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Sample records for terrestrial exposure assessment

  1. Allometric methodology for the assessment of radon exposures to terrestrial wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vives i Batlle, J., E-mail: jordi.vives.i.batlle@sckcen.be [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Copplestone, D. [School of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Stirling (United Kingdom); Jones, S.R. [SJ Scientific Ltd, 13 Fern Bank, Cockermouth, Cumbria (United Kingdom)

    2012-06-15

    A practical approach to calculate {sup 222}Rn daughter dose rates to terrestrial wildlife is presented. The method scales allometrically the relevant parameters for respiration in different species of wildlife, allowing inter-species calculation of the dose per unit radon concentration in air as simple base-and-exponent power functions of the mass. For plants, passive gas exchange through the leaf surface is assumed, also leading to specific power relationships with mass. The model generates conservative predictions in which the main contributor to the dose rate of target tissues of the respiratory system is from {alpha} radiation arising from {sup 222}Rn daughters. Tabulated {sup 222}Rn DPURn values are given for 69 species used by the England and Wales Environment Agency for habitats assessments. The approach is then applied to assess the authorised discharges of {sup 222}Rn from sites in England, demonstrating that, from a whole-body dose perspective, the biota considered are protected from effects at the population level. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Allometric method developed to calculate radon daughter doses to 69 species of terrestrial wildlife. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Model satisfactorily compared with previous studies of lung dose rates for mammals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The main contributor to the dose rate of the respiratory system is internal {alpha}-radiation from the {sup 222}Rn daughters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Air immersion is the principal contributor to the external dose rate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Assessment for 7 authorised sites in England suggests that wildlife populations are adequately protected from the anthropogenic radon emissions considered in this study.

  2. Estimating Exposure of Terrestrial Wildlife to Contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sample, B.E.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents a general model for exposure of terrestrial wildlife to contaminants (Sect. 2), methods for estimating parameters of the model (Sect. 3), species specific parameters for endpoint species on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) (Sect. 4), and a sample application (Sect. 5). Exposure can be defined as the coincidence in both space and time of a receptor and a stressor, such that the receptor and stressor come into contact and interact (Risk Assessment Forum 1992). In the context of ecological risk assessment, receptors include all endpoint species or communities identified for a site [see Suter (1989) and Suter et al. (1994) for discussions of ecological endpoints for waste sites]. In the context of waste site assessments, stressors are chemical contaminations, and the contact and interaction are uptake of the contaminant by the receptor. Without sufficient exposure of the receptor to the contaminants, there is no ecological risk. Unlike some other endpoint assemblages, terrestrial wildlife are significantly exposed to contaminants in multiple media. They may drink or swim in contaminated water, ingest contaminated food and soil, and breath contaminated air. In addition, because most wildlife are mobile, moving among and within habitats, exposure is not restricted to a single location. They may integrate contamination from several spatially discrete sources. Therefore, exposure models for terrestrial wildlife must include multiple media. This document provides models and parameters for estimating exposure of birds and mammals. Reptiles and amphibians are not considered because few data exist with which to assess exposure to these organisms. In addition, because toxicological data are scarce for both classes, evaluation of the significance of exposure estimates is problematic. However, the general exposure estimation procedure developed herein for birds and mammals is applicable to reptiles and amphibians. Exposure models must be appropriate to the

  3. TerrPlant Version 1.2.2 User's Guide for Pesticide Exposure to Terrestrial Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tier 1 model for screening-level assessments of pesticides. TerrPlant provides screening-level estimates of exposure to terrestrial plants from single pesticide applications. It does not consider exposures to plants from multiple pesticide applications.

  4. A simple approach for a spatial terrestrial exposure assessment of the insecticide fenoxycarb, based on a high-resolution landscape analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kai; Resseler, Herbert; Spatz, Robert; Hendley, Paul; Sweeney, Paul; Urban, Martin; Kubiak, Roland

    2016-11-01

    The objective was to refine the standard regulatory exposure scenario used in plant protection product authorisations by developing a more realistic landscape-related GIS-based exposure assessment for terrestrial non-target arthropods. We quantified the proportion of adjacent off-target area in agricultural landscapes potentially exposed to insecticide drift from applications of the active substance fenoxycarb. High-resolution imagery, landscape classification and subsequent stepwise analysis of a whole landscape using drift and interception functions were applied to selected areas in representative fruit-producing regions in Germany. Even under worst-case assumptions regarding treated area, use rate and drift, less than 12% of the non-agricultural habitat area would potentially be exposed to fenoxycarb drift above regulatory acceptable concentrations. Additionally, if the filtering effect of tall vegetation were taken into account, this number would decrease to 6.6%. Further refinements to landscape elements and application conditions indicate that less than 5% of the habitat area might be exposed above regulatory acceptable concentrations, meaning that 95% of the non-agricultural habitat area will be unimpacted (i.e. no unacceptable effects) and can serve as refuge for recolonisation. Approaches and tools are proposed for standardisable and transparent refinements in regulatory risk assessments on the landscape level. © 2016 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Estimating exposure of terrestrial wildlife to contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sample, B.E.; Suter, G.W. II

    1994-09-01

    This report describes generalized models for the estimation of contaminant exposure experienced by wildlife on the Oak Ridge Reservation. The primary exposure pathway considered is oral ingestion, e.g. the consumption of contaminated food, water, or soil. Exposure through dermal absorption and inhalation are special cases and are not considered hereIN. Because wildlife mobile and generally consume diverse diets and because environmental contamination is not spatial homogeneous, factors to account for variation in diet, movement, and contaminant distribution have been incorporated into the models. To facilitate the use and application of the models, life history parameters necessary to estimate exposure are summarized for 15 common wildlife species. Finally, to display the application of the models, exposure estimates were calculated for four species using data from a source operable unit on the Oak Ridge Reservation.

  6. Background exposure rates of terrestrial wildlife in England and Wales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beresford, N.A. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, CEH-Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom)], E-mail: nab@ceh.ac.uk; Barnett, C.L. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, CEH-Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Jones, D.G. [British Geological Society, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Wood, M.D. [Institute for Sustainable Water Integrated Management and Ecosystem Research (SWIMMER), Nicholson Building, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, Merseyside L69 3GP (United Kingdom); Appleton, J.D.; Breward, N. [British Geological Society, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Copplestone, D. [Environment Agency, Richard Fairclough House, Knutsford Road, Warrington, Cheshire WA4 1HG (United Kingdom)

    2008-09-15

    It has been suggested that, when assessing radiation impacts on non-human biota, estimated dose rates due to anthropogenically released radionuclides should be put in context by comparison to dose rates from natural background radiation. In order to make these comparisons, we need data on the activity concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides in environmental media and organisms of interest. This paper presents the results of a study to determine the exposure of terrestrial organisms in England and Wales to naturally occurring radionuclides, specifically {sup 40}K, {sup 238}U series and {sup 232}Th series radionuclides. Whole-body activity concentrations for the reference animals and plants (RAPs) as proposed by the ICRP have been collated from literature review, data archives and a targeted sampling campaign. Data specifically for the proposed RAP are sparse. Soil activity concentrations have been derived from an extensive geochemical survey of the UK. Unweighted and weighted absorbed dose rates were estimated using the ERICA Tool. Mean total weighted whole-body absorbed dose rates estimated for the selected terrestrial organisms was in the range 6.9 x 10{sup -2} to 6.1 x 10{sup -1} {mu}Gy h{sup -1}.

  7. Assessment of human exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebret, E. [RIVM-National Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Protection (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    This article describes some of the features of the assessment of human exposure to environmental pollutants in epidemiological studies. Since exposure assessment in air pollution epidemiology studies typically involve professionals from various backgrounds, interpretation of a concepts like `exposure` may vary. A brief descriptions is therefore given by way of introduction

  8. Advancements in cosmogenic 38Ar exposure dating of terrestrial rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostingh, K. F.; Jourdan, F.; Danišík, M.; Evans, N. J.

    2017-11-01

    Cosmogenic exposure dating of Ca-rich minerals using 38Ar on terrestrial rocks could be a valuable new dating tool to determine timescales of geological surface processes on Earth. Here, we show that advancement in analytical precision, using the new generation multi-collector ARGUSVI mass spectrometer on irradiated pyroxene and apatite samples, allows determination of cosmogenic 38Ar abundances above background values, as well as discrimination of 38Ar/36Ar ratios (1σ absolute precision of ±0.3%) from the non-cosmogenic background value. Four statistically significant cosmochron (38Ar/36Ar vs37Ar/36Ar) diagrams could be constructed for southeast Australian pyroxene samples from the Mt Elephant scoria cone for which a combined apparent exposure age of 313 ± 179 ka (2σ) was obtained when using a 38Ar production rate (Ca) of 250 atoms /g Ca/ yr. This exposure age overlaps within error with the known 40Ar/39Ar eruption age of 184 ± 15 ka (2σ). Although apatite shows much larger 38Ar abundances than pyroxene, our modelling and analyses of unirradiated apatite suggest that apatite suffers from both natural and reactor-derived chlorogenic as well as natural nucleogenic contributions of 38Ar. Hence, we suggest that cosmogenic 38Ar exposure dating on irradiated Ca-rich (and eventually K-rich), but Cl-free, terrestrial minerals is a potential valuable and accessible tool to determine geological surface processes on timescales of a few Ma. Calculations show that with the new generation multi-collector mass spectrometers an analytical uncertainty better than 5% (2σ) can be achieved on samples with expected exposure ages of >4 Ma.

  9. Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA) exposure of neuronal in vitro networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Tim; Wölfel, Maximilian; Ciba, Manuel; Bochtler, Ulrich; Thielemann, Christiane

    2017-12-19

    Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA) is a worldwide common mobile communication standard, used by authorities and organizations with security tasks. Previous studies reported on health effects of TETRA, with focus on the specific pulse frequency of 17.64Hz, which affects calcium efflux in neuronal cells. Likewise among others, it was reported that TETRA affects heart rate variability, neurophysiology and leads to headaches. In contrast, other studies conclude that TETRA does not affect calcium efflux of cells and has no effect on people's health. In the present study we examine whether TETRA short- and long-term exposure could affect the electrophysiology of neuronal in vitro networks. Experiments were performed with a carrier frequency of 395MHz, a pulse frequency of 17.64Hz and a differential quaternary phase-shift keying (π/4 DQPSK) modulation. Specific absorption rates (SAR) of 1.17W/kg and 2.21W/kg were applied. In conclusion, the present results do not indicate any effect of TETRA exposure on electrophysiology of neuronal in vitro networks, neither for short-term nor long-term exposure. This applies to the examined parameters spike rate, burst rate, burst duration and network synchrony. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Exposure assessment of trichloroethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C; Schaum, J

    2000-01-01

    This article reviews exposure information available for trichloroethylene (TCE) and assesses the magnitude of human exposure. The primary sources releasing TCE into the environment are metal cleaning and degreasing operations. Releases occur into all media but mostly into the air due to its volatility. It is also moderately soluble in water and can leach from soils into groundwater. TCE has commonly been found in ambient air, surface water, and groundwaters. The 1998 air levels in microg/m(3) across 115 monitors can be summarized as follows: range = 0.01-3.9, mean = 0.88. A California survey of large water utilities in 1984 found a median concentration of 3.0 microg/L. General population exposure to TCE occurs primarily by inhalation and water ingestion. Typical average daily intakes have been estimated as 11-33 microg/day for inhalation and 2-20 microg/day for ingestion. A small portion of the population is expected to have elevated exposures as a result of one or more of these pathways: inhalation exposures to workers involved in degreasing operations, ingestion and inhalation exposures occurring in homes with private wells located near disposal/contamination sites, and inhalation exposures to consumers using TCE products in areas of poor ventilation. More current and more extensive data on TCE levels in indoor air, water, and soil are needed to better characterize the distribution of background exposures in the general population and elevated exposures in special subpopulations. Images Figure 1 PMID:10807565

  11. Dermal exposure assessment techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenske, R A

    1993-12-01

    Exposure of the skin to chemical substances can contribute significantly to total dose in many workplace situations, and its relative importance will increase when airborne occupational exposure limits are reduced, unless steps to reduce skin exposure are undertaken simultaneously. Its assessment employs personal sampling techniques to measure skin loading rates, and combines these measurements with models of percutaneous absorption to estimate absorbed dose. Knowledge of dermal exposure pathways is in many cases fundamental to hazard evaluation and control. When the skin is the primary contributor to absorbed dose, dermal exposure measurements and biological monitoring play complementary roles in defining occupational exposures. Exposure normally occurs by one of three pathways: (i) immersion (direct contact with a liquid or solid chemical substance); (ii) deposition of aerosol or uptake of vapour through the skin; or (iii) surface contact (residue transfer from contaminated surfaces). Sampling methods fall into three categories: surrogate skin; chemical removal; and fluorescent tracers. Surface sampling represents a supplementary approach, providing an estimate of dermal exposure potential. Surrogate skin techniques involve placing a chemical collection medium on the skin. Whole-body garment samplers do not require assumptions relating to distribution, an inherent limitation of patch sampling. The validity of these techniques rests on the ability of the sampling medium to capture and retain chemicals in a manner similar to skin. Removal techniques include skin washing and wiping, but these measure only what can be removed from the skin, not exposure: laboratory removal efficiency studies are required for proper interpretation of data. Fluorescent tracer techniques exploit the visual properties of fluorescent compounds, and combined with video imaging make quantification of dermal exposure patterns possible, but the need to introduce a chemical substance (tracer

  12. Elastomeric Seal Performance after Terrestrial Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Christopher C.; Oravec, Heather A.; Mather, Janice L.; Taylor, Shawn C.; Dunlap, Patrick H.

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation was evaluated to determine its negative effects on the performance of elastomeric gas pressure seals. The leak rates of the silicone elastomer S0383-70 O-ring test articles were used to quantify the degradation of the seals after exposure to vacuum-ultraviolet and/or middle-to-near-ultraviolet wavelength radiation. Three groups of seals were exposed in terrestrial facilities to 115-165 nm wavelength radiation, 230-500 nm wavelength radiation, or both spectrums, for an orbital spaceflight equivalent of 125 hours. The leak rates of the silicone elastomer S0383-70 seals were quantified and compared to samples that received no radiation. Each lot contained six samples and statistical t-tests were used to determine the separate and combined influences of exposure to the two wavelength ranges. A comparison of the mean leak rates of samples exposed to 115-165 nm wavelength radiation to the control specimens showed no difference, suggesting that spectrum was not damaging. The 230-500 nm wavelength appeared to be damaging, as the mean leak rates of the specimens exposed to that range of wavelengths, and those exposed to the combined 115-165 nm and 230-500 nm spectrums, were significantly different from the leak rates of the control specimens. Most importantly, the test articles exposed to both wavelength spectrums exhibited mean leak rates two orders of magnitude larger than any other exposed specimens, which suggested that both wavelength spectrums are important when simulating the orbital environment.

  13. Asbestos Exposure Assessment Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcot, Divya K.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to particular hazardous materials in a work environment is dangerous to the employees who work directly with or around the materials as well as those who come in contact with them indirectly. In order to maintain a national standard for safe working environments and protect worker health, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set forth numerous precautionary regulations. NASA has been proactive in adhering to these regulations by implementing standards which are often stricter than regulation limits and administering frequent health risk assessments. The primary objective of this project is to create the infrastructure for an Asbestos Exposure Assessment Database specific to NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) which will compile all of the exposure assessment data into a well-organized, navigable format. The data includes Sample Types, Samples Durations, Crafts of those from whom samples were collected, Job Performance Requirements (JPR) numbers, Phased Contrast Microscopy (PCM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) results and qualifiers, Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), and names of industrial hygienists who performed the monitoring. This database will allow NASA to provide OSHA with specific information demonstrating that JSC s work procedures are protective enough to minimize the risk of future disease from the exposures. The data has been collected by the NASA contractors Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC) and Wyle Laboratories. The personal exposure samples were collected from devices worn by laborers working at JSC and by building occupants located in asbestos-containing buildings.

  14. Effects of chronic exposure to clothianidin on the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Basley

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Although neonicotinoids are targeted at insects, their predominant use as a seed dressing and their long persistence in soils mean that non-target soil organisms such as earthworms are likely to be chronically exposed to them. Chronic exposure may pose risks that are not evaluated in most toxicity tests. We experimentally tested the effect of field-realistic concentrations of a commonly used neonicotinoid, clothianidin, on mortality, weight gain, and food consumption to assess the impacts of chronic exposure over four months on fitness of L. terrestris individuals. We undertook three separate experiments, each with different exposure routes: treated soil only (experiment A, treated food and soil combined (experiment B and treated food only (experiment C. Mortality was negatively affected by exposure from treated soil only with greatest mortality observed in the groups exposed to the two highest concentrations (20 ppb and 100 ppb, but no clear effect on mortality was found in the other two experiments. When clothianidin was present in the food, an anti-feedant effect was present in months one and two which subsequently disappeared; if this occurs in the field, it could result in reduced rates of decomposition of treated crop foliage. We found no significant effects of any treatment on worm body mass. We cannot rule out stronger adverse effects if worms come into close proximity to treated seeds, or if other aspects of fitness were examined. Overall, our data suggest that field-realistic exposure to clothianidin has a significant but temporary effect on food consumption and can have weak but significant impacts on mortality of L. terrestris.

  15. Biomarkers in terrestrial invertebrates for ecotoxicological soil risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammenga, J E; Dallinger, R; Donker, M H; Köhler, H R; Simonsen, V; Triebskorn, R; Weeks, J M

    2000-01-01

    This review has served to present the most recent information on a selected series of biomarker studies undertaken on soil invertebrates during two extensive European-funded scientific consortia, BIOPRINT and BIOPRINT-II. The goals were to develop and validate methods for the analysis of markers of stress in a range of soil-dwelling organisms. We have discussed the potential and limitations of the following invertebrate biomarkers for soil risk assessment purposes: heat shock proteins, histological and ultrastructural markers, metallothioneins and metal-binding proteins, esterases, lysosomal integrity, and the novel biomarker histidine. The hsp response in soil invertebrates is especially suitable to indicate the effects of exposure to comparatively low concentrations for a range of toxicants and can be regarded as a biomarker of general stress. The application of MTs and other metal-binding proteins as biomarkers for exposure in soil invertebrates has been well described, and new methods are being developed for analyzing MT induction both at the protein and molecular level, and reliable and reproducible methods are now available. (Cd)-MT is well characterized for the springtails and its MT concentration is a useful biomarker for exposure as well as for effect. For snails, (Cd)-MT can accumulate in the midgut gland over extended periods of time and therefore its concentration is a biomarker not only for recent intoxication but also for events of cadmium exposure that snails may have experienced a long time before the measurement took place. Cellular and histological alterations can be regarded as reflecting the "health" state of a cell, which may be a measure for the presence of toxicants. Histopathological work on terrestrial invertebrates, however, is still scarce. Isozymes have been poorly studied in soil invertebrates despite their promising role as potential biomarkers in aquatic organisms. Among the large diversity of isozymes, the most well studied are

  16. Surface exposure dating of non-terrestrial bodies using optically stimulated luminescence: A new method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohbati, Reza; Jain, Mayank; Murray, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new method for in situ surface exposure dating of non-terrestrial geomorphological features using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL); our approach is based on the progressive emptying of trapped charge with exposure to light at depth into a mineral surface. A complete model of t...

  17. Surface exposure dating of non-terrestrial bodies using optically stimulated luminescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohbati, Reza; Jain, Mayank; Murray, A.S.

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new method for in situ surface exposure dating of non-terrestrial geomorphological features using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL); our approach is based on the progressive emptying of trapped charge with exposure to light at depth into a mineral surface. A complete model of t...... will be applicable over the last 100 ka. The method is ideally suited to in situ measurement using existing technology developed for space applications, and so offers for the first time the realistic possibility of direct determination of exposure ages of young non-terrestrial surfaces....

  18. Modelling chronic exposure to contaminated soil: a toxicokinetic approach with the terrestrial snail Helix aspersa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimbert, Frédéric; de Vaufleury, Annette; Douay, Francis; Scheifler, Renaud; Coeurdassier, Michaël; Badot, Pierre-Marie

    2006-09-01

    To enlarge the possibilities of using organisms of the soil fauna to assess the bioaccumulative potential of chemicals, the kinetic of soil cadmium (Cd) transfer to the terrestrial gastropod Helix aspersa was investigated under laboratory conditions during a long-term experiment (6 months). During the exposure phase (3 months), juvenile snails were subjected to three different concentrations of Cd spiked in artificial ISO soil (ISO 0, 20 and 100 mg Cd kg(-1)) and to a field soil (ME4) industrially contaminated by 20 mg Cd kg (-1). For both soils, internal steady-state Cd concentrations were reached in the viscera of the snails, the main storage organ for Cd, after 2 weeks of exposure whatever the Cd concentration in soil. The equilibrium concentrations in the viscera were 0.7 (+/-0.1), 11.3 (+/-2.4), 73.3 (+/-4.8) and 6.3 (+/-1.3) mg Cd kg(-1) dry mass for ISO 0, ISO 20, ISO 100 and ME4, respectively. During the depuration phase (3 months), from 0 to 52% of the accumulated Cd in the viscera were removed by excretion or relocation in the foot. However, the snails were not able to depurate down to initial concentrations. Data were modelled by integrating a specific growth rate constant into one-compartment toxicokinetic models. This allowed the calculation of Cd uptake rates that can be used as indicators of metal bioavailability. Since this parameter was found to be lower for snails exposed to the field soil ME4, we concluded that lower Cd bioavailability in this field soil was responsible of the lower transfer to the snails compared to the ISO 20 soil, even though they were polluted to similar extents. Internal validation showed that the toxicokinetic models could be applied for predictive purposes, promising for the development of a bioaccumulation directive for terrestrial environment.

  19. Contaminant exposure and effects--terrestrial vertebrates database: Trends and data gaps for Atlantic Coast estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Pearson, J.L.; Golden, N.H.; Cohen, J.B.; Erwin, R.M.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    In order to examine the condition of biota in Atlantic coast estuaries, a ?Contaminant Exposure and Effects--Terrestrial Vertebrates? database (CEE-TV) has been compiled through computerized search of published literature, review of existing databases, and solicitation of unpublished reports from conservation agencies, private groups, and universities. Summary information has been entered into the database, including species, collection date (1965-present), site coordinates, estuary name, hydrologic unit catalogue code, sample matrix, contaminant concentrations, biomarker and bioindicator responses, and reference source, utilizing a 98-field character and numeric format. Currently, the CEE-TV database contains 3699 georeferenced records representing 190 vertebrate species and >145,000 individuals residing in estuaries from Maine through Florida. This relational database can be directly queried, imported into a Geographic Information System to examine spatial patterns, identify data gaps and areas of concern, generate hypotheses, and focus ecotoxicological field assessments. Information on birds made up the vast majority (83%) of the database, with only a modicum of data on amphibians (75,000 chemical compounds in commerce, only 118 commonly measured environmental contaminants were quantified in tissues of terrestrial vertebrates. There were no CEE-TV data records in 15 of the 67 estuaries located along the Atlantic coast and Florida Gulf coast. The CEE-TV database has a number of potential applications including focusing biomonitoring efforts to generate critically needed ecotoxicological data in the numerous ?gaps? along the coast, reducing uncertainty about contaminant risk, identifying areas for mitigation, restoration or special management, and ranking ecological conditions of estuaries.

  20. ECO Exposure Assessment Tools by Receptors and Exposure Factors - References

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eco-Box is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  1. ECO Exposure Assessment Tools by Exposure Pathways - References

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eco-Box is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  2. Predictive Modeling of Terrestrial Radiation Exposure from Geologic Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malchow, Russell L. [National Security Technologies, LLC; Haber, Daniel University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Burnley, Pamela [University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Marsac, Kara [University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Hausrath, Elisabeth [University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Adcock, Christopher [University of Nevada, Las Vegas

    2015-01-01

    Aerial gamma ray surveys are important for those working in nuclear security and industry for determining locations of both anthropogenic radiological sources and natural occurrences of radionuclides. During an aerial gamma ray survey, a low flying aircraft, such as a helicopter, flies in a linear pattern across the survey area while measuring the gamma emissions with a sodium iodide (NaI) detector. Currently, if a gamma ray survey is being flown in an area, the only way to correct for geologic sources of gamma rays is to have flown the area previously. This is prohibitively expensive and would require complete national coverage. This project’s goal is to model the geologic contribution to radiological backgrounds using published geochemical data, GIS software, remote sensing, calculations, and modeling software. K, U and Th are the three major gamma emitters in geologic material. U and Th are assumed to be in secular equilibrium with their daughter isotopes. If K, U, and Th abundance values are known for a given geologic unit the expected gamma ray exposure rate can be calculated using the Grasty equation or by modeling software. Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport software (MCNP), developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory, is modeling software designed to simulate particles and their interactions with matter. Using this software, models have been created that represent various lithologies. These simulations randomly generate gamma ray photons at energy levels expected from natural radiologic sources. The photons take a random path through the simulated geologic media and deposit their energy at the end of their track. A series of nested spheres have been created and filled with simulated atmosphere to record energy deposition. Energies deposited are binned in the same manner as the NaI detectors used during an aerial survey. These models are used in place of the simplistic Grasty equation as they take into account absorption properties of the lithology which the

  3. Silver nanoparticle exposure causes apoptotic response in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris (Oligochaeta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapied, Emmanuel; Moudilou, Elara; Exbrayat, Jean-Marie; Oughton, Deborah Helen; Joner, Erik Jautris

    2010-08-01

    In terrestrial ecotoxicology there is a serious lack of data for potential hazards posed by engineered nanoparticles (ENPs). This is partly due to complex interactions between ENPs and the soil matrix, but also to the lack of suitable toxicological end points in organisms that are exposed to ENPs in a relevant manner. Earthworms are key organisms in terrestrial ecosystems, but so far only physiological end points of low sensitivity have been used in ecotoxicity studies with ENPs. We exposed the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris to silver nanoparticles and measured their impact on apoptosis in different tissues. Increased apoptotic activity was detected in a range of tissues both at acute and sublethal concentrations (down to 4 mg/kg soil). Comparing exposure in water and soil showed reduced bioavailability in soil reflected in the apoptotic response. Apoptosis appears to be a sensitive end point and potentially a powerful tool for quantifying environmental hazards of ENPs.

  4. Metallothionein Induction in the Coelomic Fluid of the Earthworm Lumbricus terrestris following Heavy Metal Exposure: A Short Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Calisi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Earthworms are useful bioindicator organisms for soil biomonitoring. Recently the use of pollution biomarkers in earthworms has been increasingly investigated for soil monitoring and assessment. Earthworm coelomic fluid is particularly interesting from a toxicological perspective, because it is responsible for pollutant disposition and tissue distribution to the whole organism. The aim of the present work was to study the effect of heavy metal exposure on metallothionein (Mt induction in the coelomic fluid of Lumbricus terrestris in view of future use as sensitive biomarker suitable for application to metal polluted soil monitoring and assessment. L. terrestris coelomic fluid showed a detectable Mt concentration of about 4.0±0.6 μg/mL (mean ± SEM, n=10 in basal physiological condition. When the animals were exposed to CuSO4 or CdCl2 or to a mixture of the two metals in OECD soils for 72 h, the Mt specific concentration significantly (P<0.001 increased. The Mt response in the coelomic fluid perfectly reflected the commonly used Mt response in the whole organism when the two responses were compared on the same specimens. These findings indicate the suitability of Mt determination in L. terrestris coelomic fluid as a sensitive biomarker for application to metal polluted soil monitoring and assessment.

  5. Inhibition, recovery and oxime-induced reactivation of muscle esterases following chlorpyrifos exposure in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collange, B. [Universite d' Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse, UMR 406 Abeilles et Environnement, Site AGROPARC, F-84914, Avignon Cede 09 (France); Wheelock, C.E. [Division of Physiological Chemistry II, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, SE 171 77, Stockholm (Sweden); Rault, M.; Mazzia, C. [Universite d' Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse, UMR 406 Abeilles et Environnement, Site AGROPARC, F-84914, Avignon Cede 09 (France); Capowiez, Y. [INRA, Unite PSH, Site AGROPARC, F-84914 Avignon Cedex 09 (France); Sanchez-Hernandez, J.C., E-mail: juancarlos.sanchez@uclm.e [Laboratory of Ecotoxicology, Faculty of Environmental Science, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Avda. Carlos III s/n, 45071, Toledo (Spain)

    2010-06-15

    Assessment of wildlife exposure to organophosphorus (OP) pesticides generally involves the measurement of cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition, and complementary biomarkers (or related endpoints) are rarely included. Herein, we investigated the time course inhibition and recovery of ChE and carboxylesterase (CE) activities in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris exposed to chlorpyrifos, and the ability of oximes to reactivate the phosphorylated ChE activity. Results indicated that these esterase activities are a suitable multibiomarker scheme for monitoring OP exposure due to their high sensitivity to OP inhibition and slow recovery to full activity levels following pesticide exposure. Moreover, oximes reactivated the inhibited ChE activity of the earthworms exposed to 12 and 48 mg kg{sup -1} chlorpyrifos during the first week following pesticide exposure. This methodology is useful for providing evidence for OP-mediated ChE inhibition in individuals with a short history of OP exposure (<=1 week); resulting a valuable approach for assessing multiple OP exposure episodes in the field. - Esterase inhibition combined with oxime reactivation methods is a suitable approach for monitoring organophosphate contamination

  6. Can plastic bag derived-microplastics act as vectors for metal exposure in terrestrial invertebrates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    E Hodson, Mark; Duffus-Hodson, Calum A.; Prendergast-Miller, Miranda; Thorpe, Karen

    2017-04-01

    Microplastics are widely reported contaminants in marine and freshwater ecosystems and studies have shown that they can be ingested by aquatic organisms and lead to potential negative effects on health. The effects can arise from the physical effects of the plastics (e.g. food displacement and blockages of the digestive tract) and from their potential to adsorb contaminants, primarily organic compounds, resulting in an increased exposure of the organism to toxic contaminants. Studies are beginning to emerge that also show a high abundance of microplastics in the terrestrial environment but there remains a lack of data on the impacts of these terrestrial microplastics or their interaction with other terrestrial pollutants. We conducted Zn adsorption experiments using HDPE microplastics, derived from plastic bags. Zinc adsorption to microplastics was similar to that observed in soils, but in the presence of both soil and microplastics, preferential adsorption onto the soil was observed. In desorption experiments, desorption of Zn from microplastics and soils was minimal (microplastics compared to 2 - 15 % for the soils. In earthworm exposure experiments Lumbricus terrestris earthworms cultivated in soils containing 0.35% by mass of Zn-bearing plastic (236 - 4505 mg kg-1) ingested the microplastics with no evidence for either preferential feeding or avoidance. There was no evidence for an accumulation of the microplastics in the earthworm gut or for signs of toxicity. Our experiments demonstrate that earthworms will ingest microplastics and that microplastics can adsorb metals and act as vectors for metal exposure in soil invertebrates. However, for Zn, the risk associated with this exposure appears to be minimal.

  7. Estimation of internal and external exposures of terrestrial reference organisms to natural radionuclides in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Ros, J M [CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Proehl, G [GSF, Postfach 1129, 85758 Neuherberg (Germany); Taranenko, V [GSF, Postfach 1129, 85758 Neuherberg (Germany)

    2004-12-01

    In this paper, an estimation of the doses absorbed by terrestrial reference organisms due to naturally occurring radionuclides is described. For terrestrial organisms under normal circumstances, external exposure is estimated to be of the order of 0.1-0.4 mGy a{sup -1}, depending on size and habitat, and the main contributor is {sup 40}K. Internal background exposures of terrestrial organisms are more variable. Again, {sup 40}K is an important contributor giving doses of the order of 0.3 mGy a{sup -1}. The exposures of muscles and plant tissues to uranium, thorium, radium, lead and polonium are lower, but liver, bone and kidney may be exposed at levels of 0.1-1 mGy a{sup -1} absorbed dose. There can also be significant increases in the received dose under specific environmental conditions as is the case for burrowing mammals that receive relatively high lung doses due to the inhalation of radon and its progeny.

  8. On the Assessment of Global Terrestrial Reference Frame Temporal Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampatzidis, Dimitrios; Koenig, Rolf; Zhu, Shengyuan

    2015-04-01

    Global Terrestrial Reference Frames (GTRFs) as the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) provide reliable 4-D position information (3-D coordinates and their evolution through time). The given 3-D velocities play a significant role in precise position acquisition and are estimated from long term coordinate time series from the space-geodetic techniques DORIS, GNSS, SLR, and VLBI. GTRFs temporal evolution is directly connected with their internal stability: The more intense and inhomogeneous velocity field, the less stable TRF is derived. The assessment of the quality of the GTRF is mainly realized by comparing it to each individual technique's reference frame. E.g the comparison of GTRFs to SLR-only based TRF gives the sense of the ITRF stability with respect to the Geocenter and scale and their associated rates respectively. In addition, the comparison of ITRF to the VLBI-only based TRF can be used for the scale validation. However, till now there is not any specified methodology for the total assessment (in terms of origin, orientation and scale respectively) of the temporal evolution and GTRFs associated accuracy. We present a new alternative diagnostic tool for the assessment of GTRFs temporal evolution based on the well-known time-dependent Helmert type transformation formula (three shifts, three rotations and scale rates respectively). The advantage of the new methodology relies on the fact that it uses the full velocity field of the TRF and therefore all points not just the ones common to different techniques. It also examines simultaneously rates of origin, orientation and scale. The methodology is presented and implemented to the two existing GTRFs on the market (ITRF and DTRF which is computed from DGFI) , the results are discussed. The results also allow to compare directly each GTRF dynamic behavior. Furthermore, the correlations of the estimated parameters can also provide useful information to the proposed GTRFs assessment scheme.

  9. Variability in endotoxin exposure levels and consequences for exposure assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaan, S.; Schinkel, J.; Wouters, I.M.; Preller, L.; Tielemans, E.; Nij, E.T.; Heederik, D.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Workers in many industries are exposed to endotoxins, which may cause adverse health effects. In exposure assessment, information about exposure variability is essential. However, variability in exposure has rarely been investigated for biological agents and more specifically for

  10. Assessment of radioisotope heaters for remote terrestrial applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uherka, K.L.

    1987-05-01

    This paper examines the feasibility of using radioisotope byproducts for special heating applications at remote sites in Alaska and other cold regions. The investigation included assessment of candidate radioisotope materials for heater applications, identification of the most promising cold region applications, evaluation of key technical issues and implementation constraints, and development of conceptual heater designs for candidate applications. Strontium-90 (Sr-90) was selected as the most viable fuel for radioisotopic heaters used in terrestrial applications. Opportunities for the application of radioisotopic heaters were determined through site visits to representative Alaska installations. Candidate heater applications included water storage tanks, sludge digesters, sewage lagoons, water piping systems, well-head pumping stations, emergency shelters, and fuel storage tank deicers. Radioisotopic heaters for water storage tank freeze-up protection and for enhancement of biological waste treatment processes at remote sites were selected as the most promising applications.

  11. ECO Exposure Assessment Tools by Stressors - References

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eco-Box is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  12. ECO Exposure Assessment Tools by Effects - References

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eco-Box is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  13. Applying Terrestrial Laser Scanning for Soil Surface Roughness Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milutin Milenković

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial laser scanning can provide high-resolution, two-dimensional sampling of soil surface roughness. While previous studies demonstrated the usefulness of these roughness measurements in geophysical applications, questions about the number of required scans and their resolution were not investigated thoroughly. Here, we suggest a method to generate digital elevation models, while preserving the surface’s stochastic properties at high frequencies and additionally providing an estimate of their spatial resolution. We also study the impact of the number and positions of scans on roughness indices’ estimates. An experiment over a smooth and isotropic soil plot accompanies the analysis, where scanning results are compared to results from active triangulation. The roughness measurement conditions for ideal sampling are revisited and updated for diffraction-limited sampling valid for close-range laser scanning over smooth and isotropic soil roughness. Our results show that terrestrial laser scanning can be readily used for roughness assessment on scales larger than 5 cm, while for smaller scales, special processing is required to mitigate the effect of the laser beam footprint. Interestingly, classical roughness parametrization (correlation length, root mean square height (RMSh was not sensitive to these effects. Furthermore, comparing the classical roughness parametrization between one- and four-scan setups shows that the one-scan data can replace the four-scan setup with a relative loss of accuracy below 1% for ranges up to 3 m and incidence angles no larger than 50°, while two opposite scans can replace it over the whole plot. The incidence angle limit for the spectral slope is even stronger and is 40°. These findings are valid for scanning over smooth and isotropic soil roughness.

  14. Pesticide exposure and health conditions of terrestrial pesticide applicators in Córdoba Province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Butinof

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural workers represent a population that is highly vulnerable to the toxic effects of pesticide exposure. This cross sectional study aimed to describe the health conditions of terrestrial pesticide applicators in Córdoba Province, Argentina, their work practices and socio-demographic characteristics, by means of a standardized self-administered questionnaire (n = 880. A descriptive analysis reported a high prevalence of occasional or frequent symptoms: 47.4% had symptoms of irritation, 35.5% fatigue, 40.4% headache and 27.6% nervousness or depression. Using logistic regression models, risk and protective factors were found for symptoms of irritation, medical consultation and hospitalization. Among the occupational exposure variables, marital status, length of time in the job, low level of protection with regard to the use of personal protective equipment, combined use of different pesticides and the application of the insecticide endosulfan, were associated with a higher frequency of reported symptoms and higher consultation rates and hospitalization.

  15. Behavioral response and kinetics of terrestrial atrazine exposure in American toads (bufo americanus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storrs, Mendez S.I.; Tillitt, D.E.; Rittenhouse, T.A.G.; Semlitsch, R.D.

    2009-01-01

    Amphibians in terrestrial environments obtain water through a highly vascularized pelvic patch of skin. Chemicals can also be exchanged across this patch. Atrazine (ATZ), a widespread herbicide, continues to be a concern among amphibian ecologists based on potential exposure and toxicity. Few studies have examined its impact on the terrestrial juvenile or adult stages of toads. In the current study, we asked the following questions: (1) Will juvenile American toads (Bufo americanus) avoid soils contaminated with ATZ? (2) Can they absorb ATZ across the pelvic patch? (3) If so, how is it distributed among the organs and eventually eliminated? We conducted a behavioral choice test between control soil and soil dosed with ecologically relevant concentrations of ATZ. In addition, we examined the uptake, distribution, and elimination of water dosed with 14C-labeled ATZ. Our data demonstrate that toads do not avoid ATZ-laden soils. ATZ crossed the pelvic patch rapidly and reached an apparent equilibrium within 5 h. The majority of the radiolabeled ATZ ended up in the intestines, whereas the greatest concentrations were observed in the gall bladder. Thus, exposure of adult life stages of amphibians through direct uptake of ATZ from soils and runoff water should be considered in risk evaluations. ?? 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  16. Terrestrial Eco-Toxicological Tests as Screening Tool to Assess Soil Contamination in Krompachy Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ol'ga, Šestinová; Findoráková, Lenka; Hančuľák, Jozef; Fedorová, Erika; Tomislav, Špaldon

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we present screening tool of heavy metal inputs to agricultural and permanent grass vegetation of the soils in Krompachy. This study is devoted to Ecotoxicity tests, Terrestrial Plant Test (modification of OECD 208, Phytotoxkit microbiotest on Sinapis Alba) and chronic tests of Earthworm (Dendrobaena veneta, modification of OECD Guidelines for the testing of chemicals 317, Bioaccumulation in Terrestrial Oligochaetes) as practical and sensitive screening method for assessing the effects of heavy metals in Krompachy soils. The total Cu, Zn, As, Pb and Hg concentrations and eco-toxicological tests of soils from the Krompachy area were determined of 4 sampling sites in 2015. An influence of the sampling sites distance from the copper smeltery on the absolutely concentrations of metals were recorded for copper, lead, zinc, arsenic and mercury. The highest concentrations of these metals were detected on the sampling sites up to 3 km from the copper smeltery. The samples of soil were used to assess of phytotoxic effect. Total mortality was established at earthworms using chronic toxicity test after 7 exposure days. The results of our study confirmed that no mortality was observed in any of the study soils. Based on the phytotoxicity testing, phytotoxic effects of the metals contaminated soils from the samples 3KR (7-9) S.alba seeds was observed.

  17. Predicting the radiation exposure of terrestrial wildlife in the Chernobyl exclusion zone : an international comparison of approaches.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beresford, N. A.; Barnett, C. L.; Brown, J. E.; Cheng, J.-J.; Copplestone, D.; Gaschak, S.; Hosseini, A.; Howard, B. J.; Kamboj, S.; Nedveckaite, T.; Olyslaegers, G.; Smith, J. T.; Vives i Batlle, J.; Vives-Lynch, S.; Yu, C.; Environmental Science Division; Centre for Ecology and Hydrology; Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority; England and Wales Environment Agency; International Radioecology Lab.; Inst. of Physics, Radiation Protection,; Belgian Nuclear Research Centre; Univ. of Portsmouth; Westlakes Research Inst.

    2010-06-09

    There is now general acknowledgement that there is a requirement to demonstrate that species other than humans are protected from anthropogenic releases of radioactivity. A number of approaches have been developed for estimating the exposure of wildlife and some of these are being used to conduct regulatory assessments. There is a requirement to compare the outputs of such approaches against available data sets to ensure that they are robust and fit for purpose. In this paper we describe the application of seven approaches for predicting the whole-body ({sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 241}Am and Pu isotope) activity concentrations and absorbed dose rates for a range of terrestrial species within the Chernobyl exclusion zone. Predictions are compared against available measurement data, including estimates of external dose rate recorded by thermoluminescent dosimeters attached to rodent species. Potential reasons for differences between predictions between the various approaches and the available data are explored.

  18. Predicting the radiation exposure of terrestrial wildlife in the Chernobyl exclusion zone: an international comparison of approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beresford, N A; Barnett, C L; Howard, B J [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Brown, J E; Hosseini, A [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Department of Emergency Preparedness and Environmental Radioactivity, Grini naeringspark 13, Postbox 55, No-1332 Oesteras (Norway); Cheng, J-J; Kamboj, S; Yu, C [Argonne National Laboratory, Building 900, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439-4832 (United States); Copplestone, D [England and Wales Environment Agency, Richard Fairclough House, Knutsford Road, Warrington, Cheshire WA4 1HG (United Kingdom); Gaschak, S [International Radioecology Laboratory (Ukraine); Nedveckaite, T [Institute of Physics, Radiation Protection, Savanoriu Avenue 231, LT-02053 Vilnius (Lithuania); Olyslaegers, G [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, SCK.CEN, Radioecology Section, Radiation Protection Department, Boeretang 200, B-2400, Mol (Belgium); Smith, J T [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Burnaby Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth PO1 3QL (United Kingdom); Vives i Batlle, J; Vives-Lynch, S, E-mail: nab@ceh.ac.u [Westlakes Research Institute, Westlakes Scientific Consulting Ltd., The Princess Royal Building, Westlakes Science and Technology Park, Moor Row, Cumbria, CA24 3LN (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-15

    There is now general acknowledgement that there is a requirement to demonstrate that species other than humans are protected from anthropogenic releases of radioactivity. A number of approaches have been developed for estimating the exposure of wildlife and some of these are being used to conduct regulatory assessments. There is a requirement to compare the outputs of such approaches against available data sets to ensure that they are robust and fit for purpose. In this paper we describe the application of seven approaches for predicting the whole-body ({sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 241}Am and Pu isotope) activity concentrations and absorbed dose rates for a range of terrestrial species within the Chernobyl exclusion zone. Predictions are compared against available measurement data, including estimates of external dose rate recorded by thermoluminescent dosimeters attached to rodent species. Potential reasons for differences between predictions between the various approaches and the available data are explored.

  19. The Thule accident: Assessment of radiation doses from terrestrial radioactive contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulbak, K. (National Institute of Radiation Protection, Herlev (Denmark))

    2011-12-15

    Risoe DTU has carried out research on the terrestrial contamination in the Thule area after the radioactive contents of four nuclear weapons were dispersed following the crash of an American B-52 bomber in 1968. The results of Risoe DTU's studies are described in the report Thule-2007 - Investigation of radioactive pollution on land, which covers all measurements that were carried out on land in Thule in the years 2003, 2006, 2007 and 2008. The present report uses Risoe DTU's report as a basis for assessing radiation doses and consequently the risk for individuals as a result of terrestrial radioactive contamination in the Thule area. The assessment of radiation doses involves a number of conservative assumptions, estimates, and measurements, all of which are subject to considerable uncertainty. In some cases, models have been used based on experiences from other contaminated areas elsewhere in the world, which are subject to climatic and other conditions that diverge from those in the Thule area. The calculated doses are thus associated with considerable uncertainty, which must be taken into account when the results are used for comparison and when the risks of staying in the Thule area are assessed. It has therefore been chosen to provide the assessed radiation doses in the form of indicative orders of magnitude, which are applicable to everyone who might stay in the area, across various age groups. If the estimated doses in this report are combined with the National Institute of Radiation Protection's recommended reference level for contamination as a result of the Thule Accident of 1 mSv/year, the assessed magnitudes of radiation doses for inhalation and ingestion as exposure pathways are many orders of magnitude below the reference level (10,000-10 million times smaller). The wound contamination exposure pathway has a magnitude of radiation dose that is smaller than the reference level by a factor of 10-1000, and it should be recalled that the

  20. EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS IN EXPOSURE SCIENCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure is the contact between a stressor and a human or ecological receptor. Risk analysis step in which receptor interaction with the exposure stressor of concern is evaluated. To assess exposure to a particular stressor we need to know - Properties of the stressor; Sources, p...

  1. Potential and Actual Terrestrial Rabies Exposures in People and Domestic Animals, Upstate South Carolina, 1994–2004: A Surveillance Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foppa Ivo M

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although there has been a reduction of rabies in pets and domestic animals during recent decades in the United States, rabies remains enzootic among bats and several species of terrestrial wildlife. Spillover transmission of wildlife rabies to domestic animals therefore remains a public health threat Methods Retrospective analysis of surveillance data of reported animal incidents (bites, scratches, mucous membrane contacts from South Carolina, 1995 to 2003, was performed to assess risk factors of potential rabies exposures among human and animal victims. Results Dogs and cats contributed the majority (66.7% and 26.4%, respectively of all reported incidents, with stray dogs and cats contributing 9.0% and 15.1 respectively. Current rabies vaccination status of dogs and cats (40.2% and 13.8%, respectively were below World Health Organization recommended levels. Owned cats were half as likely to be vaccinated for rabies as dogs (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.48, 0.58. Animal victims were primarily exposed to wildlife (83.0%, of which 27.5% were rabid. Almost 90% of confirmed rabies exposures were due to wildlife. Skunks had the highest prevalence of rabies among species of exposure animals (63.2%. Among rabid domestic animals, stray cats were the most commonly reported (47.4%. Conclusion While the majority of reported potential rabies exposures are associated with dog and cat incidents, most rabies exposures derive from rabid wildlife. Stray cats were most frequently rabid among domestic animals. Our results underscore the need for improvement of wildlife rabies control and the reduction of interactions of domestic animals, including cats, with wildlife.

  2. Terrestrial species viability assessments for national forests in northeastern Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    William L. Gaines; Barbara C. Wales; Lowell H. Suring; James S. Begley; Kim Mellen-McLean; Shawne. Mohoric

    2017-01-01

    We developed a process to address terrestrial wildlife species for which management for ecosystem diversity may be inadequate for providing ecological conditions capable of sustaining viable populations. The process includes (1) identifying species of conservation concern, (2) describing source habitats, and other important ecological factors, (3) organizing species...

  3. Metal distribution and metallothionein induction after cadmium exposure in the terrestrial snail Helix aspersa (Gastropoda, Pulmonata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hispard, Florian; Schuler, Dietmar; de Vaufleury, Annette; Scheifler, Renaud; Badot, Pierre-Marie; Dallinger, Reinhard

    2008-07-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the effect of Cd2+ exposure on metallothionein (MT) induction and on the distribution of metals (Cd, Cu, and Zn) in the terrestrial pulmonate Helix aspersa. In particular, the soluble and nonsoluble pools of the accumulated metals and their tissue distribution in uncontaminated and contaminated edible snails were investigated after a two-week exposure to Cd2+. In the soluble cytosolic pool of the midgut gland of H. aspersa, three metal-specific putative MT isoforms were separated following a fractionation protocol with diethylaminoethyl cellulose, size-exclusion chromatography, ultrafiltration, and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Interestingly, one of the above isoforms seems to bind both Cd and Cu, which may in addition mobilize, after induction by Cd2+, some of the intracellular Cu and, thus, perhaps increase the Cu pool in the cytosolic fraction. The cDNA and its translated amino acid sequence of a Cd2+-binding MT isoform from the snail midgut gland was characterized and attributed to one of the putative MT isoforms obtained by RP-HPLC. The amino acid sequence of this Cd-MT isoform of H. aspersa differed from similar sequences described in other terrestrial pulmonates, such as Helix pomatia or Arianta arbustorum, by only a few amino acids (n = 4 and 8, respectively). That the identified Cd-MT from H. aspersa is inducible by Cd2+ also was shown, chromatographic evidence aside, by a specific polymerase chain reaction protocol on a cDNA basis, which included a noninducible housekeeping gene as a control.

  4. Exposure Assessment Tools by Chemical Classes - Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA ExpoBox is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  5. NOVANA. National Monitering and Assessment Programme for the Aquatic and Terrestrial Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, L. M.; Bijl, L. van der; Boutrup, S.

    This report is Part 2 of the Programme Description of NOVANA - the National Monitoring and Assessment Programme for the Aquatic and Terrestrial Environments. Part 2 comprises a de-tailed description of the nine NOVANA subprogrammes: Background monitoring of air...

  6. Secondary poisoning risk assessment of terrestrial birds and mammals exposed to nickel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeForest, David K; Schlekat, Christian E; Brix, Kevin V; Fairbrother, Anne

    2012-01-01

    The European Union's Existing Substances regulation (EEC 793/93) was developed to assess the ecological risks posed by chemical substances such as Ni and includes the assessment of secondary poisoning risks. The basic structure of this secondary poisoning risk assessment followed the Technical Guidance Document on Risk Assessment and thus included development of predicted exposure concentrations (PECs) and predicted no-effect concentrations (PNECs). A PEC to PNEC ratio greater than 1.0 is indicative of potential risk. The Technical Guidance Document on Risk Assessment provides a generic framework for assessing secondary poisoning risks and prescribes the following terrestrial food chain: soil → earthworm → worm-eating bird or mammal. This secondary poisoning evaluation was conducted at the regional level, and it was found that the generic approach resulted in widespread estimates of potential risk, even at ambient Ni soil concentrations. Accordingly, a tiered approach was used with increasing levels of refinement, including consideration of bioavailability, consideration of a variable diet, and development of dose-based PNEC values. Based on the refined approach, all PEC to PNEC ratios were less than 1.0, except for a ratio of 1.4 in a scenario focused on a regional clay soil, which was of natural origin. This regional-level secondary poisoning evaluation highlighted key risk assessment components that should be considered in future localized secondary poisoning assessments of Ni and other metals, including ingestion rate to body weight ratios for the test organisms used to derive PNECs versus the representative wildlife species evaluated, the appropriateness of high assessment factors for deriving PNECs for naturally occurring essential elements, representative dietary compositions, relative metal bioavailability between the dietary toxicity study and natural diets, and ground-truthing of the risk predictions versus background concentrations. Copyright © 2011

  7. Pollution exposure on marine protected areas: A global assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partelow, Stefan; von Wehrden, Henrik; Horn, Olga

    2015-11-15

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) face many challenges in their aim to effectively conserve marine ecosystems. In this study we analyze the extent of pollution exposure on the global fleet of MPAs. This includes indicators for current and future pollution and the implications for regionally clustered groups of MPAs with similar biophysical characteristics. To cluster MPAs into characteristic signature groups, their bathymetry, baseline biodiversity, distance from shore, mean sea surface temperature and mean sea surface salinity were used. We assess the extent at which each signature group is facing exposure from multiple pollution types. MPA groups experience similar pollution exposure on a regional level. We highlight how the challenges that MPAs face can be addressed through governance at the appropriate scale and design considerations for integrated terrestrial and marine management approaches within regional level networks. Furthermore, we present diagnostic social-ecological indicators for addressing the challenges facing unsuccessful MPAs with practical applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Use of retrospective data to assess ecotoxicological monitoring needs for terrestrial vertebrates residing in Atlantic coast estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, J.B.; Rattner, B.A.; Golden, N.H.

    2003-01-01

    The 'Contaminant Exposure and Effects--Terrestrial Vertebrates' (CEE-TV) database contains 4,336 records of ecotoxicological information for free-ranging amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals residing in Atlantic and Florida Gulf coast estuaries and their drainages. To identify spatial data gaps, those CEE-TV records for which the specific study location were known (n=2,740) were combined with watershed and wildlife management unit boundaries using Geographic Information Systems software. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Index of Watershed Indicators (IWI), which classifies watersheds based on water quality and their vulnerability to pollution, was used to prioritize these data gaps. Of 136 watersheds in the study area, 15 that are classified by the IWI as having water quality problems or high vulnerability to pollution lacked terrestrial vertebrate ecotoxicological monitoring or research in the past decade. Older studies within some of these watersheds documented high levels of contaminants in wildlife tissues. Of 90 National Wildlife Refuge units, 42 without current data fall within watersheds of concern. Of 40 National Park units larger than 1 km2, 17 without current data fall within watersheds of concern. Issues encountered in this analysis highlighted the need for spatially and temporally replicated field monitoring programs that utilize random sampling. Without data from such studies, it will be difficult to perform unbiased assessments of regional trends in contaminant exposure and effects in terrestrial vertebrates.

  9. Using Ant Communities For Rapid Assessment Of Terrestrial Ecosystem Health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wike, L

    2005-06-01

    relative health of the ecosystem. The IBI, though originally for Midwestern streams, has been successfully adapted to other ecoregions and taxa (macroinvertebrates, Lombard and Goldstein, 2004) and has become an important tool for scientists and regulatory agencies alike in determining health of stream ecosystems. The IBI is a specific type of a larger group of methods and procedures referred to as Rapid Bioassessment (RBA). These protocols have the advantage of directly measuring the organisms affected by system perturbations, thus providing an integrated evaluation of system health because the organisms themselves integrate all aspects of their environment and its condition. In addition to the IBI, the RBA concept has also been applied to seep wetlands (Paller et al. 2005) and terrestrial systems (O'Connell et al. 1998, Kremen et al. 1993, Rodriguez et al. 1998, Rosenberg et al. 1986). Terrestrial RBA methods have lagged somewhat behind those for aquatic systems because terrestrial systems are less distinctly defined and seem to have a less universal distribution of an all-inclusive taxon, such as fish in the IBI, upon which to base an RBA. In the last decade, primarily in Australia, extensive development of an RBA using ant communities has shown great promise. Ants have the same advantage for terrestrial RBAs that fish do for aquatic systems in that they are an essential and ubiquitous component of virtually all terrestrial ecosystems. They occupy a broad range of niches, functional groups, and trophic levels and they possess one very important characteristic that makes them ideal for RBA because, similar to the fishes, there is a wide range of tolerance to conditions within the larger taxa. Within ant communities there are certain groups, genera, or species that may be very robust and abundant under even the harshest impacts. There are also taxa that are very sensitive to disturbance and change and their presence or absence is also indicative of the local

  10. Quantitative ecological risk assessment of inhabitants exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in terrestrial soils of King George Island, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongpiachan, S.; Hattayanone, M.; Pinyakong, O.; Viyakarn, V.; Chavanich, S. A.; Bo, C.; Khumsup, C.; Kittikoon, I.; Hirunyatrakul, P.

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to conduct a quantitative ecological risk assessment of human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in terrestrial soils of King George Island, Antarctica. Generally, the average PAH concentrations detected in King George Terrestrial Soils (KGS) were appreciably lower than those of World Marine Sediments (WMS) and World Terrestrial Soils (WTS), highlighting the fact that Antarctica is one of the most pristine continents in the world. The total concentrations of twelve probably carcinogenic PAHs (ΣPAHs: a sum of Phe, An, Fluo, Pyr, B[a]A, Chry, B[b]F, B[k]F, B[a]P, Ind, D[a,h]A and B[g,h,i]P) were 3.21 ± 1.62 ng g-1, 5749 ± 4576 ng g-1, and 257,496 ± 291,268 ng g-1, for KGS, WMS and WTS, respectively. In spite of the fact that KGS has extremely low ΣPAHs in comparison with others, the percentage contribution of Phe is exceedingly high with the value of 50%. By assuming that incidental ingestion and dermal contact are two major exposure pathways responsible for the adverse human health effects, the cancer and non-cancer risks from environmental exposure to PAHs were carefully evaluated based on the ;Role of the Baseline Risk Assessment in Superfund Remedy Selection Decisions; memorandum provided by US-EPA. The logarithms of cancer risk levels of PAH contents in KGS varied from -11.1 to -7.18 with an average of -7.96 ± 7.73, which is 1790 times and 80,176 times lower than that of WMS and WTS, respectively. All cancer risk levels of PAH concentrations observed in KGS are significantly (p PAHs were found in ;acceptable level;.

  11. USING ANT COMMUNITIES FOR RAPID ASSESSMENT OF TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEM HEALTH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wike, L; Doug Martin, D; Michael Paller, M; Eric Nelson, E

    2007-01-12

    Ecosystem health with its near infinite number of variables is difficult to measure, and there are many opinions as to which variables are most important, most easily measured, and most robust, Bioassessment avoids the controversy of choosing which physical and chemical parameters to measure because it uses responses of a community of organisms that integrate all aspects of the system in question. A variety of bioassessment methods have been successfully applied to aquatic ecosystems using fish and macroinvertebrate communities. Terrestrial biotic index methods are less developed than those for aquatic systems and we are seeking to address this problem here. This study had as its objective to examine the baseline differences in ant communities at different seral stages from clear cut back to mature pine plantation as a precursor to developing a bioassessment protocol. Comparative sampling was conducted at four seral stages; clearcut, 5 year, 15 year and mature pine plantation stands. Soil and vegetation data were collected at each site. All ants collected were preserved in 70% ethyl alcohol and identified to genus. Analysis of the ant data indicates that ants respond strongly to the habitat changes that accompany ecological succession in managed pine forests and that individual genera as well as ant community structure can be used as an indicator of successional change. Ants exhibited relatively high diversity in both early and mature seral stages. High ant diversity in the mature seral stages was likely related to conditions on the forest floor which favored litter dwelling and cool climate specialists.

  12. Exotic aquatic and terrestrial animals in the Hoosier-Shawnee ecological assessment area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks M. Burr; Cynthia M. Basile; Ginny L. Adams; Matthew C. Nicholson

    2004-01-01

    We reviewed the impact of exotic aquatic and terrestrial wildlife on ecosystems within the Hoosier-Shawnee Ecological Assessment Area. Recent collections within the assessment area have demonstrated that faunal diversity is expanding rapidly from the intentional and unintentional release of nonindigenous species. We report on the origin, status, trends, habitat...

  13. Assessing doses to terrestrial wildlife at a radioactive waste disposal site: Inter-comparison of modelling approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansen, M.P., E-mail: mathew.johansen@ansto.gov.au [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW, 2232 (Australia); Barnett, C.L., E-mail: clb@ceh.ac.uk [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Beresford, N.A., E-mail: nab@ceh.ac.uk [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Brown, J.E., E-mail: justin.brown@nrpa.no [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Oesteraas (Norway); Cerne, M., E-mail: marko.cerne@ijs.si [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Howard, B.J., E-mail: bjho@ceh.ac.uk [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Kamboj, S., E-mail: skamboj@anl.gov [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States); Keum, D.-K., E-mail: dkkeum@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Smodis, B. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Twining, J.R., E-mail: jrt@ansto.gov.au [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW, 2232 (Australia); Vandenhove, H., E-mail: hvandenh@sckcen.be [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Mol (Belgium); Vives i Batlle, J., E-mail: jvbatll@sckcen.be [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Mol (Belgium); Wood, M.D., E-mail: m.d.wood@salford.ac.uk [University of Salford, Manchester (United Kingdom); Yu, C., E-mail: cyu@anl.gov [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

    2012-06-15

    Radiological doses to terrestrial wildlife were examined in this model inter-comparison study that emphasised factors causing variability in dose estimation. The study participants used varying modelling approaches and information sources to estimate dose rates and tissue concentrations for a range of biota types exposed to soil contamination at a shallow radionuclide waste burial site in Australia. Results indicated that the dominant factor causing variation in dose rate estimates (up to three orders of magnitude on mean total dose rates) was the soil-to-organism transfer of radionuclides that included variation in transfer parameter values as well as transfer calculation methods. Additional variation was associated with other modelling factors including: how participants conceptualised and modelled the exposure configurations (two orders of magnitude); which progeny to include with the parent radionuclide (typically less than one order of magnitude); and dose calculation parameters, including radiation weighting factors and dose conversion coefficients (typically less than one order of magnitude). Probabilistic approaches to model parameterisation were used to encompass and describe variable model parameters and outcomes. The study confirms the need for continued evaluation of the underlying mechanisms governing soil-to-organism transfer of radionuclides to improve estimation of dose rates to terrestrial wildlife. The exposure pathways and configurations available in most current codes are limited when considering instances where organisms access subsurface contamination through rooting, burrowing, or using different localised waste areas as part of their habitual routines. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Assessment of modelled dose rates to terrestrial biota from radionuclides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The substantial variation among current approaches is quantifiable. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The dominant variable was soil

  14. Plastic bag derived-microplastics as a vector for metal exposure in terrestrial invertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Hodson, Mark Edward; Duffus-Hodson, Calum; Clark, Andy; Prendergast-Miller, Miranda Tendai; Thorpe, Karen Louise

    2017-01-01

    Microplastics are widespread contaminants in terrestrial environments but comparatively little is known about interactions between microplastics and common terrestrial contaminants such as zinc (Zn). In adsorption experiments fragmented HDPE bags c. 1 mm2 in size showed similar sorption characteristics to soil. However, when present in combination with soil, concentrations of adsorbed Zn on a per mass basis were over an order of magnitude lower on microplastics . Desorption of the Zn was mini...

  15. Sulfur Oxides Risk and Exposure Assessment Planning ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    In conducting risk/exposure assessments for the Sulfur Oxides NAAQS review, EPA will first develop a draft Scope and Methods Plan which will describe the proposed scope of the quantitative and qualitative analyses to be performed and the tools/methods that may be employed Provide opportunity for CASAC feedback on EPA's plans for the risk and exposure assessment for the Sulfur Oxides NAAQS review

  16. Global Trends in Exposure to Light Pollution in Natural Terrestrial Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Bennie

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth in electric light usage across the globe has led to increasing presence of artificial light in natural and semi-natural ecosystems at night. This occurs both due to direct illumination and skyglow - scattered light in the atmosphere. There is increasing concern about the effects of artificial light on biological processes, biodiversity and the functioning of ecosystems. We combine intercalibrated Defense Meteorological Satellite Program’s Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS images of stable night-time lights for the period 1992 to 2012 with a remotely sensed landcover product (GLC2000 to assess recent changes in exposure to artificial light at night in 43 global ecosystem types. We find that Mediterranean-climate ecosystems have experienced the greatest increases in exposure, followed by temperate ecosystems. Boreal, Arctic and montane systems experienced the lowest increases. In tropical and subtropical regions, the greatest increases are in mangroves and subtropical needleleaf and mixed forests, and in arid regions increases are mainly in forest and agricultural areas. The global ecosystems experiencing the greatest increase in exposure to artificial light are already localized and fragmented, and often of particular conservation importance due to high levels of diversity, endemism and rarity. Night time remote sensing can play a key role in identifying the extent to which natural ecosystems are exposed to light pollution.

  17. The Terrestrial Investigation Model: A probabilistic risk assessment model for birds exposed to pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the major recommendations of the National Academy of Science to the USEPA, NMFS and USFWS was to utilize probabilistic methods when assessing the risks of pesticides to federally listed endangered and threatened species. The Terrestrial Investigation Model (TIM, version 3....

  18. Global assessment of nitrogen deposition effects on terrestrial plant diversity: a synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Bobbink; K. Hicks; J. Galloway; T. Spranger; R. Alkemade; M. Ashmore; M. Bustamante; S. Cinderby; E. Davidson; F. Dentener; B. Emmett; J.-W. Erisman; M. Fenn; F. Gilliam; A. Nordin; L. Pardo; W. De Vries

    2010-01-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition is a recognized threat to plant diversity in temperate and northern parts of Europe and North America. This paper assesses evidence from field experiments for N deposition effects and thresholds for terrestrial plant diversity protection across a latitudinal range of main categories of ecosystems, from arctic and boreal systems to...

