Sample records for terrigenous clastic sediments

  1. Terrigenous clastic depositional systems. Applications to petroleum, coal and uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galloway, W.E.; Hobday, D.K.


    Two experts in fundamental and applied sedimentology and sedimentary economic geology provide a state-of-the-art summary of clastic depositional environments and their associated mineral fuel deposits. Utilizing a multidisciplinary approach, the authors focus on the recognition, mapping, and three-dimensional reconstruction of clastic deposits, primarily from subsurface data, examine the hydrology of sedimentary basins, and discuss applications of genetic facies analysis to mineral fuel resource appraisal, exploration, and development

  2. Clastic sediment flux to tropical Andean lakes: records of glaciation and soil erosion (United States)

    Rodbell, Donald T.; Seltzer, Geoffrey O.; Mark, Bryan G.; Smith, Jacqueline A.; Abbott, Mark B.


    We developed records of clastic sediment flux to 13 alpine lakes in Peru, Ecuador, and Bolivia, and compared these with independently dated records of regional glaciation. Our objectives are to determine whether a strong relationship exists between the extent of ice cover in the region and the rate of clastic sediment delivery to alpine lakes, and thus whether clastic sediment records serve as reliable proxies for glaciation during the late Pleistocene. We isolated the clastic component in lake sediment cores by removing the majority of the biogenic and authigenic components from the bulk sediment record, and we dated cores by a combination of radiocarbon and tephrochronology. In order to partially account for intra-basin differences in sediment focusing, bedrock erosivity, and sediment availability, we normalized each record to the weighted mean value of clastic sediment flux for each respective core. This enabled the stacking of all 13 lake records to produce a composite record that is generally representative of the tropical Andes. There is a striking similarity between the composite record of clastic sediment flux and the distribution of ˜100 cosmogenic radionuclide (CRN) exposure ages for erratics on moraine crests in the central Peruvian and northern Bolivian Andes. The extent of ice cover thus appears to be the primary variable controlling the delivery of clastic sediment to alpine lakes in the region, which bolsters the increasing use of clastic sediment flux as a proxy for the extent of ice cover in the region. The CRN moraine record and the stacked lake core composite record together indicate that the expansion of ice cover and concomitant increase in clastic sediment flux began at least 40 ka, and the local last glacial maximum (LLGM) culminated between 30 and 20 ka. A decline in clastic sediment flux that began ˜20 ka appears to mark the onset of deglaciation from the LLGM, at least one millennium prior to significant warming in high latitude regions

  3. Differences in nutrient concentrations and resources between seagrass communities on carbonate and terrigenous sediments in South Sulawesi, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erftemeijer, P.L.A.


    Water column, sediment and plant parameters were studied in six tropical seagrass beds in South Sulawesi, Indonesia, to evaluate the relation between seagrass bed nutrient concentrations and sediment type. Coastal seagrass beds on terrigenous sediments had considerably higher biomass of

  4. Linking Terrigenous Sediment Delivery to Declines in Coral ... (United States)

    Worldwide coral reef conditions continue to decline despite the valuable socioeconomic benefits of these ecosystems. There is growing recognition that quantifying reefs in terms reflecting what stakeholders value is vital for comparing inherent tradeoffs among coastal management decisions. Terrestrial sediment runoff ranks high as a stressor to coral reefs and is a key concern in Puerto Rico where reefs are among the most threatened in the Caribbean. This research aimed to identify the degree to which sediment runoff impacts production of coral reef ecosystem services and the potential for watershed management actions to improve these services. Ecosystem service production functions were applied to map and translate metrics of ecological reef condition into ecosystem service production under a gradient of increasing sediment delivery. We found that higher sediment delivery decreased provisioning of most ecosystem services, including ecosystem integrity, bioprospecting discovery, and reef-based recreational opportunities and fisheries production. However, shoreline protection and services with a strong contribution from non-reef habitats (e.g., mangroves, seagrasses) were higher in locations with high sediment delivery, although there was a strong inshore effect suggesting the influence of distance to shore, depth, and inshore habitats. Differences among services may indicate potential tradeoffs and the need to consider habitat connectivity, nursery habitat, acce

  5. Elemental signature of terrigenous sediment runoff as recorded in coastal salt ponds: US Virgin Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, Rebekka A.; Brooks, Gregg R.; Devine, Barry; Schwing, Patrick T.; Holmes, Charles W.; Jilbert, Tom; Reichart, Gert-Jan


    A high-resolution, multi-proxy approach is utilized on mm- to cm-scale laminated coastal salt pond sediments from St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands, to determine: (1) the sedimentological signature of depositional events/processes, (2) link this sedimentological signature with known depositional events/processes in the historical (past ∼100 years) record; and, (3) project back into the recent geologic past (past ∼1400 years) to investigate the natural variability of depositional events/processes. High-resolution, short-lived radioisotope geochronology ("2"1"0Pb, "1"3"7Cs, "7Be) combined with high-resolution elemental scanning techniques (scanning XRF and scanning LA-ICP-MS) allows for the direct comparison of well-preserved salt pond deposits to historical records of depositional events (e.g., runoff/rainfall, tropical cyclones, tsunamis) to identify the sedimentary signature of each type of event. There is a robust sedimentary record of terrigenous sediment runoff linked to the frequency of rainfall events that exceed a threshold of ∼12 mm/day (minimum to mobilize and transport sediment) for study sites. This is manifested in the sedimentary record as increases in terrigenous indicator elements (%Al, %Fe, %Ti, %Si), which agree well with rainfall records over the past ∼50 years. Variability in the sedimentary record over the past ∼100 years reflects decadal-scale fluctuations between periods of increased frequency of rainfall events, and decreased frequency of rainfall events. Dm-scale variability in terrigenous indicator elements over the past ∼1400 years represents the natural system variability on a decadal–centennial scale, and provides a high-resolution, long-term baseline of natural variability of rainfall/runoff events. A period of increased terrigenous sediment delivery during the 1700s and 1800s likely indicates increased erosion in response to anthropogenic activities associated with the island’s plantation era, and perhaps increased

  6. Zircon evidence for incorporation of terrigenous sediments into the magma source of continental basalts. (United States)

    Xu, Zheng; Zheng, Yong-Fei; Zhao, Zi-Fu


    Crustal components may be incorporated into continental basalts by either shallow contamination or deep mixing. While the former proceeds at crustal depths with common preservation of refractory minerals, the latter occurs at mantle depths with rare survival of relict minerals. Discrimination between the two mechanisms has great bearing to subcontinental mantle geochemistry. Here we report the occurrence of relict zircons in Cenozoic continental basalts from eastern China. A combined study of zircon U-Pb ages and geochemistry indicates that detrital zircons were carried by terrigenous sediments into a subcontinental subduction zone, where the zircon were transferred by fluids into the magma sources of continental basalts. The basalts were sampled from three petrotectonic units with distinct differences in their magmatic and metamorphic ages, making the crustal contamination discernible. The terrigenous sediments were carried by the subducting oceanic crust into the asthenospheric mantle, producing both soluble and insoluble materials at the slab-mantle interface. These materials were served as metasomatic agents to react with the overlying mantle wedge peridotite, generating a kind of ultramafic metasomatites that contain the relict zircons. Therefore, the occurrence of relict zircons in continental basalts indicates that this refractory mineral can survive extreme temperature-pressure conditions in the asthenospheric mantle.

  7. Using provenance of terrigenous sediment to reconstruct the Agulhas Leakage during the Early and Late Pleistocene (United States)

    Pearson, B.; Franzese, A. M.


    The Agulhas Current, the strongest western boundary current in the southern hemisphere, is uniquely characterized by its strong retroflection. The current carries water southward from the Indian Ocean toward the cape of South Africa, before turning back on itself. At this point of retroflection, some of the current's flow escapes into the southern Atlantic Ocean. This transfer of water from the Indian Ocean to Atlantic Ocean makes up the Agulhas Leakage. The Leakage occurs in a series of eddies and rings located in the Cape Basin south of the African continent. Scientific literature demonstrates that relatively buoyant leakage water has been a determining factor varying strength of the Atlantic Meridional Ocean Current (AMOC), during glacial-interglacial cycles. It has been demonstrated that radiogenic isotope, major, and trace element concentrations serve as a proxy for terrigenous sediment provenance in the Agulhas region. Current understanding is that terrigenous sediment provenance is older during warmer periods of deposition. This corresponds to more input from southeastern African end members, and thus a stronger Agulhas Current, during warming periods in the paleoclimate record. Conversely, younger terrigenous sediment deposited during colder periods, such as the Last Glacial Maximum, suggests a weaker Agulhas Current, and less Agulhas Leakage. In 2016, on the International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 361, sediment cores were drilled at 6 sites in the Greater Agulhas region. A major goal of the expedition was to expand knowledge of the relation between changes in the Agulhas System and changes in paleoclimate, southern African climate, and AMOC. We analyzed sediment from Expedition 361 Site U1479 (35°03.53'S; 17°24.06'E; 2615 mbsl) located where the Agulhas Leakage occurs. We measured Argon, strontium isotope ratios, ɛNd, trace and major element concentrations on the <2 micron clay fraction. Preliminary results foretell promising findings. For

  8. Geochemistry and Nd-isotope systematics of chemical and terrigenous sediments from the Dun Mountain Ophiolite, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivell, W.J.


    . Metalliferous contributions to red and green TA in the overlying terrigenous sedimentary sequence also link these facies to early DMOB back-arc eruptives. The red and green TA pass upwards into ungraded Atomodesmid-bearing grey TA, implying turbidite deposition in a shallowing marine environment. The (mainly andesitic) TA show systematic trends of decreasing Eu/Eu* and ε Nd (T) with increasing Ε-REE, La/Y, Th/Sc, and SiO 2 . Th abundances and Th/Sc ratios (up to 1.6) in the TA are akin to those of calc-alkaline magmas in continental arcs, and are significantly greater than island-arc or ophiolitic volcanics. A narrow range of positive ε Nd (T) values (+0.5 to +2.0) for the TA suggests a young differentiated continental arc source, less dissected than the quartzofeldspathic plutonic provenance for the Torlesse (ε Nd (T) N /Yb N = 2.5-2.8) in the sandstones resemble island-arc tholeiites (IAT). The breccias have low Eu/Eu* (c. 0.72), Ce N /Yb N = 1.6, Th/Sc (0.1-0.2), and Tb N /Yb N c. 1.0, features transitional between the sandstones and DMOB plagiogranites. Importantly, the sandstones and breccias show high positive initial Nd ratios (ε Nd (T) = +5 to +8) akin to values for Brook Street IAT (ε Nd (T) = +9). This implies juvenile (mantle-derived) source rocks for both the mafic and felsic younger terrigenous sediments, compatible with crustal residence (mean provenance) ages less than for the TA. Little continental input is permitted by Nd-isotopic data for these rocks. Whereas the early DMOB pillow basalt - chemical sediment - TA assemblage was emplaced in a back-arc setting, with influx of detritus in part from an active continental margin (possibly within the New England Orogen), the younger DMOB terrigenous sediment association shows a close kinship with bimodal DMOB magmatism related to infant arc volcanic centres in an extensional forearc regime. Turbidite sands and mass-flow deposits were shed into proximal fault-bound basins isolated from continental clastic

  9. Parametrization of environment by geochemistry of the varved clastic and bio- chemogenic lake sediments (United States)

    Kalugin, Ivan; Darin, Andrey; Babich, Valery; Markovich, Tatiana; Meydan, Feray


    . Mineral matter responses to runoff. Mineral clastic part is correlated with x-ray density. It includes "clastic" rock-forming - Si, Al , Ti, Fe, Mg, Ca, K and trace elements such as Sr, Rb, Y, Zr, REE etc. Organic component of sediment more reflects temperature by means of productivity in the catchment and waterbody. Organophillic elements are Br, I, U and others soluble elements correlated with organic Carbon or LOIcarbonates precipitated in dependence of temperature, aridity and water salinity. Separate geochemical indicators are directly used for paleo- environmental evaluation. For example, elements with changing valency may be a proxy of outer conditions. Fe is strictly connected with sulfur in sulphide under anoxic conditions. And also Fe forms siderite in carbonate ion saturated, but calcium poor, water in the sedimentation system. Mn-enriched layers, crusts and nodules mark usually a long - term pauses of sedimentation in oxic systems. Mo/Mn ratio is good correlated with anoxic atmosphere. And so on. The work is supported by grants RFBR 16-05-00641, 16-05-00657, 15-55-46001.

  10. Provenance and supply of Fe-enriched terrigenous sediments in the western equatorial Pacific and their relation to precipitation variations during the late Quaternary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, J.W.; Liu, Z.; Zhou, nn.


    Iron (Fe) deposition in the equatorial Pacific has important implications for the global carbon cycle, while the provenance of Fe supply and its change remain highly debated. Here, we geochemically characterize the provenance of terrigenous sediments deposited on the pathways of the Equatorial

  11. Fouling of coarse-clastic sediments with macrophytes depending on the rate of abrasion, Murmansk coast (United States)

    Malavenda, S. V.; Mitayev, M. V.; Malavenda, S. S.; Gerasimova, M. V.


    It is shown for the first time that the hydrodynamics and average daily gradient of air temperature affect the rate of abrasion of the coarse-clastic material on the boulder littoral of the Murmansk coast, as well as the density of its fouling by macroalgae. The proportion and biomass of species-explerents vary depending on the hydrological and meteorological conditions. The annual species-explerents ( Acrosiphonia arcta, Blidingia minima, Spongomorpha aeruginosa, Pylaiella littoralis) are the basis for new phytocenoses. In the fucus phytocenoses of the boulder littoral, these groupings represent the intermediate stage of fouling of the coarse-clastic material.

  12. Variations in terrigenous sediment discharge in a sediment core from southeastern Arabian Sea during the last 140 ka

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pattan, J.N.; Masuzawa, T.; Yamamoto, M.

    . We thank Dr R. R. Navalgund, Director, and Dr P. S. Roy, Deputy Director, Remote Sensing and GIS Applic a- tions Area, National Remote Sensing Agency (NRSA), Hyderabad for providing financial support, necessary facilities and encour agement du r... but comparatively poor corr e- lation coefficient between Al and Fe ( r = 0.70) co m pared to other terrigenous source elements could be du e to the presence of excess Fe (~ 25%) (structurally unsu p ported) throughout the core. This excess Fe might have...

  13. Marine and terrigenous lipids in southeast atlantic sediments (leg 175) as paleoenvironmental indicators: initial results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Schefuss, E.; Versteegh, G.J.M.; Jansen, J.H.F.


    Lipid compositions of sediments recovered during Ocean Drilling Program Leg 175 in the eastern South Atlantic reflect a variety of oceanographic and climatological environments. Most of the identified lipids can be ascribed to marine sources, notably haptophytes,

  14. Terrigenous sediment provenance from geochemical tracers, south Molokai reef flat, Hawaii (United States)

    Takesue, R.K.


    Land-derived runoff is one of the greatest threats to coral-reef health. Identification of runoff sources is an important step in erosion mitigation efforts. A geochemical sediment provenance study was done in uplands and across the adjacent fringing reef on the southeast shore of Molokai, Hawaii, to determine whether sediment runoff originated from hillsides or gulches. Source-region identification was based on geochemical differences between alkalic basalt, which outcrops on hillsides, and tholeiitic basalt, which outcrops in gulches. In Kawela watershed, copper to iron ratios (Cu/Fe) were distinct in hillside soil versus gulch sediment and suggest that hillside erosion is the predominant mechanism of sediment delivery to the nearshore. This suggests that runoff-mitigation efforts should take steps to reduce hillside erosion. Cadmium to thorium ratios (Cd/Th) in nearshore sediment suggest that there is a high-Cd source of runoff east of Kamalo Gulch. This compositional difference is consistent with the predominance of tholeiitic basalt on the eastern end of Molokai.

  15. Provenance and geological significance of red mud and other clastic sediments of the Mugnano cave (Montagnola Senese, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iacoviello Francesco


    Full Text Available The Mugnano cave is characterized by a thick clastic sedimentary fill showing a great variability of sedimentary facies, ranging from clay to coarse-grained sand deposits. This paper deals with combined sedimentological and mineralogical (XRD and SEM studies of these sediments and bedrock insoluble residues in order to understand the origin and geological significance of cave deposits, with particular attention to red mud sediments, often considered as the residue of host rock dissolution. Three different sedimentary facies were recognized: i YS, yellow sand with occasionally shell fragments, testifying the arrival of sediments from the surrounding landscape; ii RS, red laminated mud; iii GS, grey and red-grey mud and sand, dolomite-rich sediments. Furthermore, the results obtained in the present study allowed the identification of two fingerprint minerals: i quartz, present only as traces in the limestone host-rock, and ii dolomite, certainly related to the incomplete bedrock dissolution. Results obtained by this multidisciplinary approach testify that no one of the investigated sediments is representative of a completely autochthonous sedimentation (i.e. accumulation of insoluble residue of limestone in a cave environment. In fact, all the three sedimentary facies show a bulk composition rich in quartz, a mineral indicating an external origin for these sediments. Also the grey sediments, despite of their high content of bedrock- related dolomite, are quite rich in quartz and they testify the mixing of autochthonous and allocthonous sediments. The clay fraction of cave sediments shows strong compositional similarities with bedrock insoluble residue and consequently its analysis cannot be considered as a clear proxy for distinguishing between different parent materials. Therefore, the origin of these cave deposits is dominantly related to external sediments inputs, with terra rossa surface soils as the most probable parent material for red mud

  16. Controls on terrigenous sediment supply to the Arabian Sea during the late Quaternary: the Indus Fan.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, M.A.; Postma, G.; Cleveringa, J.; Cramp, A.; Kenyon, N.H.


    A previous study on the basis of long-range side-scan sonar data (Kenyon et al., 1995. Geometry of the younger sediment bodies of the Indus Fan. In: Pickering, K.T., Hiscott, R.N., Kenyon, N.H., Ricci Lucchi, F., Smith, R.D.A. (Eds.), Atlas of deep water environments: architectural style in

  17. Geochemistry of Sediment from IODP Expeditions 322 and 333: Terrigenous Provenance, Dispersed Ash, and the Nankai 'Subduction Factory' (United States)

    Scudder, R.; Murray, R. W.; Schindlbeck, J.; Kutterolf, S.


    Terrigenous material and volcanic ash play important roles in the IODP Seismogenic Zone and 'Subduction Factory' initiatives. Particularly relevant to these projects are studies of geochemical budgets including how fluids within subducting sediment will be affected by hydration/dehydration reactions. Of great importance is the volcanic component, which occurs both as discrete ash layers and as ash dispersed throughout the sediment column and their related altered products in the down-going plate. Based on bulk sedimentary geochemical studies of IODP Sites C0011 and C0012 drilled during Expeditions 322 and 333, we will show the importance of dispersed ash to the Nankai subduction zone and document important changes in terrigenous provenance to these locations. The major elemental characteristics of the hemipelagic mudstones are remarkably consistent both downcore and between Site C0011 and Site C0012. For example, the average Si/Al ratio at both sites C0011 and C0012 is 3.3 × 0.2. This is observed in other key major elemental indicators as well (e.g., Fe2O3). Alkali elements, Trace elements and REEs exhibit greater downcore variability while remaining consistent between the sites. Ternary diagrams such as La-Th-Sc and Sc-Cr-Th as well as other geochemical plots (i.e., Sm/Al vs. Th/Al) show that Site C0011 and Site C0012 are fairly clustered, derived primarily from a continental arc source, and that distal sources to the sediment are important in addition to a modest and varying component from the proximal Izu-Bonin Island Arc. Multivariate statistical treatments are further being applied to the datasets from these sites to allow a better determination of the number of sources that make up the bulk sediment (and their provenance). Q-mode Factor Analysis was performed in order to determine the composition of potential end member contributions to these sites. The multivariate statistics indicate Site C0011 and C0012 each have 4-5 end members that explain 98% of the

  18. Terrigenous sediment supply along the Chilean continental margin: modern regional patterns of texture and composition (United States)

    Lamy, F.; Hebbeln, D.; Wefer, G.

    The regional patterns of texture and composition of modern continental slope and pelagic sediments off Chile between 25°S and 43°S reflect the latitudinal segmentation of geological, morphological, and climatic features of the continental hinterland. Grain-size characteristics are controlled by the grain-size of source rocks, the weathering regime, and mode of sediment input (eolian off northern Chile vs fluvial further south). Bulk-mineral assemblages reveal a low grade of maturity. Regional variations are governed by the source-rock composition of the different geological terranes and the relative source-rock contribution of the Coastal Range and Andes, as controlled by the continental hydrology. The relative abundance of clay minerals is also predominantly influenced by the source-rock composition and partly by continental smectite neoformation. Latitudinal variations of illite crystallinities along the Chilean continental slope (and west of the Peru-Chile trench) clearly reflect modifications of the weathering regime which correspond to the strong climatic zonation of Chile.

  19. Quick, portable toxicity testing of marine or terrigenous fluids, sediments, or chemicals with bioluminescent organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabate, R.W.; Stiffey, A.V.; Dewailly, E.L.


    A hand-held, battery-operated instrument, which measures bioluminescence inhibition of the microscopic marine dinoflagellate Pyrocystis lunula, is capable of field-testing substances for toxicity. The organism is sensitive to ppb of strong toxicants. It tolerates some solvents in concentrations necessary for testing lipophylic samples. A test consumes only micrograms of sample. This method requires no adjustments for salinity, pH, color, or turbidity. It has been used successfully to test oil-well drilling fluids, brines produced with oil, waters and sediments from streams and lakes and petroleum-plant effluents containing contaminants such as benzene. The test is non-specific; however, if the substance is known, the end-point effects a direct measurement of its concentration. One-hour toxicity screening tests in the field produce results comparable to the standard four-hour laboratory test. Keeping the sample in the dark during incubation and testing, together with shortness of the overall procedure, eliminates anomalies from light-sensitive substances. Day-to-day variation, as well as among test replicates, is less than 10%. This quick method yields results comparable with a quick test that uses Photobacterium phosphoria, and with 96-hour tests that use Mysidopsis bahia, Artemia salina, Gonyaulax polyedra, Pimephales promelas, Ceriodaphnia dubia, and Cyprinodon variegatus

  20. Optical dating of fluvio-deltaic clastic lake-fill sediments - A feasibility study in the Holocene Rhine delta (western Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallinga, J.; Bos, I.J.


    We test the applicability of quartz optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating on clastic lake sediments to investigate whether this dating method can be applied to study the timing and rate of deposition in Holocene fluvio-deltaic lakes. Our study concerns the filling of a lake by the

  1. Relationship between fluvial clastic sediment and source rock abundance in Rapti river basin of central Nepal Himalayas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamrakar Naresh Kazi; Shresth Madhusudan Bhakta


    Many tributaries from carbonate sedimentary, metamorphic and igneous rocks of the Lesser Himalayan and clastic sedimentary rocks of the Sub-Himalayan Ranges carry gravelly sediments to the Rapti River. River bar sediments were analyzed for composition and texture to evaluate downstream changes in properties, and to establish relationship between proportion of clasts and the abundance of rock types in the source areas. Percent quartzite clast or granite clast increases whereas that of carbonate, schist or slate decreases along downstream. The largest grain size decreases downstream, whereas fatness index and sphericity tend to increase. Despite of little diminish in relative abundance of rock types in source areas along the river, the relative proportion of corresponding clast type shows rapid reduction (e.g. slate or phyllite or carbonate clasts) or rapid enhancement (e.g. granite clast). The relationships of quartzite clast and schist clasts with their corresponding source rocks are statistically significant suggesting that these clasts can provide clue to source rock abundance. About 85 to 94% of the gravel clasts represent rock types of the Lesser Himalayan Range suggesting that this range has been contributing enormous amount of sediments.

  2. Coupled geophysical characterization of shallow fluvio-clastic sediments in Agwagune, southeastern Nigeria (United States)

    Akpan, Anthony E.; Ekwok, Stephen E.; Ebong, Ebong D.; George, Anthony M.; Okwueze, Emeka E.


    Geophysical investigation performed using electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), vertical electrical sounding (VES), seismic refraction (SRF) and ground penetrating radar (GPR) techniques were used to constrain and characterize shallow lithologic units in the Cross River bank (CRB) in southeastern Nigeria. Results show that the upper layer sediments comprise a 3-5-layered lithostratigraphic sequence with high clayey content. Around the Cross River bank (CRB), the top sediments consist of loose, silty and clayey sands with low resistivities (sediments have no reasonable continuity beyond the vicinity of the CRB. The low attenuating indurated silts/sands characterized by low resistivities (channels truncate their lateral continuities. The lacustrine clays characterized by low resistivities (2400 m/s) make up the third layer. The clayey sediments impede vertical percolation of groundwater forcing it to accumulate at the bottom of the second layer resulting in high static water levels of 5 m elsewhere. Hydraulic gradient in the Cross River bed (CRBD) and in the coastal groundwater drives groundwater flow into the CRBD through macropores. The sediments become unstable when these macropores become enlarged as more materials are continuously transmitted through them.

  3. Variability in terrigenous sediment supply offshore of the Rio de la Plata (Uruguay) recording the continental climatic history over the past 1200 years (United States)

    Perez, L.; García-Rodríguez, F.; Hanebuth, T. J. J.


    The continental shelf adjacent to the Río de la Plata (RdlP) exhibits extremely complex hydrographic and ecological characteristics which are of great socio-economic importance. Since the long-term environmental variations related to the atmospheric (wind fields), hydrologic (freshwater plume), and oceanographic (currents and fronts) regimes are little known, the aim of this study is to reconstruct the changes in the terrigenous input into the inner continental shelf during the Late Holocene period (associated with the RdlP sediment discharge) and to unravel the climatic forcing mechanisms behind them. To achieve this, we retrieved a 10 m long sediment core from the RdlP mud depocenter at a depth of 57 m (GeoB 13813-4). The radiocarbon age control indicated an extremely high sedimentation rate of 0.8 cm per year, encompassing the past 1200 years (750-2000 AD). We used element ratios (Ti / Ca, Fe / Ca, Ti / Al, Fe / K) as regional proxies for the fluvial input signal, and the variations in relative abundance of salinity-indicative diatom groups (freshwater vs. marine-brackish) to assess the variability in terrigenous water and sediment discharge. Ti / Ca, Fe / Ca, Ti / Al, Fe / K and the freshwater diatom group showed the lowest values between 850 and 1300 AD, while the highest values occurred between 1300 and 1850 AD. The variations in the sedimentary record can be attributed to such regional and global climatic episodes as the Medieval Climatic Anomaly (MCA) and the Little Ice Age (LIA), both of which had a significant impact on rainfall and wind patterns over the region. During the MCA, a northward migration of the Intertropical Confluence Zone (ITCZ) could explain the lowest element ratios (indicative of a lower terrigenous input) and a marine-dominated diatom record, both indicative of a reduced RdlP freshwater plume. In contrast during the LIA, the southward migration of the ITCZ accompanied by El Niño-like state conditions may have led to an expansion of

  4. A 30 Ma history of the Amazon River inferred from terrigenous sediments and organic matter on the Ceará Rise (United States)

    van Soelen, Elsbeth E.; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Santos, Roberto Ventura; Dantas, Elton Luiz; Vasconcelos de Almeida, Fernanda; Pires, Juliana Pinheiro; Roddaz, Martin; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.


    The history of the Amazon River is a much-discussed subject, and the timing of the development of a transcontinental system in particular is a matter of some controversy, with estimations varying between the Early Miocene and the Pliocene or even the Pleistocene. To shed further light on this, we studied the sediment provenance of an Oligocene to Late Pleistocene marine sedimentary section from the Ceará Rise (ODP Site 925), a topographic high in the central Atlantic Ocean, using major element concentrations and Nd isotopic composition in 85 samples. In addition, the carbon isotopic composition of bulk organic matter and changes in the distribution of glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) were used to identify periods of increased river outflow. On the basis of these results, we suggest that the history of the development of the Amazon River is characterized by specific steps. During the late Oligocene/Early Miocene (30-18.3 Ma), the terrigenous mass accumulation rates (TARs) were high, and sediment and GDGT compositions suggest that a large river system existed, which at times received weathering products from a younger and probably Andean sediment source. A shift to a younger Andean sediment provenance after 8.7 Ma indicates that the Amazon River became permanently connected with the Andes. Between 18.3 and 4.5 Ma, TARs were generally low, and GDGTs were derived for the most part from in situ production in marine waters. Around 4.5 Ma, the river expanded, probably due to ongoing tectonic activity, and uplift in the Andes increased Andean rock erosion. This led to a strong increase in terrigenous sediment deposition and enhanced organic matter preservation on the Ceará Rise, and the delivery of terrestrial (both soil and riverine) branched GDGTs to the Ceará Rise.

  5. Early diagenesis in the sediments of the Congo deep-sea fan dominated by massive terrigenous deposits: Part II - Iron-sulfur coupling (United States)

    Taillefert, Martial; Beckler, Jordon S.; Cathalot, Cécile; Michalopoulos, Panagiotis; Corvaisier, Rudolph; Kiriazis, Nicole; Caprais, Jean-Claude; Pastor, Lucie; Rabouille, Christophe


    Deep-sea fans are well known depot centers for organic carbon that should promote sulfate reduction. At the same time, the high rates of deposition of unconsolidated metal oxides from terrigenous origin may also promote metal-reducing microbial activity. To investigate the eventual coupling between the iron and sulfur cycles in these environments, shallow sediment cores (Congo River deep-sea fan ( 5000 m) were profiled using a combination of geochemical methods. Interestingly, metal reduction dominated suboxic carbon remineralization processes in most of these sediments, while dissolved sulfide was absent. In some 'hotspot' patches, however, sulfate reduction produced large sulfide concentrations which supported chemosynthetic-based benthic megafauna. These environments were characterized by sharp geochemical boundaries compared to the iron-rich background environment, suggesting that FeS precipitation efficiently titrated iron and sulfide from the pore waters. A companion study demonstrated that methanogenesis was active in the deep sediment layers of these patchy ecosystems, suggesting that sulfate reduction was promoted by alternative anaerobic processes. These highly reduced habitats could be fueled by discrete, excess inputs of highly labile natural organic matter from Congo River turbidites or by exhumation of buried sulfide during channel flank erosion and slumping. Sulfidic conditions may be maintained by the mineralization of decomposition products from local benthic macrofauna or bacterial symbionts or by the production of more crystalline Fe(III) oxide phases that are less thermodynamically favorable than sulfate reduction in these bioturbated sediments. Overall, the iron and sulfur biogeochemical cycling in this environment is unique and much more similar to a coastal ecosystem than a deep-sea environment.

  6. Characterization of the terrigenous organic matter distribution in the bottom sediments of the East Siberian Arctic Shelf (United States)

    Dudarev, Oleg; Charkin, Alexander; Semiletov, Igor; Gustafsson, Örjan; Vonk, Jorien; Sánchez-García, Laura


    The Arctic Ocean is a Mediterranean sea with exceptionally large shelves that account for approximately 50% of the total area of the enclosed ocean. Accordingly, the inorganic and organic character of the sediments both on the shelves and in the basins of the Arctic Ocean strongly reflect a pervasive influence from the surrounding land/thawing permafrost (Macdonald et al., 2008). The East Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS) is an enormous, shallow shelf that receives most of its particulate supply from coastal erosion A notable characteristic of the ESAS is an extremely large gradient of hydrological and biogeochemical parameters from Long Strait/Wrangell Island to the Lena River Delta that corresponds to geographically critical contrasts in the Arctic system where the Pacific and local shelf waters interact over the shelf (Semiletov et al., 2005). ESAS is clearly important region for storing and processing material that derives from the land and the sea. Here we synthesize the lithological and biogochemical data obtained in the ESAS by Laboratory of Arctic studies POI in cooperation with the IARC and SU during the last 10 years (1999-2009). Highest organic carbon (OC) concentrations in the surface sediment (up to 4w/w%) was found near mouths of major rivers (Lena, Yana, Indigirka, Alaseya, Kolyma), and near highly eroded coast (1-2 w/w %). .However, sedimentation over the major portion of shallow ESAS is dominated by coastal erosion not riverine runoff. It has been shown that contribution of terrestrial organic carbon (CTOM) is up to 100% in areas strongly impacted by coastal erosion. Lowest OC values (~0.1-0.5 w/w %) were found in the relic sediments of shoals (e.g. Semenovskaya, Vasilevskaya, and Diomid). New detail maps of distribution of sediment OC, CTOM, and C/N are considered along with the sediment sizing and mineralogical data. This multi-year study was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Russian NSF), FEBRAS, NOAA, NSF, Wallenberg Foundation

  7. Two-dimensional simulation of clastic and carbonate sedimentation, consolidation, subsidence, fluid flow, heat flow and solute transport during the formation of sedimentary basins (United States)

    Bitzer, Klaus


    Geological processes that create sedimentary basins or act during their formation can be simulated using the public domain computer code `BASIN'. For a given set of geological initial and boundary conditions the sedimentary basin evolution is calculated in a forward modeling approach. The basin is represented in a two-dimensional vertical cross section with individual layers. The stratigraphic, tectonic, hydrodynamic and thermal evolution is calculated beginning at an initial state, and subsequent changes of basin geometry are calculated from sedimentation rates, compaction and pore fluid mobilization, isostatic compensation, fault movement and subsidence. The sedimentologic, hydraulic and thermal parameters are stored at discrete time steps allowing the temporal evolution of the basin to be analyzed. A maximum flexibility in terms of geological conditions is achieved by using individual program modules representing geological processes which can be switched on and off depending on the data available for a specific simulation experiment. The code incorporates a module for clastic and carbonate sedimentation, taking into account the impact of clastic sediment supply on carbonate production. A maximum of four different sediment types, which may be mixed during sedimentation, can be defined. Compaction and fluid flow are coupled through the consolidation equation and the nonlinear form of the equation of state for porosity, allowing nonequilibrium compaction and overpressuring to be calculated. Instead of empirical porosity-effective stress equations, a physically consistent consolidation model is applied which incorporates a porosity dependent sediment compressibility. Transient solute transport and heat flow are calculated as well, applying calculated fluid flow rates from the hydraulic model. As a measure for hydrocarbon generation, the Time-Temperature Index (TTI) is calculated. Three postprocessing programs are available to provide graphic output in Post

  8. Early diagenesis in the Congo deep-sea fan sediments dominated by massive terrigenous deposits: Part I - Oxygen consumption and organic carbon mineralization using a micro-electrode approach (United States)

    Pozzato, Lara; Cathalot, Cécile; Berrached, Chabha; Toussaint, Flora; Stetten, Elsa; Caprais, Jean-Claude; Pastor, Lucie; Olu, Karine; Rabouille, Christophe


    Organic matter (OM) transfer from the continent to the ocean occurs across margins which constitute a major area of OM recycling and burial. The lobe complex of the Congo deep-sea fan is connected to the river mouth by a canyon and alimented by recurrent turbidity currents, containing a large proportion of labile terrigenous OM and producing high sedimentation rates. These inputs support the development of ecosystems harboring rich assemblages of vesicomyid bivalves and bacterial mats, called Habitats. Here, we present O2 microprofiles and diffusive oxygen uptake rates (DOUs) obtained during the CONGOLOBE project at six sites of this active lobe complex by in situ and on-board methods based on micro-electrode profiling. The dataset is used to determine remineralization rates and study the biogeochemical dynamics of different ecosystems of the lobe area, in order to compare levee and background sediments to the Habitats developed on the flanks of the main turbiditic channel. Levee and background sediments are characterized by significantly higher DOUs than abyssal sediments at 5000 m meters depth (2-5 mmol O2 m-2 d-1versus 1.5-2.5 mmol O2 m-2 d-1) and the Habitats are hotspots of OM remineralization with DOU values ranging between 8 and 40 mmol O2 m-2 d-1. By comparing sites near the active channel to a site located 50 km away, we show that the lobe connection to the main turbiditic channel is vital to the dense benthic communities.

  9. Environmental control on concretion-forming processes: Examples from Paleozoic terrigenous sediments of the North Gondwana margin, Armorican Massif (Middle Ordovician and Middle Devonian) and SW Sardinia (Late Ordovician) (United States)

    Dabard, Marie-Pierre; Loi, Alfredo


    Concretions of various compositions are common in the Paleozoic terrigenous successions of the north Gondwana margin. This study focuses on phosphatic (P) and siliceous (Si) concretions present in some successions of the Armorican Massif (NW France) and SW Sardinia (W Italy). It shows that they consist of mudstones, fine- to very fine-grained sandstones or shellbeds with a more or less abundant P-cement and form a continuum between a phosphatic end-member and a siliceous biogenic end-member. The P2O5 contents are ranging from 0.26% to 21.5% and are related to apatite. The SiO2 contents vary from 25% to 82% and are linked both to a terrigenous phase and to a biogenic silica phase. Concretions showing the lower P-contents (P2O5 5). Comparison with the surrounding sediments shows that all the concretions are enriched in chlorite and in Middle Rare Earth Elements (Las/Gds: 0.12-0.72) and some of them in Y (up to 974 ppm), Rare Earth Elements (more than 300 ppm) and Sr (260-880 ppm). The concretions with highest biogenic silica concentrations are contained in the outer shelf sediments whereas the other concretions are present from the proximal part of the inner shelf to the outer shelf. A genetic model in two stages is proposed. During early diagenesis, the dissolution of shells and degradation of organic matter progressively enrich the pore water in dissolved Si, Ca and P. When the suboxic zone is reached, P-precipitation begins, leading to the formation of protoconcretions. In shallow environments, the relative permeability of sediments and the winnowing or reworking of the upper few centimetres by bottom currents allow for suboxic conditions to be maintained, leading to P-rich concretion formation. In deeper environments, the anoxic zone is reached more rapidly, thereby preventing extensive phosphogenesis. Nevertheless in the protoconcretions the early P-cement preserves pore spaces from compaction. In the presence of biogenic siliceous particles, the fluids are

  10. Early diagenesis in the sediments of the Congo deep-sea fan dominated by massive terrigenous deposits: Part III - Sulfate- and methane- based microbial processes (United States)

    Pastor, L.; Toffin, L.; Decker, C.; Olu, K.; Cathalot, C.; Lesongeur, F.; Caprais, J.-C.; Bessette, S.; Brandily, C.; Taillefert, M.; Rabouille, C.


    Geochemical profiles (SO42-, H2S, CH4, δ13CH4) and phylogenetic diversity of Archaea and Bacteria from two oceanographic cruises dedicated to the lobes sediments of the Congo deep-sea fan are presented in this paper. In this area, organic-rich turbidites reach 5000 m and allow the establishment of patchy cold-seep-like habitats including microbial mats, reduced sediments, and vesicomyid bivalves assemblages. These bivalves live in endosymbiosis with sulfur-oxidizing bacteria and use sulfides to perform chemosynthesis. In these habitats, unlike classical abyssal sediments, anoxic processes are dominant. Total oxygen uptake fluxes and methane fluxes measured with benthic chambers are in the same range as those of active cold-seep environments, and oxygen is mainly used for reoxidation of reduced compounds, especially in bacterial mats and reduced sediments. High concentrations of methane and sulfate co-exist in the upper 20 cm of sediments, and evidence indicates that sulfate-reducing microorganisms and methanogens co-occur in the shallow layers of these sediments. Simultaneously, anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) with sulfate as the electron acceptor is evidenced by the presence of ANMEs (ANaerobic MEthanotroph). Dissolved sulfide produced through the reduction of sulfate is reoxidized through several pathways depending on the habitat. These pathways include vesicomyid bivalves uptake (adults or juveniles in the bacterial mats habitats), reoxidation by oxygen or iron phases within the reduced sediment, or reoxidation by microbial mats. Sulfide uptake rates by vesicomyids measured in sulfide-rich sea water (90±18 mmol S m-2 d-1) were similar to sulfide production rates obtained by modelling the sulfate profile with different bioirrigation constants, highlighting the major control of vesicomyids on sulfur cycle in their habitats.

  11. Variation of paleo-productivity and terrigenous input in the eastern Arabian Sea during the past 100 ka

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ishfaq, A.M.; Pattan, J.N.; Matta, V.M.; Banakar, V.K.

    A 4.1m long sediment core from the eastern Arabian Sea is studied using multiple geochemical proxies to understand the variation of productivity and terrigenous matter supply during the past 100 ka. The temporal variation in element concentration...

  12. Characterization of deep-marine clastic sediments from foreland basins: Outcrop-derived concepts for exploration, production and reservoir modelling. Doctoral thesis; Karakterizering van diep-mariene klastische sedimenten uit voorland bekkens: Aan ontsluitingen ontleende concepten voor exploratie, produktie en reservoir modellering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuppers, J D


    Deep-marine clastic sediments are the host for many prolific hydrocarbon reservoirs. The sandbodies that form these reservoirs show a wide variety in shape, spatial arrangement, and internal structure. The outcrops studied for this thesis pertain to the fill of circum-mediterranean foreland basins in Spain and Greece. The outcrops have allowed the description of the multiscale anatomy of sandbodies that cover a wide range of depositional settings. The descriptions are focused on those features that are most likely to influence the flow of fluids through analogous reservoirs of similar construction. Extensive use was made of photomosaics to outline the large-scale geometries and stacking modes of the sandbodies. The sediments studied form the basis for seven `reservoir models` that are both descriptive and conceptual.

  13. Clastic dike from Baga, Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Setty, M.G.A.P.; Wagle, B.G.

    analogous to igneous dikes in appearance and also in their field relationships. These are injections of mobilized sediment into fracture zones and bedding planes of sedimentary sequences and reported from widely scattered regions throughout the world...

  14. Sources, degradation and transport of terrigenous organic carbon on the East Siberian Arctic Shelf Seas (United States)

    Tesi, Tommaso; Semiletov, Igor; Dudarev, Oleg; Gustafsson, Örjan


    Recent studies suggest that the present hydrological regime increase observed in the Arctic rivers is mainly the consequence of the changes in permafrost conditions as a result of climate warming. Given the enormous amount of carbon stored in coastal and terrestrial permafrost the potentially increased supply from this large carbon pool to the coastal Arctic Ocean, possibly associated with a translocated release to the atmosphere as CO2, is considered a plausible scenario in a warming climate. However, there is not sufficient information regarding the reactivity of terrigenous material once supplied to the Arctic Ocean. In this study, we address this critical issue by examining the organic composition of surface sediments collected over extensive scales on the East Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS) as part of the International Siberian Shelf Study (ISSS). The ESAS represents by far the largest shelf of the Arctic Ocean. Samples were collected from the inner- to the outer-shelf following the sediment transport pathway in a region between the Lena and the Kolyma rivers. The analytical approach includes the characterization of marine and land-derived carbon using a large number of molecular biomarkers obtained by alkaline CuO oxidation such as lignin-phenols, cutin-derived products, p-hydroxy benzenes, benzoic acids, fatty acids, and dicarboxylic acids. Our results indicated high concentrations of terrigenous material in shallow sediments and a marked decrease of terrestrial biomarkers with increasing distance from the coastline. In parallel, lignin-based degradation proxies suggested highly altered terrigenous carbon in mid- and outer-shelf sediments compared to coastal sediments. Furthermore, the ratio of cutin-derived products over lignin significantly increased along the sediment transport pathway. Considering that cutin is considered to be intrinsically more reactive compared to lignin, high values of this ratio off the coastal region were interpreted as selective

  15. Nature and distribution of manganese nodules from three sediment domains of the Central Indian Basin, Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banerjee, R.; Mukhopadhyay, R.

    from northern and central region, dominatEd. by terrigenous and terrigenous-siliceous mixed sediments, respectively. Effects of lysocline and sediment diagenesis are envisaged for trace metal enrichment in rough nodules of the southern region. Influence...

  16. Clay mineralogical and Sr, Nd isotopic investigations in two deep-sea sediment cores from Northeast Indian Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anil Babu, G.; Masood Ahmad, S.; Padmakumari, V.M.; Dayal, A.M.


    Sr and Nd isotopic studies in terrigenous component of the ocean sediments provide useful information about weathering patterns near source rock and climatic conditions existed on the continents. Variations in 87 Sr/ 86 Sr and 143 Nd/ 144 Nd isotopic ratios in clastic sediments depend on the source from the continents, volcanic input and circulation changes. The composition of clay minerals mainly depends on climate, geology and topography of the surrounding region. Chlorite and Illite are formed under physical weathering in arid cold climate and kaolinite and smectite are the characteristic products of chemical weathering in humid wet climatic conditions. Therefore, the variations in clay mineral composition in deep-sea sediments can be interpreted in terms of changes in the climatic conditions prevailed in the continental source areas

  17. Monitoring the formation of clastic-biogenic varves to improve the quality of paleoclimate reconstructions (United States)

    Ojala, A.; Kosonen, E.; Weckstrom, J.; Korkonen, S.


    Annually laminated (varved) sediments are excellent archives for studies of past climate and environmental changes, as they allow analysis of the undisturbed 'in-situ' sediment composition and structure with a seasonal-scale resolution. Among those, clastic-biogenic varved lake sediments have been found and investigated in Finland and Sweden during the last decades. An important prerequisite for applying varved sediments in palaeoenvironmental studies is understanding the mechanism of rhythmic sedimentation and the composition of different laminae representing annual sedimentation events. This knowledge is essential for verifying the annual nature of varves, for investigating the main factors controlling seasonal sedimentation, and for the interpretations of past environmental changes. Here, we report detailed information on the seasonal sedimentation of different varve components and palaeolimnological indicators (diatoms, chrysophycaean cysts) in Lake Nautajärvi, Finland, using near-bottom sediment trap monitoring. The monitoring results strongly support previous interpretations of the formation of clastic-biogenic varves in Fennoscandian lakes. The results also indicate that seasonal sediment fluxes correspond with regional climate and environmental changes. They clearly reveal differences in the amount of seasonal sediment flux between two climatologically and hydrologically different years. For example, higher snow storage in winter and the discharge intensity during the following spring snow melt clearly increases the suspended sediment load, transportation, and net accumulation of detrital mineral matter during spring and early summer. A prolonged autumn and subsequent freezing and thawing cycles in winter, conversely, results in an incremental but slow accumulation of assorted mineral matter and organic particles during winter, whereas the subsequent spring flooding and detrital sediment yield are diminished and thinner clastic laminae are formed. The

  18. Development and application of a radiometric method of measurement (Heger probe) for characterizing clastic rock strata in exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, G.


    The radiometric image of a stratigraphic exposure profile was to be logged. The method of measurement was tested on clastic sediments of the Tertiary (Saudi Arabia) and Bunter (Northern Germany). The well-tried scintillometer technique was supplemented by modern technological means supplied by a prospecting company (Gewerkschaft Brunhilde). The probe applied was specifically developped for stratigraphic purposes. (orig./HP) [de

  19. Controls on reef development and the terrigenous-carbonate interface on a shallow shelf, Nicaragua (Central America) (United States)

    Roberts, H. H.; Murray, S. P.


    Marine geology and physical oceanographic data collected during two field projects (˜4 months) on the Caribbean shelf of Nicaragua indicate a surprising dominance of carbonate deposition and reef growth on a shelf that is receiving an abnormally large volume of terrigenous sediments. High rainfall rates (˜400 500 cm/year), coupled with a warm tropical climate, encourage rapid denudation of the country's central volcanic highland and transport of large volumes of terrigenous sediment and fresh water to the coast. Estimates suggest that three times more fresh water and fifteen times more sediment are introduced per unit length of coastline than on the east coast of the United States. Distribution of the terrigenous facies, development of carbonate sediment suites, and the location and quality of viable reefs are strongly controlled by the dynamic interaction near the coasts of highly turbid fresh to brackish water effluents from thirteen rivers with clear marine waters of the shelf. Oceanic water from the central Caribbean drift current intersects the shelf and moves slowely in a dominant northwest direction toward the Yucatan Channel. A sluggish secondary gyre moves to the south toward Costa Rica. In contrast, the turbid coastal water is deflected to the south in response to density gradients, surface water slopes, and momentum supplied by the steady northeast trade winds. A distinct two-layered flow is commonly present in the sediment-rich coastal boundary zone, which is typically 10 20 km wide. The low-salinity upper layer is frictionally uncoupled from the ambient shelf water and therefore can expand out of the normally coherent coastal boundary zone during periods of abnormal flooding or times when instability is introduced into the northeast trades. Reef distribution, abruptness of the terrigenous-carbonate interface, and general shelf morphology reflect the long-term dynamic structure of the shelf waters. A smooth-bottomed ramp of siliciclastic sands to

  20. Amorphous silica maturation in chemically weathered clastic sediments (United States)

    Liesegang, Moritz; Milke, Ralf; Berthold, Christoph


    A detailed understanding of silica postdepositional transformation mechanisms is fundamental for its use as a palaeobiologic and palaeoenvironmental archive. Amorphous silica (opal-A) is an important biomineral, an alteration product of silicate rocks on the surface of Earth and Mars, and a precursor material for stable silica phases. During diagenesis, amorphous silica gradually and gradationally transforms to opal-CT, opal-C, and eventually quartz. Here we demonstrate the early-stage maturation of several million year old opal-A from deeply weathered Early Cretaceous and Ordovician sedimentary rocks of the Great Artesian Basin (central Australia). X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and electron probe microanalyses show that the mineralogical maturation of the nanosphere material is decoupled from its chemical properties and begins significantly earlier than micromorphology suggests. Non-destructive and locally highly resolved X-ray microdiffraction (μ-XRD2) reveals an almost linear positive correlation between the main peak position (3.97 to 4.06 Å) and a new asymmetry parameter, AP. Heating experiments and calculated diffractograms indicate that nucleation and growth of tridymite-rich nanodomains induce systematic peak shifts and symmetry variations in diffraction patterns of morphologically juvenile opal-A. Our results show that the asymmetry parameter traces the early-stage maturation of amorphous silica, and that the mineralogical opal-A/CT stage extends to smaller d-spacings and larger FWHM values than previously suggested.

  1. Petrological-geochemical characteristics of coarse-grained clastic sedimentary rocks of Quantou Formation, Cretaceous in Songliao basin and their geological significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Gan; Zhang Bangtong


    Clastic sedimentary rocks of Quantou Formation, Cretaceous in Qing-an area, Songliao basin are mainly composed of sandstone, mudstone and siltstone. The petrological-chemical analysis of clastic sedimentary rocks from Quantou Formation, Cretaceous indicates that their lithology mainly consists of arkose, shale and minor rock debris sandstone and greywacke by chemical classification of bulk elements. REE distribution pattern displays the apparent enrichment of LREE and negative anomaly of Eu and is similar to that of NASC and PAAS. The ratio of trace-element in sedimentary rocks to that of upper crust shows gentle character. All the above features indicate that these sedimentary rocks were slowly deposited under weakly active tectonic setting. They are sediments typical for passive continental margin and active continental margin. It is suggested that material source of clastic sediments of Quantou Formation, Cretaceous in Qing-an area, Songliao basin was originated from Hercynian granite of Zhangguangchai Mountain, and the granite was originated from upper crust. (authors)

  2. Rock Magnetic Properties of Remagnetised Devonian and Carboniferous Carbonate and Clastic Rocks From The NE Rhenish Massif, Germany (United States)

    Zwing, A.; Matzka, J.; Bachtadse, V.; Soffel, H. C.

    Previous studies on remagnetised carbonate rocks from the North American and Eu- ropean Variscides reported characteristic rock magnetic properties which are thought to be diagnostic for a chemical remagnetisation event. Their hysteresis properties with high ratios of Mrs/Ms and Hcr/Hc indicate the presence of a mixture of single-domain and superparamagnetic magnetite (Jackson, et al. 1990). In order to test if this fin- gerprint can be identified in remagnetised carbonate and clastic rocks from the NE Rhenish Massif, Germany, a series of rock magnetic experiments has been carried out. The hysteresis properties of the remagnetised clastic rocks indicate the domi- nance of large MD particles, as can be expected for detrital sediments. The carbon- ates yield significantly higher ratios of Mrs/Ms and Hcr/Hc than the clastic rocks, but only partly correspond to the characteristic properties of remagnetised carbon- ates described above. The latter might be attributed to detrital input into the carbonate platforms. Additional low-temperature remanence measurements show a wide vari- ety of phenomena, including Verwey transitions and indications for the presence of superparamagnetic grains. However, the low-temperature experiments do not allow a straightforward discrimination between the clastic and carbonate rocks and suggest more complex magnetomineralogies than expected from the hysteresis measurements alone.

  3. Clastic polygonal networks around Lyot crater, Mars: Possible formation mechanisms from morphometric analysis (United States)

    Brooker, L. M.; Balme, M. R.; Conway, S. J.; Hagermann, A.; Barrett, A. M.; Collins, G. S.; Soare, R. J.


    Polygonal networks of patterned ground are a common feature in cold-climate environments. They can form through the thermal contraction of ice-cemented sediment (i.e. formed from fractures), or the freezing and thawing of ground ice (i.e. formed by patterns of clasts, or ground deformation). The characteristics of these landforms provide information about environmental conditions. Analogous polygonal forms have been observed on Mars leading to inferences about environmental conditions. We have identified clastic polygonal features located around Lyot crater, Mars (50°N, 30°E). These polygons are unusually large (>100 m diameter) compared to terrestrial clastic polygons, and contain very large clasts, some of which are up to 15 metres in diameter. The polygons are distributed in a wide arc around the eastern side of Lyot crater, at a consistent distance from the crater rim. Using high-resolution imaging data, we digitised these features to extract morphological information. These data are compared to existing terrestrial and Martian polygon data to look for similarities and differences and to inform hypotheses concerning possible formation mechanisms. Our results show the clastic polygons do not have any morphometric features that indicate they are similar to terrestrial sorted, clastic polygons formed by freeze-thaw processes. They are too large, do not show the expected variation in form with slope, and have clasts that do not scale in size with polygon diameter. However, the clastic networks are similar in network morphology to thermal contraction cracks, and there is a potential direct Martian analogue in a sub-type of thermal contraction polygons located in Utopia Planitia. Based upon our observations, we reject the hypothesis that polygons located around Lyot formed as freeze-thaw polygons and instead an alternative mechanism is put forward: they result from the infilling of earlier thermal contraction cracks by wind-blown material, which then became

  4. Clastic dykes in over-consolidated tills: evidence for subglacial hydrofracturing at Killiney Bay, eastern Ireland (United States)

    Rijsdijk, Kenneth F.; Owen, Geraint; Warren, William P.; McCarroll, Danny; van der Meer, Jaap J. M.


    A swarm of vertical gravel-filled dykes up to 6 m high and several decimetres wide, cut through an over-consolidated till at Killiney Bay. The dykes are rooted in a gravel layer and many display plumes of clastic debris ejected into the overlying sediments — `burst-out structures'. Such features have not previously been described. These clastic dykes are interpreted as the infillings of hydrofractures which formed when water pressures in the basal gravel layer exceeded the overburden pressure and tensile shear strength of the capping till. The burst-out structures extend up to 7 m from the tops of the dykes and provide strong evidence for forceful upward flow. Evidence suggests that the hydrofractures formed subglacially, probably during a minor re-advance. Their presence in Late Devensian (26-13 ka BP) tills with an Irish Sea provenance (`Irish Sea till') may have important implications for the subglacial hydrology of the last Irish Sea ice sheet. These hydrofractures cannot form in unconsolidated glacimarine sediment and their presence precludes a glacimarine origin for these deposits. They greatly affect the geotechnical properties of Irish Sea tills, in particular providing very permeable routes through otherwise impermeable layers, with important consequences in situations elsewhere in the Irish Sea basin, where they have been used as aquicludes in landfill and low-level nuclear waste disposal sites.

  5. Extended geothermal potential of clastic aquifers by hydraulic stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, J.G.; Pluymaekers, M.P.D.; Wees, J.D.A.M.


    We evaluated the implications of hydraulic stimulation in a Dutch context for low permeability clastic aquifers at a depth of 2000 to 4000 m, whose transmissivity has been mapped in the framework of the Dutch subsurface information system on geothermal energy in the Netherlands. For the simulation

  6. Hydrodynamic analysis of clastic injection and hydraulic fracturing structures in the Jinding Zn-Pb deposit, Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoxiang Chi


    Full Text Available The Jinding Zn-Pb deposit has been generally considered to have formed from circulating basinal fluids in a relatively passive way, with fluid flow being controlled by structures and sedimentary facies, similar to many other sediments-hosted base metal deposits. However, several recent studies have revealed the presence of sand injection structures, intrusive breccias, and hydraulic fractures in the open pit of the Jinding deposit and suggested that the deposit was formed from explosive release of overpressured fluids. This study reports new observations of fluid overpressure-related structures from underground workings (Paomaping and Fengzishan, which show clearer crosscutting relationships than in the open pit. The observed structures include: 1 sand (±rock fragment dikes injecting into fractures in solidified rocks; 2 sand (±rock fragment bodies intruding into unconsolidated or semi-consolidated sediments; 3 disintegrated semi-consolidated sand bodies; and 4 veins and breccias formed from hydraulic fracturing of solidified rocks followed by cementation of hydrothermal minerals. The development of ore minerals (sphalerite in the cement of the various clastic injection and hydraulic fractures indicate that these structures were formed at the same time as mineralization. The development of hydraulic fractures and breccias with random orientation indicates small differential stress during mineralization, which is different from the stress field with strong horizontal shortening prior to mineralization. Fluid flow velocity may have been up to more than 11 m/s based on calculations from the size of the fragments in the clastic dikes. The clastic injection and hydraulic fracturing structures are interpreted to have formed from explosive release of overpressured fluids, which may have been related to either magmatic intrusions at depth or seismic activities that episodically tapped an overpressured fluid reservoir. Because the clastic injection

  7. Geochemical and geological constraints on the composition of marine sediment pore fluid: Possible link to gas hydrate deposits

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mazumdar, A.; Joao, H.M.; Peketi, A.; Dewangan, P.; Kocherla, M.; Joshi, R.K.; Ramprasad, T.

    Pore water sulfate consumption in marine sediments is controlled by microbially driven sulfate reduction via organo-clastic and methane oxidation processes. In this work, we present sediment pore fluid compositions of 10 long sediment cores and high...

  8. Biogeochemical and Optical Analysis of Coastal DOM for Satellite Retrieval of Terrigenous DOM in the U.S. Middle Atlantic Bight (United States)

    Mannino, A.; Dyda, R. Y.; Hernes, P. J.; Hooker, Stan; Hyde, Kim; Novak, Mike


    Estuaries and coastal ocean waters experience a high degree of variability in the composition and concentration of particulate and dissolved organic matter (DOM) as a consequence of riverine/estuarine fluxes of terrigenous DOM, sediments, detritus and nutrients into coastal waters and associated phytoplankton blooms. Our approach integrates biogeochemical measurements (elemental content, molecular analyses), optical properties (absorption) and remote sensing to examine terrestrial DOM contributions into the U.S. Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB). We measured lignin phenol composition, DOC and CDOM absorption within the Chesapeake and Delaware Bay mouths, plumes and adjacent coastal ocean waters to derive empirical relationships between CDOM and biogeochemical measurements for satellite remote sensing application. Lignin ranged from 0.03 to 6.6 ug/L between estuarine and outer shelf waters. Our results demonstrate that satellite-derived CDOM is useful as a tracer of terrigenous DOM in the coastal ocean


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In the NE Simbruini Mountains, the “Brecce della Renga Fm.” is a clastic unit documenting sedimentation controlled by late Miocene extensional tectonics.The unit has been subdivided into three lithofacies and six sublithofacies, based on the arenite/rudite/pelite ratio. Massive and coarser (up to megablock size intervals are interpreted as rockfall deposits (likely induced by earthquakes at the toe of steep submarine escarpments. By contrast, finer levels are interpreted as having been sedimented through avalanching and turbidity flows in more distal settings, and are partly lateral to basinal hemipelagites and siliciclastic turbidites. Pelite lenses, found at various stratigraphic levels, are the result of ponded sedimentation along the clastic margin. Calcareous nannofossils analyses have been performed for age determinations on 60 fossiliferous samples, which were collected in each sublithofacies of the “Brecce della Renga Fm.”. The unit ranges from early Tortonian (MNN8b to early Messinian (MNN11c. The age and field geometries of the older breccias document the existence of a Tortonian extensional phase, which predated the late Messinian thrusting. A progradation of the clastic wedge can be observed in the Tortonian, while Messinian deposits show a fining upwards trend. The distribution curve of clastics over time can, given the number of synsedimentary faults mapped in the area, be put in relation with the seismicity induced by the activity along such faults, which after reaching an acme in the Tortonian gradually reached a quiescent state in the early Messinian, causing the backstepping of clastic facies.

  10. Sedimentation (United States)

    Cliff R. Hupp; Michael R. Schening


    Sedimentation is arguably the most important water-quality concern in the United States. Sediment trapping is cited frequently as a major function of riverine-forested wetlands, yet little is known about sedimcntation rates at the landscape scale in relation to site parameters, including woody vegetation type, elevation, velocity, and hydraulic connection to the river...

  11. Composition and fate of terrigenous organic matter along the Arctic land-ocean continuum in East Siberia: Insights from biomarkers and carbon isotopes (United States)

    Tesi, Tommaso; Semiletov, Igor; Hugelius, Gustaf; Dudarev, Oleg; Kuhry, Peter; Gustafsson, Örjan


    Climate warming is predicted to translocate terrigenous organic carbon (TerrOC) to the Arctic Ocean and affect the marine biogeochemistry at high latitudes. The magnitude of this translocation is currently unknown, so is the climate response. The fate of the remobilized TerrOC across the Arctic shelves represents an unconstrained component of this feedback. The present study investigated the fate of permafrost carbon along the land-ocean continuum by characterizing the TerrOC composition in three different terrestrial carbon pools from Siberian permafrost (surface organic rich horizon, mineral soil active layer, and Ice Complex deposit) and marine sediments collected on the extensive East Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS). High levels of lignin phenols and cutin acids were measured in all terrestrial samples analyzed indicating that these compounds can be used to trace the heterogeneous terrigenous material entering the Arctic Ocean. In ESAS sediments, comparison of these terrigenous biomarkers with other TerrOC proxies (bulk δ13C/Δ14C and HMW lipid biomarkers) highlighted contrasting across-shelf trends. These differences could indicate that TerrOC in the ESAS is made up of several pools that exhibit contrasting reactivity toward oxidation during the transport. In this reactive spectrum, lignin is the most reactive, decreasing up to three orders of magnitude from the inner- to the outer-shelf while the decrease of HMW wax lipid biomarkers was considerably less pronounced. Alternatively, degradation might be negligible while sediment sorting during the across-shelf transport could be the major physical forcing that redistributes different TerrOC pools characterized by different matrix-association.

  12. Compositional characteristics of some Apollo 14 clastic materials. (United States)

    Lindstrom, M. M.; Duncan, A. R.; Fruchter, J. S.; Mckay, S. M.; Stoeser, J. W.; Goles, G. G.; Lindstrom, D. J.


    Eighty-two subsamples of Apollo 14 materials have been analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis techniques for as many as 25 elements. In many cases, it was necessary to develop new procedures to allow analyses of small specimens. Compositional relationships among Apollo 14 materials indicate that there are small but systematic differences between regolith from the valley terrain and that from Cone Crater ejecta. Fragments from 1-2 mm size fractions of regolith samples may be divided into compositional classes, and the 'soil breccias' among them are very similar to valley soils. Multicomponent linear mixing models have been used as interpretive tools in dealing with data on regolith fractions and subsamples from breccia 14321. These mixing models show systematic compositional variations with inferred age for Apollo 14 clastic materials.

  13. Comparative palynology of clastics and lignites from the Manning Formation, Jackson Group, Upper Eocene, Grimes County, TX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gennett, J.A. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)


    The 3500 lignite seam at the Gibbons Creek Mine in Grimes County, TX was sampled for pollen and spores at 10 cm intervals. The majority of samples are dominated (to 60%) by Momipites from the Juglandaceae (walnut family), as is typical of Jackson Group sediments. Other palynomorph taxa vary systematically, with a peak of pollen of the freshwater tree Nyssa (blackgum) and associated Rboipites angustus (to 17%) occurring at the base. Higher in the seam, increase (to 55%) of Cupuliferoipollenites (a chestnut-like grain) and Cyrillaceae-pollenites? ventosus (to 7%) percentages may indicate a higher salinity environment. A Chrysophyllum (satin leaf) peak (to 25%) near the top of the seam suggests relatively shallow fresh-water conditions. Core samples from an interval above the lignites represent a transgressive-regressive cycle in inner shelf clastics. These samples were taken at 40 cm or greater intervals and reveal the regional pollen flora. Although minor changes occur, palynomorph spectra are for the most part homogenous. The dominant grain is again Momipites coryloides, but in general percentages are lower (to 35%). Cupuliferoipollenites (to 17%), Chrysophyllum (to 5%), and Rhoipites angustus (to 3%) are not less important, but do not peak as they do in the lignite spectra. Palm leaf megafossils; in one sample suggest a clastic wetland; in this sample palm pollen (mostly Arecipites, representing the modern saw palmetto) reaches 73%. Another sample contains high (26%) percentages of the fern spore Lygodiumsporites adriennis. High percentages of these two taxa do not occur in the lignite samples.

  14. Nares Abyssal Plain Sediment Flux Studies, FY 1985 Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dymond, J.; Collier, R.


    The sediment trap NAP-1 was successfully recovered and the materials have been analyzed for a set of bio- and geochemical components. The trap mooring NAP-2 was deployed and recovered but no analyses have been completed. The bulk fluxes are relatively low at this site and are approximately 50% biogenic and 50% terrigenous. The flux of terrigenous material is very high due to primary atmospheric inputs and horizontal transport of resuspended sediments. The buoyant particle fluxes are also extremely low. The accumulation of material in the sediments reflects the crustal nature of the vertical flux and also shows the normal loss of labile biogenic phases

  15. Linking Terrigenous Sediment Delivery to Declines in Coral Reef Ecosystem Services (United States)

    Worldwide coral reef conditions continue to decline despite the valuable socioeconomic benefits of these ecosystems. There is growing recognition that quantifying reefs in terms reflecting what stakeholders value is vital for comparing inherent tradeoffs among coastal management ...

  16. Caldera formation and varied eruption styles on North Pacific seamounts: the clastic lithofacies record (United States)

    Portner, Ryan A.; Clague, Dave A.; Paduan, Jennifer B.


    Detailed examination of volcaniclastic and sedimentary rocks collected from the Taney (30 Ma), President Jackson (4 Ma), Vance (3 Ma) and Alarcon (2 Ma) near-ridge seamount chains of the North Pacific reveals seven clastic lithofacies that record various modes of eruption, magma fragmentation, and particle dispersal. Lithofacies are distinguished by differences in lithology, bedding habit, compositional heterogeneity, and relationship to volcanic landforms. Breccia lithofacies were produced through mechanical fragmentation during caldera collapse (polymict) or effusive eruptions onto steep slopes (monomict). Rare globular lapilli mudstone lithofacies contain clasts with morphologies formed by magma-sediment mingling processes (peperite). Seamount summit pyroclastic deposits include proximal lapilli tuff with vesicular pyroclasts, and more distal limu o Pele tuff lithofacies. Much finer-grained hydrothermal mudstone/tuff lithofacies occurs around caldera rims and contains greenschist minerals, hydrothermal clays and basaltic ash that record subsurface phreatomagmatic fragmentation processes. Very fine-grained ash is transported to distal regions by oceanic currents and hydrothermal plumes, and is a component of the regional pelagic sediment budget. Pyroclastic lithofacies only occur on seamount summits suggesting formation during the latter stages of seamount evolution. As a seamount drifts away from an adjacent ridge axis and associated heat source, its magma supply is reduced allowing for magmatic gas buildup and mild explosive eruptions. During this stage, the diminished melt supply under the seamount is unable to fully compensate for extension along the ridge axis and vertical seamount growth. Lateral intrusion into spreading-related structures in this stage causes magma withdrawal and caldera formation. Formation of caldera ring faults also promotes seawater ingress into subseafloor hydrothermal cells, which interact with magma conduits causing phreatomagmatic

  17. Non-riverine pathways of terrigenous carbon to the ocean (United States)

    Dittmar, T.


    The extent and nature of non-riverine fluxes of carbon from land to ocean are poorly understood. Tidal pumping from highly productive coastal environments, atmospheric deposition and submarine groundwater discharge can be significant transport mechanisms for carbon to the ocean. Evidence is mounting that tidally-induced porewater fluxes ("outwelling") of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from mangroves and salt marshes alone may be similar in magnitude as the global riverine flux of DOM. Tidal pumping of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) might exceed organic carbon fluxes by far, but the existing knowledge on DIC outwelling is too scarce for a first global estimate. Results from two case studies on the biogeochemistry of DOM outwelling are presented, from the mangroves in Northern Brazil and the salt marshes in the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Ongoing research in the Northern Gulf of Mexico indicates that outwelling and groundwater inputs probably exceed riverine DOM fluxes in this region. Similar observations were made in Northern Brazil. There, the fate of mangrove-derived DOM could be traced from its source in the mangrove sediments to the outer North Brazil shelf by using a combination of isotopic and molecular approaches. Reversed-phase liquid chromatography / mass spectrometry (LC/MS) provided a multifaceted array of information that mirrors the molecular complexity of DOM. Statistical analyses on these data revealed significant differences between mangrove and open-ocean DOM which successively disappeared by irradiating the samples with natural sunlight. Nuclear magnetic resonance analyses yielded concurrent results. Ultrahigh-resolution Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) is the only technique capable of resolving and identifying individual elemental compositions in these complex mixtures. We applied this technique for characterizing mangrove-derived DOM and to assess the molecular changes that occur in the initial stages of

  18. Terrigenous material supply to the Peruvian central continental shelf (Pisco, 14° S) during the last 1000 years: paleoclimatic implications (United States)

    Briceño-Zuluaga, Francisco Javier; Sifeddine, Abdelfettah; Caquineau, Sandrine; Cardich, Jorge; Salvatteci, Renato; Gutierrez, Dimitri; Ortlieb, Luc; Velazco, Federico; Boucher, Hugues; Machado, Carine


    In the eastern Pacific, lithogenic input to the ocean responds to variations in the atmospheric and oceanic system and their teleconnections over different timescales. Atmospheric (e.g., wind fields), hydrological (e.g., fresh water plumes) and oceanic (e.g., currents) conditions determine the transport mode and the amount of lithogenic material transported from the continent to the continental shelf. Here, we present the grain size distribution of a composite record of two laminated sediment cores retrieved from the Peruvian continental shelf that record the last ˜ 1000 years at a sub-decadal to centennial time-series resolution. We propose novel grain size indicators of wind intensity and fluvial input that allow reconstructing the oceanic-atmospheric variability modulated by sub-decadal to centennial changes in climatic conditions. Four grain size modes were identified. Two are linked to aeolian inputs (M3: ˜ 54; M4: ˜ 91 µm on average), the third is interpreted as a marker of sediment discharge (M2: ˜ 10 µm on average), and the last is without an associated origin (M1: ˜ 3 µm). The coarsest components (M3 and M4) dominated during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and the Current Warm Period (CWP) periods, suggesting that aeolian transport increased as a consequence of surface wind stress intensification. In contrast, M2 displays an opposite behavior, exhibiting an increase in fluvial terrigenous input during the Little Ice Age (LIA) in response to more humid conditions associated with El Niño-like conditions. Comparison with other South American paleoclimate records indicates that the observed changes are driven by interactions between meridional displacement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), the South Pacific Subtropical High (SPSH) and Walker circulation at decadal and centennial timescales.

