depoliticized governing practices enabled in its name. The article conceptualizes 'terrorist finance' not as an unproblematic reality which has elicited a state response, but as a

  10. Agent Based Modeling on Organizational Dynamics of Terrorist Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Modeling organizational dynamics of terrorist network is a critical issue in computational analysis of terrorism research. The first step for effective counterterrorism and strategic intervention is to investigate how the terrorists operate with the relational network and what affects the performance. In this paper, we investigate the organizational dynamics by employing a computational experimentation methodology. The hierarchical cellular network model and the organizational dynamics model are developed for modeling the hybrid relational structure and complex operational processes, respectively. To intuitively elucidate this method, the agent based modeling is used to simulate the terrorist network and test the performance in diverse scenarios. Based on the experimental results, we show how the changes of operational environments affect the development of terrorist organization in terms of its recovery and capacity to perform future tasks. The potential strategies are also discussed, which can be used to restrain the activities of terrorists.

  11. `Googling' Terrorists: Are Northern Irish Terrorists Visible on Internet Search Engines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, P.

    In this chapter, the analysis suggests that Northern Irish terrorists are not visible on Web search engines when net users employ conventional Internet search techniques. Editors of mass media organisations traditionally have had the ability to decide whether a terrorist atrocity is `newsworthy,' controlling the `oxygen' supply that sustains all forms of terrorism. This process, also known as `gatekeeping,' is often influenced by the norms of social responsibility, or alternatively, with regard to the interests of the advertisers and corporate sponsors that sustain mass media organisations. The analysis presented in this chapter suggests that Internet search engines can also be characterised as `gatekeepers,' albeit without the ability to shape the content of Websites before it reaches net users. Instead, Internet search engines give priority retrieval to certain Websites within their directory, pointing net users towards these Websites rather than others on the Internet. Net users are more likely to click on links to the more `visible' Websites on Internet search engine directories, these sites invariably being the highest `ranked' in response to a particular search query. A number of factors including the design of the Website and the number of links to external sites determine the `visibility' of a Website on Internet search engines. The study suggests that Northern Irish terrorists and their sympathisers are unlikely to achieve a greater degree of `visibility' online than they enjoy in the conventional mass media through the perpetration of atrocities. Although these groups may have a greater degree of freedom on the Internet to publicise their ideologies, they are still likely to be speaking to the converted or members of the press. Although it is easier to locate Northern Irish terrorist organisations on Internet search engines by linking in via ideology, ideological description searches, such as `Irish Republican' and `Ulster Loyalist,' are more likely to

  12. Categorizing terrorist entities listed by the European Union according to terrorist groups’ underlying motives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liane Rothenberger

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available States and international organizations have compiled lists of a great variety of terrorist groups. The current European Union list includes 44 entities. This study analyzes the underlying motives of the terrorist organizations named in this list. In order to understand the groups’ motivations and consequently be able to advise on methods of countering them with communication strategies, we employ a three-item typology provided by Waldmann (2001. The results show that only five of the 44 groups were religiously motivated to commit terrorism. Most of the groups (n=20 had nationalist-separatist motives, and 19 groups displayed social-revolutionary motives. Based on the respective motives, differing counter-terrorism strategies are proposed, e.g., developing rhetorical counter-narratives that address and reduce the groups’ motivational and identity-generating characteristics.

  13. VULNERABILITIES, TERRORIST AND BIOTERRORIST THREATS AND RISKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel ORDEANUL

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary society has been, is and will probably be dominated "urbi et orbi " (everywhere and for everybody by conflicts expressed through violence, social confrontations, permissiveness, authority collapse, collapse of moral norms. Paradoxically, although it is spoken and written much about terrorism and terrorists, there is still no complete and accepted definition of these terms, and the legal classification is approximate. The analysis of threats is an extremely important decisional asset when setting up plans of direct protection or objective security strategies or institutions suitable to become targets of violent actions, but today's intelligence community has not yet established a clear set of procedures and principles that constitute the expert main frame for a comprehensive analysis of threats and vulnerabilities.

  14. Terrorists on Trial: A Performative Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice de Graaf

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available On 30 March 2011, ICCT organised an Expert Meeting entitled “Terrorism Trials as Theatre: A Performative Perspective”. The Expert Meeting applied a performative perspective to three well known and recent trials in different parts of the world: the trials against the Dutch Hofstad Group, the Mumbai 2008 Terrorist Attack Trial and the Guantanamo Military Tribunals. As such, the Expert Meeting did not concentrate solely on the immediate judicial performance of the magistrates and/or the defence; instead, the trials were put in their wider sociological context, adopting notions of social drama and communication sciences. This Expert Meeting Paper is a further adaptation of the Discussion Paper that was used as basis for debate during the Meeting.

  15. Conceptualizing Terrorist Violence and Suicide Bombing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murad Ismayilov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an analysis of different approaches to terrorist violence, with a particular focus on suicide terrorism, using the above mentioned levels of analysis as a conceptual framework to organize this study. In doing so, the article focuses primarily on four selected studies: Khashan's theory of collective Palestinian frustration operating at individual and structural levels; Pape's strategic theory of suicide terrorism, Devji's notion of global jihad, and Hammes' conceptualization of suicide terrorism as one of the strategies of Fourth Generation Warfare, all studied at a strategic level. Drawing on these analyses, as well as on Tilly, this article attempts to address the question of whether suicide terrorism represents a "coherent phenomenon," and whether there is, or may be, a generalized pattern which could account for all possible causes of martyrdom operations.

  16. Near-space airships against terrorist activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesenek, Ceylan

    2014-06-01

    Near-space is a region surrounding the earth which is too dense for a satellite to fly and also too thin for air breathing vehicles to fly. The near-space region which is located between 65,000 and 325,000 feet is really underutilized despite its unique potential. Near-Space airships can be used to exploit the potential of near space. Such a system can supply not only a great deal of information using ISR (Intelligence Surveillance Reconnaissance) sensors on board but also serve as a communication/data relay. Airships used in near space can cover a very wide footprint area for surveillance missions. Free of orbital mechanics these near-space assets can continue its mission for long period of time with a persistence of days and months. These assets can provide persistent intelligence for fight against terrorist activities. Terrorism is a non-state threat and doesn't have a static hierarchical structure. To fight against such an adversary an overwhelming intelligence activity must be applied. Therefore, intelligence collection and surveillance missions play a vital role in counter terrorism. Terrorists use asymmetric means of threat that require information superiority. In this study exploitation of near space by airships is analyzed for fight against terrorism. Near-space airships are analyzed according to the operational effectiveness, logistic structure and cost. Advantages and disadvantages of airships are argued in comparison with satellites and airplanes. As a result, by bridging the gap between the air and space, nearspace airships are considered to be the most important asset of warfighter especially with its operational effectiveness.

  17. Threat Assessment: Do Lone Terrorists Differ from Other Lone Offenders?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane M. Zierhoffer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the viability of a threat assessment model developed to calculate the risk of targeted violence as a predictor of violence by potential lone terrorists. There is no profile, to date, which would assist in the identification of a lone terrorist prior to an attack. The threat assessment model developed by Borum, Fein, Vossekuil, and Berglund and described in “Threat Assessment: Defining an approach for evaluating risk of targeted violence” (1999 poses ten questions about the patterns of thinking and behaviors that may precipitate an attack of targeted violence. Three terrorists are studied to assess the model’s value as a predictor of terrorism. It is assessed for its use within law enforcement, during an investigation of someone brought to attention as a possible terrorist and for family members or friends who suspect potential terrorist behavior. Would these questions encourage someone to report a friend to prevent a possible attack? This threat assessment model provides a foundation for future research focused on developing a structured risk assessment for lone terrorists. In its present form, the questions can assist both citizens and law enforcement personnel in identifying the patterns of thought and behavior potentially indicative of a lone terrorist.

  18. Threat Assessment of Potential Terrorist Attacks to the Transport Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Nowacki

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents threat assessment of potential terrorist attacks to the transport infrastructure. The range of transportation infrastructure has spread and includes railway, inland waterways, road, maritime, air, intermodal transport infrastructure and intelligent transport systems (ITS. ITS service is the provision of an ITS application through a well-defined organisational and operational framework with the aim of contributing to the user safety, efficiency, comfort and/or to facilitate or support transport and travel operations. Terrorism means acts of violence committed by groups that view themselves as victimized by some notable historical wrong. Although these groups have no formal connection with governments, they usually have the financial and moral backing of sympathetic governments. Typically, they stage unexpected attacks on civilian targets, including transport infrastructure, with the aim of sowing fear and confusion. Based on the analyses, transportation infrastructure is potentially threatened with terrorism attacks, especially road and rail infrastructure (about 23 %, and to a smaller degree the maritime and air transport infrastructure (about 2 %. There were 90,3% of incidents involve land transport (74,5% – vehicles, 9,5% – buses, 6,3% - rail covered the 41-year period 1967-2007 in the USA. Legal steps to fight terrorism have been taken on the international level, furthermore, some institutions have been established for this purpose.

  19. Meeting blood requirements following terrorist attacks: the Israeli experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinar, Eilat; Yahalom, Vered; Silverman, Barbara G

    2006-11-01

    Blood services worldwide must be prepared to meet surges in demand for blood components needed by casualties of domestic disasters and acts of terrorism. Israel's National Blood Services, operated by Magen David Adom, has extensive experience in managing blood collections and supply in emergencies. This review summarizes the structure and function of Magen David Adom's national blood program, and relates its experience to other practices that have been reported in the medical literature. Between 2000 and 2005, 7497 victims (85% civilians) were involved in 1645 terrorist attacks in Israel. On-site triage resulted in 967 (13%) deaths at the scene, 615 (8%) with severe injuries, 897 (12%) with moderate injuries and 5018 (67%) with mild injuries. Requests for blood averaged 1.3 blood units and 0.9 components per casualty, or 6.7 units and 4.5 components per severe and moderately injured patient. Public appeals for blood donations were managed centrally to match supply with demand and prevent wastage. This experience illustrates the advantages of a comprehensive program for managing blood operations in emergency situations. A coordinated national program can stabilize in-hospital inventories during routine activities, ensure instant access to precisely defined inventories, facilitate sufficient supply in times of disasters, and minimize outdating and wastage.

  20. E-PROCUREMENT: IMPORTANCIA Y APLICACIÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Fernández Quesada

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available En el trabajo se aborda uno de los aspectos externos del e-business: el e-procurement. Se valora la importancia de la utilización de la red en general y en la función logística y de compras, en particular. Partiendo de las actividades tradicionales de compras, se explicitan las ventajas que supone respecto a ellas el e-procurement y la importancia estratégica de su aplicación. Asimismo, se profundiza en el propio concepto de e-procurement y en su arquitectura desde el punto de vista de su implantación empresarial.

  1. Survival of the Fittest: Why Terrorist Groups Endure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph K. Young

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Why do terrorist groups endure? This question is relevant to scholars and policy makers alike. In the past, this issue was not been addressed in a systematic fashion. Recent work investigates this question using data on transnational groups and finds that factors associated with the home country can influence the duration the group endures. Applying the theory of outbidding to terrorist group survival, we argue that strategic competition among groups predicts group duration. Using the Global Terrorism Database, we develop a dataset using the terrorist group as the unit of analysis to model the duration of group activity and thus include the largest sample of groups yet. Controlling for previous explanations of both group duration and terrorism, we find a robust effect for the impact that group competition has on terrorist group survival.

  2. Optimal counterterrorism and the recruitment effect of large terrorist attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    We analyze a simple dynamic model of the interaction between terrorists and authorities. Our primary aim is to study optimal counterterrorism and its consequences when large terrorist attacks lead to a temporary increase in terrorist recruitment. First, we show that an increase in counterterrorism...... makes it more likely that terrorist cells plan small rather than large attacks and therefore may increase the probability of a successful attack. Analyzing optimal counterterrorism we see that the recruitment effect makes authorities increase the level of counterterrorism after large attacks. Therefore......, in periods following large attacks a new attack is more likely to be small compared to other periods. Finally, we analyze the long-run consequences of the recruitment effect. We show that it leads to more counterterrorism, more small attacks, and a higher sum of terrorism damage and counterterrorism costs...

  3. Suits Against Terrorist States by Victims of Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elsea, Jennifer K

    2008-01-01

    ... assets to satisfy judgments. After a court ruled that Congress never created a cause of action against terrorist States themselves, but only against their officials, employees, and agents, plaintiffs have based claims on state law...

  4. Terrorist Capabilities for Cyberattack: Overview and Policy Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rollins, John; Wilson, Clay

    2005-01-01

    ... organizations and consider attempting a cyberattack against the critical infrastructure. Cybercrime increased dramatically between 2004 and 2005, and several recent terrorist events appear to have been funded partially through online credit card fraud...

  5. Closing the Gap: Measuring the Social Identity of Terrorists

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ludwick, Keith W

    2008-01-01

    .... However, using two well-established theories from social psychology, Social Identity Theory and Social Distance Theory, allows the development of a practical model to develop a social profile of a terrorist group...

  6. Closing the Gap: Measuring the Social Identity of Terrorists

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ludwick, Keith W

    2008-01-01

    .... From that, it is further possible to use the resulting social profile to compare terrorist groups against each other in order to develop predictive models as to the propensity of violence of a particular group...

  7. The Development of Decision Aids for Counter-Terrorist Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    I.D. AM OLT of PLO A14YOLP of PLO Agua Sandinist TPLF of Turkey 0 TERORISTS 3 4 25 2 GROUP CAPABILITY Unknown Unknown Auto Weapons Sten Gun "DEADLINE...of any terrorist group to different situ - ations are not independent, but reflect a coherent policy regarding violence and willingness to negotiate...importance in this stage is the need to deter future terrorist activities with- out jeopardizing our credibility in future negotiation situ - ations. I8

  8. Agent Based Modeling on Organizational Dynamics of Terrorist Network

    OpenAIRE

    Bo Li; Duoyong Sun; Renqi Zhu; Ze Li

    2015-01-01

    Modeling organizational dynamics of terrorist network is a critical issue in computational analysis of terrorism research. The first step for effective counterterrorism and strategic intervention is to investigate how the terrorists operate with the relational network and what affects the performance. In this paper, we investigate the organizational dynamics by employing a computational experimentation methodology. The hierarchical cellular network model and the organizational dynamics model ...

  9. Closing the gap : measuring the social identity of terrorists

    OpenAIRE

    Ludwick, Keith W.

    2008-01-01

    CHDS State/Local Studies of terrorism today focus on psychological and behavioral aspects of individuals. Most research shows that using a single model in an attempt to profile terrorists psychologically is problematic, if not impossible. However, using two well established theories from social psychology, Social Identity Theory and Social Distance Theory, allows the development of a practical model to develop a social profile of a terrorist group. From that, it is further possible to...

  10. Threat Assessment: Do Lone Terrorists Differ from Other Lone Offenders?

    OpenAIRE

    Diane M. Zierhoffer

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the viability of a threat assessment model developed to calculate the risk of targeted violence as a predictor of violence by potential lone terrorists. There is no profile, to date, which would assist in the identification of a lone terrorist prior to an attack. The threat assessment model developed by Borum, Fein, Vossekuil, and Berglund and described in “Threat Assessment: Defining an approach for evaluating risk of targeted violence” (1999) poses ten questions about t...

  11. Preventing nuclear terrorism: responses to terrorist grievances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beres, L.R.

    1987-01-01

    The US is vulnerable to nuclear terrorism, despite the presence of physical security and other measures. Although these measures are important, they are insufficient to prevent or deter terrorism. What, then, is the answer? The author feels it lies in a hitherto neglected dimension of terrorism: its underlying political grievances. The principal grievance that potential terrorists have against the US concerns misguided elements of US foreign policy. These elements are moving the US on a seemingly inexorable collision course with terrorism and, more than likely, with nuclear terrorism. The US represents a serious threat to many people and groups who feel directly the effects of a foreign policy mired in strident anti-Sovietism: opponents of the US-NATO Euromissile deployments, populations seeking to secure their human rights from repressive regimes supported by the US, and governments seeking self-determination but embattled by insurgents backed by US arms, equipment, and advisers. In many cases, the US foreign policy stance in one country has aroused suspicion and anger within the region as a whole. The collision course need not be inevitable. The US can take a number of steps in the political arena that would greatly reduce the threat of nuclear terrorism

  12. Análise da Importância da Taxa de Câmbio e do Ataque Terrorista de 11 de Setembro sobre o Desempenho do Transporte Aéreo Internacional de Passageiros no BrasilThe Importance of Exchange Rate Analysis and the Terrorist Attack of September 11 on the Performance of the International Airborne Transportation sector of Passengers in BrazilAnálisis de la Importancia de la Tasa de Cambio y del Ataque Terrorista del 11 de Septiembre sobre el Desempeño del Transporte Aéreo Internacional de Pasajeros en Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVA, Wesley Vieira da

    2004-09-01

    coefficient, this work aims to demonstrate September 11th event and dollar exchange rate real influence over International Travels Expenses Account in Brazilian Balance of Payment and airborne passengers stream to USA before and after the terrorists attacks. The outcomes from statistics data reject null hypothesis of averages equality between international travels expenses and averages equality between boarded passengers to USA, before and after the event, with 95% trust level. By other hand, the Pearson linear co relational coefficient between dollar exchange rate and international travels expenses was 77, 83%, being significant in 5%.RESUMENLos ataques terroristas cometidos en los EUA el 11/09/2001, que utilizaron como instrumento de destrucción aeronaves comerciales, provocaron grandes cambios políticos y socioeconómicos en todo el mundo, con reflejos que hasta el momento tienen influencia sobre muchos sectores de la economía brasileña. El sentido común indica que este evento agudizó la crisis que afectaba al sector aéreo brasileño desde 1999, en gran parte debido a las oscilaciones en la tasa de cambio de real para dólar norteamericano. Por medio del test paramétrico de diferencias entre medias poblacionales y del coeficiente de correlación linear de Pearson este trabajo se propone demostrar la real influencia del 11 de Septiembre y de la tasa de cambio, sobre la cuenta Viajes Internacionales del balance de pagos brasileño, como también del flujo de pasajeros de transporte aéreo con destino a los EUA antes y después del ataque terrorista. Los resultados estimados a partir de las estadísticas mencionadas rechazaron la hipótesis nula de igualdad de medias entre los gastos con viajes internacionales antes y después del evento, como también se rechazó la misma hipótesis para la cantidad de pasajeros embarcados hacia los EUA con grado de confianza del 95%. Por otro lado, el coeficiente de correlación linear de Pearson entre la tasa de cambio de real por

  13. Identification of critical locations across multiple infrastructures for terrorist actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, S.A.; Apostolakis, G.E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a possible approach to ranking geographic regions that can influence multiple infrastructures. Once ranked, decision makers can determine whether these regions are critical locations based on their susceptibility to terrorist acts. We identify these locations by calculating a value for a geographic region that represents the combined values to the decision makers of all the infrastructures crossing through that region. These values, as well as the size of the geographic region, are conditional on an assumed destructive threat of a given size. In our case study, the threat is assumed to be minor, e.g., a bomb that can affect objects within 7 m of it. This approach first requires an assessment of the users of the system. During this assessment, each user is assigned a performance index (PI) based on the disutility of the loss of each infrastructure's resource via multi-attribute utility theory (MAUT). A Monte Carlo network analysis is then performed to develop importance measures (IM) for the elements of each infrastructure for their ability to service each user. We combine the IMs with the user PIs to a value that we call valued worth (VW) for each infrastructure's elements independently. Then we use spatial analysis techniques within a geographic information system (GIS) to combine the VWs of each infrastructure's elements in a geographic area, conditional on the threat, into a total value we call geographic valued worth (GVW). The GVW is displayed graphically in the GIS system in a color scheme that shows the numerical ranking of these geographic areas. The map and rankings are then submitted to the decision makers to better allocate anti-terrorism resources. A case study of this methodology is performed on the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) campus. The results of the study show how the methodology can bring attention to areas that are important when several infrastructures are considered, but may be ignored when infrastructures

  14. A project to develop restoration methods for buildings and facilities after a terrorist attack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingas, M.F. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Div]|[Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). River Road Environmental Technology Centre; Volchek, K.; Hornof, M.; Boudreau, L.; Punt, M. [SAIC Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Payette, P.; Best, M. [Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Garbutt, M.; Krishnan, J.; Wagener, S.; Bernard, K. [Health Canada, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Cousins, T.; Haslip, D. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    A multi-agent project was initiated to review site restoration after a terrorist attack. The objective was to acquire and compile information on all known restoration procedures for buildings, exteriors of buildings, their interior contents, and adjacent areas such as parking lots, lawns and vehicles. All procedures were then tested and validated. Restoration procedures included pickup, neutralization, decontamination, removal and final destruction/deposition of the contaminant, cleaning material and contaminated debris resulting from the terrorist act. This research and development project considered chemical, biological and nuclear contamination with the intent to develop methods to decontaminate and restore buildings after a chemical, biological and radiological (CBR) attack. Ideas were collected from work conducted around the world. The efficacy of best candidates was tested along with all selected chemical target items. The project also involved the preparation of procedures for decontamination and restoration. Ultimately, a tradeoff decision basis will be developed to provide information on abandonment and quarantine versus cleanup. The study revealed that there are several technologies that can be used for the decontamination of structures and equipment after acts of terrorism, however, no one technique will work for all contaminants on all surfaces. The selection of a decontamination method depends on the contaminant, the surface being decontaminated and economic, social and health factors. The amount of waste generated by decontamination is a major feasibility factor. 25 refs., 6 tabs.

  15. Prevalencia e importancia pronóstica de la anemia en pacientes pluripatológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Novo-Veleiro

    2012-03-01

    CONCLUSIONES: la importancia pronóstica de la anemia en pacientes pluripatológicos, resultado no comunicado previamente, refuerza la importancia de una valoración global y completa de estos pacientes.

  16. Is ALARP applicable to the management of terrorist risks?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guikema, S.D.; Aven, T.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the applicability of the as low as reasonable practicable (ALARP) principle to terrorist risk management. ALARP is a commonly used framework for managing risk due to non-intelligent threats, but terrorism introduces difficult issues, both technically and socially. In particular, the probability of a terrorist attack is difficult to define, terrorist threats are adaptive, and some terrorist risk management actions raise issues of loss of civil liberties not raised by risk management measures for other types of risk. We discuss these issues and their implications for risk management. After showing how ALARP is used to manage the risk from other hazards in different economic sectors, we discuss both the benefits and difficulties associated with extending the ALARP framework for terrorist risk analysis. We conclude that the ALARP framework can be modified to make it appropriate for risk management for adaptive risks, provided that care is taken to explicitly consider adaptive reallocation of risk in response to risk management actions, to account for perceived or actual loss of civil liberties resulting from risk management actions, and to consider the difficulties associated with using probability to measure uncertainty in adversary actions.

  17. EWAS: Modeling Application for Early Detection of Terrorist Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Pir Abdul Rasool; Memon, Nasrullah; Wiil, Uffe Kock

    This paper presents a model and system architecture for an early warning system to detect terrorist threats. The paper discusses the shortcomings of state-of-the-art systems and outlines the functional requirements that must to be met by an ideal system working in the counterterrorism domain. The concept of generation of early warnings to predict terrorist threats is presented. The model relies on data collection from open data sources, information retrieval, information extraction for preparing structured workable data sets from available unstructured data, and finally detailed investigation. The conducted investigation includes social network analysis, investigative data mining, and heuristic rules for the study of complex covert networks for terrorist threat indication. The presented model and system architecture can be used as a core framework for an early warning system.

  18. Sub Saharan African Terrorist Groups’ use of the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart Bertram

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent actions by French military forces in Niger and the global prominence of terrorist groups such as Al Shabaab and Boko Haram, have highlighted the growing counter terrorist focus on the countries of Sub Saharan Africa. Additionally in a post Bin Laden world and with the immanent withdrawal of coalition combat troops from Afghanistan, there is the possibility of Africa as a continent becoming the new front in the Global War on Terror ('Mben' et al., 2013. However, it is a mistake to assume that Africa’s story is uniformly one of violence and death. Vibrant cultures and a rugged entrepreneurial spirit have combined with a robust Internet backbone, to create the embryonic emergence of high tech hotspots across Africa. With rising IT literacy levels, more and more Africans are becoming connected to the information super highway on a daily basis (Graham, 2010. A tiny minority of these Africans are terrorists.

  19. Defense against terroristic hazards and risk by building planning law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The book on defense against terroristic hazards and risk by building planning law includes the following issues: Introduction: civil engineering and safety. Risk, hazards and urban planning: historical and actual examples for the constructional danger prevention, terroristic threat and urban planning. Risk, hazards and terrorism: sociology and risk, law and risk, terrorism - risk or hazard? Answer to uncertainty - risk prevention, catastrophe law as link. Risk, hazard, terrorism and the public building and regional planning law: regional planning law as point of origin, building law and terrorism, possibility of control by the legal building regulations.

  20. Who sets the Agenda: The Author or the Terrorist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Leif

    2012-01-01

    Definitions of terrorism. Terorism in the 1980s, i.e. taking hostages and exploding bombs outside the US. UNA-bomber and Oklahoma bomber. Relations between author and terrorist in and outside USA before 9/11. Relations between terrorist and press. President Bush's rhetoric and various reactions t...... to 9/11. Novels by Safran Foer (Extremely Loud and Incredibly Close) and Don DeLillo (Falling Man) focus on the personal and private consequences whereas Mohsin Hamid (The Reluctant Fundamentalist) includes the other side....

  1. Reducing the attractiveness of chemical plants to terrorist attacks: dehorning rhinos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khakzad Rostami, N.

    2017-01-01

    The terrorist attacks to two French chemical facilities in June and July 2015 raised the flag about the attractiveness of chemical plants to terrorist groups and the imminent risk of similar attacks in western countries. Although the 9/11 terrorist attacks in the US put the security of chemical

  2. Importancia del articulador semiajustable en la rehabilitación

    OpenAIRE

    María Elena Gutiérrez Hernández; Ileana Grau León; Gema Lauzardo García del Prado

    2003-01-01

    Se realiza un estudio sobre la importancia del articulador semiajustable en la rehabilitación protésica. Se define la oclusión dentaria como la relación que se establece entre las arcadas dentarias cuando estas toman contacto entre sí permaneciendo el arco inferior inmóvil con respecto al superior. Debido a que es fundamental en la rehabilitación protésica tratar de respetar la integridad funcional del paciente, nos proponemos como objetivo reestablecer los contactos en los deslizamientos dur...

  3. Importancia y cultivo de la uchuva (Physalis peruviana L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer,Gerhard; Almanza-Merchán,Pedro José; Miranda,Diego

    2014-01-01

    Physalis perurvianus L, foi adaptada no Peru e Chile e dai levada para outros países da América Latina, incluindo Brasil além da India, África do Sul e outros. Neste trabalho säo discutidas informações sobre seu cultivo em vários países, importancia econômica, aspectos botânicos, propagação, doenças e pragas e pós-colheita.

  4. Importancia y cultivo de la uchuva (Physalis peruviana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Fischer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Physalis perurvianus L, foi adaptada no Peru e Chile e dai levada para outros países da América Latina, incluindo Brasil além da India, África do Sul e outros. Neste trabalho säo discutidas informações sobre seu cultivo em vários países, importancia econômica, aspectos botânicos, propagação, doenças e pragas e pós-colheita.

  5. Reflection in phraseological neology of traumatic historical events connected with the terrorist threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skorobogatova Taisiya Ivanovna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of phraseological units - neologisms which are associated with such traumatic historical events, as the implementation of terrorist acts. Particular emphasis is placed on the description of English, Russian and French phraseological units that have introduced the memory of the terrorist threat in the XX-XXI centuries.: Eng. That’s so 10th September (lit. today September 10, fig: Do not worry ahead of time about nothing; Rus. мочить в сортире (descriptor: беспощадно расправиться; фр. le prince s’est mari, le m chant est mort, c’est une semaine Walt Disney (lit. prince married the villain died, week Walt Disney; descriptor: Idyll, g n ration Bataclan (lit. Bataklan generation; descriptor: young people age of the victims who died in the “Bataklane”, i.e. young people aged 25-35. Phraseology description of new, emerging units is one of the most important problems in theoretical linguistics, namely: to illustrate and confirm the fact that the phrasebook body of a single national language is the result of the two memories - historical and linguistic. At the same time important to consider such a significant factor that determines the specificity of the national phraseological fund as memory selectivity in general and historical memory in particular.

  6. The Counter Terrorist Classroom: Religion, Education, and Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearon, Liam

    2013-01-01

    The article identifies international cases--from the United States, Europe, and the United Nations--of an emergent interface of religion, education, and security. This is manifest in the uses of religion in education to counter religious extremism, the notional "counter terrorist classroom." To avoid an over-association of extremism with…

  7. Protecting chemical plants against terrorist attacks: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khakzad Rostami, N.; Reniers, G.L.L.M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Protection of hazardous establishments such as chemical plants intentional incidents has drawn attention from safety and security experts since 9/11 terrorist attacks in the U.S. Although major steps have been taken since, the recent intentional incidents in two chemical plants in France in June and

  8. Can a Copycat Effect be Observed in Terrorist Suicide Attacks?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farnham, N.T.; Liem, M.C.A.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore how a copycat effect – established within the field of suicide studies – may manifest itself in terrorist suicide attacks, and takes an exploratory approach in evaluating the prospect of incorporating open-data resources in future counter-terrorism research.

  9. The Terrorist War against Islam: Clarifying Academic Confusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Since the terrorist atrocities of September 11, 2001, Westerners have been challenged to understand the ideological and theological concepts, derived from Islam, that motivated the actions of Al-Qaida on that day and in other attacks before and since. Differences in taxonomy have proven to be a major issue. In the author's view, it is insufficient…

  10. Exploitation of Free Markets and Globalization to Finance Terrorists

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    is their capability to exploit the black market peso exchange or the international foreign exchange arbitrage . Under the scenario of a weak U.S...appears legitimate. By using intermediaries or legitimate businesses, the financial markets are wide open for terrorists to hedge funds and

  11. Freed: Ripples of the Convicted and Released Terrorist in America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Singapore, Malaysia , Indonesia, Thailand, and the Philippines (The International Conference on Terrorist Rehabilitation, 2009). No single methodology to...2009, p. 16). Care Rehabilitation Centers include group meals, art therapy, recreation and other leisure activity to “build teamwork but also

  12. Terrorist Capabilities for Cyberattack: Overview and Policy Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-22

    called “Digital Pearl Harbor” (DPH), with the result that 79% of the gamers said that a strategic cyberattack against the United States was likely...terrorist sponsors, five of them — North Korea , Sudan, Syria, Libya, and Cuba — are described as a diminishing concern for terrorism. Only Iran remains

  13. IMPORTANCIA DE LA POSVENTA EN LA MEZCLA DE MERCADEO ACTUAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Prieto Sánchez

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available El artículo tiene como objetivo analizar la importancia de la postventa en la mezcla de mercadeo actual. Para lograr este propósito, se utilizó el método de la interpretación de los significados de la información, se llama información a los “datos” recolectados a través de la investigación documental. Se consultaron autores como: Cancer (2005, Kotler (2005, Reyes (2005,Villar (1997, Walther (1997. Con el resultado de la aplicación de este método se procedió a presentar los aspectos relevantes de la investigación: necesidad de la postventa, atención al cliente, postventa como estrategia competitiva, para finalmente plantear un nuevo modelo de organización de postventa.

  14. Importancia del apoyo familiar en el control de la glucemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODRÍGUEZ-MORÁN MARTHA

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar la importancia del apoyo familiar en el control de la glucemia en diabéticos no insulino dependientes. Material y métodos. Se diseñó un estudio de casos y controles, considerando como casos a los pacientes con glucemia o = 140 mg/dl. El apoyo familiar se determinó con el cuestionario Environmental Barriers to Adherence Scales, que estima el apoyo otorgado para que el paciente siga las indicaciones terapéuticas. Se incluyeron 32 casos y 50 controles. Resultados. El apoyo familiar que recibe el paciente se asocia significativamente a la presencia de glucemia <140 mg/dl (razón de momios = 3.9; IC95% 1.4-11.1. Las demás variables no mostraron asociación significativa. Conclusiones. El apoyo familiar que reciben los enfermos influye en el control de la glucemia.

  15. Anticipating Terrorist Safe Havens from Instability Induced Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Robert; Marvin, Brett

    This chapter presents recent methods developed at the Center for Army Analysis to classify patterns of nation-state instability that lead to conflict. The ungoverned areas endemic to failed nation-states provide terrorist organizations with safe havens from which to plan and execute terrorist attacks. Identification of those states at risk for instability induced conflict should help to facilitate effective counter terrorism policy planning efforts. Nation-states that experience instability induced conflict are similar in that they share common instability factors that make them susceptible to experiencing conflict. We utilize standard pattern classification algorithms to identify these patterns. First, we identify features (political, military, economic and social) that capture the instability of a nation-state. Second, we forecast the future levels of these features for each nation-state. Third, we classify each future state’s conflict potential based upon the conflict level of those states in the past most similar to the future state.

  16. Waste Management Policy Framework to Mitigate Terrorist Intrusion Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redus, Kenneth S.

    2003-01-01

    A policy-directed framework is developed to support US Department of Energy (DOE) counterterrorism efforts, specifically terrorist intrusion activities that affect of Environmental Management (EM) programs. The framework is called the Security Effectiveness and Resource Allocation Definition Forecasting and Control System (SERAD-FACS). Use of SERAD-FACS allows trade-offs between resources, technologies, risk, and Research and Development (R and D) efforts to mitigate such intrusion attempts. Core to SERAD-FACS is (1) the understanding the perspectives and time horizons of key decisionmakers and organizations, (2) a determination of site vulnerabilities and accessibilities, and (3) quantifying the measures that describe the risk associated with a compromise of EM assets. The innovative utility of SERAD-FACS is illustrated for three integrated waste management and security strategies. EM program risks, time delays, and security for effectiveness are examined to demonstrate the significant cost and schedule impact terrorist activities can have on cleanup efforts in the DOE complex

  17. Surgical resource utilization in urban terrorist bombing: a computer simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshberg, A; Stein, M; Walden, R

    1999-09-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the utilization of surgical staff and facilities during an urban terrorist bombing incident. A discrete-event computer model of the emergency room and related hospital facilities was constructed and implemented, based on cumulated data from 12 urban terrorist bombing incidents in Israel. The simulation predicts that the admitting capacity of the hospital depends primarily on the number of available surgeons and defines an optimal staff profile for surgeons, residents, and trauma nurses. The major bottlenecks in the flow of critical casualties are the shock rooms and the computed tomographic scanner but not the operating rooms. The simulation also defines the number of reinforcement staff needed to treat noncritical casualties and shows that radiology is the major obstacle to the flow of these patients. Computer simulation is an important new tool for the optimization of surgical service elements for a multiple-casualty situation.

  18. Trash can bomb can fall into the hands of terrorists

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Leading scientists from CERN described how if terrorists were able to get their hands on plutonium or uranium, they would be able to manufacture a 'trash can' nuclear bomb simply by inserting the radioactive material into a normal bomb. Once detonated a large area could be contaminated leading to the immediate deaths of many with many more future casualties due to cancers caused by the radiation.

  19. Mass casualty response in the 2008 Mumbai terrorist attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Nobhojit; Kapil, Vikas; Subbarao, Italo; Ashkenazi, Isaac

    2011-12-01

    The November 26-29, 2008, terrorist attacks on Mumbai were unique in its international media attention, multiple strategies of attack, and the disproportionate national fear they triggered. Everyone was a target: random members of the general population, iconic targets, and foreigners alike were under attack by the terrorists. A retrospective, descriptive study of the distribution of terror victims to various city hospitals, critical radius, surge capacity, and the nature of specialized medical interventions was gathered through police, legal reports, and interviews with key informants. Among the 172 killed and 304 injured people, about four-fifths were men (average age, 33 years) and 12% were foreign nationals. The case-fatality ratio for this event was 2.75:1, and the mortality rate among those who were critically injured was 12%. A total of 38.5% of patients arriving at the hospitals required major surgical intervention. Emergency surgical operations were mainly orthopedic (external fixation for compound fractures) and general surgical interventions (abdominal explorations for penetrating bullet/shrapnel injuries). The use of heavy-duty automatic weapons, explosives, hostages, and arson in these terrorist attacks alerts us to new challenges to medical counterterrorism response. The need for building central medical control for a coordinated response and for strengthening public hospital capacity are lessons learned for future attacks. These particular terrorist attacks had global consequences, in terms of increased security checks and alerts for and fears of further similar "Mumbai-style" attacks. The resilience of the citizens of Mumbai is a critical measure of the long-term effects of terror attacks.

  20. The Effect Terrorist Labels Have on Military Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    Department until 2008.44 Nelson Mandela , the renowned member of the ANC and Nobel Prize laureate, became president of South Africa in 1994 and is...celebrated internationally as one of the most prolific and revolutionary leaders of the 20th century. Mandela received all these awards and accolades—many...models or key players during 44 Mimi Hall, "U.S. has Mandela on Terrorist List," USA Today, http

  1. MOTIVATION SPECIFIC FOR YOUNGSTERS INVOLVED INTO TERRORIST OPERATION

    OpenAIRE

    Beslan Alexeyevich Tarchokov

    2015-01-01

    The paper made an attempt to explore preconditions, motives, reasons and factors capable of facilitating youth’ involvement into terrorist operations, emergence of youth terrorism and its spreading around, including the specifics of social and economic domains, of ideology and politics, psychology and law, etc. all of them taken on the scene of nowadays globalized society. Specifying in greater detail the causes and circumstances that contributed to involvement of young Russians into terroris...

  2. Overview of the terrorist threat to international peace and security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, P.

    2001-01-01

    This contribution deals with the implications of terrorism for international peace and security and the escalation to mass terrorism. The topics covered are: impact of the latest terrorist events on the United States, impact on the international community; illegitimacy of terrorism; need for global action; the role of the united Nations; the crucial role for disarmament and counter-proliferation activities, especially in finding means of enhancing the security of materials that could easily be misused

  3. The Lord’s Resistance Army: an African Terrorist Group?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Leonard

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The years since 9/11 have been characterised by the increasing threat of terrorist action in the  Middle East and South Asia. Yet Sub-Saharan Africa was has also become a region of concern. In 1998, it had been the scene of two Al-Qaeda attacks against US embassies; besides Africa is home to large Muslim populations. Since 9/11 African violent non-state groups unrelated to Al- Qaeda or to the wider Islamist movement have been recast as terrorist organisations. These groups primarily operate in conflict zones, an area of research that traditionally has not been the main focus of Terrorism Studies. Protagonists have at various times been called freedom fighters, rebels, warlords, insurgents or simply violent gangs. This article looks at the most notorious of African groups – the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA. It argues that some groups like the LRA have been recast as terrorist organisations not because of a change in their activities but due to a change in the geo-strategic environment they found themselves in the post-9/11 period. The LRA’s ideology and tactics will be judged against a broad definition of terrorism in order to test whether the group can, in an objective way, be called a terrorist organisation. It is concluded that the LRA is too ambiguous an organisation to be simply labelled in such a way. It is also suggested that the terrorism label has in fact been an obstacle to attempts to end successfully a confrontation that is now going into its 24th year. 

  4. Have the Mexican Drug Cartels Evolved into a Terrorist Insurgency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    individual police officers and journalists.55 Originally, the Gulf Cartel recruited them from Mexico’s Special Operations Forces, known as Grupo Aeromóvil de ...fluid situation surrounding the Mexican drug war has led to much speculation about how to classify the powerful drug cartels conducting it. There is... conducting it. There is literature debating whether the cartels are merely a criminal enterprise or whether the cartels represent a new terrorist

  5. Playing the villain : understanding the punishment and portrayal of terrorists

    OpenAIRE

    Spens, Christiana

    2017-01-01

    Playing the Villain argues that the portrayal and punishment of terrorists in the Western media perpetuates colonialist attitudes, due to the visual connections between these modern images and past or fictional representations of iconic, punished villains. A theory of scapegoating related to intervisuality supports this argument, by explaining that as a ritual dependent on and developed by cultural history and mythology, scapegoating requires engagement with recognisable visual motifs that...

  6. Chemical Plants Remain Vulnerable to Terrorists: A Call to Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippin, Tobi Mae; McQuiston, Thomas H.; Bradley-Bull, Kristin; Burns-Johnson, Toshiba; Cook, Linda; Gill, Michael L.; Howard, Donna; Seymour, Thomas A.; Stephens, Doug; Williams, Brian K.

    2006-01-01

    U.S. chemical plants currently have potentially catastrophic vulnerabilities as terrorist targets. The possible consequences of these vulnerabilities echo from the tragedies of the Bhopal incident in 1984 to the terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001 and, most recently, Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Findings from a 2004 nationwide participatory research study of 125 local union leaders at sites with very large volumes of highly hazardous chemicals suggest that voluntary efforts to achieve chemical plant security are not succeeding. Study respondents reported that companies had only infrequently taken actions that are most effective in preventing or in preparing to respond to a terrorist threat. In addition, companies reportedly often failed to involve key stakeholders, including workers, local unions, and the surrounding communities, in these efforts. The environmental health community thus has an opportunity to play a key role in advocating for and supporting improvements in prevention of and preparation for terrorist attacks. Policy-level recommendations to redress chemical site vulnerabilities and the related ongoing threats to the nation’s security are as follows: a) specify detailed requirements for chemical site assessment and security; b) mandate audit inspections supported by significant penalties for cases of noncompliance; c) require progress toward achieving inherently safer processes, including the minimizing of storage of highly hazardous chemicals; d) examine and require additional effective actions in prevention, emergency preparedness, and response and remediation; e) mandate and fund the upgrading of emergency communication systems; and f) involve workers and community members in plan creation and equip and prepare them to prevent and respond effectively to an incident. PMID:16966080

  7. A data-stream classification system for investigating terrorist threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Alexia; Dettman, Joshua; Gottschalk, Jeffrey; Kotson, Michael; Vuksani, Era; Yu, Tamara

    2016-05-01

    The role of cyber forensics in criminal investigations has greatly increased in recent years due to the wealth of data that is collected and available to investigators. Physical forensics has also experienced a data volume and fidelity revolution due to advances in methods for DNA and trace evidence analysis. Key to extracting insight is the ability to correlate across multi-modal data, which depends critically on identifying a touch-point connecting the separate data streams. Separate data sources may be connected because they refer to the same individual, entity or event. In this paper we present a data source classification system tailored to facilitate the investigation of potential terrorist activity. This taxonomy is structured to illuminate the defining characteristics of a particular terrorist effort and designed to guide reporting to decision makers that is complete, concise, and evidence-based. The classification system has been validated and empirically utilized in the forensic analysis of a simulated terrorist activity. Next-generation analysts can use this schema to label and correlate across existing data streams, assess which critical information may be missing from the data, and identify options for collecting additional data streams to fill information gaps.

  8. Assessment of terrorist threats to the Canadian energy sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shull, A. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada). Norman Paterson School of International Affairs]|[Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). Faculty of Law

    2006-03-15

    A critical terrorist threat assessment of Canadian energy systems was presented, as well as an analysis of integrated continental systems. Recent responses to heightened threat levels on the part of the Canadian government have ranged from information sharing to emergency preparedness and disaster mitigation strategies. This paper examined threats that the energy sector has traditionally encountered and argued that response capabilities do not match current threats posed by terrorism. The potential of a terrorist attack on the Canadian energy infrastructure is significant and has been referred to as a possible target by terrorist organizations. Actions taken by the Canadian government in response to heightened threat levels were examined. A review of energy industry security measures included outlines of: the natural gas industry, the electric sector, and nuclear reactors and waste. It was noted that not all elements of the critical energy infrastructure share the same level of risk. Recommendations included increased information sharing between government agencies and the private sector; resiliency standards in densely populated areas; and insulating the energy grid against a cascading blackout through the use of DC rather than AC lines. 59 refs.