  19. Global assessment of nitrogen deposition effects on terrestrial plant diversity: a synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobbink, R.; Hicks, K.; Galloway, J.; Spranger, T.; Alkemade, R.; Ashmore, M.R.; Bustamante, M.; Cinderby, S.; Davidson, E.; Dentener, F.; Emmett, B.; Erisman, J.W.; Fenn, M.; Gilliam, F.; Nordin, A.; Pardo, L.; Vries, de W.

    2010-01-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition is a recognized threat to plant diversity in temperate and northern parts of Europe and North America. This paper assesses evidence from field experiments for N deposition effects and thresholds for terrestrial plant diversity protection across a latitudinal range

  20. Mycotoxins: occurrence, toxicology, and exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, S; Ramos, A J; Cano-Sancho, G; Sanchis, V

    2013-10-01

    Mycotoxins are abiotic hazards produced by certain fungi that can grow on a variety of crops. Consequently, their prevalence in plant raw materials may be relatively high. The concentration of mycotoxins in finished products is usually lower than in raw materials. In this review, occurrence and toxicology of the main mycotoxins are summarised. Furthermore, methodological approaches for exposure assessment are described. Existing exposure assessments, both through contamination and consumption data and biomarkers of exposure, for the main mycotoxins are also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Integrating Exposure into Chemical Alternatives Assessment ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most alternatives assessments (AA) published to date are largely hazard-based rankings, and as such may not represent a fully informed consideration of the advantages and disadvantages of possible alternatives. With an assessment goal of identifying an alternative chemical that is more sustainable, other attributes beyond hazard are also important, including exposure, risk, life-cycle impacts, performance, cost, and social responsibility. Building on the 2014 recommendations by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences to improve AA decisions by including comparative exposure assessment, the HESISustainable Chemical Alternatives Technical Committee, which consists of scientists from academia, industry, government, and NGOs, has developed a qualitative comparative exposure approach. Conducting such a comparison can screen for alternatives that are expected to have a higher exposure potential, which could trigger a higher-tiered, more quantitative exposure assessment on the alternatives being considered. This talk will demonstrate an approach for including chemical- and product-related exposure information in a qualitative AA comparison. Starting from existing hazard AAs, a series of four chemical-product application scenarios were examined to test the concept, to understand the effort required, and to determine the value of exposure data in AA decision-making. The group has developed a classification approach for ingredient and product parameters to support compariso

  2. Exposure scenario libraries as a tool for exposure assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Jiménez, Araceli; Rashid, Shahzad; Brouwer, Derk; Fransman, Wouter; Fito, Carlos; Boulougouris, George; van Tongeren, Martie

    2015-05-01

    The development of nanotechnology has reached a point where it is being widely applied, and numerous nanomaterials and nano-enabled products are handled across a broad range of industrial sectors. Exposure extends beyond occupational settings as products containing nanomaterials are used by different consumer groups. Despite the knowledge on their toxic effects is growing there is still not OEL for most NMS and therefore the precautionary approach is still used where levels are kept as low as possible Therefore there is a need to assess workers and consumers exposure.

  3. Terrestrial perturbation experiments as an environmental assessment tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suter, G.W. II

    1980-08-01

    The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) was initially interpreted as requiring full disclosure of the environmental impacts of a federal action. Because of the limitations of time, money, and manpower, this requirement that all impacts be considered has led to superficial analysis of many important impacts. The President's Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) has provided a solution to this problem by reinterpreting NEPA as requiring analysis of those impacts which have significant bearing on decision making. Because assessment resources can now be concentrated on a few critical issues, it should be possible to perform field perturbation experiments to provide direct evidence of the effects of a specific mixture of pollutants or physical disturbances on the specific receiving ecosystem. Techniques are described for field simulation of gaseous and particulate air pollution, soil pollutants, disturbance of the earth's surface, and disturbance of wildlife. These techniques are discussed in terms of their realism, cost, and the restrictions which they place on the measurement of ecological parameters.

  4. Montane meadows in the Sierra Nevada: comparing terrestrial and aquatic assessment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, Sarah E; Moyle, Peter B; Tate, Kenneth W

    2012-11-01

    We surveyed montane meadows in the northern Sierra Nevada and southern Cascades for two field seasons to compare commonly used aquatic and terrestrial-based assessments of meadow condition. We surveyed (1) fish, (2) reptiles, (3) amphibians, (4) aquatic macroinvertebrates, (5) stream geomorphology, (6) physical habitat, and (7) terrestrial vegetation in 79 meadows between the elevations of 1,000 and 3,000 m. From the results of those surveys, we calculated five multi-metric indices based on methods commonly used by researchers and land management agencies. The five indices consisted of (1) fish only, (2) native fish and amphibians, (3) macroinvertebrates, (4) physical habitat, and (5) vegetation. We compared the results of the five indices and found that there were significant differences in the outcomes of the five indices. We found positive correlations between the vegetation index and the physical habitat index, the invertebrate index and the physical habitat index, and the two fish-based indices, but there were significant differences between indices in both range and means. We concluded that the five indices provided very different interpretations of the condition in a given meadow. While our assessment of meadow condition changed based on which index was used, each provided an assessment of different components important to the overall condition of a meadow system. Utilizing a multimetric approach that accounts for both terrestrial and aquatic habitats provides the best means to accurately assess meadow condition, particularly given the disproportionate importance of these systems in the Sierra Nevada landscape.

  5. Accuracy assessment of the integration of GNSS and a MEMS IMU in a terrestrial platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, Sergio; Yan, Wenlin; Bastos, Luísa; Gonçalves, José A

    2014-11-04

    MEMS Inertial Measurement Units are available at low cost and can replace expensive units in mobile mapping platforms which need direct georeferencing. This is done through the integration with GNSS measurements in order to achieve a continuous positioning solution and to obtain orientation angles. This paper presents the results of the assessment of the accuracy of a system that integrates GNSS and a MEMS IMU in a terrestrial platform. We describe the methodology used and the tests realized where the accuracy of the positions and orientation parameters were assessed using an independent photogrammetric technique employing cameras that integrate the mobile mapping system developed by the authors. Results for the accuracy of attitude angles and coordinates show that accuracies better than a decimeter in positions, and under a degree in angles, can be achieved even considering that the terrestrial platform is operating in less than favorable environments.

  6. A Methodology for Inclusion of Terrestrial Ecotoxic Impacts of Metals in Life Cycle Impact Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2011-01-01

    Terrestrial ecotoxicity is in most cases not addressed or to a very limited extent in life cycle assessment (LCA). We are developing a new method for calculating terrestrial ecotoxicity characterization factor (CF) of metals for application in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA). e method takes...... into account metal speciation and interactions with soil organic constituents, because these mechanisms control metal bioavailability and inuence their toxic properties. Transfer functions and geochemical speciation models are employed to calculate reactive and available fractions of metals in 1300 soils...... and the contribution of EF to the CF is within the same order of magnitude or lower comparing to that of the BF. us, FIAMs can be employed to calculate EFs for metals for which TBLMs are not available. From a set of spatially explicit CFs, site-generic CFs can be derived at global or continental scales...

  7. Assessing Metrics for Estimating Fire Induced Change in the Forest Understorey Structure Using Terrestrial Laser Scanning

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Vaibhav; Reinke, Karin; Jones, Simon; Wallace, Luke; Holden, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying post-fire effects in a forested landscape is important to ascertain burn severity, ecosystem recovery and post-fire hazard assessments and mitigation planning. Reporting of such post-fire effects assumes significance in fire-prone countries such as USA, Australia, Spain, Greece and Portugal where prescribed burns are routinely carried out. This paper describes the use of Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) to estimate and map change in the forest understorey following a prescribed bu...

  8. ECO Exposure Assessment Tools by Phases of ERA - References

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eco-Box is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  9. Assessment of dermal exposure to chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmen, J.J. van; Brouwer, D.H.

    1995-01-01

    The methods for the dermal exposure assessment vary in their complexity and are in some sense complementary to each other. The most easy-to-use methods involve a pseudo-skin-approach, such as gloves and removal by washing. In some cases generic modelling appears to be possible. The experimental

  10. ASSESSMENT OF HUMAN EXPOSURE TO TOLUENE DIISOCYANATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLIVIA ANCA RUSU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of human exposure to toluene diisocyanate. Toluene diisocyanate (TDI, an aromatic compound, may be dangerous for human health. Diisocyanates have wide industrial use in the fabrication of flexible and rigid foams, fibers, elastomers, and coatings such as paints and varnishes. Isocyanates are known skin and respiratory sensitizers, and proper engineering controls should be in place to prevent exposure to isocyanate liquid and vapor; exposure to TDI vapors is well documented to increase asthma risk. The study focused on the exposure of workers and nearby populations to toluene diisocyanate in a Polyurethane Foam Factory located in Baia Mare, Romania. Workplace air measurements were performed in different departments of the plant, after sampling either in fixed points or as personal monitoring. Sampling in four different locations of Baia Mare town was carried out, - during and after the foaming process. TDI sampling was performed on silica cartridge followed by GC-MS analysis. TDI concentration at workplace was lower than 0,035 mg/m³, which represents the permissible exposure limit, while in the city the TDI concentration had shown values below 0,20 μg/m³. Health assessment of a group of 49 workers was based on questionnaire interview, determination of TDI antibodies and lung function tests. Data collected until this stage do not show any negative effects of TDI on the employees health. Since this plant had only recently begun operating, continuous workplace and ambient air TDI monitoring, along with workers health surveillance, is deemed necessary.

  11. Exposure Assessment of Chemicals from Packaging Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poças, Maria De Fátima; Hogg, Timothy

    A variety of chemicals may enter our food supply, by means of intentional or unintentional addition, at different stages of the food chain. These chemicals include food additives, pesticide residues, environmental contaminants, mycotox-ins, flavoring substances, and micronutrients. Packaging systems and other food-contact materials are also a source of chemicals contaminating food products and beverages. Monitoring exposure to these chemicals has become an integral part of ensuring the safety of the food supply. Within the context of the risk analysis approach and more specifically as an integral part of risk assessment procedures, the exercise known as exposure assessment is crucial in providing data to allow sound judgments concerning risks to human health. The exercise of obtaining this data is part of the process of revealing sources of contamination and assessing the effectiveness of strategies for minimizing the risk from chemical contamination in the food supply (Lambe, 2002).

  12. Acute Exposure to Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA) has effects on the electroencephalogram and electrocardiogram, consistent with vagal nerve stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Adrian P; Fouquet, Nathalie C; Seri, Stefano; Hawken, Malcolm B; Heard, Andrew; Neasham, David; Little, Mark P; Elliott, Paul

    2016-10-01

    Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA) is a telecommunications system widely used by police and emergency services around the world. The Stewart Report on mobile telephony and health raised questions about possible health effects associated with TETRA signals. This study investigates possible effects of TETRA signals on the electroencephalogram and electrocardiogram in human volunteers. Blinded randomized provocation study with a standardized TETRA signal or sham exposure. In the first of two experiments, police officers had a TETRA set placed first against the left temple and then the upper-left quadrant of the chest and the electroencephalogram was recorded during rest and active cognitive processing. In the second experiment, volunteers were subject to chest exposure of TETRA whilst their electroencephalogram and heart rate variability derived from the electrocardiogram were recorded. In the first experiment, we found that exposure to TETRA had consistent neurophysiological effects on the electroencephalogram, but only during chest exposure, in a pattern suggestive of vagal nerve stimulation. In the second experiment, we observed changes in heart rate variability during exposure to TETRA but the electroencephalogram effects were not replicated. Observed effects of exposure to TETRA signals on the electroencephalogram (first experiment) and electrocardiogram are consistent with vagal nerve stimulation in the chest by TETRA. However given the small effect on heart rate variability and the lack of consistency on the electroencephalogram, it seems unlikely that this will have a significant impact on health. Long-term monitoring of the health of the police force in relation to TETRA use is on-going. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Accuracy assessment of a mobile terrestrial lidar survey at Padre Island National Seashore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Samsung; Thatcher, Cindy A.; Brock, John C.; Kimbrow, Dustin R.; Danielson, Jeffrey J.; Reynolds, B.J.

    2013-01-01

    The higher point density and mobility of terrestrial laser scanning (light detection and ranging (lidar)) is desired when extremely detailed elevation data are needed for mapping vertically orientated complex features such as levees, dunes, and cliffs, or when highly accurate data are needed for monitoring geomorphic changes. Mobile terrestrial lidar scanners have the capability for rapid data collection on a larger spatial scale compared with tripod-based terrestrial lidar, but few studies have examined the accuracy of this relatively new mapping technology. For this reason, we conducted a field test at Padre Island National Seashore of a mobile lidar scanner mounted on a sport utility vehicle and integrated with a position and orientation system. The purpose of the study was to assess the vertical and horizontal accuracy of data collected by the mobile terrestrial lidar system, which is georeferenced to the Universal Transverse Mercator coordinate system and the North American Vertical Datum of 1988. To accomplish the study objectives, independent elevation data were collected by conducting a high-accuracy global positioning system survey to establish the coordinates and elevations of 12 targets spaced throughout the 12 km transect. These independent ground control data were compared to the lidar scanner-derived elevations to quantify the accuracy of the mobile lidar system. The performance of the mobile lidar system was also tested at various vehicle speeds and scan density settings (e.g. field of view and linear point spacing) to estimate the optimal parameters for desired point density. After adjustment of the lever arm parameters, the final point cloud accuracy was 0.060 m (east), 0.095 m (north), and 0.053 m (height). The very high density of the resulting point cloud was sufficient to map fine-scale topographic features, such as the complex shape of the sand dunes.

  14. Radiative Transfer Study of Exposure of Terrestrial and Martian Organisms During a Large Solar Flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalo, J.; Smith, D. S.; Wheeler, J. C.

    2003-05-01

    We have developed a Monte Carlo code for calculations of the transport of high-energy irradiation of the atmospheres of ancient and contemporary Earth and Mars by solar flares and stellar explosions. We have calculated the dose spectrum to which surface organisms would be exposed during a large solar flare. We include details of Compton scattering and X-ray photoabsorption and an approximate treatment of the redistribution of the incident energy to ultraviolet and visible radiation by secondary electron excitation of atmospheric molecules, and its transfer to the surface, using Rayleigh scattering and scaled terrestrial ozone distribution as examples of UV shields. We find that for thick atmospheres (column densities greater than about 100 g/cm2 much of the incident ionizing radiation can be redistributed to biologically and chemically important ultraviolet wavelengths, a significant fraction of which can reach the surface. This radiation will consist primarily of a large number of auroral-like emission bands. This result is relevant to Earth and early Mars. For contemporary Mars, most of the energy reaches the surface as X-rays due to Compton scattering and photoabsorption, with a characteristic spectrum that is essentially independent of atmospheric composition. We calculate the dose per unit flare energy for water and for a DNA action spectrum, and we estimate the frequency of biologically significant flares from the Sun at Mars as a function of time using present-day flare statistics and studies of solar proxies of various ages. The question of sterilization of exposed organisms at the Martian surface is discussed using lethal dose data for prokaryotic and eukaryotic terrestrial organisms.

  15. Exposure Assessment of Diesel Bus Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Hofmann

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to measure ultrafine particle concentrations with diameters less than 1 μm emitted by diesel buses and to assess resulting human exposure levels. The study was conducted at the Woolloongabba Busway station in Brisbane, Australia in the winter months of 2002 during which temperature inversions frequently occurred. Most buses that utilize the station are fuelled by diesel, the exhaust of which contains a significant quantity of particle matter. Passengers waiting at the station are exposed to these particles emitted from the buses. During the course of this study, passenger census was conducted, based on video surveillance, yielding person-by-person waiting time data. Furthermore, a bus census revealed accurate information about the total number of diesel versus Compressed Natural Gas (CNG powered buses. Background (outside of the bus station and platform measurements of ultrafine particulate number size distributions were made to determine ambient aerosol concentrations. Particle number exposure concentration ranges from 10 and 40 to 60% of bus related exhaust fumes. This changes dramatically when considering the particle mass exposure concentration, where most passengers are exposed to about 50 to 80% of exhaust fumes. The obtained data can be very significant for comparison with similar work of this type because it is shown in previous studies that exhaust emissions causes cancer in laboratory animals. It was assumed that significant differences between platform and background distributions were due to bus emissions which, combined with passenger waiting times, yielded an estimate of passenger exposure to ultrafine particles from diesel buses. From an exposure point of view, the Busway station analyzed resembles a street canyon. Although the detected exhaust particle concentration at the outbound platform is found to be in the picogram range, exposure increases with the time passengers spend on the platform

  16. Potential impacts of radon, terrestrial gamma and cosmic rays on childhood leukemia in France: a quantitative risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurent, Olivier [French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, Radiobiology and Epidemiology Department, IRSN, PRP-HOM, SRBE, LEPID, Fontenay aux Roses (France); University of California, Irvine, Department of Population Health and Disease Prevention, Irvine, CA (United States); Ancelet, Sophie; Laurier, Dominique [French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, Radiobiology and Epidemiology Department, IRSN, PRP-HOM, SRBE, LEPID, Fontenay aux Roses (France); Richardson, David B. [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Hemon, Denis; Demoury, Claire; Clavel, Jacqueline [Inserm, CESP Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, U1018, Environmental Epidemiology of Cancer Team, Villejuif (France); Paris-Sud University, UMRS 1018, Villejuif (France); Ielsch, Geraldine [French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, Assessment Unit for Risks Related to Natural Radioactivity, IRSN, PRP-DGE, SEDRAN, BRN, Fontenay aux Roses (France)

    2013-05-15

    Previous epidemiological studies and quantitative risk assessments (QRA) have suggested that natural background radiation may be a cause of childhood leukemia. The present work uses a QRA approach to predict the excess risk of childhood leukemia in France related to three components of natural radiation: radon, cosmic rays and terrestrial gamma rays, using excess relative and absolute risk models proposed by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). Both models were developed from the Life Span Study (LSS) of Japanese A-bomb survivors. Previous risk assessments were extended by considering uncertainties in radiation-related leukemia risk model parameters as part of this process, within a Bayesian framework. Estimated red bone marrow doses cumulated during childhood by the average French child due to radon, terrestrial gamma and cosmic rays are 4.4, 7.5 and 4.3 mSv, respectively. The excess fractions of cases (expressed as percentages) associated with these sources of natural radiation are 20 % [95 % credible interval (CI) 0-68 %] and 4 % (95 % CI 0-11 %) under the excess relative and excess absolute risk models, respectively. The large CIs, as well as the different point estimates obtained under these two models, highlight the uncertainties in predictions of radiation-related childhood leukemia risks. These results are only valid provided that models developed from the LSS can be transferred to the population of French children and to chronic natural radiation exposures, and must be considered in view of the currently limited knowledge concerning other potential risk factors for childhood leukemia. Last, they emphasize the need for further epidemiological investigations of the effects of natural radiation on childhood leukemia to reduce uncertainties and help refine radiation protection standards. (orig.)

  17. NOVANA - National Monitoring and Assessment Programme for the Aquatic and Terrestrial Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, L. M.

    This report is Part 1 of the Programme Description of NOVANA - the Nationwide Monitoring and Assessment Programme for the Aquatic and Terrestrial Environments. Part 1 comprises a general description of the background for the programme, including the international obliga-tions and requirements...... for monitoring of nature and the environment. The overall objective and the scientific and strategic background for the priorities upon which NOVANA pro-gramme is based are described, as are the organization of the programme, the overall economy and the technical assumptions made. Finally the scientific content...

  18. Endocrine disruption in a terrestrial isopod under exposure to bisphenol A and vinclozin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemos, M.F.L.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; Soares, A.M.V.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background, aim, and scope In the past decade there has been an increasing awareness about the possible consequences of human and wildlife exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). Bisphenol A (BPA) and vinclozolin (Vz) are EDCs which impacts on vertebrates have been largely investigated.

  19. 30 CFR 62.110 - Noise exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Noise exposure assessment. 62.110 Section 62... REGULATIONS OCCUPATIONAL NOISE EXPOSURE § 62.110 Noise exposure assessment. (a) The mine operator must establish a system of monitoring that evaluates each miner's noise exposure sufficiently to determine...

  20. Terrestrial exposure and effects of Headline AMP(®) Fungicide on amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusaac, J Patrick W; Mimbs, William H; Belden, Jason B; Smith, Loren M; McMurry, Scott T

    2015-08-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that a pyraclostrobin-containing fungicide (Headline(®) Fungicide--Headline(®) Fungicide and Headline AMP(®) Fungicide are registered trademarks of BASF) is toxic to amphibians at environmentally relevant concentrations. However, these studies were performed in a laboratory setting of a worst-case direct exposure in clean media. Interception of spray by the crop canopy and ground cover used by animals for security cover will influence exposure. Thus, risk to amphibians is unclear in an environmentally realistic field environment. We tested exposure and toxicity of Headline AMP(®) Fungicide to amphibians in multiple agricultural habitat scenarios (e.g., within treated crop vs. grassy areas adjacent to crop) and at two rates during routine aerial application. Specifically, we placed Woodhouse's toads (Bufo woodhousii) and Blanchard's cricket frogs (Acris blanchardi) in enclosures located within treated and untreated corn (VT stage, approximate height = 3 m), and in the potential drift area (adjacent to treated corn) during aerial application of Headline AMP Fungicide at either 731 or 1052 ml/ha (70 and 100 % the maximum application rate in corn, respectively). Mean concentrations of pyraclostrobin measured at ground level were ≤19 % of nominal application rate in all areas. Overall, mean mortality of recovered individuals of both species was ≤15 %, and mortality within Headline AMP Fungicide-treated corn (where risk was anticipated to be highest) was <10 %. It is important to understand that application timing, interception by the crop canopy (which varies both within and between crop systems), and timing of amphibian presence in the crop field influences risk of exposure and effects; however, our results demonstrate that amphibians inhabiting VT stage corn during routine aerial application of Headline AMP Fungicide are at low risk for acute mortality, matching existing laboratory results from acute toxicity studies of

  1. Terrestrial Gamma Radiation Exposure Measurement and Risk Estimates in the Environments of Major Industries In Ota, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abodunrin Oluwasayo Peter

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available When fast estimates are required, the in-situ method is more appropriate as this allows for quick results; preventing further exposure of the public and permitting quick intervention. Measurements of the terrestrial gamma radiation exposure have been carried out in the environments of major industries in Ota using a portable survey meter. The motivation for this study resulted from the uncertainty in the general public opinion on the effect of the presence, and activities of some of these industries in their environment. Measurements were taken twice daily within the vicinity of each industry to determine the dose levels. The mean values obtained range from 0.11 – 1.80 µSv/h. These values are within the results obtained from normal background areas except for site number 10. Annual effective dose values range from 0.25 – 5.21 mSv with a mean value of 1.21 mSv. Routine activities in some of these environments may have contributed significantly to the ambient natural background radiation resulting in high values as obtained in some of these locations. The total risks disparately estimated for cancer and genetic effects resulting from the results obtained range from 0.17 x 10-4 – 3.80 x 10-4 with a mean value of 0.94 x 10-4. These levels are within the range of the average annual risk for accidental death for all industries.

  2. Technical Overview of Ecological Risk Assessment - Analysis Phase: Exposure Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure Characterization is the second major component of the analysis phase of a risk assessment. For a pesticide risk assessment, the exposure characterization describes the potential or actual contact of a pesticide with a plant, animal, or media.

  3. Assessment of Protective and Antioxidant Properties of Tribulus Terrestris Fruits against Testicular Toxicity in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Abbas Shalaby

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study was carried out to assess the protective and antioxidant activities of the methanolic extract of Tribulus terrestris fruits (METT against sodium valproate (SVP-induced testicular toxicity in rats. Material and methods: Fifty mature male rats were randomly divided into 5 equal groups (n=10. Group 1 was used normal (negative control, and the other four groups were intoxicated with SVP (500 mg/kg-1, orally during the last week of experiment. Group 2 was kept intoxicated (positive control and groups 3, 4 and 5 were orally pretreated with METT in daily doses 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/kg-1 for 60 days, respectively. Weights of sexual organs, serum testosterone, FSH and LH levels, semen picture, testicular antioxidant capacity and histopathology of testes were the parameters used in this study. Results: Oral pretreatment with METT significantly increased weights of testes and seminal vesicles; serum testosterone, FSH and LH levels and sperm motility, count and viability in SVP-intoxicated rats. METT enhanced the activity of testicular antioxidant enzymes and partially alleviated degenerative changes induced by SVP in testes. Conclusion: The pretreatment with METT has protective and antioxidant effects in SVP-intoxicated rats. Mechanisms of this protective effect against testicular toxicity may be due to the increased release of testosterone, FSH and LH and the enhanced tissue antioxidant capacity. These results affirm the traditional use of Tribulus terrestris fruits as an aphrodisiac for treating male sexual impotency and erectile dysfunction in patients. The study recommends that Tribulus terrestris fruits may be beneficial for male patients suffering from infertility. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(3.000: 113-118

  4. Assessing Terrestrial Water Storage and Flood Potential Using GRACE Data in the Yangtze River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhangli Sun

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Floods have caused tremendous economic, societal and ecological losses in the Yangtze River Basin (YRB of China. To reduce the impact of these disasters, it is important to understand the variables affecting the hydrological state of the basin. In this study, we used Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE satellite data, flood potential index (FPI, precipitation data (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission, TRMM 3B43, and other meteorological data to generate monthly terrestrial water storage anomalies (TWSA and to evaluate flood potential in the YRB. The results indicate that the basin contained increasing amounts of water from 2003 to 2014, with a slight increase of 3.04 mm/year in the TWSA. The TWSA and TRMM data exhibit marked seasonal characteristics with summer peaks and winter dips. Estimates of terrestrial water storage based on GRACE, measured as FPI, are critical for understanding and predicting flooding. The 2010 flood (FPI ~ 0.36 was identified as the most serious disaster during the study period, with discharge and precipitation values 37.95% and 19.44% higher, respectively, than multi-year average values for the same period. FPI can assess reliably hydrological extremes with high spatial and temporal resolution, but currently, it is not suitable for smaller and/or short-term flood events. Thus, we conclude that GRACE data can be effectively used for monitoring and examining large floods in the YRB and elsewhere, thus improving the current knowledge and presenting potentially important political and economic implications.

  5. Large-scale terrestrial solar cell power generation cost: A preliminary assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spakowski, A. E.; Shure, L. I.

    1972-01-01

    A cost study was made to assess the potential of the large-scale use of solar cell power for terrestrial applications. The incentive is the attraction of a zero-pollution source of power for wide-scale use. Unlike many other concepts for low-pollution power generation, even thermal pollution is avoided since only the incident solar flux is utilized. To provide a basis for comparison and a perspective for evaluation, the pertinent technology was treated in two categories: current and optimistic. Factors considered were solar cells, array assembly, power conditioning, site preparation, buildings, maintenance, and operation. The capital investment was assumed to be amortized over 30 years. The useful life of the solar cell array was assumed to be 10 years, and the cases of zero and 50-percent performance deg-radation were considered. Land costs, taxes, and profits were not included in this study because it was found too difficult to provide good generalized estimates of these items. On the basis of the factors considered, it is shown that even for optimistic projections of technology, electric power from large-sclae terrestrial use of solar cells is approximately two to three orders of magnitude more costly than current electric power generation from either fossil or nuclear fuel powerplants. For solar cell power generation to be a viable competitor on a cost basis, technological breakthroughs would be required in both solar cell and array fabrication and in site preparation.

  6. Using exposure bands for rapid decision making in the RISK21 tiered exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellarco, M; Zaleski, R; Gaborek, B J; Qian, H; Bellin, C A; Egeghy, P; Heard, N; Jolliet, O; Lander, D R; Sunger, N; Stylianou, K S; Tanir, J Y

    2017-04-01

    The ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) Risk Assessment in the Twenty-first Century (RISK21) project was initiated to address and catalyze improvements in human health risk assessment. RISK21 is a problem formulation-based conceptual roadmap and risk matrix visualization tool, facilitating transparent evaluation of both hazard and exposure components. The RISK21 roadmap is exposure-driven, that is, exposure is used as the second step (after problem formulation) to define and focus the assessment. This paper describes the exposure tiers of the RISK21 matrix and the approaches to adapt readily available information to more quickly inform exposure at a screening level. In particular, exposure look-up tables were developed from available exposure tools (European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) Targeted Risk Assessment (TRA) for worker exposure, ECETOC TRA, European Solvents Industry Group (ESIG) Generic Exposure Scenario (GES) Risk and Exposure Tool (EGRET) for consumer exposure, and USEtox(®) for indirect exposure to humans via the environment) and were tested in a hypothetical mosquito bed netting case study. A detailed WHO risk assessment for a similar mosquito net use served as a benchmark for the performance of the RISK21 approach. The case study demonstrated that the screening methodologies provided suitable conservative exposure estimates for risk assessment. The results of this effort showed that the RISK21 approach is useful for defining future assessment efforts, focusing assessment activities and visualizing results.

  7. Assessing hydrometeorological impacts with terrestrial and aerial Lidar data in Monterrey, México

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yepez Rincon, F.; Lozano Garcia, D.; Vela Coiffier, P.; Rivera Rivera, L.

    2013-10-01

    Light Detection Ranging (Lidar) is an efficient tool to gather points reflected from a terrain and store them in a xyz coordinate system, allowing the generation of 3D data sets to manage geoinformation. Translation of these coordinates, from an arbitrary system into a geographical base, makes data feasible and useful to calculate volumes and define topographic characteristics at different scales. Lidar technological advancement in topographic mapping enables the generation of highly accurate and densely sampled elevation models, which are in high demand by many industries like construction, mining and forestry. This study merges terrestrial and aerial Lidar data to evaluate the effectiveness of these tools assessing volumetric changes after a hurricane event of riverbeds and scour bridges The resulted information could be an optimal approach to improve hydrological and hydraulic models, to aid authorities in proper to decision making in construction, urban planning, and homeland security.

  8. Chronic exposure to coal fly ash causes minimal changes in corticosterone and testosterone concentrations in male southern toads Bufo terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, C K; Mendonça, M T

    2006-08-01

    More than 50% of the electricity in the United States is produced by coal-burning power plants. The byproduct of coal-burning plants is coal fly ash, which contains increased concentrations of trace metals and is disposed of in collection basins. Southern toads (Bufo terrestris) frequently use these basins for reproduction. Male toads were collected in spring 2001 and 2002 from an ash basin and a reference site and divided into four groups: toads collected at the control site and maintained on (1) control substrate and food or (2) ash and contaminated food and toads collected at the ash site and maintained in (3) control or (4) ash conditions. Blood was collected periodically during 5 months to determine testosterone and corticosterone concentrations. Reference to ash toads exhibited a significant, transient increase in corticosterone at 4 weeks, but neither corticosterone nor testosterone continued to increase beyond this time. In contrast, toads caught and maintained on ash did not exhibit increased corticosterone. Testosterone in these toads appeared to be unrelated to ash exposure. This unexpected lack of a corticosterone response and no effect on testosterone suggests that toads chronically exposed to trace metals can acclimate to a polluted environment, but they may still experience subtle long-term consequences.

  9. Chronic exposure to coal fly ash causes minimal changes in corticosterone and testosterone concentrations in male southern toads Bufo terrestris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, C.K.; Mendonca, M.T. [Auburn University, Montgomery, AL (United States). Dept. of Biology

    2006-08-15

    More than 50% of the electricity in the United States is produced by coal-burning power plants. The byproduct of coal-burning plants is coal fly ash, which contains increased concentrations of trace metals and is disposed of in collection basins. Southern toads (Bufo terrestris) frequently use these basins for reproduction. Male toads were collected in spring 2001 and 2002 from an ash basin and a reference site and divided into four groups: toads collected at the control site and maintained on (1) control substrate and food or (2) ash and contaminated food and toads collected at the ash site and maintained in (3) control or (4) ash conditions. Blood was collected periodically during 5 months to determine testosterone and corticosterone concentrations. Reference to ash toads exhibited a significant, transient increase in corticosterone at 4 weeks, but neither corticosterone nor testosterone continued to increase beyond this time. In contrast, toads caught and maintained on ash did not exhibit increased corticosterone. Testosterone in these toads appeared to be unrelated to ash exposure. This unexpected lack of a corticosterone response and no effect on testosterone suggests that toads chronically exposed to trace metals can acclimate to a polluted environment, but they may still experience subtle long-term consequences.

  10. The Language Exposure Assessment Tool: Quantifying Language Exposure in Infants and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeAnda, Stephanie; Bosch, Laura; Poulin-Dubois, Diane; Zesiger, Pascal; Friend, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to develop the Language Exposure Assessment Tool (LEAT) and to examine its cross-linguistic validity, reliability, and utility. The LEAT is a computerized interview-style assessment that requests parents to estimate language exposure. The LEAT yields an automatic calculation of relative language exposure and…

  11. Determinants of Dermal Exposure Relevant for Exposure Modelling in Regulatory Risk Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marquart, J.; Brouwer, D.H.; Gijsbers, J.H.J.; Links, I.H.M.; Warren, N.; Hemmen, J.J. van

    2003-01-01

    Risk assessment of chemicals requires assessment of the exposure levels of workers. In the absence of adequate specific measured data, models are often used to estimate exposure levels. For dermal exposure only a few models exist, which are not validated externally. In the scope of a large European

  12. Evaluation of an acute oral gavage method for assessment of pesticide toxicity in terrestrial amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Douglas J; Mathis, Michael B; Kee, Faith; Whatling, Paul; Clerkin, David; Staveley, Jane; Habig, Clifford

    2017-09-02

    Development of an acute oral toxicity test with a terrestrial-phase amphibian was considered necessary to remove the uncertainty within the field of agrochemical risk assessments. The bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus) was selected for use as it is a representative of the family Ranidae and historically this species has been used as an amphibian test model species. Prior to definitive study, oral gavage methods were developed with fenthion and tetraethyl pyrophosphate. Dimethoate and malathion were subsequently tested with both male and female juvenile bullfrogs in comprehensive acute oral median lethal dose (LD50) studies. Juvenile bullfrogs were administered a single dose of the test article via oral gavage of a single gelatin capsule of dimethoate technical (dimethoate) or neat liquid Fyfanon® Technical (synonym malathion), returned to their respective aquaria, and monitored for survival for 14 d. The primary endpoint was mortality, whereas behavioral responses, food consumption, body weight, and snout-vent length (SVL) were used to evaluate indications of sublethal toxicity (secondary endpoints). Acute oral LD50 values (95% fiducial interval) for dimethoate were 1459 (1176-1810, males) and 1528 (1275-1831, females), and for malathion they were 1829 (1480-2259, males) and 1672 (1280-2183, females) mg active substance/kg body weight, respectively. Based on the results of these studies, the methodology for the acute oral gavage administration of test items to terrestrial-phase amphibians was demonstrated as being a practical method of providing data for risk assessments. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;9999:1-15. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  13. Exposure Assessment Tools by Lifestages and Populations - General Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA ExpoBox is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  14. Exposure Assessment Tools by Chemical Classes - Inorganics and Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA ExpoBox is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  15. THE CHALLENGE OF ASSESSING CHILDREN'S EXPOSURE TO PESTICIDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    In implementing the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has adopted a policy that the exposure factors and models used to assess and predict exposure to pesticides should generally be conservative. Some elements of exposure assess...

  16. Exposure Assessment Tools by Approaches - Indirect Estimation (Scenario Evaluation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA ExpoBox is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases, mode

  17. Exploring Global Exposure Factors Resources for Use in Consumer Exposure Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleski, Rosemary T; Egeghy, Peter P; Hakkinen, Pertti J

    2016-07-22

    This publication serves as a global comprehensive resource for readers seeking exposure factor data and information relevant to consumer exposure assessment. It describes the types of information that may be found in various official surveys and online and published resources. The relevant exposure factors cover a broad range, including general exposure factor data found in published compendia and databases and resources about specific exposure factors, such as human activity patterns and housing information. Also included are resources on exposure factors related to specific types of consumer products and the associated patterns of use, such as for a type of personal care product or a type of children's toy. Further, a section on using exposure factors for designing representative exposure scenarios is included, along with a look into the future for databases and other exposure science developments relevant for consumer exposure assessment.

  18. Exploring Global Exposure Factors Resources for Use in Consumer Exposure Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary T. Zaleski

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This publication serves as a global comprehensive resource for readers seeking exposure factor data and information relevant to consumer exposure assessment. It describes the types of information that may be found in various official surveys and online and published resources. The relevant exposure factors cover a broad range, including general exposure factor data found in published compendia and databases and resources about specific exposure factors, such as human activity patterns and housing information. Also included are resources on exposure factors related to specific types of consumer products and the associated patterns of use, such as for a type of personal care product or a type of children’s toy. Further, a section on using exposure factors for designing representative exposure scenarios is included, along with a look into the future for databases and other exposure science developments relevant for consumer exposure assessment.

  19. Exploring Global Exposure Factors Resources for Use in Consumer Exposure Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleski, Rosemary T.; Egeghy, Peter P.; Hakkinen, Pertti J.

    2016-01-01

    This publication serves as a global comprehensive resource for readers seeking exposure factor data and information relevant to consumer exposure assessment. It describes the types of information that may be found in various official surveys and online and published resources. The relevant exposure factors cover a broad range, including general exposure factor data found in published compendia and databases and resources about specific exposure factors, such as human activity patterns and housing information. Also included are resources on exposure factors related to specific types of consumer products and the associated patterns of use, such as for a type of personal care product or a type of children’s toy. Further, a section on using exposure factors for designing representative exposure scenarios is included, along with a look into the future for databases and other exposure science developments relevant for consumer exposure assessment. PMID:27455300

  20. INFLUENCE OF EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT METHOD IN AN EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDY OF TRIHALOMETHANE EXPOSURE AND SPONTANEOUS ABORTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trihalomethanes are common contaminants of chlorinated drinking water. Studies of their health effects have been hampered by exposure misclassification, due in part to limitations inherent in using utility sampling records. We used two exposure assessment methods, one based on ut...

  1. Systematic Assessment of Terrestrial Biogeochemistry in Coupled Climate-Carbon Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randerson, Jim [University of California, Irvine; Hoffman, Forrest M [ORNL; Thornton, Peter E [ORNL; Mahowald, Natalie [Cornell University; Lindsay, Keith [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Lee, Jeff [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Nevison, Cynthia [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Doney, Scott C. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), Woods Hole, MA; Bonan, Gordon [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Stockli, Reto [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Covey, Curtis [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Running, Steven [University of Montana, Missoula; Fung, Inez [University of California, Berkeley

    2009-01-01

    With representation of the global carbon cycle becoming increasingly complex in climate models, it is important to develop ways to quantitatively evaluate model performance against in situ and remote sensing observations. Here we present a systematic framework, the Carbon-LAnd Model Intercomparison Project (C-LAMP), for assessing terrestrial biogeochemistry models coupled to climate models using observations that span a wide range of temporal and spatial scales. As an example of the value of such comparisons, we used this framework to evaluate two biogeochemistry models that are integrated within the Community Climate System Model (CCSM) - Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (CASA) and carbon-nitrogen (CN). Both models underestimated the magnitude of net carbon uptake during the growing season in temperate and boreal forest ecosystems, based on comparison with atmospheric CO{sub 2} measurements and eddy covariance measurements of net ecosystem exchange. Comparison with MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measurements show that this low bias in model fluxes was caused, at least in part, by 1-3 month delays in the timing of maximum leaf area. In the tropics, the models overestimated carbon storage in woody biomass based on comparison with datasets from the Amazon. Reducing this model bias will probably weaken the sensitivity of terrestrial carbon fluxes to both atmospheric CO{sub 2} and climate. Global carbon sinks during the 1990s differed by a factor of two (2.4 Pg C yr{sup -1} for CASA vs. 1.2 Pg C yr{sup -1} for CN), with fluxes from both models compatible with the atmospheric budget given uncertainties in other terms. The models captured some of the timing of interannual global terrestrial carbon exchange during 1988-2004 based on comparison with atmospheric inversion results from TRANSCOM (r=0.66 for CASA and r=0.73 for CN). Adding (CASA) or improving (CN) the representation of deforestation fires may further increase agreement with the

  2. Accuracy assessment of modeling architectural structures and details using terrestrial laser scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kedzierski

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important aspects when performing architectural documentation of cultural heritage structures is the accuracy of both the data and the products which are generated from these data: documentation in the form of 3D models or vector drawings. The paper describes an assessment of the accuracy of modelling data acquired using a terrestrial phase scanner in relation to the density of a point cloud representing the surface of different types of construction materials typical for cultural heritage structures. This analysis includes the impact of the scanning geometry: the incidence angle of the laser beam and the scanning distance. For the purposes of this research, a test field consisting of samples of different types of construction materials (brick, wood, plastic, plaster, a ceramic tile, sheet metal was built. The study involved conducting measurements at different angles and from a range of distances for chosen scanning densities. Data, acquired in the form of point clouds, were then filtered and modelled. An accuracy assessment of the 3D model was conducted by fitting it with the point cloud. The reflection intensity of each type of material was also analyzed, trying to determine which construction materials have the highest reflectance coefficients, and which have the lowest reflection coefficients, and in turn how this variable changes for different scanning parameters. Additionally measurements were taken of a fragment of a building in order to compare the results obtained in laboratory conditions, with those taken in field conditions.

  3. Environmental exposure assessment in European birth cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehring, Ulrike; Casas, Maribel; Brunekreef, Bert

    2013-01-01

    Environmental exposures during pregnancy and early life may have adverse health effects. Single birth cohort studies often lack statistical power to tease out such effects reliably. To improve the use of existing data and to facilitate collaboration among these studies, an inventory...... of the environmental exposure and health data in these studies was made as part of the ENRIECO (Environmental Health Risks in European Birth Cohorts) project. The focus with regard to exposure was on outdoor air pollution, water contamination, allergens and biological organisms, metals, pesticides, smoking and second...... hand tobacco smoke (SHS), persistent organic pollutants (POPs), noise, radiation, and occupational exposures. The review lists methods and data on environmental exposures in 37 European birth cohort studies. Most data is currently available for smoking and SHS (N=37 cohorts), occupational exposures (N...

  4. Assessing Marine Species Exposure to Ocean Acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewett, E.; Busch, S.; McElhany, P.; Gledhill, D. K.; Milke, L. M.; Wieczorek, D.

    2016-02-01

    Assessing the vulnerability of society to ocean acidification (OA) demands an understanding of both the sensitivity of economically important species together with an organism's exposure to potentially harmful carbonate chemistry conditions. However, research has revealed that sensitivity to OA is frequently life-stage dependent and the environmental conditions experienced by a marine organism often vary with life-stage. Enhancing the development of a National Ocean Acidification Observing Network (NOA-ON) and establishing appropriate treatment conditions for experimental studies requires careful consideration of where the vulnerable life-stages of an organism reside in space (e.g., estuary versus oceanic), depth (e.g., surface mixed layer versus benthos), and time (e.g., diel vertical migration, seasonality of the chemical environment within the context of an organism life cycle). Few studies have explicitly attempted to document carbonate chemistry dynamics specific to a given organism's life-cycle. Here we estimate carbonate dynamics in terms of aragonite saturation state range and variability within the U.S. Northeast and West Coast through the application of NOAA's NOA-ON assets mapped out with respect to the life stages of economically important species within those regions. Two economically important species will be considered for which the life-cycles are well known along with the sensitivities to OA for early life-stages: Atlantic Surf Clam in the northeast and Dungeness Crab of the northwest coast of the U.S. Other species may also be considered.

  5. RADIATION DOSE ASSESSMENT FOR THE BIOTA OF TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS IN THE SHORELINE ZONE OF THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT COOLING POND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    Radiation exposure of the biota in the shoreline area of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond was assessed to evaluate radiological consequences from the decommissioning of the Cooling Pond. The article addresses studies of radioactive contamination of the terrestrial faunal complex and radionuclide concentration ratios in bodies of small birds, small mammals, amphibians, and reptiles living in the area. The data were used to calculate doses to biota using the ERICA Tool software. Doses from {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs were calculated using the default parameters of the ERICA Tool and were shown to be consistent with biota doses calculated from the field data. However, the ERICA dose calculations for plutonium isotopes were much higher (2-5 times for small mammals and 10-14 times for birds) than the doses calculated using the experimental data. Currently, the total doses for the terrestrial biota do not exceed maximum recommended levels. However, if the Cooling Pond is allowed to drawdown naturally and the contaminants of the bottom sediments are exposed and enter the biological cycle, the calculated doses to biota may exceed the maximum recommended values. The study is important in establishing the current exposure conditions such that a baseline exists from which changes can be documented following the lowering of the reservoir water. Additionally, the study provided useful radioecological data on biota concentration ratios for some species that are poorly represented in the literature.

  6. Systematic evaluation of observational methods assessing biomechanical exposures at work

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Esa-Pekka Takala; Irmeli Pehkonen; Mikael Forsman; Gert-Åke Hansson; Svend Erik Mathiassen; W Patrick Neumann; Gisela Sjøgaard; Kaj Bo Veiersted; Rolf H Westgaard; Jørgen Winkel

    2010-01-01

    Objectives This systematic review aimed to identify published observational methods assessing biomechanical exposures in occupational settings and evaluate them with reference to the needs of different users...

  7. Assessment of Bagging Operators Exposure to with PVC Airborne Particulates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Asilian, H; Nasseri Nejad, M; Mortazavi, S. B; Jafari, M. J; Khavanin, A; Dehdashti, A. R

    2008-01-01

    .... This field study wasconducted to evaluate the occupational exposure of packaging operators to airborne polyvinyl chloridedust in order to health risk assessment and recommend feasible controlling methods...

  8. Assessment of a relative contribution of terrestrial background radiation in the test field by using RADIAGEMTM 2000 portable survey meter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avdić Senada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is focused on the radiological investigation of terrestrial gamma radiation in the test field with soil samples from different minefields in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Measurements of ambient dose equivalent rate, commonly referred to as “air dose rate”, in the test field located in the Tuzla Canton, were performed by RADIAGEMTM 2000 portable survey meter, based on energy-compensated Geiger-Muller counter. Its performances were tested in the laboratory conditions with gamma point sources. Since all the samples in the test field were exposed to the same cosmic radiation, there was a possibility to assess a relative contribution of terrestrial gamma radiation due to soil samples of different composition. One set of measurements in the test field was performed with RADIAGEMTM 2000, at a height of about one meter above the ground and basic statistical parameters indicated that there was no significant difference of terrestrial gamma radiation from different soil samples. The other set of measurements was carried out with the same device placed on the ground in the test field. Processing of experimental data on terrestrial gamma radiation has shown that it was possible to make a difference between relative contributions of terrestrial gamma radiation from individual soil samples. The results of investigation could be useful for multiple purposes of public interest.

  9. Separating sensitivity from exposure in assessing extinction risk from climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Maria G; Orme, C David L; Suttle, K Blake; Mace, Georgina M

    2014-11-04

    Predictive frameworks of climate change extinction risk generally focus on the magnitude of climate change a species is expected to experience and the potential for that species to track suitable climate. A species' risk of extinction from climate change will depend, in part, on the magnitude of climate change the species experiences, its exposure. However, exposure is only one component of risk. A species' risk of extinction will also depend on its intrinsic ability to tolerate changing climate, its sensitivity. We examine exposure and sensitivity individually for two example taxa, terrestrial amphibians and mammals. We examine how these factors are related among species and across regions and how explicit consideration of each component of risk may affect predictions of climate change impacts. We find that species' sensitivities to climate change are not congruent with their exposures. Many highly sensitive species face low exposure to climate change and many highly exposed species are relatively insensitive. Separating sensitivity from exposure reveals patterns in the causes and drivers of species' extinction risk that may not be evident solely from predictions of climate change. Our findings emphasise the importance of explicitly including sensitivity and exposure to climate change in assessments of species' extinction risk.

  10. Assessing Pathologies on Villamayor Stone (salamanca, Spain) by Terrestrial Laser Scanner Intensity Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Talegón, J.; Calabrés, S.; Fernández-Lozano, J.; Iñigo, A. C.; Herrero-Fernández, H.; Arias-Pérez, B.; González-Aguilera, D.

    2015-02-01

    This paper deals with the assessing of pathologies in façades using a variety of intensity data provided by different terrestrial laser scanner. In particular, a complex building built in the Villamayor Stone that is to be candidate as a Global Heritage Stone Resource has been chosen as study case. The Villamayor Stone were quarrying for the construction and ornamentation of monuments in Salamanca, declared World Heritage City by UNESCO in 1988. The objective of this paper is to assess the pathologies of Villamayor Stone and compare the results obtained through the laser techniques with the classical techniques of mapped pathologies (i.e. visual inspection). For that intensity data coming from laser scanners will be used as non-destructive techniques applied to the façades and several retired plaques (after of building restoration) of Villamayor Stone with pathologies (fissures, scales, loss of matter, humidity/biological colonization) carried to the laboratory. Subsequently it will perform different comparisons between the accuracy reached with the different sensors and a high precision model setup on laboratory which performs as "ground truth". In particular, the following objectives will be pursued: i) accuracy assessment of the results obtained in in situ and laboratory; ii) an automation or semi-automation of the detection of pathologies in Villamayor Stone; iii) discriminate the different types of Villamayor Stone used in the façades in function of the radiometric response; iv) establish a methodology for detection and assessing of pathologies based on laser scanner intensity data applied to monuments and modern buildings built in Villamayor Stone.

  11. Assessment of potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination in northern Europe from terrestrial nuclear units in north-west Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisovsky, I. [St. Petersburg State Technical Univ. (Russian Federation); Baklanov, A. [Inst. of the Northern Ecology Problems (INEP) (Russian Federation); Jacovlev, V. [St. Petersburg State Technical Univ. (Russian Federation); Prutskov, V. [Ministry of Defence (Russian Federation). First Central Research Inst. of Naval Shipbuilding; Tarasov, I. [Ministry of Defence (Russian Federation). 23 State Marine Project Inst.; Blecher, A. [State Unitary Enterprise (Russian Federation). Research Inst. of Industrial and Marine Medicine; Zvonariev, B.; Kuchin, N.; Rubanov, S.; Sergeiev, I. [State Scientific Centre (Russian Federation). Central Research Inst. of A. Krylov; Morozov, S.; Koshkin, V.; Fedorenko, Yu.; Rigina, O. [Inst. of the Northern Ecology Problems (INEP) (Russian Federation); Bergman, R. [ed.] [Defence Research Establishment, Umeaa (Sweden). Div. of NBC Defence

    1999-05-01

    This Technical Report, being part of the INTAS project 96-1802, constitutes a comprehensive presentation - covering basic results from separate contributions as specified below - of work performed during the first period (February 1998- February 1999). The aim of the INTAS project 96-1802: `Assessment of potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination in northern Europe from terrestrial nuclear units in north-west Russia` is to assess the potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination from nuclear units in north-west Russia and resulting impacts on population and terrestrial ecosystems in the north. The work focuses mainly on airborne radioactive contamination, but some case studies also deal with accidental leakage from terrestrial nuclear sites to soil and coastal waters. The present material comprises in more detail the contributions from participants no.4 and no.5 based on the four internal reports referred to below: (1) Assessment of potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination in Northern Europe from terrestrial nuclear units in north-west Russia: `Determination of the list of typical sources of danger emergency radioactive releases in an environment in connection with military activity in the North of Russia.` Technical report no.1 of the team no.5. St.-Petersburg State Technical University, St.-Petersburg. July 1998. 43 p.; (2) Assessment of potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination in Northern Europe from terrestrial nuclear units in North-west Russia: `Analysis and description of source-term characteristics for accident linked with airborne radioactive releases from Kola Nuclear Power Plant. Establishing a network facility at INEP for communication among the INTAS Project participants.` Technical report no.1 of the team no.4. Kola Science Centre, Apatity. August 1998. 56 p.; (3) Assessment of potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination in Northern Europe from terrestrial nuclear units in

  12. Multiple pathway asbestos exposure assessment for a Superfund community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, Curtis W; Conway, Kathrene; Landguth, Erin L; McNew, Tracy; Linker, Laura; Pfau, Jean; Black, Brad; Szeinuk, Jaime; Flores, Raja

    2015-01-01

    Libby, MT, USA, was the home to workers at a historical vermiculite mining facility and served as the processing and distribution center for this industrial product that was contaminated with amphibole asbestos. Several pathways of environmental asbestos exposure to the general population have been identified. The local clinic and health screening program collects data from participants on past occupational and environmental exposures to vermiculite and asbestos. Health studies among this population have demonstrated associations between amphibole exposure and health outcomes, but critical questions regarding the nature and level of exposure associated with specific outcomes remain unanswered. The objective of this study was to develop a comprehensive exposure assessment approach that integrates information on individuals' contact frequency with multiple exposure pathways. For 3031 participants, we describe cumulative exposure metrics for environmental exposures, occupational exposures, and residents' contact with carry-home asbestos from household workers. As expected, cumulative exposures for all three occupational categories were higher among men compared with women, and cumulative exposures for household contact and environmental pathways were higher among women. The comprehensive exposure assessment strategies will advance health studies and risk assessment approaches in this population with a complex history of both occupational and environmental asbestos exposure.

  13. ASSESSING HUMAN EXPOSURE TO GRASS POLLEN IN DENMARK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peel, Robert George; Hertel, Ole; Herbert, Rob

    Objectives: Exposure to pollen is typically assessed using data collected at fixed roof-top monitoring stations, which give a general picture of airborne pollen concentrations over a wide region. Actual exposure levels can be obtained through personal exposure monitoring. This is typically done u...

  14. NCA-LDAS: A Terrestrial Water Analysis System Enabling Sustained Assessment and Dissemination of National Climate Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinski, M. F.; Kumar, S.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Arsenault, K. R.; Beaudoing, H. K.; Bolten, J. D.; Borak, J.; Kempler, S.; Li, B.; Mocko, D. M.; Rodell, M.; Rui, H.; Silberstein, D. S.; Teng, W. L.; Vollmer, B.

    2016-12-01

    The National Climate Assessment - Land Data Assimilation System, or NCA-LDAS, is an integrated terrestrial water analysis system created as an end-to-end enabling tool for sustained assessment and dissemination of terrestrial hydrologic indicators in support of the NCA. The primary features are i) gridded, daily time series of over forty hydrologic variables including terrestrial water and energy balance stores, states and fluxes over the continental U.S. derived from land surface modeling with multivariate satellite data record assimilation (1979-2015), ii) estimated trends of the principal water balance components over a wide range of scales and locations, and iii) public dissemination of all NCA-LDAS model forcings, and input and output data products through dedicated NCA-LDAS and NASA GES-DISC websites. NCA-LDAS supports sustained assessment of our national terrestrial hydrologic climate for improved scientific understanding, and the adaptation and management of water resources and related energy sectors. This presentation provides an overview of the NCA-LDAS system together with an evaluation of the initial release of NCA-LDAS data products and trends using two land surface models; Noah Ver. 3.3 and Catchment Ver. Fortuna 2.5, and a listing of several available pathways for public access and visualization of NCA-LDAS background information and data products.

  15. Ecological risk assessment of multimedia hazardous air pollutants: estimating exposure and effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efroymson, R A; Murphy, D L

    2001-07-02

    Hazardous air pollutants, some of which have the potential for multimedia distribution, raise several hurdles for ecological risk assessment including: (1) the development of an adequate transport, fate and exposure model; and (2) the selection of exposure-response models that can accommodate multiple exposure routes for ecological receptors. To address the first issue, the EPA Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards has developed TRIM.FaTE, a mass-balance, fate, transport, and ecological exposure model that is a component of the Total Risk Integrated Methodology (TRIM) for air pollutants. In addition to abiotic transfers and transformations, TRIM.FaTE estimates the uptake of a chemical by terrestrial and aquatic organisms with time. Measures of exposure that TRIM.FaTE can provide include: (1) body burdens or tissue concentrations; (2) doses averaged over any time period; or (3) concentrations of chemicals in abiotic media. The model provides the user with the flexibility to choose the exposure-response thresholds or dose-response relationships that are best suited to data availability, routes of exposure, and the mechanism of toxicity of the chemical to an ecological receptor. One of the challenges of incorporating TRIM.FaTE into a risk assessment methodology lies in defining a streamlined model simulation scenario for initial screening-level risk assessments. These assessments may encompass multiple facilities that emit a variety of pollutants near diverse ecosystems. The information on ecological risk assessment methodology that is described is applicable to the EPA Residual Risk Program with emphasis on multimedia pollutants and the role of TRIM.FaTE.

  16. Retrospective exposure assessment in a chemical research and development facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Cheng; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Alexander, Bruce H; Mandel, Jeffrey H

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this exposure assessment was to reconstruct cumulative historical exposures for workers who have been exposed to multiple chemicals and chemical groups to better understand a cluster of brain cancers within a research and development lab. Chemicals of interest, including acrylates, bis-chloromethyl ether (BCME), chloromethyl methyl ether (CMME), isothiazolones and nitrosoamines, were selected on the basis of the plausibility of penetrating the blood-brain barrier and the uniqueness of the chemical's biological activity. In a complicated exposure setting such as a chemical R&D facility, multiple exposure estimation methods were needed. First, similarly exposure groups (SEGs) were created for these materials based on department group, time period of the department's existence and function associated with job titles. A probabilistic framework for assessing exposures was developed using Bayesian analysis of historical monitoring data, mathematical exposure modeling and professional judgments of current and former industrial hygienists at the facility were used to reconstruct the exposure history for acrylates, BCME and CMME for each SEG over the time period of interest. Since sufficient measurement data for isothiazolones and nitrosoamines were not available, the exposure histories for each SEG for these chemicals were estimated. This was done using objective formaldehyde levels and subjective employee interviews. The interviews assessed workplace determinants of exposure as distinct surrogates for estimating inhalation and dermal exposures. The exposure assessments by these methods were compared against each other to estimate the potential for exposure misclassification. A job exposure matrix (JEM) was constructed that contained the exposures obtained from above multiple approaches for each of these chemical groups for each SEG for each year of interest. The combination of methods used in this work is a unique and potentially helpful framework that

  17. Waveform- and Terrestrial Lidar Assessment of the Usual (Structural) Suspects in a Forest Canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Aardt, J. A.; Romanczyk, P.; Kelbe, D.; van Leeuwen, M.; Cawse-Nicholson, K.; Gough, C. M.; Kampe, T. U.

    2015-12-01

    Forest inventory has evolved from standard stem diameter-height relationships, to coarse canopy metrics, to more involved ecologically-meaningful variables, such as leaf area index (LAI) and even canopy radiative transfer as a function of canopy gaps, leaf clumping, and leaf angle distributions. Accurate and precise measurement of the latter set of variables presents a challenge to the ecological and modeling communities; however, relatively novel remote sensing modalities, e.g., waveform lidar (wlidar) and terrestrial lidar systems (TLS), have the potential to adress this challenge. Research teams at Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) and the Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU) have been collaborating with the National Ecological Observation Network (NEON) to assess vegetation canopy structure and variation at the University of Michigan Biological Research Station and the NEON Northeast domain (Harvard Forest, MA). Airborne small-footprint wlidar data, in-situ TLS data, and first-principles, physics-based simulation tools are being used to study (i) the impact of vegetation canopy geometric elements on wlidar signals (twigs and petioles have been deemed negligible), (ii) the analysis of airborne wlidar data for top-down assessment of canopy metrics such as LAI, and (iii) our ability to extract "bottom-up" canopy structure from TLS using scans registered to each other using a novel marker-free registration approach (e.g., basal area: R2=0.82, RMSE=7.43 m2/ha). Such studies indicate that we can potentially assess radiative transfer through vegetation canopies remotely using a vertically-stratified approach with wlidar, and augment such an approach via rapid-scan TLS technology to gain a better understanding of fine-scale variation in canopy structure. This in turn is key to quantifying and modeling radiative transfer based on understanding of forest canopy structural change as a function of ecosystem development, climate, and anthropogenic drivers.

  18. Minimised bioconcentration tests: a useful tool for assessing chemical uptake into terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Laura J; Ashauer, Roman; Ryan, Jim J; Boxall, Alistair B A

    2014-11-18

    Current guidelines for determining bioconcentration factors (BCF) and uptake and depuration rate constants require labor intensive studies with large numbers of organisms. A minimized approach has recently been proposed for fish BCF studies but its applicability to other taxonomic groups is unknown. In this study, we therefore evaluate the use of the minimized approach for estimating BCF and uptake and depuration rate constants for chemicals in aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates. Data from a range of previous BCF studies were resampled to calculate BCFs and rate constants using the minimized method. The resulting values were then compared to values obtained using full study designs. Results demonstrated a good correlation for uptake rate constants, a poor correlation for depuration rate constants and a very good correlation between the BCFs obtained using the traditional and minimized approach for a variety of organic compounds. The minimized approach therefore has merit in deriving bioconcentration factors and uptake rate constants but may not be appropriate for deriving depuration rate constants for use in, for example, toxico-kinetic toxico-dynamic modeling. The approach uses up to 70% fewer organisms, requires less labor and has lower analytical costs. The minimized design therefore could be a valuable approach for running large multifactorial studies to assess bioconcentration of the plethora of chemicals that occur in the environment into the many taxonomic groups that occur in the environment. The approach should therefore help in accelerating the development of our understanding of factors and processes affecting uptake of chemicals into organisms in the environment.

  19. Assessing Metrics for Estimating Fire Induced Change in the Forest Understorey Structure Using Terrestrial Laser Scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav Gupta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying post-fire effects in a forested landscape is important to ascertain burn severity, ecosystem recovery and post-fire hazard assessments and mitigation planning. Reporting of such post-fire effects assumes significance in fire-prone countries such as USA, Australia, Spain, Greece and Portugal where prescribed burns are routinely carried out. This paper describes the use of Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS to estimate and map change in the forest understorey following a prescribed burn. Eighteen descriptive metrics are derived from bi-temporal TLS which are used to analyse and visualise change in a control and fire-altered plot. Metrics derived are Above Ground Height-based (AGH percentiles and heights, point count and mean intensity. Metrics such as AGH50change, mean AGHchange and point countchange are sensitive enough to detect subtle fire-induced change (28%–52% whilst observing little or no change in the control plot (0–4%. A qualitative examination with field measurements of the spatial distribution of burnt areas and percentage area burnt also show similar patterns. This study is novel in that it examines the behaviour of TLS metrics for estimating and mapping fire induced change in understorey structure in a single-scan mode with a minimal fixed reference system. Further, the TLS-derived metrics can be used to produce high resolution maps of change in the understorey landscape.

  20. Assessment of Light Environment Variability in Broadleaved Forest Canopies Using Terrestrial Laser Scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitry Van der Zande

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Light availability inside a forest canopy is of key importance to many ecosystem processes, such as photosynthesis and transpiration. Assessment of light availability and within-canopy light variability enables a more detailed understanding of these biophysical processes. The changing light-vegetation interaction in a homogeneous oak (Quercus robur L. stand was studied at different moments during the growth season using terrestrial laser scanning datasets and ray tracing technology. Three field campaigns were organized at regular time intervals (24 April 2008; 07 May 2008; 23 May 2008 to monitor the increase of foliage material. The laser scanning data was used to generate 3D representations of the forest stands, enabling structure feature extraction and light interception modeling, using the Voxel-Based Light Interception Model (VLIM. The VLIM is capable of estimating the relative light intensity or Percentage of Above Canopy Light (PACL at any arbitrary point in the modeled crown space. This resulted in a detailed description of the dynamic light environments inside the canopy. Mean vertical light extinction profiles were calculated for the three time frames, showing significant differences in light attenuation by the canopy between April 24 on the one hand, and May 7 and May 23 on the other hand. The proposed methodology created the opportunity to link these within-canopy light distributions to the increasing amount of photosynthetically active leaf material and its distribution in the considered 3D space.

  1. Point Cloud Derived Fromvideo Frames: Accuracy Assessment in Relation to Terrestrial Laser Scanningand Digital Camera Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delis, P.; Zacharek, M.; Wierzbicki, D.; Grochala, A.