  19. Terrigeneous material supply to the Peruvian central continental shelf (Pisco 14° S) during the last 1100 yr: paleoclimatic implications (United States)

    Briceño Zuluaga, F.; Sifeddine, A.; Caquineau, S.; Cardich, J.; Salvatteci, R.; Gutierrez, D.; Ortlieb, L.; Velazco, F.; Boucher, H.; Machado, C.


    In the Eastern Pacific, lithogenic input to the ocean is a response of the atmospheric and ocean system variability and their teleconnections over different timescales. Atmospheric (e.g., wind fields, precipitation), hydrological (e.g., fresh water plumes) and oceanic (e.g., currents) conditions determine the transport mode and the amount of lithogenic material transported from the continent to the continental shelf. Here, we present the grain size distribution of a composite record of two laminated sediment cores retrieved in the Peruvian continental shelf, covering the last ~1100 yr at sub-decadal to centennial time-series resolution. We then discuss the paleo-environmental significance and the climatic mechanisms involved. Four grain size modes were identified. Two are linked to aeolian inputs (M3: 53.0 μm and M4: 90.8 μm on average), the third is interpreted as a marker of sediment discharge (M2: 9.4 μm on average), and the last is without an associated origin (M1: ~3 μm). The coarsest components (M3 and M4) dominated during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and Current Warm Period (CWP) periods, suggesting that aeolian transport increased as consequence of wind stress intensification. In contrast, M2 displays an opposite behavior, exhibiting an increase in fluvial terrigenous input during the Little Ice Age (LIA), in response to more humid conditions. Comparison with other South American paleoclimate records indicates that the observed changes are driven by interactions between meridional displacement of the Intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) and of the South Pacific Sub-tropical High (SPSH) at decadal and centennial time scales.

  20. Photochemical mineralization of terrigenous DOC to dissolved inorganic carbon in ocean


    Aarnos, Hanna; Gélinas, Yves; Kasurinen, Ville; Gu, Yufei; Puupponen, Veli-Mikko; Vähätalo, Anssi


    When terrigenous dissolved organic carbon (tDOC) rich in chromophoric dissolved organic matter (tCDOM) enters the ocean, solar radiation mineralizes it partially into dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). This study addresses the amount and the rates of DIC photoproduction from tDOC and the area of ocean required to photomineralize tDOC. We collected water samples from 10 major rivers, mixed them with artificial seawater, and irradiated them with simulated solar radiation to measure DIC photoprod...

  1. Mineral magnetic environmental record in clastic cave deposits

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šlechta, Stanislav; Kadlec, Jaroslav


    Roč. 38, special issue (2008), s. 134-134 ISSN 1335-2806. [Paleo, Rock and Environmental Magnetism. Castle Meeting /11./. 22.06.2008-28.06.2008, Bojnice] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : mineral magnetic environmental reconstruction * cave sediments * Moravian Karst Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  2. Clastic cave deposits in Botovskaya cave (Eastern Siberia, Russian Federation)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kadlec, Jaroslav; Chadima, Martin; Lisá, Lenka; Hercman, H.; Osintsev, A.; Oberhänsli, H.


    Roč. 70, č. 3 (2008), s. 142-155 ISSN 1090-6924 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : cave sediments * mineral magnetism * Botovskaya Cave Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 0.532, year: 2008

  3. On the occurrence of ferromanganese micronodules from the sediments of the Bengal Fan: A high terrigenous sediment input region

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S.; Gujar, A.R.; Rao, Ch.M.

    to decrease in abundance down-core. The core from the eastern region had micronodules down to deeper levels than the western side. Todorokite is the manganese mineral present in the micronodules. Associated mineral phases are quartz, feldspar and phillipsite...

  4. Iceberg and meltwater discharge events in the western Arctic Ocean since MIS 5: a comparison of sediment cores off the East Siberian and Chukchi margins (United States)

    Xiao, W.; Wang, R.; Zhang, T.; Duan, X.; Polyak, L.


    In the Pleistocene the western Arctic Ocean was affected by deglacial discharge events from ice sheets in northern North America as well as the East Siberian and Chukchi margins. Distribution of Ice Rafted Debris (IRD) >250 μm and planktonic foraminiferal N. pachyderma (sin.) (Nps) δ18O and δ13C was compared in CHINARE sediment cores ARC2-M03 (Wang et al., 2013) and ARC3-P37 from the Chukchi Abyssal Plain and Northwind Ridge, respectively, to identify the impacts of icebergs and meltwater on paleoceanographic environments since MIS 5. The IRD is mainly composed of quartz grains and fragments of clastic rocks and detrital carbonates. The carbonates, mostly dolomites characteristic of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA) provenance, typically anti-correlate with quartz and clastic rocks, indicating different sources such as Chukchi-Alaskan or East Siberian margin. Most of the Nps δ18O depletions correspond to peaks in detrital carbonates, suggesting a strong influence of meltwater from the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) on the western Arctic Ocean. A conspicuous dark gray interval interpreted to represent glacial/deglacial environments of MIS 4/3 age, shows a remarkable depletion in Nps δ13C along with high δ18O values and absence of IRD. This unusual signature may be related to a persistent sea-ice cover and/or high fluxes of terrigenous material with deglacial debris flows. In a younger grey interval corresponding to MIS2, high abundances of quartz and clastic rocks in the Northwind Ridge core ARC3-P37 indicate iceberg discharge from areas other than CAA, such as the Mackenzie LIS lobe or Chukchi-Alaskan margin. The MIS2-Holocene transition is marked by an increase in detrital carbonates co-occurring with Nps δ13C and δ18O depletion (Polyak et al., 2007), indicative of LIS iceberg/meltwater fluxes from the CAA. We note that stable-isotope events in the study area may go unnoticed because of gaps in foraminiferal records related to dissolution and/or adverse

  5. Biodegradability of terrigenous dissolved organic matter in estuaries draining glacial and wetland-dominated watersheds (United States)

    Fellman, J. B.; Hood, E.; Spencer, R. G.; Edwards, R. T.; D'Amore, D. V.; Hernes, P. J.


    The processing of terrigenous dissolved organic matter (DOM) by estuarine food webs mediates its transfer from riverine to near-shore coastal environments. We used PARAFAC modeling of fluorescence excitation- emission matrices (EEMs) and biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) incubations to investigate changes in the chemical quality and biodegradability of terrigenous DOM along a salinity gradient in three estuaries in coastal southeastern Alaska: 1) a watershed with high glacial coverage, 2) a forested watershed with low glacial coverage and 3) a watershed with high wetland coverage. Biodegradable DOC incubations were conducted for each site by inoculating filtered river water with whole water collected from four different salinities (0, 2, 10 and 25 ppt) and incubating the water samples for 2, 7, 14 and 28 days. The percent BDOC ranged from 33-54% for the 28-day incubations at the three sites and greater than half of the total BDOC was consumed during the first 2 days of the incubations. The percent BDOC was also greater in the estuary draining the highly glaciated watershed for all four salinities. Moreover, percent BDOC increased with increasing salinity in all three estuaries, suggesting greater bacterial utilization of terrigenous DOC under estuarine as compared to riverine conditions. There are several potential explanations for the observed patterns in BDOC: 1) there is a shift in bacterial community composition along the salinity gradient we sampled and 2) marine bacteria contain a more diverse set of hydrolytic isoenzymes than riverine bacteria, allowing them to more effectively metabolize terrigenous DOM. Application of a conservative mixing model combined with PARAFAC modeling of fluorescence EEMs showed that fluorescent DOM behaved conservatively in all three estuaries, as indicated by the near-linear decrease in the contribution of humic-like fluorescence with increasing salinity. PARAFAC modeling further showed that the relative contribution

  6. Simulation of the mulltizones clastic reservoir: A case study of Upper Qishn Clastic Member, Masila Basin-Yemen (United States)

    Khamis, Mohamed; Marta, Ebrahim Bin; Al Natifi, Ali; Fattah, Khaled Abdel; Lashin, Aref


    The Upper Qishn Clastic Member is one of the main oil-bearing reservoirs that are located at Masila Basin-Yemen. It produces oil from many zones with different reservoir properties. The aim of this study is to simulate and model the Qishn sandstone reservoir to provide more understanding of its properties. The available, core plugs, petrophysical, PVT, pressure and production datasets, as well as the seismic structural and geologic information, are all integrated and used in the simulation process. Eclipse simulator was used as a powerful tool for reservoir modeling. A simplified approach based on a pseudo steady-state productivity index and a material balance relationship between the aquifer pressure and the cumulative influx, is applied. The petrophysical properties of the Qishn sandstone reservoir are mainly investigated based on the well logging and core plug analyses. Three reservoir zones of good hydrocarbon potentiality are indicated and named from above to below as S1A, S1C and S2. Among of these zones, the S1A zone attains the best petrophysical and reservoir quality properties. It has an average hydrocarbon saturation of more than 65%, high effective porosity up to 20% and good permeability record (66 mD). The reservoir structure is represented by faulted anticline at the middle of the study with a down going decrease in geometry from S1A zone to S2 zone. It is limited by NE-SW and E-W bounding faults, with a weak aquifer connection from the east. The analysis of pressure and PVT data has revealed that the reservoir fluid type is dead oil with very low gas liquid ratio (GLR). The simulation results indicate heterogeneous reservoir associated with weak aquifer, supported by high initial water saturation and high water cut. Initial oil in place is estimated to be around 628 MM BBL, however, the oil recovery during the period of production is very low (<10%) because of the high water cut due to the fractures associated with many faults. Hence, secondary and

  7. Grain size distribution, clay mineralogy and chemistry of bottom sediments from the outer Thermaikos Gulf, Aegean Sea, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The Thermaikos Gulf constitutes the NW part of the North Aegean Sea and is limited eastward from the Chalkidiki Peninsula and westward from the Pieria Prefecture. Its plateau covers an area of 3,500 km2. The mechanisms responsible for the grain size distribution into the Gulf, the clay mineralogy and the chemistry of some bottom sediments from the outer Thermaikos Gulf, are examined. Source mixing during transportation, flocculation, differential settling processes and organic matter appear to be the main mechanisms for the distribution of clay minerals in shallow waters. All grain size fractions studied present a wide range of values confirming the extreme variations of the discharged load and the variability in marine processes. Plagioclases predominate over K-feldspars, while quartz is the most abundant mineral present. In addition, micas, chlorites, amphiboles and pyroxenes exist as primary and/or accessory minerals in all samples. Among clay minerals, illite predominates over smectite and smectite over chlorite (+ kaolinite. The ordered interstratified phase of I/S, with 30-35% S layers, is present in the 2-0.25µm fraction. The randomly interstratified phase of I/S, with 50% S layers, is present in the <0.25& micro; m fraction. On average the clay mineral content of the studied samples is: 48% I, 23% S, 17% Ch (+K and 12% others for the 2-0.25µm fraction and 50% I, 30% S and 20% Ch (+K for the <0.25 µm fraction. All these minerals are the weathering products of the rocks from the drainage basins of the rivers flowing into the Gulf, as well as of the Neogene and Quaternary unconsolidated sediments of the surrounding coasts. The terrigenous input, the water mass circulation and, to a lesser extent, the quality of the discharged material and the differential settling of grains, control the grain size distribution within the outer Thermaikos Gulf. The chemical composition of the analysed samples is generally in agreement with their mineral

  8. Temporal constraints on the tectonic evolution of Sierra De Famatina, northwestern Argentina, using the fission-track method to date tuffs interbedded in synorogenic clastic sedimentary strata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabbutt, K.D. (Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH (USA))


    Fission-track dates from seven volcaniclastic units allow time constraints to be placed on synorogenic clastic strata exposed along the flanks of Sierra de Famatina, northwest Argentina. Four formations are exposed along the western margin of Sierra de Famatina. The El Abra conglomerate is composed of clasts eroded from the basement exposed just to the west of Cadena de Paiman. The El Buey Formation contains sediments probably derived from the Precordillera fold and thrust belt to the west. Fission-track dates give a maximum age of 6 Ma for the deposition of both of these formations. The El Durazno Formation, deposited between 6 and 4 Ma, contains proximal volcaniclastic and other clastic rocks derived from the core of Sierra de Famatina. The Santa Florentina conglomerate was derived from the rising Sierra de Famatina and deposited in the past 4 m.y. Sierra de Famatima probably became a positive topographic feature approximately 6 Ma. Prior to that time this region was receiving fine-grained sediments from a distal fold and thrust belt and conglomerates from local basement uplifts. Minor extrusive events (Mogote Formation) coincide both spatially and temporally with deformation along the major reverse faults that control the uplift of Sierra de Famatina. Minimum mean uplift rates calculated for Sierra de Famatina are 0.8 {plus minus} 0.1 mm/yr over a 6.8 m.y. interval.

  9. Experimental investigation of creep behavior of clastic rock in Xiangjiaba Hydropower Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang


    Full Text Available There are many fracture zones crossing the dam foundation of the Xiangjiaba Hydropower Project in southwestern China. Clastic rock is the main media of the fracture zone and has poor physical and mechanical properties. In order to investigate the creep behavior of clastic rock, triaxial creep tests were conducted using a rock servo-controlling rheological testing machine. The results show that the creep behavior of clastic rock is significant at a high level of deviatoric stress, and less time-dependent deformation occurs at high confining pressure. Based on the creep test results, the relationship between axial strain and time under different confining pressures was investigated, and the relationship between axial strain rate and deviatoric stress was also discussed. The strain rate increases rapidly, and the rock sample fails eventually under high deviatoric stress. Moreover, the creep failure mechanism under different confining pressures was analyzed. The main failure mechanism of clastic rock is plastic shear, accompanied by a significant compression and ductile dilatancy. On the other hand, with the determined parameters, the Burgers creep model was used to fit the creep curves. The results indicate that the Burgers model can exactly describe the creep behavior of clastic rock in the Xiangjiaba Hydropower Project.

  10. Influence of Clastic Dikes on Vertical Migration of Contaminants in the Vadose Zonde at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, Christopher J.; Ward, Anderson L.; Wilson, John L.


    The purpose of this study was to examine the hypothesis that clastic dikes could form a preferential flow path through the vadose zone to the water table at the Hanford Site. Clastic dikes are subvertical structures that form within sedimentary sequences after deposition and cut across the original sedimentary layers. They are common throughout the Hanford Site, often occurring in organized polygonal networks. In the initial phase of the project, we analyzed the large-scale geometry of the clastic dikes and developed an algorithm for simulating their spatial distribution. This result will be useful in providing maps of the potential distribution of clastic dikes in areas where they are not exposed at the surface (e.g., where covered by windblown sand or construction of facilities like tank farms at the surface). In addition to the study of the large-scale distribution of the dikes, a major focus of the project was on field, laboratory, and modeling studies of the hydrogeological properties of the clastic dikes and the effect that they have on transport of water through the vadose zone. These studies were performed at two field locations at the Hanford Site. We performed an extensive series of field and laboratory measurements of a large number of samples from the clastic dikes, linked with infrared (IR) and visual imagery of the clastic dikes and surrounding matrix. We developed a series of correlations from the sample data that allowed us to estimate the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of the dike and matrix at an extremely high resolution (approximately 1 mm). The resulting grids, each of which measured several meters on a side and included nearly four million grid nodes, were used to study the distribution of moisture between the clastic dike and surrounding matrix, as well as the relative velocities that moisture would have through the clastic dike and matrix for a number of different recharge scenarios. Results show the development of complex flow networks

  11. Turbidites as proxy for past flood events: Testing this approach in a large clastic system (Lake Geneva, France/Switzerland) (United States)

    Kremer, Katrina; Girardclos, Stéphanie


    Turbidites recorded in lake sediments are often used to reconstruct the frequency of past flood and also seismological events. However, for such a reconstruction, the origin and causes of the recorded turbidites need to be clearly identified. In this study, we test if turbidites can be used as paleohydrological archive based on the the sedimentary record of Lake Geneva resulting from inputs by the Rhone and Dranse clastic river systems. Our approach is based on several methods combining high-resolution seismic reflection data with geophysical (magnetic susceptibility, grain size) and high-resolution XRF/XRD data measured on ca. 10-m-long sediment cores (dated by radiocarbon ages and 137Cs activity). This dataset allows distinguishing between the different sources (rivers or hemipelagic sediment) of the turbidites deposited in the deep basin of Lake Geneva. However, no clear distinction between the various trigger processes (mass failures or floods) could be made, thus flood deposits could not be clearly identified. From our results, we also conclude that the lack of turbidite deposits in the deep basin between the 15th and 18th century seems to be linked to a change in turbidite depocentre due to the Rhone River mouth shifting possibly triggered by human activity and not by any direct climate effect. This study demonstrates that a least two conditions are needed to perform an adequate paleohydrological interpretation based on turbidite records: (1) the holistic understanding of the basin sedimentary system and (2) the distinction of flood-induced turbidites from other types of turbidites (mass failures etc.).

  12. Inclination shallowing in the Eocene Linzizong sediments from Tibet: correction, possible causes and implications for reconstructing the India-Asia collision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, W.; Dupont-Nivet, G.; Lippert, P.C.; Hinsbergen, D.J.J. van; Hallot, E.


    A systematic bias towards low palaeomagnetic inclination recorded in clastic sediments, that is, inclination shallowing, has been recognized and studied for decades. Identification, understanding and correction of this inclination shallowing are critical for palaeogeographic

  13. Geochemistry and Flux of Terrigenous Dissolved Organic Matter to the Arctic Ocean (United States)

    Spencer, R. G.; Mann, P. J.; Hernes, P. J.; Tank, S. E.; Striegl, R. G.; Dyda, R. Y.; Peterson, B. J.; McClelland, J. W.; Holmes, R. M.


    Rivers draining into the Arctic Ocean exhibit high concentrations of terrigenous dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and recent studies indicate that DOC export is changing due to climatic warming and alteration in permafrost condition. The fate of exported DOC in the Arctic Ocean is of key importance for understanding the regional carbon cycle and remains a point of discussion in the literature. As part of the Arctic Great Rivers Observatory (Arctic-GRO) project, samples were collected for DOC, chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and lignin phenols from the Ob', Yenisey, Lena, Kolyma, Mackenzie and Yukon rivers in 2009 - 2010. DOC and lignin concentrations were elevated during the spring freshet and measurements related to DOC composition indicated an increasing contribution from terrestrial vascular plant sources at this time of year (e.g. lignin carbon-normalized yield, CDOM spectral slope, SUVA254, humic-like fluorescence). CDOM absorption was found to correlate strongly with both DOC (r2=0.83) and lignin concentration (r2=0.92) across the major arctic rivers. Utilizing these relationships we modeled loads for DOC and lignin export from high-resolution CDOM measurements (daily across the freshet) to derive improved flux estimates, particularly from the dynamic spring discharge maxima period when the majority of DOC and lignin export occurs. The new load estimates for DOC and lignin are higher than previous evaluations, emphasizing that if these are more representative of current arctic riverine export, terrigenous DOC is transiting through the Arctic Ocean at a faster rate than previously thought. It is apparent that higher resolution sampling of arctic rivers is exceptionally valuable with respect to deriving accurate fluxes and we highlight the potential of CDOM in this role for future studies and the applicability of in-situ CDOM sensors.

  14. The post-Laramide clastic deposits of the Sierra de Guanajuato: Compositional implications on the tectono-sedimentary and paleographic evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda-Aviles, R.; Puy-Alquiza, M.J.; OmaNa, L.; Loza-Aguirre, I.


    This article presents the results of the study on sedimentation, sedimentary environments, tectono-sedimentary and paleogeographic evolution of post-Laramide clastic deposits and pre-volcanism of the Sierra Madre Occidental in the Sierra de Guanajuato, central Mexico. The Eocene Duarte Conglomerate and Guanajuato Conglomerate were deposited in the middle and distal parts of alluvial fans. The studied rocks are composed of limestone clasts, granite, andesite, metasediments, diorite, and pyroxenite, indicating the erosion of uplifted blocks of the basal complex of the Sierra de Guanajuato (Arperos basin). The petrographic and compositional analysis of limestone shows a textural variation from basin limestones and shallow platform limestones. The shallow platform limestone contain bivalves, brachiopods, gastropods, echinoderms and benthic foraminifera from the Berriasian-Valanginian. The shallow-water limestone corresponds to the boundary of the Arperos basin whose original outcrops currently not outcrop in the Sierra de Guanajuato. (Author)

  15. Biogenic silica microfossils in sediments of the Permian - Carboniferous Unayzah Formation, Saudi Arabia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garming, J.F.L.; Franks, S.G.; Cremer, H.; Abbink, O.A.


    Biogenic silica particles (BSPs) have been discovered in sediments of the Permian - Carboniferous Unayzah Formation of Saudi Arabia. The BSPs are extracted from sediments that are generally barren of macro- or microfossils. BSPs have been found in the Basal Khuff Clastics (BKC), and the Unayzah A,

  16. Pleniglacial sedimentation process reconstruction on laminated lacustrine sediments from lava-dammed Paleolake Alf, West Eifel Volcanic Field (Germany) (United States)

    Eichhorn, Luise; Pirrung, Michael; Zolitschka, Bernd; Büchel, Georg


    Differentiating between regularly seasonal, irregular and event-based clastic sedimentation is difficult if sedimentation structures resemble and dating methods are imprecise. In this study - clastic light and dark laminae from lava-dammed Paleolake Alf in the Late Pleistocene in the Quaternary West Eifel Volcanic Field are analyzed to clarify how they formed and if they are of annual origin and comparable to assumed periglacial varves from neighboring Lake Holzmaar. Therefore, a multiproxy approach is applied combining sediment thin section analysis which focuses on composition and structure with 14C dates. The results are compared to recently-formed annually-laminated clastic sediments of, e.g., the High Canadian Arctic. Observed sedimentation structures reveal sediment delivery by over- and interflows and deposition from suspension forming two characteristic microfacies: Type I graded laminae and Type II laminae with graded sublayers. Additionally, erosional bases and event deposits indicate episodic underflows. Thus, lamination is potentially seasonal but is significantly veiled by extreme runoff causing erosion and resuspension processes or a mixed water body preventing sediment delivery into the lake basin. However, sedimentation processes between watershed and lake could be reconstructed by comparing recent and paleosediment structures.

  17. Petroleum data for the pre-mid-Devonian basal clastics play, southern Mackenzie Valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemieux, Y. [Natural Resources Canada, Yellowknife, NT (Canada). Geological Survey of Canada; Gal, L.P. [Northwest Territories Geoscience Office, Yellowknife, NT (Canada)


    This document presented petroleum data from the Mackenzie Corridor exploration area in the Northwest Territories. Both quantitative and qualitative geoscience data was compiled as part of a project under the Secure Canadian Energy Supply program of the Geological Survey of Canada. Three separate reservoir facies have been identified within the study area for their attributes relevant to petroleum exploration. This document defined and described the pre-mid-Devonian basal clastics play in the southern Great Slave Plains region where potential Lower Paleozoic source rocks include organic-rich beds of the Mirage Point and Chinchaga Formations, and regionally widespread, Middle to lower Upper Devonian shale. The play is analogous to the oil producing Middle Devonian clastic plays onlapping the Peace River Arch in northwestern Alberta. The seals, migration and trap styles for the reservoirs were discussed. Exploration risks include a thin and discontinuous reservoir with poor porosity; isolation from potential source beds; inadequate reservoir seals; and timing of hydrocarbon migration with respect to trap development. The petroleum play information was based on very few well penetrations. As such, the pre-mid-Devonian basal clastics play is considered to be a conceptual play that has not yet been adequately explored. 40 refs., 3 tabs., 12 figs.

  18. Geochemical evidence of terrigenous influence in deep-sea sediments upto 8�S in the Central Indian basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.; Rao, V.P.; Becker, K.P.

    for major and minor elements such as Si, Al, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe, Mn, P, Ti, Ba, Cu, Ni, Co, V, Zn and Cr. R-mode factor analysis reveals five important sources for these elements: (1) detrital (loaded with Fe, Ti, Al, Mg, Mn, P and K), (2) combined...

  19. Criteria for the recognition and correlation of sandstone units in the Precambrian and Paleozoic-Mesozoic clastic sequence in the near east (United States)

    Weissbrod, T.; Perath, I.

    A systematic study of the Precambrian and Paleozoic-Mesozoic clastic sequences (Nubian Sandstone) in Israel and Sinai, and a comparative analysis of its stratigraphy in neighbouring countries, has shown that besides the conventional criteria of subdivision (lithology, field appearance, photogeological features, fossil content), additional criteria can be applied, which singly or in mutual conjuction enable the recognition of widespread units and boundaries. These criteria show lateral constancy, and recurrence of a similar vertical sequence over great distances, and are therefore acceptable for the identification of synchronous, region-wide sedimentary units (and consequently, major unconformities). They also enable, once the units are established, to identify detached (not in situ) samples, samples from isolated or discontinous outcrops, borehole material or archive material. The following rock properties were tested and found to be usefuls in stratigraphic interpretation, throughout large distribution areas of the clastic sequence: Landscape, which is basically the response of a particular textural-chemic al aggregate to atmospheric weathering. Characteristic outcrop feature — styles of roundness or massivity, fissuring or fliatin, slope profile, bedding — express a basic uniformity of these platform-type clastics. Colors are often stratigraphically constant over hundreds of kilometers, through various climates and topographies, and express some intrinsic unity of the rock bodies. Grain size and sorting, when cross-plotted, enable to differentiate existing unit. The method requires the analysis of representative numbers of samples. Vertical trends of median grain size and sorting show reversals, typically across unconformities. Feldstar content diminishes from 15-50% in Precambrian-Paleozoic rocks to a mere 5% or less in Mesozoic sandstones — a distinctive regionwide time trend. Dominance of certain feldstar types characterizes Precambrian and Paleozoic

  20. Mineralogical and geochemical characters of surface sediments from the central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banerjee, R.

    are enriched in trace metal (e.g. Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Co) inhomogeneously. Ni, Cu and Co are well correlated with Mn in terrigenous, siliceous and pelagic clay sediments. However, metal enrichment processes differ. The enrichment process is diagenetic in siliceous...

  1. Sedimentation across the central California oxygen minimum zone: an alternative coastal upwelling sequence. (United States)

    Vercoutere, T.L.; Mullins, H.T.; McDougall, K.; Thompson, J.B.


    Distribution, abundance, and diversity of terrigenous, authigenous, and biogenous material provide evidence of the effect of bottom currents and oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) on continental slope sedimentation offshore central California. Three major OMZ facies are identified, along the upper and lower edges of OMZ and one at its core.-from Authors

  2. GPR Imaging of Clastic Dikes at the Hanford Site, Hanford, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, William P.; Murray, Christopher J.


    We use ground penetrating radar (GPR) data to help determine the spatial distribution and the subsurface geometry of clastic injection dikes at the Hanford site. This information will help to improve the understanding of the hydrological role of these ubiquitous clastic dikes at the Hanford Site. We collected 100 MHz ground penetrating radar (GPR) 3D surface reflection data at two sites, the S-16 Pond and the Army Loop Road sites, and 2D reflection data along a 6.9 km linear transect near the Army Loop Road site. The dikes are distinguished in the GPR data by a strongly attenuated zone, disruptions in the continuity of reflections, and diffractions where reflections are disrupted. In general, the data quality is better at the Army Loop Road and Traverse sites than at the S-16 Pond site, probably due to the presence of cobbles at the S-16 Pond site. A high-moisture, fine-grained unit probably causes the strong reflections at the Army Loop Road site and the Traverse survey site. The signal penetration varies between 5 to 12 m below the land surface

  3. Climate and sea level controlled sedimentation processes in two submarine canyons off NW-Africa


    Pierau, Roberto


    This study focuses on the trigger mechanisms of gravity-driven sediment transport in two submarine canyons at the passive continental margin off NW-Africa during the past 240 kyr. The sedimentary records allow to determine the turbidite emplacement times based on high resolution age models. The sediment textures of the turbidites were studied by using X-ray radiographies. The sedimentary properties like the terrigenous silt size distribution and XRF-core scanning element data allow to identif...

  4. Transport of terrigenous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons affected by the coastal upwelling in the northwestern coast of South China Sea. (United States)

    Ya, Miaolei; Wu, Yuling; Li, Yongyu; Wang, Xinhong


    Coastal upwelling prevails in the coast of Hainan Island, the northern South China Sea (SCS) during summer. We studied the influences of the upwelling on the horizontal and vertical transport of terrigenous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAHs in dissolved and suspended particulate phase of water samples were determined in the upper (depth  10 m). PAH levels decreased sharply from inshore to offshore to open sea. The results showed that terrestrial input was the main source of coastal PAHs. Perylene, an important indicator of land plant-derived PAH, showed the significant correlation with PAHs (p sea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Periglacial complexes in Utopia Planitia: rimless, tiered depressions, (clastically) sorted and unsorted polygonised terrain and an ice-rich mantle (United States)

    Soare, Richard; Conway, Susan; Gallagher, Colman; Dohm, James; Clifford, Stephen M.; Williams, Jean-pierre


    We report the spatial and possible genetic-relationship at the mid-latitudes of Utopia Planitia (45-500N 115-1200E), Mars, of: (a) metre to decametre deep, rimless, tiered depressions; terrain that exhibits (b) (clastically) sorted and (c) unsorted (small-sized) polygons; and, (d) a very youthful, ice-rich mantle. We show that these individual landscape features are separated stratigraphically, this being presented to the Mars community for the first time, and suggest that the stratigraphical separation of these features could be the result of boundary conditions and formation processes that have varied much more widely than has been thought hitherto. In cold-climate and non-glacial regions such as the Yamal Peninsula of eastern Russia and the Tuktoyaktuk Coastlands of northern Canada, landscape assemblages comprised of similar features are referenced as "ice complexes" and are indicative of periglacialism on two fronts: first, the presence of "ice-rich" permafrost or permafrost comprised of "excess ice", i.e. "permafrost" whose pore space is exceeded by the "water ice" within that body of sediment; and, second, antecedently or currently active freeze-thaw cycling, minimally, to the full depth of the "ice-complex" depressions. In the Dry Valleys of the Antarctic, where the atmospheric aridity and cold-temperatures approach those of Mars, ice-vapour diffusion and adsorption cycles are cited as the means by which the near-surface, permafrost, i.e. ≤1m deep, has become ice-cemented. However, the metre to decametre depths of the "ice-complex" depressions on Earth and the morphologically-similar ones on Mars lie beyond the vertical reach of the Antarctic diffusion and adsorption cycles, both empirically and theoretically. By deduction, this points to the freeze-thaw cycling of water to depth, fostered either by exogenic or endogenic means, perhaps playing a more important role in the formation of the possible Martian "ice complexes" than might be expected were

  6. Effects of Protection and Sediment Stress on Coral Reefs in Saint Lucia. (United States)

    Bégin, Chantale; Schelten, Christiane K; Nugues, Maggy M; Hawkins, Julie; Roberts, Callum; Côté, Isabelle M


    The extent to which Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) benefit corals is contentious. On one hand, MPAs could enhance coral growth and survival through increases in herbivory within their borders; on the other, they are unlikely to prevent disturbances, such as terrestrial runoff, that originate outside their boundaries. We examined the effect of spatial protection and terrestrial sediment on the benthic composition of coral reefs in Saint Lucia. In 2011 (10 to 16 years after MPAs were created), we resurveyed 21 reefs that had been surveyed in 2001 and analyzed current benthic assemblages as well as changes in benthic cover over that decade in relation to protection status, terrestrial sediment influence (measured as the proportion of terrigenous material in reef-associated sediment) and depth. The cover of all benthic biotic components has changed significantly over the decade, including a decline in coral and increase in macroalgae. Protection status was not a significant predictor of either current benthic composition or changes in composition, but current cover and change in cover of several components were related to terrigenous content of sediment deposited recently. Sites with a higher proportion of terrigenous sediment had lower current coral cover, higher macroalgal cover and greater coral declines. Our results suggest that terrestrial sediment is an important factor in the recent degradation of coral reefs in Saint Lucia and that the current MPA network should be complemented by measures to reduce runoff from land.

  7. Effects of Protection and Sediment Stress on Coral Reefs in Saint Lucia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantale Bégin

    Full Text Available The extent to which Marine Protected Areas (MPAs benefit corals is contentious. On one hand, MPAs could enhance coral growth and survival through increases in herbivory within their borders; on the other, they are unlikely to prevent disturbances, such as terrestrial runoff, that originate outside their boundaries. We examined the effect of spatial protection and terrestrial sediment on the benthic composition of coral reefs in Saint Lucia. In 2011 (10 to 16 years after MPAs were created, we resurveyed 21 reefs that had been surveyed in 2001 and analyzed current benthic assemblages as well as changes in benthic cover over that decade in relation to protection status, terrestrial sediment influence (measured as the proportion of terrigenous material in reef-associated sediment and depth. The cover of all benthic biotic components has changed significantly over the decade, including a decline in coral and increase in macroalgae. Protection status was not a significant predictor of either current benthic composition or changes in composition, but current cover and change in cover of several components were related to terrigenous content of sediment deposited recently. Sites with a higher proportion of terrigenous sediment had lower current coral cover, higher macroalgal cover and greater coral declines. Our results suggest that terrestrial sediment is an important factor in the recent degradation of coral reefs in Saint Lucia and that the current MPA network should be complemented by measures to reduce runoff from land.

  8. An elastic solution for a new notched residual stess specimen subjected to an anti-clastic loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Johnny; Lyckegaard, Anders

    A new test specimen has been proposed to explore the mechanical properties of thermoset resin exposed to residual stresses induced by curing and thermal expansion. The test principle is based on anti-clastic bending of a plate with a hole. An elastic solution to the bending problem is derived...

  9. Biogeochemistry of southern Australian continental slope sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veeh, H.H.; Crispe, A.J.; Heggie, D.T.


    Sediment cores from the middle to lower slope of the southern continental margin of Australia between the Great Australian Bight and western Tasmania are compared in terms of marine and terrigenous input signals during the Holocene. The mass accumulation rates of carbonate, organic carbon, biogenic Ba. and Al are corrected for lateral sediment input (focusing), using the inventory of excess 230 Th in the sediment normalised to its known production rate in the water column above each site. The biogenic signal is generally higher in the eastern part of the southern margin probably due to enhanced productivity associated with seasonal upwelling off southeastern South Australia and the proximity of the Subtropical Front, which passes just south of Tasmania. The input of Al, representing the terrigenous signal, is also higher in this region reflecting the close proximity of river runoff from the mountainous catchment of southeastern Australia. The distribution pattern of Mn and authigenic U, together with pore-water profiles of Mn ++ , indicate diagenetic reactions driven by the oxidation of buried organic carbon in an oxic to suboxic environment. Whereas Mn is reduced at depth and diffuses upwards to become immobilised in a Mn-rich surface layer. U is derived from seawater and diffuses downward into the sediment, driven by reduction and precipitation at a depth below the reduction zone of Mn. The estimated removal rate of U from seawater by this process is within the range of U removal measured in hemipelagic sediments from other areas, and supports the proposition that hemipelagic sediments are a major sink of U in the global ocean. Unlike Mn, the depth profile of sedimentary Fe appears to be little affected by diagenesis, suggesting that little of the total Fe inventory in the sediment is remobilised and redistributed as soluble Fe. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  10. Transformations and Fates of Terrigenous Dissolved Organic Matter in River-influenced Ocean Margins (United States)

    Fichot, Cedric G.

    Rivers contribute about 0.25 Pg of terrigenous dissolved organic carbon (tDOC) to the ocean each year. The fate and transformations of this material have important ramifications for the metabolic state of the ocean, air-sea CO2 exchange, and the global carbon cycle. Stable isotopic compositions and terrestrial biomarkers suggest tDOC must be efficiently mineralized in ocean margins. Nonetheless, the extent of tDOC mineralization in these environments remains unknown, as no quantitative estimate is available. The complex interplay of biogeochemical and physical processes in these systems compounded by the limited practicality of chemical proxies (organic biomarkers, isotopic compositions) make the quantification of tDOC mineralization in these dynamic systems particularly challenging. In this dissertation, new optical proxies were developed (Chapters 1 and 2) and facilitated the first quantitative assessment of tDOC mineralization in a dynamic river-influenced ocean margin (Chapter 3) and the monitoring of continental runoff distributions in the coastal ocean using remote sensing (Chapter 4). The optical properties of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) were used as optical proxies for dissolved organic carbon concentration ([DOC]) and %tDOC. In both proxies, the CDOM spectral slope coefficient ( S275-295) was exploited for its informative properties on the chemical nature and composition of dissolved organic matter. In the first proxy, a strong relationship between S275-295 and the ratio of CDOM absorption to [DOC] facilitated accurate retrieval (+/- 4%) of [DOC] from CDOM. In the second proxy, the existence of a strong relationship between S275-295 and the DOC-normalized lignin yield facilitated the estimation of the %tDOC from S 275-295. Using the proxies, the tDOC concentration can be retrieved solely from CDOM absorption coefficients (lambda = 275-295 nm) in river-influenced ocean margins. The practicality of optical proxies facilitated the calculation

  11. Millennial-scale variability of marine productivity and terrigenous matter supply in the western Bering Sea over the past 180 kyr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-R. Riethdorf


    Full Text Available We used piston cores recovered in the western Bering Sea to reconstruct millennial-scale changes in marine productivity and terrigenous matter supply over the past ~180 kyr. Based on a geochemical multi-proxy approach, our results indicate closely interacting processes controlling marine productivity and terrigenous matter supply comparable to the situation in the Okhotsk Sea. Overall, terrigenous inputs were high, whereas export production was low. Minor increases in marine productivity occurred during intervals of Marine Isotope Stage 5 and interstadials, but pronounced maxima were recorded during interglacials and Termination I. The terrigenous material is suggested to be derived from continental sources on the eastern Bering Sea shelf and to be subsequently transported via sea ice, which is likely to drive changes in surface productivity, terrigenous inputs, and upper-ocean stratification. From our results we propose glacial, deglacial, and interglacial scenarios for environmental change in the Bering Sea. These changes seem to be primarily controlled by insolation and sea-level forcing which affect the strength of atmospheric pressure systems and sea-ice growth. The opening history of the Bering Strait is considered to have had an additional impact. High-resolution core logging data (color b*, XRF scans strongly correspond to the Dansgaard–Oeschger climate variability registered in the NGRIP ice core and support an atmospheric coupling mechanism of Northern Hemisphere climates.

  12. Contribution to the study of sedimentation rates in some french Polynesian lakes and lagoon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serra, C.; Poletiko, C.; Badie, C.


    210 Pb measurements using 210 Po deposition technique were performed in several marine and lacustrine sediments of French Polynesia to determine sedimentation rates in lakes and lagoons. Some results in terrigeneous sediments were acceptable and permit rate measurements; on the contrary other sediments, especially coral sands provided a 210 Pb/ 226 Ra disequilibrium (0.33 to 0.69). The occurring phenomena seem to be related to 222 Rn scavenging and geothermal endoupwelling which induces 226 Ra enhancement; this leads to the same 210 Pb/ 226 Ra disequilibrium as in deep ocean waters as described, for instance by Thomson and Turekian (1976) in an upwelling zone on Peru coasts [fr

  13. The high-resolution stratigraphic architecture and evolution of the Burdigalian carbonate-silici-clastic sedimentary systems on the Mut Basin, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassant, Ph


    The subject of this doctorate study are the Lower Miocene (Burdigalian) carbonate systems in the Mut basin, in south central Turkey. This area is chosen because it presents extraordinary large (seismic) scale 3D outcrops showing depositional geometries. In addition, these carbonates are considered as good outcrop analogues for time equivalent carbonate buildups in the Far East, that are oil and gas bearing. The carbonates were deposited in a complex relict topography, following a tectonically active phase in the Oligocene. During the Burdigalian transgression shallow platform carbonates were deposited in a variety of settings, locally accompanied by some silici-clastic input. Observations on the strata geometries and the facies were combined into a high resolution sequence stratigraphic framework controlled by bio-stratigraphy. With the help of relative sea level curves constructed for the three studied sites, a basin-wide correlation scheme is proposed. This chronostratigraphic framework permits the recognition of condensation and omission surfaces in the basinal and platform settings, to identify basin-wide variations in sedimentation pattern, and to evaluate the relative influence of tectonism, eustatism and the environment. The exceptional quality of the outcrops with its variety of environments, and its location at the Tethys margin, make this a good candidate for a reference model for Burdigalian reef and platform architectures. Examples of a quantitative approach of the geometries of potential carbonate reservoir bodies are given in the annex. The data-files are incorporated in the carbonate reservoir body database CARABAS. (author)

  14. Organic sediments of the equatorial east Atlantic: Effects of origin, transport, diagenesis, and climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westerhausen, L.


    The origins and diagenesis of organic matter in recent sediments of the equatorial Eastern Atlantic are assessed on the basis of the 13 C/ 12 C composition of the organic carbon (δ 13 C TOC ), the C/N ratio, and molecular biomarkers from terrigenic and marine sources. Also investigated was the effect of global climate on the 13 C/ 12 C ratios of marine organic carbon and on the origins of organic matter on sedimentary cores. The terrigenic fraction of organic carbon is calculated using a binary δ 13 C TOC mixing model. To begin with, the δ 13 C TOC values were standardized to a uniform surface water temperature and water depth. The calculated terrigenic TOC fractions amount to more than 60% for shelf sediments off the coast of Eastern Liberia, Ivory Coast, and the continental shelf of Gabun. The higher terrigenic TOC fractions of up to 20% in recent sediments on the continental shelf along the coast of Guinea to Ivory Coast are interpreted in terms of a transport of terrigenic substances in down hill direction and parallel to the coast. The effects of the global climate on the TOC accumulation rates and on the 13 C/ 12 C ratio of organic carbon were investigated in a pelogic sedimentary core (M16772) from the tropical Eastern Atlantic. Prior to this, the δ 13 C TOC values were standardized to a uniform surface temperature and a uniform 13 C/ 12 C ratio of the dissolved inorganic carbon using the UK 37 index and the δ 13 C values of G.ruber. During the cold periods the export production increases, which - together with the low CO 2 partial pressure in the atmosphere, and thus also in the surface water -induces 13 C accumulation in the marine organic carbon. There is nothing to suggest an effect of 13 C-accumulating phytoplancton, e.g. dinoflagellats, on the 13 C/ 12 C ratio. (orig./KW). 32 figs., 8 tabs [de

  15. Transfer of organic carbon through marine water columns to sediments – insights from stable and radiocarbon isotopes of lipid biomarkers


    S. G. Wakeham; A. P. McNichol


    Compound-specific 13C and 14C compositions of diverse lipid biomarkers (fatty acids, alkenones, hydrocarbons, sterols and fatty alcohols) were measured in sinking particulate matter collected in sediment traps and from underlying surface sediments in the Black Sea, the Arabian Sea and the Ross Sea. The goal was to develop a multiparameter approach to constrain relative inputs of organic carbon (OC) from marine biomass, terrigenous vascular-plant and relict-kerogen sources. U...

  16. An innovative technique for estimating water saturation from capillary pressure in clastic reservoirs (United States)

    Adeoti, Lukumon; Ayolabi, Elijah Adebowale; James, Logan


    A major drawback of old resistivity tools is the poor vertical resolution and estimation of hydrocarbon when applying water saturation (Sw) from historical resistivity method. In this study, we have provided an alternative method called saturation height function to estimate hydrocarbon in some clastic reservoirs in the Niger Delta. The saturation height function was derived from pseudo capillary pressure curves generated using modern wells with complete log data. Our method was based on the determination of rock type from log derived porosity-permeability relationship, supported by volume of shale for its classification into different zones. Leverette-J functions were derived for each rock type. Our results show good correlation between Sw from resistivity based method and Sw from pseudo capillary pressure curves in wells with modern log data. The resistivity based model overestimates Sw in some wells while Sw from the pseudo capillary pressure curves validates and predicts more accurate Sw. In addition, the result of Sw from pseudo capillary pressure curves replaces that of resistivity based model in a well where the resistivity equipment failed. The plot of hydrocarbon pore volume (HCPV) from J-function against HCPV from Archie shows that wells with high HCPV have high sand qualities and vice versa. This was further used to predict the geometry of stratigraphic units. The model presented here freshly addresses the gap in the estimation of Sw and is applicable to reservoirs of similar rock type in other frontier basins worldwide.

  17. Clastic patterned ground in Lomonosov crater, Mars: examining fracture controlled formation mechanisms (United States)

    Barrett, Alexander M.; Balme, Matthew R.; Patel, Manish R.; Hagermann, Axel


    The area surrounding Lomonosov crater on Mars has a high density of seemingly organised boulder patterns. These form seemingly sorted polygons and stripes within kilometre scale blockfields, patches of boulder strewn ground which are common across the Martian high latitudes. Several hypotheses have been suggested to explain the formation of clastic patterned ground on Mars. It has been proposed that these structures could have formed through freeze-thaw sorting, or conversely by the interaction of boulders with underlying fracture polygons. In this investigation a series of sites were examined to evaluate whether boulder patterns appear to be controlled by the distribution of underlying fractures and test the fracture control hypotheses for their formation. It was decided to focus on this suite of mechanisms as they are characterised by a clear morphological relationship, namely the presence of an underlying fracture network which can easily be evaluated over a large area. It was found that in the majority of examples at these sites did not exhibit fracture control. Although fractures were present at many sites there were very few sites where the fracture network appeared to be controlling the boulder distribution. In general these were not the sites with the best examples of organization, suggesting that the fracture control mechanisms are not the dominant geomorphic process organising the boulders in this area.

  18. Hydrogeologic assessment of shallow clastic and carbonate rock aquifers in Hendry and Collier counties, southwestern Florida (United States)

    Brown, C. Erwin; Krulikas, R.K.; Brendle, D.L.


    Direct-current electrical resistivity data were collected from 109 vertical electrical sounding sites in Hendry and Collier Counties, southwestern Florida. Selected direct-current electrical resistivity surveys, together with available borehole geologic and geophysical data, were used to determine the approximate areal extent of the shallow clastic aquifers composed of thick sands and carbonate lithologies. Results indicated that a complex pattern of shallow sands, clays, and carbonate lithologies occur throughout the area. Buried channel sands were found as deep as 50 meters below land surface in some places. The channels contain unconsolidated fine- to medium-grained quartz sand interbedded with sandy limestone, shell fragments, and gray-green sandy clay. Both surface and borehole geophysical techniques with lithologic data were necessary to approximately locate and define layers that might behave as confining layers and to locate and define the extent of any buried sand aquifers. The borehole geophysical data were used to analyze the zones of higher resistivity. Direct-current electrical resistivity data indicated the approximate location of certain layer boundaries. The conjunctive use of natural gamma and short- and long-normal resistivity logs was helpful in determining lithologic effects. Geohydrologic sections were prepared to identify potential locations of buried channels and carbonates containing freshwater. Buried channel sands and carbonate rock sections were identified in the subsurface that potentially may contain freshwater supplies.

  19. Distribution and origin of sediments on the northern Sunda Shelf, South China Sea (United States)

    Wu, Shi-Guo; Wong, H. K.; Luo, You-Lang; Liang, Zhi-Rong


    Seventy-seven surface sediment samples and core samples from the outer Sunda Shelf were analyzed and a number of seismic profiles of the shelf were interpreted. The bottom sediments could be divided into six types: terrigenous sand, biogenic sand, silt-sand, clay-silt-sand, clayey silt and coral reef detritus. Our seismic data showed a thick, prograding Pleistocene deltaic sequence near the shelf-break and a thin Holocene sedimentary layer on the outer shelf. Eleven thermoluminescence (TL) ages were determined. The oldest relict sediments were derived from Late Pleistocene deposits. Based on sediment types, ages, and origins, five sedimentary areas were identified: area of modern Mekong sediments; insular shelf area receiving modern sediments from small Borneo rivers; shelf area near the Natuna-Anambas islands in the southeastern Gulf of Thailand Basin off the Malay Peninsula; area of relict sediments on the outer shelf north of the Natuna Islands, and typical coral reefs and detritus sediments.

  20. Molecular formulae of marine and terrigenous dissolved organic matter detected by electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (United States)

    Koch, Boris P.; Witt, Matthias; Engbrodt, Ralph; Dittmar, Thorsten; Kattner, Gerhard


    The chemical structure of refractory marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) is still largely unknown. Electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI FT-ICR-MS) was used to resolve the complex mixtures of DOM and provide valuable information on elemental compositions on a molecular scale. We characterized and compared DOM from two sharply contrasting aquatic environments, algal-derived DOM from the Weddell Sea (Antarctica) and terrigenous DOM from pore water of a tropical mangrove area in northern Brazil. Several thousand molecular formulas in the mass range of 300-600 Da were identified and reproduced in element ratio plots. On the basis of molecular elemental composition and double-bond equivalents (DBE) we calculated an average composition for marine DOM. O/C ratios in the marine samples were lower (0.36 ± 0.01) than in the mangrove pore-water sample (0.42). A small proportion of chemical formulas with higher molecular mass in the marine samples were characterized by very low O/C and H/C ratios probably reflecting amphiphilic properties. The average number of unsaturations in the marine samples was surprisingly high (DBE = 9.9; mangrove pore water: DBE = 9.4) most likely due to a significant contribution of carbonyl carbon. There was no significant difference in elemental composition between surface and deep-water DOM in the Weddell Sea. Although there were some molecules with unique marine elemental composition, there was a conspicuous degree of similarity between the terrigenous and algal-derived end members. Approximately one third of the molecular formulas were present in all marine as well as in the mangrove samples. We infer that different forms of microbial degradation ultimately lead to similar structural features that are intrinsically refractory, independent of the source of the organic matter and the environmental conditions where degradation took place.

  1. Amazon estuary - assessment of trace elements in seabed sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara, L.B.L.S.; Fernandes, E.A.N.; Oliveira, H.; Bacchi, M.A.; Ferraz, E.S.B.


    The interactive processes operating on the continental shelf to the river mouth control the amount and the characteristics of the Amazon discharge reaching the Atlantic Ocean. In this study, the distribution of trace elemental concentrations, with emphasis to the rare-earth elements, in sediment cores collected at several stations from the Amazon continental shelf during the falling water period was investigated by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Cores from the terrigenous and blue water zones have relatively uniform REE concentrations throughout the profile. Cerium anomalies for samples of the upper section of the eight stations are consistently positive and of high values (normally > 2). Similar variation in the elemental concentration ratios between the seabed sediments and Amazon River suspended sediments was seen for stations located in the biogenic and blue water zones, with an enrichment for Ce, Sm, Fe, Th, and Sc and a depletion for the La, Eu, Tb, Yb, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Ta, and Zn. The shale-normalized REE patterns from shelf sediments are enriched in LREE relative to HREE, with enrichment factors varying from 1.5 for stations near the river mouth (terrigenous zone) to 1.9 for station located far in the blue water zone. Published data for the Amazon River suspended sediment agree remarkably well with this observation of LREE-enrichment. (author)

  2. Tektite-bearing, deep-water clastic unit at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in northeastern Mexico (United States)

    Smit, J.; Montanari, A.; Swinburne, N. H.; Alvarez, W.; Hildebrand, A. R.; Margolis, S. V.; Claeys, P.; Lowrie, W.; Asaro, F.


    The hypothesis of Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary impact on Yucatan, Mexico, predicts that nearby sites should show evidence of proximal impact ejecta and disturbance by giant waves. An outcrop along the Arroyo el Mimbral in northeastern Mexico contains a layered clastic unit up to 3 m thick that interrupts a biostratigraphically complete pelagic-marl sequence deposited at more than 400 m water depth. The marls were found to be unsuitable for determining magnetostratigraphy, but foraminiferal biostratigraphy places the clastic unit precisely at the K-T boundary. We interpret this clastic unit as the deposit of a megawave or tsunami produced by an extraterrestrial impact. The clastic unit comprises three main subunits. (1) The basal "spherule bed" contains glass in the form of tektites and microtektites, glass spherules replaced by chlorite-smectite and calcite, and quartz grains showing probable shock features. This bed is interpreted as a channelized deposit of proximal ejecta. (2) A set of lenticular, massive, graded "laminated beds" contains intraclasts and abundant plant debris, and may be the result of megawave backwash that carried coarse debris from shallow parts of the continental margin into deeper water. (3) At the top, several thin "ripple beds" composed of fine sand are separated by clay drapes; they are interpreted as deposits of oscillating currents, perhaps a seiche. An iridium anomaly (921 +/- 23 pg/g) is observed at the top of the ripple beds. Our observations at the Mimbral locality support the hypothesis of a K-T impact on nearby Yucatan.

  3. A 300 kyr record of aridity and wind strength in southwestern Africa: evidence from grain-size distributions of sediments on Walvis Ridge, SE Atlantic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuut, J.-B. W.; Prins, M.A.; Schneider, R.S.; Weltje, G.J.; Jansen, J.H.F.; Postma, G.


    The terrigenous fraction of sediments recovered from Walvis Ridge, SE Atlantic Ocean, reveals a history of southwestern African climate of the last 300 kyr. End-member modelling of a data set of grain-size distributions (n = 428) results in three end members. The two coarsest end members are

  4. Clastic compaction unit classification based on clay content and integrated compaction recovery using well and seismic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Hong


    Full Text Available Abstract Compaction correction is a key part of paleo-geomorphic recovery methods. Yet, the influence of lithology on the porosity evolution is not usually taken into account. Present methods merely classify the lithologies as sandstone and mudstone to undertake separate porosity-depth compaction modeling. However, using just two lithologies is an oversimplification that cannot represent the compaction history. In such schemes, the precision of the compaction recovery is inadequate. To improve the precision of compaction recovery, a depth compaction model has been proposed that involves both porosity and clay content. A clastic lithological compaction unit classification method, based on clay content, has been designed to identify lithological boundaries and establish sets of compaction units. Also, on the basis of the clastic compaction unit classification, two methods of compaction recovery that integrate well and seismic data are employed to extrapolate well-based compaction information outward along seismic lines and recover the paleo-topography of the clastic strata in the region. The examples presented here show that a better understanding of paleo-geomorphology can be gained by applying the proposed compaction recovery technology.

  5. Neogene biogenic sediments of onshore Peru: part I, sedimentology and stratigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marty, R.C.; Dunbar, R.B.; Baker, P.


    The Sechura (approx.6/sup 0/S) and Pisco (approx.14/sup 0/S) Basins of onshore Peru contain Miocene diatom and phosphate rich sediments which sharply contrast with underlying clastics. In the Sechura Basin the Miocene clastic Mancora, Heath and Montera Formations are overlain by the Zapallal Formation which grades upwards from a weakly biogenic base into fairly pure diatomites (biogenic silica >20%) and ore grade phosphorite (P/sub 2/O/sub 5/>20%). Biogeneic content decreases in the eastern basin as clastic content increases. The base of the Zapallal Formation has been dated at between 12.2 and 14.0 mybp using radiolaria correlated to magnetic stratigraphy by Theyer, et al (1978), and the phosphatic section yields dates of between 8.0 and 11.2 my. In the Pisco Basin the Eocene clastic Paracas Formation is overlain unconformably by the Miocene Pisco Formation which contains a basal sequence of cross-bedded clastics, tuffs, and partially recrystallized diatomites; a phosphorite bearing middle sequence; and a diatom rich top. Current direction from the cross beds of the basal Pisco Formation indicate a generally southerly transport direction but with considerable directional variability. This may be related to the Peru under-current which shows highly variable strength and direction near 15/sup 0/S.

  6. Composition And Characteristic Of The Surficial Sediments In The Southern Corniche Of Jeddah, Red Sea Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talha A Al-Dubai


    Full Text Available This work discusses the composition and characteristic of the surficial sediments in the southern corniche of Jeddah, Saudi Red Sea coast, in an attempt to infer the surficial distribution pattern of minerals and provenance of sediments. Twenty-six superficial sediments samples were collected from backreef and forereef areas and were analyzed for grain size, CaCO3 content, and mineralogy. The textural of grain size range from gravel to mud fraction. The mud-dominated substrates (<63 µm occur generally in the back-reef area near the shoreline (sheltered area and in the lagoon. Gravel rich-sediments are mostly found in forereef regions. The highest content of aragonite and Mg-calcite occur in the forereef area, probably because to suitability the forereef region for chemical and biochemical precipitation of these minerals. High Mg-calcite and Dolomite are low in both the regions. The pyrite occurs in lagoon; this indicates the reductive conditions in this part. However, on the contrary the percentage of carbonate minerals were low in the backreef-flat area, which could be attributed to the supply of non-carbonate terrigenous materials. The terrigenous material contains quartz, k-feldspar, plagioclase and amphibole minerals and are dominant in backreef-flat area with averages of 12.7%, 7.13%, 2.93% and 0.65%, respectively. Their abundance could be attributed to the supply of terrigenous materials by Aeolian deposits and intermittent Wadis.

  7. Comparative organic geochemistry of Indian margin (Arabian Sea) sediments: estuary to continental slope (United States)

    Cowie, G.; Mowbray, S.; Kurian, S.; Sarkar, A.; White, C.; Anderson, A.; Vergnaud, B.; Johnstone, G.; Brear, S.; Woulds, C.; Naqvi, S. W.; Kitazato, H.


    Surface sediments from sites across the Indian margin of the Arabian Sea were analysed for their carbon and nitrogen compositions (elemental and stable isotopic), grain size distributions and biochemical indices of organic matter (OM) source and/or degradation state. Site locations ranged from the estuaries of the Mandovi and Zuari rivers to depths of ~ 2000 m on the continental slope, thus spanning nearshore muds and sands on the shelf and both the semi-permanent oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) on the upper slope (~ 200-1300 m) and the seasonal hypoxic zone that impinges on the shelf. Source indices showed mixed marine and terrigenous OM within the estuaries, and overwhelming predominance (80%+) of marine OM on the shelf and slope. Thus, riverine OM is heavily diluted by autochthonous marine OM and/or is efficiently remineralised within or immediately offshore of the estuaries. Any terrigenous OM that is exported appears to be retained in nearshore muds; lignin phenols indicate that the small terrigenous OM content of slope sediments is of different origin, potentially from rivers to the north. Organic C contents of surface shelf and slope sediments varied from winnowing and/or dilution) on the shelf and progressive OM degradation with increasing oxygen exposure below the OMZ. Reduced oxygen exposure may contribute to OM enrichment at some sites within the OMZ, but hydrodynamic processes are the overriding control on sediment OM distribution.

  8. A transect through a clastic-swamp to peat swamp ecotone in the Springifled Coal, Middle Pennsylvanian age of Indiana, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, T.L.; DiMichele, W.A. [University of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Plant Biology


    Permineralized fossil plants in coal balls were collected along a kilometer transect through an organic-rich shale in the Springifled Coal in southwestern Indiana. The organic shale is an upper bench of the Springfield Coal in an area where the coal is split into an upper and lower bench by a complex system of clastics that originated as a splay. The clastic wedge, described as the Folsomville Member/Leslie Cemetery paleochannel, is up to 6 km wide and 15 m thick. The transect being approximately 100 m from the edge of the clastic wedge that splits the coal seam and follows the upper bench of coal over and toward the center of the clastic wedge. The dominant elements of the vegetation were the lycopsid tree Paralycopodites brevifolius and several species of medullosan pteridosperms. This report confirms the ecotonal habitats of this vegetation.

  9. Sediment geochronology and geochemical behavior of major and rare earth elements in the Oualidia Lagoon in the western Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejjad, N.; El-Hammoumi, O.; Fekri, A.; Laissaoui, A.; Benmansour, M.; Bounouira, H.; Benkdad, A.; Bounakhla, M.; Benbrahim, S.; Bouthir, F.Z.


    Naturally occurring radionuclides and 137 Cs were measured in a sediment core and surface deposit collected from the bed channel of the Oualidia Lagoon located in the western Morocco. Major and rare earth elements (REE) profiles were determined by instrumental NAA technique. 210 Pb and 137 Cs were used to establish the sedimentation chronology over the last decades by using conventional models. 210 Pb displayed relatively higher concentrations and rate of supply to the sediment than typical levels found in other coastal areas in Morocco. REE ratios and Ce anomalies showed that the direct incorporation of particles from seawater to the bed sediment is the most important, followed by the terrigenous component. (author)

  10. Rare earth elements during diagenesis of abyssal sediments: analogies with a transuranic element americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boust, D.


    One of the possibilities for the storage of high-level radioactive wastes consists in burying them into abyssal sediments, the sediments being supposed to barrier out radionuclides migration. The objective of the work was to estimate the efficiency of sediment barrier with respect to americium. As there is no americium in abyssal sediments, an indirect approach was used: the behaviour of the rare earth elements, the best natural analogs of americium. They were analysed in a 15 m long core, from the Cap Verde abyssal plateau. The terrigenous phase derived from the African continent was modified by short-term processes (1-1000 years); the intermediate rare earth elements were dissolved. Mineral coatings, enriched in rare earth appeared. After burial, the evolution continued at a much slower rate (10 5 - 10 6 years). The rare elements of the mineral coatings derived from the dissolution of the terrigenous phase and from an additional source, deeper in the sediment column. The fluxes of rare earth elements from sediment to water column were estimated. In suboxic sediments, the dissolved particulate equilibrium was related to redox conditions. The short-term reactivity of americium was studied in laboratory experiments. Simple americium migration models showed that the sediments barrier was totally efficient with respect to americium. In the conditions, neptunium 237 a daughter product of americium 241 could induce fluxes of 10 16 atoms per year per ton of stored waste (10 -8 Ci y-1), during millions years, towards the water column [fr

  11. Accumulation of heavy metals in sediments of marine environments along the southwest coast of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manjunatha, B.R.; Yeats, P.A.; Smith, J.N.; Shankar, R.; Narayana, A.C.; Prakash, T.N.


    In order to estimate the rate of excessive sediment accumulation that causes navigational problems and the impacts of urban and industrial development on sediment quality, concentrations of Cu, Ni, Zn, Cr, Mn, Fe and Ca, and radioactivity levels of 210 Pb and 137 Cs have been measured in nineteen sediment cores from estuarine, lagoonal, marsh, backwater and inner shelf areas along the southwest coast of India. Sediment accumulation rates in estuarine, lagoonal, marshy areas of the Karnataka coast (ELMKC) and Cochin Backwaters (CBw) are three to six times higher than those in the adjacent inner shelf areas, consistent with the deposition of terrigenous sediments in the river-sea interaction zones. Hydrogen sulphide was detected in most of the samples; sediment colour varied from shades of gray to dark green. Sediments have lower elemental concentrations and element enrichment factors (EFs) particularly for redox sensitive elements such as Mn due to prevalence of reducing conditions in the sedimentary column. Sediments of ELMKC and CBw have a predominantly terrigenous source. They contain low Ca contents, characteristic of tropical river sediments. In contrast, a higher Ca content of inner shelf sediments off both Karnataka State (ISKS-1) and Kerala State (ISKS-2) implies the importance of additional sediment (CaCO 3 ) flux from the marine biota. Measured Cu, Ni and Zn concentrations are generally low, perhaps reflecting the pristine nature of sediments. However, higher concentrations of Cr at all stations and of Zn at CBw indicate the input of Cr enriched minerals like amphibole and pyroxene from the catchment as well as Zn from anthropogenic sources. Heavy metal accumulation rates are high in estuarine, lagoonal, marsh and backwater areas along the southwest coast of India. This is not only due to the proximity of sources, but also due to high sediment accumulation rates because of the reduction of river flow in river-sea interaction zones owing to particle

  12. Estimation of groundwater residence time and evaluation of geomorphological processes using cosmogenic and terrigenic radionuclides and isotopes of noble gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahara, Yasunori; Ohta, Tomoko; Igarashi, Toshifumi


    In this paper, the estimation of groundwater residence time and geomorphological changing processes are discussed by focusing on isotopes of noble gases and radionuclides with a long half-life as an environmental tracer. Noble gases and radionuclides are produced in the atmospheric air and terrestrial rocks by spallation and various muon reactions during cosmic rays irradiation. Groundwater dating and geomorphological changing are estimated from changes in the number of atoms of cosmogenic and terrigenic nuclides in groundwater and terrestrial rock. The main tools of groundwater dating are combination of the dissolved helium and tritium (half-life T 1/2 =12.3 y) for younger groundwater less than 60 years of residence time, and of the dissolved helium and 36 Cl (T 1/2 =3.01 x 10 5 y) for older groundwater over million years. On the other hand, the main tools on the geomorphological changes are the estimation of exposure time using cosmogenic radionuclides ( 10 Be(half-life T 1/2 =1.6 x 10 6 y), 14 C (T 1/2 =5730 y), 26 Al (T 1/2 =7.16 x 10 5 y) and 36 Cl) and cosmogenic stable noble gases ( 3 He and 21 Ne) produced in rock. (author)

  13. Markov chains and entropy tests in genetic-based lithofacies analysis of deep-water clastic depositional systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borka Szabolcs


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between structural elements and the so-called genetic lithofacies in a clastic deep-water depositional system. Process-sedimentology has recently been gaining importance in the characterization of these systems. This way the recognized facies attributes can be associated with the depositional processes establishing the genetic lithofacies. In this paper this approach was presented through a case study of a Tertiary deep-water sequence of the Pannonian-basin.

  14. Soft-sediment mullions (United States)

    Ortner, Hugo


    In this contribution I describe the appearance, formation and significance of soft-sediment mullions. I use several examples from synorogenic turbidites of the Alps and the Pyrenees to show their appearance in the field. Soft-sediment mullions are elongate, slightly irregular bulges at the base of coarse-grained clastic beds (sand to conglomerate), separated by narrow, elongate flames of fine-grained material (mud) protruding into the coarse-grained bed. Various processes may lead to the formation of such structures: (1) longitudinal furrows parallel to the sediment transport direction may form by spiral motion in flow rolls during sediment transport (Dzulinski, 1966; Dzulinski & Simpson, 1966). (2) Loading combined with downslope movement can produce elongate structures parallelling the dowslope direction (Anketell et al., 1970). (3) Soft-sediment mullions are oriented perpendicular or oblique to the downslope direction, and show evidence of bedding-parallel shortening. Thus, they resemble cuspate-lobate folds or mullions, which are well-known in ductile structural geology (e.g. Urai et al., 2001). Soft-sediment mullions have been observed in two cases: Either bedding-parallel shortening can be achieved by slump processes, or by active tectonic shortening. Slumping is characterized by an alternation of stretching and shortening (e.g. Ortner, 2007; Alsop & Marco 2014), and therefore mullions do overprint or are overprinted by normal faults. In active depositional systems that are subject to tectonic shortening growth strata will form, but sediments already deposited will be shortened during lithification. In some cases, the formation of soft-sediment mullions predates folding, but the most widespread expression of syn-lithification shortening seems to be soft-sediment mullions, that form in the inner arcs of fold hinges. In the examples documented so far, the size of soft-sediment mullions is dependent on the grain-size of the coarse-grained layer, in which the

  15. Geochemical peculiarities of marine sediment in coastal areas of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gothankar, S.S.; Jha, S.K.; Tripathi, R.M.


    To understand the impact of anthropogenic activity on coastal marine environment, sediment samples were collected covering the west and east coast of India. The elemental concentration was determined using EDXRF technique. The east coast showed lower Rb/Sr ratio reflecting higher fraction of biogenic deposits, the higher ratio at the west coast reflects higher fraction of terrigenous detritus. The concentration of Pb and Ni was found higher at Rameshwaram and Okha respectively. The result indicates the impact of land based source of pollutant in few locations due to the anthropogenic activities. (author)

  16. The fate of terrigenous dissolved organic carbon on the Eurasian shelves and export to the North Atlantic (United States)

    Kaiser, Karl; Amon, Rainer; Benner, Ronald


    Dissolved lignin phenols, chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) absorption, and fluorescence were analyzed along cross-slope mooring locations in the Barents, Laptev, and East Siberian Seas to gain a better understanding of terrigenous dissolved organic carbon (tDOC) dynamics in Arctic shelf seas and the Arctic Ocean. A gradient of river water and tDOC was observed along the continental shelf eastward into the East Siberian Sea. Correlations of carbon-normalized yields of lignin-derived phenols supplied by Siberian rivers with river water fractions and known water residence times yielded in situ decay constants of 0.18-0.58 per year. Calculations showed about 50% of annual tDOC discharged by Siberian rivers was mineralized in estuaries and on the Eurasian shelves per year indicating extensive removal of tDOC. Bioassay experiments and in situ decay constants indicated a reactivity continuum for tDOC. CDOM parameters and acid/aldehyde ratios of vanillyl (V) and syringyl (S) lignin phenols showed biomineralization was the dominant mechanism for the removal of tDOC. Characteristic ratios of p-hydroxy (P), S, and V phenols (P/V, S/V) also identified shelf regions in the Kara Sea and regions along the Western Laptev Sea shelf where formation of Low Salinity Halocline Waters (LSHW) and Lower Halocline Water (LHW) occurred. The efficient removal of tDOC demonstrates the importance of Eurasian margins as sinks of tDOC derived from the large Siberian Rivers and confirms tDOC mineralization has a major impact on nutrients budgets, air-sea CO2 exchange, and acidification in the Siberian Shelf Seas.

  17. Source-to-Sink System Evolution as Recorded in Clastic Facies in Two New Zealand Examples: the Bounty System of South Island and the Waipaoa System of North Island (United States)

    Marsaglia, K. M.


    sedimentary budgets in both New Zealand systems is defining the net proportion of dip-fed vs. strike-fed clastic components. The former are supplied directly to the system by coast-perpendicular rivers, and the latter are transported into or out of the system by coast-parallel currents (e.g., longshore, shelf, slope). Tectonic events in the fluvial drainage basin can also have major influences on the supply of sediment to offshore basins. There is evidence for lacustrine sediment traps in each New Zealand system and evidence, in at least one case, that they modified sediment input to the marine part of the system (Bounty Fan).