  9. Assessment of terrorist threats to the Canadian energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shull, A.

    2006-01-01

    A critical terrorist threat assessment of Canadian energy systems was presented, as well as an analysis of integrated continental systems. Recent responses to heightened threat levels on the part of the Canadian government have ranged from information sharing to emergency preparedness and disaster mitigation strategies. This paper examined threats that the energy sector has traditionally encountered and argued that response capabilities do not match current threats posed by terrorism. The potential of a terrorist attack on the Canadian energy infrastructure is significant and has been referred to as a possible target by terrorist organizations. Actions taken by the Canadian government in response to heightened threat levels were examined. A review of energy industry security measures included outlines of: the natural gas industry, the electric sector, and nuclear reactors and waste. It was noted that not all elements of the critical energy infrastructure share the same level of risk. Recommendations included increased information sharing between government agencies and the private sector; resiliency standards in densely populated areas; and insulating the energy grid against a cascading blackout through the use of DC rather than AC lines. 59 refs

  10. Severe accidents and terrorist threats at nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollack, G.L.

    1987-01-01

    Some of the key areas of uncertainty are the nature of the physical and chemical interactions of released fission products and of the interactions between a molten core and concrete, the completeness and validity of the computer codes used to predict accidents, and the behavior of the containment. Because of these and other uncertainties, it is not yet possible to reliably predict the consequences of reactor accidents. It is known that for many accident scenarios, especially less severe ones or where the containment is not seriously compromised, the amount of radioactive material expected to escape the reactor is less, even much less, than was previously calculated. For such accidents, the predictions are easier and more reliable. With severe accidents, however, there is considerable uncertainty as to the predicted results. For accidents of the type that terrorists might cause - for example, where the sequence of failure would be unexpected or where redundant safety features are caused to fail together - the uncertainties are still larger. The conclusion, then, is that there are potential dangers to the public from terrorist actions at a nuclear reactor; however, because of the variety of potential terrorist threats and the incompleteness of the knowledge about the behavior of reactor components and fission products during accidents, the consequences cannot yet be assessed quantitatively

  11. Can a Copycat Effect be Observed in Terrorist Suicide Attacks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Farnham

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore how a copycat effect – established within the field of suicide studies – may manifest itself in terrorist suicide attacks, and takes an exploratory approach in evaluating the prospect of incorporating open-data resources in future counter-terrorism research. This paper explores a possible ‘copycat effect’ in cases of suicide terrorism, which entails a perpetrator being inspired by a preceding attack to carry out a similar attack not long after the original. In the wake of mounting risks of lone wolf terrorist attacks today and due to the general difficulties faced in preventing such attacks, in this paper we explore a potential area of future prevention in media reporting, security and anti-terrorism policies today. Using the START Global Terrorism Database (GTD, this paper investigates terrorist suicide-attack clusters and analyses the relationship between attacks found within the same cluster. Using a mixed-method approach, our analyses did not uncover clear evidence supporting a copycat effect among the studied attacks. These and other findings have numerous policy and future research implications.

  12. Impunity for International Terrorists? Key Legal Questions and Practical Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Paulussen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This Research Paper discusses several of the key questions related to the subject of impunity of international terrorists, taking both a fundamental and a more practical approach within the context of international law. First, it reflects on a number of core definitional and theoretical questions which have been pushed into the background of day‐to‐day reality, by the actual fight against terrorism. For instance: what does the concept of impunity entail exactly and which kinds of standards could be used in measuring impunity? Is it clear what falls under the header of international terrorism and can it in fact be argued that international terrorists enjoy impunity? In practical terms, the paper explores a number of questions related to the actual prosecution of terrorism. What are the obstacles that national prosecutors face every day when prosecuting suspects of international terrorism? To what extent does a rule that prima facie seems ideal to fight terrorism (aut dedere aut judicare: either extradite or prosecute apply to terrorist offences? And what is the role of international criminal law – and the international criminal tribunals – in fighting terrorism? The Paper concludes with a series of recommendations.

  13. Breivik--the Norwegian terrorist case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syse, Aslak

    2014-01-01

    On July 22, 2011, there were two murderous attacks in Norway. Both assaults - the bombing of governmental buildings in Oslo City center and the lethal shooting down of young members of the Labour Party on an island - were planned and accomplished by a lone perpetrator. These episodes give rise to several interesting questions. What happened really, and how could it happen? Was the perpetrator sane or insane? What was the ideological background for the attacks? It is unnecessary to discuss in any detail whether or not these acts should be categorized as terrorism. However, there is good reason to consider what these terror attacks imply for Norwegian society at large. What significance did the attacks have for Norwegian democracy, and did they have any impact on the 2013 parliamentary elections? What will be the future for the offender, both in the short term and in years to come? What will happen to the Norwegian insanity defense? These questions are addressed in this article. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Change and Continuity in Indonesian Islamist Ideology and Terrorist Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam James Fenton

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The “Islamisation” of Indonesia has exerted a transformative force on every aspect of Indonesian society. That process continues today. It has created streams of change and continuity in thoughts, ideologies and practices, of enormous complexity. Strict doctrinal interpretation of Koranic text is not a new phenomenon, contrary to what some reports in the mass media might suggest. Its roots stretch back at least as far as the 1800s with the outbreak of violent conflicts between those urging a stricter, scripturalist application of Islam, and those adhering to traditionalist and colonialist ideologies --culminating in the Padri war of West Sumatra of 1821-38. Indicating an ostensible continuity of ideology, modern extremist ideologues, such as Abu Bakar Bashir, urge their followers toward violent conflict and terrorist actions based on an ideology of strict “Middle Eastern” interpretation of fundamental Islamic tenets. This paper argues that the strategies of those carrying out radical and violent ideologies are undergoing change, as are the strategies of the authorities tasked with combating them. Radical groups have displayed a shift away from large-scale, attacks on symbolic foreign targets towards low-level violence primarily aimed at law enforcement authorities. Authorities, on the other hand, have shown a greater tendency to shoot dead those suspected of involvement with violent radical groups. This paper will examine the changing strategies of violent radical groups and the continuity, and evolution, of the underlying Islamic ideology that provides religious justification for their violent acts. The paper will argue that engaging Indonesia’s politically active youth in an ideological dialogue on Islamism and democracy provides the best prospect for disengagement from, and breaking the cycle of recruitment for, radical violence and terrorism.[Proses panjang Islamisasi di Indonesia telah menghasilkan kekuatan transformatif di

  15. Anti-money laundering and counter-terrorist financing in the Luxembourg investment fund market

    OpenAIRE

    Dietz, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    The field of Anti-Money Laundering and Counter-Terrorist Financing in their current form have had an important impact on the financial world for almost half a century. Today, Money Laundering and Terrorist Financing pose a threat to the integrity of the financial markets and systems worldwide. The intention behind implementing a regulatory Anti-Money Laundering and Counter-Terrorist Financing framework is to cut off the financial resources of criminals and to follow back the traces that finan...

  16. Terrorist use of the Internet: exploitation and support through ICT infrastructure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Veerasamy, N

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available methods of fundraising are also possible. Electronic money transfer, laundering and generating support through front organisations are all fundraising methods used by terrorists (Goodman, Kirk & Kirk 2007). According to the Financial Action Task Force... agent. This allows terrorist groups to move money around without actually delivering the auctioned goods or services. Online casinos can be used for both laundering and storing money. When dealing with large sums of money, terrorists can place...

  17. Importancia económica de los bosques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Chamberlain

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad, la población mundial ha adquirido mayor conciencia sobre la importancia de los bosques y su relación con la calidad de vida de las personas. A pesar de lo anterior, la tala indiscriminada continúa y se siguen realizando proyectos que afectan la flora y la fauna de las selvas, sobre todo, en los países menos desarrollados que explotan estos recursos como materia prima.En Costa Rica se ha tratado de mantener cierto control sobre los bosques. Por ejemplo, el 16 de abril de 1996 se publicó en el Diario Oficial La Gaceta, la Ley Forestal No.7575. Dicha Ley dispone una serie de medidas para la conservación de las áreas de protección y de reserva forestal. En el primer caso, se estipulan las distancias requeridas para la protección de las nacientes permanentes, las riberas de ríos, las quebradas o arroyos, las riberas de los lagos y los embalses naturales, las áreas de recarga acuífera y otros. En estas áreas, por ejemplo, no se podrá realizar ningún tipo de construcción ni autorizarse la tala de árboles.

  18. EL NIÑO QUE RONCA: IMPORTANCIA Y MANEJO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Selim Abara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available El ronquido en los niños es el signo más frecuente de trastorno respiratorio del sueño (TROS. La importancia de estos trastornos reside en su alta prevalencia y las morbilidades asociadas, como trastornos neurocognitivos, rendimiento escolar deficiente, disfunción conductual, complicaciones cardiovasculares, consecuencias metabólicas y mala calidad de vida relacionada con la salud. La sospecha clínica se basa en una buena anamnesis y examen físico, aunque en muchos casos es insuficiente para afirmar o descartar la existencia de un TROS; por esta razón es importante contar con pruebas específicas, entre las cuales la polisomnografía es el estándar de oro, pero es necesario establecer criterios para indicar estos exámenes debido a su disponibilidad limitada y a su elevado costo. La adenotonsilectomía es el tratamiento más común de TROS en los niños, sin embargo, el grupo de pacientes con comorbilidad de mayor complejidad requiere un estudio más completo y un tratamiento multidisciplinario. En esta revisión se actualizan los conocimientos acerca de los TROS y su manejo. Se propone un diagrama de flujo para el estudio y manejo de un niño que ronca.

  19. La Vitamina D y su Importancia en la Salud Humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Vásquez Awad

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años, la vitamina D ha cobrado una importancia creciente en razón de que, además de sus beneficios reconocidos sobre el hueso, ha mostrado claros efectos benéficos en enfermedades crónicas, graves y altamente prevalentes como hipertensión, cáncer, síndrome metabólico,diabetes y esclerosis múltiple; igualmente, estados fisiológicos como el embarazo, la adolescencia y el envejecimiento se ven beneficiados, y sus eventuales adversidades mitigadas, si se mantienen niveles adecuados de 25 hidroxi-vitamina D que debieran estar en más de 40 ng/mL. Muy importante resulta entonces la suplementación con vitamina D en muchas situaciones fi siológicas o patológicas y en las dosis adecuadas, las cuales pueden situarse en el rango de 1000 a 2000 UI diarias, con la adherencia requerida para lograr los resultados óptimos que se persiguen.

  20. The Next Terrorist Attack: Not If, But When...Are We Prepared?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lynch, David

    2004-01-01

    .... Since lessons learned from past attacks call attention to the terrorists' ability to overcome military defenses, the importance of well-developed, exercised response plans cannot be overstated...

  1. Terrorist Surveillance Act of 2006. S. 3931 and Title II of S. 3929, the Terrorist Tracking, Identification, and Prosecution Act of 2006

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bazan, Elizabeth B

    2006-01-01

    ...., to address electronic surveillance programs. In addition, the measures would amend other provisions of FISA dealing with electronic surveillance without a warrant pursuant to an Attorney General certification, applications for a Foreign...

  2. Identifying foreign terrorist fighters: The Role of Public-Private Partnership, Information Sharing and Financial Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Keatinge

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Since 9/11, financial institutions have found themselves placed squarely on the front line of efforts to combat terrorism: countering terrorist financing has been a core element of the global counter-terrorism architecture since President George W Bush signed Executive Order 13224 promising to starve terrorists of funding. Financial institutions have played valuable “post-event” forensic roles, but despite the apparently immense troves of data they hold, their effective involvement in the identification and disruption of terrorist intentions or activity remains elusive. With global authorities consumed with the mushrooming growth of “foreign terrorist fighters” (FTFs, it seems timely to revisit the question of how financial institutions can play a more preventative role in countering terrorist threats. As the intergovernmental Financial Action Task Force (FATF noted recently, “greater domestic cooperation among AML/CFT [anti-money laundering and countering the financing of terrorism] bodies and other authorities” is needed to tackle funding of FTFs. Banks must play a key role in the development of this architecture. The issue of FTFs flowing to and from the conflict in Syria is likely to shape the international security agenda for the foreseeable future. Identifying citizens who have joined terrorist groups in Syria and Iraq pose a threat to the UK. The UK is certainly not alone in Europe in facing this threat. Evidence suggests these fears are now being realised. Both the scale of the issue in the context of the Syrian conflict and the speed with which the numbers have risen have caught international security authorities off guard, which – it would seem – have only belatedly appreciated the magnitude of the challenge. Whilst there has been much discussion and debate about who these travelling fighters are, their motivations, and the threats they pose, the majority of this analysis has focused on the role of social media in this

  3. What we need to know ...and when. Educating the public about nuclear terrorist risks can help raise levels of security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khripunov, I.

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear power infrastructures could be the target of terrorist acts of theft, sabotage, unauthorized access or other malicious acts given their radiological and chemical content and potential for building weapons. Attacks on its major components, including fuel production, reactors, waste handling, and reprocessing facilities, would lead to serious consequences-even if there is little or no damage to a nuclear power plant itself and other related structures. Public fear of nuclear radiation, in combination with a possibly massive resultant blackout and other aggravating factors, could create significant distress and panic. In other words, successful terrorist attempts to attack nuclear power infrastructure can easily bring about systemic disaster. Systemic risks impact society on a large scale and their effects may spread much further from the original hazardous source. Those risks widely affect systems that society depends on, such as health, transport, environment, telecommunications. Their consequences may be technical, social, environmental, psychological and economic and involve different stakeholders. In this context, however, one important stakeholder has been under-appreciated, under-utilized and somewhat misunderstood: the general public. The nuclear power infrastructure must learn how to efficiently communicate to the public and develop better options for public risk communication that relate to deliberate attacks or accidents. The public is also a challenging stockholder because citizens are deeply split regarding the acceptability and value of nuclear power generation and tend to express their feelings emotionally. However, there is growing recognition that because of skyrocketing oil prices and evidence of the greenhouse effect, nuclear power may be approaching renaissance. Hence, the public must no longer be looked upon only as potential victims or panicked masses but rather as an important contributing factor for better nuclear security throughout

  4. Suits Against Terrorist States by Victims of Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    Nat’l City Bank v. Banco Para El Comercio Exterior de Cuba, 462 U.S. 611 (1983) (“Bancec”) to judgments against designated terrorist States. Bancec held...to determine both whether an exception to the Cuban Government’s immunity from garnishment also applies to [ Empresa de Telecomunicaciones de Cuba, S.A...was eventually reversed on other grounds by the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit — Alejandre v. Telefonica Larga Distancia de Puerto Rico

  5. Cultural Memory of Sorrow in Advertising after the Terrorist Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Martínez Pastor

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The general objective of this research study is to do a comparative research to investigate the perception of sorrow in the advertising in the press after the terrorist attacks: 11/09/2001 (U.S. and 11/04/2004 (Spain. The general hypothesis considers that there are similar perceptions of the sorrow towards the ads although there are cultural differences. On a computer program the subject was shown these images about announcement advertisement published in the press after the 09/11 and 11/04 in a random order and was asked different questions that explored their perception and attitudes with regard to these advertisements

  6. Hidden Markov models for the activity profile of terrorist groups

    OpenAIRE

    Raghavan, Vasanthan; Galstyan, Aram; Tartakovsky, Alexander G.

    2012-01-01

    The main focus of this work is on developing models for the activity profile of a terrorist group, detecting sudden spurts and downfalls in this profile, and, in general, tracking it over a period of time. Toward this goal, a $d$-state hidden Markov model (HMM) that captures the latent states underlying the dynamics of the group and thus its activity profile is developed. The simplest setting of $d=2$ corresponds to the case where the dynamics are coarsely quantized as Active and Inactive, re...

  7. Importancia de la microbiota gastrointestinal en pediatría

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V P Zamudio-Vázquez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Las enfermedades del tubo gastrointestinal forman parte importante de la morbilidad y de la mortalidad mundiales; incluyen desde las enfermedades infecciosas, alérgicas, inflamatorias crónicas (como la enfermedad de Crohn y la colitis ulcerativa hasta padecimientos considerados como funcionales, como el síndrome de intestino irritable. En algunas de ellas el tratamiento puede ser difícil, ya que en ocasiones pueden existir diferentes teorías en relación a las mismas y en las que se han encontrado múltiples factores tanto psicosociales como genéticos. En los últimos años ha cobrado gran importancia el papel que desempeña la microbiota intestinal en la génesis de algunas de ellas.   Desde el siglo XV se describió la presencia de microorganismos en el tubo gastrointestinal, pero fue hasta que se originó la biología molecular cuando se logró un mejor conocimiento de la función y la composición del ecosistema gastrointestinal, el cual contribuye de manera importante para los procesos de digestión y absorción de sustratos de la dieta, así como para las funciones inmunológicas y protectoras de la microbiota gastrointestinal en cada organismo, lo que resulta esencial para comprender su participación en el tratamiento y en la prevención de múltiples enfermedades.

  8. Scientific Support of Terrorist Actions by Commercial Grey Area Literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katzung, W.

    2007-01-01

    The publication of the Al-Quaida handbook and time and time again notes of the possibility for getting special scientific knowledge from the internet have decreased the attention for an other important source of scientific support for terrorist education and/or actions. This is the commercial available and distributed grey area literature provided by a huge amount of (book) sellers and publishing houses. Most of this literature (hard copies and CDs) with dangerous subject matter is published in the US and may be ordered fast and with low costs using the internet. This kind of support for real and potential terrorists stands strongly in contradiction to the official policy and the 'unconditional' war against terrorism. With the presented poster the above described problem should be a little bit put in the focus of the CBMTS community and so to the authorities, too. By means of selected examples from different branches, such as Narcotics, Explosives, unusual Killing Methods, special Poisons / Toxins and, last not least, CW agents inclusive application methods and devices the highly charged situation is tried to shown. (author)

  9. Media participation and mental health in terrorist attack survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoresen, Siri; Jensen, Tine K; Dyb, Grete

    2014-12-01

    Terrorism and disasters receive massive media attention, and victims are often approached by reporters. Not much is known about how terror and disaster victims perceive the contact with media and whether such experiences influence mental health. In this study, we describe how positive and negative experiences with media relate to posttraumatic stress (PTS) reactions among survivors of the 2011 Utøya Island terrorist attack in Norway. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 285 survivors (47.0% female and 53.0% male) 14-15 months after the terrorist attack. Most survivors were approached by reporters (94%), and participated in media interviews (88%). The majority of survivors evaluated their media contact and participation as positive, and media participation was unrelated to PTS reactions. Survivors who found media participation distressing had more PTS reactions (quite distressing: B = 0.440, extremely distressing: B = 0.611, p = .004 in adjusted model). Perceiving media participation as distressing was slightly associated with lower levels of social support (r = -.16, p = .013), and regretting media participation was slightly associated with feeling let down (r = .18, p = .004). Reporters should take care when interviewing victims, and clinicians should be aware of media exposure as a potential additional strain on victims. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  10. Kidnapping by Terrorist Groups, 1970-2010: Is Ideological Orientation Relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest, James J. F.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines whether a terrorist group's ideology has a meaningful impact on its involvement in kidnapping. On a global level, incident data (1970-2010) indicate that in the past decade the number of kidnappings by terrorist groups has increased, while Muslim extremists have replaced left-wing/Marxist revolutionaries as the world's…

  11. TePiTri : a screening method for assessing terrorist-related pipeline transport risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reniers, G.; Dullaert, W.E.H.

    2012-01-01

    The article proposes an approach to determine relative terrorist-related security risk levels of pipeline transportation. Pipeline routes are divided into smaller route segments. Subsequently, likelihood scores of possible terrorist-related incidents are determined per route segment and per

  12. Game Theoretic Centrality Analysis of Terrorist Networks : The Cases of Jemaah Islamiyah and Al Qaeda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindelauf, R.; Hamers, H.J.M.; Husslage, B.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    The identification of key players in a terrorist network can lead to prevention of attacks, due to efficient allocation of surveillance means or isolation of key players in order to destabilize the network. In this paper we introduce a game theoretic approach to identify key players in terrorist

  13. Training, SEVIS, and NSEERS: Will They Stop Terrorists from Entering the U.S

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bugarin, Darwina S

    2007-01-01

    .... Stopping their entry is key to preventing attacks. The 9/11 Commission's Staff Report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, 9/11 and Terrorist Travel, identified pre-9/11 gaps/weaknesses in U.S...

  14. The meaning of collective terrorist threat : Understanding the subjective causes of terrorism reduces its negative psychological impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Peter; Postmes, Tom; Koeppl, Julia; Conway, Lianne; Fredriksson, Tom

    This article hypothesized that the possibility to construct intellectual meaning of a terrorist attack (i.e., whether participants can cognitively understand why the perpetrators did their crime) reduces the negative psychological consequences typically associated with increased terrorist threat.

  15. Importancia clínica de las Chlamydias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Digna Llorente Molina

    Full Text Available Introducción: las infecciones por Chlamydia han alcanzado alta incidencia en el mundo. Constituyen importantes patógenos para los animales y el hombre. En la especie humana pueden ocasionar múltiples infecciones en diferentes órganos y sistemas de órganos. Objetivo: resumir los aspectos más novedosos relacionados con las Chlamydias en cuanto a sus características y formas de evitarla. Métodos: se realizó una revisión bibliográfica sobre la importancia clínica de las Chlamydias en la especie humana y su elevada incidencia. Se consultó la base de datos Medline disponible en INFOMED, de donde se extrajeron referencias bibliográficas entre los años 1995 y 2011, acerca de algunos aspectos etiológicos, clínicos, diagnósticos y terapéuticos de acuerdo a los últimos apuntes más relevantes en la literatura médica sobre Chlamydias y su relación con el hombre. Resultados: la Chlamydia Trachomatis en particular responsable del tracoma, primera causa de ceguera prevenible, provoca un impacto deletéreo en la salud reproductiva, produciendo entidades como abortos espontáneos, rotura prematura de membranas, restricción del crecimiento intrauterino, endometritis, conjuntivitis y neumonía del recién nacido. Es responsable además de Linfogranuloma Venéreo, Uretritis no Gonocóccica, Síndrome de Reiter, Enfermedad Inflamatoria Pélvica, Síndrome de Fitz Hugh Curtis, Embarazo Ectópico Crónico, Dolor Pélvico Crónico y más recientemente Carcinoma Cervical, entre otras. Conclusiones: partiendo de la base del impacto social y económico que tiene la infección por Chlamydias en el mundo y en nuestro país, pudimos resumir los aspectos más novedosos en cuanto a los tipos, infecciones que causan y sus características, diagnóstico, terapéutica y medidas generales para evitarlas o reducir su impacto negativo en la sociedad.

  16. Islamic State and Its Attitude to the Terrorist Attacks on the Energy Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Tichý

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this article is both to analyze the importance of the terrorist attacks on energy infrastructure and industry for strategy of militant terrorist organization Islamic State against the background of the influence of Islam and to describe a specific example and manifestations of the terrorist activities focused on energy sector in the Middle East and North Africa. In the theoretical level, the article is based on the concept of terrorist attack on energy sector and relation between energy and Sunni Islam. In methodological level, the article is based on the case study method framing terrorist attacks of Islamic State on energy industry and infrastructure in Iraq, Syria and Libya.

  17. The alliance relationship analysis of international terrorist organizations with link prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ling; Fang, Haiyang; Tian, Yanfang; Yang, Tinghong; Zhao, Jing

    2017-09-01

    Terrorism is a huge public hazard of the international community. Alliances of terrorist organizations may cause more serious threat to national security and world peace. Understanding alliances between global terrorist organizations will facilitate more effective anti-terrorism collaboration between governments. Based on publicly available data, this study constructed a alliance network between terrorist organizations and analyzed the alliance relationships with link prediction. We proposed a novel index based on optimal weighted fusion of six similarity indices, in which the optimal weight is calculated by genetic algorithm. Our experimental results showed that this algorithm could achieve better results on the networks than other algorithms. Using this method, we successfully digged out 21 real terrorist organizations alliance from current data. Our experiment shows that this approach used for terrorist organizations alliance mining is effective and this study is expected to benefit the form of a more powerful anti-terrorism strategy.

  18. Narratives from caregivers of children surviving the terrorist attack in Beslan: issues of health, culture, and resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscardino, Ughetta; Axia, Giovanna; Scrimin, Sara; Capello, Fabia

    2007-04-01

    Acts of terrorism have an extremely negative impact on the mental health of children and families. The school siege in Beslan, Russia, in 2004, represents a particularly traumatizing event as it was directed specifically at children and involved the entire community. This qualitative study aims to: (a) examine caregiver reactions to the terrorist attack in Beslan as reported 3 months after the traumatic event; (b) determine the extent to which indigenous cultural values and religious belief systems play a role in Beslan's caregivers' reactions to such event; and (c) identify variables that may function as sources of resilience to caregivers. A convenience sample of 17 primary caregivers from Beslan with at least one child who survived the school siege were asked to participate in semi-structured interviews. Narratives generated from the interviews were qualitatively analyzed using a thematic approach; nine major themes were identified. Caregivers' concerns centered on children's physical and psychological well-being, the reorganization of family life, and the disruption of community ties. Cultural values of pride, heroism, courage, and revenge emerged as relevant aspects shaping caregivers' reactions to the traumatic event. Possible sources of resilience included the willingness to return to normality, social support, and the reaffirmation of positive, culturally shared values in face of the perceived threat of future terrorist attacks. Findings are discussed in terms of their theoretical implications on the effects of trauma on children and families as well as interventions with highly traumatized populations in diverse cultural settings.

  19. Remediation following a CBRN terrorist attack : domestic and international perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanofsky, N. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    The risks of chemical, biological and radiological/nuclear (CBRN) agents in terrorist attacks is well recognized. Serious measures must be in place to respond to terrorist attacks that involve these agents, including cleanup of affected buildings, machinery, land, water and air. This paper describes what is expected from the science community in the development of adequate, reliable and economical decontamination methods and equipment. It also discusses improved detection methods and adequate personal protection. Cleanup after a terrorist attack has much in common with the cleanup of contaminated sites or dealing with the consequences of industrial accidents, particularly as most potential chemical terror agents are represented by toxic industrial chemicals. The major needs of organizations involved in cleanup procedures were reviewed. Issues concerning first responders, assessment of situations, information collecting and the detection of possible chemical, biological and radiological agents were discussed. The development of generic decontamination procedures and equipment was suggested, with reference to the fact that the spectrum of CBRN weapons is very broad. In addition, the development of detection systems and instruments capable of analyzing a broad range of agents was also seen as desirable. New generation instruments such as Toxic Industrial Materials (TIMs) detectors were reviewed. Guidelines for cleanup procedures and remediation efforts were examined. It was also noted that there is relatively little information available to predict the behaviour of potential agents of CBRN terrorism in a complex urban environment. By studying different complex threat scenarios, scientists, first responders and other parties can achieve a better understanding of how to optimize the deployment of their resources. Mechanical, physiochemical and biological methods of decontamination were evaluated. Issues concerning waste disposal were discussed. It was noted that the

  20. Importancia de la Manometría Anorrectalen la Infancia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisy Naranjo Hernández

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Al registrar cambios de presión en órganos musculares huecos, el estudio manométrico anorrectal ha permitido llegar a conclusiones acerca del mecanismo de continencia anorrectal, la función esfinteriana y la sensación rectal. Se utilizó el método de catéteres perfundidos y balón intrarrectal para el estímulo por distensión. Se estudiaron 340 pacientes, 214 masculinos y 126 femeninos, con una edad promedio de 6,5 años. Se formaron 3 grupos: I. Constipación crónica, II. Crónica más encopresis y III. Incontinencia anal. Entre las variables manométricas que se estudiaron: presencia o no del reflejo rectoanal inhibitorio inducido (RRII, presión de reposo, longitud, tanto por ciento de relajación del mismo y volumen crítico capaz de desencadenar respuesta esfinteriana. Se realizó estudio de colon por enema y se halló mayor correlación entre megacolon radiográfico y el mayor porcentaje de ausencia manométrica del RRAI. El grupo II mostró mayor valor de presión basal del EAI con un menor tanto por ciento de relajación y un mayor número de casos con ausencia del RRAI. En el grupo III se obtuvo el valor más bajo de presión basal del EAI mayor por ciento de relajación y mayor número de casos con ausencia del EAI. Se demuestra la importancia del estudio en el manejo integral del niño con afecciones anorrectales, el que fue indispensable en el diagnóstico de la enfermedad de Hirschprung. Su empleo se recomienda en todos los servicios de Gastroenterología Pediátrica.On registering pressure changes in the muscular hollow organs, the anorectal manometric study has allowed to reach conclusions about the mechanism of anorectal continence, the sphincteral function and the anorectal sensation. The method of perfused catheters and intrarectal balloon was used to attain the stimulus by distention. 340 patients, 214 males and 126 females with an average age of 6.5 years old, were studied. Patients were divided into 3 groups

  1. Consequence Assessment for Potential Scenarios of Radiological Terrorists Events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Hyeongki; Kim, Juyoul

    2007-01-01

    Radiological dispersal device (RDD) means any method used to deliberately disperse radioactive material to create terror or harm. Dirty bomb is an example of RDD, which usually consists of radioactive material and unconventional explosive. Dirty bomb was a problem long before September 11, 2001. In 1987, the Iraqi government tested a one-ton radiological bomb. The Iraqi tests confirmed that a dirty bomb is not effective as weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and that its main value is as a psychological weapon. In 1995, Chechen rebels buried a dirty bomb in a park in Moscow threatening to detonate one in the future if their demands were not met. Another good example of potential dirty bomb effects was an incident in Goiania, Brazil on September 18, 1987, where an orphaned medical source containing 1,375 Ci of Cs-137 resulted the death of four people and extensive environmental contamination. The purposes of radiological terrorists events are not to destroy or damage the target but to disperse radioactivity in the environment. They inflict panic on a public and economic damage by disruption of business. They also have influence on enormous clean-up costs by spreading radioactive contamination including secondary impacts on water supply reservoirs. Generally, two major long-term concerns following a RDD are human health and economic impacts. In this study, we developed potential scenarios of radiological terrorists events and performed their radiological consequence assessments in terms of total effective dose equivalent (TEDE), projected cumulative external and internal dose, and ground deposition of radioactivity

  2. Consequence Assessment for Potential Scenarios of Radiological Terrorists Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hyeongki [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Juyoul [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    Radiological dispersal device (RDD) means any method used to deliberately disperse radioactive material to create terror or harm. Dirty bomb is an example of RDD, which usually consists of radioactive material and unconventional explosive. Dirty bomb was a problem long before September 11, 2001. In 1987, the Iraqi government tested a one-ton radiological bomb. The Iraqi tests confirmed that a dirty bomb is not effective as weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and that its main value is as a psychological weapon. In 1995, Chechen rebels buried a dirty bomb in a park in Moscow threatening to detonate one in the future if their demands were not met. Another good example of potential dirty bomb effects was an incident in Goiania, Brazil on September 18, 1987, where an orphaned medical source containing 1,375 Ci of Cs-137 resulted the death of four people and extensive environmental contamination. The purposes of radiological terrorists events are not to destroy or damage the target but to disperse radioactivity in the environment. They inflict panic on a public and economic damage by disruption of business. They also have influence on enormous clean-up costs by spreading radioactive contamination including secondary impacts on water supply reservoirs. Generally, two major long-term concerns following a RDD are human health and economic impacts. In this study, we developed potential scenarios of radiological terrorists events and performed their radiological consequence assessments in terms of total effective dose equivalent (TEDE), projected cumulative external and internal dose, and ground deposition of radioactivity.

  3. Know thy enemy: Education about terrorism improves social attitudes toward terrorists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theriault, Jordan; Krause, Peter; Young, Liane

    2017-03-01

    Hatred of terrorists is an obstacle to the implementation of effective counterterrorism policies-it invites indiscriminate retaliation, whereas many of the greatest successes in counterterrorism have come from understanding terrorists' personal and political motivations. Drawing from psychological research, traditional prejudice reduction strategies are generally not well suited to the task of reducing hatred of terrorists. Instead, in 2 studies, we explored education's potential ability to reduce extreme negative attitudes toward terrorists. Study 1 compared students in a college course on terrorism (treatment) with wait-listed students, measuring prosocial attitudes toward a hypothetical terrorist. Initially, all students reported extremely negative attitudes; however, at the end of the semester, treatment students' attitudes were significantly improved. Study 2 replicated the effect within a sample of treatment and control classes drawn from universities across the United States. The present work was part of an ongoing research project, focusing on foreign policy and the perceived threat of terrorism; thus classes did not explicitly aim to reduce prejudice, making the effect of treatment somewhat surprising. One possibility is that learning about terrorists "crowds out" the initial pejorative associations-that is, the label terrorism may ultimately call more information to mind, diluting its initial negative associative links. Alternatively, students may learn to challenge how the label terrorist is being applied. In either case, learning about terrorism can decrease the extreme negative reactions it evokes, which is desirable if one wishes to implement effective counterterrorism policies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Bombing alone: tracing the motivations and antecedent behaviors of lone-actor terrorists,.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Paul; Horgan, John; Deckert, Paige

    2014-03-01

    This article analyzes the sociodemographic network characteristics and antecedent behaviors of 119 lone-actor terrorists. This marks a departure from existing analyses by largely focusing upon behavioral aspects of each offender. This article also examines whether lone-actor terrorists differ based on their ideologies or network connectivity. The analysis leads to seven conclusions. There was no uniform profile identified. In the time leading up to most lone-actor terrorist events, other people generally knew about the offender's grievance, extremist ideology, views, and/or intent to engage in violence. A wide range of activities and experiences preceded lone actors' plots or events. Many but not all lone-actor terrorists were socially isolated. Lone-actor terrorists regularly engaged in a detectable and observable range of activities with a wider pressure group, social movement, or terrorist organization. Lone-actor terrorist events were rarely sudden and impulsive. There were distinguishable behavioral differences between subgroups. The implications for policy conclude this article. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  5. Bombing Alone: Tracing the Motivations and Antecedent Behaviors of Lone-Actor Terrorists*,†,‡

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Paul; Horgan, John; Deckert, Paige

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the sociodemographic network characteristics and antecedent behaviors of 119 lone-actor terrorists. This marks a departure from existing analyses by largely focusing upon behavioral aspects of each offender. This article also examines whether lone-actor terrorists differ based on their ideologies or network connectivity. The analysis leads to seven conclusions. There was no uniform profile identified. In the time leading up to most lone-actor terrorist events, other people generally knew about the offender’s grievance, extremist ideology, views, and/or intent to engage in violence. A wide range of activities and experiences preceded lone actors’ plots or events. Many but not all lone-actor terrorists were socially isolated. Lone-actor terrorists regularly engaged in a detectable and observable range of activities with a wider pressure group, social movement, or terrorist organization. Lone-actor terrorist events were rarely sudden and impulsive. There were distinguishable behavioral differences between subgroups. The implications for policy conclude this article. PMID:24313297

  6. Cooperative international arrangements: prevention of nuclear terrorism and the extradition and prosecution of terrorists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    In considering the problems associated with prosecuting and punishing nuclear terrorists, it is noted that nuclear terrorism per se is not currently a crime under international law. To be sure, the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material would probably cover any act of nuclear terrorism that involved nuclear material used for peaceful purposes. However, nuclear material used for military purposes or military nuclear reactors is outside the scope of the convention. US legislation implementing the convention goes beyond its terms in this respect and covers crimes involving nuclear material for nonpeaceful purposes if the offense is committed within US territorial, special maritime, special territorial, or special aircraft jurisdiction or if the offense is committed by nationals of the US. The author feels an effort should be made, under the auspices of the United Nations, to conclude a convention that would define nuclear terrorism, declare it a crime under international law, and obligate state parties to extradite or prosecute those who commit the crime. Such a convention would fill the large gap in the coverage of the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material

  7. The Proliferation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Terrorist Use, Capability, and Strategic Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, Ryan Jokl [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-10-16

    There has been unparalleled proliferation and technological advancement of consumer unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) across the globe in the past several years. As witnessed over the course of insurgency tactics, it is difficult to restrict terrorists from using widely available technology they perceive as advantageous to their overall strategy. Through a review of the characteristics, consumer market landscape, tactics, and countertactics, as well as operational use of consumer-grade UAVs, this open-source report seeks to provide an introductory understanding of the terrorist-UAV landscape, as well as insights into present and future capabilities. The caveat is evaluating a developing technology haphazardly used by terrorists in asymmetric conflicts.

  8. The Dynamics of the Creation, Evolution, and Disappearance of Terrorist Internet Forums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Ricardo Torres-Soriano

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available An examination of the organizational nature of the threat posed by jihadi terrorism, supplying quantitative and qualitative data on the dynamics behind the creation, evolution, and disappearance of the main jihadi Internet forums during the period 2008–2012. An analysis of the origins and functions of the forums, their links with terrorist organizations, their internal structures, and the processes accounting for their stability in cyberspace shows that far from representinga horizontal structure where the main actors are a network of followers, the terrorist presence on the Internet is in fact a hierarchical organization in which intervention by formal terrorist organizations plays a crucial role.

  9. Comment on the first anniversary of the terrorist attacks in the United States of America. Vienna, 11 September 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2002-01-01

    The IAEA has long been active in encouraging States to make security an integral part of the management of their nuclear programmes. The attacks in September 2001 were, however, a wake-up call to the world nuclear community that more can and must be done. In the wake of the terrorist attacks, Member States of the IAEA meeting in the Agency's General Conference adopted a resolution requesting that the IAEA Director General initiate a thorough review of the Agency's activities and programmes relevant to preventing acts of terrorism involving nuclear and other radioactive materials. The Agency moved rapidly to respond. It devised and is presently implementing an integrated action plan which includes enhanced and new activities to upgrade nuclear security worldwide and to combat nuclear terrorism. The plan covers eight areas: (1) physical protection of nuclear material and nuclear facilities; (2) detection of malicious activities (such as illicit trafficking) involving nuclear and other radioactive materials; (3) strengthening of State systems for nuclear material accountancy and control; (4) security of radioactive sources; (5) the assessment of safety and security related vulnerabilities at nuclear facilities; (6) response to malicious acts or threats thereof; (7) the adherence to international agreements and guidelines; and (8) co-ordination and information management for nuclear security related matters. National measures for protecting nuclear material and facilities remain uneven in their substance and application. There is wide recognition that the international physical protection regime needs to be further strengthened. Through its International Physical Protection Advisory Service (IPPAS), the Agency provides Member States with assessment services, together with associated advice and follow up actions to improve security arrangements at nuclear facilities. It also provides training and workshops, notably in assessing threats, as well as other supporting

  10. Tenth act amending the German atomic energy act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2009-01-01

    On January 14, 2009, the German federal government introduced into parliament the 10th Act Amending the Atomic Energy Act. In the first reading in the federal parliament, Federal Minister for the Environment Gabriel emphasized 2 main points: Intensified protection of nuclear facilities and of transports of radioactive substances against unauthorized interventions; transfer by law to the Federal Office for Radiological Protection (BfS) of decommissioning of the Asse mine. Reliability review: The amendment to Sec.12 b of the Atomic Energy Act is to meet the different safety and security conditions after the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001 in the United States and other terrorist activities afterwards (London, Madrid) also with respect to hazards arising to nuclear facilities and nuclear transports. The bill must be seen in conjunction with the Ordinance on Reliability Reviews under the Atomic Energy Act dated July 1, 1999 which covers reviews of reliability of persons holding special responsibilities. Asse II mine: The competence of the Federal Office for Radiological Protection is achieved by an amendment to Sec.23, Para.1, Number 2, Atomic Energy Act, in which the words ''and for the Asse II mine'' are added after the word ''waste.'' Further proceedings depend on the additional provision in a new Sec.57 b, Atomic Energy Act. Accordingly, the operation and decommissioning of the Asse II mine are subject to the regulations applicable to facilities of the federation pursuant to Sec.9a, Para.3. In this way, Asse II is given the same legal status as the federal waste management facilities. Moreover, it is stipulated that the mine is to be shut down immediately. (orig.)

  11. The Sociology and Psychology of Terrorism: Who Becomes a Terrorist and Why?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hudson, Rex A

    1999-01-01

    ...) and the new recruitment patterns of some groups, such as recruiting suicide commandos, female and child terrorists, and scientists capable of developing weapons of mass destruction, provide a measure...

  12. Asian Organized Crime and Terrorist Activity in Canada, 1999-2002

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Helfand, Neil S

    2003-01-01

    This study is based on open source research into the scope of Asian organized crime and terrorist activity in Canada during the period 1999 to 2002, and the extent of cooperation and possible overlap...

  13. Underlying Reasons for Success and Failure of Terrorist Attacks: Selected Case Studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCleskey, Edward; McCord, Diana; Leetz, Jennifer; Markey, John

    2007-01-01

    .... This is the second of a two-phased effort: Phase I focused on assessing the underlying reasons for the success and failure of terrorist attacks against targets within the United States and against U.S. interests abroad...

  14. Effectiveness of Using Red-Teams to Identify Maritime Security Vulnerabilities to Terrorist Attack

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Culpepper, Anna

    2004-01-01

    .... Moreover, there have been no attacks on homeland U.S. targets since September 11. The red team concept provides an innovative method to examine these vulnerabilities from the terrorist perspective...

  15. 40 years of terrorist bombings - A meta-analysis of the casualty and injury profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, D S; McMenemy, L; Stapley, S A; Patel, H D L; Clasper, J C

    2016-03-01

    Terrorists have used the explosive device successfully globally, with their effects extending beyond the resulting injuries. Suicide bombings, in particular, are being increasingly deployed due to the devastating effect of a combination of high lethality and target accuracy. The aim of this study was to identify trends and analyse the demographics and casualty figures of terrorist bombings worldwide. Analysis of the Global Terrorism Database (GTD) and a PubMed/Embase literature search (keywords "terrorist", and/or "suicide", and/or "bombing") from 1970 to 2014 was performed. 58,095 terrorist explosions worldwide were identified in the GTD. 5.08% were suicide bombings. Incidents per year are increasing (Pprofile of survivors to guide the immediate response by the medical services and the workload in the coming days. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Air traffic security act unconstitutional

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2006-01-01

    In the interest of more effective protective measures against terrorist attacks, the German federal parliament inter alia added a clause to the Air Traffic Security Act (Sec. 14, Para. 3, Air Traffic Security Act) empowering the armed forces to shoot down aircraft to be used as a weapon against human lives. In Germany, this defense possibility has been discussed also in connection with deliberate crashes of hijacked aircraft on nuclear power plants. The 1 st Division of the German Federal Constitutional Court, in its decision of February 15, 2006, ruled that Sec. 14, Para. 3, Air Traffic Security Act was incompatible with the Basic Law and thus was null and void (file No. 1 BvR 357/05) for two reasons: - There was no legislative authority on the part of the federal government. - The provision was incompatible with the basic right of life and the guarantee of human dignity as enshrined in the Basic Law. (orig.)

  17. Changing the story the role of the narrative in the success or failure of terrorist groups

    OpenAIRE

    Mellen, Brian C.

    2009-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited This thesis focuses on the nexus between a terrorist group's narrative and the group's success or failure in achieving its strategic goals. This work theorizes that the interaction of competing narratives exerts a systematic impact on the ability of the terrorist group to achieve its strategic goals through the influence that the narratives have over a group's members, the group's adversary, and the affected population. Although a te...

  18. Computing Optimal Mixed Strategies for Terrorist Plot Detection Games with the Consideration of Information Leakage

    OpenAIRE

    Li MingChu; Yang Zekun; Lu Kun; Guo Cheng

    2017-01-01

    The terrorist’s coordinated attack is becoming an increasing threat to western countries. By monitoring potential terrorists, security agencies are able to detect and destroy terrorist plots at their planning stage. Therefore, an optimal monitoring strategy for the domestic security agency becomes necessary. However, previous study about monitoring strategy generation fails to consider the information leakage, due to hackers and insider threat. Such leakage events may lead to failure of watch...

  19. Analysing Personal Characteristics of Lone-Actor Terrorists: Research Findings and Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, de, van Zuijdewijn J.; Bakker, E.

    2016-01-01

    This Research Note presents the outcome of a project that looked at the personal characteristics of lone-actor terrorists. It is part of the larger Countering Lone-Actor Terrorism (CLAT) project. The project described here aimed to improve understanding of, and responses to, the phenomenon of (potentially) violent lone-actors based on an analysis of 120 cases from across Europe. The Research Note focuses on the personal characteristics of lone-actor terrorists.[1] First of all, it presents th...

  20. The personality profile of terrorist leaders: theoretical aspects and ways of measuring

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrovska, Aleksandra; Dojcinovski, Metodija

    2015-01-01

    The main task of the psychology of terrorism is to explain the psychological aspects of terrorism, trying to provide answers about the behavior of the persons involved in terrorist activities. The literature suggests that there is no a single theory that explains the reasons and the way of "making the terrorists." While the first generation of research have viewed on terrorism as a pathology, explaining it predominantly through mental illness and psychopathic personality, th...