    2017-02-01

    The use of image sequences in the form of video frames recorded on data storage is very useful in especially when working with large and complex structures. Two cameras were used in this study: Sony NEX-5N (for the test object) and Sony NEX-VG10 E (for the historic building). In both cases, a Sony α f = 16 mm fixed focus wide-angle lens was used. Single frames with sufficient overlap were selected from the video sequence using an equation for automatic frame selection. In order to improve the quality of the generated point clouds, each video frame underwent histogram equalization and image sharpening. Point clouds were generated from the video frames using the SGM-like image matching algorithm. The accuracy assessment was based on two reference point clouds: the first from terrestrial laser scanning and the second generated based on images acquired using a high resolution camera, the NIKON D800. The performed research has shown, that highest accuracies are obtained for point clouds generated from video frames, for which a high pass filtration and histogram equalization had been performed. Studies have shown that to obtain a point cloud density comparable to TLS, an overlap between subsequent video frames must be 85 % or more. Based on the point cloud generated from video data, a parametric 3D model can be generated. This type of the 3D model can be used in HBIM construction.

  2. Colorado Plateau Rapid Ecoregion Assessment Conservation Elements - Terrestrial Species: Burrowing Owl

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — This map shows the potential current distribution of burrowing owl, in the context of current and near-term terrestrial intactness and long-term potential for...

  3. Colorado Plateau Rapid Ecoregion Assessment Conservation Elements - Terrestrial Species: Gunnison Sage-Grouse

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — This map shows the potential current distribution of Gunnison sage-grouse, in the context of current and near-term terrestrial intactness and long-term potential for...

  4. Colorado Plateau Rapid Ecoregion Assessment Conservation Elements - Terrestrial Species: Greater Sage-Grouse

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — This map shows the potential current distribution of Greater Sage-grouse, in the context of current and near-term terrestrial intactness and long-term potential for...

  5. Colorado Plateau Rapid Ecoregion Assessment Terrestrial Intactness and Potential For Change

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — This map shows current and near-term terrestrial intactness, as well as long term potential for development and climate change. These datasets are the results of a...

  6. Colorado Plateau Rapid Ecoregion Assessment Terrestrial Intactness and Potential For Change (HUC5)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — This map shows current and near-term terrestrial intactness, as well as long term potential for development and climate change. These datasets are the results of a...

  7. Wall Paint Exposure Assessment Model (WPEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    WPEM uses mathematical models developed from small chamber data to estimate the emissions of chemicals from oil-based (alkyd) and latex wall paint which is then combined with detailed use, workload and occupancy data to estimate user exposure.

  8. DREAM: a method for semi-quantitative dermal exposure assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wendel de Joode, B. van; Brouwer, D.H.; Kromhout, H.; Hemmen, J.J. van

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a new method (DREAM) for structured, semi-quantitative dermal exposure assessment for chemical or biological agents that can be used in occupational hygiene or epidemiology. It is anticipated that DREAM could serve as an initial assessment of dermal exposure, amongst others,

  9. Integration of Probabilistic Exposure Assessment and Probabilistic Hazard Characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voet, van der H.; Slob, W.

    2007-01-01

    A method is proposed for integrated probabilistic risk assessment where exposure assessment and hazard characterization are both included in a probabilistic way. The aim is to specify the probability that a random individual from a defined (sub)population will have an exposure high enough to cause a

  10. Terrestrial Condition Assessment for National Forests of the USDA Forest Service in the Continental US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cleland

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The terrestrial condition assessment (TCA evaluates effects of uncharacteristic stressors and disturbance agents on land-type associations (LTAs to identify restoration opportunities on national forest system (NFS lands in the United States. A team of agency scientists and managers, representing a broad array of natural resource disciplines, developed a logic structure for the TCA to identify appropriate data sources to support analyses. Primary national data sources included observed insect- and pathogen-induced mortality, key critical loads for soil and the atmosphere, long term seasonal departures in temperature and precipitation, road densities, uncharacteristic wildfires, historical fire regime departure, wildfire potential, insect and pathogen risk, and vegetation departure from natural range of variability. The TCA was implemented with the ecosystem management decision support (EMDS system, a spatial decision support system for landscape analysis and planning. EMDS uses logic models to interpret data, synthesizes information over successive layers of logic topics, and draws inferences about the ecological integrity of LTAs as an initial step to identifying high priority LTAs for landscape restoration on NFS lands. Results from the analysis showed that about 74 percent of NFS lands had moderate or better overall ecological integrity. Major impacts to ecological integrity included risk of mortality due to insects and disease, extent of current mortality, extent of areas with high and very high wildfire hazard potential, uncharacteristically severe wildfire, and elevated temperatures. In the discussion, we consider implications for agency performance reporting on restoration activities, and subsequent possible steps, including strategic and tactical planning for restoration. The objective of the paper is to describe the TCA framework with results from a national scale application on NFS lands.

  11. Biochar Erosion in a Temperate Forest Assessed with Terrestrial Laser Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milenković, Milutin; Bruckman, Viktor; Hollaus, Markus; Pfeifer, Norbert

    2015-04-01

    Biochar amendment in soils is seen as a potential greenhouse gas mitigation strategy. There are a number of examples of successful amendment strategies in agricultural ecosystems, where biochar is mixed with the mineral topsoil by ploughing or similar manipulation techniques. The application in forest ecosystems, however, comes with the limitation that biochar can only be applied directly on the surface. Light-weight biochar particles may be prone to erosion by environmental forces, such as precipitation and wind. We therefore assessed biochar erosion patterns by using Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) in combination with a time-lapse camera on a micro topography scale in a temperate spruce-dominated forest with herbaceous ground vegetation. TLS is a photogrammetric technique that utilizes the laser light detection and ranging (LiDAR) principle to provide high resolution, 3D geometrical information of the object at millimeter scale. A biochar-amended (10 t/ha) plot with the size of ca. 3m x 3m was surveyed with 4 TLS scans taken from each of 4 plot's sides. The acquired scans were co-registered using the professional targets that were installed on the plot's corners. The resulting point cloud was then used as a base for calculating digital terrain model (DTM), to spatially map vegetation heights, vegetation density and roughness. These TLS products were derived by analyzing the geometrical properties of the acquired point cloud. A time-lapse camera was installed during summer 2013, continuously observing the entire plot at 3min intervals. A single, representative, precipitation event in August was selected for a detailed image analysis of biochar particle movement. The analysis showed that areas of notable particle movement correspond to places of flow accumulation simulated from the DTM. This suggests that the very high resolution terrain information can be usefully for planning the biochar amendment on temperate forest ecosystems.

  12. Probabilistic assessment of exposure to nail cosmetics in French consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficheux, A S; Morisset, T; Chevillotte, G; Postic, C; Roudot, A C

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess probabilistic exposure to nail cosmetics in French consumers. The exposure assessment was performed with base coat, polish, top coat and remover. This work was done for adult and child consumers. Dermal, inhalation and oral routes were taken into account for varnishes. Exposure evaluation was performed for the inhalation route with polish remover. The main route of exposure to varnishes was the ungual route. Inhalation was the secondary route of exposure, followed by dermal and oral routes. Polish contributed most to exposure, regardless of the route of exposure. For this nail product, P50 and P95 values by ungual route were respectively equal to 1.74 mg(kg bw week)(-1) and 8.55 mg(kg bw week)(-1) for women aged 18-34 years. Exposure to polish by inhalation route was equal to 0.70 mg(kg bw week)(-1) (P50) and 5.27 mg(kg bw week)(-1) (P95). P50 and P95 values by inhalation route were respectively equal to 0.08 mg(kg bw week)(-1) and 1.14 mg(kg bw week)(-1) for consumers aged 18-34 years exposed to polish remover. This work provided current exposure data for nail cosmetics, and a basis for future toxicological studies of the uptake of substances contained in nail cosmetics in order to assess systemic exposure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Dermal exposure and risk assessment of tebuconazole applicators in vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandic-Rajcevic, Stefan; Rubino, Federico Maria; Vianello, Giorgio; Fugnoli, Lorenzo; Polledri, Elisa; Mercadante, Rosa; Moretto, Angelo; Fustinoni, Silvia; Colosio, Claudio

    2015-07-08

    Models used in the pre-marketing evaluation do not cover all work scenarios and may over- or underestimate exposure. Uncertainties present in the extrapolation from pre-marketing to the post-marketing warrant exposure and risk assessment in real-life working conditions. Seven vineyard pesticide applicators were followed for a total of 12 work-days. A data collection sheet was developed specifically for this study. Workers' body exposure, hands, and head exposure were measured. Tebuconazole was analyzed using LC-MS/MS. Median potential and actual body exposures were 22.41 mg/kg and 0.49 mg/kg of active substance applied, respectively. The median protection factor provided by the coverall was 98% (range: 90-99%). Hand exposure was responsible for 61% of total actual exposure, and was reduced by more than 50% in workers using gloves. The German Model underestimated the exposure in one work-day, and grossly overestimated it in 3 work-days. High levels of potential body exposure were efficiently controlled by the cotton coverall. Use of personal protective devices, especially chemically-resistant gloves and head cover is the main determinant of skin protection. Field studies on pesticide exposure in real-life conditions and development of methods and tools for easier risk assessment are necessary to complement and confirm the risk assessment done in the authorization process.

  14. Terrestrial Laser Scanner for assessing rockfall susceptibility in the Cilento rocky coast (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrentino, Valerio; Matasci, Battista; Abellan, Antonio; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Marino, Ermanno; Pignalosa, Antonio; Santo, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Rockfalls and other types of landslides are the dominant processes causing a retreat of sea cliffs. The coastal areas constitute an important tourist attraction and a large number of people rest beneath the cliffs on a daily basis, considerably increasing the risk associated to rockfalls. We present an approach to assess rockfall susceptibility at the cliff scale based on terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) point clouds. The test area is a coastal cliff situated in the southern part of the Cilento (Centola Municipality, Campania Region), in which a natural arch was formed. This cliff is constituted by heavy fractured carbonate rock mass with a strong structural control. In June 2015 TLS data were acquired with long-range scanner RIEGL VZ1000®. The structural analysis of the cliff was performed in the field and using Coltop 3D software on the point cloud. As a result, 10 discontinuity sets (joint, faults and bedding planes) were individuated and the different characteristics such as orientation, spacing and persistence were measured. The kinematically unstable areas were highlighted using a script that computes an index of susceptibility to rockfalls based on the spatial distribution of failure mechanisms. The susceptibility index computation is based on the average surface that every joint set (or combinations of two joint sets in the case of wedge failure) forms on the topography according to its spacing, trace length, and incidence angle. This susceptibility index also depends on the steepness of the joint set (or of the intersection line in the case of wedge failure). As a result the most important discontinuity sets in terms of potential planar failure, wedge failure and toppling were individuated and an assessment of rockfall susceptibility at the cliff scale was achieved. Results show that the kinematically feasible failures are not equally distributed along the cliff but concentrated on certain areas. The most susceptible areas for planar failure are related to

  15. Exposure Data for Travel Risk Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, N O; Koornstra, Matthijs; Broughton, Jeremy

    1999-01-01

    This report illustrates why risk and exposure data are critical for policymaking at local, national and EU levels.Conclusions are drawn about the evaluation and use of risk information for different modes and estimates are presented for the fatality risk of various travel modes in the EU....

  16. Cellular Metabolomics for Exposure and Toxicity Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have developed NMR automation and cell quench methods for cell culture-based metabolomics to study chemical exposure and toxicity. Our flow automation method is robust and free of cross contamination. The direct cell quench method is rapid and effective. Cell culture-based met...

  17. Review of laboratory-based terrestrial bioaccumulation assessment approaches for organic chemicals: Current status and future possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoke, Robert; Huggett, Duane; Brasfield, Sandra; Brown, Becky; Embry, Michelle; Fairbrother, Anne; Kivi, Michelle; Paumen, Miriam Leon; Prosser, Ryan; Salvito, Dan; Scroggins, Rick

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, interest has been renewed in approaches for the assessment of the bioaccumulation potential of chemicals, principally driven by the need to evaluate large numbers of chemicals as part of new chemical legislation, while reducing vertebrate test organism use called for in animal welfare legislation. This renewed interest has inspired research activities and advances in bioaccumulation science for neutral organic chemicals in aquatic environments. In January 2013, ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute convened experts to identify the state of the science and existing shortcomings in terrestrial bioaccumulation assessment of neutral organic chemicals. Potential modifications to existing laboratory methods were identified, including areas in which new laboratory approaches or test methods could be developed to address terrestrial bioaccumulation. The utility of "non-ecotoxicity" data (e.g., mammalian laboratory data) was also discussed. The highlights of the workshop discussions are presented along with potential modifications in laboratory approaches and new test guidelines that could be used for assessing the bioaccumulation of chemicals in terrestrial organisms. © 2015 SETAC.

  18. Assessing global climate-terrestrial vegetation feedbacks on carbon and nitrogen cycling in the earth system model EC-Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wårlind, David; Miller, Paul; Nieradzik, Lars; Söderberg, Fredrik; Anthoni, Peter; Arneth, Almut; Smith, Ben

    2017-04-01

    There has been great progress in developing an improved European Consortium Earth System Model (EC-Earth) in preparation for the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6) and the next Assessment Report of the IPCC. The new model version has been complemented with ocean biogeochemistry, atmospheric composition (aerosols and chemistry) and dynamic land vegetation components, and has been configured to use the recommended CMIP6 forcing data sets. These new components will give us fresh insights into climate change. This study focuses on the terrestrial biosphere component Lund-Potsdam-Jena General Ecosystem Simulator (LPJ-GUESS) that simulates vegetation dynamics and compound exchange between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere in EC-Earth. LPJ-GUESS allows for vegetation to dynamically evolve, depending on climate input, and in return provides the climate system and land surface scheme with vegetation-dependent fields such as vegetation types and leaf area index. We present the results of a study to examine the feedbacks between the dynamic terrestrial vegetation and the climate and their impact on the terrestrial ecosystem carbon and nitrogen cycles. Our results are based on a set of global, atmosphere-only historical simulations (1870 to 2014) with and without feedback between climate and vegetation and including or ignoring the effect of nitrogen limitation on plant productivity. These simulations show to what extent the addition degree of freedom in EC-Earth, introduced with the coupling of interactive dynamic vegetation to the atmosphere, has on terrestrial carbon and nitrogen cycling, and represent contributions to CMIP6 (C4MIP and LUMIP) and the EU Horizon 2020 project CRESCENDO.

  19. Chemical Mixtures Health Risk Assessment: Overview of Exposure Assessment, Whole Mixtures Assessments; Basic Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    This problems-based, half-day, introductory workshop focuses on methods to assess health risks posed by exposures to chemical mixtures in the environment. Chemical mixtures health risk assessment methods continue to be developed and evolve to address concerns over health risks f...

  20. Bias in the estimation of exposure effects with individual- or group-based exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyang-Mi; Richardson, David; Loomis, Dana; Van Tongeren, Martie; Burstyn, Igor

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we develop models of bias in estimates of exposure-disease associations for epidemiological studies that use group- and individual-based exposure assessments. In a study that uses a group-based exposure assessment, individuals are grouped according to shared attributes, such as job title or work area, and assigned an exposure score, usually the mean of some concentration measurements made on samples drawn from the group. We considered bias in the estimation of exposure effects in the context of both linear and logistic regression disease models, and the classical measurement error in the exposure model. To understand group-based exposure assessment, we introduced a quasi-Berkson error structure that can be justified with a moderate number of exposure measurements from each group. In the quasi-Berkson error structure, the true value is equal to the observed one plus error, and the error is not independent of the observed value. The bias in estimates with individual-based assessment depends on all variance components in the exposure model and is smaller when the between-group and between-subject variances are large. In group-based exposure assessment, group means can be assumed to be either fixed or random effects. Regardless of this assumption, the behavior of estimates is similar: the estimates of regression coefficients were less attenuated with a large sample size used to estimate group means, when between-subject variability was small and the spread between group means was large. However, if groups are considered to be random effects, bias is present, even with large number of measurements from each group. This does not occur when group effects are treated as fixed. We illustrate these models in analyses of the associations between exposure to magnetic fields and cancer mortality among electric utility workers and respiratory symptoms due to carbon black.

  1. Mapping mass movement processes using terrestrial LIDAR: a swift mechanism for hazard and disaster risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnica-Peña, Ricardo; Murillo-García, Franny; Alcántara-Ayala, Irasema

    2014-05-01

    volcanic cones, and slopes of pyroclastic deposits. Additionally, there are mountains and elevations of metamorphic and intrusive origin. The predominant hillslope materials in Teziutlán are poorly consolidated pyroclastic flows that favour rapid water saturation and enhance slope instability. Rainfall induced landslides in this region are not uncommon. Their consequences were particularly severe in the years 1999, 2005 and 2013. Rainfall derived from hurricane Ingrid in September, 2013, triggered 41 landslides on populated areas of Teziutlán, and involved 3 human losses and the evacuation of 139 people. Reoccurrence of landsliding in this area, where vulnerability levels of communities is high, certainly implies the need of establishing strategies for disaster risk reduction, among which, the use of terrestrial LIDAR can be regarded as a swift mechanism for landslide susceptibility, hazard and disaster risk assessments.

  2. Assessing uncertainties of GRACE-derived terrestrial water-storage fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fereria, Vagner; Montecino, Henry

    2017-04-01

    Space-borne sensors are producing many remotely sensed data and, consequently, different measurements of the same field are available to end users. Furthermore, different satellite processing centres are producing extensive products based on the data of only one mission. This is exactly the case with the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission, which has been monitoring terrestrial water storage (TWS) since April 2002, while the Centre for Space Research (CSR), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), the GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ), the Groupe de Recherche de Géodésie Spatiale (GRGS), among others, provide individual monthly solutions in the form of Stokes's coefficients. The inverted TWS maps from Stokes's coefficients are being used in many applications and, therefore, as no ground truth data exist, the uncertainties are unknown. An assessment of the uncertainties associated with these different products is mandatory in order to guide data producers and support the users to choose the best dataset. However, the estimation of uncertainties of space-borne products often relies on ground truth data, and in the absence of such data, an assessment of their qualities is a challenge. A recent study (Ferreira et al. 2016) evaluates the quality of each processing centre (CSR, JPL, GFZ, and GRGS) by estimating their individual uncertainties using a generalised formulation of the three-cornered hat (TCH) method. It was found that the TCH results for the study period of August 2002 to June 2014 indicate that on a global scale, the CSR, GFZ, GRGS, and JPL present uncertainties of 9.4, 13.7, 14.8, and 13.2 mm, respectively. On a basin scale, the overall good performance of the CSR is observed at 91 river basins. The TCH-based results are confirmed by a comparison with an ensemble solution from the four GRACE processing centres. Reference Ferreira VG, Montecino HDC, Yakubu CI and Heck B (2016) Uncertainties of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment time

  3. Noise Exposure Assessment in a Dental School

    OpenAIRE

    Thitiworn Choosong; Wandee Kaimook; Ratchada Tantisarasart; Puwanai Sooksamear; Satith Chayaphum; Chanon Kongkamol; Wisarut Srisintorn; Pitchaya Phakthongsuk

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This cross-sectional study was performed in the Dental School of Prince of Songkla University to ascertain noise exposure of dentists, dental assistants, and laboratory technicians. A noise spectral analysis was taken to illustrate the spectra of dental devices. Methods: A noise evaluation was performed to measure the noise level at dental clinics and one dental laboratory from May to December 2010. Noise spectral data of dental devices were taken during dental practices at the...

  4. Noise exposure assessment in a dental school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choosong, Thitiworn; Kaimook, Wandee; Tantisarasart, Ratchada; Sooksamear, Puwanai; Chayaphum, Satith; Kongkamol, Chanon; Srisintorn, Wisarut; Phakthongsuk, Pitchaya

    2011-12-01

    This cross-sectional study was performed in the Dental School of Prince of Songkla University to ascertain noise exposure of dentists, dental assistants, and laboratory technicians. A noise spectral analysis was taken to illustrate the spectra of dental devices. A noise evaluation was performed to measure the noise level at dental clinics and one dental laboratory from May to December 2010. Noise spectral data of dental devices were taken during dental practices at the dental services clinic and at the dental laboratory. A noise dosimeter was set following the Occupational Safety and Health Administration criteria and then attached to the subjects' collar to record personal noise dose exposure during working periods. The peaks of the noise spectrum of dental instruments were at 1,000, 4,000, and 8,000 Hz which depended on the type of instrument. The differences in working areas and job positions had an influence on the level of noise exposure (p personal hearing zone found that the laboratory technicians were exposed to the highest impulsive noise levels (137.1 dBC). The dentists and dental assistants who worked at a pedodontic clinic had the highest percent noise dose (4.60 ± 3.59%). In the working areas, the 8-hour time-weighted average of noise levels ranged between 49.7-58.1 dBA while the noisiest working area was the dental laboratory. Dental personnel are exposed to noise intensities lower than occupational exposure limits. Therefore, these dental personnel may not experience a noise-induced hearing loss.

  5. Wireless Phones Electromagnetic Field Radiation Exposure Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    A. D. Usman; W. F.W. Ahmad; M. Z.A.A. Kadir; M. Mokhtar

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Inadequate knowledge of electromagnetic field emitted by mobile phones and increased usage at close proximity, created a lot of skepticism and speculations among end users on its safety or otherwise. Approach: In this study, near field electromagnetic field radiation measurements were conducted on different brand of mobile phones in active mode using a tri-axis isotropic probe and electric field meter. Results: The highest electromagnetic field exposure was recorded when th...

  6. Approaches for assessment of terrestrial vertebrate responses to contaminants: moving beyond individual organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, P.H.; Heinz, G.H.; Hall, R.J.; Albers, Peter H.; Heinz, Gary H.; Ohlendorf, Harry M.

    2000-01-01

    Conclusions: A need for a broader range ofinformation on effects of contaminants on individuals exists among the 4 classes of terrestrial vertebrates, especially mammals, reptiles, and amphibians. Separation of contaminant effects from other effects and reduction of speculative extrapolation within and among species requires information that can be produced only by combined field and laboratory investigations that incorporate seasonal or annual cycles and important spatial and interaction conditions. Assessments of contaminant effects at the population level and higher are frequently dependent on extrapolations from a lower organizational level. Actual measurements of the effects of contaminants on populations or communities, possibly in conjunction with case studies that establish relations between effects on individuals and effects on populations, are needed to reduce the uncertainty associated with these extrapolations. Associated with these assessment levels is the need for acceptable definitions of what we mean when we refer to a 'meaningful population change' or an 'effect on communities or ecosystems.' At these higher levels of organization we are also confronted with the need for procedures useful for separating contaminant effects from effects caused by other environmental conditions. Although the bulk of literature surveyed was of the focused cause-and-effect type that is necessary for proving relations between contaminants and wildlife, community or ecosystem field assessments, as sometimes performed with reptiles and amphibians, might be a useful alternative for estimating the potential of a contaminant to cause environmental harm. Assumptions about the special usefulness of reptiles and amphibians as environmental indicators ought to be tested with comparisons to mammals and birds. Information on the effects of contaminants above the individual level is needed to generate accurate estimates of the potential consequences of anthropogenic pollution (e

  7. Linking Aquatic Exposure and Effects: Risk Assessment of Pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brock, T.C.M.; Alix, A.; Brown, C.D.; Capri, E.; Gottesburen, E.

    2010-01-01

    Time-variable exposure profiles of pesticides are more often the rule than exception in the surface waters of agricultural landscapes. There is, therefore, a need to adequately address the uncertainties arising from time-variable exposure profiles in the aquatic risk assessment procedure for

  8. Air pollution exposure assessment methods utilized in epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Bin; Wilson, J Gaines; Zhan, F Benjamin; Zeng, Yongnian

    2009-03-01

    The assessment of personal exposure to air pollution is a critical component of epidemiological studies associating air pollution and health effects. This paper critically reviewed 157 studies over 29 years that utilized one of five categories of exposure methods (proximity, air dispersion, hybrid, human inhalation, and biomarkers). Proximity models were found to be a questionable technique as they assume that closer proximity equates to greater exposure. Inhalation models and biomarker estimates were the most effective in assessing personal exposure, but are often cost prohibitive for large study populations. This review suggests that: (i) factors such as uncertainty, validity, data availability, and transferability related to exposure assessment methods should be considered when selecting a model; and (ii) although an entirely discreet new class of approach is not necessary, significant progress could be made through the development of a 'hybrid' model utilizing the strengths of several existing methods. Future work should systematically evaluate the performance of hybrid models compared to other individual exposure assessment methods utilizing geospatial information technologies (e.g. geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing (RS)) to more robustly refine estimates of ambient exposure and quantify the linkages and differences between outdoor, indoor and personal exposure estimates.

  9. Using a GIS model to assess terrestrial salamander response to alternative forest management plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric J. Gustafson; Nathan L. Murphy; Thomas R. Crow

    2001-01-01

    A GIS model predicting the spatial distribution of terrestrial salamander abundance based on topography and forest age was developed using parameters derived from the literature. The model was tested by sampling salamander abundance across the full range of site conditions used in the model. A regression of the predictions of our GIS model against these sample data...

  10. Developing Conceptual Models for Assessing Climate Change Impacts to Contaminant Availability in Terrestrial Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    about climate change, contaminant availability, and TER-S conservation on installations. CONCEPTUAL MODEL BACKGROUND: Conceptual models are...criteria were terrestrially based bats, reptiles, amphibians , and birds and were therefore used for developing CMs. Developing Conceptual Models. A...models for the following topics: contaminant availability, bats, birds, non-bat mammals, reptiles, and amphibians . To maintain consistency in the

  11. Contaminant exposure and potential effects on terrestrial vertebrates residing in the National Capital Region network and Mid-Atlantic network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Ackerson, B.K.

    2006-01-01

    Part of the mission of the National Park Service is to preserve the natural resources, processes, systems, and associated values of its units in an unimpaired condition. Environmental contamination and pollution processes are well recognized stressors addressed by its management policies and plans. A recent study indicates that contemporary terrestrial vertebrate ecotoxicological data are lacking for 59 of 126 Park Service units located in coastal watersheds exhibiting serious water quality problems or high vulnerability to pollution. Based upon these findings, a more in-depth evaluation of contaminant threats and ecotoxicological data gaps related to terrestrial vertebrates was undertaken at 23 Inventory and Monitoring National Park units in National Capital Region and Mid-Atlantic Networks.

  12. Assessing the terrestrial water balance in South America using multi-satellite remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparecida Moreira, Adriana; Ruhoff, Anderson; Cauduro Dias de Paiva, Rodrigo; Severo Correa, Dairan

    2017-04-01

    The hydrological cycle components of the terrestrial water cycle have been estimated with increasingly accuracy through remotely-sensed data, from regional to continental scales and in different time intervals. In this paper, we evaluated the water balance closure using remote sensing data in 28 large basins in South America for the period from 2003 to 2014. We used observed discharge (Q) data, precipitation (P) data from the TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA 3B43 version 7) with spatial resolution 0.25°, evapotranspiration (ET) data from MOD16, with spatial resolution of 0.05° and terrestrial water storage (TWS) estimations from the Gravity Recovery and climate Experiment (GRACE), with spatial resolution of 300 km. To evaluate the water budget closure, we used the simplified continuity equation (dS/dt=P-ET-Q) at monthly time-scales to analyse the water storage change in time (dS/dt), comparing the results to the TWS change from GRACE. Our results indicate that the water storage change dS/dt computed from remote sensing products showed significant correlations with the terrestrial water storage from GRACE. We found correlations higher than 0.70 in 14 basins, mostly in large basins located in the north of South America (with tropical wet and tropical dry climates), whilst lower correlations were found in Southern Brazil and in smaller basins (usually with subtropical climates). Lastly, we computed the correlation between dS/dt from GRACE and P, ET and Q. Precipitation was the hydrological component that showed better correlations, with 19 basins yielding a correlation higher than 0.70, suggesting that precipitation has a strong influence of the terrestrial water storage in those basins. Discharge measurements also yielded a very good agreement, with correlations higher than 0.63 in almost all basins. Despite the water balance closure based on remote sensing data still remains a challenge due to large biases and uncertainties in the precipitation

  13. Existing Default Values and Recommendations for Exposure Assessment - A Nordic Exposure Group Project 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höglund, Lena; Räisänen, Jouni; Hämäläinen, Anne-Maija

    Default values are often used in exposure assessments e.g. in modelling because of lack of actually measured data. The quality of the exposure assessment outcome is therefore heavily dependent on the validity and representativeness this input data. Today the used default factors consist of a wide...... and dust ingestion, drinking water, food intake, non-dietary ingestion factors, lifetime expectancy, activity factors and consumer products......'s exposure assessments. The exposure default values were collected from the relevant European sources (ECHA, Consexpo, EUSES, Biocide TNsG, ECETOC, ExpoFacts) as well as from WHO and US-EPA. The following key default factors selected to the evaluation: body weight, body surface area, inhalation rate, soil...

  14. Integrating exposure into chemical alternatives assessment using a qualitative approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greggs, Bill; Arnold, Scott; Burns, T. E.

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable Chemical Alternatives Technical Committee, which consists of scientists from academia, industry, government, and NGOs, has developed a qualitative comparative exposure approach. Conducting such a comparison can screen for alternatives that are expected to have a higher human or environmental......Most alternatives assessments (AA) published to date are largely hazard-based rankings, and as such may not represent a fully informed consideration of the advantages and disadvantages of possible alternatives. With an assessment goal of identifying an alternative chemical that is more sustainable...... exposure potential, which could trigger a higher-tiered, more quantitative exposure assessment on the alternatives being considered, minimizing the likelihood of regrettable substitution. This talk will demonstrate an approach for including chemical- and product-related exposure information...

  15. Integrating exposure into chemical alternatives assessment using a qualitative approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greggs, Bill; Arnold, Scott; Burns, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable Chemical Alternatives Technical Committee, which consists of scientists from academia, industry, government, and NGOs, has developed a qualitative comparative exposure approach. Conducting such a comparison can screen for alternatives that are expected to have a higher exposure potential, which......Most alternatives assessments (AA) published to date are largely hazard-based rankings, and as such may not represent a fully informed consideration of the advantages and disadvantages of possible alternatives. With an assessment goal of identifying an alternative chemical that is more sustainable...... could trigger a higher-tiered, more quantitative exposure assessment on the alternatives being considered. This talk will demonstrate an approach for including chemical- and product-related exposure information in a qualitative AA comparison. Starting from existing hazard AAs, a series of four chemical...

  16. FLUKA Monte Carlo assessment of the terrestrial muon flux at low energies and comparison against experimental measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Infantino, Angelo, E-mail: angelo.infantino@cern.ch [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva 23, Geneva CH-1211 (Switzerland); TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 2A3 (Canada); Blackmore, Ewart W. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 2A3 (Canada); Brugger, Markus; Alía, Rubén García [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva 23, Geneva CH-1211 (Switzerland); Stukel, Matthew; Trinczek, Michael [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 2A3 (Canada)

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in the assessment and modelling of Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) particularly regarding the evaluation of the radiation effects on airline crew and passengers, interplanetary missions and on-board microelectronics. In the latter field, today the problem is not just limited to Single Event Effects (SEE) as used in avionics, but is more and more observed at ground level. Galactic cosmic muons, coming from the interaction of primary cosmic rays in the Earth's atmosphere, represent the most numerous species at ground level. In this work, we used the Monte Carlo code FLUKA to assess the atmospheric and terrestrial neutron and muon differential fluxes at various altitudes and specific examples such as the geographic coordinates corresponding to New York City and Vancouver. In this context, particle energy spectra were compared with references available in literature, calculation results obtained by both the QARM and EXPACS codes, as well as recently performed measurements. In addition, the zenith angular distribution, at ground level, was assessed for both neutrons and muons and compared with available references. Differential particle fluxes assessed for Vancouver were used as a primary source to simulate a muon detector currently taking data at TRIUMF to evaluate the passing and stopping terrestrial muon rate under different conditions. Finally, simulations were compared with the experimental measurements made at TRIUMF. Results show an excellent agreement between the FLUKA simulations and both references and the experimental measurements made at TRIUMF.

  17. Environmental exposure assessment framework for nanoparticles in solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldrin, Alessio; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Baun, Anders

    2014-01-01

    releases, eventually leading to a final assessment of potential ENM exposure. The proposed framework was applied to three selected nanoproducts: nanosilver polyester textile, nanoTiO2 sunscreen lotion and carbon nanotube tennis racquets. We found that the potential global environmental exposure of ENMs......Information related to the potential environmental exposure of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in the solid waste management phase is extremely scarce. In this paper, we define nanowaste as separately collected or collectable waste materials which are or contain ENMs, and we present a five......-step framework for the systematic assessment of ENM exposure during nanowaste management. The framework includes deriving EOL nanoproducts and evaluating the physicochemical properties of the nanostructure, matrix properties and nanowaste treatment processes as well as transformation processes and environment...

  18. Assessment of two nonnative poeciliid fishes for monitoring selenium exposure in the endangered desert pupfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, Michael K.; Martin, Barbara A.; May, Thomas W.; Brumbaugh, William G.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the suitability of two nonnative poeciliid fishes—western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) and sailfin mollies (Poecilia latipinna)—for monitoring selenium exposure in desert pupfish (Cyprinodon macularius). Our investigation was prompted by a need to avoid lethal take of an endangered species (pupfish) when sampling fish for chemical analysis. Total selenium (SeTot) concentrations in both poeciliids were highly correlated with SeTot concentrations in pupfish. However, mean SeTot concentrations varied among fish species, with higher concentrations measured in mosquitofish than in mollies and pupfish from one of three sampled agricultural drains. Moreover, regression equations describing the relationship of selenomethionine to SeTot differed between mosquitofish and pupfish, but not between mollies and pupfish. Because selenium accumulates in animals primarily through dietary exposure, we examined fish trophic relationships by measuring stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) and gut contents. According to δ13C measurements, the trophic pathway leading to mosquitofish was more carbon-depleted than trophic pathways leading to mollies and pupfish, suggesting that energy flow to mosquitofish originated from allochthonous sources (terrestrial vegetation, emergent macrophytes, or both), whereas energy flow to mollies and pupfish originated from autochthonous sources (filamentous algae, submerged macrophytes, or both). The δ15N measurements indicated that mosquitofish and mollies occupied similar trophic levels, whereas pupfish occupied a slightly higher trophic level. Analysis of gut contents showed that mosquitofish consumed mostly winged insects (an indication of terrestrial taxa), whereas mollies and pupfish consumed mostly organic detritus. Judging from our results, only mollies (not mosquitofish) are suitable for monitoring selenium exposure in pupfish.

  19. Assessment of exposure dose to workers in virtual decommissioning environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, KwanSeong; Moon, JeiKwon; Choi, ByungSeon; Hyun, Dongjun; Lee, Jonghwan; Kim, Ikjune; Kim, GeunHo; Seo, JaeSeok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    This paper is intended to suggest the method analyze and assess the exposure dose to workers in virtual decommissioning environments. To simulate a lot of decommissioning scenarios, decommissioning environments were designed in virtual reality. To simulate and assess the exposure dose to workers, human model also was designed in virtual environments. These virtual decommissioning environments made it possible to real-time simulate and assess the exposure dose to workers. This work was to be able to simulate scenarios of decommissioning so that exposure dose to workers could be measured and assessed. To establish the plan of exposure dose to workers during decommissioning of nuclear facilities before decommissioning activities are accomplished, the method of simulation assessment was developed in virtual radiological environments. But this work was developed as a tool of simulation for single subject mode. Afterwards, the simulation environment for multi-subjects mode will be upgraded by simultaneous modules with networking environments. Then the much more practical method will be developed by changing number of workers and duration of time under any circumstances of decommissioning.

  20. Fungi, MVOCs and dust exposure assessment in poultry production

    OpenAIRE

    Viegas, Susana; Sabino, Raquel; Veríssimo, Cristina; Monteiro, Ana; Viegas, Carla

    2012-01-01

    Moulds are considered central elements in daily exposure of poultry workers and can be the cause of an increased risk of occupational respiratory diseases, like allergic and non-allergic rhinitis and asthma. The objective is to evaluate the exposure to different species of moulds in poultries and relate them with respiratory symptoms in poultry workers. Seven Portuguese poultries were analyzed in order to assess air fungal contamination, as well as to evaluate the existence of clinical sympto...

  1. Assessment of the importance of acidic fogwater and cloudwater in affecting terrestrial vegetation: Some important case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irving, P.M.; Eagar, C. (National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program, Washington, DC (USA). Office of the Director of Research; Forest Service, Broomall, PA (USA). Northeastern Forest Experiment Station)

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present some examples of terrestrial effects of concern as case studies to demonstrate the methodology to be used for answering questions of the NAPAP Integrated Assessment. The two examples presented, one each for forestry and crops, represent what is probably the worst case'' for possible acidic rain effects on crops and forests. Both examples revolve around hypotheses centering on stress from acidic fogwater or cloudwater. Because it is likely that additional information will become available prior to the publication of the Integrated Assessment, it should be understood that the analyses and interpretations presented on the following pages are subject to change when NAPAP publishes its final Assessment in 1990. 76 refs., 3 tabs.

  2. Stakeholder attitudes towards cumulative and aggregate exposure assessment of pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeke, Wim; Van Loo, Ellen J; Vanhonacker, Filiep; Delcour, Ilse; Spanoghe, Pieter; van Klaveren, Jacob D

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluates the attitudes and perspectives of different stakeholder groups (agricultural producers, pesticide manufacturers, trading companies, retailers, regulators, food safety authorities, scientists and NGOs) towards the concepts of cumulative and aggregate exposure assessment of pesticides by means of qualitative in-depth interviews (n = 15) and a quantitative stakeholder survey (n = 65). The stakeholders involved generally agreed that the use of chemical pesticides is needed, primarily for meeting the need of feeding the growing world population, while clearly acknowledging the problematic nature of human exposure to pesticide residues. Current monitoring was generally perceived to be adequate, but the timeliness and consistency of monitoring practices across countries were questioned. The concept of cumulative exposure assessment was better understood by stakeholders than the concept of aggregate exposure assessment. Identified pitfalls were data availability, data limitations, sources and ways of dealing with uncertainties, as well as information and training needs. Regulators and food safety authorities were perceived as the stakeholder groups for whom cumulative and aggregate pesticide exposure assessment methods and tools would be most useful and acceptable. Insights obtained from this exploratory study have been integrated in the development of targeted and stakeholder-tailored dissemination and training programmes that were implemented within the EU-FP7 project ACROPOLIS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Human biological monitoring of mercury for exposure assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romilda Z. Boerleider

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mercury (Hg is a naturally occurring element that has metallic, inorganic and organic forms, each with their own implications for human health. Exposure to mercury primarily occurs by inhalation of metallic mercury vapors and by dietary intake of organic mercury. Early health effects are often not well detected. Therefore, determination of the internal dose is a valuable approach in primary prevention. With this review, we aim to give an overview of the different human biological monitoring (HBM approaches for short- and long-term exposure to different chemical forms of mercury. We performed a literature search in PubMed using Medical Subject Headings (MeSH terms as well as free text words. From 417 reviews found, we selected 8 reviews. In addition, online information from national and international health authorities was used. The format of the biological application datasheets from the BIOMONECS project was used to provide an overview of the different biological media for HBM of mercury and methyl mercury. Recent exposure to metallic mercury can be assessed by blood sampling within 24 h after exposure. If children are involved, breath sampling can be considered as a less invasive alternative. Urinary mercury levels mainly reflect long-term inhalation exposure to elemental mercury vapors and divalent mercury. Mercury in blood and hair reflects mid- and long-term exposure to methyl mercury, whereas analysis of a hair segment close to the scalp indicates recent exposure. A flow chart was developed to support the selection of the most suitable HBM approach. For each of the different biological matrices, we provided an overview of advantages and limitations. Depending on the source and duration of exposure, blood, exhaled air, urine or hair can be used for mercury exposure assessment.

  4. Helmet-Cam: tool for assessing miners' respirable dust exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecala, A B; Reed, W R; Joy, G J; Westmoreland, S C; O'Brien, A D

    2013-09-01

    Video technology coupled with datalogging exposure monitors have been used to evaluate worker exposure to different types of contaminants. However, previous application of this technology used a stationary video camera to record the worker's activity while the worker wore some type of contaminant monitor. These techniques are not applicable to mobile workers in the mining industry because of their need to move around the operation while performing their duties. The Helmet-Cam is a recently developed exposure assessment tool that integrates a person-wearable video recorder with a datalogging dust monitor. These are worn by the miner in a backpack, safety belt or safety vest to identify areas or job tasks of elevated exposure. After a miner performs his or her job while wearing the unit, the video and dust exposure data files are downloaded to a computer and then merged together through a NIOSH-developed computer software program called Enhanced Video Analysis of Dust Exposure (EVADE). By providing synchronized playback of the merged video footage and dust exposure data, the EVADE software allows for the assessment and identification of key work areas and processes, as well as work tasks that significantly impact a worker's personal respirable dust exposure. The Helmet-Cam technology has been tested at a number of metal/nonmetal mining operations and has proven to be a valuable assessment tool. Mining companies wishing to use this technique can purchase a commercially available video camera and an instantaneous dust monitor to obtain the necessary data, and the NIOSH-developed EVADE software will be available for download at no cost on the NIOSH website.

  5. 75 FR 28804 - An Exposure Assessment of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-24

    ... exposure media concentrations, and an exposure assessment including background exposures and exposures to... higher for children compared with those for adults. In December 2008, the draft report was released for...

  6. Task-based exposure assessment of nanoparticles in the workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Seunghon; Yoon, Chungsik; Lee, Euiseung; Lee, Kiyoung; Park, Donguk; Chung, Eunkyo; Kim, Pilje; Lee, Byoungcheun

    2012-09-01

    Although task-based sampling is, theoretically, a plausible approach to the assessment of nanoparticle exposure, few studies using this type of sampling have been published. This study characterized and compared task-based nanoparticle exposure profiles for engineered nanoparticle manufacturing workplaces (ENMW) and workplaces that generated welding fumes containing incidental nanoparticles. Two ENMW and two welding workplaces were selected for exposure assessments. Real-time devices were utilized to characterize the concentration profiles and size distributions of airborne nanoparticles. Filter-based sampling was performed to measure time-weighted average (TWA) concentrations, and off-line analysis was performed using an electron microscope. Workplace tasks were recorded by researchers to determine the concentration profiles associated with particular tasks/events. This study demonstrated that exposure profiles differ greatly in terms of concentrations and size distributions according to the task performed. The size distributions recorded during tasks were different from both those recorded during periods with no activity and from the background. The airborne concentration profiles of the nanoparticles varied according to not only the type of workplace but also the concentration metrics. The concentrations measured by surface area and the number concentrations measured by condensation particle counter, particulate matter 1.0, and TWA mass concentrations all showed a similar pattern, whereas the number concentrations measured by scanning mobility particle sizer indicated that the welding fume concentrations at one of the welding workplaces were unexpectedly higher than were those at workplaces that were engineering nanoparticles. This study suggests that a task-based exposure assessment can provide useful information regarding the exposure profiles of nanoparticles and can therefore be used as an exposure assessment tool.

  7. Radium-226 in drinking water and terrestrial food chains: a review of parameters and an estimate of potential exposure and dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, A.P.; Etnier, E.L.; McDowell-Boyer, L.M.

    1983-04-01

    Environmental transport of /sup 226/Ra from geological formations to drinking water and from soil to vegetation, meat and milk were quantitatively analyzed following a review of literature. Both natural and industrial sources were investigated. Particular attention was given to references specific for the phosphate-mining region of southwestern Florida. Literature sources have been interpreted to develop concentration factors describing terrestrial food-chain transport. Unweighted means and associated ranges of concentration factor values, representing averages of data collected over a variety of environmental conditions, soil types, and chemical forms, are also provided. Annual human exposure and 50-year dose commitments to bone, lung, liver, kidney and whole body were estimated by assuming mean concentration factors as well as annual food and water consumption rates.

  8. Assessing the Potential for Bioremediation through Formation and Fate of Metal Rich Granules in the Terrestrial Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    term assessment of bioremediation potential  Determine if Pb can be re- released by bacterial degradation Microbial Pb Degradation Products? Pb+2...Section Analysis Fe 0 Map Area 0 Pb/As Zn BUILDING STRONG® MRG Microbial Exposures MRGs located within earthworm fractions Speciation data collected...plus Pb MRGs Soil exposure to worms Pb+2 Sorption to cell surfaces Acid, Siderophore , or Exopolysacch aride Nutrients Pb+2 mobilization Uptake

  9. In Vitro Exposure Systems and Dosimetry Assessment Tools ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2009, the passing of The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act facilitated the establishment of the FDA Center for Tobacco Products (CTP) and gave it regulatory authority over the marketing, manufacture and distribution of tobacco products, including those termed “modified risk”. On 4-6 April 2016, the Institute for In Vitro Sciences, Inc. (IIVS) convened a workshop conference titled “In Vitro Exposure Systems and Dosimetry Assessment Tools for Inhaled Tobacco Products” to bring together stakeholders representing regulatory agencies, academia, and industry to address the research priorities articulated by the FDA CTP. Specific topics were covered to assess the status of current in vitro smoke and aerosol/vapor exposure systems, as well as the various approaches and challenges to quantifying the complex exposures, in in vitro pulmonary models developed for evaluating adverse pulmonary events resulting from tobacco product exposures. The four core topics covered were, 1) Tobacco Smoke And E-Cigarette Aerosols, 2) Air-Liquid Interface-In Vitro Exposure Systems, 3) Dosimetry Approaches For Particles And Vapors; In Vitro Dosimetry Determinations and 4) Exposure Microenvironment/Physiology Of Cells. The two and a half day workshop included presentations from 20 expert speakers, poster sessions, networking discussions, and breakout sessions which identified key findings and provided recommendations to advance these technologies. Here, we will re

  10. Occupational exposure assessment in a radioactive facility: a preliminary evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Alice dos Santos; Gerulis, Eduardo; Sanches, Matias P.; Carneiro, Janete C.G.G., E-mail: alicesante@hotmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The risk that a worker has found on the job is a function of the hazards present and his exposure level to those hazards. Exposure and risk assessment is therefore the heart of all occupational health and industrial hygiene programs involving a continuous process of information gathering. The use of a systematic method to characterize workplace exposures to chemical, physical and biological risks is a fundamental part of this process. This study aims to carry out a preliminary evaluation in a radioactive facility, identifying potential exposures and consequently the existing occupational hazards (risk/agent) in the workplace which the employee is subject. The study is based on proposal to carry out a basic characterization of the facility, which could be the first step in the investigation of occupational exposure. For this study was essential to know the workplace, potential risks and agents; workforce profile including assignment of tasks, sources of exposure processes, and control measures. The main tool used in this study was based on references, records, standards, procedures, interviews with the workers and with management. Since the basic characterization of the facility has been carried out, consequently the potential exposure to the agents of risks to workers has been identified. The study provided an overview of the perception of risk founded at facility studied. It is expected to contribute with the occupational health program resources for welfare of the worker. (author)

  11. Cumulative risk assessment of chemical exposures in urban environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragas, Ad M J; Oldenkamp, R; Preeker, N L; Wernicke, J; Schlink, U

    2011-07-01

    We performed a cumulative risk assessment for people living in a hypothetical urban environment, called Urbania. The main aims of the study were to demonstrate how a cumulative risk assessment for a middle-sized European city can be performed and to identify the bottlenecks in terms of data availability and knowledge gaps. The assessment focused on five air pollutants (i.e., PM₁₀, benzene, toluene, nonane and naphthalene) and six food pesticides (i.e., acetamiprid, carbendazim, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, imidacloprid and permethrin). Exposure predictions showed that PM₁₀, benzene and naphthalene exposure frequently exceeded the standards, and that the indoor environment contributed more than the outdoor environment. Effect predictions showed that mixture and interaction effects were generally limited. However, model calculations indicated potential synergistic effects between naphthalene and benzene and between chlorpyrifos, diazinon and toluene. PM₁₀ dominated the health impact expressed in Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). We conclude that measures to reduce the health impact of environmental pollution should focus on the improvement of indoor air quality and the reduction of PM₁₀ emissions. Cumulative risk assessment can be improved by (1) the development of person-oriented exposure models that can simulate the cumulative exposure history of individuals, (2) a better mechanistic understanding of the effects of cumulative stressors, and (3) the development of instruments to prioritize stressors for inclusion in cumulative risk assessments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Drone based measurement system for radiofrequency exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Wout; Aerts, Sam; Vandenbossche, Matthias; Thielens, Arno; Martens, Luc

    2016-03-10

    For the first time, a method to assess radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure of the general public in real environments with a true free-space antenna system is presented. Using lightweight electronics and multiple antennas placed on a drone, it is possible to perform exposure measurements. This technique will enable researchers to measure three-dimensional RF-EMF exposure patterns accurately in the future and at locations currently difficult to access. A measurement procedure and appropriate measurement settings have been developed. As an application, outdoor measurements are performed as a function of height up to 60 m for Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) 900 MHz base station exposure. Bioelectromagnetics. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Skin exposure: Assessing the hazard in the workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Kevin

    1994-01-01

    An outline of the Occupational Safety and Health Agency's concerns of skin exposure to hazardous chemicals is presented, followed by the corresponding slide narrations. Specifically, dermatitis and skin absorption as compared to lung absorption are addressed. Lung versus skin exposure is examined for glycol ethers and acrylamide. Examples of skin exposure include PBC's in transformers, toluene and xylene from autobody work, polynuclear aromatics (PNA's) among Coke oven workers, toluene diisocyanate (TDI), and occupational chemical exposures in an academic medical center. Permeation through gloves in the semiconductor industry is addressed as evidence for the need to assess the effectiveness of PPE (Personal Protective Equipment). This leads to the revisions of the PPE standard and the Safety and Health Program standard.

  14. Exposure assessment in studies on health effects of traffic exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setaelae, S. [Association for the Pulmonary Disabled, Helsinki (Finland); Jaakkola, J.J.K. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Public Health

    1995-12-31

    A main source of outdoor air pollution is road traffic, which produces a complex mixture of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, volatile hydrocarbons, airborne particles and some other compounds. Traffic exhaust affects also the concentrations of ozone and other photo chemical oxidants. In earlier studies those components have had remarkable health effects. Several studies on occupational exposure to automobile exhaust have been published and several studies have been observed an association between both outdoor and indoor pollutant levels and health outcomes. However, there are only a few epidemiological studies in which traffic exhaust, a complex mixture, has been studied in its entirety. During recent years, interesting epidemiological studies of the health effects of this complex mixture have been published. Human exposure assessment for traffic exhaust can be categorized according to the environment of exposure (indoors, outdoors, in-traffic) or to the method of exposure assessment (direct or indirect methods). In this presentation the methods are further categorized into (1) traffic activity, (2) air concentration measurements, and (3) dispersion models, in order to better understand the advantages and disadvantages of different approaches. The objective of this presentation is to make a critical review of exposure assessments in the epidemiological studies on health effects of traffic exhaust. (author)

  15. Occupational Exposure Assessment of Nanomaterials using Control Banding Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liguori, Biase

    Nanotechnology can be termed as the “new industrial revolution”. A broad range of potential benefits in various applications for the environment and everyday life of humans can be related to the use of nanotechnology. Nanomaterials are used in a large variety of products already in the market......, and because of their novel physical and chemical characteristics, the application of nanomaterials is projected to increase further. This will inevitably increase the production of nanomaterials with potential increase of exposure for the workers which are the first in line expected to become exposed...... to potentially hazardous nanomaterials. Exposure assessment of nanomaterials is more difficult to define and conduct than that of traditional chemicals. This thesis provides an analysis of the field of occupational exposure assessment and a number of challenges are identified. The analysis showed...

  16. Opportunities for using spatial property assessment data in air pollution exposure assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keller C Peter

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many epidemiological studies examining the relationships between adverse health outcomes and exposure to air pollutants use ambient air pollution measurements as a proxy for personal exposure levels. When pollution levels vary at neighbourhood levels, using ambient pollution data from sparsely located fixed monitors may inadequately capture the spatial variation in ambient pollution. A major constraint to moving toward exposure assessments and epidemiological studies of air pollution at a neighbourhood level is the lack of readily available data at appropriate spatial resolutions. Spatial property assessment data are widely available in North America and may provide an opportunity for developing neighbourhood level air pollution exposure assessments. Results This paper provides a detailed description of spatial property assessment data available in the Pacific Northwest of Canada and the United States, and provides examples of potential applications of spatial property assessment data for improving air pollution exposure assessment at the neighbourhood scale, including: (1 creating variables for use in land use regression modelling of neighbourhood levels of ambient air pollution; (2 enhancing wood smoke exposure estimates by mapping fireplace locations; and (3 using data available on individual building characteristics to produce a regional air pollution infiltration model. Conclusion Spatial property assessment data are an extremely detailed data source at a fine spatial resolution, and therefore a source of information that could improve the quality and spatial resolution of current air pollution exposure assessments.

  17. Stoffenmanager exposure model: company-specific exposure assessments using a Bayesian methodology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, P. van de; Fransman, W.; Schinkel, J.; Rubingh, C.; Warren, N.; Tielemans, E.

    2010-01-01

    The web-based tool "Stoffenmanager" was initially developed to assist small- and medium-sized enterprises in the Netherlands to make qualitative risk assessments and to provide advice on control at the workplace. The tool uses a mechanistic model to arrive at a "Stoffenmanager score" for exposure.

  18. EPa`s program for risk assessment guidelines: Exposure issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callahan, M.A. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    Three major issues to be dealt with over the next ten years in the exposure assessment field are: consistency in terminology, the impact of computer technology on the choice of data and modeling, and conceptual issues such as the use of time-weighted averages.

  19. How to assess exposure of aquatic organisms to manufactured nanoparticles?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quik, Joris T.K.; Vonk, Jan Arie; Hansen, Steffen Foss

    2011-01-01

    Ecological risk of chemicals is measured by the quotient of predicted no-effect concentrations and predicted exposure concentrations, which are hard to assess for manufactured nanomaterials (NMs). This paper proposes modifications to currently used models, in order to make them suitable for estim...

  20. Task-based dermal exposure models for regulatory risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warren, N.D.; Marquart, H.; Christopher, Y.; Laitinen, J.; Hemmen, J.J. van

    2006-01-01

    The regulatory risk assessment of chemicals requires the estimation of occupational dermal exposure. Until recently, the models used were either based on limited data or were specific to a particular class of chemical or application. The EU project RISKOFDERM has gathered a considerable number of

  1. Elderly Exposure to Air Pollutants : Measuring, assessing and modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almeida-Silva, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    This Thesis focuses on the estimation of the human exposure to air pollutants, and gives special attention to one of the most susceptible groups in the general population - elders. To fulfil the goal the work was conducted following the risk assessment paradigm and, consequently, was divided into 5

  2. Ergonomic and health assessment of farmers' multi-pesticide exposure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 534 farmers in the largest vegetable –producing area in the northern part of the Philippines. This study assessed the ergonomic risk factors, and occupational health and safety conditions of farmers' multi-pesticide exposures.Methods. Methods consisted of ...

  3. Human exposure assessment for airborne pollutants: advances and opportunities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    National Research Council Staff

    1991-01-01

    ... in Assessing Human Exposure to Airborne Pollutants Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES WASHINGTON, D.C. 1991 i Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, original authoritative the typesetting-speci...

  4. Ecological risk assessment for the terrestrial ecosystem under chronic radioactive pollution - Ecological risk assessment for the biota on regional radioactive waste storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavrentyeva, G.V.; Synzynys, B.I.; Shoshina, R.R.; Mirzeabasov, O.A. [Obninsk Institute for Nuclear Power Engineering, branch of the National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Department of Ecology, Studgorodok,1, 249040 Obninsk, Kaluga region (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Now the methods of ecological regulation of a radiation factor from risk assessment are developed poorly. The paper attempts to assess and forecast the terrestrial ecosystem conditions under chronic ionizing radiation by calculating the critical loads. The paper is aimed at developing a methodology to assess the ecological risk for a terrestrial ecosystem under chronic radioactive pollution in a biotope of a regional radioactive waste storage. Objects and Methods: Biotope monitoring of a radioactive waste storage makes clear that the radioecological situation in this territory is stipulated by technogenic {sup 90}Sr found in soil, ground water and biota. Terrestrial mollusks of a shrubby Snail type (Bradybaena fruticum) were chosen as reference species due to their activity to accumulate {sup 90}Sr in shells and the number of colony-forming soil units (CFU) as reference indices. The number of CFU was determined by inoculation of solid medium. Soil and mollusk samples have been collected at most representative sites identified in the previous studies. To assess {sup 90}Sr content in the samples collected, radiochemical separation was used with further radionuclide activity measurements by a 'BETA-01C' scintillation beta-ray spectrometer according to a standard procedure of {sup 90}Sr content assessment from beta-radiation of its daughter radionuclide {sup 90}Y. Ecological risk was calculated from analyzed critical loads using a 'dose-effect' dependence. Statistical data processing was realized with Excell 2007 and R software programs [R Development Core Team, 2010]. The software R was also used for GIS creation. Results and Discussion: A methodology of ecological risk assessment for the terrestrial ecosystem under chronic radioactive pollution of a biotope near a regional radioactive waste storage has been developed in terms of the critical environmental loads analyzed. It consists of five stages: determination of effect indicators and assessment

  5. Intercomparison of Terrestrial Laser Scanning Instruments for Assessing Forested Ecosystems: A Brisbane Field Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armston, J.; Newnham, G.; Strahler, A. H.; Schaaf, C.; Danson, M.; Gaulton, R.; Zhang, Z.; Disney, M.; Sparrow, B.; Phinn, S. R.; Schaefer, M.; Burt, A.; Counter, S.; Erb, A.; Goodwin, N.; Hancock, S.; Howe, G.; Johansen, K.; Li, Z.; Lollback, G.; Martel, J.; Muir, J.; Paynter, I.; Saenz, E.; Scarth, P.; Tindall, D.; Walker, L.; Witte, C.; Woodgate, W.; Wu, S.

    2013-12-01

    During 28th July - 3rd August, 2013, an international group of researchers brought five terrestrial laser scanners (TLS) to long-term monitoring plots in three eucalyptus-dominated woodland sites near Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, to acquire scans at common locations for calibration and intercomparison.They included: DWEL - a dual-wavelength full-waveform laser scanner (Boston U., U. Massachusetts Lowell, U. Massachusetts Boston, USA) SALCA - a dual-wavelength full-waveform laser scanner (U. Salford, UK) CBL - a canopy biomass lidar, a small ultraportable low-cost multiple discrete return scanner (U. Massachusetts Boston, USA) Riegl VZ400 - a survey-grade commercial waveform scanner (Queensland Government and TERN, U. Queensland, Australia) FARO Focus 3D - a lightweight commercial phase-shift ranging laser scanner (U. Southern Queensland) Two plots were scanned at Karawatha Forest Park, a Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network (TERN) Supersite, and one plot at D'Aguilar National Park. At each 50 x 100 m plot, a center scan point was surrounded by four scan points located 25 m away in a cross pattern allowing for 3-D reconstructions of scan sites in the form of point clouds. At several center points, multiple instrument configurations (i.e. different beam divergence, angular resolution, pulse rate) were acquired to test the impact of instrument specifications on separation of woody and non-woody materials and estimation of vegetation structure parameters. Three-dimensional Photopoint photographic panoramas were also acquired, providing reconstructions of stems in the form of point clouds using photogrammetric correlation methods. Calibrated reflectance targets were also scanned to compare instrument geometric and radiometric performance. Ancillary data included hemispherical photos, TRAC LAI/clumping measurements, spectra of leaves, bark, litter, and other target components. Wet and dry leaf weights determined water content. Planned intercomparison topics and

  6. Exposure assessment of MWCNTs in their life cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono-Ogasawara, M.; Takaya, M.; Yamada, M.

    2015-05-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are used as a filler in composites to obtain electrical conductivity, and improve mechanical strength and other properties. However, exposure to MWCNTs may pose health risks because of their size, shape, and insolubility. A quantitative exposure assessment method for CNTs is therefore needed. We have developed a promising carbon analysis method that considers the size distribution of elemental carbon. We conducted exposure assessment according to the lifecycle of CNTs. At the first stage, large quantity of CNTs are handled and exposure to neat CNTs is likely to occur. When large quantity of CNTs are handled, enclosure and automated process are strongly recommended. By applying appropriate measures, CNT concentration can be well controlled. Local exhaust ventilation and less-restrictive enclosures were found to work well during the second stage, which involves handling smaller CNT quantities. At measured sites, MWCNT concentrations were below an occupational exposure level proposed by Nakanishi (i.e., 0.030 mg/m3). This analysis method can also be applied to particles containing MWCNTs. At downstream stages of the lifecycle, neat MWCNTs were not observed and concentrations of embedded MWCNTs were lower than 0.015 mg/m3.

  7. The use of terrestrial and aquatic microcosms and mesocosms for the ecological risk assessment of veterinary medicinal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Brink, Paul J; Tarazona, Jose V; Solomon, Keith R; Knacker, Thomas; Van den Brink, Nico W; Brock, Theo C M; Hoogland, J P

    2005-04-01

    In this paper, we investigate the applicability of experimental model ecosystems (microcosms and mesocosms) for the ecological risk assessment of veterinary medicinal products (VMPs). VMPs are used in large quantities, but the assessment of associated risks to the environment is limited, although they are continually infused into the environment via a number of routes. It is argued that the experience obtained by pesticide research largely can be used when evaluating VMPs, although there are several major differences between pesticides and pharmaceuticals (e.g., knowledge of their mechanisms of action on nontarget organisms). Also, because microorganisms are often the target organisms of VMPs, risk assessment should focus more on endpoints describing functional processes. This paper provides a review of the current risk assessment schemes of Europe and North America along with examples of experiments already performed with veterinary medicinal products in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystem models. We suggest that some of the approaches developed for pesticide risk assessment can be used for VMPs and offer suggestions for the development of a framework for ecological risk assessment of VMPs.

  8. Assessing the reproductive health of men with occupational exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Steven M; Marlow, Katherine L

    2014-01-01

    The earliest report linking environmental (occupational) exposure to adverse human male reproductive effects dates back to1775 when an English physician, Percival Pott, reported a high incidence of scrotal cancer in chimney sweeps. This observation led to safety regulations in the form of bathing requirements for these workers. The fact that male-mediated reproductive harm in humans may be a result of toxicant exposures did not become firmly established until relatively recently, when Lancranjan studied lead-exposed workers in Romania in 1975, and later in 1977, when Whorton examined the effects of dibromochloropropane (DBCP) on male workers in California. Since these discoveries, several additional human reproductive toxicants have been identified through the convergence of laboratory and observational findings. Many research gaps remain, as the pool of potential human exposures with undetermined effects on male reproduction is vast. This review provides an overview of methods used to study the effects of exposures on male reproduction and their reproductive health, with a primary emphasis on the implementation and interpretation of human studies. Emphasis will be on occupational exposures, although much of the information is also useful in assessing environmental studies, occupational exposures are usually much higher and better defined.