  18. Selective leaching studies of sediments from a seamount flank in the Central Indian Basin: Resolving hydrothermal, volcanogenic and terrigenous sources using major, trace and rare-earth elements

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas-Pereira, M.B.L.; Nath, B.N.

    with increasing distance from the initial vent source (Mitra et al., 1994; German et al., 2002; Edmonds and German, 2004). Sherrell et al. 15 (1999) contend that in a time scale of plume advection, adsorption reflects near–instanteous equilibrium...

  19. A 30 Ma history of the Amazon River inferred from terrigenous sediments and organic matter on the Ceará Rise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Soelen, E.E.; Kim, J.-H.; Ventura Santos, R.; Dantas, E.L.; Vasconcelos de Almeida, F.; Pinheiro Pires, J.; Roddaz, M.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.


    The history of the Amazon River is a much-discussed subject, and the timing of the development of a transcontinental system in particular is a matter of some controversy, with estimations varying between the Early Miocene and the Pliocene or even the Pleistocene. To shed further light on this, we

  20. Channel Formation in Physical Experiments: Examples from Deep and Shallow Water Clastic Sedimentary Systems (United States)

    Hoyal, D. C.; Sheets, B. A.


    The degree to which experimental sedimentary systems form channels has an important bearing on their applicability as analogs of large-scale natural systems, where channels and their associated landforms are ubiquitous. The internal geometry and properties (e.g., grain size, vertical succession and stacking) of many depositional landforms can be directly linked to the processes of channel initiation and evolution. Unfortunately, strong self-channelization, a prerequisite for certain natural phenomena (e.g. mouth lobe development, meandering, etc.), has been difficult to reproduce at laboratory scales. In shallow-water experiments (sub-aerial), although weak channelization develops relatively easily, as is commonly observed in gutters after a rain storm, strong channelization with well-developed banks has proved difficult to model. In deep water experiments the challenge is even greater. Despite considerable research effort experimental conditions for deep water channel initiation have only recently been identified. Experiments on the requisite conditions for channelization in shallow and deep water have been ongoing at the ExxonMobil Upstream Research Company (EMURC) for several years. By primarily manipulating the cohesiveness of the sediment supply we have developed models of distributive systems with well-defined channels in shallow water, reminiscent of fine grained river-dominated deltas like the Mississippi. In deep water we have developed models that demonstrate strong channelization and associated lobe behavior in a distributive setting, by scaling up an approach developed by another group using salt-water flows and low-density plastic sediment. The experiments highlight a number of important controls on experimental channel formation, including: (1) bed strength or cohesiveness; (2) bedform development; and (3) Reynolds number. Among these controls bed forms disrupt the channel forming instability, reducing the energy available for channelization. The

  1. Recent hydrological variability and extreme precipitation events in Moroccan Middle-Atlas mountains: micro-scale analyses of lacustrine sediments (United States)

    Jouve, Guillaume; Vidal, Laurence; Adallal, Rachid; Bard, Edouard; Benkaddour, Abdel; Chapron, Emmanuel; Courp, Thierry; Dezileau, Laurent; Hébert, Bertil; Rhoujjati, Ali; Simonneau, Anaelle; Sonzogni, Corinne; Sylvestre, Florence; Tachikawa, Kazuyo; Viry, Elisabeth


    Since the 1990s, the Mediterranean basin undergoes an increase in precipitation events and extreme droughts likely to intensify in the XXI century, and whose origin is attributable to human activities since 1850 (IPCC, 2013). Regional climate models indicate a strengthening of flood episodes at the end of the XXI century in Morocco (Tramblay et al, 2012). To understand recent hydrological and paleohydrological variability in North Africa, our study focuses on the macro- and micro-scale analysis of sedimentary sequences from Lake Azigza (Moroccan Middle Atlas Mountains) covering the last few centuries. This lake is relevant since local site monitoring revealed that lake water table levels were correlated with precipitation regime (Adallal R., PhD Thesis in progress). The aim of our study is to distinguish sedimentary facies characteristic of low and high lake levels, in order to reconstruct past dry and wet periods during the last two hundred years. Here, we present results from sedimentological (lithology, grain size, microstructures under thin sections), geochemical (XRF) and physical (radiography) analyses on short sedimentary cores (64 cm long) taken into the deep basin of Lake Azigza (30 meters water depth). Cores have been dated (radionuclides 210Pb, 137Cs, and 14C dating). Two main facies were distinguished: one organic-rich facies composed of wood fragments, several reworked layers and characterized by Mn peaks; and a second facies composed of terrigenous clastic sediments, without wood nor reworked layers, and characterized by Fe, Ti, Si and K peaks. The first facies is interpreted as a high lake level stand. Indeed, the highest paleoshoreline is close to the vegetation, and steeper banks can increase the current velocity, allowing the transport of wood fragments in case of extreme precipitation events. Mn peaks are interpreted as Mn oxides precipitations under well-oxygenated deep waters after runoff events. The second facies is linked to periods of

  2. Predicting Sediment Thickness on Vanished Ocean Crust Since 200 Ma (United States)

    Dutkiewicz, A.; Müller, R. D.; Wang, X.; O'Callaghan, S.; Cannon, J.; Wright, N. M.


    Tracing sedimentation through time on existing and vanished seafloor is imperative for constraining long-term eustasy and for calculating volumes of subducted deep-sea sediments that contribute to global geochemical cycles. We present regression algorithms that incorporate the age of the ocean crust and the mean distance to the nearest passive margin to predict sediment thicknesses and long-term decompacted sedimentation rates since 200 Ma. The mean sediment thickness decreases from ˜220 m at 200 Ma to a minimum of ˜140 m at 130 Ma, reflecting the replacement of old Panthalassic ocean floor with young sediment-poor mid-ocean ridges, followed by an increase to ˜365 m at present-day. This increase reflects the accumulation of sediments on ageing abyssal plains proximal to passive margins, coupled with a decrease in the mean distance of any parcel of ocean crust to the nearest passive margin by over 700 km, and a doubling of the total passive margin length at present-day. Mean long-term sedimentation rates increase from ˜0.5 cm/ky at 160 Ma to over 0.8 cm/ky today, caused by enhanced terrigenous sediment influx along lengthened passive margins, superimposed by the onset of ocean-wide carbonate sedimentation. Our predictive algorithms, coupled to a plate tectonic model, provide a framework for constraining the seafloor sediment-driven eustatic sea-level component, which has grown from ˜80 to 210 m since 120 Ma. This implies a long-term sea-level rise component of 130 m, partly counteracting the contemporaneous increase in ocean basin depth due to progressive crustal ageing.

  3. Sedimentation processes in a coral reef embayment: Hanalei Bay, Kauai (United States)

    Storlazzi, C.D.; Field, M.E.; Bothner, Michael H.; Presto, M.K.; Draut, A.E.


    Oceanographic measurements and sediment samples were collected during the summer of 2006 as part of a multi-year study of coastal circulation and the fate of terrigenous sediment on coral reefs in Hanalei Bay, Kauai. The goal of this study was to better understand sediment dynamics in a coral reef-lined embayment where winds, ocean surface waves, and river floods are important processes. During a summer period that was marked by two wave events and one river flood, we documented significant differences in sediment trap collection rates and the composition, grain size, and magnitude of sediment transported in the bay. Sediment trap collection rates were well correlated with combined wave-current near-bed shear stresses during the non-flood periods but were not correlated during the flood. The flood's delivery of fine-grained sediment to the bay initially caused high turbidity and sediment collection rates off the river mouth but the plume dispersed relatively quickly. Over the next month, the flood deposit was reworked by mild waves and currents and the fine-grained terrestrial sediment was advected around the bay and collected in sediment traps away from the river mouth, long after the turbid surface plume was gone. The reworked flood deposits, due to their longer duration of influence and proximity to the seabed, appear to pose a greater long-term impact to benthic coral reef communities than the flood plumes themselves. The results presented here display how spatial and temporal differences in hydrodynamic processes, which result from variations in reef morphology and orientation, cause substantial variations in the deposition, residence time, resuspension, and advection of both reef-derived and fluvial sediment over relatively short spatial scales in a coral reef embayment.

  4. Preliminary characteristics of laminations in recent sediments from lakes Kamenduł and Perty in the Suwałki Landscape Park, northeastern Poland

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    Tylmann Wojciech


    Full Text Available Varved lake sediments are well known archives used for paleoenvironmental reconstructions. They provide continuous, high-resolution and calendar-year chronologies of past environmental changes. From lakes Kamenduł and Perty, located in the Suwałki Landscape Park, short cores of laminated sediments were collected and investigated using microfacies analysis and X-ray fluorescence (XRF scanning. Sediments of Lake Kamenduł form biogenic (calcite varves with pale lamina containing precipitated calcite and dark lamina composed of mixed organic and clastic material. There is a visible difference between varves in the lower and the topmost part of the core. The varve thickness and clastic material content decrease upcore. Analysed sediments of Lake Perty also show laminated structures which are biogenic varves composed of calcite laminas interbedded with layers of mixed material and dark laminas containing mostly organic material with some clastic particles. Our study shows that further analysis of sediments from these lakes may provide valuable information about past land use changes in their catchments as well as changes in the water column, i.e. mixing regimes and redox conditions.

  5. Lake Sediment Records as an Indicator of Holocene Fluctuations of Quelccaya Ice Cap, Peru and Regional Climate (United States)

    Stroup, J. S.; Kelly, M. A.; Lowell, T. V.; Beal, S. A.; Smith, C. A.; Baranes, H. E.


    The past fluctuations of Quelccaya Ice Cap, (QIC; 13°S, 70°W, 5200 m asl) located in the southeastern Peruvian Andes, provide a record of tropical climate since the last glacial-interglacial transition. A detailed surficial geomorphic record of past glacial extents developed over the last several decades (e.g. Mercer and Palacios 1977; Buffen et al. 2009; Kelly et al. 2012 accepted) demonstrates that QIC is a dynamic glacial system. These records show that the ice cap was larger than present and retreating by ~11,500 yr BP, and smaller than present between ~7,000 and ~4,600 yr BP. The most recent advance occurred during the late Holocene (Little Ice Age;LIA), dated with 10Be surface exposure ages (510±90 yrs (n = 8)) (Stroup et al. in prep.). This overrode earlier deposits obscuring a complete Holocene record; we aim to address the gaps in glacial chronology using the sedimentary record archived in lakes. We retrieved two sets cores (8 and 5 m-long) from Laguna Challpacocha (13.91°S, 70.86°W, 5040 m asl), a lake that currently receives meltwater from QIC. Four radiocarbon ages from the cores suggest a continuous record dating to at least ~10,500 cal. yr BP. Variations in magnetic susceptibility, percent organic and inorganic carbon, bulk density, grayscale and X-ray fluorescence chemistry indicate changes in the amount of clastic sediment deposition. We interpret clastic sediments to have been deposited from ice cap meltwater, thus indicating more extensive ice. Clastic sediments compose the top of the core from 4 to 30 cm depth, below there is a sharp transition to organic sediments radiocarbon dated to (500±30 and 550±20 cal. yr BP). The radiocarbon ages are similar to the 10Be dated (LIA) glacial position. At least three other clastic units exist in the core; dating to ~2600-4300, ~4800-7300 and older then ~10,500 cal. yr BP based on a linear age model with four radiocarbon dates. We obtained two, ~4 m long, cores from Laguna Yanacocha (13.95°S,70.87

  6. A ~20,000 year history of glacial variability in the tropical Andes recorded in lake sediments from the Cordillera Blanca, Peru (United States)

    Stansell, N.; Rodbell, D. T.; Moy, C. M.


    Pro-glacial lake sediments from the Cordillera Blanca, Peru contain continuous records of climate variability spanning the Last Glacial Maximum to present day. Here we present results from two alpine lake basins in the Queshgue Valley (9.8°S, 77.3°W) that contain high-resolution records of clastic sediment deposition for the last ~20,000 years. Radiocarbon-dated sediment cores were scanned at 0.5 to 1.0 cm resolution using a profiling x-ray fluorescence scanner for major and minor element distributions. In addition, we measured down-core variations in magnetic susceptibility, organic carbon, biogenic silica and calcium carbonate. Samples of bedrock and sediments from glacial moraines in the Queshgue watershed were analyzed using an ICP-MS in order to fingerprint and trace the source of glacial sediments deposited in the lakes. The bedrock is dominated by a combination of granodiorite with high Sr concentrations and meta-sedimentary rocks with high Zr values. Because the glacial sediments proximal to the modern glacier terminus are composed mostly of the granodiorite end-member, we interpret changes in Sr and clastic sediment concentrations in the lake sediment profiles as proxies for past glacial variability. Preliminary results indicate that glaciers retreated soon after ~14,500 cal yr BP and remained less extensive during the remaining late Glacial Stage and early Holocene. Gradually increasing clastic sediments through the middle and late Holocene indicate that glaciers became progressively larger, or more erosive towards present day. However, this overall Holocene trend of increasing glacier extent was interrupted by multiple periods of centennial- to millennial-scale ice margin retreat. For example, relative peaks in clastic sediments occurred from ~14,500 to 6000, 5600 to 5000, 4600 to 4200, 3600 to 3200, 2800 to 2700, 2400 to 2200, 1750 to 1550, 1100 to 900 cal yr BP, and during the Little Ice Age (~700 to 50 cal yr BP), while periods of low clastic

  7. Distribution and sources of n-alkanes in surface sediments of Taihu Lake, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Yunlong


    Full Text Available The last study on n-alkanes in surface sediments of Taihu Lake was in 2000, only 13 surface sediment samples were analysed, in order to have a comprehensive and up-to-date understanding of n-alkanes in the surface sediments of Taihu Lake, 41 surface sediment samples were analyzed by GC-MS. C10 to C37 were detected, the total concentrations of n-alkanes ranged from 2109 ng g−1 to 9096 ng g−1 (dry weight. There was strong odd carbon predominance in long chain n-alkanes and even carbon predominance in short chain n-alkanes. When this finding was combined with the analysis results of wax n-alkanes (WaxCn, carbon preference index (CPI, unresolved complex mixture (UCM, hopanes and steranes, it was considered that the long chain n-alkanes were mainly from terrigenous higher plants, and that the short chain n-alkanes mainly originated from bacteria and algae in the lake, compared with previous studies, there were no obvious anthropogenic petrogenic inputs. Terrestrial and aquatic hydrocarbons ratio (TAR and C21−/C25+ indicated that terrigenous input was higher than aquatic sources and the nearshore n-alkanes were mainly from land-derived sources. Moreover, the distribution of short chain n-alkanes presented a relatively uniform pattern, while the long chain n-alkanes presented a trend that concentrations dropped from nearshore places to the middle of lake.

  8. Elemental analysis of sediments and organisms from the Cape Verde abyssal plain (CV 1 and CV 2 sites)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germain, P.; Boust, D.; Sibuet, M.; Philippot, J.C.; Hemon, G.


    Some 20 stable elements were determined by neutron activation analysis in epibenthic organisms and sediments from the Cape Verde abyssal plain. The levels measured in two Plesiopenaeus sp. (shrimp) individuals and one Barathrites sp. (fish) individual are similar to those found in others crustaceans and fish from oceanic and coastal areas. Concentration factors were calculated for the elements whose radioactive isotopes should be considered in the case of subseabed waste disposal ( 90 Sr, 135 Cs, 79 Se). The sediments are biogenous marly oozes. The levels measured reflect the variations of terrigenous inputs since the last glacial maximum 18,000 B.P [fr

  9. Effects of Changing Weather, Oceanographic Conditions, and Land Uses on Spatio-Temporal Variation of Sedimentation Dynamics along Near-Shore Coral Reefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abimarie Otaño-Cruz


    Full Text Available Sedimentation is a critical threat to coral reefs worldwide. Major land use alteration at steep, highly erodible semi-arid islands accelerates the potential of soil erosion, runoff, and sedimentation stress to nearshore coral reefs during extreme rainfall events. The goal of this study was to assess spatio-temporal variation of sedimentation dynamics across nearshore coral reefs as a function of land use patterns, weather and oceanographic dynamics, to identify marine ecosystem conservation strategies. Sediment was collected at a distance gradient from shore at Bahia Tamarindo (BTA and Punta Soldado (PSO coral reefs at Culebra Island, Puerto Rico. Sediment texture and composition were analyzed by dry sieving and loss-on-ignition techniques, and were contrasted with environmental variables for the research period (February 2014 to April 2015. Rainfall and oceanographic data were analyzed to address their potential role on affecting sediment distribution with BEST BIO-ENV, RELATE correlation, and linear regression analysis. A significant difference in sedimentation rate was observed by time and distance from shore (PERMANOVA, p < 0.0100, mostly attributed to higher sediment exposure at reef zones closer to shore due to strong relationships with coastal runoff. Sedimentation rate positively correlated with strong rainfall events (Rho = 0.301, p = 0.0400 associated with storms and rainfall intensity exceeding 15 mm/h. At BTA, sediment deposited were mostly composed of sand, suggesting a potential influence of resuspension produced by waves and swells. In contrast, PSO sediments were mostly composed of silt-clay and terrigenous material, mainly attributed to a deforestation event that occurred at adjacent steep sub-watershed during the study period. Spatial and temporal variation of sedimentation pulses and terrigenous sediment input implies that coral reefs exposure to sediment stress is determined by local land use patterns, weather, and

  10. Mangrove Sedimentation and Response to Relative Sea-Level Rise. (United States)

    Woodroffe, C D; Rogers, K; McKee, K L; Lovelock, C E; Mendelssohn, I A; Saintilan, N


    Mangroves occur on upper intertidal shorelines in the tropics and subtropics. Complex hydrodynamic and salinity conditions, related primarily to elevation and hydroperiod, influence mangrove distributions; this review considers how these distributions change over time. Accumulation rates of allochthonous and autochthonous sediment, both inorganic and organic, vary between and within different settings. Abundant terrigenous sediment can form dynamic mudbanks, and tides redistribute sediment, contrasting with mangrove peat in sediment-starved carbonate settings. Sediments underlying mangroves sequester carbon but also contain paleoenvironmental records of adjustments to past sea-level changes. Radiometric dating indicates long-term sedimentation, whereas measurements made using surface elevation tables and marker horizons provide shorter perspectives, indicating shallow subsurface processes of root growth and substrate autocompaction. Many tropical deltas also experience deep subsidence, which augments relative sea-level rise. The persistence of mangroves implies an ability to cope with moderately high rates of relative sea-level rise. However, many human pressures threaten mangroves, resulting in a continuing decline in their extent throughout the tropics.

  11. Mangrove sedimentation and response to relative sea-level rise (United States)

    Woodroffe, CD; Rogers, K.; Mckee, Karen L.; Lovelock, CE; Mendelssohn, IA; Saintilan, N.


    Mangroves occur on upper intertidal shorelines in the tropics and subtropics. Complex hydrodynamic and salinity conditions influence mangrove distributions, primarily related to elevation and hydroperiod; this review considers how these adjust through time. Accumulation rates of allochthonous and autochthonous sediment, both inorganic and organic, vary between and within different settings. Abundant terrigenous sediment can form dynamic mudbanks; tides redistribute sediment, contrasting with mangrove peat in sediment-starved carbonate settings. Sediments underlying mangroves sequester carbon, but also contain paleoenvironmental records of adjustments to past sea-level changes. Radiometric dating indicates long-term sedimentation, whereas Surface Elevation Table-Marker Horizon measurements (SET-MH) provide shorter perspectives, indicating shallow subsurface processes of root growth and substrate autocompaction. Many tropical deltas also experience deep subsidence, which augments relative sea-level rise. The persistence of mangroves implies an ability to cope with moderately high rates of relative sea-level rise. However, many human pressures threaten mangroves, resulting in continuing decline in their extent throughout the tropics.

  12. Advanced Oil Recovery Technologies for Improved Recovery from Slope Basin Clastic Reservoirs, Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool, Eddy County, NM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Mark B.


    The Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool in Eddy County New Mexico is a cost-shared field demonstration project in the US Department of Energy Class II Program. A major goal of the Class III Program is to stimulate the use of advanced technologies to increase ultimate recovery from slope-basin clastic reservoirs. Advanced characterization techniques are being used at the Nash Draw project to develop reservoir management strategies for optimizing oil recovery from this Delaware reservoir. Analysis, interpretation, and integration of recently acquired geologic, geophysical, and engineering data revealed that the initial reservoir characterization was too simplistic to capture the critical features of this complex formation. Contrary to the initial characterization, a new reservoir description evolved that provided sufficient detail regarding the complexity of the Brushy Canyon interval at Nash Draw. This new reservoir description is being used as a risk reduction tool to identify ''sweet spots'' for a development drilling program as well as to evaluate pressure maintenance strategies. The reservoir characterization, geological modeling, 3-D seismic interpretation, and simulation studies have provided a detailed model of the Brushy Canyon zones. This model was used to predict the success of different reservoir management scenarios and to aid in determining the most favorable combination of targeted drilling, pressure maintenance, well simulation, and well spacing to improve recovery from this reservoir.

  13. Stratigraphic, Structural and Petrophysical Evaluation of borehole images obtained in oil based mud environment from Clastics of Niger Delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogunyemi, T.


    With the advent of oil-base and synthetic muds, drilling risks are substantially reduced and efficiency dramatically increased, but the benefits of borehole imaging devices were lost as it presents a 'brick-wall' and difficult environment that precludes the use of conventional water- base mud microresistivity imaging devices. The introduction of Oil Base Imager tools offers a solution to the situation and even brings additional values. Borehole images integrated with high resolution Magnetic Resonnance data and other open hole logs has been evaluated for stratigraphic, structural and petrophysical applications as well as computing high-resolution sand count. Examples will be discussed in this paper. The sequence studied is clastics with intercalated sand/shale sequences typical of Niger Delta. The use of oil based mud images and open-hole log data helped to further classify the sequence into depositional environments. Generally speaking high-resolution image data presents opportunity for accurate results especially in intercalated sand/shale sequence compare to standard open hole logs. Individual pad resistivity response offer a very high resolution measurement that was used to drive the net pay sand count analysis. This approach has been proven to be helpful in completion decision, providing accurate reservoir parameters for well/field economics and development

  14. Distinguishing Terrestrial Organic Carbon in Marginal Sediments of East China Sea and Northern South China Sea (United States)

    Kandasamy, Selvaraj; Lin, Baozhi; Wang, Huawei; Liu, Qianqian; Liu, Zhifei; Lou, Jiann-Yuh; Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur; Mayer, Lawrence M.


    Knowledge about the sources, transport pathways and behavior of terrestrial organic carbon in continental margins adjoining to large rivers has improved in recent decades, but uncertainties and complications still exist with human-influenced coastal regions in densely populated wet tropics and subtropics. In these regions, the monsoon and other episodic weather events exert strong climatic control on mineral and particulate organic matter delivery to the marginal seas. Here we investigate elemental (TOC, TN and bromine-Br) and stable carbon isotopic (δ13C) compositions of organic matter (OM) in surface sediments and short cores collected from active (SW Taiwan) and passive margin (East China Sea) settings to understand the sources of OM that buried in these settings. We used sedimentary bromine to total organic carbon (Br/TOC) ratios to apportion terrigenous from marine organic matter, and find that Br/TOC may serve as an additional, reliable proxy for sedimentary provenance in both settings. Variations in Br/TOC are consistent with other provenance indicators in responding to short-lived terrigenous inputs. Because diagenetic alteration of Br is insignificant on shorter time scales, applying Br/TOC ratios as a proxy to identify organic matter source along with carbon isotope mixing models may provide additional constraints on the quantity and transformation of terrigenous organics in continental margins. We apply this combination of approaches to land-derived organic matter in different depositional environments of East Asian marginal seas.

  15. Characterization of sediment trapped by macroalgae on a Hawaiian reef flat (United States)

    Stamski, Rebecca E.; Field, Michael E.


    Reef researchers studying community shifts in the balance between corals and fleshy macroalgae have noted that algae are often covered with sediment. This study characterizes sediment trapping by macroalgae within a Hawaiian reef habitat and constrains the controls on this process. Sediment-laden macroalgae were sampled and macroalgal cover was assessed on a wide (˜1 km) reef flat off south-central Molokai. Macroalgae trapped a mean of 1.26 (±0.91 SD) grams of sediment per gram of dry weight biomass and that sediment was dominantly terrigenous mud (59% by weight). It was determined that biomass, as a proxy for algal size, and morphology were not strict controls on the sediment trapping process. Over 300 metric tons of sediment were estimated to be retained by macroalgae across 5.75 km 2 of reef flat (54 g m -2), suggesting that this process is an important component of sediment budgets. In addition, understanding the character of sediment trapped by macroalgae may help constrain suspended sediment flux and has implications for nutrient dynamics in reef flat environments.

  16. Advances in Holocene mountain geomorphology inspired by sediment budget methodology (United States)

    Slaymaker, Olav; Souch, Catherine; Menounos, Brian; Filippelli, Gabriel


    and the bioavailability of phosphorus (a key to ecosystem development) is low. Both examples illustrate the importance of variable sediment sources; the seasonality, frequency, and magnitude of sediment transfers; and the profound influence of ice cover over contemporary, neoglacial and Pleistocene time scales. They also signal the value of including both clastic and dissolved components in the sediment budget.

  17. The Controls of Pore-Throat Structure on Fluid Performance in Tight Clastic Rock Reservoir: A Case from the Upper Triassic of Chang 7 Member, Ordos Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunlong Zhang


    Full Text Available The characteristics of porosity and permeability in tight clastic rock reservoir have significant difference from those in conventional reservoir. The increased exploitation of tight gas and oil requests further understanding of fluid performance in the nanoscale pore-throat network of the tight reservoir. Typical tight sandstone and siltstone samples from Ordos Basin were investigated, and rate-controlled mercury injection capillary pressure (RMICP and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR were employed in this paper, combined with helium porosity and air permeability data, to analyze the impact of pore-throat structure on the storage and seepage capacity of these tight oil reservoirs, revealing the control factors of economic petroleum production. The researches indicate that, in the tight clastic rock reservoir, largest throat is the key control on the permeability and potentially dominates the movable water saturation in the reservoir. The storage capacity of the reservoir consists of effective throat and pore space. Although it has a relatively steady and significant proportion that resulted from the throats, its variation is still dominated by the effective pores. A combination parameter (ε that was established to be as an integrated characteristic of pore-throat structure shows effectively prediction of physical capability for hydrocarbon resource of the tight clastic rock reservoir.

  18. Characteristics of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in the Arctic outflow in Fram Strait: assessing the changes and fate of terrigenous CDOM in the Arctic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granskog, M.A.; Stedmon, Colin; Dodd, P.A.


    Absorption coefficients of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) were measured together with salinity, δ18O, and inorganic nutrients across the Fram Strait. A pronounced CDOM absorption maximum between 30 and 120 m depth was associated with river and sea ice brine enriched water, characteristic...... of the Arctic mixed layer and upper halocline waters in the East Greenland Current (EGC). The lowest CDOM concentrations were found in the Atlantic inflow. We show that the salinity-CDOM relationship is not suitable for evaluating conservative mixing of CDOM. The strong correlation between meteoric water...... and CDOM is indicative of the riverine/terrigenous origin of CDOM in the EGC. Based on CDOM absorption in Polar Water and comparison with an Arctic river discharge weighted mean, we estimate that a 49–59% integrated loss of CDOM absorption across 250–600 nm has occurred. A preferential removal...

  19. Inverse Relationship of Marine Aerosol and Dust in Antarctic Ice with Fine-Grained Sediment in the South Atlantic Ocean: Implications for Sea-Ice Coverage and Wind Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon L. Kanfoush


    Full Text Available This research seeks to test the hypothesis that natural gamma radiation (NGR from Ocean Drilling Program Site 1094, which displays variability over the last glacial-interglacial cycle similar to dust in the Vostok ice core, reflects fine-grained terrigenous sediment delivered by eolian processes. Grain size was measured on 400 samples spanning 0–20 m in a composite core. Accumulation of the <63μ size fraction at Site 1094 and dust in Vostok exhibit a negative correlation, suggesting the fine sediments are not dominantly eolian. However the technique used for grain size measurements cannot distinguish between terrigenous and biogenous materials; therefore it is possible much fine-grained material is diatoms. An inverse correlation between fine sediments and NGR supports this interpretation, and implies terrigenous materials were at times diluted by microfossils from high biological productivity. Fine marine sediments correlate positively with temperature and negatively with marine aerosol Na+ in Vostok. One plausible explanation is extensive sea-ice of cold intervals steepened ocean-continent temperature gradients, intensified winds, and led to increased transport of dust and marine aerosol to Antarctica yet also reduced biological productivity at Site 1094. Such a reduction despite increases in NGR, potentially representing Fe-rich dust influx, would require light limitation or stratification associated with sea-ice.

  20. Paleoclimatic implications of the hydrogen isotopic composition of terrigenous n-alkanes from Lake Yamzho, southern Tibetan Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Zhonghuan; Xu Baiqing; Wu Guangjian; Zhu Liping; Muegler Ines; Gleixner, Gerd; Sachse, Dirk


    The hydrogen isotopic composition (δD) of leaf water used for biosynthesis of n-alkanes can be modified by climate. Therefore, the δD can be considered as potential paleolimatic proxy to explore. We compared measured δD values of alkanes (n-C 25 to n-C 31 ) extracted from a short sediment profile spanning the past 50 years with a 7-year resolution from Lake Yamzho, southern Tibetan Plateau. Climatic control was reconstructed using meteorological records of the nearby Langkazi and Lhasa weather stations. We found that the δD values of the n-alkanes correlated with the mean annular air temperature and significantly correlated with the mean growing season air temperature. On the other hand, the δD values show poor correlations with both rainfall amount and relative humidity. These results indicate that stable isotope composition of n-alkanes could be an excellent proxy for paleotemperature reconstruction. (author)

  1. Geochemical partitioning of lead in biogenic carbonate sediments in a coral reef depositional environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horta-Puga, Guillermo


    The fate of trace elements in reef depositional environments has not been extensively investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the partitioning of Pb in sediments of the Veracruz Reef System, and its relation to local environmental sources. Lead was determined in four geochemical fractions: exchangeable (3.8 ± 0.4 μg g −1 ), carbonate (57.0 ± 13.6 μg g −1 ), organic matter (2.0 ± 0.9 μg g −1 ), and mineral (17.5 ± 5.4 μg g −1 ). For the mineral fraction, lead concentrations were higher in those reefs influenced by river discharge or by long-distance transport of terrigenous sediments. The bioavailable concentration of lead (range: 21.9–85.6 μg g −1 ) indicates that the Veracruz Reef System is a moderately polluted area. As expected, the carbonate fraction contained the highest proportion of Pb (70%), and because the reef framework is largely made up of by biogenic carbonate sediments, hence, it is therefore the most important repository of Pb in coral reef depositional environments. - Highlights: • Lead concentrations were determined in four geochemical fractions of reef sediments. • The carbonate fraction accounted for > 70% of the content of Pb in reef sediments. • Terrigenous sediments are the main source of Pb associated to the mineral fraction. • The Veracruz Reef System is considered a moderately polluted area. • Sediments are the main repositories of lead in coral reef depositional environments.

  2. Cosmogenic He and Ne in chondrules from clastic matrix and a lithic clast of Murchison: No pre-irradiation by the early sun (United States)

    Riebe, My E. I.; Huber, Liliane; Metzler, Knut; Busemann, Henner; Luginbuehl, Stefanie M.; Meier, Matthias M. M.; Maden, Colin; Wieler, Rainer


    Whether or not some meteorites retain a record of irradiation by a large flux of energetic particles from the early sun in the form of excesses of cosmic-ray produced noble gases in individual crystals or single chondrules is a topic of ongoing debate. Here, we present He and Ne isotopic data for individual chondrules in Murchison, a chondritic regolith breccia of the CM group. We separated 27 chondrules from a clastic matrix portion and 26 chondrules from an adjacent single so-called "primary accretionary rock" (Metzler et al., 1992). All chondrules from the primary rock fragment are expected to share a common irradiation history, whereas chondrules from the clastic matrix were stirred in the regolith independently of each other. All "primary rock chondrules" and 23 of the "matrix chondrules" have very similar concentrations of cosmogenic 3He and 21Ne, corresponding to a cosmic-ray exposure age to galactic cosmic rays (GCR) of ∼1.3-1.9 Ma, in the range of Murchison's meteoroid exposure age determined with cosmogenic radionuclides. Four clastic matrix chondrules contain excesses of cosmogenic 3He and 21Ne, corresponding to nominal 4π exposure ages of ∼4-∼29 Ma, with a Ne isotopic composition as expected for production by GCR. If the fraction of excess cosmogenic gas bearing chondrules in the primary rock and clastic matrix were the same, we would expect this result with a statistical probability of only 0.5 - 2.7%. Therefore, the exposure age distributions for Murchison chondrules in primary rock and clastic matrix are very likely different. Such a difference is expected if the excess cosmogenic gas was acquired by some of the matrix chondrules in the regolith, but not if chondrules were irradiated in the solar nebula by the early sun before they accreted on the Murchison parent body. Therefore, Murchison does not provide evidence for irradiation by a high fluence of energetic particles from the early sun. By inference, this statement likely holds for the

  3. Lithology and surficial sediment distribution: northern Hatteras Abyssal Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, S.M.; Laine, E.P.; Friedrich, N.E.


    Surficial sediments of the LLWODP study area E-N3 have several common characteristics and a few anomalous features. All of the 26 surficial samples examined are Holocene in age. In E-N3, the Holocene sequence ranges from 12-90 cm. The sequence is composed primarily of brown foraminiferal lutite. The lutites show evidence of burrowing by benthic animals in the form of burrows infilled with sediment of a different color. Below the bioturbated lutites is a dark brown, iron-enriched horizon stratigraphically near (within a few centimeters of) the Pleistocene/Holocene boundary. The vertical extent of this unit, which ranges from 2-22 cm, varies systematically within the study area. The maximum thickness is found in a region most removed from the terrigenous sediment entry points. Fine-grained turbidity currents, an abyssal current, and a debris flow created the uncommon features of the surficial sediments. The areal extent of these deposits is estimated as 10% of the E-N3 region below 5300 m. The largest turbidite is probably greater than 2000 km 2 in extent. However, evidence of coarse-grained turbidity current activity in the Holocene is absent. Hemipelagic deposition during the Holocene has resulted in a texturally uniform sequence of surficial sediments. 22 references, 10 figures, 6 tables

  4. Sediment characteristics of the 2800 meter Atlantic nuclear waste disposal site: Radionuclide retention potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neiheisel, James


    The sediments of the abandoned 2800 meter Atlantic nuclear waste dumpsite have been analyzed for texture mineral composition, physical properties, cation exchange capacity and factors effecting sediment deposition, as part of an extensive program by the Environmental Protection Agency to evaluate ocean disposal as an alternative nuclear waste disposal method. The sediments physical and chemical properties are evaluated in the light of the geologic setting for their potential role in retarding radionuclide leachate migration from the waste drums to the water column. The sediments are relatively uniform silty clays and clayey silts comprised of approximately one-third biogenous carbonate materials, one-third terrigenous materials and one-third clay minerals. The biogenous materials in the sand and upper silt-size fraction are predominantly foraminifera with minor amounts of diatoms while coccoliths dominate the finer silt and clay size fractions. The terrigenous materials in the course sediment fractions are predominantly quartz and feldspar with minor amounts of mica, glauconite, and heavy minerals. Clay minerals, of the clay-size fraction, in order of abundance, include illite, kaolinite, chlorite and montmorillonite. Relatively high cation exchange capacity in the sediment (15.2-25.4 meq/100g) is attributed to the clay minerals comprising approximately one-third of the sediment. Correspondingly high Kd values might also be expected as a result of sorption of radionuclides onto clay minerals with most favorable conditions related to pH, Eh, and other environmental factors. The biogenous fraction might also be expected to retain some strontium-90 by isomorphous substitution of this radionuclide for calcium. Diagnostic heavy minerals in the sand-size fraction reflect the source areas as predominantly the adjacent continental shelf, and provide important clues concerning the mechanisms effecting transport and deposition of the sediment. Longshore currents along the

  5. Sources of organic carbon in the Portuguese continental shelf sediments during the Holocene period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burdloff, D.; Araujo, M.F.; Jouanneau, J.-M.; Mendes, I.; Monge Soares, A.M.; Dias, J.M.A.


    Organic C (OC) and total N (TN) concentrations, and stable isotope ratios (δ 13 C) in muddy deposit sediments of the Northern and Southern Portuguese continental shelf were used to identify sources of fine-sized organic matter ( 13 C ranging, respectively, from 8.5 to 21 and from -22.4 per mille to -27 per mille ). Intense supplies to the Guadiana continental shelf of fine terrigenous particles during the Younger-Dryas Event are closely linked with higher OC/TN values and lower δ 13 C ratios. During the postglacial transgression phase, an increasing contribution of marine supplies (up to 80%) occurred. Higher δ 13 C (up to -22.4 per mille ) values and low OC/TN ratios (down to 8.5) are found as the sea level approaches the current one. The Upper Holocene records emphasize the return to enhanced terrestrial supplies except for the Little Climatic Optimum between the 11th and 15th centuries AD. This climatic event is especially obvious in the three cores as a return to marine production and a decrease in terrestrial sediment supply to the continental shelf. The return to a cooling event, the Little Ice Age, between the 15th and 19th centuries AD, is mirrored by decreased terrigenous supplies in core KSGX 57. Gradually increasing sedimentation in estuaries, as well as formation of coastal dune fields, have been hypothesized on the basis of increasing δ 13 C and decreasing OC, TN and OC/TN values

  6. Sediment Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhou

    Flow and sediment transport are important in relation to several engineering topics, e.g. erosion around structures, backfilling of dredged channels and nearshore morphological change. The purpose of the present book is to describe both the basic hydrodynamics and the basic sediment transport...... mechanics. Chapter 1 deals with fundamentals in fluid mechanics with emphasis on bed shear stress by currents, while chapter 3 discusses wave boundary layer theory. They are both written with a view to sediment transport. Sediment transport in rivers, cross-shore and longshore are dealt with in chapters 2......, 4 and 5, respectively. It is not the intention of the book to give a broad review of the literature on this very wide topic. The book tries to pick up information which is of engineering importance. An obstacle to the study of sedimentation is the scale effect in model tests. Whenever small...

  7. Multiproxy records of Holocene climate and glacier variability from sediment cores in the Cordillera Vilcabamba of southern Peru (United States)

    Schweinsberg, A. D.; Licciardi, J. M.; Rodbell, D. T.; Stansell, N.; Tapia, P. M.


    Sediments contained in glacier-fed lakes and bogs provide continuous high-resolution records of glacial activity, and preserve multiproxy evidence of Holocene climate change. Tropical glacier fluctuations offer critical insight on regional paleoclimatic trends and controls, however, continuous sediment records of past tropical climates are limited. Recent cosmogenic 10Be surface exposure ages of moraine sequences in the Cordillera Vilcabamba of southern Peru (13°20'S latitude) reveal a glacial culmination during the early Holocene and a less extensive glaciation coincident with the Little Ice Age of the Northern Hemisphere. Here we supplement the existing 10Be moraine chronology with the first continuous records of multiproxy climate data in this mountain range from sediment cores recovered from bogs in direct stratigraphic contact with 10Be-dated moraines. Radiocarbon-dated sedimentological changes in a 2-meter long bog core reveal that the Holocene is characterized by alternating inorganic and organic-rich laminae, suggesting high-frequency climatic variability. Carbon measurements, bulk density, and bulk sedimentation rates are used to derive a record of clastic sediment flux that serves as a proxy indicator of former glacier activity. Preliminary analyses of the bog core reveal approximately 70 diatom taxa that indicate both rheophilic and lentic environments. Initial results show a general decrease in magnetic susceptibility and clastic flux throughout the early to mid-Holocene, which suggests an interval of deglaciation. An episode of high clastic flux from 3.8 to 2.0 ka may reflect a late Holocene glacial readvance. Volcanic glass fragments and an anomalous peak in magnetic susceptibility may correspond to the historical 1600 AD eruption of Huaynaputina. Ten new bog and lake sediment cores were collected during the 2012 field expedition and analytical measurements are underway. Ongoing efforts are focused on analyzing diatom assemblage data, developing

  8. Geochemical element mobility during the history of a Paleo-proterozoic clastic sedimentary basin, the Athabasca Basin (Saskatchewan, Canada)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kister, Philippe


    In order to understand the mechanisms of migration and deposition of ore elements, it is essential to determine the timing, source, and destination of the geochemical element mass transfers and/or transportation on a scale encompassing the great sedimentary basins. The purpose of this study is to trace and to date the element migrations that occurred during the history of a Paleo-proterozoic clastic sedimentary basin, the Athabasca Basin, which hosts the world's largest and richest uranium deposits. As this geological environment was proved to be efficient to preserve high grade ore deposits for over more than one billion years, it provides an opportunity to study some natural analogues of deep geological nuclear waste storage. Five research topics were studied: 3D modelling of the distribution of normative minerals and trace elements on a basin-wide scale; U-Pb and Rb-Sr systematics; average chemical age estimation; thermodynamic modelling of the major mineralogical assemblages; U-Pb geochronology of uranium oxides. Some elements have remained immobile (Zr) since their initial sedimentary deposition, or were transferred from one phase to another (Al, Th). Other elements have been transported during fluid flow events that occurred: (1) on a basin wide scale during diagenesis (REE, Y, Sr, Fe), (2) at the unconformity and in the vicinity of the fault zones that represent preferential fluid flow pathways between the basement and the sandstone cover (U, Ni, As, B, Mg, K, Fe, Sr, REE), (3) during the late fault reactivation events associated with the basin uplift (U, Pb, Ni, S, Sr, REE). The successive tectonic events related to the geodynamical context that lead to the formation of these high-grade U concentrations (1460 Ma, 1335 Ma and 1275 Ma in the McArthur River deposit), did not however systematically occur in the whole basin (1275 Ma only at Shea Creek). The exceptionally high grade and tonnages of some deposits seem to be related to a larger number of U

  9. Uranium Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance in southwestern Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broxton, D.E.


    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory conducted a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance in southwestern Montana from early August to mid-October of 1976. A total of 1240 water and 1933 sediment samples were collected from 1994 locations at a nominal density of one location per 10 km/sup 2/. The water samples were collected from streams, wells, and springs; sediment samples were taken at streams and springs. All samples were analyzed at Los Alamos for total uranium by fluorometry or delayed-neutron counting. The uranium content of water samples ranges from below the detection limit (less than 0.3 ppB) to 45.30 ppB and has a mean value of 1.40 ppB. The uranium content of the sediment samples ranges between 0.20 and 206.80 ppM and averages 6.12 ppM. The chosen uranium anomaly threshold value was 7 ppB for surface waters (streams), 9 ppB for groundwaters (wells and springs), and 25 ppM for all sediment samples. The study area consists of the following lithologic groups: Precambrian basement complex, Precambrian Belt metasediments, Paleozoic and Mesozoic shelf sediments, Cretaceous and early Tertiary volcanic and plutonic rocks, Laramide orogenic clastic sediments, and middle to late Tertiary volcanic rocks and intermontane basin sediments. Most of the anomalous water and sediment samples with well-developed dispersion trains occur in areas underlain by or adjacent to silicic plutonic rocks of the Idaho and Boulder batholiths. These anomalies may indicate the presence of uraniferous veins and pegmatites similar to those already known to exist in the area. Fewer anomalous water samples occur in areas underlain by Precambrian basement complex and Tertiary basin fill.

  10. Uranium Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance in southwestern Montana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broxton, D.E.


    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory conducted a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance in southwestern Montana from early August to mid-October of 1976. A total of 1240 water and 1933 sediment samples were collected from 1994 locations at a nominal density of one location per 10 km 2 . The water samples were collected from streams, wells, and springs; sediment samples were taken at streams and springs. All samples were analyzed at Los Alamos for total uranium by fluorometry or delayed-neutron counting. The uranium content of water samples ranges from below the detection limit (less than 0.3 ppB) to 45.30 ppB and has a mean value of 1.40 ppB. The uranium content of the sediment samples ranges between 0.20 and 206.80 ppM and averages 6.12 ppM. The chosen uranium anomaly threshold value was 7 ppB for surface waters (streams), 9 ppB for groundwaters (wells and springs), and 25 ppM for all sediment samples. The study area consists of the following lithologic groups: Precambrian basement complex, Precambrian Belt metasediments, Paleozoic and Mesozoic shelf sediments, Cretaceous and early Tertiary volcanic and plutonic rocks, Laramide orogenic clastic sediments, and middle to late Tertiary volcanic rocks and intermontane basin sediments. Most of the anomalous water and sediment samples with well-developed dispersion trains occur in areas underlain by or adjacent to silicic plutonic rocks of the Idaho and Boulder batholiths. These anomalies may indicate the presence of uraniferous veins and pegmatites similar to those already known to exist in the area. Fewer anomalous water samples occur in areas underlain by Precambrian basement complex and Tertiary basin fill

  11. Early stages of clastic deposition in the Most Basin (Ohre Rift, Czech Republic, Early Miocene): timing and possible controls

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matys Grygar, Tomáš; Mach, K.; Hošek, Michal; Schnabl, Petr; Martinez, M.; Koubová, M.


    Roč. 92, č. 3 (2017), s. 337-355 ISSN 1214-1119 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-00800S Institutional support: RVO:61388980 ; RVO:67985831 Keywords : cyclostratigraphy * chemostratigraphy * lake sediments * climate forcing * Burdigalian Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry; DB - Geology ; Mineralogy (GLU-S) OBOR OECD: Geology Impact factor: 1.175, year: 2016

  12. Tracing the sources of fine sediment in a nickel mining catchment using fallout and geogenic radionuclides (Thio River, New Caledonia) (United States)

    Evrard, Olivier; Navratil, Oldrich; Lefèvre, Irène; Laceby, J. Patrick; Allenbach, Michel


    Soil erosion and subsequent sediment transfer in rivers are exacerbated in tropical regions exposed to heavy rainfall. In New Caledonia, an island located in the southwestern part of the Southern Pacific Ocean, a significant fraction of this sediment is likely originating from tributaries draining nickel mining sites that are known to increase the terrigenous inputs to the rivers and, potentially to UNESCO World Heritage listed coastal lagoons. However, downstream contributions from these tributaries remain to be quantified. A pilot sediment tracing study has therefore been conducted in the 400-km² Thio River catchment. Fallout and geogenic radionuclides have been measured in sediment deposits collected in potential sources, i.e. (i) tributaries draining mines, (ii) tributaries draining 'natural' areas affected by landslides, and (iii) the main stem of the Thio River. Thorium-228 and Caesium-137 provide the best discrimination between sediment originating from the two tributaries. A distribution modelling approach was used to quantify the relative sediment contributions from these tributaries to the Thio River main stem. Results demonstrate that tributaries draining mining sites supply the majority of sediment (67-84%) to the main river. In the future, the validity of these results obtained on sediment deposits collected in April and May 2015 should be verified over a longer time period by applying a similar approach to sediment cores collected in the Thio river deltaic plain. Once validated, this method will be applicable to other catchments draining mines in New Caledonia to design appropriate measures to limit sediment supply to the lagoon.

  13. Feast to famine: Sediment supply control on Laramide basin fill (United States)

    Carroll, Alan R.; Chetel, Lauren M.; Elliot Smith, M.


    Erosion of Laramide-style uplifts in the western United States exerted an important first-order influence on Paleogene sedimentation by controlling sediment supply rates to adjacent closed basins. During the latest Cretaceous through Paleocene, these uplifts exposed thick intervals of mud-rich Upper Cretaceous foreland basin fill, which was quickly eroded and redeposited. Cretaceous sedimentary lithologies dominate Paleocene conglomerate clast compositions, and the volume of eroded foreland basin strata is approximately twice the volume of preserved Paleocene basin fill. As a result of this sediment oversupply, clastic alluvial and paludal facies dominate Paleocene strata, and are associated with relatively shallow and ephemeral freshwater lake facies. In contrast, large, long-lived, carbonate-producing lakes occupied several of the basins during the Eocene. Basement-derived clasts (granite, quartzite, and other metamorphic rocks) simultaneously became abundant in lower Eocene conglomerate. We propose that Eocene lakes developed primarily due to exposure of erosion-resistant lithologies within cores of Laramide uplifts. The resultant decrease in erosion rate starved adjacent basins of sediment, allowing the widespread and prolonged deposition of organic-rich lacustrine mudstone. These observations suggest that geomorphic evolution of the surrounding landscape should be considered as a potentially important influence on sedimentation in many other interior basins, in addition to more conventionally interpreted tectonic and climatic controls.

  14. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin), Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A.


    The objective of this Class III project was demonstrate that reservoir characterization and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by CO2 flood can increase production from slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico. Phase 1 of the project, reservoir characterization, focused on Geraldine Ford and East Ford fields, which are Delaware Mountain Group fields that produce from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). The demonstration phase of the project was a CO2 flood conducted in East Ford field, which is operated by Orla Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit.

  15. Geochemistry of sediments of the western Canadian continental shelf (United States)

    Macdonald, R. W.; Pedersen, T. F.


    Few chemical data exist for the sedimentary environment off the Canadian west coast. Here we define the chemical nature of the shelf sediments by examining the important sources of material (natural and anthropogenic) to the region and processes relevant to diagenesis. Slightly more data exist for the continental shelf to the south (Washington) and north (Alaska), however it is clear that the sedimentary environment of these neighbouring shelves differs importantly from the Canadian portion. The British Columbia shelf receives little modern terrigenous detritus due mainly to isolation from terrestrial sediment sources by fiords, inland seas, or bypassing by shelf canyons. The chemical state of the sediments depends on the rate of supply of material, the energy of the depositional or erosional environment and the organic and inorganic composition of the material. These features in concert with bottom water characteristics control the redox state. Although no basins hosting continuous depositional records for the Holocene on the open British Columbia shelf have been identified or studied in a manner described by BUCKLEY ( Continental Shelf Research, 11, 1099-1122), some coastal embayments and fiords provide valuable historical records of post-glacial sedimentation. Such environments will prove to be increasingly useful in future studies of changes in regional climate and in establishing the chronology of natural disasters and anthropogenic impacts. Recommendations are given for a variety of research projects that would help us to understand better both chemical interactions at the seabed and Late Quaternary depositional history.

  16. The clay mineral and Sr-Nd isotopic composition for fine-grained fraction of sediments from northwestern South China Sea: implications for sediment provenance (United States)

    Cai, G.


    *Guanqiang Cai Guangzhou Marine Geological Survey, Guangzhou, 510760, P.R. China As the largest marginal sea in the western pacific, the South China Sea (SCS) receives large amount of terrigenous material annually through numerous rivers from surrounding continents and islands, which make it as the good place for the study of source to sink process. Yet few studies put emphasis on the northwestern continental shelf and slope in the SCS, even though most of the detrital materials derived from the Red River and Hainan Island are deposited in this area, and northwestern shelf plays a significant role in directly linking the South China, the Indochina and the South China Sea and thus controlling the source to sink process of terrestrial sediment. We presented the clay mineral and Sr-Nd isotopic composition of fine-grained fraction for sediments from northwestern SCS, in order to identify sediment source and transportation. The results show that the clay mineral of northwestern SCS sediments are mainly illite (30%~59%), smectite (20%~40%) and kaolinite (8%~35%), with minor chlorite. The illite chemical index varies between 0.19 and 0.75 with an average of 0.49, indicating an intensive hydrolysis in the source region. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios of sediments range from 0.716288 to 0.734416 (average of 0.724659), and ɛ Nd(0) values range from -10.31 to -11.62 (average of -10.93), which suggest that the source rocks of these sediments are derived from continental crust. The Hainan Island is an important source for sediments deposited in the nearshore and western shelf, especially for illite, kaolinite and smectite clay minerals. Furthermore, the relatively high contents of kaolinite and smectite in sediments from eastern shelf and southern slope of Hainan Island are also controlled by the supply of terrigenous materials from Hainan, which cannot be resulted from sedimentary differentiation of the Pearl and Red river sediments. And the correlation analysis

  17. Characterization of sediment and sediment cores in harbour and shelf areas from the viewpoint of environmental changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham Duy Hien; Pham Ngoc Chuong; Nguyen Dieu Minh; Nguyen Kien Chinh


    Concentrations of 35 elements in the sediment samples were determined by INAA, RNAA, PGNAA and polarography methods at the Dalat nuclear research reactor. The elemental compositions of the samples have been assesses taking into account the data on mineral compositions and grain size distributions. In general, the trace elements compositions of the collected bottom sediments are still of geochemical origin and rather similar to those of the alluvium (suspended matters) transported by rivers Red and Mekong. The concentrations of some ecologically relevant heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg, Pb, etc.) are more lower than those in some polluted estuaries in industrialized countries. Thus, the obtained data can be considered as a background reference allowing the assessment of any elemental concentration variations of anthropogenic origin in the future. The obtained analytical data shows that the cores drilled out at a distance 120 km from the estuaries of r. Mekong (9 o 34'N, 107 o 52'E) and under 50 m depth of water consist mostly of classic sediments (terrigenous origin). C-14 dating shows a sedimentation rate 0.5 m/1000 y. (author)

  18. Geochemical elements mobility during the history of a paleo-Proterozoic clastic sedimentary basin, the Athabasca Basin (Saskatchewan, Canada)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kister, P.


    In order to understand the mechanisms of migration and deposition of ore elements, it is essential to determine the timing, source, and destination of the geochemical element mass transfers and/or transportation on a scale encompassing the great sedimentary. The purpose of this study was to trace and to date the element migrations that occurred during the history of a Paleo-proterozoic clastic sedimentary basin, the Athabasca Basin, which hosts the world's largest and richest uranium deposits. As this geological environment was proved to be efficient to preserve high grade ore deposits for over more than one billion years, it provides an opportunity to study the mobility of some elements in a context that shows analogies with deep geological nuclear waste disposals. The natural analogies of interest include (i) uranium oxide and spent nuclear fuel; (ii) clay alteration halo and near field barrier, (iii) Athabasca sandstone cover and far-field barrier. Five research axis: (1) 3D modelling of the distribution of the main minerals and of some trace elements (U, Pb, Zr, Th, REE, Y, Rb, Sr) on a basin-wide scale and in the U mineralized zones, using the Gocad software. The models have been compared with detailed mineralogical studies performed on selected samples. (2) Pb-Pb and Rb-Sr systematics by TIMS (3) Mass balance calculation of the average Pb/U ratio at the scale of the deposit to evaluate whether the present day amount of radiogenic lead is sufficient to explain a U deposition in one or several episodes (geostatistical tools on Gocad) (4) Thermodynamic modelling of the mineralogical evolution of the Athabasca basin, considering the main mineral present in the sandstone (Phreeqc and Supcrt softwares) (5) U-Pb geochronology of uranium oxides using a 3 step approach: (i) optical and scanning electron microscopy; (ii) electron microprobe; (iii) ion microprobe (SIMS). The purpose was to study the long term stability of the uranium oxides and to characterise the

  19. Promise and Pitfalls of Using Grain Size Analysis to Identify Glacial Sediments in Alpine Lake Cores. (United States)

    Clark, D. H.


    Lakes fed by glacier outwash should have a clastic particle-size record distinct from non-glacial lakes in the same area, but do they? The unique turquoise color of alpine glacial lakes reflects the flux of suspended clastic glacial rock flour to those lakes; conversely, lakes not fed by outwash are generally clear with sediments dominated by organics or slope-wash from nearby hillslopes. This contrast in sediment types and sources should produce a distinct and measureable different in grain sizes between the two settings. Results from a variety of lakes suggest the actual situation is often more subtle and complex. I compare grain size results to other proxies to assess the value of grain size analysis for paleoglacier studies. Over the past 10 years, my colleagues and I have collected and analyzed sediment cores from a wide variety of lakes below small alpine glaciers in an attempt to constrain the timing and magnitude of alpine glaciation in those basins. The basic concept is that these lakes act as continuous catchments for any rock flour produced upstream by glacier abrasion; as a glacier grows, the flux of rock flour to the lake will also increase. If the glacier disappears entirely, rock flour deposition will also cease in short order. We have focused our research in basins with simple sedimentologic settings: mostly small, high-altitude, stripped granitic or metamorphic cirques in which the cirque glaciers are the primary source of clastic sediments. In most cases, the lakes are fed by meltwater from a modern glacier, but were ice free during the earlier Holocene. In such cases, the lake cores should record formation of and changes in activity of the glacier upstream. We used a Malvern Mastersizer 2000 laser particle size analyzer for our grain size analyses, as well as recording magnetic susceptibility, color, and organics for the same cores. The results indicate that although lakes often experience increases in silt and clay-size (<0.63 mm) clastic

  20. Chronological study of 137Cs input to the Black Sea deep and shelf sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulin, S.B.; Polikarpov, G.G.; Egorov, V.N.; Aarkrog, A.; Nielsen, S.P.


    The chart of the post-Chernobyl 137 Cs distribution in the upper Black Sea sediments was made. The field of sediments with the highest 137 Cs activity was found near the Danube River mouth. The age of sediment layers as well as the sedimentation rates were calculated from 137 Cs vertical profiles in the top of the uncompacted sediments nearby the Danube (11.5 mm yr -1 ), the NW Black Sea slope (2.2 mm yr -1 ) and the deepest western area (0.4 mm yr -1 ). Subsequent assessments showed the high distinction of 137 Cs sedimentary fluxes and inventories between these sites related to different contributions of terrigenous matter in the sediments, as traced by 40 K. The results allow to reconstruct chronology of 137 Cs input to the Black Sea over the last decades. The traced three most notable phases correspond well with the periods of active nuclear weapon testings in the 1950's and 1960's as well as of the Chernobyl NPP accident. The post-Chernobyl dynamics of 137 Cs activity in the near Danube sediments traced from its dated profile was like that observed during the annual monitoring. (author)

  1. Application of advanced reservoir characterization, simulation and production optimization strategies to maximize recovery in slope and basin clastic reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin). Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, S.P.; Asquith, G.B.; Barton, M.D.; Cole, A.G.; Gogas, J.; Malik, M.A.; Clift, S.J.; Guzman, J.I.


    The objective of this project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost-effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. This project involves reservoir characterization of two Late Permian slope and basin clastic reservoirs in the Delaware Basin, West Texas, followed by a field demonstration in one of the fields. The fields being investigated are Geraldine Ford and Ford West fields in Reeves and Culberson Counties, Texas. Project objectives are divided into two major phases, reservoir characterization and implementation. The objectives of the reservoir characterization phase of the project were to provide a detailed understanding of the architecture and heterogeneity of the two fields, the Ford Geraldine unit and Ford West field. Reservoir characterization utilized 3-D seismic data, high-resolution sequence stratigraphy, subsurface field studies, outcrop characterization, and other techniques. Once reservoir characterized was completed, a pilot area of approximately 1 mi{sup 2} at the northern end of the Ford Geraldine unit was chosen for reservoir simulation. This report summarizes the results of the second year of reservoir characterization.

  2. Geochemistry of ferromanganese micronodules and associated Mn and trace metals diagenesis at high terrigenous depositional site of middle fan region, Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O

    The influence of sedimentation on the morphology, growth and geochemistry of the micronodules, and on Mn enrichment in the sediments of the Bay of Bengal has been evaluated. Mn accumulation is 307-219 mg cm u2 kyr u-1 in cores having 20-17 cm kyr u...

  3. The Shale Gas potential of Lower Carboniferous Sediments in Germany (United States)

    Kerschke, D.; Mihailovic, A.; Schulz, H., -M.; Horsfield, B.


    Organic-rich Carboniferous sediments are proven source rocks for conventional gas systems in NW Europe and are likely gas shale candidates. Within the framework of GeoEnergie, an initiative to strengthen scientific excellence, funded by the German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), the influence of palaeogeography and basin dynamics on sedimentology and diagenesis is being investigated. Our aim is to unravel the evolution of shale gas-relevant properties which control gas prospectivity and production parameters like porosity, brittleness, etc. for the Lower Carboniferous in Germany. Northern Germany is underlain by thick, mudstone-bearing Carboniferous successions with a wide range of thermal maturities. Some of these mudstone horizons are rich in organic carbon which is either of marine and/or terrigenous origin. During the Carboniferous deposition of fine-grained, TOC-rich basinal sediments changed into shallow marine to paralic siliciclastic sediments (carbonates during the Lower Carboniferous) in the north, and grade into coarse-grained sediments close to the uprising Variscan mountains in the south. As a result different architectural elements including TOC-rich fine-grained sediments like basinal shales, fine-grained parts of turbidites, and shallow marine mudstones occur in both the Lower and the Upper Carboniferous section. A high shale gas potential occurs in basinal shales of Namurian age with marine organic material and TOC contents of up to 8 % (Rhenish Alum Shales). Such sediments with thermal maturities between 1.3 to 3.0 % vitrinite reflectance and sufficient quartz contents occur in wide areas of present-day Central European Basins System (CEBS), and are at favourable depth for shale gas exploration predominantly along the southern CEBS margin.

  4. Spatial variability in the abundance, composition, and age of organic matter in surficial sediments of the East China Sea (United States)

    Wu, Ying; Eglinton, Timothy; Yang, Liyang; Deng, Bing; Montluçon, Daniel; Zhang, Jing


    the sources and fate of organic matter (OM) sequestered in continental margin sediments is of importance because the mode and efficiency of OM burial impact the carbon cycle and the regulation of atmospheric CO2 over long time scales. We carried out molecular (lignin-derived phenols from CuO oxidation), elemental, isotopic (δ13C, Δ14C), and sedimentological (grain size and mineral surface area) analyses in order to examine spatial variability in the abundance, source, age of surface sediments of the East China Sea. Higher terrigenous organic matter values were found in the main accumulating areas of fluvial sediments, including the Changjiang (Yangtze) Estuary and Zhejiang-Fujian coastal zone. Isotopic and biomarker data suggest that the sedimentary OM in the inner shelf region was dominated by aged (Δ14C = -423 ± 42‰) but relatively lignin-rich OM (Λ = 0.94 ± 0.57 mg/100 mg OC) associated with fine-grained sediments, suggesting important contributions from soils. In contrast, samples from the outer shelf, while of similar age (Δ14 C = -450 ± 99‰), are lignin poor (Λ = 0.25 ± 0.14 mg/100 mg OC) and associated with coarse-grained material. Regional variation of lignin phenols and OM ages indicates that OM content is fundamentally controlled by hydrodynamic sorting (especially, sediment redistribution and winnowing) and in situ primary production. Selective sorption of acid to aldehyde in clay fraction also modified the ratios of lignin phenols. The burial of lignin in East China Sea is estimated to be relatively efficient, possibly as a consequence of terrigenous OM recalcitrance and/or relatively high sedimentation rates in the Changjiang Estuary and the adjacent Zhejing-Fujian mud belt.

  5. Gamma spectrometry for chronology of recent sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pittauerova, Daniela


    This thesis deals with several aspects of gamma spectrometric analysis of natural and artificial isotopes in sediments and their use as tracers for qualification and quantification of accumulation and mixing processes in different aquatic environments. Sediment cores from three distinct areas including terrigenous sediments deposited on the continental slope off NW Africa, deep sea sediments off Sumba Island and five stations from the Gulf of Eilat in the Red Sea area were measured and interpreted within this dissertation. The main concern in gamma spectrometry of voluminous environmental samples is a reliable efficiency calibration. This is specially relevant for the analysis of low energy gamma emitters (<100 keV). 210 Pb, an important isotopic tracer to cover the period of the last century, is one of them. Within this work mathematical efficiency calibration was applied using a commercial software package. A series of validation tests was performed and evaluated for point and voluminous samples. When using 210 Pb as a tracer it is necessary to determine its excess portion, which is not supported by ingrowth from the parent nuclide 226 Ra. Its analysis is mostly performed via short lived daughter isotopes that follow after the intermediate gaseous member 222 Rn. Preventing the escape of radon from the sample is a critical step before analysis due to a negative effect of supported 210 Pb underestimation on the chronology, which was also documented in this thesis. Time series registering ingrowth of 214 Pb and 214 Bi towards radioactive equilibrium with 226 Ra in different containers were evaluated for analyses of 226 Ra. Direct analyses of 226 Ra was compared to its detection via daughter products. A method for aligning parallel radionuclide depth profiles was described and applied successfully in two case studies from the continental slope off NW Africa and off Sumba Island, Indonesia. This is primarily important when combined profiles obtained from short

  6. Gamma spectrometry for chronology of recent sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pittauerova, Daniela


    This thesis deals with several aspects of gamma spectrometric analysis of natural and artificial isotopes in sediments and their use as tracers for qualification and quantification of accumulation and mixing processes in different aquatic environments. Sediment cores from three distinct areas including terrigenous sediments deposited on the continental slope off NW Africa, deep sea sediments off Sumba Island and five stations from the Gulf of Eilat in the Red Sea area were measured and interpreted within this dissertation. The main concern in gamma spectrometry of voluminous environmental samples is a reliable efficiency calibration. This is specially relevant for the analysis of low energy gamma emitters (<100 keV). {sup 210}Pb, an important isotopic tracer to cover the period of the last century, is one of them. Within this work mathematical efficiency calibration was applied using a commercial software package. A series of validation tests was performed and evaluated for point and voluminous samples. When using {sup 210}Pb as a tracer it is necessary to determine its excess portion, which is not supported by ingrowth from the parent nuclide {sup 226}Ra. Its analysis is mostly performed via short lived daughter isotopes that follow after the intermediate gaseous member {sup 222}Rn. Preventing the escape of radon from the sample is a critical step before analysis due to a negative effect of supported {sup 210}Pb underestimation on the chronology, which was also documented in this thesis. Time series registering ingrowth of {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi towards radioactive equilibrium with {sup 226}Ra in different containers were evaluated for analyses of {sup 226}Ra. Direct analyses of {sup 226}Ra was compared to its detection via daughter products. A method for aligning parallel radionuclide depth profiles was described and applied successfully in two case studies from the continental slope off NW Africa and off Sumba Island, Indonesia. This is primarily important

  7. Molecular Indicators of the Supply of Marine and Terrigenous Organic Matter to a Pleistocene Organic-Matter–Rich Layer in the Alboran Basin (Western Mediterranean Sea)


    Rinna, J.; Hauschildt, M.; Rullkötter, J.


    The organic matter in sediment series across two organic-matter–rich layers from Ocean Drilling Program Hole 977A drilled in the Alboran Basin of the Western Mediterranean Sea has been characterized by organic geochemical methods. Organic carbon contents reached more than 2% in the organic-matter–rich layer and was ~1% in the background sediment under and overlying it. Molecular compositions of the extractable bitumens in the organic-matter–rich layer for a wide range of compound ...

  8. Sediments in Arctic sea ice: Implications for entrainment, transport and release (United States)

    Nurnberg, D.; Wollenburg, I.; Dethleff, D.; Eicken, H.; Kassens, H.; Letzig, T.; Reimnitz, E.; Thiede, Jorn


    Despite the Arctic sea ice cover's recognized sensitivity to environmental change, the role of sediment inclusions in lowering ice albedo and affecting ice ablation is poorly understood. Sea ice sediment inclusions were studied in the central Arctic Ocean during the Arctic 91 expedition and in the Laptev Sea (East Siberian Arctic Region Expedition 1992). Results from these investigations are here combined with previous studies performed in major areas of ice ablation and the southern central Arctic Ocean. This study documents the regional distribution and composition of particle-laden ice, investigates and evaluates processes by which sediment is incorporated into the ice cover, and identifies transport paths and probable depositional centers for the released sediment. In April 1992, sea ice in the Laptev Sea was relatively clean. The sediment occasionally observed was distributed diffusely over the entire ice column, forming turbid ice. Observations indicate that frazil and anchor ice formation occurring in a large coastal polynya provide a main mechanism for sediment entrainment. In the central Arctic Ocean sediments are concentrated in layers within or at the surface of ice floes due to melting and refreezing processes. The surface sediment accumulation in central Arctic multi-year sea ice exceeds by far the amounts observed in first-year ice from the Laptev Sea in April 1992. Sea ice sediments are generally fine grained, although coarse sediments and stones up to 5 cm in diameter are observed. Component analysis indicates that quartz and clay minerals are the main terrigenous sediment particles. The biogenous components, namely shells of pelecypods and benthic foraminiferal tests, point to a shallow, benthic, marine source area. Apparently, sediment inclusions were resuspended from shelf areas before and incorporated into the sea ice by suspension freezing. Clay mineralogy of ice-rafted sediments provides information on potential source areas. A smectite

  9. Application of advanced reservoir characterization, simulation, and production optimization strategies to maximize recovery in slope and basin clastic reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin), Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A.; Zirczy, Helena H.


    The objective of this Class 3 project was to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. Phase 1 of the project, reservoir characterization, was completed this year, and Phase 2 began. The project is focused on East Ford field, a representative Delaware Mountain Group field that produces from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). The field, discovered in 1960, is operated by Oral Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit. A CO{sub 2} flood is being conducted in the unit, and this flood is the Phase 2 demonstration for the project.

  10. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin), Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A.; Mendez, Daniel L.


    The objective of this Class 3 project was demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstone's of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover oil more economically through geologically based field development. This project was focused on East Ford field, a Delaware Mountain Group field that produced from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). The field, discovered in 9160, is operated by Oral Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit. A CO2 flood was being conducted in the unit, and this flood is the Phase 2 demonstration for the project.

  11. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutton, Shirley


    The objective of this Class 3 project was demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. Project objectives are divided into two main phases. The original objectives of the reservoir-characterization phase of the project were (1) to provide a detailed understanding of the architecture and heterogeneity of two representative fields of the Delaware Mountain Group, Geraldine Ford and Ford West, which produce from the Bell Canyon and Cherry Canyon Formations, respectively, (2) to chose a demonstration area in one of the fields, and (3) to simulate a CO 2 flood in the demonstration area

  12. Paleoclimate of Quaternary Costa Rica: Analysis of Sediment from ODP Site 1242 in the Eastern Tropical Pacific to Explore the Behavior of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and Oceanic Circulation (United States)

    Buczek, C. R.; Joseph, L. H.