  1. Urban planning after terrorism:The case of Oslo with focus on the impacts of the terrorist attack on the consideration of security, memorialisation and conservation in urban planning

    OpenAIRE

    Paizs, Franziska

    2013-01-01

    Terrorism is a targeted way to hurt a population but also to destroy and annihilate a part of the civilization by attacking the built environment, especially iconic and symbolic buildings with its values of collective memory and cultural heritage, which is at the latest created by the iconic act of destruction. The resilient city with its integrated plans and programs but also technical, personal or physical security aims to reduce the probability and the dimension of terrorist attacks. Howev...

  2. An Overview of NCRP Report No. 138 on Terrorist Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poston, John, Sr.

    2005-04-01

    In late 1998, the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) convened Scientific Committee 46-14 to prepare a report on the radiological safety aspects of terrorist activities involving radioactivity. The work of this committee was funded through a contract with the Planning and Preparedness Division of the Office of Emergency Management of the Department of Energy. The committee was composed of a diverse group of individuals with expertise in many areas in addition to radiation safety and emergency response. These areas included law (both federal and state), public communications, and psychosocial aspects of such incidents. The statement of work focused the work of the committee, and the resulting report did not necessarily address all issues of such activities. One of the charges of the committee was to provide guidance as to necessary research and make recommendations regarding the present infrastructure with the responsibility for responding to such incidents. This presentation will provide an overview of NCRP Report No. 138 and focus on some of the critical issues raised in the report. These issues include recognition of the event, the interface between federal, state, and local authorities, exposure limits for the first-responders, clean-up criteria, training and resources, the psychosocial aspects of such events, and communications with the media and the public. This report represented the ``beginning'' of such considerations. It pointed the way for additional studies and research in this very important area.

  3. Foreign (Terrorist Fighter Estimates: Conceptual and Data Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex P. Schmid

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This Policy Brief – a short version of a larger Research Paper to be released by ICCT in late 2015 – focuses on the phenomenon of foreign (terrorist fighters (FTFs as it relates to Syria and Iraq. It concentrates on recruits to jihad and the astonishing growth in numbers from less than 1,000 in 2011 to more than 3,500 in 2012, 8,500+ in 2013, 18,000+ in 2014 to more than 25,000 by fall 2015. By October 2015, nearly 30,000 militants from more than 100 countries had become foreign fighters with the so-called “Islamic State” (IS in Syria and Iraq and other militant groups. This Policy Brief first discusses various definitions of FTFs by disaggregating the “foreign”, “terrorist” and “fighters” elements of FTFs of the UN Security Council definition in resolution 2178 (2014. Subsequently, an attempt is made to bring some structure and order to the widely diverging estimates of the numbers of foreign fighters and their origins, with tables presenting the best available estimates for different sides of the conflict at different moments in time since 2011. UN estimates on foreign fighters are juxtaposed with estimates from other sources. The biggest uncertainty is the ratio of foreign fighters to IS own core manpower. It is likely that at least 40 percent of the fighters of IS are foreigners and many more if Iraqis in Syria are counted as such.

  4. Hospital Preparedness to Respond to Biological and Chemical Terrorist Attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florin, P.

    2007-01-01

    There is a growing concern about the terrorist use of chemical or biological agents against civilian population. A large proportion of hospitals are probably poorly prepared to handle victims of chemical or biological terrorism. At national level, starting with 2008 hospitals will be under the administration and control of local authorities. That is good opportunities for local authorities and public health office to tailor the activity of the hospitals to the real needs in the area of responsibility, and to allocate the suitable budget for them. Commonly hospitals are not fully prepared to respond to massive casualty disaster of any kind, either i their capacity to care for large numbers of victims or in their ability to provide care in coordination with a regional or national incident command structure. Preparedness activities to respond properly to chemical or biological attack including the adequate logistic, the principle of training and drill for the hospital emergency units and medical personal, communication and integration of the hospital team in local and regional civil response team are developed by the author.(author)

  5. Screening Cargo Containers to Remove a Terrorist Threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazi, A

    2005-01-01

    Each year some 48 million cargo containers move between the world's ports. More than 6 million of these enter the U.S., but only about 2 percent are opened and inspected when they arrive at U.S. seaports. The West Coast ports of Los Angeles-Long Beach, Oakland, and Seattle alone process 11,000 containers per day, or about 8 containers per minute. Because of this high traffic volume, U.S. seaports are especially vulnerable to a terrorist attack. Illicit radioactive materials could be hidden in any one of the cargo-filled containers that arrive at U.S. ports. Yet, searching every shipment would be bring legitimate commercial activities to a halt. Improving security at U.S. ports is thus one of the nation's most difficult technical and practical challenges because the systems developed for screening cargo must operate in concert with ongoing seaport activities. Working at this intersection of commerce and national security, Lawrence Livermore researchers are applying their expertise in radiation science and detection to develop improved technologies for detecting hidden radioactive materials. One new technology being designed and tested at the Laboratory is a neutron interrogation system for cargo containers. This system will quickly screen incoming shipments to ensure that nuclear materials such as plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU) are not smuggled into the U.S

  6. Modeling cascading failures in interdependent infrastructures under terrorist attacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Baichao; Tang, Aiping; Wu, Jie

    2016-01-01

    An attack strength degradation model has been introduced to further capture the interdependencies among infrastructures and model cascading failures across infrastructures when terrorist attacks occur. A medium-sized energy system including oil network and power network is selected for exploring the vulnerabilities from independent networks to interdependent networks, considering the structural vulnerability and the functional vulnerability. Two types of interdependencies among critical infrastructures are involved in this paper: physical interdependencies and geographical interdependencies, shown by tunable parameters based on the probabilities of failures of nodes in the networks. In this paper, a tolerance parameter α is used to evaluation of the overloads of the substations based on power flow redistribution in power transmission systems under the attack. The results of simulation show that the independent networks or interdependent networks will be collapsed when only a small fraction of nodes are attacked under the attack strength degradation model, especially for the interdependent networks. The methodology introduced in this paper with physical interdependencies and geographical interdependencies involved in can be applied to analyze the vulnerability of the interdependent infrastructures further, and provides the insights of vulnerability of interdependent infrastructures to mitigation actions for critical infrastructure protections. - Highlights: • An attack strength degradation model based on the specified locations has been introduced. • Interdependencies considering both physical and geographical have been analyzed. • The structural vulnerability and the functional vulnerability have been considered.

  7. Learning from history: The Glasgow Airport terrorist attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Gillies

    Glasgow Airport was the target of a terrorist attack on 30th June, 2007. Many people within Scotland had come to believe that Scotland was immune from terrorism. This perception was in large part informed by Scotland's experience during the protracted Troubles in Northern Ireland, during which the Provisional Irish Republican Army's mainland bombing campaign focused on targets in England, sparing both Scotland and Wales. While Glasgow Airport did not expect such an attack to take place, meticulous planning, organising and testing of plans had taken place to mitigate the unlikely event of such an attack. The attack stands up as a shining example of robust business continuity management, where the airport reopened for business as usual in less than 24 hours from the time of the attack. Little is known about how the airport handled the situation in conjunction with other responding agencies as people tend to want to focus on high-profile disasters only. Yet countless such incidents are happening worldwide on a daily basis, in which there are excellent learning opportunities, and, taken in the spirit of converting hindsight into foresight, the likelihood of similar incidents could potentially be reduced in the future.

  8. La importancia de la protección de las playas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Las playas son una parte importante de la vida en Estados Unidos. Las playas ofrecen un sinnúmero de beneficios para el medio ambiente, actividades recreativas y la economía local. Aprenda la importancia de las playas y cómo protegerlas.

  9. La importancia de palmas en el oeste de la cuenca Amazónica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Las palmas forman un elemento conspicuo y dominante en muchos bosques tropicales en el oeste de la cuenca Amazónica. Existen alrededor de 100 especies de palmas en la zona, y tienen densidades de hasta 8000 individuos por hectárea. Además de su importancia ecológica, las palmas son de gran...

  10. Acts of terrorism in Paris and Brussels: common and different

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Vonsovych

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the common and distinctive features of the terrorist attacks in Paris and Brussels in 2015 and 2016. The attacks have confirmed the weakness of European security system in the context of the protection of its citizens from the threat № 1 in the world. The high level of democracy and liberalism are not allowed to use power instruments effectively in the fight against terrorism, which was the result of the fact that the terrorists were able to freely access to the place of their acts and to implement them. It was determined that the common features are the following: in Paris and in Brussels, the attacks were carried out by terrorist militaristic group «The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant» (ISIL; the places of commission of terrorist acts; guns of terrorists; military units of France and Belgium are parties of the armed conflict in Syria on the side of the Syrian opposition and struggle against ISIL; there were a few terrorist attacks. It is proved that the differences are as follows: in Paris, in addition to explosives, packed with nails, also were used automatic weapons and grenades, but only explosives in Brussels; France is more active in the fight against terrorism in the international arena and in every way opposed to violence against humanity, so there is a terrorist attack can be seen as a blow to the democratic and humanitarian values; Belgium is a «political heart» of the European Union that’s why the terrorist attack on it can be seen as a blow to the political system of the EU; in Paris, the attack was supposed to apply except for the population and for high officials in the name of F. Hollande and F. Steinmeier, and in Brussels – only civilians.conducting effective public diplomacy by means of virtual diplomacy. In the context of the establishment of the global information society the key target groups must be: Diasporas, foreign media (including bloggers, investors, influential foreign

  11. Responding to Terrorist Incidents in Your Community: Flammable-Liquid Fire Fighting Techniques for Municipal and Rural Firefighters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denise Baclawski

    2010-03-08

    The University of Nevada, Reno Fire Science Academy (FSA) applied for grant funding to develop and deliver programs for municipal, rural, and volunteer firefighters. The FSA specializes in preparing responders for a variety of emergency events, including flammable liquid fires resulting from accidents, intentional acts, or natural disasters. Live fire training on full scale burnable props is the hallmark of FSA training, allowing responders to practice critical skills in a realistic, yet safe environment. Unfortunately, flammable liquid live fire training is often not accessible to municipal, rural, or volunteer firefighters due to limited department training budgets, even though most department personnel will be exposed to flammable liquid fire incidents during the course of their careers. In response to this training need, the FSA developed a course during the first year of the grant (Year One), Responding to Terrorist Incidents in Your Community: Flammable-Liquid Fire Fighting Techniques for Municipal and Rural Firefighters. During the three years of the grant, a total of 2,029 emergency responders received this training. In Year Three, two new courses, a train-the-trainer for Responding to Terrorist Incidents in Your Community and Management of Large-Scale Disasters for Public Officials were developed and pilot tested during the Real-World Disaster Management Conference held at the FSA in June of 2007. Two research projects were conducted during Years Two and Three. The first, conducted over a two year period, evaluated student surveys regarding the value of the flammable liquids training received. The second was a needs assessment conducted for rural Nevada. Both projects provided important feedback and a basis for curricula development and improvements.

  12. Health effects of technologies for power generation: Contributions from normal operation, severe accidents and terrorist threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschberg, Stefan; Bauer, Christian; Burgherr, Peter; Cazzoli, Eric; Heck, Thomas; Spada, Matteo; Treyer, Karin

    2016-01-01

    As a part of comprehensive analysis of current and future energy systems we carried out numerous analyses of health effects of a wide spectrum of electricity supply technologies including advanced ones, operating in various countries under different conditions. The scope of the analysis covers full energy chains, i.e. fossil, nuclear and renewable power plants and the various stages of fuel cycles. State-of-the-art methods are used for the estimation of health effects. This paper addresses health effects in terms of reduced life expectancy in the context of normal operation as well as fatalities resulting from severe accidents and potential terrorist attacks. Based on the numerical results and identified patterns a comparative perspective on health effects associated with various electricity generation technologies and fuel cycles is provided. In particular the estimates of health risks from normal operation can be compared with those resulting from severe accidents and hypothetical terrorist attacks. A novel approach to the analysis of terrorist threat against energy infrastructure was developed, implemented and applied to selected energy facilities in various locations. Finally, major limitations of the current approach are identified and recommendations for further work are given. - Highlights: • We provide state-of-the-art comparative assessment of energy health risks. • The scope of the analysis should to the extent possible cover full energy chains. • Health impacts from normal operation dominate the risks. • We present novel approach to analysis of terrorist threat. • Limitations include technology choices, geographical coverage and terrorist issues.

  13. Mobile system for radiation reconnaissance after terrorist attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resehetin, V. P.

    2009-01-01

    Well-timed radiation reconnaissance aimed at identifying a source of radiation contamination and drawing up a contamination map represents an important and complex problem, the solution of which allows for the reduction of the irradiation dose, the implementation of decontamination works, and finally minimizing the consequences of a terrorist attack. New opportunities for operational gathering of radiation contamination data and corresponding space coordinates can be associated with the development of mobile systems which provide measurements of ionizing radiation dose rate and corresponding space coordinates, and subsequent transferral to the crisis centre server where these data are processed and used for mapping radiation contamination. In such a way, the data obtained on radiation contamination could be incorporated in a timely manner as input data to computer models, describing the dispersion of radionuclides in an environment that makes it possible not only to forecast the development of a situation but to define necessary protection measures for mitigating and localizing the consequences. The mobile reconnaissance system was developed as a prototype of such a solution, based on a cellular terminal such as the Nokia 12i (Teltonika BoxGPS). A Global Positioning System (GPS) was used to determine space coordinates. A Russian BDMG device measured the dose rate of ionizing radiation, and the subsequent data were transferred to the server of the crisis centre of the Nuclear Safety Institute of RAS (IBRAE). The main operation regime involved setting the GPRS connection, transferring data, and switching off the connection. A change of the operation regime can be produced via SMS commands from the crisis centre's terminal or with the help of a cellular phone. When a connection is not available, the data are aggregated in memory and transferred to the server when the connection channel arises. A few data transfer protocols, including FTP and HTTP/HTTPS, are provided

  14. Practising of radiological emergency caused by a terrorist attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racana, R.; Terrado, C.

    2006-01-01

    After the events of September 11, 2001 terrorist working has become an important factor in the forecasts to adopt in the face of the possibility of confronting different radiological emergencies. The not wanted events of exposure to ionizing radiations can take place by flaws of systems or accidents, or also by criminal voluntary actions. These malevolent actions can include attacks or sabotages in nuclear plants, detonation of manufactured nuclear devices or acquired under ground, robbery of radioactive sources to manufacture the calls dirty bombs or to cause damage, panic or threats. In the scenarios in that the radiological emergency is voluntarily provoked the moment and place of the attack are chosen by the aggressors, therefore the ionizing radiations will be in not prepared atmospheres neither equipped to the effect. This increases the confusion, the panic and the damage not only caused by the radiation effects but also by the uncertainty and consequent reactions. To diminish the effects of this type of threats it is necessary to make forecasts and to train the personnel that it can be direct or indirectly involved. During 2005, an exercise in which it was outlined the robbery by part of a group command of a source of Co 60 of 5000 Ci that it was transported to make a decanting in a medical center of The Pampa county, Argentina. It was about a cabinet exercise, planned and executed jointly among the Nuclear Regulatory Authority and the Secretary of Interior Safety, in which participated the professionals of the nuclear area that by law are the responsible ones of coordinating the actions in the event of an emergency of this type, and the safety forces that depend of the Secretary of Interior Safety, Federal and Provincial Policemen, Naval Prefecture and National Gendarmerie. The exercise last one day during which 9 main situations were approached that were unchained after having produced the attack and initial robbery. For each situation it was checked the

  15. Computing Optimal Mixed Strategies for Terrorist Plot Detection Games with the Consideration of Information Leakage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li MingChu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The terrorist’s coordinated attack is becoming an increasing threat to western countries. By monitoring potential terrorists, security agencies are able to detect and destroy terrorist plots at their planning stage. Therefore, an optimal monitoring strategy for the domestic security agency becomes necessary. However, previous study about monitoring strategy generation fails to consider the information leakage, due to hackers and insider threat. Such leakage events may lead to failure of watching potential terrorists and destroying the plot, and cause a huge risk to public security. This paper makes two major contributions. Firstly, we develop a new Stackelberg game model for the security agency to generate optimal monitoring strategy with the consideration of information leakage. Secondly, we provide a double-oracle framework DO-TPDIL for calculation effectively. The experimental result shows that our approach can obtain robust strategies against information leakage with high feasibility and efficiency.

  16. Do terrorist attacks affect ethnic discrimination in the labour market? Evidence from two randomized field experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkelund, Gunn Elisabeth; Chan, Tak Wing; Ugreninov, Elisabeth; Midtbøen, Arnfinn H; Rogstad, Jon

    2018-01-24

    Terrorist attacks are known to influence public opinion. But do they also change behaviour? We address this question by comparing the results of two identical randomized field experiments on ethnic discrimination in hiring that we conducted in Oslo. The first experiment was conducted before the 2011 terrorist attacks in Norway; the second experiment was conducted after the attacks. In both experiments, applicants with a typical Pakistani name were significantly less likely to get a job interview compared to those with a typical Norwegian name. But the ethnic gap in call-back rates were very similar in the two experiments. Thus, Pakistanis in Norway still experienced the same level of discrimination, despite claims that Norwegians have become more positive about migrants after the far-right, anti-migrant terrorist attacks of 2011. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2018.

  17. Vulnerability to terrorist attacks in European electricity decarbonisation scenarios: Comparing renewable electricity imports to gas imports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilliestam, Johan

    2014-01-01

    The decarbonised future European electricity system must remain secure: reliable electricity supply is a prerequisite for the functioning of modern society. Scenarios like Desertec, which partially rely on solar power imports from the Middle East and North Africa, may be attractive for decarbonisation, but raise concerns about terrorists interrupting supply by attacking the long, unprotected transmission lines in the Sahara. In this paper, I develop new methods and assess the European vulnerability to terrorist attacks in the Desertec scenario. I compare this to the vulnerability of today's system and a decarbonisation scenario in which Europe relies on gas imports for electricity generation. I show that the vulnerability of both gas and electricity imports is low, but electricity imports are more vulnerable than gas imports, due to their technical characteristics. Gas outages (and, potentially, resulting blackouts) are the very unlikely consequence even of very high-number attacks against the gas import system, whereas short blackouts are the potential consequence of a few attacks against the import electricity lines. As the impacts of all except extreme attacks are limited, terrorists cannot attack energy infrastructure and cause spectacular, fear-creating outages. Both gas and electricity import infrastructure are thus unattractive and unlikely terrorist targets. - Highlights: • A comparison of terrorism risks of importing solar power and gas for power generation. • Both scenarios show low vulnerability to terrorist attacks. • Within low vulnerabilities, gas imports are less vulnerable than electricity imports. • Causing spectacular, large and long outages is very difficult for attacker. • The attractiveness of gas and power import infrastructure as terrorist target is low

  18. The Use of Structures in Communication Networks to Track Membership in Terrorist Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A Eiselt

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This concept paper investigates possibilities to detect terrorist cells based on communications between individuals without the need for wiretapping. The advantages of such procedure are apparent: fewer (if any legal requirements, and, most importantly, the possibility to automate the surveillance. After a brief review of the pertinent literature, we offer three approaches that are designed to aid in the detection of not only terrorist cells, but also the command structures within the cells. The techniques are demonstrated by using a small illustration. The paper concludes by outlining limitations of the procedures described here.

  19. A First Look on iMiner's Knowledge base and Detecting Hidden Hierarchy of Riyadh Bombing Terrorist Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Memon, Nasrullah

    2007-01-01

      - Data collection is difficult to any network analysis because it is difficult to create a complete network.  It is not easy to gain information on terrorist networks.  It is fact that terrorist organizations do not provide information on their members and the government rarely allows researche...

  20. The Rise and the Fall of Terrorist Organizations in Post-Dictatorial Greece: The Role and the Lessons for the Intelligence Services

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fakitsas, Miltiadis

    2003-01-01

    The Greek government unsuccessfully battled leftist terrorist groups from 1975 to 2002, The two most notorious terrorist organizations during this period were the "November 17" group and another group...

  1. Importancia del patrocinio en relación con los Juegos Olímpicos

    OpenAIRE

    Manrique Sánchez, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    RESUMEN: El objeto de estudio de este trabajo es el patrocinio deportivo en general y el patrocinio deportivo relacionado con los Juegos Olímpicos en particular. El estudio sirve para entender el patrocinio deportivo, su importancia y evolución en las Olimpiadas y mostrar lo que supone la realización de la actividad de patrocinio deportivo para las empresas patrocinadoras, quedando latente los beneficios para ambas partes, patrocinado y patrocinador, cuando se realiza dicha actividad. D...

  2. “LA IMPORTANCIA DE LA GENERACIÓN DE CONTENIDOS EN EL CONTEXTO DIGITAL”

    OpenAIRE

    Neyra Rodríguez, Milagros Rocío

    2017-01-01

    La investigación tiene como Objetivo: Describir la importancia de la generación de contenidos en el contexto digital. Método: La investigación es de diseño no experimental, de tipo descriptivo. Conclusión: La generación de contenidos comunicacionales va directamente relacionada a los objetivos de producto, marketing, publicitarios, etc. Trabajo de investigacion Revisión por pares

  3. Redescubriendo El suelo: Su importancia ecológica y agrícola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noé Manuel Montaño

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Redescubriendo el suelo: su importancia ecológica y agrícola es un libro muy completo, actualizado y sin duda será de consulta obligada para quienes hacen investigación edafológica y como material elemental para los cursos de pre- y posgrado de suelo y materias afines, tanto en México como en América Latina.

  4. EL POTENCIAL DE LAS PREGUNTAS Y SU IMPORTANCIA EN EL APRENDIZAJE DE LOS NIÑOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherin Torres Torres

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Las preguntas están presentes a lo largo de nuestra vida, pues son la manera por la cual intentamos buscar respuestas o dar explicaciones a todo fenómeno que nos rodea, y desde este punto de vista que las preguntas cobran gran importancia en el desarrollo del aprendizaje de los niños, basándose en el enfoque de Investigación Dirigida, se desarrollo una unidad didáctica la cual se enfoco en potenciar los cuestionamientos por parte de los niños sobre el temas como el medio ambiente, el reciclaje y los problemas presentes en su entrono. Este escrito muestra cual es la importancia de potenciar los cuestionamientos y qué importancia tiene estos en el aprendizaje de los niños. Los resultados luego del desarrollo de la unidad didáctica evidencian que potenciar cuestionamientos en los niños, generan una respuesta positiva por parte de los niños, contribuyeron en la comprensión de la contaminación y el reciclaje.

  5. ANTI-TERROR POLICY OF UZBEKISTAN IN THE FRAMEWORK OF THE REGIONAL ANTI-TERRORIST POLICY OF THE SCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С П Базылева

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The beginning of the XXI century was marked by a number of serious problems, including cancer, world hunger, environmental problems and increasing every year the problem of global terrorism, which poses a great threat to the security of the modern multipolar world. Uzbekistan today occupies a firm position in fight against terrorist threat. The principled position of Uzbekistan in the fight against terrorism is that “no country should exclude their participation in the fight against global terrorism, there must be no transit zones and "green corridors" for terrorist organizations”. The Central Asian region is one of the most vulnerable, because it is necessary to pay special attention to the strategy of the anti-terrorist security of the countries included in the structure of the Central Asian region. In this article, we consider the anti-terrorist policy of Uzbekistan in the framework of the regional anti-terrorist policy of the SCO.

  6. Characterising the UK Terrorist Threat: The Problem with Non-Violent Ideology as a Focus for Counter-Terrorism and Terrorism as the product of ‘Vulnerability’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Richards

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates two particular aspects as to how the terrorist threat in the UK has been characterised, arguing that they both challenge conventional academic wisdom as to how terrorism should be conceptualised. While such conventional wisdom should always be open to challenge, and policymaking perspectives are different to those of academics, these two particular aspects as to how the terrorist threat has been perceived in the UK merit scrutiny, especially as counter-terrorism strategies have been premised on them. They are: i the contemporary and explicit concern with ‘extremist’ but 'non-violent' ideas that are said to be ‘conducive’ to terrorism as a focus for a counter-terrorism response and ii the notion that terrorism has increasingly been seen as the product of ‘vulnerability’. The first, and the main focus of this article, appears to challenge the widely held view within terrorism studies that, when defining terrorism, reference to the cause or the perpetrator is unhelpful because terrorism should first and foremost (and more objectively be seen as a particular 'method' of violence that has been used by a wide variety of actors, regardless of the ideology or the belief systems of its perpetrators. The second aspect – the impetus towards viewing terrorism as the product of vulnerability or individual fallibility - arguably implies a diminished capacity for rational behaviour, which challenges a further commonly held view within terrorism studies: that terrorism entails the use of calculated and rational acts of violence.

  7. Breaching the Fortress Wall. Understanding Terrorist Efforts to Overcome Defensive Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    that affect, in overlapping ways, sequential parts of the terrorist activity chain (Figure 1.2). The purposes of each of these types of technologies...fication lineup .51 The ways in which PIRA chose to manage operations also contrib- uted to its overall counterforensic effort. For example, although

  8. Iraagi väitel tuleb iga teine terrorist Süüriast / Igor Taro

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Taro, Igor

    2007-01-01

    Bagdadis elurajooni turul hukkus enesetapurünnakus 130 inimest. Iraagi kõrge valitsusametniku sõnul tuleb 50% terrorist üle Süüria piiri. Iraagi peaminister Nuri al-Maliki arvamus. Vt. samas: Mässulised leiavad tuge internetist

  9. 75 FR 75904 - Global Terrorism Sanctions Regulations; Terrorism Sanctions Regulations; Foreign Terrorist...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... Terrorism Sanctions Regulations; Terrorism Sanctions Regulations; Foreign Terrorist Organizations Sanctions... Foreign Assets Control (``OFAC'') of the U.S. Department of the Treasury is amending the Global Terrorism Sanctions Regulations (``GTSR'') and the Terrorism Sanctions Regulations (``TSR'') to expand the scope of...

  10. Social categorization and fear reactions to the September 11th terrorist attacks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dumont, M.; Yzerbyt, V.Y.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.; Gordijn, E.H.

    2003-01-01

    Two experiments were run in The Netherlands and Belgium 1 week after the terrorist attacks against the World Trade Center in New York on September 11, 2001. The aim was to investigate whether social categorization affected emotional reactions, behavioral tendencies, and actual behaviors. Results

  11. Vulnerability analysis and critical areas identification of the power systems under terrorist attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuliang; Zhang, Jianhua; Zhao, Mingwei; Min, Xu

    2017-05-01

    This paper takes central China power grid (CCPG) as an example, and analyzes the vulnerability of the power systems under terrorist attacks. To simulate the intelligence of terrorist attacks, a method of critical attack area identification according to community structures is introduced. Meanwhile, three types of vulnerability models and the corresponding vulnerability metrics are given for comparative analysis. On this basis, influence of terrorist attacks on different critical areas is studied. Identifying the vulnerability of different critical areas will be conducted. At the same time, vulnerabilities of critical areas under different tolerance parameters and different vulnerability models are acquired and compared. Results show that only a few number of vertex disruptions may cause some critical areas collapse completely, they can generate great performance losses the whole systems. Further more, the variation of vulnerability values under different scenarios is very large. Critical areas which can cause greater damage under terrorist attacks should be given priority of protection to reduce vulnerability. The proposed method can be applied to analyze the vulnerability of other infrastructure systems, they can help decision makers search mitigation action and optimum protection strategy.

  12. Lone Actor Terrorist Attack Planning and Preparation : A Data-Driven Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, B.W.; Bakker, E.; Gill, P.; Bouhana, N.

    2017-01-01

    This article provides an in-depth assessment of lone actor terrorists’ attack planning and preparation. A codebook of 198 variables related to different aspects of pre-attack behavior is applied to a sample of 55 lone actor terrorists. Data were drawn from open-source materials and complemented

  13. The Sociology and Psychology of Terrorism: Who Becomes a Terrorist and Why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    for School Killers,” New York Times, June 21, 1999, A10. Della Porta, Donatella. “ Political Socialization in Left-Wing Underground Organizations...Newsletter of the Association of Former Intelligence Officers, 22, No. 1, 1997. Wasmund, Klaus. “The Political Socialization of West German Terrorists.” In

  14. Reasoning about Emotional Contents Following Shocking Terrorist Attacks: A Tale of Three Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchette, Isabelle; Richards, Anne; Melnyk, Laura; Lavda, Anastasia

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined reasoning following the terrorist attacks carried out in London in July 2005. They tested participants in London (United Kingdom), Manchester (United Kingdom), and London (Canada) within 1 week of the attacks and again 6 months later. Participants reasoned about syllogisms of 3 types: neutral, generally emotional, and…

  15. A New Forensic Picture Polygraph Technique for Terrorist and Crime Deception System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, R. H. Brian; Axton, JoAnn; Gold, Karen L.

    2006-01-01

    The Forensic Terrorist Detection System called Pinocchio Assessment Profile (PAP) employs standard issue polygraphs for a non-verbal picture technique originated as a biofeedback careers interest instrument. The system can be integrated readily into airport screening protocols. However, the method does not rely on questioning or foreign language…

  16. In Their Own Words? Methodological Considerations in the Analysis of Terrorist Autobiographies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Beth Altier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the growth of terrorism literature in the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks, there remain several methodological challenges to studying certain aspects of terrorism. This is perhaps most evident in attempts to uncover the attitudes, motivations, and intentions of individuals engaged in violent extremism and how they are sometimes expressed in problematic behavior. Such challenges invariably stem from the fact that terrorists and the organizations to which they belong represent clandestine populations engaged in illegal activity. Unsurprisingly, these qualities make it difficult for the researcher to identify and locate willing subjects of study—let alone a representative sample. In this research note, we suggest the systematic analysis of terrorist autobiographies offers a promising means of investigating difficult-to-study areas of terrorism-related phenomena. Investigation of autobiographical accounts not only offers additional data points for the study of individual psychological issues, but also provides valuable perspectives on the internal structures, processes, and dynamics of terrorist organizations more broadly. Moreover, given most autobiographies cover critical events and personal experiences across the life course, they provide a unique lens into how terrorists perceive their world and insight into their decision-making processes. We support our advocacy of this approach by highlighting its methodological strengths and shortcomings.

  17. Activist or Terrorist? Negotiating Discourses of Eco-Terror in "If a Tree Falls"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Jade

    2018-01-01

    Environmentalist voices like the Earth Liberation Front have been labeled "eco-terrorists." The 2011 documentary film "If a Tree Falls" explores how "eco-terrorism" troubles the unstable border between activism and terrorism. This essay offers a textual analysis of the film's negotiation of the activism/terrorism…

  18. Preemption and Retribution: Precision-Guided Munitions to Counter Terrorist Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    story are told. Terrorists have become skilled at cultivating 18 the " underdog " image and portraying their adversaries as ruthless aggressors...Frontiers, Israel’s War Against Terrorism, London: Arms and Armour Publications, 1990. Schmemann, Serge. " Netanyahu Defiantly Defending Botched

  19. Analysing Personal Characteristics of Lone-Actor Terrorists : Research Findings and Recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, de van Zuijdewijn J.; Bakker, E.

    2016-01-01

    This Research Note presents the outcome of a project that looked at the personal characteristics of lone-actor terrorists. It is part of the larger Countering Lone-Actor Terrorism (CLAT) project. The project described here aimed to improve understanding of, and responses to, the phenomenon of

  20. Attention and Memory in School-Age Children Surviving the Terrorist Attack in Beslan, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrimin, Sara; Moscardino, Ughetta; Capello, Fabia; Axia, Giovanna

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of terrorism on children's cognitive functioning and school learning. The primary purpose of this study was to report on cognitive functioning among school-age children 20 months after a terrorist attack against their school. Participants included 203 directly and indirectly exposed children from Beslan and 100…

  1. Analytical technique to address terrorist threats by chemical weapons of mass destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Patrick M.

    1997-01-01

    Terrorism is no longer an issue without effect on the American mind. We now live with the same concerns and fears that have been commonplace in other developed and third world countries for a long time. Citizens of other countries have long lived with the specter of terrorism and now the U.S. needs to be concerned and prepared for terrorist activities.T he terrorist has the ability to cause great destructive effects by focusing their effort on unaware and unprepared civilian populations. Attacks can range from simple explosives to sophisticated nuclear, chemical and biological weapons. Intentional chemical releases of hazardous chemicals or chemical warfare agents pose a great threat because of their ready availability and/or ease of production, and their ability to cause widespread damage. As this battlefront changes from defined conflicts and enemies to unnamed terrorists, we must implement the proper analytical tools to provide a fast and efficient response. Each chemical uses in a terrorists weapon leaves behind a chemical signature that can be used to identify the materials involved and possibly lead investigators to the source and to those responsible. New tools to provide fast and accurate detection for battlefield chemical and biological agent attack are emerging. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) is one of these tools that has found increasing use by the military to respond to chemical agent attacks. As the technology becomes smaller and more portable, it can be used by law enforcement personnel to identify suspected terrorist releases and to help prepare the response; define contaminated areas for evacuation and safety concerns, identify the proper treatment of exposed or affected civilians, and suggest decontamination and cleanup procedures.

  2. International legal problem in combating 'Islamic State' terrorist group in Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available 'Islamic State of Iraq and Syria' (ISIS has occupied parts of internationally recognized states and exerts further territorial pretensions. ISIS, also, implements a repressive rule, through violations of human rights and humanitarian law, which may constitute international crimes. In facing the threat od ISIS, the perception of international terrorism is important since this group has the features of a territorial entity. So far, facing with the threat of ISIS has been reduced to a model that is adopted by the UN Security Council against the terrorist network Al-Qaida. An international coalition of states, led by the United States, has undertaken air strikes on positions ISIS, on several grounds: the responsibility to protect, the protection of national security, and at the request of Iraq. At the same time, the strikes are applied in Syria, which can not be accountable for the actions of ISIS and has not requested international assistance. International law does not allow actions which would aim to destroy or jeopardize the territorial integrity or political independence of any sovereign and independent state, which is acting in accordance with the principle of equal rights and self-determination of peoples, and is hence governed by a representative government. The UNSC resolution 2249 remains short of recommending international armed action under the aegis of UNSC, but represents a step forward in recognizing the responsibility of this body in facing ISIS, at least as far as the 'destruction of refuge' is concerned. The use of force in the territory of Syria, without the express authorization of the UNSC is illegal, because terrorism does not constitute grounds for the use of force against countries. But, it opens broader issues of responsibility for the development of ISIS and the humanitarian crisis in the Middle East, as well as the functioning of the system of collective security. Overcoming the current crisis UNSC implies not just a

  3. Kafkaesque rebranding of pro-US fighters as terrorists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Zawacki

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available During the Indochina war the US recruited fighters from the Hmong people of Laos to disrupt North Vietnamese supply and troops movements along the Ho Chi Minh trail. While an estimated 170,000 ex-combatant Hmong and their relatives now live in the US , others seeking asylum have bizarrely fallen foul of the post-9.11 PATRIOTPATRIOTPATRIOT PATRIOT Act.

  4. Terrorist Innovations in Weapons of Mass Effect, Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    increased scrutiny of consumer electronics being checked in the cargo holds.15 The third driver was the absence of an organization. Yousef acted...cylinders in Iraq, the 150lb variety, is a tall cigar -shaped canister that is similar in appearance to other types of industrial gas canister (such as...bright yellow 150lb cigar -shaped cylinders and 1-ton chlorine tanks are familiar pieces of equipment across Iraq. Chlorine tanks were dispersed across the

  5. Culturally sanctioned suicide: Euthanasia, seppuku, and terrorist martyrdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Joseph M

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is one of the greatest concerns in psychiatric practice, with considerable efforts devoted to prevention. The psychiatric view of suicide tends to equate it with depression or other forms of mental illness. However, some forms of suicide occur independently of mental illness and within a framework of cultural sanctioning such that they aren’t regarded as suicide at all. Despite persistent taboos against suicide, euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide in the context of terminal illness is increasingly accepted as a way to preserve autonomy and dignity in the West. Seppuku, the ancient samurai ritual of suicide by self-stabbing, was long considered an honorable act of self-resolve such that despite the removal of cultural sanctioning, the rate of suicide in Japan remains high with suicide masquerading as seppuku still carried out both there and abroad. Suicide as an act of murder and terrorism is a practice currently popular with Islamic militants who regard it as martyrdom in the context of war. The absence of mental illness and the presence of cultural sanctioning do not mean that suicide should not be prevented. Culturally sanctioned suicide must be understood in terms of the specific motivations that underlie the choice of death over life. Efforts to prevent culturally sanctioned suicide must focus on alternatives to achieve similar ends and must ultimately be implemented within cultures to remove the sanctioning of self-destructive acts. PMID:25815251

  6. LA HIDROXIAPATITA, SU IMPORTANCIA EN LOS TEJIDOS MINERALIZADOS Y SU APLICACIÓN BIOMÉDICA

    OpenAIRE

    Margarita Victoria García-Garduño; José Reyes-Gasga

    2006-01-01

    La hidroxiapatita en los tejidos mineralizados reviste una gran importancia ya que se ha demostrado que es un material biocompatible, con aplicación biomédica en Odontología, Ortopedia y Cirugía Máxilofacial. Es el cristal principal de huesos y dientes ya que les confiere su dureza característica y, acompañado por la colágena, los huesos presentan determinada elasticidad. En la naturaleza se le encuentra formando parte de rocas metamórficas. En los tejidos vivos, la hidroxiapatita y sus precu...

  7. Importancia de la potencia y la hipótesis en el valor p

    OpenAIRE

    Cortés Martínez, Jordi; Casals, Martí; Langohr, Klaus; González Alastrué, José Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Los lectores de Medicina Clínica conocen bien la importancia de definir bien el denominador de una proporción para estimar una probabilidad: “No es lo mismo la probabilidad de que un católico sea Papa que la de que un Papa sea católico”. De forma similar, en un diagnóstico, no es lo mismo la probabilidad de que un enfermo dé positivo (sensibilidad), que la de que un caso que ha dado positivo esté enfermo (valor predictivo de un positivo). El valor p (o valor de p, o p-valor, o simplement...

  8. La importancia del bicameralismo como garantía constitucional legislativa

    OpenAIRE

    Luque Bautista, Richard Jhony

    2014-01-01

    La investigación "IMPORTANCIA DEL BICAMERALISMO COMO GARANTÍA CONSTITUCIONAL LEGISLATIVA", busca conocer las causas y consecuencias del establecimiento en el Perú del sistema unicameral del poder legislativo y cuál es el balance de su incidencia en la vida peruana. Para tal fin, describimos el proceso histórico seguido por el Estado y la Sociedad peruana, en cuanto concierne a dicho poder del Estado. Ante la actual y creciente deslegitimación de esta modalidad legislativa, que incluso alienta...

  9. Importancia del manual de los sistemas contables en el sistema de control interno.

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolás Valdés Rodríguez

    2007-01-01

    La dirección administrativa del país en los últimos 3 años ha insistido en la necesidad de profundizar en los mecanismos de control económico –financiero de las entidades, el presente trabajo va dirigido a contribuir en alguna medida a lograr ese propósito. El sistema contable de una Entidad forma parte indisoluble del Sistema de Control Interno de la misma, por la vinculación tan estrecha que existe entre los mismos. El objetivo fundamental del trabajo ”Importancia del Manual de ...

  10. Enfermedades del tejido conectivo: Importancia del diagnóstico precoz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Patricia Abumohor, Dra.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Las Enfermedades del Tejido Conectivo (ETC son entidades de baja prevalencia en la población general. Son de naturaleza inflamatoria y autoinmune, tienden a la cronicidad y al compromiso de muchos parénquimas, órganos y tejidos, dejando en ellos daño estructural y funcional. Dado lo anterior, amenazan la vida o disminuyen la expectativa y calidad de vida. El diagnóstico y tratamiento precoz de estas entidades, permite cambiar su curso y muchas veces lograr remisión. Es por lo tanto de suma importancia tenerlas en mente y sospecharlas como entidades de enfermedad e iniciar un tratamiento oportuno.

  11. Importancia de la coordinación entre el comedor escolar y las familias en Cantabria.

    OpenAIRE

    Río-Sánchez, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    Actualmente por los diferentes estilos de vida que se llevan en nuestra sociedad, cada vez se da menos importancia al momento de la comida, muchas veces por falta de tiempo y otras de interés, por lo que los niños pueden llegar a tener una mala alimentación. La mala alimentación en edades tempranas puede ser la causa y el inicio de muchos problemas en el desarrollo del niño/a, como por ejemplo la obesidad infantil. Por eso es muy importante inculcar buenos hábitos alimenticios desde las pr...

  12. Importancia del marketing digital para las pymes colombianas orientadas a los negocios internacionales

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Camacho, Darlly Yuranny; Silva, Juan Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Este trabajo sigue una secuencia progresiva de lo general, teórico y estratégico a lo específico, práctico y táctico. Así, en primer lugar se hace una introducción a las concepciones del marketing a nivel general, con el fin de introducir al lector en la materia y valorar su importancia, abarcando algunos factores clave que han producido en los últimos años una innovación en los negocios internacionales. This thesis follows a progressive sequence from a general, theoretical and strategic p...

  13. La importancia de los contenidos en la enseñanza

    OpenAIRE

    Coll Salvador, César; Solé i Gallart, Isabel

    1987-01-01

    Este artículo defiende la importancia de los contenidos para la enseñanza, en base a tres líneas de argumentación. La primera se refiere al concepto mismo de educación; la opción que se adopte al respecto condiciona indefectiblemente la significación que se atribuya a los contenidos específicos. El segundo argumento apela a la interpretación que desde los postulados de la psicología cognitiva actual se hace del aprendizaje escolar, que cristaliza en la noción de aprendizaje significativo, y l...

  14. La importancia del <

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrero, Jose Felipe; Abad, Juan Carlos; Aguera, Emilia Del

    2010-01-01

    La percepcion sobre el pais de origen de un producto es uno de los principales determinates de la evaluacion y eleccion de dicho producto, sobre todo en los mercados foraneos. En la literatura de marketing existen multiples trabajos que han analizado este aspecto, si bien la amyor parte de ellos se han centrado en productos duraderos de alta implicacion. Este trabajo analiza la importancia que el atributo pais de origen tiene en el proceso de evaluacion del consumidor para el caso de la compr...

  15. La importancia del pensamiento estadístico en la Ingeniería de Fiabilidad

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel Caro; Fernando García Jiménez

    2012-01-01

    Existe de modo creciente una notable inquietud por el control de la calidad en el tiempo, lo que ha dado lugar a la búsqueda de métodos capaces de abordar eficazmente el análisis de la fiabilidad. Los estudios de Grado y Máster de Ingeniería suelen ofrecer asignaturas tales como Estadística, Estadística Industrial, Control y Gestión de la Calidad o similares, donde se estudia la importancia de la fiabilidad y la calidad de los sistemas. En el ejercicio de sus atribuciones los ingenieros deber...

  16. La importancia de los materiales en las viviendas de muy bajo coste

    OpenAIRE

    Salas, Julián

    1992-01-01

    El texto que sigue se encuadra en el contexto de intentar enmarcar la importancia considerable del capítulo de los materiales de construcción en el subsector de las viviendas de muy bajo coste en los Países en Vías de Desarrollo en general, y en Latinoamérica en particular. El autor trata de cuantificar, en forma global, la repercusión de los materiales en varios supuestos y como ésta aumenta al disminuir —prácticamente desaparecer— las partidas de instalaciones y acabados. De conformidad...

  17. A Geographic Information Science (GISc) Approach to Characterizing Spatiotemporal Patterns of Terrorist Incidents in Iraq, 2004-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, Richard M [ORNL; Siebeneck, Laura K. [University of Utah; Hepner, George F. [University of Utah

    2011-01-01

    As terrorism on all scales continues, it is necessary to improve understanding of terrorist and insurgent activities. This article takes a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) approach to advance the understanding of spatial, social, political, and cultural triggers that influence terrorism incidents. Spatial, temporal, and spatiotemporal patterns of terrorist attacks are examined to improve knowledge about terrorist systems of training, planning, and actions. The results of this study aim to provide a foundation for understanding attack patterns and tactics in emerging havens as well as inform the creation and implementation of various counterterrorism measures.

  18. Air traffic security act unconstitutional; Luftsicherheitsgesetz verfassungswidrig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, W.