  9. Remote and terrestrial ground monitoring techniques integration for hazard assessment in mountain areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinellato, Giulia; Kenner, Robert; Iasio, Christian; Mair, Volkmar; Mosna, David; Mulas, Marco; Phillips, Marcia; Strada, Claudia; Zischg, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    In high mountain regions the choice of appropriate sites for infrastructure such as roads, railways, cable cars or hydropower dams is often very limited. In parallel, the increasing demand for supply infrastructure in the Alps induces a continuous transformation of the territory. The new role played by the precautionary monitoring in the risk governance becomes fundamental and may overcome the modeling of future events, which represented so far the predominant approach to these sort of issues. Furthermore the consequence of considering methodologies alternative to those more exclusive allow to reduce costs and increasing the frequency of measurements, updating continuously the cognitive framework of existing hazard condition in most susceptible territories. The scale factor of the observed area and the multiple purpose of such regional ordinary surveys make it convenient to adopt Radar Satellite-based systems, but they need to be integrated with terrestrial systems for validation and eventual early warning purposes. Significant progress over the past decade in Remote Sensing (RS), Proximal Sensing and integration-based sensor networks systems now provide technologies, that allow to implement monitoring systems for ordinary surveys of extensive areas or regions, which are affected by active natural processes and slope instability. The Interreg project SloMove aims to provide solutions for such challenges and focuses on using remote sensing monitoring techniques for the monitoring of mass movements in two test sites, in South Tyrol (Italy) and in Grisons Canton (Switzerland). The topics faced in this project concern mass movements and slope deformation monitoring techniques, focusing mainly on the integration of multi-temporal interferometry, new generation of terrestrial technologies for differential digital terrain model elaboration provided by laser scanner (TLS), and GNSS-based topographic surveys, which are used not only for validation purpose, but also for

  10. [Risk assessment of renal dysfunction caused by occupational lead exposure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Li-ting; Lei, Li-jian; Chang, Xiu-li; Jin, Tai-yi; Zheng, Guang; Guo, Wei-jun; Li, Hui-qi; Pan, Xiao-hai

    2010-03-01

    To assess the risk of renal dysfunction caused by occupational lead exposure through epidemiological investigation. The workers in a battery factory were selected as the subjects for the exposure and effect assessment. The occupational environmental monitoring data was collected and used to calculate the total external dose of lead. The relationship between external dose and internal dose of lead was analyzed. The external dose, blood lead (BPb) and urinary lead (UPb) were used as exposure biomarkers while the urinary N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidase (UNAG), and urinary albumin (UALB) were used as the effect biomarkers for the renal dysfunction caused by lead. Software of BMDS (BMDS 11311) was used to calculate BMD. The external and internal does of lead was positively correlated (BPb: r = 0.466, P < 0.01; UPb: r = 0.383, P < 0.01). The levels of BPb, UPb in exposure group (654.03 microg/L, 143.45 microg/g Cr) were significantly higher than those in the control group (57.12 microg/L, 7.20 microg/g Cr), so were UALB, UNAG; in addition, all of them presented significant dose-response relationship. The BPb BMD of UALB, UNAG were 607.76, 362.56 microg/L respectively and the UPb BMD of UALB, UNAG were 117.79, 78.79 microg/gCr respectively. Occupational lead exposure can cause renal dysfunction, which presents dose-response relationship; the risk assessment of renal dysfunction caused by occupational lead exposure is performed by BMD calculation of BPb and UPb.

  11. [Hygiene and legal aspects of occupational exposure assessment to cytostatics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupczewska-Dobecka, Małgorzata; Pałaszewska-Tkacz, Anna; Czerczak, Sławomir; Konieczko, Katarzyna

    2018-01-01

    The employers responsibilities for the assessment of occupational exposure to cytostatics in the workplace were analyzed in the light of existing legal regulations. Cytostatics may pose a threat to health and life of workers taking care of patients treated oncologically, i.e., pharmacists, physicians, nurses and other personnel. The significant scale of occupational exposure to cytostatics in Poland is confirmed by the data collected in the Central Register of Data on Exposure to Carcinogenic or Mutagenic Substances, Mixtures, Agents or Technological Processes, maintained by the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, Poland. The issue of occupational risk assessment of exposure to cytostatics gives raise to numerous concerns. Polish regulations concerning health protection of employees occupationally exposed to cytostatics are not unequivocal, as they are derived from different areas of the law, especially those applying to hazard classification, labeling and preparation of safety data sheets for cytostatics. There are neither binding occupational exposure limits legally set for active compounds of antineoplastic drugs nor methods for monitoring of these substances concentrations in a worker's breathing zone and biological material. This prevents the employer to carry out the correct assessment of occupational exposure, the results of which are the basis for preparing the proper preventive strategy. In this article the consequences of amendments to the European chemical legislation for employers responsible for adequate protection of health and life of employees exposed to cytostatics, were discussed, as well as some legal changes aimed at a better health and life protection of workers exposed to cytostatics in a workplace were proposed. Med Pr 2018;69(1):77-92. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  12. A new assessment method of outdoor tobacco smoke (OTS) exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyeri; Lee, Kiyoung

    2014-04-01

    Outdoor tobacco smoke (OTS) is concerned due to potential health effects. An assessment method of OTS exposure is needed to determine effects of OTS and validate outdoor smoking policies. The objective of this study was to develop a new method to assess OTS exposure. This study was conducted at 100 bus stops including 50 centerline bus stops and 50 roadside bus stops in Seoul, Korea. Using real-time aerosol monitor, PM2.5 was measured for 30 min at each bus stop in two seasons. ‘Peak analysis' method was developed to assess short term PM2.5 exposure by OTS. The 30-min average PM2.5 exposure at each bus stop was associated with season and bus stop location but not smoking activity. The PM2.5 peak occurrence rate by the peak analysis method was significantly associated with season, bus stop location, observed smoking occurrence, and the number of buses servicing a route. The PM2.5 peak concentration was significantly associated with season, smoking occurrence, and the number of buses servicing a route. When a smoker was standing still at the bus stop, magnitude of peak concentrations were significantly higher than when the smoker walking-through the bus stop. People were exposed to high short-term PM2.5 peak levels at bus stops, and the magnitude of peak concentrations were highest when a smoker was located close to the monitor. The magnitude of peak concentration was a good indicator helped distinguish nearby OTS exposure. Further research using ‘peak analysis' is needed to measure smoking-related exposure to PM2.5 in other outdoor locations.

  13. ASSESSMENT OF POPULATION AND TERRITORY REHABILITATION EFFICIENCY REGARDING RADIATION EXPOSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Volobuev

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The suggested assessment of rehabilitation measure efficiency is distinguished by the fact that integral risk interpretation is considered, which takes total radiation exposure and reduction of life standards caused by it into account. A rehabilitation measure structure in the context of radiation emergency is given. Classification of direct and mediated consequences of an emergency is given. Optimization of rehabilitation measures is carried out from the position of quality and security of life balancing. Corresponding expenses are compared to the cost of radiation exposure and its social equivalent damage. The role of an efficiency criterion is given to an integral damage minimum.

  14. Occupational exposure assessment: Practices in Malaysian nuclear agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarowi, S. Muhd, E-mail: suzie@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Ramli, S. A.; Kontol, K. Mohamad [Radiation Safety & Health Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Rahman, N. A. H. Abd. [Faculty of Science & Mathematics, Sultan Idris of Education Universit, 35900, Tanjong Malim, Perak Darul Ridzuan (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) is the leading agency in introducing and promoting the application of nuclear science technology in Malaysia. The agency provides major nuclear facilities purposely for research and commercialisation such as reactor, irradiation plants and radioisotope production laboratory. When dealing with ionizing radiation, there is an obligatory requirement to monitor and assess the radiation exposure to the workers. The personal dose of radiation workers were monitored monthly by assessing their Thermoluminescence Dosimeter (TLD) dose reading. This paper will discuss the current practice in managing, assessing, record keeping and reporting of the occupational exposure in Nuclear Malaysia including the Health Physic Group roles and challenges. The statistics on occupational radiation exposure of monitored workers working in different fields in Nuclear Malaysia from 2011 - 2013 will also be presented. The results show that the null hypothesis (H{sub 0}) was accepted which the means of every populations are all equal or not differ significantly. This hypothesis states that the dose exposure received by the radiation workers in Nuclear Malaysia is similar and there were no significant changes from 2011 to 2013. The radiation monitoring programme correlate with the requirement of our national law, the Atomic Energy Licensing Act 1984 (Act 304)

  15. Occupational exposure assessment: Practices in Malaysian nuclear agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarowi, S. Muhd; Ramli, S. A.; Kontol, K. Mohamad; Rahman, N. A. H. Abd.

    2016-01-01

    Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) is the leading agency in introducing and promoting the application of nuclear science technology in Malaysia. The agency provides major nuclear facilities purposely for research and commercialisation such as reactor, irradiation plants and radioisotope production laboratory. When dealing with ionizing radiation, there is an obligatory requirement to monitor and assess the radiation exposure to the workers. The personal dose of radiation workers were monitored monthly by assessing their Thermoluminescence Dosimeter (TLD) dose reading. This paper will discuss the current practice in managing, assessing, record keeping and reporting of the occupational exposure in Nuclear Malaysia including the Health Physic Group roles and challenges. The statistics on occupational radiation exposure of monitored workers working in different fields in Nuclear Malaysia from 2011 - 2013 will also be presented. The results show that the null hypothesis (H₀) was accepted which the means of every populations are all equal or not differ significantly. This hypothesis states that the dose exposure received by the radiation workers in Nuclear Malaysia is similar and there were no significant changes from 2011 to 2013. The radiation monitoring programme correlate with the requirement of our national law, the Atomic Energy Licensing Act 1984 (Act 304).

  16. Health effects assessment of chemical exposures: ARIES methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra, L; Montero, M.; Rabago, I.; Vidania, R.

    1995-07-01

    In this work, we present ARIES* update: a system designed in order to facilitate the human health effects assessment produced by accidental release of toxic chemicals. The first version of ARIES was developed in relation to 82/501/EEC Directive about mayor accidents in the chemical industry. So, the first aim was the support of the effects assessment derived for the chemicals included into this directive. From this establishment, it was considered acute exposures for high concentrations. In this report, we present the actual methodology for considering other type of exposures, such as environmental and occupational. Likewise other versions, the methodology comprises two approaches: quantitative and qualitative assessments. Quantitative assessment incorporates the mathematical algorithms useful to evaluate the effects produced by the most important routes of exposure: inhalation, ingestion, eye contact and skin absorption, in a short, medium and long term. It has been included models that realizes an accurate quantification of doses, effects,... and so on, such as simple approaches when the available information is not enough. Qualitative assessment, designed in order to complement or replace the previous one, is incorporated into an informatics system, developed in Clipper. It executes and displays outstanding and important toxicological information of about 100 chemicals. This information comes from ECDIN (Environmental Chemicals Data and Information Network) database through a collaboration with JRC-ISPRA working group. (Author) 24 refs.

  17. Terrestrial impact structures as geoheritage: an assessment method of their scientific value and its application to Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOANA P. SÁNCHEZ

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Terrestrial impact structures are geological and geomorphological features with particular importance to understand the history and evolution of the planet. Impact structures are scattered around the world but in many countries these features are under threat, essentially due to anthropic factors. Impact structures with higher scientific value should be considered as geological heritage and, consequently, be subjected to geoconservation strategies. In order to select the most important impact structures to be properly conserved and managed, this paper proposes a quantitative assessment method of the scientific value of these structures. The eight Brazilian impact structures were used to test this method that has the potential to be applied to any geological context in any country. The structures known as Araguainha Dome-MT and Serra da Cangalha-TO reached a higher scientific value, which justifies the need to develop geoconservation strategies and a proper management.

  18. Comparison of occupational exposure assessment tools and concepts for nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liguori, Biase; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Baun, Anders

    The development, production and application of engineered nanomaterials have been growing in different fields. This leads to a consequent increased potential of exposure to nanomaterials in the working environment. However to determine the potential exposure risk is a challenging task for risk...... assessors, due to limited availability of data on nanomaterial exposure level. To face this challenge a number of methods have been developed including the “Control Banding Nanotool”, the “Swiss precautionary matrix”; “Stoffenmanager Nano version 1.0; “ANSES - Development of a specific Control Banding Tool...... for Nanomaterials”; “NanoSafer vs. 1.1 – A web-based precautionary risk assessment tool for manufactured nanomaterials using first order modeling” Based on the literature information we have analyzed these tools and discussed elements regarding: the domain of application and whether it accounts for the nanospecific...

  19. Historical Exposures to Chemicals at the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant: A Pilot Retrospective Exposure Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Janeen Denise [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1999-02-01

    In a mortality study of white males who had worked at the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant between 1952 and 1979, an increased number of deaths from benign and unspecified intracranial neoplasms was found. A case-control study nested within this cohort investigated the hypothesis that an association existed between brain tumor death and exposure to either internally deposited plutonium or external ionizing radiation. There was no statistically significant association found between estimated radiation exposure from internally deposited plutonium and the development of brain tumors. Exposure by job or work area showed no significant difference between the cohort and the control groups. An update of the study found elevated risk estimates for (1) all lymphopoietic neoplasms, and (2) all causes of death in employees with body burdens greater than or equal to two nanocuries of plutonium. There was an excess of brain tumors for the entire cohort. Similar cohort studies conducted on worker populations from other plutonium handling facilities have not yet shown any elevated risks for brain tumors. Historically, the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant used large quantities of chemicals in their production operations. The use of solvents, particularly carbon tetrachloride, was unique to Rocky Flats. No investigation of the possible confounding effects of chemical exposures was done in the initial studies. The objectives of the present study are to (1) investigate the history of chemical use at the Rocky Flats facility; (2) locate and analyze chemical monitoring information in order to assess employee exposure to the chemicals that were used in the highest volume; and (3) determine the feasibility of establishing a chemical exposure assessment model that could be used in future epidemiology studies.

  20. Assessing the capability of terrestrial laser scanning for monitoring slow moving landslides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Prokop

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Digital elevation models (DEM are widely used to determine characteristics of mass movement processes such as accumulation and deposition of material, volume estimates or the orientation of discontinuities. To create such DEMs point cloud data is provided by terrestrial laser scanning (TLS and recently used for analysis of mass movements. Therefore the reliability of TLS data was investigated in a comparative study with tachymetry. The main focus was on the possibility of determining movement patterns of landslides <100 mm. Therefore, several post processing steps are needed and the reliability of those were analyzed. The post processing steps that were investigated include: (1 The registration process is a crucial step considering long term TLS monitoring of an object and can be significantly improved using an iterative closest point (ICP algorithm; (2 Filtering methods are necessary to create DEMs in order to separate favored laser points on the terrain surface (ground points from topographically irrelevant points (non-ground-points. Therefore GIS tools were applied. Surfaces with and without vegetation cover were differentiated; (3 Displacement vectors are used to determine slope movement rates. They were created from TLS data after the computation of true orthophotos.

    Using the methodology presented it was not possible to determine movement rates <50 mm per period. However, if the quality of the point density is described and areas with very low point density are detected, reliable conclusions can be made regarding slope movement patterns and erosion and deposition of material for changes <100 mm for the investigated slope.

  1. Assessing the biodegradability of terrestrially-derived organic matter in Scottish sea loch sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Loh

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Lignin oxidation products, oxygen uptake rates, molar organic carbon to nitrogen (OC/N ratio (from bulk elemental analysis and Rp values (from loss on ignition experiments, the ratio of the refractory to total organic matter, OM were determined for sediments along transects of Loch Creran and Loch Etive. Lignin data indicated the importance of riverine inputs contributing to land-derived carbon in the lochs as total lignin (Λ, mg/100 mg organic carbon, OC decreased from 0.69 to 0.45 and 0.70 to 0.29 from the head to outside of Loch Creran and Loch Etive, respectively. In addition, significant correlations of lignin content against total OM and OC (p<0.05 also suggested a distinct contribution of terrestrial OM to carbon pools in the lochs. The general trend of decreasing oxygen uptake rates from the head (20.8 mmole m−2 day−1 to mouth (9.4 mmole m−2 day−1 of Loch Creran indicates decomposition of OM. Biodegradability of the sedimentary OM was also characterized by the increase of Rp values from the head to mouth of the lochs: 0.40 to 0.80 in Loch Etive and 0.43 to 0.63 in Loch Creran. Furthermore, the molar OC/N ratio decreased from 11.2 to 6.4 in Loch Creran, and from 17.5 to 8.2 in Loch Etive. Derived rate constants for OM degradation were found to decrease from LC0 to LC1, and increase from RE5 to RE6. This work demonstrates that oxygen uptake rates, Rp values and molar OC/N ratio are able to serve as useful proxies to indicate the biodegradability of sedimentary OM.

  2. Terrestrial laser scanning for biomass assessment and tree reconstruction: improved processing efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alboabidallah, Ahmed; Martin, John; Lavender, Samantha; Abbott, Victor

    2017-09-01

    Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) processing for biomass mapping involves large data volumes, and often includes relatively slow 3D object fitting steps that increase the processing time. This study aimed to test new features that can speed up the overall processing time. A new type of 3D voxel is used, where the horizontal layers are parallel to the Digital Terrain Model. This voxel type allows procedures to extract tree diameters using just one layer, but still gives direct tree-height estimations. Layer intersection is used to emphasize the trunks as upright standing objects, which are detected in the spatially segmented intersection of the breast-height voxels and then extended upwards and downwards. The diameters were calculated by fitting elliptical cylinders to the laser points in the detected trunk segments. Non-trunk segments, used in sub-tree- structures, were found using the parent-child relationships between successive layers. The branches were reconstructed by skeletonizing each sub-tree branch, and the biomass was distributed statistically amongst the weighted skeletons. The procedure was applied to nine plots within the UK. The average correlation coefficients between reconstructed and directly measured tree diameters, heights and branches were R2 = 0.92, 0.97 and 0.59 compared to 0.91, 0.95, and 0.63 when cylindrical fitting was used. The average time to apply the method reduced from 5hrs:18mins per plot, for the conventional methods, to 2hrs:24mins when the same hardware and software libraries were used with the 3D voxels. These results indicate that this 3D voxel method can produce, much more quickly, results of a similar accuracy that would improve efficiency if applied to projects with large volume TLS datasets.

  3. Progressive Commercial Cigarette Yield Reduction: Biochemical Exposure and Behavioral Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benowitz, Neal L.; Dains, Katherine M.; Hall, Sharon M.; Stewart, Susan; Wilson, Margaret; Dempsey, Delia; Jacob, Peyton

    2009-01-01

    Background Mandated reduction of exposure to nicotine and other cigarette toxins has been proposed as a possible national regulatory strategy. However, tapering using lower yield commercial cigarettes may not be effective in reducing nicotine or tar exposure due to compensatory smoking behavior. We examined the effects of gradual reduction of nicotine yield in commercial cigarettes on smoking behavior, with an assessment of nicotine intake and exposure to tobacco smoke toxins. Methods This 10-week longitudinal study of 20 smokers involved smoking the usual brand followed by different brands with progressively lower machine-determined yields, ranging from 0.9 to 0.1 mg nicotine, each smoked for 1 week. Subjects were followed for 4 weeks after returning to smoking the usual brand (or quitting). Smoking behaviors, biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure, and cardiovascular effects were measured. Findings Cotinine and other biomarkers of smoke exposure remained unchanged comparing the usual brand with the 0.4 mg nicotine brands. A 30% to 40% decrease in nicotine, carbon monoxide, and carcinogen exposure comparing 0.1 mg nicotine cigarettes with baseline was observed. Self-efficacy was significantly increased and dependence decreased after tapering. Implications We confirm prior cross-sectional population and experimental studies showing complete compensation for cigarettes down to the 0.4 mg nicotine range. Nicotine and tobacco toxin exposure were substantially reduced while smoking 0.1 mg nicotine cigarettes. Our data suggest that the degree of nicotine dependence of smokers may be lowered with progressive yield tapering. Gradual tapering of smokers from regular to ultralow nicotine yield commercial cigarettes might facilitate smoking cessation and warrants future research. PMID:19258480

  4. Risk assessment of fluoride exposure in drinking water of Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guissouma, Wiem; Hakami, Othman; Al-Rajab, Abdul Jabbar; Tarhouni, Jamila

    2017-06-01

    The presence of fluoride in drinking water is known to reduce dental cavities among consumers, but an excessive intake of this anion might leads to dental and skeletal fluorosis. This study reports a complete survey of the fluoridated tap water taken from 100 water consumption points in Tunisia. The fluoride concentrations in tap water were between 0 and 2.4 mg L(-1). Risk assessment of Fluoride exposure was assessed depending on the age of consumers using a four-step method: hazard identification, toxicity reference values selection (TRVs), daily exposure assessment, and risk characterization. Our findings suggest that approximately 75% of the Tunisian population is at risk for dental decay, 25% have a potential dental fluorosis risk, and 20% might have a skeletal fluorosis risk according to the limits of fluoride in drinking water recommended by WHO. More investigations are recommended to assess the exposure risk of fluoride in other sources of drinking water such as bottled water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Exposure assessment of microwave ovens and impact on total exposure in WLANs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plets, David; Verloock, Leen; Van Den Bossche, Matthias; Tanghe, Emmeric; Joseph, Wout; Martens, Luc

    2016-02-01

    In situ exposure of electric fields of 11 microwave ovens is assessed in an occupational environment and in an office. Measurements as a function of distance without load and with a load of 275 ml of tap water were performed at distances of oven (without load), which is 2.5 and 1.1 times below the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection reference level for occupational exposure and general public exposure, respectively. For exposure at distances of >1 m, a model of the electric field in a realistic environment is proposed. In an office scenario, switching on a microwave oven increases the median field strength from 91 to 145 mV m(-1) (+91 %) in a traditional Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) deployment and from 44 to 92 mV m(-1) (+109 %) in an exposure-optimised WLAN deployment. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Assessment of global flood exposures - developing an appropriate approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millinship, Ian; Booth, Naomi

    2015-04-01

    Increasingly complex probabilistic catastrophe models have become the standard for quantitative flood risk assessments by re/insurance companies. On the one hand, probabilistic modelling of this nature is extremely useful; a large range of risk metrics can be output. However, they can be time consuming and computationally expensive to develop and run. Levels of uncertainty are persistently high despite, or perhaps because of, attempts to increase resolution and complexity. A cycle of dependency between modelling companies and re/insurers has developed whereby available models are purchased, models run, and both portfolio and model data 'improved' every year. This can lead to potential exposures in perils and territories that are not currently modelled being largely overlooked by companies, who may then face substantial and unexpected losses when large events occur in these areas. We present here an approach to assessing global flood exposures which reduces the scale and complexity of approach used and begins with the identification of hotspots where there is a significant exposure to flood risk. The method comprises four stages: i) compile consistent exposure information, ii) to apply reinsurance terms and conditions to calculate values exposed, iii) to assess the potential hazard using a global set of flood hazard maps, and iv) to identify potential risk 'hotspots' which include considerations of spatially and/or temporally clustered historical events, and local flood defences. This global exposure assessment is designed as a scoping exercise, and reveals areas or cities where the potential for accumulated loss is of significant interest to a reinsurance company, and for which there is no existing catastrophe model. These regions are then candidates for the development of deterministic scenarios, or probabilistic models. The key advantages of this approach will be discussed. These include simplicity and ability of business leaders to understand results, as well as

  7. Use-Exposure Relationships of Pesticides for Aquatic Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuzhou; Spurlock, Frank; Deng, Xin; Gill, Sheryl; Goh, Kean

    2011-01-01

    Field-scale environmental models have been widely used in aquatic exposure assessments of pesticides. Those models usually require a large set of input parameters and separate simulations for each pesticide in evaluation. In this study, a simple use-exposure relationship is developed based on regression analysis of stochastic simulation results generated from the Pesticide Root-Zone Model (PRZM). The developed mathematical relationship estimates edge-of-field peak concentrations of pesticides from aerobic soil metabolism half-life (AERO), organic carbon-normalized soil sorption coefficient (KOC), and application rate (RATE). In a case study of California crop scenarios, the relationships explained 90–95% of the variances in the peak concentrations of dissolved pesticides as predicted by PRZM simulations for a 30-year period. KOC was identified as the governing parameter in determining the relative magnitudes of pesticide exposures in a given crop scenario. The results of model application also indicated that the effects of chemical fate processes such as partitioning and degradation on pesticide exposure were similar among crop scenarios, while the cross-scenario variations were mainly associated with the landscape characteristics, such as organic carbon contents and curve numbers. With a minimum set of input data, the use-exposure relationships proposed in this study could be used in screening procedures for potential water quality impacts from the off-site movement of pesticides. PMID:21483772

  8. Exposure factors for cleaning, automotive care, and surface protection products for exposure assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji Young; Lim, Miyoung; Yang, Wonho; Lee, Kiyoung

    2017-01-01

    Accurately measuring the usage patterns of consumer products (CPs) is important to conduct realistic exposure assessments. We determined the exposure factors for 18 consumer products: household bleach, mold stain remover, all-purpose cleaner, washing machine cleaner, air conditioner cleaner, glass cleaner, drain cleaner, adhesive remover, liquid snow chain, tire shine spray, wheel cleaner, rain repellent, car wax spray, leather polish, furniture polish, anti-fog product, fabric waterproofing spray, and rust inhibitor. Field survey staff visited homes and collected product use information via face-to-face interviews. In total, 10,000 participants (5010 men and 4990 women) aged 15 years and older completed the questionnaire. Household bleach had the highest use rate of 47.4% and use rates for the other products ranged from 0.8 to 21.7%. The use rates of many CPs differed by age group and gender. Many household cleaning products were used regularly, but some products, such as air conditioner cleaner and liquid snow chain, were used in specific seasons or for specific purposes; therefore, they were used less frequently compared to cleaning products. These exposure factor data will be useful as input data for exposure and risk assessments and setting safety guidelines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Microbial risk assessment framework for exposure to amended sludge projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Joseph N S; Moore, Kelly; Soller, Jeffery A; Eisenberg, Don; Colford, John M

    2008-06-01

    Although the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has a long history of using risk-based approaches for regulatory purposes, pollutant limits for pathogens in biosolids are not currently based on quantitative risk assessments. We developed and demonstrated a risk-based methodology for assessing the risk to human health from exposure to pathogens via biosolids. Four models were developed, incorporating direct ingestion, groundwater, and aerosol exposure pathways. Three sources of environmental data were used to estimate risk: pathogen monitoring of sludge, efficacy of sludge treatment, and pathogen monitoring of biosolids. Risk estimates were obtainable even for Class A biosolids, where posttreatment monitoring data are below detectable levels, demonstrating that risk assessments for biosolids exposure are practical. Model analyses suggest that: a) a two-digester design decreases the probability of risks >10(-4) compared with one-digester designs, b) risks associated with exposures to groundwater and aerosol pathways were, in general, lower than exposures to the direct ingestion pathway, and c) secondary transmission can be an important factor in risk estimation. The risk-based approach presented here provides a tool to a) help biosolids producers interpret the results of biosolids monitoring data in terms of its health implications, b) help treatment plant engineers evaluate the risk-based benefits of operational changes to existing or projected treatment processes, and c) help environmental managers evaluate potential capital improvements and/or land application site placement issues. Regulation of pathogens can now be based on human health risk in a manner parallel to other water-related risks.

  10. Effect factors for terrestrial acidification in Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crespo Mendes, Natalia; Laurent, Alexis; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    conditions, which is an essential approach considering countries like Brazil, with high biodiversity. Previous studies have assessed the impacts of terrestrial acidification from the estimations of the potential losses of vascular plants species richness as a result of exposure to acidifying substances...... for 13 biomes, with 2409 species addressed for whole world. In this context this work aims to provide spatially-differentiated effect factors (EF) for terrestrial acidification in Brazil and support the development of spatially-differentiated characterization factors for Brazil. In order to maintain...... in Brazil, represented by 33167 species, indicating that this is a comprehensive study. Maps of soil pH in Brazil were extracted at 1-km resolution and pH values were extracted for the depth range of 0-30cm. For each ecoregion, species richness was plotted against soil pH and the exposure-response curves...

  11. Assessment of xenoestrogenic exposure by a biomarker approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Høj; Nielsen, Flemming; Andersen, Helle Raun

    2003-01-01

    : To determine the applicability of this approach, we assessed the estrogenicity of serum samples from 30 pregnant and 60 non-pregnant Danish women thought to be exposed only to low levels of endocrine disruptors. We also studied 211 serum samples from pregnant Faroese women, whose marine diet included whale...... with the lipid-based concentrations of individual suspected endocrine disruptors in the Faroese samples. When added along with the estradiol standard, an indication of an enhanced estrogenic response was found in most cases. Thus, the in vitro estrogenicity response offers a promising and feasible approach......BACKGROUND: Epidemiological documentation of endocrine disruption is complicated by imprecise exposure assessment, especially when exposures are mixed. Even if the estrogenic activity of all compounds were known, the combined effect of possible additive and/or inhibiting interaction...

  12. An Assessment of Air Pollution Exposure Information for Health Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick W. Lipfert

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Most studies of air pollution health effects are based on outdoor ambient exposures, mainly because of the availability of population-based data and the need to support emission control programs. However, there is also a large body of literature on indoor air quality that is more relevant to personal exposures. This assessment attempts to merge these two aspects of pollution-related health effects, emphasizing fine particles. However, the basic concepts are applicable to any pollutant. The objectives are to examine sensitivities of epidemiological studies to the inclusion of personal exposure information and to assess the resulting data requirements. Indoor air pollution results from penetration of polluted outdoor air and from various indoor sources, among which environmental tobacco smoke (ETS is probably the most toxic and pervasive. Adequate data exist on infiltration of outdoor air but less so for indoor sources and effects, all of which have been based on surveys of small samples of individual buildings. Since epidemiology is based on populations, these data must be aggregated using probabilistic methods. Estimates of spatial variation and precision of ambient air quality are also needed. Hypothetical personal exposures in this paper are based on ranges in outdoor air quality, variable infiltration rates, and ranges of indoor source strength. These uncertainties are examined with respect to two types of mortality studies: time series analysis of daily deaths in a given location, and cross-sectional analysis of annual mortality rates among locations. Regressions of simulated mortality on personal exposures, as affected by all of these uncertainties, are used to examine effects on dose-response functions using quasi-Monte Carlo methods. The working hypothesis is that indoor sources are reasonably steady over time and thus applicable only to long-term cross-sectional studies. Uncertainties in exposure attenuate the simulated mortality

  13. New approach for assessing human perfluoroalkyl exposure via hair

    OpenAIRE

    Alves,Andreia; Jacobs, Griet; VANERMEN Guido; Covaci, Adrian; Voorspoels, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: In the recent years hair has been increasingly used as alternative matrix in human biomonitoring (HBM) of environmental pollutants. Sampling advantages and time integration of exposure assessment seems the most attractive features of hair matrix. In the current study, a novel miniaturized method was developed and validated for measuring 15 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), including perfluoro n-butanoic acid (PFBA), perfluoro n-pentanoic acid (PFPeA), perfluoro n-hexanoic acid (PFHx...

  14. Modeling Exposure to Persistent Chemicals in Hazard and Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowan-Ellsberry, Christina E.; McLachlan, Michael S.; Arnot, Jon A.; MacLeod, Matthew; McKone, Thomas E.; Wania, Frank

    2008-11-01

    Fate and exposure modeling has not thus far been explicitly used in the risk profile documents prepared to evaluate significant adverse effect of candidate chemicals for either the Stockholm Convention or the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution. However, we believe models have considerable potential to improve the risk profiles. Fate and exposure models are already used routinely in other similar regulatory applications to inform decisions, and they have been instrumental in building our current understanding of the fate of POP and PBT chemicals in the environment. The goal of this paper is to motivate the use of fate and exposure models in preparing risk profiles in the POP assessment procedure by providing strategies for incorporating and using models. The ways that fate and exposure models can be used to improve and inform the development of risk profiles include: (1) Benchmarking the ratio of exposure and emissions of candidate chemicals to the same ratio for known POPs, thereby opening the possibility of combining this ratio with the relative emissions and relative toxicity to arrive at a measure of relative risk. (2) Directly estimating the exposure of the environment, biota and humans to provide information to complement measurements, or where measurements are not available or are limited. (3) To identify the key processes and chemical and/or environmental parameters that determine the exposure; thereby allowing the effective prioritization of research or measurements to improve the risk profile. (4) Predicting future time trends including how quickly exposure levels in remote areas would respond to reductions in emissions. Currently there is no standardized consensus model for use in the risk profile context. Therefore, to choose the appropriate model the risk profile developer must evaluate how appropriate an existing model is for a specific setting and whether the assumptions and input data are relevant in the context of the application

  15. Exposure assessment and risk of gastrointestinal illness among surfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, David L; Harding, Anna K; Hope, Bruce K; Slaughter-Mason, Samantha

    2008-01-01

    Surfing is a unique recreational activity with the possibility of elevated risk for contracting gastrointestinal (GI) illness through ingestion of contaminated water. No prior studies have assessed exposure from ingestion among surfing populations. This study estimated the magnitude and frequency of incidental water ingestion using a Web-based survey and integrated exposure distributions with enterococci distributions to predict the probability of GI illness at six Oregon beaches. The mean exposure magnitude and frequency were 170 ml of water ingested per day and 77 days spent surfing per year, respectively. The mean number of enterococci ingested ranged from approximately 11 to 86 colony-forming units (CFU) per day. Exposure-response analyses were conducted using an ingested dose model and two epidemiological models. Risk was characterized using joint probability curves (JPC). At the most contaminated beach, the annualized ingested dose model estimated a mean 9% probability of a 50% probability of GI illness, similar to the results of the first epidemiological model (mean 6% probability of a 50% probability of GI illness). The second epidemiological model predicted a 23% probability of exceeding an exposure equivalent to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum acceptable GI illness rate (19 cases/1000 swimmers). While the annual risk of GI illness for Oregon surfers is not high, data showed that surfers ingest more water compared to swimmers and divers and need to be considered in regulatory and public health efforts, especially in more contaminated waters. Our approach to characterize risk among surfers is novel and informative to officials responsible for advisory programs. It also highlights the need for further research on microbial dose-response relationships to meet the needs of quantitative microbial risk assessments (QMRA).

  16. Exposure assessment issues in epidemiology studies of phthalates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Lauren E; Cooper, Glinda S; Galizia, Audrey; Meeker, John D

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review exposure assessment issues that need to be addressed in designing and interpreting epidemiology studies of phthalates, a class of chemicals commonly used in consumer and personal care products. Specific issues include population trends in exposure, temporal reliability of a urinary metabolite measurement, and how well a single urine sample may represent longer-term exposure. The focus of this review is on seven specific phthalates: diethyl phthalate (DEP); di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP); diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP); butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP); di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP); diisononyl phthalate (DiNP); and diisodecyl phthalate (DiDP). Comprehensive literature search using multiple search strategies. Since 2001, declines in population exposure to DEP, BBzP, DBP, and DEHP have been reported in the United States and Germany, but DEHP exposure has increased in China. Although the half-lives of various phthalate metabolites are relatively short (3 to 18h), the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for phthalate metabolites, based on spot and first morning urine samples collected over a week to several months, range from weak to moderate, with a tendency toward higher ICCs (greater temporal stability) for metabolites of the shorter-chained (DEP, DBP, DiBP and BBzP, ICCs generally 0.3 to 0.6) compared with those of the longer-chained (DEHP, DiNP, DiDP, ICCs generally 0.1 to 0.3) phthalates. Additional research on optimal approaches to addressing the issue of urine dilution in studies of associations between biomarkers and different type of health effects is needed. In conclusion, the measurement of urinary metabolite concentrations in urine could serve as a valuable approach to estimating exposure to phthalates in environmental epidemiology studies. Careful consideration of the strengths and limitations of this approach when interpreting study results is required. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Selection of terrestrial transfer factors for radioecological assessment models and regulatory guides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Y.C.; Hoffman, F.O.

    1983-01-01

    A parameter value for a radioecological assessment model is not a single value but a distribution of values about a central value. The sources that contribute to the variability of transfer factors to predict foodchain transport of radionuclides are enumerated. Knowledge of these sources, judgement in interpreting the available data, consideration of collateral information, and established criteria that specify the desired level of conservatism in the resulting predictions are essential elements when selecting appropriate parameter values for radioecological assessment models and regulatory guides. 39 references, 4 figures, 5 tables.

  18. Pesticide Exposure, Safety Issues, and Risk Assessment Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damalas, Christos A.; Eleftherohorinos, Ilias G.

    2011-01-01

    Pesticides are widely used in agricultural production to prevent or control pests, diseases, weeds, and other plant pathogens in an effort to reduce or eliminate yield losses and maintain high product quality. Although pesticides are developed through very strict regulation processes to function with reasonable certainty and minimal impact on human health and the environment, serious concerns have been raised about health risks resulting from occupational exposure and from residues in food and drinking water. Occupational exposure to pesticides often occurs in the case of agricultural workers in open fields and greenhouses, workers in the pesticide industry, and exterminators of house pests. Exposure of the general population to pesticides occurs primarily through eating food and drinking water contaminated with pesticide residues, whereas substantial exposure can also occur in or around the home. Regarding the adverse effects on the environment (water, soil and air contamination from leaching, runoff, and spray drift, as well as the detrimental effects on wildlife, fish, plants, and other non-target organisms), many of these effects depend on the toxicity of the pesticide, the measures taken during its application, the dosage applied, the adsorption on soil colloids, the weather conditions prevailing after application, and how long the pesticide persists in the environment. Therefore, the risk assessment of the impact of pesticides either on human health or on the environment is not an easy and particularly accurate process because of differences in the periods and levels of exposure, the types of pesticides used (regarding toxicity and persistence), and the environmental characteristics of the areas where pesticides are usually applied. Also, the number of the criteria used and the method of their implementation to assess the adverse effects of pesticides on human health could affect risk assessment and would possibly affect the characterization of the already

  19. Pesticide Exposure, Safety Issues, and Risk Assessment Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos A. Damalas

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are widely used in agricultural production to prevent or control pests, diseases, weeds, and other plant pathogens in an effort to reduce or eliminate yield losses and maintain high product quality. Although pesticides are developed through very strict regulation processes to function with reasonable certainty and minimal impact on human health and the environment, serious concerns have been raised about health risks resulting from occupational exposure and from residues in food and drinking water. Occupational exposure to pesticides often occurs in the case of agricultural workers in open fields and greenhouses, workers in the pesticide industry, and exterminators of house pests. Exposure of the general population to pesticides occurs primarily through eating food and drinking water contaminated with pesticide residues, whereas substantial exposure can also occur in or around the home. Regarding the adverse effects on the environment (water, soil and air contamination from leaching, runoff, and spray drift, as well as the detrimental effects on wildlife, fish, plants, and other non-target organisms, many of these effects depend on the toxicity of the pesticide, the measures taken during its application, the dosage applied, the adsorption on soil colloids, the weather conditions prevailing after application, and how long the pesticide persists in the environment. Therefore, the risk assessment of the impact of pesticides either on human health or on the environment is not an easy and particularly accurate process because of differences in the periods and levels of exposure, the types of pesticides used (regarding toxicity and persistence, and the environmental characteristics of the areas where pesticides are usually applied. Also, the number of the criteria used and the method of their implementation to assess the adverse effects of pesticides on human health could affect risk assessment and would possibly affect the characterization

  20. Presentation of a general algorithm for effect-assessment on secondary poisoning. II Terrestrial food chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romijn CAFM; Luttik R; Slooff W; Canton JH

    1991-01-01

    In an earlier report, a simple algorithm for effect-assessment on secondary poisoning of birds and mammals was presented. This algorithm (MAR = NOEC/BCF) was drawn up by analyzing an aquatic food chain. In the present study it was tested whether this algorithm can be used equally well for

  1. Terrestrial animal species in the Hoosier-Shawnee ecological assessment area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark D. McCreedy; Kelly A. Reynolds; Cynthia M. Basile; Matthew C. Nicholson; Katie M. Dugger; Megan E. Gross; Gary M., Jr. Mohr

    2004-01-01

    We reviewed the current status of amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals, and selected invertebrates within the Hoosier-Shawnee Ecological Assessment Area. Species selected for this evaluation included those most commonly considered with respect to land management, namely threatened and endangered species, those species with viability concerns, the unique community of...

  2. European experience on application of site-specific ecological risk assessment in terrestrial ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, J.H.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the current state of the development toward a common European framework for site-specific ecological risk assessment (SS-ERA) Although common progression has been slow in the past two years, earlier activities were very promising. Results are presented of a 2001 workshop to

  3. Terrestrial population models for ecological risk assessment: A state-of-the-art review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emlen, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Few attempts have been made to formulate models for predicting impacts of xenobiotic chemicals on wildlife populations. However, considerable effort has been invested in wildlife optimal exploitation models. Because death from intoxication has a similar effect on population dynamics as death by harvesting, these management models are applicable to ecological risk assessment. An underlying Leslie-matrix bookkeeping formulation is widely applicable to vertebrate wildlife populations. Unfortunately, however, the various submodels that track birth, death, and dispersal rates as functions of the physical, chemical, and biotic environment are by their nature almost inevitably highly species- and locale-specific. Short-term prediction of one-time chemical applications requires only information on mortality before and after contamination. In such cases a simple matrix formulation may be adequate for risk assessment. But generally, risk must be projected over periods of a generation or more. This precludes generic protocols for risk assessment and also the ready and inexpensive predictions of a chemical's influence on a given population. When designing and applying models for ecological risk assessment at the population level, the endpoints (output) of concern must be carefully and rigorously defined. The most easily accessible and appropriate endpoints are (1) pseudoextinction (the frequency or probability of a population falling below a prespecified density), and (2) temporal mean population density. Spatial and temporal extent of predicted changes must be clearly specified a priori to avoid apparent contradictions and confusion.

  4. Assessing net ecosystem carbon exchange of U.S. terrestrial ecosystems by integrating eddy covariance flux measurements and satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingfeng Xiaoa; Qianlai Zhuang; Beverly E. Law; Dennis D. Baldocchi; Jiquan Chen; al. et.

    2011-01-01

    More accurate projections of future carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere and associated climate change depend on improved scientific understanding of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Despite the consensus that U.S. terrestrial ecosystems provide a carbon sink, the size, distribution, and interannual variability of this sink remain uncertain. Here we report a...

  5. Remote sensing of annual terrestrial gross primary productivity from MODIS: an assessment using the FLUXNET La Thuile data set

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verma, M.; Friedl, M.A.; Richardson, A.D.; Kiely, G.; Cescatti, A.; Law, B.E.; Wohlfahrt, G.; Gielen, G.; Roupsard, O.; Moors, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    Gross primary productivity (GPP) is the largest and most variable component of the global terrestrial carbon cycle. Repeatable and accurate monitoring of terrestrial GPP is therefore critical for quantifying dynamics in regional-to-global carbon budgets. Remote sensing provides high frequency

  6. Influence of terrestrial radionuclides on environmental gamma exposure in a uranium deposit in Paraíba, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo Dos Santos Júnior, José; Dos Santos Amaral, Romilton; Simões Cezar Menezes, Rômulo; Reinaldo Estevez Álvarez, Juan; Marques do Nascimento Santos, Josineide; Herrero Fernández, Zahily; Dias Bezerra, Jairo; Antônio da Silva, Alberto; Francys Rodrigues Damascena, Kennedy; de Almeida Maciel Neto, José

    2017-07-01

    One of the main natural uranium deposits in Brazil is located in the municipality of Espinharas, in the State of Paraíba. This area may present high levels of natural radioactivity due to the presence of these radionuclides. Since this is a populated area, there is need for a radioecological dosimetry assessment to investigate the possible risks to the population. Based on this problem, the objective of this study was to estimate the environmental effective dose outdoors in inhabited areas influenced by the uranium deposit, using the specific activities of equivalent uranium, equivalent thorium and 40K and conversion factors. The environmental assessment was carried using gamma spectroscopy in sixty-two points within the municipality, with a high-resolution gamma spectrometer with HPGe semiconductor detector and Be window. The results obtained ranged from 0.01 to 19.11 mSv y-1, with an average of 2.64 mSv y-1. These levels are, on average, 23 times higher than UNSCEAR reference levels and up to 273 times the reference value of the earth's crust for primordial radionuclides. Therefore, given the high radioactivity levels found, we conclude that there is need for further investigation to evaluate the levels of radioactivity in indoor environments, which will reflect more closely the risks of the local population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessment of predictive dermal exposure to chemicals in the work environment

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Jankowska; Sławomir Czerczak; Małgorzata Kupczewska-Dobecka

    2017-01-01

    Assessment of dermal exposure to chemicals in the work environment is problematic, mainly as a result of the lack of measurement data on occupational exposure to chemicals. Due to common prevalence of occupational skin exposure and its health consequences it is necessary to look for efficient solutions allowing for reliable exposure assessment. The aim of the study is to present predictive models used to assess non-measured dermal exposure, as well as to acquaint Polish users with the princip...

  8. Assessing ecotoxicity and uptake of metals and metalloids in relation to two different earthworm species (Eiseina hortensis and Lumbricus terrestris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leveque, Thibaut; Capowiez, Yvan; Schreck, Eva; Mazzia, Christophe; Auffan, Mélanie; Foucault, Yann; Austruy, Annabelle; Dumat, Camille

    2013-08-01

    Due to diffuse atmospheric fallouts of process particles enriched by metals and metalloids, polluted soils concern large areas at the global scale. Useful tools to assess ecotoxicity induced by these polluted soils are therefore needed. Earthworms are currently used as biotest, however the influence of specie and earthworm behaviour, soil characteristics are poorly highlighted. Our aim was therefore to assess the toxicity of various polluted soils with process particles enriches by metals and metalloids (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, As and Sb) collected from a lead recycling facility on two earthworm species belonging to different ecological types and thus likely to have contrasted behavioural responses (Eiseina hortensis and Lumbricus terrestris). The combination of behavioural factors measurements (cast production and biomass) and physico-chemical parameters such as metal absorption, bioaccumulation by earthworms and their localization in invertebrate tissues provided a valuable indication of pollutant bioavailability and ecotoxicity. Soil characteristics influenced ecotoxicity and metal uptake by earthworms, as well as their soil bioturbation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Generic Screening Models for Assessing Exposures to the Public and ICRP Reference Animals and Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yankovich, Tamara L.; Proehl, Gerhard; Telleria, Diego [International Atomic Energy Agency, P.O. Box 100, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Berkovskyy, Volodymyr [Ukrainian Radiation Protection Institute (RPI), 53, Melnikova Street, 04050, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2014-07-01

    With the update of the IAEA Fundamental Safety Principles (SF-1) stating the objective to protect people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation, it has been necessary to update International Basic Safety Standards (BSS) on Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources and the underlying safety guides and technical documents to provide guidance on how this could be achieved in practice. The current paper provides an update on the status and plans to revise the IAEA Safety Report 'Generic Models for Use in Assessing the Impact of Discharges of Radioactive Substances to the Environment' (SRS 19) that was published in 2001. The models of SRS 19 (2001), which was focused on assessment of exposures to the public, is being expanded into three volumes that provide methodologies for screening assessments for the public, as well as for flora and fauna. The revised SRS 19 guide will ultimately facilitate the application of screening models for different levels of assessment using updated parameter values from database that have been developed as part of the IAEA's EMRAS (Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety) and EMRAS II international model validation programmes. The scope of the revised SRS 19 covers prospective screening assessment of doses to the representative person and Reference Animals and Plants (RAPs), and will provide simple and robust assessment methods for radiological assessment related to planning and design, applying a graded approach. Tabulated screening coefficients and environmental dilution factors will be included for 825 radionuclides. The screening coefficients are developed assuming equilibrium conditions; they can be used to assess radiological impacts arising from routine discharges of radionuclides to terrestrial and aquatic receptors for planned exposure situations. Volumes 1 and 2 of the revised SRS 19 are at an advanced stage of completion and are focused on 'Screening Assessment of Public

  10. Framework for Multi-Pathway Cumulative Exposure for Comparative Assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKone, Tom; Fantke, Peter

    2016-01-01

    to global) environment with information about larger scale populations rather than specific individuals or vulnerable subgroups. Although there can be large uncertainties in this approach, it provides insight on how chemical properties and use patterns map onto population-scale metrics of exposure......-cycle impacts and chemical alternatives. We present a regional case study for pesticide alternatives in an agricultural valley of California to assess the opportunities and future prospects for the multi-pathway cumulative framework in LCA and CAA. This case reveals that the relative contributions to cumulative...... pollutant intake via different exposure pathways depend on (a) persistence of chemicals at different levels of integration (regional, urban-scale, food-web, indoors), (b) basic chemical properties, (c) the retention of chemicals in food webs, and (d) the retention of chemicals by indoor surfaces....

  11. Risk assessment of mercury exposure from dental amalgams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhardt, J.W.

    Much attention is being focused upon the issue of mercury exposure from dental amalgam restorations and the potential for adverse health effects. This controversy has grown beyond the confines of the dental profession itself and is becoming an emotional public health issue. In hope of regaining good health, many dental patients with chronic systemic diseases are considering replacement of their amalgams. Dentists are increasingly being challenged to prove the safety of amalgams. Recently, systematic methods have been established for quantitative evaluation of environmental risks. This study brings together the quantitative methodologies of risk assessment and the knowledge of mercury exposure from dental amalgams to estimate the safety of dental amalgam restorative therapy. Analysis concludes that the margin of safety for mercury toxicity in humans from dental amalgams is approximately 8- to 30-fold. There are many uncertainties involved in this estimate, and further studies are warranted to improve its precision. 48 references.

  12. Risk assessment of exposure to radon decay products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monchaux, G

    1999-07-01

    The aim of this project was to assess the risk due to inhalation of radon and its decay products using an horizontal approach across a large scale research programme. The central objective was the assessment of human risk which requires combination of several topics involving a multidisciplinary approach. In the Aerosol Studies Group, progress was achieved in improvement, calibration and automation of experimental techniques for continuous and integrated measurements of the unattached fraction f{sub p}- and equilibrium factor F- values. Measurements were performed to determine the variation of size distributions of unattached and aerosol-associated radon decay products under typical living conditions. All aerosol groups performed controlled chamber studies to understand the basic behaviour of airborne activity concentrations. Measurements were performed to determine neutralisation rates of {sup 218}Po, to understand the cluster growth with residence time and to understand the hygroscopic growth of aerosol particles. In the Modelling Group, the programme RADEP has been developed to calculate the weighted committed equivalent lung dose per unit exposure of radon progeny (H{sub w}/P{sub p}) which implements the ICRP Publication 66 Human Respiratory Tract Model (HRTM). The stochastic deposition model (IDEAL) has been compared with the deposition model used by the HRTM, and the agreement between the two deposition models was excellent. A deterministic radon progeny dosimetry model (RADOS) has been developed. This model includes all bronchial airway generations compared with the HRTM that groups the 16 airway generations into three regions. Initial calculations with RADOS show that the basal and secretory cell doses are slightly smaller compared with that of the HRTM. A sensitivity analysis has been performed that has identified those HRTM model parameters that most affect the Hw/Pp. A stochastic rat deposition model (RALMO) and a clearance model for the rat based on the

  13. Assessment of exposure to mixture pollutants in Mexican indigenous children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Ramírez, R; Pérez-Vázquez, F J; Cilia-López, V G; Zuki-Orozco, B A; Carrizales, L; Batres-Esquivel, L E; Palacios-Ramírez, A; Díaz-Barriga, F

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present work was to complete an exposure assessment in three Mexican indigenous communities using the community-based health risk assessment, which is the first step in the CHILD framework. We used 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) as an exposure biomarker to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and trans, trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA) as an exposure biomarker to benzene, persistent organic pollutants (POPs), lead, manganese, arsenic, and fluoride. Anthropometric measurements were also taken. In these communities, high percentages of children with chronic malnutrition were found (28 to 49 %) based on their weight and age. All communities showed a high percentage of children with detectable levels of four or more compounds (70 to 82 %). Additionally, our results showed that in indigenous communities, children are exposed to elevated levels of certain environmental pollutants, including manganese with 17.6, 16.8, and 7.3 μg/L from SMP, TOC, and CUA, respectively. Lead and HCB levels were similar in the indigenous communities (2.5, 3.1, and 4.2 μg/dL and 2.5, 3.1, and 3.7 ng/mL, respectively). 1-OHP and t,t-MA levels were higher in TOC (0.8 μmol/mol of creatinine, 476 μg/g of creatinine, respectively) when compared with SMP (0.1 μmol/mol of creatinine, 215.5 μg/g of creatinine, respectively) and CUA (0.1 μmol/mol of creatinine, 185.2 μg/g of creatinine, respectively). DDE levels were 30.7, 26.9, and 9.6 ng/mL in CUA, SMP, and TOC, respectively. The strength of this study is that it assesses exposure to pollutants with indications for the resultant risk before an intervention is made by the CHILD program to manage this risk in the indigenous communities. Considering the large number of people, especially children, exposed to multiple pollutants, it is important to design effective intervention programs that reduce exposure and the resultant risk in the numerous indigenous communities in Mexico.

  14. Measurement of terrestrial radiation for assessment of gamma dose from cultivated and barren saline soils of Faisalabad in Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tufail, M. [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)]. E-mail: dr_mtufail@yahoo.com; Akhtar, Nasim [Health Physics Division, NIAB, Jhang Road, Faisalabad (Pakistan); Waqas, M. [Department of Earth Sciences, Quad-i-Azam University, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2006-04-15

    Natural radioactivity originates from extraterrestrial sources as well as from primordial radioactive elements in the earth crust. The amount of radioactivity in soil varies widely and is a source of continuous exposure of human beings to terrestrial radioactivity that depends upon the type of soil and its uses. For the investigation of radioactivity in barren and cultivated soil, an area of about 80ha of saline soil was selected in Pakka Anna near the city of Faisalabad in the Punjab province of Pakistan. Activity concentration levels due to {sup 40}K, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th were measured with HPGe detector in 250 saline soil samples collected at a spacing of about 8ha at a depth of 0-25cm with intervals of 5cm depth. Activity concentration ranges of the concerned radionuclides for both of the soils were as follows: {sup 40}K, for barren and cultivated saline soil was 499-604 and 563-629Bqkg{sup -1}, respectively; {sup 137}Cs, 3.57-3.63 and 1.98-5.15Bqkg{sup -1}; {sup 226}Ra, 24-29 and 27-33Bqkg{sup -1}, and {sup 232}Th, 49-54 and 46-62Bqkg{sup -1}. Gamma dose was estimated using the activity to dose rate conversion factors. The measured activity concentrations and the estimated radiation dose were found to be lying within the range specified in the 2000 report of UNSCEAR. Chemical analysis for Na, Ca and Mg was also carried out along with the measurement of electrical conductivity and pH of soil samples.

  15. Field perturbation experiments, an alternate approach to the assessment of human effects in terrestrial ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suter, II, G W

    1980-01-01

    The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) was initially interpreted as requiring full disclosure of the environmental impacts of a federal action. Because of the limitations of time, money, and manpower, this requirement that all impacts be considered has led to superficial analysis of many important impacts. Data collection has largely been limited to the enumeration of species because this information can be applied to the analysis of any problem. The President's Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) has provided a solution to this problem by reinterpreting NEPA as requiring analysis of those impacts which have significant bearing on decision making. Because assessment resources can now be concentrated on a few critical issues, it should be possible to perform field perturbation experiments to provide direct evidence of the effects of a specific mixture of pollutants or physical disturbances on the specific mixture of pollutants or physical disturbances on the specific receiving ecosystem. Techniques are described for field simulation of gaseous and particulate air pollution, soil pollutants, disturbance of the earth's surface, and disturbance of wildlife. These techniques are discussed in terms of their realism, cost, and the restrictions which they place on the measurement of ecological parameters. Development and use of these field perturbation techniques should greatly improve the accuracy of predictive assessments and further our understanding of ecosystem processes.

  16. Contribution to the knowledge of threatened terrestrial fauna of Brazil: data from PETROBRAS environmental impact assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basbaum, Marcos A.; Fonseca, Renata A.A. [SEEBLA - Servicos de Engenharia Emilio Baumgart Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: mbasbaum.seebla@petrobras.com.br, e-mail: renataamorim.seebla@petrobras.com.br; Torggler, Bianca F.; Fernandes, Renato; Guimaraes, Ricardo Z.P. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: torggler@petrobras.com.br, e-mail: renatofer@petrobras.com.br, e-mail: rzaluar@petrobras.com.br

    2009-12-19

    One of the major problems related to the protection of threatened species in Brazil is the current lack of primary data on their occurrence. PETROBRAS, due to the processes of environmental licensing of new pipelines, held numerous studies on the occurrence of several species. Most of these studies took place in Atlantic Forest remnants located in the states of Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais, Espirito Santo, Bahia, Sergipe, Alagoas and Pernambuco. This study compared primary data from these Environmental Impact Assessments with the Brazilian list of threatened species published by MMA (Brazilian Ministry of Environment). Many threatened species were recorded in areas where native forest fragments are reduced in number and size, such as those in the Northeastern region. (author)

  17. Probabilistic mercury multimedia exposure assessment in small children and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisset, Typhaine; Ramirez-Martinez, Alejandra; Wesolek, Nathalie; Roudot, Alain-Claude

    2013-09-01

    Emissions of mercury in the environment have been decreasing for several years. However, mercury species are still found in different media (food, water, air and breast-milk). Due to mercury toxicity and typical behaviour in children, we have conducted a mercury exposure assessment in French babies, and small children aged 0 to 36months. Consumption and mercury concentration data were chosen for the exposure assessment. The Monte Carlo technique has been used to calculate the weekly exposure dose in order to integrate inter-individual variability and parameter uncertainty. Exposure values have been compared to toxicological reference values for health risk assessment. Inorganic mercury median exposure levels ranged from 0.160 to 1.649μg/kg of body weight per week (95th percentile (P95): 0.298-2.027µg/kg bw/week); elemental mercury median exposure level in children was 0.11ng/kg bw/week (P95: 28ng/kg bw/week); and methylmercury median exposure level ranged from 0.247 to 0.273µg/kg bw/week (P95: 0.425-0.463µg/kg bw/week). Only elemental mercury by inhalation route (indoor air) and methylmercury by ingestion (fish and breast-milk) seem to lead to a health risk in small children. These results confirm the importance of assessing total mercury concentration in media like breast-milk, indoor air and dust and methylmercury level in food, other than fish and seafood. In this way, informed monitoring plan and risk assessment in an at-risk sub-population can be set. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Major national human biomonitoring programs in chemical exposure assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Choi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Human biomonitoring (HBM programs have been established in several countries around the world in order to monitor the levels of chemical exposures in the general population and qualify health risk assessment of national and international interest. Study design, population, sample collection, and chemical analysis must be considered when comparing and interpreting the results. In this review, the objectives and brief descriptions of the major national HBM programs in North America, Europe, and Asia are provided. Similarities and differences observed from a comparative analysis among these programs, including the stratification of data according to age, sex, socioeconomic background, etc. as well as the identification of chemical exposure associated with food intake, are discussed. Overall, although there are some discrepancies in the study designs among the reviewed national HBM programs, results from the programs can provide useful information such as chemical levels found within the general population of a country that can be compared. Furthermore, the results can be used by regulatory authorities or the government to enforce legislations in order to reduce the exposure of chemicals into the human body.

  19. Exposure assessment of workers in printed electronics workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Sohn, Eun Kyung; Ahn, Jin Soo; Ahn, Kangho; Kim, Keun Soo; Lee, Jong Hwan; Lee, Taik Min; Yu, Il Je

    2013-07-01

    Printed electronics uses converging technologies, such as printing, fine mechanics, nanotechnology, electronics and other new technologies. Consequently, printed electronics raises additional health and safety concerns to those experienced in the traditional printing industry. This study investigated two printed electronics workplaces based on a walk-through survey and personal and area sampling. All the printed electronics operations were conducted in a cleanroom. No indication of exposure to excess silver nanoparticles or carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was found. While the organic solvents were lower than current occupational exposure limits, there was a lack of engineering controls, such as local exhaust ventilation, correct enclosure and duct connections. There was also an insufficient quantity of personal protective equipment, and some organic solvents not described in the safety data sheets (SDSs) were detected in the air samples. Plus, the cleaning work, a major emissions operation, was not conducted within a hood, and the cleaning waste was not properly disposed of. Therefore, the present exposure assessment results from two printed electronics workplaces suggest that the printed electronics industry needs to take note of the occupational safety and health risks and hazards already established by the traditional printing industry, along with new risks and hazards originating from converging technologies such as nanotechnology.

  20. Mercury contamination and exposure assessment of fishery products in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hye-Ran; Kim, Na-Young; Hwang, Lae-Hong; Park, Ju-Sung; Kim, Jung-Hun

    2015-01-01

    In this study, total (T-Hg) and methyl mercury (Me-Hg) contamination was investigated in fishery products including canned fish, fish sauces, dried bonito and frozen tuna sashimi, collected from retail markets in Korea, to assess dietary exposure. Direct mercury analyser and gas chromatography-electron captured detector were employed to measure T-Hg and Me-Hg, respectively. The highest T-Hg and Me-Hg contamination was present in tuna sashimi, followed by dried bonito, respectively. Canned tuna showed more frequent detection and higher content than other canned fishery products. The weekly exposure estimate indicates that exposure to mercury from fishery products is safe, showing 2.59% provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) for T-Hg, 1.82% PTWI for Me-Hg and 4.16% reference dose for Me-Hg. However, it should be addressed to monitor the mercury contamination in fish and fishery products regularly, to safeguard vulnerable population such as children, to limit intake of these food products.

  1. Assessment of noise exposures in a pediatric dentistry residency clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadid, Khaled; Klein, Ulrich; Meinke, Deanna

    2011-01-01

    In addition to sounds from dental equipment, pediatric dentists are exposed to noise produced by precooperative and/or noncooperative children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the daily personal noise exposure of a pediatric dentistry resident while treating children in a teaching clinic to determine both comprehensive noise doses and peak noise occurrences as well as to assess the risk for noise-induced hearing loss. A noise dosimeter (Noise-Pro DLX) was used to measure the total personal noise exposure dose using the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Hearing Conservation Amendment criteria and the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) occupational noise exposure revised criteria. Comprehensive noise doses for 31 days were obtained for a single resident. OSHA and NIOSH-allowable limits were not exceeded during any one day in the study period. Noise levels during crying episodes, however, were higher than the reported noise levels of dental instruments and reached maximum levels of 112.9 dBA. Noise levels to which the pediatric dental resident was exposed fell below the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's damage-risk thresholds for noise-induced hearing loss.

  2. Assessing protection against radiation exposure after prostate (125)I brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanada, Takashi; Yorozu, Atsunori; Kikumura, Riki; Ohashi, Toshio; Shigematsu, Naoyuki

    2014-01-01

    To expand the radiation dose rate measurement data set by measuring radiation under various prostate (125)I brachytherapy situations. Measurements were obtained from 63 consecutive unselected patients at Tokyo Medical Center, Japan. Differences in factors during measurements, such as body postures, distances from the skin surface, and measurement directions were considered. Furthermore, shielding effects of lead-lined underwear, consisting mainly of 0.1-mm thickness of lead, were also assessed. Radiation exposure varies according to the patient's body posture, with results differing as much as approximately 40.0% in measured radiation dose rates at 30cm from the anterior skin surface. Weight, body mass index, and tissue thickness showed good correlations with measured radiation dose rates. The magnitude of radiation exposure attenuation by shielding was approximately 95.8%, similar to the attenuation ratio based on tissue measurements made in the lateral direction. The respective mean times required to reach 1mSv were 1.2, 7.6, and 65.4 days in the standing position and 0.6, 4.6, and 40.4 days in the supine position at the site of contact, and at 30 and 100cm from the anterior skin surface. This study obtained supplemental information pertaining to radiological protection and confirmed that shielding can be an effective tool for reducing exposures. Copyright © 2014 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Terrestrial cosmogenic surface exposure dating of glacial and associated landforms in the Ruby Mountains-East Humboldt Range of central Nevada and along the northeastern flank of the Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesnousky, Steven G.; Briggs, Richard; Caffee, Marc W.; Ryerson, Rick J.; Finkel, Robert C.; Owen, Lewis A.

    2016-01-01

    Deposits near Lamoille in the Ruby Mountains-East Humboldt Range of central Nevada and at Woodfords on the eastern edge of the Sierra Nevada each record two distinct glacial advances. We compare independent assessments of terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide (TCN) surface exposure ages for glacial deposits that we have determined to those obtained by others at the two sites. At each site, TCN ages of boulders on moraines of the younger advance are between 15 and 30 ka and may be associated with marine oxygen isotope stage (MIS) 2. At Woodfords, TCN ages of boulders on the moraine of the older advance are younger than ~ 60 ka and possibly formed during MIS 4, whereas boulders on the correlative outwash surface show ages approaching 140 ka (~ MIS 6). The TCN ages of boulders on older glacial moraine at Woodfords thus appear to severely underestimate the true age of the glacial advance responsible for the deposit. The same is possibly true at Lamoille where clasts sampled from the moraine of the oldest advance have ages ranging between 20 and 40 ka with a single outlier age of ~ 80 ka. The underestimations are attributed to the degradation and denudation of older moraine crests. Noting that boulder ages on the older advances at each site overlap significantly with MIS 2. We speculate that erosion of the older moraines has been episodic, with a pulse of denudation accompanying the inception of MIS 2 glaciation.

  4. Assessing the Health and Performance Risks of Carbon Dioxide Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.; Meyers, V. E.; Alexander, D.

    2010-01-01

    provide no more than partial answers to the questions of environmental interactions, interindividual variability, and optimal control levels. Future prospective studies should involve assessment of astronaut well being using sophisticated measures during exposures to levels of CO2 in the range from 2 to 8 mmHg.