    Studies of grain size, magnetic fabric, and terrigenous mass accumulation rates (MAR) on oceanic sediment can provide insights into climatic conditions present at or near the time of deposition by helping to delineate changes in rainfall and oceanic circulation intensities. The fairly homogenous hemipelagic nannofossil clays and clayey nannofossil oozes collected in the upper portion of Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1242 provide a 1.4 million year sediment record from the Cocos Ridge, in relatively shallow waters of the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean, off the coast of present day Central and South America. Information about shifts in rainfall and oceanic circulation provided by this study may be helpful in understanding changes in the location and behavior of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), and/or other climatic factors, in this area during the Pleistocene and Holocene Epochs. Approximately 130 paired side-by-side samples were selected at approximately evenly spaced intervals throughout the uppermost 190 mcd of the core. To obtain terrigenous grain size and MARs, one set of sediment samples was subject to a five-step chemical extraction process to dissolve any oxy-hydroxy coatings, remove the biogenic carbonate and silicate components, and sieve out grains larger than 63 µm. The pre- and post-extraction weights were compared to calculate a terrigenous weight percent (%) from which the terrigenous MAR values were then calculated, with the use of linear sediment rates and dry bulk density measurements determined from shipboard ODP 1242 analyses. Magnetic fabric, or anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS), was analyzed on a KLY4S-Kappabridge using the second set of samples taken in pmag cubes. Terrigenous MAR values range between 3.1 and 10.9 g/cm2/kyr, while P' (AMS) values range between 1.004 and 1.04 SI. A distinctive trend is noted in both factors, with both exhibiting relatively high initial values that then decrease from the beginning of the

  13. Varves in lake sediments - a review (United States)

    Zolitschka, Bernd; Francus, Pierre; Ojala, Antti E. K.; Schimmelmann, Arndt


    Downcore counting of laminations in varved sediments offers a direct and incremental dating technique for high-resolution climatic and environmental archives with at least annual and sometimes even seasonal resolution. The pioneering definition of varves by De Geer (1912) had been restricted to rhythmically deposited proglacial clays. One century later the meaning of 'varve' has been expanded to include all annually deposited laminae in terrestrial and marine settings. Under favourable basin configurations and environmental conditions, limnic varves are formed due to seasonality of depositional processes from the lake's water column and/or transport from the catchment area. Subsequent to deposition of topmost laminae, the physical preservation of the accumulating varved sequence requires the sustained absence of sediment mixing, for example via wave action or macrobenthic bioturbation. Individual (sub)laminae in varved lake sediments typically express contrasting colours, always differ in terms of their organic, chemical and/or mineralogical compositions, and often also differ with regard to grain-size. Various predominating climatic and depositional conditions may result in clastic, biogenic or endogenic (incl. evaporitic) varved sediments and their mixtures. To reliably establish a varve chronology, the annual character of laminations needs to be determined and verified in a multidisciplinary fashion. Sources and influences of possible errors in varve chronologies are best determined and constrained by repeated varve counts, and by including radioisotopes and correlation with historically documented events. A well-established varve chronology greatly enhances the scientific value of laminated limnic archives by securely anchoring the wealth of multi-proxy palaeoenvironmental information in the form of time-series for multidisciplinary investigations. Applications of varved records are discussed with special reference to advances since the 1980s. These span fields

  14. Ecological and taphonomical influences on coccoliths in surface sediments in the shelf of the Yellow and East China Seas (United States)

    Jin, Xiaobo; Liu, Chuanlian


    Coccoliths, combined with sediment grain size, carbonate calcium and organic matters content, were analyzed to assess the ecological and taphonomical influences on coccolith distribution patterns in surface sediments in the continental shelf of the Yellow and East China Seas. Coccolith abundances ranged from 0 to 2.08×109 coccoliths g-1 sediment. The increasing abundance from the coastal inner shelf to the seaward middle shelf generally reflects the ecological fact that living coccolithophores are more abundant in the mesotrophic shelf waters than in the eutrophic coastal waters, although their deposits are still controlled by taphonomical effects, such as bottom (tidal) currents and calcite preservation conditions. Most abundant coccoliths are found in the fine-grained sediments of southwestern Cheju Island, where both ecology and taphonomy favor coccolith preservation. Still, large densities of coccoliths (>108 coccoliths g-1 sediment) are also found in coarse-grained relict sediments in the middle shelf. Coccolith assemblages were predominated by Gephyrocapsa oceanica and Emiliania huxleyi. The relative abundance of E. huxleyi, in addition to ecological reasons, may relate to selective post-mortem dissolution, since small E. huxleyi coccoliths are more susceptible to dissolution. Coccolith calcite has minor contributions (<1% to 12%) to total sediment CaCO3, and the main parts are attributed to terrigenous CaCO3 debris and relict shell fragments.

  15. Environmental controls on photosynthetic microbial mat distribution and morphogenesis on a 3.42 Ga clastic-starved platform. (United States)

    Tice, Michael M


    Three morphotypes of microbial mats are preserved in rocks deposited in shallow-water facies of the 3.42 Ga Buck Reef chert (BRC). Morphotype alpha consists of fine anastomosing and bifurcating carbonaceous laminations, which loosely drape underlying detrital grains or form silica-filled lenses. Morphotype beta consists of meshes of fine carbonaceous strands intergrown with detrital grains and dark laminations, which loosely drape coarse detrital grains. Morphotype gamma consists of fine, even carbonaceous laminations that tightly drape underlying detrital grains. Preservation of nearly uncompacted mat morphologies and detrital grains deposited during mat growth within a well-characterized sedimentary unit makes quantitative correlation between morphology and paleoenvironment possible. All mats are preserved in the shallowest-water interval of those rocks deposited below normal wave base and above storm wave base. This interval is bounded below by a transgressive lag formed during regional flooding and above by a small condensed section that marks a local relative sea-level maximum. Restriction of all mat morphotypes to the shallowest interval of the storm-active layer in the BRC ocean reinforces previous interpretations that these mats were constructed primarily by photosynthetic organisms. Morphotypes alpha and beta dominate the lower half of this interval and grew during deposition of relatively coarse detrital carbonaceous grains, while morphotype gamma dominates the upper half and grew during deposition of fine detrital carbonaceous grains. The observed mat distribution suggests that either light intensity or, more likely, small variations in ambient current energy acted as a first-order control on mat morphotype distribution. These results demonstrate significant environmental control on biological morphogenetic processes independent of influences from siliciclastic sedimentation.

  16. Provenance and tectonic setting of the Neoproterozoic clastic rocks hosting the Banana Zone Cu-Ag mineralisation, northwest Botswana (United States)

    Kelepile, Tebogo; Bineli Betsi, Thierry; Franchi, Fulvio; Shemang, Elisha; Suh, Cheo Emmanuel


    Petrographic and geochemical data were combined in order to decipher the petrogenesis of the Neoproterozoic sedimentary succession associated with the Banana Zone Cu-Ag mineralisation (northwest Botswana), in the Kalahari Copperbelt. The investigated Neoproterozoic sedimentary succession is composed of two formations including the Ngwako Pan and the D'kar Formations. The Ngwako Pan Formation is made up of continental siliciclastic sediments, mainly sandstones interbedded with siltstones and mudstones, whereas the D'kar Formation is comprised of shallow marine laminated siltstones, sandstones and mudstones, with subordinate limestone. Copper-Ag mineralisation is essentially confined at the base of the D'kar Formation, which bears reduced organic components, likely to have controlled Cu-Ag precipitation. Sandstones of both the Ngwako Pan and the D'kar Formations are arkoses and subarkoses, composed of quartz (Q), feldspars (F) and lithic fragments (L). Moreover, geochemically the sandstones are considered as potassic and classified as arkoses. On the other hand, mudrocks of the D'kar Formation are finely laminated and are dominated by muscovite, sericite, chlorite and quartz. The modified chemical index of weathering (CIW‧) values indicated an intense chemical weathering of the source rock. The dominance of detrital quartz and feldspar grains coupled with Al2O3/TiO2 ratios (average 29.67 and 24.52 for Ngwako Pan and D'kar Formations, respectively) and Ni and Cr depletion in the sandstones, suggest a dominant felsic source. However, high concentrations of Ni and Cr and a low Al2O3/TiO2 ratio (block and deposited in a continental rift setting (passive margin) in a humid environment. The source rocks might have been the Palaeoproterozoic basement rocks (granitoids and granitic gneiss) and the Mesoproterozoic Kgwebe volcanic rocks exposed north of the study area.

  17. Geochemical characteristics of Holocene laminated sapropel (unit II) and underlying lacustrine unit III in the Black Sea (United States)

    Dean, Walter E.; Arthur, Michael A.


    eg 1 of the 1988 R/V Knorr expeditions to the Black Sea recovered 90 gravity and box cores. The longest recovery by gravity cores was about 3 meters, with an average of about 2.5 meters, recovering all of the Holocene and upper Pleistocene sections in the Black Sea. During the latest Pleistocene glaciation, sea level dropped below the 35-meters-deep Bosporus outlet sill of the Black Sea. Therefore throughout most of its history the Black Sea was a lake, and most of its sediments are lacustrine. The oldest sediments recovered (older than 8,000 calendar years) consist of massive to coarsely banded lacustrine calcareous clay designated as lithologic Unit III, generally containing less than 1 percent organic carbon (OC). The base of overlying Unit II marks the first incursion of Mediterranean seawater into the Black Sea, and the onset of bottom-water anoxia about 7,900 calendar years. Unit II contains as much as 15 percent OC in cores from the deepest part of the Black Sea (2,200 meters). The calcium carbonate (CaCO3) remains of the coccolith Emiliania huxleyi form the distinctive white laminae of overlying Unit I. The composition of Unit III and Unit II sediments are quite different, reflecting different terrigenous clastic sources and increased contributions from hydrogenous and biogenic components in anoxic Unit II sapropel. In Unit II, positive covariance between OC and three trace elements commonly concentrated in OC-rich sediments where sulfate reduction has occurred (molybdenum, nickel, and vanadium) and a nutrient (phosphorus) suggest a large marine source for these elements although nickel and vanadium also have a large terrigenous clastic source. The marine sources may be biogenic or hydrogenous. A large biogenic source is also suggested for copper and cobalt. Because abundant pyrite forms in the water column and sediments of the Black Sea, we expected to find a large hydrogenous iron component, but a strong covariance of iron with aluminum suggests that the

  18. Fate of terrigenous organic matter across the Laptev Sea from the mouth of the Lena River to the deep sea of the Arctic interior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bröder, Lisa; Tesi, Tommaso; Salvadó, Joan A.; Semiletov, Igor P.; Dudarev, Oleg V.; Gustafsson, Orjan


    Ongoing global warming in high latitudes may cause an increasing supply of permafrost-derived organic carbon through both river discharge and coastal erosion to the Arctic shelves. Mobilized permafrost carbon can be either buried in sediments, transported to the deep sea or degraded to CO2 and

  19. Biological productivity, terrigenous influence and noncrustal elements supply to the Central Indian Ocean Basin: Paleoceanography during the past approx. 1 Ma

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pattan, J.N.; Masuzawa, T.; Borole, D.V.; Parthiban, G.; Jauhari, P.; Yamamoto, M.

    A 2 m-long sediment core from the siliceous ooze domain in the Central Indian Ocean Basin (CIOB; 13 degrees 03'S: 74 degrees 44'E; water depth 5099 m) is studied for calcium carbonate, total organic carbon, total nitrogen, biogenic opal, major...

  20. Chemistry of marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yen, T.F.


    Some topics considered are as follows: characterization of sediments in the vicinity of offshore petroleum production; thermal alteration experiments on organic matter in recent marine sediments as a model for petroleum genesis; composition of polluted bottom sediments in Great Lakes harbors; distribution of heavy metals in sediment fractions; recent deposition of lead off the coast of southern California; release of trace constituents from sediments resuspended during dredging operations; and migration of chemical constituents in sediment-seawater interfaces

  1. Distribution and behavior of major and trace elements in Tokyo Bay, Mutsu Bay and Funka Bay marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Teruyuki; Kimura, Ken-ichiro


    Fourteen major and trace elements in marine sediment core samples collected from the coasts along eastern Japan, i.e. Tokyo Bay (II) (the recess), Tokyo Bay (IV) (the mouth), Mutsu Bay and Funka Bay and the Northwest Pacific basin as a comparative subject were determined by the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The sedimentation rates and sedimentary ages were calculated for the coastal sediment cores by the 210 Pb method. The results obtained in this study are summarized as follows: (1) Lanthanoid abundance patterns suggested that the major origin of the sediments was terrigenous material. La*/Lu* and Ce*/La* ratios revealed that the sediments from Tokyo Bay (II) and Mutsu Bay more directly reflected the contribution from river than those of other regions. In addition, the Th/Sc ratio indicated that the coastal sediments mainly originated in the materials from the volcanic island-arcs, Japanese islands, whereas those from the Northwest Pacific mainly from the continent. (2) The correlation between the Ce/U and Th/U ratios with high correlation coefficients of 0.920 to 0.991 indicated that all the sediments from Tokyo Bay (II) and Funka Bay were in reducing conditions while at least the upper sediments from Tokyo Bay (IV) and Mutsu Bay were in oxidizing conditions. (3) It became quite obvious that the sedimentation mechanism and the sedimentation environment at Tokyo Bay (II) was different from those at Tokyo Bay (IV), since the sedimentation rate at Tokyo Bay (II) was approximately twice as large as that at Tokyo Bay (IV). The sedimentary age of the 5th layer (8∼10 cm in depth) from Funka Bay was calculated at approximately 1940∼50, which agreed with the time, 1943∼45 when Showa-shinzan was formed by the eruption of the Usu volcano. (author)

  2. DEEP BIOSPHERE. Exploring deep microbial life in coal-bearing sediment down to ~2.5 km below the ocean floor. (United States)

    Inagaki, F; Hinrichs, K-U; Kubo, Y; Bowles, M W; Heuer, V B; Hong, W-L; Hoshino, T; Ijiri, A; Imachi, H; Ito, M; Kaneko, M; Lever, M A; Lin, Y-S; Methé, B A; Morita, S; Morono, Y; Tanikawa, W; Bihan, M; Bowden, S A; Elvert, M; Glombitza, C; Gross, D; Harrington, G J; Hori, T; Li, K; Limmer, D; Liu, C-H; Murayama, M; Ohkouchi, N; Ono, S; Park, Y-S; Phillips, S C; Prieto-Mollar, X; Purkey, M; Riedinger, N; Sanada, Y; Sauvage, J; Snyder, G; Susilawati, R; Takano, Y; Tasumi, E; Terada, T; Tomaru, H; Trembath-Reichert, E; Wang, D T; Yamada, Y


    Microbial life inhabits deeply buried marine sediments, but the extent of this vast ecosystem remains poorly constrained. Here we provide evidence for the existence of microbial communities in ~40° to 60°C sediment associated with lignite coal beds at ~1.5 to 2.5 km below the seafloor in the Pacific Ocean off Japan. Microbial methanogenesis was indicated by the isotopic compositions of methane and carbon dioxide, biomarkers, cultivation data, and gas compositions. Concentrations of indigenous microbial cells below 1.5 km ranged from <10 to ~10(4) cells cm(-3). Peak concentrations occurred in lignite layers, where communities differed markedly from shallower subseafloor communities and instead resembled organotrophic communities in forest soils. This suggests that terrigenous sediments retain indigenous community members tens of millions of years after burial in the seabed. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  3. The distribution and partitioning of common antibiotics in water and sediment of the Pearl River Estuary, South China. (United States)

    Liang, Ximei; Chen, Baowei; Nie, Xiangping; Shi, Zhen; Huang, Xiaoping; Li, Xiangdong


    Antibiotics released into the aquatic environment play an important role in the spread of antibiotic resistance. In the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) and the coastal zone, the concentrations of antibiotics decreased from the Pearl River to the estuary, suggesting that antibiotics primarily originated from river tributaries and terrigenous sources. Within the PRE area, the concentrations of antibiotics in water were higher in the west coast than the east side, reflecting the high density of anthropogenic activities and hydraulic conditions along the west riverbank. Seasonal variations were also observed for most of detected antibiotics in water. The pseudo-partitioning coefficient of norfloxacin had a good correlation with the TOC content of sediments, as did erythromycin-H2O with the pH of water. The results suggest that environmental conditions can significantly affect the distribution of antibiotics between water and sediment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Distribution of branched GDGTs in surface sediments from the Colville River, Alaska: Implications for the MBT'/CBT paleothermometer in Arctic marine sediments (United States)

    Hanna, Andrea J. M.; Shanahan, Timothy M.; Allison, Mead A.


    Significant climate fluctuations in the Arctic over the recent past, and additional predicted future temperature changes, highlight the need for high-resolution Arctic paleoclimate records. Arctic coastal environments supplied with terrigenous sediment from Arctic rivers have the potential to provide annual to subdecadal resolution records of climate variability over the last few millennia. A potential tool for paleotemperature reconstructions in these marine sediments is the revised methylation index of branched tetraethers (MBT')/cyclization ratio of branched tetraethers (CBT) proxy based on branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs). In this study, we examine the source of brGDGTs in the Colville River, Alaska, and the adjacent Simpson Lagoon and reconstruct temperatures from Simpson Lagoon sediments to evaluate the applicability of this proxy in Arctic estuarine environments. The Colville catchment soils, fluvial sediments, and estuarine sediments contain statistically similar brGDGT distributions, indicating that the brGDGTs throughout the system are soil derived with little alteration from in situ brGDGT production in the river or coastal waters. Temperatures reconstructed from the MBT'/CBT indices for surface samples show good agreement with regional summer (June through September) temperatures, suggesting a seasonal bias in Arctic temperature reconstructions from the Colville system. In addition, we reconstruct paleotemperatures from an estuarine sediment core that spans the last 75 years, revealing an overall warming trend in the twentieth century that is consistent with trends observed in regional instrumental records. These results support the application of this brGDGT-based paleotemperature proxy for subdecadal-scale summer temperature reconstructions in Arctic estuaries containing organic material derived from sediment-laden, episodic rivers.

  5. Origin and geochemical behavior of uranium in marine sediments. Utilization of the 234U/238U ratio in marine geochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organo, Catherine


    The first part of this thesis presents the current situation of knowledge of uranium in marine environment. The second part describes the methods of analysis as well as the material support of the study, i.e., the sediments and marine deposits investigated. The third part is dedicated to the study of uranium mobility in marine sediments characterized by detrital terrigenous composition (pelagic clays). This approach allowed quantifying the entering and leaving flux of uranium after the sediment settling and, to discuss, on this basis, the consequences on the uranium oceanic balance. In the third part the origin and behavior of uranium in zones of high surface productivity is studied. The uranium enrichments observed in the hemi-pelagic sediments of the EUMELI (J.G.O.F.S.-France) programme will constitute a material of study adequate for measuring the variations in the 234 U/2 38U ratio in solid phase, in response to the oxido-reducing characteristics of the sediment. Thus establishing the origin of the trapped uranium has been possible. Also, the nature of the sedimentary phases related to uranium in bio-genetic sediments in the Austral Ocean was determined. Thus a relationship between the variations in the 234 U/ 238 and the diagenetic transformations was possible to establish. Finally in the fifth part a study of the behavior of uranium in a polymetallic shell characteristic for deposits of hydrogenized origin

  6. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, S.P.; Flanders, W.A.; Guzman, J.I.; Zirczy, H.


    The objective of this Class III project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost-effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through geologically based field development. This year the project focused on reservoir characterization of the East Ford unit, a representative Delaware Mountain Group field that produces from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey Sandstone). The field, discovered in 1960, is operated by Orla Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit; it contained an estimated 19.8 million barrels (MMbbl) of original oil in place. Petrophysical characterization of the East Ford unit was accomplished by integrating core and log data and quantifying petrophysical properties from wireline logs. Most methods of petrophysical analysis that had been developed during an earlier study of the Ford Geraldine unit were successfully transferred to the East Ford unit. The approach that was used to interpret water saturation from resistivity logs, however, had to be modified because in some East Ford wells the log-calculated water saturation was too high and inconsistent with observations made during the actual production. Log-porosity to core-porosity transforms and core-porosity to core-permeability transforms were derived from the East Ford reservoir. The petrophysical data were used to map porosity, permeability, net pay, water saturation, mobil-oil saturation, and other reservoir properties.

  7. Slumping and a sandbar deposit at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in the El Tecolote section (northeastern Mexico): An impact-induced sediment gravity flow (United States)

    Soria, Ana R.; Liesa, Carlos L.; Mata, Maria Pilar; Arz, José A.; Alegret, Laia; Arenillas, Ignacio; Meléndez, Alfonso


    Slumps affecting uppermost Méndez Formation marls, as well as the spherulitic layer and basal part of the sandy deposits of the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary clastic unit, are described at the new K-T El Tecolote section (northeastern Mexico). These K-T clastic deposits represent sedimentation at middle-bathyal water depths in channel and nonchannel or levee areas of reworked materials coming from environments ranging from outer shelf to shallower slope via a unidirectional, high- to low-density turbidite flow. We emphasize the development and accretion of a lateral bar in a channel area from a surging low-density turbidity current and under a high-flow regime. The slumps discovered on land and the sedimentary processes of the K-T clastic unit reflect destabilization and collapse of the continental margin, support the mechanism of gravity flows in the deep sea, and represent important and extensive evidence for the impact effects in the Gulf of México triggered by the Chicxulub event.

  8. Soft sediment deformation structures in the Maastrichtian Ajali Formation Western Flank of Anambra Basin, Southern Nigeria (United States)

    Olabode, Solomon Ojo


    Soft sediment deformation structures were recognized in the Maastrichtian shallow marine wave to tide influenced regressive sediments of Ajali Formation in the western flank of Anambra basin, southern Nigerian. The soft sediment deformation structures were in association with cross bedded sands, clay and silt and show different morphological types. Two main types recognised are plastic deformations represented by different types of recumbent folds and injection structure represented by clastic dykes. Other structures in association with the plastic deformation structures include distorted convolute lamination, subsidence lobes, pillars, cusps and sand balls. These structures are interpreted to have been formed by liquefaction and fluidization mechanisms. The driving forces inferred include gravitational instabilities and hydraulic processes. Facies analysis, detailed morphologic study of the soft sediment deformation structures and previous tectonic history of the basin indicate that the main trigger agent for deformation is earthquake shock. The soft sediment deformation structures recognised in the western part of Anambra basin provide a continuous record of the tectonic processes that acted on the regressive Ajali Formation during the Maastrichtian.

  9. Nitrogen Fixation in the Intertidal Sediments of the Yangtze Estuary: Occurrence and Environmental Implications (United States)

    Hou, Lijun; Wang, Rong; Yin, Guoyu; Liu, Min; Zheng, Yanling


    Nitrogen fixation is a microbial-mediated process converting atmospheric dinitrogen gas to biologically available ammonia or other molecules, and it plays an important role in regulating nitrogen budgets in coastal marine ecosystems. In this study, nitrogen fixation in the intertidal sediments of the Yangtze Estuary was investigated using nitrogen isotope tracing technique. The abundance of nitrogen fixation functional gene (nifH) was also quantified. The measured rates of sediment nitrogen fixation ranged from 0.37 to 7.91 nmol N g-1 hr-1, while the abundance of nifH gene varied from 2.28 × 106 to 1.28 × 108 copies g-1 in the study area. The benthic nitrogen fixation was correlated closely to the abundance of nifH gene and was affected significantly by salinity, pH, and availability of sediment organic carbon and ammonium. It is estimated that sediment nitrogen fixation contributed approximately 9.3% of the total terrigenous inorganic nitrogen transported annually into the Yangtze estuarine and coastal environment. This result implies that the occurrence of benthic nitrogen fixation acts as an important internal source of reactive nitrogen and to some extent exacerbates nitrogen pollution in this aquatic ecosystem.

  10. Aeolian particle transport inferred using a ~150-year sediment record from Sayram Lake, arid northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Ma


    Full Text Available We studied sediment cores from Sayram Lake in the Tianshan Mountains of northwest China to evaluate variations in aeolian transport processes over the past ~150 years. Using an end-member modeling algorithm of particle size data, we interpreted end members with a strong bimodal distribution as having been transported by aeolian processes, whereas other end members were interpreted to have been transported by fluvial processes. The aeolian fraction accounted for an average of 27% of the terrigenous components in the core. We used the ratio of aeolian to fluvial content in the Sayram Lake sediments as an index of past intensity of aeolian transport in the Tianshan Mountains. During the interval 1910-1930, the index was high, reflecting the fact that dry climate provided optimal conditions for aeolian dust transport. From 1930-1980, the intensity of aeolian transport was weak. From the 1980s to the 2000s, aeolian transport to Sayram Lake increased. Although climate in northwest China became more humid in the mid-1980s, human activity had by that time altered the impact of climate on the landscape, leading to enhanced surface erosion, which provided more transportable material for dust storms. Comparison of the Lake Sayram sediment record with sediment records from other lakes in the region indicates synchronous intervals of enhanced aeolian transport from 1910 to 1930 and 1980 to 2000.

  11. Platforms of the Nicaraguan Rise: Examples of the sensitivity of carbonate sedimentation to excess trophic resources (United States)

    Hallock, Pamela; Hine, Albert C.; Vargo, Gabriel A.; Elrod, Jane A.; Jaap, Walter C.


    The Nicaraguan Rise is an active tectonic structure in the western Caribbean. Carbonate accumulation on its platforms has not kept pace with relative Holocene sea-level rise, despite a tropical location remote from terrigenous sedimentation. Trophic resources apparently exceed levels favoring coral-reef development because sponge-algal communities dominate the drowning western platforms, in contrast to mixed coral-algal benthos on Pedro Bank and well- developed coral reefs along the north coast of Jamaica. Concentrations of biotic pigments in sea-surface waters show a corresponding west-east gradient; oceanic waters flowing over the western banks carry nearly twice as much biotic pigment as oceanic waters north of Jamaica. Sources enriching the western Caribbean are terrestrial runoff, upwelling off northern South America, and topographic upwelling over the Nicaraguan Rise. That relatively modest levels of trophic resources can suppress coral-reef development holds important implications for understanding carbonate platform drownings in the geologic record.

  12. Middle Pleistocene infill of Hinkley Valley by Mojave River sediment and associated lake sediment: Depositional architecture and deformation by strike-slip faults (United States)

    Miller, David; Haddon, Elizabeth; Langenheim, Victoria; Cyr, Andrew J.; Wan, Elmira; Walkup, Laura; Starratt, Scott W.


    Hinkley Valley in the Mojave Desert, near Barstow about 140 km northeast of Los Angeles and midway between Victorville Valley and the Lake Manix basin, contains a thick sedimentary sequence delivered by the Mojave River. Our study of sediment cores drilled in the valley indicates that Hinkley Valley was probably a closed playa basin with stream inflow from four directions prior to Mojave River inflow. The Mojave River deposited thick and laterally extensive clastic wedges originating from the southern valley that rapidly filled much of Hinkley Valley. Sedimentary facies representing braided stream, wetland, delta, and lacustrine depositional environments all are found in the basin fill; in some places, the sequence is greater than 74 m (245 ft) thick. The sediment is dated in part by the presence of the ~631 ka Lava Creek B ash bed low in the section, and thus represents sediment deposition after Victorville basin was overtopped by sediment and before the Manix basin began to be filled. Evidently, upstream Victorville basin filled with sediment by about 650 ka, causing the ancestral Mojave River to spill to the Harper and Hinkley basins, and later to Manix basin.Initial river sediment overran wetland deposits in many places in southern Hinkley Valley, indicating a rapidly encroaching river system. These sediments were succeeded by a widespread lake (“blue” clay) that includes the Lava Creek B ash bed. Above the lake sediment lies a thick section of interlayered stream sediment, delta and nearshore lake sediment, mudflat and/or playa sediment, and minor lake sediment. This stratigraphic architecture is found throughout the valley, and positions of lake sediment layers indicate a successive northward progression in the closed basin. A thin overlapping sequence at the north end of the valley contains evidence for a younger late Pleistocene lake episode. This late lake episode, and bracketing braided stream deposits of the Mojave River, indicate that the river

  13. OU3 sediment dating and sedimentation rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blair, R.B.; Wolaver, H.A.; Burger, V.M.


    Environmental Technologies at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFS) investigated the sediment history of Standley Lake, Great Western Reservoir, and Mower Reservoir using 137 Cs and 239,240 Pu global fall-out as dating indicators. These Colorado Front Range reservoirs have been the subject of study by various city, state and national agencies due to suspected Department of Energy Rocky Flats Plant impacts. We performed sediment dating as part of the RCRA Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation Report for Operable Unit 3. A sediment chronology profile assists scientist in determining the year of sedimentation for a particular peak concentration of contaminants. Radioisotope sediment dating for the three reservoirs indicated sedimentation rates of 0.7 to 0.8 in./yr. for Standley Lake (SL), 0.9 in./yr. for Great Western Reservoir (GWR), and 0.3 in./yr. in Mower Reservoir (MR). RFS sediment dating for Operable Unit 3 compared favorably with the Hardy, Livingston, Burke, and Volchok Standley Lake study. This report describes the cesium/plutonium sediment dating method, estimates sedimentation rates for Operable Unit 3 reservoirs, and compares these results to previous investigations

  14. Geochemical Dataset of the Rhone River Delta (Lake Geneva) Sediments - Disentangling Human Impacts from Climate Change (United States)

    Silva, T. A.; Girardclos, S.; Loizeau, J. L.


    Lake sediment records are often the most complete continental archives. In the last 200 years, in addition to climatic variability, humans have strongly impacted lake watersheds around the world. During the 20th century the Rhone River and its watershed upstream Lake Geneva (Switzerland/France) have been subject to river channelization, dam construction, water flow regulation, water and sediment abstraction as well as various land use changes. Under the scope of the SEDFATE project (Swiss National Science Foundation nº147689) we address human and climatic impact on the sediment transfer from the Rhone River watershed to Lake Geneva. Nineteen short sediment cores were collected in the Rhone River delta area in May 2014. Cores have been scanned with MSCL and XRF, sub-sampled every 1cm and 8 cores were dated by radiometric methods (137Cs and 210Pb). Photographs taken right after core opening were used for lithological description and in addition to MSCL data were used to correlate cores. Core dating shows that mass accumulation rates decreased in the 1964-1986 interval and then increased again in the interval between 1986-2014. XRF elements and ratios, known to indicate detrital sources (Al, Al/Si, Fe, K, Mn, Rb, Si, Ti, Ti/Ca), show that clastic input diminished from 1964 to 1986 and re-increased to the present. Other elemental (Zr/Rb, Zr/K, Si/Ti) and geophysical data (magnetic susceptibility) combined with lithology identify density flow deposits vs hemipelagic sedimentation. Changes in frequency of these event deposits indicate changes in the sedimentation patterns in the Rhone River sublacustrine delta during the last century. From these results we hypothesize that a significant sediment amount was abstracted from the system after the major dam constructions in the 1950's and that, since the 1990's, a contrary signal is due to increased sediment loads that follows glacial melting due to global warming.

  15. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew G. Cole; George B. Asquith; Jose I. Guzman; Mark D. Barton; Mohammad A. Malik; Shirley P. Dutton; Sigrid J. Clift


    The objective of this Class III project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of clastic reservoirs in basinal sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost-effective way to recover more of the original oil in place by strategic infill-well placement and geologically based enhanced oil recovery. The study focused on the Ford Geraldine unit, which produces from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). Reservoirs in this and other Delaware Mountain Group fields have low producibility (average recovery <14 percent of the original oil in place) because of a high degree of vertical and lateral heterogeneity caused by depositional processes and post-depositional diagenetic modification. Outcrop analogs were studied to better interpret the depositional processes that formed the reservoirs at the Ford Geraldine unit and to determine the dimensions of reservoir sandstone bodies. Facies relationships and bedding architecture within a single genetic unit exposed in outcrop in Culberson County, Texas, suggest that the sandstones were deposited in a system of channels and levees with attached lobes that initially prograded basinward, aggraded, and then turned around and stepped back toward the shelf. Channel sandstones are 10 to 60 ft thick and 300 to 3,000 ft wide. The flanking levees have a wedge-shaped geometry and are composed of interbedded sandstone and siltstone; thickness varies from 3 to 20 ft and length from several hundred to several thousands of feet. The lobe sandstones are broad lens-shaped bodies; thicknesses range up to 30 ft with aspect ratios (width/thickness) of 100 to 10,000. Lobe sandstones may be interstratified with laminated siltstones.

  16. Influence of sediment recycling on the trace element composition of primitive arc lavas (United States)

    Collinet, M.; Jagoutz, O. E.


    .). Our new estimates of sediment fluxes correlate positively with incompatible element concentrations in primitive arc lavas. We conclude that a large fraction of the local terrigenous sediments is subducted and contributes to the observed dichotomy in the trace element budget between primitive lavas from continental and oceanic margins.

  17. The contribution of bank and surface sediments to fluvial sediment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The contribution of bank and surface sediments to fluvial sediment transport of the Pra River. ... the relative contribution of surface and bank sediments to the fluvial sediment transport. ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  18. Ocean Sediment Thickness Contours (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean sediment thickness contours in 200 meter intervals for water depths ranging from 0 - 18,000 meters. These contours were derived from a global sediment...

  19. Center for Contaminated Sediments (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Center for Contaminated Sediments serves as a clearinghouse for technology and expertise concerned with contaminated sediments. The...

  20. Geochemistry of sediments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.

    Considering the potential of elemental data in marine sediments as diagnostic tools of various geological and oceanographic processes, sediment geochemical data from the Indian Ocean region has been reviewed in this article. Emphasis is laid...

  1. Indicators: Sediment Enzymes (United States)

    Sediment enzymes are proteins that are produced by microorganisms living in the sediment or soil. They are indicators of key ecosystem processes and can help determine which nutrients are affecting the biological community of a waterbody.

  2. Electrodialytic remediation of sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland

    Sediments of harbors and freshwaters are regularly dredged for various reasons: maintenance of navigational depths, recovery of recreational locations, and even environmental recovery. In the past, sediments dredged from harbors have been dumped at sea, however, environmental regulations now, in ...

  3. Mineral composition of sediments underlying the Velenje lignite seam in the P-9k/92 borehole (Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teja Čeru


    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of granulometrical, geochemical and mineralogical characterisation of sediments underlying the Velenje lignite seam as drilled through the P-9k/92 borehole in the central part of the Pliocene intermontane Velenje Basin. This study of differently lithified sediments/sedimentary rocks is based on analyses of 32 samples from 21 core intervals at the depth of 562.6–580.0 m (end of the borehole. Grain size was analysed on 12 samples, 24 samples were investigated geochemically, while mineral composition was obtained with X-ray diffraction (XRD on 23 samples, and optical microscopy was performed on 7 samples. Granulometry of very low lithified samples revealed that they are mostly clayey silts (>85 % of the silt fraction, only two are silty sands and one is pebbly/rubbly sandstone. Well-lithified clastics are all sandstones cemented by calcite, siderite and/or marcasite. Geochemical analysis indicated that most samples are SiO2 + Al2O3 rich (>60–80 %. Some sediments, mostly at the base of the profile, are enriched in Fe2O3 and inorganic C both indicating the presence of siderite. At the top of the profile, thin limestone and gravelly sandstone beds contain a high CaO content and have high loss on ignition (LOI. Qualitative XRD analysis and microscopy showed that all clastic sediments consist of quartz, kaolinite and muscovite/illite. Feldspars occur sporadically, mainly in sands and sandstones. Gypsum was found in some samples of siltstones. Pyrite occurs only in a sample of limestone at the top of the profile. Also marcasite was found only in one sample.

  4. Velocities of Subducted Sediments and Continents (United States)

    Hacker, B. R.; van Keken, P. E.; Abers, G. A.; Seward, G.


    The growing capability to measure seismic velocities in subduction zones has led to unusual observations. For example, although most minerals have VP/ VS ratios around 1.77, ratios 1.8 have been observed. Here we explore the velocities of subducted sediments and continental crust from trench to sub-arc depths using two methods. (1) Mineralogy was calculated as a function of P & T for a range of subducted sediment compositions using Perple_X, and rock velocities were calculated using the methodology of Hacker & Abers [2004]. Calculated slab-top temperatures have 3 distinct depth intervals with different dP/dT gradients that are determined by how coupling between the slab and mantle wedge is modeled. These three depth intervals show concomitant changes in VP and VS: velocities initially increase with depth, then decrease beyond the modeled decoupling depth where induced flow in the wedge causes rapid heating, and increase again at depth. Subducted limestones, composed chiefly of aragonite, show monotonic increases in VP/ VS from 1.63 to 1.72. Cherts show large jumps in VP/ VS from 1.55-1.65 to 1.75 associated with the quartz-coesite transition. Terrigenous sediments dominated by quartz and mica show similar, but more-subdued, transitions from ~1.67 to 1.78. Pelagic sediments dominated by mica and clinopyroxene show near-monotonic increases in VP/ VS from 1.74 to 1.80. Subducted continental crust that is too dry to transform to high-pressure minerals has a VP/ VS ratio of 1.68-1.70. (2) Velocity anisotropy calculations were made for the same P-T dependent mineralogies using the Christoffel equation and crystal preferred orientations measured via electron-backscatter diffraction for typical constituent phases. The calculated velocity anisotropies range from 5-30%. For quartz-rich rocks, the calculated velocities show a distinct depth dependence because crystal slip systems and CPOs change with temperature. In such rocks, the fast VP direction varies from slab-normal at

  5. Preliminary Report on Unique Laminated Holocene Sediments from the Qarun Lake in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marks Leszek


    Full Text Available The Lake Qarun (Faiyum Oasis, northern Egypt is a relic of the much larger Holocene lake. Past lake levels and extensions were reconstructed, based on setting of archaeological sites scattered along northern paleoshores of the ancient lake. However, geoarcheological works did not yield enough data to establish continuous environmental history of the lake. A deep drilling FA-1 on the southeastern shore of the lake, performed in 2014, supplied with a core, 26 m long that is the one of the longest lake sediment cores in northeastern Africa. The basal section of the core consisted of thin-laminated diatom marly deposits, underlain at the Late Pleistocene/Holocene boundary by coarse-grained sands. The sediment lamine were quite well developed, especially in the lower part of the core. Preliminary results indicated annually deposited sediment sequence with seasonality signals provided by microlamine of diatoms, calcite, organic matter and clastic material. Early Holocene varved sediments from the Faiyum Oasis supplied with exceptional paleoenvironmental data for northeastern Africa, which enriched a record from previous logs drilled at the southwestern margin of the Qarun Lake.

  6. Historic impact of watershed change and sedimentation to reefs along west-central Guam (United States)

    Prouty, Nancy G.; Storlazzi, Curt D.; McCutcheon, Amanda L.; Jenson, John W.


    Using coral growth parameters (extension, density, calcification rates, and luminescence) and geochemical measurements (barium to calcium rations; Ba/Ca) from coral cores collected in west-central Guam, we provide a historic perspective on sediment input to coral reefs adjacent to the Piti-Asan watershed. The months of August through December are dominated by increased coral Ba/Ca values, corresponding to the rainy season. With river water enriched in barium related to nearshore seawater, coral Ba/Ca ratios are presented as a proxy for input of fine-grained terrigenous sediment to the nearshore environment. The century-long Ba/Ca coral record indicates that the Asan fore reef is within the zone of impact from discharged sediments transported from the Piti-Asan watershed and has experienced increased terrestrial sedimentation since the 1940s. This abrupt shift in sedimentation occurred at the same time as both the sudden denudation of the landscape by military ordinance and the immediate subsequent development of the Asan area through the end of the war, from 1944 through 1945. In response to rapid input of sediment, as determined from coral Ba/Ca values, coral growth rates were reduced for almost two decades, while calcification rates recovered much more quickly. Furthermore, coral luminescence is decoupled from the Ba/Ca record, which is consistent with degradation of soil organic matter through disturbance by forest fires, suggesting a potential index of fire history and degradation of soil organic matter. These patterns were not seen in the cores from nearby reefs associated with watersheds that have not undergone the same degree of landscape denudation. Taken together, these records provide a valuable tool for understanding the compounding effects of land-use change on coral reef health.

  7. Historic impact of watershed change and sedimentation to reefs along west-central Guam (United States)

    Prouty, Nancy G.; Storlazzi, Curt D.; McCutcheon, Amanda L.; Jenson, John W.


    Using coral growth parameters (extension, density, calcification rates, and luminescence) and geochemical measurements (barium to calcium rations; Ba/Ca) from coral cores collected in west-central Guam, we provide a historic perspective on sediment input to coral reefs adjacent to the Piti-Asan watershed. The months of August through December are dominated by increased coral Ba/Ca values, corresponding to the rainy season. With river water enriched in barium related to nearshore seawater, coral Ba/Ca ratios are presented as a proxy for input of fine-grained terrigenous sediment to the nearshore environment. The century-long Ba/Ca coral record indicates that the Asan fore reef is within the zone of impact from discharged sediments transported from the Piti-Asan watershed and has experienced increased terrestrial sedimentation since the 1940s. This abrupt shift in sedimentation occurred at the same time as both the sudden denudation of the landscape by military ordinance and the immediate subsequent development of the Asan area through the end of the war, from 1944 through 1945. In response to rapid input of sediment, as determined from coral Ba/Ca values, coral growth rates were reduced for almost two decades, while calcification rates recovered much more quickly. Furthermore, coral luminescence is decoupled from the Ba/Ca record, which is consistent with degradation of soil organic matter through disturbance by forest fires, suggesting a potential index of fire history and degradation of soil organic matter. These patterns were not seen in the cores from nearby reefs associated with watersheds that have not undergone the same degree of landscape denudation. Taken together, these records provide a valuable tool for understanding the compounding effects of land-use change on coral reef health.

  8. Metal accumulation rates in northwest Atlantic pelagic sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, J.; Carpenter, M.S.N.; Colley, S.; Wilson, T.R.S.; Elderfield, H.; Kennedy, H.


    Measurements of 230 Th, 87 Sr/ 86 Sr and twenty-four metals were made on cores from the Nares Abyssal Plain. The sediment is characterized by slowly-accumulating pelagic red clays and rapidly deposited grey clays transported by turbidity currents. Despite their colour differences and the enrichment of certain elements in the red clays, Sr isotope evidence demonstrates that the clays have the same terrigenous origin. The excesses of metals in the red clays have been attributed to metal removal from the water column and a comparison with the grey clays has enabled the authigenic fluxes of metals to be estimated. The results are given for the elements Mn, Fe, Cu, Co, Ni, Zn, V, Sr, Ce, La, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, Er and Yb. Authigenic fluxes of Y, Nb, Cr, Zr, Rb, U and Th were not resolvable. Fluxes appear to be near constant on the Plain but comparison with other areas shows that they are quite variable both between and within ocean basins. The chief factor controlling authigenic fluxes is discussed. (author)

  9. Holocene and Late Glacial sedimentation near steep slopes in southern Lake Baikal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Sturm


    Full Text Available We here present new data on sedimentation at and near the steep north-slopes of southern Lake Baikal. Short sediment cores were taken at 550 m and at 1366 m water depth, within 3600 m offshore Cape Ivanovskii at the station of the Baikal Deep Underwater NEUTRINO Telescope. The sediments within 3600 m off the northern coast of Southern Lake Baikal are dominated by pelagic deposition. Our data reveal surprisingly little influence from terrigenous material from adjacent coastal areas, tributaries and their catchment. At the shallow-water site (at 550 m water depth, 700 m off shore just 27 cm thick homogenous sediments have accumulated during the Holocene on top of Pleistocene deposits resulting in Holocene sedimentation rates of 0.003 cm a-1. The very low rates are caused by long-term persistent winnowing of fine particles caused by week contour currents along the slope. The uppermost sediments are oxidized down to 22 cm. Very low concentrations of Corg, Sibio and Ntot in Pleistocene sediments increase dramatically within the Holocene. The heavy mineral fraction of the shallow-water sediments contains up to 33.6 % olivine and up to 2.4 % spinel. These rare minerals originate from white marbles of the nearby coastal outcrop Belaya Vyemka of the Early Precambrian Sharyzalgaiskaya Series. At the deep-water site (at 1366 m water depth, 3600 m off shore Holocene sedimentation rates are 10-times higher (0.036 cm a-1. Sediment oxidation occurs just within the uppermost 2 cm. Of the two rare type minerals of the Sharyzalgaiskaya Series spinel does not occur at all and olivine is represented by very diminished concentrations. This indicates insignificant influx of terrestrial material from the nearby shore to the deep-water site . Distal turbidites of far-off sources are intercalated to pelagic sediments at the deep-water site. Breakdown events of deltas at the SE- and S-coast of the basin are suggested to be responsible for the formation of the turbidites

  10. Natural Environmental Hazards Reflected in High-Altitude Patagonian Lake Sediments (lake Caviahue, Argentina) (United States)

    Müller, Anne; Scharf, Burkhard; von Tümpling, Wolf; Pirrung, Michael


    Two 6-m long sediment cores drilled in the two basins of Lake Caviahue give new evidence of the impact of natural hazards such as ash fallouts linked to nearby volcanic eruptions in the ecologically sensitive environment of the high-altitude region of the Argentinan Patagonian Andes. The two cores show distinct signals of changes in autochthonous productivity and terrigenous input into the lake from ash fallout as well as from river load and shore erosion. Multiproxy records of the sediments indicate whether these changes can be related to volcanic activity. High values of magnetic susceptibility in the cores reflect periods of basaltic ash fallouts during eruptions of the nearby Copahue Volcano. The southern basin is located in the prevalent direction of ash fallouts and has been affected by these volcanic inputs more intensely than the northern basin of the lake. In contrast, sedimentation and authochthonous productivity in the northern basin are strongly affected by fluvial inputs such as suspended river load and acidic stream waters.

  11. SRXFA for element compositions of bottom sediments from the Okhotsk Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, E.L.; Gorbarenko, S.A.; Shaporenko, A.D.; Phedorin, M.A.; Artemova, A.V.; Bosin, A.A.; Zolotarev, K.V.


    X-ray Fluorescence Analysis with Synchrotron Radiation (SRXFA) was used to study the distribution of minor and trace elements in an 80-kyr-core record from the Okhotsk Sea covering last glacial and Holocene time. Statistical analysis of the collected multi-element data reveals four main particles sources in the sediments. Two sources represent terrigenous input: one predominated in glacial time and the other since the onset of the Holocene warming. The trend of the latter source correlates with the biogenic silica (BiSi) record. These sources were associated with the supply of suspended particles from Amur River during warming and with the continental shelf erosion and ice rafting debris (IRD) in cold times. The third source was controlled by production (Ba, Cs) and ventilation (Mn, U) in the sea, and the fourth one was related to burial of biogenic CaCO 3 . Concentrations of Y, Zr, K in a layer of volcanic ash (K 2 ∼30 ky) are higher and Rb, Th, Nb, and Ti are lower than in the host sediments. Peaks of Y/Rb and Y/Nb ratios along the core almost always coincide with peaks of volcanic particles in sediments. Thus, Y/Rb and Y/Nb ratios can be used as tracers of regional (Kamchatka-Kuriles) eruptions

  12. Lithostratigraphy and microfacies analyses of the Lateglacial and early Holocene sediment record from Lake Haemelsee (Germany) (United States)

    Haliuc, Aritina; Brauer, Achim; Dulski, Peter; Engels, Stefan; Lane, Christine


    Annually laminated sediments are unique continental archives holding essential paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic information providing the opportunity (i) to evaluate the climate variability at inter-annual to decadal scale and (ii) to construct independent and reliable chronologies. Lake Haemelsee in northern Germany (19.5 m a.s.l) is a key site for tracing high-resolution climatic and environmental evolution in W Europe because of its partly varved sediments. Here, we apply lithostratigraphical, geochemical and micro-facies analyses for the bottom sediments (~1700 to 1300 cm sediment depth) in order to investigate the driving mechanisms, timing and amplitude of Lateglacial abrupt climate changes to the onset of the Holocene warming. Detailed investigation includes micro-facies analyses on petrographic thin sections combined with high-resolution µ-XRF element scanning on both fresh sediment core halves (200 µm resolution) and impregnated sediment blocks (50µm resolution). Based on these analyses, the sediment composite profile (378 cm) has been divided in ten lithozones, each exhibiting different sedimentation modes in response to regional and local climatic and environmental changes. Micro-facies analyses revealed that sediments consist of organic matter, siderite, calcite, clay/silt and sand. The basal sediments consist of glacio-fluvial material. Fine laminations are best preserved in lithozone 5 (1522-1573 cm), where minima in element proxies for detrital sediments (Ti, K, Si) and maxima in Fe and Mn indicate the prevalence of anoxic meromictic conditions. Three different varve facies types were distinguished: i) the clastic-organic varves are specific for the intervals 1571-1573 cm and 1536-1541 cm; ii) calcite/siderite-organic varves appear between 1568-1571 and 1541-1545 cm; iii) the siderite-organic varves are characteristic for the middle of the lithozone 5 spanning from 1545-1568 cm. These changes in varve facies reflect the complex answer of

  13. Early Cretaceous marine sediments of the Lower Saxony Basin. The Gildehaus Sandstone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dellepiane, S.; Weiel, D. [Wintershall Holding GmbH, Barnstorf (Germany); Gerwert, D.; Mutterlose, J. [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geologie, Mineralogie und Geophysik


    During the Early Cretaceous (Berriasian - Aptian) the Lower Saxony Basin (LSB) formed the southernmost extension of the North Sea Basin. Sedimentation patterns of the LSB were controlled by divergent dextral shear movement causing differential subsidence related to early rifting in the North Sea. Up to 2000m of fine grained mudstones accumulated in the basin centre, while marginal marine, coarser grained siliciclastics were deposited along the western and southern margins of the LSB. The western marginal facies, outcropping along the Dutch-German border, is characterised by shallow marine sandstones of Valanginian - Hauterivian age. These units, which are separated by clay rich intervals, include the Bentheim Sdst., the Dichotomites Sdst., the Grenz Sdst., the Noricum Sdst. and the Gildehaus Sdst. These sandstones form a series of overall backstepping units, controlled by a main transgressive trend. Economically important are the Bentheim Sdst. and the Gildehaus Sdst., with a long oil producing history. The Bentheim Sdst. (early Valanginian) has been interpreted as an overall retrograding unit related to an incised valley infill with material mainly coming from the South. Tidal processes dominated the deposition of the Bentheim Sdst. The origin and genesis of the Gildehaus Sdst. (mid Hauterivian) is, however, less well understood. Here we present data from two wells drilled to the Gildehaus Sdst. (Emlichheim oil field) which provide evidence for a two fold subdivision of the unit. A well sorted massive quartz sandstone is followed by an interval composed of reworked coarse clastics of massflow origin. Micropalaeontological evidence suggests a fully marine, hemi-pelagic origin of the mud dominated matrix throughout the Gildehaus Sdst. These findings indicate a depositional environment quite different from that of the Bentheim Sdst. Short termed pulses of substantial input of clastic material from two different sources in the West to Southwest punctuated the overall

  14. Milankovitch cyclicity in modern continental margins: stratigraphic cycles in terrigenous shelf settings; El registro de la ciclicidad de Milankovitch en margenes continentales actuales: ciclos estratigraficos en plataformas terrigenas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobo, F. J.; Ridente, D.


    We present a synthesis of the sedimentary responses to Late Quaternary Milankovitch-type sea-level cycles (100 and 20 kyr periodicities) as a basis for our investigations into the patterns and concepts of composite sequences in shallow-shelf settings. We describe the record of both 100 and 20 kyr cycles as documented worldwide and discuss the pattern of composite cyclicity mainly on the basis of previously published data from the Adriatic Sea and Gulf of Cadiz margins. Cycles of 100 kyr are those most frequently documented in Quaternary margins; they occur in the form of unconformity-bounded depositional sequences dominated by fairly uniform pro gradational-regressive units and more variable, though less well developed, transgressive deposits. Sequence boundaries correspond to prominent polygenic (regressive-transgressive) erosional surfaces that bear witness to considerable transgressive reworking of the original sub-aerial unconformity. Although the progradational units making up the greater part of these sequences have usually been interpreted as a record of a falling sea-level stage, recent evidence is pointing towards a more complex stratigraphic picture, including a distinction between relative highstand and lowstand deposits. The 20-kyr stratigraphic motifs show greater variation compared to that displayed by the more common 100-kyr sequences, particularly in the basic structure of systems tracts and the nature of bounding surfaces. The two case studies described here, the Adriatic Sea and Gulf of Cadiz margins, highlight the fact that, concomitantly with an increase in frequencies of cycles and sequences, sediment supply and the dynamics of their dispersal significantly affected the stratigraphic response to the main controlling factor, which was sea-level, thus determining the variety of expression in the 20 kyr cycles. (Author)

  15. Impact of uranyl-calcium-carbonato complexes on uranium(VI) adsorption to synthetic and natural sediments. (United States)

    Stewart, Brandy D; Mayes, Melanie A; Fendorf, Scott


    Adsorption on soil and sediment solids may decrease aqueous uranium concentrations and limit its propensity for migration in natural and contaminated settings. Uranium adsorption will be controlled in large part by its aqueous speciation, with a particular dependence on the presence of dissolved calcium and carbonate. Here we quantify the impact of uranyl speciation on adsorption to both goethite and sediments from the Hanford Clastic Dike and Oak Ridge Melton Branch Ridgetop formations. Hanford sediments were preconditioned with sodium acetate and acetic acid to remove carbonate grains, and Ca and carbonate were reintroduced at defined levels to provide a range of aqueous uranyl species. U(VI) adsorption is directly linked to UO(2)(2+) speciation, with the extent of retention decreasing with formation of ternary uranyl-calcium-carbonato species. Adsorption isotherms under the conditions studied are linear, and K(d) values decrease from 48 to 17 L kg(-1) for goethite, from 64 to 29 L kg (-1) for Hanford sediments, and from 95 to 51 L kg(-1) for Melton Branch sediments as the Ca concentration increases from 0 to 1 mM at pH 7. Our observations reveal that, in carbonate-bearing waters, neutral to slightly acidic pH values ( approximately 5) and limited dissolved calcium are optimal for uranium adsorption.

  16. Clay mineralogy of surface sediments as a tool for deciphering river contributions to the Cariaco Basin (Venezuela) (United States)

    Bout-Roumazeilles, V.; Riboulleau, A.; du Châtelet, E. Armynot; Lorenzoni, L.; Tribovillard, N.; Murray, R. W.; Müller-Karger, F.; Astor, Y. M.


    The mineralogical composition of 95 surface sediment samples from the Cariaco Basin continental shelf and Orinoco delta was investigated in order to constrain the clay-mineral main provenance and distribution within the Cariaco Basin. The spatial variability of the data set was studied using a geo-statistical approach that allows drawing representative clay-mineral distribution maps. These maps are used to identify present-day dominant sources for each clay-mineral species in agreement with the geological characteristics of the main river watersheds emptying into the basin. This approach allows (1) identifying the most distinctive clay-mineral species/ratios that determine particle provenance, (2) evaluating the respective contribution of local rivers, and (3) confirming the minimal present-day influence of the Orinoco plume on the Cariaco Basin sedimentation. The Tuy, Unare, and Neveri Rivers are the main sources of clay particles to the Cariaco Basin sedimentation. At present, the Tuy River is the main contributor of illite to the western part of the southern Cariaco Basin continental shelf. The Unare River plume, carrying smectite and kaolinite, has a wide westward propagation, whereas the Neveri River contribution is less extended, providing kaolinite and illite toward the eastern Cariaco Basin. The Manzanares, Araya, Tortuga, and Margarita areas are secondary sources of local influence. These insights shed light on the origin of present-day terrigenous sediments of the Cariaco Basin and help to propose alternative explanations for the temporal variability of clay mineralogy observed in previously published studies.

  17. Rock magnetic and geochemical analyses of surface sediment characteristics in deep ocean environments: A case study across the Ryukyu Trench (United States)

    Kawamura, N.; Kawamura, K.; Ishikawa, N.


    Magnetic minerals in marine sediments are often dissolved or formed with burial depth, thereby masking the primary natural remanent magnetization and paleoclimate signals. In order to clarify the present sedimentary environment and the progressive changes with burial depth in the magnetic properties, we studied seven cores collected from the Ryukyu Trench, southwest Japan. Magnetic properties, organic geochemistry, and interstitial water chemistry of seven cores are described. Bottom water conditions at the landward slope, trench floor, and seaward slope are relatively suboxic, anoxic, and oxic, respectively. The grain size of the sediments become gradually finer with the distance from Okinawa Island and finer with increasing water depth. The magnetic carriers in the sediments are predominantly magnetite and maghemized magnetite, with minor amounts of hematite. In the topmost sediments from the landward slope, magnetic minerals are diluted by terrigenous materials and microfossils. The downcore variations in magnetic properties and geochemical data provided evidence for the dissolution of fine-grained magnetite with burial depth under an anoxic condition.

  18. Late quaternary palaeo-oceanography and palaeo-climatology from sediment cores of the eastern Arctic Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagels, U.; Koehler, S.


    Box cores recovered along a N-S transect in the Eurasian Basin allow the establishment of a time scale for the Late Quaternary history of the Arctic Ocean, based on stable oxygen isotope stratigraphy and AMS 14 C dating of planktonic foraminifers (N. pachyderma I.c.). This high resolution stratigraphy, in combination with sedimentological investigations (e.g. coarse fraction analysis, carbonate content, productivity of foraminifers), was carried out to reconstruct the glacial and inter-glacial Arctic Ocean palaeo-environment The sediment cores, which can be correlated throughout the sampling area in the Eastern Arctic Ocean, were dated as representing oxygen isotope stages 1 to 4/5. The sedimentation rates varied between a few mm/ka in glacials and approximately one cm/ka during the Holocene. The sediments allow a detailed sedimentological description of the depositional regime and the palaeo-oceanography of the Eastern Arctic Ocean. Changing ratios of biogenic and lithogenic components in the sediments reflect variations in the oceanographic circulation pattern in the Eurasian Basin during the Late Quaternary. Carbonate content (1-9wt.%), productivity of foraminifers (high in interglacial, low in glacial stages) and the terrigenous components are in good correlation with glacial and inter-glacial climatic fluctuations

  19. Physical processes and sedimentation on a broad, shallow bank (United States)

    Murray, S. P.; Hsu, S. A.; Roberts, H. H.; Owens, E. H.; Crout, R. L.


    An integrated study of the meteorology, physical oceanography, sedimentationand coastal morphology on the broad, shallow Miskito Bank off the eastern coast of Nicaragua has uncovered systematic interrelationships between driving forces. Bank geometry and sedimentologic environments on the Bank. Extremely high rainfall results from an interaction between meteorological processes over the Bank and topographic effects along the coast. Both acoustic and radio sounding of the lower atmosphere have documented the feedback between convective plumes, inversion layers and the incessant rainfall, which brings three times more freshwater and 15 times more sediment down to a unit length of coast than on the U.S. Atlantic shore. The resultant brackish, turbid coastal water moves as a highly organized band of water parallel to the coast. Seaward of this coastal boundary layer, offshore water from the Caribbean Current rides up on the Bank and provides an environment ideal for carbonate production. A zone of fine-grained terrigenous sediment underlying the coastal boundary current merges abruptly into a smooth carbonate plain covering most of the surface of the Bank. These central Bank carbonates are composed primarily of the disintegration products of prolific calcareous green algae. A trend of high relief, luxuriant coral reef growth is aligned along the steep dropoff at the Bank edge, a zone of observed upwelling of cooler and saltier basin water. A threefold southerly increase in wave energy at the shoreline due to the decreasing width of the shallow shelf results in wave-dominated coastal morphologies in the south compared to fluvial domination in the north and a systematic change from straight, linear bars and beaches in the north to rhythmic topography in the south.

  20. Vertical Variation of Lead, Copper and Manganese in Core Sediments Collected From Tanjung Lumpur Mangrove Forest, Pahang, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaruzzaman, B.Y.; NurulNadia, M.Y.; Azhar, M.S.N.; Shahbudin, S.; Joseph, B.


    Two core sediment samples collected from Tanjung Lumpur mangrove forest were analysed for lead, copper and manganese using the sensitive Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The average concentrations of Pb, Cu, and Mn in core samples were 36.28 ± 7.04 μg/ g dry weights, 50.17 ± 5.84 μg/ g dry weights, and 110.41 ± 14.48 μg/ g dry weights, respectively. From the calculated enrichment factors (EF), only Mn was considered to be predominantly terrigeneous in origin, while Pb and Cu have slightly higher EF values which were related to anthropogenic input. (author)

  1. Contributions of human activities to suspended-sediment yield during storm events from a steep, small, tropical watershed, American Samoa (United States)

    Messina, A. T.; Biggs, T. W.


    project investigating relationships and interactions between terrigenous sediment, water circulation over the reef, and the spatial distribution of sediment accumulation under various conditions in a linked watershed and fringing-reef embayment.

  2. Multi-scale constraints of sediment source to sink systems in frontier basins: a forward stratigraphic modeling case study of the Levant region (United States)

    Hawie, Nicolas; Deschamps, Remy; Granjeon, Didier; Nader, Fadi-Henri; Gorini, Christian; Müller, Carla; Montadert, Lucien; Baudin, François


    Recent scientific work underlined the presence of a thick Cenozoic infill in the Levant Basin reaching up to 12 km. Interestingly; restricted sedimentation was observed along the Levant margin in the Cenozoic. Since the Late Eocene successive regional geodynamic events affecting Afro-Arabia and Eurasia (collision and strike slip deformation)induced fast marginal uplifts. The initiation of local and long-lived regional drainage systems in the Oligo-Miocene period (e.g. Lebanon versus Nile) provoked a change in the depositional pattern along the Levant margin and basin. A shift from carbonate dominated environments into clastic rich systems has been observed. Through this communication we explore the importance of multi-scale constraints (i.e.,seismic, well and field data) in the quantification of the subsidence history, sediment transport and deposition of a Middle-Upper Miocene "multi-source" to sink system along the northernLevant frontier region. We prove through a comprehensive forward stratigraphic modeling workflow that the contribution to the infill of the northern Levant Basin (offshore Lebanon) is split in between proximal and more distal clastic sources as well as in situ carbonate/hemipelagic deposition. In a wider perspective this work falls under the umbrella of multi-disciplinary source to sink studies that investigate the impact of geodynamic events on basin/margin architectural evolutions, consequent sedimentary infill and thus on petroleum systems assessment.

  3. Lacustrine sedimentation and facies model for the last 45,000 yr in Chalco basin. Central Mexico (United States)

    Ortega, B.; Lozano, S.; Caballero, M.; Herrera, D.


    Chalco basin in central Mexico (19° 15' N, 98° 58' W, 2200 m asl) is one of the most detailed lake sediment sequence analyzed in Mexico for paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental studies. In this former lake, five drill cores up to 27 m depth were recovered in 1987-1989 by the UNAM team, and three cores covering most of the former sequence were obtained in 2008 and 2011. The upper 27 m of the Chalco lacustrine sequence contains the record of the last 45 kyr climate history in the northern American tropics. The active tectonic and volcanic setting of Chalco Lake in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, provides an opportunity to evaluate environmental (volcanic + tectonic vs. climatic) controls on lacustrine sedimentation. The establishment of a detailed time scale by 14C in pollen extracts provides an accurate chronological control. The stratigraphical and sedimentological analyses presented here provided the recognition of depositional environments and the architecture of the upper lacustrine succession. Sedimentary facies were defined on the basis of sedimentological descriptions, microscopic observation and compositional analyses. According to compositional criteria, facies were identified and groped into two main categories according to compositional criteria: 1) detrital and volcaniclastic, and 2) biogenic facies. The clastic facies includes massive to laminated, silty and clayey sediments composed of clay minerals, feldspars, amphiboles with minor amounts of quartz, opaque minerals and calcite. Diatoms are the most common biological remains in all the clastic facies. Most of the volcaniclastic deposits correspond to fall-out deposits, some of them of well documented eruptions of the nearby large stratovolcanoes Popocatepetl and Nevado de Toluca, which in turn serve as stratigraphical markers. The biogenic facies are massive to finely laminated diatom ooze and ostracod ooze layers. The sedimentary architecture of the lacustrine succession has been controlled by

  4. Hydrocarbons in the suspended matter and the bottom sediments in different regions of the Black Sea Russian sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Nemirovskaya


    Full Text Available Content and composition of hydrocarbons (mainly the aliphatic ones in the suspended matter and the bottom sediments in the Gelendzhik Bay, the Big Sochi water area, the Feodosiya Bay and the Black Sea central part are defined and compared with the total organic carbon and chlorophyll a contents. It is shown that the aliphatic hydrocarbon concentrations exceeding the background ones are found only in the coastal zone. Advancing to the pelagic zone is accompanied by sharp decrease of their concentrations. Petroleum and pyrogenic hydrocarbons are mainly manifested in the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons composition. Influence of construction of the Olympic facilities upon distribution of hydrocarbons in the Big Sochi water area was of short duration, and already by 2015 the aliphatic hydrocarbons concentration decreased, on the average, up to 24 µg/l in the surface waters, and up to 18 µg/g – in the bottom sediments. Accumulation of hydrocarbons took place in bottom sediments, where their concentrations exceeded the background ones in terms of dry weight. In the Gelendzhik Bay, their content reached 252 μg/g, and in the composition of organic carbon (Corg > 1 %, which may indicate the contamination of sediments with oil products. In the Feodosiya Bay their part in the composition of Corg did not exceed 0.73 % and was 0.35 % on average. Natural alkanes dominated in the composition of aliphatic hydrocarbons. The bottom sediments are characterized by the predominance of odd high-molecular terrigenous alkanes. The content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the studied sediments was rather low: up to 31 ng/g in the Gelendzhik Bay, up to 348 ng/g in the Feodosiya Bay. These concentrations according to the EPA classification are considered background, or minor petroleum hydrocarbons increase the level of aliphatic hydrocarbons in water and sediments, thus creating a modern hydrocarbon background.

  5. Origin and geochemical behavior of uranium in marine sediments. Utilization of the {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U ratio in marine geochemistry; Origine et comportement geochimique de l`uranium dans les sediments marins. Utilisation du rapport ({sup 234}U/{sup 238}U) en geochimie marine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Organo, Catherine [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)


    The first part of this thesis presents the current situation of knowledge of uranium in marine environment. The second part describes the methods of analysis as well as the material support of the study, i.e., the sediments and marine deposits investigated. The third part is dedicated to the study of uranium mobility in marine sediments characterized by detrital terrigenous composition (pelagic clays). This approach allowed quantifying the entering and leaving flux of uranium after the sediment settling and, to discuss, on this basis, the consequences on the uranium oceanic balance. In the third part the origin and behavior of uranium in zones of high surface productivity is studied. The uranium enrichments observed in the hemi-pelagic sediments of the EUMELI (J.G.O.F.S.-France) programme will constitute a material of study adequate for measuring the variations in the {sup 234}U/2{sup 38U} ratio in solid phase, in response to the oxido-reducing characteristics of the sediment. Thus establishing the origin of the trapped uranium has been possible. Also, the nature of the sedimentary phases related to uranium in bio-genetic sediments in the Austral Ocean was determined. Thus a relationship between the variations in the {sup 234}U/{sup 238} and the diagenetic transformations was possible to establish. Finally in the fifth part a study of the behavior of uranium in a polymetallic shell characteristic for deposits of hydrogenized origin 146 refs., 57 figs., 23 tabs.

  6. Sedimentary facies analysis of the Mesozoic clastic rocks in Southern Peru (Tacna, 18°S): Towards a paleoenvironmental Redefinition and stratigraphic Reorganization (United States)

    Alván, Aldo; Jacay, Javier; Caracciolo, Luca; Sánchez, Elvis; Trinidad, Inés


    The Mesozoic rocks of southern Peru comprise a Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous sedimentary sequence deposited during a time interval of approximately 34 Myr. In Tacna, these rocks are detrital and constitute the Yura Group (Callovian to Tithonian) and the Hualhuani Formation (Berriasian). Basing on robust interpretation of facies and petrographic analysis, we reconstruct the depositional settings of such units and provide a refined stratigraphic framework. Accordingly, nine types of sedimentary facies and six architectural elements are defined. They preserve the record of a progradational fluvial system, in which two styless regulated the dispersion of sediments: (i) a high-to moderate-sinuosity meandering setting (Yura Group), and a later (ii) incipient braided setting (Hualhuani Formation). The Yura Group (Callovian-Tithonian) represents the onset of floodplain deposits and lateral accretion of point-bar deposits sited on a semi-flat topography. Nonetheless, the progradational sequence was affected by at least two rapid marine ingressions occurred during Middle Callovian and Tithonian times. Such marine ingressions reveal the proximity of a shallow marine setting and incipient carbonate deposition. In response to increase in topographic gradient, the Hualhuani Formation (Berriasian) deposited as extensive multistory sandy channels. The mineralogy of the Mesozoic sediments suggests sediment supplies and intense recycling from a craton interior (i.e. Amazon Craton and/or plutonic sources) located eastward of the study area.

  7. Sediment supply to beaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Troels


    Many beaches have been built by an onshore supply of sand from the shoreface, and future long-term coastal evolution critically depends on cross-shore sediment exchange between the upper and the lower shorefaces. Even so, cross-shore sediment supply remains poorly known in quantitative terms...... and this reduces confidence in predictions of long-term shoreline change. In this paper, field measurements of suspended sediment load and cross-shore transport on the lower shoreface are used to derive a model for sediment supply from the lower to the upper shoreface at large spatial and temporal scales. Data...

  8. Sediment Core Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides instrumentation and expertise for physical and geoacoustic characterization of marine sediments.DESCRIPTION: The multisensor core logger measures...

  9. The dirt on sediments (United States)

    Smith, Loren M.; Euliss, Ned H. "Chip"


    In the wetland science field, sediment deposition is often thought of as being beneficial especially when one thinks of coastal estuarine systems. For example, sediments deposited from streams and rivers are necessary to naturally build and maintain tidal marshes. These sediments come from eroded upland soils in the interior of the continent. When these sediments are diverted from natural coastal deposition areas, such as occurs from river channelization, we lose marshes through subsidence as is happening throughout coastal Louisiana. However, the value of eroded soils is all a matter of hydrogeomorphic perspective.

  10. AMS radiocarbon analyses from Lake Baikal, Siberia: Challenges of dating sediments from a large, oligotrophic lake (United States)

    Colman, Steven M.; Jones, Glenn A.; Rubin, M.; King, J.W.; Peck, J.A.; Orem, W.H.