    2006-05-15

    In the interest of more effective protective measures against terrorist attacks, the German federal parliament inter alia added a clause to the Air Traffic Security Act (Sec. 14, Para. 3, Air Traffic Security Act) empowering the armed forces to shoot down aircraft to be used as a weapon against human lives. In Germany, this defense possibility has been discussed also in connection with deliberate crashes of hijacked aircraft on nuclear power plants. The 1{sup st} Division of the German Federal Constitutional Court, in its decision of February 15, 2006, ruled that Sec. 14, Para. 3, Air Traffic Security Act was incompatible with the Basic Law and thus was null and void (file No. 1 BvR 357/05) for two reasons: - There was no legislative authority on the part of the federal government. - The provision was incompatible with the basic right of life and the guarantee of human dignity as enshrined in the Basic Law. (orig.)

  19. Privacy Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the Privacy Act of 1974, the Electronic Government Act of 2002, the Federal Information Security Management Act, and other information about the Environmental Protection Agency maintains its records.

  20. Forensic Analysis of Terrorist Counter-Financing to Combat Nuclear Proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drame, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Toler, L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Bachner, Katherine [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The single greatest threat to U.S. homeland security remains the proliferation of nuclear weapons, especially among terrorists and other non-state actors who are not governed by the Non-Proliferation Treaty. One of the most important tools for combating terrorism among such rogue actors is counter-financing. Without funding, terrorists cannot acquire, maintain, or deploy nuclear weapons. According to the official report of the 9/11 Commission, counter-financing could have prevented the attacks of September 11, 2001. Unfortunately, no single country can defeat global terrorism. Successful counter-financing requires significant international cooperation. Since 2001, the United States and the European Union, despite vastly different approaches to intelligence gathering, have shared information through the Terrorist Finance Tracking Program (TFTP). That shared information allows authorities to trace suspicious transactions, identify culprits, and map out global terrorist networks. The TFTP successfully thwarted a 2011 plot to assassinate the Saudi Arabian Ambassador to the U.S. and multiple threats during the 2012 Summer Olympics in London; it also aided in the investigation of the 2013 Boston Marathon bombing. That program is necessary but not sufficient. To strengthen our ability to detect and disrupt terrorist plotting and prevent nuclear proliferation, we must expand and coordinate two additional transnational measures: (1) the Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunications (SWIFT), a standardized global messaging network for financial institutions to quickly, accurately, and securely send and receive money transfer instructions, and (2) International Bank Account Numbers (IBAN) to identify individual accounts involved in international transactions. Both initiatives were incompletely adopted in the wake of 9/11, but most global banks use one or neither. More fully implementing and coordinating these two systems would allow for coherent information

  1. LA IMPORTANCIA Y EL NIVEL DE DESARROLLO DE LAS COMPETENCIAS EN PSICOLOGÍA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Alonso-Martín

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación es analizar qué importancia y nivel de desarrollo otorgan a las competencias genéricas, además de observar en qué espacios didácticos reportan haberlas ido adquiriendo y/o desarrollando, así como conocer la organización y planificación de su tiempo de trabajo autónomo. La muestra está compuesta por 83 estudiantes de 3º, 4º y 5º de psicología. Los resultados muestran que el nivel de importancia de las competencias está por encima del nivel de desarrollo alcanzado; los espacios didácticos predominantes son las clases teóricas y las prácticas. El mayor porcentaje de tiempo está dedicado a trabajar en grupo y preparar exámenes. Se han encontrado diferencias significativas en función del sexo, turno y curso. Se plantean sugerencias de mejora para aumentar la calidad docente.

  2. La importancia de la oralidad en la cultura contemporánea. El caso de

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. María Eugenia Boito

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo titulado "La importancia de la oralidad en la cultura contemporánea. El caso de "El caldero de los cuenteros en Córdoba" la idea es analizar las manifestaciones de la tradición oral en un grupo cultural de la provincia de Córdoba, observando desde una mirada comunicacional cómo las diferentes expresiones culturales son convocadas por este grupo mediante la oralidad.Esta manifestación cultural fue elegida como objeto de análisis ya que por sus características no participa en ninguno de los tres circuitos culturales que –según los teóricos- caracterizan la dinámica de las culturas urbanas latinoamericanas y nos parece importante abordar la oralidad como componente de cultura latinoamericana. Esta forma de encuentro en donde la tradición cultural de los distintos grupos se hace presente es el objeto de análisis de este trabajo, tratar de comprender la importancia de lo oral en la cultura cotidiana, en las tradiciones propias y ajenas, en definitiva, en el imaginario social de nuestros pueblos.

  3. Importancia de las competencias en la formación de enfermería

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Latrach-Ammar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: conocer la opinión de los profesionales e internos de enfermería sobre la importancia de las competencias de egreso en la formación de estudiantes para la práctica profesional en la Escuela de Enfermería de la Universidad Mayor de Chile, en el 2008. Método: estudio descriptivo de tipo transversal; la recolección de datos se efectuó mediante una encuesta autoadministrada en dos grupos: internos y profesionales de enfermería. Para el análisis de datos se utilizó estadística descriptiva. En los resultados se observa que los grupos encuestados aprecian que las competencias asistencial, general, educativa y de sello son "muy importantes para el desarrollo profesional"; sin embargo, el grado de importancia varía dependiendo de la función que ejercen los encuestados. Conclusión: la presente investigación permite validar, por parte de los egresados y profesionales, las competencias adquiridas por los estudiantes durante su formación universitaria, las cuales responden a las exigencias laborales y permiten la integración de los profesionales a la gestión académica.

  4. Review of the Estimates for the Impact of the September 11, 2001, Terrorist Attacks on New York Tax Revenues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    As a follow-up to our May 2002 report, reviewing the estimates of the economic impact of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on New York, Congress requested additional information on New York tax revenues...

  5. Terrorists and Sponsors. An Inquiry into Trust and Double-Crossing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Gordon H.; Owen, Guillermo

    We consider the conditions that lead to the dissolution of state-terrorist coalitions. While such coalitions have well known advantages, they also have structural weaknesses that are largely ignored in the literature on the state sponsorship of terrorism. Each player in the coalition has interests that are only partially shared and, in some cases, at odds with those of its partner. Long term cooperation must be based on mutual advantage and mutual trust, both of which are subject to change over time.We examine the conditions that are needed to begin and maintain a cooperative strategy and the circumstances that lead a state and a terrorist group to leave the coalition and double-cross its partner. Equilibrium strategies for both players are defined and interpreted.

  6. Offensive Counterterrorism Targeted killing in eliminating terrorist target: the case of the USA and Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermínio Matos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the "global terrorism project", some States have adopted offensive counterterrorism measures which, though within national strategies on security and defense, contemplate the use of military power and the use of lethal force against non-state actors - individuals, groups or terrorist organizations - beyond their national borders. Reformulating the security paradigm has led, in these cases, to policies against terrorism. This is the case of targeted killing - the killing of selected targets - by the USA and Israel. Targeted killing actions - using essentially but not only drones - in Pakistan and Yemen by the American administration, a well as the Israeli response to Palestinian terrorism, are under heated debate in terms of their efficiency and legality. Thus, this paper aims to not only provide an analytical framework on this theme but also analyze the scope and impact of these counter terrorist strategies by the two countries.

  7. The quest for significance model of radicalization: implications for the management of terrorist detainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, Michelle; Kruglanski, Arie W

    2014-01-01

    Radicalization and its culmination in terrorism represent a grave threat to the security and stability of the world. A related challenge is effective management of extremists who are detained in prison facilities. The major aim of this article is to review the significance quest model of radicalization and its implications for management of terrorist detainees. First, we review the significance quest model, which elaborates on the roles of motivation, ideology, and social processes in radicalization. Secondly, we explore the implications of the model in relation to the risks of prison radicalization. Finally, we analyze the model's implications for deradicalization strategies and review preliminary evidence for the effectiveness of a rehabilitation program targeting components of the significance quest. Based on this evidence, we argue that the psychology of radicalization provides compelling reason for the inclusion of deradicalization efforts as an essential component of the management of terrorist detainees. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. ‘Let the Punishment Match the Offence’: Determining Sentences for Australian Terrorists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola McGarrity

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available To date, 38 men have been charged with terrorism offences in Australia. Twenty-six have been convicted. The article commences with an overview of the factual circumstances leading to these convictions. This provides important background for the following discussion of a largely unexplored issue in Australian anti-terrorism law and policy, namely, the difficulties faced by the Australian courts in adapting traditional sentencing principles to the (for the most part, preparatory terrorism offences enacted by the Commonwealth Parliament after the 9/11 terrorist attacks. Of particular interest are how the courts determine the objective seriousness of these offences and the respective weight placed upon deterrence (both specific and general and the rehabilitation of convicted terrorists.

  9. A data fusion approach to indications and warnings of terrorist attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, David; Schaefer, Gregory

    2014-05-01

    Indications and Warning (I&W) of terrorist attacks, particularly IED attacks, require detection of networks of agents and patterns of behavior. Social Network Analysis tries to detect a network; activity analysis tries to detect anomalous activities. This work builds on both to detect elements of an activity model of terrorist attack activity - the agents, resources, networks, and behaviors. The activity model is expressed as RDF triples statements where the tuple positions are elements or subsets of a formal ontology for activity models. The advantage of a model is that elements are interdependent and evidence for or against one will influence others so that there is a multiplier effect. The advantage of the formality is that detection could occur hierarchically, that is, at different levels of abstraction. The model matching is expressed as a likelihood ratio between input text and the model triples. The likelihood ratio is designed to be analogous to track correlation likelihood ratios common in JDL fusion level 1. This required development of a semantic distance metric for positive and null hypotheses as well as for complex objects. The metric uses the Web 1Terabype database of one to five gram frequencies for priors. This size requires the use of big data technologies so a Hadoop cluster is used in conjunction with OpenNLP natural language and Mahout clustering software. Distributed data fusion Map Reduce jobs distribute parts of the data fusion problem to the Hadoop nodes. For the purposes of this initial testing, open source models and text inputs of similar complexity to terrorist events were used as surrogates for the intended counter-terrorist application.

  10. [Stories and drawings by children after the 2015 terrorist attacks in Paris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poget, Marc; Bouaziz, Nora; Apter, Gisèle

    2016-01-01

    Through the stories and drawings of children in a medical-psychological centre, it is possible to explore their psychological representations of the terrorist attacks which took place in Paris in January 2015. This work highlights the need to rethink the methods of care provided to these children in order to adapt them to their specific needs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. We Bomb, Therefore We Are: The Evolution of Terrorist Group Life Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-24

    34 Political Socialization in Left-Wing Underground Organizations: Biographies of Italian and German Militants," International Social Movement Research... Political Socialization of Terrorist Groups in West Germany," Journal of Political and Military Sociology, v. 11, n. 2, Fall 1983, 236. See also Giorgio...Love?, 30-31. 7 Quoted in Wasmund, " Political Socialization ," 236. 88Irving L. Horowitz, "The Routinization of Terrorism and Its Unanticipated

  12. Cross-Milieu Terrorist Collaboration: Using Game Theory to Assess the Risk of a Novel Threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Gary A; Zhuang, Jun; Weerasuriya, Sitara

    2017-02-01

    This article uses a game-theoretic approach to analyze the risk of cross-milieu terrorist collaboration-the possibility that, despite marked ideological differences, extremist groups from very different milieus might align to a degree where operational collaboration against Western societies becomes possible. Based upon theoretical insights drawn from a variety of literatures, a bargaining model is constructed that reflects the various benefits and costs for terrorists' collaboration across ideological milieus. Analyzed in both sequential and simultaneous decision-making contexts and through numerical simulations, the model confirms several theoretical arguments. The most important of these is that although likely to be quite rare, successful collaboration across terrorist milieus is indeed feasible in certain circumstances. The model also highlights several structural elements that might play a larger role than previously recognized in the collaboration decision, including that the prospect of nonmaterial gains (amplification of terror and reputational boost) plays at least as important a role in the decision to collaborate as potential increased capabilities does. Numerical simulation further suggests that prospects for successful collaboration over most scenarios (including operational) increase when a large, effective Islamist terrorist organization initiates collaboration with a smaller right-wing group, as compared with the other scenarios considered. Although the small number of historical cases precludes robust statistical validation, the simulation results are supported by existing empirical evidence of collaboration between Islamists and right- or left-wing extremists. The game-theoretic approach, therefore, provides guidance regarding the circumstances under which such an unholy alliance of violent actors is likely to succeed. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  13. Transnational Crime and the Criminal-Terrorist Nexus: Synergies and Corporate Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-01

    are forced into prostitution, pornography and sweatshop labor, it becomes an obvious and direct threat to the fabric of our society.3 Add terrorists... impacts the U.S. Finally, many nation states are on the brink of thriving or failing, and their fate depends either on us…or the “help” of organized...and social fabric of societies came to light in the mid-1990s. Aggravating factors include globalization of business networks, lowered trade

  14. Spatial proximity and the risk of psychopathology after a terrorist attack

    OpenAIRE

    DiMaggio, Charles; Galea, Sandro; Emch, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies concerned with the relation of proximity to the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks and subsequent psychopathology have produced conflicting results. The goals of this analysis are to assess the appropriateness of using Bayesian hierarchical spatial techniques to answer the question of the role of proximity to a mass trauma as a risk factor for psychopathology. Using a set of individual-level Medicaid data for New York State, and controlling for age, gender, median household...

  15. Is magnetic resonance imaging safe for patients with retained metal fragments from combat and terrorist attacks?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eshed, Iris; Kushnir, Tamar; Shabshin, Noga; Konen, Eli

    2010-01-01

    Background: Increasing numbers of military confrontations and terrorist attacks have led to increasing reports of retained metal fragments among patients referred for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The potential hazard of retained metal fragments for patients undergoing MRI has been studied among patients with retained metal fragments from domestic violence but not from combat and terrorist attacks. Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the safety of MRI in patients with subcutaneous warfare-metal fragments. Material and Methods: 10,322 consecutive metal screening forms of patients scheduled for 1.5 Tesla (T) MR examination were retrospectively reviewed. All patients reported to have retained metal fragments were contacted by telephone and asked to describe the event in which they were exposed to the fragments and for any adverse sequelae or sensations during and after MRI. Their radiographs were evaluated for the number and size of the fragments. The data were analyzed for correlations between these factors. Results: Seven of the 24 patients who reported retained metal fragments were excluded, since there was no validating evidence of their presence. Fragments in the remaining 17 patients (18 MRI examinations) were inflicted by military or terrorist attacks that occurred 2-39 years prior to the MRI. The fragment size ranged between 1 and 10 mm. One patient reported a superficial migration of a 10-mm fragment after MRI. No other adverse reactions were reported. Conclusion: Conducting 1.5T MRI examinations is safe in patients with retained metal fragments from combat and terrorist attacks not in the vicinity of vital organs. However, caution is advised.

  16. Colombian Army Transformation and the Inflection Point of the Terrorist Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    Prince (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988), 24. 2 James D Henderson, La Modernizacion en Colombia: Los años de Laureano Gomez, 1889-1965...prime factor that permits the terrorist´s isolation from the social base, as well as the legitimate use of force by the State. In summary, the FARC...his dismissal, for alleged meddling in political affairs. 23 3 Francisco Leal Buitrago, La Inseguridad de la Seguridad. Colombia 1958-2005

  17. Terrorists or cowards: negative portrayals of male Syrian refugees in social media

    OpenAIRE

    Rettberg, Jill Walker; Gajjala, Radhika

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines images and words shared on the Twitter hashtag #refugeesNOTwelcome to understand the portrayal of male Syrian refugees in a post-9/11 context where the Middle-Eastern male is often primarily cast as a potential terrorist. Queer theorist Jasbir Puar (2007) and Middle- East scholar Paul Amar (2011) provide us with a theoretical approach to make sense of the contradictions we see emerging in this social media context.

  18. Strengthening Hospital Surge Capacity in the Event of Explosive or Chemical Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    and become more specialized and efficient over the past decade in order to survive in the tight financial markets . Capacity is not keeping pace...Surge Capacity for Terrorist Bombings,” Atlanta, Georgia, (April 2007): 6. 197 S. Einav, Z. Feigenberg, C. Weissman, D. Zolchik, G. Caspi, D. Kotler ...activated in several bombings, 200 S. Einav, Z. Feigenberg, C. Weissman, D. Zolchik, G. Caspi, D. Kotler

  19. Is magnetic resonance imaging safe for patients with retained metal fragments from combat and terrorist attacks?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eshed, Iris; Kushnir, Tamar; Shabshin, Noga; Konen, Eli (Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Sheba Medical center, Tel Hashomer, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv Univ., Tel Aviv (Israel)), e-mail: iris.eshed@sheba.health.gov.il

    2010-03-15

    Background: Increasing numbers of military confrontations and terrorist attacks have led to increasing reports of retained metal fragments among patients referred for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The potential hazard of retained metal fragments for patients undergoing MRI has been studied among patients with retained metal fragments from domestic violence but not from combat and terrorist attacks. Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the safety of MRI in patients with subcutaneous warfare-metal fragments. Material and Methods: 10,322 consecutive metal screening forms of patients scheduled for 1.5 Tesla (T) MR examination were retrospectively reviewed. All patients reported to have retained metal fragments were contacted by telephone and asked to describe the event in which they were exposed to the fragments and for any adverse sequelae or sensations during and after MRI. Their radiographs were evaluated for the number and size of the fragments. The data were analyzed for correlations between these factors. Results: Seven of the 24 patients who reported retained metal fragments were excluded, since there was no validating evidence of their presence. Fragments in the remaining 17 patients (18 MRI examinations) were inflicted by military or terrorist attacks that occurred 2-39 years prior to the MRI. The fragment size ranged between 1 and 10 mm. One patient reported a superficial migration of a 10-mm fragment after MRI. No other adverse reactions were reported. Conclusion: Conducting 1.5T MRI examinations is safe in patients with retained metal fragments from combat and terrorist attacks not in the vicinity of vital organs. However, caution is advised.

  20. A Terrorist-fraud Resistant and Extractor-free Anonymous Distance-bounding Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Avoine , Gildas; Bultel , Xavier; Gambs , Sébastien; Gerault , David; Lafourcade , Pascal; Onete , Cristina; Robert , Jean-Marc

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Distance-bounding protocols have been introduced to thwart relay attacks against contactless authentication protocols. In this context, veri-fiers have to authenticate the credentials of untrusted provers. Unfortunately , these protocols are themselves subject to complex threats such as terrorist-fraud attacks, in which a malicious prover helps an accomplice to authenticate. Provably guaranteeing the resistance of distance-bounding protocols to these attacks is a compl...

  1. [Treatment strategies for mass casualty incidents and terrorist attacks in trauma and vascular surgery : Presentation of a treatment concept].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friemert, B; Franke, A; Bieler, D; Achatz, A; Hinck, D; Engelhardt, M

    2017-10-01

    The treatment of patients in the context of mass casualty incidents (MCI) represents a great challenge for the participating rescue workers and clinics. Due to the increase in terrorist activities it is necessary to become familiar with this new kind of threat to civilization with respect to the medical treatment of victims of terrorist attacks. There are substantial differences between a "normal" MCI and a terrorist MCI with respect to injury patterns (blunt trauma vs. penetrating/perforating trauma), the type and form of the incident (MCI=static situation vs. terrorist attack MCI= dynamic situation) and the different security positions (rescue services vs. police services). This article is concerned with question of which changes in the surgical treatment of patients are made necessary by these new challenges. In this case it is necessary that physicians are familiar with the different injury patterns, whereby priority must be given to gunshot and explosion (blast) injuries. Furthermore, altered strategic and tactical approaches (damage control surgery vs. tactical abbreviated surgical care) are necessary to ensure survival for as many victims of terrorist attacks as possible and also to achieve the best possible functional results. It is only possible to successfully counter these new challenges by changing the mindset in the treatment of terrorist MCI compared to MCI incidents. An essential component of this mindset is the acquisition of a maximum of flexibility. This article would like to make a contribution to this problem.

  2. CAROLIN GOERZIG. TALKING TO TERRORISTS: CONCESSIONS AND THE RENUNCIATION OF VIOLENCE. REVIEWED BY: SCOTT NICHOLAS ROMANIUK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Nicholas Romaniuk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available “Talking to terrorists remains a taboo” (Goerzig, 2010: p. 125. The adoption and reinforcement of such a moral position by many Western and non-Western governments alike has played no small role in, to a large extent, states to contain the violence and insecurity bred by terror activist in the post-Cold war and post-9/11 periods. Yet, few policymakers seem to recognize the danger in building political and social environments in which dialogue between states and terrorist groups and organizations is little more than depravity or even a betrayal to entire populations. To be sure, the protection of civilian populations has been entrusted to states that might otherwise learn better means of terrorism deterrence if lines of communication between states and terrorists were less constrained. The taboo of which Carolin Goerzig speaks, is one that “has been institutionalized in a legal framework in which … academics are being asked to report on their students and in which attempting to understand the subjectivities of ‘terrorist’ suspects could be interpreted as a ‘glorification of terrorism’” (Jackson quoted in Goerzig, 2010: p. 125.

  3. Lone Actor Terrorist Attack Planning and Preparation: A Data-Driven Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuurman, Bart; Bakker, Edwin; Gill, Paul; Bouhana, Noémie

    2017-10-23

    This article provides an in-depth assessment of lone actor terrorists' attack planning and preparation. A codebook of 198 variables related to different aspects of pre-attack behavior is applied to a sample of 55 lone actor terrorists. Data were drawn from open-source materials and complemented where possible with primary sources. Most lone actors are not highly lethal or surreptitious attackers. They are generally poor at maintaining operational security, leak their motivations and capabilities in numerous ways, and generally do so months and even years before an attack. Moreover, the "loneness" thought to define this type of terrorism is generally absent; most lone actors uphold social ties that are crucial to their adoption and maintenance of the motivation and capability to commit terrorist violence. The results offer concrete input for those working to detect and prevent this form of terrorism and argue for a re-evaluation of the "lone actor" concept. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Forensic Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  4. Guerilla Warfare & Law Enforcement: Combating the 21st Century Terrorist Cell within the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Major Richard Hughbank

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Both domestic and international terrorist organizations employ guerrilla warfare tactics, techniques, and procedures. Thus, the ability to identify and defeat the members of these organizations, cripple their infrastructures, and disrupt their financial resources lies in the understanding of modern guerrilla warfare as it develops in the twenty-first century within the United States.3 The forms of asymmetric warfare4 adopted by domestic and international terrorist groups alike is no longer intended to gain simple media exposure or governmental manipulation; they want to make an overpowering impact by causing massive loss of life and severe damage to infrastructure and are often motivated by religious imperatives and political goals. As terrorism analyst Stephen Flynn has observed, "Throughout the 20th century [Americans] were able to treat national security as essentially an out-of-body experience. When confronted by threats, [America] dealt with them on the turf of our allies or our adversaries. Aside from the occasional disaster and heinous crime, civilian life [in the United States] has been virtually terror-free." With the turn of the twenty-first century, terrorist operations have become more prevalent in the United States and are taking shape in the form of modern guerrilla warfare, thus creating new challenges for federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies. After reviewing the origin and nature of these challenges, this article will offer some suggestions for countering guerilla warfare in the United States.

  5. The Internet information infrastructure: Terrorist tool or architecture for information defense?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadner, S.; Turpen, E. [Aquila Technologies Group, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rees, B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1998-12-01

    The Internet is a culmination of information age technologies and an agent of change. As with any infrastructure, dependency upon the so-called global information infrastructure creates vulnerabilities. Moreover, unlike physical infrastructures, the Internet is a multi-use technology. While information technologies, such as the Internet, can be utilized as a tool of terror, these same technologies can facilitate the implementation of solutions to mitigate the threat. In this vein, this paper analyzes the multifaceted nature of the Internet information infrastructure and argues that policymakers should concentrate on the solutions it provides rather than the vulnerabilities it creates. Minimizing risks and realizing possibilities in the information age will require institutional activities that translate, exploit and convert information technologies into positive solutions. What follows is a discussion of the Internet information infrastructure as it relates to increasing vulnerabilities and positive potential. The following four applications of the Internet will be addressed: as the infrastructure for information competence; as a terrorist tool; as the terrorist`s target; and as an architecture for rapid response.

  6. Authoritarian reactions to terrorist threat: who is being threatened, the Me or the We?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbrock, Frank; Fritsche, Immo

    2013-01-01

    Endorsement of authoritarian attitudes has been observed to increase under conditions of terrorist threat. However, it is not clear whether this effect is a genuine response to perceptions of personal or collective threat. We investigated this question in two experiments using German samples. In the first experiment (N = 144), both general and specific authoritarian tendencies increased after asking people to imagine that they were personally affected by terrorism. No such effect occurred when they were made to think about Germany as a whole being affected by terrorism. This finding was replicated and extended in a second experiment (N = 99), in which personal and collective threat were manipulated orthogonally. Authoritarian and ethnocentric (ingroup bias) reactions occurred only for people highly identified with their national ingroup under personal threat, indicating that authoritarian responses may operate as a group-level coping strategy for a threat to the personal self. Again, we found no effects for collective threat. In both studies, authoritarianism mediated the effects of personal threat on more specific authoritarian and ethnocentric reactions. These results suggest that the effects of terrorist threat on authoritarianism can, at least in part, be attributed to a sense of personal insecurity, raised under conditions of terrorist threat. We discuss the present findings with regard to basic sociomotivational processes (e.g., group-based control restoration, terror management) and how these may relate to recent models of authoritarianism.

  7. The challenge of preparation for a chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear terrorist attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander David

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is not a new phenomenon, but, in the contemporary scene, it has established itself in a manner which commands the most serious attention of the authorities. Until relatively recently, the major threat has been through the medium of conventional weaponry and explosives. Their obvious convenience of use and accessibility guarantees that such methods will continue to represent a serious threat. However, over the last few years, terrorists have displayed an enthusiasm for higher levels of carnage, destruction and publicity. This trend leads inexorably to the conclusion that chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN methods will be pursued by terrorist organisations, particularly those which are well organised, are based on immutable ideological principles, and have significant financial backing. Whilst it is important that the authorities and the general public do not risk over-reacting to such a threat (otherwise, they will do the work of the terrorists for them, it would be equally ill-advised to seek comfort in denial. The reality of a CBRN event has to be accepted and, as a consequence, the authorities need to consider (and take seriously how individuals and the community are likely to react thereto and to identify (and rehearse in a realistic climate what steps would need to be taken to ameliorate the effects of such an event.

  8. 77 FR 33638 - Amendment to the Bank Secrecy Act Regulations-Exemption From the Requirement To Report...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... effectiveness of its anti-money laundering and counter-terrorist financing policies. \\1\\ These customers are... enforcement purposes. \\6\\ See section 402 of the Money Laundering Suppression Act of 1994 (the ``Money...\\ 31 U.S.C. 5311. \\4\\ Treasury Order 180-01 (Sept. 26, 2002). \\5\\ 31 U.S.C. 5318(h)(2). The Money...

  9. 76 FR 39315 - Privacy Act of 1974: Implementation of Exemptions; Department of Homeland Security/ALL-030 Use of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... the Terrorist Screening Database System of Records relates to official DHS national security and law... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Office of the Secretary 6 CFR Part 5 [Docket No. DHS-2011-0060] Privacy Act of 1974: Implementation of Exemptions; Department of Homeland Security/ALL--030 Use of the...

  10. Terrorist Threats in the Basque Country: its Impact on the Psychosocial Sphere of Victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Martín-Peña

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The ceasefire of armed activities announced by ETA (Basque Homeland and Freedom in 2011 has fostered a debate about the violence and the victims of the terrorist organization. During those years, the violence perpetrated by ETA was characterized by bomb attacks and assassinations. In addition to this blatant violent behavior, a low-intensity violence was also taking place in the Basque Country, consisting of terrorist threats against their targets. There is, however, a lack of evidence-based research into this phenomenon. This investigation studies the impact of terrorist threats on the psychosocial functioning of people threatened by ETA in the Basque Country. Seventy-six people targeted by ETA completed self-reported survey. Terrorist threats and their derived psychosocial consequences were assessed by this way. The findings point out a relationship between terrorist threats and their psychosocial effects, which greatly affected the immediate environment of the targets too. The implications of these findings are discussed. El cese de la actividad armada anunciado por ETA (Euskadi ta Askatasuna – Euskadi y Libertad en 2011 ha promovido un debate sobre la violencia y las víctimas de la organización terrorista. Durante esos años, la violencia perpetrada por ETA se caracterizó por ataques con bombas y asesinatos. Además de este comportamiento claramente violento, en el País Vasco también se estaba produciendo una violencia de baja intensidad, consistente en amenazas terroristas contra sus objetivos. Sin embargo, no hay una investigación basada en la evidencia sobre este fenómeno. Esta investigación estudia el impacto de las amenazas terroristas en el funcionamiento psicosocial de las personas amenazadas por ETA en el País Vasco. Setenta y seis personas amenazadas por ETA completaron una encuesta de autoevaluación. Se evaluaron de esta forma las amenazas terroristas y sus consecuencias psicosociales derivadas. Los resultados indicaron

  11. Importancia de los aspectos psicosociales en la enfermedad celíaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trini Fragoso Arbelo

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Se revisan los conceptos clínicos actuales sobre la enfermedad celíaca. Se definen con precisión los términos enfermedad celíaca activa, silente, latente y potencial. Se enfatiza en los aspectos psicosociales que influyen en su tratamiento y se trazan pautas generales acerca del manejo integral de los pacientes afectados, dada la importancia de la dieta sin gluten de por vida como único tratamiento.The current clinical concepts of celiac disease are reviewed. The terms active, silent, latent and potential related to celiac disease are accurately defined. Emphasis is made on the psychosocial aspects influencing its treatment and general guidelines are drawn on the comprehensive management of the patients suffering from this disease, given the importance of diet without gluten as the only lifelong treatment.

  12. Restricciones de liquidez en microempresas y la importancia del financiamiento informal en Baja California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Ramírez-Urquidy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La estructura industrial de México incorpora una proporción significativa de agentes que emprenden negocios a escalas reducidas y en un esquema de informalidad. Esta condición los aleja de los mercados formales de crédito, por lo que enfrentan una restricción permanente de liquidez. Este artículo prueba la hipótesis de que existen microempresas (MES no restringidas a pesar de esta limitación formal. Los resultados ilustran esta posibilidad al encontrar, en una muestra de mes del estado de Baja California, lo que implica el acceso a financiamiento externo y la importancia de las fuentes informales.

  13. La importancia del pensamiento estadístico en la Ingeniería de Fiabilidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Caro

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Existe de modo creciente una notable inquietud por el control de la calidad en el tiempo, lo que ha dado lugar a la búsqueda de métodos capaces de abordar eficazmente el análisis de la fiabilidad. Los estudios de Grado y Máster de Ingeniería suelen ofrecer asignaturas tales como Estadística, Estadística Industrial, Control y Gestión de la Calidad o similares, donde se estudia la importancia de la fiabilidad y la calidad de los sistemas. En el ejercicio de sus atribuciones los ingenieros deberían desarrollar una nueva forma de pensar. El pensamiento estadístico es una manera de pensar, de comportarse, de actuar, de trabajar, de interacción con otros.

  14. IMPORTANCIA DEL COMERCIO ELECTRÓNICO Y SU INCIDENCIA EN LA LOGÍSTICA DE APROVISIONAMIENTOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Mitre Aranda

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available

    El trabajo recoge la importancia y evolución del comercio electrónico desde su concepción tradicional hasta su aplicabilidad vía internet. Se examinan las ventajas e inconvenientes de la red como soporte del comercio electrónico y se pormenoriza sobre la problemática y las ventajas e inconvenientes que el uso del comercio electrónico produce en las actividades logísticas, en general, y en las de compras, en particular.

  15. La importancia de la motivación económica

    OpenAIRE

    Elstein, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    La motivación es considerada uno de los factores más importantes que desvela, tanto a los Administradores de las empresas, como a los responsables de Marketing. La importancia de la motivación, no será cuestionada en las siguientes líneas, sino que dando uso a las ideas de dos grandes pensadores de la talla de Herzberg y Maslow, buscaremos una respuesta al cómo, cuándo y hasta dónde motivar a nuestro personal. Por medio de tres categorías de motivación y un anexo especial de segmentación de e...

  16. Estructura e importancia de la cadena productiva y comercial de la miel en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Magaña Magaña

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Los objetivos fueron analizar la importancia socioeconómica de la cadena productiva y del proceso comercial de la miel en México, así como examinar la problemática e influencia que dicho proceso ejerce en apicultor, en particular sobre el comportamiento de los precios, el valor generado y su distribución. Se utilizaron como marco metodológico y teórico los fundamentos del comercio interregional y de la economía de los mercados agrarios, los cuales permiten analizar la integración y relación entre los niveles de mercado. Se encontró que la importancia socioeconómica de la apicultura se limita principalmente a su aporte de divisas y generación de empleos e ingresos en el medio rural. El principal canal de comercialización de la miel a granel lo conforman el apicultor, los acopiadores rurales, la empresa comercializadora mayorista y el agente comercial internacional. La producción y comercialización de miel está integrada para su acopio, proceso y entrega al comercializador externo o, en su caso, su distribución al mercado interno, pero con limitado beneficio al apicultor. La cosecha y oferta de miel en el mercado se concentra en pocos meses; esta situación y la necesidad de liquidez de los productores, favorece la ventaja de apropiación de valor que tienen los otros eslabones de la cadena, en especial el mayorista, quien determina el precio. Así, el valor que se agrega a la miel en la cadena productiva y comercial no se distribuye equitativamente, y su diferencia estriba en la capacidad de apropiación o poder de mercado de cada participante.

  17. Importancia de la relación familia-escuela. El modelo de participación como modelo deseable

    OpenAIRE

    Corino Presmanes, Macarena

    2015-01-01

    RESUMEN: En este trabajo el objetivo general que se persigue es abordar la relación que tienen las familias con el profesorado y el resto de la comunidad educativa en el contexto escolar, y en concreto, en la etapa de Educación Infantil. Se comienza desarrollando un marco teórico en el que se muestra la importancia que tiene la familia en la vida del niño, los cambios sociales que han influido en ambos contextos, así como la importancia que tiene establecer relaciones entre ...

  18. Importancia y desafíos de la conservación de Vanilla spp. (orquidaceae) en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Azofeifa-Bolaños, José Bernal; Paniagua-Vásquez, Amelia; García-García, José Antonio

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue describir la importancia y los principales retos del uso, manejo y conservación del género Vanilla en Costa Rica. Los temas tratados fueron: taxonomía en el país y a nivel mundial, datos sobre recolección y nuevas estimaciones de parientes silvestres, la importancia económica, ecológica y social, el acervo genético de las especies costarricenses, la situación del cultivo a nivel mundial (área cosechada, producción, rendimiento, principales países productores), ...

  19. The Nation That Cried Lone Wolf : A Data-Driven Analysis of Individual Terrorists in the United States Since 9/11

    OpenAIRE

    Eby, Charles A.

    2012-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Lone-wolf terrorist attacks have occurred in the United States throughout the countrys history. Attempted attacks from individual terrorists unaffiliated with terrorist groups may be becoming more prevalent. Both the general public and government officials acknowledge the presence and importance of these attacks; however, relatively little literature exists on the subject compared to group terrorism. Much of the information on lone wol...

  20. FACTOR NUCLEAR kB (NF-kB: SIGNALOSOMA Y SU IMPORTANCIA EN ENFERMEDADES INFLAMATORIAS Y CÁNCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy P. Echeverry R.L

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available El factor nuclear kB (NF-kB es un dímero constituido por proteínas de la familia Rel. El NF-kB se encuentra en el citoplasma unido a proteínas inhibidoras (IkB. Las IkB son fosforiladas por diferentes cinasas que hacen parte del signalosoma como las cinasas de IKKa e IKKb y el modulador esencial de NF-kB (NEMO, la proteína cinasa activadora de mitosis (MAPK o p38 y la cinasa inductora de NF-kB (NIK. Estas cinasas al ser activadas por señales dependientes de citocinas y luz ultravioleta, fosforilan las IkB provocando su ubiquitinación, su degradación por proteosoma y la subsecuente liberación y translocación al núcleo de NF-kB. Recientemente se le ha dado una gran importancia al NF-kB en la vía de señalización desencadenada por estrés oxidativo, estrés genotóxico y daño en el DNA. A diferencia de la vía denominada clásica, en esta ruta ocurre una SUMOilación de NEMO y translocación al núcleo. En el núcleo NEMO interactúa con la proteína de la ataxia telangiectasia mutada (ATM activada en respuesta a modificaciones en la cromatina y daño en el DNA. El complejo ATM/NEMO es translocado al citoplasma donde la ATM fosforila a las IKK llevando a la ubiquitinación y posterior liberación de NF-kB que es translocado al núcleo. NF-kB desencadena procesos de supervivencia incluyendo el aumento de la transcripción de enzimas antioxidantes como la superóxido dismutasa, catalasa y glutatión. Estas enzimas participan en el control de los niveles de especies reactivas de oxígeno en la célula. La sobreactivación de NF-kB se relaciona con inflamación y cáncer. En la actualidad se desarrolla una búsqueda de fármacos que actúen sobre moléculas del signalosoma de NF-kB, no sólo para el manejo de enfermedades inflamatorias sino también para el uso durante el tratamiento de tumores resistentes a radio y quimioterapia.

  1. MOTIVACIÓN: PERSPECTIVAS TEÓRICAS Y ALGUNAS CONSIDERACIONES DE SU IMPORTANCIA EN EL ÁMBITO EDUCATIVO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Naranjo Pereira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo tiene como propósito revisar el concepto de motivación, su evolución histórica, los tres principales enfoques relacionados con esta, a saber, conductual, humanista y cognitivo; y, además, presentar algunos aspectos de importancia sobre la motivación en el ámbito educativo. El enfoque conductual enfatiza que las personas actúan motivadas por beneficios o recompensas que puedan recibir. El humanista subraya las cualidades del ser humano, su capacidad para desarrollarse y su libertad de elección. De este enfoque se estudian las teorías motivacionales: Jerarquía de las necesidades de Maslow, Existencia, relación y crecimiento de Alderfer y la Teoría de las necesidades de McClelland. El enfoque cognitivo señala que lo que se piensa que puede ocurrir determina lo que sucede; así, las percepciones de los eventos influyen sobre las emociones y los comportamientos. Si la persona cree que fracasará es probable que fracase y si piensa que tendrá éxito posiblemente lo logre. En esta perspectiva, los pensamientos guían la motivación. De este enfoque se revisa la Teoría de las expectativas de Vroom, la Teoría de la equidad de Adams y el Modelo de fijación de metas y objetivos al que se refiere Trechera. Sobre el ámbito educativo se analiza especialmente la relación entre emoción y motivación y la relación entre la Teoría de las atribuciones y el desempeño académico. Se presentan algunos motivos que pueden orientar el comportamiento estudiantil y, finalmente, se estudian las motivaciones intrínseca y extrínseca, y su influencia en el rendimiento académico del estudiantado.

  2. ACTS 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Co-curator of ACTS 2014 together with Rasmus Holmboe, Judith Schwarzbart and Sanne Kofoed. ACTS is the Museum of Contemporary Art’s international bi-annual festival. ACTS was established in 2011 and, while the primary focus is on sound and performance art, it also looks toward socially oriented art....... For the 2014 festival, the museum has entered into a collaboration with the Department for Performance Design at Roskilde University – with continued focus on sound and performance art, and social art in public spaces. With ACTS, art moves out of its usual exhibition space and instead utilizes the city, its...... various possibilities and public spaces as a stage. ACTS takes place in and around the museum and diverse locations in Roskilde city. ACTS is partly curated by the museum staff and partly by guest curators. ACTS 2014 is supported by Nordea-fonden and is a part of the project The Museum goes downtown....

  3. Terror i tvillingtårnene – dystopi og ironi? 9/11 i Darlah og En terrorist i senga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lersbryggen Mørk, Kjersti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Terror in the Twin Towers – dystopia and irony? 9/11 in Darlah and En terrorist i senga. Through globalization of our media society, children as well as adults are endlessly exposed to information and images from all over the world. In Norway, signs of the terrorist attack on the Twin Towers in USA on September 11th 2001 are now to be found in literature for children and young adults. With globalization theory and post-colonial theory I will examine how two novels present global challenges in general and 9/11 in particular. What does globalization mean for the construction of identity? Who are “we”, and who are “the others”? The novel for young adults, Darlah – 172 timer på månen [Darlah – 172 hours on the moon] (2008 by Johan Harstad, is a dystopia where 9/11 points forward to a full scale catastrophe for humanity. En terrorist i senga [There's a terrorist in my bed] (2008, a novel for children by Endre Lund Eriksen, makes explicit references to 9/11 – but with playfulness and ironic revelation of xenophobia. Both books use aliens from outer space as “the other”, but where Darlah presents a pessimistic view of our global future, En terrorist i senga is optimistic on behalf of the humankind.

  4. Stochastic nanopore sensors for the detection of terrorist agents: Current status and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Aihua; Zhao Qitao [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019-0065 (United States); Guan Xiyun, E-mail: xguan@uta.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019-0065 (United States)

    2010-08-24

    Nanopore stochastic sensor works by monitoring the ionic current modulations induced by the passage of analytes of interest through a single pore, which can be obtained from a biological ion channel by self-assembly or artificially fabricated in a solid-state membrane. In this minireview, we overview the use of biological nanopores and artificial nanopores for the detection of terrorist agents including explosives, organophosphorus nerve agents, nitrogen mustards, organoarsenic compounds, toxins, and viruses. We also discuss the current challenge in the development of deployable nanopore sensors for real-world applications.

  5. Cyberspace as a new arena for terroristic propaganda: an updated examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minei, Elizabeth; Matusitz, Jonathan

    2012-11-01

    This paper analyzes the role of propaganda use in cyberterrorism. The main premise is that cyberterrorists display various semiotic gestures (e.g., the use of images and Internet videos) to communicate their intents to the public at large. In doing so, they communicate themes-these themes range from hate to anger. Cyberterrorism, then, is a form of theater or spectacle in which terrorists exploit cyberspace to trigger feelings of panic and overreaction in the target population. In many cases, this form of propaganda is the primary means of communication for various cyberterrorist groups to convey their intents. Internet sites also produce numerous opportunities for in-group communication and publicity.

  6. Architectural and structural engineering aspects of protective design for nuclear power plants against terrorist attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musacchio, J.M.; Rozen, A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents the results of several threat studies which have been performed, provides collective data on costs, and discusses, in a general sense, architectural/structural aspects of passive protection design measures which have been developed and utilized at several nuclear power plants. By combining relevant architectural and structural measures in the standard design, it is possible to substantially reduce the vulnerability of nuclear power plants to terrorist attack and the estimated damage to a manageable level with a minimal investment. (orig./HP)

  7. Finding the Wolves in Sheeps Clothing: Ways to Distinguish and Deter Lone-Wolf Terrorists

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Mark Hamm, “Lone-wolf Terrorism in America: Forging a New Way of Looking at an Old Problem,” YouTube video, 7:32, posted by the National Institute...that factors that influence most lone-wolf terrorists include, “to varying degrees and in variable combinations: personal aversion or depression ...Russia.”97 Also discovered after the bombings, “Tamerlan had a YouTube account that he used to post and watch violent Islamic extremist videos starting

  8. The Treatment of Images in 11-M Terrorist Attacks. Terrorism and Violence in the Press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra. Emma Torres Romay

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we want to analyze the pictures publishing in the Spanish and international newspapers before the Madrid terrorist attack, March, 11. With this research we get some ideas about freedom speech limits: the respect of the privacy and, in special, the respect of the pain. At the same time, we´ll remark the importance of the photography in the press and their communication power. For this research we used the March, 11 and 12 newspapers of most important Spanish editors and the digital edition of international press.