  5. Assimilation of GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage Observations into a Land Surface Model for the Assessment of Regional Flood Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John T. Reager

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We evaluate performance of the Catchment Land Surface Model (CLSM under flood conditions after the assimilation of observations of the terrestrial water storage anomaly (TWSA from NASA’s Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE. Assimilation offers three key benefits for the viability of GRACE observations to operational applications: (1 near-real time analysis; (2 a downscaling of GRACE’s coarse spatial resolution; and (3 state disaggregation of the vertically-integrated TWSA. We select the 2011 flood event in the Missouri river basin as a case study, and find that assimilation generally made the model wetter in the months preceding flood. We compare model outputs with observations from 14 USGS groundwater wells to assess improvements after assimilation. Finally, we examine disaggregated water storage information to improve the mechanistic understanding of event generation. Validation establishes that assimilation improved the model skill substantially, increasing regional groundwater anomaly correlation from 0.58 to 0.86. For the 2011 flood event in the Missouri river basin, results show that groundwater and snow water equivalent were contributors to pre-event flood potential, providing spatially-distributed early warning information.

  6. Assimilation of GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage Observations into a Land Surface Model for the Assessment of Regional Flood Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reager, John T.; Thomas, Alys C.; Sproles, Eric A.; Rodell, Matthew; Beaudoing, Hiroko K.; Li, Bailing; Famiglietti, James S.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluate performance of the Catchment Land Surface Model (CLSM) under flood conditions after the assimilation of observations of the terrestrial water storage anomaly (TWSA) from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE). Assimilation offers three key benefits for the viability of GRACE observations to operational applications: (1) near-real time analysis; (2) a downscaling of GRACE's coarse spatial resolution; and (3) state disaggregation of the vertically-integrated TWSA. We select the 2011 flood event in the Missouri river basin as a case study, and find that assimilation generally made the model wetter in the months preceding flood. We compare model outputs with observations from 14 USGS groundwater wells to assess improvements after assimilation. Finally, we examine disaggregated water storage information to improve the mechanistic understanding of event generation. Validation establishes that assimilation improved the model skill substantially, increasing regional groundwater anomaly correlation from 0.58 to 0.86. For the 2011 flood event in the Missouri river basin, results show that groundwater and snow water equivalent were contributors to pre-event flood potential, providing spatially-distributed early warning information.

  7. Assessing Mammal Exposure to Climate Change in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Bruno R; Sales, Lilian P; De Marco, Paulo; Loyola, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Human-induced climate change is considered a conspicuous threat to biodiversity in the 21st century. Species' response to climate change depends on their exposition, sensitivity and ability to adapt to novel climates. Exposure to climate change is however uneven within species' range, so that some populations may be more at risk than others. Identifying the regions most exposed to climate change is therefore a first and pivotal step on determining species' vulnerability across their geographic ranges. Here, we aimed at quantifying mammal local exposure to climate change across species' ranges. We identified areas in the Brazilian Amazon where mammals will be critically exposed to non-analogue climates in the future with different variables predicted by 15 global circulation climate forecasts. We also built a null model to assess the effectiveness of the Amazon protected areas in buffering the effects of climate change on mammals, using an innovative and more realistic approach. We found that 85% of species are likely to be exposed to non-analogue climatic conditions in more than 80% of their ranges by 2070. That percentage is even higher for endemic mammals; almost all endemic species are predicted to be exposed in more than 80% of their range. Exposure patterns also varied with different climatic variables and seem to be geographically structured. Western and northern Amazon species are more likely to experience temperature anomalies while northeastern species will be more affected by rainfall abnormality. We also observed an increase in the number of critically-exposed species from 2050 to 2070. Overall, our results indicate that mammals might face high exposure to climate change and that protected areas will probably not be efficient enough to avert those impacts.

  8. Assessing Mammal Exposure to Climate Change in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno R Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Human-induced climate change is considered a conspicuous threat to biodiversity in the 21st century. Species' response to climate change depends on their exposition, sensitivity and ability to adapt to novel climates. Exposure to climate change is however uneven within species' range, so that some populations may be more at risk than others. Identifying the regions most exposed to climate change is therefore a first and pivotal step on determining species' vulnerability across their geographic ranges. Here, we aimed at quantifying mammal local exposure to climate change across species' ranges. We identified areas in the Brazilian Amazon where mammals will be critically exposed to non-analogue climates in the future with different variables predicted by 15 global circulation climate forecasts. We also built a null model to assess the effectiveness of the Amazon protected areas in buffering the effects of climate change on mammals, using an innovative and more realistic approach. We found that 85% of species are likely to be exposed to non-analogue climatic conditions in more than 80% of their ranges by 2070. That percentage is even higher for endemic mammals; almost all endemic species are predicted to be exposed in more than 80% of their range. Exposure patterns also varied with different climatic variables and seem to be geographically structured. Western and northern Amazon species are more likely to experience temperature anomalies while northeastern species will be more affected by rainfall abnormality. We also observed an increase in the number of critically-exposed species from 2050 to 2070. Overall, our results indicate that mammals might face high exposure to climate change and that protected areas will probably not be efficient enough to avert those impacts.

  9. Quantifying human exposure to air pollution - moving from static monitoring to spatio-temporally resolved personal exposure assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinle, Susanne; Reis, Stefan; Sabel, Clive E

    2013-01-01

    distributions. New developments in sensor technology now enable us to monitor personal exposure to air pollutants directly while people are moving through their activity spaces and varying concentration fields. The literature review on which this paper is based on reflects recent developments in the assessment...... for the integrated assessment of human exposure to air pollutants taking into account latest technological capabilities and contextual information. Highlights ? We review and discuss recent developments and advances of research into personal exposure to air pollution. ? We emphasise the importance of personal...... exposure studies to accurately assess human health risks. ? We discuss potential and shortcomings of methods and tools with a focus on how their development influences study design. ? We propose a novel conceptual model for integrated health impact assessment of human exposure to air pollutants. ? We...

  10. Capability assessment and challenges for quantum technology gravity sensors for near surface terrestrial geophysical surveying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddice, Daniel; Metje, Nicole; Tuckwell, George

    2017-11-01

    Geophysical surveying is widely used for the location of subsurface features. Current technology is limited in terms of its resolution (thus size of features it can detect) and penetration depth and a suitable technique is needed to bridge the gap between shallow near surface investigation using techniques such as EM conductivity mapping and GPR commonly used to map the upper 5 m below ground surface, and large features at greater depths detectable using conventional microgravity (> 5 m below ground surface). This will minimise the risks from unknown features buried in and conditions of the ground during civil engineering work. Quantum technology (QT) gravity sensors potentially offer a step-change in technology for locating features which lie outside of the currently detectable range in terms of size and depth, but that potential is currently unknown as field instruments have not been developed. To overcome this, a novel computer simulation was developed for a large range of different targets of interest. The simulation included realistic noise modelling of instrumental, environmental and location sources of noise which limit the accuracy of current microgravity measurements, in order to assess the potential capability of the new QT instruments in realistic situations and determine some of the likely limitations on their implementation. The results of the simulations for near surface features showed that the new technology is best employed in a gradiometer configuration as opposed to the traditional single sensor gravimeter used by current instruments due to the ability to suppress vibrational environmental noise effects due to common mode rejection between the sensors. A significant improvement in detection capability of 1.5-2 times was observed, putting targets such as mineshafts into the detectability zone which would be a major advantage for subsurface surveying. Thus this research, for the first time, has demonstrated clearly the benefits of QT gravity

  11. Air pollution in moderately polluted urban areas: How does the definition of "neighborhood" impact exposure assessment?

    OpenAIRE

    TENAILLEAU, Quentin; Mauny, Frédéric; Joly, Daniel; François, Stéphane; Bernard, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Environmental health studies commonly quantify subjects' pollution exposure in their neighborhood. How this neighborhood is defined can vary, however, leading to different approaches to quantification whose impacts on exposure levels remain unclear. We explore the relationship between neighborhood definition and exposure assessment. NO 2 , benzene, PM 10 and PM 2.5 exposure estimates were computed in the vicinity of 10,825 buildings using twelve exposure assessment tec...

  12. Assessing Climate Change Impacts on Wildfire Exposure in Mediterranean Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Olga M; Salis, Michele; Ager, Alan A; Arca, Bachisio; Alcasena, Fermin J; Monteiro, Antonio T; Finney, Mark A; Del Giudice, Liliana; Scoccimarro, Enrico; Spano, Donatella

    2017-10-01

    We used simulation modeling to assess potential climate change impacts on wildfire exposure in Italy and Corsica (France). Weather data were obtained from a regional climate model for the period 1981-2070 using the IPCC A1B emissions scenario. Wildfire simulations were performed with the minimum travel time fire spread algorithm using predicted fuel moisture, wind speed, and wind direction to simulate expected changes in weather for three climatic periods (1981-2010, 2011-2040, and 2041-2070). Overall, the wildfire simulations showed very slight changes in flame length, while other outputs such as burn probability and fire size increased significantly in the second future period (2041-2070), especially in the southern portion of the study area. The projected changes fuel moisture could result in a lengthening of the fire season for the entire study area. This work represents the first application in Europe of a methodology based on high resolution (250 m) landscape wildfire modeling to assess potential impacts of climate changes on wildfire exposure at a national scale. The findings can provide information and support in wildfire management planning and fire risk mitigation activities. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  13. ASSESSMENT OF BAGGING OPERATORS EXPOSURE TO WITH PVC AIRBORNE PARTICULATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Asilian, M. Nasseri Nejad, S. B. Mortazavi, M. J. Jafari, A. Khavanin, A. R. Dehdashti

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Dust consists of tiny solid particles carried by air currents. These particles are formed by many different processes. One of these processes is polymerization of inert plastic such as Polyvinyl Chloride production plant. According to the Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series requirements, section 4.4.6, occupational health and safety risks must be defined and controlled where needed. This field study was conducted to evaluate the occupational exposure of packaging operators to airborne polyvinyl chloride dust in order to health risk assessment and recommend feasible controlling methods. The mass concentration of polyvinyl chloride particulate was measured in two fractions according to the particle size that expressed as total and respirable particulates. The Air Sampling Methods, Methods for the Determination of Hazardous Substances 14/3, of Health and Safety Executive were used as a standard sampling protocol. The average mass concentrations for respirable and total particulates were measured 3.54±0.3 mg/m3 and 11.89±0.8 mg/m3 respectively. Also health risks of studied condition were estimated as significant level, category one, therefore the risk must be reduced below the standard level. According to the work requirements to reduce the emission rate and mitigate the health risk exposure, a local exhaust ventilation system design was recommended for bag-filters of hopper tank.

  14. Risk assessment and management of occupational exposure to pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroni, M; Fait, A; Colosio, C

    1999-06-30

    Occupational exposure to pesticides in agriculture and public health applications may cause acute and long-term health effects. Prevention of adverse effects in the users requires actions to be undertaken in the pre-marketing and post-marketing phase of these products. The pre-marketing preventive actions are primary responsibility of industry and the public administration. Admission of pesticide use (registration) is carried out by considering the toxicological properties of each pesticide (hazard identification), determining the dose-response relationship (NOEL identification), assessing or predicting the exposure level in the various scenarios of their use, and characterising the risk. The decision about admission takes into consideration the balance between risks and benefits. The post-marketing preventive activities consist of the promotion of a proper risk management at the workplace. Such a management includes the risk assessment of the specific conditions of use, the adoption of proper work practices, and the health surveillance of the workers. Each country should develop an adequate National Plan for Prevention of Pesticide Risk which allocates different roles and tasks at the central, regional and local level.

  15. Metabolism of pesticides after dermal exposure to amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding how pesticide exposure to non-target species influences toxicity is necessary to accurately assess the ecological risks these compounds pose. Aquatic, terrestrial, and arboreal amphibians are often exposed to pesticides during their agricultural application resultin...

  16. A structured observational method to assess dermal exposure to manufactured nanoparticles: DREAM as an initial assessment tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duuren-Stuurman, B. van; Pelzer, J.; Moehlmann, C.; Berges, M.; Bard, D.; Wake, D.; Mark, D.; Jankowska, E.; Brouwer, D.

    2010-01-01

    Preliminary results of inventories of exposure scenarios for nanomaterials have indicated possible dermal exposure. Within the NANOSH project focused on occupational safety and health aspects of nanotechnology a shortened version of the observational DeRmal Exposure AssessMent (DREAM) method was

  17. [Exposure risk assessment of plasticizer in dietary food in Xiamen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Qunying; Yang, Yue; Su, Yanhua; Lyu, Chanwen; Wang, Sumei; Yu, Huan; Qin, Mengting; Li, Yanni; Zhao, Benhua

    2014-07-01

    To understand the dietary consumption of residents in Xiamen and the content of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in food, and to assess the plasticizer exposure risk of diet in Xiamen. The survey was conducted by stratified cluster random sampling method in Xiamen from September to October in 2010. According to the Xiamen administrative division, six neighborhood communities were selected as sampling units, then 25 families were randomly chosen from each sampling units.From the above 150 families, the permanent residents over the age of six were permitted to our study. The survey included 495 residents totally. These participants' information, such as basic personal information, physical activity levels, meal frequency and the average consumption of 33 kinds of food in 13 categories were collected using questionnaires. Thirteen categories included cereal and tubers, beans, vegetables, fungi and algae, fruits, dairy products, meat, seafood, eggs, snacks, beverages, cooking oil and spices. The height and weight of residents were measured and the average daily dietary intake was calculated. Thirty-three kinds of food in 13 categories were collected in supermarkets in Xiamen. According to the annual sales ranking, the top three-five brands of each kinds of food were selected and numbered, then two or three brands were chosen by random number table method from them; three completely individual packed samples in the same batch of each brand were detected; 243 samples were included in our study.100-500 g solid samples or 100-500 ml liquid samples were collected. The content of diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in food were detected by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, which expressed by median (minimum-maximum). The exposure dose, contribution rate and risk index of PAEs were calculated by point estimation method. According to the average daily dietary intake of residents in Xiamen, the top three ones in 13 categories

  18. Developing and evaluating distributions for probabilistic human exposure assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddalena, Randy L.; McKone, Thomas E.

    2002-08-01

    This report describes research carried out at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to assist the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in developing a consistent yet flexible approach for evaluating the inputs to probabilistic risk assessments. The U.S. EPA Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (OERR) recently released Volume 3 Part A of Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS), as an update to the existing two-volume set of RAGS. The update provides policy and technical guidance on performing probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). Consequently, EPA risk managers and decision-makers need to review and evaluate the adequacy of PRAs for supporting regulatory decisions. A critical part of evaluating a PRA is the problem of evaluating or judging the adequacy of input distributions PRA. Although the overarching theme of this report is the need to improve the ease and consistency of the regulatory review process, the specific objectives are presented in two parts. The objective of Part 1 is to develop a consistent yet flexible process for evaluating distributions in a PRA by identifying the critical attributes of an exposure factor distribution and discussing how these attributes relate to the task-specific adequacy of the input. This objective is carried out with emphasis on the perspective of a risk manager or decision-maker. The proposed evaluation procedure provides consistency to the review process without a loss of flexibility. As a result, the approach described in Part 1 provides an opportunity to apply a single review framework for all EPA regions and yet provide the regional risk manager with the flexibility to deal with site- and case-specific issues in the PRA process. However, as the number of inputs to a PRA increases, so does the complexity of the process for calculating, communicating and managing risk. As a result, there is increasing effort required of both the risk professionals performing the analysis and the risk manager

  19. Assessment of multiple frequency ELF electric and magnetic field exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitgeb, N.

    2008-01-01

    Electromagnetic fields both in daily life and at workplaces exhibit increasingly complex frequency spectra. Present spectral assessment rules proved to be too conservative for health risk assessment. This is because they are based on the assumption that cells would react like linear systems in terms of responding to a sum of frequencies by a sum of independent responses to each individual frequency. Based on numerical investigations with the Hodgkin-Huxley and the Frankenhaeuser-Huxley nerve cell models, it could be shown that accounting for the nonlinear behaviour of cellular excitation processes avoids considerable overestimation of simultaneous exposures to multiple frequency ELF electric and magnetic fields. Besides this, it could be shown that the role of phase relationships is less important than that assumed so far. The present assessment rules lead to non-compliances of marketed electric appliances. For general application, a nonlinear biology-based assessment (NBBA) rule has been proposed, validated and proven advantageous compared with ICNIRP's rule. While staying conservative it avoids unnecessary overestimation and demonstrates compliance even in cases of suspected non-conformities. It is up to responsible bodies to decide upon the adoption of this proposal and the potential need for implementing additional or reducing the already incorporated safety factors.

  20. Assessing reasonable worst-case full-shift exposure levels from data of variable quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marquart, H.; Drooge, H. van; Groenewold, M.; Hemmen, J. van

    2001-01-01

    Exposure assessors involved in regulatory risk assessments often need to estimate a reasonable worst-case full-shift exposure level from very limited exposure information. Full-shift exposure data of very high quality are rare. A full-shift value can also be calculated from (short term) task-based

  1. Bisphenol A exposure assessment from olive oil consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Omar, Tarek F; Sukhn, Carol; Fares, Souha A; Abiad, Mohamad G; Habib, Rima R; Dhaini, Hassan R

    2017-07-01

    The use of bisphenol A (BPA) in packaging has grown over the past 50 years despite concerns of its migration into packaged food and beverages, resulting in human exposure. Many studies have reported tumorigenic effects and endocrine alterations associated with BPA in animal models. This study aims at assessing human exposure to BPA from olive oil. A total of 27 olive oil samples were collected from mills and local villagers in the Hasbaya District, a major olive oil harvesting region in Lebanon. Information on storage conditions was also collected. BPA was extracted and quantified by HPLC. Results showed significantly higher BPA levels in olive oil samples stored in plastic vs. non-plastic packaging (mean = 333 vs. 150 μg/kg, p value = 0.006), samples with a plastic storage duration of >1 year compared to those with a storage duration of <1 year (mean = 452 vs. 288 μg/kg, p value = 0.008), and oil samples sourced from locals compared to oil mills (mean = 376 vs. 228 μg/kg, p value = 0.022). Statistically significant higher BPA levels remained for samples stored in plastic vs. non-plastic packaging in the bootstrap multivariable linear regression (B = 121.56, 95% CI 53.44-194.39, p value = 0.009). This is the first report on BPA levels in Mediterranean olive oil. The estimated exposure was 1.38% of the EFSA tolerable daily intake, hence there are no concerns about potential health risks from olive oil consumption.

  2. Assessing exposure to cosmic radiation during long-haul flights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottollier-Depois, J.F.; Chau, Q.; Bouisset, P.; Kerlau, G.; Plawinski, L.; Lebaron-Jacobs, L. [Inst. for Protection and Nuclear Safety, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2000-05-01

    The assessment of exposure to cosmic radiation on board air craft is one of the preoccupations of organizations responsible for radiation protection. Cosmic particle flux increases with altitude and latitude and depends on the solar activity. The exposure has been estimated on several airlines using transatlantic, Siberian and transequatorial routes on board subsonic and supersonic air crafts, to illustrate the effect of these parameters. Measurements have been realized with a tissue equivalent proportional counter using the microdosimetric technique. Such a system provides the absorbed dose, the ambient dose equivalent, the mean quality factor and the dose distribution as a function of lineal energy. Data have been collected at maximum solar activity in 1991-92 and at minimum in 1996-98. The lowest mean dose rate measured was 3 {mu}Sv.h{sup -1} during a Paris-Buenos Aires flight in 1991; the highest was 6.6 {mu}Sv.h{sup -1} during Paris-Tokyo flight using Siberian route and 9.7 {mu}Sv.h{sup -1} on Concorde in 1996-97. The mean quality factor is around 1.8. The corresponding annual effective dose, based on 700 hours of flight for subsonic aircraft and 300 hours for Concorde, can be estimated between 2 mSv for least-exposed routes and 5 mSv for more exposed routes. (author)

  3. Assessing exposure to cosmic radiation during long-haul flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottollier-Depois, J F; Chau, Q; Bouisset, P; Kerlau, G; Plawinski, L; Lebaron-Jacobs, L

    2000-05-01

    The assessment of exposure to cosmic radiation on board aircraft is one of the concerns of organizations responsible for radiation protection. Cosmic-particle flux increases with altitude and latitude and depends on solar activity. To illustrate the effect of these parameters, exposure has been estimated on several airlines operating subsonic and supersonic aircraft on transatlantic, Siberian and transequatorial routes. Measurements have been made with a tissue-equivalent proportional counter using the microdosimetric technique. This type of system provides the absorbed dose, the ambient dose equivalent, the mean quality factor, and the dose distribution as a function of lineal energy. Data were collected at maximum solar activity in 1991-1992 and at minimum activity in 1996-1998. The lowest mean dose rate measured was 3 microSv h(-1) during a Paris-Buenos Aires flight in 1991. The highest rates were 6.6 microSv h(-1) during a Paris-Tokyo flight on a Siberian route and 9.7 microSv h(-1) on Concorde in 1996-1997. The mean quality factor is around 1.8. The corresponding annual effective dose, based on 700 h of flight for subsonic aircraft and 300 h for Concorde, can be estimated at between 2 mSv for the least-exposed routes and 5 mSv for the more-exposed routes.

  4. Assessing exposure to cosmic radiation on board aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottollier-Depois, J. F.; Chau, Q.; Bouisset, P.; Kerlau, G.; Plawinski, L.; Lebaron-Jacobs, L.

    The assessment of exposure to cosmic radiation on board aircraft is one of the preoccupations of organizations responsible for radiation protection. The cosmic radiation particle flux increases with altitude and latitude and depends on the solar activity. The radiation exposure has been estimated on several airlines using transatlantic, Siberian and transequatorial routes on board subsonic and supersonic aircraft, to illustrate the effect of these parameters: Measurements have been obtained with a tissue equivalent proportional counter using the microdosimetric technique. Data have been collected at maximum solar activity in 1991-1992 and at minimum in 1996-1998. The lowest mean dose rate measured was 3 μSv/h during a Paris-Buenos Aires flight in 1991; the highest was 6.6 μSv/h during a Paris-Tokyo flight using a Siberian route and 9.7 μ Sv/h on Concorde in 1996-1997. The mean quality factor is around 1.8. The corresponding annual effective dose, based on 700 hours of flight for subsonic aircraft and 300 hours for Concorde, can be-estimated between 2 rnSv for least-exposed routes and 5 mSv for more exposed routes.

  5. Use of GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage Retrievals to Evaluate Model Estimates by the Australian Water Resources Assessment System

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, A. I. J. M.; Renzullo, L. J.; Rodell, M.

    2011-01-01

    Terrestrial water storage (TWS) estimates retrievals from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission were compared to TWS modeled by the Australian Water Resources Assessment (AWRA) system. The aim was to test whether differences could be attributed and used to identify model deficiencies. Data for 2003 2010 were decomposed into the seasonal cycle, linear trends and the remaining de-trended anomalies before comparing. AWRA tended to have smaller seasonal amplitude than GRACE. GRACE showed a strong (greater than 15 millimeter per year) drying trend in northwest Australia that was associated with a preceding period of unusually wet conditions, whereas weaker drying trends in the southern Murray Basin and southwest Western Australia were associated with relatively dry conditions. AWRA estimated trends were less negative for these regions, while a more positive trend was estimated for areas affected by cyclone Charlotte in 2009. For 2003-2009, a decrease of 7-8 millimeter per year (50-60 cubic kilometers per year) was estimated from GRACE, enough to explain 6-7% of the contemporary rate of global sea level rise. This trend was not reproduced by the model. Agreement between model and data suggested that the GRACE retrieval error estimates are biased high. A scaling coefficient applied to GRACE TWS to reduce the effect of signal leakage appeared to degrade quantitative agreement for some regions. Model aspects identified for improvement included a need for better estimation of rainfall in northwest Australia, and more sophisticated treatment of diffuse groundwater discharge processes and surface-groundwater connectivity for some regions.

  6. Assessment of predictive dermal exposure to chemicals in the work environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Jankowska

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of dermal exposure to chemicals in the work environment is problematic, mainly as a result of the lack of measurement data on occupational exposure to chemicals. Due to common prevalence of occupational skin exposure and its health consequences it is necessary to look for efficient solutions allowing for reliable exposure assessment. The aim of the study is to present predictive models used to assess non-measured dermal exposure, as well as to acquaint Polish users with the principles of the selected model functioning. This paper presents examples of models to assist the employer in the the assessment of occupational exposure associated with the skin contact with chemicals, developed in European Union (EU countries, as well as in countries outside the EU. Based on the literature data dermal exposure models EASE (Estimation and Assessment of Substance Exposure, COSHH Essentials (Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations, DREAM (Dermal Exposure Assessment Method, Stoffenmanager , ECETOC TRA (European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals Targeted Risk Assessment, MEASE (Metal’s EASE, PHED (Pesticide Handlers Exposure Database, DERM (Dermal Exposure Ranking Method and RISKOFDERM (Risk Assessment of Occupational Dermal Exposure to Chemicals were briefly described. Moreover the characteristics of RISKOFDERM, guidelines for its use, information on input and output data were further detailed. Problem of full work shift dermal exposure assessment is described. An example of exposure assessment using RISKOFDERM and effectiveness evaluation to date were also presented. When no measurements are available, RISKOFDERM allows dermal exposure assessment and thus can improve the risk assessment quality and effectiveness of dermal risk management. Med Pr 2017;68(4:557–569

  7. [Assessment of predictive dermal exposure to chemicals in the work environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowska, Agnieszka; Czerczak, Sławomir; Kupczewska-Dobecka, Małgorzata

    2017-06-27

    Assessment of dermal exposure to chemicals in the work environment is problematic, mainly as a result of the lack of measurement data on occupational exposure to chemicals. Due to common prevalence of occupational skin exposure and its health consequences it is necessary to look for efficient solutions allowing for reliable exposure assessment. The aim of the study is to present predictive models used to assess non-measured dermal exposure, as well as to acquaint Polish users with the principles of the selected model functioning. This paper presents examples of models to assist the employer in the the assessment of occupational exposure associated with the skin contact with chemicals, developed in European Union (EU) countries, as well as in countries outside the EU. Based on the literature data dermal exposure models EASE (Estimation and Assessment of Substance Exposure), COSHH Essentials (Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations), DREAM (Dermal Exposure Assessment Method), Stoffenmanager , ECETOC TRA (European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals Targeted Risk Assessment), MEASE (Metal's EASE), PHED (Pesticide Handlers Exposure Database), DERM (Dermal Exposure Ranking Method) and RISKOFDERM (Risk Assessment of Occupational Dermal Exposure to Chemicals) were briefly described. Moreover the characteristics of RISKOFDERM, guidelines for its use, information on input and output data were further detailed. Problem of full work shift dermal exposure assessment is described. An example of exposure assessment using RISKOFDERM and effectiveness evaluation to date were also presented. When no measurements are available, RISKOFDERM allows dermal exposure assessment and thus can improve the risk assessment quality and effectiveness of dermal risk management. Med Pr 2017;68(4):557-569. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  8. Quality control for exposure assessment in epidemiological studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornkessel, C; Blettner, M; Breckenkamp, J

    2010-01-01

    In the framework of an epidemiological study, dosemeters were used for the assessment of radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure. To check the correct dosemeter's performance in terms of consistency of recorded field values over the entire study period, a quality control strategy...... was developed. In this paper, the concept of quality control and its results is described. From the 20 dosemeters used, 19 were very stable and reproducible, with deviations of a maximum of +/-1 dB compared with their initial state. One device was found to be faulty and its measurement data had to be excluded...... from the analysis. As a result of continuous quality control procedures, the confidence in the measurements obtained during the field work was strengthened significantly....

  9. Accurate assessment of exposure using tracer gas measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kierat, Wojciech; Bivolarova, Mariya; Zavrl, Eva

    2018-01-01

    Room airflow interaction, particularly in the breathing zone, is important to assess exposure to indoor air pollution. A breathing thermal manikin was used to simulate a room occupant with the convective boundary layer (CBL) generated around the body and the respiratory flow. Local airflow against...... the face of the manikin was applied to increase the complexity of the airflow interaction. CO2 was released at the armpits and N2O at the groin to simulate the respective bio-effluents generated at these two body sites. The tracer gas concentration at the mouth/nose of the manikin was measured with gas...... with a decrease in the response time of the gas analyzer. When only CBL was present, shorter measurement time was needed for the accurate concentration measurement of the tracer gas released close to the breathing zone. For more complex flow, as a result of CBL interaction with the exhalation flow, the needed...

  10. Quantitative self-assessment of exposure to solvents among shoe repair men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hertsenberg, S.; Brouwer, D.; Lurvink, M.; Rubingh, C.; Rijnders, E.; Tielemans, E.

    2007-01-01

    Self-assessment of exposure (SAE) refers to any exposure assessment methodology wherein the worker takes an active role in establishing his or her exposure status. The objective of this study was to investigate the reliability and feasibility of SAE approaches among shoe repair workers collecting

  11. Mutagenic potential assessment associated with human exposure to natural radioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcon, Alexandre Endres; Navoni, Julio Alejandro; de Oliveira Galvão, Marcos Felipe; Garcia, Anuska Conde Fagundes Soares; do Amaral, Viviane Souza; Petta, Reinaldo Antônio; Campos, Thomas Ferreira da Costa; Panosso, Renata; Quinelato, Antônio Luiz; de Medeiros, Sílvia Regina Batistuzzo

    2017-01-01

    Lucrécia city, known to harbor a high cancer rate, is located in a semiarid region characterized by the presence of mineral reservoirs, facing a high exposure to metal and natural radioactivity. The present study aimed to assess the environmental scenario at a semiarid region located in Northeastern Brazil. Metal concentration, alpha and beta radiation, and cyanobacteria content in tap water along with indoor radon and gamma emitters (U, K and Th) concentrations were measured. In addition, mutagenic and nuclear instability effects were assessed using buccal micronucleus cytome assay. The study included five samplings corresponding to a period between 2007 and 2009. Drinking water from Lucrécia city presented levels of Mn, Ni and Cr along with cyanobacteria in concentrations one to four times higher than regulatory guidelines considered. Furthermore, high levels of all the tested radionuclides were found. A high percentage of the houses included in this study presented indoor radon concentrations over 100 Bq m-3. The mean annual effective dose from Lucrécia houses was six times higher than observed in a control region. The levels of exposure in most of the Lucrécia houses were classified as middle to high. A significant mutagenic effect, represented as an increase of micronuclei (MN) frequency and nuclear abnormalities as nuclear buds (NB), binucleated cells (BN), and pyknotic cells (PYC) were found. The results obtained highlight the role of high background radioactivity on the observed mutagenic effect and could help to explain the exacerbated cancer rate reported in this locality. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. New approach for assessing human perfluoroalkyl exposure via hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Andreia; Jacobs, Griet; Vanermen, Guido; Covaci, Adrian; Voorspoels, Stefan

    2015-11-01

    In the recent years hair has been increasingly used as alternative matrix in human biomonitoring (HBM) of environmental pollutants. Sampling advantages and time integration of exposure assessment seems the most attractive features of hair matrix. In the current study, a novel miniaturized method was developed and validated for measuring 15 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), including perfluoro n-butanoic acid (PFBA), perfluoro n-pentanoic acid (PFPeA), perfluoro n-hexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluoro n-heptanoic acid (PFHpA), perfluor n-octanoic acid (PFOA), perfluoro n-nonanoic acid (PFNA), perfluoro tetradecanoic acid (PFTeDA), perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS), perfluoro pentane sulfonic acid (PFPeS), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluoroheptane sulfonic acid (PFHpS), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorononane sulfonic acid (PFNS), perfluorodecane sulfonic acid (PFDS) and perfluorododecane sulfonic acid (PFDoS) in human hair by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). After extraction using ethyl acetate, dispersive ENVI-Carb was used for clean-up. Good intra- and inter-day precision for low (LQ 5 ng/g hair) and high spike (HQ 15n g/g) levels were achieved (in general RSD hair and 3-13 pg/g hair, respectively. The method limit of quantification (LOQm) ranged between 6 and 301 pg/g hair. The PFAS levels were measured in 30 human hair samples indicating that the levels are low (14-1534 pg/g hair). Some PFAS were not present in any hair sample (e.g. PFHpA, PFTeDA, PFNA, PFPeS, PFHpS, PFOS and PFNS), while other PFAS were frequently detected (PFBA, PFPeA, PFHxA, PFOA, PFBS, PFHxS, PFOS, PFDS and PFDoS) in human hair. Although levels in general were low, there is evidence of higher human exposure to some analytes, such as PFBA, PFPeA, PFHxA, PFOA, PFBS, PFHxS, and PFDoS. The current study shows that hair is a suitable alternative non-invasive matrix for exposure assessment of PFAS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  13. Assessment of the terrestrial water balance using the global water availability and use model WaterGAP - status and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller Schmied, Hannes; Döll, Petra

    2017-04-01

    The estimation of the World's water resources has a long tradition and numerous methods for quantification exists. The resulting numbers vary significantly, leaving room for improvement. Since some decades, global hydrological models (GHMs) are being used for large scale water budget assessments. GHMs are designed to represent the macro-scale hydrological processes and many of those models include human water management, e.g. irrigation or reservoir operation, making them currently the first choice for global scale assessments of the terrestrial water balance within the Anthropocene. The Water - Global Assessment and Prognosis (WaterGAP) is a model framework that comprises both the natural and human water dimension and is in development and application since the 1990s. In recent years, efforts were made to assess the sensitivity of water balance components to alternative climate forcing input data and, e.g., how this sensitivity is affected by WaterGAP's calibration scheme. This presentation shows the current best estimate of terrestrial water balance components as simulated with WaterGAP by 1) assessing global and continental water balance components for the climate period 1971-2000 and the IPCC reference period 1986-2005 for the most current WaterGAP version using a homogenized climate forcing data, 2) investigating variations of water balance components for a number of state-of-the-art climate forcing data and 3) discussing the benefit of the calibration approach for a better observation-data constrained global water budget. For the most current WaterGAP version 2.2b and a homogenized combination of the two WATCH Forcing Datasets, global scale (excluding Antarctica and Greenland) river discharge into oceans and inland sinks (Q) is assessed to be 40 000 km3 yr-1 for 1971-2000 and 39 200 km3 yr-1 for 1986-2005. Actual evapotranspiration (AET) is close to each other with around 70 600 (70 700) km3 yr-1 as well as water consumption with 1000 (1100) km3 yr-1. The

  14. Next generation of microbiological risk assessment: Potential of omics data for exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Besten, Heidy M W; Amézquita, Alejandro; Bover-Cid, Sara; Dagnas, Stéphane; Ellouze, Mariem; Guillou, Sandrine; Nychas, George; O'Mahony, Cian; Pérez-Rodriguez, Fernando; Membré, Jeanne-Marie

    2017-10-04

    In food safety and public health risk evaluations, microbiological exposure assessment plays a central role as it provides an estimation of both the likelihood and the level of the microbial hazard in a specified consumer portion of food and takes microbial behaviour into account. While until now mostly phenotypic data have been used in exposure assessment, mechanistic cellular information, obtained using omics techniques, will enable the fine tuning of exposure assessments to move towards the next generation of microbiological risk assessment. In particular, metagenomics can help in characterizing the food and factory environment microbiota (endogenous microbiota and potentially pathogens) and the changes over time under the environmental conditions associated with processing, preservation and storage. The difficulty lies in moving up to a quantitative exposure assessment, because the development of models that enable the prediction of dynamics of pathogens in a complex food ecosystem is still in its infancy in the food safety domain. In addition, collecting and storing the environmental data (metadata) required to inform the models has not yet been organised at a large scale. In contrast, progress in biomarker identification and characterization has already opened the possibility of making qualitative or even quantitative connection between process and formulation conditions and microbial responses at the strain level. In term of modelling approaches, without changing radically the usual model structure, changes in model inputs are expected: instead of (or as well as) building models upon phenotypic characteristics such as for example minimal temperature where growth is expected, exposure assessment models could use biomarker response intensity as inputs. These new generations of strain-level models will bring an added value in predicting the variability in pathogen behaviour. Altogether, these insights based upon omics techniques will increase our (quantitative

  15. From eyeballing to statistical modelling : methods for assessment of occupational exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromhout, H.

    1994-01-01

    In this thesis methods for assessment of occupational exposure are evaluated and developed. These methods range from subjective methods (qualitative and semiquantitative) to more objective quantitative methods based on actual measurement of personal exposure to chemical and physical

  16. The utility of proximity-based herbicide exposure assessment in epidemiologic studies of Vietnam veterans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Making Best Use of the Agent Orange Exposure Reconstruction Model

    2008-01-01

    ... of information about the veterans' level of exposure to these herbicides. To address that problem, researchers developed a model to assess the opportunity for herbicide exposure among these veterans...

  17. Terrestrial cosmogenic surface exposure dating of moraines at Lake Tahoe in the Sierra Nevada of California and slip rate estimate for the West Tahoe Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Ian K. D.; Wesnousky, Steven G.; Owen, Lewis A.

    2017-12-01

    Two sets of Pleistocene moraines (Tioga and Tahoe) are preserved at Cascade Lake along the west side of Lake Tahoe. The 10Be terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide surface exposure ages for two younger Tioga moraines yield an average age of 22.3 ± 1.2 ka, coincident with the global Last Glacial Maximum. The ages suggest that the Tioga glaciation may have reached its maximum several thousand years earlier in the Lake Tahoe basin than to the south along the east flank of the Sierra Nevada. The oldest 10Be age (120 ± 8 ka) determined for an additional suite of 10 boulders exhibiting significant scatter in 10Be ages is interpreted to be the minimum age of formation for older Tahoe moraines in the Tahoe basin, suggesting they were deposited during marine oxygen isotope stage 6. The moraines at Cascade Lake are displaced by the West Tahoe Fault that strikes northward for 45 km along the western edge of the Lake Tahoe basin. Vertical displacements of the crests of the Tahoe and Tioga moraines are 59 ± 10 and 32 ± 12 m respectively. Averaged over the time since the formation of the Tahoe and Tioga moraines, the average vertical separation rates are < 0.5 ± 0.1 and 1.4 ± 0.7 mm/y respectively. The measured vertical separation across the broad graben on the Tioga moraine may be accentuated by its deposition on a preexisting scarp and, in this regard, the increase in slip rate since the Tioga glaciation may be apparent rather than real. The fault slip rate and accompanying horizontal rate of extension averaged over the time since the formation of the older Tahoe moraines are respectively 0.6 ± 0.2 and 0.3 ± 0.2 mm/y. The slip rate averaged over the time since emplacement of the Tahoe moraine is in general accord with prior geologic studies reporting slip rate estimates elsewhere along the fault, and the horizontal extension rate is at the lower end of extension rates estimated by others with geodesy across the Tahoe basin.

  18. Validation of a job-exposure matrix for assessment of utility worker exposure to magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Christoffer; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Skotte, Jørgen; Thomsen, Birthe L; Olsen, Jørgen H

    2002-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a 50-Hz electromagnetic field job-exposure matrix used in epidemiological studies of a nationwide cohort of utility workers in Denmark. We compared a job-exposure matrix that distinguished four categories of exposure to 50-Hz time-weighted average (TWA) magnetic fields: low ( 1.0 microT) of utility company employees with 196 measurements of 8-h exposure for 129 workers in this industry. The 129 workers were selected from the following five main work environments: generation facilities, transmission lines, distribution lines, substations, and other electrically and non-electrically relates jobs. This study shows that the job-exposure matrix can be expected to introduce misclassification mainly between adjacent categories of exposure. Thus, the distribution of measurements of exposure to 50-Hz magnetic fields was similar for workers in the medium and the high exposure matrix categories. But the two extreme categories satisfactorily separate low and very highly exposed workers. The study shows that epidemiological use of this job-exposure matrix might combine the two intermediate categories of exposure. If the sample size in extreme categories provides enough power, a study in which this job-exposure matrix is used should allow detection of a true association between exposure to 50-Hz magnetic field and disease.

  19. Assessing human exposure to power-frequency electric and magnetic fields.

    OpenAIRE

    Kaune, W. T.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reviews published literature and current problems relating to the assessment of occupational and residential human exposures to power-frequency electric and magnetic fields. Available occupational exposure data suggest that the class of job titles known as electrical workers may be an effective surrogate for time-weighted-average (TWA) magnetic-field (but not electric-field) exposure. Current research in occupational-exposure assessment is directed to the construction of job-exposu...

  20. Time and frequency weightings and the assessment of sound exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ordoñez, Rodrigo Pizarro; de Toro, Miguel Angel Aranda; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2010-01-01

    of the exposure. This information is being used to investigate metrics that can differentiate temporal characteristics (impulsive, fluctuating) as well as frequency characteristics (narrow-band or tonal dominance) of sound exposures. This presentation gives an overview of the existing sound measurement...... and analysis methods, that can provide a better representation of the effects of sound exposures on the hearing system...

  1. Assessment of residual exposure to PCBs in metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fostinelli, Jacopo; Catalani, Simona; Gaia, Alice; De Palma, Giuseppe; Apostoli, Pietro

    2017-06-28

    To evaluate the occupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in 56 workers employed in 6 electric arc furnace steelmaking plants and 2 secondary aluminum smelting plants located in the highly industrialized area of Brescia, Northern Italy. Thirty-four PCB congeners were found in both environmental and biological samples from workers engaged in scrap yards, electric arc furnaces, casting and maintenance departments. The highest airborne PCB levels were found in the aluminum plant, even 100 times those detected in the steelwork plants. Dioxin-like PCB congeners (DL-PCBs) were poorly represented in all biological samples, whereas non Dioxin-Like PCB congeners (noDL-PCBs), in particular environmentally widespread congeners (PCB 153, 138, 180), could be detected in almost all samples. The mean total PCB serum level was 3.9 ng/ml, with a range of 1.3-10.3 ng/ml, while the geometric mean for airborne PCBs levels was 9305 pg/m3, with a range of 1138-217806 pg/m3. Despite the higher PCB values recorded in some metallurgical plant workplaces, we failed to find any significant difference between serum concentrations in workers from steel or aluminum production, even in consideration of different tasks or different job seniority, while positive association was found only according to the age of the workers. A possible explanation may be identified in the effectiveness of the individual and collective preventive measures adopted in the workplace. Assessment of the occupational exposure to such compounds, in consideration of the recent classifications as carcinogenic to humans, should be encouraged.

  2. Assessing the radiological impact of radiation exposure devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofani, Alessandro

    2011-04-01

    Radiation exposure devices (REDs) are radiological weapons obtained by concealing a strong gamma-emitting source in a place frequented by public to cause radiation injuries following the absorption of elevated radiation doses. The present work aims to assess the radiological impact of an RED by simulating its effects in both dynamical and static conditions of the covertly exposed population, with individual position and motion obtained through a Monte Carlo approach. The results indicate that in small enclosures the motion of people amplify the effects of radiation exposure with respect to the static case because it turns out in a larger number of individuals receiving doses above the threshold for the onset of deterministic effects. This behavior is mitigated in medium and large enclosures due to dose spreading over trajectories moving far away from the critical region close to the RED. The scaling laws obtained with a simple circular geometry were successfully applied to a more complex geometry like that of a stadium. The potentially large number of victims and the possibility to reiterate the attack raise the question of early detection. This can be achieved either by radiation survey or by indirectly inferring the presence of a strong radioactive source following the triage of patients with radiation sickness symptoms collected by the same hospital. In the former case careful design and operation of aerial or in situ monitoring is needed, while in the latter specific training should be given to healthcare personnel aimed to improve their discrimination and cooperation capabilities. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  3. A rapid test for soy aeroallergens exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Simon, Daniel; Cruz, María-Jesús; Untoria, María-Dolores; Muñoz, Xavier; Villalbí, Joan R; Morell, Ferran; Gómez-Ollés, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Determining soy aeroallergens levels is extremely important in the assessment of health risks due to these airborne substances. Currently, soy aeroallergens exposure in the environment is monitored using enzyme immunoassays (EIA) which must be evaluated in a specialized laboratory by skilled personnel. To describe the development and performance of a rapid immunochromatography assay for the detection of soy aeroallergens in environmental samples. A test strip using gold labeled anti-soy hull low molecular weight extract (SHLMWE) antibody for the rapid detection of soy aeroallergens in environmental samples was developed. One hundred nineteen airborne samples were analysed in parallel by the strip assay and the anti-SHLMWE sandwich EIA. The assay results were visually analysed by three independent observers who ranked samples as: -, + or ++. Strips were also scanned and analysed by densitometry. The rapid test detected a range of concentrations from 6.25 to 25 ng/mL. Agreement in strip assay interpretations between evaluators was substantial (Kappa = 0.63; CI 0.544-0.715). Visual interpretation also gave a good concordance with EIA results, with sensitivity ranging from 77.3 to 100 and specificity from 65 to 83.5 depending on the observer. Furthermore, a strong correlation was observed between densitometry results of strip assay and EIA determinations. The strip assay developed is rapid, simple, and sensitive and does not require expensive equipment or specific skills. It has considerable potential in the environmental monitoring field for screening soy aeroallergens levels in port cities where allergen measurements are not currently performed. Due to its simplicity, the test will improve the management of soy allergic patients by controlling environmental allergen exposure without the need for apparatus or skilled personnel.

  4. Assessment of dietary exposure of nitrate and nitrite in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, C; Heraud, F; Volatier, J-L; Leblanc, J-C

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the dietary exposure of nitrate and nitrite in France. A total of 13, 657 concentration levels of nitrate and nitrite measured in food, representing 138 and 109 food items, respectively, and coming from French monitoring programmes between 2000 and 2006, were used. Depending on the non-detected and non-quantified analysis treatment, lower and upper concentration mean estimates were calculated for each food item. These were combined with consumption data derived from 1474 adults and 1018 children from the French national individual consumption survey (INCA1), conducted in 1999 and based on a 7-day food record diary. A total of 18% of spinaches, 6% of salads, 10% of cheeses, 8% of meat products and 6% of industrial meat products exceeded the European nitrate maximum level or maximum residual level. A total of 0.4% of industrial meat products and 0.2% of meat products exceeded their European nitrite maximum level or maximum residual level. Nitrate dietary exposure averaged 40% of the acceptable daily intake (ADI; 3.7 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1)) for adults and 51 - 54% of the ADI for children with the major contributors being, for adults and children, respectively, vegetables (24 and 27% of ADI), potatoes (5 and 11% of ADI), and water (5 and 5% of ADI). The individual nitrate dietary intake of 1.4% (confidence interval (CI(95th)) [0.8; 2.0]) to 1.5% (CI(95th) [0.9; 2.1]) of adults and 7.9% (CI(95th) [6.2; 9.6]) to 8.4% (CI(95th) [6.7; 10.1]) of children were higher than the ADI. Nitrite dietary exposure averaged 33-67% of the ADI (0.06 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1)) for adults and 67-133% of the ADI for children, with contributions of additive food vectors at 33% of ADI for adults and 50-67% of ADI for children. The individual nitrite dietary intake of 0.7% (CI(95th) [0.3; 1.1]) to 16.4% (CI(95th) [14.5; 18.3]) of adults and 10.5% (CI(95th) [8.6; 12.4]) to 66.2% (CI(95th) [63.3; 69.1]) of children were higher than the ADI.

  5. A novel approach for exposure assessment in air pollution epidemiological studies using neuro-fuzzy inference systems: Comparison of exposure estimates and exposure-health associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanes-Vidal, Victoria; Cantuaria, Manuella Lech; Nadimi, Esmaeil S

    2017-04-01

    Many epidemiological studies have used proximity to sources as air pollution exposure assessment method. However, proximity measures are not generally good surrogates because of their complex non-linear relationship with exposures. Neuro-fuzzy inference systems (NFIS) can be used to map complex non-linear systems, but its usefulness in exposure assessment has not been extensively explored. We present a novel approach for exposure assessment using NFIS, where the inputs of the model were easily-obtainable proximity measures, and the output was residential exposure to an air pollutant. We applied it to a case-study on NH3 pollution, and compared health effects and exposures estimated from NFIS, with those obtained from emission-dispersion models, and linear and non-linear regression proximity models, using 10-fold cross validation. The agreement between emission-dispersion and NFIS exposures was high (Root-mean-square error (RMSE) =0.275, correlation coefficient (r)=0.91) and resulted in similar health effect estimates. Linear models showed poor performance (RMSE=0.527, r=0.59), while non-linear regression models resulted in heterocedasticity, non-normality and clustered data. NFIS could be a useful tool for estimating individual air pollution exposures in epidemiological studies on large populations, when emission-dispersion data are not available. The tradeoff between simplicity and accuracy needs to be considered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Population-Based Assessment of Exposure to Risk Behaviors in Motion Pictures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, James D.; Worth, Keilah A.; Beach, Michael; Gerrard, Meg; Heatherton, Todd F.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of most population-based studies of media is to relate a specific exposure to an outcome of interest. A research program has been developed that evaluates exposure to different components of movies in an attempt of assess the association of such exposure with the adoption of substance use during adolescence. To assess exposure to movie substance use, one must measure both viewing time and content. In developing the exposure measure, the study team was interested in circumventing a common problem in exposure measurement, where measures often conflate exposure to media with attention to media. Our aim in this paper is to present a validated measure of exposure to entertainment media, the Beach method, which combines recognition of a movie title with content analysis of the movie for substance use, to generate population based measures of exposure to substance use in this form of entertainment. PMID:19122801

  7. Aquatic and Terrestrial Environment 2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J. M.; Boutrup, S.; Bijl, L. van der

    This report presents the 2004 results of the Danish National Monitoring and Assess-ment Programme for the Aquatic and Terrestrial Environments (NOVANA). 2004 was the first year in which terrestrial nature was included in the monitoring pro-gramme. The report reviews the state of the groundwater......, watercourses, lakes and marine waters and the pressures upon them and reviews the monitoring of terrestrial natural habitats and selected plants and animals. The report is based on the annual reports prepared for each subprogramme by the Topic Centres. The latter reports are mainly based on data collected...

  8. Retrospective exposure assessment and quality control in an international multi-centre case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tinnerberg, H; Heikkilä, P; Huici-Montagud, A

    2003-01-01

    of the assessors, as Cohen's kappa and as overall proportion of the agreements. The reassessment of the exposures changed the exposure statuses significantly, when compared with the original cohort. Harmonization of the exposure criteria increased the conformity of the assessments. The prevalence of exposure......The paper presents the exposure assessment method and quality control procedure used in an international, multi-centre case-control study within a joint Nordic and Italian cohort. This study was conducted to evaluate whether occupational exposure to carcinogens influenced the predictivity of high...... frequency of chromosomal aberrations (CA) in peripheral lymphocytes for increased cancer risk. Occupational hygienists assessed exposures in each participating country: Denmark, Finland, Italy, Norway and Sweden. The exposure status to a carcinogen or a clastogen was coded in the cohort according...

  9. Assessing host extinction risk following exposure to Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louca, Stilianos; Lampo, Margarita; Doebeli, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Wildlife diseases are increasingly recognized as a major threat to biodiversity. Chytridiomycosis is an emerging infectious disease of amphibians caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Using a mathematical model and simulations, we study its effects on a generic riparian host population with a tadpole and adult life stage. An analytical expression for the basic reproduction quotient, Qo, of the pathogen is derived. By sampling the entire relevant parameter space, we perform a statistical assessment of the importance of all considered parameters in determining the risk of host extinction, upon exposure to Bd. We find that Qo not only gives a condition for the initial invasion of the fungus, but is in fact the best predictor for host extinction. We also show that the role of tadpoles, which in some species tolerate infections, is ambivalent. While tolerant tadpoles may provide a reservoir for the fungus, thus facilitating its persistence or even amplifying its outbreaks, they can also act as a rescue buffer for a stressed host population. Our results have important implications for amphibian conservation efforts. PMID:24807247

  10. Risk Assessment to Dust Exposure in Room Maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiku Rokhim

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available As one of the particulate chemicals, dust could occur in most of the production process and can create interference for workers health and safety. As one of the air pollution sources, dust could became a potential hazard which exist in room maintenances. Protection to workers is a must in order to reduce the risk of respiratory tract syndrome that often could be found in this cases. The aim of this study is to conduct a risk assessment to dust exposure in room maintenance, which held by contractors in PT. X (Persero building in Surabaya. This is an cross sectional study with obsevation approach. The object of this research is the repairing  works. The results indicate that the activities which could produce dust, such as: walls sanding using sandpaper, the tiles dismantle, sawmilling, the wood fiber refining, grinding, mixing and stirring cast  materials, and room cleaning. Dust produced from a variety of works including sanddust, cement, lime, wood and dust mixed with paint. The results show that three types of works considere as high-risk activity (value > 12-25, 3 types of work consider as midle risk activities (value > 5-12, and one activity considered as a low-risk work (grades 1-5. The dusk factors controlling should be held regularly, in order to minimize the risk leveln againts the workers.

  11. Efficient assessment of exposure to manual lifting using company data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Beek, Allard J; Mathiassen, Svend Erik; Burdorf, Alex

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this study, based on an extensive dataset on manual materials handling during scaffolding, was to explore whether routinely collected company data can be used to estimate exposure to manual lifting. The number of manual lifts of scaffold parts while constructing/dismantling scaffolds was well predicted by the number of scaffolders in the team and the type of worksite, in combination with company data of either the number of scaffold parts or the scaffold volume. The proportion of explained variance in the number of lifts ranged from 77% to 92%, depending on the variables in the model. Data on scaffold parts and scaffold volume can easily be obtained from the company's administration, since this is its usual paperwork supporting logistics and customer invoicing, respectively. We conclude that company data can be a promising source of information for ergonomic practitioners and researchers, to support assessment of manual lifting in scaffolding. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Exposure assessment of mycotoxins in cow's milk in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorini, M L; Gaggiotti, M; Molineri, A; Chiericatti, C A; Zapata de Basílico, M L; Basílico, J C; Pisani, M

    2012-02-01

    A stochastic simulation model was developed to carry out the first quantitative risk exposure assessment of the mycotoxin level in cow's milk produced in Argentina. The prevalence and concentration of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEA) were modeled at various stages through milk processes complying with Argentinean practices. Concentration of AFM1 (0.059ppb), DON (0.338ppb) and ZEA (0.125ppb) in dairy milk were estimated. The proportion of feed samples that exceeded the maximum level accepted by European regulations for AFB1, DON and ZEA were estimated at 25.07%, 0.0% and 8.9%, respectively. The percentage of milk samples that exceeded the maximum level accepted for AFB1 by the MERCOSUR (0.5ppb) and the European Union regulations (0.05ppb) were 0.81 and 32.65, respectively. The probability distribution of AFM1 concentration in milk was affected by the carry-over rate equations applied in the model. Mycotoxin levels in corn silage and concentrated feeds were the factors most correlated with mycotoxin concentrations in milk. Therefore, agricultural practices, crop management and feed production require prompt attention regarding mycotoxin issues. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [ASSESSMENT OF OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO RADIO FREQUENCY ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aniołczyk, Halina; Mariańska, Magda; Mamrot, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    European Union Directive 2013/35/UE provides for the implementation of EU regulations into national legislation. Our aim is to assess actual health hazards from radiofrequency eldctromagnetic field (RF EMF) (range: 100 kHz - 300 GHz) and indicate workplaces with the highest risk to employee health. Data from measurements of RF EMF performed by the Laboratory of Electromagnetic Hazards in Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (Łódź, Poland) were analyzed. The analysis covered the results of electric field intensity (E) for over 450 selected items. The ranges of protection zones and the extent to which maximum admissible intensity (MAI) values were also analyzed. The determinations and'measurements of EMF in the work environment met the requirements of Polish Standard, while Polish regulations on the MAI values were used as the criterion for the assessment of the exposure. The highest values of E field intensity at workplaces were measured for: electrosurgery, to 400 V/m, and short-wave diathermy units, to 220 V/m, dielectric welders to 240 V/m, within the FM radio antenna systems, to 180 V/m. The widest protection zones were noted for prototype research instruments, short-wave diathermy units, and dielectric welders. The most excessive (up to 12-fold MAI) values were recorded for dielectric welders, short-wave diathermy units (up to 11-fold) and microwave diathermy units (up to 8-fold). Our results have confirmed the high RF EMF values for physiotherapists, operators of dielectric welders, and mast maintenance workers in radio com munication facilities (especially radio and TV broadcasting stations).

  14. Non-destructive pollution exposure assessment in the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus): IV hair versus soil analysis in exposure and risk assessment of organochlorine compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havé, D' H.; Scheirs, J.; Covaci, A.; Brink, van den N.W.; Verhagen, R.; Coen, De W.

    2007-01-01

    Few ecotoxicological studies on mammals use non-destructive methodologies, despite the growing ethical concern over the use of destructive sampling methods. In the present study we assessed exposure of hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs),

  15. Downlink Coexistence Performance Assessment and Techniques for WiMAX Services from High Altitude Platform and Terrestrial Deployments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Grace

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the performance and coexistence techniques for worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX delivered from high altitude platforms (HAPs and terrestrial systems in shared 3.5 GHz frequency bands. The paper shows that it is possible to provide WiMAX services from individual HAP systems. The coexistence performance is evaluated by appropriate choice of parameters, which include the HAP deployment spacing radius, directive antenna beamwidths based on adopted antenna models for HAPs and receivers. Illustrations and comparisons of coexistence techniques, for example, varying the antenna pointing offset, transmitting and receiving antenna beamwidth, demonstrate efficient ways to enhance the HAP system performance while effectively coexisting with terrestrial WiMAX systems.

  16. Downlink Coexistence Performance Assessment and Techniques for WiMAX Services from High Altitude Platform and Terrestrial Deployments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace D

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We investigate the performance and coexistence techniques for worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX delivered from high altitude platforms (HAPs and terrestrial systems in shared 3.5 GHz frequency bands. The paper shows that it is possible to provide WiMAX services from individual HAP systems. The coexistence performance is evaluated by appropriate choice of parameters, which include the HAP deployment spacing radius, directive antenna beamwidths based on adopted antenna models for HAPs and receivers. Illustrations and comparisons of coexistence techniques, for example, varying the antenna pointing offset, transmitting and receiving antenna beamwidth, demonstrate efficient ways to enhance the HAP system performance while effectively coexisting with terrestrial WiMAX systems.

  17. Integrating Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Terrestrial Structure from Motion Photogrammetry for Assessing High Mountain Glacier Change, Huaytapallana, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigmore, O.; Mark, B. G.; Lagos, P.; Somers, L. D.; McKenzie, J. M.; Huh, K. I.; Hopkinson, C.; Baraer, M.; Crumley, R. L.

    2016-12-01

    Terrestrial photogrammetry has a long and successful history of application to glaciological research. However, traditional methods rely upon large and expensive metric cameras and detailed triangulation of in-scene points for derivation of terrain models and analysis of glacier change. Recent developments in computer vision, including the advent of Structure from Motion (SfM) algorithms and associated software packages have made it possible to use consumer grade digital cameras to produce highly precise digital elevation models. This has facilitated the rapid expansion of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for mapping purposes. However, without onboard RTK GNSS positions of the UAV, within scene survey-grade ground targets are required for accurate georectification. Gaining access to mountain glaciers for the installation and survey of ground targets is often labour intensive, hazardous and sometimes impossible. Compounding this are limitations of UAV flight within these confined and high elevation locations and reduced flight times that limit the total survey area. Luckily, these environments also present a highly suitable location for the application of terrestrial SfM photogrammetry; because; high moraines, cliffs and ridgelines provide excellent 'semi-nadir' viewing of the glacier surface; while steep mountain walls present a close to nadir view from an oblique angle. In this study we present a workflow and results from an integrated UAV and terrestrial SfM photogrammetry campaign at Huaytapallana glacier, Huancayo Peru. We combined terrestrial images taken from GNSS surveyed positions with oblique UAV imagery of the mountain face. From this data a centimetre resolution orthomosaic and a decimetre resolution DEM of the snow and ice covered mountain face and proglacial lake were generated, covering over 6km2. Accuracy of the surface was determined from comparison over ice free areas to 1m aerial LiDAR data collected in 2009. Changes in glacier volume were then

  18. Pro Et Con Analysis Of Occupational Exposure Assessement Tools And Concepts For nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liguori, Biase; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Alstrup Jensen, Keld

    of the tools (input data requirements, exposure evaluation and handling to reduce exposure) as well as specific pros and cons. Most of the tools provide a transparent and comprehensible approach to assess occupational exposure, but the majority of them are based on purely qualitative considerations about...

  19. Assessment of the possible contribution of space ties on-board GNSS satellites to the terrestrial reference frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, Sara; Rebischung, Paul; Zerbini, Susanna; Altamimi, Zuheir; Errico, Maddalena; Santi, Efisio

    2017-10-01

    The realization of the international terrestrial reference frame (ITRF) is currently based on the data provided by four space geodetic techniques. The accuracy of the different technique-dependent materializations of the frame physical parameters (origin and scale) varies according to the nature of the relevant observables and to the impact of technique-specific errors. A reliable computation of the ITRF requires combining the different inputs, so that the strengths of each technique can compensate for the weaknesses of the others. This combination, however, can only be performed providing some additional information which allows tying together the independent technique networks. At present, the links used for that purpose are topometric surveys (local/terrestrial ties) available at ITRF sites hosting instruments of different techniques. In principle, a possible alternative could be offered by spacecrafts accommodating the positioning payloads of multiple geodetic techniques realizing their co-location in orbit (space ties). In this paper, the GNSS-SLR space ties on-board GPS and GLONASS satellites are thoroughly examined in the framework of global reference frame computations. The investigation focuses on the quality of the realized physical frame parameters. According to the achieved results, the space ties on-board GNSS satellites cannot, at present, substitute terrestrial ties in the computation of the ITRF. The study is completed by a series of synthetic simulations investigating the impact that substantial improvements in the volume and quality of SLR observations to GNSS satellites would have on the precision of the GNSS frame parameters.

  20. Component modeling in ecological risk assessment: Disturbance in interspecific interactions caused by air toxics introduced into terrestrial ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swider, Jan Zenon

    The human health risk assessment (HRA), initiated by the onset of nuclear industry, has been a well established methodology for assessing the impacts of human created contamination on an individual human being and entire population. The wide spread of applications and tools grown upon this methodology allows one not only to identify the hazards, but also to manage the risks. Recently, there has existed an increased awareness of the need to conduct ecological risk assessments (ERA) in addition to HRAs. The ERAs are, by and large, more complex than typical HRAs and involve not only different species but whole ecological systems. Such complex analyses require a thorough understanding of the processes underway in the ecosystem, including the contaminant transport through the food web, population dynamics as well as intra- and inter-specific relationships. The exposure pathways change radically depending on the consumer tier. Plants produce their nutriment from the sunlight and raw inorganic compounds. Animals and other living forms obtain energy by eating plants, other animals and detritus. Their double role as food consumers and food producers causes a trophic structure of the ecological system, where nutrients and energy are transferred from one trophic level to another. This is a dynamic process of energy flow, mostly in the form of food, varying with time and space. In order to conduct an efficient ERA, a multidisciplinary framework is needed. This framework can be enhanced by analyzing predator-prey interactions during the environmental disturbances caused by a pollutant emission, and by assessing the consequences of such disturbances. It is necessary to develop a way to describe how human industrial activity affects the ecosystems. Existing ecological studies have mostly been focused either on pure ecological interdependencies or on limited perspectives of human activities. In this study, we discuss the issues of air pollution and its ecological impacts from the

  1. Exposición a plaguicidas en agroaplicadores terrestres de la provincia de Córdoba, Argentina: factores condicionantes Pesticide exposure of terrestrial agricultural applicators in Cordoba, Argentina: conditionants factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Lantieri

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available La provincia de Córdoba, Argentina, ha sufrido una gran expansión de su superficie cultivada, y con ello, de los volúmenes aplicados de plaguicidas. Éstos poseen un gran impacto ambiental y producen efectos adversos en seres vivos, incluido el hombre. El presente trabajo propuso caracterizar a una población de aplicadores terrestres de plaguicidas de Córdoba y describir los factores condicionantes de la exposición y adopción de medidas de protección, mediante el análisis de asociaciones con sus características sociodemográficas, sus prácticas laborales y uso de tecnologías. Se implementó un cuestionario autoadministrado en 629 sujetos de toda la provincia. Se obtuvo información acerca de uso de plaguicidas, hábitos de vida y valoración de la exposición actual y pasada a plaguicidas. El 30% de los trabajadores vive a menos de 100 m del cultivo más cercano y más de la mitad aplican anualmente hasta 5000 ha; el 60% no utiliza protección. Los sujetos con pareja conviviente usan mayor nivel de protección personal. El uso de maquinarias equipadas con filtro de carbono activado e implementación de receta firmada por ingeniero agrónomo se asociaron positivamente al uso de equipos de protección personal.The Province of Cordoba, Argentina, has suffered a great expansion of its cultivated surface and, accordingly, of the volume of pesticides applied. They have a strong environmental impact and produce adverse effects upon the living beings, including the human being. The objective of this study was to characterize a population of terrestrial applicators of pesticides from Cordoba and also to describe determinants of pesticide exposure and use of personal protective equipment in relation to their social and demographic characteristics, work practices and use of technologies. Six hundred twenty nine applicators completed a self reported questionnaire to assess pesticides use, life style and present and past occupational exposure to

  2. Health risk assessment for chemical exposures of military interest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langenberg, J.P.; Polhuijs, M.; Sijbranda, T.