    A suite of 146 new accelerator-mass spectrometer (AMS) radiocarbon ages provides the first reliable chronology for late Quaternary sediments in Lake Baikal. In this large, highly oligotrophic lake, biogenic and authigenic carbonate are absent, and plant macrofossils are extremely rare. Total organic carbon is therefore the primary material available for dating. Several problems are associated with the TOC ages. One is the mixture of carbon sources in TOC, not all of which are syndepositional in age. This problem manifests itself in apparent ages for the sediment surface that are greater than zero. However, because most of the organic carbon in Lake Baikal sediments is algal (autochthonous) in origin, this effect is limited to about 1000+500 years, which can be corrected, at least for young deposits. The other major problem with dating Lake Baikal sediments is the very low carbon contents of glacial-age deposits, which makes them extremely susceptible to contamination with modern carbon. This problem can be minimized by careful sampling and handling procedures. The ages show almost an order of magnitude difference in sediment-accumulation rates among different sedimentary environments in Lake Baikal, from about 0.04 mm/year on isolated banks such as Academician Ridge, to nearly 0.3 mm/year in the turbidite depositional areas beneath the deep basin floors, such as the Central Basin. The new AMS ages clearly indicate that the dramatic increase in diatom productivity in the lake, as evidenced by increases in biogenic silica and organic carbon, began about 13 ka, in contrast to previous estimates of 7 ka for the age of this transition. Holocene net sedimentation rates may be less than, equal to, or greater than those in the late Pleistocene, depending on the site. This variability reflects the balance between variable terrigenous sedimentation and increased biogenic sedimentation during interglaciations. The ages reported here, and the temporal and spatial variation in

  11. Sediment provenance in the Laxmi Basin of the Arabian Sea during the last 800 kyrs (United States)

    Khim, B. K.; Horikawa, K.; Asahara, Y.; Kim, J. E.; Ikehara, M.; Lee, J.


    International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 355 conducted to drill 1109.4 m penetration at Site U1456 in the Laxmi Basin of the Arabian Sea. Four lithologic units are defined onboard at Site U1456 (Pandey et al., 2016). Unit I is 121 m long, consisting mostly of pelagic carbonates (nannofossil ooze and/or foraminifera-rich nannofossil ooze) interbedded with thin terrigenous (clay, silt, and sand) turbidite layers. The age model of Unit I was determined by the correlation of δ18O fluctuations of planktonic foraminifera (Globigerinoides ruber) to LR04 stacks, estimating 1.2 Ma. A total of 60 samples, collected in the context of magnetic susceptibility (MS) changes at a discrete interval from a composite section (Holes U1456A and U1456C) of Unit I, were analyzed to measure Nd and Sr isotopes of detrital fraction. Based on Nd and Sr isotopes, the sediment provenance in the Laxmi Basin during the last 800 kyrs was traced in response to the monsoon activity between the interglacial and glacial periods. ɛNd and 87Sr/86Sr vary in a range from -12.4 to -8.0 and from 0.712 to 0.727, respectively. The correlation between ɛNd and 87Sr/86Sr is quite linear, indicating that the sediments were provided mainly by two dominant sources. Considering the ɛNd and 87Sr/86Sr end-members of sediment sources (i.e., river sediments), the Tapi River and Narmada River are the main contributors of sediments to Site U1456 with a little influence by the modern Indus River. However, the glacial sediments from the Indus River and the Mahi River may supply an additional fraction, leading to less ɛNd and more 87Sr/86Sr at Site U1456. Judged by the sediment sources, the sediments in the Laxmi Basin are characterized by the mixture of different provenances. In addition, it should be noted that the low ɛNd and high 87Sr/86Sr values coincide largely with high MS and vice versa, irrespectively of the glacial-interglacial change. Thus, rather than the sediment provenances, ɛNd and 87Sr/86Sr

  12. Geochemistry of sediment cores of the western equatorial Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, P.S.N.; Cronan, D.S.; Rao, Ch.M.; Paropkari, A.L.; Topgi, R.S.; Guptha, M.V.S.; Colley, N.

    the Somali Basin, and that among the Somali Basin cores depth appears to influence the variable distributions of metals in them. Iron, aluminium and titanium appear to be mainly supplied from terrigenous sources, manganese from authigenic sources...

  13. Geochemistry records from laminated sediments of Shira Lake (Russian Asia) (United States)

    Phedorin, M.; Vologina, E.; Drebuschak, M.; Tolomeev, A.; Kirichenko, I.; Toyabin, A.


    We measured downcore elements distributions in five cores collected across the Shira Lake situated in Central part of Asia (E90o12', N54o30'). The lake is small (32km2), saline (ca.20g/l SO4-, Cl-, Na+, Mg+, K+), being filled with regional precipitation of about 300mm/year (mainly through one major tributary, river Son) and has no surface outflow. The aim of our study was to reconstruct history of changes in the regime of the lake that happened both before and during period of instrumental meteorological observations. In particular, we were interested in lake-level changes due to evaporation, water supply from surface and from underground sources, and in changes of bioproduction in the lake as well. To construct depth-age model for the cores, we measured Cs-137 and unsupported Pb-210 in top layers of the cores. The sedimentation rate thus identified varied in the range of 1-2 mm/year for different cores. We visually observed fine sedimentation ‘rhythms' having thickness of about 0.x-2.x mm: these layers may now be reliably identified as annual lamination. We also determined concentrations of elements in the sediments by recording x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectra when continuously scanning the halves of the cores under sharp synchrotron radiation (SR) beam, using an instrument described in (Zolotarev et al., 2001). The resolution of the scanning was 0.1 mm. After processing of the measured XRF-SR data as in (Phedorin and Goldberg, 2005) we obtained downcore records of 20 elements. We correlated all five cores employing elements patterns. We qualitatively identified variations in surface-water supply treating markers of ‘clastic' material (Ti, Rb, Zr). We identified downcore variations in authgenic mineralization, which appeared to have different kinds: Ca-related, Sr-related, Ba-related, Fe-related. We tried to assess biogenic production changes from Br distribution, admitting analogy of Br in Shira sediments to Br in Lake Baikal sediments (Phedorin et al., 2000

  14. Anoxic sediments off Central Peru record interannual to multidecadal changes of climate and upwelling ecosystem during the last two centuries (United States)

    Gutiérrez, D.; Sifeddine, A.; Reyss, J. L.; Vargas, G.; Velazco, F.; Salvatteci, R.; Ferreira, V.; Ortlieb, L.; Field, D.; Baumgartner, T.; Boussafir, M.; Boucher, H.; Valdés, J.; Marinovic, L.; Soler, P.; Tapia, P.


    High-resolution paleo-environmental and paleo-ecological archives in laminated sequences are present in selected areas from the upper continental Peruvian margin within the oxygen minimum zone. We present initial results of a multidisciplinary study (the PALEOPECES project) that aims to reconstruct environmental and ecosystem variability during the past 200 years from high-resolution records. We report chronology development, sediment structure, elemental, organic, and mineralogical compositions of a box core collected at 300 m depth off Pisco, central Peru. An average sedimentation rate of 2.2 mm y-1 was estimated from downcore excess 210Pb activities for the last 100-150 years. Extending this rate further downcore indicates that a slump located at 52 cm depth from the top of the core can be correlated with a large tsunami that struck the coast of central Peru in 1746. X-ray analyses reveal laminated structures composed of couplets of light and dark laminae. Observations under polarized microscope show that light laminae are dominated by more dense, detrital and terrigenous material, while dark laminae are less dense with greater concentrations of amorphous biogenic silica. Downcore variations in dry bulk density and X-ray radioscopy of gray level show similar patterns, including a major shift at 34 cm depth (ca. mid-nineteenth century). A finely laminated sequence, which may include annual varves, is present between 34 cm depth and the slump layer. Sediment characteristics of the sequence suggest increased seasonality of terrigenous versus biogenous sedimentation during the corresponding period. In addition to a mid-nineteenth century change and considerable multidecadal variability in TOC, there is a positive trend in the past 50 years. Mineralogical analyses from a Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) of the upper core covering the last 25 years, indicate higher concentrations of the mineral fraction (quartz, feldspar, kaolinite and illite) in

  15. Anoxic sediments off Central Peru record interannual to multidecadal changes of climate and upwelling ecosystem during the last two centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Gutiérrez


    Full Text Available High-resolution paleo-environmental and paleo-ecological archives in laminated sequences are present in selected areas from the upper continental Peruvian margin within the oxygen minimum zone. We present initial results of a multidisciplinary study (the PALEOPECES project that aims to reconstruct environmental and ecosystem variability during the past 200 years from high-resolution records. We report chronology development, sediment structure, elemental, organic, and mineralogical compositions of a box core collected at 300 m depth off Pisco, central Peru. An average sedimentation rate of 2.2 mm y-1 was estimated from downcore excess 210Pb activities for the last 100-150 years. Extending this rate further downcore indicates that a slump located at 52 cm depth from the top of the core can be correlated with a large tsunami that struck the coast of central Peru in 1746. X-ray analyses reveal laminated structures composed of couplets of light and dark laminae. Observations under polarized microscope show that light laminae are dominated by more dense, detrital and terrigenous material, while dark laminae are less dense with greater concentrations of amorphous biogenic silica. Downcore variations in dry bulk density and X-ray radioscopy of gray level show similar patterns, including a major shift at 34 cm depth (ca. mid-nineteenth century. A finely laminated sequence, which may include annual varves, is present between 34 cm depth and the slump layer. Sediment characteristics of the sequence suggest increased seasonality of terrigenous versus biogenous sedimentation during the corresponding period. In addition to a mid-nineteenth century change and considerable multidecadal variability in TOC, there is a positive trend in the past 50 years. Mineralogical analyses from a Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR of the upper core covering the last 25 years, indicate higher concentrations of the mineral fraction (quartz, feldspar, kaolinite and

  16. Sediments Of The Moon And Earth As End-Members For Comparative Planetology (United States)

    Basu, Abhijit; Molinaroli, Emanuela

    mostly in basins created slowly by tectonic forces, lunar sediments are deposited in craters (excavated instantaneously by impacts) or even on high grounds. Rubble, sand, mud, and carbonate material on Earth are lithified through burial, expulsion of water, and precipitation of cement from H_2O-solutions. In contrast, lunar sediments are lithified through presumably low-energy shock waves that sinter and bind clastic grains into regolith breccias. Surface processes and morphological features on the Moon are dominated by impact cratering and ejecta deposition, while those on Earth are sculptured by water, ice, and air. However, comparisons in two areas assist in planning planetary exploration. (1) Dust, i.e., small particles elevated above the solid surface of a planetary body, is ubiquitous on the Moon and Earth. The composition of dust is related to but is different from the source rocks, especially where dust is transported over long distances as on Earth. Dust obscures observation of a planetary body and interferes with remote sensing; dust may also affect climate on planetary bodies with an atmosphere. (2) Because Earth's lithosphere has been recycled many times, sediments shed from rocks and regions that do not exist any more are the principal guides to the ancient Earth and its crustal evolution. Because the lunar surface is completely covered by regolith, and no bedrock has been directly observed or sampled, sediment is the principal guide to the lunar crust, past and present. Provenance analysis of lunar and terrestrial sediments is accomplished using the same methods and principles.

  17. Dynamics of Cohesive Sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Claus

    The present thesis considers the transport processes of cohesive sediments. The cohesive sediment used in the laboratory experiments was kaolinite, a clay mineral, in order to be able to reproduce the individual experiments. In the first part of the thesis, the theoretical considerations regarding...

  18. Geochemical characteristics of late Quaternary sediments from the southern Aegean Sea (Eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Ten cores from the southern Aegean Sea have been logged for their lithological composition and seventy-three sub-samples were analysed for the determination of major and trace elements concentrations. Four lithological units were identified, namely, mud, volcanic, turbidite and sapropel. On the basis of the “Z-2” Minoan ash layer radiocarbon age sedimentation rates for the southern Aegean Sea were estimated at 3.26 to 4.15 cm kyr -1. Simple correlation analysis revealed three groups of elements associated with: (1 biogenic carbonates; (2 terrigenous alumino-silicates and (3 sapropelic layers. R-mode factor analysis applied on the carbonate-free corrected data-set defined four significant factors: (1 the “detrital alumino-silicate factor” represented by Si, Al, Na, K, Rb, Zr, Pb and inversely related to Ca, Mg, and Sr; (2 a “hydrothermal factor” loaded with Cr, Ni, Co, Cu, Fe; (3 the “volcanic ash factor” with high loadings for Ti, Al, Fe, Na and (4 a “sapropel factor” represented by Ba, Mo, and Zn. High factor scores for the “hydrothermal factor” were observed in sediment samples proximal to Nisyros Isl., suggesting a potential hydrothermal influence. Red-brown oxides and crusts dredged from this area support further this possibility. The use of factor analysis enabled for a better understanding of the chemical elements associations that remained obscured by correlation analysis.

  19. Formation of carbonate concretions in deep-sea sediment below the CCD and above an active gas hydrate system (United States)

    Dicus, C. M.; Snyder, G. T.; Dickens, G. R.


    Site 1230 of the Ocean Drilling Program targeted the chemistry and microbiology of an active deep-water gas hydrate system in the Peru Trench. The site is noteworthy because, at nearly 6000 m water depth, it lies well below the carbonate compensation depth and the sediments comprise mostly terrigenous clays and biogenic silica. Shipboard work at this site delineated a prominent sulfate-methane transition (SMT) at 8-10 m below seafloor (mbsf) as well as some carbonate horizons. In this study, we present calcium and strontium data for pore waters and sediments at this site, including across the SMT. Concentration profiles show that dissolved Ca2+ diffuses downward from the seafloor toward the SMT, where a sharp inflection indicates consumption of Ca2+ into an authigenic phase. Dissolved Sr2+, on the other hand, diffuses upward from depth toward the SMT. Again, however, a prominent inflection suggests removal of Sr2+ to sediment. The inferences from pore water profiles are borne out by sediment chemistry. Large peaks in the calcium and strontium content of sediment mark the SMT. The calcium and strontium fronts reach ˜2700 and ˜5 mmol/kg, respectively, at 9 mbsf, which are much greater than average background values of ˜10 and ˜1 mmol/kg. These authigenic fronts are primarily composed of carbonate minerals, as determined by acetic acid extractions and x-ray diffraction. Because the calcium and strontium fronts coincide with both the SMT and changes in dissolved chemistry, it is proposed that the carbonates are currently forming as follows: methane rising from the underlying gas hydrate system reacts with dissolved sulfate through anaerobic oxidation of methane which releases HCO3- and alkalinity and causes carbonate precipitation. The overall process has been observed elsewhere; the Peru Trench is interesting, however, because the process leads to carbonate in sediments otherwise devoid of carbonate.

  20. U, Th, K content, heat production and thermal conductivity of Sao Paulo, Brazil continental shelf sediments: a reconnaissance work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, E.B.; Hamza, V.M.; Furtado, V.V.; Adams, J.A.S.


    A reconnaissance of the natural potassium, uranium and thorium content, the radiogenic heat production and the thermal conductivity of 80 bottom surface sediment samples collected from the Brazilian continental shelf off Sao Paulo was made. The average equivalent contents of these radio-elements in an estuarine ambient were 1.21%, 1.75 ppm and 4.29 ppm respectively, and 1.20%, 1.21 ppm and 4.05 ppm, respectively, in the shelf samples. The largest radioelement contents were associated with the more fine-grained sediments. The 234 U to 238 U isotopic ratios varied from 0.60 to 1.75 with an average of 1.11, indicating that the sources for the uranium in these sediments are both terrigenous and from the sea water. An average radiogenic heat production of 0.63 (+ - 0.04) μW.m -3 was calculated from the experimental concentration data. Data for the thermal conductivity measurements ranged from 0.83 to 2.51 μW.m -1 . 0 C -1 , with an average of 1.81 μW.m -1 . 0 C -1 . (Author) [pt

  1. Re-assessing the nitrogen signal in continental margin sediments: New insights from the high northern latitudes (United States)

    Knies, Jochen; Brookes, Steven; Schubert, Carsten J.


    Organic and inorganic nitrogen and their isotopic signatures were studied in continental margin sediments off Spitsbergen. We present evidence that land-derived inorganic nitrogen strongly dilutes the particulate organic signal in coastal and fjord settings and accounts for up to 70% of the total nitrogen content. Spatial heterogeneity in inorganic nitrogen along the coast is less likely to be influenced by clay mineral assemblages or various substrates than by the supply of terrestrial organic matter (TOM) within eroded soil material into selected fjords and onto the shelf. The δ15N signal of the inorganic nitrogen ( δ15N inorg) in sediments off Spitsbergen seems to be appropriate to trace TOM supply from various climate- and ecosystem zones and elucidates the dominant transport media of terrigenous sediments to the marine realm. Moreover, we postulate that with the study of sedimentary δ15N inorg in the Atlantic-Arctic gateway, climatically induced changes in catchment's vegetations in high northern latitudes may be reconstructed. The δ15N org signal is primarily controlled by the availability of nitrate in the dominating ocean current systems and the corresponding degree of utilization of the nitrate pool in the euphotic zone. Not only does this new approach allow for a detailed view into the nitrogen cycle for settings with purely primary-produced organic matter supply, it also provides new insights into both the deposition of marine and terrestrial nitrogen and its ecosystem response to (paleo-) climate changes.

  2. Distribution, Microfabric, and Geochemical Characteristics of Siliceous Rocks in Central Orogenic Belt, China: Implications for a Hydrothermal Sedimentation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhong Li


    Full Text Available Marine siliceous rocks are widely distributed in the central orogenic belt (COB of China and have a close connection to the geological evolution and metallogenesis. They display periodic distributions from Mesoproterozoic to Jurassic with positive peaks in the Mesoproterozoic, Cambrian—Ordovician, and Carboniferous—Permian and their deposition is enhanced by the tensional geological settings. The compressional regimes during the Jinning, Caledonian, Hercynian, Indosinian, and Yanshanian orogenies resulted in sudden descent in their distribution. The siliceous rocks of the Bafangshan-Erlihe ore deposit include authigenic quartz, syn-depositional metal sulphides, and scattered carbonate minerals. Their SiO2 content (71.08–95.30%, Ba (42.45–503.0 ppm, and ΣREE (3.28–19.75 ppm suggest a hydrothermal sedimentation origin. As evidenced by the Al/(Al + Fe + Mn, Sc/Th, (La/YbN, and (La/CeN ratios and δCe values, the studied siliceous rocks were deposited in a marginal sea basin of a limited ocean. We suggest that the Bafangshan-Erlihe area experienced high- and low-temperature stages of hydrothermal activities. The hydrothermal sediments of the former stage include metal sulphides and silica, while the latter was mainly composed of silica. Despite the hydrothermal sedimentation of the siliceous rocks, minor terrigenous input, magmatism, and biological activity partly contributed to geochemical features deviating from the typical hydrothermal characteristics.

  3. Natural radioactivity in stream sediments of Oltet River, Romania (United States)

    Ion, Adriana


    The concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides (U-238, Th-232 and K-40) in stream sediments of the Oltet River was measured in order to establish the primary sources of radionuclides, the transport pathways and the geochemical factors favouring their mobilisation and concentration in the existing geological context. The Oltet River has a length of 185 Km and crosses the southern central part of the country, being the right tributary of the Olt River. The range in elevation of the watercourse varies between 1963 m in the springs area (Parîng Mountains) and 200 m at the confluence with the Olt River, whereas the relief of the Oltet Basin has a varied character, manifested by the presence of diverse forms of relief, starting with major mountainous heights and ending with low-lying plains regions. In cross section from North to South, the Olteț River cuts metamorphic rocks (schist, gneisses, quartzite, marble, mica-schist's), magmatic rocks (granite and granitoid massifs - intruded by veins of microgranite, aplite, pegmatite and lamprophyre) and limestone, followed by deposits composed of clays, marls, sands and gravels, that are characterized by the presence of lignite seams. 44 stream sediment samples were collected in summer of 2016 from sampling points distributed along the river with an equidistance of about 4 - 5 km. The activity concentrations of the U-238, Th-232 and K-40 were measured by gamma ray spectrometry using HPGe detector (ORTEC) with 26% relative efficiency in multilayer shielding. The reference materials used were IAEA - RGK-1 and IAEA - 314. Analysis was performed on the features, the mechanical degradation of the rocks overcomes their chemical decomposition. In the middle part of the river as result of almost abrupt passage between mountain and hilly terrains increases and concentration of radionuclides; effect of large quantities of clastic material deposited by torrents. The mechanical migration of resistant uranium, thorium and

  4. Sediment Resuspension Data (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The full report on sediment resuspension in drinking water storage tanks and a link to an animation of results. This dataset is associated with the following...

  5. Sediments and aquatic indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Determinations of 90 Sr, certain gamma emitting nuclides and 239,240 Pu in bottom sediment in the Baltic Sea area and in sedimenting material and biota near the Loviisa and Olkiluoto nuclear power stations were continued in 1984 and 1985. In the bottom sediments of the deep Baltic basins, the total amounts of 90 Sr, 137 Cs and Pu were 8.5-80 Bq m -2 , 83-3200 Bq m -2 and 4.7-190 Bq m -2 , respectively. The ranges were about the same as in the earlier reports 1,2 . In sedimenting material and biota the conentrations of 90 Sr and 239,240 Pu were roughly the same as in 1983. The amounts and selection of reactor originated activation products were not changed in the vicinity of the two nuclear power stations. Small amounts of 137 Cs and 134 Cs released from the Loviisa nuclear power station were detected in 1985

  6. Offshore Surficial Sediment (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This data layer (PAC_EXT.txt and PAC_PRS.txt) represents two of five point coverages of known sediment samples, inspections, and probes from the usSEABED data...

  7. Underwater Sediment Sampling Research (United States)


    impacted sediments was found to be directly related to the concentration of crude oil detected in the sediment pore waters . Applying this 16. Abstract (MAXIMUM 200 WORDS ) The USCG R&D Center sought to develop a bench top system to determine the amount of total...scattered. The approach here is to sample the interstitial water between the grains of sand and attempt to determine the amount of oil in and on

  8. Fish scales in sediments from off Callao, central Peru (United States)

    Díaz-Ochoa, J. A.; Lange, C. B.; Pantoja, S.; De Lange, G. J.; Gutiérrez, D.; Muñoz, P.; Salamanca, M.


    We study fish scales as a proxy of fish abundance and preservation biases together with phosphorus from fish remains (P fish) in a sediment core retrieved off Callao, Peru (12°1'S, 77°42'W; water depth=179 m; core length=52 cm). We interpret our results as a function of changing redox conditions based on ratios of redox-sensitive trace elements (Cu/Al, Mo/Al, Ni/Al, Zn/Al, V/Al), terrigenous indicators (Fe in clays, Ti, Al), and biogenic proxies (CaCO 3, biogenic opal, total nitrogen, organic carbon, barite Ba). The core covers roughly 700 years of deposition, based on 210Pb activities extrapolated downcore and 14C dating at selected intervals. Our fish-scale record is dominated by anchovy ( Engraulis ringens) scales followed by hake ( Merluccius gayii) scales. The core presented an abrupt lithological change at 17 cm (corresponding to the early 19th century). Above that depth, it was laminated and was more organic-rich (10-15% organic carbon) than below, where the core was partly laminated and less organic-rich (Peru beginning in the early 19th century. Higher fish-scale contents and higher P fish/P total ratios were also observed within the upper 17 cm of the core. The behavior of biogenic proxies and redox-sensitive trace elements was similar; more reduced conditions corresponded to higher contents of CaCO 3, C org, total nitrogen and fish scales, suggesting that these proxies might convey an important preservation signal.

  9. Sedimentation influx and volcanic interactions in the Fuji Five Lakes: implications for paleoseismological records (United States)

    Lamair, Laura; Hubert-Ferrari, Aurélia; Yamamoto, Shinya; El Ouahabi, Meriam; Garrett, Ed; Shishikura, Masanobu; Schmidt, Sabine; Boes, Evelien; Obrochta, Stephen; Nakamura, Atsunori; Miyairi, Yosuke; Yokoyama, Yusuke; De Batist, Marc; Heyvaert, Vanessa M. A.


    The Fuji Fives Lakes are located at the foot of Mount Fuji volcano close to the triple junction, where the North American Plate, the Eurasian plate and the Philippine Sea Plate meet. These lakes are ideally situated to study Mount Fuji volcanism and the interaction between volcanism, changes in lake sedimentation rates and the ability of lakes to record paleoearthquakes. Here, we present newly acquired geological data of Lake Yamanaka and Lake Motosu, including seismic reflection profiles, gravity and piston cores. These two lakes and their respective watersheds were affected by several eruptions of Mount Fuji. Lake Yamanaka, a very shallow lake (max. depth 14 m), was heavily impacted by the scoria fall-out of the A.D. 1707 Hoei eruption of Mount Fuji. A detailed investigation of the effect of the Hoei eruption was conducted on short gravity cores, using high resolution XRD, C/N and 210Pb/137Cs analyses. The preliminary results suggest that the sedimentation rate of Lake Yamanaka drastically reduced after the Hoei eruption, followed by an increase until the present day. Similarly, lacustrine sedimentation in Lake Motosu (max. depth 122 m) was disturbed by Mount Fuji volcanism at a larger scale. The watershed of Lake Motosu was impacted by several lava flows and scoria cones. For example, the Omuro scoria cone reduced the catchment size of Lake Motosu and modified its physiography. The related scoria fall out covered an extensive part of the lake catchment and reduced terrigenous sedimentary influx to Lake Motosu. Within the deep basin of Lake Motosu, seismic reflection data shows two different periods that are distinguished by a major change in the dominant sedimentary processes. During the first period, sublacustrine landslides and turbidity currents were the dominant sedimentation processes. During the second one, the seismic stratigraphy evidences only deposition of numerous turbidites interrupting the hemipelagic sedimentation. Changes in sedimentary processes

  10. Molecular detection of Candidatus Scalindua pacifica and environmental responses of sediment anammox bacterial community in the Bohai Sea, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyue Dang

    Full Text Available The Bohai Sea is a large semi-enclosed shallow water basin, which receives extensive river discharges of various terrestrial and anthropogenic materials such as sediments, nutrients and contaminants. How these terrigenous inputs may influence the diversity, community structure, biogeographical distribution, abundance and ecophysiology of the sediment anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox bacteria was unknown. To answer this question, an investigation employing both 16S rRNA and hzo gene biomarkers was carried out. Ca. Scalindua bacteria were predominant in the surface sediments of the Bohai Sea, while non-Scalindua anammox bacteria were also detected in the Yellow River estuary and inner part of Liaodong Bay that received strong riverine and anthropogenic impacts. A novel 16S rRNA gene sequence clade was identified, putatively representing an anammox bacterial new candidate species tentatively named "Ca. Scalindua pacifica". Several groups of environmental factors, usually with distinct physicochemical or biogeochemical natures, including general marine and estuarine physicochemical properties, availability of anammox substrates (inorganic N compounds, alternative reductants and oxidants, environmental variations caused by river discharges and associated contaminants such as heavy metals, were identified to likely play important roles in influencing the ecology and biogeochemical functioning of the sediment anammox bacteria. In addition to inorganic N compounds that might play a key role in shaping the anammox microbiota, organic carbon, organic nitrogen, sulfate, sulfide and metals all showed the potentials to participate in the anammox process, releasing the strict dependence of the anammox bacteria upon the direct availability of inorganic N nutrients that might be limiting in certain areas of the Bohai Sea. The importance of inorganic N nutrients and certain other environmental factors to the sediment anammox microbiota suggests that these

  11. A three-dimensional stratigraphic model for aggrading submarine channels based on laboratory experiments, numerical modeling, and sediment cores (United States)

    Limaye, A. B.; Komatsu, Y.; Suzuki, K.; Paola, C.


    Turbidity currents deliver clastic sediment from continental margins to the deep ocean, and are the main driver of landscape and stratigraphic evolution in many low-relief, submarine environments. The sedimentary architecture of turbidites—including the spatial organization of coarse and fine sediments—is closely related to the aggradation, scour, and lateral shifting of channels. Seismic stratigraphy indicates that submarine, meandering channels often aggrade rapidly relative to lateral shifting, and develop channel sand bodies with high vertical connectivity. In comparison, the stratigraphic architecture developed by submarine, braided is relatively uncertain. We present a new stratigraphic model for submarine braided channels that integrates predictions from laboratory experiments and flow modeling with constraints from sediment cores. In the laboratory experiments, a saline density current developed subaqueous channels in plastic sediment. The channels aggraded to form a deposit with a vertical scale of approximately five channel depths. We collected topography data during aggradation to (1) establish relative stratigraphic age, and (2) estimate the sorting patterns of a hypothetical grain size distribution. We applied a numerical flow model to each topographic surface and used modeled flow depth as a proxy for relative grain size. We then conditioned the resulting stratigraphic model to observed grain size distributions using sediment core data from the Nankai Trough, offshore Japan. Using this stratigraphic model, we establish new, quantitative predictions for the two- and three-dimensional connectivity of coarse sediment as a function of fine-sediment fraction. Using this case study as an example, we will highlight outstanding challenges in relating the evolution of low-relief landscapes to the stratigraphic record.

  12. Biological productivity, terrigenous influence and noncrustal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1100ka. Our data suggest that during ~ 1100 ka and ~ 400 ka siliceous productivity was lower, ... Manganese, Ba, Cu, Ni, Zn, and Co have around 90% of their supply from noncrustal ...... Pattan J N, Masuzawa T, Divakar Naidu P, Parthiban G.

  13. Greigite formed in early Pleistocene lacustrine sediments from the Heqing Basin, southwest China, and its paleoenvironmental implications (United States)

    Qiang, Xiaoke; Xu, Xinwen; Zhao, Hui; Fu, Chaofeng


    The ferrimagnetic iron sulfide greigite (Fe3S4) occurs widely in sulfidic lacustrine and marine sedimentary environments. Knowledge of its formation and persistence is important for both magnetostratigraphic and paleoenvironmental studies. Although the formation mechanism of greigite has been widely demonstrated, the sedimentary environments associated with greigite formation in lakes, especially on relatively long timescales, are poorly understood. A long and continuous sequence of Pleistocene lacustrine sediments was recovered in the Heqing drill core from southwestern China, which provides an outstanding record of continental climate and environment. Integrated magnetic, geochemical, and paleoclimatic analysis of the lacustrine sequence provides an opportunity to improve our understanding of the environmental controls on greigite formation. Rock magnetic and scanning electron microscope analyses of selected samples from the core reveal that greigite is present in the lower part of the core (part 1, 665.8-372.5 m). Greigite occurs throughout this interval and is the dominant magnetic mineral, irrespective of the climatic state. The magnetic susceptibility (χ) record, which is mainly controlled by the concentration of greigite, matches well with variations in the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) index and total organic carbon (TOC) content, with no significant time lag. This indicates that the greigite formed during early diagenesis. In greigite-bearing intervals, with the χ increase, Bc value increase and tends to be stable at about 50 mT. Therefore, we suggest that χ values could estimate the variation of greigite concentration approximately in the Heqing core. Greigite favored more abundant in terrigenous-rich and organic-poor layers associated with weak summer monsoon which are characterized by high χ values, high Fe content, high Rb/Sr ratio and low TOC content. Greigite enhancement can be explained by variations in terrigenous inputs. Our studies demonstrate

  14. Quantifying grain shape with MorpheoLV: A case study using Holocene glacial marine sediments (United States)

    Charpentier, Isabelle; Staszyc, Alicia B.; Wellner, Julia S.; Alejandro, Vanessa


    As demonstrated in earlier works, quantitative grain shape analysis has revealed to be a strong proxy for determining sediment transport history and depositional environments. MorpheoLV, devoted to the calculation of roughness coefficients from pictures of unique clastic sediment grains using Fourier analysis, drives computations for a collection of samples of grain images. This process may be applied to sedimentary deposits assuming core/interval/image archives for the storage of samples collected along depth. This study uses a 25.8 m jumbo piston core, NBP1203 JPC36, taken from a 100 m thick sedimentary drift deposit from Perseverance Drift on the northern Antarctic Peninsula continental shelf. Changes in ocean and ice conditions throughout the Holocene recorded in this sedimentary archive can be assessed by studying grain shape, grain texture, and other proxies. Ninety six intervals were sampled and a total of 2319 individual particle images were used. Microtextures of individual grains observed by SEM show a very high abundance of authigenically precipitated silica that obscures the original grain shape. Grain roughness, computed along depth with MorpheoLV, only shows small variation confirming the qualitative observation deduced from the SEM. Despite this, trends can be seen confirming the reliability of MorpheoLV as a tool for quantitative grain shape analysis.

  15. Quantifying grain shape with MorpheoLV: A case study using Holocene glacial marine sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charpentier Isabelle


    Full Text Available As demonstrated in earlier works, quantitative grain shape analysis has revealed to be a strong proxy for determining sediment transport history and depositional environments. MorpheoLV, devoted to the calculation of roughness coefficients from pictures of unique clastic sediment grains using Fourier analysis, drives computations for a collection of samples of grain images. This process may be applied to sedimentary deposits assuming core/interval/image archives for the storage of samples collected along depth. This study uses a 25.8 m jumbo piston core, NBP1203 JPC36, taken from a ~100 m thick sedimentary drift deposit from Perseverance Drift on the northern Antarctic Peninsula continental shelf. Changes in ocean and ice conditions throughout the Holocene recorded in this sedimentary archive can be assessed by studying grain shape, grain texture, and other proxies. Ninety six intervals were sampled and a total of 2319 individual particle images were used. Microtextures of individual grains observed by SEM show a very high abundance of authigenically precipitated silica that obscures the original grain shape. Grain roughness, computed along depth with MorpheoLV, only shows small variation confirming the qualitative observation deduced from the SEM. Despite this, trends can be seen confirming the reliability of MorpheoLV as a tool for quantitative grain shape analysis.

  16. Soft-Sediment Deformation Structures Interpreted as Seismites in the Kolankaya Formation, Denizli Basin (SW Turkey) (United States)

    Topal, Savaş; Özkul, Mehmet


    The NW-trending Denizli basin of the SW Turkey is one of the neotectonic grabens in the Aegean extensional province. It is bounded by normal faults on both southern and northern margins. The basin is filled by Neogene and Quaternary terrestrial deposits. Late Miocene- Late Pliocene aged Kolankaya formation crops out along the NW trending Karakova uplift in the Denizli basin. It is a typical fluviolacustrine succession that thickens and coarsens upward, comprising poorly consolidated sand, gravelly sand, siltstone and marl. Various soft-sediment deformation structures occur in the formation, especially in fine- to medium grained sands, silts and marls: load structures, flame structures, clastic dikes (sand and gravely-sand dike), disturbed layers, laminated convolute beds, slumps and synsedimentary faulting. The deformation mechanism and driving force for the soft-sediment deformation are related essentially to gravitational instability, dewatering, liquefaction-liquidization, and brittle deformation. Field data and the wide lateral extent of the structures as well as regional geological data show that most of the deformation is related to seismicity and the structures are interpreted as seismites. The existence of seismites in the Kolankaya Formation is evidence for continuing tectonic activity in the study area during the Neogene and is consistent with the occurrence of the paleoearthquakes of magnitude >5. PMID:25152909

  17. Geochemical analysis of sediments from a semi-enclosed bay (Dongshan Bay, southeast China) to determine the anthropogenic impact and source. (United States)

    Xu, Yonghang; Sun, Qinqin; Ye, Xiang; Yin, Xijie; Li, Dongyi; Wang, Liang; Wang, Aijun; Li, Yunhai


    The geochemical compositions of sediments in the Dongshan Bay, a semi-enclosed bay on the southeast coast of China, were obtained to identify pollutant sources and evaluate the anthropogenic impacts over the last 100 years. The results indicated that the metal flux had been increasing since the 1980s. Enrichment factor values (Pb, Zn and Cu) suggested only slight enrichment. The proportion of anthropogenic Pb changed from 9% to 15% during 2000-2014. Coal combustion might be an important contamination source in the Dongshan Bay. The historical variation in the metal flux reflected the economic development and urbanization in the Zhangjiang drainage area in the past 30 years. According to the Landsat satellite remote sensing data, the urbanization area expanded approximately three times from 1995 to 2010. The δ 13 C values (-21‰ to -23‰) of the organic matter (OM) in the sediments indicated that the OM was primarily sourced from aquatic, terrigenous and marsh C 3 plants. Nitrogen was mainly derived from aquatic plants and terrigenous erosion before the 1980s. However, the total organic carbon (TOC) contents, total nitrogen (TN) contents and δ 15 N had been increasing since the 1980s, which suggested that the sources of nitrogen were soil erosion, fertilizer and sewage. In addition, the TOC and TN fluxes in the Dongshan Bay had significantly increased since the 1980s, which reflected the use of N fertilizer. However, the TOC and TN fluxes significantly decreased in the past decade because environmental awareness increased and environmental protection policies were implemented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sediment impacts on marine sponges. (United States)

    Bell, James J; McGrath, Emily; Biggerstaff, Andrew; Bates, Tracey; Bennett, Holly; Marlow, Joseph; Shaffer, Megan


    Changes in sediment input to marine systems can influence benthic environments in many ways. Sponges are important components of benthic ecosystems world-wide and as sessile suspension feeders are likely to be impacted by changes in sediment levels. Despite this, little is known about how sponges respond to changes in settled and suspended sediment. Here we review the known impacts of sedimentation on sponges and their adaptive capabilities, whilst highlighting gaps in our understanding of sediment impacts on sponges. Although the literature clearly shows that sponges are influenced by sediment in a variety of ways, most studies confer that sponges are able to tolerate, and in some cases thrive, in sedimented environments. Critical gaps exist in our understanding of the physiological responses of sponges to sediment, adaptive mechanisms, tolerance limits, and the particularly the effect of sediment on early life history stages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sedimentation problems and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.T.


    Roseires Dam and reservoir are located in Sudan, Africa on the Blue Nile River. The hydropower from the reservoir provides approximately 80% of the power used in Sudan, thus having a tremendous economic impact on the country. The reservoir was first impounded in 1966 and has been filled annually since then. The Blue Nile has historically been known to carry heavy sediment loads which is associated with erosion from overgrazing in Ethiopia, the Blue Nile's headwaters. During the flood season, the dam's turbine intakes become blocked with debris and sediment. After a severe blockage in 1981, which prevented hydropower generation for several days, consultants from USAID were asked to make recommendations on reducing the sediment and debris impacts on reservoir operations. This led to debris clearing and dredging equipment acquisitions in 1982. In 1988, blockage occurred again during the flood season. This writer was asked by the World Bank to travel to Sudan, investigate the sediment and debris problems, examine the USAID recommendations, comment on potential sediment and debris problems associated with a proposed plan to raise the dam, make additional recommendations, and return to Sudan several times to determine the effectiveness of there recommendations. This paper discussed the results of the aforementioned activities and describes the new recommendations made by this writer

  20. The oceanic sediment barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, T.J.G.; Searle, R.C.; Wilson, T.R.S.


    Burial within the sediments of the deep ocean floor is one of the options that have been proposed for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. An international research programme is in progress to determine whether oceanic sediments have the requisite properties for this purpose. After summarizing the salient features of this programme, the paper focuses on the Great Meteor East study area in the Northeast Atlantic, where most oceanographic effort has been concentrated. The geological geochemical and geotechnical properties of the sediments in the area are discussed. Measurements designed to determine the rate of pore water movement through the sediment column are described. Our understanding of the chemistry of both the solid and pore-water phases of the sediment are outlined, emphasizing the control that redox conditions have on the mobility of, for example, naturally occurring manganese and uranium. The burial of instrumented free-fall penetrators to depths of 30 m beneath the ocean floor is described, modelling one of the methods by which waste might be emplaced. Finally, the nature of this oceanic environment is compared with geological environments on land and attention is drawn to the gaps in our knowledge that must be filled before oceanic burial can be regarded as an acceptable disposal option. (author)

  1. Dynamics of organic and inorganic carbon in surface sediments of the Yellow River Estuary (United States)

    Yu, Z.; Wang, X.; Liu, X.; Zhang, E.; Hang, F.


    Estuarine sediment is an important carbon reservoir thus may play an important role in the global carbon cycle. However, little is known on the dynamics of organic carbon (OC) and inorganic carbon (IC) in the surface sediment of the Yellow River Estuary, a large estuary in northern China. In this study, we applied element analyses and isotopic approach to study spatial distribution and sources of OC and IC in the Yellow River Estuary. We found that TIC concentration (6.3-20.1 g kg-1) was much higher than TOC (0.2-4.4 g kg-1) in the surface sediment. There showed a large spatial variability in TOC and TIC and their stable isotopes. Both TOC and TIC were higher to the north (2.6 and 14.5 g kg-1) than to the south (1.6 and 12.2 g kg-1), except in the southern bay where TOC and TIC reached 2.7 and 15.4 g kg-1, respectively. Generally, TOC and TIC in our study area was mainly autochthonous. The lower TOC values in the south section were due to relatively higher kinetic energy level whereas the higher values in the bay was attributable to terrigenous matters accumulation and lower kinetic energy level. However, the southern bay revealed the most negative δ13Corg and δ13Ccarb, suggesting that there might exist some transfer of OC to IC in the section. Our study points out that the dynamics of sedimentary carbon in the Yellow River Estuary is influenced by multiple and complex processes, and highlights the importance of carbonate in carbon sequstration.

  2. Rockmagnetic correlation between Holocene cave sediments at the mountain and loess soil deposits in Piedmont Crimea (on example of the trap cave Emine-Bair-Khosar and archaeological site Biyuk-Karasu-XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kseniia BONDAR


    ., 1993, soil horizons are named according to Dokuchaev soil classification (Dokuchaev, 1883.Section of unconsolidated sediments in the Emine-Bair-Khosar Cave consists of the following lithofacial units: unit A - dark gray, loose, structureless, moist, light-loamy texture, contains much of organic matter. Unit B - sequence, which consists of eight packs of clay+clastic layer, reddish-brown in color, size of limestone rubbles in clastic layers increases from 1-2 mm at the top of unit, to 1 cm at the bottom. Unit C is light, fawn, homogeneous clay, with a low content of clastic material. There are two clastic units in the section, D and F, and they are formed by chaotically accumulated acute limestone debris up to 5 cm in diameter. Unit E has similar morphology as unit C. Unit G composed with the grayish-brown clay with thin clastic beds.

  3. Petrophysics of Palaeogene sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awadalkarim, Ahmed

    defined and understood this would benefit various areas in petroleum industry. The three studied litholgoies are relatively soft and weak sediments, but they are economically important especially in petroleum industry. Drilling through intervals of shale or siliceous ooze sediments could result in severe...... and very costly borehole instability problems which are closely connected with the "bulk properties" of shale. In practice, the main technological challenge is to keep the borehole sufficiently stable until casing is set. Knowing the real in-situ effective stress is crucial to understand and to predict...... related to borehole stability. This Ph.D. study stressed on the importance of using correct β value in estimation of vertical effective stress especially on deep-sea sediments. To assess the geomechanical stability and the stiffness of the three studied lithologies, their β was found and used to calculate...

  4. Effects of pollution on the geochemical properties of marine sediments across the fringing reef of Aqaba, Red Sea. (United States)

    Al-Rousan, Saber; Al-Taani, Ahmed A; Rashdan, Maen


    The Gulf of Aqaba is of significant strategic and economic value to all gulf-bordering states, particularly to Jordan, where it provides Jordan with its only marine outlet. The Gulf is subject to a variety of impacts posing imminent ecological risk to its unique marine ecosystem. We attempted to investigate the status of metal pollution in the coastal sediments of the Jordanian Gulf of Aqaba. The distribution of Cd, Cr, Zn, Cu, Pb, Al, Fe, and Mn concentrations were determined in trapped and bottom-surface sediments at three selected sites at different depths. In addition, monthly sedimentation rates at varying water depths were also estimated at each sampling site using sediment traps. The high concentrations of Cd, Cr, Zn were recorded at the Phosphate Loading Birth (PLB) site followed by the Industrial Complex (IC) site indicating their dominant anthropogenic source (i.e., the contribution of industrial activities). However, Fe, Al, and Mn contents were related to inputs from the terrigenous (crustal) origin. Except for Al, Fe and Mn at the PLB site, the concentrations of metals exhibited a decreasing trend with increasing water depth (distance from the shoreline). The PLB site also showed the highest sedimentation rate which decreased with increasing water depth. The Enrichment factors (EFs) showed that Cd was the most enriched element in the sediment (indicating that Cd pollution is widespread), whereas the least enriched metal in sediments was Cu. EF values suggested that the coastal area is impacted by a combination of human and natural sources of metals, where the anthropogenic sources are intense in the PLB site (north of Gulf of Aqaba). The MSS area is potentially the least polluted, consistent with being a marine reserve. The IC sediments have been found to be impacted by human activities but less intensely compared to the PLB area. These results suggested that there are two sources of metals in sediments; the primary source is likely closer to PLB

  5. Long-distance multistep sediment transfer at convergent plate margins (Barbados, Lesser Antilles) (United States)

    Limonta, Mara; Garzanti, Eduardo; Resentini, Alberto; Andò, Sergio; Boni, Maria; Bechstädt, Thilo


    We present a regional provenance study of the compositional variability and long distance multicyclic transport of terrigenous sediments along the convergent and transform plate boundaries of Central America, from the northern termination of the Andes to the Lesser Antilles arc-trench system. We focus on high-resolution bulk-petrography and heavy-mineral analyses of modern beach and fluvial sediments and Cenozoic sandstones of Barbados island, one of the places in the world where an active accretionary prism is subaerially exposed (Speed et al., 2012). The main source of siliciclastic sediment in the Barbados accretionary prism is off-scraped quartzose to feldspatho-litho-quartzose metasedimentaclastic turbidites, ultimately supplied from South America chiefly via the Orinoco fluvio-deltaic system. Modern sand on Barbados island is either quartzose with depleted heavy-mineral suites recycled from Cenozoic turbidites and including epidote, zircon, tourmaline, andalusite, garnet, staurolite and chloritoid, or calcareous and derived from Pleistocene coral reefs. The ubiquitous occurrence of clinopyroxene and hypersthene, associated with green-brown kaersutitic hornblende in the north or olivine in the south, points to reworking of ash-fall tephra erupted from andesitic (St. Lucia) and basaltic (St. Vincent) volcanic centers in the Lesser Antilles arc transported by the prevailing anti-trade winds in the upper troposphere. Modern sediments on Barbados island and those shed by other accretionary prisms such as the Indo- Burman Ranges and Andaman-Nicobar Ridge (Garzanti et al., 2013) define the distinctive mineralogical signature of Subduction Complex Provenance, which is invariably composite. Detritus recycled dominantly from accreted turbidites and oceanic mudrocks is mixed in various proportions with detritus from the adjacent volcanic arc or carbonate reefs widely developed at tropical latitudes. Ophiolitic detritus may be locally prominent. Quantitative provenance

  6. Sediment cores from kettle holes in NE Germany reveal recent impacts of agriculture. (United States)

    Kleeberg, Andreas; Neyen, Marielle; Schkade, Uwe-Karsten; Kalettka, Thomas; Lischeid, Gunnar


    Glacial kettle holes in young moraine regions receive abundant terrigenous material from their closed catchments. Core chronology and sediment accumulation were determined for two semi-permanent kettle holes, designated RG and KR, on arable land close to the villages of Rittgarten and Kraatz, respectively, in Uckermark, NE Germany. Core dating ((210)Pb, (137)Cs) revealed variable sediment accretion rates through time (RG 0.4-23.1 mm a(-1); KR 0.2-35.5 mm a(-1)), with periods of high accumulation corresponding to periods of intensive agricultural activity and consequent erosional inputs from catchments. Sediment composition (C, N, P, S, K, Ca, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Mo, Pb, Cd, Zr) was used to determine sediment source and input processes. At RG, annual P input increased from 0.65 kg ha(-1) in the early nineteenth century to 1.67 kg ha(-1) by 2013. At KR, P input increased from 0.6 to 4.1 kg ha(-1) over the last century. There was a concurrent increase in Fe input in both water bodies. Thus, Fe/P ratios showed no temporal trend and did not differ between RG (18.5) and KR (18.4), indicating similar P mobility. At RG, the S/Fe ratio increased from 0.4 to 2.3, indicating more iron sulphides and thus higher P availability, coinciding with high coverage of duckweed (Spirodela polyrhiza (L.)) and soft hornwort (Ceratophyllum submersum L.). At KR, however, this ratio remained low and relatively unchanged (0.3 ± 0.4), indicating more efficient Fe-P binding and lower hydrophyte productivity. Trends in sediment composition indicate a shift towards eutrophication in both kettle holes, but with differences in timing and magnitude. Other morphologically similar kettle holes in NE Germany that are prone to erosion could have been similarly impacted but may differ in the extent of sediment infilling and degradation of their ecological functions.

  7. Quantifying trail erosion and stream sedimentation with sediment tracers (United States)

    Mark S. Riedel


    Abstract--The impacts of forest disturbance and roads on stream sedimentation have been rigorously investigated and documented. While historical research on turbidity and suspended sediments has been thorough, studies of stream bed sedimentation have typically relied on semi-quantitative measures such as embeddedness or marginal pool depth. To directly quantify the...


    The formation processes of metal sulfides in sediments, especially iron sulfides, have been the subjects of intense scientific research because of linkages to the global biogeochemical cycles of iron, sulfur, carbon, and oxygen. Transition metal sulfides (e.g., NiS, CuS, ZnS, Cd...

  9. Soils and organic sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Head, M.J.


    The organic component of soils is basically made up of substances of an individual nature (fats, waxes, resins, proteins, tannic substances, and many others), and humic substances (Kononova, 1966). These are complex polymers formed from breakdown products of the chemical and biological degradation of plant and animal residues. They are dark coloured, acidic, predominantly aromatic compounds ranging in molecular weight from less than one thousand to tens of thousands (Schnitzer, 1977). They can be partitioned into three main fractions:(i) Humic acid, which is soluble in dilute alkaline solution, but can be precipitated by acidification of the alkaline extract.(ii) Fulvic acid, which is soluble in alkaline solution, but is also soluble on acidification.(iii) Humin that cannot be extracted from the soil or sediment by dilute acid or alkaline solutions. It has mostly been assumed that the humic and fulvic acid components of the soil are part of the mobile, or 'active' component, and the humin component is part of the 'passive' component. Other types of organic sediments are likely to contain chemical breakdown products of plant material, plant fragments and material brought in from outside sources. The outside material can be contemporaneous with sediment deposition, can be older material, or younger material incorporated into the sediment long after deposition. Recognition of 'foreign' material is essential for dating, but is not an easy task. Examples of separation techniques for humic and non humic components are evaluated for their efficiency

  10. Magnetic properties of different grain-sized particles of sediments from the Okinawa Trough and their relationships to sedimentary environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ping; LI Peiying; ZHANG Xiaolong; CAO Chengxiao; XU Xingyong; DU Jun; LIU Lejun


    Multiple magnetic parameters were measured for nine different grain-sized fractions separated from the sediment samples that are representatives of four different sedimentary environments of the Okinawa Trough. Based on the measured results, the contributions of different grain-sized particles to total magnetic susceptibility of bulk sediments, the magnetic mineral assemblage and magnetic domain state as well as their relationships to sedimentary environment were discussed. Our research shows that the magnetic mineral is dominated by magnetite with a small amount of hematite and is primarily in pseudo-single-domain state. That indicates that the different sedimentary environments in the Okinawa Trough have certain correlation in material provenance. The magnetic minerals enrich in different grain-sized particles in response to different sedimentary environments. The contribution of the grain sizes from coarse to fine to coarse and fine to the magnetic susceptibility from the west to the east is in accordance with terrigenous material transportation from continental shelf of the East China Sea to the Okinawa Trough. It also shows difference in magnetic properties as a result of some environmental factors.

  11. Resolution of lead-210 chronologies in lake sediments: problems of mid-core fluctuations in lead-210/radium-226 ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haworth, R. [New England Univ., Armidale, NSW (Australia). Dept. of Geography; Heijnis, H. [Australian Inst. of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)


    With a range in excess of 150 years under optimum conditions, lead-210 dating represents a valuable tool for studying recent human impacts on the environment, particularly the effects of European settlement in Australia. It is therefore also useful for establishing the start of the pre-European record in a sediment profile. Despite these advantages, there are some unresolved problems that prevent the full potential of an atmospherically-derived lead-210 profile being extended as far into the past as the activity signal allows. lead 210 has a half-life of 22.26 years, and a capacity to precipitate and be adsorbed by terrestrial material, particularly lake and marine sediments. This out-of-phase (or unsupported) lead-210 thus returns to a specific terrigenous location where it is added to the lead- 210 formed continuously in situ from the local radium-226 (equivalent to supported lead-210). Dating is based on the measurement of the decline of this unsupported lead-210 against the equilibrium ratio of in situ lead-210/radium-226. Paper no. 13; Extended abstract. 2 refs., 1 fig.

  12. Centennial-scale records of total organic carbon in sediment cores from the South Yellow Sea, China (United States)

    Zhu, Qing; Lin, Jia; Hong, Yuehui; Yuan, Lirong; Liu, Jinzhong; Xu, Xiaoming; Wang, Jianghai


    Global carbon cycling is a significant factor that controls climate change. The centennial-scale variations in total organic carbon (TOC) contents and its sources in marginal sea sediments may reflect the influence of human activities on global climate change. In this study, two fine-grained sediment cores from the Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass of the South Yellow Sea were used to systematically determine TOC contents and stable carbon isotope ratios. These results were combined with previous data of black carbon and 210Pb dating from which we reconstructed the centennial-scale initial sequences of TOC, terrigenous TOC (TOCter) and marine autogenous TOC (TOCmar) after selecting suitable models to correct the measured TOC (TOCcor). These sequences showed that the TOCter decreased with time in the both cores while the TOCmar increased, particularly the rapid growth in core H43 since the late 1960s. According to the correlation between the Huanghe (Yellow) River discharge and the TOCcor, TOCter, or TOCmar, we found that the TOCter in the two cores mainly derived from the Huanghe River and was transported by it, and that higher Huanghe River discharge could strengthen the decomposition of TOCmar. The newly obtained initial TOC sequences provide important insights into the interaction between human activities and natural processes.

  13. [Composition of marine sediment samples in the Costa Rica intertidal zones using X-Ray fluorescence analysis]. (United States)

    Salazar, Alfonso; Lizano, Omar G; Alfaro, Eric J


    Using an energy dispersive X-Ray fluorescence analysis, simultaneous evaluation of K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Ge, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr and Pb in 74 marine sediment samples from the Costa Rica intertidal zones was conducted. Samples were collected between June 1999 and December 2001, from Caribbean and Pacific beaches of Costa Rica. Calcium and iron showed the highest abundances and are indicators of the natural origin of the sediments. Calcium is associated with biogenic processes such as coral reefs near the sampling sites and iron indicates a terrigenous origin. In general, the beaches of the Caribbean and North Pacific regions showed the greatest concentration of calcium. This is indicative of the abundant reef structures near these beaches. The beaches of the Central and South Pacific show the greatest iron concentrations, indicating an important lithosphere contribution and/or little contribution of calcium carbonate due to the poor development of coralline structures near the sampling sites. Finally, the analyses did not show evidence of elements associated with anthropogenic pollution. Only a northern section of Puerto Viejo beach showed high concentrations of lead, zinc and titanium, perhaps associated with hydrothermal sources.

  14. Composition of sediments in the coastal zones of Costa Rica using fluorescence of ray-X (FRX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar Matarrita, Alfonso; Lizano Rodriguez, Omar G.; Alfaro, Eric J.


    Using an energy dispersive X-Ray fluorescence analysis, simultaneous evaluation of K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Ge, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr and Pb in 74 marine sediment samples from the Costa Rica intertidal zones was conducted. Samples were collected between June 1999 and December 2001, from Caribbean and Pacific beaches of Costa Rica. Calcium and iron showed the highest abundances and are indicators of the natural origin of the sediments. Calcium is associated with biogenic processes such as coral reefs near the sampling sites and iron indicates a terrigenous origin. In general, the beaches of the Caribbean and North Pacific regions showed the greatest concentration of calcium. This is indicative of the abundant reef structures near these beaches. The beaches of the Central and South Pacific show the greatest iron concentrations, indicating an important lithosphere contribution and/or little contribution of calcium carbonate due to the poor development of coralline structures near the sampling sites. Finally, the analyses did not show evidence of elements associated with anthropogenic pollution. Only a northern section of Puerto Viejo beach showed high concentrations of lead, zinc and titanium, perhaps associated with hydrothermal sources. (author)

  15. Resolution of lead-210 chronologies in lake sediments: problems of mid-core fluctuations in lead-210/radium-226 ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haworth, R.


    With a range in excess of 150 years under optimum conditions, lead-210 dating represents a valuable tool for studying recent human impacts on the environment, particularly the effects of European settlement in Australia. It is therefore also useful for establishing the start of the pre-European record in a sediment profile. Despite these advantages, there are some unresolved problems that prevent the full potential of an atmospherically-derived lead-210 profile being extended as far into the past as the activity signal allows. lead 210 has a half-life of 22.26 years, and a capacity to precipitate and be adsorbed by terrestrial material, particularly lake and marine sediments. This out-of-phase (or unsupported) lead-210 thus returns to a specific terrigenous location where it is added to the lead- 210 formed continuously in situ from the local radium-226 (equivalent to supported lead-210). Dating is based on the measurement of the decline of this unsupported lead-210 against the equilibrium ratio of in situ lead-210/radium-226

  16. Petroleum hydrocarbons in a water-sediment system from Yellow River estuary and adjacent coastal area, China: Distribution pattern, risk assessment and sources. (United States)

    Wang, Min; Wang, Chuanyuan; Li, Yuanwei


    Aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHs), biomarker and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations of surface water and sediment samples collected from Yellow River Estuary and adjacent coastal area in China were measured to determine their spatial distributions, analyze their sources and evaluate the ecological risk of PAHs in the water-sediment system. The spatial distributions of n-alkane in sediments are mainly controlled by the mixing inputs of terrigenous and marine components. In comparison with AHs, the total concentrations of Σ16PAHs in surface sediments from a transect of the offshore area were noticeably higher than that of the riverine and estuary areas. Additionally, the AHs and total PAHs concentrations all indicated an overall pattern of a seaward decrease. The PAHs concentrations during the dry season (mainly in the form of dissolved phase) were higher than that of PAHs (mainly dissolved phase and particulate phase form) in the flooding season. In comparison with global concentration levels of PAHs, the level of PAHs in suspended particulate matter and sediments from the Yellow River Estuary was lower than those from other countries, while the concentration of PAHs in the dissolved phase were in the middle range. Petroleum contamination, mainly from oil exploration and discharge of pollutants from rivers, was the main source of n-alkanes. The PAHs in the river were mostly of petrogenic origin, while those in the estuarial and marine areas originated mainly from pyrogenic sources. The results of the toxicology assessment suggested that the PAHs in sediments from Yellow River Estuary and adjacent coastal area exhibited a low potential eco-toxicological contamination level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. First High-Resolution Record of Late Quaternary Environmental Changes in the Amundsen Sea, West Antarctica, Revealed by Multi-proxy Analysis of Drift Sediments (United States)

    Horrocks, J.; Ó Cofaigh, C.; Lloyd, J. M.; Hillenbrand, C. D.; Kuhn, G.; Smith, J.; Ehrmann, W. U.; Esper, O.


    The Amundsen Sea sector of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) is experiencing rapid mass loss and there is a pressing need to place the contemporary ice-sheet changes into a longer term context. The continental rise in this region is characterised by large sediment mounds that are shaped by westward flowing bottom currents and that resemble contouritic drifts existing offshore from the Antarctic Peninsula. Similar to the Antarctic Peninsula drifts, marine sediment cores from the poorly studied sediment mounds in the Amundsen Sea have the potential to provide reliable records of dynamical ice-sheet behaviour in West Antarctica and palaeoceanographic changes in the Southern Ocean during the Late Quaternary that can be reconstructed from their terrestrial, biogenic and authigenic components. Here we use multi-proxy data from three sediment cores recovered from two of the Amundsen Sea mounds to present the first high-resolution study of environmental changes on this part of the West Antarctic continental margin over the glacial-interglacial cycles of the Late Quaternary. Age constraints for the records are derived from biostratigraphy, AMS 14C dates and lithostratigraphy. We focus on the investigation of processes for drift formation, thereby using grain size and sortable silt data to reconstruct changes in bottom current speed and to identify episodes of current winnowing. Data on geochemical and mineralogical sediment composition and physical properties are used to infer both changes in terrigenous sediment supply in response to the advance and retreat of the WAIS across the Amundsen Sea shelf and changes in biological productivity that are mainly controlled by the duration of annual sea-ice coverage. We compare our data sets from the Amundsen Sea mounds to those from the well-studied Antarctic Peninsula drifts, thereby highlighting similarities and discrepancies in depositional processes and climatically-driven environmental changes.

  18. A Jurassic Shock-Aftershock Earthquake Sequence Recorded by Small Clastic Pipes and Dikes within Dune Cross-Strata, Zion National Park, Utah (United States)

    Loope, D. B.; Zlotnik, V. A.; Kettler, R. M.; Pederson, D. T.


    dune lee slope through a pipe, the erupted sand dried and was buried by climbing wind-ripple strata as the large dune continued to advance downwind. The mapped cluster recording eight distinct seismic events lies within thin-laminated sediment that was deposited by wind ripples during 1 m (~ 1 year) of southeastward dune migration. We conclude that the small pipes and dikes of our study sites are products of numerous >MM 5 earthquakes, some of which recurred at intervals of less than 2 months. We interpret one small cluster of pipes and dikes with well-defined upward terminations as a distinct shock-aftershock sequence. Because the largest modern earthquakes can produce surface liquefaction only up to about 175 km from their epicenters, the Jurassic epicenters must have been well within that distance. The tendency of modern plate boundaries to produce high-frequency aftershocks suggests that the epicenter for this Jurassic sequence lay to the southwest, within the plate boundary zone (not within continental rocks to the east). As eolian dunes steadily migrate over interdune surfaces underlain by water-saturated dune cross-strata, the thin, distinct laminae produced by the wind ripples that occupy dune toes can faithfully record high-frequency seismic events.

  19. Coral reefs chronically exposed to river sediment plumes in the southwestern Caribbean: Rosario Islands, Colombia. (United States)

    Restrepo, Juan D; Park, Edward; Aquino, Samia; Latrubesse, Edgardo M


    during the last two decades show temporal increases in water discharge and sediment load of 28% and 48%, respectively. (210)Pb dating results from two cores indicate sedimentation rates of ~0.75 cm/y of continentally exported clastic muddy sediments that are being deposited on the carbonatic shelf. The cores contain sediments with heavy metals and their concentrations are frequently above the ecologically accepted standards. Overall, the last decade has witnessed stronger magnitudes in fluvial fluxes to the coastal region, which probably coincide with associated declines in healthy coral cover and water quality. Our results emphasize the importance of local stressors, such as runoff and dispersion of turbid plumes, as opposed to ocean warming, disease and hurricanes, which have played a larger role on other coral reefs in the Caribbean. Coral reef management across the southwestern Caribbean, a coastal region influenced by continental fluxes of numerous rivers flowing from the Andes, may only be effective when land and marine-based stressors are simultaneously mitigated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Hf Isotope Evidence for Subducted Basalt and Sediment Contributions to the Eastern Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (United States)

    Cai, Y.; Tuena, A. G.; Capra, L.; Straub, S. M.; Goldstein, S. L.; Langmuir, C. H.


    Magmas generated at thick crust continental arcs often have enriched continental crust-like trace element patterns and Pb-Sr-Nd isotope ratios that are intermediate to both upper mantle and crustal compositions. Thus it is difficult to distinguish between contributions from (a) the subducted basalt and the upper mantle wedge, and (b) subducted sediment and the continental crust. These issues have been the focus of major controversy. Here we show evidence for subduction contributions to lavas in a classic thick crust environment. In Eastern Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, the upper continental crust is 30 km to 45 km thick. However, primitive mafic lavas erupt on many sites across the arc. We have analyzed the subducting sediments as represented by DSDP 487, located seaward of the trench, where the lower third of the sediment column has strongly hydrothermal pelagic features and the upper two-thirds is composed of terrigenous sediments. The pelagic sediments have distinctive features that could be used to identify a subduction component in the volcanics, including high REE/Hf, negative Ce anomalies, and Nd-Hf isotopes that lie on the "seawater array" and offset from the "mantle-crust" array. We have focused on a unique series of lavas from volcano Nevado de Toluca, located southwest of Mexico City. These lavas show negative Ce anomalies coupled with low REE/Hf and Zr/Nd ratios. Hf-Nd isotope ratios show a shallow trend compared to the mantle-crust array, consistent with a pelagic component. In addition, Hf isotopes show a striking positive correlation with Ce anomalies that trend toward the pelagic sediment compositions. These and other observations provide clear evidence for a component from subducted sediment in the lavas. In addition, there is a negative correlation of Lu/Hf and Hf isotopes that requires a mixing endmember with MORB-like Hf isotope ratios but with lower than MORB Lu/Hf. This indicates a melt from eclogitic subducted basalt. Compared to other

  1. Signal or noise? Separating grain size-dependent Nd isotope variability from provenance shifts in Indus delta sediments, Pakistan (United States)

    Jonell, T. N.; Li, Y.; Blusztajn, J.; Giosan, L.; Clift, P. D.


    Rare earth element (REE) radioisotope systems, such as neodymium (Nd), have been traditionally used as powerful tracers of source provenance, chemical weathering intensity, and sedimentary processes over geologic timescales. More recently, the effects of physical fractionation (hydraulic sorting) of sediments during transport have called into question the utility of Nd isotopes as a provenance tool. Is source terrane Nd provenance resolvable if sediment transport strongly induces noise? Can grain-size sorting effects be quantified? This study works to address such questions by utilizing grain size analysis, trace element geochemistry, and Nd isotope geochemistry of bulk and grain-size fractions (Pakistan. Here we evaluate how grain size effects drive Nd isotope variability and further resolve the total uncertainties associated with Nd isotope compositions of bulk sediments. Results from the Indus delta indicate bulk sediment ɛNd compositions are most similar to the <63 µm fraction as a result of strong mineralogical control on bulk compositions by silt- to clay-sized monazite and/or allanite. Replicate analyses determine that the best reproducibility (± 0.15 ɛNd points) is observed in the 125-250 µm fraction. The bulk and finest fractions display the worst reproducibility (±0.3 ɛNd points). Standard deviations (2σ) indicate that bulk sediment uncertainties are no more than ±1.0 ɛNd points. This argues that excursions of ≥1.0 ɛNd points in any bulk Indus delta sediments must in part reflect an external shift in provenance irrespective of sample composition, grain size, and grain size distribution. Sample standard deviations (2s) estimate that any terrigenous bulk sediment composition should vary no greater than ±1.1 ɛNd points if provenance remains constant. Findings from this study indicate that although there are grain-size dependent Nd isotope effects, they are minimal in the Indus delta such that resolvable provenance-driven trends can be

  2. Sediment problems in reservoirs. Control of sediment deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsen, Tom


    When a reservoir is formed on a river, sediment will deposit in the reservoir. Such processes are unfortunate, for instance, for the implementation of hydroelectric energy. This thesis studies the problem of reservoir sedimentation and discusses methods of removing the sediments. Various aspects of reservoir sedimentation are discussed. Anthropogenic impacts seem to greatly affect the erosion processes. Temporal distribution is uneven, mainly because of the very large flood events. A world map showing the Reservoir Capacity: Annual Sediment Inflow ratio for reservoirs with volume equal to 10% of annual inflow has been prepared. The map shows that sedimentation is severe in the western parts of North and South America, eastern, southern and northern Africa, parts of Australia and most of Asia. The development of medium-sized reservoirs is difficult, as they are too large for conventional flushing technique and too small to store the sediment that accumulates during their economic lifetime. A computer model, SSIIM, was used with good results in a case study of two flood drawdown trials in Lake Roxburg, New Zealand. Two techniques have been developed that permits controlled suction of sediment and water into a pipe: the Slotted Pipe Sediment Sluicer (SPSS) and the Saxophone Sediment Sluicer (SSS). The techniques exploit the inflow pattern in through a slot in a pipe. An equation describing this inflow pattern was derived and verified experimentally. The SPSS is fixed near the reservoir bed, and sediment that deposits on top of it is removed in the sluicing process. The SSS sluices sediment from the surface of the sediment deposits. Some technical and economic conditions affecting the economics of sediment removal from reservoirs have been identified and studied. 79 refs., 112 figs., 14 tabs.

  3. Characterization of Paleoredox Changes In Nw-pacific Deep-sea Sediments Using Environmental Magnetic In Combination With Geochemical-mineralogic Data (United States)

    Urbat, M.; Pletsch, T.

    The understanding of environmental and oceanic controls on deep-sea sediments in the NW Pacific Ocean (ODP Site 1149A, Nadezhda Basin) benefits from the inte- gration of environmental magnetic methodology with geochemical-mineralogic XRD (x-ray defraction) and XRF (x-ray fluorescence) data. Crucially, the inherently grad- ual diagenetic processes related to paleo-redox changes in the sediment column may be more sensitively monitored using the integration of non-magnetic and magnetic data, because they do reflect various aspects of the entire postdepositional alteration. The studied 32 m long quaternary interval at Hole ODP 1149A provides an expanded record of eolian dust supply from the Asian continent, siliceous plankton accumulation and varying contributions of both discrete ash layers and disperse ash to a truly deep- sea environment (Plank et al. 2000). Recurrent diagenetic intervals appear to be related to changes in the Ocean water circulation (Kuriosho current) and concomitant produc- tivity variations as a function of glacial-interglacial paleoclimatic changes. Diagenetic intervals correspond to paleo-redox boundaries, where suboxic conditions promoted the destruction of the primary magnetic signal (iron oxides) and the precipitation of rhodochrosite (MnCO3). We used simple normative calculations on the basis of of Al and Cr contents to discriminate between the major groups of components (terrigenous, volcanogenic, biogenic, diagenetic) in combination with our magnetic results. These results form the grounds for the discrimation and independent interpretation of the genetically various sediment components in the paleoceanograhic context.