  9. An assessment of the terrorist threat to use a nuclear or radiological device in an attack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kingshott, B.F. [Grand Valley State University, 275C DeVos Center, 401 West Fulton Street, Grand Rapids, MI 49504 (United States)]. E-mail: kingshob@gvsu.edu

    2006-07-01

    This paper will discuss terrorism from the perspective of a terrorist organisation acquiring nuclear material to build weapons and how security of radiological material world wide will minimise the risk of such devices being used. It will discuss the need to improve security at nuclear waste processing and storage sites and the adequacy of current security. It will also discuss the phenomenon of suicide attacks by the bomb carriers and the role of the media in informing and educating the general public of the consequences should such a device containing nuclear material be detonated. (author)

  10. Risk communication of terrorist acts, natural disasters, and criminal violence: comparing the processes of understanding and responding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilbrun, Kirk; Wolbransky, Melinda; Shah, Sanjay; Kelly, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Risk communication is an important vehicle for the scientific understanding of the perception of and response to various kinds of threats. The present study provides apparently the first empirical attempt to compare perceptions, decision-making, and anticipated action in response to threats of three kinds: natural disaster, violent crime, and terrorism. A total of 258 college undergraduates were surveyed using a vignette-based, 2 × 2 × 3 between-subjects design that systematically manipulated threat imminence (high vs. low), risk level (high vs. low), and nature of the threat (natural disaster vs. crime vs. terrorism). There were substantial differences in participants' perceptions and reported actions in response to natural disaster, relative to the other domains of risk, under conditions of high risk. The risk of natural disaster was more likely to lead participants to report that they would change their daily activities and to relocate. It was also more likely than terrorism to lead to action securing the home. It appears that the mechanisms for perception, decision-making, and action in response to threats cannot be generalized in a straightforward way across these domains of threat. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Importance of the radioactive or nuclear component and its conjunction with conventional risks in social phenomena resulting from terrorist acts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Francisco Miguel da Rocha Grave

    2009-01-01

    The current strategic environment has attenuated the traditional threats of military nature. However, several instability factors result on new risks and potential threats. A review is made on the current threats and risk scenarios and the capacities for intervention of the Portuguese Army in scenarios involving the use of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons

  12. Repositorio de objetos de aprendizaje: importancia de su uso en la Universidad de Oriente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ing. Alfredo Díaz-Calzada

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available La creciente producción de materiales educativos en formatodigital ha promovido la aparición en estos últimos años, de repositorios que concentran valiosos recursos para docentes, estudiantes e instituciones educativas, en general.En la actualidad los proyectos de Repositorios de Objetos de Aprendizaje (ROA han ido en aumento, es por esto que este trabajo aborda el tema de los ROA y su uso en la Universidad de Oriente, para su desarrollo se hace una revisión de los conceptos básicos de los Objetos de Aprendizaje, ya que no se podría hablar de los ROA sin antes mencionar estos tipos de objetos y después se plantea el porqué del uso de este en la Universidad de Oriente y la estrategia a seguir para su implementación, además de la importancia que tiene la utilización de estos repositorios en la enseñanza-aprendizaje.

  13. La importancia de la cultura y la política en los procesos de desarrollo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Isla

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo presenta una reflexión pormenorizada sobre la compleja relación de la antropología como ciencia social con la práctica del desarrollo en tanto intervención tendiente a transformar (mejorar los modos de vida de las poblaciones más relegadas. Se detallan una serie de núcleos temáticos que consideramos centrales para comprender más acabadamente el por qué de la relación enrevesada entre antropología y desarrollo. Asimismo se discute la importancia fundamental de los aspectos políticos y culturales de los procesos de desarrollo considerando a dichos procesos como espacios en los que permanentemente se consolidan y reformulan relaciones de poder entre las partes involucradas dando lugar a un sinnúmero de giros, marchas y contramarchas que se apartan substancialmente de los proyectos esbozados. Finalmente, proponemos -desde la antropología- retomar el análisis vigilante de estos aspectos políticos y culturales para dar lugar a procesos de intervención más controlados y más favorables para quienes los reciben.

  14. Reflexiones sobre la importancia de la Crítica de Lucas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Sánchez Puerta

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available La crítica de Lucas sostiene que, bajo la hipótesis de expectativas racionales, los parámetros estimados a partir de un modelo econométrico no se mantendrían. La ocurrencia de cambios de política llevaría a los agentes a modificar sus comportamientos, a fin de adecuarse a la nueva realidad. En consecuencia, los modelos econométricos no podrían utilizarse para fines de formulación de políticas económicas. La crítica de Lucas desafió rigurosamente el modo en que el modelado econométrico se utilizaba tradicionalmente como instrumento para la evaluación de políticas económicas y la forma en que se consideraba la política económica. Aunque la importancia empírica de la crítica sigue siendo motivo de debate, ella contribuyó a la imposición de nuevos patrones en el modelado de la interacción entre las reglas de política y las respuestas de los agentes privados.

  15. Climaterio y menopausia: importancia de su atención en el nivel primario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Lugones Botell

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza una revisión relacionada con el climaterio y la menopausia donde se relacionan sus bases anatomofisiológicas con los diversos aspectos biológicos, psicosociales, sexuales y con las enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles y el cáncer ginecológico, en la que se resalta la necesidad de una atención diferenciada y especializada, así como integral, de estas mujeres, por la importancia que tiene mejorar la calidad y el estilo de vida para hacer prevención y promoción de salud.A review concerning climateric and menopause is made and their anatomophysiological bases are related to the different biological psychosocial and sexual aspect and to non-communicable chronic disease and gynecological cancer. it is stressed the need of giving these women a diferentiated, specialized and com0prenhensive attention so as to improve their quality of life and their life style and to prevent diseases and promote health.

  16. La importancia de la educación ambiental ante la problemática actual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róger Martínez-Castillo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Recibido 15 de febrero de 2010 • Aceptado 17 de marzo de 2010 • Corregido 05 de abril de 2010   El sistema de desarrollo dominante, con sus políticas neoliberales y enfoques mercado-céntricos contribuye a agravar los problemas socio-ambientales, bajo un contexto de la globalización del mercado. Por eso, la preocupación por el manejo sustentable del ambiente, hace imperiosa la necesidad de estructurar una educación ambiental que forme e informe acerca de esta problemática. En este sentido, la educación ambiental viene a constituir el proceso educativo que se ocupa de la relación del ser humano con su ambiente (natural y artificial y consigo mismo, así como las consecuencias de esta relación. De esta manera, la educación ambiental debe constituir un proceso integral, que juega su papel en todo el entramado de la enseñanza y el aprendizaje. Para ello, es necesario establecer un proceso educativo que cuestione la relación de cualquier tema o actividad del ser humano, dentro de un análisis de la importancia o incidencia en la vida social y ambiental, como es la parte pedagógica y su esencia política.

  17. Las estrategias competitivas y su importancia en la buena gestión de las empresas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Castro Monge

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Las estrategias competitivas que desarrollan las empresas son un factor fundamental para saber la forma en que éstas van a competir en los mercados y de ellas dependerá si se tiene o no éxito en su gestión empresarial. Es de suma importancia que las empresas puedan identificar la estrategia o conjunto de estrategias más eficaces para competir eficientemente. Solo estableciendo la estrategia pertinente se pueden lograr las metas y objetivos propuestos por las empresas. Para que una estrategia sea exitosa, ésta debe ser coherente con los valores y las metas, con los recursos y capacidades de la misma, con su entorno, con su estructura y sistemas organizativos. El ensayo pretende entonces hacer un análisis de las cinco tipologías de estrategias competitivas más importantes tratadas en la literatura: Miles y Snow (1978, Porter (1980, Miller (1987, Mintzberg (1988 y Kotler (1992. Se trata de de encontrar sus cuestionamientos, similitudes y diferencias y se pretende dar una guía para que las empresas establezcan la estrategia que mejor se adecúa sus características.

  18. Importancia agroecológica del coyul (Acrocomia mexicana Karw. ex Mart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca C. Ramírez Hernández

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acrocomia mexicana Karw. ex Mart. es una especie que se extiende desde el Pacífico mexicano hasta Centro y Sudamérica. El fruto (coyul es apreciado desde la época prehispánica, sin embargo, su consumo ha disminuido frente a otros frutos nativos y así como de los introducidos con mayor aceptación en el mercado. Se realizó un estudio en San Blas, Nayarit, México, en el que se llevó a cabo la caracterización de un agroecosistema típico donde se explotan poblaciones silvestres y cultivadas de coyul de forma tradicional y se resaltó la importancia económica, ecológica y cultural de la especie. Asimismo, se realizó la caracterización fisicoquímica del fruto; la pulpa y la semilla son fuente principalmente de grasas. De esta especie se pueden obtener subproductos tales como aceites comestibles, alimento para ganado, artesanías, entre otros; igualmente se exponen alternativas de uso llevadas a cabo por otras regiones y países que puedan conducir a conservar espacios ecológicos y culturales.

  19. Osteomielitis: Criterios actuales e importancia para el Estomatólogo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Morán López

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Entre las múltiples afecciones que se presentan en el complejo bucofacial se encuentra la osteomielitis, una enfermedad ósea poco frecuente, que con el advenimiento de los antibióticos ha dejado de ser un problema de salud para muchos países del mundo. Dada la importancia que tiene su conocimiento para el estomatólogo, se recopilan criterios actuales sobre esta entidad en lo referente a la etiopatogenia, manifestaciones clínicas, diagnóstico y tratamiento, especialmente cuando afecta al maxilar o a la mandíbula. Tomando como base algunas consideraciones generales, y abarcando varios elementos, se exponen las características macroscópicas y microscópicas de las lesiones causadas por esta enfermedad.Among the various affections of the orofacial complex is osteomyelitis, a rare bone disease that, with the introduction of antibiotics, has cesed to be a health problem in many countries. Given the importante of the detection of this disease by the dentist, present criteria on this entity as to etiopathogenecity, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment are collected, specially when the maxilla or the jaw is affected. Taking some general considerations and a number of elements as a basis, some macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of the lesions caused by this disease were set forth in this paper.

  20. Las enfermedades infecciosas y su importancia en el sector avícola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Andrés Jaimes Olaya

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Dentro del contexto de un país cuyas mejores capacidades se encuentran en el sector agropecuario, la industria avícola se ha convertido en uno de los sectores más promisorios y de mayor crecimiento en Colombia. Por esta razón, actualmente se vienen implementando programas para el mejoramiento de la calidad de los productos avícolas, con el objetivo no solo de mantener el crecimiento de la industria,sino de poder expandir las fronteras de exportación. Sin embargo, la avicultura enfrenta un gran reto encuanto a su producción, debido a que las enfermedades infecciosas que afectan a las aves continúan siendo una problemática importante del sector, aun por encima de la alimentación y la genética. En este artículo se presentan elementos de relevancia referentes a la industria avícola, así como en relación con las enfermedades de control oficial y algunas de las enfermedades infecciosas que más la aquejan, enfatizando en la importancia de la intervención en el manejo y control de dichas enfermedades.

  1. Political terrorism and affective polarization in "black" and "red" terrorists in Italy during the years 1968-1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacini, Matteo; Maremmani, Icro

    2018-04-01

    Psychiatric evaluations of violent political crime were mostly performed on a case-by-case basis in a forensic environment, which made them unduly dependent on categories of presumed dangerousness and legal responsibility, rather than on a clinical definition of their mental status. In referring to such "clinical" definitions, the disorder we have in mind is not limited to the major, agitated psychotic manias or mixed states. The presence of a dominant temperament, or protracted hypomania, is enough by itself to explain an individual's engagement in a wide range of activities, not necessarily sociopathic or violent. We put forward the hypothesis that formal and transpolitical radical choices, either in favor of an illegal lifestyle or of activities involving a high level of risk, may be linked with certain mental states, especially when considering small clandestine groups showing a high level of internal ideological consensus, and a no-return attitude toward a commitment to radical choices. Available data about the psycho(patho)logical profile of terrorists are still hard to come by. The only available studies are those on identified living terrorists (judging by the trials of those who personally admitted to having been terrorists), and statistical data imply a number of documented cases belonging to the same terrorist organization. In Italy, the period often called the "years of lead [bullets]" displays an interesting viewpoint for the study of terrorist psychology, for two main reasons: first of all, it is a historically defined period (1968-1988), and second, the number of ascertained participants in terrorist activities was quite large.

  2. Radical Islam as a Means of Self-Realization for the North Caucasian Youth: From the Terrorist-Criminal Groups to the Beginnings of the Creation of a New, Less Controlled Subculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikoloz Janelidze

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Radical Islam with its various types of manifestations is one of the significant challenges facing the modern world. This problem has also affected the societies of autonomous republics bordering Georgia to the north. In today’s North Caucasus, the activity of radical Islam followers has reached beyond the political (in many cases terrorist niche and has acquired quasi-social characteristics. Furthermore, the facts and tendencies indicate that this part of the society (in this case youth purposefully or unintentionally creates the so-called uncontrolled and/or less controlled subculture with different opinions, views, ideology, behaviors, in many cases clothes, hairstyle, etc. Radical Islam (in this case as a doctrine regulates human conduct – provides advice, dictates how to act, and in fact it sets a dogma how to dress, how to behave in public, how to live, etc. Wahhabis/Salafis are forbidden to smoke tobacco, hashish, to use beads, sing loudly, dance, etc. It is worth to separately note the so-called aggressive wing of Wahhabism/Salafism or the terrorists, field commanders, etc.One of the motives for writing the article is to show readers the fact that radical Islam in North Caucasus is not solely a terrorist activity. It encompasses a much broader spectrum of the society, and at the same time it is much more than a religion. It sets the norms of social behavior and thinking, which in itself limits the formation of subjective attitudes. Exactly the lack of the latter generates the negative trend of their activities, which quite often are used for political actions by the respective forces.

  3. Modeling Requirements for Simulating the Effects of Extreme Acts of Terrorism: A White Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, M.; Hiebert-Dodd, K.; Marozas, D.; Paananen, O.; Pryor, R.J.; Reinert, R.K.

    1998-10-01

    This white paper presents the initial requirements for developing a new computer model for simulating the effects of extreme acts of terrorism in the United States. General characteristics of the model are proposed and the level of effort to prepare a complete written description of the model, prior to coding, is detailed. The model would simulate the decision processes and interactions of complex U. S. systems engaged in responding to and recovering from four types of terrorist incidents. The incident scenarios span the space of extreme acts of terrorism that have the potential to affect not only the impacted area, but also the entire nation. The model would be useful to decision-makers in assessing and analyzing the vulnerability of the nation's complex infrastructures, in prioritizing resources to reduce risk, and in planning strategies for immediate response and for subsequent recovery from terrorist incidents.

  4. The need to counter extremist terrorist manifestations in society and in the penal system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazberov P.N.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the need for inter-agency work to minimize the extremist-terrorist activities in the community. The problem of the psychology of extremism and terrorism are increasingly in the spotlight representatives of various scientific disciplines. First of all, there is no single legal science in all respects understanding of phenomena such as extremism and terrorism, their classification and evaluation, although a number of positive examples in this respect international cooperation is present. According to current data provided by the Investigative Committee of the Russian Federation, the General Prosecutor of the Russian Federation, the Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs, as well as the Moscow Bureau for Human Rights, extremism is a real threat to the national security of the Russian Federation. From the data of law enforcement should be the fact that most of the crimes of extremist and terrorist nature committed by persons of young age, the consciousness of which are susceptible to nationalist propaganda. A significant increase in informal youth movements extremist-nationalist orientation. The problem of expansion of extremism is also relevant for the penitentiary system of modern society. The very fact that a significant number of prisoners serving sentences for extremism and terrorism, illustrates the need for them special psychological and educational work

  5. Radiological preparedness in the case of a terrorist attack or an accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cizmek, A.

    2005-01-01

    During the Cold War, every information about weapons of mass destruction was treated as top secret, regardless of whether the information concerned friend or foe. The most serious threat in our post Cold War era are terrorist radiological dispersal devices. Dirty nukes are what you may choose to build if you're unable to create a real nuclear bomb, i.e. one whose explosion is based on a nuclear reaction. A dirty bomb is a conventional explosive salted with radioactive isotopes in order to spew out that nuclear material and contaminate a wide area. The military usefulness of such devices have always been in dispute. In fact, the TNT in such a bomb may still be more dangerous than the nuclear material. Its destructive power would really depend on the size of the conventional bomb, and the volume and nature of nuclear material. This paper addresses the possibilities of decontamination and preparedness in the case of a terrorist attack or accident.(author)

  6. [Terrorist attack trauma - an individual entity of polytrauma : A 10-year update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güsgen, C; Franke, A; Hentsch, S; Kollig, E; Schwab, R

    2017-10-01

    The incidence of terrorist attacks is increasing worldwide, and they have also become a permanent threat in European cities. Due to its complexity, terrorist attack trauma places high demands on the strategy of surgical treatment. The combination of various mechanisms, explosions and gunshot injuries, with the characteristic pressure (blast) damage and a high proportion of penetrating trauma with simultaneous burns are characteristic features. Unlike in military conflicts, injuries to people of all ages and without ballistic body protection (body armor) are to be expected. The mechanism of the attack and its local conditions are of relevance for the assessment of the situation and the expected injury patterns. Thus, suicide attacks result in several times higher numbers of fatalities and casualties. Explosions on free ground lead to different types of injury than those in closed or semi-enclosed spaces. The treatment principles of the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS®) are based on the intrahospital care of casualties as well as damage control strategies with trigger factors. In order to prepare and educate clinics and surgeons in Germany for such scenarios, various course formats of the professional societies, the German Society for General and Visceral Surgery (DGAV) and the German Society for Trauma Surgery (DGU) have now been established.

  7. Plastic Surgery Management of Victims of Terrorist Violence in Ankara, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İğde, Murat; Kaplan, Ahmet

    2017-12-01

    Terror attacks have been progressively increasing worldwide through the present era. The management of the consequences of terrorism events is under debate in almost every scientific area. The organization and advancement of health services constitute important components of the crisis management. Similar to other specialty areas in medicine, the medical management of terrorist attacks is becoming important in terms of plastic and reconstructive surgery.Ankara, the capital of Turkey, has been subject to 2 terrorist events in public places within a year. The total number of patients involved in both cases was 434. Ankara Numune Training and Research Hospital is a tertiary health care institution and one of the most important trauma centers in the region. A total of 178 Patients exposed to these events referred to our hospital. Of the total, 34 patients were completely or partially treated in the plastic and reconstructive surgery clinic. In this study, we tried to discuss the difficulties encountered in the classification of patients and plastic surgery during the treatment period of patients who experienced these attacks.Data were obtained from The National News Agency, hospital, and our own clinic registries. Patient classification was based on the injured parts of the body. Statistical analysis was performed for all data. In conclusion, the role and the importance of plastic surgery department especially in trauma management have been emphasized in the light of our findings.

  8. Combating the terrorist use of mass destruction weapons, particularly nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barakat, M.

    2008-01-01

    The risks of mass destruction weapons vary and also forms of damages resulting therefrom. While the effects of nuclear weapons are focused, sudden and comprehensive, the chemical weapons have limited impacts relatively unless used intensively severe prejudice to the element of surprise, and thus impaired the efficacy of their influences,especially that they affect exceptionally the individuals in the area of injury and biological weapons do not announce themselves except through their effect that appears later than the time of use as they affect exceptionally the organisms in the area of injury.The mass destruction weapons have turned from being a purely military means in the early twentieth century and have now become the means of violence against governments and countries that they should prepare themselves for and respond in ways of successful and effective countermeasures. Despite the fact that the acquisition of mass destruction weapons can be considered as a priority objective, which terrorist groups and organizations steadily seek but their accessibility is flanked by a lot of difficulties. Addressing the risk of further spread of nuclear weapons, and especially after doubling the power of those high-risk weapons, the international community has an approach to take a number of arrangements that complement each other to control and resist nuclear proliferation, either for the states or for terrorist groups.

  9. Optimizing Visits to the Site of Death for Bereaved Families After Disasters and Terrorist Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Pål; Dyregrov, Atle; Weisæth, Lars; Straume, Marianne; Dyregrov, Kari; Heir, Trond; Bugge, Renate Grønvold

    2017-09-13

    In recent years it has been common after disasters and terrorist events to offer bereaved families the opportunity to visit the place where their loved ones died. Many report that such visits are beneficial in processing their loss. Various factors, both cognitive (eg, counteracting disbelief) and existential or emotional (eg, achieving a sense of closeness to the deceased), are associated with the experienced benefit. Nonetheless, exacerbations of trauma and grief reactions (eg, re-enactment fantasies) are common, with some of the bereaved also reporting adverse reactions after the visit. Subsequently, proper preparations are a prerequisite before such visits take place. This article describes how to optimize collective visits to the site of death after disasters or terrorist events for bereaved families. Important questions-for example, concerning those who should be responsible for organizing a visit and those who should be invited, the timing of the visit, what can be done at the site, the need for support personnel, and other practical issues-are discussed and general guidelines are recommended. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;page 1 of 5).

  10. Tracking and Analyzing Individual Distress Following Terrorist Attacks Using Social Media Streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Ru; Margolin, Drew; Wen, Xidao

    2017-08-01

    Risk research has theorized a number of mechanisms that might trigger, prolong, or potentially alleviate individuals' distress following terrorist attacks. These mechanisms are difficult to examine in a single study, however, because the social conditions of terrorist attacks are difficult to simulate in laboratory experiments and appropriate preattack baselines are difficult to establish with surveys. To address this challenge, we propose the use of computational focus groups and a novel analysis framework to analyze a social media stream that archives user history and location. The approach uses time-stamped behavior to quantify an individual's preattack behavior after an attack has occurred, enabling the assessment of time-specific changes in the intensity and duration of an individual's distress, as well as the assessment of individual and social-level covariates. To exemplify the methodology, we collected over 18 million tweets from 15,509 users located in Paris on November 13, 2015, and measured the degree to which they expressed anxiety, anger, and sadness after the attacks. The analysis resulted in findings that would be difficult to observe through other methods, such as that news media exposure had competing, time-dependent effects on anxiety, and that gender dynamics are complicated by baseline behavior. Opportunities for integrating computational focus group analysis with traditional methods are discussed. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  11. The Representation of Islam in Western Media: The Coverage of Norway Terrorist Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad A. Alghamdi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Undeniably mass media have become the primary source of information and communication for the majority of, if not all, members of modern societies. The nature of the information thus communicated and the manner in which it is dispensed through media certainly have a profound influence on people’s perceptions of the world around them. The relation between the media, on one hand, and culture, social life, and politics on the other, is an interesting one in which media fulfills dual functions, reflecting and also shaping issues occurring within these three domains (Bell & Garrett, 1998. In the initial media coverage of the 2011 Norway terrorist attacks, some western media authors, inaccurately and unjustly, held Muslims and Islamic groups as being responsible for the attacks. Using Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA, this study seeks to ascertain how language was manipulated in this coverage of the terrorist attacks in order to give expression to blind prejudice against Islam and Muslims. As findings of the analyses reveal, the tones of allegation in these articles and reports differed dramatically from one article to another ranging from tones of mere suspicion to those of overt accusation. The varying degrees of uncertainty or assertion of the authors’ statements were reflected in the varied linguistic forms and devices used within the discourse.

  12. Curatorial Acts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bal, M.

    2012-01-01

    In a self-critical inquiry into my own recent work of co-curating and the experience of seeing my video work being curated by others, this article examines acts of framing as performative acts that seek to transform visitors' preconceptions. This affective effect is pursued by means of immersion,

  13. Defense against terroristic hazards and risk by building planning law; Abwehr terroristischer Gefahren und Risiken durch Bauplanungsrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, Richard

    2012-07-01

    The book on defense against terroristic hazards and risk by building planning law includes the following issues: Introduction: civil engineering and safety. Risk, hazards and urban planning: historical and actual examples for the constructional danger prevention, terroristic threat and urban planning. Risk, hazards and terrorism: sociology and risk, law and risk, terrorism - risk or hazard? Answer to uncertainty - risk prevention, catastrophe law as link. Risk, hazard, terrorism and the public building and regional planning law: regional planning law as point of origin, building law and terrorism, possibility of control by the legal building regulations.

  14. The game-theoretic national interstate economic model : an integrated framework to quantify the economic impacts of cyber-terrorist behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This study suggests an integrated framework to quantify cyber attack impacts on the U.S. airport security system. A cyber attack by terrorists on the U.S. involves complex : strategic behavior by the terrorists because they could plan to invade an ai...

  15. The 'overlooked trio' of hypothetical terrorist nuclear weapons - reactor grade plutonium, neptunium-237 and tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sholly, S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Considerations revolving around physical protection of nuclear material are quite commonly and naturally focused on protecting weapons-grade plutonium (WGPu) and highly enriched uranium (HEU) from theft and diversion. These two materials are the center of attention because of their well-known (and demonstrated) potential for use in first-generation nuclear explosive devices of which potential terrorists are widely thought to be capable. They are also the center of attention because of retirements of these materials from military use as the Russian Federation and the United States reduce the number of nuclear weapons in their arsenals. Three other materials - an 'overlooked trio' - must also be borne in mind within this context: (1) reactor-grade plutonium (RGPu); (2) neptunium-237 (Np-237); and (3) tritium (H-3). Although there are still some authorities who either contend that RGPu cannot be used in a nuclear explosive or that there are (for a terrorist) insurmountable difficulties in doing so, the knowledgeable scientific and technical community, recognizes the potential utility of RGPu for hypothetical terrorist nuclear devices. A much smaller community of experts recognizes the usefulness of Np-237 for nuclear devices, but Np-237 is as straight-forwardly and easily usable as HEU and similarly abundant (but not often in separated form). Tritium can be used (with a modest increase in design sophistication) in a conventional first-generation nuclear device with any of the weapons-usable materials (WGPu, HEU, RGPu or Np-237) to increase the yield and/or increase the reliability of a non-fizzle yield. Given the presence of RGPu and Np-237 in abundant quantities in spent commercial reactor fuel, widely available knowledge of how to separate these materials, and a world-wide total of more than 400 nuclear power plants, spent reactor fuel also requires stringent controls. This is especially true of old spent fuel which has far less radiation dose

  16. A Balancing Act: Anti-Terror Financing Guidelines and Their Effects on Islamic Charities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    wayfarers; those in bondage or in debt ; newcomers to Islam; and, to facilitate and enhance Jihad. Zakat has become an important component of the... reason for this is that terrorist financing is not only an indicator but also the source and means of enabling those who carry out violent acts. As... reasons or for “preserving family wealth.”31 The long history of the waqf, fourteen centuries after the death of the Prophet, and the permanent

  17. Importancia de la gerencia del conocimiento: contrastes entre la teoría y la evidencia empírica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Augusto Bernal Torres

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio analiza la importancia que las organizaciones dan en Colombia a la gerencia del conocimiento, para responder a los retos del actual orden económico mundial. Para ello se aplicó una encuesta a 2.249 personas en 83 organizaciones de diferentes tamaños y sectores de actividad económica, localizadas en la ciudad de Bogotá. En general, los resultados indican que la gerencia del conocimiento no es una práctica usual en estas organizaciones, situación que contrasta desfavorablemente con el alto grado de importancia que las organizaciones en los países desarrollados dan a estas actividades, consideradas como estratégicas para potenciar su capacidad innovadora y competitividad sostenible. Rasgos estos de los que en general adolecen las empresas en Colombia y los cuales son necesarios potenciar.

  18. Importancia de la gerencia del conocimiento: contrastes entre la teoría y la evidencia empírica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Augusto Bernal Torres

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio analiza la importancia que las organizaciones dan en Colombia a la gerencia del conoci- miento, para responder a los retos del actual orden económico mundial. Para ello se aplicó una encuesta a 2.249 personas en 83 organizaciones de diferentes tama ̃ nos y sectores de actividad económica, localiza- das en la ciudad de Bogotá. En general, los resultados indican que la gerencia del conocimiento no es una práctica usual en estas organizaciones, situación que contrasta desfavorablemente con el alto grado de importancia que las organizaciones en los países desarrollados dan a estas actividades, consideradas como estratégicas para potenciar su capacidad innovadora y competitividad sostenible. Rasgos estos de los que en general adolecen las empresas en Colombia y los cuales son necesarios potenciar.

  19. Importancia de implementar el bienestar animal durante embarque y desembarque de bovinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Marcela Arias Sánchez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available La ciencia del bienestar animal permite dar al animal las condiciones idóneas para mejorar su calidad de vida, esta ciencia evalúa el estado de un individuo frente a los intentos de afrontar los cambios del ambiente, basándose en el estado físico, fisiológico y mental de cada animal. En los sistemas de producción bovinos se desarrollan actividades que conllevan cambio de ambiente para los animales y el aumento de la interacción humano – animal, lo que ocasiona una alteración de las condiciones físicas, mentales y fisiológicas del animal, donde la actividad que genera mayores alteraciones en los bovinos es el transporte, especialmente el embarque y el desembarque, debido a las caídas, golpes, resbalones y cambios de ambiente que se reflejan en la presencia de hematomas, fracturas, contusiones y aumento de los niveles de estrés. Lo cual genera  lesiones de la canal que son el resultado de un impacto de los tejidos blandos acompañado de la ruptura de vasos sanguíneos y alteración de las propiedades organolépticas de la carne, donde el parámetro más importante es el pH, ya que si éste aumenta por los elevados niveles de estrés ante-mortem, favorece la proliferación de microorganismos, reduciendo así la vida útil del producto y convirtiendo el producto en un riesgo para la salud pública. Es por ello que el presente artículo busca identificar y analizar la importancia de implementar el bienestar animal en las actividades de embarque y desembarque en los sistemas de producción bovinos.

  20. Enteropatógenos de importancia en salud pública

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Riveros

    Full Text Available La diarrea continúa siendo la tercera causa de muerte en niños menores de 5 años, pese a los avances recientes en el manejo y prevención de esta enfermedad. Es causada por múltiples patógenos, sin embargo, la prevalencia de cada uno varía según el grupo de edad, la zona geográfica y el escenario donde se registran los casos (comunitario vs hospitalario. Los patógenos de mayor relevancia en salud pública son aquellos asociados con mayor carga de enfermedad, severidad, complicaciones y mortalidad. En nuestro medio, el norovirus, Campylobacter y las E. coli diarrogénicas, son los patógenos más prevalentes a nivel comunitario en niños. En este artículo se revisa la epidemiología local y las potenciales áreas de desarrollo en cinco patógenos seleccionados: rotavirus, norovirus, E. coli productora de toxina Shiga (STEC, Shigella y Salmonella. De estos, el rotavirus es el más importante en la población pediátrica y el principal responsable de la mortalidad infantil por diarrea. La introducción de la vacunación contra rotavirus en nuestro país tendrá un importante impacto en la carga de enfermedad y la mortalidad por diarrea. Sin embargo, se requieren estudios de vigilancia para determinar el impacto de la vacunación y el cambio en la epidemiología de la diarrea en el Perú luego de la introducción de nuevas vacunas, así como la vigilancia de las tasas de resistencia antibiótica para las bacterias de importancia clínica.

  1. Insectos de importancia forense en cadáveres de ratas, Carabobo - Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Liria Salazar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Determinar la composición de la entomofauna asociada con cadáveres de ratas, para identificar las especies de importancia forense en Carabobo, Venezuela. Materiales y métodos: Se estudiaron los insectos en nueve cadáveres de ratas de laboratorio. Diariamente cada rata (cadáver + bandeja con tierra de sustrato fue recogida para obtener la fauna asociada. Con los datos de abundancias se calcularon índices de diversidad y equidad, y se empleó el análisis de componentes principales. Resultados: Se colectaron 13 590 insectos, de los cuales 14,8% correspondieron a cadáveres y 85,2% a bandejas. El orden Diptera fue el más abundante (94,2% seguido por Coleóptera e Hymenóptera (0,2%. Las especies de Diptéra más importantes fueron: Calliphoridae: Lucilia cluvia (Walker, Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann y C. megacephala (Fabricius; y Muscidae: Musca domestica Linnaeus. También se encontraron algunos coleópteros como Dermestes ater DeGeer (Dermestidae y Staphylinidae. Conclusiones: La equidad y diversidad fue baja, debido a la dominancia de especies, y la poca sensibilidad de los índices de diversidad a la presencia de especies raras. Se observó la sucesión de especies en donde L. cluvia se relaciona con los primeros días, seguida por C. albiceps y C. megacephala. Se recomienda continuar con estudios relacionados, para su uso como herramienta de ayuda en la medicina legal en Venezuela.

  2. Narrativa y ciencia. La importancia de las palabras en la investigación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda M. Guerra García

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza la importancia de saber narrar la ciencia de manera idónea y brinda algunos lineamientos para hacerlo. En un siglo invadido por la tecnología, donde el universo se encuentra al alcance de la mano con solamente un clic en Google o en cualquier otro buscador, pareciera como si cada vez más nos alejáramos de la necesidad de producir conocimiento nuevo, de pensar, repensar y de las técnicas de escribir esos pensamientos en un texto agradable de ser leído. Afortunadamente, hay excepciones frente a la era de copiar y pegar, y todavía se encuentran personas que logran escribir hermosamente, reflejando incluso en sus narraciones los hallazgos de su ciencia. En Colombia, ha comenzado la cultura de la investigación y de los cursos de tercer nivel; la que, vale aclarar, lleva siglos en otros países 1 . Este auge de investigación ha traído consigo la inmensa necesidad de escribir; no hay institución universitaria ni docente que se respete que no haga o deba hacer investigación y, a su vez, convertirse en multiplicador con los estudiantes, de la necesidad de escribir, investigar y de hacerlo apropiadamente. Allí es cuando el tema de la narrativa y la ciencia toma la mayor relevancia. Escribir, por paradójico que parezca, tiene su ciencia. ¿Cómo debe entonces narrarse la ciencia? ¿Es realmente fácil escribir? ¿Hay secretos? ¿Cuál debe ser la estructura de un texto científico? Esto es lo que se investiga y presenta en este artículo, que pretende ser un punto de partida más que de llegada al apasionante mundo de la narrativa y la ciencia.

  3. IMPORTANCIA E IMPACTO SOCIAL DE LA TUBERCULOSIS EN LOS NIÑOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnolia Arango Loboguerrero

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Sin importar lo significativa que es la existencia de la tuberculosis (TB infantil, esta ha sido olvidada y subestimada hasta ahora y es de importancia secundaria en los programas de salud pública y en la clínica. Por inmadurez inmunológica y fisiopatogenia, hay expresiones clínicas inespecíficas, diversas y muy variables; presenta además dificultades en el diagnóstico por ser causada por poblaciones bacilares escasas, es decir es paucibacilar y difícil de detectar en las baciloscopias; las muestras son dispendiosas de recolectar debido a la limitación normal que tiene el niño para expectorar hasta los 4 a 5 años, lo cual hace que exista un bajo rendimiento de la positividad de los estudios.

    IMPORTANCE AND SOCIAL IMPACT OF TUBERCULOSIS IN CHILDREN

    ABSTRACT

    No matter how significant children tuberculosis (TB might be, it is a forgotten condition, so far underestimated, of secondary importance in public health programs and from its clinical aspect. Due to immunologic immaturity and physiopathogeny, there are non specific different and very variable manifestations, showing diagnostic difficulties for sputum being paucibacillar, germs not readiliy found in bacilloscopies; sputum samples are hard to collect, since children younger than 5 have trouble in coughing up, so bacilloscopies are seldom positive.

    Keywords: Tuberculosis, Koch bacillus, children pneumopathies

  4. Importancia del manual de los sistemas contables en el sistema de control interno.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Valdés Rodríguez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La dirección administrativa del país en los últimos 3 años ha insistido en la necesidad de profundizar en los mecanismos de control económico –financiero de las entidades, el presente trabajo va dirigido a contribuir en alguna medida a lograr ese propósito. El sistema contable de una Entidad forma parte indisoluble del Sistema de Control Interno de la misma, por la vinculación tan estrecha que existe entre los mismos. El objetivo fundamental del trabajo ”Importancia del Manual de los Sistemas Contables en el Sistema de Control Interno”, es destacar la utilidad práctica, técnica y organizativa que tiene el Manual para elevar la eficiencia del trabajo contable de las Entidades y su repercusión positiva en la eficiencia el sistema de Control Interno establecido. Los beneficios que aporta el Manual radican en que crea una base normativa contable adecuada a las características de cada entidad. Como se sabe en las transformaciones económicas realizadas en el país, la existencia de dos monedas en el trabajo económico-contable de muchas entidades, la puntualización del objeto social y la cartera de productos y servicios han complejizado el trabajo contable, requiriendo una mayor adecuación a las características propias de cada entidad, lo cual se logra con la realización del Manual.

  5. Terrorist threat and perceived Islamic support for terrorist attacks as predictors of personal and institutional out-group discrimination and support for anti-immigration policies: evidence from 9 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doosje, B.; Zimmermann, A.; Küpper, B.; Zick, A.; Meertens, R.

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, research has shown that subtle and blatant prejudices are important predictors of out-group discrimination and support for anti-immigration policies. The present paper shows that, when controlling for these types of prejudices and for political conservatism, terrorist threat and

  6. ACT Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to clot, the higher the degree of clotting inhibition. During surgery, the ACT is kept above a ... What is ECLS? An Introduction to Extracorporeal Life Support. University of Michigan Health System [On-line information]. ...

  7. The effect of the September 11 terrorist attacks on suicide and deliberate self-harm : A time trend study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Lange, AW; Neeleman, J

    2004-01-01

    Suicide rates may be affected by world news. Our objective was to investigate the possible impact of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, on suicidal behavior in the Netherlands. There was evidence of an increase in rates of suicide and deliberate self-harm in the weeks immediately following

  8. Mrs. Shipley’s Ghost: The Right to Travel and Terrorist Watchlists (by Jeffrey Kahn, University of Michigan Press, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Ginsburg

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Since 9/11, migration-related security measures, including a growing reliance on watch-lists, have limited the right to travel. Jeffrey Kahn’s book, Mrs. Shipley’s Ghost: The Right to Travel and Terrorist Watchlists, examines the legal and policy questions raised by prohibitions on travel by US citizens. 

  9. Detection of Hidden Hostile/Terrorist Groups in Harsh Territories by Using Animals as Mobile Biological Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Yasar Guneri; Ercan, Tuncay

    2008-07-25

    Terrorism is the greatest threat to national security and cannot be defeated by conventional military force alone. In critical areas such as Iraq, Afghanistan and Turkey, regular forces cannot reach these hostile/terrorist groups, the instigators of terrorism. These groups have a clear understanding of the relative ineffectiveness of counter-guerrilla operations and rely on guerrilla warfare to avoid major combat as their primary means of continuing the conflict with the governmental structures. In Internal Security Operations, detection of terrorist and hostile groups in their hiding places such as caves, lairs, etc. can only be achieved by professionally trained people such as Special Forces or intelligence units with the necessary experience and tools suitable for collecting accurate information in these often harsh, rugged and mountainous countries. To assist these forces, commercial micro-sensors with wireless interfaces could be utilized to study and monitor a variety of phenomena and environments from a certain distance for military purposes. In order to locate hidden terrorist groups and enable more effective use of conventional military resources, this paper proposes an active remote sensing model implanted into animals capable of living in these environments. By using these mobile sensor devices, improving communications for data transfer from the source, and developing better ways to monitor and detect threats, terrorist ability to carry out attacks can be severely disrupted.

  10. Granting Concessions and Paying Ransoms to Terrorists: A Policy Options Analysis of the U.S. Policy on Hostage Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    businesses like General Motors, which received bailout money from the federal government, and the Catholic Church, which receives tax-exempt status...from gaining independence from France . Other examples of absolute terrorists include the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA), Hamas, and al...The conflict began when the IRA, which represented the Catholic minority, felt discriminated against by the Protestant majority, represented by

  11. Detection of Hidden Hostile/Terrorist Groups in Harsh Territories by Using Animals as Mobile Biological Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuncay Ercan

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is the greatest threat to national security and cannot be defeated by conventional military force alone. In critical areas such as Iraq, Afghanistan and Turkey, regular forces cannot reach these hostile/terrorist groups, the instigators of terrorism. These groups have a clear understanding of the relative ineffectiveness of counter-guerrilla operations and rely on guerrilla warfare to avoid major combat as their primary means of continuing the conflict with the governmental structures. In Internal Security Operations, detection of terrorist and hostile groups in their hiding places such as caves, lairs, etc. can only be achieved by professionally trained people such as Special Forces or intelligence units with the necessary experience and tools suitable for collecting accurate information in these often harsh, rugged and mountainous countries. To assist these forces, commercial micro-sensors with wireless interfaces could be utilized to study and monitor a variety of phenomena and environments from a certain distance for military purposes. In order to locate hidden terrorist groups and enable more effective use of conventional military resources, this paper proposes an active remote sensing model implanted into animals capable of living in these environments. By using these mobile sensor devices, improving communications for data transfer from the source, and developing better ways to monitor and detect threats, terrorist ability to carry out attacks can be severely disrupted.

  12. Construction of War Discourse on International News Agencies: Case Study Terrorist attacks November 13th 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel TORRES-TOUKOUMIDIS

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes warmongering rhetoric presented by international agencies Reuters, Al Arabiya, Al Jazeera and Associated Press (AP of the information related to the terrorist attacks in Paris on November 13th, 2015 for 15 days after the event. We have started from a quantitative and qualitative analysis of 550 information units using the software MAXQDA (v. 11.0.11. Subsequently, the semantic criteria of media discourse: functionality, significance and direction of the goal was applied on the selected sample. The results demonstrate the prevailing demonization of Islam, the exaltation of fear and panic in the discursive construction and it highlighted the spectacle of the information as a communicative strategy on the rhetorical guidance.

  13. War on Terror: Fantasy and Fiction Behind the Mythology of Terrorist Financing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Fatih A. Abdel Salam

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Documentary evidence shows that the series of financial crackdowns initiated since 9/11 have had virtually no impact on terrorism. This is because these efforts are based on a fundamental misconception on how terrorism works. The financial warriors’ predisposition to stereotypes about “Arabs and their money” allowed unsubstantiated rumours–such as Bin Laden’s personal fortune of $300 million–to become established as facts. This study exposes the extent to which Washington policymakers simply transposed the template for the war on drugs on to the war on terror, despite the fact that terrorism is not a profit–driven enterprise. The collateral damage inflicted on organisations like Al-Barakaat, the Somali remittance network, wrongly accused of channeling money to the terrorists, and others are counter-productive as they dent the image of the US in the Muslim world.

  14. Chronic thought suppression and posttraumatic symptoms: data from the Madrid March 11, 2004 terrorist attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Carmelo; Hervás, Gonzalo; Pérez-Sales, Pau

    2008-12-01

    Although a considerable number of people either witnessed directly or in the mass media the traumatic scenes of the terrorist attack that took place on March 11th, 2004 in Madrid, only a fraction of Madrid citizens developed posttraumatic symptoms. In this study, posttraumatic stress-related symptoms, degree of exposure, coping strategies related to the attack, and chronic attempts to avoid intrusive thoughts (i.e., thought suppression) were assessed in a general population Madrid sample (N=503) 2-3 weeks after the attacks. Our results showed that participants with higher scores in chronic thought suppression exhibited higher levels of PTSD symptoms. Higher scores in chronic thought suppression also correlated positively with the use of avoidant coping strategies after the attacks. We discuss the possible common roots of avoidance of intrusive thoughts and avoidant coping strategies and the implications of this relationship for the emergence of stress-related symptoms as well as for public health policies.

  15. Addressing the Foreign Terrorist Fighters Phenomenon From a European Union Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Singleton

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available With the outbreak of civil war and sectarian violence in Syria, Iraq, and Libya, over 15,000 men and women from more than 80 countries around the world have left their homes to become foreign fighters. The security challenge they pose is immense and there are concerns about radicalised fighters returning to their countries of origin or residence, hardened by experience and with the possible intent – and the know-how – to engage in terrorist activities. On 24 September, the UN Security Council unanimously adopted Resolution 2178 (2014 with the support of over 120 states representing a broad cross-section of the UN membership. Resolution 2178 called on all UN member states to ensure increased border security and to screen for or arrest so-called “foreign terrorist fighters” (FTFs travelling to or returning from conflict areas. Rightly so, it also urges states to counter violent extremism by taking preventive measures, such as engaging with communities at the local level to stop the spread of extremist ideologies. On 23 October 2014, the Global Center on Cooperative Security, the Human Security Collective, and ICCT convened an expert meeting at the European Union (EU in Brussels to discuss the implications of the resolution and to explore appropriate and effective responses to the threat of FTFs, both within the EU and as part of the Union’s foreign security and development programming. Building upon the discussion in Brussels, this policy brief is a compilation of essays from all three organisations on the challenges and opportunities for addressing the FTF threat from a European Union perspective. It also examines the implementation of Resolution 2178 as an integral part of national and multilateral foreign security and development policies and initiatives.