    2016-01-01

    Participation in military operations is accompanied by health hazards resulting from exposure to chemical substances from natural and anthropogenic sources. Historically, focus on toxicological risks has been on the health effects of exposure to chemical warfare agents (CW A). In recent years the

  3. Assessing Sources of Human Methylmercury Exposure Using Stable Mercury Isotopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Miling; Sherman, Laura S; Blum, Joel D

    2014-01-01

    Seafood consumption is the primary route of methylmercury (MeHg) exposure for most populations. Inherent uncertainties in dietary survey data point to the need for an empirical tool to confirm exposure sources. We therefore explore the utility of Hg stable isotope ratios in human hair as a new me...

  4. #2 - An Empirical Assessment of Exposure Measurement Error ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background• Differing degrees of exposure error acrosspollutants• Previous focus on quantifying and accounting forexposure error in single-pollutant models• Examine exposure errors for multiple pollutantsand provide insights on the potential for bias andattenuation of effect estimates in single and bipollutantepidemiological models The National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division (HEASD) conducts research in support of EPA mission to protect human health and the environment. HEASD research program supports Goal 1 (Clean Air) and Goal 4 (Healthy People) of EPA strategic plan. More specifically, our division conducts research to characterize the movement of pollutants from the source to contact with humans. Our multidisciplinary research program produces Methods, Measurements, and Models to identify relationships between and characterize processes that link source emissions, environmental concentrations, human exposures, and target-tissue dose. The impact of these tools is improved regulatory programs and policies for EPA.

  5. Assessment on personal exposure to particulate compounds using an empirical exposure model in an elderly community in Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jia; Zhang, Nan; Han, Bin; You, Yan; Zhou, Jian; Zhang, Jiefeng; Niu, Can; Liu, Yating; He, Fei; Ding, Xiao; Bai, Zhipeng

    2016-12-01

    Using central site measurement data to predict personal exposure to particulate matter (PM) is challenging, because people spend most of their time indoors and ambient contribution to personal exposure is subject to infiltration conditions affected by many factors. Efforts in assessing and predicting exposure on the basis of associated indoor/outdoor and central site monitoring were limited in China. This study collected daily personal exposure, residential indoor/outdoor and community central site PM filter samples in an elderly community during the non-heating and heating periods in 2009 in Tianjin, China. Based on the chemical analysis results of particulate species, mass concentrations of the particulate compounds were estimated and used to reconstruct the PM mass for mass balance analysis. The infiltration factors (Finf) of particulate compounds were estimated using both robust regression and mixed effect regression methods, and further estimated the exposure factor (Fpex) according to participants' time-activity patterns. Then an empirical exposure model was developed to predict personal exposure to PM and particulate compounds as the sum of ambient and non-ambient contributions. Results showed that PM mass observed during the heating period could be well represented through chemical mass reconstruction, because unidentified mass was minimal. Excluding the high observations (>300μg/m(3)), this empirical exposure model performed well for PM and elemental carbon (EC) that had few indoor sources. These results support the use of Fpex as an indicator for ambient contribution predictions, and the use of empirical non-ambient contribution to assess exposure to particulate compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Exposure and health risk assessment of applicators to DDT during indoor residual spraying in malaria vector control program

    OpenAIRE

    Spanoghe, Pieter; Tessema, Dejene A; Steurbaut, Walter

    2012-01-01

    We assessed exposure of applicators, health risk of DDT to the applicators and evaluated the applicability of existing pesticide exposure models for indoor residual spraying (IRS). Patch sampling for dermal and personal air sampler for inhalation exposure were used in monitoring 57 applicators on the exposure assessment to DDT. The exposure of the applicators was also estimated using three exposure models. The mean actual dermal exposure was 449 mg total DDT per applicator per one house treat...

  7. Evaluation of methodologies for exposure assessment to atmospheric pollutants from a landfill site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Richard; Leonardi, Giovanni S; Robins, Alan; Jefferis, Stephan; Coy, Joanne; Wight, Jeremy; Murray, Virginia

    2009-04-01

    Epidemiological studies around landfill sites are limited by several factors, particularly a lack of accurate exposure assessment. Traditionally, exposure estimates are based on distance between place of residence and the landfill site. However, this measure of exposure ignores the effects that environmental factors may have upon exposure. A previous epidemiological study at a landfill site in the United Kingdom provided the basis for a case study to investigate exposure assessment methodologies that could support ongoing and future epidemiological work. Estimation of relative exposure to atmospheric pollutants near the site was refined using the Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling System (ADMS) 3.1. Annual average concentrations were calculated around the landfill site, which was modeled as an area source with a steady release rate over its entire active surface. Local meteorological and terrain data were used in the assessment. A geographical information system (GIS) was then used to link the results of the modeling to population and other data. Sensitivity studies were included to examine the variation of predicted exposure with several modeling assumptions and hence set other uncertainties in context. No simple relationship existed between the relative individual exposure measured by distance from the site and by dispersion modeling. A reassessment of exposure assessment in epidemiological studies around landfill sites was then undertaken with the refined estimates of exposure. This concluded that use of distance from the site as a proxy for exposure could lead to significant exposure misclassification in comparison with exposure assessment using atmospheric dispersion modeling and GIS. The study also indicated that assessment of peak exposure rates (i.e., extreme concentration levels) might be necessary in some epidemiological work. Optimum strategies for increasing the probability of observing effects in the more highly exposed population can be derived by

  8. Assessment of occupational exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Aniołczyk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: European Union Directive 2013/35/UE provides for the implementation of EU regulations into national legislation. Our aim is to assess actual health hazards from radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF (range: 100 kHz – 300 GHz and indicate workplaces with the highest risk to employee health. Material and Methods: Data from measurements of RF EMF performed by the Laboratory of Electromagnetic Hazards in Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (Łódź, Poland were analyzed. The analysis covered the results of electric field intensity (E for over 450 selected items. The ranges of protection zones and the extent to which maximum admissible intensity (MAI values were also analyzed. The determinations and measurements of EMF in the work environment met the requirements of Polish Standard, while Polish regulations on the MAI values were used as the criterion for the assessment of the exposure. Results: The highest values of E field intensity at workplaces were measured for: electrosurgery, to 400 V/m, and short-wave diathermy units, to 220 V/m, dielectric welders to 240 V/m, within the FM radio antenna systems, to 180 V/m. The widest protection zones were noted for prototype research instruments, short-wave diathermy units, and dielectric welders. The most excessive (up to 12-fold MAI values were recorded for dielectric welders, short-wave diathermy units (up to 11-fold and microwave diathermy units (up to 8-fold. Conclusions: Our results have confirmed the high RF EMF values for physiotherapists, operators of dielectric welders, and mast maintenance workers in radio communication facilities (especially radio and TV broadcasting stations. Med Pr 2015;66(2:199–212

  9. Exposure assessment to glyphosate of two species of annelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Torres, Tristán; Giuffré, Lidia; Romaniuk, Romina; Ríos, Ruth P; Pagano, Eduardo A

    2014-08-01

    Adult mortality, biomass, fecundity and viability of cocoons were studied in Eisenia fetida and Octolasion tyrtaeum, in response to glyphosate exposure in soil. Exposure tests were carried out following USEPA procedure, with five concentrations of glyphosate in soil and a control. O. tyrtaeum was more sensitive to the highest concentration of glyphosate (50,000 mg kg(-1)), with 100 % mortality by day 7 of exposure, compared with 71 % for E. fetida. Although biomass of O. tyrtaeum was significantly different between the control and 5,000 mg kg(-1) dose at day 14, E. fetida was not affected at that concentration, and only showed a significant weight loss after 7 days of exposure to 50,000 mg kg(-1). Adverse effects upon adult fecundity and cocoon viability were observed at glyphosate concentrations of 5,000 mg kg(-1) and above. Adverse effects were observed at concentrations that greatly exceeded the recommended field application rates of glyphosate.

  10. Dermal exposure assessment to benzene and toluene using charcoal cloth pads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joode, De B.V.; Tielemans, E.; Vermeulen, R.; Wegh, H.C.P.; Kromhout, H.

    2005-01-01

    Charcoal cloth pads have been used to assess volatile chemicals on the skin in a laboratory setting; however, they have not yet been applied to measure dermal exposure in occupational settings. This study aimed at evaluating whether charcoal pads can be used to assess dermal exposure to benzene and

  11. An assessment of non-volant terrestrial vertebrates response to wind farms--a study of small mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łopucki, Rafał; Mróz, Iwona

    2016-02-01

    The majority of studies on the effects of wind energy development on wildlife have been focused on birds and bats, whereas knowledge of the response of terrestrial, non-flying vertebrates is very scarce. In this paper, the impact of three functioning wind farms on terrestrial small mammal communities (rodents and shrews) and the population parameters of the most abundant species were studied. The study was carried out in southeastern Poland within the foothills of the Outer Western Carpathians. Small mammals were captured at 12 sites around wind turbines and at 12 control sites. In total, from 1200 trap-days, 885 individuals of 14 studied mammal species were captured. There was no difference in the characteristics of communities of small mammals near wind turbines and within control sites; i.e. these types of sites were inhabited by a similar number of species of similar abundance, similar species composition, species diversity (H' index) and species evenness (J') (Pielou's index). For the two species with the highest proportion in the communities (Apodemus agrarius and Microtus arvalis), the parameters of their populations (mean body mass, sex ratio, the proportion of adult individuals and the proportion of reproductive female) were analysed. In both species, none of the analysed parameters differed significantly between sites in the vicinity of turbines and control sites. For future studies on the impact of wind turbines on small terrestrial mammals in different geographical areas and different species communities, we recommend the method of paired 'turbine-control sites' as appropriate for animal species with pronounced fluctuations in population numbers.

  12. Evaluation of terrestrial microcosms for assessing the fate and effects of genetically engineered microorganisms on ecological processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredrickson, J.K.; Bentjen, S.A.; Bolton, H. Jr.; Li, S.W.; Ligotke, M.W.; McFadden, K.M.; Van Voris, P.

    1989-04-01

    This project evaluates and modifies the existing US Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Pesticides and Toxic Substances (EPA/OPTS) terrestrial microcosm test system and test protocols such that they can be used to determine the environmental fate and ecological hazards of genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs). The intact soil-core microcosm represents terrestrial ecosystems, and when coupled with appropriate test protocols, such microcosms may be appropriate to define and limit risks associated with the intentional release of GEMs. The terrestrial microcosm test system was used to investigate the survival and transport of two model GEMs (Azospirillum lipoferum and Pseudomonas sp. Tn5 mutants) to various trophic levels and niches and through intact soil cores. Subsequent effects on nutrient cycling and displacement of indigenous microorganisms were evaluated. The model organisms were a diazotrophic root-colonizing bacterium (A. lipoferum) and a wheat root growth-inhibiting rhizobacterium (Pseudomonas sp.). The transposable element Tn5 was used as a genetic marker for both microorganisms in two separate experiments. The organisms were subjected to transposon mutagenesis using a broad host-range-mobilizable suicide plasmid. The transposon Tn5 conferred levels of kanamycin resistance up to 500 ..mu..g/ml (Pseudomonas sp.), which allowed for selection of the bacteria from environmental samples. The presence of Tn5 DNA in the genome of the model GEMs also allowed the use of Tn5 gene probes to confirm and enumerate the microorganisms in different samples from the microcosms. Two types of root growth-inhibiting Pseudomonas sp. Tn5 mutants were obtained and used in microcosm studies: those that lacked the ability to inhibit either wheat root growth or the growth of other microorganisms in vitro (tox/sup /minus//) and those which retained these properties (tox/sup +/). 53 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. European consumer exposure to cosmetic products, a framework for conducting population exposure assessments Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, B; Steiling, W; Safford, B; Coroama, M; Tozer, S; Firmani, C; McNamara, C; Gibney, M

    2011-02-01

    Access to reliable exposure data is essential for the evaluation of the toxicological safety of ingredients in cosmetic products. This study complements the data set obtained previously (Part 1) and published in 2007 by the European cosmetic industry acting within COLIPA. It provides, in distribution form, exposure data on daily quantities of five cosmetic product types: hair styling, hand cream, liquid foundation, mouthwash and shower gel. In total 80,000 households and 14,413 individual consumers in five European countries provided information using their own products. The raw data were analysed using Monte Carlo simulation and a European Statistical Population Model of exposure was constructed. A significant finding was an inverse correlation between the frequency of product use and the quantity used per application recorded for mouthwash and shower gel. The combined results of Part 1 (7 product types) and Part 2 (5 products) reported here, bring up to date and largely confirm the current exposure parameters concerning some 95% of the estimated daily exposure to cosmetics use in the EU. The design of this study, with its relation to demographic and individual diversity, could serve as a model for studies of populations' exposure to other consumer products. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Characterization of field margins in intensified agro-ecosystems-why narrow margins should matter in terrestrial pesticide risk assessment and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Melanie; Lenhardt, Patrick P; Brühl, Carsten A

    2014-07-01

    Field margins are important seminatural habitats in agro-ecosystems, but they can be negatively affected by pesticide inputs via direct overspray and spray drift. In Germany, risk mitigation measures (like buffer zones) to reduce pesticide inputs in terrestrial noncrop habitats do not have to be put in place by farmers next to narrow field margins (Hedgerows were only occasionally recorded. Hence, narrow grassy field margins can represent a large part of the available seminatural habitats adjoining agricultural sites and potentially act as corridors between further habitat patches. For this reason, these margins should be protected from pesticide inputs, at least in landscapes under intensive agricultural use. Field margins are also the main, so-called nontarget habitat protected by the terrestrial risk assessment for plants and arthropods. With many (narrow) margins not considered relevant for risk management, the current practice for protecting the biodiversity from negative effects of pesticides seems questionable. More data on field margin constitution in Germany and other European countries is necessary to critically assess the current practice of pesticide risk assessment and management on a larger scale. © 2014 SETAC.

  15. Regional assimilation of CO2 and δ13C surface data to assess terrestrial biosphere models under drought stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velde, I. R.; Miller, J. B.; Alden, C. B.; Andrews, A. E.; Schaefer, K. M.; Peters, W.; Tans, P. P.; Vaughn, B. H.; White, J. W. C.

    2016-12-01

    Observed atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and the ratios of its stable isotopologue 13CO2/12CO2 (δ13C) contain unique signals of large-scale drought stress that affect the biosphere. When plants experience physiological stress due to heat and drought at leaf level they respond by closing their stomata. This is a safety mechanism that prevents excessive water loss at the expense of carbon uptake, and it changes the overall water-use efficiency. During photosynthesis, 12CO2 is preferentially assimilated over 13CO2, leaving the atmosphere enriched in 13CO2. Water stress slightly changes the ratio of 13CO2 and 12CO2 molecules being removed from the atmosphere, i.e., a reduction of canopy isotope discrimination (Δ), and its changes are evident in atmospheric δ13C.To improve our understanding of the coupled vegetation-atmosphere system we are developing an ensemble Kalman filter assimilation of high precision measurements of CO2 and δ13C from air samples collected over North America. It uses footprints provided by WRF-STILT that allows for efficient atmospheric transport simulations on a much higher horizontal resolution than with a global Eulerian transport model. To force consistency with atmospheric CO2 and δ13C observations we will optimize regional net terrestrial CO2 exchange (NEE) and Δ from a terrestrial biosphere model. We will carefully evaluate the sensitivity of the optimized parameters to uncertainties in the terrestrial biosphere fluxes, observations, time/space aggregation methods, and boundary conditions. Our main questions are: (i) what signal-to-noise in the data, as interpreted by the model, is large enough to robustly estimate Δ and NEE? and (ii) how do the optimized NEE and Δ that are based on the atmospheric constraint compare with the predicted NEE and Δ that are based on biophysical parameterizations? Our ability to accurately predict the responses of the terrestrial biosphere to changing humidity and soil moisture regimes is currently

  16. Assessment of prenatal exposure to arsenic in Tenerife Island.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriol Vall

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Increasing awareness of the potential chronic health effects of arsenic (As at low exposure levels has motivated efforts to better understand impaired child development during pregnancy by biomarkers of exposure. The aims of this study were to evaluate the prenatal exposure to As by analysis of an alternative matrix (meconium, to examine its effects on neonatal outcomes and investigate the association with maternal lifestyle and dietary habits during pregnancy. METHODS: A transversal descriptive study was conducted in Tenerife (Spain. A total of 96 mother-child pairs participated in the study. A questionnaire on sociodemographic, lifestyle and dietary habits during pregnancy was administered the day after the delivery. Analysis of total As in meconium was performed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer. RESULTS: Total As was detected in 37 (38.5% meconium samples. The univariate logistic regression model indicates that prenatal exposure to As was associated with a low intake of eggs per week (OR 0.56; CI (95%: 0.34-0.94 during pregnancy. Conversely, frequent intake of vegetables was associated with prenatal As exposure (OR: 1.19; CI (95%: 1.01-1.41 and frequent intake of processed meat (as bacon, Frankfurt's sausage, and hamburger shows a trend to As prenatal exposure (OR: 8.54; CI (95%: 0.80-90.89. The adjusted multivariate logistic regression model indicates that only frequent intake of vegetables maintains the association (OR: 1.31; CI (95%: 1.02-1.68. CONCLUSION: The studied population presented a low As exposure and was not associated with neonatal effects. Maternal consumption of vegetables during pregnancy was associated with detectable meconium As levels; however the concentration detected in meconium was too low to be considered a major public health concern in this geographical area.

  17. Exposure assessment of process-related contaminants in food by biomarker monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Dussort, P; Günther, Helmut; Hanlon, Paul; Honda, Hiroshi; Mally, Angela; O'Hagan, Sue; Scholz, Gabriele; Seidel, Albrecht; Swenberg, James; Teeguarden, Justin; Eisenbrand, Gerhard

    2018-01-04

    Exposure assessment is a fundamental part of the risk assessment paradigm, but can often present a number of challenges and uncertainties. This is especially the case for process contaminants formed during the processing, e.g. heating of food, since they are in part highly reactive and/or volatile, thus making exposure assessment by analysing contents in food unreliable. New approaches are therefore required to accurately assess consumer exposure and thus better inform the risk assessment. Such novel approaches may include the use of biomarkers, physiologically based kinetic (PBK) modelling-facilitated reverse dosimetry, and/or duplicate diet studies. This review focuses on the state of the art with respect to the use of biomarkers of exposure for the process contaminants acrylamide, 3-MCPD esters, glycidyl esters, furan and acrolein. From the overview presented, it becomes clear that the field of assessing human exposure to process-related contaminants in food by biomarker monitoring is promising and strongly developing. The current state of the art as well as the existing data gaps and challenges for the future were defined. They include (1) using PBK modelling and duplicate diet studies to establish, preferably in humans, correlations between external exposure and biomarkers; (2) elucidation of the possible endogenous formation of the process-related contaminants and the resulting biomarker levels; (3) the influence of inter-individual variations and how to include that in the biomarker-based exposure predictions; (4) the correction for confounding factors; (5) the value of the different biomarkers in relation to exposure scenario's and risk assessment, and (6) the possibilities of novel methodologies. In spite of these challenges it can be concluded that biomarker-based exposure assessment provides a unique opportunity to more accurately assess consumer exposure to process-related contaminants in food and thus to better inform risk assessment.

  18. A case report of lung cancer in a horse trainer caused by exposure to respirable crystalline silica: an exposure assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yoon, Jin-Ha; Kim, Boowook; Choi, Byung-Soon; Park, So Young; Kwag, Hyun-Suk; Kim, In-Ah; Jeong, Ji Yeon

    2013-01-01

    Here, we present a case of lung cancer in a 48-year-old male horse trainer. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such case report to include an exposure assessment of respirable crystalline silica (RCS) as a quartz...

  19. Probabilistic assessment of exposure to cosmetic products by French children aged 0-3 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficheux, A S; Dornic, N; Bernard, A; Chevillotte, G; Roudot, A C

    2016-08-01

    Very few exposure data are available for children in Europe and worldwide. The aim of this study was to assess the exposure to cosmetic products used on children aged 0-3 years using recent consumption data generated for the French population. Exposure was assessed using a probabilistic method for 24 products including cleanser, skin care, fragrance, solar and bottom products. The exposure data obtained in this study for children aged 0-3 years were higher than the values fixed by the SCCS for all common products: liquid shampoo, face moisturizer cream, toothpaste, shower gel and body moisturizer cream. Exposure was assessed for the first time for many products such as sunscreens, Eau de toilette and massage products. These new French exposure values will be useful for safety assessors and for safety agencies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of expert and job-exposure matrix-based retrospective exposure assessment of occupational carcinogens in the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Offermans, N.S.M.; Vermeulen, R.; Burdorf, A.; Peters, S.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Koeman, T.; Tongeren, M. van; Kauppinen, T.; Kant, I.; Kromhout, H.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Reliable retrospective exposure assessment continues to be a challenge in most population-based studies. Several methodologies exist for estimating exposures retrospectively, of which case-by-case expert assessment and job-exposure matrices (JEMs) are commonly used. This study evaluated

  1. Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS{reg_sign}): Exposure pathway and human health impact assessment models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strenge, D.L.; Chamberlain, P.J.

    1995-05-01

    The Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS) provides physics-based models for human health risk assessment for radioactive and hazardous pollutants. MEPAS analyzes pollutant behavior in various media (air, soil, groundwater and surface water) and estimates transport through and between media and exposure and impacts to the environment, to the maximum individual, and to populations. MEPAS includes 25 exposure pathway models, a database with information on more than 650 contaminants, and a sensitivity module that allows for uncertainty analysis. Four major transport pathways are considered in MEPAS: groundwater, overland, surface water, and atmospheric. This report describes the exposure pathway and health impact assessment component of MEPAS, which provides an estimate of health impacts to selected individuals and populations from exposure to pollutants. The exposure pathway analysis starts with pollutant concentration in a transport medium and estimates the average daily dose to exposed individuals from contact with the transport medium or a secondary medium contaminated by the transport medium. The average daily dose is then used to estimate a measure of health impact appropriate to the type of pollutant considered. Discussions of the exposure pathway models include the assumptions and equations used to convert the transport medium concentrations to exposure medium concentrations. The discussion for a given exposure pathway defines the transport pathways leading to the exposure, the special processes considered in determining the pollutant concentration in the exposure medium, and the exposure model used to estimate the average daily dose. Models for the exposure pathway and health impact assessments require definition of several parameters. A summary of the notation used for these parameters is provided.

  2. Survival risk assessment for primary blast exposures to the head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafaels, Karin; Bass, Cameron R Dale; Salzar, Robert S; Panzer, Matthew B; Woods, William; Feldman, Sanford; Cummings, Thomas; Capehart, Bruce

    2011-11-01

    Many soldiers returning from the current conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan have had at least one exposure to an explosive event and a significant number have symptoms consistent with traumatic brain injury. Although blast injury risk functions have been determined and validated for pulmonary injury, there is little information on the blast levels necessary to cause blast brain injury. Anesthetized male New Zealand White rabbits were exposed to varying levels of shock tube blast exposure focused on the head, while their thoraces were protected. The specimens were euthanized and evaluated when the blast resulted in respiratory arrest that was non-responsive to resuscitation or at 4?h post-exposure. Injury was evaluated by gross examination and histological evaluation. The fatality data from brain injury were then analyzed using Fisher's exact test to determine a brain fatality risk function. Greater blast intensity was associated with post-blast apnea and the need for mechanical ventilation. Gross examination revealed multifocal subdural hemorrhages, most often near the brainstem, at more intense levels of exposure. Histological evaluation revealed subdural and subarachnoid hemorrhages in the non-responsive respiratory-arrested specimens. A fatality risk function from blast exposure to the head was determined for the rabbit specimens with an LD(50) at a peak overpressure of 750?kPa. Scaling techniques were used to predict injury risk at other blast overpressure/duration combinations. The fatality risk function showed that the blast level needed to cause fatality from an overpressure wave exposure to the head was greater than the peak overpressure needed to cause fatality from pulmonary injury. This risk function can be used to guide future research for blast brain injury by providing a realistic fatality risk to guide the design of protection or to evaluate injury.

  3. Assessing Smoking Behaviour and Tobacco Smoke Exposure: Definitions and Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregg E

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the increased availability of tobacco products other than conventional cigarettes, the use of puffing topography devices for smoking behaviour studies and the use of biomarkers to study smoke constituents exposure have generated the need for a more comprehensive set of definitions concerning smoking behaviour and exposure to smoke. The definitions offered in this paper are based on many years of practical experience and on consensus within a broad group of scientists working in these areas. It is intended that, with wider and more consistent usage, these definitions should reduce any misunderstandings and facilitate interpretation of future studies.

  4. Mosquito control insecticides: a probabilistic ecological risk assessment on drift exposures of naled, dichlorvos (naled metabolite) and permethrin to adult butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, T C; Rand, G M

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive probabilistic terrestrial ecological risk assessment (ERA) was conducted to characterize the potential risk of mosquito control insecticide (i.e., naled, it's metabolite dichlorvos, and permethrin) usage to adult butterflies in south Florida by comparing the probability distributions of environmental exposure concentrations following actual mosquito control applications at labeled rates from ten field monitoring studies with the probability distributions of butterfly species response (effects) data from our laboratory acute toxicity studies. The overlap of these distributions was used as a measure of risk to butterflies. The long-term viability (survival) of adult butterflies, following topical (thorax/wings) exposures was the environmental value we wanted to protect. Laboratory acute toxicity studies (24-h LD50) included topical exposures (thorax and wings) to five adult butterfly species and preparation of species sensitivity distributions (SSDs). The ERA indicated that the assessment endpoint of protection, of at least 90% of the species, 90% of the time (or the 10th percentile from the acute SSDs) from acute naled and permethrin exposures, is most likely not occurring when considering topical exposures to adults. Although the surface areas for adulticide exposures are greater for the wings, exposures to the thorax provide the highest potential for risk (i.e., SSD 10th percentile is lowest) for adult butterflies. Dichlorvos appeared to present no risk. The results of this ERA can be applied to other areas of the world, where these insecticides are used and where butterflies may be exposed. Since there are other sources (e.g., agriculture) of pesticides in the environment, where butterfly exposures will occur, the ERA may under-estimate the potential risks under real-world conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [Asbestos exposure assessment in the first case of intrasplenic mesothelioma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miscetti, Giorgio; Bodo, Patrizia; Lumare, A; Abbritti, E P; Garofani, Patrizia; Burani, V

    2016-01-20

    In 2013 the International Journal of Surgical Pathology published a case report of intrasplenic malignant mesothelioma (MM) in a 48-year-old man: it was the first report in literature describing a case of primitive intra-splenic MM, described without  a history of asbestos exposure. To verify the possible past exposure to asbestos, ignored by the patient himself, by studying in depth his environmental and occupational history. Information about the occupational and non-occupational history of the subject was collected by Experts of the Operational Unit of Occupational Health and Safety Control (UOC PSAL) of the Local Health Unit Umbria 1 - Perugia, using the Italian National Mesothelioma Register (ReNaM) questionnaire and guide lines; an inspection was  carried out at the past canning industry where the patient worked in the period 1982-1990 and material was taken to be analysed by MOCF and SEM. Samples showed the presence of asbestos  fibres belonging to the amphibole class (amosite and crocidolite) and to the serpentine class (chrysotile). The survey described the past occupational exposure to asbestos in a canning industry, where  the subject worked in the period 1982-1990,  unknown to the patient himself. The authors strongly confirm the  usefulness of standardized methods, such as the ReNaM Questionnaire, and the importance of technical expertise of the investigator to find and analyse the suspect materials and to demonstrate  possible past occupational exposure to asbestos.

  6. Assessment of Nicotine Exposure From Active Human Cigarette Smoking Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahours Xavier

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The burning of a cigarette is a series of consecutive sequences of both passive and active burnings when a smoking cycle is applied to the cigarette. A previous study, using a smoking machine, showed that cigarette nicotine yields are dependent linearly on the difference between the time of smouldering (passive burning and the time of smoking (active burning. It is predicted that the smoker’s nicotine yield increases when the intensity of smoking increases, i.e., when the time to smoke a cigarette (smoking time decreases. Note that observations made on machines might not be comparable to human behaviours. The aim of this study was to determine whether nicotine mouth-level exposure could be predicted through measurement of human smoking time. A smoking behaviour study was conducted to compare human smoking nicotine yields obtained from both filter tip analysis and the cigarette burning time model. Results showed that smokers’ exposure to the smoke depends essentially on the speed at which the cigarette is smoked. An increase in human smoking intensity, resulting in a decrease in smoking time, generates an increase in smoke exposure, whatever the puff number, puff duration, puff volume and filter ventilation (open or blocked. The association of a machine smoking yield with a corresponding smoking time, and the time taken by a consumer to smoke the cigarette would provide information on the exposure to smoke constituents in a simple and effective manner.

  7. original article assessment of hiv post-exposure prophylaxis use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Background: Infection with Human Immunodeficiency Virus is a serious public health problem costing the lives of many people including health workers. Hence, Ethiopia has developed guideline on the prevention of infection in health institutions in July 2004 and also employed the use of post exposure prophylaxis since ...

  8. Assessing elemental mercury vapor exposure from cultural and religious practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, D M; Newby, C A; Leal-Almeraz, T O; Thomas, V M

    2001-08-01

    Use of elemental mercury in certain cultural and religious practices can cause high exposures to mercury vapor. Uses include sprinkling mercury on the floor of a home or car, burning it in a candle, and mixing it with perfume. Some uses can produce indoor air mercury concentrations one or two orders of magnitude above occupational exposure limits. Exposures resulting from other uses, such as infrequent use of a small bead of mercury, could be well below currently recognized risk levels. Metallic mercury is available at almost all of the 15 botanicas visited in New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, but botanica personnel often deny having mercury for sale when approached by outsiders to these religious and cultural traditions. Actions by public health authorities have driven the mercury trade underground in some locations. Interviews indicate that mercury users are aware that mercury is hazardous, but are not aware of the inhalation exposure risk. We argue against a crackdown by health authorities because it could drive the practices further underground, because high-risk practices may be rare, and because uninformed government intervention could have unfortunate political and civic side effects for some Caribbean and Latin American immigrant groups. We recommend an outreach and education program involving religious and community leaders, botanica personnel, and other mercury users.

  9. Lead Concentrations and Risk Exposure Assessment in Surface ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Lead is included in the formulation of several motor oils. Leaded gasoline has been phased out, but is still used in ... Human exposure to motor garage chemicals has been suggested to induce genotoxic effects (Oktem et al., ... by adding hydrogen peroxide and sodium hexametaphosphate and the resulting soil analysed by.

  10. Assessment of potential asbestos exposures from jet engine overhaul work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlynarek, S P; Van Orden, D R

    2012-06-01

    Asbestos fibers have been used in a wide variety of products and numerous studies have shown that exposures from the use or manipulation of these products can vary widely. Jet engines contained various components (gaskets, clamps, o-rings and insulation) that contained asbestos that potentially could release airborne fibers during routine maintenance or during an engine overhaul. To evaluate the potential exposures to aircraft mechanics, a Pratt & Whitney JT3D jet engine was obtained and overhauled by experienced mechanics using tools and work practices similar to those used since the time this engine was manufactured. This study has demonstrated that the disturbance of asbestos-containing gaskets, o-rings, and other types of asbestos-containing components, while performing overhaul work to a jet engine produces very few airborne fibers, and that virtually none of these aerosolized fibers is asbestos. The overhaul work was observed to be dirty and oily. The exposures to the mechanics and bystanders were several orders of magnitude below OSHA exposure regulations, both current and historic. The data presented underscore the lack of risk to the health of persons conducting this work and to other persons in proximity to it from airborne asbestos. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessing sources of human methylmercury exposure using stable mercury isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Miling; Sherman, Laura S; Blum, Joel D; Grandjean, Philippe; Mikkelsen, Bjarni; Weihe, Pál; Sunderland, Elsie M; Shine, James P

    2014-01-01

    Seafood consumption is the primary route of methylmercury (MeHg) exposure for most populations. Inherent uncertainties in dietary survey data point to the need for an empirical tool to confirm exposure sources. We therefore explore the utility of Hg stable isotope ratios in human hair as a new method for discerning MeHg exposure sources. We characterized Hg isotope fractionation between humans and their diets using hair samples from Faroese whalers exposed to MeHg predominantly from pilot whales. We observed an increase of 1.75‰ in δ(202)Hg values between pilot whale muscle tissue and Faroese whalers' hair but no mass-independent fractionation. We found a similar offset in δ(202)Hg between consumed seafood and hair samples from Gulf of Mexico recreational anglers who are exposed to lower levels of MeHg from a variety of seafood sources. An isotope mixing model was used to estimate individual MeHg exposure sources and confirmed that both Δ(199)Hg and δ(202)Hg values in human hair can help identify dietary MeHg sources. Variability in isotopic signatures among coastal fish consumers in the Gulf of Mexico likely reflects both differences in environmental sources of MeHg to coastal fish and uncertainty in dietary recall data. Additional data are needed to fully refine this approach for individuals with complex seafood consumption patterns.

  12. Quantitative exposure assessment in community-based studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Occupational epidemiology focuses on the associations between exposures at the workplace and disease outcomes, essentially concerned with the prevention of disease. Basically two types of studies can be distinguished in occupational epidemiology: industry-based studies which study a population at

  13. HESI pilot project: Testing a qualitative approach for incorporating exposure into alternatives assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greggs, Bill; Arnold, Scott; Burns, Thomas J.

    important, including exposure, risk, life-cycle thinking, performance, cost, and social responsibility. Building on the 2014 recommendations by the US National Academy of Sciences to improve AA decisions by including comparative xposure assessment, the HESI Sustainable Chemical Alternatives Technical...... Committee, which consists of scientists from academia, industry, government, and NGOs, has developed a qualitative comparative exposure approach. Conducting such a comparison can screen for alternatives that are expected to have a higher exposure potential, which could trigger a higher-tiered, more......-quantitative exposure assessment on the alternatives being considered. This talk will demonstrate an approach for including chemical and product exposure information in a qualitative AA comparison. Starting from existing hazard AAs, a series of four exposure examples were examined to test the concept, to understand...

  14. A probabilistic assessment of health risks associated with short-term exposure to tropospheric ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitfield, R.G; Biller, W.F.; Jusko, M.J.; Keisler, J.M.

    1996-06-01

    The work described in this report is part of a larger risk assessment sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Earlier efforts developed exposure-response relationships for acute health effects among populations engaged in heavy exertion. Those efforts also developed a probabilistic national ambient air quality standards exposure model and a general methodology for integrating probabilistic exposure-response relation- ships and exposure estimates to calculate overall risk results. Recently published data make it possible to model additional health endpoints (for exposure at moderate exertion), including hospital admissions. New air quality and exposure estimates for alternative national ambient air quality standards for ozone are combined with exposure-response models to produce the risk results for hospital admissions and acute health effects. Sample results explain the methodology and introduce risk output formats.

  15. Acute toxicity test for terrestrial hazard assessment with exposure of Folsomia candida to pesticides in an aqueous medium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houx, N.W.H.; Dekker, A.; Kammen-Polman, van A.M.M.; Ronday, R.

    1996-01-01

    An acute-toxicty test is described in which the springtail Folsomia candida was exposed to pesticides in water for four days. The test method has been designed for the direct and economical chemical analyses of all the concentrations during the execution of the test. The 96-hour EC50 values

  16. Harmonisation of food categorisation systems for dietary exposure assessments among European children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Neve, Melissa; Sioen, Isabelle; Boon, Polly

    2010-01-01

    Within the European project called EXPOCHI (Individual Food Consumption Data and Exposure Assessment Studies for Children), 14 different European individual food consumption databases of children were used to conduct harmonised dietary exposure assessments for lead, chromium, selenium and food co...... coded and in level of detail provided about the consumed foods. The work done and the problems encountered in this project can be of interest for future projects in which food consumption data will be collected on a pan-European level and used for common exposure assessments....

  17. Sensitivity Analysis of Personal Exposure Assessment Using a Computer Simulated Person

    OpenAIRE

    Brohus, Henrik; Jensen, H. K.

    2009-01-01

    The paper considers uncertainties related to personal exposure assessment using a computer simulated person. CFD is used to simulate a uniform flow field around a human being to determine the personal exposure to a contaminant source. For various vertical locations of a point contaminant source three additional factors are varied, namely the velocity, details of the computer simulated person, and the CFD model of the wind channel. The personal exposure is found to be highly dependent on the r...

  18. In vitro assessment of Tribulus terrestris aqueous extract and Benzoxacin fraction against Helicobacter pylori isolates from biopsy samples of Iranian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojdeh Hakemi vala

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives:  Helicobacter pylori (Hp is related to gastritis, gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer, and mucosal carcinoma. Emergence of multidrug resistant Hp strains encouraged the researchers to find new effective drugs. Especially medicinal herbs and plants which usually shows less side effects. The aim of this study was in vitro assessment of anti Hp activity of total extract of Tribulus terrestris (T. terrestris Benzoxacin, a local Iranian medicinal plant and its fraction Benzoxacin.Methods: total aqueous extract of aerial parts of the plant was prepared and liquid extraction with petroleum ether was used to separate its components. LC/MS system proved the existence of Benzoxazine derivative in the water fraction and the third's fraction. Anti (Hp effects of total extract and its third fraction were examined by cup plate method and using standard MacFarland. 50 biopsy samples of antrum were detected from patients who were endoscopic candidates in Milad and Fayazbakhsh  hospitals of Tehran during 2011. All samples were isolated, diagnosed based on standard methods and biochemical tests and confirmed by PCR method for ureC gene, too.  Different dilutions (250, 500,750 and 1000 mg/ml of total extract were prepared. Clarythromycin (Clr E-test strips and an identified Hp OC1096 was used, simultaneously.Results: Of 50 biopsy samples, 12 Hp strains were isolated. Rapid urease test were positive in all expect one biopsy sample. Existence of ureC gene in all isolates were confirmed expect one strain by PCR. By cup plate method, resistant to concentrations of 1000 and 750mg/ml were detected in 50% of Hp isolates and 66.6% of them were resistant to concentrations 250 and 500 mg/ml .Also, 83.3% of Hp strains were resistant to Benzoxacin fraction. Clarythromycin sensitivity detected in 83% of Hp isolates, simultaneously.Conclusion: This study was done as a pilot study for in vitro evaluation of antibacterial effect of total extract of T

  19. Lead concentrations and risk exposure assessment in surface soils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated lead concentrations in < 250 μm and < 75 μm of deposited dust and< 2000 μm, < 250 μm, and < 75 μm of surface soils at undeveloped residential lands leased to auto-mechanic artisans for a minimum of ten years and estimated exposure risk for children that will reside on the polluted lands after the ...

  20. Exposure Assessment Methods in Studies on Waste Management and Health Effects: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Spinazzè

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Concerns and uncertainties persist about potential environmental and health effects associated with exposure to emissions from widely adopted waste management facilities: despite a limited amount of evidence having been found for some exposure-effect associations, most of the available studies were characterized by limitations related to poor exposure assessment, which could introduce biases and weaknesses in the interpretation of results. This communication provides a brief overview of the exposure assessment methods used in studies on waste management and health effects: problems, key issues, priorities and challenges are briefly presented and discussed. The main conclusions refer to the need of newly developed and harmonized exposure assessment strategies and techniques, which represent an essential step in the study of waste-disposal facilities’ health impacts.

  1. Using transportation demand models to assess regional noise exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliski, Kenneth

    2005-09-01

    In the United States, most metropolitan areas run some type of transportation demand model to estimate regional travel patterns, and, to some extent, air pollution. The more advanced of these models accurately represent the geographic contours of the roadways (in contrast to the older straight-line node and link models). This allows an almost seamless integration of these new transportation demand models into noise prediction models. Combined with the locations of individual homes from a separate E911 database, we can readily make estimates of the noise exposure of populations over large areas. In this paper, the regional traffic noise exposure of residences of Chittenden County, VT is estimated and mapped. It was found that 30% of the residences are exposed to noise levels exceeding the WHO sleep disturbance level of 45 dB LAeq(8) and 20% of residences are exposed to levels exceeding the WHO ``serious annoyance'' level of 55 dB LAeq(16). Maps show noise contours as well as individual homes color coded based on relative day and night noise exposure levels. Measured sound level data are given for particular locations to validate the predictions.

  2. Health effects assessment of exposure to particles from wood smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Elsa; Dybdahl, M. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, National Food Institute, Dept. of Toxicology and Risk Assessment, Soeborg (Denmark)); Larsen, Poul Bo (Danish Environmental Protection Agency, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    2008-07-01

    The number of residential wood burning devices has increased in Denmark during the latest years and it has been estimated that there in 2005 were about 551,000 wood stoves and about 48,000 wood boilers in Denmark. This has resulted in an increased exposure of the general Danish population to pollutants associated with residential wood smoke. New Danish monitoring results on particulate matter (PM) in ambient air have shown elevated PM levels in areas with many wood stoves, particularly during wintertime when wood burning is common. Due to the size distribution of wood smoke particles essentially all will be contained in the PM{sub 2.5} fraction. It has been estimated that about 17,665 tonnes PM{sub 2.5} per year (2005) in Denmark come from residential wood combustion. Therefore, there is an increasing concern that adverse human health effects might be associated with the increased exposure to residential wood smoke. This project has been set up in order to review the scientific literature concerning adverse health effects of pollutants associated with residential wood smoke with the main focus on particulate matter and to quantify and evaluate, if possible, the impact on human health of the increased exposure to particles in residential wood smoke. (au)

  3. Indoor transformer stations and ELF magnetic field exposure: use of transformer structural characteristics to improve exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okokon, Enembe Oku; Roivainen, Päivi; Kheifets, Leeka; Mezei, Gabor; Juutilainen, Jukka

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that populations of multiapartment buildings with indoor transformer stations may serve as a basis for improved epidemiological studies on the relationship between childhood leukaemia and extremely-low-frequency (ELF) magnetic fields (MFs). This study investigated whether classification based on structural characteristics of the transformer stations would improve ELF MF exposure assessment. The data included MF measurements in apartments directly above transformer stations ("exposed" apartments) in 30 buildings in Finland, and reference apartments in the same buildings. Transformer structural characteristics (type and location of low-voltage conductors) were used to classify exposed apartments into high-exposure (HE) and intermediate-exposure (IE) categories. An exposure gradient was observed: both the time-average MF and time above a threshold (0.4 μT) were highest in the HE apartments and lowest in the reference apartments, showing a statistically significant trend. The differences between HE and IE apartments, however, were not statistically significant. A simulation exercise showed that the three-category classification did not perform better than a two-category classification (exposed and reference apartments) in detecting the existence of an increased risk. However, data on the structural characteristics of transformers is potentially useful for evaluating exposure-response relationship.

  4. Assessment of long-term exposures to toxic substances in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaport, S M

    1991-02-01

    Because airborne exposure varies greatly over time and between individual workers, occupational hygienists should adopt sampling strategies which recognize the inherent statistical nature of assessing exposure. This analysis indicates that the traditional practice of testing 'compliance' with occupational exposure limits (OELs) should be discarded. Rather, it is argued that acceptable exposure should be defined with reference to the exposure distribution. Regarding the many statistical issues which come into play, it is concluded that hygienists should continue to apply the log-normal model for summarizing and testing data. However, sampling designs should move away from methods which are biased (e.g. sampling only the worst case) and which rely upon job title and observation as the primary means of assigning workers into groups. Since exposure data often lack independence (e.g. owing to the autocorrelation of serial measurements) and there exist large differences in exposure between workers in the same job group, random sampling designs should be adopted. It is also shown that the relationship between the mean of a log-normal distribution and exposures in the right tail allows one to evaluate simultaneously the mean exposure and the maximum frequency with which exposures exceed the OEL. Investigation of the biological concepts relies heavily upon a conceptual model which depicts the exposure-response continuum as a sequence of time series related to exposure, burden, damage and risk. Analysis of the linkages between these processes identifies two kinetic conditions which are necessary if variability of exposure is to affect appreciably the individual's risk of chronic disease. First, the variation of exposure from interval to interval must be efficiently translated into burden and damage (no damping), and second, during periods of intense exposure the relationship between burden and damage must be non-linear (curving upwards). On the basis of current knowledge it

  5. Integrating Human Indoor Air Pollutant Exposure within Life Cycle Impact Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellweg, Stefanie; Demou, Evangelia; Bruzzi, Raffaella; Meijer, Arjen; Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Huijbregts, Mark A.J.; McKone, Thomas E.

    2008-12-21

    Neglecting health effects from indoor pollutant emissions and exposure, as currently done in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), may result in product or process optimizations at the expense of workers? or consumers? health. To close this gap, methods for considering indoor exposure to chemicals are needed to complement the methods for outdoor human exposure assessment already in use. This paper summarizes the work of an international expert group on the integration of human indoor and outdoor exposure in LCA, within the UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative. A new methodological framework is proposed for a general procedure to include human-health effects from indoor exposure in LCA. Exposure models from occupational hygiene and household indoor air quality studies and practices are critically reviewed and recommendations are provided on the appropriateness of various model alternatives in the context of LCA. A single-compartment box model is recommended for use as a default in LCA, enabling one to screen occupational and household exposures consistent with the existing models to assess outdoor emission in a multimedia environment. An initial set of model parameter values was collected. The comparison between indoor and outdoor human exposure per unit of emission shows that for many pollutants, intake per unit of indoor emission may be several orders of magnitude higher than for outdoor emissions. It is concluded that indoor exposure should be routinely addressed within LCA.

  6. EcoDoses improving radiological assessment of doses to man from terrestrial ecosystems. A status report for the NKS-B project 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergan, T. [Lavrans Skuterud, Haevard Thoerring (Norway); Liland, A. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA) (Denmark)] (eds.)

    2004-05-01

    The NKS B-programme EcoDoses project started in 2003 as a collaboration between all the Nordic countries. The aim of the project is to improve the radiological assessments of doses to man from terrestrial ecosystems. The first part, conducted in 2003, has focussed on an extensive collation and review of both published and unpublished data from all the Nordic countries for the nuclear weapons fallout period and the post-Chemobyl period. This included data on radionuclides in air filters, precipitation, soil samples, milk and reindeer. Based on this, an improved model for estimating radioactive fallout based on precipitation data during the nuclear weapons fallout period has been developed. Effective ecological half- lives for 137Cs and 90Sr in milk have been calculated for the nuclear weapons fallout period. For reindeer the ecological half- lives for 137Cs have been calculated for both the nuclear weapons fallout period and the post-Chemobyl period. The data were also used to compare modelling results with observed concentrations. This was done at a workshop where the radioecological food-and-dose module in the ARGOS decision support system was used to predict transfer of deposited radionuclides to foodstuffs and subsequent radiation doses to man. The work conducted the first year is presented in this report and gives interesting, new results relevant for terrestrial radioecology. (au)

  7. Assessment of carbon nanoparticle exposure on murine macrophage function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suro-Maldonado, Raquel M.

    There is growing concern about the potential cytotoxicity of nanoparticles. Exposure to respirable ultrafine particles (2.5uM) can adversely affect human health and have been implicated with episodes of increased respiratory diseases such as asthma and allergies. Nanoparticles are of particular interest because of their ability to penetrate into the lung and potentially elicit health effects triggering immune responses. Nanoparticles are structures and devises with length scales in the 1 to 100-nanometer range. Black carbon (BC) nanoparticles have been observed to be products of combustion, especially flame combustion and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) have been shown to be found in both indoor and outdoor air. Furthermore, asbestos, which have been known to cause mesothelioma as well as lung cancer, have been shown to be structurally identical to MWCNTs. The aims of these studies were to examine the effects of carbon nanoparticles on murine macrophage function and clearance mechanisms. Macrophages are immune cells that function as the first line of defense against invading pathogens and are likely to be amongst the first cells affected by nanoparticles. Our research focused on two manufactured nanoparticles, MWCNT and BC. The two were tested against murine-derived macrophages in a chronic contact model. We hypothesized that long-term chronic exposure to carbon nanoparticles would decrease macrophages ability to effectively respond to immunological challenge. Production of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), cell surface macrophage; activation markers, reactive oxygen species formation (ROS), and antigen processing and presentation were examined in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) following a 144hr exposure to the particulates. Data demonstrated an increase in TNF-alpha, and NO production; a decrease in phagocytosis and antigen processing and presentation; and a decrease in the expression levels of cell surface macrophage

  8. A probabilistic assessment of the impact of interventions on oncology nurses' exposure to antineoplastic agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijster, T.; Fransman, W.; Hemmen, J. van; Kromhout, H.; Heederik, D.; Tielemans, E.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The main goal was to investigate the potential of a probabilistic approach for exposure assessment and use this information to evaluate the impact of a complex of policy actions/interventions on dermal exposure to antineoplastic agents among oncology nurses. The central theme of this

  9. The diesel exhaust in miners study: I. Overview of the exposure assessment process.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stewart, P.A.; Coble, J.B.; Vermeulen, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/216532620; Schleiff, P.; Blair, A.; Lubin, J.; Attfield, M.; Silverman, D.T.

    2010-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the exposure assessment process for an epidemiologic study that investigated mortality, with a special focus on lung cancer, associated with diesel exhaust (DE) exposure among miners. Details of several components are provided in four other reports. A major

  10. Sensitivity Analysis of Personal Exposure Assessment Using a Computer Simulated Person

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Jensen, H. K.

    2009-01-01

    The paper considers uncertainties related to personal exposure assessment using a computer simulated person. CFD is used to simulate a uniform flow field around a human being to determine the personal exposure to a contaminant source. For various vertical locations of a point contaminant source t...

  11. Exposure data and risk indicators for safety performance assessment in Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papadimitriou, E. Yannis, G. Bijleveld, F.D. & Cardoso, J.L.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper is the analysis of the state-of-the-art in risk indicators and exposure data for safety performance assessment in Europe, in terms of data availability, collection methodologies and use. More specifically, the concepts of exposure and risk are explored, as well as the

  12. Exposure data and risk indicators for safety performance assessment in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papadimitriou, G.; Yannis, G.; Bijleveld, F.D.; Cardoso, J.L.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper is the analysis of the state-of-the-art in risk indicators and exposure data for safety performance assessment in Europe, in terms of data availability, collection methodologies and use. More specifically, the concepts of exposure and risk are explored, as well as the

  13. Assessment of dust sampling methods for the study of cultivable-microorganism exposure in stables.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Normand, A.C.; Vacheyrou, M.; Sudre, B.; Heederik, D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072910542; Piarroux, R.

    2009-01-01

    Studies have shown a link between living on a farm, exposure to microbial components (e.g., endotoxins or beta-d-glucans), and a lower risk for allergic diseases and asthma. Due to the lack of validated sampling methods, studies of asthma and atopy have not relied on exposure assessment based on

  14. Assessment of mould spore exposure and relations to symptoms in wood trimmers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eduard, W.

    1993-01-01

    Relationships between exposure to mould spores, IgG antibodies against moulds and respiratory and febrile symptoms were studied among wood trimmers. A new method for quantitative assessment of mould spore exposure by scanning electron microscopy was developed. This method was validated by

  15. Exposure assessment for a nested case-control study of lung cancer among European asphalt workers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agostini, M.; Ferro, G.; Olsson, A.; Burstyn, I.; de Vocht, F.; Hansen, J.; Funch Lassen, C.; Johansen, C.; Kjaerheim, K.; Langard, S.; Stucker, I.; Ahrens, W.; Behrens, T.; Lindbohm, M-J.; Heikkila, P.; Heederik, D.; Portengen, L.; Shaham, J.; Boffetta, P.; Kromhout, H.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Development of a method for retrospective assessment of exposure to bitumen fume, bitumen condensate, organic vapour, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and co-exposures to known or suspected lung carcinogens for a nested case-control study of lung cancer mortality among European asphalt

  16. An Exploratory Study: Assessment of Modeled Dioxin Exposure in Ceramic Art Studios (Final Report, 2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, An Exploratory Study: Assessment of Modeled Dioxin Exposure in Ceramic Art Studios. This report investigates the potential dioxin exposure to artists/hobbyists who use ball clay to make pottery and related products. Derm...

  17. Rockfall hazard assessment of nearly vertical rhyolite tuff cliff faces by using terrestrial laser scanner, UAV and FEM analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Török, Ákos; Barsi, Árpád; Görög, Péter; Lovas, Tamás; Bögöly, Gyula; Czinder, Balázs; Vásárhelyi, Balázs; Molnár, Bence; József Somogyi, Árpád

    2017-04-01

    Nearly vertical rhyolite tuff cliff faces are located in NE-Hungary representing rock fall hazard in the touristic region of Sirok. Larger blocks of the cliff have fallen in recent years menacing tourists and human lives. The rhyolite tuff, that forms the Castle Hill was formed during Miocene volcanism and comprises of brecciated lapilli tuffs and tuffs with intercalating ignimbritic horizons. The paper focuses on the 3D mapping of cliff faces and modeling of rock fall hazard. The topography and 3D model of the cliff was obtained by using GNSS supported terrestrial laser scanner and UAV. With imaging techniques of UAV a Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN) model was developed that contained triangles with 5-10 cm side lengths. GNSS supported terrestrial laser scanning allowed the observation with a resolution 1-5 cm of point spacing. The point clouds were further processed and with the combination of laser scanner and UAV data a 3D model of the studied cliff faces were obtained. Geological parameters for rock fall analyses included both field observations and laboratory tests. The lithotypes were identified on the field and were sampled for rock mechanical laboratory analyses. Joint- and fault system was mapped and visualized by using Rocscience Dip. EN test methods were used to obtain the density properties of various lithotypes of rhyolite tuff. Other standardized EN tests included ultrasonic pulse velocity, water absorption, indirect tensile strength (Brasilian), uniaxial compressive strength and modulus of elasticity of air dry and of water saturated samples. GSI values were denoted based on filed observations and rock mass properties. The stability analyses of cliff faces were made by using 2D FEM software (Phase 2). Cross sections were evaluated and global factor of safety was also calculated. The modeled displacements were in the order of few centimeters; however several locations were pinpointed where wedge failure and planar slip surfaces were identified

  18. Refinement of the Nanoparticle Emission Assessment Technique into the Nanomaterial Exposure Assessment Technique (NEAT 2.0).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastlake, Adrienne C; Beaucham, Catherine; Martinez, Kenneth F; Dahm, Matthew M; Sparks, Christopher; Hodson, Laura L; Geraci, Charles L

    2016-09-01

    Engineered nanomaterial emission and exposure characterization studies have been completed at more than 60 different facilities by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). These experiences have provided NIOSH the opportunity to refine an earlier published technique, the Nanoparticle Emission Assessment Technique (NEAT 1.0), into a more comprehensive technique for assessing worker and workplace exposures to engineered nanomaterials. This change is reflected in the new name Nanomaterial Exposure Assessment Technique (NEAT 2.0) which distinguishes it from NEAT 1.0. NEAT 2.0 places a stronger emphasis on time-integrated, filter-based sampling (i.e., elemental mass analysis and particle morphology) in the worker's breathing zone (full shift and task specific) and area samples to develop job exposure matrices. NEAT 2.0 includes a comprehensive assessment of emissions at processes and job tasks, using direct-reading instruments (i.e., particle counters) in data-logging mode to better understand peak emission periods. Evaluation of worker practices, ventilation efficacy, and other engineering exposure control systems and risk management strategies serve to allow for a comprehensive exposure assessment.

  19. Exposure assessment of adult intake of bisphenol A (BPA) with emphasis on canned food dietary exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorber, Matthew; Schecter, Arnold; Paepke, Olaf; Shropshire, William; Christensen, Krista; Birnbaum, Linda

    2015-04-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high-volume, synthetic compound found in epoxy resins and plastics used in food packaging. Food is believed to be a major source of BPA intake. In this study, we measured the concentration of BPA in convenience samplings of foodstuffs purchased in Dallas, Texas. Sampling entailed collection of 204 samples of fresh, frozen, and canned foods in two rounds in 2010. BPA was positive in 73% of the canned food samples, while it was found in only 7% of non-canned foods at low concentrations. The results of this food sampling program were used to calculate adult dietary intakes of BPA. A pathway approach combined food intakes, a "canned fraction" parameter which described what portion of total intake of that food came from canned products, and measured food concentrations. Dietary intakes were calculated as 12.6 ng/kg-day, of which 12.4 ng/kg-day was from canned foods. Canned vegetable intakes alone were 11.9 ng/kg-day. This dietary intake was compared to total intakes of BPA estimated from urine measurements of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Total adult central tendency intakes ranged from 30 to 70 ng/kg-day for NHANES cycles between 2005 and 2010. Three possibilities were explored to explain the difference between these two approaches for intake estimation. Not all foods which may have been canned, particularly canned beverages such as soft drinks, were sampled in our food sampling program. Second, non-food pathways of exposure may be important for adults, including thermal paper exposures, and dust and air exposures. Finally, our canned food concentrations may not be adequately representative of canned foods in the United States; they were found to be generally lower compared to canned food concentrations measured in six other worldwide food surveys including three in North America. Our finding that canned food concentrations greatly exceeded non-canned concentrations was consistent with other studies, and

  20. Assessment of lifetime exposure to trihalomethanes through different routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, C M; Cantor, K P; Grimalt, J O; Castaño‐Vinyals, G; Malats, N; Silverman, D; Tardon, A; Garcia‐Closas, R; Serra, C; Carrato, A; Rothman, N; Real, F X; Dosemeci, M; Kogevinas, M

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate lifetime exposure to trihalomethanes (THM) through ingestion, inhalation, and dermal absorption in a hospital based case‐control study of bladder cancer conducted between 1998 and 2001 in five areas of Spain. The study base was comprised of subjects living in the catchment areas of the participating hospitals. Methods Individual information on water related habits was obtained from personal interviews of 1219 cases and 1271 controls: residential and occupational history, drinking water source at each residence and job, amount of water consumption, frequency and duration of showering, bathing, and swimming pool attendance. THM levels, water source history, and year when chlorination started in study areas were ascertained through measurements in drinking water samples and questionnaires to water companies and local authorities. Estimates of THM levels covered 79% of the subjects' person‐years of exposure. Results Current and historical average THM levels in water were correlated. Control subjects reported that drinking water source in the last residence was municipal for 63%, bottled for 22%, private well for 2%, and other sources for 13%. For the time window between age 15 and the time of interview, average residential THM level was 32.2 μg/l. THM exposure through ingestion was 23.7 μg/day on average, and was correlated with the ingestion THM level in the workplace. Overall, 79% usually took showers, 16% usually took baths, and 13% had ever attended a swimming pool. Between 21% and 45% of controls unexposed to THM through ingestion were evaluated as moderately or highly exposed through showering or bathing, and 5–10% were exposed through swimming in pools. Conclusion The importance of evaluating different routes is underscored by findings from experimental studies showing substantial differences in THM uptake and internal distribution by route. PMID:16556748

  1. Health effects assessment of exposure to particles from wood smoke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Elsa

    2007-01-01

    distribution of wood smoke particles, essentially all will be contained in the PM2.5 fraction. In Denmark, recent results indicate that about 10,000 tonnes PM2.5 per year, about half of the total particle emission in Denmark, come from residential wood combustion. Based on a few measurement campaigns conducted...... in Denmark in selected residential areas with different kinds of heating, the annual average PM2.5 exposure from wood smoke can be estimated at 0.4–2 mg/m3 as a preliminary estimate for the whole Danish population. Epidemiological studies evaluating adverse health effects from ambient air pollution...

  2. Ochratoxin A in Portugal: A Review to Assess Human Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia C. Duarte

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In Portugal, the climate, dietary habits, and food contamination levels present the characteristics for higher population susceptibility to ochratoxin A (OTA, one of the known mycotoxins with the greatest public health and agro-economic importance. In this review, following a brief historical insight on OTA research, a summary of the available data on OTA occurrence in food (cereals, bread, wine, meat and biological fluids (blood, urine is made. With this data, an estimation of intake is made to ascertain and update the risk exposure estimation of the Portuguese population, in comparison to previous studies and other populations.

  3. Scientific Opinion on outline proposals for assessment of exposure of organisms to substances in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Annette

    2010-01-01

    The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) asked the Panel to prepare a revision of the Guidance Document on persistence in soil (SANCO/9188VI/1997 of 12 July 2000) as scientific knowledge in this field has evolved in recent years. Therefore the Panel started the development of a revised methodology...... for the assessment of exposure of soil organisms. Based on a previous opinion of the Panel, the methodology is developed both for the concentration in total soil and the concentration in the soil pore water. The aim of the exposure assessment is the spatial 90th percentile of the exposure concentration (maximum...... in time) in the intended area of use in each of the three regulatory zones. The assessment of this percentile will include the uncertainty of substance and soil properties. The exposure assessment methodology is a function of (i) the type of crop (annual, pasture, permanent or rice), (ii) the tillage...

  4. Self-Reported and FEMA Flood Exposure Assessment after Hurricane Sandy: Association with Mental Health Outcomes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lieberman-Cribbin, Wil; Liu, Bian; Schneider, Samantha; Schwartz, Rebecca; Taioli, Emanuela

    2017-01-01

    .... Here we assess the concordance in self-reported and Federal Emergency Management (FEMA) flood exposure after Hurricane Sandy and determine the associations between flooding and anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder...

  5. Webinar Presentation: Epidemiologic Studies of the Effects of Toxic Exposures on Brain and Behavior: Neuropsychological Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation, Epidemiologic Studies of the Effects of Toxic Exposures on Brain and Behavior: Neuropsychological Assessment, was given at the NIEHS/EPA Children's Centers 2015 Webinar Series: Interdisciplinary Approaches to Neurodevelopment.

  6. Chemical concentrations, exposures, health risks by census tract from National Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Chemical concentrations, exposures, health risks by census tract for the United States from National Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA). This dataset is associated...

  7. Importance of environmental and biomass dynamics in predicting chemical exposure in ecological risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morselli, M.; Semplice, M.; Leander, de F.; Brink, van den P.J.; Guardo, Di A.

    2015-01-01

    In ecological risk assessment, exposure is generally modelled assuming static conditions, herewith neglecting the potential role of emission, environmental and biomass dynamics in affecting bioavailable concentrations. In order to investigate the influence of such dynamics on predicted bioavailable

  8. Spatial and temporal variation in radiation exposure of amphibians - Implications for environmental risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stark, K. [Stockholm University (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    Although amphibians are threatened world-wide, many amphibian species are protected in national legislation. Thus, amphibians need special attention in many environmental risk assessments for releases of contaminants such as radionuclides. In fact, amphibians' ecology and physiology (including, for example, a complex life-cycle with both aquatic and terrestrial life stages, and a thin skin) makes them sensitive to radiation exposure. In current dose models for wildlife, homogenous distribution of radionuclides in soil is assumed. However, soils are heterogeneous environments and radionuclide contamination can be very unevenly distributed. As a consequence, bioaccumulation of radionuclides in biota may vary on a local scale. Specifically, organisms' spatial location and movement within habitats may affect both their external and internal exposure pattern to radionuclides. Therefore, measuring the spatial location of individual amphibians within ecosystems and understanding why they use these different locations is essential for predicting potential effects of released radionuclides on these populations. The aim of this study was to investigate amphibians' spatial distribution in a {sup 137}Cs contaminated wetland area and their body content of {sup 137}Cs at the beginning and end of the summer period. The study site was a wetland nature reserve called Bladmyra near Gaevle in the central-eastern part of Sweden. This area received fallout of {sup 137}Cs after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. This study measured the spatial distributions of two amphibian species (Rana arvalis and Bufo bufo) with Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags in a mark-and-recapture study during 2012-2014. In addition, {sup 137}Cs body content in the two species was measured by whole body counting in spring and autumn of 2013. The results showed differences between years in how marked animals used the study area: More individuals stayed in a small area during 2012 than in 2013

  9. Integrating Exposure into Chemical Alternatives Assessment Using a Qualitative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most alternatives assessments (AA) published to date are largely hazard-based rankings, and as such may not represent a fully informed consideration of the advantages and disadvantages of possible alternatives. With an assessment goal of identifying an alternative chemical that i...