  4. Bryophyte and pteridophyte spores and other palynomorphs in quaternary marine sediments from Campos Basin, southeastern Brazil: Core BU-91-GL-05

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Gonçalves de Freitas


    Full Text Available This paper presents morphological descriptions and ecological data of cryptogam spores and other non-pollen palynomorphs from Quaternary sediments of Campos Basin, Rio de Janeiro, SE Brazil. The ages were derived from biostratigraphy of planktonic foraminifers and two radiocarbon dates, and suggest that sediment deposition started in the last 140,000 years BP. Thirty different types of palynomorphs were identified, described, and photographed: two bryophyte spores (sensu lato; 21 pteridophyte spores; four freshwater microalgae; onePseudoschizaea; and two microfungi. Some of the identified spores (Sphagnum, Blechnum, Cyatheaceae, Dennstaedtiaceae, Lycopodiella, Microgramma, Polypodium, Acrostichum, Pityrogramma, and Lygodium are related to the modern flora found on the northern coast of Rio de Janeiro State, at the Restinga of Jurubatiba, from vegetation types such as shrub swamp/coastal swamp formation, seasonally flooded forest, Clusia and Ericaceae woods, and disturbed vegetation. The freshwater microalgae and the microfungi are also presently recorded from the coastal lagoons of this region. The high spore concentration in slope sediments reflects the intense terrigenous influx, caused by a relative low sealevel during glacial stages. Palynological analysis suggests the presence of taxa from flooded forests and humid areas in the coastal plain during glacial and interglacial stages of the Late Pleistocene.

  5. Application of advanced reservoir characterization, simulation, and production optimization strategies to maximize recovery in slope and basin clastic reservoirs, west Texas (Delaware Basin). Annual progress report, March 31, 1995--March 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, S.P.; Hovorka, S.D.; Cole, A.G.


    The objective of this Class III project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of clastic reservoirs in basinal sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost-effective way to recover more of the original oil in place by strategic infill-well placement and geologically based field development. Reservoirs in the Delaware Mountain Group have low producibility (average recovery <14 percent of the original oil in place) because of a high degree of vertical and lateral heterogeneity caused by depositional processes and post-depositional diagenetic modification. Detailed correlations of the Ramsey sandstone reservoirs in Geraldine Ford field suggest that lateral sandstone continuity is less than interpreted by previous studies. The degree of lateral heterogeneity in the reservoir sandstones suggests that they were deposited by eolian-derived turbidites. According to the eolian-derived turbidite model, sand dunes migrated across the exposed shelf to the shelf break during sea-level lowstands and provided well sorted sand for turbidity currents or grain flows into the deep basin.

  6. New insights into the mineralogy of the Atlantis II Deep metalliferous sediments, Red Sea (United States)

    Laurila, Tea E.; Hannington, Mark D.; Leybourne, Matthew; Petersen, Sven; Devey, Colin W.; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter


    The Atlantis II Deep of the Red Sea hosts the largest known hydrothermal ore deposit on the ocean floor and the only modern analog of brine pool-type metal deposition. The deposit consists mainly of chemical-clastic sediments with input from basin-scale hydrothermal and detrital sources. A characteristic feature is the millimeter-scale layering of the sediments, which bears a strong resemblance to banded iron formation (BIF). Quantitative assessment of the mineralogy based on relogging of archived cores, detailed petrography, and sequential leaching experiments shows that Fe-(oxy)hydroxides, hydrothermal carbonates, sulfides, and authigenic clays are the main "ore" minerals. Mn-oxides were mainly deposited when the brine pool was more oxidized than it is today, but detailed logging shows that Fe-deposition and Mn-deposition also alternated at the scale of individual laminae, reflecting short-term fluctuations in the Lower Brine. Previous studies underestimated the importance of nonsulfide metal-bearing components, which formed by metal adsorption onto poorly crystalline Si-Fe-OOH particles. During diagenesis, the crystallinity of all phases increased, and the fine layering of the sediment was enhanced. Within a few meters of burial (corresponding to a few thousand years of deposition), biogenic (Ca)-carbonate was dissolved, manganosiderite formed, and metals originally in poorly crystalline phases or in pore water were incorporated into diagenetic sulfides, clays, and Fe-oxides. Permeable layers with abundant radiolarian tests were the focus for late-stage hydrothermal alteration and replacement, including deposition of amorphous silica and enrichment in elements such as Ba and Au.

  7. Animal-sediment interactions: the effect of ingestion and excretion by worms on mineralogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Needham


    Full Text Available By controlled experiments that simulate marine depositional environments, it is shown that accelerated weathering and clay mineral authigenesis occur during the combined process of ingestion, digestion and excretion of fine-grained sediment by two species of annelid worms. Previously characterized synthetic mud was created using finely ground, low-grade metamorphic slate (temperature approximately 300°C containing highly crystalline chlorite and muscovite. This was added to experiment and control tanks along with clean, wind-blown sand. Faecal casts were collected at regular intervals from the experimental tanks and, less frequently, from the control tanks. Over a period of many months the synthetic mud (slate proved to be unchanged in the control tanks, but was significantly different in faecal casts from the experimental tanks that contained the worms Arenicola marina and Lumbricus terrestris. Chlorite was preferentially destroyed during digestion in the gut of A. marina. Both chlorite and muscovite underwent XRD peak broadening with a skew developing towards higher lattice spacing, characteristic of smectite formation. A neoformed Fe-Mg-rich clay mineral (possibly berthierine and as-yet undefined clay minerals with very high d-spacing were detected in both A. marina and L. terrestris cast samples. We postulate that a combination of the low pH and bacteria-rich microenvironment in the guts of annelid worms may radically accelerate mineral dissolution and clay mineral precipitation processes during digestion. These results show that macrobiotic activity significantly accelerates weathering and mineral degradation as well as mineral authigenesis. The combined processes of sediment ingestion and digestion thus lead to early diagenetic growth of clay minerals in clastic sediments.

  8. Algal stabilisation of estuarine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The presence of benthic microalgae can increase the stability of intertidal sediments and influence sediment fluxes within an estuarine environment. Therefore the relative importance of algal stabilisation needs to be understood to help predict the effects of a tidal barrage. The objectives of this study are: to assess the significance of stabilisation of sediments by algae, in relation to the changes in hydrodynamic and sedimentological regimes arising from the construction of tidal power barrages; to identify a reliable and meaningful method of measuring the effectiveness, including duration, of algal binding on sediment stability, and to relate this method to other methods of measuring critical erosion velocity and sediment shear strength; to undertake a series of field experiments investigating the effect of algae on binding sediments and the parameters which could potentially influence such binding and to develop a predictive method for the assessment of sediment stabilisation by algal binding. This report contains plates, figures and tables. (author)

  9. Algal stabilisation of estuarine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The presence of benthic microalgae can increase the stability of intertidal sediments and influence sediment fluxes within an estuarine environment. Therefore the relative importance of algal stabilisation needs to be understood to help predict the effects of a tidal barrage. The biogenic stabilisation of intertidal estuarine sediments by epipelic diatom films and the macrophyte Vaucheria was studied at three sites on the Severn Estuary. The cohesive strength meter (CSM) was developed to measure surface critical shear stress with varied algal density. A number of techniques have been used to determine the general in situ erodibility of cohesive estuarine sediments. The measurements of sediment shear strength and critical erosion velocity were investigated. Field experiments were undertaken to investigate the effect of algae on binding sediments, and a predictive method for the assessment of sediment stabilisation by algal binding was developed. (author)

  10. Cyclic Sediment Trading Between Channel and River Bed Sediments (United States)

    Haddadchi, A.


    Much of the previous work on sediment tracing has focused on determining either the initial sources of the sediment (soils derive from a particular rock type) or the erosion processes generating the sediment. However, alluvial stores can be both a source and sink for sediment transported by streams. Here geochemical and fallout radionuclide tracing of river-bed and alluvial sediments are used to determine the role of secondary sources, sediment stores, as potential sources of sediment leaving Emu Creek catchment, southeastern Queensland, Australia. Activity concentrations of 137Cs on the river sediments are consistent with channel erosion being the dominant source at all sites sampled along the river. To characterise the deposition and remobilisation cycles in the catchment, a novel geochemical tracing approach was used. Successive pockets of alluvium were treated as discrete sink terms within geochemical mixing models and their source contributions compared with those of river bed sediments collected adjacent to each alluvial pocket. Three different size fractions were examined; silts and clays (banks indicates a high degree of 'trading' between the fluvial space and the alluvial space. Hence, management works aimed at primarily reducing the supply of sediments to the outlet of Emu Creek should focus on rehabilitation of channel banks in the lower catchment.

  11. Age and provenance of Triassic to Cenozoic sediments of West and Central Sarawak, Malaysia (United States)

    Breitfeld, H. Tim; Galin, Thomson; Hall, Robert


    Sarawak is located on the northern edge of Sundaland in NW Borneo. West and Central Sarawak include parts of the Kuching and Sibu Zones. These contain remnants of several sedimentary basins with ages from Triassic to Cenozoic. New light mineral, heavy mineral and U-Pb detrital zircon ages show differences in provenance reflecting the tectonic evolution of the region. The oldest clastic sediments are Triassic (Sadong Formation and its deep marine equivalent Kuching Formation). They were sourced by a Triassic (Carnian to Norian) volcanic arc and reworked Paleoproterozoic detritus derived from Cathaysialand. The Upper Jurassic to Cretaceous Pedawan Formation is interpreted as forearc basin fill with distinctive zircon populations indicating subduction beneath present-day West Sarawak which initiated in the Late Jurassic. Subsequent subduction until the early Late Cretaceous formed the Schwaner Mountains magmatic arc. After collision of SW Borneo and other microcontinental fragments with Sundaland in the early Late Cretaceous, deep marine sedimentation (Pedawan Formation) ceased, and there was uplift forming the regional Pedawan-Kayan unconformity. Two episodes of extension followed and were responsible for basin development on land in West Sarawak from the latest Cretaceous onwards, probably in a pull-apart setting. The first episode is associated with sediments of the Kayan Group, deposited in the Latest Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) to Eocene, and the second episode with Upper Eocene sediments of the Ketungau Basin. Zircon ages indicate volcanic activity throughout the Early Cenozoic in NW Borneo, and inherited zircon ages indicate reworking of Triassic and Cretaceous rocks. A large deep marine basin, the Rajang Basin, was north of the Lupar Line Fault in Central Sarawak (Sibu Zone) from the Late Cretaceous to the Late Eocene. Zircons from sediments of the Rajang Basin indicate they have similar ages and provenance to contemporaneous terrestrial sediments of the Kayan

  12. Chemical indicators of anthropogenic impacts in sediments of the pristine karst lakes. (United States)

    Mikac, I; Fiket, Z; Terzić, S; Barešić, J; Mikac, N; Ahel, M


    The anthropogenic impact on the pristine karst lakes was investigated using combination of specific parameters, including multielemental analysis of major inorganic constituents (Al, K, Fe) and trace metals (Li, Ag, Cd, Sn, Pb, Bi, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Sb), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and anionic surfactants of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) type. The study was performed in the Plitvice Lakes National Park, situated in a sparsely populated area of the northwestern Dinarides, central Croatia. Dated cores of recent sediments from the two biggest lakes, Lake Prosce and Lake Kozjak, were analysed for the selected contaminants using highly specific methods, involving inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP/MS), gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The concentration of inorganic constituents reflected primarily the geological background of the area as well as geomorphological and geochemical characteristics of the Plitvice Lakes. Due to the higher terrigenous input, the concentration of all elements was significantly higher in the Lake Prosce. The concentration of toxic metals was relatively low in both lakes, except for Cd (>1 mg kg(-1)) and Pb (up to 40 mg kg(-1)). The vertical profiles of these metals suggested that elevated concentrations of Cd were of natural origin, derived from the erosion of the Jurassic dolomite bedrock, while Pb was predominately of recent anthropogenic origin. A similar distribution pattern, suggesting the same prevailing mechanism of input, was observed for pyrolytic PAHs. The characteristic diagnostic PAH ratios revealed that higher PAHs prevailingly originated from the combustion of biomass and fossil fuels. LAS, which represent highly specific indicators of untreated wastewaters, were found in rather high concentrations in the recent sediment layers (up to 4.7 mg kg(-1)), suggesting that contaminated household and hotel wastewaters reach the

  13. Riverine input of organic carbon and nitrogen in water-sediment system from the Yellow River estuary reach to the coastal zone of Bohai Sea, China (United States)

    Wang, Chuanyuan; Lv, Yingchun; Li, Yuanwei


    The temporal-spatial distribution of the carbon and nitrogen contents and their isotopic compositions of suspended matter and sediments from the Yellow River estuary reach (YRER), the estuary to the offshore area were measured to identify the source of organic matter. The higher relative abundances of suspended and sedimentary carbon and nitrogen (POC, TOC, PN and TN) in the offshore marine area compared to those of the riverine and estuarine areas may be due to the cumulative and biological activity impact. The organic matter in surface sediments of YRER, the estuary and offshore area of Bohai Sea is basically the mixture of continental derived material and marine material. The values of δ13Csed fluctuate from values indicative of a land source (- 22.50‰ ± 0.31) to those indicative of a sea source (- 22.80‰ ± 0.38), which can be attributed to the fine particle size and decrease in terrigenous inputs to the offshore marine area. Contrary to the slight increase of POC and PN during the dry season, TOC and TN contents of the surface sediments during the flood season (October) were higher than those during the dry season (April). The seasonal differences in water discharge and suspended sediment discharge of the Yellow River Estuary may result in seasonal variability in TOC, POC, TN and PN concentrations in some degree. Overall, the surface sediments in the offshore area of Bohai Sea are dominated by marine derived organic carbon, which on average, accounts for 58-82% of TOC when a two end-member mixing model is applied to the isotopic data.

  14. Optimization of sample preparation and chromatography for the determination of perfluoroalkyl acids in sediments from the Yangtze Estuary and East China Sea. (United States)

    Wang, Qian-Wen; Yang, Gui-Peng; Zhang, Ze-Ming; Zhang, Jing


    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are ubiquitous pollutants present in various environmental media, including marine sediments. A method was proposed for the determination of 17 target PFAA analytes in marine sediment samples (n = 49) collected from the Yangtze Estuary and East China Sea. The proposed method involves the use of an optimized pretreatment procedure and ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry in dynamic multiple reaction monitoring mode. The method relied on extraction cycles using methanol followed by concentration, filtration, and small volume injection to UHPLC-MS/MS. The recovery, time efficiency, and detection limit of the proposed method are improved relative to those of traditional methods. Limits of detection varied from 0.003 to 0.045 ng/g, and spike recoveries to sediment ranged from 90% to 110% with suitable precisions (1.7%-14.6%). PFAAs were widely present in the samples, and ΣPFAAs ranged from 0.67 ng/g dw to 36.75 ng/g dw. Results indicated that terrigenous input strongly influences PFAA distribution in sediments from the study areas. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) were identified as the dominant perfluorocarboxylic acid (PFCA) and perfluoroalkylsulfonate (PFSA) in sediment samples from the Yangtze Estuary and the East China Sea. Preliminary environmental risk assessment indicated that PFOS may pose a higher environmental risk than PFOA. Furthermore, risk quotient values indicated that PFOS poses a significant risk to the aquatic ecosystem of the study areas. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sediment delivery and lake dynamics in a Mediterranean mountain watershed: Human-climate interactions during the last millennium (El Tobar Lake record, Iberian Range, Spain). (United States)

    Barreiro-Lostres, Fernando; Brown, Erik; Moreno, Ana; Morellón, Mario; Abbott, Mark; Hillman, Aubrey; Giralt, Santiago; Valero-Garcés, Blas


    Land degradation and soil erosion are key environmental problems in Mediterranean mountains characterized by a long history of human occupation and a strong variability of hydrological regimes. To assess recent trends and evaluate climatic and anthropogenic impacts in these highly human modified watersheds we apply an historical approach combining lake sediment core multi-proxy analyses and reconstructions of past land uses to El Tobar Lake watershed, located in the Iberian Range (Central Spain). Four main periods of increased sediment delivery have been identified in the 8m long sediment sequence by their depositional and geochemical signatures. They took place around 16th, late 18th, mid 19th and early 20th centuries as a result of large land uses changes such as forest clearing, farming and grazing during periods of increasing population. In this highly human-modified watershed, positive synergies between human impact and humid periods led to increased sediment delivery periods. During the last millennium, the lake depositional and geochemical cycles recovered quickly after each sediment delivery event, showing strong resilience of the lacustrine system to watershed disturbance. Recent changes are characterized by large hydrological affections since 1967 with the construction of a canal from a nearby reservoir and a decreased in anthropic pressure in the watershed as rural areas were abandoned. The increased fresh water influx to the lake has caused large biological changes, leading to stronger meromictic conditions and higher organic matter accumulation while terrigenous inputs have decreased. Degradation processes in Iberian Range watersheds are strongly controlled by anthropic activities (land use changes, soil erosion) but modulated by climate-related hydrological changes (water availability, flood and runoff frequency). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A new CT scan methodology to characterize a small aggregation gravel clast contained in a soft sediment matrix (United States)

    Fouinat, Laurent; Sabatier, Pierre; Poulenard, Jérôme; Reyss, Jean-Louis; Montet, Xavier; Arnaud, Fabien


    Over the past decades, X-ray computed tomography (CT) has been increasingly applied in the geosciences community. CT scanning is a rapid, non-destructive method allowing the assessment of relative density of clasts in natural archives samples. This study focuses on the use of this method to explore instantaneous deposits as major contributors to sedimentation of high-elevation lakes in the Alps, such as the Lake Lauvitel system (western French Alps). This lake is located within a very steep valley prone to episodic flooding and features gullies ending in the lake. This variety of erosion processes leads to deposition of sedimentary layers with distinct clastic properties. We identified 18 turbidites and 15 layers of poorly sorted fine sediment associated with the presence of gravels since AD 1880. These deposits are respectively interpreted as being induced by flood and wet avalanche. This constitutes a valuable record from a region where few historical records exist. This CT scan approach is suitable for instantaneous deposit identification to reconstruct past evolution and may be applicable to a wider variety of sedimentary archives alongside existing approaches.

  17. Sediment management for reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, A.


    All natural lakes and reservoirs whether on rivers, tributaries or off channel storages are doomed to be sited up. Pakistan has two major reservoirs of Tarbela and Managla and shallow lake created by Chashma Barrage. Tarbela and Mangla Lakes are losing their capacities ever since first impounding, Tarbela since 1974 and Mangla since 1967. Tarbela Reservoir receives average annual flow of about 62 MAF and sediment deposits of 0.11 MAF whereas Mangla gets about 23 MAF of average annual flows and is losing its storage at the rate of average 34,000 MAF annually. The loss of storage is a great concern and studies for Tarbela were carried out by TAMS and Wallingford to sustain its capacity whereas no study has been done for Mangla as yet except as part of study for Raised Mangla, which is only desk work. Delta of Tarbala reservoir has advanced to about 6.59 miles (Pivot Point) from power intakes. In case of liquefaction of delta by tremor as low as 0.12g peak ground acceleration the power tunnels I, 2 and 3 will be blocked. Minimum Pool of reservoir is being raised so as to check the advance of delta. Mangla delta will follow the trend of Tarbela. Tarbela has vast amount of data as reservoir is surveyed every year, whereas Mangla Reservoir survey was done at five-year interval, which has now been proposed .to be reduced to three-year interval. In addition suspended sediment sampling of inflow streams is being done by Surface Water Hydrology Project of WAPDA as also some bed load sampling. The problem of Chasma Reservoir has also been highlighted, as it is being indiscriminately being filled up and drawdown several times a year without regard to its reaction to this treatment. The Sediment Management of these reservoirs is essential and the paper discusses pros and cons of various alternatives. (author)

  18. Role of Neogene Exhumation and Sedimentation on Critical-Wedge Kinematics in the Zagros Orogenic Belt, Northeastern Iraq, Kurdistan (United States)

    Koshnaw, R. I.; Horton, B. K.; Stockli, D. F.; Barber, D. E.; Tamar-Agha, M. Y.; Kendall, J. J.


    The Zagros orogenic belt and foreland basin formed during the Cenozoic Arabia-Eurasia collision, but the precise histories of shortening and sediment accumulation remain ambiguous, especially at the NW extent of the fold-thrust belt in Iraqi Kurdistan. This region is characterized by well-preserved successions of Cenozoic clastic foreland-basin fill and deformed Paleozoic-Mesozoic hinterland bedrock. The study area provides an excellent opportunity to investigate the linkage between orogenic wedge behavior and surface processes of erosion and deposition. The aim of this research is to test whether the Zagros orogenic wedge advanced steadily under critical to supercritical wedge conditions involving in-sequence thrusting with minimal erosion or propagated intermittently under subcritical condition involving out-of-sequence deformation with intense erosion. These endmember modes of mountain building can be assessed by integrating geo/thermochronologic and basin analyses techniques, including apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronology, detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology, stratigraphic synthesis, and seismic interpretations. Preliminary apatite (U-Th)/He data indicate activation of the Main Zagros Fault (MZF) at ~10 Ma with frontal thrusts initiating at ~8 Ma. However, thermochronometric results from the intervening Mountain Front Flexure (MFF), located between the MZF and the frontal thrusts, suggest rapid exhumation at ~6 Ma. These results suggest that the MFF, represented by the thrust-cored Qaradagh anticline, represents a major episode of out-of-sequence deformation. Detrital zircon U-Pb analyses from the Neogene foreland-basin deposits show continuous sediment derivation from sources to the NNE in Iraq and western Iran, suggesting that out-of-sequence thrusting did not significantly alter sedimentary provenance. Rather, intense hinterland erosion and recycling of older foreland-basin fill dominated sediment delivery to the basin. The irregular distribution of

  19. Effects of Attenuation of Gas Hydrate-bearing Sediments on Seismic Data: Example from Mallik, Northwest Territories, Canada (United States)

    Bellefleur, G.; Riedel, M.; Brent, T.


    Wave attenuation is an important physical property of hydrate-bearing sediments that is rarely taken into account in site characterization with seismic data. We present a field example showing improved images of hydrate- bearing sediments on seismic data after compensation of attenuation effects. Compressional quality factors (Q) are estimated from zero-offset Vertical Seismic Profiling data acquired at Mallik, Northwest Territories, Canada. During the last 10 years, two internationally-partnered research drilling programs have intersected three major intervals of sub-permafrost gas hydrates at Mallik, and have successfully extracted core samples containing significant amount of gas hydrates. Individual gas hydrate intervals are up to 40m in thickness and are characterized by high in situ gas hydrate saturation, sometimes exceeding 80% of pore volume of unconsolidated clastic sediments having average porosities ranging from 25% to 40%. The Q-factors obtained from the VSP data demonstrate significant wave attenuation for permafrost and hydrate- bearing sediments. These results are in agreement with previous attenuation estimates from sonic logs and crosshole data at different frequency intervals. The Q-factors obtained from VSP data were used to compensate attenuation effects on surface 3D seismic data acquired over the Mallik gas hydrate research wells. Intervals of gas hydrate on surface seismic data are characterized by strong reflectivity and effects from attenuation are not perceptible from a simple visual inspection of the data. However, the application of an inverse Q-filter increases the resolution of the data and improves correlation with log data, particularly for the shallowest gas hydrate interval. Compensation of the attenuation effects of the permafrost likely explains most of the improvements for the shallow gas hydrate zone. Our results show that characterization of the Mallik gas hydrates with seismic data not corrected for attenuation would tend to

  20. Petrophysical characterization of the lacustrine sediment succession drilled in Lake El'gygytgyn, Far East Russian Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Gebhardt


    Full Text Available Seismic profiles of Far East Russian Lake El'gygytgyn, formed by a meteorite impact some 3.6 million years ago, show a stratified sediment succession that can be separated into subunits Ia and Ib at approximately 167 m below lake floor (=~3.17 Ma. The upper (Ia is well-stratified, while the lower is acoustically more massive and discontinuous. The sediments are intercalated with frequent mass movement deposits mainly in the proximal areas, while the distal region is almost free of such deposits at least in the upper part. In spring 2009, a long core drilled in the lake center within the framework of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP penetrated the entire lacustrine sediment succession down to ~320 m below lake floor and about 200 m farther into the meteorite-impact-related bedrock. Downhole logging data down to 390 m below lake floor show that the bedrock and the lacustrine part differ significantly in their petrophysical characteristics. The contact between the bedrock and the lacustrine sediments is not abrupt, but rather transitional with a variable mixture of impact-altered bedrock clasts in a lacustrine matrix. Physical and chemical proxies measured on the cores can be used to divide the lacustrine part into five different statistical clusters. These can be plotted in a redox-condition vs. input-type diagram, with total organic carbon content and magnetic susceptibility values indicating anoxic or oxic conditions and with the Si / Ti ratio representing more clastic or more biogenic input. Plotting the clusters in this diagram allows identifying clusters that represent glacial phases (cluster I, super interglacials (cluster II, and interglacial phases (clusters III and IV.

  1. Sediment problems in urban areas (United States)

    Guy, Harold P.


    A recognition of and solution to sediment problems in urban areas is necessary if society is to have an acceptable living environment. Soil erosion and sediment deposition in urban areas are as much an environmental blight as badly paved and littered streets, dilapidated buildings, billboard clutter, inept land use, and air, water, and noise pollution. In addition, sediment has many direct and indirect effects on streams that may be either part of or very remote from the urban environment. Sediment, for example, is widely recognized as a pollutant of streams and other water bodies.

  2. Sediment Geo-Probe System (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides wideband in situ measurement capability of compressional wave speed and attenuation and their spatial variability in marine sediments.DESCRIPTION:...

  3. Glacimarine environments: processes and sediments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dowdeswell, J. A; Scourse, James D


    .... Sediments released from glaciers grounded in tidewater, floating ice shelves, ice tongues, icebergs and sea ice form complex sequences governed by glaciological, oceanographic, sedimentary and biogenic controls...

  4. Application of advanced reservoir characterization, simulation, and production optimization strategies to maximize recovery in slope and basin clastic reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin). Quarterly report, October 1 - December 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, S.P.


    The objective of this project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. Project objectives are divided into two major phases. The objectives of the reservoir characterization phase of the project are to provide a detailed understanding of the architecture and heterogeneity of two fields, the Ford Geraldine unit and Ford West field, which produce from the Bell Canyon and Cherry Canyon Formations, respectively, of the Delaware Mountain Group and to compare Bell Canyon and Cherry Canyon reservoirs. Reservoir characterization will utilize 3-D seismic data, high-resolution sequence stratigraphy, subsurface field studies, outcrop characterization, and other techniques. Once the reservoir-characterization study of both fields is completed, a pilot area of approximately 1 mi{sup 2} in one of the fields will be chosen for reservoir simulation. The objectives of the implementation phase of the project are to (1) apply the knowledge gained from reservoir characterization and simulation studies to increase recovery from the pilot area, (2) demonstrate that economically significant unrecovered oil remains in geologically resolvable untapped compartments, and (3) test the accuracy of reservoir characterization and flow simulation as predictive tools in resource preservation of mature fields. A geologically designed, enhanced-recovery program (CO{sub 2} flood, waterflood, or polymer flood) and well-completion program will be developed, and one to three infill wells will be drilled and cored. Technical progress is summarized for: geophysical characterization; reservoir characterization; outcrop characterization; and recovery technology identification and analysis.

  5. A Modeling Framework for Predicting the Size of Sediments Produced on Hillslopes and Supplied to Channels (United States)

    Sklar, L. S.; Mahmoudi, M.


    Landscape evolution models rarely represent sediment size explicitly, despite the importance of sediment size in regulating rates of bedload sediment transport, river incision into bedrock, and many other processes in channels and on hillslopes. A key limitation has been the lack of a general model for predicting the size of sediments produced on hillslopes and supplied to channels. Here we present a framework for such a model, as a first step toward building a `geomorphic transport law' that balances mechanistic realism with computational simplicity and is widely applicable across diverse landscapes. The goal is to take as inputs landscape-scale boundary conditions such as lithology, climate and tectonics, and predict the spatial variation in the size distribution of sediments supplied to channels across catchments. The model framework has two components. The first predicts the initial size distribution of particles produced by erosion of bedrock underlying hillslopes, while the second accounts for the effects of physical and chemical weathering during transport down slopes and delivery to channels. The initial size distribution can be related to the spacing and orientation of fractures within bedrock, which depend on the stresses and deformation experienced during exhumation and on rock resistance to fracture propagation. Other controls on initial size include the sizes of mineral grains in crystalline rocks, the sizes of cemented particles in clastic sedimentary rocks, and the potential for characteristic size distributions produced by tree throw, frost cracking, and other erosional processes. To model how weathering processes transform the initial size distribution we consider the effects of erosion rate and the thickness of soil and weathered bedrock on hillslope residence time. Residence time determines the extent of size reduction, for given values of model terms that represent the potential for chemical and physical weathering. Chemical weathering potential

  6. Sediment Trapping in Estuaries (United States)

    Burchard, Hans; Schuttelaars, Henk M.; Ralston, David K.


    Estuarine turbidity maxima (ETMs) are generated by a large suite of hydrodynamic and sediment dynamic processes, leading to longitudinal convergence of cross-sectionally integrated and tidally averaged transport of cohesive and noncohesive suspended particulate matter (SPM). The relative importance of these processes for SPM trapping varies substantially among estuaries depending on topography, fluvial and tidal forcing, and SPM composition. The high-frequency dynamics of ETMs are constrained by interactions with the low-frequency dynamics of the bottom pool of easily erodible sediments. Here, we use a transport decomposition to present processes that lead to convergent SPM transport, and review trapping mechanisms that lead to ETMs at the landward limit of the salt intrusion, in the freshwater zone, at topographic transitions, and by lateral processes within the cross section. We use model simulations of example estuaries to demonstrate the complex concurrence of ETM formation mechanisms. We also discuss how changes in SPM trapping mechanisms, often caused by direct human interference, can lead to the generation of hyperturbid estuaries.

  7. High resolution analysis of northern Patagonia lake sediments (United States)

    Jarvis, S. W.; Croudace, I. W.; Langdon, P. G.; Rindby, A.


    Sediment cores covering the period from the last glacial maximum through the Holocene to the present have been collected from sites in the Chacubuco valley, southern Chile (around 47°08'S, 72°25'W, to the east of the North Patagonian Icecap). Cores were taken from five lakes and one recently dried lake bed. Short cores (0.2 to 0.5m), covering approximately the last two hundred years, were taken from all the lakes. Additionally, long sequences were obtained from one of the lakes and from the dried lake bed, the latter sequence extending back to the last glacial maximum as indicated by thick clay at the base. Each of the lakes are small-medium sized and are open systems situated at 300-1000m above sea level. The shorter cores comprise predominantly clastic gyttja but show a number of distinct changes in colour and chemical composition that suggest major environmental changes over the period of sediment accumulation. This is also reflected in variations in the loss on ignition of samples from the cores and in elemental profiles produced by scanning the cores with the Itrax micro-XRF corescanner at 200μm resolution. The long sequence from the dried lake bed has very low organic content glacial clay at the base, interpreted as last glacial maximum basal clay following determination in the field that this layer exceeded 2m in thickness. Similar sediments occur within a stratigraphically discrete section of approximately 14cm and may relate to a stadial event. The latter section also shows a drop in organic content and appears to be glacial clay incorporating some coarse sandy components indicative of detrital input from the catchment. The second long sequence, from a carbonate lake, includes two mineral layers indicating increased detrital input from the catchment. The deeper and thicker of these layers appears similar to the 14cm layer in the first long sequence, while the upper layer comprises a fine grain size indicative of rock flour and hence also of glacial

  8. Rare earth element patterns of the Central Indian Basin sediments related to their lithology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.; Roelandts, I.; Sudhakar, M.; Pluger, W.L.

    Rare earth element (REE) concentration have been determined in terrigenous, siliceous (nodule barren and nodule bearing), calcareous, and red clay from the Central Indian Basin. The bulk distribution of REE, and in particular the relative cerium...

  9. Undergraduate Collaborative Research: Distribution of Plant Wax Biomarkers in Miocene-age Sediments from the Bengal Fan (IODP Exp 354) (United States)

    Cho, P. G.; Vidal, E.; Paek, J. H.; Borsook, A.; Lee, W.; Wu, M. S.; Ponton, C.; Galy, V.; Feakins, S. J.


    Our research aims to understand past climatic variability in the monsoon-influenced Ganges-Brahmaputra catchment as recorded by plant wax molecules exported and sequestered in the sediments of the Bengal Fan. Samples from the late Miocene were selected from cores retrieved by the IODP (International Ocean Discovery Program) Expedition 354 that recently drilled the central Bengal Fan along a transect at 8°N. Fan sedimentation includes sand, silt, and clay mostly derived from the Himalayan range via turbiditic transport within the Bengal fan. Sedimentation is highly episodic in the fan, but a transect of drilled sites provides a record of terrigenous sediment exported and buried over the last 20 million years. A team of researchers at the University of Southern California worked to collectively process 468 samples for compound specific biomarker identification and quantification. The samples derive from Site U1451 and U1455 ranging from 0 to 1097m depth (CSF-A). Total organic carbon ranges from 0.04-0.84%. To date, 300 samples have been solvent-extracted and prepared for plant wax analyses. Long chain n-alkanoic acids and n-alkanes were identified and quantified using GC-MS and GC-FID, respectively. In the samples quantified so far, we find ΣC24-34 n-alkanoic acid concentrations from 0.07-14.16 μg/g of dry sediment and ΣC25-35 n-alkanes from 0.04-4.61 μg/g. Concentrations of C30 n-alkanoic acid range from 0.01-1.92 μg/g of dry sediment and of C33 n-alkane from lipid extract was analyzed at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution using a GC-TOF-MS. Overall, these extracts are dominated by plant-wax compounds and other diagnostic terrestrial molecules (e.g. plant terpenoids and sterols). The results from this effort contribute to a larger mission to reconstruct vegetation and climate change, over the past 20 million years in the core of the monsoon-influenced region, through compound-specific isotope analyses of the plant waxes extracted from these samples.

  10. Luminescence dating of Netherland's sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallinga, J.; Davids, F.; Dijkmans, J.W.A.


    Over the last decades luminescence dating techniques have been developed that allow earth scientists to determine the time of deposition of sediments. In this contribution we revity: 1) the development of the methodology, 2) tests of the reliability of luminescence dating on Netherlands' sediments;

  11. Reservoir sedimentation; a literature survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloff, C.J.


    A survey of literature is made on reservoir sedimentation, one of the most threatening processes for world-wide reservoir performance. The sedimentation processes, their impacts, and their controlling factors are assessed from a hydraulic engineering point of view with special emphasis on

  12. Intensive landfarming of contaminated sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieggers, H.J.J.; Bezemer, H.W.


    The biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and mineral oil was investigated in heavily and normally polluted sediments. The aims of the research were: to improve the knowledge of dewatering and ripening of sediments in an open land-farm, to quantify the biodegradation in two


    When contaminated sediments pose unacceptable risks to human health and the environment, management activities such as removal, treatment, or isolation of contaminated sediments may be required. Various capping designs are being considered for isolating contaminated sediment are...


    When contaminated sediments pose unacceptable risks to human health and the environment, management activities such as removal, treatment, or isolation of contaminated sediments may be required. Various capping designs are being considered for isolating contaminated sediment are...

  15. Sediment-accumulatie in transportleidingen af waterproductiebedrijven

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beverloo, H.; Vreeburg, J.H.G.; Zwaga, A.


    In drinkwatertransportleidingen hoopt zich sediment op, ondanks het feit dat de maximale stroomsnelheid hoger is dan de snelheid die voor distributieleidingen zelfreinigend is. Opwervelend sediment zorgt voor klachten over de kwaliteit van het drinkwater. Het sediment accumuleert vooral dicht bij

  16. Detrital Zircon Geo- and Thermochronologic Constraints on Late Mississippian-Early Pennsylvanian Sediment Transport and Tectonics, Southwestern Kansas and Northwestern Arkansas (United States)

    Bidgoli, T. S.; Wang, W.; Moeller, A.; Stockli, D. F.; Watney, L.


    The Late Mississippian to Early Pennsylvanian is a critical time interval across the globe, with major changes in tectonics, climate, and eustacy. Transcontinental sediment transport in North America, from the Appalachians to Great Canyon, has been proposed to initiate at this time (Gehrels et al., 2011). In the midcontinent, clastic influx to the Hugoton Embayment and Arkoma Shelf, during widespread carbonate platform deposition, may record evidence for this model, but the limited number of provenance studies has hindered interpretations. To test this model and further constrain sediment dispersal and source-to-sink systems in the midcontinent, we evaluate the provenance of upper Mississippian to middle Pennsylvanian siliciclastic intervals, in two areas, using sandstone component analysis and detrital zircon U-Pb and (U-Th)/He double dating. (1) For the Hugoton Embayment in southwestern Kansas, we focus on sandstones deposited in two valley-filling intervals, the Chester and Morrow. A total of 1100 zircon U-Pb ages have been acquired from samples from 10 boreholes, 6 from Chester and 4 from Morrow. Preliminary analysis suggests that the Chester is characterized by two major zircon U-Pb age clusters of 900-1295 Ma (Grenville) and 390-475 Ma, consistent with sediment delivery from the Appalachian orogen. Morrow strata record a change in provenance, with the presence of two additional age groups, 1300-1500 Ma (24.5%) and 1600-1800 Ma (17.9%), that correspond well with the age of basement rocks in the Granite-Rhyolite and Yavapai-Maztzal provinces, respectively. We ascribe changes in the zircon age spectra and introduction of these grains to the development of local uplifts, like the Nemaha Ridge, in the early Pennsylvanian. Double dating of zircons from these peaks may reveal additional information about these basement sources and the timing of denudation of these uplifts. (2) For the Arkoma shelf, we are analyzing 11 samples, collected from outcrops in northwestern

  17. Holocene rainfall runoff in the central Ethiopian highlands and evolution of the River Nile drainage system as revealed from a sediment record from Lake Dendi (United States)

    Wagner, Bernd; Wennrich, Volker; Viehberg, Finn; Junginger, Annett; Kolvenbach, Anne; Rethemeyer, Janet; Schaebitz, Frank; Schmiedl, Gerhard


    A 12 m long sediment sequence was recovered from the eastern Dendi Crater lake, located on the central Ethiopian Plateau and in the region of the Blue Nile headwaters. 24 AMS radiocarbon dates from bulk organic carbon samples indicate that the sediment sequence spans the last ca. 12 cal kyr BP. Sedimentological and geochemical data from the sediment sequence that were combined with initial diatom information show only moderate change in precipitation and catchment runoff during that period, probably due to the elevated location of the study region in the Ethiopian highlands. Less humid conditions prevailed during the Younger Dryas (YD). After the return to full humid conditions of the African Humid Period (AHP), a 2 m thick tephra layer, probably originating from an eruption of the Wenchi crater 12 km to the west of the lake, was deposited at 10.2 cal kyr BP. Subsequently, single thin horizons of high clastic matter imply that short spells of dry conditions and significantly increased rainfall, respectively, superimpose the generally humid conditions. The end of the AHP is rather gradual and precedes relatively stable and less humid conditions around 3.9 cal kyr BP. Subsequently, slightly increasing catchment runoff led to sediment redeposition, increasing nutrient supply, and highest trophic states in the lake until 1.5 cal kyr BP. A highly variable increase in clastic matter indicates fluctuating and increasing catchment runoff over the last 1500 years. The data from Lake Dendi show, in concert with other records from the Nile catchment and the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (EMS), that the Blue Nile discharge was relatively high between ca. 10.0 and 8.7 cal kyr BP. Subsequent aridification peaked with some regional differences between ca. 4.0 and 2.6 cal kyr BP. Higher discharge in the Blue Nile hydraulic regime after 2.6 cal kyr BP is probably triggered by more local increase in rainfall, which is tentatively caused by a change in the influence of the Indian Ocean

  18. Targeting sediment management strategies using sediment quantification and fingerprinting methods (United States)

    Sherriff, Sophie; Rowan, John; Fenton, Owen; Jordan, Phil; hUallacháin, Daire Ó.


    Cost-effective sediment management is required to reduce excessive delivery of fine sediment due to intensive land uses such as agriculture, resulting in the degradation of aquatic ecosystems. Prioritising measures to mitigate dominant sediment sources is, however, challenging, as sediment loss risk is spatially and temporally variable between and within catchments. Fluctuations in sediment supply from potential sources result from variations in land uses resulting in increased erodibility where ground cover is low (e.g., cultivated, poached and compacted soils), and physical catchment characteristics controlling hydrological connectivity and transport pathways (surface and/or sub-surface). Sediment fingerprinting is an evidence-based management tool to identify sources of in-stream sediments at the catchment scale. Potential sediment sources are related to a river sediment sample, comprising a mixture of source sediments, using natural physico-chemical characteristics (or 'tracers'), and contributions are statistically un-mixed. Suspended sediment data were collected over two years at the outlet of three intensive agricultural catchments (approximately 10 km2) in Ireland. Dominant catchment characteristics were grassland on poorly-drained soils, arable on well-drained soils and arable on moderately-drained soils. High-resolution (10-min) calibrated turbidity-based suspended sediment and discharge data were combined to quantify yield. In-stream sediment samples (for fingerprinting analysis) were collected at six to twelve week intervals, using time-integrated sediment samplers. Potential sources, including stream channel banks, ditches, arable and grassland field topsoils, damaged road verges and tracks were sampled, oven-dried (account for particle size and organic matter selectivity processes. Contributions from potential sources type groups (channel - ditches and stream banks, roads - road verges and tracks, fields - grassland and arable topsoils) were

  19. Elemental concentration variations in Plio-Pleistocene sediments from ODP Site 1143 (southern South China Sea) obtained by XRF analyses (United States)

    Tian, J.; Xie, X.; Jin, H.; Wang, P.; Jian, Z.


    Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (XRF) scanning technology provides the most accurate and most economic analytical methods for the determination of major and minor elements of the deep-sea sediment ranging from sodium (11) to uranium (92). Scanning on the smooth core surface by XRF Core scanner is reliable and non-destructive to the sediment, requiring little or no time to prepare the core. This method overcomes the drawback of the traditional analytical method by ICP-AES or ICP-MS which requires long time for sample preparation. Thus, it makes it viable to reconstruct long and high-resolution elemental time series from sediment cores. We have performed relatively elemental concentration analyses on the deep sea sediment cores from ODP site 1143 (southern SCS) down to 190.77 mcd (meters composite depth) by XRF core scanner. The depth resolution of the scanning is 1 cm, equivalent to a time resolution of ~250 years. The age model is based on tuning the benthic foraminiferal d18O at Site 1143 to obliquity and precession (Tian et al., 2002) which indicates that the 190.77 meters long sediment spans the past 5 Myr. We compared the records between 99.5 and 136.46 mcd with the elemental records from the same site obtained by Philips PW 2400 X-ray spectrometer (Wehausen et al., online publication). Comparison reveals, regardless of the absolute changes of the elements, that the elemental records (Si, Ti, Al, Fe, Mn, Ca, K, P, Ba, Rb, Sr) obtained by two methods are nearly the same. Results show that the relative concentration variations of the productivity related elements such as Ba and Ca display distinctive glacial-interglacial cycles for the past 5 Myr. These productivity cycles recorded show one-on-one relationship with the glacial-interglacial cycles of the global ice volume change recorded in the benthic foraminiferal d18O. The glacial-interglacial cycles in productivity and global ice volume changes are consistent with each other not only in amplitude but also

  20. Dating of sediments and determination of sedimentation rate. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illus, E [ed.


    The Second NKS (Nordic Nuclear Safety Research)/EKO-1 Seminar was held at the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) on April 2-3, 1997. The work of the NKS is based on 4-year programmes; the current programme having been planned for the years 1994-1997. The programme comprises 3 major fields, one of them being environmental effects (EKO). Under this umbrella there are 4 main projects. The EKO-1 project deals with marine radioecology, in particular bottom sediments and sediment processes. The programme of the second seminar consisted of 8 invited lecturers and 6 other scientific presentations. Dating of sediments and determination of sedimentation rate are important in all types of sedimentological study and model calculations of fluxes of substances in the aquatic environment. In many cases these tasks have been closely related to radioecological studies undertaken in marine and fresh water environments, because they are often based on measured depth profiles of certain natural or artificial radionuclides present in the sediments. During recent decades Pb-210 has proved to be very useful in dating of sediments, but some other radionuclides have also been successfully used, e.g. Pu-239,240, Am-241 and Cs-137. The difficulties existing and problems involved in dating of sediments, as well as solutions for resolving these problems are discussed in the presentations

  1. Dating of sediments and determination of sedimentation rate. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illus, E.


    The Second NKS (Nordic Nuclear Safety Research)/EKO-1 Seminar was held at the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) on April 2-3, 1997. The work of the NKS is based on 4-year programmes; the current programme having been planned for the years 1994-1997. The programme comprises 3 major fields, one of them being environmental effects (EKO). Under this umbrella there are 4 main projects. The EKO-1 project deals with marine radioecology, in particular bottom sediments and sediment processes. The programme of the second seminar consisted of 8 invited lecturers and 6 other scientific presentations. Dating of sediments and determination of sedimentation rate are important in all types of sedimentological study and model calculations of fluxes of substances in the aquatic environment. In many cases these tasks have been closely related to radioecological studies undertaken in marine and fresh water environments, because they are often based on measured depth profiles of certain natural or artificial radionuclides present in the sediments. During recent decades Pb-210 has proved to be very useful in dating of sediments, but some other radionuclides have also been successfully used, e.g. Pu-239,240, Am-241 and Cs-137. The difficulties existing and problems involved in dating of sediments, as well as solutions for resolving these problems are discussed in the presentations

  2. Sediment Evaluation Framework for the Pacific Northwest (United States)

    The Sediment Evaluation Framework provides a regional framework for assessment, characterization and management of sediments in the Pacific Northwest to determine suitability for unconfined in-water disposal.

  3. Estimating sediment discharge: Appendix D (United States)

    Gray, John R.; Simões, Francisco J. M.


    Sediment-discharge measurements usually are available on a discrete or periodic basis. However, estimates of sediment transport often are needed for unmeasured periods, such as when daily or annual sediment-discharge values are sought, or when estimates of transport rates for unmeasured or hypothetical flows are required. Selected methods for estimating suspended-sediment, bed-load, bed- material-load, and total-load discharges have been presented in some detail elsewhere in this volume. The purposes of this contribution are to present some limitations and potential pitfalls associated with obtaining and using the requisite data and equations to estimate sediment discharges and to provide guidance for selecting appropriate estimating equations. Records of sediment discharge are derived from data collected with sufficient frequency to obtain reliable estimates for the computational interval and period. Most sediment- discharge records are computed at daily or annual intervals based on periodically collected data, although some partial records represent discrete or seasonal intervals such as those for flood periods. The method used to calculate sediment- discharge records is dependent on the types and frequency of available data. Records for suspended-sediment discharge computed by methods described by Porterfield (1972) are most prevalent, in part because measurement protocols and computational techniques are well established and because suspended sediment composes the bulk of sediment dis- charges for many rivers. Discharge records for bed load, total load, or in some cases bed-material load plus wash load are less common. Reliable estimation of sediment discharges presupposes that the data on which the estimates are based are comparable and reliable. Unfortunately, data describing a selected characteristic of sediment were not necessarily derived—collected, processed, analyzed, or interpreted—in a consistent manner. For example, bed-load data collected with

  4. Holocene environmental change along the southern Cape coast of South Africa - Insights from the Eilandvlei sediment record spanning the last 8.9 kyr (United States)

    Wündsch, Michael; Haberzettl, Torsten; Cawthra, Hayley C.; Kirsten, Kelly L.; Quick, Lynne J.; Zabel, Matthias; Frenzel, Peter; Hahn, Annette; Baade, Jussi; Daut, Gerhard; Kasper, Thomas; Meadows, Michael E.; Mäusbacher, Roland


    This study investigates Holocene sediments from Eilandvlei, a coastal lake located within the Wilderness embayment at the southern Cape coast of South Africa. The evolution of the present estuarine/coastal lake system is reconstructed based on seismic data as well as a multi-proxy approach on a 30.5 m sediment core spanning the last 8.9 kyr. Geochemical (Ca, TOC/S, Br/TOC) and micropalaeontological data (diatoms, foraminifera) reflect changes in the degree of marine influence at the core site. The embayment likely developed via distinct phases of connectivity to the Indian Ocean caused by sea level changes and dune progradation. Marine conditions prevailed at the core site from 8900 to 4700 cal BP. The rapid sea level rise during the early Holocene caused the inundation of a palaeovalley that most likely had formed at lower sea levels during the Pleistocene. Towards the mid-Holocene the sea level exceeded its present height around 7500 cal BP creating a marine embayment. At 4700 cal BP, the embayment became distinctly more disconnected from the ocean turning into a lagoon system that persisted until 1200 cal BP. Subsequently, the marine influence further decreased and the present estuarine/coastal lake system was established. Grain size and geochemical data (Fe, Si/Al, chemical index of alteration (CIA)) further reflect changes in the deposition of terrigenous sediments at the core site. While the sedimentation of fine-grained (climatic conditions than today from 8900 to 7900 cal BP and 6400 to 3000 cal BP. In contrast, the periods between 7900-6400 cal BP and 3000 cal BP-present were likely characterized by high river discharge and thus, generally more rainfall. The reconstructed palaeoclimatic variations are discussed within the context of e.g., shifts in the position of the Antarctic sea ice extent and the mid-latitude westerly wind belt as well as changes in the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO).

  5. Wood and Sediment Dynamics in River Corridors (United States)

    Wohl, E.; Scott, D.


    Large wood along rivers influences entrainment, transport, and storage of mineral sediment and particulate organic matter. We review how wood alters sediment dynamics and explore patterns among volumes of instream wood, sediment storage, and residual pools for dispersed pieces of wood, logjams, and beaver dams. We hypothesized that: volume of sediment per unit area of channel stored in association with wood is inversely proportional to drainage area; the form of sediment storage changes downstream; sediment storage correlates most strongly with wood load; and volume of sediment stored behind beaver dams correlates with pond area. Lack of data from larger drainage areas limits tests of these hypotheses, but analyses suggest a negative correlation between sediment volume and drainage area and a positive correlation between wood and sediment volume. The form of sediment storage in relation to wood changes downstream, with wedges of sediment upstream from jammed steps most prevalent in small, steep channels and more dispersed sediment storage in lower gradient channels. Use of a published relation between sediment volume, channel width, and gradient predicted about half of the variation in sediment stored upstream from jammed steps. Sediment volume correlates well with beaver pond area. Historically more abundant instream wood and beaver populations likely equated to greater sediment storage within river corridors. This review of the existing literature on wood and sediment dynamics highlights the lack of studies on larger rivers.

  6. Fluvial sediment transport: Analytical techniques for measuring sediment load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Sediment transport data are often used for the evaluation of land surface erosion, reservoir sedimentation, ecological habitat quality and coastal sediment budgets. Sediment transport by rivers is usually considered to occur in two major ways: (1) in the flow as a suspended load and (2) along the bed as a bed load. This publication provides guidance on selected techniques for the measurement of particles moving in both modes in the fluvial environment. The relative importance of the transport mode is variable and depends on the hydraulic and sedimentary conditions. The potential user is directed in the selection of an appropriate technique through the presentation of operating principles, application guidelines and estimated costs. Techniques which require laboratory analysis are grab sample, pump sample, depth sample, point integrated and radioactive tracers. Techniques which will continuously record data are optical backscattering, nuclear transmission, single frequency acoustic and laser diffraction

  7. Coastal sediment dynamics in Spitsbergen (United States)

    Deloffre, J.; Lafite, R.; Baltzer, A.; Marlin, C.; Delangle, E.; Dethleff, D.; Petit, F.


    In arctic knowledge on coastal sediment dynamics and sedimentary processes is limited. The studied area is located in the microtidal Kongsfjorden glacial fjord on the North-western coast of Spitsbergen in the Artic Ocean (79°N). In this area sediment contributions to the coastal zone is provided by small temporary rivers that flows into the fjord. The objectives of this study are to (i) assess the origin and fate of fine-grained particles (sea ice cover on sediment dynamics. The sampling strategy is based on characterization of sediment and SPM (grain-size, X-rays diffraction, SEM images, carbonates and organic matter contents) from the glacier to the coastal zone completed by a bottom-sediment map on the nearshore using side-scan sonar validated with Ekman binge sampling. River inputs (i.e. river plumes) to the coastal zone were punctually followed using CTD (conductivity, temperature, depth and turbidity) profiles. OBS (water level, temperature and turbidity) operating at high-frequency and during at least 1 years (including under sea ice cover) was settled at the mouth of rivers at 10m depth. In the coastal zone the fine-grained sediment deposit is limited to mud patches located at river mouths that originate the piedmont glacier. However a significant amount of sediment originates the coastal glacier located in the eastern part of the fjord via two processes: direct transfer and ice-drop. Results from turbidity measurements show that the sediment dynamics is controlled by river inputs in particular during melting period. During winter sediment resuspension can occurs directly linked to significant wind-events. When the sea ice cover is present (January to April) no sediment dynamics is observed. Sediment processes in the coastal zone of arctic fjords is significant however only a small amount of SPM that originates the river plume settles in the coastal zone; only the coarser material settles at the mouth of the river while the finer one is deposited further

  8. Sediment transport under breaking waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Hjelmager Jensen, Jacob; Mayer, Stefan


    The sediment transport in the surf zone is modelled by combining a Navier-Stokes solver, a free surface model, a turbulence model, and a sediment transport model. The flow solver is based on the finite volume technique for non-orthogonal grids. The model is capable of simulating the turbulence...... generated at the surface where the wave breaks as well as the turbulence generated near the bed due to the wave-motion and the undertow. In general, the levels of turbulent kinetic energy are found to be higher than experiments show. This results in an over prediction of the sediment transport. Nevertheless...

  9. Sedimentation in Rio La Venta Canyon in Netzahualcoyotl Reservoir, Chiapas, Mexico (United States)

    de La Fuente, J. A.; Lisle, T.; Velasquez, J.; Allison, B. L.; Miller, A.


    Sedimentation of Rio La Venta as it enters the Netzahualcoyotl Reservoir in Chiapas, Mexico, threatens a unique part of the aquatic ecosystem. Rio La Venta enters the reservoir via a narrow canyon about 16 km long with spectacular, near-vertical limestone bluffs up to 320 m high and inhabited by the flora and fauna of a pristine tropical forest. Karst terrain underlies most of the Rio La Venta basin in the vicinity of the reservoir, while deeply weathered granitic terrain underlies the Rio Negro basin, and the headwaters of the Rio La Venta to the south. The Rio Negro joins Rio La Venta 3 km downstream of the upper limit of the reservoir and delivers the bulk of the total clastic sediment (mostly sand and finer material). The canyon and much of the contributing basin lie within the Reserva de la Biosfera, Selva El Ocote, administered by the Comision Nacional de Areas Naturales Protegidas, part of the Secretaria de Medioambiente y Recursos Naturales. The Klamath National Forest Forest has cooperated with its Mexican counterparts since 1993 in natural resource management, neo-tropical bird inventories, wildfire management, and more recently in watershed analyses. Rates of sedimentation are estimated from bathymetric surveys conducted in March, 2002. A longitudinal profile down the inundated canyon during a high reservoir level shows an inflection from a slope of 0.0017 to one of 0.0075 at 7.2 km downstream of the mouth of Rio Negro. The bed elevation at this point corresponds to the lowest reservoir level, suggesting that the gentler sloping bed upstream is formed by fluvial processes during drawdown and that downstream by pluvial processes. Using accounts that boats could access Rio Negro during low water levels in 1984, we estimate an annual sedimentation rate of roughly 3 million cubic meters per year. This suggests that boats might no longer be able to access the most spectacular section of canyon upstream of Rio Negro within a decade, depending on how the

  10. Drastic changes in the distribution of branched tetraether lipids in suspended matter and sediments from the Yenisei River and Kara Sea (Siberia): Implications for the use of brGDGT-based proxies in coastal marine sediments (United States)

    De Jonge, Cindy; Stadnitskaia, Alina; Hopmans, Ellen C.; Cherkashov, Georgy; Fedotov, Andrey; Streletskaya, Irina D.; Vasiliev, Alexander A.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.


    -dominated signal, indicating potential for palaeoclimate reconstructions at this site. Both in the river system and coastal cliffs, brGDGTs were much more abundant than crenarchaeol, an archaeal isoprenoid GDGT, resulting in high (>0.93) Branched and Isoprenoid Tetraether (BIT) index values. Moving downstream in the marine sediments, a decrease in brGDGT concentrations, coeval with an increase in crenarchaeol, resulted in decreasing BIT index values. This decrease correlates with changes in bulk proxies for terrigenous input (δ13Corg, C/N), confirming the use of the BIT index to trace the delivery of river-transported and coastal cliff-derived terrigenous organic matter.

  11. Gold-bearing fluvial and associated tidal marine sediments of Proterozoic age in the Mporokoso Basin, northern Zambia (United States)

    Andrews-Speed, C. P.


    The structurally defined Mporokoso Basin contains up to 5000 m of continental and marine clastic sediments and minor silicic volcanics which together form the Mporokoso Group. These rocks overlie unconformably a basement of silicic-intermediate igneous rocks and accumulated within the interval 1830-1130 Ma. This sedimentological study was restricted to the eastern end of the basin and was part of an assessment of the potential for palaeoplacer gold in the Mporokoso Group. At the base of the Mporokoso Group, the Mbala Formation consists of 1000-1500 m of purple sandstones and conglomerates deposited in a braided-stream system overlain by 500-1000 m of mature quartz arenites deposited in a tidal marine setting. A general coarsening-upward trend exists within the fluvial sediments. Sandy, distal braided-stream facies passes upwards into more proximal conglomeratic facies. In proximal sections, poorly sorted conglomerates form the top of the coarsening-up sequence which is 500-700 m thick. The overlying fluvial sediments fine upwards. The tidal marine sandstones at the top of the Mbala Formation resulted from reworking of fluvial sediments during a marine transgression. Well-exposed sections with fluvial conglomerates were studied in detail. Individual conglomerate bodies form sheets extending for hundreds of metres downstream and at least one hundred metres across stream, with little sign of deep scouring or channelling. They are generally matrix-supported. The whole fluvial sequence is characterised by a paucity of mud or silt. These conglomerates were deposited by large velocity, sheet flows of water which transported a bed-load of pebbles and sand. Most fine material settling out from suspension was eroded by the next flow. The great lateral and vertical extent and the uniformity of the fluvial sediments suggest that the sediments accumulated over an unconfined alluvial plain and that the tectonic evolution of the source area was relatively continuous and not

  12. Fluctuations and Instability in Sedimentation

    KAUST Repository

    Guazzelli, É lisabeth; Hinch, John


    This review concentrates on the fluctuations of the velocities of sedimenting spheres, and on the structural instability of a suspension of settling fibers. For many years, theoretical estimates and numerical simulations predicted the fluctuations

  13. Paleosecular variations from lake sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, S.P.; Banerjee, S.K.


    Data are presented on the secular variations of the magnetization of wet and dry lake sediments for 17 North American locations. The usefullness of this data in terms of the geomagnetic field is discussed

  14. Cable Bacteria in Freshwater Sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Kristiansen, Michael; Frederiksen, Rasmus


    In marine sediments cathodic oxygen reduction at the sediment surface can be coupled to anodic sulfide oxidation in deeper anoxic layers through electrical currents mediated by filamentous, multicellular bacteria of the Desulfobulbaceae family, the so-called cable bacteria. Until now, cable...... bacteria have only been reported from marine environments. In this study, we demonstrate that cable bacteria also occur in freshwater sediments. In a first step, homogenized sediment collected from the freshwater stream Giber Å, Denmark, was incubated in the laboratory. After 2 weeks, pH signatures...... marine cable bacteria, with the genus Desulfobulbus as the closest cultured lineage. The results of the present study indicate that electric currents mediated by cable bacteria could be important for the biogeochemistry in many more environments than anticipated thus far and suggest a common evolutionary...

  15. Glacimarine environments: processes and sediments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dowdeswell, J. A; Scourse, James D


    This volume examines the processes responsible for sedimentation in modern glaciomarine environments, and how such modern studies can be used as analogues in the interpretation of ancient glaciomarine sequences...

  16. Rare earth, major and trace element composition of Leg 127 sediments (United States)

    Murray, R.W.; Buchholtz ten Brink, Marilyn R.; Brumsack, Hans-Juergen; Gerlach, David C.; Russ III, G. Price


    The relative effects of paleoceanographic and paleogeographic variations, sediment lithology, and diagenetic processes on the final preserved chemistry of Japan Sea sediments are evaluated by investigating the rare earth element (REE), major element, and trace element concentrations in 59 squeeze-cake whole-round and 27 physical-property sample residues from Sites 794, 795, and 797, cored during ODP Leg 127. The most important variation in sedimentary chemical composition is the increase in SiO2 concentration through the Pliocene diatomaceous sequences, which dilutes most other major and trace element components by various degrees. This biogenic input is largest at Site 794 (Yamato Basin), moderately developed at Site 797 (Yamato Basin), and of only minor importance at Site 795 (Japan Basin), potentially reflecting basinal contrasts in productivity with the Yamato Basin recording greater biogenic input than the Japan Basin and with the easternmost sequence of Site 794 lying beneath the most productive waters. There are few systematic changes in solid-phase chemistry resulting from the opal-A/opal-CT or opal-CT/quartz silica phase transformations. Most major and trace element concentrations are controlled by the aluminosilicate fraction of the sediment, although the effects of diagenetic silica phases and manganese carbonates are of localized importance. REE total abundances (IREE) in the Japan Sea are strongly dependent upon the paleoceanographic position of a given site with respect to terrigenous and biogenic sources. REE concentrations at Site 794 overall correspond well to aluminosilicate chemical indices and are strongly diluted by SiO2 within the upper Miocene-Pliocene diatomaceous sequence. Eu/Eu* values at Site 794 reach a maximum through the diatomaceous interval as well, most likely suggesting an association of Eu/Eu* with the siliceous component, or reflecting slight incorporation of a detrital feldspar phase. XREE at Site 795 also is affiliated strongly

  17. Movement of Sediment Associated With Lowered Reservoir Levels in the Rio La Venta Arm of the Presa Netzahualcoyotl, Chiapas, Mexico (United States)

    Hilton, S.; de La Fuente, J.; Lisle, T. E.; Velasquez, J.; Allison, B.; Olson, B.; Quinones, R.


    A joint sedimentation study is currently underway at the Netzahualcoyotl reservoir in Chiapas, Mexico, involving the Comision Nacional de Areas Naturales Protegidas (CONANP) of the Secretaria de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales and the USDA Forest Service. The reservoir is adjacent to the Reserva de la Biosfera, Selva El Ocote, administered by CONANP. Ongoing research is intended to provide watershed and reservoir managers with strategies to protect the resources of Rio La Venta canyon. The Rio La Venta arm of the reservoir is incised into karst terrain, with near-vertical limestone walls up to 300 meters high. The canyon is fed by two rivers, Rio La Selva and Rio Negro, and is surrounded by pristine tropical forest. The majority of the clastic sediment (predominantly sand and fine gravel) entering the reservoir originates in the headwaters of the two rivers which are underlain by weathered and dissected granitic terrain. Rapid sedimentation of the partially inundated canyon poses a threat to the aquatic ecosystem, as well as to recreational resources. Longitudinal and transverse profiles were surveyed in the inundated canyon in March of 2002 and repeated in April of 2003 when the reservoir level was 15 meters lower. The 2002 longitudinal profile shows an inflection from a slope of 0.0017 to one of 0.0075 at 7.2 km downstream of the mouth of Rio Negro. In 2003, the two slopes remained the same, but the bed lowered about 5 meters and the inflection point moved downstream about 2.3 km. We calculated that reservoir lowering in 2003 allowed the transport of 2.5 million cubic meters of sand further out into the reservoir. This volume is more than the average annual rate of filling up to the 2002 level since 1984 when sedimentation was not as advanced (De la Fuente et al., 2002), which was calculated disregarding loss of sediment to the main reservoir. Field observations at late dry season low flows in 2003 revealed active transport of sand and pebbles and formation

  18. Mathematical theory of sedimentation analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Fujita, Hiroshi; Van Rysselberghe, P


    Mathematical Theory of Sedimentation Analysis presents the flow equations for the ultracentrifuge. This book is organized into two parts encompassing six chapters that evaluate the systems of reacting components, the differential equations for the ultracentrifuge, and the case of negligible diffusion. The first chapters consider the Archibald method for molecular weight determination; pressure-dependent sedimentation; expressions for the refractive index and its gradient; relation between refractive index and concentration; and the analysis of Gaussian distribution. Other chapters deal with th

  19. Radiocarbon dating of lake sediments


    Pocevičius, Matas


    Matas Pocevičius, Radiocarbon dating of lake sediments, bachelor thesis, Vilnius University, Faculty of Physics, Department of General Physics and Spectroscopy, physics, Vilnius, 45 p., 2016. The aim of this study is to evaluate the possibility of radiocarbon dating application for Tapeliai lake bottom sediments. The literature review discusses topics related to accelerator mass spectrometry, principles of radiocarbon formation, importance of nuclear fallout for 14C, possible applications of ...

  20. Sediment dynamics in Alpine basins (United States)

    Habersack, Helmut; Liébault, Fred; Comiti, Francesco


    In rivers and streams and of the European Alps, sediment transport processes are of great relevance due to their ecological (e.g. aquatic habitats), energy (e.g. reservoir sedimentation) and risk-related (floods and debris flows) consequences. In fact, sediment fluxes are crucial to maintain a good ecological status of watercourses (required by the EU ;Water Framework Directive;, WFD, 2000), as they provide the hydromorphological conditions supporting dynamic aquatic ecosystems (Fryirs and Brierley, 2013; Wohl et al., 2015; Gurnell et al., 2016). Indeed, the key issue to ameliorate river hydrogeomorphological - and thus ecological - status and to comply with WFD provisions lies in allowing the natural processes of sediment and wood supply and transport to take place as much as possible, given the constraints imposed by the non-eliminable uses of each river (Comiti, 2012; Liébault et al., 2013). Specifically river continuity is mentioned in the WFD not only for biota but also sediments, which is hardly discussed in river management so far and almost no concrete measures to improve sediment continuity have been implemented so far (Habersack et al., 2016).

  1. Geochemical characterization of Neogene sediments from onshore West Baram Delta Province, Sarawak: paleoenvironment, source input and thermal maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Togunwa Olayinka S.


    Full Text Available The Neogene strata of the onshore West Baram Province of NW Borneo contain organic rich rock formations particularly within the Sarawak basin. This basin is a proven prolific oil and gas province, thus has been a subject of great interest to characterise the nature of the organic source input and depositional environment conditions as well as thermal maturation. This study is performed on outcrop samples of Lambir, Miri and Tukau formations, which are of stratigraphic equivalence to the petroleum bearing cycles of the offshore West Baram delta province in Sarawak. The investigated mudstone samples are organic rich with a total organic carbon (TOC content of more than 1.0 wt.%. The integration of elemental and molecular analyses indicates that there is no significant variation in the source input between these formations. The investigated biomarkers parameters achieved from acyclic isoprenoids, terpanes and steranes biomarkers of a saturated hydrocarbon biomarkers revealed that these sediments contain high contribution of land plants with minor marine organic matter input that was deposited and preserved under relatively oxic to suboxic conditions. This is further supported by low total sulphur (TS, high TOC/TN ratios, source and redox sensitive trace elements (V, Ni, Cr, Co and Mo concentrations and their ratios, which suggest terrigenous source input deposited under oxic to suboxic conditions. Based on the analysed biomarker thermal maturity indicators, it may be deduced that the studied sediments are yet to enter the maturity stage for hydrocarbon generation, which is also supported by measured vitrinite reflectance values of 0.39-0.48% Ro.

  2. Geochemical characterization of Neogene sediments from onshore West Baram Delta Province, Sarawak: paleoenvironment, source input and thermal maturity (United States)

    Togunwa, Olayinka S.; Abdullah, Wan H.


    The Neogene strata of the onshore West Baram Province of NW Borneo contain organic rich rock formations particularly within the Sarawak basin. This basin is a proven prolific oil and gas province, thus has been a subject of great interest to characterise the nature of the organic source input and depositional environment conditions as well as thermal maturation. This study is performed on outcrop samples of Lambir, Miri and Tukau formations, which are of stratigraphic equivalence to the petroleum bearing cycles of the offshore West Baram delta province in Sarawak. The investigated mudstone samples are organic rich with a total organic carbon (TOC) content of more than 1.0 wt.%. The integration of elemental and molecular analyses indicates that there is no significant variation in the source input between these formations. The investigated biomarkers parameters achieved from acyclic isoprenoids, terpanes and steranes biomarkers of a saturated hydrocarbon biomarkers revealed that these sediments contain high contribution of land plants with minor marine organic matter input that was deposited and preserved under relatively oxic to suboxic conditions. This is further supported by low total sulphur (TS), high TOC/TN ratios, source and redox sensitive trace elements (V, Ni, Cr, Co and Mo) concentrations and their ratios, which suggest terrigenous source input deposited under oxic to suboxic conditions. Based on the analysed biomarker thermal maturity indicators, it may be deduced that the studied sediments are yet to enter the maturity stage for hydrocarbon generation, which is also supported by measured vitrinite reflectance values of 0.39-0.48% Ro.

  3. Coarse-grained sediment delivery and distribution in the Holocene Santa Monica Basin, California: Implications for evaluating source-to-sink flux at millennial time scales (United States)

    Romans, B.W.; Normark, W.R.; McGann, M.M.; Covault, J.A.; Graham, S.A.


    Utilizing accumulations of coarse-grained terrigenous sediment from deep-marine basins to evaluate the relative contributions of and history of controls on sediment flux through a source-to-sink system has been difficult as a result of limited knowledge of event timing. In this study, six new radiocarbon (14C) dates are integrated with five previously published dates that have been recalibrated from a 12.5-m-thick turbidite section from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1015 in Santa Monica Basin, offshore California. This borehole is tied to high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles that cover an 1100 km2 area of the middle and lower Hueneme submarine fan and most of the basin plain. The resulting stratigraphic framework provides the highest temporal resolution for a thick-bedded Holocene turbidite succession to date, permitting an evaluation of source-to-sink controls at millennial (1000 yr) scales. The depositional history from 7 ka to present indicates that the recurrence interval for large turbidity-current events is relatively constant (300-360 yr), but the volume of sediment deposited on the fan and in the basin plain has increased by a factor of 2 over this period. Moreover, the amount of sand per event on the basin plain during the same interval has increased by a factor of 7. Maps of sediment distribution derived from correlation of seismic-reflection profiles indicate that this trend cannot be attributed exclusively to autogenic processes (e.g., progradation of depocenters). The observed variability in sediment accumulation rates is thus largely controlled by allogenic factors, including: (1) increased discharge of Santa Clara River as a result of increased magnitude and frequency of El Ni??o-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events from ca. 2 ka to present, (2) an apparent change in routing of coarse-grained sediment within the staging area at ca. 3 ka (i.e., from direct river input to indirect, littoral cell input into Hueneme submarine canyon), and (3

  4. Sediment Capping and Natural Recovery, Contaminant Transport Fundamentals With Applications to Sediment Caps

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Petrovski, David M; Corcoran, Maureen K; May, James H; Patrick, David M


    Engineered sediment caps and natural recovery are in situ remedial alternatives for contaminated sediments, which consist of the artificial or natural placement of a layer of material over a sediment...