  16. Importancia biotecnológica de la microbiodiversidad. Los nuevos cazadores de microbios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Piñero Bonilla

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo está orientado a destacar la importancia biotecnológica de los microorganismos con especial referencia al área alimentaria y agrícola, en el contexto histórico y latinoamericano. Los microorganismos han sido recursos valiosos para la humanidad desde que el hombre comenzó a producir sus alimentos artesanalmente incorporando los procesos fermentativos para la transformación de las materias primas o consumiéndolos directamente. Ya en el siglo XIX, con la ayuda del microscopio se empiezan a entender los principios que rigen estos bioprocesos y los estudios posteriores permitieron determinar la utilidad de los microorganismos y su potencial económico para la producción de insumos comercializables, lo que condujo al desarrollo de la microbiología industrial, la base de la biotecnología, la cual se ha ido fortaleciendo con el uso de las herramientas de la ingeniería genética y de las técnicas de la biología molecular con las que se ha podido detectar e identificar una gran variedad de microorganismos incluso de ambientes extremos en los que los métodos de cultivo convencionales han fallado. El potencial encontrado en la microbiodiversidad es parte de una importante actividad científica conocida como bioprospección, para seleccionar los microorganismos con características que le confieran valor comercial. De esta manera, la búsqueda se ha dirigido principalmente hacia los organismos productores de insumos agrícolas, farmacológicos y alimentarios así como su aplicación en actividades de biorremediación. En este sentido, los microorganismos representan un aporte significativo para la ciencia y la economía de los países latinoamericanos, por lo que algunos de ellos y según sus necesidades, han desarrollado líneas de investigación en bioprospección microbiana como parte de las políticas en materia de ciencia y tecnología.

  17. La importancia de los materiales en las viviendas de muy bajo coste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salas, Julián

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available This text fits into the context of the attempt to emphasize the considerable importance of the factor of the construction materials in the subsection of low cost housing in Developing Countries in general and in Latín America in particular. The author tries to quantify, in a global manner, the repercussion of the materials through different assumptions and to show how it increases as the sections of installations and finishes diminish —in fact, practically disappear—. In accordance with this and as a consequence, the author discusses the necessity to use autochthonous materials and to support the research and technological development which lay stress on the use of alternative materials and the re-use of agro-industrial waste. As a pan of the Chapter V reproduced here, a special Section entitled "The Industry of Construction Materials" is contemplated, a section which we omitted and which can be found in n.º 198 of this Quarterly where it was originally published.

    El texto que sigue se encuadra en el contexto de intentar enmarcar la importancia considerable del capítulo de los materiales de construcción en el subsector de las viviendas de muy bajo coste en los Países en Vías de Desarrollo en general, y en Latinoamérica en particular. El autor trata de cuantificar, en forma global, la repercusión de los materiales en varios supuestos y como ésta aumenta al disminuir —prácticamente desaparecer— las partidas de instalaciones y acabados. De conformidad y como consecuencia de lo anterior, el autor se ocupa de la necesidad de emplear materiales autóctonos y de apoyar la investigación y el desarrollo tecnológico que ponen énfasis en la utilización de materiales alternativos y la reutilización de desechos agro-industriales. Formando parte del Capítulo V que se reproduce, se contempla un apartado específico con el título "La Industria de Materiales de la Construcción" que hemos omitido, remitiendo al lector

  18. Aloantígenos de granulocitos: Importancia clínica The granulocyte alloantigens. Clinical importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Rosario López De Roux

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Los aloantígenos de granulocitos se agrupan en 2 grandes categorías: antígenos específicos de granulocitos y antígenos cuya distribución es más amplia y comprende otras líneas celulares. En 1998 se acordó establecer una nueva nomenclatura de los aloantígenos de granulocitos, basada en la localización glucoproteica de estos antígenos. La molécula FcgRIIIb es un miembro de la superfamilia de inmunoglobulinas (CD 16 en la cual se asientan varios de los aloantígenos específicos de granulocitos. Existen otros aloantígenos cuya función y localización se desconocen. Estas moléculas son de gran importancia clínica, pues se ven envueltas en una serie de enfermedades como la neutropenia neonatal aloinmune, cuyo carácter clínico moderado hace que pase inadvertida, la reacción febril no hemolítica, el daño pulmonar agudo relacionado con la transfusión, la neutropenia inmune asociada con el trasplante de médula ósea y la neutropenia autoinmune. Aunque se han producido avances en la caracterización de los aloantígenos de granulocitos, muchos puntos quedan sin aclarar, entre ellos, la significación clínica de muchos antígenos. El desarrollo creciente de técnicas moleculares, bioquímicas y serológicas para el estudio de los antígenos de células sanguíneas, nos permitirá aclarar los puntos que aún permanecen oscuros en este campo de la investigaciónThe granulocyte alloantigens are grouped into 2 big categories: specific granulocyte antigens and antigens, whose distribution is wider and comprises other cellular lines. In 1998, it was agreed to establish a new nomenclature of granulocyte alloantigens based on the glycoprotein localization of these antigens. The FcgRIIIb molecule is a member of the superfamily of immunoglobulins (CD 16, in which many of the specific granulocyte alloantigens are found. There are other alloantigens with an unknown function and localization. These molecules have a great clinical importance

  19. Importancia del profesionalismo médico ante las exigencias de la humanidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raidel González Rodríguez

    2014-11-01

    álisis educativos los capacita en la identificación de necesidades relativas al proceso docente y en cómo resolverlas, lo cual convierte cada expediente curricular en un permanente problema científico, que les permite intervenir y resolver los problemas propios de la pedagogía dentro del aula y en los procesos extensionistas en su contexto. (4 Sin embargo, de este aspecto que integra la profesionalidad del médico-profesor universitario se adolece en estos tiempos. (5 De las reflexiones expuestas se deriva la necesidad e importancia de la calidad de la profesionalidad médica universitaria en todas sus dimensiones, lo cual trasciende a la eficacia de la gestión docente, encumbra su labor como profesional y permite resultados pertinentes al cumplir con su responsabilidad social de formar egresados competentes, integrales, con deberes ante la sociedad y a la altura de los lineamientos actuales del país

  20. Los Humedales de la Quebrada Estero en San Ramón, Costa Rica: importancia y estado actual.

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Arias, Cindy Elena; Silva Benavides, Ana Margarita

    2017-01-01

    Los humedales de la microcuenca alta de la Quebrada Estero, en San Ramón, Costa Rica, son considerados una prioridad de conservación por su representatividad y ubicación que los hace únicos en su tipo. Por eso se planteó el objetivo de conocer su importancia y estado actual para que esta información sirva de base para su recuperación y conservación. Se llevó a cabo la identificación de los servicios ecosistémicos y de las amenazas e impactos que tienen las actividades humanas en ellos mediant...

  1. Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Diptera: Muscidae) y su importancia en Entomología Forense e investigación aplicada

    OpenAIRE

    Ivorra Cazorla, Tania

    2016-01-01

    Synthesiomyia nudiseta (van der Wulp, 1883) es un múscido de origen tropical y subtropical, siendo la única especie conocida dentro del género Synthesiomyia Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1893. Se trata de una especie con gran importancia forense para la estimación del intervalo postmortem, en diferentes zonas del mundo (p. ej.: Costa Rica, Estados Unidos, India, Malasia, Tailandia). Su presencia en España y Europa es relativamente reciente y en los últimos años se ha citado con cierta frecuencia en a...

  2. Importancia de la traducción e interpretación de idiomas para las empresas exportadoras de cacao

    OpenAIRE

    Martinetti Macias, Nicole; Chóez Ortega, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    El presente trabajo analiza la importancia del servicio de traducción e interpretación en las negociaciones internacionales por parte de las empresas ecuatorianas exportadoras, considerando que en la actualidad existe un mayor interés por parte de los productores locales por captar un porcentaje de mercado en Asia. De acuerdo a este hecho uno de los aspectos importantes es el papel del traductor y del intérprete en la comunicación con los importadores. Sin embargo, las empresas del sector ...

  3. La importancia de la visualización en el aprendizaje de conceptos matemáticos

    OpenAIRE

    Gatica, Stella Nora; Ares, Óscar Enrique

    2012-01-01

    En los últimos tiempos, el estudio de la visualización en el pensamiento matemático es objeto de numerosas investigaciones, en parte, posiblemente, debido al surgimiento de la computadora como un recurso didáctico para la comprensión de conceptos matemáticos. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo reflexionar sobre la importancia de poder relacionar e interpretar imágenes visuales (utilizando manipulables virtuales) con la información que está dada en forma simbólica. Presentamos una propuesta didá...

  4. Las aguas subterráneas transfronterizas México-Estados Unidos: importancia e invisibilidad dentro del contexto del TLCAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo HATCH KURI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo identifica la importancia del agua subterránea transfronteriza México-Estados Unidos, en relación con el vacío jurídico que predomina en su regulación en las diferentes escalas que intervienen en el uso, manejo y extracción de la misma y el significado de la escasez hídrica en la configuración del discurso hegemónico de seguridad nacional en el panorama neoliberal de integración regional del Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte (TLCAN.

  5. La anticipación defensiva en los deportes de equipo: Un estudio de la importancia otorgada a sus variables

    OpenAIRE

    Guzmán, José Francisco; García Ferriol, Ángel

    2002-01-01

    El presente estudio pretendió identificar las principales variables que inciden sobre el éxito en la anticipación defensiva y realizar una jerarquización de su nivel de importancia a partir de las opiniones de los propios practicantes del deporte. El estudio se realizó con una muestra de 181 estudiantes de Educación Secundaria y Universidad, todos ellos con experiencia deportiva extraescolar, de edades comprendidas entre 16 y 20 años, a los cuales se les administró un cuestionario de 10 ítems...

  6. Importancia de la educación para la salud bucal en niños escolares

    OpenAIRE

    Rossitto, Franco Luciano

    2017-01-01

    En conjunto con los alumnos de OPS de la Facultad de Odontología, en la localidad de Lisandro Olmos, se llevaron a cabo charlas educativas con el fin de enseñar y concientizar a los niños en su primera etapa escolar sobre la importancia que tiene el cuidado de nuestra salud bucal, como se debe realizar una prevención adecuada y a la vez con la intención de que se transmita lo aprendido a futuras generaciones.

  7. Taxonomía e importancia clínica de las nuevas familias del orden Chlamydiales

    OpenAIRE

    MARTÍNEZ T., M. ANGÉLICA; DIOMEDI P., ALEXIS; KOGAN A., RICARDO; BORIE P., CONSUELO

    2001-01-01

    Esta revisión comprende los cambios trascendentales que se han producido recientemente en la taxonomía de clamidias, la importancia clínica de las nuevas especies del orden Chlamydiales y los métodos para su identificación. La nueva clasificación del orden Chlamydiales se basa en las características fenotípicas, antigénicas, rango de huésped y análisis filogenético del operón ribosomal y proporciona un procedimiento consistente para la identificación de las actuales especies y el establecimie...

  8. La educación ambiental y su importancia en la relación sustentable: Hombre-Naturaleza- Territorio

    OpenAIRE

    Ronald Fernando Quintana Arias

    2017-01-01

    Objetivo. Promover la importancia de la educación ambiental en el fortalecimiento de la relación sustentable Hombre-Naturaleza-Territorio en 8 niños y niñas observadores de aves de la primaria María Berchmans. Metodología. Entre agosto y noviembre del 2015 desarrollé un estudio de caso basado en el aprendizaje vivencial, social y experiencial, que se dividió en dos fases en las que se encontraban 19 actividades clasificadas dentro de siete...

  9. The Rise and the Fall of Terrorist Organizations in Post-Dictatorial Greece: The Role and the Lessons for the Intelligence Services

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fakitsas, Miltiadis

    2003-01-01

    ... and business elite, The government's failure to curtail these groups resulted from the enormous belief that these terrorists were not a direct threat to Greek's democracy Fortunately, in June of 2002...

  10. Involvement of Russian Organized Crime Syndicates, Criminal Elements in the Russian Military, and Regional Terrorist Groups in Narcotics Trafficking in Central Asia, the Caucasus, and Chechnya

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Curtis, Glenn E

    2002-01-01

    ... (Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia), and in Chechnya. The purpose of the report is to reveal the role of Russian organized crime and Central Asian terrorist organizations in narcotics trafficking in those areas...

  11. Posse Comitatus and the Use of the Military in Denying Terrorist Access to the United States Along the Border with Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thomas, Greg A

    2005-01-01

    .... The largely unsecured border we share with Mexico is an enticing avenue for illegal immigrants and drug smugglers but also, and more importantly, for potential terrorists hostile to the United States...

  12. Securing public transportation systems an integrated decision analysis framework for the prevention of terrorist attacks as example

    CERN Document Server

    Brauner, Florian

    2017-01-01

    Florian Brauner addresses the risk reduction effects of security measures (SecMe) as well as economic and social effects using terrorist threats in public transportation as use case. SecMe increase the level of security but cause interferences and restrictions for customers (e.g. privacy). This study identifies the interferences and analyzes the acceptance with an empirical survey of customers. A composite indicator for the acceptance of different SecMe is developed and integrated into a risk management framework for multi-criteria decision analysis achieving the right balance of risk reduction, costs, and social acceptance. Contents Assessment of Security Measures for Risk Management Measurement of Objective Effectiveness of Security Measures Against Terrorist Attacks Determination of Subjective Effects of Security Measures (Customer Acceptance Analysis) Cost Analysis of Security Measures Multi-Criteria Decision Support Systems Target Groups Scientists with Interest in Civil Security Research Providers and S...

  13. Estimation of terrorist attack resistibility of dual-purpose cask TP-117 with DU (depleted uranium) gamma shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, O.G.; Matveev, V.Z.; Morenko, A.I.; Il'kaev, R.I.; Shapovalov, V.I.

    2004-01-01

    Report is devoted to numerical research of dual-purpose unified cask (used for SFA transportation and storage) resistance to terrorist attacks. High resistance of dual-purpose unified cask has been achieved due to the unique design-technological solutions and implementation of depleted uranium in cask construction. In suggested variant of construction depleted uranium fulfils functions of shielding and constructional material. It is used both in metallic and cermet form (basing on steel and depleted uranium dioxide). Implementation of depleted uranium in cask construction allows maximal load in existing overall dimensions of the cask. At the same time: 1) all safety requirements (IAEA) are met, 2) dual-purpose cask with SFA has high resistance to terrorist attacks

  14. How Belfius Bank's response to the terrorist attacks in Brussels helped embed business continuity in the company culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jappens, Ludo

    2017-01-01

    Until 2015, major terrorist incidents in Belgium were considered a 'black swan'. However, the suicide attacks in Paris on 13th November, 2015 provided a wake-up call. Investigations revealed that the raid was prepared in Belgium by jihadists who grew up in Brussels and was coordinated by Belgian ISIS fighters in Syria. In an instant, it became clear that terror had been embedded in Belgian society and could erupt at any moment. At Belfius Bank Belgium, the subsequent months were a rollercoaster ride of terrorist-related events. Business activities were strongly affected, as the company's head office is located in the centre of Brussels. This paper focuses on the way Belfius responded to the events and how the lessons learned have helped to improve its business continuity and crisis management capability.

  15. Estimation of terrorist attack resistibility of dual-purpose cask TP-117 with DU (depleted uranium) gamma shield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseev, O.G.; Matveev, V.Z.; Morenko, A.I.; Il' kaev, R.I.; Shapovalov, V.I. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center - All-Russian Research Inst. of Experimental Physics, Sarov (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    Report is devoted to numerical research of dual-purpose unified cask (used for SFA transportation and storage) resistance to terrorist attacks. High resistance of dual-purpose unified cask has been achieved due to the unique design-technological solutions and implementation of depleted uranium in cask construction. In suggested variant of construction depleted uranium fulfils functions of shielding and constructional material. It is used both in metallic and cermet form (basing on steel and depleted uranium dioxide). Implementation of depleted uranium in cask construction allows maximal load in existing overall dimensions of the cask. At the same time: 1) all safety requirements (IAEA) are met, 2) dual-purpose cask with SFA has high resistance to terrorist attacks.

  16. Characterising the UK Terrorist Threat: The Problem with Non-Violent Ideology as a Focus for Counter-Terrorism and Terrorism as the product of ‘Vulnerability’

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony Richards

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates two particular aspects as to how the terrorist threat in the UK has been characterised, arguing that they both challenge conventional academic wisdom as to how terrorism should be conceptualised. While such conventional wisdom should always be open to challenge, and policymaking perspectives are different to those of academics, these two particular aspects as to how the terrorist threat has been perceived in the UK merit scrutiny, especially as counter-terrorism stra...

  17. Developing Health-Based Pre-Planning Clearance Goals for Airport Remediation Following Chemical Terrorist Attack: Introduction and Key Assessment Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Annetta; Hall, Linda; Raber, Ellen; Hauschild, Veronique D.; Dolislager, Fredrick; Love, Adam H.; Hanna, M. Leslie

    2011-01-01

    In the event of a chemical terrorist attack on a transportation hub, post-event remediation and restoration activities necessary to attain unrestricted facility reuse and re-entry could require hours to multiple days. While restoration timeframes are dependent on numerous variables, a primary controlling factor is the level of pre-planning and decision-making completed prior to chemical terrorist release. What follows is the first of a two-part analysis identifying key considerations, critica...

  18. Review of Studies of the Economic Impact of the September 11, 2001, Terrorist Attacks on the World Trade Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-29

    of the Budget, • New York City Partnership and Chamber of Commerce , Washington, DC 20548 Report Documentation Page Report Date 29MAY2002 Report Type...700R Impact of Terrorist Attacks on the World Trade Center 10 Eight Studies (cont’d) ! New York City Partnership and Chamber of Commerce , Economic...Center 29 Observations Observations The New York City Partnership and Chamber of Commerce study generated the most comprehensive estimates—direct and

  19. What Are We Really Afraid Of? The Practitioner View of the Terrorist Threat in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    like intelligence gathering and courier work • 80% single • Familiarity with home ground. Thus terrorists come from both rural and urban areas • 66...codes also help disaggregate intra- - 114 - state regions by identifying urban areas from suburban and rural . Finally, through geographic mapping...National Laboratory for Tourism and eCommerce (NLTEC), University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. 2002. Self-Selection Biases in the Internet

  20. Organizational change in the Ministry of Justice and Public Security after the terrorist attacks on 22 July 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Susan Bahia

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines changes in the Ministry of Justice and Public Security (MJ) after the terrorist attacks in Norway 22 July 2011 until 2016. The focus is on the MJ’s internal and external formal organization, internal and external procedures, and demographic profile. A main finding is that the MJ has been subject to several small incremental changes, which collectively have resulted in a considerable development of the Ministry’s governance capacity in the field of societal s...

  1. Hongos de importancia agrícola presentes en moscas de la fruta del valle de Ica, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. Tipismana

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue aislar e identificar hongos de especímenes de moscas de la fruta de los géneros Ceratitis (Macleay y Anastrepha (Schiner, del valle de Ica, Perú. Se aislaron hongos pertenecientes a los géneros Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Mucor, Penicillium, Rhizoctonia, Rhizopus y Trichoderma;así como levaduras y micelios estériles. Los recuentos de hongos presentaron rangos entre 8x103 a 8x104 UFC/g para el género Ceratitis; y 7x103 a 7x104 UFC/g para el género Anastrepha. El IVI% (Índice de Valor de Importancia demostró que Cladosporium es el género con mayor valor ecológico con un 78,05%. El Índice de Similitud de especies de hongos entre ambos géneros de mosca de la fruta analizados fue 0,5. Los resultados obtenidos confirman la presencia de hongos en moscas de la fruta; y se deduce el posible impacto de estos dípteros en el área agrícola como potenciales agentes vectores de enfermedades fúngicas para los cultivos locales de importancia económica.

  2. La educación ambiental y su importancia en la relación sustentable: Hombre-Naturaleza- Territorio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Fernando Quintana Arias

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Promover la importancia de la educación ambiental en el fortalecimiento de la relación sustentable Hombre-Naturaleza-Territorio en 8 niños y niñas observadores de aves de la primaria María Berchmans. Metodología. Entre agosto y noviembre del 2015 desarrollé un estudio de caso basado en el aprendizaje vivencial, social y experiencial, que se dividió en dos fases en las que se encontraban 19 actividades clasificadas dentro de siete categorías. Resultados. El desarrollo tanto de habilidades cognitivas “duras” como de habilidades socioemocionales “blandas” exponiendo diferentes ambientes educacionales, incentiva un aprendizaje activo que fortalece la relación sustentable Hombre-Naturaleza-Territorio. Conclusión. La generación de una conciencia de conservación ambiental al contemplar la importancia de la educación escolar en la relación Hombre-Naturaleza-Territorio lleva a la apropiación de la biodiversidad (natural-cultural y a generar aprendizajes significativos.

  3. Distribución actual e importancia epidemiológica de las especies de triatominos (Reduviidae: Triatominae en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A. Molina

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la distribución geográfica y la importancia epidemiológica en la transmisión de la enfermedad de Chagas de las 23 especies de triatominos presentes en Colombia, tomando como base los registros bibliográficos existentes en el pais y las colecciones de referencia del Laboratorio de Entomologia del Instituto Nacional de Salud y del Centro de Investigaciones en Microbiologia y Parasitologia Tropical de la Universidad de los Andes; además, se realiza un análisis de las condiciones ecológicas en las cuales han sido registrados triatominos en los paises con fronteras con Colombia para poder establecer la presencia de posibles especies que aún no se han registrado en nuestro pais. De esta manera. existe la posibilidad de tener en Colombia especies con hábitos silvestres como: Alberprosenia malheiroi. Belminus laportei y Cavernicola lenti, preentes todas ellas en los departamentos amazónicos; Triatoma nigromaculata en la Cordillera Oriental y con hábitos intradomiciliarios; Panstrongylus chinai con posibilidad de encontrarse en hábitats selváticos o en las viviendas de los colonos de la Amazonia debido a su atracción por la luz y Alberprosenia goyovargasien hábitats silvestres de la frontera con Venezuela. Se resalta la importancia de la vigilancia entomológica a nivel nacional como estrategia para reforzar los estudios de triatominos silvestres en Colombia.

  4. Importancia de los estudios fisiológicos en los cultivos de flores de exportación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orozco de Amézquita Martha

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available La Fisiologla Vegetal estudia el funcionamiento de las plantas y los procesos vitales que regulan su crecimiento, desarrollo y producción. En últimas, las respuestas de los vegetales dependen de lo que ocurre a nivel molecular, de organelos subcelulares, de células, de tejidos y órganos y de las
    interrelaciones entre ellos, todo ésto modulado por
    las condiciones ambientales. De la anterior definición, se deduce la importancia que tiene la investigación de los procesos fisiológicos en el desarrollo de la floricultura. En la actualidad, el manejo de plantas productoras de flores bajo
    invernadero en la Sabana de Bogotá está basado en el interés de los floricultores por mejorar y aumentar
    la calidad de la producción, lo cual ha originado un importante conocimiento emplrico, acompañado del empleo de técnicas recomendadas por expertos internacionales, que han suplido
    los requerimientos necesarios para la producción. Por lo anterior, Arbeláez (1985 opina que un aspecto de vital importancia en el desarrollo futuro de la industria de flores será el poder contar con investigación suficiente que genere la tecnologla adecuada a las necesidades y condiciones colombianas.

  5. Operation the laboratory for NBC protection and bio monitoring in the case of terrorist attack with NBC weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tusek, D.; Vucemilovic, A; Klobucar, J.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop efficacy of Operation the Laboratory for NBC protection and Bio monitoring in the case of terrorist attack with chemical weapons. When is necessary quickly, adeptly Operation and unambiguous confirmation about use chemical warfare agent, the Laboratory must be ready and qualified for reaction. The Laboratory had to develop capability for the timely sampling and unambiguous identification chemical warfare agents in a battlefield or in case of the terrorist attack. The need for quality sample collection and analyses is critical to verify use of chemical weapon (CW) by an enemy or terrorists. Collection, packaging, transport and analysis of samples must be carried out on proper way and quickly enough for military, medical or political purposes. Precise records must accompany each sample but these records must not contaminate samples anyway. All sampling team personnel have to be equipped with appropriate equipment and qualified in its handling. After arriving samples at our Laboratory, we will handle with them on standard procedures; carry out preparation such as Headspace, Liquid/liquid extraction, Solid phase extraction, Liquid/solid extraction, concentration and derivatization. After that we will analyze samples by gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry (GC/MS) method.(author)

  6. Comparison between penalties coming from malevolent act against nuclear materials and facilities in Japan, US, Italy and France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, Fabiana

    2013-01-01

    In the last years, some relevant terrorist events have demonstrated that an attack on a nuclear facility might be attempted and that terrorists have formidable capabilities and dedication. As a consequence, these events have served as a catalyst for the development of the global nuclear security regime in all countries. This has led to an increased focus on defenses against terrorists at nuclear facilities, as well as at other critical infrastructures. This intention of increase defense is carried out from both an operational and a legislative point of view. In addition to, and following the IAEA recommendations, national law starts considering these events in term of penalties of these acts. In this framework, this work aimed to compare the sanctions and punishments provided from law coming not only from the non-conformity with the legislation, but also from malevolent act against nuclear materials and facilities, in different countries. Taking as reference the US (with the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 as amended) and France (with the French Defense Code), the Italian and Japanese case will be compared showing similarities, differences and vacancies in their legislations. (author)

  7. Social integration buffers stress in New York police after the 9/11 terrorist attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzer, Ralf; Bowler, Rosemarie M; Cone, James E

    2014-01-01

    Being socially integrated is regarded as a protective factor enabling people to cope with adversity. The stress-buffering effect reflects an interaction between stress and a social coping resource factor on subsequent outcomes. This study, based on 2943 police officers, examines mental health outcomes among officers who responded to the 9/11 terrorist attack on the World Trade Center. The Wave 1 data collection took place between September 2003 and November 2004 with a follow-up study (Wave 2) conducted from November 2006 through December 2007. A moderated mediation model was specified that uses event exposure as a distal predictor, earlier stress response as a mediator, and later stress response as an outcome, and social integration as a moderator of this relationship. The mediation hypothesis was confirmed, and moderation occurred at two stages. First, there was a multiplicative relationship between exposure levels and social integration: The higher the exposure level, the more stress responses occur, but this effect was buffered by a high level of social integration. Second, Wave 1 stress interacted with social integration on Wave 2 stress: The more the police officers were socially integrated, the lower the Wave 2 stress, which happened in a synergistic manner. The findings contribute to the understanding of mediating and moderating mechanisms that result in health outcomes such as posttraumatic stress disorder or resilience.

  8. Extremist Radicalism and Terrorist Inroads in West Africa: Understanding the Threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Kofi Amoah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available While research has not yet established the regional consequences of terrorism, its immediate effects on states that have been hit (i.e. Mali, Niger, Burkina Faso and Nigeria, and the spill over effects in neighbouring countries cannot be discounted. This paper analyses the challenge of violent extremism in Africa based on existing evidence from across the West African sub- region. It pays particular attention to the recruitment of young people in Africa into extremist causes on the continent and beyond and proffers measures for their curtailment. The paper argues that terrorism in contemporary Africa undermines democratization, good governance, peace and security and regional development. It also recommends three-pronged strategies for addressing the miasma of extremist radicalism and its associated violence in West Africa, namely, governance, development and security reforms. While it may be difficult to absolutely curtail the activities of terrorist organizations in West Africa. Countries with minimal vulnerabilities like Ghana, Sierra Leone, Liberia and others should intensify efforts towards increased border and cyber security surveillance, sustained de-radicalization programmes and youth empowerment programmes to curb unemployment in earnest.

  9. "Evita Una Muerte, Esta en Tus Manos" Program: Bystander First Aid Training for Terrorist Attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajuelo Castro, J J; Meneses Pardo, J C; Salinas Casado, P L; Hernandez Martin, P; Montilla Canet, R; Del Campo Cuesta, J L; Incera Bustio, G; Martin Ayuso, D

    The latest terrorist attacks in Europe and in the rest of the world, and the military experience in the most recent conflicts leave us with several lessons learned. The most important is that the fate of the wounded rests in the hands of the one who applies the first dressing, because the victims usually die within the first 10 minutes, before professional care providers or police personnel arrive at the scene. A second lesson is that the primary cause of preventable death in these types of incidents involving explosives and firearms is massive hemorraghe. There is a need to develop a training oriented to citizens so they can identify and use available resources to avoid preventable deaths that occur in this kind of incidents, especially massive hemorrhage. A 7-hour training intervention program was developed and conducted between January and May 2017. Data were collected from participants' answers on a multiple-choice test before and after undertaking the training. Improved mean score for at least 75% of a group's members on the posttraining test was considered reflective of adequate knowledge. A total of 173 participants (n = 74 men [42.8%]; n = 99 women [57.2%]) attended the training. They were classified into three groups: a group of citizens/ first responders with no prior health training, a group of health professionals, and a group of nursing students. Significant differences (ρ first responders group. 2017.

  10. Holy Terror, Batman! Frank Miller’s Dark Knight and the Superhero as Hardboiled Terrorist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Croci

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Conceived in the late thirties as “bold humanist response to Depression-era fears of runaway scientific advance and soulless industrialism” (Morrison 2012, 6, the superhero has flourished as one of the most resilient archetypes of American popular culture. This essay analyses the literary and cultural contaminations that have engendered an unprecedented revision of the paradigm since the 1980s. In particular, it will take into account three graphic novels by American cartoonist Frank Miller (1957 - , one of leading figures of the mainstream comics renaissance, whose ideas have indelibly influenced the artistic development of both medium and genre. The Dark Knight Returns (1986, The Dark Knight Strikes Again (2002 and Holy Terror (2011 constitute an ideal Batman trilogy that charts the character’s evolution as political counterpoint to the perceived crisis of American identity. In this regard, Reaganism and 9/11 are polarized as historical discontinuities triggering the need for a new kind of a criminal (superhero. It will be in fact demonstrated how the novels hybridise the latent generic links to hardboiled pulp novels (R. Chandler, D. Hammet with narrative and aesthetics elements appropriated from the culturally-received concepts of terrorism and terrorists. This fruitful contamination on the one hand “play[s] with reader assumptions about genre” (Baetens and Frey 2015, 46, while on the other hand deconstructs the ideological underpinnings of the archetype, as the moral dichotomy and the alienation of justice from the law.

  11. Toxicology of organophosphorus compounds in view of an increasing terrorist threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worek, Franz; Wille, Timo; Koller, Marianne; Thiermann, Horst

    2016-09-01

    The implementation of the Chemical Weapon Convention (CWC), prohibiting the development, production, storage and use of chemical weapons by 192 nations and the ban of highly toxic OP pesticides, especially class I pesticides according to the WHO classification, by many countries constitutes a great success of the international community. However, the increased interest of terrorist groups in toxic chemicals and chemical warfare agents presents new challenges to our societies. Almost seven decades of research on organophosphorus compound (OP) toxicology was mainly focused on a small number of OP nerve agents despite the fact that a huge number of OP analogues, many of these agents having comparable toxicity to classical nerve agents, were synthesized and published. Only limited physicochemical, toxicological and medical information on nerve agent analogues is available in the open literature. This implies potential gaps of our capabilities to detect, to decontaminate and to treat patients if nerve agent analogues are disseminated and may result in inadequate effectiveness of newly developed countermeasures. In summary, our societies may face new, up to now disregarded, threats by toxic OP which calls for increased awareness and appropriate preparedness of military and civilian CBRN defense, a broader approach for new physical and medical countermeasures and an integrated system of effective detection, decontamination, physical protection and treatment.

  12. An autopsy case related to a terrorist attack using a ball-bearing bomb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamiya, Masataka; Biwasaka, Hitoshi; Niitsu, Hisae; Saigusa, Kiyoshi; Aoki, Yasuhiro

    2009-03-01

    We encountered an autopsy case related to a terrorist attack using a ball-bearing bomb. The decedent was a 51-year-old male without significant medical histories. During dinner in a restaurant, the perpetrator suddenly exploded a ball-bearing bomb, the blast from which blew the victim off his chair. The victim was found to be unresponsive, and pronounced dead. X-ray photographs taken before autopsy revealed six spherical shadows. Three penetrating wounds in the head, one in the neck and chest, and two in the left upper arm were observed in vivo. Six projectiles recovered from the body were identified as ball-bearings, one of which traveled through the midbrain, diencephalon, and left temporal lobe. Although blast injuries and penetrating wounds are often combined in bomb attack victims, penetrating brain injury would be the cause of death in this case. Lethal injuries to major organs can thus occur even though the destructive force of a ball-bearing bomb is weak. X-ray films were informative for detecting the ball-bearings in this case, suggesting that autopsy imaging is essential in cases of terrorism victims.

  13. The 1983 Beirut Airport terrorist bombing. Injury patterns and implications for disaster management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frykberg, E R; Tepas, J J; Alexander, R H

    1989-03-01

    The casualty profile and results of the medical care provided for the survivors of the terrorist truck bombing of the U.S. Marine Corps facility in Beirut, Lebanon, in 1983 were reviewed to determine the factors that influenced casualty survival. This explosion resulted in 346 casualties, of whom 234 (68%) were immediately killed. The spectrum of injury was determined in 85 survivors using the Injury Severity Score (ISS). There were seven (6.3%) deaths among the 112 immediate survivors. All deaths occurred among the 19 (17%) victims who were critically injured (ISS greater than 15), giving a mortality in this population of 37 per cent. Six (86%) of the seven deaths were associated with an initial delay in treatment. Head injury was the most common fatal injury among both immediate fatalities (71.4%) and immediate survivors (57%). Thoracic injury and burns each accounted for 29 per cent of survivor deaths. Triage efficiency, as determined by the rates of overtriage (80%) and undertriage (0), did not appear adversely to affect mortality. Critical analysis of disasters such as this can contribute to improvements in preparation and casualty care in the event of future disasters.

  14. International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism. United Nations 2005: International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2005-01-01

    The International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism is a 2005 United Nations treaty designed to criminalize acts of nuclear terrorism and to promote police and judicial cooperation to prevent, investigate and punish those acts. As of September 2016, the convention has 115 signatories and 106 state parties, including the nuclear powers China, France, India, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The Convention covers a broad range of acts and possible targets, including nuclear power plants and nuclear reactors; covers threats and attempts to commit such crimes or to participate in them, as an accomplice; stipulates that offenders shall be either extradited or prosecuted; encourages States to cooperate in preventing terrorist attacks by sharing information and assisting each other in connection with criminal investigations and extradition proceedings; and, deals with both crisis situations, assisting States to solve the situations and post-crisis situations by rendering nuclear material safe through the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

  15. The Enemies List: The Foreign Terrorist Organization List and Its Role in Defining Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    seven days before the designation is published in the Federal Register, as section 219 of the Immigration and Nationality Act requires. Upon the...Organizations.” 38 Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996, 110 Stat. 1214 (amends § 219 of the Immigration and Nationality Act (Public Law...and the Israeli-occupied territories, Chile , Iran, and Cambodia. Table 1 reflects the list of communist FTOs designated prior to 9/11, and a

  16. LA IMPORTANCIA DE LOS EJES DE FIJACIÓN DEL PAISAJE URBANO EN LA EDUCACIÓN VIAL

    OpenAIRE

    Nina, Mónica Marianela; Filippeti, Rosana; Pauletto, Selva del Valle

    2012-01-01

    La enseñanza de los ejes de fijación en el espacio urbano son elementos que deben ser vinculados con la educación vial ya que la misma no forma parte del diseño curricular en la educación formal. El propósito del presente trabajo es que a través de la enseñanza de las funciones de las arterias de circulación como calles, avenidas, rutas, autopistas se busca la toma de conciencia de los jóvenes de la importancia de conocer los principios de la educación vial para prevenir los accidentes de trá...

  17. APROXIMACIÓN AL CONCEPTO DE GOBERNANZA EN COLOMBIA Y ALGUNOS APUNTES SOBRE SU IMPORTANCIA EN EL DERECHO AMBIENTAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Castro Buitrago

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta un breve estudio sobre la recepción del concepto de Gobernanza en Colombia, su uso en la política ambiental y la investigación interna que existe en esta materia. En especial, el artículo llama la atención sobre la necesidad de estudiar la influencia del término en el ámbito del derecho administrativo ambiental, a partir de la importancia que otros ordenamientos jurídicos le han otorgado. En el caso europeo, la gobernanza se entiende como el modelo ideal de gobernación para gestionar los asuntos ambientales

  18. La Importancia del Intangible en la Empresa de Internet: Una Propuesta de Medición Contable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Fuentes Martín

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available En el presente documento de trabajo se analiza la importancia de intangible en el valor de la empresa de Internet y por tanto en la obtención de financiación para la misma, la problemática de su contabilización, así como un estudio empírico en el que se propone la aplicación de una metodología basada en las técnicas operativas proporcionadas por la teoría de los subconjuntos difusos, a la identificación, y posterior tratamiento de los intangibles generadores de ventaja competitiva y su inclusión en un "balance invisible.

  19. LA IMPORTANCIA DEL HIGIENISMO Y LA POTABILIZACIÓN DEL AGUA EN LA CIUDAD DE VALENCIA (1860 -1910

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Palomero González

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El siglo XIX se caracteriza por numerosos cambios tanto a nivel social como estructural de la pobla - ción: se produce un acelerado desarrollo urbano sin planificación y carente de servicios que da lugar a una mala calidad de vida y numerosas epidemias. Estos cambios tienen como resultado un nuevo movi - miento, el Higienismo, que pretende mejorar las condiciones de vida de la población. En España, todas las reformas higiénicas se desarrollaron mediante los planes de Ensanche. Uno de los puntos clave de este pensamiento es el abastecimiento de agua potable como medio para evitar enfermedades. La ciudad de Valencia es un claro ejemplo de la importancia de este movimiento y cómo el abastecimiento de agua es un elemento clave en la mejora de la calidad de vida de las personas.

  20. FUNCIONES E IMPORTANCIA ECONÓMICA DEL RECURSO CHAPULIXTLE (DODONAEA VISCOSA) EN UN EJIDO DEL SUBTRÓPICO MEXICANO

    OpenAIRE

    José Isabel Juan Pérez

    2013-01-01

    El chapulixtle (Dodonaea viscosa) es una planta cosmopolita. Para demostrar la importancia económica de esta planta, se realizó una investigación de campo en un Ejido del Subtrópico Mexicano, durante el período 2010 - 2012. Fue explorado el hábitat de la planta y su utilización por parte de las familias campesinas. La investigación se sustentó en la Geografía Ambiental (Bocco, 2007) y la Ecología Cultural (Steward, 1955), complementándose con la aplicación de un cuestionario al 100% de las f...

  1. Importancia del conteo de células somáticas en la calidad de la leche

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Reyes, Juan Manuel; Bedolla Cedeño, José Luís Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Este trabajo es una revisión sobre la importancia de las células somáticas en la calidad de la leche. Las células somáticas son, entre otras, células blancas propias del organismo que le sirven como defensa a la glándula mamaria de la vaca contra organismos patógenos. La determinación del contenido de células somáticas de la leche del tanque, o de los cuartos de la glándula mamaria de las vacas, es el medio auxiliar de diagnóstico más importante para juzgar el estado de salud de la ubre de un...

  2. Importancia de la donación de células madre en pacientes con anemia de Fanconi

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Martín, Lucía

    2014-01-01

    La importancia de la donación tanto de médula ósea como de sangre del cordón umbilical se debe a que contiene unas células denominadas células madre. Estas células pueden ser de dos tipos: embrionarias, que se obtienen de la sangre del cordón umbilical, y maduras, que se pueden obtener de la médula ósea y de sangre periférica. La capacidad que tienen estas células y las hace tan especiales es que pueden dividirse formando nuevas células madre, o formar otras células más especializa...

  3. IMPORTANCIA Y DESAFÍOS DE LA CONSERVACIÓN DE Vanilla spp. (ORQUIDACEAE EN COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jos\\u00E9 Bernal Azofeifa-Bola\\u00F1os

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue describir la importancia y los principales retos del uso, manejo y conservación del género Vanilla en Costa Rica. Los temas tratados fueron: taxonomía en el país y a nivel mundial, datos sobre recolección y nuevas estimaciones de parientes silvestres, la importancia económica, ecológica y social, el acervo genético de las especies costarricenses, la situación del cultivo a nivel mundial (área cosechada, producción, rendimiento, principales países productores, causas que disminuyen el potencial productivo de las especies, los métodos de cultivo, la posibilidad de extinción de Vanilla planifolia y el potencial genético existente en el país respecto a la concentración de vainillina. Se expone una estrategia integral de conservación que pretende perpetuar los recursos fitogenéticos de vainilla en bancos de germoplasma a través de un sistema formal de producción de semillas, para su utilización ulterior con fines de mejoramiento, investigación y producción comercial. Además, mediante un uso sustentable se protegerán las especies y variedades costarricenses. Las personas, físicas o jurídicas, que utilicen dicho material deberán generar a los proveedores beneficios monetarios, o no monetarios, por el uso de los recursos a través de un sistema justo y equitativo. Las condiciones agroecológicas de Costa Rica así como el material genético de vainilla tanto silvestre como cultivado abren la posibilidad de desarrollar modelos productivos basados en la agricultura orgánica.

  4. Importancia cuantificada de los síntomas sutiles de amenaza de parto pretérmino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Rosell Juarte

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio de casos y controles, para valorar la importancia cuantificada de los síntomas sutiles de amenaza de parto pretérmino desde octubre de 1993 hasta abril de 1997 en 9 municipios de la provincia Camagüey. Fueron estudiados 364 casos y 654 controles a partir de los registros oficiales de atención perinatal, complementados con una encuesta. Para el procesamiento de los datos se utilizaron métodos univariados, bivariados y el multivariado de regresión logística. La presencia de los síntomas sutiles fueron: incremento o cambios en las pérdidas vaginales, dolor o presión lumbar en las caderas, dolor abdominal bajo, las contracciones uterinas y los retortijones abdominales. Todos estuvieron asociados al nacimiento pretérmino en ese orden, y fueron las contracciones uterinas las que ocuparon el cuarto lugar en importanciaA case-control study was conducted to assess the quantitated importance of the subtle symptoms of threatened preterm delivery from October, 1993, to April, 1997, in 9 municipalities of the province of Camagüey. 364 cases and 654 controls were studied based on the official registries of perinatal care complemented with a survey. Univariate and bivariate methods and the multivariate of logistic regression were used to process the data. The presence of the subtle symptoms was characterized by: increase or changes in the vaginal losses, lumbar pain or pressure in the hips, low abdominal pain, uterine contractions and abdominal gripes. All of them were associated with preterm birth in that order. Uterine contractions were in the fourth place in importance

  5. La importancia de los clusters para la competitividad de las PYME en una economía global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Capó-Vicedo

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analiza la importancia de los clusters para las Pequeñas y Medianas Empresas (PYME, en su camino hacia economías cada vez más globalizadas y basadas en el conocimiento. Para ello se estudia la influencia que tiene la globalización sobre las economías locales, así como la importancia de la concentración geográfica de las empresas para aumentar su competitividad. Entre las conclusiones obtenidas destaca el hecho de que en estas concentraciones se pueden establecer verdaderas comunidades de conocimiento, en las que éste se genere e intercambie, al mismo tiempo que se potencia la innovación, con lo que se consigue aumentar su ventaja competitiva. Finalmente, se estudia brevemente el caso del Cluster Textil Valenciano (España, validando lo visto en la parte teórica del artículoIn this work the importance of clusters for the particular case of SMEs is analyzed, in its road toward knowledge-based and globalize economies. In short the influence that globalization has about the local economies is studied, as well as the importance of the geographical concentration of the companies in order to increase their competitiveness. Among the obtained conclusions it highlights the fact that in these concentrations true communities of knowledge can settle down, where new knowledge is generated and exchanged, at the same time that innovation is empowered, and their competitive advantage is increased. Finally, the particular case of the Valencia Textile Cluster (Spain is studied, in order to validate the theoretical part of the article

  6. The counter-terrorist campus: Securitisation theory and university securitisation – Three Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam Gearon

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available With intensified threats to global security from international terrorism, universities have become a focus for security concerns and marked as locus of special interest for the monitoring of extremism and counter-terrorism efforts by intelligence agencies worldwide. Drawing on initiatives in the United Kingdom and United States, I re-frame three – covert, overt and covert–overt – intersections of education, security and intelligence studies as a theoretical milieu by which to understand such counter-terrorism efforts. Against the backdrop of new legislative guidance for universities in an era of global terrorism and counter-terrorism efforts by security and intelligence agencies and their Governments, and through a review of Open-Source security/intelligence concerning universities in the United Kingdom and the United States, I show how this interstitial (covert, overt and covert– overt complexity can be further understood by the overarching relationship between securitisation theory and university securitisation. An emergent securitised concept of university life is important because de facto it will potentially effect radical change upon the nature and purposes of the university itself. A current-day situation replete with anxiety and uncertainty, the article frames not only a sharply contested and still unfolding political agenda for universities but a challenge to the very nature and purposes of the university in the face of a potentially existential threat. Terrorism and counterterrorism, as manifest today, may well thus be altering the aims and purposes of the university in ways we as yet do not fully know or understand. This article advances that knowledge and understanding through a theoretical conceptualisation: the counter-terrorist campus.