  10. Amphibians at risk? Susceptibility of terrestrial amphibian life stages to pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brühl, Carsten A; Pieper, Silvia; Weber, Brigitte

    2011-11-01

    Current pesticide risk assessment does not specifically consider amphibians. Amphibians in the aquatic environment (aquatic life stages or postmetamorphic aquatic amphibians) and terrestrial living juvenile or adult amphibians are assumed to be covered by the risk assessment for aquatic invertebrates and fish, or mammals and birds, respectively. This procedure has been evaluated as being sufficiently protective regarding the acute risk posed by a number of pesticides to aquatic amphibian life stages (eggs, larvae). However, it is unknown whether the exposure and sensitivity of terrestrial living amphibians are comparable to mammalian and avian exposure and sensitivity. We reviewed the literature on dermal pesticide absorption and toxicity studies for terrestrial life stages of amphibians, focusing on the dermal exposure pathway, that is, through treated soil or direct overspray. In vitro studies demonstrated that cutaneous absorption of chemicals is significant and that chemical percutaneous passage, P (cm/h), is higher in amphibians than in mammals. In vivo, the rapid and substantial uptake of the herbicide atrazine from treated soil by toads (Bufo americanus) has been described. Severe toxic effects on various amphibian species have been reported for field-relevant application rates of different pesticides. In general, exposure and toxicity studies for terrestrial amphibian life stages are scarce, and the reported data indicate the need for further research, especially in light of the global amphibian decline. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  11. Facial exposure dose assessment during intraoral radiography by radiological technologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Hwan; Yang, Han Joon [Dept. of International Radiological Science, Hallym University of Graduate Studies, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    The study examined the changes in the decreased facial exposure dose for radiological technologists depending on increased distance between the workers and the X-ray tube head during intraoral radiography. First, the facial phantom similar to the human tissues was manufactured. The shooting examination was configured to the maxillary molars for adults (60 kVp, 10 mA, 50 msec) and for children (60 kVp, 10 mA, 20 msec), and the chamber was fixed where the facial part of the radiation worker would be placed using the intraoral radiography equipment. The distances between the X-ray tube head and the phantom were set to 10 cm, 15 cm, 20 cm, 25 cm, 30 cm, 35 cm, and 40 cm. The phantom was radiated 20 times with each examination condition and the average scattered doses were examined. The rate at the distance of 40 cm decreased by about 92.6% to 7.43% based on the scattered rays radiated at the distance of 10 cm under the adult conditions. The rate at the distance of 40 cm decreased by about 97.6% to 2.58% based on the scattered rays radiated at the distance of 10 cm under the children conditions. Protection from the radiation exposure was required during the dental radiographic examination.

  12. Combining a Job-Exposure Matrix with Exposure Measurements to Assess Occupational Exposure to Benzene in a Population Cohort in Shanghai, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Melissa C.; Coble, Joseph B.; Lu, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Ji, Bu-Tian; Xue, Shouzheng; Portengen, Lutzen; Chow, Wong-Ho; Gao, Yu-Tang; Yang, Gong; Rothman, Nathaniel; Vermeulen, Roel

    2012-01-01

    Background: Generic job-exposure matrices (JEMs) are often used in population-based epidemiologic studies to assess occupational risk factors when only the job and industry information of each subject is available. JEM ratings are often based on professional judgment, are usually ordinal or semi-quantitative, and often do not account for changes in exposure over time. We present an empirical Bayesian framework that combines ordinal subjective JEM ratings with benzene measurements. Our aim was to better discriminate between job, industry, and time differences in exposure levels compared to using a JEM alone. Methods: We combined 63 221 short-term area air measurements of benzene exposure (1954–2000) collected during routine health and safety inspections in Shanghai, China, with independently developed JEM intensity ratings for each job and industry using a mixed-effects model. The fixed-effects terms included the JEM intensity ratings for job and industry (both ordinal, 0–3) and a time trend that we incorporated as a b-spline. The random-effects terms included job (n = 33) and industry nested within job (n = 399). We predicted the benzene concentration in two ways: (i) a calibrated JEM estimate was calculated using the fixed-effects model parameters for calendar year and JEM intensity ratings; (ii) a job-/industry-specific estimate was calculated using the fixed-effects model parameters and the best linear unbiased predictors from the random effects for job and industry using an empirical Bayes estimation procedure. Finally, we applied the predicted benzene exposures to a prospective population-based cohort of women in Shanghai, China (n = 74 942). Results: Exposure levels were 13 times higher in 1965 than in 2000 and declined at a rate that varied from 4 to 15% per year from 1965 to 1985, followed by a small peak in the mid-1990s. The job-/industry-specific estimates had greater differences between exposure levels than the calibrated JEM estimates (97.5th

  13. Impact of a smoking ban in hospitality venues on second hand smoke exposure: a comparison of exposure assessment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Sarah; Huynh, Cong Khanh; Bauer, Georg F; Hoffmann, Susanne; Röösli, Martin

    2013-06-04

    In May 2010, Switzerland introduced a heterogeneous smoking ban in the hospitality sector. While the law leaves room for exceptions in some cantons, it is comprehensive in others. This longitudinal study uses different measurement methods to examine airborne nicotine levels in hospitality venues and the level of personal exposure of non-smoking hospitality workers before and after implementation of the law. Personal exposure to second hand smoke (SHS) was measured by three different methods. We compared a passive sampler called MoNIC (Monitor of NICotine) badge, to salivary cotinine and nicotine concentration as well as questionnaire data. Badges allowed the number of passively smoked cigarettes to be estimated. They were placed at the venues as well as distributed to the participants for personal measurements. To assess personal exposure at work, a time-weighted average of the workplace badge measurements was calculated. Prior to the ban, smoke-exposed hospitality venues yielded a mean badge value of 4.48 (95%-CI: 3.7 to 5.25; n = 214) cigarette equivalents/day. At follow-up, measurements in venues that had implemented a smoking ban significantly declined to an average of 0.31 (0.17 to 0.45; n = 37) (p = 0.001). Personal badge measurements also significantly decreased from an average of 2.18 (1.31-3.05 n = 53) to 0.25 (0.13-0.36; n = 41) (p = 0.001). Spearman rank correlations between badge exposure measures and salivary measures were small to moderate (0.3 at maximum). Nicotine levels significantly decreased in all types of hospitality venues after implementation of the smoking ban. In-depth analyses demonstrated that a time-weighted average of the workplace badge measurements represented typical personal SHS exposure at work more reliably than personal exposure measures such as salivary cotinine and nicotine.

  14. Indirect validation of a retrospective method of exposure assessment used in a nested case-control study of lung cancer and silica exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosemeci, M; McLaughlin, J K; Chen, J Q; Hearl, F; McCawley, M; Wu, Z; Chen, R G; Peng, K L; Chen, A L; Rexing, S H

    1994-02-01

    Validations of retrospective methods of assessment used in occupational epidemiological studies have rarely been published. This study is an indirect validation of a quantitative retrospective assessment of exposure to silica used in a nested case-control study of lung cancer among workers at 29 metal mines and pottery factories in China. Indices of cumulative total dust and cumulative respirable dust were calculated by merging work histories with the historical exposure profile for each subject. To validate indirectly the methods of exposure assessment used in the study of lung cancer, trends for exposure response relation between the two indices of exposure to silica and risk of silicosis were evaluated with 376 patients with silicosis from the study population as the cases, and 1262 controls without silicosis for comparison. Age adjusted odds ratios (ORs) as a measure of risk of silicosis showed striking trends with both indices of exposure to silica. For cumulative respirable dust, the OR (95% confidence interval) rose from 7.6 (5.1-11.4) for low exposure to 20.0 (13.2-30.6) for medium exposure, and to 51.7 (31.0-86.8) for high exposure. The strength of the association between exposure to silica and risk of silicosis suggests that the retrospective assessment of exposure used in the case-control study of lung cancer would accurately reflect an exposure response relation between silica and lung cancer, if it existed.

  15. Pesticide flow analysis to assess human exposure in greenhouse flower production in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesmes-Fabian, Camilo; Binder, Claudia R

    2013-03-25

    Human exposure assessment tools represent a means for understanding human exposure to pesticides in agricultural activities and managing possible health risks. This paper presents a pesticide flow analysis modeling approach developed to assess human exposure to pesticide use in greenhouse flower crops in Colombia, focusing on dermal and inhalation exposure. This approach is based on the material flow analysis methodology. The transfer coefficients were obtained using the whole body dosimetry method for dermal exposure and the button personal inhalable aerosol sampler for inhalation exposure, using the tracer uranine as a pesticide surrogate. The case study was a greenhouse rose farm in the Bogota Plateau in Colombia. The approach was applied to estimate the exposure to pesticides such as mancozeb, carbendazim, propamocarb hydrochloride, fosetyl, carboxin, thiram, dimethomorph and mandipropamide. We found dermal absorption estimations close to the AOEL reference values for the pesticides carbendazim, mancozeb, thiram and mandipropamide during the study period. In addition, high values of dermal exposure were found on the forearms, hands, chest and legs of study participants, indicating weaknesses in the overlapping areas of the personal protective equipment parts. These results show how the material flow analysis methodology can be applied in the field of human exposure for early recognition of the dispersion of pesticides and support the development of measures to improve operational safety during pesticide management. Furthermore, the model makes it possible to identify the status quo of the health risk faced by workers in the study area.

  16. Pesticide Flow Analysis to Assess Human Exposure in Greenhouse Flower Production in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia R. Binder

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Human exposure assessment tools represent a means for understanding human exposure to pesticides in agricultural activities and managing possible health risks. This paper presents a pesticide flow analysis modeling approach developed to assess human exposure to pesticide use in greenhouse flower crops in Colombia, focusing on dermal and inhalation exposure. This approach is based on the material flow analysis methodology. The transfer coefficients were obtained using the whole body dosimetry method for dermal exposure and the button personal inhalable aerosol sampler for inhalation exposure, using the tracer uranine as a pesticide surrogate. The case study was a greenhouse rose farm in the Bogota Plateau in Colombia. The approach was applied to estimate the exposure to pesticides such as mancozeb, carbendazim, propamocarb hydrochloride, fosetyl, carboxin, thiram, dimethomorph and mandipropamide. We found dermal absorption estimations close to the AOEL reference values for the pesticides carbendazim, mancozeb, thiram and mandipropamide during the study period. In addition, high values of dermal exposure were found on the forearms, hands, chest and legs of study participants, indicating weaknesses in the overlapping areas of the personal protective equipment parts. These results show how the material flow analysis methodology can be applied in the field of human exposure for early recognition of the dispersion of pesticides and support the development of measures to improve operational safety during pesticide management. Furthermore, the model makes it possible to identify the status quo of the health risk faced by workers in the study area.

  17. Air pollution in moderately polluted urban areas: How does the definition of "neighborhood" impact exposure assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenailleau, Quentin M; Mauny, Frédéric; Joly, Daniel; François, Stéphane; Bernard, Nadine

    2015-11-01

    Environmental health studies commonly quantify subjects' pollution exposure in their neighborhood. How this neighborhood is defined can vary, however, leading to different approaches to quantification whose impacts on exposure levels remain unclear. We explore the relationship between neighborhood definition and exposure assessment. NO2, benzene, PM10 and PM2.5 exposure estimates were computed in the vicinity of 10,825 buildings using twelve exposure assessment techniques reflecting different definitions of "neighborhood". At the city scale, its definition does not significantly influence exposure estimates. It does impact levels at the building scale, however: at least a quarter of the buildings' exposure estimates for a 400 m buffer differ from the estimated 50 m buffer value (±1.0 μg/m(3) for NO2, PM10 and PM2.5; and ±0.05 μg/m(3) for benzene). This variation is significantly related to the definition of neighborhood. It is vitally important for investigators to understand the impact of chosen assessment techniques on exposure estimates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Retrospective Assessment of Occupational Exposures for the GENEVA Study of ALS among Military Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Anila; Woskie, Susan R; Gore, Rebecca; Sandler, Dale P; Schmidt, Silke; Kamel, Freya

    2017-04-01

    This paper describes the retrospective exposure assessment conducted to assess occupational exposures for the Genes and Environmental Exposures in Veterans (GENEVA) study, a case-control study investigating the joint contribution of genetics and environmental exposures to the risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) among military veterans. Occupational histories for 1597 study participants collected as part of the GENEVA study were the basis for this retrospective exposure assessment. The data set included 15528 jobs held from 1924 to 2010, representing 4539 unique industry and occupation (I&O) combinations. Three industrial hygiene experts were recruited to independently rate occupational exposures to specific agents previously associated with an increased risk of ALS. Utilizing information on industry, job title, tasks performed, and materials used for each job held, raters assigned exposures associated with each I&O for the 'current time' defined as the period after 1995 (post-1995). The exposure assessment targeted agents identified as potential occupational risk factors for ALS. Experts rated semi-quantitatively exposure intensity in five exposure categories (0-4) for Group A agents (lead, formaldehyde, hydrocarbon solvents, and chlorinated solvents) and qualitatively as yes/no (1/0) exposed for Group B agents (mercury, selenium, arsenic, polychlorinated biphenyls, electromagnetic field, pesticides, and viral agents). Confidence scores (0-3) were reported for every I&O rated based on raters' experience with that industry and/or job. Each I&O was assigned an average exposure score of the raters and an alternative exposure rating was developed for each I&O by excluding low confidence (<2) scores before averaging. Exposure reconstruction for jobs held pre-1995 was done by comparing exposure data extracted from the OSHA Chemical Exposure and Health Database (CEHD) during pre-1995 and post-1995. For agents with limited exposure data in the CEHD, pre-1995

  19. Exposure assessment of family cosmetic products dedicated to babies, children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Berrada, M P; Ficheux, A S; Dahmoul, Z; Roudot, A C; Ferret, P J

    2017-05-01

    Very few consumption and exposure data is available for family cosmetic products. The aim of the present study was to assess the consumption and the exposure to family cosmetic products used by babies, children and adults. 10 categories of products were studied: shampoo, shower gel, solid soap, cleansing lotion, emollient foam, emollient bath, cream, milk, balm and lip balm. Consumption data were obtained from 2994 participants (789 babies aged 0-3 years, 837 children aged 4-12 years and 1368 adults aged more than 18 years) included in 87 clinical safety studies. Exposure was performed using a probabilistic method. The implementation of consumption and exposure assessment by age has strengthened this work, as consumption and mainly exposure differences were shown. In fact, babies were always the most exposed to family products, followed by children and adults. These original data will be useful for safety assessors and safety agencies in order to protect consumers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessment of general public exposure to LTE and RF sources present in an urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Wout; Verloock, Leen; Goeminne, Francis; Vermeeren, Günter; Martens, Luc

    2010-10-01

    For the first time, in situ electromagnetic field exposure of the general public to fields from long term evolution (LTE) cellular base stations is assessed. Exposure contributions due to different radiofrequency (RF) sources are compared with LTE exposure at 30 locations in Stockholm, Sweden. Total exposures (0.2-2.6 V/m) satisfy the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) reference levels (from 28 V/m for frequency modulation (FM), up to 61 V/m for LTE) at all locations. LTE exposure levels up to 0.8 V/m were measured, and the average contribution of the LTE signal to the total RF exposure equals 4%.

  1. Exposure assessment of workplace manufacturing titanium dioxide particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huadong; Zhao, Lin; Chen, Zhangjian; Zhou, Jingwen; Tang, Shichuan; Kong, Fanling; Li, Xinwei; Yan, Ling; Zhang, Ji; Jia, Guang

    2016-10-01

    With the widespread use of titanium dioxide (TiO2) human exposure is inevitable, but the exposure data on TiO2 are still limited. This study adopted off-line filter-based sampling combined with real-time activity-based monitoring to measure the concentrations in a workplace manufacturing TiO2 (primary diameter: 194 ± 108 nm). Mass concentrations (MCs) of aerosol particles in the packaging workshop (total dust: 3.17 mg/m3, nano dust: 1.22 mg/m3) were much higher than those in the milling workshop (total dust: 0.79 mg/m3, nano dust: 0.31 mg/m3) and executive office (total dust: 0.44 mg/m3, nano dust: 0.19 mg/m3). However, the MCs of TiO2 were at a relatively low level in the packaging workshop (total TiO2: 46.4 μg/m3, nano TiO2: 16.7 μg/m3) and milling workshop (total TiO2: 39.4 μg/m3, nano TiO2: 19.4 μg/m3) by ICP-MS. The number concentration (NC), surface area concentration (SAC) of aerosol particles potentially deposited in alveolar (SACA), and tracheobronchial (SACTB) regions of lungs in the packaging workshop were (1.04 ± 0.89) × 105 particles/cm3, 414.49 ± 395.07, and 86.01 ± 83.18 μm2/cm3, respectively, which were all significantly higher than those of the milling workshop [(0.12 ± 0.40) × 105 particles/cm3, 75.38 ± 45.23, and 17.60 ± 9.22 μm2/cm3, respectively] as well as executive office and outdoor background ( p important data of TiO2 particles exposure in the workplace.

  2. Cancer risk assessment for arsenic exposure through oyster consumption.

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, How-Ran

    2002-01-01

    Risk is assessed on the basis of assumptions, but this practice might not be well received by the general public. To avoid miscommunication, the assumptions should be stated clearly in reporting the results. Recently, a report on an assessment of the cancer risk associated with consumption of oysters caused a panic among consumers in Taiwan and produced significant effects on related industries. A group of researchers measured the arsenic content in oysters in the Taiwan area and conducted a ...

  3. Environmental exposure assessment in European birth cohorts: results from the ENRIECO project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehring Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Environmental exposures during pregnancy and early life may have adverse health effects. Single birth cohort studies often lack statistical power to tease out such effects reliably. To improve the use of existing data and to facilitate collaboration among these studies, an inventory of the environmental exposure and health data in these studies was made as part of the ENRIECO (Environmental Health Risks in European Birth Cohorts project. The focus with regard to exposure was on outdoor air pollution, water contamination, allergens and biological organisms, metals, pesticides, smoking and second hand tobacco smoke (SHS, persistent organic pollutants (POPs, noise, radiation, and occupational exposures. The review lists methods and data on environmental exposures in 37 European birth cohort studies. Most data is currently available for smoking and SHS (N=37 cohorts, occupational exposures (N=33, outdoor air pollution, and allergens and microbial agents (N=27. Exposure modeling is increasingly used for long-term air pollution exposure assessment; biomonitoring is used for assessment of exposure to metals, POPs and other chemicals; and environmental monitoring for house dust mite exposure assessment. Collaborative analyses with data from several birth cohorts have already been performed successfully for outdoor air pollution, water contamination, allergens, biological contaminants, molds, POPs and SHS. Key success factors for collaborative analyses are common definitions of main exposure and health variables. Our review emphasizes that such common definitions need ideally be arrived at in the study design phase. However, careful comparison of methods used in existing studies also offers excellent opportunities for collaborative analyses. Investigators can use this review to evaluate the potential for future collaborative analyses with respect to data availability and methods used in the different cohorts and to identify potential partners

  4. Land-Use Impacts on the Terrestrial Carbon Cycle: An Integrative Tool for Resource Assessment and Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeter, B. M.; Liu, J.; Zhu, Z.; Hawbaker, T. J.

    2014-12-01

    Human land use and natural processes contribute to the ability of ecosystems to store and sequester carbon and offset greenhouse gas emissions. Changes in land use (e.g. agricultural cultivation, timber harvest, urban development, and other land management strategies) and natural processes (e.g. climate, wildfire, disease, storm, and insect outbreak) drive the dynamics of ecosystem carbon pools. These carbon dynamics operate at different spatial and temporal scales, making it challenging to track the changes in a single integrative framework. Landowners, managers, and policy makers require data, information, and tools on the relative contributions of these drivers of ecosystem carbon stocks and fluxes in order to evaluate alternative policies and management strategies designed to increase carbon storage and sequestration. In this paper we explore preliminary results from efforts to simulate changes in ecosystem carbon at ecoregional scales, resulting from anthropogenic land use, wildfire, natural vegetation change, and climate variability under a range of future conditions coherent with a range of global change scenarios. Simulations track the fate of carbon across several pools, including living biomass, deadwood, litter, soil, and wood products. Carbon fluxes are estimated based on simulations from the Integrated Biosphere Simulator model (IBIS). Downscaled land-use projections from the Special Report on Emission Scenarios and Representative Concentration Pathways drive changes in land use, along with extrapolations based on local-scale data. We discuss the sensitivity of the model to individual drivers, and the overall uncertainty associated with the wide range of scenario projections, as well as explore alternative policy and management outcomes and their ability to increase carbon storage in terrestrial ecosystems.

  5. Probabilistic disaggregation of a spatial portfolio of exposure for natural hazard risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Custer, Rocco; Nishijima, Kazuyoshi

    2017-01-01

    of a portfolio of buildings in two communes in Switzerland and the results are compared to sample observations. The relevance of probabilistic disaggregation uncertainty in natural hazard risk assessment is illustrated with the example of a simple flood risk assessment.......In natural hazard risk assessment situations are encountered where information on the portfolio of exposure is only available in a spatially aggregated form, hindering a precise risk assessment. Recourse might be found in the spatial disaggregation of the portfolio of exposure to the resolution...

  6. A Review of the Field on Children's Exposure to Environmental Contaminants: A Risk Assessment Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Alesia; Penney, Rosalind; Solo-Gabriele, Helena

    2017-03-04

    Background: Children must be recognized as a sensitive population based on having biological systems and organs in various stages of development. The processes of absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination of environmental contaminants within a child's body are considered less advanced than those of adults, making them more susceptible to disease outcomes following even small doses. Children's unique activities of crawling and practicing increased hand-to-mouth ingestion also make them vulnerable to greater exposures by certain contaminants within specific environments. Approach: There is a need to review the field of children's environmental exposures in order to understand trends and identify gaps in research, which may lead to better protection of this vulnerable and sensitive population. Therefore, explored here are previously published contemporary works in the broad area of children's environmental exposures and potential impact on health from around the world. A discussion of children's exposure to environmental contaminants is best organized under the last four steps of a risk assessment approach: hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment (including children's activity patterns) and risk characterization. We first consider the many exposure hazards that exist in the indoor and outdoor environments, and emerging contaminants of concern that may help guide the risk assessment process in identifying focus areas for children. A section on special diseases of concern is also included. Conclusions: The field of children's exposures to environmental contaminants is broad. Although there are some well-studied areas offering much insight into children exposures, research is still needed to further our understanding of exposures to newer compounds, growing disease trends and the role of gene-environment interactions that modify adverse health outcomes. It is clear that behaviors of adults and children play a role in reducing or

  7. Dose assessment of an accidental exposure at the IPNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos Torres, M.M.

    1995-02-01

    Seven different methods were used to estimate the dose rate to a female worker who was accidentally exposed in the neutron PHOENIX beamline at the IPNS. Theoretical and measured entrance dose ranged from 550 mrem/min to 2850 mrem/min. Theoretical estimates were based on a Monte Carlo simulation of a spectrum provided by IPNS (Crawford Spectrum). Dose measurements were made with TLDs on phantoms and with ionization chambers in a water phantom. Estimates of the whole body total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) rate ranged from 5.2 mrem/min to 840 mrem/min. Assumed and measured quality factors ranged from 2.6 to 11.8. Cytogenetic analyses of blood samples detected no positive exposure. The recommended TEDE rate was 158 mrem/min. The TEDE was 750 mrem.

  8. A task-based assessment of parental occupational exposure to pesticides and childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunier, Robert B; Kang, Alice; Hammond, S Katharine; Reinier, Kyndaron; Lea, C Suzanne; Chang, Jeffrey S; Does, Monique; Scelo, Ghislaine; Kirsch, Janice; Crouse, Vonda; Cooper, Robert; Quinlan, Patricia; Metayer, Catherine

    2017-07-01

    Associations between parental occupational pesticide exposure and childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) vary across studies, likely due to different exposure assessment methodologies. We assessed parental occupational pesticide exposure from the year before pregnancy to the child's third year of life for 669 children diagnosed with ALL and 1021 controls. We conducted expert rating using task-based job modules (JM) to estimate exposure to pesticides among farmer workers, gardeners, agricultural packers, and pesticide applicators. We compared this method to (1) partial JM using job titles and a brief description, but without completing the task-based questionnaire, and (2) job exposure matrix (JEM) linking job titles to the International Standard Classifications of Occupation Codes. We used unconditional logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for ALL cancer risk and pesticide exposure adjusting for child's sex, age, race/ethnicity and household income. Compared to complete JMs, partial JMs and JEM led to 3.1% and 9.4% of parents with pesticide exposure misclassified, respectively. Misclassification was similar in cases and controls. Using complete JMs, we observed an increased risk of ALL for paternal occupational exposure to any pesticides (OR=1.7; 95% CI=1.2, 2.5), with higher risks reported for pesticides to treat nut crops (OR=4.5; 95% CI=0.9, 23.0), and for children diagnosed before five years of age (OR=2.3; 95% CI: 1.3, 4.1). Exposure misclassification from JEM attenuated these associations by about 57%. Maternal occupational pesticide exposure before and after birth was not associated with ALL. The risk of ALL was elevated in young children with paternal occupational pesticide exposure during the perinatal period, using more detailed occupational information for exposure classification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The use of terrestrial and aquatic microcosms and mesocosms for the ecological risk assessment of veterinary medicinal products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, van den P.J.; Tarzona, J.V.; Solomon, K.R.; Knacker, T.; Brink, van den N.W.; Brock, T.C.M.; Hoogland, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the applicability of experimental model ecosystems (microcosms and mesocosms) for the ecological risk assessment of veterinary medicinal products (VMPs). VMPs are used in large quantities, but the assessment of associated risks to the environment is limited, although

  10. Exposure assessment of workplace manufacturing titanium dioxide particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Huadong; Zhao, Lin; Chen, Zhangjian [Peking University, Department of Occupational and Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health (China); Zhou, Jingwen [Jinan Center for Disease Control and Prevention (China); Tang, Shichuan [Beijing Municipal Institute of Labor Protection, Beijing Key Laboratory of Occupational Safety and Health (China); Kong, Fanling [Shandong Center for Disease Control and Prevention (China); Li, Xinwei; Yan, Ling; Zhang, Ji, E-mail: zhangji1967@163.com [Jinan Center for Disease Control and Prevention (China); Jia, Guang, E-mail: jiaguangjia@bjmu.edu.cn [Peking University, Department of Occupational and Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health (China)

    2016-10-15

    With the widespread use of titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) human exposure is inevitable, but the exposure data on TiO{sub 2} are still limited. This study adopted off-line filter-based sampling combined with real-time activity-based monitoring to measure the concentrations in a workplace manufacturing TiO{sub 2} (primary diameter: 194 ± 108 nm). Mass concentrations (MCs) of aerosol particles in the packaging workshop (total dust: 3.17 mg/m{sup 3}, nano dust: 1.22 mg/m{sup 3}) were much higher than those in the milling workshop (total dust: 0.79 mg/m{sup 3}, nano dust: 0.31 mg/m{sup 3}) and executive office (total dust: 0.44 mg/m{sup 3}, nano dust: 0.19 mg/m{sup 3}). However, the MCs of TiO{sub 2} were at a relatively low level in the packaging workshop (total TiO{sub 2}: 46.4 μg/m{sup 3}, nano TiO{sub 2}: 16.7 μg/m{sup 3}) and milling workshop (total TiO{sub 2}: 39.4 μg/m{sup 3}, nano TiO{sub 2}: 19.4 μg/m{sup 3}) by ICP-MS. The number concentration (NC), surface area concentration (SAC) of aerosol particles potentially deposited in alveolar (SAC{sub A}), and tracheobronchial (SAC{sub TB}) regions of lungs in the packaging workshop were (1.04 ± 0.89) × 10{sup 5} particles/cm{sup 3}, 414.49 ± 395.07, and 86.01 ± 83.18 μm{sup 2}/cm{sup 3}, respectively, which were all significantly higher than those of the milling workshop [(0.12 ± 0.40) × 10{sup 5} particles/cm{sup 3}, 75.38 ± 45.23, and 17.60 ± 9.22 μm{sup 2}/cm{sup 3}, respectively] as well as executive office and outdoor background (p < 0.05). Activity-related characteristics were found in both workshops, and the time-variant characteristics showed very similar trends for 3 days in the packaging workshop. Our study provides important data of TiO{sub 2} particles exposure in the workplace.

  11. Assessing landslide exposure in areas with limited landslide information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pellicani, R.; van Westen, C.J.; Spilotro, G.

    2014-01-01

    Landslide risk assessment is often a difficult task due to the lack of temporal data on landslides and triggering events (frequency), run-out distance, landslide magnitude and vulnerability. The probability of occurrence of landslides is often very difficult to predict, as well as the expected

  12. Assessment of exposure to ionizing radiation at selected mining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigated the levels of ionizing radiation at selected mining sites in Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Inspector alert nuclear radiation meter (S.E. International, USA SN: 35440) was used for these assessments. The meter was held at the abdominal level (about 1 m above ground level) and readings were taken in ...

  13. Assessment of exposure for baby cosmetic care products in a Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunyoung; Yun, Jongbok; Ha, Jaehyoun; Park, Byung Cheol; Park, Gyeong Hun; Kim, Hak Rim; Hong, Seung Phil; Kim, Kyu Bong; Kim, Myung Hwa

    2017-08-01

    Assessment of exposure to cosmetic products via the skin is important for evaluating the risks associated with the use of these products. However, few exposure studies have been conducted with babies, particularly in Asia. The aim of our study was to assess the exposure to selected cosmetic products in babies under the age of 36 months, over both winter and summer months. We evaluated exposure for seven cosmetic baby care products identified in a previous web-based survey as being commonly used by Korean parents. Parents were instructed to use their baby's products as per their usual habit, recording usage for each product on a daily basis over a 14-day period. Products were weighed at the start and completion of the study, with the change in weight used to determine the total amount of product used. Descriptive statistics for daily exposure were calculated. In this study, daily exposure for different products was influenced by sex, age groups and seasons. Of specific note, 3.51% of the lotion in a wet wipe was transferred to the skin. In conclusion, we provide baseline exposure data for baby products, with exposure being based on parents' usual use of the products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessment of Occupational Exposure to Bisphenol A in Five Different Production Companies in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinälä, Milla; Ylinen, Katriina; Tuomi, Tapani; Santonen, Tiina; Porras, Simo P

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess occupational exposure to bisphenol A in Finland. Five companies took part in the research project: two paint factories (liquid and powder paints), a composite product factory, a thermal paper factory, and a tractor factory. Exposure was assessed by measuring total bisphenol A excretion (free and conjugated) from urine samples, and its concentrations in the air. The results revealed the specific work tasks in two of five companies in which significant occupational exposure to bisphenol A may occur. In the manufacturing of liquid paint hardener, urine samples collected after the working day showed bisphenol A levels of up to 100-170 µg l-1. Workers in thermal paper manufacturing were also exposed to bisphenol A, especially those working in the manufacture of coating material and operating coating machines. Median concentrations of the post-shift urine samples of coating machine workers were in the range of 130-250 µg l-1. The highest bisphenol A concentrations were in the range of 1000-1500 µg l-1. Recommendations for more effective personal protection resulted in decreased exposure, particularly among coating machine operators. In the rest of the companies, urinary bisphenol A levels were typically in the range of those of the general population. Bisphenol A concentrations in air samples were typically low (bisphenol A (maximum 17.6 mg m-3). Low air levels, even in the companies with high urinary levels, suggest exposure via dermal contact. According to the results, exposure to bisphenol A may occur particularly in work tasks that involve the use of pure bisphenol A. In these tasks, special attention should be paid to the prevention of skin exposure. Inhalation exposure may become relevant in dusty work tasks. Since skin exposure is of potential concern in these tasks, biomonitoring is recommended as the method for assessing occupational exposure to bisphenol A. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf

  15. [Assessment of telephone operators' exposure to sound through headphones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawanami, Shoko; Inoue, Jinro; Takahashi, Koko; Horie, Seichi

    2011-09-01

    We estimated the level of noise that telephone operators were exposed to through headphones by a two-step method using an artificial ear technique and a manikin technique. In the artificial ear technique, the sound pressure level (Leq) of the total work hours was 81.5 dB, whereas the Leq of the total duration of phone calls was 89.3 dB. Therefore, we conducted a more accurate measurement by the manikin technique (ISO11904-2). By this method, we could simulate the headphone-wearing condition of the workers and convert the measurements to a diffuse-field related L(Aeq). By this manikin technique, the corrected L(Aeq) of the total work hours was 68.3 dB, whereas the corrected L(Aeq) of the total duration of call was 76.6 dB, which was below the standard of the Occupational Exposure Limits of the Japan Society of Occupational Health. We confirmed that in a workplace where the background noise is low (51.3 dBA), a good signal-noise ratio is maintained so that operators don't have to listen to loud sounds through headphones. Neither the gender nor the type of the telephone equipment of the callers affected the sound pressure levels.

  16. Assessment of Turkish junior male physicians’ exposure to mobbing behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Bayram; Cetin, Mehmet; Cimen, Mesut; Yildiran, Nuri

    2012-01-01

    Aim To determine the extent of Turkish junior male physicians’ exposure to mobbing behavior and its correlation with physicians' characteristics. Methods The study included physicians recruited for compulsory military service in April 2009. No sampling method was used, questionnaires were delivered to all physicians, and 278 of 292 (95%) questionnaires were returned. We used Leymann Inventory of Psychological Terror including 45 items for data collection and structural equation model for data analysis. Results A total of 87.7% of physicians experienced mobbing behavior. Physicians who worked more than 40 hours a week, single physicians, physicians working in university hospitals and private hospitals, and physicians who did not have occupational commitment were more exposed to mobbing (P Mobbing was not associated with specialty status, service period, age, and personality variables (P > 0.05). All goodness-of- fit indices of the model were acceptable (χ2 = 1.449, normed fit index = 0.955, Tucker Lewis index = 0.980, comparative fit index = 0.985, and root mean square error of approximation = 0.040). Conclusions Workplace mobbing is a critical problem for junior male physicians in Turkey. We suggest an introduction of a reporting system and education activities for physicians in high-risk groups. PMID:22911529

  17. Assessment of Turkish junior male physicians' exposure to mobbing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Bayram; Cetin, Mehmet; Cimen, Mesut; Yildiran, Nuri

    2012-08-01

    To determine the extent of Turkish junior male physicians' exposure to mobbing behavior and its correlation with physicians' characteristics. The study included physicians recruited for compulsory military service in April 2009. No sampling method was used, questionnaires were delivered to all physicians, and 278 of 292 (95%) questionnaires were returned. We used Leymann Inventory of Psychological Terror including 45 items for data collection and structural equation model for data analysis. A total of 87.7% of physicians experienced mobbing behavior. Physicians who worked more than 40 hours a week, single physicians, physicians working in university hospitals and private hospitals, and physicians who did not have occupational commitment were more exposed to mobbing (PMobbing was not associated with specialty status, service period, age, and personality variables (P>0.05). All goodness-of- fit indices of the model were acceptable (χ(2)=1.449, normed fit index=0.955, Tucker Lewis index=0.980, comparative fit index=0.985, and root mean square error of approximation=0.040). Workplace mobbing is a critical problem for junior male physicians in Turkey. We suggest an introduction of a reporting system and education activities for physicians in high-risk groups.

  18. [Determination of total phthalates in perfume and their exposure assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Sihan; Wang, Zhengmeng; Deng, Hongxia; Duan, Jiahui; Wang, Jinyi; Liu, Shuhui

    2017-12-08

    A novel method for rapid screening of phthalates (PAEs) in perfumes was developed. The PAEs were hydrolyzed to phthalic acid (PA), and the PA in the acidified solution was extracted with tributyl phosphate (TBP) which was detected by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). Meanwhile exposure dose to PAEs was estimated by the percentage of a topically applied dose that permeates the skin. The parameters such as the concentration and volume of KOH, the volume of ethanol, hydrolysis time and temperature were employed to evaluate the hydrolysis efficiency of PAEs. The optimized hydrolysis conditions were 10 mL of 4 mol/L KOH, and 1 mL of ethanol at 80℃ for 20 min. The linear range of phthalic acid was 3-240 μmol/L with a good correlation coefficient ( R 2 =0.9991). The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 4.6 μmol/kg and 5.9 μmol/kg, respectively. The recoveries varied from 83.4% to 92.7% with relative standard deviations equal to or lower than 6.8%( n =5). A total of 35 perfume samples were determined, and the contents of total PAEs were found in the range of perfumes. The method is simple and reliable, and has a wide range of applicability. It can be used as a new choice for the detection of PAEs in perfume.

  19. Aflatoxins in hazelnuts and dried figs: Occurrence and exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabak, Bulent

    2016-11-15

    A total of 300 samples of hazelnuts and dried fig were analysed for the incidence of any aflatoxins (AFs). High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) method was used to quantify the amounts of AFs. The limit of quantification varied from 0.21 to 0.30μgkg(-1). No AFs were detected in shells of the hazelnuts, while six raw hazelnut kernel samples (12%) and five roasted hazelnut kernel samples (8.3%) contained AFs ranging from 0.09 to 11.3μgkg(-1) and from 0.17 to 11.2μgkg(-1), respectively. Sixteen dried fig samples (12.3%) contained AFs ranging from 0.1 to 28.2μgkg(-1) and a mean value of 3.8μgkg(-1). Three hazelnuts and six dried fig samples exceeded the European maximum limits (MLs) of 5 and 2μgkg(-1) for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), respectively. The contribution of hazelnuts to AFs exposure is higher than that of dried figs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Saturation-based quality assessment for colorful multi-exposure image fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenwei Deng

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Multi-exposure image fusion is becoming increasingly influential in enhancing the quality of experience of consumer electronics. However, until now few works have been conducted on the performance evaluation of multi-exposure image fusion, especially colorful multi-exposure image fusion. Conventional quality assessment methods for multi-exposure image fusion mainly focus on grayscale information, while ignoring the color components, which also convey vital visual information. We propose an objective method for the quality assessment of colored multi-exposure image fusion based on image saturation, together with texture and structure similarities, which are able to measure the perceived color, texture, and structure information of fused images. The final image quality is predicted using an extreme learning machine with texture, structure, and saturation similarities as image features. Experimental results for a public multi-exposure image fusion database show that the proposed model can accurately predict colored multi-exposure image fusion image quality and correlates well with human perception. Compared with state-of-the-art image quality assessment models for image fusion, the proposed metric has better evaluation performance.

  1. Probabilistic exposure assessment to face and oral care cosmetic products by the French population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, A; Dornic, N; Roudot, Ac; Ficheux, As

    2017-12-01

    Cosmetic exposure data for face and mouth are limited in Europe. The aim of the study was to assess the exposure to face cosmetics using recent French consumption data (Ficheux et al., 2016b, 2015). Exposure was assessed using a probabilistic method for thirty one face products from four lines of products: cleanser, care, make-up and make-up remover products and two oral care products. Probabilistic exposure was assessed for different subpopulation according to sex and age in adults and children. Pregnant women were also studied. The levels of exposure to moisturizing cream, lip balm, mascara, eyeliner, cream foundation, toothpaste and mouthwash were higher than the values currently used by the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS). Exposure values found for eye shadow, lipstick, lotion and milk (make-up remover) were lower than SCCS values. These new French exposure values will be useful for safety assessors and for safety agencies in order to protect the general population and the at risk populations. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. The Health Impacts of Energy Policy Pathways in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia: A Total Exposure Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, L. A.; Damdinsuren, Y.; Olkhanud, P. B.; Smith, K. R.; Turner, J. R.; Edwards, R.; Odsuren, M.; Ochir, C.

    2015-12-01

    Ulaanbaatar is home to nearly half of Mongolia's 2.8 million residents. The city's rapid growth, frigid winters, valley topography, and reliance on coal-fired stoves have led to some of the worst winter pollution levels in the world. To better understand this issue, we modeled integrated PM2.5exposures and related health impacts for various city-wide heating policies through 2024. This assessment is one of the first to employ a total exposure approach and results of the 2014 Comparative Risk Assessments of the Global Burden of Disease Project (CRA/GBD) in a policy-relevant energy study. Emissions related to heating, traffic, and power generation were considered under Business as Usual, Moderate Improvement, and Max Improvement scenarios. Calibrated outdoor models were combined with indoor models, local infiltration and time activity estimates, and demographic projections to estimate PM2.5exposures in 2014 and 2024. Indoor exposures were assigned by heating type, home type, and smoking status; outdoor exposures were assigned through geocoding. Population average annual exposures were calculated and applied to local disease rates and integrated exposure-response curves (2014 CRA/GBD) to arrive at annual projections of premature deaths and DALYs. We estimate 2014 annual average exposures at 68 μg/m3, dictated almost exclusively by indoor winter exposures. Under current trends, annual exposures increase 10% to 75 μg/m3 in 2024. This is in stark contrast to the moderate and max improvement scenarios, which lead to 2024 annual exposures that are 31%, and 68% lower, respectively. Under the Moderate scenario, 2024 per capita annual DALY and death burdens drop 26% and 22%, respectively, from 2014 levels. Under the Max scenario, 2024 per capita annual DALY and death burdens drop 71% and 66%, respectively, from 2014. SHS becomes a major contributor as emissions from other sectors decrease. Reductions are dominated by cardiovascular and lower respiratory diseases in children.

  3. Assessing and reporting uncertainties in dietary exposure analysis - Part II: Application of the uncertainty template to a practical example of exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, David; Bánáti, Diána; Kennedy, Marc; König, Jürgen; O'Mahony, Cian; Kettler, Susanne

    2017-11-01

    A previous publication described methods for assessing and reporting uncertainty in dietary exposure assessments. This follow-up publication uses a case study to develop proposals for representing and communicating uncertainty to risk managers. The food ingredient aspartame is used as the case study in a simple deterministic model (the EFSA FAIM template) and with more sophisticated probabilistic exposure assessment software (FACET). Parameter and model uncertainties are identified for each modelling approach and tabulated. The relative importance of each source of uncertainty is then evaluated using a semi-quantitative scale and the results expressed using two different forms of graphical summary. The value of this approach in expressing uncertainties in a manner that is relevant to the exposure assessment and useful to risk managers is then discussed. It was observed that the majority of uncertainties are often associated with data sources rather than the model itself. However, differences in modelling methods can have the greatest impact on uncertainties overall, particularly when the underlying data are the same. It was concluded that improved methods for communicating uncertainties for risk management is the research area where the greatest amount of effort is suggested to be placed in future. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessment of LightSquared Terrestrial Broadband System Effects on GPS Receivers and GPS-dependent Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    The Executive Steering Group (ESG) of the National Executive Committee (EXCOM) for : Space-Based Positioning, Navigation, and Timing (PNT) directed the National Space-Based : PNT Systems Engineering Forum (NPEF) to conduct an assessment of the effect...

  5. Elaboration of a concept for the cumulative environmental exposure assessment of biocides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, Rita; Bunke, Dirk; Moch, Katja [Oeko-Institut e.V. - Institut fuer Angewandte Oekologie e.V., Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Gartiser, Stefan [Hydrotox GmbH, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Article 10(1) of the EU Biocidal Products Directive 98/8/EC (BPD) requires that for the inclusion of an active substance in Annex I, Annex IA or IB, cumulation effects from the use of biocidal products containing the same active substance shall be taken into account, where relevant. The study proves the feasibility of a technical realisation of Article 10(1) of the BPD and elaborates a first concept for the cumulative environmental exposure assessment of biocides. Existing requirements concerning cumulative assessments in other regulatory frameworks have been evaluated and their applicability for biocides has been examined. Technical terms and definitions used in this context were documented with the aim to harmonise terminology with other frameworks and to set up a precise definition within the BPD. Furthermore, application conditions of biocidal products have been analysed to find out for which cumulative exposure assessments may be relevant. Different parameters were identified which might serve as indicators for the relevance of cumulative exposure assessments. These indicators were then integrated in a flow chart by means of which the relevance of cumulative exposure assessments can be checked. Finally, proposals for the technical performance of cumulative exposure assessments within the Review Programme have been elaborated with the aim to bring the results of the project into the upcoming development and harmonization processes on EU level. (orig.)

  6. Assessing human exposure to phthalates, alternative plasticizers and organophosphate esters

    OpenAIRE

    Bui, Tuong Thuy

    2017-01-01

    Phthalate esters (PEs) and organophosphate esters (OPEs) are common indoor pollutants frequently detected in environmental (dust, air), personal (hand wipes, diet) and human matrices (urine, serum etc.). In this thesis, mathematical models were used to establish links between intake and body burden for a comprehensive dataset based on a Norwegian study population. Also, the relative importance of different PE uptake pathways was assessed and discussed. Furthermore, the suitability of human na...

  7. A model for probabilistic health impact assessment of exposure to food chemicals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Voet, H.; van der Heijden, G.W.; Bos, P.M.J.; Bosgra, S.; Boon, P.E.; Muri, S.D.; Bruschweiler, B.J.

    2010-01-01

    A statistical model is presented extending the integrated probabilistic risk assessment (IPRA) model of van der Voet and Slob [van der Voet, H., Slob, W., 2007. Integration of probabilistic exposure assessment and probabilistic hazard characterisation. Risk Analysis, 27, 351-371]. The aim is to

  8. A model for probabilistic health impact assessment of exposure to food chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voet, van der H.; Heijden, van der G.W.A.M.; Bos, P.M.J.; Bosgra, S.; Boon, P.E.; Muri, S.D.; Brüschweiler, B.J.

    2009-01-01

    A statistical model is presented extending the integrated probabilistic risk assessment (IPRA) model of van der Voet and Slob [van der Voet, H., Slob, W., 2007. Integration of probabilistic exposure assessment and probabilistic hazard characterisation. Risk Analysis, 27, 351–371]. The aim is to

  9. Expert assessment of exposure to carcinogens in Norway's offshore petroleum industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinsvåg, Kjersti; Bråtveit, Magne; Moen, Bente; Austgulen, Li V-Torill; Hollund, Bjørg Eli; Haaland, Inger Margrethe; Naerheim, Jakob; Svendsen, Kristin; Kromhout, Hans

    2008-03-01

    This study presents and evaluates an expert group's assessment of exposure to carcinogens for defined job categories in Norway's offshore petroleum industry, 1970-2005, to provide exposure information for a planned cohort study on cancer. Three university and five industry experts in occupational hygiene individually assessed the likelihood of exposure to 1836 combinations of carcinogens (n=17), job categories (n=27) and time periods (n=4). In subsequent plenary discussions, the experts agreed on exposed combinations. Agreement between the individual and the panel assessments was calculated by Cohen's kappa index. Using the panel assessment as reference, sensitivity and specificity were estimated. The eight experts assessed 63% of the 1836 combinations in plenary, resulting in 265 (14%) convened exposed combinations. Chlorinated hydrocarbons, benzene and inhalation of mineral oils had the highest number of exposed job categories (n=14, 9 and 10, respectively). The job categories classified as exposed to the highest numbers of carcinogens were the mechanics (n=10), derrick workers (n=6) and process technicians (n=5). The agreement between the experts' individual assessments and the panel assessment was kappa=0.53-0.74. The sensitivity was 0.55-0.86 and specificity 0.91-0.97. For these parameters, there were no apparent differences between the university experts and the industry experts. The resulting 265 of 1836 possible exposure combinations convened as "exposed" by expert assessment is presented in this study. The experts' individual ratings highly agreed with the succeeding panel assessment. Correlation was found between years of experience of the raters and agreement with the panel. The university experts and the industry experts' assessments had no apparent differences. Further validation of the exposure assessment is suggested, such as by new sampling data or observational studies.

  10. An ignored risk factor in toxicology: The total imprecision of exposure assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben

    2010-01-01

    Quality assurance of exposure biomarkers usually focuses on laboratory performance only. Using data from a prospective birth cohort study in the Faroe Islands, we have assessed the total imprecision of exposure biomarkers. As biomarkers of prenatal methylmercury exposure, mercury concentrations...... were determined in cord blood, cord tissue, and maternal hair. We determined their mutual correlations and their associations with the child's neurobehavioral effect variables at age 7 years. The exposure biomarkers correlated well with one another, but the cord blood mercury concentration showed...... the best associations with neurobehavioral deficits. Because at least three exposure parameters were available, factor analysis and structural equation modeling could be applied to determine the total imprecision of each biomarker. For the cord-blood parameter, the total imprecision was 25-30%, and almost...

  11. Systematic evaluation of observational methods assessing biomechanical exposures at work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takala, Esa-Pekka; Pehkonen, Irmeli; Forsman, Mikael

    2010-01-01

    to September 2008. Methods were included if they were primarily based on the systematic observation of work, the observation target was the human body, and the method was clearly described in the literature. A systematic evaluation procedure was developed to assess concurrent and predictive validity...... difficult to observe correctly. Intra- and inter-observer repeatability were reported for 7 and 17 methods, respectively, and were judged mostly to be good or moderate. CONCLUSIONS: With training, observers can reach consistent results on clearly visible body postures and work activities. Many observational...

  12. Residential traffic noise exposure assessment: application and evaluation of European Environmental Noise Directive maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Charlotta; Nilsson, Mats E; Stenkvist, Dag; Bellander, Tom; Pershagen, Göran

    2013-01-01

    Digital noise maps produced according to the European Environmental Noise Directive (END) could provide valuable exposure information in noise and health research. However, their usefulness in epidemiological studies has not been evaluated. The objective of this study was to apply and evaluate Swedish END maps for assessments of residential traffic noise exposure. END maps from three Swedish cities were used to assess residential traffic noise exposure for a population sample of 2496 men and women included in a national Environmental Health Survey. For each subject, we assessed noise levels manually and automatically at three geographical points, using survey data to locate dwellings within buildings. Cohen's kappa coefficient (κ) was used to assess agreement between the noise estimates. To evaluate the maps, we compared the observed and predicted proportions of annoyed residents as a function of noise exposure using survey data and already established exposure-response relationships. The root mean square deviation (r.m.s.) was used to assess the precision of observed estimates. The agreement between the noise estimates ranged from κ=0.4 to 0.8. Generally, there was a high correspondence between observed and predicted exposure-response relationships for noise annoyance, regardless of method and if data on dwelling location within building were used. The best precision was, however, found when we manually corrected the noise level according to the location of the dwelling within buildings (r.m.s.=0.029). Noise maps based on the END appear useful for assessing residential traffic noise exposure, particularly if combined with survey data on dwelling location.

  13. Consumption and exposure assessment to cosmetic products for children under 2 years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Berrada, Marie-Pierre; Ficheux, Anne-Sophie; Guillou, Sonia; Berge, Carole; de Javel, Dominique; Roudot, Alain-Claude; Ferret, Pierre-Jacques

    2017-07-01

    Today, the use of personal care products is an integral part of daily life. Little information about children's consumption and exposure to cosmetic products is available. The aim of the study was to assess the consumption and the exposure of French babies aged 0-23 months old to seven common baby care products: shampoo, shower gel, cleansing water, cleansing milk, moisturizing cream, bottom cream and wipes. Consumption and exposure were assessed using small age intervals in order to identify any differences. Exposure was calculated using a probabilistic method. These original data will be useful for safety assessors and safety agencies in order to protect consumers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Integrated indoor and outdoor exposure assessment framework for fine particulate matter pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKone, Thomas E; Hodas, Natasha; Apte, Joshua S.

    2016-01-01

    The 2010 Global Burden of Disease report demonstrates that fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution is the major environmental contributor to mortality. Exposures outdoors (ambient) and indoors (household) contribute almost qually to this burden. Unfortunately, the health impacts from exposure...... to PM2.5 are often excluded from life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) used for characterizing environmental performance of products and services. This is in large part because of the lack of well-vetted harmonized guidance about how to consistently assess the exposures and impacts of indoor and outdoor...... emissions of PM2.5 and its precursors. We present a modeling framework for calculating exposure factors for indoor and outdoor emissions of primary PM2.5 and secondary PM2.5 precursors, and a roadmap for further refining this modelling framework for operational use in LCIA. The framework was developed over...

  15. Health effects from indoor and outdoor exposure to fine particulate matter in life cycle impact assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; McKone, T.E.; Jolliet, Olivier

    Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution is a major contributor to human disease burden as continuously shown in the Global Burden of Disease study series. Exposures to PM2.5 concentration outdoors and indoors contribute almost equally to this burden. Despite the importance, health...... impacts from exposure to PM2.5 are often excluded from life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) characterization profiles. This is in large part because of the lack of well-vetted harmonized guidance about how to consistently assess the exposures and impacts of indoor and outdoor emissions of PM2.5 and its...... precursors. We present a framework for calculating characterization factors for indoor and outdoor emissions of primary PM2.5 and secondary PM2.5 precursors, and a roadmap for further refining this modelling framework for operational use in LCIA. The framework was developed over the last three years...

  16. Inter-rater agreement in the assessment of exposure to carcinogens in the offshore petroleum industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinsvåg, Kjersti; Bråtveit, Magne; Moen, Bente E; Kromhout, Hans

    2007-09-01

    To evaluate the reliability of an expert team assessing exposure to carcinogens in the offshore petroleum industry and to study how the information provided influenced the agreement among raters. Eight experts individually assessed the likelihood of exposure for combinations of 17 carcinogens, 27 job categories and four time periods (1970-1979, 1980-1989, 1990-1999 and 2000-2005). Each rater assessed 1836 combinations based on summary documents on carcinogenic agents, which included descriptions of sources of exposure and products, descriptions of work processes carried out within the different job categories, and monitoring data. Inter-rater agreement was calculated using Cohen's kappa index and single and average score intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) (ICC(2,1) and ICC(2,8), respectively). Differences in inter-rater agreement for time periods, raters, International Agency for Research on Cancer groups and the amount of information provided were consequently studied. Overall, 18% of the combinations were denoted as possible exposure, and 14% scored probable exposure. Stratified by the 17 carcinogenic agents, the probable exposure prevalence ranged from 3.8% for refractory ceramic fibres to 30% for crude oil. Overall mean kappa was 0.42 (ICC(2,1) = 0.62 and ICC(2,8) = 0.93). Providing limited quantitative measurement data was associated with less agreement than for equally well described carcinogens without sampling data. The overall kappa and single-score ICC indicate that the raters agree on exposure estimates well above the chance level. The levels of inter-rater agreement were higher than in other comparable studies. The average score ICC indicates reliable mean estimates and implies that sufficient raters were involved. The raters seemed to have enough documentation on which to base their estimates, but provision of limited monitoring data leads to more incongruence among raters. Having real exposure data, with the inherent variability of such data

  17. [Objective assessment of total noise exposure over 24 hours: a cross-sectional study in Bavaria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinmann, T; Sárközi, E; Praml, G; von Kries, R; Ehrenstein, V; Nowak, D; Radon, K

    2012-11-01

    Noise can affect well-being and performance of individuals and might be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. To date most epidemiological studies considered exposure from a single source of noise. The EU Environmental Noise Directive (2002/49/EC) requires a summative measurement of ambient noise. This study aimed to capture the participants' exposure to environmental noise by means of personal noise dosimetry. Children (n=628, participation=61%, age 8-12 years), adolescents (n=632, participation=58%, age 13-17 years) and adults (n=482, participation=40%, age 18-65 years) were selected randomly from the population registry of 4 Bavarian towns and were invited to participate in a 24-h measurement using noise dosimetry. Noise exposures during day and night were analyzed separately. In addition, predictors of noise exposure were assessed. For daytime noise exposure mean±standard deviation were in children 80.0±5.8 dB(A), in adolescents 76.0±6.2 dB(A), in adults 72.1±6.1 dB(A) (p(ANOVA)noise exposure was statistically significantly higher for participants from smaller towns than for those living in Munich, while nighttime noise exposure was highest for participants from Munich [44.1±7.2 dB(A)]. The summative noise exposure in urban Bavaria is high, in particular among children at daytime. Increased exposure levels in children might be caused by themselves while, e.g., playing. Whether the higher daytime exposure in towns is due to high noise levels commuting between home and work has to be assessed in future studies. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Comparison of exposure assessment methods for occupational carcinogens in a multi-centre lung cancer case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Susan; Vermeulen, Roel; Cassidy, Adrian; 't Mannetje, Andrea; van Tongeren, Martie; Boffetta, Paolo; Straif, Kurt; Kromhout, Hans

    Objectives Retrospective exposure assessment remains a problematic aspect of population-based case-control studies. Different methods have been developed, including case-by-case expert assessment and job-exposure matrices (JEM). The present analyses compare exposure prevalence and risk estimates

  19. A Case Report of Lung Cancer in a Horse Trainer Caused by Exposure to Respirable Crystalline Silica: An Exposure Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Ha Yoon

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Here, we present a case of lung cancer in a 48-year-old male horse trainer. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such case report to include an exposure assessment of respirable crystalline silica (RCS as a quartz. The trainer had no family history of lung cancer. Although he had a 15 pack/year cigarette-smoking history, he had stopped smoking 12 years prior to his diagnosis. For the past 23 years, he had performed longeing, and trained 7-12 horses per day on longeing arena surfaces covered by recycled sands, the same surfaces used in race tracks. We investigated his workplace RCS exposure, and found it to be the likely cause of his lung cancer. The 8-hour time weight average range of RCS was 0.020 to 0.086 mg/m3 in the longeing arena. Horse trainers are exposed to RCS from the sand in longeing arenas, and the exposure level is high enough to have epidemiological ramifications for the occupational risk of lung cancer.

  20. Multiple Lines of Evidence Risk Assessment of Terrestrial Passerines Exposed to PCDFs and PCDDs in the Tittabawassee River Floodplain, Midland, Michigan, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredricks, Timothy B; Giesy, John P; Coefield, Sarah J; Seston, Rita M; Tazelaar, Dustin L; Roark, Shaun A; Kay, Denise P; Newsted, John L; Zwiernik, Matthew J

    2011-01-01

    A site-specific multiple lines of evidence risk assessment was conducted for house wrens (Troglodytes aedon) and eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis) along the Tittabawassee River downstream of Midland, Michigan, where concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) in flood-plain soils and sediments are greater compared to upstream areas and some of the greatest anywhere in the world. Lines of evidence supporting the population-level assessment endpoints included site-specific dietary- and tissue-based exposure assessments and population productivity measurements during breeding seasons 2005-2007. While a hazard assessment based on site-specific diets suggested that populations residing in the downstream floodplain had the potential to be affected, concentrations in eggs compared to appropriate toxicity reference values (TRVs) did not predict a potential for population-level effects. There were no significant effects on reproductive success of either species. The most probable cause of the apparent difference between the dietary- and tissue-based exposure assessments was that the dietary-based TRVs were overly conservative based on intraperitoneal injections in the ring-necked pheasant. Agreement between the risk assessment based on concentrations of PCDFs and PCDDs in eggs and reproductive performance in both species supports the conclusion of a small potential for population-level effects at this site.

  1. The Penobscot River and environmental contaminants: Assessment of tribal exposure through sustenance lifeways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Valerie; Kusnierz, Daniel; Hillger, Robert; Ferrario, Joseph; Hughes, Thomas; Diliberto, Janet; Orazio, Carl E.; Dudley, Robert W.; Byrne, Christian; Sugatt, Richard; Warren, Sarah; DeMarini, David; Elskus, Adria; Stodola, Steve; Mierzykowski, Steve; Pugh, Katie; Culbertson, Charles W.

    2015-01-01

    EPA in collaboration with the Penobscot Indian Nation, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USF&WS) collectively embarked on a four year research study to evaluate the environmental health of the riverine system by targeting specific cultural practices and using traditional science to conduct a preliminary contaminant screening of the flora and fauna of the Penobscot River ecosystem. This study was designed as a preliminary screening to determine if contaminant concentrations in fish, eel, snapping turtle, wood ducks, and plants in Regions of the Penobscot River relevant to where PIN tribal members hunt, fish and gather plants were high enough to be a health concern. This study was not designed to be a statistically validated assessment of contaminant differences among study sites or among species. The traditional methodology for health risk assessment used by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is based on the use of exposure assumptions (e.g. exposure duration, food ingestion rate, body weight, etc.) that represent the entire American population, either as a central tendency exposure (e.g. average, median) or as a reasonable maximum exposure (e.g. 95% upper confidence limit). Unfortunately, EPA lacked exposure information for assessing health risks for New England regional tribes sustaining a tribal subsistence way of life. As a riverine tribe, the Penobscot culture and traditions are inextricably tied to the Penobscot River watershed. It is through hunting, fishing, trapping, gathering and making baskets, pottery, moccasins, birch-bark canoes and other traditional practices that the Penobscot culture and people are sustained. The Penobscot River receives a variety of pollutant discharges leaving the Penobscot Indian Nation (PIN) questioning the ecological health and water quality of the river and how this may affect the practices that sustain their way of life

  2. The assessment of electromagnetic field radiation exposure for mobile phone users

    OpenAIRE

    Buckus Raimondas; Strukcinskiene Birute; Raistenskis Juozas

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aim. During recent years, the widespread use of mobile phones has resulted in increased human exposure to electromagnetic field radiation and to health risks. Increased usage of mobile phones at the close proximity raises questions and doubts in safety of mobile phone users. The aim of the study was to assess an electromagnetic field radiation exposure for mobile phone users by measuring electromagnetic field strength in different settings at the...

  3. Assessment of radiation exposure of nuclear medicine staff using personal TLD dosimeters and charcoal detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, F.; Garcia-Talavera, M.; Pardo, R.; Deban, L. [Valladolid Univ., Dept. de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Ciencias (Spain); Garcia-Talavera, P.; Singi, G.M.; Martin, E. [Hospital Clinico Univ., Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, Salamanca (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    Although the main concern regarding exposure to ionizing radiation for nuclear medicine workers is external radiation, inhalation of radionuclides can significantly contribute to the imparted doses. We propose a new approach to assess exposure to inhalation of {sup 131}I based on passive monitoring using activated charcoal detectors. We compared the inhalation doses to the staff of a nuclear medicine department, based on the measurements derived from charcoal detectors placed at various locations, and the external doses monitored using personal TLD dosimeters. (authors)

  4. MobRISK: a model for assessing the exposure of road users to flash flood events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabou, Saif; Ruin, Isabelle; Lutoff, Céline; Debionne, Samuel; Anquetin, Sandrine; Creutin, Jean-Dominique; Beaufils, Xavier

    2017-09-01

    Recent flash flood impact studies highlight that road networks are often disrupted due to adverse weather and flash flood events. Road users are thus particularly exposed to road flooding during their daily mobility. Previous exposure studies, however, do not take into consideration population mobility. Recent advances in transportation research provide an appropriate framework for simulating individual travel-activity patterns using an activity-based approach. These activity-based mobility models enable the prediction of the sequence of activities performed by individuals and locating them with a high spatial-temporal resolution. This paper describes the development of the MobRISK microsimulation system: a model for assessing the exposure of road users to extreme hydrometeorological events. MobRISK aims at providing an accurate spatiotemporal exposure assessment by integrating travel-activity behaviors and mobility adaptation with respect to weather disruptions. The model is applied in a flash-flood-prone area in southern France to assess motorists' exposure to the September 2002 flash flood event. The results show that risk of flooding mainly occurs in principal road links with considerable traffic load. However, a lag time between the timing of the road submersion and persons crossing these roads contributes to reducing the potential vehicle-related fatal accidents. It is also found that sociodemographic variables have a significant effect on individual exposure. Thus, the proposed model demonstrates the benefits of considering spatiotemporal dynamics of population exposure to flash floods and presents an important improvement in exposure assessment methods. Such improved characterization of road user exposures can present valuable information for flood risk management services.