  5. A data reconnaissance on the effect of suspended-sediment concentrations on dissolved-solids concentrations in rivers and tributaries in the Upper Colorado River Basin (United States)

    Tillman, Fred D.; Anning, David W.


    The Colorado River is one of the most important sources of water in the western United States, supplying water to over 35 million people in the U.S. and 3 million people in Mexico. High dissolved-solids loading to the River and tributaries are derived primarily from geologic material deposited in inland seas in the mid-to-late Cretaceous Period, but this loading may be increased by human activities. High dissolved solids in the River causes substantial damages to users, primarily in reduced agricultural crop yields and corrosion. The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Program was created to manage dissolved-solids loading to the River and has focused primarily on reducing irrigation-related loading from agricultural areas. This work presents a reconnaissance of existing data from sites in the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB) in order to highlight areas where suspended-sediment control measures may be useful in reducing dissolved-solids concentrations. Multiple linear regression was used on data from 164 sites in the UCRB to develop dissolved-solids models that include combinations of explanatory variables of suspended sediment, flow, and time. Results from the partial t-test, overall likelihood ratio, and partial likelihood ratio on the models were used to group the sites into categories of strong, moderate, weak, and no-evidence of a relation between suspended-sediment and dissolved-solids concentrations. Results show 68 sites have strong or moderate evidence of a relation, with drainage areas for many of these sites composed of a large percentage of clastic sedimentary rocks. These results could assist water managers in the region in directing field-scale evaluation of suspended-sediment control measures to reduce UCRB dissolved-solids loading.

  6. Hawaii Regional Sediment Management (RSM): Regional Sediment Budget for the West Maui Region (United States)


    ER D C/ CH L TR -1 6- 5 Regional Sediment Management (RSM) Program Hawaii Regional Sediment Management (RSM): Regional Sediment Regional Sediment Management (RSM) Program ERDC/CHL TR-16-5 June 2016 Hawaii Regional Sediment Management...distribution is unlimited. Prepared for U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Washington, DC 20314-1000 Under Project 454632, “ Hawaii Regional Sediment Management

  7. Subduction recycling of continental sediments and the origin of geochemically enriched reservoirs in the deep mantle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, R.P.; Irifune, T.; Shimizu, N.; Nishiyama, N.; Norman, M.D.; Inoue, T. (Ehime U); (WHOI); (UC); (ANU)


    Isotopic and trace element geochemical studies of ocean island basalts (OIBs) have for many years been used to infer the presence of long-lived ({approx} 1-2 Ga old) compositional heterogeneities in the deep mantle related to recycling of crustal lithologies and marine and terrigenous sediments via subduction [e.g., Zindler, A., Hart, S.R., 1986. Chemical geodynamics. Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 14, 493-571; Weaver, B.L., 1991. The origin of ocean island basalt end-member compositions: trace element and isotopic constraints. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 104, 381-397; Chauvel, C., Hofmann, A.W., Vidal, P., 1992. HIMU-EM: the French Polynesian connection. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 110, 99-119; Hofmann, A.W., 1997. Mantle geochemistry: the message from oceanic volcanism. Nature 385, 219-229; Willbold, M., Stracke, A., 2006. Trace element composition of mantle end-members: Implications for recycling of oceanic and upper and lower continental crust. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. Q04004. 7, doi:10.1029/2005GC001005]. In particular, models for the EM-1 type ('enriched mantle') OIB reservoir have invoked the presence of subducted, continental-derived sediment to explain high {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios, low {sup 143}Nd/{sup 144}Nd and {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb ratios, and extreme enrichments in incompatible elements observed in OIB lavas from, for example, the Pitcairn Island group in the South Pacific [Woodhead, J.D., McCulloch, M.T., 1989; Woodhead, J.D., Devey, C.W., 1993. Geochemistry of the Pitcairn seamounts, I: source character and temporal trends. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 116, 81-99; Eisele, J., Sharma, M., Galer, S.J.G., Blichert-Toft, J., Devey, C.W., Hofmann, A.W., 2002. The role of sediment recycling in EM-1 inferred from Os, Pb, Hf, Nd, Sr isotope and trace element systematics of the Pitcairn hotspot. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 196, 197-212]. More recently, ultrapotassic, mantle-derived lavas (lamproites) from Gaussberg, Antarctica have been interpreted as

  8. Provenance of the heavy metals in sand sediments of the Oman Sea (Sistan and Baluchestan district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Soleimani


    with each other and the calcium carbonate content of the sediments. A close relationship is also observed between the concentrations of Fe and Mn elements and the total amount of heavy minerals. Among the heavy minerals existing in the samples, biotite has the closest relationship with Fe and Mn. Among the rock fragments existing in the sediments, the amount of granitic rock fragments also has a very similar trend to variation of these two elements especially Fe. Discussion According to presence of Fe and Mn in structure of many heavy minerals such as biotite (Mange and Wright, 2007; Bradl, 2005, their main provenance can be biotite-bearing granites of Ghalaman complex, granodiorites existing in the ophiolite-melanges and the gabbros located in north of the Fanuch area mostly transported to the Oman Sea via the Rabech and Bahookalat water drainage basins. The clastic carbonate grains were mostly transported to the Oman Sea by Rabech and Sergan-Mochgar watersheds to the Oman Sea. Biotite and muscovite could mainly originate from the granodiorite, granite, ophiolite-melange gabbro and the Eocene flysches of northeast of the region. The main provenance of Zn could be granodiorites and gabbros existing in the Iranshahr ophiolites and flysches. According to close relationship between Cu and muscovite, provenance of this element can be granites, pegmatites and schists existing in the ophiolites and flysches of the region. Therefore, Zn and Cu are mostly transported to the Oman Sea and Guatr Bay via Bahookalat River. Provenance of Sr and Cd are mainly the Fanuch and Chabahar carbonate formations. According to the enrichment factor (Sutherland, 2000 of the studied elements, the sediments are extra-highly to very highly enriched in Cd. The enrichment of Sr changes from medium to very high. Zn shows low to medium enrichment and the sediments are depleted in Fe, Cu and Mn. Acknowledgement Financial support by School of Graduate Studies of University of Isfahan and also by the

  9. Regional Sediment Analysis of Mississippi River Sediment Transport and Hydrographic Survey Data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thorne, Colin


    ...s. Sediments generated through channel instability are carried downstream to cause sedimentation problems in flood control channels, destroy wetlands and lakes, adversely impact fish and wildlife...

  10. Lithogenic and biogenic particle deposition in an Antarctic coastal environment (Marian Cove, King George Island): Seasonal patterns from a sediment trap study (United States)

    Khim, B. K.; Shim, J.; Yoon, H. I.; Kang, Y. C.; Jang, Y. H.


    Particulate suspended material was recovered over a 23-month period using two sediment traps deployed in shallow water (˜30 m deep) off the King Sejong Station located in Marian Cove of King George Island, West Antarctica. Variability in seasonal flux and geochemical characteristics of the sediment particles highlights seasonal patterns of sedimentation of both lithogenic (terrigenous) and biogenic particles in the coastal glaciomarine environment. All components including total mass flux, lithogenic particle flux and biogenic particle flux show distinct seasonal variation, with high recovery rates during the summer and low rates under winter fast ice. The major contributor to total mass flux is the lithogenic component, comprising from 88% during the summer months (about 21 g m -2 d -1) up to 97% during the winter season (about 2 g m -2 d -1). The lithogenic particle flux depends mainly on the amount of snow-melt (snow accumulation) delivered into the coastal region as well as on the resuspension of sedimentary materials. These fine-grained lithogenic particles are silt-to-clay sized, composed mostly of clay minerals weathered on King George Island. Biogenic particle flux is also seasonal. Winter flux is ˜0.2 g m -2 d -1, whereas the summer contribution increases more than tenfold, up to 2.6 g m -2 d -1. Different biogenic flux between the two summers indicates inter-annual variability to the spring-summer phytoplankton bloom. The maximum of lithogenic particle flux occurs over a short period of time, and follows the peak of biogenic particle flux, which lasts longer. The seasonal warming and sea-ice retreat result in change in seawater nutrient status and subsequent ice-edge phytoplankton production. Meanwhile, the meltwater input to Marian Cove from the coastal drainage in January to February plays a major role in transporting lithogenic particles into the shallow water environment, although the tidal currents may be the main agents of resuspension in this

  11. Continental weathering as a driver of Late Cretaceous cooling: new insights from clay mineralogy of Campanian sediments from the southern Tethyan margin to the Boreal realm (United States)

    Chenot, Elise; Deconinck, Jean-François; Pucéat, Emmanuelle; Pellenard, Pierre; Guiraud, Michel; Jaubert, Maxime; Jarvis, Ian; Thibault, Nicolas; Cocquerez, Théophile; Bruneau, Ludovic; Razmjooei, Mohammad J.; Boussaha, Myriam; Richard, James; Sizun, Jean-Pierre; Stemmerik, Lars


    New clay mineralogical analyses have been performed on Campanian sediments from the Tethyan and Boreal realms along a palaeolatitudinal transect from 45° to 20°N (Danish Basin, North Sea, Paris Basin, Mons Basin, Aquitaine Basin, Umbria-Marche Basin and Tunisian Atlas). Significant terrigenous inputs are evidenced by increasing proportions of detrital clay minerals such as illite, kaolinite and chlorite at various levels in the mid- to upper Campanian, while smectitic minerals predominate and represented the background of the Late Cretaceous clay sedimentation. Our new results highlight a distinct latitudinal distribution of clay minerals, with the occurrence of kaolinite in southern sections and an almost total absence of this mineral in northern areas. This latitudinal trend points to an at least partial climatic control on clay mineral sedimentation, with a humid zone developed between 20° and 35°N. The association and co-evolution of illite, chlorite and kaolinite in most sections suggest a reworking of these minerals from basement rocks weathered by hydrolysis, which we link to the formation of relief around the Tethys due to compression associated with incipient Tethyan closure. Diachronism in the occurrence of detrital minerals between sections, with detrital input starting earlier during the Santonian in the south than in the north, highlights the northward progression of the deformation related to the anticlockwise rotation of Africa. Increasing continental weathering and erosion, evidenced by our clay mineralogical data through the Campanian, may have resulted in enhanced CO2 consumption by silicate weathering, thereby contributing to Late Cretaceous climatic cooling.

  12. Quartz and K-feldspar luminescence dating of sedimentation in the North Bohai coastal area (NE China) since the late pleistocene (United States)

    Li, Yan; Shang, Zhiwen; Tsukamoto, Sumiko; Tamura, Toru; Yi, Liang; Wang, Hong; Frechen, Manfred; Li, Jianfen; Jiang, Xingyu


    In this study, luminescence dating of core sediments from the North Bohai Coast (China) was applied to provide a high-resolution chronological constraint, on a better understanding of the Holocene marine-terrestrial interaction. The studied sedimentary sequence contains a terrigenous deposit, a transgressive deposit and a prograding deltaic succession; all are believed to have formed during the late Pleistocene. To establish a reliable luminescence chronology, the luminescence signals of ten samples were investigated in order to quantify the degree of bleaching. This approach involved the use of quartz OSL, K-feldspar infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) and post-IR IRSL (pIRIR) ages. The resulting data were then compared with radiocarbon ages. The quartz OSL signals were well-bleached for all the samples, and the feldspar pIRIR150 and pIRIR225 signals yielded reliable ages for the pre-Holocene deposits but overestimated ages for late Holocene deposits (input. Rapid deltaic progradation with high sedimentation rates over the last millennia, was revealed by the quartz OSL age results. This was supported by historical records for this section of the coastline. Episodic deposition around 700 years ago most likely triggered by frequent flooding events, was highlighted by the clustered OSL ages. While the sediment increment was 2.7 × 104 m3 a-1 for the period of ∼6-1 ka, this increased considerably to 9.1 × 106 m3 a-1 during the rapid progradation of the last millennium. The increase appears related to winter monsoon enhancement and human activity during the last 1000 years.

  13. Heavy metals in sediments and soft tissues of the Antarctic clam Laternula elliptica: more evidence as a possible biomonitor of coastal marine pollution at high latitudes? (United States)

    Vodopivez, Cristian; Curtosi, Antonio; Villaamil, Edda; Smichowski, Patricia; Pelletier, Emilien; Mac Cormack, Walter P


    Studies on metal contamination in 25 de Mayo Island, Antarctica, yielded controversial results. In this work, we analyzed Antarctic marine sediments and Antarctic clam (Laternula elliptica) tissues to investigate the possible use of this mollusk as a biomonitor of metals and to identify the sources of metal pollution. Different types of paint from several buildings from Carlini Station were examined to assess their contribution to the local and random metal pollution. Five sediment samples, 105 L. elliptica specimens (40.2-78.0mm length) and four types of paint were analyzed to quantify Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. Metal concentrations in sediments were lower than the global averages of the earth's crust, with the exception of Cd and Cu. These results were related to the contribution of the local fresh-water runoff. The different varieties of paint showed low levels of Cu, Mn, Fe and Zn, whereas a broad range of values were found in the case of Cr and Pb (20-15,100 μg·g(-1) and 153-115,500 μg·g(-1) respectively). The remains of the paint would be responsible for the significant increases in Cr and Pb which are randomly detected by us and by other authors. High levels of Fe and Cd, in comparison to other Antarctic areas, appear to be related to the terrigenous materials transported by the local streams. Accumulation indexes suggested that kidney tissue from L. elliptica could be an adequate material for biomonitoring pollution with Cd, Zn and probably also Pb. In general, relationships between size and metal contents reported by other authors were not verified, suggesting that this issue should be revised. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Observations at convergent margins concerning sediment subduction, subduction erosion, and the growth of continental crust (United States)

    von Huene, Roland E.; Scholl, D. W.


    subducted beneath the frontal accretionary body and its active buttress. In rounded figures the contemporary rate of solid-volume sediment subduction at convergent ocean margins (???43,500 km) is calculated to be 1.5 km3/yr. Correcting type 1 margins for high rates of terrigenous seafloor sedimentation during the past 30 m.y. or so sets the long-term rate of sediment subduction at 1.0 km3/yr. The bulk of the subducted material is derived directly or indirectly from continental denudation. Interstitial water currently expulsed from accreted and deeply subducted sediment and recycled to the ocean basins is estimated at 0.9 km3/yr. The thinning and truncation caused by subduction erosion of the margin's framework rock and overlying sedimentary deposits have been demonstrated at many convergent margins but only off northern Japan, central Peru, and northern Chile has sufficient information been collected to determine average or long-term rates, which range from 25 to 50 km3/m.y. per kilometer of margin. A conservative long-term rate applicable to many sectors of convergent margins is 30 km3/km/m.y. If applied to the length of type 2 margins, subduction erosion removes and transports approximately 0.6 km3/yr of upper plate material to greater depths. At various places, subduction erosion also affects sectors of type 1 margins bordered by small- to medium-sized accretionary prisms (for example, Japan and Peru), thus increasing the global rate by possibly 0.5 km3/yr to a total of 1.1 km3/yr. Little information is available to assess subduction erosion at margins bordered by large accretionary prisms. Mass balance calculations allow assessments to be made of the amount of subducted sediment that bypasses the prism and underthrusts the margin's rock framework. This subcrustally subducted sediment is estimated at 0.7 km3/yr. Combined with the range of terrestrial matter removed from the margin's rock framework by subduction erosion, the global volume of subcrustally subducted materia

  15. Data Evaluation Report for the Lower Rouge River Sediment Investigation (United States)

    Describes a study of contaminated sediment, analyzes results, and makes recommendations for sediment remediation. Includes aerial views of study locations, photo log, data tables of sediment analysis.

  16. Sorting of Terrestrial and Marine Organic Matter along a Marginal Submarine Canyon: Radiocarbon and Biomarker Signatures of Surface Sediments (United States)

    Close, H. G.; Doherty, S.; Campbell, P.; McCarthy, M. D.; Prouty, N.


    Submarine canyons are incised features of many continental margins that can have significant influence on the hydrodynamic distribution of sediments and organic matter (OM) eroded and deposited from the continents. Baltimore Canyon, on the U.S. mid-Atlantic margin, contains a complex set of sedimentary processes that simultaneously create unique benthic habitats and control the deposition of OM. Along the canyon axis, loci of net erosion, net deposition, and intense winnowing each host diverse faunal assemblages and varying mixtures of sedimentary OM derived both from production in the overlying water column and from mobilized sediments. Bioavailable components of this deposited OM sustain benthic communities, while recalcitrant components can contribute to long-term carbon burial in the deep sea. Here we probe in detail the terrestrial versus marine origins of OM along a transect of Baltimore Canyon, as well as its bioavailability for benthic fauna, in order to explore how canyon-specific sediment dynamics might emplace a functional sorting of OM from shelf to open ocean. Determining the provenance of sedimentary OM is a continual challenge: commonly-measured bulk geochemical properties often provide insufficient information to distinguish end-member sources. We present a novel approach to separate functional classes of OM and investigate sources and degradative pathways of OM in Baltimore Canyon. In combination with bulk geochemical characteristics, surface sediments from water depths of 200-1200 meters were sequentially extracted (solvent-extracted, acid-hydrolyzed, and demineralized) to separate pools containing different prevalence of terrigenous, marine, and recalcitrant OM. Each class was analyzed for biomarker distributions; amino acid content, 13C signatures, and degradation indicators; bulk carbon and nitrogen isotopes; and radiocarbon content in order to characterize potential end-member sources within the mixture, as well as their age profiles. These

  17. Ancient aqueous sedimentation on Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldspiel, J.M.; Squyres, S.W.


    Viking orbiter images are presently used to calculate approximate volumes for the inflow valleys of the ancient cratered terrain of Mars; a sediment-transport model is then used to conservatively estimate the amount of water required for the removal of this volume of debris from the valleys. The results obtained for four basins with well-developed inflow networks indicate basin sediment thicknesses of the order of tens to hundreds of meters. The calculations further suggest that the quantity of water required to transport the sediment is greater than that which could be produced by a single discharge of the associated aquifer, unless the material of the Martian highlands was very fine-grained and noncohesive to depths of hundreds of meters. 48 refs

  18. Radionuclide interactions with marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgo, J.J.W.


    A critical review of the literature on the subject of the interactions of radionuclides with marine sediments has been carried out. On the basis of the information available, an attempt has been made to give ranges and 'best estimates' for the distribution ratios between seawater and sediments. These estimates have been based on an understanding of the sediment seawater system and the porewater chemistry and mineralogy. Field measurements, laboratory measurements and estimates based on stable-element geochemical data are all taken into account. Laboratory measurements include distribution-ratio and diffusion-coefficient determinations. The elements reviewed are carbon, chlorine, calcium, nickel, selenium, strontium, zirconium, niobium, technetium, tin, iodine, caesium, lead, radium, actinium, thorium, protactinium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium. (author)

  19. Contaminated sediment transport during floods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontaine, T.A.


    Over the past 48 years, operations and waste disposal activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have resulted in the contamination of parts of the White Oak Creek catchment. The contaminants presenting the highest risk to human health and the environment are particle reactive and are associated with the soils and sediments in the White Oak Creek drainage system. The erosion of these sediments during floods can result in the transport of contaminants both within the catchment and off-site into the Clinch River. A data collection program and a modeling investigation are being used to evaluate the probability of contaminated sediment transport during floods and to develop strategies for controlling off-site transport under present and future conditions

  20. Radiotracer Imaging of Sediment Columns (United States)

    Moses, W. W.; O'Neil, J. P.; Boutchko, R.; Nico, P. S.; Druhan, J. L.; Vandehey, N. T.


    Nuclear medical PET and SPECT cameras routinely image radioactivity concentration of gamma ray emitting isotopes (PET - 511 keV; SPECT - 75-300 keV). We have used nuclear medical imaging technology to study contaminant transport in sediment columns. Specifically, we use Tc-99m (T1/2 = 6 h, Eγ = 140 keV) and a SPECT camera to image the bacteria mediated reduction of pertechnetate, [Tc(VII)O4]- + Fe(II) → Tc(IV)O2 + Fe(III). A 45 mL bolus of Tc-99m (32 mCi) labeled sodium pertechnetate was infused into a column (35cm x 10cm Ø) containing uranium-contaminated subsurface sediment from the Rifle, CO site. A flow rate of 1.25 ml/min of artificial groundwater was maintained in the column. Using a GE Millennium VG camera, we imaged the column for 12 hours, acquiring 44 frames. As the microbes in the sediment were inactive, we expected most of the iron to be Fe(III). The images were consistent with this hypothesis, and the Tc-99m pertechnetate acted like a conservative tracer. Virtually no binding of the Tc-99m was observed, and while the bolus of activity propagated fairly uniformly through the column, some inhomogeneity attributed to sediment packing was observed. We expect that after augmentation by acetate, the bacteria will metabolically reduce Fe(III) to Fe(II), leading to significant Tc-99m binding. Imaging sediment columns using nuclear medicine techniques has many attractive features. Trace quantities of the radiolabeled compounds are used (micro- to nano- molar) and the half-lives of many of these tracers are short (Image of Tc-99m distribution in a column containing Rifle sediment at four times.

  1. Hydroxyatrazine in soils and sediments (United States)

    Lerch, R.N.; Thurman, E.M.; Blanchard, P.E.


    Hydroxyatrazine (HA) is the major metabolite of atrazine in most surface soils. Knowledge of HA sorption to soils, and its pattern of stream water contamination suggest that it is persistent in the environment. Soils with different atrazine use histories were collected from four sites, and sediments were collected from an agricultural watershed. Samples were exhaustively extracted with a mixed-mode extractant, and HA was quantitated using high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. Atrazine, deethylatrazine (DEA), and deisopropylatrazine (DIA) were also measured in all samples. Concentrations of HA were considerably greater than concentrations of atrazine, DEA, and DIA in all soils and sediments studied. Soil concentrations of HA ranged from 14 to 640 ??g/kg with a median concentration of 84 ??g/kg. Sediment concentrations of HA ranged from 11 to 96 ??g/kg, with a median concentration of 14 ??g/kg. Correlations of HA and atrazine concentrations to soil properties indicated that HA levels in soils were controlled by sorption of atrazine. Because atrazine hydrolysis is known to be enhanced by sorption and pH extremes, soils with high organic matter (OM) and clay content and low pH will result in greater atrazine sorption and subsequent hydrolysis. Significant correlation of HA concentrations to OM, pH, and cation exchange capacity of sediments indicated that mixed-mode sorption (i.e., binding by cation exchange and hydrophobic interactions) was the mechanism controlling HA levels in sediment. The presence of HA in soils and stream sediments at the levels observed support existing hypotheses regarding its transport in surface runoff. These results also indicated that persistence of HA in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems is an additional risk factor associated with atrazine usage.

  2. Beryllium-10 in continental sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, L.; Sacks, I.S.; Tera, F.; Klein, J.; Middleton, R.


    The concentration of 10 Be has been measured in 10 samples taken from a transect of surface sediments beginning in the Atchafalaya River and extending across the Bay 136 km into the Gulf of Mexico. If corrected for a lower retentivity of sand for Be, they have a concentration that is constant within 13%. This concentration is about an order of magnitude smaller than that of deep ocean sediments. For comparison, measurements of 10 Be in rainwater, in a sample of soil and in a deep ocean core were made. (orig.)

  3. Syndepositional tectonics recorded by soft-sediment deformation and liquefaction structures (continental Lower Permian sediments, Southern Alps, Northern Italy): Stratigraphic significance (United States)

    Berra, F.; Felletti, F.


    The Lower Permian succession of the Central Southern Alps (Lombardy, Northern Italy) was deposited in fault-controlled continental basins, probably related to transtensional tectonics. We focussed our study on the stratigraphic record of the Lower Permian Orobic Basin, which consists of a 1000 m thick succession of prevailing continental clastics with intercalations of ignimbritic flows and tuffs (Pizzo del Diavolo Formation, PDV) resting on the underlying prevailing pyroclastic flows of the Cabianca Volcanite. The PDV consists of a lower part (composed of conglomerates passing laterally to sandstones and distally to silt and shales), a middle part (pelitic, with carbonates) and an upper part (alternating sandstone, silt and volcanic flows). Syndepositional tectonics during the deposition of the PDV is recorded by facies distribution, thickness changes and by the presence of deformation and liquefaction structures interpreted as seismites. Deformation is recorded by both ductile structures (ball-and-pillow, plastic intrusion, disturbed lamination, convolute stratification and slumps) and brittle structures (sand dykes and autoclastic breccias). Both the sedimentological features and the geodynamic setting of the depositional basin confidently support the interpretation of the described deformation features as related to seismic shocks. The most significant seismically-induced deformation is represented by a slumped horizon (about 4 m thick on average) which can be followed laterally for more than 5 km. The slumped bed consists of playa-lake deposits (alternating pelites and microbial carbonates, associated with mud cracks and vertebrate tracks). The lateral continuity and the evidence of deposition on a very low-angle surface along with the deformation/liquefaction of the sediments suggest that the slump was triggered by a high-magnitude earthquake. The stratigraphic distribution of the seismites allows us to identify time intervals of intense seismic activity

  4. Dynamics of suspended sediment concentration, flow discharge and sediment particle size interdependency to identify sediment source (United States)

    Sadeghi, Seyed Hamidreza; Singh, Vijay P.


    Spatiotemporal behavior of sediment yield is a key for proper watershed management. This study analyzed statistical characteristics and trends of suspended sediment concentration (SCS), flow discharge (FD) and sediment particle sizes using data from 24 gage stations scattered throughout the United States. Analysis showed significant time- and location-specific differences of these variables. The median values of SSC, FD and percentage of particle sizes smaller than 63 μm (P63) for all 24 gage stations were found to be 510.236 mg l-1 (right skewed), 45.406 m3 s-1 (left skewed) and 78.648% (right skewed), respectively. Most of the stations exhibited significant trends (P practices which may call for local or regional planning based on natural (i.e., precipitation amount, type and erosivity, watershed area, and soil erodibility) and human-affected (i.e., land use and hydraulic structures and water resources management) factors governing the study variables.

  5. Mercury enrichment in sediments of Amba estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ram, A.; Rokade, M.A.; Zingde, M.D.

    of anthropogenic metal to the estuary. Geoaccumulation index and enrichment factor support Hg contamination of the estuarine sediment to a varying degree. Hg is not significantly correlated with TOC, Al, Fe and Mn in these sediments...

  6. Biota-Sediment Accumulation Factor Data (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Biota-Sediment Accumulation Factor contains approximately 20,000 biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) from 20 locations (mostly Superfund sites) for...

  7. Geologic history and hydrogeologic setting of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system, west-central Texas (United States)

    Barker, R.A.; Bush, P.W.; Baker, E.T.


    The Edwards-Trinity aquifer system underlies about 42,000 square miles of west-central Texas. Nearly flat-lying, mostly Comanche (Lower Cretaceous) strata of the aquifer system thin northwestward atop massive pre-Cretaceous rocks that are comparatively impermeable and structurally complex. From predominately terrigenous clastic sediments in the east and fluvialdeltaic (terrestrial) deposits in the west, the rocks of early Trinitian age grade upward into supratidal evaporitic and dolomitic strata, intertidal limestone and dolostone, and shallow-marine, openshelf, and reefal strata of late Trinitian, Fredericksburgian, and Washitan age. A thick, downfaulted remnant of mostly open-marine strata of Eaglefordian through Navarroan age composes a small, southeastern part of the aquifer system.

  8. Evolution of depositional system and uraniferous characteristics of Damoguaihe formation in Kelulun sag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhijie; Yu Xinghe; Zhang Chuanheng; Chen Zhankun


    Damoguaihe Formation, which is mainly of alluvial fan, fan delta and lacustrine depositional systems, is the target horizon for the prospecting of sandstone-type uranium deposit in Kelulun sag, Hailaer basin. According to the depositional environment and sediment characteristics, alluvial fan facies is subdivided into upper fan, middle fan and lower fan subfacies; the fan delta facies is subadivided into upper fan delta plain, lower fan delta plain, fan delta front and fan prodelta subfacies. At the northern edge of the sag occurred one fan delta and one alluvial fan, which can mutually transform one into another. The terrigenous coarse-grained clastic deposits in the study area provide favorable condition for the concentration of uranium and especially the main channels and distributary channels on the fan delta and alluvial fan are the most favorable sites for uranium concentration. (authors)

  9. Sediments of a retting yard

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Remani, K.N.; Venugopal, P.; Devi, K.S.; Unnithan, R.V.

    (av. 46.8 and 92.3 mg/g respectively) compared to the reference station (20.6 and 48.9 mg/g) and published data on estuarine sediments.C/N ratios were consistently higher in the retting yard. Organic nitrogen, however,did not show this trend. Annual...

  10. Intercomparison of transuranics in sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, K.


    This paper summarizes the results of a recent intercomparison of transuranic analyses in Nordic sediments undertaken by five laboratories. Five different samplers were tested to determine their consistency and utility. Plutonium and americium were determined in all the samples and the analysis of variance is discussed. (author)

  11. Identification of carotenals in sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopmans, E.C.; Schouten, S.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.


    High performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array UV–Vis detection and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry was used to analyze sediment samples from the meromictic Ace Lake (Antarctica), as well as a Pliocene sapropel from the Mediterranean Sea and a Miocene marl

  12. Flocculation Dynamics of cohesive sediment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maggi, F.


    Cohesive sediment suspended in natural waters is subject not only to transport and deposition processes but also to reactions of flocculation, \\textit{i.e.} aggregation of fine particles, and breakup of aggregates. Although aggregation and breakup occur at small and very small length scales compared

  13. Bacterial chemoautotrophy in coastal sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasquez Cardenas, D.


    A key process in the biogeochemistry of coastal sediments is the reoxidation of reduced intermediates formed during anaerobic mineralization which in part is performed by chemoautotrophic bacteria. These bacteria fix inorganic carbon using the energy derived from reoxidation reactions. However the

  14. Determining the Influence of Dust on Post-Glacial Lacustrine Sedimentation in Bald Lake, Uinta Mountains, Utah (United States)

    O'Keefe, S. S.; McElroy, R.; Munroe, J. S.


    Dust is increasingly recognized as an important component of biogeochemical cycling and ecosystem function in mountain environments. Previous work has shown that delivery of dust to the Uinta Mountains of northeastern Utah has influenced pedogenesis, soil nutrient status, and surface water chemistry. An array of passive and active samplers in the alpine zone of the Uintas provides detailed information about contemporary dust fluxes, along with physical and geochemical properties of modern dust. Reconstruction of changes in the dust system over time, however, requires continuous sedimentary archives sensitive to dust inputs. A radiocarbon-dated 3.5-m core (spanning 12.7 kyr) collected from subalpine Bald Lake may provide such a record. Passive dust collectors in the vicinity of the lake constrain the geochemical properties of modern dust, whereas samples of regolith constrain properties of the local surficial material within the watershed. Together, these represent two end member sources of clastic sediment to Bald Lake basin: allochthonous dust and autochthonous regolith. Ba and Eu are found in higher abundances in the dust than in the watershed regolith. Zr and Th are found to be lower in the dust than in the watershed. Geochemical analysis of the sediment core allows the relative contribution of exotic and local material to the lake to be considered as a time series covering the post-glacial interval when indicator elements are plotted. Findings suggest Bald Lake's dust record tracks regional aridity and corresponds to low-stands of large lakes in the southwestern United States. Spatial variability of elemental abundances in the watershed suggests there are more than two input sources contributing to the lake over time.

  15. Surface sedimentation at permeable pavement systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støvring, Jan; Dam, Torben; Jensen, Marina Bergen


    Newly installed permeable pavement (PP) systems provide high surface infiltration capacity, but the accumulation of sediments causes a decrease in capacity over time, eventually leading to surface clogging. With the aim of investigating local sedimentation processes and the importance of restorat......Newly installed permeable pavement (PP) systems provide high surface infiltration capacity, but the accumulation of sediments causes a decrease in capacity over time, eventually leading to surface clogging. With the aim of investigating local sedimentation processes and the importance...

  16. Sediment Budget Analysis; Masonboro Inlet, North Carolina (United States)


    ER D C/ CH L TR -1 7- 13 Regional Sediment Management (RSM) Program Sediment Budget Analysis; Masonboro Inlet, North Carolina Co as ta...ERDC/CHL TR-17-13 August 2017 Sediment Budget Analysis; Masonboro Inlet, North Carolina Kevin B. Conner U.S. Army Engineer District, Wilmington P...Engineers Washington, DC 20314-1000 Under Project 454632, “Sediment Budget Analysis, Masonboro Inlet, NC” ERDC/CHL TR-17-13 ii Abstract A

  17. Facies sedimentology, mineralogy and genetic stratigraphy of the lower-Lias silici-clastic reservoirs of Cere-La-Ronde; Sedimentologie de facies, mineralogie et stratigraphie genetique des reservoirs silicoclastiques du Lias inferieur de Cere-La-Ronde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiller, M.


    Some sandstone reservoirs in the South West of the Parisian Basin (Sologne) are used for gas storage in the underground aquifer by GDF. The study aims to reconstruct the geometry of these reservoirs and to establish the factors controlling their deposition in the Sologne basin during Rhaetian and Hettangian times. This study combines palynological, sedimentological, mineralogical and sequential analyses. It is applied to channel deposits as well as to flood-plain and over-bank deposits which are rarely considered. The formations are deposited in a continental transgressive context associated to a decreasing subsidence. The different depositional environments varied from the alluvial fan to the coastal plain with different intermediate alluvial plains. They get organized in three depositional profiles which are emphasized by hydrodynamic discontinuities due to irreversible modifications in depositional conditions. The clayey associations change with each depositional profile according to detrital source modifications. They characterize discontinuities due to geodynamic events affecting the Sologne basin (depositional profile changes, pedogenesis). In this continental context, the genetic sequences record a cycle of variation of the river longitudinal profile slope. They determine the sediments geometry which results from the relative sea-level variations. Local tectonics creates an heterogenous subsidence and consequently controls the distribution of the sediments. During tectonic instability periods, the subsiding areas migrate while they do not during tectonic stability periods. The latter end with irreversible change in depositional profile. (author) 135 refs.

  18. Prediction of bedload sediment transport for heterogeneous sediments in shape (United States)

    Durafour, Marine; Jarno, Armelle; Le Bot, Sophie; Lafite, Robert; Marin, François


    Key words: Particle shape, in-situ measurements, bedload transport, heterogeneous sediments Bedload sediment transport in the coastal area is a dynamic process mainly influenced by the type of hydrodynamic forcings involved (current and/or waves), the flow properties (velocity, viscosity, depth) and sediment heterogeneity (particle size, density, shape). Although particle shape is recognized to be a significant factor in the hydrodynamic behavior of grains, this parameter is not currently implemented in bedload transport formulations: firstly because the mechanisms of initiation of motion according to particle shape are still not fully understood, and secondly due to the difficulties in defining common shape parameters. In March 2011, a large panel of in-situ instruments was deployed on two sites in the Eastern English Channel, during the sea campaign MESFLUX11. Samples of the sediment cover available for transport are collected, during a slack period, per 2cm thick strata by divers and by using a Shipeck grab. Bedload discharges along a tidal cycle are also collected with a Delft Nile Sampler (DNS; Gaweesh and Van Rijn, 1992, 1994) on both sites. The first one is characterized by a sandy bed with a low size dispersion, while the other study area implies graded sediments from fine sands to granules. A detailed analysis of the data is performed to follow the evolution of in-situ bedload fluxes on the seabed for a single current. In-situ measurements are compared to existing formulations according to a single fraction approach, using the median diameter of the mixture, and a fractionwise approach, involving a discretization of the grading curve. Results emphasize the interest to oscillate between these two methods according to the dispersion in size of the site considered. The need to apply a hiding/exposure coefficient (Egiazaroff, 1965) and a hindrance factor (Kleinhans and Van Rijn, 2002) for size heterogeneous sediments is also clearly highlighted. A really good

  19. Upstream sediment input effects on experimental dune trough scour in sediment mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinhans, M.G.


    Understanding causes of dune irregularity, especially dune trough scour, is important for the modeling of vertical sorting of sediment mixtures in morphological models of rivers with sediment mixtures. Sediment in dunes is generally sorted in a fining-upward manner, which affects the sediment

  20. Microplastic particles in sediments from Danish waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Jakob; Lassen, Pia; Shashoua, Yvonne

    . In some samples, several hundred particles consisting of fibres, flakes, spherules, and/or granules were identified per 100 g sediment, and also in sediments from open waters. Relationships to sediment characteristics (e.g. dry weight, TOC, grain size) and inorganic and organic contaminants including...

  1. Regional Models for Sediment Toxicity Assessment (United States)

    This paper investigates the use of empirical models to predict the toxicity of sediment samples within a region to laboratory test organisms based on sediment chemistry. In earlier work, we used a large nationwide database of matching sediment chemistry and marine amphipod sedim...

  2. Estimation of suspended sediment concentration by acoustic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    concentration of sediments such as glass spheres or sand. However, the acoustic properties of natural sediments vary and depend on many parameters such as particle size, shape, mineralogy and distribution of those parameters in sample. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the possibility of soil sediment ...

  3. On the precision of sedimentation balance measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg, C.


    The settling velocities of fine sediments can be determined using a sedimentation balance essentially consisting of a settling tube at the bottom of which the weight of the sediment deposited is measured as a function of time. The distribution of settling velocities then is calculated from an

  4. Study of hydrocarbons in bottom sediments of the northern Dvina River-White Sea geochemical barrier during spring flood. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemirovskaya, I.; Shevchenko, V.


    The Northern Dvina in Northern Russia is the main river of the White Sea reservoir. The water discharge is 108 km 3 per year. With active shipping and several large pulp and paper mills that operate in the region, the river is a supplier of polluting substances. Weathered oil and pyrogenic compounds dominate the composition of hydrocarbons. During flooding, the Northern Dvina - Dvina Bay geochemical barrier becomes a filter, which prevents pollutants from penetrating to the White Sea. This paper summarized data on the concentration and composition of hydrocarbons, aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the marine water and bottom sediments at the mouth of the Northern Dvina/White Sea. Nearly similar concentrations of organic compounds were found in the Northern Dvina River water and in the near-mouth White Sea water area. However, their distribution conforms to the marginal filter rules. Natural terrigenous hydrocarbon compounds were found to dominate in all forms. Biogenic autochthonous hydrocarbons were detected in the near-shore areas and in the outer zone of the marginal filter of the Northern Dvina River, where PAH are formed together with AHC. 20 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  5. Investigation of Composition of Particle Size in Sediments of Stormwater Sedimentation Tank


    Daiva Laučytė; Regimantas Dauknys


    The main object for the storm water runoff treatment is to remove suspended solids before the storm water runoff is discharged into surface waters. Therefore the sedimentation tank is the most often used treatment facility. In order to optimise the sedimentation, the tendency of particle size distribution in bottom sediments must be known. Two similar size storm water runoff sedimentation tanks in Vilnius city were selected for the analysis of the particle size distribution in sediments. The ...

  6. Sedimentology of the Essaouira Basin (Meskala Field) in context of regional sediment distribution patterns during upper Triassic pluvial events (United States)

    Mader, Nadine K.; Redfern, Jonathan; El Ouataoui, Majid


    Upper Triassic continental clastics (TAGI: Trias Argilo-Greseux Inferieur) in the Essaouira Basin are largely restricted to the subsurface, which has limited analysis of the depositional environments and led to speculation on potential provenance of the fluvial systems. Facies analysis of core from the Meskala Field onshore Essaouira Basin is compared with tentatively time-equivalent deposits exposed in extensive outcrops in the Argana Valley, to propose a process orientated model for local versus regional sediment distribution patterns in the continuously evolving Moroccan Atlantic rift during Carnian to Norian times. The study aims to unravel the climatic overprint and improve the understanding of paleo-climatic variations along the Moroccan Atlantic margin to previously recognised Upper Triassic pluvial events. In the Essaouira Basin, four facies associations representing a progressive evolution from proximal to distal facies belts in a continental rift were established. Early ephemeral braided river systems are succeeded by a wet aeolian sandflat environment with a strong arid climatic overprint (FA1). This is followed by the onset of perennial fluvial deposits with extensive floodplain fines (FA2), accompanied by a distinct shift in fluvial style, suggesting increase in discharge and related humidity, either locally or in the catchment area. The fluvial facies transitions to a shallow lacustrine or playa lake delta environment (FA3), which exhibits cyclical abandonment. The delta is progressively overlain by a terminal playa with extensive, mottled mudstones (FA4), interpreted to present a return from cyclical humid-arid conditions to prevailing aridity in the basin. In terms of regional distribution and sediment source provenance, paleocurrent data from Carnian to Norian deposits (T5 to T8 member) in the Argana Valley suggest paleoflow focused towards the S and SW, not directed towards the Meskala area in the NW as previously suggested. A major depo

  7. Unraveling the Illgraben sediment cascade (United States)

    Bennett, Georgie; Molnar, Peter; McArdell, Brian; Schlunegger, Fritz; Burlando, Paolo


    Quantification of the volumes of sediment removed by rock-slope failure and debris flows and identification of their coupling and controls are pertinent to understanding mountain basin sediment yield and landscape evolution. This study captures a multi-decadal period of hillslope erosion and channel change following an extreme rock avalanche in 1961 in the Illgraben, a catchment of high scientific interest in the Swiss Alps due to its extremely high debris-flow dominated sediment yield. We analyzed photogrammetrically-derived datasets of hillslope and channel erosion and deposition along with climatic and seismic variables for a 43-year period from 1963 to 2005. Based on these analyses we identify and discuss (1) patterns of hillslope production, channel transfer and catchment sediment yield, (2) their dominant interactions with climatic and seismic variables, and (3) the nature of hillslope-channel coupling and implications for sediment yield and landscape evolution in this mountain basin. Our results show an increase in the mean hillslope erosion rate in the 1980s from 0.24±0.01 m yr-1 to 0.42±0.03 m yr-1 that coincided with a significant increase in air temperature and decrease in snow cover depth and duration, which we presume led to an increase in the exposure of the slopes to thermal weathering processes. This is indicated by a significant increase in the number of days of subzero air temperature and no snow cover. Conversely, there was no increase in precipitation or seismic activity that would explain the increase in erosion rate. However, the combination of highly fractured slopes close to the threshold angle for failure, and multiple potential triggering mechanisms, means that it is difficult to identify an individual control on slope failure. This is illustrated by our analysis of the 1961 rockfall event, which failed to reveal an individual trigger of the failure given both extreme meteorological conditions and seismic activity in the weeks leading up

  8. Applying machine learning to global surface ocean and seabed data to reveal the controls on the distribution of deep-sea sediments (United States)

    Dutkiewicz, Adriana; Müller, Dietmar; O'Callaghan, Simon


    the occurrence of five major lithologies in the world's ocean can be predicted on the basis of just two or three parameters, notably sea-surface salinity and sea-surface temperature. These parameters control the growth and composition of plankton and specific salinities and temperatures are also associated with the influx of non-aerosol terrigenous material into the ocean. Bathymetry is an important parameter for discriminating the occurrence of calcareous sediment, clay and coarse lithogenous sediment from each other but it is not important for biosiliceous oozes. Consequently, radiolarian and diatom oozes are poor indicators of palaeo-depth. Contrary to widely held view, we find that calcareous and siliceous oozes are not linked to high surface productivity. Our analysis shows that small shifts in surface ocean conditions significantly affect the lithology of modern seafloor sediments on a global scale and that these relationships need to be incorporated into interpretations of the geological record of ocean basins. Dutkiewicz, A., Müller, R. D., O'Callaghan, S., and Jónasson, H., 2015, Census of seafloor sediments in the world's ocean: Geology, v. 43, no. 9, p. 795-798. Dutkiewicz, A., O'Callaghan, S., and Müller, R. D., 2016, Controls on the distribution of deep-sea sediments: Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., v. 17, p. 1-24.

  9. Estimating Western U.S. Reservoir Sedimentation (United States)

    Bensching, L.; Livneh, B.; Greimann, B. P.


    Reservoir sedimentation is a long-term problem for water management across the Western U.S. Observations of sedimentation are limited to reservoir surveys that are costly and infrequent, with many reservoirs having only two or fewer surveys. This work aims to apply a recently developed ensemble of sediment algorithms to estimate reservoir sedimentation over several western U.S. reservoirs. The sediment algorithms include empirical, conceptual, stochastic, and processes based approaches and are coupled with a hydrologic modeling framework. Preliminary results showed that the more complex and processed based algorithms performed better in predicting high sediment flux values and in a basin transferability experiment. However, more testing and validation is required to confirm sediment model skill. This work is carried out in partnership with the Bureau of Reclamation with the goal of evaluating the viability of reservoir sediment yield prediction across the western U.S. using a multi-algorithm approach. Simulations of streamflow and sediment fluxes are validated against observed discharges, as well as a Reservoir Sedimentation Information database that is being developed by the US Army Corps of Engineers. Specific goals of this research include (i) quantifying whether inter-algorithm differences consistently capture observational variability; (ii) identifying whether certain categories of models consistently produce the best results, (iii) assessing the expected sedimentation life-span of several western U.S. reservoirs through long-term simulations.

  10. Atmospheric Pb-pollution by pre-medieval mining detected in the sediments of the brackish karst lake An Loch Mor, western Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schettler, G. [GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, Telegrafenberg, D-14473 Potsdam (Germany)]. E-mail:; Romer, R.L. [GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, Telegrafenberg, D-14473 Potsdam (Germany)


    This paper presents results of geochemical investigations of lake sediments from the karst lake An Loch Mor, Aran Islands, including the first highly resolved record of atmospheric Roman Pb pollution for Ireland. The natural Pb influx into the lake is largely contributed by 3 Pb components, which differ in their isotopic composition: detrital influx of Pb from the siliciclastic input, dissolved influx of Pb released by weathering of the local limestone, and dissolved influx of seawater Pb. The balance between the 3 Pb components varies in concert with the hydrological evolution of the lake. The influx of Pb in dissolved form is estimated by geochemical mass balance assuming that the siliciclastic influx is characterised by the Pb/Al-ratio of the Late Glacial clastic sediments. It typically accounts for 50-80% of total Pb input in the Holocene sediments of An Loch Mor. The natural dissolved influxes of Pb, Sc, and Y reach a similar order of magnitude. Normalisation with Sc and Y is applied to quantify contributions from anthropogenic Pb. Based on continuous sampling of 1 cm sample slices, variations in the influx of Roman Pb could be reconstructed at a time resolution of c. 5 a. Combined geochemical and Pb isotope mass balance is used to characterise the isotopic composition of anthropogenic Pb. Distinctly enhanced influx of anthropogenic Pb occurs in the 1st and 2nd century AD and shows high variability on decadal scale. This is in contrast to central European Pb records, which document a gradual increase and decrease in ancient atmospheric pollution by Roman Pb. The reconstructed high variability in the influx of Roman Pb in An Loch Mor documents variations in the wind regime of western Europe, temporarily favouring the transport of atmospheric Pb to western Ireland.

  11. Atmospheric Pb-pollution by pre-medieval mining detected in the sediments of the brackish karst lake An Loch Mor, western Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schettler, G.; Romer, R.L.


    This paper presents results of geochemical investigations of lake sediments from the karst lake An Loch Mor, Aran Islands, including the first highly resolved record of atmospheric Roman Pb pollution for Ireland. The natural Pb influx into the lake is largely contributed by 3 Pb components, which differ in their isotopic composition: detrital influx of Pb from the siliciclastic input, dissolved influx of Pb released by weathering of the local limestone, and dissolved influx of seawater Pb. The balance between the 3 Pb components varies in concert with the hydrological evolution of the lake. The influx of Pb in dissolved form is estimated by geochemical mass balance assuming that the siliciclastic influx is characterised by the Pb/Al-ratio of the Late Glacial clastic sediments. It typically accounts for 50-80% of total Pb input in the Holocene sediments of An Loch Mor. The natural dissolved influxes of Pb, Sc, and Y reach a similar order of magnitude. Normalisation with Sc and Y is applied to quantify contributions from anthropogenic Pb. Based on continuous sampling of 1 cm sample slices, variations in the influx of Roman Pb could be reconstructed at a time resolution of c. 5 a. Combined geochemical and Pb isotope mass balance is used to characterise the isotopic composition of anthropogenic Pb. Distinctly enhanced influx of anthropogenic Pb occurs in the 1st and 2nd century AD and shows high variability on decadal scale. This is in contrast to central European Pb records, which document a gradual increase and decrease in ancient atmospheric pollution by Roman Pb. The reconstructed high variability in the influx of Roman Pb in An Loch Mor documents variations in the wind regime of western Europe, temporarily favouring the transport of atmospheric Pb to western Ireland

  12. Soft-sediment deformation in a tectonically active area: The Plio-Pleistocene Zarzal Formation in the Cauca Valley (Western Colombia) (United States)

    Neuwerth, Ralph; Suter, Fiore; Guzman, Carlos A.; Gorin, Georges E.


    The Plio-Pleistocene Zarzal Formation corresponds to fluvio-lacustrine sediments deposited in an intramontane depression within the Colombian Andes, associated with the Cauca-Romeral Fault System. It crops out mainly in the Cauca Valley where numerous field sections have permitted the mapping of the vertical and lateral lithological variations. Lacustrine deposits of sands, silts, clays and diatomites are interbedded with fluvial sand and gravel beds and fluvio-volcanic mass flows derived from the volcanic Central Cordillera. Numerous soft-sediment deformation structures are encountered in this formation, particularly in fine- to medium-grained sands, silts and clays: load structures (load casts, flame structures, pseudonodules), water escape structures (water escape cusps, dish-and-pillar and pocket-and-pillar structures), soft-sediment intrusions (clastic sills and dykes), disturbed laminites, convolute laminations, slumps and synsedimentary faulting. Deformation mechanisms and driving forces are related essentially to gravitational instabilities, dewatering, liquidization and brittle deformations. Field and regional geological data show that most of these deformations are related to seismicity and can be interpreted as seismites. This area has a geological and recent seismic history and outcrops show both syn- and post-depositional faulting related to the transpressional regime of this part of the Colombian Andes, which generates strike-slip faults and associated local normal faults. The drainage pattern within the Zarzal Formation shows the signature of neotectonics. Moreover, the fine to coarse-grained sands of the Zarzal Formation are lithologies prone to liquefaction when affected by seismic waves. The intercalation of the deformed intervals within undisturbed strata confirms the catastrophic nature of the events. Finally, the large areal extent of the deformations and the type of structures are compatible with seismites. Consequently, the existence of

  13. The kinetics of denitrification in permeable sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evrard, Victor; Glud, Ronnie N.; Cook, Perran L. M.


    Permeable sediments comprise the majority of shelf sediments, yet the rates of denitrification remain highly uncertain in these environments. Computational models are increasingly being used to understand the dynamics of denitrification in permeable sediments, which are complex environments...... on sediments taken from six shallow coastal sites in Port Phillip Bay, Victoria, Australia. The results showed that denitrification commenced rapidly (within 30 min) after the onset of anoxia and the kinetics could be well described by Michaelis-Menten kinetics with half saturation constants (apparent K...... in cohesive sediments despite organic carbon contents one order of magnitude lower for the sediments studied here. The ratio of sediment O-2 consumption to V-max was in the range of 0.02-0.09, and was on average much lower than the theoretical ratio of 0.8. As a consequence, models implemented...

  14. Review of sediment stabilisation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The best sites for tidal power schemes are found in estuaries with high tidal ranges which have complex ecosystems and include a wide and diverse range of habitats. If the tidal power is to be developed, therefore, it is important to determine the likely effect on the environment and any ameliorative measures which may be necessary. One possible change is likely to be the erosion of material from the bed or shoreline of the estuary, and possibly the adjacent coast. This is of particular concern if intertidal sandflats, mudflats and saltmarsh are affected, as these are important wildlife habitats. Moreover, largescale movement of sediments would be undesirable. Results of a desk study of methods of preventing the erosion of sediment deposits in or near an estuary in the conditions that may occur following the construction of a tidal power barrage are presented. (author)

  15. Millennial-scale variations in dustiness recorded in Mid-Atlantic sediments from 0 to 70 ka (United States)

    Middleton, Jennifer L.; Mukhopadhyay, Sujoy; Langmuir, Charles H.; McManus, Jerry F.; Huybers, Peter J.


    Sedimentary records of dust deposition in the subtropical Atlantic provide important constraints on millennial- and orbital-scale variability in atmospheric circulation and North African aridity. Constant flux proxies, such as extraterrestrial helium-3, yield dust flux records that are independent of the biases caused by lateral sediment transport and limited resolution that may be associated with age-model-derived mass accumulation rates. However, Atlantic dust records constrained using constant flux proxies are sparsely distributed and generally limited to the past 20 ka. Here we extend the Atlantic record of North African dust deposition to 70 ka using extraterrestrial helium-3 and measurements of titanium, thorium, and terrigenous helium-4 in two sediment cores collected at 26°N and 29°N on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and compare results to model estimates for dust deposition in the subtropical North Atlantic. Dust proxy fluxes between 26°N and 29°N are well correlated, despite variability in lateral sediment transport, and underscore the utility of extraterrestrial helium-3 for constraining millennial-scale variability in dust deposition. Similarities between Mid-Atlantic dust flux trends and those observed along the Northwest African margin corroborate previous interpretations of dust flux variability over the past 20 ka and suggest that long distance transport and depositional processes do not overly obscure the signal of North African dust emissions. The 70 ka Mid-Atlantic record reveals a slight increase in North African dustiness from Marine Isotope Stage 4 through the Last Glacial Maximum and a dramatic decrease in dustiness associated with the African Humid Period. On the millennial-scale, the new records exhibit brief dust maxima coincident with North Atlantic cold periods such as the Younger Dryas, and multiple Heinrich Stadials. The correlation between Mid-Atlantic dust fluxes and previous constraints on North African aridity is high. However

  16. Chesapeake Bay Sediment Flux Model (United States)


    1988; Van der Molen , -88- 1991; Yoshida, 1981.) The model developed below is based on both of these approaches. It incorporates the diagenetic...288: pp. 289-333. Van der Molen , D.T. (1991): A simple, dynamic model for the simulation of the release of phosphorus from sediments in shallow...1974; Berner, 1980; van Cappellen and Berner, 1988). These relate the diagenetic production of phosphate to the resulting pore water concentration

  17. Monitoring of pollution in sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee I. Abdallah


    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHs were analyzed in surface sediments collected from Suez till Hurgharda coasts to establish baseline levels for various types of organic pollutants before the anticipated identification of anthropogenic activities, petrogenic and biogenic. AHs for all samples were dominated by unresolved complex mixture (UCM, and petrogenic mixed with biogenic sources. Results also revealed that sedimentary PAHs mainly originated from pyrolysis sources.

  18. Sediment unmixing using detrital geochronology (United States)

    Sharman, Glenn R.; Johnstone, Samuel A.


    Sediment mixing within sediment routing systems can exert a strong influence on the preservation of provenance signals that yield insight into the effect of environmental forcing (e.g., tectonism, climate) on the Earth's surface. Here, we discuss two approaches to unmixing detrital geochronologic data in an effort to characterize complex changes in the sedimentary record. First, we summarize 'top-down' mixing, which has been successfully employed in the past to characterize the different fractions of prescribed source distributions ('parents') that characterize a derived sample or set of samples ('daughters'). Second, we propose the use of 'bottom-up' methods, previously used primarily for grain size distributions, to model parent distributions and the abundances of these parents within a set of daughters. We demonstrate the utility of both top-down and bottom-up approaches to unmixing detrital geochronologic data within a well-constrained sediment routing system in central California. Use of a variety of goodness-of-fit metrics in top-down modeling reveals the importance of considering the range of allowable that is well mixed over any single best-fit mixture calculation. Bottom-up modeling of 12 daughter samples from beaches and submarine canyons yields modeled parent distributions that are remarkably similar to those expected from the geologic context of the sediment-routing system. In general, mixture modeling has the potential to supplement more widely applied approaches in comparing detrital geochronologic data by casting differences between samples as differing proportions of geologically meaningful end-member provenance categories.

  19. Coastal hypoxia and sediment biogeochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Middelburg


    Full Text Available The intensity, duration and frequency of coastal hypoxia (oxygen concentration <63 μM are increasing due to human alteration of coastal ecosystems and changes in oceanographic conditions due to global warming. Here we provide a concise review of the consequences of coastal hypoxia for sediment biogeochemistry. Changes in bottom-water oxygen levels have consequences for early diagenetic pathways (more anaerobic at expense of aerobic pathways, the efficiency of re-oxidation of reduced metabolites and the nature, direction and magnitude of sediment-water exchange fluxes. Hypoxia may also lead to more organic matter accumulation and burial and the organic matter eventually buried is also of higher quality, i.e. less degraded. Bottom-water oxygen levels also affect the organisms involved in organic matter processing with the contribution of metazoans decreasing as oxygen levels drop. Hypoxia has a significant effect on benthic animals with the consequences that ecosystem functions related to macrofauna such as bio-irrigation and bioturbation are significantly affected by hypoxia as well. Since many microbes and microbial-mediated biogeochemical processes depend on animal-induced transport processes (e.g. re-oxidation of particulate reduced sulphur and denitrification, there are indirect hypoxia effects on biogeochemistry via the benthos. Severe long-lasting hypoxia and anoxia may result in the accumulation of reduced compounds in sediments and elimination of macrobenthic communities with the consequences that biogeochemical properties during trajectories of decreasing and increasing oxygen may be different (hysteresis with consequences for coastal ecosystem dynamics.

  20. Processes controlling trace element geochemistry of Arabian Sea sediments during the last 25,000 years (United States)

    Sirocko, Frank; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter; Devey, Colin


    Thirty seven deep-sea sediment cores from the Arabian Sea were studied geochemically (49 major and trace elements) for four time slices during the Holocene and the last glacial, and in one high sedimentation rate core (century scale resolution) to detect tracers of past variations in the intensity of the atmospheric monsoon circulation and its hydrographic expression in the ocean surface. This geochemical multi-tracer approach, coupled with additional information on the grain size composition of the clastic fraction, the bulk carbonate and biogenic opal contents makes it possible to characterize the sedimentological regime in detail. Sediments characterized by a specific elemental composition (enrichment) originated from the following sources: river suspensions from the Tapti and Narbada, draining the Indian Deccan traps (Ti, Sr); Indus sediments and dust from Rajasthan and Pakistan (Rb, Cs); dust from Iran and the Persian Gulf (Al, Cr); dust from central Arabia (Mg); dust from East Africa and the Red Sea (Zr/Hf, Ti/Al). C org, Cd, Zn, Ba, Pb, U, and the HREE are associated with the intensity of upwelling in the western Arabian Sea, but only those patterns that are consistently reproduced by all of these elements can be directly linked with the intensity of the southwest monsoon. Relying on information from a single element can be misleading, as each element is affected by various other processes than upwelling intensity and nutrient content of surface water alone. The application of the geochemical multi-tracer approach indicates that the intensity of the southwest monsoon was low during the LGM, declined to a minimum from 15,000-13,000 14C year BP, intensified slightly at the end of this interval, was almost stable during the Bölling, Alleröd and the Younger Dryas, but then intensified in two abrupt successions at the end of the Younger Dryas (9900 14C year BP) and especially in a second event during the early Holocene (8800 14C year BP). Dust discharge by

  1. Textura, materia orgánica y composición química elemental (C y N de sedimentos marinos superficiales de la zona Puerto Montt a Boca del Guafo (Norpatagonia chilena Grain size, total organic matter, organic carbon, inorganic carbon and organic nitrogen in surface marine sediments from Puerto Montt to Boca del Guafo (Chilean North Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Silva


    ; gravel was scarce and less than 4% in some samples. The terrigenous sediment from the river edges was mostly sandy. The sediment origins (marine versus terrigenous, as a first approach, were inferred from the values of the C:N ratio. The sediments were mostly marine in origin, except in the continental fjords, where the terrigenous component was important.

  2. A New Measure for Transported Suspended Sediment (United States)

    Yang, Q.


    Non-uniform suspended sediment plays an important role in many geographical and biological processes. Despite extensive study, understanding to it seems to stagnate when times to consider non-uniformity and non-equilibrium scenarios comes. Due to unsatisfactory reproducibility, large-scaled flume seems to be incompetent to conduct more fundamental research in this area. To push the realm a step further, experiment to find how suspended sediment exchanges is conducted in a new validated equipment, in which turbulence is motivated by oscillating grids. Analysis shows that 1) suspended sediment exchange is constrained by ωS invariance, 2) ωS of the suspended sediment that certain flow regime could support is unique regardless of the sediment gradation and 3) the more turbulent the flow, the higher ωS of the suspension the flow could achieve. A new measure for suspended sediment ωS, the work required to sustain sediment in suspension transport mode if multiplied by gravitational acceleration, is thus proposed to better describe the dynamics of transported suspended sediment. Except for the further understanding towards suspended sediment transportation mechanics, with this energy measure, a strategy to distribute total transport capacity to different fractions could be derived and rational calculation of non-uniform sediment transport capacity under non-equilibrium conditions be possible.

  3. Quantification of Gravel Rural Road Sediment Production (United States)

    Silliman, B. A.; Myers Toman, E.


    Unbound rural roads are thought to be one of the largest anthropogenic sources of sediment reaching stream channels in small watersheds. This sediment deposition can reduce water quality in the streams negatively impacting aquatic habitat as well as impacting municipal drinking water sources. These roads are thought to see an increase in construction and use in southeast Ohio due to the expansion of shale gas development in the region. This study set out to quantify the amount of sediment these rural roads are able to produce. A controlled rain event of 12.7 millimeters of rain over a half hour period was used to drive sediment production over a 0.03 kilometer section of gravel rural road. These 8 segments varied in many characteristics and produced from 2.0 to 8.4 kilograms of sediment per 0.03 kilometers of road with the average production over the 8 segments being 5.5 kilograms of sediment. Sediment production was not strongly correlated with road segment slope but traffic was found to increase sediment production from 1.1 to 3.9 times as much sediment after traffic use. These results will help inform watershed scale sediment budgeting, and inform best management practices for road maintenance and construction. This study also adds to the understanding of the impacts of rural road use and construction associated with the changing land use from agricultural to natural gas extraction.

  4. Nearshore sediment thickness, Fire Island, New York (United States)

    Locker, Stanley D.; Miselis, Jennifer L.; Buster, Noreen A.; Hapke, Cheryl J.; Wadman, Heidi M.; McNinch, Jesse E.; Forde, Arnell S.; Stalk, Chelsea A.


    Investigations of coastal change at Fire Island, New York (N.Y.), sought to characterize sediment budgets and determine geologic framework controls on coastal processes. Nearshore sediment thickness is critical for assessing coastal system sediment availability, but it is largely unquantified due to the difficulty of conducting geological or geophysical surveys across the nearshore. This study used an amphibious vessel to acquire chirp subbottom profiles. These profiles were used to characterize nearshore geology and provide an assessment of nearshore sediment volume. Two resulting sediment-thickness maps are provided: total Holocene sediment thickness and the thickness of the active shoreface. The Holocene sediment section represents deposition above the maximum flooding surface that is related to the most recent marine transgression. The active shoreface section is the uppermost Holocene sediment, which is interpreted to represent the portion of the shoreface thought to contribute to present and future coastal behavior. The sediment distribution patterns correspond to previously defined zones of erosion, accretion, and stability along the island, demonstrating the importance of sediment availability in the coastal response to storms and seasonal variability. The eastern zone has a thin nearshore sediment thickness, except for an ebb-tidal deposit at the wilderness breach caused by Hurricane Sandy. Thicker sediment is found along a central zone that includes shoreface-attached sand ridges, which is consistent with a stable or accretional coastline in this area. The thickest overall Holocene section is found in the western zone of the study, where a thicker lower section of Holocene sediment appears related to the westward migration of Fire Island Inlet over several hundred years.

  5. Laminated sediments from the central Peruvian continental slope: A 500 year record of upwelling system productivity, terrestrial runoff and redox conditions (United States)

    Sifeddine, A.; Gutiérrez, D.; Ortlieb, L.; Boucher, H.; Velazco, F.; Field, D.; Vargas, G.; Boussafir, M.; Salvatteci, R.; Ferreira, V.; García, M.; Valdés, J.; Caquineau, S.; Mandeng Yogo, M.; Cetin, F.; Solis, J.; Soler, P.; Baumgartner, T.


    Sedimentological studies including X-ray digital analyses, mineralogy, inorganic contents, and organic geochemistry on cores of laminated sediments accumulated in the oxygen minimum zone of the central Peruvian margin reveal variable oceanographic and climate conditions during the last 500 yr. Coherent upcore variations in sedimentological and geochemical markers in box cores taken off Pisco (B0405-6) and Callao (B0405-13) indicate that variability in the climate proxies examined has regional significance. Most noteworthy is a large shift in proxies at ˜1820 AD, as determined by 210Pb and 14C radiometric dating. This shift is characterized by an increase in total organic carbon (TOC) in parallel with an abrupt increase in the enrichment factor for molybdenum Mo indicating a regional intensification of redox conditions, at least at the sediment water interface. In addition there was lower terrestrial input of quartz, feldspar and clays to the margin. Based on these results, we interpret that during several centuries prior to 1820, which corresponds to the little ice age (LIA), the northern Humboldt current region was less productive and experienced higher terrestrial input related to more humid conditions on the continent. These conditions were probably caused by a southward displacement of the inter-tropical convergence zone and the subtropical high pressure cell during the LIA. Since 1870, increases in TOC and terrigenous mineral fluxes suggest an increase of wind-driven upwelling and higher productivity. These conditions continued to intensify during the late 20th century, as shown by instrumental records of wind forcing.

  6. Influence of distributary channels on sediment and organic matter supply in event-dominated coastal margins: the Po prodelta as a study case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tesi



    Although numerous discharge peaks occurred from November 2008 through April 2009 (4000–6000 m3 s−1, sediment cores collected in late April 2009 showed lack of event-strata preservation and reduced 7Be penetrations. This suggested that only a small fraction of the sediment supply during ordinary events reaches the deepest region of the prodelta (12–20 m water depth. As a result, these event-strata have a thickness not sufficient to be preserved in the sediment record because of post-depositional processes that destroy the flood signal.

    Stations in the northern and central prodelta were re-occupied after the peak of the May 2009 flood. Based on 7Be and radiographs, we estimated event layers of 17 and 6 cm thickness, respectively. Selective trapping of coarse material occurred in the central prodelta likely because of the geomorphologic setting of the central outlet characterized by an estuary-like mouth. Despite these settling processes, lignin-based parameters indicated that the composition of the terrigenous OC was fairly homogenous throughout the network of channels and between size-fractions.

  7. Sediment supply versus local hydraulic controls on sediment transport and storage in a river with large sediment loads (United States)

    Dean, David; Topping, David; Schmidt, John C.; Griffiths, Ronald; Sabol, Thomas


    The Rio Grande in the Big Bend region of Texas, USA, and Chihuahua and Coahuila, Mexico, undergoes rapid geomorphic changes as a result of its large sediment supply and variable hydrology; thus, it is a useful natural laboratory to investigate the relative importance of flow strength and sediment supply in controlling alluvial channel change. We analyzed a suite of sediment transport and geomorphic data to determine the cumulative influence of different flood types on changing channel form. In this study, physically based analyses suggest that channel change in the Rio Grande is controlled by both changes in flow strength and sediment supply over different spatial and temporal scales. Channel narrowing is primarily caused by substantial deposition of sediment supplied to the Rio Grande during tributary-sourced flash floods. Tributary floods have large suspended-sediment concentrations, occur for short durations, and attenuate rapidly downstream in the Rio Grande, depositing much of their sediment in downstream reaches. Long-duration floods on the mainstem have the capacity to enlarge the Rio Grande, and these floods, released from upstream dams, can either erode or deposit sediment in the Rio Grande depending upon the antecedent in-channel sediment supply and the magnitude and duration of the flood. Geomorphic and sediment transport analyses show that the locations and rates of sand erosion and deposition during long-duration floods are most strongly controlled by spatial changes in flow strength, largely through changes in channel slope. However, spatial differences in the in-channel sediment supply regulate sediment evacuation or accumulation over time in long reaches (greater than a kilometer).

  8. Combining sediment fingerprinting and a conceptual model for erosion and sediment transfer to explore sediment sources in an Alpine catchment (United States)

    Costa, A.; Stutenbecker, L.; Anghileri, D.; Bakker, M.; Lane, S. N.; Molnar, P.; Schlunegger, F.


    In Alpine basins, sediment production and transfer is increasingly affected by climate change and human activities, specifically hydropower exploitation. Changes in sediment sources and pathways significantly influence basin management, biodiversity and landscape evolution. We explore the dynamics of sediment sources in a partially glaciated and highly regulated Alpine basin, the Borgne basin, by combining geochemical fingerprinting with the modelling of erosion and sediment transfer. The Borgne basin in southwest Switzerland is composed of three main litho-tectonic units, which we characterised following a tributary-sampling approach from lithologically characteristic sub-basins. We analysed bulk geochemistry using lithium borate fusion coupled with ICP-ES, and we used it to discriminate the three lithologic sources using statistical methods. Finally, we applied a mixing model to estimate the relative contributions of the three sources to the sediment sampled at the outlet. We combine results of the sediment fingerprinting with simulations of a spatially distributed conceptual model for erosion and transport of fine sediment. The model expresses sediment erosion by differentiating the contributions of erosional processes driven by erosive rainfall, snowmelt, and icemelt. Soil erodibility is accounted for as function of land-use and sediment fluxes are linearly convoluted to the outlet by sediment transfer rates for hillslope and river cells, which are a function of sediment connectivity. Sediment connectivity is estimated on the basis of topographic-hydraulic connectivity, flow duration associated with hydropower flow abstraction and permanent storage in hydropower reservoirs. Sediment fingerprinting at the outlet of the Borgne shows a consistent dominance (68-89%) of material derived from the uppermost, highly glaciated reaches, while contributions of the lower part (10-25%) and middle part (1-16%), where rainfall erosion is predominant, are minor. This result is

  9. Suspended sediment and sediment-associated contaminants in San Francisco Bay (United States)

    Schoellhamer, D.H.; Mumley, T.E.; Leatherbarrow, J.E.