  7. Restoration projects for decontamination of facilities from chemical, biological and radiological contamination after terrorist actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingas, M.; Volchek, K.; Lumley, T.; Thouin, G.; Harrison, S.; Kuang, W. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Division, Environmental Technology Centre, Science and Technology Branch; Payette, P.; Laframboise, D.; Best, M. [Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Krishnan, J.; Wagener, S.; Bernard, K.; Majcher, M. [Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Cousins, T.; Jones, T. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Velicogna, D.; Hornof, M.; Punt, M. [SAIC Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This paper reviewed studies that identified better decontamination methods for chemical, biological and radiological/nuclear (CBRN) attacks. In particular, it reviewed aspects of 3 projects in which procedures were tested and validated for site restoration. Cleanup targets or standards for decontaminating buildings and materials after a CBRN attack were also developed. The projects were based on physicochemical and toxicological knowledge of potential terrorist agents and selected surface matrices. The projects also involved modeling and assessing environmental and health risks. The first multi-agent project involved gathering information on known procedures for restoration of areas including interiors and exteriors of buildings, contents, parking lots, lawn, and vehicles. Air inside the building was included. The efficacy of some of the proposed concepts was tested. Results included the determination of appropriate surrogates for anthrax and tests of liquid and gaseous biocides on the surrogates. The development of new contamination procedures using peroxyacetic acid were also discussed. The second project involved decontamination tests on CBRN using specially-constructed buildings at the Counter-terrorism Technology Centre at Defence Research and Development Canada in Suffield. The buildings will be contaminated with chemical and biological agents and with short-lived radionuclides. They will be decontaminated using the best-performing technologies known. Information collected will include fate of the contaminant and decontamination products, effectiveness of the restoration methods, cost and duration of cleanup and logistical problems. The third project is aimed at developing cleanup standards for decontaminating buildings and construction materials after a chemical or biological attack. It will create as many as 12 algorithms for the development of 50 standards which will help cleanup personnel and first-responders to gauge whether proposed methods can achieve

  8. The restoration project : decontamination of facilities from chemical, biological and radiological contamination after terrorist action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingas, M.; Volchek, K.; Thouin, G.; Harrison, S.; Kuang, W. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science Div; Velicogna, D.; Hornof, M.; Punt, M. [SAIC Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Payette, P.; Duncan, L.; Best, M.; Krishnan; Wagener, S.; Bernard, K.; Majcher, M. [Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Cousins, T.; Jones, T. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Bioterrorism poses a real threat to the public health and national security, and the restoration of affected facilities after a chemical, biological or radiological attack is a major concern. This paper reviewed aspects of a project conducted to collect information, test and validate procedures for site restoration after a terrorist attack. The project began with a review of existing technology and then examined new technologies. Restoration included pickup, neutralization, decontamination, removal and final destruction and deposition of contaminants as well as cleaning and neutralization of material and contaminated waste from decontamination. The project was also intended to test existing concepts and develop new ideas. Laboratory scale experiments consisted of testing, using standard laboratory techniques. Radiation decontamination consisted of removal and concentration of the radioisotopes from removal fluid. General restoration guidelines were provided, as well as details of factors considered important in specific applications, including growth conditions and phases of microorganisms in biological decontamination, or the presence of inhibitors or scavengers in chemical decontamination. Various agents were proposed that were considered to have broad spectrum capability. Test surrogates for anthrax were discussed. The feasibility of enhanced oxidation processes was examined in relation to the destruction of organophosphorus, organochlorine and carbamate pesticides. The goal was to identify a process for the treatment of surfaces contaminated with pesticides. Tests included removal from carpet, porous ceiling tile, steel plates, and floor tiles. General radiation contamination procedures and techniques were reviewed, as well as radiological decontamination waste treatment. It was concluded that there is no single decontamination technique applicable for all contaminants, and decontamination methods depend on economic, social and health factors. The amount of

  9. 15 CFR 744.14 - Restrictions on exports and reexports to designated Foreign Terrorist Organizations (FTOs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... section 303 of the Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act 1996, as amended (Anti-Terrorism Act) (18 U.S.C. 2339B) (Public Law 104-132. 110 Stat. 1214-1319), BIS maintains restrictions on exports and... designated FTO and makes violations punishable by criminal penalties under title 18, United States Code...

  10. How identity crisis, relative deprivation, personal characteristics, and empathy contribute to the engagement of Western individuals in Islamist terrorist behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khouwaga Yusoufzai

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The growing sense of insecurity in the Western world due to home-grown Islamist terrorism prompts further research on the topic. Based on previous literature, the current paper attempts to determine whether factors can be identified which contribute to Western individuals joining Islamic extremist organizations and engaging in terrorist behavior in the West. Four factors are discussed: While extensive scientific literature supports the view that identity crises and relative deprivation play a crucial role in turning Western individuals to terrorism, evidence on the role of personal characteristics and empathy, on the other hand, is still too scarce to allow any clear scientific judgment.

  11. Importancia del trabajo de enfermería en la clasificación. Una revisión bibliográfica

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco Jiménez, Soledad

    2017-01-01

    Cartel presentado en el 3er Congreso Internacional de Comunicación en Salud (3ICHC), celebrado los días 19 y 20 de octubre de 2017 en la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. El objetivo de este trabajo conocer la importancia del triaje o clasificación de pacientes en la atención segura proporcionada al paciente.

  12. Importancia de los lipopéptidos de Bacillus subtilis en el control biológico de enfermedades en cultivos de gran valor económico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Eduardo Sánchez Pila

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Se determinaron los avances en el control biológico de enfermedades en cultivos de importancia económica, en donde Bacillus subtilis tiene un rol preponderante, puesto que sus lipopéptidos demuestran su efectividad al momento de controlar un rango muy amplio de enfermedades que atacan a los cultivos de mayor importancia en nuestro país y en el mundo. En los tres cultivos analizados se dan detalles de la efectividad de Basillus subtilis para el control de las enfermedades más devastadoras. En Magnaporthe ryzae se determina que la severidad puede ser detenida con gran efectividad, por lo que será necesario ampliar la experimentación hacia la protección de la semilla del arroz. Para Rhizoctonia solani los resultados exhibidos son muy alentadores. Esta enfermedad es de mucha importancia no solo en el cultivo de papas, sino que en toda la variedad de solanáceas y leguminosas cultivadas principalmente en el callejón interandino. En tanto que para Mycosphaerella fijiensis se detallan excelentes resultados ante un patógeno extremadamente agresivo y que su control trae grandes impactos en la población y en el ambiente. Ante lo manifestado el Bacillus subtilis se perfila como uno de los principales agentes biocontroladores para lograr un correcto manejo fitosanitario de los cultivos de mayor importancia en nuestro medio.

  13. Restorative Encounters in Terrorist Victimization in Spain: Theoretical Reflections and Practical Insights from Social Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Jose Olalde

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available After the ceasefire announcement by the terrorist organization ETA in 2011, new horizons and scenarios of peace have opened in the Basque Country, a land that has been badly hurt by violence over several decades.Restorative justice, a new paradigm for an old kind of justice, the reparation of the harm caused to victims and their consequent importance in the judicial process, has been knocking at our door for a long time. Since the beginning of this decade, following European trends, our country has begun to implement restorative justice at different levels.This article wants to bring the reader closer to understanding of the possibilities which restorative justice offers to the victims of terrorism. We describe the central elements of the restorative encounters held between ex-members of ETA and direct or indirect victims. Furthermore, we support our restorative intervention with theoretical arguments and practical examples from social work. Tras el anuncio del cese de la actividad armada por parte de la organización armada ETA, en 2011, nuevos escenarios y horizontes de pacificación se abren en la historia para esta tierra, castigada por la violencia durante decenas de años.La Justicia restaurativa, un nuevo paradigma para una vieja reivindicación, la reparación de la víctima y su protagonismo en la resolución y abordaje de las consecuencias de los conflictos penales, lleva años asomando a nuestro contexto. Tras la incorporación de España a principios de esta década a las corrientes europeas, se constata la validación de la práctica restaurativa.Este artículo quiere acercar a la persona lectora la comprensión de las posibilidades de justicia restaurativa en victimización terrorista. Describimos los elementos centrales de los encuentros restaurativos celebrados entre ex miembros de ETA y víctimas directas e indirectas. Y nos apoyamos en elementos teóricos y prácticos del trabajo social para nuestra intervención restaurativa.

  14. Rising threat of terrorist bomb blasts in Karachi--a 5-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Farhat Hussain; Parhyar, Hamid Ali; Tirmizi, Syed Zubair Ahmed

    2013-08-01

    This study aims to determine the frequency of injuries and fatalities associated with terrorist bomb explosions in the city of Karachi from 1 January 2007 to 31 December 2011. Moreover, this study is aimed to determine age and sex vulnerability among the victims of blast explosion. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted. The study was carried out at mortuaries and medicolegal sections at Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center, Civil Hospital and Abbasi-Shaheed Hospital Karachi, the three main hospitals, which cater to all these cases of Karachi. The study included all bomb blast victims examined and autopsied from January 2007 to December 2011 at Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center, Civil Hospital and Abbassi Shaheed Hospital Karachi. Details of 1142 cases were collected for those medicolegal deaths and injured persons, identified to be the victims of bomb blasts from January 2007 to December 2011. Data were collected on a preformed proforma from the mortuaries and medicolegal sections of these three public sector hospitals. The variables investigated include age, gender, year-wise distribution of the injured and the dead along with the cause of death and body parts injured in survivors. Out of the total 11,109 autopsies during the study period, 249 (2.24%) were carried out on deaths due to bomb blasts. Similarly, 135,065 injury cases were reported during the study period out of which 893 (0.66%) cases were due to bomb blasts. An initial peak in the year 2007, followed by a decline in 2008 and since then a steady rise of bomb blast incidences with casualties and fatalities, has been observed. The highest numbers of injured victims were reported in the year 2010 and fatalities in 2007. Among 1142 cases, 95.18% were male and 4.82% female with a male to female ratio of 19.76:1. Persons of ages between 15 and 45 years were chiefly involved. Shock due to multiple injuries was the leading cause of death, followed by head injury with or without haemorrhage. The

  15. Managing mild casualties in mass-casualty incidents: lessons learned from an aborted terrorist attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Yuval H; Leiba, Adi; Veaacnin, Nurit; Paizer, Yohanan; Schwartz, Dagan; Kraskas, Ahuva; Weiss, Gali; Goldberg, Avishay; Bar-Dayan, Yaron

    2007-01-01

    Mildly injured and "worried well" patients can have profound effects on the management of a mass-casualty incident. The objective of this study is to describe the characteristics and lessons learned from an event that occurred on 28 August 2005 near the central bus station in Beer-Sheva, Israel. The unique profile of injuries allows for the examination of the medical and operational aspects of the management of mild casualties. Data were collected during and after the event, using patient records and formal debriefings. They were processed focusing on the characteristics of patient complaints, medical response, and the dynamics of admission. A total of 64 patients presented to the local emergency department, including two critical casualties. The remaining 62 patients were mildly injured or suffered from stress. Patient presentation to the emergency department was bi-phasic; during the first two hours following the attack (i.e., early phase), the rate of arrival was high (one patient every three minutes), and anxiety was the most frequent chief complaint. During the second phase, the rate of arrival was lower (one patient every 27 minutes), and the typical chief complaint was somatic. Additionally, tinnitus and complaints related to minor trauma also were recorded frequently. Psychiatric consultation was obtained for 58 (91%) of the patients. Social services were involved in the care of 47 of the patients (73%). Otolaryngology and surgery consultations were obtained for 45% and 44%, respectively. The need for some medical specialties (e.g., surgery and orthopedics) mainly was during the first phase, whereas others, mainly psychiatry and otolaryngology, were needed during both phases. Only 13 patients (20%) needed a consultation from internal medicine. Following a terrorist attack, a large number of mildly injured victims and those experiencing stress are to be expected, without a direct relation to the effectiveness of the attack. Mildly injured patients tend to

  16. How States Carry Out Acts of Terror: Wars, Strategies and Tactics in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA. Astrit Lleshi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is a notoriously difficult concept that defies single universal definition. Terrorists intentionally employ violence in order to instill fear in their victims and the wider public. Terrorist movements aim to achieve their political, social and/or religious goals through use of violent acts. (Hoffman, 1998: 43 In most cases terrorism is perpetrated by non-state actors and is "bottom up" challenge to the existing political order. However this article argues that the nature of the crime and not the perpetrator should determine whether some criminal act constitutes terrorism and acts of terror can also be committed by states and/or state actors. In this article, the author will examine the overall strategy and tactics used by the Milosevic and Karadzic regimes in BiH and Kosovo to fulfil their wartime ambitions of maintaining and consolidating control over Serb and Serb-occupied territory, relying primarily upon the indictments and judgments of the ICTY in which they and members of their armed forces acting under their authority have been charged and/or convicted of war crimes and terror, along with reports from international organizations such as the United Nations and other sources. Through an analysis of these tactics against leading definitions of terrorism, it will be demonstrated that rather than fighting against terrorists and insurgents, the Milosevic and Karadzic regimes carried out acts of terror during the wars in Kosovo and BiH, respectively, and furthermore Milosevic was sponsoring state-terrorism in BiH (Blakely, 2012: 3-4.

  17. Fear of Terrorism in New York After the September 11 Terrorist Attacks: Implications for Emergency Mental Health and Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscarino, Joseph A.; Figley, Charles R.; Adams, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    To examine the public’s response to future terrorist attacks, we surveyed 1,001 New Yorkers in the community one year after the September 11 attacks. Overall, New Yorkers were very concerned about future terrorist attacks and also concerned about attacks involving biological or nuclear weapons. In addition, while most New Yorkers reported that if a biological or nuclear attack occurred they would evaluate available information before evacuating, a significant number reported they would immediately evacuate, regardless of police or public health communications to the contrary. The level of public concern was significantly higher on all measures among New York City and Long Island residents (downstate) compared to the rest of the state. A model predicting higher fear of terrorism indicated that downstate residents, women, those 45 to 64 years old, African Americans and Hispanics, those with less education/income, and those more likely to flee, were more fearful of future attacks. In addition, making disaster preparations and carefully evaluating emergency information also predicted a higher level of fear as well. A second model predicting who would flee suggested that those more likely to evaluate available information were less likely to immediately evacuate, while those with a higher fear of future attacks were more likely to flee the area. Given these findings and the possibility of future attacks, mental health professionals need to be more involved in preparedness efforts, especially related to the psychological impact of attacks involving weapons of mass destruction. PMID:14730761

  18. Short and intermediate economic impacts of a terrorist-initiated loss of electric power: Case study of New Jersey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, Michael; Mantell, Nancy; Lahr, Michael; Felder, Frank; Zimmerman, Rae

    2007-01-01

    The economic impacts of potential terrorist attacks on the New Jersey electric power system are examined using a regional econometric model. The magnitude and duration of the effects vary by type of business and income measure. We assume damage is done during in the summer 2005 quarter, a peak period for energy use. The state economy recovers within a year, if we assume that economic activity is restored in the next time period. However, if the attacks prompt an absolute of loss of activity due to firm relocation, closing, and geographical changes in expansion plans, then the economy does not fully recover by the year 2010. Hence, the electrical power system's resiliency to damage is the key to the extent and duration of any economic consequences of a terrorist attack, at least in New Jersey. The policy implication is that the costs and benefits of making the electric power system more resilient to plausible attacks should be weighed and that the restorative capacity of the system should be strengthened

  19. Reducing Mortality from Terrorist Releases of Chemical and Biological Agents: I. Filtration for Ventilation Systems in Commercial Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thatcher, Tracy L.; Daisey, Joan M.

    1999-09-01

    There is growing concern about potential terrorist attacks involving releases of chemical and/or biological (CB) agents, such as sarin or anthrax, in and around buildings. For an external release, the CB agent can enter the building through the air intakes of a building's mechanical ventilation system and by infiltration through the building envelope. For an interior release in a single room, the mechanical ventilation system, which often recirculates some fraction of the air within a building, may distribute the released CB agent throughout the building. For both cases, installing building systems that remove chemical and biological agents may be the most effective way to protect building occupants. Filtration systems installed in the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems of buildings can significantly reduce exposures of building occupants in the event of a release, whether the release is outdoors or indoors. Reduced exposures can reduce the number of deaths from a terrorist attack. The purpose of this report is to provide information and examples of the design of filtration systems to help building engineers retrofit HVAC systems. The report also provides background information on the physical nature of CB agents and brief overviews of the basic principles of particle and vapor filtration.

  20. Short and intermediate economic impacts of a terrorist-initiated loss of electric power: case study of New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, M.; Mantell, N.; Lahr, M.; Felder, F. [Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ (United States). Edward J. Bloustein School; Zimmerman, R. [New York University (United States). Robert F. Wagner School of Public Service

    2007-01-15

    The economic impacts of potential terrorist attacks on the New Jersey electric power system are examined using a regional econometric model. The magnitude and duration of the effects vary by type of business and income measure. We assume damage is done during in the summer 2005 quarter, a peak period for energy use. The state economy recovers within a year, if we assume that economic activity is restored in the next time period. However, if the attacks prompt an absolute of loss of activity due to firm relocation, closing, and geographical changes in expansion plans, then the economy does not fully recover by the year 2010. Hence, the electrical power system's resiliency to damage is the key to the extent and duration of any economic consequences of a terrorist attack, at least in New Jersey. The policy implication is that the costs and benefits of making the electric power system more resilient to plausible attacks should be weighed and that the restorative capacity of the system should be strengthened. (author)

  1. Atomic Energy Commission Act, 2000 (Act 588)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Act 588 of the Republic of Ghana entitled, Atomic Energy Commission Act, 2000, amends and consolidates the Atomic Energy Commission Act, 204 of 1963 relating to the establishment of the Atomic Energy Commission. Act 588 makes provision for the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission to establish more institutes for the purpose of research in furtherance of its functions and also promote the commercialization of its research and development results. (E.A.A.)

  2. LA IMPORTANCIA DE LA INNOVACIÓN EN EL PRODUCTO PARA GENERAR POSICIONAMIENTO EN LOS JÓVENES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WILSON GIRALDO PÉREZ

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo de investigación financiado por la Universidad de los Llanos presenta, de forma jerarquizada los factores de innovación que los consumidores aceptan como válidos para mejorar los procesos de posicionamiento y compra de productos que se ofrecen en el mercado. En este caso, los consumidores son jóvenes, hombres y mujeres, con edades que oscilan entre 16 y 24 años, residentes en Villavicencio (Colombia quienes participaron del estudio cuantitativo. Así se planteó como hipótesis que existe una relación positiva entre las características demográficas del consumidor (edad y nivel socioeconómico y la innovación del producto; los resultados evidencian que este grupo etario, mayoritariamente, se muestra sensible al análisis económico, puesto que gran parte de ellos dependen financieramente de un adulto y eso limita sus posibilidades de compra y consumo. En orden de importancia jerárquica, para los encuestados, la mayor calificación la obtuvieron los factores de: valor de uso y calidad percibida del producto y la menor calificación corresponde al precio de estos, finalmente no se evidencia la existencia de correlación alguna asociada a los elementos demográficos de los jóvenes de la ciudad y los factores de innovación.

  3. Identificación de especies de anopheles de importancia médica en el departamento de Sucre, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladis Pérez Rodríguez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia los mosquitos Anopheles, subgénero Nyssorhynchus tiene una gran importancia en medicina tropical ya que este subgénero contiene la mayoría de las especies vectoras de la malaria encontradas en el país. El departamento de Sucre, localizado al norte de Colombia, presenta condiciones bioclimáticas que favorecen el desarrollo de insectos pertenecientes al subgénero Nyssorhynchus; sin embargo, el conocimiento sobre este es escaso. Con el objetivo de verificar la presencia de especies del subgénero en dos subregiones del departamento de Sucre (La Sabana y Golfo de Morrosquillo, se realizó un inventario de mosquitos Anopheles, utilizando para su captura cebo humano. Para la identificación de las especies se utilizaron claves taxonómicas. Se coleccionaron un total de 221 especimenes pertenecientes a cinco especies del subgénero Nyssorhynchus: A. albimanus, A. triannulatus, A. marajoara, A. pseudopunctipennis y A. nunestovari de las cuales dos son consideradas como vectores principales de la malaria (A. albimanus y A. nunestovari y una como vector secundario (A. pseudopunctipennis. (Duazary 2006; 2:104-109

  4. LA IMPORTANCIA DEL CUERPO EN LA NOCIÓN DE PERSONA ENTRE MAYAS ACTUALES DE OXCHUC, CHAMULA Y CHENALHÓ, CHIAPAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Tomás Page Pliego

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Suele asumirse que la noción de persona es igual entre los pueblos de tsotsiles y tesltales de los Altos de Chiapas. Sin embargo, su configuración varía sustancialmente, sin perder la base que los une. Este trabajo trata sobre las diferencias y similitudes que se presentan en el concepto denominado complejo persona en tres municipios: Oxchuc —de habla tseltal—, Chamula y Chenalhó —de habla tsotsil—, y en forma destacada sobre la importancia del cuerpo en dicho concepto. Asimismo, se abordan las variaciones que se han suscitado en torno a esa noción a partir de 1940, bajo la incidencia de la escalada proselitista cristiana. THE IMPORTANCE OF THE BODY WITHIN THE COMPLEX OF THE NOTION OF PERSONHOOD AMONG CONTEMPORARY MAYANS FROM OXCHUC, CHAMULA AND CHENALHÓ IN CHIAPAS STATE There is a tendency to assume that the Tsotsil and Tseltal communities in the Chiapas Highlands (Altos de Chiapas share the same notion of personhood. However, the way this notion is constructed does vary substantially without losing a common foundation. This piece of research deals with the similarities and differences present in the concept of personhood complex in three different municipalities: Oxchuc —a tseltal-speaking community—, Chamula and Chenalhó —tsotsil-speaking communities—, and emphasizes the importance of the body in this concept. It also addresses the permutations that have emerged around this notion since 1940, under the escalating influence of Christian proselytism.

  5. Importancia del aprendizaje organizacional como mecanismo que favorece la consecución de los objetivos organizacionales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Ramírez, Mónica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presuroso mundo globalizado de hoy, las empresas deben dar cumplimiento a exigentes normas de competitividad. Asimismo, la productividad se encuentra asociada a la adaptación e innovación que posibilite la sostenibilidad y el crecimiento dentro de un sector específico . Por eso el desarrollo organizacional ocupa un lugar clave dentro del ejercicio empresarial, pues los conocimientos y habilidades con los que cuente la empresa para enfrentar los retos del entorno constituyen la única estrategia de éxito. Este artículo tiene por objetivo destacar la importancia del aprendizaje organizacional como mecanismo que favorece la consecución de los objetivos organizacionales, desde una revisión teórica; cuando se ha entendido y cultivado este concepto puede surgir el pensamiento sistémico, quinta disciplina de Peter Senge. El fortalecimiento del talento humano en la organización es fundamental porque impacta en los resultados finales.

  6. 78 FR 23332 - Unblocking of One Specially Designated Global Terrorist Pursuant to Executive Order 13224

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... With Persons Who Commit, Threaten To Commit, or Support Terrorism, from the list of Specially..., imposing economic sanctions on persons who commit, threaten to commit, or support acts of terrorism. The... sanctions. The Order authorizes the Secretary of the Treasury, in consultation with the Secretary of State...

  7. 28 CFR 16.105 - Exemption of Foreign Terrorist Tracking Task Force System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... DISCLOSURE OF MATERIAL OR INFORMATION Exemption of Records Systems Under the Privacy Act § 16.105 Exemption... Candidates File System (JUSTICE/FTTTF-001). This exemption applies only to the extent that information is... the accounting of disclosures could reveal information that is classified in the interest of national...

  8. Increased Incidence Rate of Trauma- and Stressor-Related Disorders in Denmark After the September 11, 2001, Terrorist Attacks in the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bertel T; Østergaard, Søren D; Sønderskov, Kim M

    2016-01-01

    The terrorist attacks that occurred on September 11, 2001 (hereafter referred to as 9/11) in the United States had a profound impact on the physical and mental health of Americans, but the effects beyond the United States are largely unknown. To understand the wider aftermath, we examined...

  9. Sarcophagidae (Diptera de importancia forense en la puna de Catamarca, Argentina: la ovoviviparidad como ventaja en condiciones de extrema aridez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando H. ABALLAY

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de ser fauna necrófaga y de estar presentes en cadáveres humanos, los Sarcophagidae no suelen utilizarse en estudios forenses debido a la dificultad en su identificación y la poca información sobre su biología. En este trabajo, se identificaron las especies de Sarcophagidae asociadas a cadáveres y se estudió su relación con los estados de descomposición. Se analizaron las preferencias por los sustratos cadavéricos (cerdo y llama y las condiciones microambientales (sol y sombra en un ambiente de altura (3.600 msnm, durante la primavera. Se utilizaron dos cadáveres de cerdo dispuestos al sol y a la sombra y un cadáver de llama dispuesto al sol. Se colectaron 597 individuos pertenecientes a cinco especies de Sarcophagidae: M. antofagastensis Mulieri, Mariluis & Aballay (n=347, M. quimaliensis (Lopes (n=117, M. rusca (Hall (n=32, M. penai (Lopes (n=5 y M. aulacophyto Pape (n=96. Tanto M. antofagastensis, como M. quimaliensis fueron las únicas especies con colonización efectiva y representaron el 78% del total de adultos colectados. Microcerella antofagastensis fue la colonizadora primaria. Ambas especies respondieron de forma similar ante las condiciones microambientales y prefirieron el cadáver de cerdo. Se discute la importancia de M. antofagastensis y M. quimaliensis, como especies indicadoras y las posibles ventajas de la ovoviviparidad frente a otras especies ovíparas, en condiciones de extrema aridez.

  10. Importancia de la semiología del dolor en el diagnóstico de un proceso inflamatorio pulpar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés 0 Pérez Ruiz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available El dolor es un síntoma de extraordinaria importancia en la práctica estomatológica y particularmente en lo concerniente a las alteraciones de la pulpa dentaria. Con el objetivo de profundizar en el conocimiento de las fases por las que atraviesa un proceso inflamatorio pulpar, que permiten predecir sus manifestaciones dolorosas, se realizó una revisión bibliográfica sobre el tema con un enfoque multidisciplinario y básico-clínico. Se utilizó el método documental para el análisis y tratamiento de la información ofrecida por las fuentes teóricas. El sitio en Internet Google fue empleado como fundamental motor de búsqueda y Lilacs, Hinari, Medline y PubMed fueron las bases de datos más revisadas. La clasificación del estado de inflamación pulpar, que atiende a eventos histopatológicos que no se pueden visualizar, resulta más difícil. Se podría lograr mayor precisión en un diagnóstico basado en el curso que sigue el dolor, de acuerdo a la magnitud del compromiso inflamatorio y apoyado en la rica semiología que se puede obtener si se sigue la trayectoria de las variables del estímulo nociceptivo. El incremento y profundización de los conocimientos en este campo contribuiyó significativamente a un mejor diagnóstico y tratamiento de los procesos inflamatorios pulpares.

  11. Importancia, contribución y estabilidad de antioxidantes en frutos y productos de tomate (Solanum lycopersicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Luna-Guevara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Los antioxidantes (AA son compuestos capaces de inhibir o retardar la oxidación, mediante la “captación” de radicales libres; también estabilizan hidroperóxidos o inactivan el oxígeno singulete. Los frutos de tomate han sido considerados una fuente importante de AA “nutricionales” (vitaminas A, C y E y AA “fitoquímicos no nutritivos” (licopeno, flavonoides, flavonas y compuestos fenólicos totales, cuyo consumo está relacionado con su potencial antimutagénico y propiedades anticancerígenas. Las condiciones ambientales durante el cultivo como: intensidad de luz, pH del suelo, frecuencia de riego, tipo de fertilización, pueden afectar la composición química del fruto. Asimismo, durante la maduración del tomate, se inducen varios cambios metabólicos relacionados con la biosíntesis de compuestos, incluyendo el licopeno y otros carotenoides. También se ha demostrado que ciertas operaciones de manejo post cosecha y procesamiento del tomate (cortado, empacado y almacenado pueden alterar la concentración de micronutrientes (vitaminas y minerales y de compuestos AA. De acuerdo con los antecedentes mencionados, en la presente revisión se abordará la importancia de conocer los factores pre y post cosecha que afectan el contenido de AA en el tomate; asimismo, se destacará la estabilidad de los compuestos fitoquímicos contenidos en frutos sometidos a diferentes condiciones de procesamiento. Esta información resulta útil para la industria de los alimentos, además de fomentar el consumo de compuestos funcionales.

  12. IMPORTANCIA DE LA INVESTIGACIÓN EN LA FORMACIÓN DE ESTUDIANTES EN LA MODALIDAD A DISTANCIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eriberto Cifuentes Medina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo diserta acerca del papel y la importancia de las asignaturas de “Introducción a la investigación” y “Metodología de la investigación” en la formación de tecnólogos, que se ofrece en la modalidad de estudios a distancia. En conclusión, se hace necesaria una reflexión acerca de las generalidades de investigación, normatividad para la presentación de trabajos e informes, y la elaboración, sustentación de proyectos y artículos de investigación como principios fundantes de la proyección en esencia y existencia de la investigación. Las asignaturas mencionadas hacen parte del proceso académico-investigativo y parten de lo que se ha observado en la realidad estudiantil, en los procesos académicos y en la experiencia docente; todo ello con el fin de concretar posibilidades de cambio, acción y trasformación de su labor como regentes en farmacia y administradores del sistema de la salud, teniendo en cuenta las condiciones de la “Educación a distancia” en la que los estudiantes se forman de la mano del aprendizaje autónomo, pero también a la necesidad de acudir a la investigación desde la realidad y contexto que los rodea con bases teóricas consistentes y en aras de ejercer su profesión de una manera eficiente.

  13. FUNCIONES E IMPORTANCIA ECONÓMICA DEL RECURSO CHAPULIXTLE (DODONAEA VISCOSA EN UN EJIDO DEL SUBTRÓPICO MEXICANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Isabel Juan Pérez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El chapulixtle (Dodonaea viscosa es una planta cosmopolita. Para demostrar la importancia económica de esta planta, se realizó una investigación de campo en un Ejido del Subtrópico Mexicano, durante el período 2010 - 2012. Fue explorado el hábitat de la planta y su utilización por parte de las familias campesinas. La investigación se sustentó en la Geografía Ambiental (Bocco, 2007 y la Ecología Cultural (Steward, 1955, complementándose con la aplicación de un cuestionario al 100% de las familias campesinas, observación directa, observación participante, estadística descriptiva y uso del equipo DGPS. Los resultados demuestran que el uso del chapulixtle en el Ejido se relaciona con las condiciones socioculturales y económicas de los habitantes y por las diferentes estrategias utilizadas para su manejo. Los usos principales son: ecológico, ambiental, agrícola, pecuario, artesanal, medicinal, para combustible, ornamental, construcción de viviendas, agroforestal y recarga de acuíferos. En las zonas rurales, esta planta ha contribuido significativamente en la economía de las familias campesinas, además, las condiciones socioculturales de las familias campesinas del Subtrópico Mexicano han influido en la diversidad de usos. En el Ejido se encontraron 22 usos diferentes, y lo más probable es que en otras comunidades del territorio mexicano existan otros más.

  14. La importancia de la visualización en el aprendizaje de conceptos matemáticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Nora Gatica

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos tiempos, el estudio de la visualización en el pensamiento matemático es objeto de numerosas investigaciones, en parte, posiblemente, debido al surgimiento de la computadora como un recurso didáctico para la comprensión de conceptos matemáticos. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo reflexionar sobre la importancia de poder relacionar e interpretar imágenes visuales (utilizando manipulables virtuales con la información que está dada en forma simbólica. Presentamos una propuesta didáctica para la comprensión del concepto de exactitud del método de Simpson utilizándose la interfase gráfica de MATLAB, GUI (graphical user interface, la cual fue puesta en práctica con alumnos de la asignatura Cálculo Numérico de la carrera Ingeniería Electrónica. El uso reflexivo y creativo de las nuevas tecnologías permiten dar un significado concreto a las nociones matemáticas. Por esta razón es necesario el diseño de nuevos materiales utilizando esta nueva metodología, donde muestren su uso efectivo en el aula. Del análisis realizado en la evaluación escrita y en el examen parcial de la asignatura, observamos que esta nueva metodología permite afianzar la comprensión y fijar el concepto con mayor facilidad a los que se someten a la enseñanza predominantemente algorítmica.

  15. Improving Resource Allocation Decisions to Reduce the Risk of Terrorist Attacks on Passenger Rail Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Rails: Analyzing Current Challenges, and Future Solutions (Syracuse: Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs, 2008), 18. 3 U.S. Department...Nicholas Armstrong et al., Securing America’s Passenger Rails: Analyzing Current Challenges, and Future Solutions (Syracuse: Maxwell School of Citizenship ...as a broken rail, a faulty wire connection, or an act of terrorism, could result in a shutdown. Communication systems use centralized digital

  16. Diseño y prueba de un cuestionario sobre la importancia percibida de las condiciones de trabajo en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porfirio Tamayo-Contreras

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available La percepción de la importancia que el empleado otorga a los distintos aspectos de su trabajo es una base de la representación social que tiene de la empresa en la que labora y de las actitudes hacia su trabajo, como la intención de abandono, que también se relacionan con aspectos no controlables por la empresa. El propósito de este estudio fue diseñar y probar un cuestionario para medir la importancia que los trabajadores conceden a los aspectos laborales e identificar su relación con la intención de abandonar la organización. El cuestionario se aplicó a 447 trabajadores (282 hombres y 165 mujeres de empresas exportadoras de calzado de la ciudad de León, Guanajuato, México. Mediante un análisis factorial se identificaron cinco factores; la consistencia interna fue adecuada en todos los casos y la discriminación de todos los ítems resultó en la dirección esperada. La percepción sobre los factores del trabajo varió en importancia y no se relacionó con la intención de abandono, aunque un aspecto no controlable por la empresa (mejor salario reveló indicios de una relación sobre la intención de abandono.

  17. Nuclear Regulatory Authority Act, 2015 (Act 895)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-04-01

    An Act to establish a Nuclear Regulatory Authority in Ghana. This Act provides for the regulation and management of activities and practices for the peaceful use of nuclear material or energy, and to provide for the protection of persons and the environment against the harmful effects of radiation; and to ensure the effective implementation of the country’s international obligations and for related matters. This Act replaced the Radiation Protection Instrument, of 1993 (LI 1559).

  18. La fusión bancaria en Venezuela. Importancia de las TIC en la banca universal y microfinanciera nacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flor Villalobos de Bastidas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Con la entrada en vigencia de la Ley de Instituciones del Sector Bancario en el año 2010, se prevé que se produzcan transformaciones y fusiones de bancos bajo los modelos de banca universal, por la cual se realizan todas las operaciones de intermediación financiera y sus servicios conexos y de banca micro financiera cuyo objeto principal es fomentar, financiar y promover las actividades de producción de bienes y servicios de las pequeñas empresas industriales y comerciales, de los micro empresarios y micro empresas y de la economía popular alternativa. En tal sentido, el objetivo del presente artículo es el análisis de la fusión en las entidades bancarias venezolanas y la importancia de las tecnologías de la información y comunicación(TIC como recurso que dinamiza el proceso de fusión así como su relevante aplicación en la banca universal y micro financiera. En cuanto a la metodología se re-visaron fuentes documentales y electrónicas, realizándose una investigación descriptiva y cualitativa de la actualidad bancaria venezolana. Los resultados permiten afirmar que la fusión bancaria en Venezuela es un proceso regulado por el Estado, en el cual intervienen los recursos tecnológicos tanto como factor que dina-miza el proceso de fusión como de herramientas estratégicas para la fluidez de las operaciones de intermediación financiera. Como conclusiones se señala que en los nuevos escenarios de la banca venezolana se despliegan las innovaciones tecnológicas como instrumentos que generan nuevas opciones de negocios y que su aplicación constituye desafío del sector bancario venezolano para ofrecer a los usuarios un amplio catálogo de productos y servicios financieros, realizadas hoy día con flexibilidad, agilidad y la comodidad que demanda la sociedad actual.

  19. Anatomía de la arteria temporal superficial: importancia quirúrgica: estudio piloto en cadáveres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J. Pradel-Mora

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available El conocimiento preciso de los patrones vasculares permite mejorar los resultados de la reconstrucción regional del pabellón auricular y el diseño de colgajos regionales dependientes de la arteria temporal superficial para la reconstrucción facial. En México, no contamos en la actualidad con descripciones anatómicas de las variantes vasculares normales de la arteria temporal superficial. El objetivo de este trabajo es la descripción de las variantes anatómicas de la arteria temporal superficial a través de la disección de este vaso en 12 regiones tempo-parieto-occipitales en cadáveres. Nuestros resultados muestran que la arteria temporal superficial siempre se divide en dos ramas, una anterior y otra posterior, la distribución de ésta se sitúa en el cuarto más posterior de la región temporal, con una bifurcación alta. La distribución de la anatomía vascular, tomando en cuenta el calibre mayor de la arteria temporal superficial con respecto a la arteria auricular posterior, la ausencia de esta última en 4 de las regiones estudiadas, así como la distancia de dichos vasos con respecto al conducto auditivo externo, sugieren que en nuestra población la irrigación del pabellón auricular depende de la arteria temporal superficial, restándole importancia a la aportación del riego sanguíneo de esta región por parte de la arteria auricular posterior. Nuestro estudio arroja resultados que indican la existencia de variaciones importantes en la anatomía vascular regional que justifican la realización de estudios posteriores que permitan una descripción mas detallada de la misma para aumentar el éxito de las intervenciones quirúrgicas.

  20. Haplotipos de la hemoglobina S: importancia epidemiológica, antropológica y clínica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter E. Rodríguez Romero

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available La relación entre la drepanocitosis y los diferentes haplotipos del gen que codifica la subunidad betas de la globina ha permitido llegar a entender mejor las manifestaciones clínicas de aquella enfermedad. El uso de mejores técnicas de laboratorio permite descartar la presencia de otros factores hereditarios capaces de ocultar el verdadero genotipo hemoglobínico. La heterogeneidad clínica de la drepanocitosis, afección caracterizada por la presencia de una hemoglobina anormal denominada HbS, depende de las concentraciones de hemoglobina fetal (HbF, la razón de cadenas Ggamma a cadenas Agamma en la molécula de globina, las concentraciones de 2,3-difosfoglicerato, la presencia de mutaciones ligadas, los haplotipos del gen betas, la presencia simultánea de alfa-talasemia, y factores ambientales. En particular, los polimorfismos Senegal y árabe-saudí o indio del conglomerado de genes que codifican la subunidad betas se asocian con una evolución clínica menos grave, mientras que los haplotipos de la República Centroafricana (CAR o Bantú, Camerún y Benín se asocian con drepanocitosis grave. De todos, el haplotipo CAR es el de peor pronóstico (concentraciones de HbF de menos de 12% y razón de Ggamma:Agamma propia de la edad adulta. Estos polimorfismos del ácido desoxirribonucleico, una vez caracterizados, adquieren enorme importancia como marcadores antropológicos y genéticos. En las Américas, los haplotipos betas permiten entender mejor las raíces ancestrales africanas de las poblaciones de raza negra. Se ha comprobado la presencia de variedad genética no solo entre las diferentes poblaciones negras de las Américas, sino también dentro de un mismo país, como se observa en Costa Rica.

  1. Atomic Act amended

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drabova, D.

    2002-01-01

    In the paper by the chairwoman of the Czech nuclear regulatory authority, the history of Czech nuclear legislation is outlined, the reasons for the amendment of the Atomic Act (Act No. 18/1997) are explained, and the amendments themselves are highlighted. The Act No. 13/2002 of 18 December 2001 is reproduced from the official Collection of Acts of the Czech Republic in the facsimile form. The following acts were thereby amended: Atomic Act No. 18/1997, Metrology Act No. 505/1990, Public Health Protection Act No. 258/2000, and Act No. 2/1969 on the Establishment of Ministries and Other Governmental Agencies of the Czech Republic. (P.A.)

  2. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Therapeutics Lab Developing New Treatments The CF Foundation offers a number of resources for learning about clinical ... her father: Demonstrate and discuss common ACT therapies Offer their tips for fitting ACTs into daily life ...

  3. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Treatments and Therapies Airway Clearance Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs) There are different ways to clear your airways. ... or caregiver. Older kids and adults can choose ACTs that they can do on their own. Share ...

  4. Nuclear Installations Act 1965

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    This Act governs all activities related to nuclear installations in the United Kingdom. It provides for the licensing procedure for nuclear installations, the duties of licensees, the competent authorities and carriers of nuclear material in respect of nuclear occurrences, as well as for the system of third party liability and compensation for nuclear damage. The Act repeals the Nuclear Installations (Licensing and Insurance) Act 1959 and the Nuclear Installations (Amendment Act) 1965 except for its Section 17(2). (NEA) [fr

  5. [Defusing of victims of the terrorist attacks in Paris. Elements of assessment one-month post-event].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, N; Cheucle, E; Faure, P; Digard, F; Dalphin, C; Pachiaudi, V; Simond, M; Darbon, R; Collinet, C; Habibi, R; Gueugniaud, P-Y

    2018-04-01

    The terrorist attacks (fusillades and suicide attacks) in Paris on 13 November 2015 have had a major psychic impact on all individuals directly or secondarily exposed to them. Medico-psychological unit (CUMP) of the Paris Île-de-France region's immediate care services were immediately mobilized and rapidly strengthened by all regional medico-psychological units (CUMP) throughout the country. Psychological assistance has been provided in several key points of Paris and specifically in the 11th district City Hall of Paris where Lyon's Medico-psychological unit was located. These specific immediate psychological assistances, referred to as a "defusing process" by the medico-psychological unit (CUMP), are mostly devoted to provide the victims with an entry point to a psychological healthcare relationship and give them a first sense of soothing and relief even though they do not prevent further psychological care follow up for the victims. Nonetheless, the potential therapeutic effect of this "defusing process" has not yet been sufficiently established nor demonstrated by any scientific study. A phoning survey was carried out one-month post-terrorist attacks and interviewed the 129 victims who benefited from the "defusing process" conducted by Lyon's medico-psychological unit (CUMP) in order to collect data and assess its effects. These people, whether directly exposed, bereaved relatives or witnesses, whose average age is 35, are mostly living in the Île-de-France region. Most of them present a high score on the IES-R scale, whether they were directly exposed, bereaved relatives or witnesses. Almost all of them (96.5%) experienced at least one medical care contact within this one-month post-trauma period with psychotropic medication for 37% of them. Regarding the defusing conducted by Lyon's medico-psychological unit (CUMP) in the 11th district City Hall of Paris, it appears that 93% of the victims who were looked after indicated that they were satisfied and 87.4% of

  6. Ritidoplastia: sutura del sistema SMAS-Platisma e importancia de la filosofía de la naturalidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Goulart Jr.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available La ritidoplastia ha pasado por incontables cambios técnicos en relación a los colgajos cutáneos o a los musculares involucrados en el procedimiento. Inicialmente solo se realizaba la tracción de la piel con resultados muy variables; con el tiempo y con un mejor conocimiento de la anatomía facial, los resultados han evolucionado hasta la estandarización de la tracción de las estructuras faciales que en la actualidad es mucho más muscular, realizando sobre la piel solamente el ajuste de la cobertura al nuevo contorno facial. El objetivo de este artículo es demostrar la eficacia de la sutura simple del sistema SMAS-Platisma y la importancia de considerar una filosofía de la naturalidad que será la base de una técnica moderna de ritidoplastia. Revisamos un total de 617 pacientes, todas de sexo femenino, que se sometieron a ritidoplastia simple o combinada con otras cirugías en el periodo comprendido entre enero de 1992 a diciembre del 2010. La edad osciló entre los 37 y 75 años. Las cirugías combinadas incluyeron: reducción mamaria, mastopexia, abdominoplastia, implantes mamarios, cirugía de los párpados, rinoplastia, liposucción, cirugía vascular y cirugías ginecológicas. El número de pacientes en las que solo se realizó la ritidoplastia fue 326. Los índices de complicaciones estuvieran entre el 0,16 % y 1,13 % con relación a cada complicación estudiada, siendo el total del 4,03 %. El estudio retrospectivo mostró la eficiencia de la sutura simple del sistema SMAS-Platisma y los resultados naturales que se pueden obtener incluso con las cirugías combinadas. Todas las pacientes quedaron satisfechas con los resultados y consideramos que los índices de complicaciones estuvieron en niveles aceptables. A nuestro juicio, la ritidoplastia, por encima de otras cirugías estéticas, necesita de una rutina técnica eficiente y de un concepto filosófico basado en la más pura naturalidad, que necesita ser independiente de las

  7. Terrorism and Counter-Terrorism Strategies in a Globalised World : alternative perceptiveness of terrorist emergence theory and policing strategies confrontation with human rights

    OpenAIRE

    Kikkas, Margit

    2015-01-01

    Globalisation and development in technology have advanced terrorism to reach a broader target audience. Especially focussing at the international co-operation strategies and combined social networks, terrorist activities have an direct- and indirect effect on private households, international commerce and local governments. Security institutions and state organisations use various combinations of counter- terrorism measures, that are mostly social-, political-, or financial in nature. Neverth...

  8. The EU Legislative Framework Against Money Laundering and Terrorist Finance:A Critical Analysis in the Light of Evolving Global Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Gilmore, William; Mitsilegas, Valsamis

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the evolution of the EU anti-money laundering legislative framework (which in recent years has also included measures to counter terrorist finance), by focusing in particular on recent legislation such as the third money laundering Directive and the Regulation on controls of cash entering the EU, both adopted in 2005. The analysis highlights the relationship between these instruments and international initiatives in the field (in particular FATF standards), and addresses...

  9. Long-Term Memory for the Terrorist Attack of September 11: Flashbulb Memories, Event Memories, and the Factors that Influence Their Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, William; Phelps, Elizabeth A.; Buckner, Randy L.; Budson, Andrew E.; Cuc, Alexandru; Gabrieli, John D. E.; Johnson, Marcia K.; Lustig, Cindy; Lyle, Keith B.; Mather, Mara; Meksin, Robert; Mitchell, Karen J.; Ochsner, Kevin N.; Schacter, Daniel L.; Simons, Jon S.; Vaidya, Chandan J.

    2009-01-01

    More than 3,000 individuals from 7 U.S. cities reported on their memories of learning of the terrorist attacks of September 11, as well as details about the attack, 1 week, 11 months, and/or 35 months after the assault. Some studies of flashbulb memories examining long-term retention show slowing in the rate of forgetting after a year, whereas…

  10. Developing Health-Based Pre-Planning Clearance Goals for Airport Remediation Following a Chemical Terrorist Attack: Decision Criteria for Multipathway Exposure Routes

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Annetta; Dolislager, Fredrick; Hall, Linda; Raber, Ellen; Hauschild, Veronique D.; Love, Adam H.

    2011-01-01

    In the event of a chemical terrorist attack on a transportation hub, post-event remediation and restoration activities necessary to attain unrestricted facility re-use and re-entry could require hours to multiple days. While timeframes are dependent on numerous variables, a primary controlling factor is the level of pre-planning and decision-making completed prior to chemical release. What follows is the second of a two-part analysis identifying key considerations, critical information and de...

  11. La importancia del «país de origen» en la fase de evaluación del consumidor de productos hortícolas

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Guerrero, José Felipe; Gázquez Abad, Juan Carlos; Linares Agüera, Emilia del Carmen

    2010-01-01

    La percepción sobre el país de origen de un producto es uno de los principales determinantes de la evaluación y elección de dicho producto, sobre todo en los mercados foráneos. En la literatura de marketing existen múltiples trabajos que han analizado este aspecto, si bien la mayor parte de ellos se han centrado en productos duraderos de alta implicación. Este trabajo analiza la importancia que el atributo país de origen tiene en el proceso de evaluación del consumidor para el caso de la comp...

  12. Diagnóstico de parásitos gastrointestinales en bovinos y su importancia en la productividad de los sistemas ganaderos.

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo O., Mayela; Hernández, Javier A.; Betancourt, Arquímedes; Suniaga Q., José

    2007-01-01

    Editorial. Suniaga Q., José La codorniz fuente proteica para consumo humano. Díaz Cuellar, Doraida R. y González, Diomary Diagnóstico de parásitos gastrointestinales en bovinos y su importancia en la productividad de los sistemas ganaderos. Castillo O., Mayela; Hernández, Javier A.; Betancourt, Arquímedes y Suniaga Q., José Nutrición vegetal (II). Moyeja Santana, Juan de Jesús Nutrición vegetal (III). Moyeja Santana, Juan de Jesús Plagas chupadoras de las cítrica...

  13. Importancia dada a la cultura corporativa por los responsables del área de talento humano, en empresas colombianas medianas y grandes

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Lucía Anzola Morales

    2010-01-01

    El proyecto de investigación cuyos resultados parciales se presentan en este artículo, indaga por las similitudes y diferencias encontradas entre las propuestas de estudio que enfatizan en la importancia de la cultura organizacional como un elemento que permite a las empresas establecer rasgos de diferenciación en el mercado y elevar sus niveles competitivos, con las apreciaciones y las prácticas de 50 encargados del área de talento humano de empresas colombianas medianas y grandes. La invest...

  14. Exploring the Iran-Hezbollah Relationship: A Case Study of how State Sponsorship affects Terrorist Group Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc R. DeVore

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the impact of state sponsorship on the decision-making of violent non-state actors is among the more important issues to scholars of security studies. This article addresses the issue by examining the relationship between Iran and Lebanon’s Hezbollah. To preview its conclusions, there are two main perspectives to consider with regard to the terrorist group – state sponsor relationship. First, state support has a powerful, yet indirect effect on violent non-state actor decision-making by shaping the options available to groups’ leaders.  Second, state sponsors can also directly leverage their aid to shape the strategic decisions of armed non-state actors, forcing their clients to either expand or restrict their activities. Because of inevitable lacunae and contradictions amongst published accounts, this study relies heavily upon primary sources and data collected during field research in Lebanon, including interviews with leaders from Hezbollah, the Lebanese Army, the United Nations' Peacekeeping Mission in Southern Lebanon (UNIFIL and the rival Shia organization, Amal.

  15. Occupational Practitioner's Role in the Management of a Crisis: Lessons Learned from the Paris November 2015 Terrorist Attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descatha, Alexis; Huynh Tuong, Alice; Coninx, Pierre; Baer, Michel; Loeb, Thomas; Despréaux, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In massive catastrophic events, occupational health practitioners are more and more frequently involved in the management of such situations. We aim to describe the multiple aspects of the role that occupational health practitioners might play, by focusing on the recent example of the Paris terrorist attack of November 2015. During and after the Paris attack, occupational practitioners, in collaboration with emergency and security professionals, were involved in psychological care, assembling information, follow-up, return-to-work, and improving in-company safety plans. Based on this experience and other industrial disasters, we distinguish three phases: the critical phase, the post-critical phase, and the anticipation phase. In the critical phase, the occupational practitioner cares for patients before the emergency professionals take charge, initiates the psychological management, and may also play an organizational role for company health aspects. In the post-critical phase, he or she would be involved in monitoring those affected by the events and participate in preventing, to the extent possible, posttraumatic stress disorder, helping victims in the return-to-work process, and improving procedures and organizing drills. In addition to their usual work of primary prevention, occupational practitioners should endeavor to improve preparedness in the anticipation phase, by taking part in contingency planning, training in first aid, and defining immediately applicable protocols. In conclusion, recent events have highlighted the essential role of occupational health services in anticipation of a crisis, management during the crisis, and follow-up.

  16. Occupational Practitioner’s Role in the Management of a Crisis: Lessons Learned from the Paris November 2015 Terrorist Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descatha, Alexis; Huynh Tuong, Alice; Coninx, Pierre; Baer, Michel; Loeb, Thomas; Despréaux, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In massive catastrophic events, occupational health practitioners are more and more frequently involved in the management of such situations. We aim to describe the multiple aspects of the role that occupational health practitioners might play, by focusing on the recent example of the Paris terrorist attack of November 2015. During and after the Paris attack, occupational practitioners, in collaboration with emergency and security professionals, were involved in psychological care, assembling information, follow-up, return-to-work, and improving in-company safety plans. Based on this experience and other industrial disasters, we distinguish three phases: the critical phase, the post-critical phase, and the anticipation phase. In the critical phase, the occupational practitioner cares for patients before the emergency professionals take charge, initiates the psychological management, and may also play an organizational role for company health aspects. In the post-critical phase, he or she would be involved in monitoring those affected by the events and participate in preventing, to the extent possible, posttraumatic stress disorder, helping victims in the return-to-work process, and improving procedures and organizing drills. In addition to their usual work of primary prevention, occupational practitioners should endeavor to improve preparedness in the anticipation phase, by taking part in contingency planning, training in first aid, and defining immediately applicable protocols. In conclusion, recent events have highlighted the essential role of occupational health services in anticipation of a crisis, management during the crisis, and follow-up. PMID:27703965

  17. Forecasting the “Arab Spring” of 2011: Terrorist Incident Data from 2000-2010 Offered No Early Warning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Chasdi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the single most predominant questions associated with the so-called “Arab Spring” is whether or not any social research indicators associated with terrorism data are available with predictive value for such profound structural political changes. The underlying aim of this “Research Note” is to take a first pass at the terrorism data and to compare certain terrorism data trends for four countries that experienced successful regime change in 2011, namely Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, and Yemen, to terrorism trends in nine countries where political strains and tensions did not result in full blown regime change. In this essay, those countries include Bahrain, Syria, Jordan, Morocco, Algeria, Kuwait, UAE, Lebanon, and Saudi Arabia. From the start, it should be clear that even though there was non-violent protest in many of these countries, this analysis places singular attention on what both Gurr and Ross and Miller call “oppositional” or “insurgent” terrorism where terrorist assaults are directed at state governments.

  18. Occupational practitioner's role in the management of a crisis: lessons learned from the Paris November 2015 terrorist attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Descatha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In massive catastrophic events, occupational health practitioners are more and more frequently involved in the management of such situations. We aim to describe the multiple aspects of the role that occupational health practitioners might play, by focusing on the recent example of the Paris terrorist attack of November 2015.During and after the Paris attack, occupational practitioners in collaboration with emergency and security professionals were involved in psychological care, assembling information, follow-up, return-to-work, and improving in-company safety plans.Based on this experience and other industrial disasters, we distinguish three phases: the critical phase, the post-critical phase, and the anticipation phase. In the critical phase, the occupational practitioner cares for patients before the emergency professionals take charge, initiates the psychological management, and may also play an organizational role for company health aspects. In the post-critical phase, he or she would be involved in monitoring those affected by the events, and participate in preventing, to the extent possible, post-traumatic stress disorder, helping victims in the return-to-work process, and improving procedures and organizing drills. In addition to their usual work of primary prevention, occupational practitioners should endeavor to improve preparedness in the anticipation phase, by taking part in contingency planning, training in first aid, and defining immediately applicable protocols.In conclusion, recent events have highlighted the essential role of occupational health services in anticipation of a crisis, management during the crisis, and follow-up.

  19. Profiles of referrals to a psychiatric service: a descriptive study of survivors of the Nairobi US Embassy terrorist bomb blast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndetei, D M; Omar, A; Mutiso, V N; Ongecha, F A; Kokonya, D A

    2009-11-01

    To document the socio-demographic characteristics and psychiatric profiles of the survivors of the Nairobi United States Embassy terrorist bomb blast referred to a psychiatric and psychotherapy (counselling) service. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Clinical interviews and structured questionnaires for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and stress were administered. Survivors of the bomb blast referred to a psychiatric and psychotherapy service one year or more after the bombing were included in the study. These survivors had been treated using psychopharmacotherapy and individualised (not group) therapy/counselling. Eighty-three consecutive referrals to a psychiatric service participated in this study. There were more males and the sample was generally well educated. The referrals made contact with the referring agency for a number of reasons including seeking psychological, financial and medical assistance. All the patients reported varying degrees of psychiatric symptoms and functional impairment on various aspects of social occupational functioning. High scores for PTSD and other related stress were recorded one or more years after the bombing. Although the survivors indicated that initial counselling following the blast had helped them, they still scored high on PTSD suggesting that clinically, the initial counselling had little, if any impact on the development of PTSD. There is need for a holistic approach to the management of psychotrauma in individuals.

  20. An Estimation of a Nonlinear Dynamic Process Using Latent Class Extended Mixed Models: Affect Profiles After Terrorist Attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burro, Roberto; Raccanello, Daniela; Pasini, Margherita; Brondino, Margherita

    2018-01-01

    Conceptualizing affect as a complex nonlinear dynamic process, we used latent class extended mixed models (LCMM) to understand whether there were unobserved groupings in a dataset including longitudinal measures. Our aim was to identify affect profiles over time in people vicariously exposed to terrorism, studying their relations with personality traits. The participants were 193 university students who completed online measures of affect during the seven days following two terrorist attacks (Paris, November 13, 2015; Brussels, March 22, 2016); Big Five personality traits; and antecedents of affect. After selecting students whose negative affect was influenced by the two attacks (33%), we analysed the data with the LCMM package of R. We identified two affect profiles, characterized by different trends over time: The first profile comprised students with lower positive affect and higher negative affect compared to the second profile. Concerning personality traits, conscientious-ness was lower for the first profile compared to the second profile, and vice versa for neuroticism. Findings are discussed for both their theoretical and applied relevance.

  1. Inoculation Policies in Response to Terrorist or WMD Attacks: Additional Factors to Consider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitner, P. M.

    2007-01-01

    When viewed on its own merits, the debate over who should be inoculated during a period of biological emergency is a rather straightforward public policy decision. The classic public policy 'balancing act' decision-making model is defaulted to as issues of fairness, efficiency, cost-effectiveness, adequacy of supply, mission performance, and constituencies are arrayed and adjudicated. This mainstream approach is appropriate as far as it goes but it also exemplifies a series of structural and perceptual weaknesses when applied to wartime or localized terrorism scenarios. In fact, the establishment of a vaccination policy appropriate to a flu pandemic falls squarely within this mainstream debate. Although the notion of a pandemic carries an assumption of a great many fatalities it does not possess the fear quotient, uncertainty, horror, unnaturalness, or inevitability of a bio-terror or biological warfare incident. As a result, the reliability and responsiveness of key personnel responding to a flu pandemic should be less of an issue than it will be in the event of an intentional man-made biological incident. The principal policy weakness in instances an intentional bio-attack stems from a generalized failure, or refusal, to systematically study the behavior of key personnel, first-responders, soldiers, or critical senior leadership during severe crises occurring in their own backyards. In other words, when the 'balloon goes up' how many of your responders and critical personnel will show up for work? This presentation considers many of the 'unaddressed' factors that experience has shown may have a determinative effect upon the efficacy of a response to a biological incident. Lessons are drawn from experiences of US forces station in the former West Germany, US Defense Department Continuity of Operations Programs, Hurricane Katrina, and the 9/11 attacks on the United States. (author)

  2. El desequilibrio de importancia entre las lenguas oficiales de Bolivia ¿ Por qué existen lenguas que son más oficiales que otras?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cancino, Rita

    EL DESEQUILIBRIO DE IMPORTANCIA ENTRE LAS LENGUAS OFICIALES DE BOLIVIA ¿ POR QUÉ EXISTEN LENGUAS QUE SON MÁS OFICIALES QUE OTRAS? Con la Constitución de Bolivia muchas lenguas originarias fueron declaradas oficiales y levantadas a un nivel de lengua oficial en paridad con el español. En el Artículo...... 5 de la Constitución boliviana, la Política del Estado reconoce oficialmente a 36 idiomas como lenguas oficiales. Este reconocimiento formó parte de un proceso de descolonización, devolviendo de esta manera el orgullo de las lenguas y culturas a los pueblos originarios de Bolivia. En 2012, se...... de Bolivia”. La pregunta es si esta política lingüística en realidad confiere a todas las lenguas oficiales el mismo peso, influencia e importancia o hay algunas menos poderosas. Palabras clave: Lenguas oficiales, política lingüística, lenguas originarias, bilingüismo, diglosia....

  3. Importancia y propiedades físico química de la Rosa mosqueta (R. canina, R. rubiginosa: una revisión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Espinoza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Los consumidores cada día exigen productos en sus dietas que no solo aporten los nutrientes requeridos para una vida sana, sino que además son de preferencia aquellos que puedan complementar con propiedades benéficas para la salud. En las últimas décadas se ha reconocido a la Rosa mosqueta, la Rosa canina y a la Rosa rubiginosa, como frutos que contienen muchas propiedades nutracéuticas. El presente trabajo hace una revisión de los artículos de investigación realizados a la Rosa mosqueta desde un punto de vista de su importancia de su consumo y sus beneficios para la salud; describiendo las características químicas, físicas y bioquímicas tales como el contenido de componentes fenólicos, ácidos grasos, ácido linoleico, minerales; y de otros compuestos importantes también desde el punto de vista industrial, tales como el contenido de antioxidantes, pigmentos, entre otros. De acuerdo a los antecedentes recopilados, la Rosa mosqueta es una fuente de micronutrientes incluyendo la vitamina c y el licopeno, entregando además un buen aporte nutricional; por lo anterior debe ser considerado como un alimento funcional. Aun siendo una especie que crece en estado salvaje, sobre suelos forestales; siendo un frutal menor y una planta medicinal su importancia en el consumo masivo debe ser considerada.

  4. Radioactive Substances Act 1960

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1960-01-01

    This Act regulates the keeping and use of radioactive material and makes provision for the disposal and storage of radioactive waste in the United Kingdom. It provides for a licensing system for such activities and for exemptions therefrom, in particular as concerns the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority. The Act repeals Section 4(5) of the Atomic Energy Authority Act, 1954 which made temporary provision for discharge of waste on or from premises occupied by the Authority. (NEA) [fr

  5. Learning dialog act processing

    OpenAIRE

    Wermter, Stefan; Löchel, Matthias

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we describe a new approach for learning dialog act processing. In this approach we integrate a symbolic semantic segmentation parser with a learning dialog act network. In order to support the unforeseeable errors and variations of spoken language we have concentrated on robust data-driven learning. This approach already compares favorably with the statistical average plausibility method, produces a segmentation and dialog act assignment for all utterances in a robust manner,...

  6. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Reform Could Impact People With CF The Preserving Employee Wellness Programs Act Our Advocacy Work Advocacy Achievements Advocacy News Briefings, Testimonies, and Regulatory ...

  7. Radiological Protection Act 1970

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    This Act provides for the establishment of a Radiological Protection Board to undertake research and advise on protection from radiation hazards. Its functions include provision of advice to Government departments with responsibilities in relation to protection of sectors of the community or the community as a whole against the hazards of ionizing radiation. The Act, which lays down that the Board shall replace certain departments concerned with radiation protection, repeals several Sections of the Radioactive Substances Act 1948 and the Science and Technology Act 1965. (NEA) [fr

  8. 25 CFR 700.33 - Act (The Act).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Act (The Act). 700.33 Section 700.33 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.33 Act (The Act). (a) The Act. The Act is Pub. L. 93-531, (88 Stat...

  9. Communication problems between local authorities and population in the zone of anti-terrorist operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Dolya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of restoration of government framework and local authorities in the regions prone to external aggression, special attention should be paid to the study of the problem of organisation of communication between public authorities and local population. It is the dialogue and the effective exchange of information between the population and the local authorities that constitute one of the major pillars of reintegration of Donbass territories, covered by the antiterrorist operation, into Ukraine; the regional specifics of the given territories is the anarchy resulting from withdrawal of the local government bodies that were legally elected yet in 2010. In fact, escape of heads and deputies of local councils in the most challenging period in life of the region catalysed the local people, reinforcing the sense of insecurity and understanding the betrayal of representatives of local government bodies. Thus, the issues of enhancement of communication channels effectiveness, which were still burning before the beginning of the external aggression and the partial occupation of Donbass, have been compounded today by the problem of establishment of communication channels between the population and the new Ukrainian local authorities nearly from scratch. This needs to take into account that the armed conflict conditions remain and, obviously, leave their imprint on social interaction within local communities. At the same time, it is the development of communication in the ATO zone, especially in the areas that underwent occupation or were released, which may form the basis for the harmonious entry of the citizens into the Ukrainian socium. Establishment of civil­military administrations (CMAs with the purpose to temporarily substitute the non­functioning local authorities in Donbass is the unique experience for Ukraine. Despite legal recognition of rights and duties of local government bodies, it should be understood that CMAs act in terms of

  10. Marine Mammal Protection Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA or Act) prohibits, with certain exceptions, the "take" of marine mammals in U.S. waters and by U.S. citizens on the high seas,...

  11. Collective speech acts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijers, A.W.M.; Tsohatzidis, S.L.

    2007-01-01

    From its early development in the 1960s, speech act theory always had an individualistic orientation. It focused exclusively on speech acts performed by individual agents. Paradigmatic examples are ‘I promise that p’, ‘I order that p’, and ‘I declare that p’. There is a single speaker and a single

  12. Americans with Disabilities Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaesberg, Mary Ann; Murray, Kenneth T.

    1994-01-01

    Presents a 35-item checklist of practical activities for school district compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). The checklist is based on ADA statutes, other civil rights legislation and litigation, as well as pertinent regulations and the legislative history of the act contained in the Congressional Record. (MLF)

  13. Radiation emitting devices act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    This Act, entitled the Radiation Emitting Devices Act, is concerned with the sale and importation of radiation emitting devices. Laws relating to the sale, lease or import, labelling, advertising, packaging, safety standards and inspection of these devices are listed as well as penalties for any person who is convicted of breaking these laws

  14. Nuclear Installations Act 1969

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    The purpose of this Act is to amend the Nuclear Installations Act 1965 to bring it into full compliance with the international conventions on nuclear third party liability to which the United Kingdom is a Signatory, namely, the Paris Convention, the Brussels Supplementary Convention and the Vienna Convention. (NEA) [fr

  15. Politics of Feminine Abuse: Political Oppression and Masculine Obstinacy in Doris Lessing’s The Good Terrorist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedram Lalbakhsh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the male-dominated world of Doris Lessing’s novel The Good Terrorist. Alice Mellings, the protagonist of the novel, is a political activist whose reliance on male figures in the story—the leaders of a subdivision of a political party—ends in disillusionment and frustration. Looking at this novel from a socialist feminist point of view, Alice Mellings is found to be a minor member, exploited and abused, who has to follow the orders and instructions of her inept superiors—all male. While Alice is the one who guarantees the continuation of activism (doing all kinds of jobs needed to keep the squat alive, she is never allowed to have a role in decision making. She is a member whose identity is defined by male superiors and is considered as a half-human whose services are to be enjoyed only. However, the findings of this study prove Alice as one who has her own voice at the end. The novel’s closing is marked with an engendered New Woman who is aware of the political abuse and whose independent unbound identity stands much higher than the political oppression and masculine obstinacy that had imprisoned her for so long. She is a different woman at the end; one who knows her power, believes in it and decides to fight and not to surrender. And this is a new consciousness that Lessing raises: discover your feminine power, have a firm belief in it and use it to win.

  16. La importancia y el papel del nutricionista en la atención primaria en Vitoria de Santo Antão, Pernambuco, Brasil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Adriana Oliveira da COSTA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Brasil está experimentando muchos cambios, entre ellos los de naturaleza poblacional, epidemiológica y nutricional, siendo este último caracterizado por la disminución de la desnutrición y el aumento de sobrepeso / obesidad así como de la hipertensión y la diabetes. Siendo la alimentación y la nutrición, al mismo tiempo factor protector y de riesgo para el desarrollo de tales condiciones, se considera que la inclusión del nutricionista en la atención primaria en salud (APS puede tener un impacto importante. El objetivo del estudio fue determinar la importancia y el papel del nutricionista en la APS. Fue realizada una investigación cuali-cuantitativa. En este artículo, se muestra el uso de técnicas de la hermenéutica dialéctica y el Discurso del Sujeto Colectivo (DSC de los profesionales actuando en la Estrategia de Salud de la Familia (ESF en Vitoria de Santo Antão, Pernambuco, Brasil, entre 2010 y 2011, se examinó la importancia y el papel del nutricionista en la APS. A partir del análisis del perfil epidemiológico se constata la importancia de las enfermedades crónicodegenerativas en consonancia con la transición nutricional. El DSC nos permitió concluir que el profesional de la nutrición es el más adecuado para hacer frente a este escenario adverso, y las acciones de la nutrición / alimentación deben ser desarrolladas por todos los trabajadores de la salud. Los entrevistados destacaron la necesidad de un especialista en nutrición como parte de la ESF, actuando en el equipo nuclear, sin el mínimo perjuicio para su inserción en el Núcleo de Apoyo a Salud de la Familia (NASF. Es urgente organizar y darle calidad a la atención nutricional en la APS, ya que la actual inserción del nutricionista está lejos Revista Tempus Actas de Saúde Coletiva 69 de lo necesario para hacer frente a la realidad epidemiológica en Brasil.

  17. The Radiation Protection Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, L.

    1989-01-01

    The new Radiation Protection Act (1988:220) entered into force in Sweden on July 1st, 1988. This book presents the Act as well as certain regulations connected to it. As previously, the main responsibility for public radiation protection will rest with one central radiation protection authority. According to the 1988 Act, the general obligations with regard to radiation protection will place a greater responsibility than in the past on persons carrying out activities involving radiation. Under the act, it is possible to adjust the licensing and supervisory procedures to the level of danger of the radiation source and the need for adequate competence, etc. The Act recognises standardised approval procedures combined with technical regulations for areas where the risks are well known. The Act contains several rules providing for more effective supervision. The supervising authority may in particular decide on the necessary regulations and prohibitions for each individual case. The possibilities of using penal provisions have been extended and a rule on the mandatory execution of orders has been introduced. The Ordinance on Radiation Protection (1988:293) designates the National Institute of Radiation Protection (SSI) as the central authority referred to in the Radiation Protection Act. The book also gives a historic review of radiation protection laws in Sweden, lists regulations issued by SSI and presents explanations of radiation effects and international norms in the area. (author)

  18. Canada's Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This paper provided an outline of Canada's Clean Air Act and examined some of the regulatory changes that will occur as a result of its implementation. The Act is being introduced to strengthen the legislative basis for taking action on reducing air pollution and GHGs, and will allow the government to regulate both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHGs. The Act will require the Ministers of the Environment and Health to establish national air quality objectives, as well as to monitor and report on their attainment. The Canadian Environmental Protection Act will be amended to enable the government to regulate the blending of fuels and their components. The Motor Vehicle Fuel Consumption Standards Act will also be amended to enhance the government's authority to regulate vehicle fuel efficiency. The Energy Efficiency Act will also be expanded to allow the government to set energy efficiency standards and labelling requirements for a wider range of consumer and commercial products. The Act will commit to short, medium and long-term industrial air pollution targets. Regulations will be proposed for emissions from industry; on-road and off-road vehicles and engines; and consumer and commercial products. It was concluded that the Government of Canada will continue to consult with provinces, territories, industries and Canadians to set and reach targets for the reduction of both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHG emissions. 6 figs

  19. La importancia del mundo virtual en la enseñanza y aprendizaje “AVA para el contenido de Genética”.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Afanador Castañeda

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available El presente escrito describe la importancia y la necesidad de incorporar las TIC en los procesos de enseñanza y aprendizaje de las ciencias, además la utilización de ambientes virtuales de aprendizajes como alternativa innovadora y eficaz para la adquisición y comunicación del conocimiento científico, y hace referencia a la necesidad de incorporar la evaluación formativa en medios virtuales. Por último se presenta un ambiente virtual de aprendizaje como estrategia didáctica teniendo en cuenta la resolución de problemas para la apropiación del contenido conceptual en Genética con su respectivo guión pedagógico.

  20. La importancia de las redes sociales en los orígenes de la industria farmacéutica argentina. El caso de los catalanes

    OpenAIRE

    Campins, Mónica; Pfeiffer, Ana

    2011-01-01

    El artículo que se presenta pretende ser un aporte hacia una interpretación más amplia del desarrollo de las industrias de base científica en países de industrialización tardía como Argentina. El enfoque utilizado en el trabajo de investigación se apoya en los aportes de Nuria Puig sobre el papel de las redes sociales en el desarrollo de la industria farmacéutica en los países de industrialización tardía y refuerza la tesis de Franco Ramella acerca de la importancia del uso fuerte del conc...

  1. Trypanosomiasis americana en el Perú: III. Importancia del cobayo como reservorio de la enfermedad de Chagas en la región sudoccidental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arístides Herrer

    1955-12-01

    Full Text Available 1. En el Perú, a lo largo de toda la región infestada por el Triatoma infestans, la gente frecuentemente cría cobayos en las mismas habitaciones humanas o en corrales contiguos a éstas. 2. De la estrecha relación existente entre el cobayo y el T. infestans, en lo que concierne a la enfermedad de Chagas el citado roedor adquiere importancia como: a uno de los principales huéspedes del insecto; y b el reservorio más importante del Trypanosoma cruzi. 3. Debido al trasporte del cobayo de unas localidades a otras, deviene también este roedor como activo medio de diseminación del agente etiológico de la enfermedad de Chagas.

  2. El valor de las marcas en el siglo XXI: la marca país y su importancia para el desarollo de Puerto Rico

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Cruz, Damaris

    2016-01-01

    La investigación aborda los temas del valor de las marcas, la importancia de la publicidad para el éxito de las marcas y cómo la ‘Marca País’ puede ayudar al desarrollo de un país, en este caso Puerto Rico. Los objetivos de la investigación son analizar si las marcas pueden ser éticas, cuán importante es la publicidad para que las marcas alcancen el éxito y cómo la ‘Marca País’ puede ayudar al desarrollo de Puerto Rico. Las marcas son mucho más que un nombre o símbolo. Las marcas envuelven va...

  3. Revisión teórica de la discapacidad visual, estudio sobre la importancia de la creatividad en la Educación Especial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Enrique Llamazares de Prado

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available En el siguiente trabajo se plantea la importancia en la educación de elementos clave como son la creatividad, y el pensamiento divergente. Esta exposición tiene como principal objetivo la revisión de los estudios de discapacidad visual y creatividad. Pretendemos una reflexión sistematizada de la estimación cuantitativa sintética de todos los estudios disponibles, planteando un marco teórico relacionando la creatividad en la educación de alumnos con deficiencia visual, aportándose valoraciones personales. Dentro de las conclusiones obtenidas, se evidencia la función del potencial creativo, por medio del pensamiento divergente en la creación de conceptos e ideas, para la resolución de problemas, con interés no solo en la educación, sino en cualquier ámbito de la vida.

  4. La importancia del estudio de la psicosis en el ámbito jurídico penal/The importance of psychosis study in the criminal legal field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Salgado García

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Los sujetos que padecen psicosis, ven a alguien cuando no hay nadie y hasta perciben olores que nadie más huele. Tienen alucinaciones que son hechos falsos, no hablan con ninguna persona y aun así lo hacen, entablando conversaciones fuera de la realidad. La psicosis comprende un grave deterioro de las funciones ejecutivas la personalidad, en especial con relación a la realidad y que se manifiesta por el desajuste de interacción social. La comisión de conductas delictivas pueden originarse en estados psicóticos, lo que deberá considerarse al determinarse la individualización de la sanción penal, lo que es de ingente importancia para la defensa el fiscal y el juzgador.

  5. La importancia relativa en auditoría. Las nuevas normas internacionales en comparación con la normativa vigente en Iberoamérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Martínez García

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Como se sabe, actualmente estamos inmersos en una profunda crisis financiera internacional. Ante esta situación, resulta necesario introducir, entre otras medidas, mayores y mejores mecanismos de control para lograr una información contable plenamente transparente. En este sentido, la Federación Internacional de Contadores (ifac está revisando y actualizando las Normas Internacionales de Auditoría (nias, que constituyen el referente mundial más importante de los principios y requisitos que deben seguir los auditores para cumplir de la forma más adecuada su función como agentes que garanticen la fiabilidad de la información contable publicada por las empresas. De las nias existentes, se revisaron particularmente la 320 y la 450, las cuales regulan la aplicación de la importancia relativa por los auditores, dada la importancia del concepto en la planeación, ejecución y finalización de las auditorías y las críticas que su inapropiada utilización ha recibido en los últimos años. Específicamente, analizamos el contenido actualizado de ambas normas, que entrarán en vigor a partir del 15 de diciembre de 2009, y las comparamos con sus análogas en Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, España, México y Portugal. Debido a la aceptación mundial de las nias, es necesario que los organismos reguladores en estos países emprendan el camino hacia su adopción o convergencia.

  6. The Energy Act 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Part II of This Act came into force on 1 September 1983 and is concerned with nuclear installations. Its main purpose is to amend the Nuclear Installations Act 1965 to give effect to the provisions of two Protocols amending the Paris Convention on nuclear third party liability and the Brussels Convention Supplementary to the Paris Convention respectively. The principal effect of these modifications is to increase the sums available to meet claims for nuclear damage. The United Kingdom is a Party to both Conventions and the provisions of the 1983 Act will enable it to ratify the Protocols. (NEA) [fr

  7. The day Norway cried: Proximity and distress in Norwegian citizens following the 22nd July 2011 terrorist attacks in Oslo and on Utøya Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoresen, Siri; Aakvaag, Helene Flood; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Dyb, Grete; Hjemdal, Ole Kristian

    2012-01-01

    Terrorism may create fear and stress reactions not only in the direct victims, but also in the general population. This study investigated emotional responses in the Norwegian population following the 22nd July 2011 terrorist attacks. We hypothesized that Oslo residents would report a higher level of fear responses compared with people living outside Oslo and that proximity would be associated with early distress and later post-traumatic stress reactions. Representative samples were drawn from the Norwegian Population Registry. Telephone interviews were conducted 4-5 months after the attacks. The response rate for the Oslo sample (N=465) was 24% of the total sample, and 43% of those who were actually reached by phone and asked to participate. Corresponding figures for the sample living outside Oslo (N=716) were 19% and 30%. Our results show strong immediate emotional responses, particularly sadness and a feeling of unreality, in both samples. Jumpiness and other fear responses were significantly higher among Oslo residents. Current level of risk perception was low 4-5 months after the attacks; however, a significant minority reported to feel less safe than before. Geographical and psychological proximity were associated with early emotional responses. Psychological proximity was significantly associated with post-traumatic stress reactions, while measures of geographical proximity were not. Immediate emotional responses, first-week reactions, and first-week jumpiness were uniquely and significantly associated with post-traumatic stress reactions. Post-traumatic stress reactions were elevated in ethnic minorities. The terrorist attacks seem to have had a significant effect on the Norwegian population, creating sadness and insecurity, at least in the short term. Proximity to the terrorist attacks was strongly associated with distress in the population, and early distress was strongly related to later post-traumatic stress reactions. Our results indicate that

  8. EL CAPITAL DE TRABAJO NETO Y EL VALOR EN LAS EMPRESAS LA IMPORTANCIA DE LA RECOMPOSICIÓN DEL CAPITAL DE TRABAJO NETO EN LAS EMPRESAS QUE ATRAVIESAN O HAN ATRAVESADO CRÍSIS FINANCIERAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Marcela Rizzo

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available La importancia del capital de trabajo en la generación de valor de las empresas se pone en evidencia a partir de la ausencia del mismo. En este trabajo vamos a exponer qué ocurre en las empresas cuando no hay el suficiente capital de trabajo y la importancia que reviste su recompo-sición. Veremos, en los tres ejemplos presentados, cómo a partir de la recomposición del capital de trabajo de se comienza o se mejora la actividad de las empresas y, por ende, la generación de valor.

  9. 75 FR 63703 - Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM 12 CFR Part 261a [Docket No. R-1313] Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act... implementing the Privacy Act of 1974 (Privacy Act). The primary changes concern the waiver of copying fees... records under the Privacy Act; the amendment of special procedures for the release of medical records to...

  10. "Second class loss": political culture as a recovery barrier--the families of terrorist casualties' struggle for national honors, recognition, and belonging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebel, Udi

    2014-01-01

    Israeli families of terrorist victims have undertaken initiatives to include their dearest in the national pantheon. The objections opposed the penetration of "second-class loss" into the symbolic closure of heroic national bereavement. The "hierarchy of bereavement" is examined through the lens of political culture organized around the veneration held for the army fallen and their families, which has symbolic as well as rehabilitative outcomes. Families of civilian terror victims claims for similar status and treatment had to frame their loss as national in the eyes of the social policy. The article claimed linkage between collective memory and rehabilitation.

  11. Evaluation of risk from acts of terrorism :the adversary/defender model using belief and fuzzy sets.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darby, John L.

    2006-09-01

    Risk from an act of terrorism is a combination of the likelihood of an attack, the likelihood of success of the attack, and the consequences of the attack. The considerable epistemic uncertainty in each of these three factors can be addressed using the belief/plausibility measure of uncertainty from the Dempster/Shafer theory of evidence. The adversary determines the likelihood of the attack. The success of the attack and the consequences of the attack are determined by the security system and mitigation measures put in place by the defender. This report documents a process for evaluating risk of terrorist acts using an adversary/defender model with belief/plausibility as the measure of uncertainty. Also, the adversary model is a linguistic model that applies belief/plausibility to fuzzy sets used in an approximate reasoning rule base.

  12. Abandoned Shipwreck Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data represents the extent of the Abandoned Shipwreck Act (ASA). The ASA allows states to manage a broad range of resources within submerged lands, including...

  13. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Preserving Employee Wellness Programs Act Our Advocacy Work Advocacy ... the value of tapping into the expertise that only people with CF and their families have. We invite you to share insights to ...

  14. Energy Policy Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Energy Policy Act (EPA) addresses energy production in the United States, including: (1) energy efficiency; (2) renewable energy; (3) oil and gas; (4) coal; (5)...

  15. ACTS – SUCCESS STORY

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. ACTS – SUCCESS STORY. Totally 103 experiments were conducted and the programme succeeded in the areas. Medicine; Education; Defence; Emergency Response; Maritime and Aeronautical Mobile Communications; Science and Astronomy.

  16. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... There are different ways to clear your airways. Most are easy to do. Infants and toddlers will ... best ACT is the one that you are most likely to perform as part of your daily ...

  17. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to loosen mucus from airway walls. See how different airway clearance techniques work to help you clear the thick, sticky mucus ... Offer their tips for fitting ACTs into daily life Airway Clearance Techniques | Webcast ... Facebook Twitter ...

  18. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CF Community in Health Care Reform Milestones in Health Care Reform How Tax Reform Could Impact People With CF The Preserving Employee Wellness Programs Act Our Advocacy Work Advocacy Achievements ...

  19. Clean Water Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent geographic terms used within the Clean Water Act (CWA). The CWA establishes the basic structure for regulating the addition of pollutants...

  20. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... toddlers will need help from a parent or caregiver. Older kids and adults can choose ACTs that ... into the smaller airways to attack bacteria. Choose What's Best for You Your respiratory therapist or another ...

  1. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that help thin and move the mucus, and antibiotics. Bronchodilators should be inhaled before you start ACTs. This medication helps to widen your airways (bronchi) by relaxing the ...

  2. Endangered Species Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of the Endangered Species Act (ESA) is to protect and recover imperiled species and the ecosystems upon which they depend. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife...

  3. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Reform Could Impact People With CF The Preserving Employee Wellness Programs Act Our Advocacy Work Advocacy Achievements ... on their own. Share Facebook Twitter Email More options Print Share Facebook Twitter Email Print Permalink All ...

  4. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 3-D Structure Consortium CFTR Folding Consortium Epithelial Stem Cell Consortium Mucociliary Clearance Consortium SUCCESS WITH THERAPIES RESEARCH ... ACTs involve coughing or huffing . Many of them use percussion (clapping) or vibration to loosen mucus from ...

  5. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... today. ANNUAL FUND Become a Corporate Supporter Cause Marketing Make a Charitable Gift Our Corporate Supporters Workplace ... Clearance Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs) There are different ways to clear your airways. Most are easy to ...

  6. Marine Pollution Prevention Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Pollution Prevention Act of 2008 implements the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, including related Protocols (MARPOL)...

  7. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CF Community in Health Care Reform Milestones in Health Care Reform How Tax Reform Could Impact People With CF The Preserving Employee Wellness Programs Act Our Advocacy Work Advocacy Achievements Advocacy News Briefings, Testimonies, and Regulatory ...

  8. Preventive Radiation Protection Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roewer, H.

    1988-01-01

    The commentary is intended to contribute to protection of the population by a practice-oriented discussion and explanation of questions arising in connection with the Preventive Radiation Protection Act. Leaving aside discussions about abandonment of nuclear power, or criticism from any legal point of view, the commentary adopts the practical approach that accepts, and tries to help implementing, the act as it is. It is a guide for readers who are not experts in the law and gives a line of orientation by means of explanations and sometimes by citations from other acts (in footnotes). The commentary also presents the EURATOM Directive No. 3954/87 dated 22 December 1987, the EC Directive No. 3955/87 dated 22 December 1987, and the EC Directive No. 1983/88 dated 5 July 1988. A tabular survey shows the system of duties and competences defined by the Preventive Radiation Protection Act. (RST) [de

  9. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Contraception and Protection How Does CF Affect the Female Reproductive System? How Does CF Affect the Male ... Reform Could Impact People With CF The Preserving Employee Wellness Programs Act Our Advocacy Work Advocacy Achievements ...

  10. ACT250 Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The ACT 250 Districts layer is part of a larger dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  11. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ACTs involve coughing or huffing . Many of them use percussion (clapping) or vibration to loosen mucus from airway walls. See how different airway clearance techniques work to help you clear the thick, sticky mucus ...

  12. Acts of Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelund, Sidsel

    place mostly in seminars and articles, in which knowledge is often discussed as an intrinsic quality of the artwork. Acts of Research, however, is devoted to studying the rise of knowledge production in contemporary art from the perspective of artistic, curatorial and educational research...... described as knowledge producers and exhibitions and art works as instances of knowledge production. Acts of Research: Knowledge Production in Contemporary Arts between Knowledge Economy and Critical Practices analyses this development. The academic discussion of knowledge production in the arts has taken...... with an awareness of larger political, economic, geographical and art-related aspects. The concept of ‘acts of research’ is suggested as a way to understand knowledge production as a creative act in which research carried out in relation to a specific material challenges and resists the protocols of conventional...

  13. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Congressional Cystic Fibrosis Caucus Our Policy Agenda Policy Principles SIGN UP FOR ADVOCACY ACTION ALERTS Community We ... options Print Share Facebook Twitter Email Print Permalink All ACTs involve coughing or huffing . Many of them ...

  14. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... How Does CF Affect the Male Reproductive System? Sex and CF: Some Practical Advice Family Planning and ... need help from a parent or caregiver. Older kids and adults can choose ACTs that they can ...

  15. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... FOR ADVOCACY ACTION ALERTS Community We recognize the value of tapping into the expertise that only people ... ACTs involve coughing or huffing . Many of them use percussion (clapping) or vibration to loosen mucus from ...

  16. National Environmental Policy Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was the first major environmental law in the United States and established national environmental policies for the...

  17. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Reform Could Impact People With CF The Preserving Employee Wellness Programs Act Our Advocacy Work Advocacy Achievements ... Board of Trustees Our Leadership Careers Reports and Financials Contact Us Governance and Policies What is CF? ...

  18. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... own. Share Facebook Twitter Email More options Print Share Facebook Twitter Email Print Permalink All ACTs involve ... CF Care Team Research About Our Research Developing New Treatments Researcher Resources Assistance Services Find Resources: CF ...

  19. Affordable Care Act (ACA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Affordable Care Act (ACA) is a federal statute enacted with a goal of increasing the quality and affordability of health insurance. Through a web service, CMS...

  20. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Preserving Employee Wellness Programs Act Our Advocacy Work Advocacy Achievements Advocacy News Briefings, Testimonies, and Regulatory Comments Congressional Cystic Fibrosis Caucus Our Policy Agenda Policy Principles SIGN UP FOR ADVOCACY ACTION ...