    Water-quality managers desire information on the temporal and spatial variability of contaminant concentrations and the magnitudes of watershed and bed-sediment loads in San Francisco Bay. To help provide this information, the Regional Monitoring Program for Trace Substances in the San Francisco Estuary (RMP) takes advantage of the association of many contaminants with sediment particles by continuously measuring suspended-sediment concentration (SSC), which is an accurate, less costly, and more easily measured surrogate for several trace metals and organic contaminants. Continuous time series of SSC are collected at several sites in the Bay. Although semidiurnal and diurnal tidal fluctuations are present, most of the variability of SSC occurs at fortnightly, monthly, and semiannual tidal time scales. A seasonal cycle of sediment inflow, wind-wave resuspension, and winnowing of fine sediment also is observed. SSC and, thus, sediment-associated contaminants tend to be greater in shallower water, at the landward ends of the Bay, and in several localized estuarine turbidity maxima. Although understanding of sediment transport has improved in the first 10 years of the RMP, determining a simple mass budget of sediment or associated contaminants is confounded by uncertainties regarding sediment flux at boundaries, change in bed-sediment storage, and appropriate modeling techniques. Nevertheless, management of sediment-associated contaminants has improved greatly. Better understanding of sediment and sediment-associated contaminants in the Bay is of great interest to evaluate the value of control actions taken and the need for additional controls. ?? 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Terrestrial Sediments of the Earth: Development of a Global Unconsolidated Sediments Map Database (GUM) (United States)

    Börker, J.; Hartmann, J.; Amann, T.; Romero-Mujalli, G.


    Mapped unconsolidated sediments cover half of the global land surface. They are of considerable importance for many Earth surface processes like weathering, hydrological fluxes or biogeochemical cycles. Ignoring their characteristics or spatial extent may lead to misinterpretations in Earth System studies. Therefore, a new Global Unconsolidated Sediments Map database (GUM) was compiled, using regional maps specifically representing unconsolidated and quaternary sediments. The new GUM database provides insights into the regional distribution of unconsolidated sediments and their properties. The GUM comprises 911,551 polygons and describes not only sediment types and subtypes, but also parameters like grain size, mineralogy, age and thickness where available. Previous global lithological maps or databases lacked detail for reported unconsolidated sediment areas or missed large areas, and reported a global coverage of 25 to 30%, considering the ice-free land area. Here, alluvial sediments cover about 23% of the mapped total ice-free area, followed by aeolian sediments (˜21%), glacial sediments (˜20%), and colluvial sediments (˜16%). A specific focus during the creation of the database was on the distribution of loess deposits, since loess is highly reactive and relevant to understand geochemical cycles related to dust deposition and weathering processes. An additional layer compiling pyroclastic sediment is added, which merges consolidated and unconsolidated pyroclastic sediments. The compilation shows latitudinal abundances of sediment types related to climate of the past. The GUM database is available at the PANGAEA database (

  11. {sup 137}Cs in northern Adriatic sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barisic, D; Lulic, S; Vdovic, N; Vertacnik, A [Center for Marine Research - Department Zagreb, ' Ruder Boskovic' Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Juracic, M [Department of Geology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Zagreb, Zagreb (Croatia)


    The activity of {sup 137}Cs in shallow northern Adriatic sediments was obtained on the basis of measurement results from 25 sediment box cores, sampled during the Adriatic Scientific COoperation Program (ASCOP) 16 cruise in the summer 1990. {sup 137}Cs was determined in surface sediments (0-3 cm) and 12-15 cm-deep sediment. It was found that the lowest caesium concentrations correspond to sands, which are spread along the Croatian coast. Parallel to the Italian coast, {sup 137}Cs concentrations in pelites are the highest. It seems that the influence of Po River is significant for {sup 137}Cs activities in recent marine sediments along Italian coast south of Po River delta. Significantly higher {sup 137}Cs activities in 0-3 cm sediment layer can be attributed to the deposition caused by Chernobyl accident. (author)

  12. 137Cs in northern Adriatic sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barisic, D.; Lulic, S.; Vdovic, N.; Vertacnik, A.; Juracic, M.


    The activity of 137 Cs in shallow northern Adriatic sediments was obtained on the basis of measurement results from 25 sediment box cores, sampled during the Adriatic Scientific COoperation Program (ASCOP) 16 cruise in the summer 1990. 137 Cs was determined in surface sediments (0-3 cm) and 12-15 cm-deep sediment. It was found that the lowest caesium concentrations correspond to sands, which are spread along the Croatian coast. Parallel to the Italian coast, 137 Cs concentrations in pelites are the highest. It seems that the influence of Po River is significant for 137 Cs activities in recent marine sediments along Italian coast south of Po River delta. Significantly higher 137 Cs activities in 0-3 cm sediment layer can be attributed to the deposition caused by Chernobyl accident. (author)

  13. On luminescence bleaching of tidal channel sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fruergaard, Mikkel; Pejrup, Morten; Murray, Andrew S.


    We investigate the processes responsible for bleaching of the quartz OSL signal from tidal channel sediment. Tidal dynamics are expected to play an important role for complete bleaching of tidal sediments. However, no studies have examined the amount of reworking occurring in tidal channels...... and on tidal flats due to the mixing caused by currents and waves. We apply bed level data to evaluate the amount of vertical sediment reworking in modern tidal channels and at a tidal flat. Cycles of deposition and erosion are measured with a bed level sensor, and the results show that gross sedimentation...... was several times higher than net sedimentation. We propose that tidal channel sediment is bleached either on the tidal flat before it is transported to the tidal channels and incorporated in channel-fill successions or, alternatively, on the shallow intertidal part of the channel banks. Based...

  14. Earth's portfolio of extreme sediment transport events (United States)

    Korup, Oliver


    Quantitative estimates of sediment flux and the global cycling of sediments from hillslopes to rivers, estuaries, deltas, continental shelves, and deep-sea basins have a long research tradition. In this context, extremely large and commensurately rare sediment transport events have so far eluded a systematic analysis. To start filling this knowledge gap I review some of the highest reported sediment yields in mountain rivers impacted by volcanic eruptions, earthquake- and storm-triggered landslide episodes, and catastrophic dam breaks. Extreme specific yields, defined here as those exceeding the 95th percentile of compiled data, are ~ 104 t km- 2 yr- 1 if averaged over 1 yr. These extreme yields vary by eight orders of magnitude, but systematically decay with reference intervals from minutes to millennia such that yields vary by three orders of magnitude for a given reference interval. Sediment delivery from natural dam breaks and pyroclastic eruptions dominate these yields for a given reference interval. Even if averaged over 102-103 yr, the contribution of individual disturbances may remain elevated above corresponding catchment denudation rates. I further estimate rates of sediment (re-)mobilisation by individual giant terrestrial and submarine mass movements. Less than 50 postglacial submarine mass movements have involved an equivalent of ~ 10% of the contemporary annual global flux of fluvial sediment to Earth's oceans, while mobilisation rates by individual events rival the decadal-scale sediment discharge from tectonically active orogens such as Taiwan or New Zealand. Sediment flushing associated with catastrophic natural dam breaks is non-stationary and shows a distinct kink at the last glacial-interglacial transition, owing to the drainage of very large late Pleistocene ice-marginal lakes. Besides emphasising the contribution of high-magnitude and low-frequency events to the global sediment cascade, these findings stress the importance of sediment storage

  15. A Moessbauer study of deep sea sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minai, Y.; Tominaga, T.; Furuta, T.; Kobayashi, K.


    In order to determine the chemical states of iron in deep sea sediments, Moessbauer spectra of the sediments collected from various areas of the Pacific have been measured. The Moessbauer spectra were composed of paramagnetic ferric, high-spin ferrous, and magnetic components. The correlation of their relative abundance to the sampling location and the kind of sediments may afford clues to infer the origin of each iron-bearing phase. (author)

  16. Sediment as a Problem in Fame Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Głąb Jadwiga


    Full Text Available This article characterizes circumstances associated with the formation of sediment in FAME and factors intensifying this process. It describes the formation of sediment due to oxidation of FAME and the precipitation of sediment in low temperatures of storage which relates to the raw material nature and incomplete production process of FAME. It indicates more causes of sediment’s formation originating from the incompatibility of construction materials used in logistics and microbiological contamination.

  17. Evaluating Sediment Mobility for Siting Nearshore Berms (United States)


    placement of dredged sediment that may contain more fine silts and clays than are allowed for placement directly on the beach. The United States Army...used in the density and viscosity calculations. For this technical note an example study site is selected and the sediment mobility indexes are...acceleration due to gravity, sρ is the sediment density, ρ is the water density, v is the kinematic viscosity of water, crθ is the Shields

  18. Fine sediment erodibility in Lake Okeechobee, Florida


    Mehta, Ashish J.; Hwang, Kyu-Nam


    The critical need to predict the turbidity in water due to fine-grained sediment suspension under wave action over mud deposits for sedimentation and erosion studies, as well as sorbed contaminant transport, is well known. Since fall velocities of fine sediment particles are very small, they can be easily transported by hydrodynamic flows such as waves and currents. The presence of these particles in the water column affects accoustic transmission, heat absorption and depth of ...

  19. Dewatering of contaminated river sediments (United States)

    Church, Ronald H.; Smith, Carl W.; Scheiner, Bernard J.


    Dewatering of slurries has been successfully accomplished by the proper use of polymers in flocculating the fine particulate matter suspended in mineral processing streams. The U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) entered into a cooperative research effort with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) for the purpose of testing and demonstrating the applicability of mining flocculation technology to dredging activities associated with the removal of sediments from navigable waterways. The Corps has the responsibility for maintaining the navigable waterways in the United States. Current technology relies primarily on dredging operations which excavate the material from the bottom of waterways. The Corps is testing new dredging technology which may reduce resuspension of sediments by the dredging operation. Pilot plant dredging equipment was tested by the Corps which generated larger quantities of water when compared to conventional equipment, such as the clam shell. The transportation of this 'excess' water adds to the cost of sediment removal. The process developed by the USBM consists of feed material from the barge being pumped through a 4-in line by a centrifugal pump and exiting through a 4-in PVC delivery system. A 1,000-gal fiberglass tank was used to mix the polymer concentrate. The polymer was pumped through a 1-in line using a variable speed progressive cavity pump and introduced to the 4-in feed line prior to passing through a 6-in by 2-ft static mixer. The polymer/feed slurry travels to the clarifying tank where the flocculated material settled to the bottom and allowed 'clean' water to exit the overflow. A pilot scale flocculation unit was operated on-site at the Corps' 'Confined Disposal Facility' in Buffalo, NY.

  20. Sedimentation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rixen, T.; Guptha, M.V.S.; Ittekkot, V.

    opal ratios. Such changes are assumed to have lowered the atmospheric CO sub(2) concentration significantly during glacial times. The differences between estimated deep ocean fluxes derived from satellite data and measured deep fluxes are lower than...

  1. 32Si dating of sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgenstern, U.


    Brief explanation of the use of 32 Si in the dating of sediments. 32 Si , with a half-life of c.140 years, can be applied in the age range 30-1000 years. An appropriate dating tool for that time range is essential because it includes three very important epochs: the impact of human colonisation and industrialisation during the last 150 years, the Little Ice Age between about 1650 AD and 1850 AD, and the last part of the Medieval Climatic Optimum. 23 refs

  2. Thermoluminescence dating of pleistocene sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poupeau, G.; Souza, J.H.; Rivera, A.


    After a short introduction on recent trends in quaternary geochronology, this article focuses on the thermoluminescence dating of sediments, whose principles and present limits and prospects are discussed. Results are presented for the TL behaviour of sands from various geological contexts in Brazil. They show that the coarse (approx. 100-200μm) quartz fraction of coastal and intra continental, eolian and fluvial-type deposits, might be datable by TL from the upper Holocene to at least the basis of the upper Pleistocene, with a precision of + - 10-15%. (Author) [pt

  3. Thermoluminescence dating of pleistocene sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poupeau, G.; Souza, J.H.


    After a short introduction on recent trends in quaternary geochronology, this article focuses on the thermoluminescence (TL) dating of sediments, whose principles, present limits and prospects are discussed. Results are presented for TL behavior of sands from various geological contexts in Brazil. They show that the coarse (approx. 100-200 μm) quartz fraction of coastal and intracontinental, eolian and fluvial - type deposits, might be datable by TL from the upper Holocene to at least the base of the upper Pleistocene, with a precision of +- 10-15%. (Author) [pt

  4. Sedimentation rate in Ariake Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momoshima, Noriyuki; Nishio, Souma; Honza, Eiichi


    The Ariake Sea is a shallow and almost enclosed sea located in western Kyushu, Japan with an area of about 1,700 km 2 and the deepest up to 30 m at north area. The most inner part of the bay area is very shallow and during low tide big mudflats tideland appears and extends up to several km. The tidal range is the highest in Japan with a maximum of about 6 m. The area is one of Japan's most important area for fishery, with over 40% of the total seaweed production in Japan In the year 2001, due to environmental conditions, the seaweed population decreased substantially with a production drop of about 50%. This was caused by an earlier winter outbreak of red tide that affected the seaweed quality. One proposed cause for this decline might be the land reclamation project in the western part of Ariake Sea, Isahaya Bay. This project started in April 1997 were more than 3,000 ha of the bay where closed by a 7 km long seawall. Contaminated water is regularly discharged from the reservoir inside the dike, which have resulted in changes in water flows and perhaps a decrease in tidal range. In 2002, the gates at the dike were open for two months for a survey campaign and the seaweed harvest in the winter 2002-2003 was quite good. However, the problem may be linked to totally different causes, e.g. increase in industrial pollution discharge, chemicals used in the disinfection methods of washing seaweed, or change in water pH after the volcanic eruptions of the Unzen mountain in 1992 and 1993. The purpose of the research is to elucidate present condition of the Ariake Sea and past history using by radiometric methods, and obtained useful information will resolve the environmental status of Ariake Sea and give us answers way to save the Ariake Sea. Sea sediment cores were taken on board in 2003 at several points covering the Ariake sea. Two cores taken in inner area of the sea were sectioned at every 2 cm intervals and subjected to gamma spectrometry to determine sedimentation

  5. 32Si dating of sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgenstern, U.


    Useful tools for determining absolute ages of sediments deposited within the last c. 100 years include 210 Pb, 137 Cs, and bomb radiocarbon. Cosmogenic 32 Si, with a half life of c. 140 years, can be applied in the age range 30-1000 years and is ideally suited for this time period. Detection of 32 Si is, however, very difficult due to its extremely low natural specific activity, and the vast excess of stable silicon (i.e. low 32 Si/Si ratio). 23 refs

  6. Modeling sediment concentration of rill flow (United States)

    Yang, Daming; Gao, Peiling; Zhao, Yadong; Zhang, Yuhang; Liu, Xiaoyuan; Zhang, Qingwen


    Accurate estimation of sediment concentration is essential to establish physically-based erosion models. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of flow discharge (Q), slope gradient (S), flow velocity (V), shear stress (τ), stream power (ω) and unit stream power (U) on sediment concentration. Laboratory experiments were conducted using a 10 × 0.1 m rill flume under four flow discharges (2, 4, 8 and 16 L min-1), and five slope gradients (5°, 10°, 15°, 20° and 25°). The results showed that the measured sediment concentration varied from 87.08 to 620.80 kg m-3 with a mean value of 343.13 kg m-3. Sediment concentration increased as a power function with flow discharge and slope gradient, with R2 = 0.975 and NSE = 0.945. The sediment concentration was more sensitive to slope gradient than to flow discharge. The sediment concentration was well predicted by unit stream power (R2 = 0.937, NSE = 0.865), whereas less satisfactorily by flow velocity (R2 = 0.470, NSE = 0.539) and stream power (R2 = 0.773, NSE = 0.732). In addition, using the equations to simulate the measured sediment concentration of other studies, the result further indicated that slope gradient, flow discharge and unit stream power were good predictors of sediment concentration. In general, slope gradient, flow discharge and unit stream power seem to be the preferred predictors for estimating sediment concentration.

  7. Sedimentation of Jurassic fan-delta wedges in the Xiahuayuan basin reflecting thrust-fault movements of the western Yanshan fold-and-thrust belt, China (United States)

    Lin, Chengfa; Liu, Shaofeng; Zhuang, Qitian; Steel, Ronald J.


    Mesozoic thrusting within the Yanshan fold-and-thrust belt of North China resulted in a series of fault-bounded intramontane basins whose infill and evolution remain poorly understood. In particular, the bounding faults and adjacent sediment accumulations along the western segments of the belt are almost unstudied. A sedimentological and provenance analysis of the Lower Jurassic Xiahuayuan Formation and the Upper Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation have been mapped to show two distinctive clastic wedges: an early Jurassic wedge representing a mass-flow-dominated, Gilbert-type fan delta with a classic tripartite architecture, and an late Jurassic shoal-water fan delta without steeply inclined strata. The basinward migration of the fan-delta wedges, together with the analysis of their conglomerate clast compositions, paleocurrent data and detrital zircon U-Pb age spectra, strongly suggest that the northern-bounding Xuanhuan thrust fault controlled their growth during accumulation of the Jiulongshan Formation. Previous studies have suggested that the fan-delta wedge of the Xiahuayuan Formation was also syntectonic, related to movement on the Xuanhua thrust fault. Two stages of thrusting therefore exerted an influence on the formation and evolution of the Xiahuayuan basin during the early-late Jurassic.

  8. Granulometric data 241-TY Tank Farm monitoring well sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fecht, K.R.; Price, W.H.


    Approximately 200 sediment samples collected during the drilling of wells in the 241-TY Tank Farm have been analyzed for grain size and calcium carbonate content. The grain size data were used to categorize the sediment samples into sediment classes. The granulometric data, the calcium carbonate data, and the sediment class of each of the 200 sediment samples are documented in this paper

  9. Granulometric data 241-S Tank Farm monitoring well sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fecht, K.R.; Price, W.H.


    Approximately 580 sediment samples collected during the drilling of wells in the 241-S Tank Farm have been analyzed for grain size and calcium carbonate content. The grain size data were used to categorize the sediment samples into sediment classes. The granulometric data, the calcium carbonate data, and the sediment glass of each of the 580 sediment samples are documented in this report

  10. Granulometric data 241-C Tank Farm monitoring well sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fecht, K.R.; Price, W.H.


    Approximately 500 sediment samples collected during the drilling of wells in the 241-C Tank Farm have been analyzed for grain size and calcium carbonate content. The grain size data were used to categorize the sediment samples into sediment classes. The granulometric data, the calcium carbonate data, and the sediment class of each of the 500 sediment samples are documented in this report

  11. Granulometric data 241-T Tank Farm monitoring well sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fecht, K.R.; Price, W.H.


    Approximately 850 sediment samples collected during the drilling of wells in the 241-T Tank Farm have been analyzed for grain size and calcium carbonate content. The grain size data were used to categorize the sediment samples into sediment classes. The granulometric data, the calcium carbonate data, and the sediment class of each of the 850 sediment samples are documented in this report

  12. Granulometric data 241-B Tank Farm monitoring well sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fecht, K.R.; Price, W.H.


    Approximately 400 sediment samples collected during the drilling of wells in the 241-B Tank Farm have been analyzed for grain size and calcium carbonate content. The grain size data were used to categorize the sediment samples into sediment classes. The granulometric data, the calcium carbonate data, and the sediment class of each of the 400 sediment samples are documented in this report

  13. Granulometric data 241-T Tank Farm monitoring well sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fecht, K.R.; Price, W.H.


    Approximately 650 sediment samples collected during the drilling of wells in the 241-BY Tank Farm have been analyzed for grain size and calcium carbonate content. The grain size data were used to categorize the sediment samples into sediment classes. The granulometric data, the calcium carbonate data, and the sediment class of each of the 650 sediment samples are documented in this report

  14. [Limnology of high mountain tropical lake, in Ecuador: characteristics of sediments and rate of sedimentation]. (United States)

    Gunkel, Günter


    Equatorial high mountain lakes are a special type of lake occurring mainly in the South American Andes as well as in Central Africa and Asia. They occur at altitudes of a few thousand meters above sea level and are cold-water lakes (limnological study was therefore undertaken at Lake San Pablo, Ecuador, to analyze the basic limnological processes of the lake, which has a tendency for eutrophication. Sediment quality of San Pablo Lake is given under consideration of horizontal and vertical distribution using sediment cores. Significance of sediments for eutrophication process of lakes is demonstrated using phosphorus concentration of sediments as well as the phosphorus retention capacity of the sediments by ratio Fe/P. Dating of the sediments is done using 137Cs and 210Pb, but the activity of 137Cs in the sediment was very low nearly at the detection level. Sedimentation rate is determined to be 3.5 mm/year and the sediment cores represent about 110 years. P concentration of the sediments is high (approximately 5 g/kg dry substance), and P retention capacity by Fe is insufficient (Fe/P = 4). The sediment quality did not change significantly during the past decades, and the trophic state of San Pablo Lake was already less or more eutrophic 110 years ago. The contamination of the lake sediments by heavy metals is insignificant.

  15. Toxicity assessment of sediments from three European river basins using a sediment contact test battery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuikka, A.I.; Schmitt, C.; Hoess, S.; Bandow, N; von der Ohe, P.; de Zwart, D.; de Deckere, E.; Streck, G.; Mothes, S.; van Hattum, A.G.M.; Kocan, A.; Brix, R.; Brack, W.; Barcelo, D.; Sormunen, A.; Kukkonen, J.V.K.


    The toxicity of four polluted sediments and their corresponding reference sediments from three European river basins were investigated using a battery of six sediment contact tests representing three different trophic levels. The tests included were chronic tests with the oligochaete Lumbriculus

  16. Fine sediment in pools: An index of how sediment is affecting a stream channel (United States)

    Tom Lisle; Sue Hilton


    One of the basic issues facing managers of fisheries watersheds is how inputs of sediment affect stream channels. In some cases we can measure and even roughly predict effects of land use on erosion and delivery of sediment from hillslopes to streams. But we are at a loss about how a given increase in sediment load will affect channel morphology, flow conditions, and...

  17. Holocene evolution of the River Nile drainage system as revealed from the Lake Dendi sediment record, central Ethiopian highlands (United States)

    Wagner, B.; Viehberg, F. A.; Wennrich, V.; Junginger, A.; Kolvenbach, A.; Rethemeyer, J.; Schaebitz, F.; Schmiedl, G. H.


    A 12 m long sediment sequence from Dendi Crater lakes, located on the central Ethiopian Plateau, was analysed with sedimentological and geochemical methods to reconstruct the regional environmental history. Bulk organic carbon samples from 23 horizons throughout the sequence were used for AMS radiocarbon dating and indicate that the sediment sequence spans the last ca. 12 cal kyr BP. Microscope analyses and sedimentological data reveal three tephra layers, of which the most prominent layer with a thickness of ~2 m was deposited at 10.2 cal kyr BP and probably originates from an eruption of the Wenchi crater 12 km to the west of the Dendi lakes. Sedimentological data of the pelagic deposits indicate shifts in erosion and rainfall throughout the record. A decrease in Ca and Sr at 11.6 cal kyr BP is related to the shift of less humid condition during the Younger Dryas (YD) to the return to full humid conditions of the African Humid Period (AHP). Single thin horizons with high carbonate content or high Ti and K imply that short spells of dry conditions and significantly increased rainfall superimpose the generally more humid conditions during the AHP. The end of the AHP is gradual. Relatively stable and less humid conditions characterised the Dendi Crater lakes until around 3.9 cal kyr BP. A highly variable increase in clastic matter over the last 1500 years indicates higher erosion due to short-term variations in precipitation within the Dendi catchment. Overall, the sediment record suggests moderate change of precipitation during the Holocene, which is probably due to their exposed location in the Ethiopian highlands. The data from the Dendi Crater lakes show, in concert with other records from the Nile catchment and the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (EMS), that the Blue Nile provided the main freshwater source for maintaining EMS stratification and sapropel S1 formation between ca. 10.0 and 8.7 cal kyr BP. Subsequent aridification is recorded from equatorial East Africa

  18. Magnetic susceptibility as an indicator to paleo-environmental pollution in an urban lagoon near Istanbul city (United States)

    Alpar, Bedri; Unlu, Selma; Altinok, Yildiz; Ongen, Sinan


    For assessing anthropogenic pollution, magnetic susceptibility profiles and accompanying data were measured along three short cores recovered at the southern part of an urban lagoon; Kucukcekmece, Istanbul, Turkey. This marine inlet, connected to the Sea of Marmara by a very narrow channel, was used as a drinking water reservoir 40-50 years ago before it was contaminated by municipal, agricultural and industrial activities, mainly carried by three streams feeding the lagoon. The magnetic signals decrease gradually from the lake bottom towards the core base showing some characteristic anomalies. These signatures were tested as an environmental magnetic parameter against the lithological diversity (silici-clastic, total organic matter and carbonate), metal enrichments with larger variations (Pb, Mn, Zn, Ni, Co, Cr, U and Al) and probable hydrocarbon contamination. Mineral assemblage was determined by a computer driven X-ray diffractometer. The heavy metal concentrations and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) were measured by ICP-MS and UVF spectrometry, respectively. Magnetic susceptibility shows slightly higher values in interlayers containing higher silici-clastic material and organic content which may suggest first-order changes in the relative supplies of terrigenous and biogenic materials. On the basis of cluster analyses, enhanced magnetic signals could be correlated with the elevated concentrations of Co, Zn, U, Pb and TPH along the cores. The Pb concentrations at the upper parts of the cores were higher than the "Severe Effect Level" and could pose a potential risk for living organisms. Greater amounts of organic carbon tend to accumulate in muddy sediments. In fact, there are a few studies reporting some relationship between enhanced magnetic signals and organic contamination mainly due to petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons. In conclusion, the magnetic susceptibility changes in sedimentary depositional environments could be used as a rapid and cost

  19. The history of Cesium-137 liquid emissions by Mühleberg Nuclear Power Plant (Switzerland) is recorded in Lake Biel sediments (United States)

    Girardclos, Stéphanie; Faessler, Jérôme; Loizeau, Jean-Luc; Zehringer, Markus


    60Co (Albrecht et al. 1999), our results indicate that the estimated quantities of 137Cs input infered from the sediment record correspond well to historic declared liquid emissions. Overall, this study shows how lake or reservoir sediments can be used to trace back and verify the history of past liquid emissions from nuclear power plants. In the context of the Aare and Rhine course, were radionuclide liquid emissions from four NPP add-up in the same river system until the city of Basel and also further add-up downstream in Germany, it is necessary to bring new knowledge on this subject to quantify the 35-years-long exposure through river water for drinking water and irrigation to low but repeated radioactivity. This work was financed by SNF projects on Lake Biel nr. 121666 and 146889 and gamma ray analysis by the State Laboratory of Basel-City. REFERENCES Albrecht, A., Groudsmit, G. & Zeh M. 1999: Importance of lacustrine physical factors for the distribution of anthropogenic 60Co in Lake Biel. Limnol. Oceanogr., 44, 196-206. Albrecht ,A., Reichert, P., Beer, J. & Lück A. 1995: Evaluation of the importance of reservoir sediments as sinks for reactor-derived radionuclides in riverine systems. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 28, 239-269. Albrecht, A., Reiser, R., Lück, A., Stoll, J.-M.A. & Giger W. 1998. Radiocesium dating of sediments from lakes and reservoirs of different hydrological regimes. Environmental Science & Technology, 1882-1887. Thevenon, F., Wirth, S.B., Fujak, M., Poté, J. & Girardclos S. 2013. Human impact on the transport of terrigenous and anthropogenic elements to peri-alpine lakes (Switzerland) over the last decades. Aquatic Sciences, 75, 413-424.

  20. Auto consolidated cohesive sediments erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ternat, F.


    Pollutants and suspended matters of a river can accumulate into the sedimentary column. Once deposited, they are submitted to self-weight consolidation processes, ageing and burying, leading to an increase of their erosion resistance. Pollutant fluxes can be related to sedimentary fluxes, determined by threshold laws. In this work, an erosion threshold model is suggested by introducing a cohesion force into the usual force balance. A model of cohesion is developed on the basis of interactions between argillaceous cohesive particles (clays), particularly the Van der Waals force, whose parameterization is ensured by means of granulometry and porosity. Artificial erosion experiments were performed in a recirculating erosion flume with natural cored sediments where critical shear stress measurements were performed. Other analyses provided granulometry and porosity. The results obtained constitute a good database for the literature. The model is then applied to the experimental conditions and gives good agreement with measurements. An example of the accounting for self-weight consolidation processes is finally suggested, before finishing on a Mohr like diagram dedicated to soft cohesive sediment erosion. (author)

  1. Determination of Leachable Vanadium (V) in Sediment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    A method for speciation of vanadium in solid samples was developed for quantification of vanadium(+5) in solid samples of sediment Certified Reference Materials ... element in such environmental samples as soil, sediments and plants.3,4–5 Validation of the ... Sample Preparation for the Determination of. Vanadium(+5).

  2. Experiments on sediment pulses in mountain rivers (United States)

    Y. Cui; T. E. Lisle; J. E. Pizzuto; G. Parker


    Pulses of sediment can be introduced into mountain rivers from such mechanisms as debris flows, landslides and fans at tributary confluences. These processes can be natural or associated with the activities of humans, as in the case of a pulse created by sediment derived from timber harvest or the removal of a dam. How does the river digest these pulses?

  3. Landscape self organisation: Modelling Sediment trains (United States)

    Schoorl, J. M.; Temme, A. J. A. M.; Veldkamp, A.


    Rivers tend to develop towards an equilibrium length profile, independently of exogenous factors. In general, although still under debate, this so-called self-organisation is assumed to be caused by simple feedbacks between sedimentation and erosion. Erosion correlates positively with gradient and discharge and sedimentation negatively. With the LAPSUS model, which was run for the catchment of the Sabinal, a small river in the South of Spain, this interplay of erosion and sedimentation results in sediment pulses (sequences of incision and sedimentation through time). These pulses are visualised in a short movie ( see In this case the LAPSUS model run did not take climate, base level nor tectonics into account. Therefore, these pulses can be considered independent of them. Furthermore, different scenarios show that the existence of the pulses is independent of precipitation, erodibility and sedimentation rate, although they control the number and shape of the pulses. A fieldwork check showed the plausibility of the occurrence of these sediment pulses. We conclude that the pulses as modelled with LAPSUS are indeed the consequence of the feedbacks between erosion and sedimentation and are not depending on exogenous factors. Keywords: Landscape self-organisation, Erosion, Deposition, LAPSUS, Modelling

  4. Unconsolidated sediment distribution patterns in the KwaZulu-Natal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seasonal changes in sediment distribution patterns are small, being restricted to seaward fining on the inner shelf off the fluvial sources. Sediment distribution reflects a partitioning between sediment populations that are currentinfluenced and relict (palimpsest) populations associated with submerged shorelines.

  5. Design of a marine sediment trap and accessories

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Janakiraman, G.; Fernando, V.; Venkatesan, R.; Rajaraman, V.S.

    The marine sediment trap and the mooring accessories were developed indigenously and were used successfully for the collection of settling sediments in the Arabian Sea The experience gained in using sediment trap and further improvements...

  6. Analysis of Sedimentation in Wonogiri Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Joko Inti Budi Santosa


    Full Text Available The Wonogiri reservoir which has 730 million cubic meters of total storage, 90 square kilometers of water area, and 1260 square kilometers of catchment area, is located in the Wonogiri Regency, Central Java Province. It was first established in 1981 and began its operation in 1982 with the expectation that it would last for about 100 years. Today (2002 the reservoir has got a serious problem of sedimentation. The sedimentation is so large that it would decrease the capacity storage of the reservoir and would shorten the length of operation. Therefore, it is necessary to predict the sediment that comes into the reservoir. This research would be based on the total sediment calculation of the sedimentation, through some methods, such as echo sounding measured data, land erosion (USLE, the calculation of the sediment in rivers. This research calculates the sediment capacities based on the water flow data and the sediment rating curves in rivers of Keduang, Tirtomoyo, Temon, upstream reach of Bengawan Solo, Alang, and Wuryantoro. The suspended load was calculated based on the sediment rating curves, whereas the bed load was computed as the percentage of the suspended load. The sum of both calculation results would be the total sediment. The calculation result showed that the total sediment which has come into the reservoir is 6.68 million cubic meters per year. As a comparison, the writer noted that the former researcher using echo sounding method done by the Faculty of Geography of the Universitas Gadjah Mada in 1985, it found that the total sediment capacity which came into the reservoir was 6.60 million cubic meters per year or 5.40 mm per year of sheet erosion. The other research using echo sounding method done by JICA in 2000 found that the total sediment which had come into the reservoir was 4.50 million cubic meters per year or 3.50 mm per year of sheet erosion. By knowing the results of calculation of the total sediment, we can learn that

  7. New constraints on the origin of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas (south Mexico) from sediment provenance and apatite thermochronometry (United States)

    Witt, C.; Brichau, S.; Carter, A.


    The timing and source of deformation responsible for formation of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas (south Mexico) are unclear. To address this, apatite fission track and U-Th-He thermochronometry, combined with zircon U-Pb dating, were performed on bedrock and sedimentary samples of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas to discern timing of exhumation and identify sediment source areas. The U-Pb results show that Paleocene-Eocene terrigenous units outcropping at the northern section of the Sierra were mostly derived from Grenville (˜1 Ga) basement whereas the internal sections of the chain yield mainly Permian to Triassic ages (circa 270-230 Ma) typical of the Chiapas massif complex. Grenville-sourced sediments are most probably sourced by the Oaxacan block or the Guichicovi complex and were deposited to the north of the Sierra in a foreland setting related to a Laramide deformation front. Other possibly source areas may be related to metasedimentary units widely documented at the south Maya block such as the Baldi unit. The apatite fission track and U-Th-He data combined with previously published results record three main stages in exhumation history: (1) slow exhumation between 35 and 25 Ma affecting mainly the Chiapas massif complex; (2) fast exhumation between 16 and 9 Ma related to the onset of major strike-slip deformation affecting both the Chiapas massif complex and Chiapas fold-and-thrust belt; and (3) a 6 to 5 Ma period of rapid cooling that affected the Chiapas fold-and-thrust belt, coincident with the landward migration of the Caribbean-North America plate boundaries. These data suggest that most of the topographic growth of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas took place in the middle to late Miocene. The new thermochronological evidence combined with stratigraphic and kinematic information suggests that the left-lateral strike-slip faults bounding the Chiapas fold-and-thrust belt to the west may have accommodated most of the displacement between the North American and

  8. Effects of oil sands sediments on fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrott, J.; Colavecchia, M.; Hewitt, L.; Sherry, J.; Headley, J.; Turcotte, D.; Liber, K.


    This paper described a collaborative project organized by Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) Panel of Energy Research and Development (PERD) with researchers from Environment Canada and the University of Saskatchewan. The 4-year study was conducted to assess the toxicity of oil sands sediments and river waters, and reclamation ponds and sediments on laboratory-raised fish. Three sediments from rivers were evaluated for their potential to cause adverse impacts on fathead minnow eggs and larvae for a period of 18 days. The study monitored hatching, larval survival, development, and growth. Naphthenic acids (NA), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metals were measured in the sediments to determine if the compounds can be correlated with observed toxicity. The study will also assess walleye eggs exposed to sediments, and in situ fish exposures. Toxicity identification and evaluation (TIE) studies will be conducted to isolate the fractions that may affect fish development and growth.

  9. Sedimentation rates in Lake Pukaki, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ditchburn, R.G.; McCabe, W.J.


    The layers of Lake Pukaki sediments and their possible relationship to other cyclic events have been considered with a view to determining the rate of sediment deposition. There was no evidence to determine whether the rhytmic layers in the sediments are annual deposits or controlled by flood conditions. In the hope of resolving the question, radiometric dating techniques were applied to sediment cores in which the concentrations of radionuclides such as lead 210 and caesium 137 were measured with respect to depth and then related to some known input pattern. 210 Pb and 137 Cs were determined in all three cores investigated. 147 Pr and 144 Ce were also determined in one of the cores. The 137 Cs measurements indicated sedimentation rates of 14 kg/y/m 2 for one core and 17 kg/y/m 2 for the other two

  10. Earth Surface Processes, Landforms and Sediment Deposits (United States)

    Bridge, John; Demicco, Robert

    Earth surface processes, landforms and sediment deposits are intimately related - involving erosion of rocks, generation of sediment, and transport and deposition of sediment through various Earth surface environments. These processes, and the landforms and deposits that they generate, have a fundamental bearing on engineering, environmental and public safety issues; on recovery of economic resources; and on our understanding of Earth history. This unique textbook brings together the traditional disciplines of sedimentology and geomorphology to explain Earth surface processes, landforms and sediment deposits in a comprehensive and integrated way. It is the ideal resource for a two-semester course in sedimentology, stratigraphy, geomorphology, and Earth surface processes from the intermediate undergraduate to beginning graduate level. The book is also accompanied by a website hosting illustrations and material on field and laboratory methods for measuring, describing and analyzing Earth surface processes, landforms and sediments.

  11. Overflow Concentration and Sedimentation in Hoppers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmager Jensen, Jacob; Saremi, Sina


    Sediment spillage from hopper overflow constitutes a source for sediment plumes and can also impact the turbidity of aquatic environments. The overflowing mixture is often different from the mixture pumped into the hopper (the inflow), because the mixture undergoes compositional transformation...... as a result of different timescales in the segregation of the various sediment fractions. The heavier constituents in a mixture will have had time to settle, and overflowing sediments are therefore primarily composed of the finer and lighter constituents, whose concentrations potentially exceed those...... sediment mixtures (i.e., polydispersions). Strictly speaking, these formulas have been validated for homogeneous and unenergetic mixtures only, but the hopper system fulfills these criteria reasonably well. A proper description of the compositional transformation during filling and subsequent overflow...

  12. Sediment isotope tomography (SIT) model version 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, J.; Abraham, J.D.


    Geochronology using 210 Pb is the principal method used to quantify sediment accumulation in rapidly depositing aquatic environments such as lakes, estuaries, continental shelves, and submarine canyons. This method is based on the radioactive decay of 210 Pb with depth in a column of sediment. The decay through time of 210 Pb P(t) is governed by the exponential law P(t) = P 0 exp( -λt) where P 0 is the surficial concentration at time t = 0, and λ is the decay constant (3.114 sm-bullet 10 -2 year [yr] -1 for 210 Pb). If the sedimentation rate is constant, then elapsed time t is connected to burial depth x, through x = Vt where V is the sedimentation velocity. Accordingly, P(x) = P 0 exp( -λx/V). The sedimentation velocity is obtained from an exponential fit to the measured 210 Pb data P(x), with depth x

  13. Settling velocities in batch sedimentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fricke, A.M.; Thompson, B.E.


    The sedimentation of mixtures containing one and two sizes of spherical particles (44 and 62 μm in diameter) was studied. Radioactive tracing with 57 Co was used to measure the settling velocities. The ratio of the settling velocity U of uniformly sized particles to the velocity predicted to Stokes' law U 0 was correlated to an expression of the form U/U 0 = epsilon/sup α/, where epsilon is the liquid volume fraction and α is an empirical constant, determined experimentally to be 4.85. No effect of viscosity on the ratio U/U 0 was observed as the viscosity of the liquid medium was varied from 1x10 -3 to 5x10 -3 Pa.s. The settling velocities of particles in a bimodal mixture were fit by the same correlation; the ratio U/U 0 was independent of the concentrations of different-sized particles

  14. Inorganic chemistry of earliest sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochiai, E.I.


    A number of inorganic elements are now known to be essential to organisms. Chemical evolutionary processes involving carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen have been studied intensively and extensively, but the other essential elements have been rather neglected in the studies of chemical and biological evolution. This article attempts to assess the significance of inorganic chemistry in chemical and biological evolutionary processes on the earth. Emphasis is placed on the catalytic effects of inorganic elements and compounds, and also on possible studies on the earliest sediments, especially banded iron formation and stratabound copper from the inorganic point of view in the hope of shedding some light on the evolution of the environment and the biological effects on it. (orig./WL)

  15. Fluctuations and Instability in Sedimentation

    KAUST Repository

    Guazzelli, Élisabeth


    This review concentrates on the fluctuations of the velocities of sedimenting spheres, and on the structural instability of a suspension of settling fibers. For many years, theoretical estimates and numerical simulations predicted the fluctuations of the velocities of spheres to increase with the size of the container, whereas experiments found no such variation. Two ideas have increased our understanding. First, the correlation length of the velocity fluctuations was found experimentally to be 20 interparticle separations. Second, in dilute suspensions, a vertical variation in the concentration due to the spreading of the front with the clear fluid can inhibit the velocity fluctuations. In a very dilute regime, a homogeneous suspension of fibers suffers a spontaneous instability in which fast descending fiber-rich columns are separated by rising fiber-sparse columns. In a semidilute regime, the settling is hindered, more so than for spheres. © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  16. Estimating suspended sediment yield, sedimentation controls and impacts in the Mellah Catchment of Northern Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanchoul, Kamel; Assassi Fella; Altschul, Robert


    This paper is an assessment of the suspended sediment yield in the Mellah Catchment of northern Algeria. We use discharge-sediment load relationships to explore the variability of water discharge and sediment load, and to investigate the impact of geomorphic factors disturbance on erosion and sedimentation. Suspended sediment load was analyzed in the Mellah Catchment (550 squre kms ) which was controlled by a gauging station to measure discharge and sediment transport. The relations between daily mean sediment concentration and daily mean water discharge were analyzed to develop sediment rating curves. For storms with no water samples, a sediment rating curve was developed. The technique involves stratification of data into discharge-based classes, the mean of which are used to fit a rating curve according to single flow data and season to provide various rating relationships. The mean annual sediment yield during the 24 years of the study period was 562 T km -2 in the Mellah Catchment. This drainage basin had high rainfall and runoff, the erosion was high. The high sediment yield in the Mellah basin could be explained by a high percentage of sparse grassland and cultivation developed on shallow marly silty-clayey soils with steep slopes often exceeding 12%. Almost all suspended sediment loads are transported during storm events that mainly occur in the winter and spring heavy and medium downpours. The scarceness of these events leads to a very large interseasonal variability of the wadi sediment fluxes. The negative impacts of this enhanced sediment mobility are directly felt in the western part of the basin which shows many mass movements, bank and gully erosion because cultivated areas are often bared during autumnal brief flash floods and furrowed downslope during the winter season. (author)

  17. Sediment Sources, Depositional Environment, and Diagenetic Alteration of the Marcellus Shale, Appalachian Basin, USA: Nd, Sr, Li and U Isotopic Constraints (United States)

    Phan, T. T.; Capo, R. C.; Gardiner, J. B.; Stewart, B. W.


    The organic-rich Middle Devonian Marcellus Shale in the Appalachian Basin, eastern USA, is a major target of natural gas exploration. Constraints on local and regional sediment sources, depositional environments, and post-depositional processes are essential for understanding the evolution of the basin. In this study, multiple proxies, including trace metals, rare earth elements (REE), the Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr isotope systems, and U and Li isotopes were applied to bulk rocks and authigenic fractions of the Marcellus Shale and adjacent limestone/sandstone units from two locations separated by 400 km. The range of ɛNd values (-7.8 to -6.4 at 390 Ma) is consistent with a clastic sedimentary component derived from a well-mixed source of fluvial and eolian material of the Grenville orogenic belt. The Sm-Nd isotope system and bulk REE distributions appear to have been minimally affected by post-depositional processes, while the Rb-Sr isotope system shows evidence of limited post-depositional redistribution. While REE are primarily associated with silicate minerals (80-95%), REE patterns of sequentially extracted fractions reflect post-depositional alteration at the intergranular scale. Although the chemical index of alteration (CIA = 54 to 60) suggests the sediment source was not heavily weathered, Li isotope data are consistent with progressively increasing weathering of the source region during Marcellus Shale deposition. δ238U values in bulk shale and reduced phases (oxidizable fraction) are higher than those of modern seawater and upper crust. The isotopically heavy U accumulated in these authigenic phases can be explained by the precipitation of insoluble U in anoxic/euxinic bottom water. Unlike carbonate cement within the shale, the similarity between δ238U values and REE patterns of the limestone units and those of modern seawater indicates that the limestone formed under open ocean (oxic) conditions.

  18. Importance of measuring discharge and sediment transport in lesser tributaries when closing sediment budgets (United States)

    Griffiths, Ronald E.; Topping, David J.


    Sediment budgets are an important tool for understanding how riverine ecosystems respond to perturbations. Changes in the quantity and grain size distribution of sediment within river systems affect the channel morphology and related habitat resources. It is therefore important for resource managers to know if a river reach is in a state of sediment accumulation, deficit or stasis. Many sediment-budget studies have estimated the sediment loads of ungaged tributaries using regional sediment-yield equations or other similar techniques. While these approaches may be valid in regions where rainfall and geology are uniform over large areas, use of sediment-yield equations may lead to poor estimations of loads in regions where rainfall events, contributing geology, and vegetation have large spatial and/or temporal variability. Previous estimates of the combined mean-annual sediment load of all ungaged tributaries to the Colorado River downstream from Glen Canyon Dam vary by over a factor of three; this range in estimated sediment loads has resulted in different researchers reaching opposite conclusions on the sign (accumulation or deficit) of the sediment budget for particular reaches of the Colorado River. To better evaluate the supply of fine sediment (sand, silt, and clay) from these tributaries to the Colorado River, eight gages were established on previously ungaged tributaries in Glen, Marble, and Grand canyons. Results from this sediment-monitoring network show that previous estimates of the annual sediment loads of these tributaries were too high and that the sediment budget for the Colorado River below Glen Canyon Dam is more negative than previously calculated by most researchers. As a result of locally intense rainfall events with footprints smaller than the receiving basin, floods from a single tributary in semi-arid regions can have large (≥ 10 ×) differences in sediment concentrations between equal magnitude flows. Because sediment loads do not

  19. A Spatial Model of Erosion and Sedimentation on Continental Margins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pratson, Lincoln


    .... A computer model that simulates the evolution of continental slope morphology under the interaction of sedimentation, slope failure, and sediment flow erosion has been constructed and validated...

  20. Sediment transfer dynamics in the Illgraben (United States)

    Bennett, G. L.; Molnar, P.; McArdell, B. W.; Schlunegger, F.; Burlando, P.


    Quantification of the volumes of sediment removed by rock-slope failure and debris flows and identification of their coupling and controls are pertinent to understanding mountain basin sediment yield and landscape evolution. We analyzed photogrammetrically-derived datasets of hillslope and channel erosion and deposition along with hydroclimatic variables from the Illgraben, an active debris flow catchment in the Swiss Alps, spanning 1963 - 2010. Two events in the recent history of the catchment make it particularly interesting and challenging to study: a large rock avalanche in 1961, which filled the channel with sediment, and the construction of check dams along the channel in the late 1960s and 1970s. We aimed to (1) identify the nature of hillslope-channel coupling, (2) identify the dominant controls of hillslope sediment production, channel sediment transfer and total sediment yield, (3) observe the response of the channel system to the 1961 rock avalanche and check dam construction, and (4) develop a conceptual model with which to investigate sediment transfer dynamics in various scenarios, including the absence of check dams along the channel. The study captures a multi-decadal period of channel erosion in response to the 1961 rock avalanche, punctuated by shorter cut-and-fill cycles that occur in response to changes in hillslope sediment supply and changes in transport capacity. Hillslopes eroded rapidly at an average rate of 0.34 myr¯ 1, feeding the channel head with sediment. A near doubling of hillslope erosion in the 1980s coincided with a significant increase of air temperature and reduction in snow cover duration and depth, whilst precipitation variables did not change significantly. We find that the main influence of check-dam construction on channel sediment transfer was an initial reduction in sediment transport and a drop in debris flow activity between 1963 and 1986. After 1986 sediment storages in the channel were filled and debris flow activity

  1. Understanding Sediment Sources, Pathways, and Sinks in Regional Sediment Management: Application of Wash Load and Bed-Material Load Concept

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Biedenham, David S; Hubbard, Lisa C; Thome, Colin R; Watson, Chester C


    ... through the fluvial system for sediments derived from various bed, bank, gully, and catchment sources thereby providing a reliable analytical foundation for effective regional sediment management...

  2. Sediment Characterization in St. Alban's Bay, VT (United States)

    Nethercutt, S.; Manley, T.; Manley, P.


    St. Alban's Bay within Lake Champlain is plagued with harmful algal blooms. With future intensification due to climate change, a multidisciplinary program (BREE-Basin Resilience to Extreme Events) was initiated in 2016. In order to assess the mobilization of harmful nutrients from sediment resuspension events and riverine input, 74 sediment samples were collected in a grid fashion throughout St. Alban's Bay. Sediments were deflocculated and analyzed using a LA920 Horiba laser scattering particle size distribution analyzer to define the frequency of sediment sizes from clay to sand. Gridded surfaces of mean sortable silt percentage, silt percentage, sand percentage, and clay percentage were used to represent the sediment distribution of the region. A plot of diameter versus frequency showed the bimodal nature of some of the sediments, with one peak at about 10 microns diameter (silt) and the second at about 525 microns diameter (sand). The data showed an extremely low percentage of clay relative to that of sand and silt. The highest frequencies of sortable silt, which represents the most easily mobilized particle size, are found in the deepest areas of the bay, suggesting that these regions are where dominant bottom flow occurs. The high occurrence of sortable silt in the St. Alban's Bay does suggest that sediment mobilization, and therefore nutrient mobilization has the potential to occur. These data combined with high-resolution multibeam and hydrodynamic data will allow for future models of water flow and remobilization studies in the future.

  3. Underwater sediment-contact radiation survey method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.R.; St. Aubin, M.; Welch, S.J.


    The authors are striving to produce a practical system for mapping lateral distributions in gamma activity on submerged sediments. This is in response to the need for quality control and interpretation of data obtainable by sediment sampling and analyses near nuclear utilities. A prototype gamma probe has been constructed and tested. The prototype is essentially a background survey meter packaged in a 53-cm-long x 5.4-cm-diam waterproof vehicle. This usage-shaped vehicle is connected to a cable for towing in contact with bottom sediments of lakes, rivers, and coastal waters. This vehicle, or sediment probe as it is called, was initially developed for measuring sediment electrical conductances, a parameter that can be used to locate underwater areas of groundwater and contaminant upwelling. During towing, the probe does not roll or twist around its longitudinal axis by more than 10 deg, so that sensors, which have been fixed within the vehicle, can be oriented to look up, down, or sideways. In over 450 lin-km of underwater survey, only a single sediment probe has been irretrievably snagged on sunken rocks or other debris. Work in the Ottawa River near the Chalk River Laboratories has shown good agreement among point measurements of river sediment with continuous measurements using the moving probe

  4. Plutonium and americium in Lake Michigan sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edgington, D.N.; Alberts, J.J.; Wahlgren, M.A.; Karttunen, J.O.; Reeve, C.A.


    The vertical distributions of 239 , 240 Pu, 238 Pu, and 137 Cs have been measured in sediment cores taken from Lake Michigan. Sections from a limited number of cores have been analyzed for 241 Am. In addition, grab samples from ten locations in the southern basin of the lake have been analyzed for phase distribution of 239 , 240 Pu using a sequential extraction technique. The results indicate that the 239 , 240 Pu, 238 Pu, and 137 Cs from weapons testing, and the 241 Am formed in situ are concentrated in the sediments. A comparison of the total deposition of 239 , 240 Pu and 137 Cs indicates that 137 Cs may be valuable as a monitor for 239 , 240 Pu deposition in the sediments. Values of the 238 Pu/ 239 , 240 Pu ratio are in agreement with values reported in Lake Ontario sediments (and Lake Michigan plankton) and show little variation with depth. 241 Am data support the concept of in situ production with little preferential mobility after formation. Studies of sedimentary phase distributions show that 239 , 240 Pu is associated with hydrous oxide phases which are chemically stable under the prevailing conditions in lake sediments. Since Lake Michigan sediments remain aerobic, relatively little 239 , 240 Pu is available for chemical mobilization from the hydrous oxide or organic phases present in the sediments

  5. Sorption of radon-222 to natural sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.S.; Chin, Y.P.; Gschwend, P.M.


    The sorption of radon to sediments was investigated, since this may affect the use of porewater radon profiles for estimating bed irrigation rates. Batch experiments showed that radon has an organic-carbon-normalized sediment-water partition coefficient (K oc , L kg oc -1 ) of 21.1 ± 2.9 for a Boston Harbor sediment, 25.3 ± 2.1 for a Charles River sediment, and 22.4 ± 2.6 for a Buzzards Bay sediment. These values are in close agreement with predictions using radon's octanol-water partition coefficient (K ow ), which was measured to be 32.4 ± 1.5. Temperature and ionic strength effects on K oc were estimated to be small. Given rapid sorption kinetics, the authors suggest that slurry stripping techniques used by many investigators to measure 222 Rn in sediment samples collect both sorbed and dissolved radon. Sorption effects were included in a transport model to obtain revised estimates of irrigation rates from existing literature profiles. Irrigation rates had to be increased over previously reported values in proportion to the sediment organic matter content

  6. Equilibrium Partitioning Sediment Benchmarks (ESBs) for the ... (United States)

    This document describes procedures to determine the concentrations of nonionic organic chemicals in sediment interstitial waters. In previous ESB documents, the general equilibrium partitioning (EqP) approach was chosen for the derivation of sediment benchmarks because it accounts for the varying bioavailability of chemicals in different sediments and allows for the incorporation of the appropriate biological effects concentration. This provides for the derivation of benchmarks that are causally linked to the specific chemical, applicable across sediments, and appropriately protective of benthic organisms.  This equilibrium partitioning sediment benchmark (ESB) document was prepared by scientists from the Atlantic Ecology Division, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, and Western Ecology Division, the Office of Water, and private consultants. The document describes procedures to determine the interstitial water concentrations of nonionic organic chemicals in contaminated sediments. Based on these concentrations, guidance is provided on the derivation of toxic units to assess whether the sediments are likely to cause adverse effects to benthic organisms. The equilibrium partitioning (EqP) approach was chosen because it is based on the concentrations of chemical(s) that are known to be harmful and bioavailable in the environment.  This document, and five others published over the last nine years, will be useful for the Program Offices, including Superfund, a

  7. Sediment traps with guiding channel and hybrid check dams improve controlled sediment retention (United States)

    Schwindt, Sebastian; Franca, Mário J.; Reffo, Alessandro; Schleiss, Anton J.


    Sediment traps with partially open check dams are crucial elements for flood protection in alpine regions. The trapping of sediment is necessary when intense sediment transport occurs during floods that may endanger urban areas at downstream river reaches. In turn, the unwanted permanent trapping of sediment during small, non-hazardous floods can result in the ecological and morphological degradation of downstream reaches. This study experimentally analyses a novel concept for permeable sediment traps. For ensuring the sediment transfer up to small floods, a guiding channel implemented in the deposition area of a sediment trap was systematically studied. The bankfull discharge of the guiding channel corresponds to a dominant morphological discharge. At the downstream end of the guiding channel, a permeable barrier (check dam) triggers sediment retention and deposition. The permeable barrier consists of a bar screen for mechanical deposition control, superposed to a flow constriction for the hydraulic control. The barrier obstructs hazardous sediment transport for discharges that are higher than the bankfull discharge of the guiding channel without the risk of unwanted sediment flushing (massive self-cleaning).

  8. Site-specific sediment clean-up objectives developed by the sediment quality triad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redman, S.; Janisch, T.


    Sediment chemistry, sediment toxicity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community data were collected and evaluated in concert (1) to characterize adverse effects of hydrocarbon and metal contaminants in the sediments of a small inlet of Superior Bay, Lake Superior and a tributary creek and (2) to derive numeric objectives for the clean up of this system. Sediments from reference locations and eight study sites were analyzed for a range of contaminants, including hydrocarbons (measured both as diesel range organics (DRO) and oil and grease), lead, chromium, and ammonia. A range of sediment toxicity was observed across the eight study sites using a variety of tests and endpoints: Hyalella azteca (10 day survival and growth), Chironomus tentans (10 day survival and growth), Ceriodaphnia dubia (48 hour survival), and Daphnia magna (48 hour survival and 10 day survival and reproduction). A range of alterations of the benthic macroinvertebrate community compared with communities from reference locations were observed. Benthic community alterations were summarized quantitatively by taxa richness and Shannon-Weiner mean diversity. Lowest effect levels determined through this study included 150 microg/g dry sediment for DRO (as measured in this study) and 40 microg/g dry sediment for lead. Effects thresholds determined through this study included 1,500 microg/g dry sediment for DRO and 90 microg/g dry sediment for lead. These levels and concentrations measured in relevant reference locations are being used to define objectives for sediment clean up in the inlet and creek

  9. Effects of sediment composition on inorganic mercury partitioning, speciation and bioavailability in oxic surficial sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Huan; Wang Wenxiong


    Artificially prepared sediments were used to assess the effects of sediment composition on inorganic Hg partitioning, speciation and bioavailability. Organic coating in sediment greatly increased the Hg partitioning and the amount of bioavailable Hg bound with the clay and the Fe and Mn oxides, but had little effect on that bound with the quartz and calcium carbonate as a result of weaker binding of humic acids and fulvic acids. The clay content increased the concentration of Hg in the sediments but inhibited the gut juice extraction due to the strong binding of Hg-organic matter (OM) complexes. Most Hg in the sediments was complexed by OM (mainly distributed in the organo-complexed phase and the strongly complexed phase), and the Hg-OM complexes (especially Hg in the strongly complexed phase) in sediments contributed much to gut juice extraction. Redistribution of Hg-OM complexes between sediments and gut juices may occur during gut juice extraction and modify Hg bioavailability and speciation in sediments. - Organic and clay contents in sediments are the two most important components controlling Hg partitioning in sediments and bioavailability

  10. Investigation of Composition of Particle Size in Sediments of Stormwater Sedimentation Tank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiva Laučytė


    Full Text Available The main object for the storm water runoff treatment is to remove suspended solids before the storm water runoff is discharged into surface waters. Therefore the sedimentation tank is the most often used treatment facility. In order to optimise the sedimentation, the tendency of particle size distribution in bottom sediments must be known. Two similar size storm water runoff sedimentation tanks in Vilnius city were selected for the analysis of the particle size distribution in sediments. The composite samples of drained storm water runoff sediments were collected at the sedimentation tanks located in the districts of Verkiai and Karoliniskes on the 2nd of June, 2008. The analyses of grain size distribution were performed according the standard ISO/TS 17892-4:2004. The results showed that the particles with the particle size of 1–2 mm were obtained up to 10 m from the inlet and the particles with the size of 0,01–0,05 mm mainly were obtained close to the outlet of sedimentation tank. It is recommended to divide the sedimentation tank in two parts in order to get proper management of sediments: the particles that size is 1–10 mm could be managed as waste from grit chambers and particles of smaller size could be managed as primary sludge.Article in Lithuanian

  11. Trend analyses with river sediment rating curves (United States)

    Warrick, Jonathan A.


    Sediment rating curves, which are fitted relationships between river discharge (Q) and suspended-sediment concentration (C), are commonly used to assess patterns and trends in river water quality. In many of these studies it is assumed that rating curves have a power-law form (i.e., C = aQb, where a and b are fitted parameters). Two fundamental questions about the utility of these techniques are assessed in this paper: (i) How well to the parameters, a and b, characterize trends in the data? (ii) Are trends in rating curves diagnostic of changes to river water or sediment discharge? As noted in previous research, the offset parameter, a, is not an independent variable for most rivers, but rather strongly dependent on b and Q. Here it is shown that a is a poor metric for trends in the vertical offset of a rating curve, and a new parameter, â, as determined by the discharge-normalized power function [C = â (Q/QGM)b], where QGM is the geometric mean of the Q values sampled, provides a better characterization of trends. However, these techniques must be applied carefully, because curvature in the relationship between log(Q) and log(C), which exists for many rivers, can produce false trends in â and b. Also, it is shown that trends in â and b are not uniquely diagnostic of river water or sediment supply conditions. For example, an increase in â can be caused by an increase in sediment supply, a decrease in water supply, or a combination of these conditions. Large changes in water and sediment supplies can occur without any change in the parameters, â and b. Thus, trend analyses using sediment rating curves must include additional assessments of the time-dependent rates and trends of river water, sediment concentrations, and sediment discharge.

  12. Gypsum ground: a new occurrence of gypsum sediment in playas of central Australia (United States)

    Xiang Yang Chen; Bowler, James M.; Magee, John W.


    There are many playas (dry salt lakes) in arid central Australia (regional rainfall about 250 mm/y and pan evaporation around 3000 mm/y). Highly soluble salts, such as halite, only appear as a thin (several centimetres thick), white, ephemeral efflorescent crust on the dry surface. Gypsum is the major evaporite precipitating both at present and preserved in sediment sequences. One type of gypsum deposit forms a distinctive surface feature, which is here termed "gypsum ground". It consists of a thick (up to 80 cm) gypsum zone which rises from the surrounding smooth white playa surface and is overlain by a heaved brown crust. The gypsum zone, with an average gypsum content above 60%, consists of pure gypsum sublayers and interlayered clastic bands of sandy clay. The gypsum crystals are highly corroded, especially in the direction parallel to the c-axis and on the upper sides where illuviated clay has accumulated in corrosion hollows. Overgrowth parallel to the a- and b-axes is very common, forming highly discoidal habits. These secondary changes (corrosion and overgrowth) are well-developed in the vadose zone and absent from crystals below the long-term watertable (depth around 40 cm). These crystal characteristics indicate a rainwater leaching process. At Lake Amadeus, one of the largest playas (800 km 2) of central Australia, such gypsum ground occupies 16% of the total area. The gypsum ground is interpreted as an alteration of a pre-existing gypsum deposit which probably extended across the whole playa before breaking down, leaving a playa marginal terrace and several terrace islands within the gypsum ground. This pre-existing gypsum deposit, preserved in the residual islands, consists of pure, pale, sand-sized lenticular crystals. It is believed to have been deposited during an episode of high regional watertable, causing active groundwater seepage and more frequent surface brine in the playa. A later fall in watertable, probably resulting from climatic change

  13. Pollution chronology of the Golden Horn sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teksoez, G.; Yetis, U.; Tuncel, G.; Balkas, T.I.


    Sediment accumulation in the Golden Horn has been established by means of a useful geochronological technique; 210 Pb Radiometric Dating Method. The 210 Pb dating technique revealed a sediment accumulation rate of 3.5 cm yr -1 which is very reasonable given the characteristics of the Golden Horn. The 210 Pb profile also revealed three distinct levels in the sediments of the Golden Horn: a surface layer with nearly uniform activities, an exponential decay interval and a lower region with almost constant low activity. (author)

  14. Assessing sediment contamination using six toxicity assays


    Allen G. BURTON Jr.; Carolyn ROWLAND; Renato BAUDO; Monica BELTRAMI


    An evaluation of sediment toxicity at Lake Orta, Italy was conducted to compare a toxicity test battery of 6 assays and to evaluate the extent of sediment contamination at various sediment depths. Lake Orta received excessive loadings of copper and ammonia during the 1900’s until a large remediation effort was conducted in 1989-90 using lime addition. Since that time, the lake has shown signs of a steady recovery of biological communities. The study results showed acute toxicity still exists ...

  15. Granulometric analysis of sediments containing transuranic radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.M.; Additon, M.K.


    A dry sieving technique using a sonic sifter was selected for the granulometric analysis of sediment samples containing radionuclide contamination. A sieve facility was established in the 234-5Z building for this purpose. Fifty-two contaminated sediment samples from the 216-Z-1A crib were sieved in the facility at a rate of two to four samples per day with no major problems. A comparison of particle size and radionuclide concentration indicated that there is no obvious benefit to particle size separation as a means of sediment decontamination, though an economic analysis will have to be conducted before a final decision can be made

  16. Biological processes influencing contaminant release from sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reible, D.D.


    The influence of biological processes, including bioturbation, on the mobility of contaminants in freshwater sediments is described. Effective mass coefficients are estimated for tubificid oligochaetes as a function of worm behavior and biomass density. The mass transfer coefficients were observed to be inversely proportional to water oxygen content and proportional to the square root of biomass density. The sediment reworking and contaminant release are contrasted with those of freshwater amphipods. The implications of these and other biological processes for contaminant release and i n-situ remediation of soils and sediments are summarized. 4 figs., 1 tab

  17. Assessing ecorelevance of emerging chemicals in sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forbes, Valery E.; Selck, Henriette; Salvito, D.


    Environmental monitoring of the Great Lakes and elsewhere has detected the presence of a wide variety of chemicals which has raised concern that these chemicals pose risks to resident species. Sediments are of particular interest due to their tendency to accumulate hydrophobic and persistent...... chemicals and because less is known about toxic effects of chemicals to sediment-feeding organisms than to pelagic species. Data collected on the polycyclic musks provides available evidence relevant to assessing exposure and effects in Great Lakes' sediments. Studies at Roskilde University demonstrate how...

  18. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Sediments - Detailed Conceptual Diagram (United States)

    Introduction to the Sediments module, when to list Sediments as a candidate cause, ways to measure Sediments, simple and detailed conceptual diagrams for Sediments, Sediments module references and literature reviews.

  19. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Sediments - Simple Conceptual Diagram (United States)

    Introduction to the Sediments module, when to list Sediments as a candidate cause, ways to measure Sediments, simple and detailed conceptual diagrams for Sediments, Sediments module references and literature reviews.

  20. Pleistocene Arid and Wet Climatic Variability: Imprint of Glacial Climate, Tectonics and Oceanographic Events in the Sediments of the se Indian Ocean, Western Australia (United States)

    McHugh, C. M.; Castaneda, J.; Kominz, M. A.; Gallagher, S. J.; Gurnis, M.; Ishiwa, T.; Mamo, B. L.; Henderiks, J.; Christensen, B. A.; Groeneveld, J.; Yokoyama, Y.; Mustaque, S.; Iqbal, F.


    The interaction between the evolving tectonic configuration of the Indo Pacific region as a result of the northward migration of the Australian continent, and its collision with the Banda Arc began in the Late Miocene ( 8 Ma ago). This constriction played an important role in the diversion of the Indonesian Throughflow and initiation of the Leeuwin Current. These events coupled to Pleistocene glaciations left a significant imprint in the sediments offshore western Australia. The International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 356 drilled in shelf depths of the Carnarvon and Perth Basins recovering a thick section of Pleistocene sediment from Sites U1461 (440 m thick) and U1460 (306 m), respectively. Analyses of the lithology (logs, grain size), chemistry (X-ray elemental analyses) and an initial age model constructed from biostratigraphy and radiocarbon ages were interpreted within the framework of multichannel seismic profiles. Radiocarbon ages provide control for MIS 1-4, and the identification of glacial cycles is based on shipboard biostratigraphy best developed for Site U1460. Arid and high productivity signals are linked with glacial stages. Wet conditions are associated with river discharge, terrigenous sediments and linked with interglacial stages. Except for one very pronounced interval the productivity signal during interglacials is low. High productivity during glacial stages is related to upwelling linked to the southward flowing Leeuwin Current. Comparison of the northernmost (U1461) with southernmost (U1460) sites reveals a strong arid and wet climatic variability beginning in the Pleistocene. This variability is most pronounced in the late Pleistocene post 0.8-1.0 Ma and can be correlated with glacial-interglacial cycles, especially in the more humid southern Site that was closer to the Subantarctic Front and influenced by the Westerlies. In Site U1461 we recovered the 135m thick Gorgon slide. Its occurrence at 1 Ma coincides with a rapid tectonic

  1. Characterization of phosphorus interaction with sediments affected by acid mine drainage - relation with the sediment composition


    Boukemara , Lamia; Boukhalfa , Chahrazed; Azzouz , Sarah; Reinert , Laurence; Duclaux , Laurent; Amrane , Abdeltif; Szymczyk , Anthony


    International audience; Phosphorus sorption capacity was investigated in surface sediments derived from an abandoned zinc-lead mine area located in northeastern Algeria. The forms and the distribution of phosphorus in the raw sediment were identified using the sequential chemical extractions method. Batch experiments were done to study the adsorption kinetics and isotherms. The pH effect was evaluated by macroscopic and infrared analyses. In raw sediment, speciation results show that phosphor...

  2. Regional Sediment Management (RSM) Modeling Tools: Integration of Advanced Sediment Transport Tools into HEC-RAS (United States)


    sediment transport within the USACE HEC River Analysis System ( HEC - RAS ) software package and to determine its applicability to Regional Sediment...Management (RSM) challenges. HEC - RAS SEDIMENT MODELING BACKGROUND: HEC - RAS performs (1) one- dimensional (1D) steady and unsteady hydraulic river ...Albuquerque (SPA)), and recently, the USACE RSM Program. HEC - RAS is one of several hydraulic modeling codes available for river analysis in the

  3. Scripps Sediment Description File- OCSEAP Portion (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Scripps Institution of Oceanography compiled descriptions of sediment samples in the Alaskan Outer Continental Shelf area, funded through the NOAA Outer...

  4. Delaware River and Upper Bay Sediment Data (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The area of coverage consists of 192 square miles of benthic habitat mapped from 2005 to 2007 in the Delaware River and Upper Delaware Bay. The bottom sediment map...

  5. Introduction to the treatment of polluted sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rulkens, W.H.


    This paper overviews the large variety of remediation options for polluted sediments that are currently available. These include physico-chemical and biological techniques that can be applied in situ or ex site.

  6. Stabilization of bottom sediments from Rzeszowski Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koś Karolina


    Full Text Available The paper presents results of stabilization of bottom sediments from Rzeszowski Reservoir. Based on the geotechnical characteristics of the tested sediments it was stated they do not fulfill all the criteria set for soils in earth embankments. Therefore, an attempt to improve their parameters was made by using two additives – cement and lime. An unconfined compressive strength, shear strength, bearing ratio and pH reaction were determined on samples after different time of curing. Based on the carried out tests it was stated that the obtained values of unconfined compressive strength of sediments stabilized with cement were relatively low and they did not fulfill the requirements set by the Polish standard, which concerns materials in road engineering. In case of lime stabilization it was stated that the tested sediments with 6% addition of the additive can be used for the bottom layers of the improved road base.

  7. The NGDC Seafloor Sediment Grain Size Database (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NGDC (now NCEI) Seafloor Sediment Grain Size Database contains particle size data for over 17,000 seafloor samples worldwide. The file was begun by NGDC in 1976...

  8. Mercury in sediments of Ulhas estuary