  5. Examining Exposure Assessment in Shift Work Research: A Study on Depression Among Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Amy L; Franche, Renée-Louise; Koehoorn, Mieke

    2018-01-11

    Coarse exposure assessment and assignment is a common issue facing epidemiological studies of shift work. Such measures ignore a number of exposure characteristics that may impact on health, increasing the likelihood of biased effect estimates and masked exposure-response relationships. To demonstrate the impacts of exposure assessment precision in shift work research, this study investigated relationships between work schedule and depression in a large survey of Canadian nurses. The Canadian 2005 National Survey of the Work and Health of Nurses provided the analytic sample (n = 11450). Relationships between work schedule and depression were assessed using logistic regression models with high, moderate, and low-precision exposure groupings. The high-precision grouping described shift timing and rotation frequency, the moderate-precision grouping described shift timing, and the low-precision grouping described the presence/absence of shift work. Final model estimates were adjusted for the potential confounding effects of demographic and work variables, and bootstrap weights were used to generate sampling variances that accounted for the survey sample design. The high-precision exposure grouping model showed the strongest relationships between work schedule and depression, with increased odds ratios [ORs] for rapidly rotating (OR = 1.51, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.91-2.51) and undefined rotating (OR = 1.67, 95% CI = 0.92-3.02) shift workers, and a decreased OR for depression in slow rotating (OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.57-1.08) shift workers. For the low- and moderate-precision exposure grouping models, weak relationships were observed for all work schedule categories (OR range 0.95 to 0.99). Findings from this study support the need to consider and collect the data required for precise and conceptually driven exposure assessment and assignment in future studies of shift work and health. Further research into the effects of shift rotation frequency on depression is

  6. Magnetic field exposure assessment in a case-control study of childhood leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinerman, R A; Linet, M S; Hatch, E E; Wacholder, S; Tarone, R E; Severson, R K; Kaune, W T; Friedman, D R; Haines, C M; Muirhead, C R; Boice, J D; Robison, L L

    1997-09-01

    Epidemiologic evaluation of the relation between magnetic field exposures and cancer depends critically on study design, particularly the methods used for exposure assessment. We incorporated a complex magnetic field exposure assessment protocol into a large incident case-control study of childhood leukemia. We measured residential magnetic fields using a standard protocol in current and former homes of 638 cases and 620 controls and determined wire codes for 414 case-control pairs. We chose a time-weighted average of magnetic field measurements in each eligible home, weighted by the time the subject lived in each home as the main exposure metric for each subject. We found that 24-hour bedroom magnetic field measurements adequately characterize children's residential exposure and that measuring other rooms contributes only slightly to the estimate of average residential exposure to magnetic fields. Front door measured fields provide useful exposure information when interior measurements are missing. If feasible, measuring multiple homes in which the subject has resided is preferable to measuring a single home. A similar distribution of wire codes for controls agreeing or refusing to participate in our study implies that risk estimates derived from wire code data will not be influenced by response bias.

  7. Using city-wide mobile noise assessments to estimate bicycle trip annual exposure to Black Carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekoninck, Luc; Botteldooren, Dick; Int Panis, Luc

    2015-10-01

    Several studies have shown that a significant amount of daily air pollution exposure, in particular Black Carbon (BC), is inhaled during bicycle trips. Previously, the instantaneous BC exposure of cyclists was modeled as the sum of a background concentration and a local traffic related component based on a local assessment of traffic noise. We present a fast and low cost methodology to achieve a city-wide assessment of yearly average BC exposure of cyclists along their trips, based on a city-wide mobile noise sensing campaign. The methodology requires participatory sensing measurements of noise, partially combined with BC and/or other air pollutants sensitive to local traffic variations. The combined measurements cover the spatial and meteorological variability and provide the data for an instantaneous exposure model. The mobile noise-only measurements map the full city; and yearly meteorology statistics are used to extrapolate the instantaneous exposure model to a yearly average map of in-traffic air pollution exposure. Less than four passages at each segment along the network with mobile noise equipment are necessary to reach a standard error of 500 ng/m(3) for the yearly average BC exposure. A strong seasonal effect due to the BC background concentration is detected. The background contributes only 25% to the total trip exposure during spring and summer. During winter the background component increases to 50-60%. Engine related traffic noise along the bicyclist's route is a valid indicator of the BC exposure along the route, independent of the seasonal background. Low exposure route selection results in an exposure reduction of 35% in winter and 60% in summer, sensitive to the weather conditions, specific trip attributes and the available alternatives. The methodology is relevant for further research into the local effects of air pollution on health. Mobile noise mapping adds local traffic data including traffic dynamics into the air pollution exposure

  8. A Formaldehyde Exposure Assessment Tool for Occupants of FEMA Temporary Housing Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parthasarathy, Srinandini; Spears, Michael; Maddalena, Randy L.; Russell, Marion L; Apte, Michael G.

    2010-10-01

    The report outlines the methodology used to develop a web-based tool to assess the formaldehyde exposure of the occupants of Federal Emergency Management Administration (FEMA) temporary housing units (THUs) after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in 2005. Linear regression models were built using available data to retrospectively estimate the indoor temperature and relative humidity, formaldehyde emission factors and concentration, and hence the formaldehyde exposures. The interactive web-tool allows the user to define the inputs to the model to evaluate formaldehyde exposures for different scenarios.

  9. Exposure assessment of the cumulative intake of pesticides with dissimilar mode of action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Christiansen, Sofie

    Risk assessment of pesticides is currently based on the no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) for effects of single compounds. However, humans might be exposed to a mixture of pesticides at the same time and the exposure could occur from more pesticides with endocrine disrupting effects....... In this study the effects of combined exposure from four endocrine disrupting pesticides have been investigated (procymidone, mancozeb, tebuconazole, and prochloraz). The four pesticides have dissimilar mode of actions. On the background of the potency for each pesticide to a given effect, a relative potency...... factor and the cumulative acute exposure of the pesticides have been estimated....

  10. Influence of exposure assessment and parameterization on exposure response. Aspects of epidemiologic cohort analysis using the Libby Amphibole asbestos worker cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateson, Thomas F; Kopylev, Leonid

    2015-01-01

    Recent meta-analyses of occupational epidemiology studies identified two important exposure data quality factors in predicting summary effect measures for asbestos-associated lung cancer mortality risk: sufficiency of job history data and percent coverage of work history by measured exposures. The objective was to evaluate different exposure parameterizations suggested in the asbestos literature using the Libby, MT asbestos worker cohort and to evaluate influences of exposure measurement error caused by historically estimated exposure data on lung cancer risks. Focusing on workers hired after 1959, when job histories were well-known and occupational exposures were predominantly based on measured exposures (85% coverage), we found that cumulative exposure alone, and with allowance of exponential decay, fit lung cancer mortality data similarly. Residence-time-weighted metrics did not fit well. Compared with previous analyses based on the whole cohort of Libby workers hired after 1935, when job histories were less well-known and exposures less frequently measured (47% coverage), our analyses based on higher quality exposure data yielded an effect size as much as 3.6 times higher. Future occupational cohort studies should continue to refine retrospective exposure assessment methods, consider multiple exposure metrics, and explore new methods of maintaining statistical power while minimizing exposure measurement error.

  11. Non-destructive pollution exposure assessment in the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus): IV. Hair versus soil analysis in exposure and risk assessment of organochlorine compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Have, Helga [Department of Biology, Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)]. E-mail: helga.dhave@ua.ac.be; Scheirs, Jan [Department of Biology, Evolutionary Biology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Covaci, Adrian [Toxicological Centre, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Brink, Nico W. van den [Alterra, Wageningen UR, Box 47, NL-6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Verhagen, Ron [Department of Biology, Evolutionary Biology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Coen, Wim de [Department of Biology, Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2007-02-15

    Few ecotoxicological studies on mammals use non-destructive methodologies, despite the growing ethical concern over the use of destructive sampling methods. In the present study we assessed exposure of hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), by investigating concentrations of these compounds in soils and hedgehog hair from seven study sites around the urban area of Antwerp, Belgium. No relationships were observed between organochlorine compound concentrations in soils and hair from the different study areas. Furthermore, the individual variation of contamination levels in hair within study sites was high, especially for HCHs and HCB, and hair and soil had different relative profiles for PCBs, DDTs and HCHs. Our results show that concentrations of organochlorine compounds in soils alone are not predictive of the risk of these pollutants to hedgehogs and that tissue analyses are preferred to soil analyses in exposure and risk assessment studies. - Hair is better than soil for exposure and risk assessment of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in hedgehogs.

  12. A quantitative screening-level approach to incorporate chemical exposure and risk into alternative assessment evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Scott M; Greggs, Bill; Goyak, Katy O; Landenberger, Bryce D; Mason, Ann M; Howard, Brett; Zaleski, Rosemary T

    2017-11-01

    As the general public and retailers ask for disclosure of chemical ingredients in the marketplace, a number of hazard screening tools were developed to evaluate the so-called "greenness" of individual chemical ingredients and/or formulations. The majority of these tools focus only on hazard, often using chemical lists, ignoring the other part of the risk equation: exposure. Using a hazard-only focus can result in regrettable substitutions, changing 1 chemical ingredient for another that turns out to be more hazardous or shifts the toxicity burden to others. To minimize the incidents of regrettable substitutions, BizNGO describes "Common Principles" to frame a process for informed substitution. Two of these 6 principles are: "reduce hazard" and "minimize exposure." A number of frameworks have emerged to evaluate and assess alternatives. One framework developed by leading experts under the auspices of the US National Academy of Sciences recommended that hazard and exposure be specifically addressed in the same step when assessing candidate alternatives. For the alternative assessment community, this article serves as an informational resource for considering exposure in an alternatives assessment using elements of problem formulation; product identity, use, and composition; hazard analysis; exposure analysis; and risk characterization. These conceptual elements build on practices from government, academia, and industry and are exemplified through 2 hypothetical case studies demonstrating the questions asked and decisions faced in new product development. These 2 case studies-inhalation exposure to a generic paint product and environmental exposure to a shampoo rinsed down the drain-demonstrate the criteria, considerations, and methods required to combine exposure models addressing human health and environmental impacts to provide a screening level hazard and exposure (risk) analysis. This article informs practices for these elements within a comparative risk context

  13. NASA Space Radiation Protection Strategies: Risk Assessment and Permissible Exposure Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, J. L.; Patel, Z. S.; Simonsen, L. C.

    2017-01-01

    Permissible exposure limits (PELs) for short-term and career astronaut exposures to space radiation have been set and approved by NASA with the goal of protecting astronauts against health risks associated with ionizing radiation exposure. Short term PELs are intended to prevent clinically significant deterministic health effects, including performance decrements, which could threaten astronaut health and jeopardize mission success. Career PELs are implemented to control late occurring health effects, including a 3% risk of exposure induced death (REID) from cancer, and dose limits are used to prevent cardiovascular and central nervous system diseases. For radiation protection, meeting the cancer PEL is currently the design driver for galactic cosmic ray and solar particle event shielding, mission duration, and crew certification (e.g., 1-year ISS missions). The risk of cancer development is the largest known long-term health consequence following radiation exposure, and current estimates for long-term health risks due to cardiovascular diseases are approximately 30% to 40% of the cancer risk for exposures above an estimated threshold (Deep Space one-year and Mars missions). Large uncertainties currently exist in estimating the health risks of space radiation exposure. Improved understanding through radiobiology and physics research allows increased accuracy in risk estimation and is essential for ensuring astronaut health as well as for controlling mission costs, optimization of mission operations, vehicle design, and countermeasure assessment. We will review the Space Radiation Program Element's research strategies to increase accuracy in risk models and to inform development and validation of the permissible exposure limits.

  14. A conservation assessment of the terrestrial invertebrate fauna of Mkambati Nature Reserve in the Pondoland Centre of Endemism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L. Hamer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mkambati Nature Reserve (NR falls within the Pondoland Centre of Endemism, which is part of the Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany global biodiversity hotspot. The biodiversity status of this area is based largely on its flora, and the invertebrates are poorly known. The area is under threat from various proposed developments. We surveyed 14 orders in three invertebrate phyla at 26 sites with two main objectives: (1 to assess the fauna in terms of conservation value, and, (2 to identify habitats and sites of conservation concern. From the survey, 3231 samples were sent for identification and 425 species were identified. A minimum of 18 new species were confirmed. Mkambati NR shows exceptional diversity for molluscs (Gastropoda, 51 species, bees (Apoidea, 48 species and true bugs (Heteroptera, 65 species. At least 43 species collected from the Reserve are South African endemics, 31 have a restricted distribution within South Africa and 18 are only known from the Reserve itself.Conservation implications: The authors provide the first assessment of the invertebrate fauna of the Mkambati NR, which indicates that it is a rich and important fauna. The results highlight the need to consider invertebrates in other biodiversity assessments in the Pondoland region. In terms of habitats, for both forest and grassland there was a large difference in the invertebrate communities at different sites, even over relatively short distances in grassland; shared habitat attributes clustered sites with more similar communities, for example, rocky ledges or the sea shore. All forest patches are a priority for protection.

  15. A conceptual framework to support exposure science research and complete the source-to-outcome continuum for risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    While knowledge of exposure is fundamental to assessing and mitigating risks, exposure information has been costly and difficult to generate. Driven by major scientific advances in analytical methods, biomonitoring, computational tools, and a newly articulated vision for a great...

  16. Assessing Potential Vulnerability and Response of Fish to Simulated Avian Predation after Exposure to Psychotropic Pharmaceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie L. Hedgespeth

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Psychotropic pharmaceuticals present in the environment may impact organisms both directly and via interaction strengths with other organisms, including predators; therefore, this study examined the potential effects of pharmaceuticals on behavioral responses of fish to avian predators. Wild-caught juvenile perch (Perca fluviatilis were assayed using a striking bird model after a seven-day exposure to psychotropic pharmaceuticals (the antidepressants fluoxetine or sertraline, or the β-blocker propranolol under the hypotheses that exposure would increase vulnerability to avian predation via increasing the probability of predator encounter as well as degrading evasive behaviors upon encounter. None of the substances significantly affected swimming activity of the fish, nor did they increase vulnerability by affecting encounter probability or evasive endpoints compared to control treatments. Counter to our expectations, fish exposed to 100 μg/L fluoxetine (but no other concentrations or pharmaceuticals were less likely to enter the open area of the arena, i.e., less likely to engage in risky behavior that could lead to predator encounters. Additionally, all fish exposed to environmentally relevant, low concentrations of sertraline (0.12 μg/L and propranolol (0.1 μg/L sought refuge after the simulated attack. Our unexpected results warrant further research as they have interesting implications on how these psychotropic pharmaceuticals may affect predator-prey interactions spanning the terrestrial-aquatic interface.

  17. Assessing Potential Vulnerability and Response of Fish to Simulated Avian Predation after Exposure to Psychotropic Pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedgespeth, Melanie L; Nilsson, Per Anders; Berglund, Olof

    2016-04-13

    Psychotropic pharmaceuticals present in the environment may impact organisms both directly and via interaction strengths with other organisms, including predators; therefore, this study examined the potential effects of pharmaceuticals on behavioral responses of fish to avian predators. Wild-caught juvenile perch (Perca fluviatilis) were assayed using a striking bird model after a seven-day exposure to psychotropic pharmaceuticals (the antidepressants fluoxetine or sertraline, or the β-blocker propranolol) under the hypotheses that exposure would increase vulnerability to avian predation via increasing the probability of predator encounter as well as degrading evasive behaviors upon encounter. None of the substances significantly affected swimming activity of the fish, nor did they increase vulnerability by affecting encounter probability or evasive endpoints compared to control treatments. Counter to our expectations, fish exposed to 100 μg/L fluoxetine (but no other concentrations or pharmaceuticals) were less likely to enter the open area of the arena, i.e., less likely to engage in risky behavior that could lead to predator encounters. Additionally, all fish exposed to environmentally relevant, low concentrations of sertraline (0.12 μg/L) and propranolol (0.1 μg/L) sought refuge after the simulated attack. Our unexpected results warrant further research as they have interesting implications on how these psychotropic pharmaceuticals may affect predator-prey interactions spanning the terrestrial-aquatic interface.

  18. Quantitative assessment of human and pet exposure to Salmonella associated with dry pet foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambertini, Elisabetta; Buchanan, Robert L; Narrod, Clare; Ford, Randall M; Baker, Robert C; Pradhan, Abani K

    2016-01-04

    Recent Salmonella outbreaks associated with dry pet foods and treats highlight the importance of these foods as previously overlooked exposure vehicles for both pets and humans. In the last decade efforts have been made to raise the safety of this class of products, for instance by upgrading production equipment, cleaning protocols, and finished product testing. However, no comprehensive or quantitative risk profile is available for pet foods, thus limiting the ability to establish safety standards and assess the effectiveness of current and proposed Salmonella control measures. This study sought to develop an ingredients-to-consumer quantitative microbial exposure assessment model to: 1) estimate pet and human exposure to Salmonella via dry pet food, and 2) assess the impact of industry and household-level mitigation strategies on exposure. Data on prevalence and concentration of Salmonella in pet food ingredients, production process parameters, bacterial ecology, and contact transfer in the household were obtained through literature review, industry data, and targeted research. A probabilistic Monte Carlo modeling framework was developed to simulate the production process and basic household exposure routes. Under the range of assumptions adopted in this model, human exposure due to handling pet food is null to minimal if contamination occurs exclusively before extrusion. Exposure increases considerably if recontamination occurs post-extrusion during coating with fat, although mean ingested doses remain modest even at high fat contamination levels, due to the low percent of fat in the finished product. Exposure is highly variable, with the distribution of doses ingested by adult pet owners spanning 3Log CFU per exposure event. Child exposure due to ingestion of 1g of pet food leads to significantly higher doses than adult doses associated with handling the food. Recontamination after extrusion and coating, e.g., via dust or equipment surfaces, may also lead to

  19. An Assessment of Pre- and Post Fire Near Surface Fuel Hazard in an Australian Dry Sclerophyll Forest Using Point Cloud Data Captured Using a Terrestrial Laser Scanner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Wallace

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of ecological and structrual changes induced by fire events is important for understanding the effects of fire, and planning future ecological and risk mitigation strategies. This study employs Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS data captured at multiple points in time to monitor the changes in a dry sclerophyll forest induced by a prescribed burn. Point cloud data was collected for two plots; one plot undergoing a fire treatment, and the second plot remaining untreated, thereby acting as the control. Data was collected at three epochs (pre-fire, two weeks post fire and two years post fire. Coregistration of these multitemporal point clouds to within an acceptable tolerance was achieved through a two step process utilising permanent infield markers and manually extracted stem objects as reference targets. Metrics describing fuel height and fuel fragmentation were extracted from the point clouds for direct comparison with industry standard visual assessments. Measurements describing the change (or lack thereof in the control plot indicate that the method of data capture and coregistration were achieved with the required accuracy to monitor fire induced change. Results from the fire affected plot show that immediately post fire 67% of area had been burnt with the average fuel height decreasing from 0.33 to 0.13 m. At two years post-fire the fuel remained signicantly lower (0.11 m and more fragmented in comparison to pre-fire levels. Results in both the control and fire altered plot were comparable to synchronus onground visual assessment. The advantage of TLS over the visual assessment method is, however, demonstrated through the use of two physical and spatially quantifiable metrics to describe fuel change. These results highlight the capabilities of multitemporal TLS data for measuring and mapping changes in the three dimensional structure of vegetation. Metrics from point clouds can be derived to provide quantified estimates of surface

  20. Assessment of Relationship between Spontaneous Abortion and Occupational Exposure to Organic Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mohammadi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Nowadays, some studies indicate the adverse effects of exposure to chemicals, especially organic solvents on the reproductive system of females. This study aimed to assess the relationship between spontaneous abortion with occupational exposure to organic solvents in pharmaceutical industry. Materials & Methods: This is a cross-sectional and descriptive-analytical study which was carried out in 2010 in one of the pharmaceutical factories located in the suburbs of Tehran. During the study, married women who were working in the factory laboratory units and were exposed to mixed organic solvents were compared with married women who were working in the packing units of the factory without occupational exposure to organic solvents. Frequency of spontaneous abortion and duration of pregnancy were assessed in both two groups. Collected data were analyzed with the SPSS software using t-test, logistic regression, and chi-square test. Results: In the present study, the frequency of spontaneous abortion in employees with exposure to organic solvents mixture was 10.7%. This study showed that even after adjustment for confounding factors, there was a significant correlation between spontaneous abortion and occupational exposure to organic solvents mixture and this correlation increased with increasing levels of exposure to organic solvents. Moreover, a significant correlation was observed between occupational exposure to mixed organic solvents and waiting time to become pregnant (TTP. Furthermore, this study showed that even after adjustment for confounding variables, shift workers were significantly more affected by spontaneous abortion compared to daytime workers (P < 0.001. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, since there is probability of spontaneous abortion resulting from occupational exposure to various chemicals including organic solvents, review of the status of occupational exposure of workers can be helpful

  1. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles: occupational exposure assessment in the photocatalytic paving production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinazzè, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.spinazze@uninsubria.it; Cattaneo, Andrea; Limonta, Marina [Università degli studi dell’Insubria, Dipartimento di Scienza e Alta Tecnologia (Italy); Bollati, Valentina; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto [Università degli Studi di Milano, EPIGET-Epidemiology, Epigenetics and Toxicology Lab, Dipartimento di Scienze Cliniche e di Comunità (Italy); Cavallo, Domenico M. [Università degli studi dell’Insubria, Dipartimento di Scienza e Alta Tecnologia (Italy)

    2016-06-15

    Limited data are available regarding occupational exposure assessment to nano-sized titanium dioxide (nano-TiO{sub 2}). The objective of this study is to assess the occupational exposure of workers engaged in the application of nano-TiO{sub 2} onto concrete building materials, by means of a multi-metric approach (mean diameter, number, mass and surface area concentrations). The measurement design consists of the combined use of (i) direct-reading instruments to evaluate the total particle number concentrations relative to the background concentration and the mean size-dependent characteristics of particles (mean diameter and surface area concentration) and to estimate the 8-h time-weighted average (8-h TWA) exposure to nano-TiO{sub 2} for workers involved in different working tasks; and (ii) filter-based air sampling, used for the determination of size-resolved particle mass concentrations. A further estimation was performed to obtain the mean 8-h TWA exposure values expressed as mass concentrations (µg nano-TiO{sub 2}/m{sup 3}). The multi-metric characterization of occupational exposure to nano-TiO{sub 2} was significantly different both for different work environments and for each work task. Generally, workers were exposed to engineered nanoparticles (ENPs; <100 nm) mean levels lower than the recommended reference values and proposed occupational exposure limits (40,000 particle/cm{sup 3}; 300 µg/m{sup 3}) and relevant exposures to peak concentration were not likely to be expected. The estimated 8-h TWA exposure showed differences between the unexposed and exposed subjects. For these last, further differences were defined between operators involved in different work tasks. This study provides information on nano-TiO{sub 2} number and mass concentration, size distribution, particles diameter and surface area concentrations, which were used to obtain work shift-averaged exposures.

  2. The Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study: I. Overview of the Exposure Assessment Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Patricia A.; Coble, Joseph B.; Vermeulen, Roel; Schleiff, Patricia; Blair, Aaron; Lubin, Jay; Attfield, Michael; Silverman, Debra T.

    2010-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the exposure assessment process for an epidemiologic study that investigated mortality, with a special focus on lung cancer, associated with diesel exhaust (DE) exposure among miners. Details of several components are provided in four other reports. A major challenge for this study was the development of quantitative estimates of historical exposures to DE. There is no single standard method for assessing the totality of DE, so respirable elemental carbon (REC), a component of DE, was selected as the primary surrogate in this study. Air monitoring surveys at seven of the eight study mining facilities were conducted between 1998 and 2001 and provided reference personal REC exposure levels and measurements for other agents and DE components in the mining environment. (The eighth facility had closed permanently prior to the surveys.) Exposure estimates were developed for mining facility/department/job/year combinations. A hierarchical grouping strategy was developed for assigning exposure levels to underground jobs [based on job titles, on the amount of time spent in various areas of the underground mine, and on similar carbon monoxide (CO, another DE component) concentrations] and to surface jobs (based on the use of, or proximity to, diesel-powered equipment). Time trends in air concentrations for underground jobs were estimated from mining facility-specific prediction models using diesel equipment horsepower, total air flow rates exhausted from the underground mines, and, because there were no historical REC measurements, historical measurements of CO. Exposures to potentially confounding agents, i.e. respirable dust, silica, radon, asbestos, and non-diesel sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, also were assessed. Accuracy and reliability of the estimated REC exposures levels were evaluated by comparison with several smaller datasets and by development of alternative time trend models. During 1998–2001, the average

  3. The diesel exhaust in miners study: I. Overview of the exposure assessment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Patricia A; Coble, Joseph B; Vermeulen, Roel; Schleiff, Patricia; Blair, Aaron; Lubin, Jay; Attfield, Michael; Silverman, Debra T

    2010-10-01

    This report provides an overview of the exposure assessment process for an epidemiologic study that investigated mortality, with a special focus on lung cancer, associated with diesel exhaust (DE) exposure among miners. Details of several components are provided in four other reports. A major challenge for this study was the development of quantitative estimates of historical exposures to DE. There is no single standard method for assessing the totality of DE, so respirable elemental carbon (REC), a component of DE, was selected as the primary surrogate in this study. Air monitoring surveys at seven of the eight study mining facilities were conducted between 1998 and 2001 and provided reference personal REC exposure levels and measurements for other agents and DE components in the mining environment. (The eighth facility had closed permanently prior to the surveys.) Exposure estimates were developed for mining facility/department/job/year combinations. A hierarchical grouping strategy was developed for assigning exposure levels to underground jobs [based on job titles, on the amount of time spent in various areas of the underground mine, and on similar carbon monoxide (CO, another DE component) concentrations] and to surface jobs (based on the use of, or proximity to, diesel-powered equipment). Time trends in air concentrations for underground jobs were estimated from mining facility-specific prediction models using diesel equipment horsepower, total air flow rates exhausted from the underground mines, and, because there were no historical REC measurements, historical measurements of CO. Exposures to potentially confounding agents, i.e. respirable dust, silica, radon, asbestos, and non-diesel sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, also were assessed. Accuracy and reliability of the estimated REC exposures levels were evaluated by comparison with several smaller datasets and by development of alternative time trend models. During 1998-2001, the average

  4. Comparison of exposure assessment methods for occupational carcinogens in a multi-centre lung cancer case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Susan; Vermeulen, Roel; Cassidy, Adrian; Mannetje, Andrea 't; van Tongeren, Martie; Boffetta, Paolo; Straif, Kurt; Kromhout, Hans

    2011-02-01

    Retrospective exposure assessment remains a problematic aspect of population-based case-control studies. Different methods have been developed, including case-by-case expert assessment and job-exposure matrices (JEM). The present analyses compare exposure prevalence and risk estimates derived by different exposure assessment methods. In the context of a case-control study conducted in seven European countries, exposure was estimated for asbestos, diesel motor emissions (DME) and crystalline silica, using three different assessment methods. First, experts assigned exposures to all reported jobs on a case-by-case basis. Second, a population-specific JEM (PSJEM) was developed using the expert assessments of controls only, and re-applied to all study subjects. Third, an independent general population JEM (GPJEM) was created by occupational exposure experts not involved in the original study, and applied to study subjects. Results from these methods were compared. There was poor to fair agreement in assigned exposure between expert assessment and the GPJEM (kappas: asbestos 0.17; DME 0.48; silica 0.38). Exposure prevalence was significantly heterogeneous (psilica diminished. It has been previously advocated that the expert assessment approach to assign exposures based on detailed questionnaire responses provides more accurate exposure estimates than JEM-based results. However, current results demonstrated little, if any, advantage of case-by-case assessment when compared to a JEM approach.

  5. Quantitative crystalline silica exposure assessment for a historical cohort epidemiologic study in the German porcelain industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birk, Thomas; Guldner, Karlheinz; Mundt, Kenneth A; Dahmann, Dirk; Adams, Robert C; Parsons, William

    2010-09-01

    A time-dependent quantitative exposure assessment of silica exposure among nearly 18,000 German porcelain workers was conducted. Results will be used to evaluate exposure-response disease risks. Over 8000 historical industrial hygiene (IH) measurements with original sampling and analysis protocols from 1954-2006 were obtained from the German Berufs- genossenschaft der keramischen-und Glas-Industrie (BGGK) and used to construct a job exposure matrix (JEM). Early measurements from different devices were converted to modern gravimetric equivalent values. Conversion factors were derived from parallel historical measurements and new side-by-side measurements using historical and modern devices in laboratory dust tunnels and active workplace locations. Exposure values were summarized and smoothed using LOESS regression; estimates for early years were derived using backward extrapolation techniques. Employee work histories were merged with JEM values to determine cumulative crystalline silica exposures for cohort members. Average silica concentrations were derived for six primary similar exposure groups (SEGs) for 1938-2006. Over 40% of the cohort accumulated 1 mg/m(3)-years. Nearly 5000 workers had cumulative crystalline silica estimates >1.5 mg/m(3)-years. Similar numbers of men and women fell into each cumulative exposure category, except for 1113 women and 1567 men in the highest category. Over half of those hired before 1960 accumulated >3 mg/m(3)-years crystalline silica compared with 4.9% of those hired after 1960. Among those ever working in the materials preparation area, half accumulated >3 mg/m(3)-year compared with 12% of those never working in this area. Quantitative respirable silica exposures were estimated for each member of this cohort, including employment periods for which sampling used now obsolete technologies. Although individual cumulative exposure estimates ranged from background to about 40 mg/m(3)-years, many of these estimates reflect long

  6. Exposure Assessment and Biomonitoring of Workers in Magnetic Resonance Environment: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sannino

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has evolved rapidly over the past few decades as one of the most flexible tools in medical research and diagnostic imaging. MRI facilities are important sources of multiple exposure to electromagnetic fields for both patients and health-care staff, due to the presence of electromagnetic fields of multiple frequency ranges, different temporal variations, and field strengths. Due to the increasing use and technological advancements of MRI systems, clearer insights into exposure assessment and a better understanding of possible harmful effects due to long-term exposures are highly needed. In the present exploratory study, exposure assessment and biomonitoring of MRI workers at the Radio-diagnostics Unit of the National Cancer Institute of Naples “Pascale Foundation” (Naples, Italy have been carried out. In particular, exposure to the MRI static magnetic field (SMF has been evaluated by means of personal monitoring, while an application tool has been developed to provide an estimate of motion-induced, time-varying electric fields. Measurement results have highlighted a high day-to-day and worker-to-worker variability of the exposure to the SMF, which strongly depends on the characteristics of the environment and on personal behaviors, and the developed application tool can be adopted as an easy-to-use tool for rapid and qualitative evaluation of motion-induced, time-varying electric field exposure. Regarding biomonitoring, the 24 workers of the Radio-diagnostics Unit were enrolled to evaluate both spontaneous and mitomycin C-induced chromosomal fragility in human peripheral blood lymphocytes, by means of the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay. The study subjects were 12 MRI workers, representative of different professional categories, as the exposed group, and 12 workers with no MRI exposure history, as the reference group. The results show a high worker-to-worker variability for both field exposure assessment

  7. Genotoxicity Assessment of Volatile Organic Compounds in Landfill Gas Emission Using Comet Assay in Higher Terrestrial Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na Roi-Et, Veerapas; Chiemchaisri, Wilai; Chiemchaisri, Chart

    2017-02-01

    Genotoxicity model is developed to assess the individual subacute toxicity of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) at very low levels as in a landfill gas. Golden Pothos (Epipremnum aureum), a higher plant, was tested under variation of benzene 54-5656 ng/L, toluene 10-4362 ng/L, ethylbenzene 28-4997 ng/L, xylene 53-4845 ng/L, for 96 h. DNA fragmentation in plant leaves were investigated via comet assay. The results show that DNA migration ratio increased with the BTEX concentrations, but at different rates. The 50% effective concentration (EC50) of DNA fragmentation from the dose-response relationships indicated toluene has the highest EC50 value and followed by benzene, xylene and ethylbenzene. Alternatively, ethylbenzene has the highest toxicity unit and followed by xylene, benzene and toluene as described by toxicity unit (TU). In conclusion, comet assay of Pothos can be used in differentiating DNA fragmentation against very low levels of BTEX in the atmosphere. Pothos is recommended for genotoxicity assessment of a low BTEX contaminated atmosphere.

  8. Assessment of management policies and practices for occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens in dialysis facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbaeyi, Chukwuma; Panlilio, Adelisa L; Hobbs, Cynthia; Patel, Priti R; Kuhar, David T

    2012-10-01

    Occupational exposure management is an important element in preventing the transmission of bloodborne pathogens in health care settings. In 2008, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conducted a survey to assess procedures for managing occupational bloodborne pathogen exposures in outpatient dialysis facilities in the United States. A cross-sectional survey of randomly selected outpatient dialysis facilities. 339 outpatient dialysis facilities drawn from the 2006 US end-stage renal disease database. Hospital affiliation (free-standing vs hospital-based facilities), profit status (for-profit vs not-for-profit facilities), and number of health care personnel (≥100 vs facilities reporting occupational bloodborne pathogen exposures and offering occupational exposure management services. We analyzed bloodborne pathogen exposures and provision of postexposure prophylaxis by facility type. Nearly all respondents (99.7%) had written policies and 95% provided occupational exposure management services to health care personnel during the daytime on weekdays, but services were provided infrequently during other periods of the week. Approximately 10%-15% of facilities reported having HIV, HBV, or HCV exposures in health care personnel in the 12 months prior to the survey, but inconsistencies were noted in procedures for managing such exposures. Despite 86% of facilities providing HIV prophylaxis for exposed health care personnel, only 37% designated a primary HIV postexposure prophylaxis regimen. For-profit and free-standing facilities reported fewer exposures, but did not as reliably offer HBV prophylaxis or have a primary HIV postexposure prophylaxis regimen relative to not-for-profit and hospital-based facilities. The survey response rate was low (37%) and familiarity of individuals completing the survey with facility policies or national guidelines could not be ascertained. Significant improvements are required in the implementation of guidelines for managing

  9. Assessment of Population and Microenvironmental Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Wan

    A positive relationship exists between fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) exposure and adverse health effects. PM2.5 concentration-response functions used in the quantitative risk assessment were based on findings from human epidemiological studies that relied on areawide ambient concentrations as surrogate for actual ambient exposure, which cannot capture the spatial and temporal variability in human exposures. The goal of the study is to assess inter-individual, geographic and seasonal variability in population exposures to inform the interpretation of available epidemiological studies, and to improve the understanding of how exposure-related factors in important exposure microenvironments contribute to the variability in individual PM2.5 exposure. Typically, the largest percentage of time in which an individual is exposed to PM2.5 of ambient origin occurs in indoor residence, and the highest ambient PM2.5 concentrations occur in transportation microenvironments because of the proximity to on-road traffic emissions. Therefore, indoor residence and traffic-related transportation microenvironments were selected for further assessment in the study. Population distributions of individual daily PM2.5 exposures were estimated for the selected regions and seasons using the Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation Model for Particulate Matter (SHEDS-PM). For the indoor residence, the current practice by assuming the entire residence to be one large single zone for calculating the indoor residential PM 2.5 concentration was evaluated by applying an indoor air quality model, RISK, to compare indoor PM2.5 concentrations between single-zone and multi-zone scenarios. For the transportation microenvironments, one field data collection focused on in-vehicle microenvironment and was conducted to quantify the variability in the in-vehicle PM2.5 concentration with respect to the outside vehicle concentration for a wide range of conditions that affect intra-vehicle variability

  10. The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) birth cohort study: assessment of environmental exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaro, Tim K; Scott, James A; Allen, Ryan W; Anand, Sonia S; Becker, Allan B; Befus, A Dean; Brauer, Michael; Duncan, Joanne; Lefebvre, Diana L; Lou, Wendy; Mandhane, Piush J; McLean, Kathleen E; Miller, Gregory; Sbihi, Hind; Shu, Huan; Subbarao, Padmaja; Turvey, Stuart E; Wheeler, Amanda J; Zeng, Leilei; Sears, Malcolm R; Brook, Jeffrey R

    2015-01-01

    The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development birth cohort was designed to elucidate interactions between environment and genetics underlying development of asthma and allergy. Over 3600 pregnant mothers were recruited from the general population in four provinces with diverse environments. The child is followed to age 5 years, with prospective characterization of diverse exposures during this critical period. Key exposure domains include indoor and outdoor air pollutants, inhalation, ingestion and dermal uptake of chemicals, mold, dampness, biological allergens, pets and pests, housing structure, and living behavior, together with infections, nutrition, psychosocial environment, and medications. Assessments of early life exposures are focused on those linked to inflammatory responses driven by the acquired and innate immune systems. Mothers complete extensive environmental questionnaires including time-activity behavior at recruitment and when the child is 3, 6, 12, 24, 30, 36, 48, and 60 months old. House dust collected during a thorough home assessment at 3-4 months, and biological specimens obtained for multiple exposure-related measurements, are archived for analyses. Geo-locations of homes and daycares and land-use regression for estimating traffic-related air pollution complement time-activity-behavior data to provide comprehensive individual exposure profiles. Several analytical frameworks are proposed to address the many interacting exposure variables and potential issues of co-linearity in this complex data set.

  11. Assessment of exposure to voices and noise via earphones in manufacturing industry workers in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Tomo; Kakei, Masazumi; Araki, Ikuno; Tsutsui, Takao; Satoh, Noriaki; Inoue, Jinro; Horie, Seichi

    2014-01-01

    There is concern that sound via earphones and headphones attached to headsets used in workplaces may be a risk factor for noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Although there are some previous studies investigating exposure to noise from headphones, almost none have assessed the risks to workers who use earphones. We assessed exposure to noise among workers who regularly wear earphones in noisy workplaces. The subjects of this study were 21 workers who regularly wear earphones in three manufacturing companies in Japan. The sound pressure output from earphones and personal exposure to occupational noise was measured for each worker. A noise-dosimeter was used to measure individual exposure to occupational noise. The sound pressure output from the earphones was measured by recording the electric signal with a data recorder attached to the earphones, and the recording was analyzed by playing it back in the laboratory through a sound analyzer via an ear simulator. The mean scores for personal exposure and earphone output LAeq were 87.9 dB and 87.6 dB, respectively. Earphone output LAeq exceeded 85 dB for two-thirds of the subjects. Nearly all the subjects lacked hearing protection devices (HPDs) on their earphones. The results suggest that workers who use earphones in noisy workplaces are exposed to the following NIHL risk factors: (1) they are deprived of the opportunity to fit appropriate HPDs, and (2) the sound pressure output from the earphones themselves exceeds the occupational exposure limit.

  12. Assessing Adult Exposure to Community Violence: A Review of Definitions and Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCou, Christopher R; Lynch, Shannon M

    2017-01-01

    Although experiences of community violence are linked with negative outcomes for adults and children, few standardized measures assessing community violence exist, and available measures lack consistency concerning the definition of community violence. Further, most measures currently utilized to assess adult exposure to community violence were designed for use with children and adolescents. To address these identified concerns and make recommendations for future research, this article reviews contemporary definitions of community violence, identifies the outcomes of exposure to community violence for adults, and evaluates measures of exposure to community violence with published psychometric data employing adult samples. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify studies that (1) included a self-report of community violence exposure, (2) included primarily adult respondents, and (3) reported psychometric data. Seventeen studies met the inclusion criteria. Measures employed in these studies were reviewed and basic psychometric properties discussed. Notably, the Survey of Exposure to Community Violence was the most commonly used measure among these studies. Although multiple measures demonstrated limited but acceptable psychometric performance in select studies, few in-depth psychometric analyses exist for measures of adult exposure to community violence. Also, it is difficult to compare studies due to variations in definitions of community violence and multiple versions of each measure. Recommendations for future research include provision of explicit definitions of community violence and reporting psychometric data for measures. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Alcohol Advertising Exposure Among Middle School–Age Youth: An Assessment Across All Media and Venues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Rebecca L.; Martino, Steven C.; Kovalchik, Stephanie A.; Becker, Kirsten M.; Shadel, William G.; D’Amico, Elizabeth J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to quantify middle school youth’s exposure to alcohol advertisements across media and venues, determine venues of greatest exposure, and identify characteristics of youth who are most exposed. Method: Over a 10-month period in 2013, 589 Los Angeles–area youth ages 11–14 from diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds completed a short paper-and-pencil survey assessing background characteristics and then participated in a 14-day ecological momentary assessment, logging all exposures to alcohol advertisements on handheld computers as they occurred. Results: African American and Hispanic youth were exposed to an average of 4.1 and 3.4 advertisements per day, respectively, nearly two times as many as non-Hispanic White youth, who were exposed to 2.0 advertisements per day. Girls were exposed to 30% more advertisements than boys. Most exposures were to outdoor advertisements, with television advertisements a close second. Conclusions: Exposure to alcohol advertising is frequent among middle school–age youth and may put them at risk for earlier or more frequent underage drinking. Greater restrictions on alcohol advertising outdoors and on television should be considered by regulators and by the alcohol industry and should focus particularly on reducing exposure among minority youth. PMID:27172570

  14. Alcohol Advertising Exposure Among Middle School-Age Youth: An Assessment Across All Media and Venues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Rebecca L; Martino, Steven C; Kovalchik, Stephanie A; Becker, Kirsten M; Shadel, William G; D'Amico, Elizabeth J

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify middle school youth's exposure to alcohol advertisements across media and venues, determine venues of greatest exposure, and identify characteristics of youth who are most exposed. Over a 10-month period in 2013, 589 Los Angeles-area youth ages 11-14 from diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds completed a short paper-and-pencil survey assessing background characteristics and then participated in a 14-day ecological momentary assessment, logging all exposures to alcohol advertisements on handheld computers as they occurred. African American and Hispanic youth were exposed to an average of 4.1 and 3.4 advertisements per day, respectively, nearly two times as many as non-Hispanic White youth, who were exposed to 2.0 advertisements per day. Girls were exposed to 30% more advertisements than boys. Most exposures were to outdoor advertisements, with television advertisements a close second. Exposure to alcohol advertising is frequent among middle school-age youth and may put them at risk for earlier or more frequent underage drinking. Greater restrictions on alcohol advertising outdoors and on television should be considered by regulators and by the alcohol industry and should focus particularly on reducing exposure among minority youth.

  15. Computational Exposure Science: An Emerging Discipline to Support 21st-Century Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egeghy, Peter P; Sheldon, Linda S; Isaacs, Kristin K; Özkaynak, Halûk; Goldsmith, Michael-Rock; Wambaugh, John F; Judson, Richard S; Buckley, Timothy J

    2016-06-01

    Computational exposure science represents a frontier of environmental science that is emerging and quickly evolving. In this commentary, we define this burgeoning discipline, describe a framework for implementation, and review some key ongoing research elements that are advancing the science with respect to exposure to chemicals in consumer products. The fundamental elements of computational exposure science include the development of reliable, computationally efficient predictive exposure models; the identification, acquisition, and application of data to support and evaluate these models; and generation of improved methods for extrapolating across chemicals. We describe our efforts in each of these areas and provide examples that demonstrate both progress and potential. Computational exposure science, linked with comparable efforts in toxicology, is ushering in a new era of risk assessment that greatly expands our ability to evaluate chemical safety and sustainability and to protect public health. Egeghy PP, Sheldon LS, Isaacs KK, Özkaynak H, Goldsmith M-R, Wambaugh JF, Judson RS, Buckley TJ. 2016. Computational exposure science: an emerging discipline to support 21st-century risk assessment. Environ Health Perspect 124:697-702; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1509748.

  16. Exposure and dose assessment to particle components among an elderly population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida-Silva, M.; Almeida, S. M.; Pegas, P. N.; Nunes, T.; Alves, C. A.; Wolterbeek, H. T.

    2015-02-01

    People spend the majority of their time indoors and the composition and toxicity of indoor particles is very complex and present significant differences comparing with outdoor aerosols. Consequently, ambient particles cannot represent a real exposure. The aim of this work was to determine the daily exposure and the daily inhaled dose to particle components of elders living in Elderly Care Centers. A questionnaire was applied to 193 institutionalized elders in order to achieve their daily time pattern and to define the micro-environments where PM10 and its components (carbonaceous components and trace elements) were assessed. Daily exposure was calculated by integrating the elder's time spend in each micro-environment and the concentration of the pollutants for the period of interest. This parameter, together with the inhalation rate and the standard body weight, were used to calculate the daily inhaled dose. PM10 daily exposure and daily inhaled dose ranged between 11 - 16 μg m-3 and 20 × 10-3 - 28 × 10-3 μg kg-1, respectively. This work not only allowed a fully quantification of the magnitude of the elders exposure, but also showed that the assessment of the integrated exposure to PM components is determinant to accomplish the dose inhaled by elders living in ECCs.

  17. Long-term dietary exposure to lead in young European children: Comparing a pan-European approach with a national exposure assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boon, P.E.; Te Biesebeek, J.D.; van Klaveren, J.D.

    2012-01-01

    Long-term dietary exposures to lead in young children were calculated by combining food consumption data of 11 European countries categorised using harmonised broad food categories with occurrence data on lead from different Member States (pan-European approach). The results of the assessment...... in children living in the Netherlands were compared with a long-term lead intake assessment in the same group using Dutch lead concentration data and linking the consumption and concentration data at the highest possible level of detail. Exposures obtained with the pan-European approach were higher than...... the national exposure calculations. For both assessments cereals contributed most to the exposure. The lower dietary exposure in the national study was due to the use of lower lead concentrations and a more optimal linkage of food consumption and concentration data. When a pan-European approach, using...

  18. Quantitative tremor assessment in workers with current low exposure to mercury vapor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastensson, Gunilla; Lamoureux, Daniel; Sällsten, Gerd; Beuter, Anne; Barregård, Lars

    2006-01-01

    Measurement of tremor has been used in several occupational studies of workers with long-term exposure to mercury vapor (Hg(0)). Recent studies indicate an adverse effect even at relatively low exposure levels. In the present study, we used sensitive quantitative methods to assess tremor in chloralkali workers with current low exposure to Hg(0). Neurological examinations and recordings of tremor using both an accelerometer and a laser-based system were conducted in 43 mercury-exposed workers and 22 age-matched referents. The median urinary mercury concentration in exposed workers was 5.9 (1.3-25) microg/g creatinine (microg/gC), while it was 0.7 (0.2-4.1) microg/gC in referents. The mean exposure time was 15 years, and the median cumulative mercury index was 161 years x microg/gC in exposed workers. There were no differences between the exposed workers and the referents in the clinical evaluation of tremor. In the quantitative tremor tests, no associations were found with current or cumulative mercury exposure for the majority of tremor measures. There were indications that exposure to Hg(0) was associated with a lowering of tremor frequency in the non-dominant hand, and a possible interaction with smoking. The differences were small, however, and overall, this study indicates no significant adverse effects on tremor at these exposure levels.

  19. Assessing Metal Exposures in a Community near a Cement Plant in the Northeast U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cement production is a major source of metals and metalloids in the environment, while exposures to metals and metalloids may impact human health in the surrounding communities. We recruited 185 participants living in the vicinity of a cement plant in the northeast U.S., and measured the levels of aluminum (Al, arsenic (As, cadmium (Cd, lead (Pb, mercury (Hg, and selenium (Se in blood and Hg in hair samples from them. A questionnaire was used to assess potential sources of Hg exposure. Multivariate regressions and spatial analyses were performed to evaluate the relative importance of different routes of exposures. The metal concentrations in blood or hair samples of our study participants were comparable to the U.S. general or regional population. Smoking contributed significantly to Cd and Pb exposures, and seafood consumption contributed significantly to Hg and As exposures, while variables related to the cement plant were not significantly associated with metal concentrations. Our results suggest that our study population was not at elevated health risk due to metal exposures, and that the contribution of the cement plant to metal exposures in the surrounding community was minimal.

  20. Evaluation of exposure concentrations used in assessing manufactured nanomaterial environmental hazards: are they relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Patricia A; Klaessig, Frederick; Turco, Ronald F; Priester, John H; Rico, Cyren M; Avila-Arias, Helena; Mortimer, Monika; Pacpaco, Kathleen; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2014-09-16

    Manufactured nanomaterials (MNMs) are increasingly produced and used in consumer goods, yet our knowledge regarding their environmental risks is limited. Environmental risks are assessed by characterizing exposure levels and biological receptor effects. As MNMs have rarely been quantified in environmental samples, our understanding of exposure level is limited. Absent direct measurements, environmental MNM concentrations are estimated from exposure modeling. Hazard, the potential for effects on biological receptors, is measured in the laboratory using a range of administered MNM concentrations. Yet concerns have been raised regarding the "relevancy" of hazard assessments, particularly when the administered MNM concentrations exceed those predicted to occur in the environment. What MNM concentrations are administered in hazard assessments and which are "environmentally relevant"? This review regards MNM concentrations in hazard assessments, from over 600 peer-reviewed articles published between 2008 and 2013. Some administered MNM concentrations overlap with, but many diverge from, predicted environmental concentrations. Other uncertainties influence the environmental relevance of current hazard assessments and exposure models, including test conditions, bioavailable concentrations, mode of action, MNM production volumes, and model validation. Therefore, it may be premature for MNM risk research to sanction information on the basis of concentration "environmental relevance".

  1. A tiered asthma hazard characterization and exposure assessment approach for evaluation of consumer product ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Andrew; Vincent, Melissa J; Parker, Ann; Gadagbui, Bernard K; Jayjock, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Asthma is a complex syndrome with significant consequences for those affected. The number of individuals affected is growing, although the reasons for the increase are uncertain. Ensuring the effective management of potential exposures follows from substantial evidence that exposure to some chemicals can increase the likelihood of asthma responses. We have developed a safety assessment approach tailored to the screening of asthma risks from residential consumer product ingredients as a proactive risk management tool. Several key features of the proposed approach advance the assessment resources often used for asthma issues. First, a quantitative health benchmark for asthma or related endpoints (irritation and sensitization) is provided that extends qualitative hazard classification methods. Second, a parallel structure is employed to include dose-response methods for asthma endpoints and methods for scenario specific exposure estimation. The two parallel tracks are integrated in a risk characterization step. Third, a tiered assessment structure is provided to accommodate different amounts of data for both the dose-response assessment (i.e., use of existing benchmarks, hazard banding, or the threshold of toxicological concern) and exposure estimation (i.e., use of empirical data, model estimates, or exposure categories). Tools building from traditional methods and resources have been adapted to address specific issues pertinent to asthma toxicology (e.g., mode-of-action and dose-response features) and the nature of residential consumer product use scenarios (e.g., product use patterns and exposure durations). A case study for acetic acid as used in various sentinel products and residential cleaning scenarios was developed to test the safety assessment methodology. In particular, the results were used to refine and verify relationships among tiered approaches such that each lower data tier in the approach provides a similar or greater margin of safety for a given

  2. Solid-phase microextraction to predict bioavailability and accumulation of organic micropollutants in terrestrial organisms after exposure to a field-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wal, Leon; Jager, Tjalling; Fleuren, Roel H L J; Barendregt, Arjan; Sinnige, Theo L; Van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Hermens, Joop L M

    2004-09-15

    The risk posed by soil contaminants strongly depends on their bioavailability. In this study, a partition-based sampling method was applied as a tool to estimate bioavailability in soil. The accumulation of organic micropollutants was measured in two earthworm species (Eisenia andrei and Aporrectodea caliginosa) and in 30-microm poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)-coated solid-phase micro extraction (SPME) fibers after exposure to two field-contaminated soils. Within 10 days, steady state in earthworms was reached, and within 20 days in the SPME fibers. Steady-state concentrations in both earthworm species were linearly related to concentrations in fibers over a 10,000-fold range of concentrations. Measured concentrations in earthworms were compared to levels calculated via equilibrium partitioning theory and total concentrations of contaminants in soil. In addition, freely dissolved concentrations of contaminants in pore water, derived from SPME measurements, were used to calculate concentrations in earthworms. Measured concentrations in earthworms were close to estimated concentrations from the SPME fiber measurements. Freely dissolved concentrations of contaminants in pore water, derived from SPME measurements, were used to calculate bioconcentration factors (BCF) in earthworms. A plot of log BCFs against the octanol-water partition coefficient (log Kow) was linear up to a log Kow of 8. These results show that measuring concentrations of hydrophobic chemicals in a PDMS-coated fiber represents a simple tool to estimate internal concentrations of chemicals in biota exposed to soil.

  3. Influence of instruments performance and material properties on exposure assessment of airborne engineered nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levin, Marcus

    Over the last decades, materials engineered of nanosized structures have increased tremendously, in terms of both produced tonnage and economic market share. This, together with the fact that some of these engineered nanomaterials have shown an increased toxicological effect in humans as compared...... to their bulk counterpart, has expanded the scientific field of exposure measurements to airborne nanoparticles. As the greatest potential for human exposure to engineered nanomaterials resides within the production, packaging and downstream powdermaterial handling, as well as at reworking/waste treatment...... facilities, exposure risk for workers has received great focus. The studies described in this thesis come to four main conclusions: 1) Mass-balance modeling of airborne engineered nanomaterials using dustiness index as a primary source term can be useful for assessment of material-specific exposure scenarios...

  4. An assessment of air pollutant exposure methods in Mexico City, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-González, Luis O; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Sánchez, Brisa N; Zhang, Kai; Brown, Daniel G; Rojas-Bracho, Leonora; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro; Vadillo-Ortega, Felipe; O'Neill, Marie S

    2015-05-01

    Geostatistical interpolation methods to estimate individual exposure to outdoor air pollutants can be used in pregnancy cohorts where personal exposure data are not collected. Our objectives were to a) develop four assessment methods (citywide average (CWA); nearest monitor (NM); inverse distance weighting (IDW); and ordinary Kriging (OK)), and b) compare daily metrics and cross-validations of interpolation models. We obtained 2008 hourly data from Mexico City's outdoor air monitoring network for PM10, PM2.5, O3, CO, NO2, and SO2 and constructed daily exposure metrics for 1,000 simulated individual locations across five populated geographic zones. Descriptive statistics from all methods were calculated for dry and wet seasons, and by zone. We also evaluated IDW and OK methods' ability to predict measured concentrations at monitors using cross validation and a coefficient of variation (COV). All methods were performed using SAS 9.3, except ordinary Kriging which was modeled using R's gstat package. Overall, mean concentrations and standard deviations were similar among the different methods for each pollutant. Correlations between methods were generally high (r=0.77 to 0.99). However, ranges of estimated concentrations determined by NM, IDW, and OK were wider than the ranges for CWA. Root mean square errors for OK were consistently equal to or lower than for the IDW method. OK standard errors varied considerably between pollutants and the computed COVs ranged from 0.46 (least error) for SO2 and PM10 to 3.91 (most error) for PM2.5. OK predicted concentrations measured at the monitors better than IDW and NM. Given the similarity in results for the exposure methods, OK is preferred because this method alone provides predicted standard errors which can be incorporated in statistical models. The daily estimated exposures calculated using these different exposure methods provide flexibility to evaluate multiple windows of exposure during pregnancy, not just trimester or

  5. Comparative Exposure Assessment of ESBL-Producing Escherichia coli through Meat Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Eric G; Pielaat, Annemarie; Smid, Joost H; van Duijkeren, Engeline; Vennemann, Francy B C; Wijnands, Lucas M; Chardon, Jurgen E

    2017-01-01

    The presence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and plasmidic AmpC (pAmpC) producing Escherichia coli (EEC) in food animals, especially broilers, has become a major public health concern. The aim of the present study was to quantify the EEC exposure of humans in The Netherlands through the consumption of meat from different food animals. Calculations were done with a simplified Quantitative Microbiological Risk Assessment (QMRA) model. The model took the effect of pre-retail processing, storage at the consumers home and preparation in the kitchen (cross-contamination and heating) on EEC numbers on/in the raw meat products into account. The contribution of beef products (78%) to the total EEC exposure of the Dutch population through the consumption of meat was much higher than for chicken (18%), pork (4.5%), veal (0.1%) and lamb (0%). After slaughter, chicken meat accounted for 97% of total EEC load on meat, but chicken meat experienced a relatively large effect of heating during food preparation. Exposure via consumption of filet americain (a minced beef product consumed raw) was predicted to be highest (61% of total EEC exposure), followed by chicken fillet (13%). It was estimated that only 18% of EEC exposure occurred via cross-contamination during preparation in the kitchen, which was the only route by which EEC survived for surface-contaminated products. Sensitivity analysis showed that model output is not sensitive for most parameters. However, EEC concentration on meat other than chicken meat was an important data gap. In conclusion, the model assessed that consumption of beef products led to a higher exposure to EEC than chicken products, although the prevalence of EEC on raw chicken meat was much higher than on beef. The (relative) risk of this exposure for public health is yet unknown given the lack of a modelling framework and of exposure studies for other potential transmission routes.

  6. Assessment of Exposure to VOCs among Pregnant Women in the National Children’s Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Barksdale Boyle

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiologic studies can measure exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs using environmental samples, biomarkers, questionnaires, or observations. These different exposure assessment approaches each have advantages and disadvantages; thus, evaluating relationships is an important consideration. In the National Children’s Vanguard Study from 2009 to 2010, participants completed questionnaires and data collectors observed VOC exposure sources and collected urine samples from 488 third trimester pregnant women at in-person study visits. From urine, we simultaneously quantified 28 VOC metabolites of exposure to acrolein, acrylamide, acrylonitrile, benzene, 1-bromopropane, 1,3-butadiene, carbon disulfide, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, N,N-dimethylformamide, ethylbenzene, ethylene oxide, propylene oxide, styrene, tetrachloroethylene, toluene, trichloroethylene, vinyl chloride, and xylene exposures using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with an electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI/MSMS method. Urinary thiocyanate was measured using an ion chromatography coupled with an electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method (IC-ESI/MSMS. We modeled the relationship between urinary VOC metabolite concentrations and sources of VOC exposure. Sources of exposure were assessed by participant report via questionnaire (use of air fresheners, aerosols, paint or varnish, organic solvents, and passive/active smoking and by observations by a trained data collector (presence of scented products in homes. We found several significant (p < 0.01 relationships between the urinary metabolites of VOCs and sources of VOC exposure. Smoking was positively associated with metabolites of the tobacco constituents acrolein, acrylamide, acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, ethylene oxide, N,N-dimethylformamide, propylene oxide, styrene, and xylene. Study location was negatively associated with the toluene metabolite

  7. Assessment of Exposure to VOCs among Pregnant Women in the National Children’s Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Elizabeth Barksdale; Viet, Susan M.; Wright, David J.; Merrill, Lori S.; Alwis, K. Udeni; Blount, Benjamin C.; Mortensen, Mary E.; Moye, John; Dellarco, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies can measure exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using environmental samples, biomarkers, questionnaires, or observations. These different exposure assessment approaches each have advantages and disadvantages; thus, evaluating relationships is an important consideration. In the National Children’s Vanguard Study from 2009 to 2010, participants completed questionnaires and data collectors observed VOC exposure sources and collected urine samples from 488 third trimester pregnant women at in-person study visits. From urine, we simultaneously quantified 28 VOC metabolites of exposure to acrolein, acrylamide, acrylonitrile, benzene, 1-bromopropane, 1,3-butadiene, carbon disulfide, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, N,N-dimethylformamide, ethylbenzene, ethylene oxide, propylene oxide, styrene, tetrachloroethylene, toluene, trichloroethylene, vinyl chloride, and xylene exposures using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with an electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI/MSMS) method. Urinary thiocyanate was measured using an ion chromatography coupled with an electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method (IC-ESI/MSMS). We modeled the relationship between urinary VOC metabolite concentrations and sources of VOC exposure. Sources of exposure were assessed by participant report via questionnaire (use of air fresheners, aerosols, paint or varnish, organic solvents, and passive/active smoking) and by observations by a trained data collector (presence of scented products in homes). We found several significant (p < 0.01) relationships between the urinary metabolites of VOCs and sources of VOC exposure. Smoking was positively associated with metabolites of the tobacco constituents acrolein, acrylamide, acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, ethylene oxide, N,N-dimethylformamide, propylene oxide, styrene, and xylene. Study location was negatively associated with the toluene metabolite N

  8. 3D Participatory Sensing with Low-Cost Mobile Devices for Crop Height Assessment – A Comparison with Terrestrial Laser Scanning Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Sabrina; Hämmerle, Martin; Klonner, Carolin; Höfle, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    The integration of local agricultural knowledge deepens the understanding of complex phenomena such as the association between climate variability, crop yields and undernutrition. Participatory Sensing (PS) is a concept which enables laymen to easily gather geodata with standard low-cost mobile devices, offering new and efficient opportunities for agricultural monitoring. This study presents a methodological approach for crop height assessment based on PS. In-field crop height variations of a maize field in Heidelberg, Germany, are gathered with smartphones and handheld GPS devices by 19 participants. The comparison of crop height values measured by the participants to reference data based on terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) results in R2 = 0.63 for the handheld GPS devices and R2 = 0.24 for the smartphone-based approach. RMSE for the comparison between crop height models (CHM) derived from PS and TLS data is 10.45 cm (GPS devices) and 14.69 cm (smartphones). Furthermore, the results indicate that incorporating participants’ cognitive abilities in the data collection process potentially improves the quality data captured with the PS approach. The proposed PS methods serve as a fundament to collect agricultural parameters on field-level by incorporating local people. Combined with other methods such as remote sensing, PS opens new perspectives to support agricultural development. PMID:27073917

  9. 3D Participatory Sensing with Low-Cost Mobile Devices for Crop Height Assessment--A Comparison with Terrestrial Laser Scanning Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Marx

    Full Text Available The integration of local agricultural knowledge deepens the understanding of complex phenomena such as the association between climate variability, crop yields and undernutrition. Participatory Sensing (PS is a concept which enables laymen to easily gather geodata with standard low-cost mobile devices, offering new and efficient opportunities for agricultural monitoring. This study presents a methodological approach for crop height assessment based on PS. In-field crop height variations of a maize field in Heidelberg, Germany, are gathered with smartphones and handheld GPS devices by 19 participants. The comparison of crop height values measured by the participants to reference data based on terrestrial laser scanning (TLS results in R2 = 0.63 for the handheld GPS devices and R2 = 0.24 for the smartphone-based approach. RMSE for the comparison between crop height models (CHM derived from PS and TLS data is 10.45 cm (GPS devices and 14.69 cm (smartphones. Furthermore, the results indicate that incorporating participants' cognitive abilities in the data collection process potentially improves the quality data captured with the PS approach. The proposed PS methods serve as a fundament to collect agricultural parameters on field-level by incorporating local people. Combined with other methods such as remote sensing, PS opens new perspectives to support agricultural development.

  10. 3D Participatory Sensing with Low-Cost Mobile Devices for Crop Height Assessment--A Comparison with Terrestrial Laser Scanning Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Sabrina; Hämmerle, Martin; Klonner, Carolin; Höfle, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    The integration of local agricultural knowledge deepens the understanding of complex phenomena such as the association between climate variability, crop yields and undernutrition. Participatory Sensing (PS) is a concept which enables laymen to easily gather geodata with standard low-cost mobile devices, offering new and efficient opportunities for agricultural monitoring. This study presents a methodological approach for crop height assessment based on PS. In-field crop height variations of a maize field in Heidelberg, Germany, are gathered with smartphones and handheld GPS devices by 19 participants. The comparison of crop height values measured by the participants to reference data based on terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) results in R2 = 0.63 for the handheld GPS devices and R2 = 0.24 for the smartphone-based approach. RMSE for the comparison between crop height models (CHM) derived from PS and TLS data is 10.45 cm (GPS devices) and 14.69 cm (smartphones). Furthermore, the results indicate that incorporating participants' cognitive abilities in the data collection process potentially improves the quality data captured with the PS approach. The proposed PS methods serve as a fundament to collect agricultural parameters on field-level by incorporating local people. Combined with other methods such as remote sensing, PS opens new perspectives to support agricultural development.

  11. Assessing the state of knowledge of utility-scale wind energy development and operation on non-volant terrestrial and marine wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Ennen, Joshua R.

    2013-01-01

    A great deal has been published in the scientific literature regarding the effects of wind energy development and operation on volant (flying) wildlife including birds and bats, although knowledge of how to mitigate negative impacts is still imperfect. We reviewed the peer-reviewed scientific literature for information on the known and potential effects of utility-scale wind energy development and operation (USWEDO) on terrestrial and marine non-volant wildlife and found that very little has been published on the topic. Following a similar review for solar energy we identified known and potential effects due to construction and eventual decommissioning of wind energy facilities. Many of the effects are similar and include direct mortality, environmental impacts of destruction and modification of habitat including impacts of roads, and offsite impacts related to construction material acquisition, processing and transportation. Known and potential effects due to operation and maintenance of facilities include habitat fragmentation and barriers to gene flow, as well as effects due to noise, vibration and shadow flicker, electromagnetic field generation, macro- and micro-climate change, predator attraction, and increased fire risk. The scarcity of before-after-control-impact studies hinders the ability to rigorously quantify the effects of USWEDO on non-volant wildlife. We conclude that more empirical data are currently needed to fully assess the impact of USWEDO on non-volant wildlife.

  12. Can winter-active bumblebees survive the cold? Assessing the cold tolerance of Bombus terrestris audax and the effects of pollen feeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily L Owen

    Full Text Available There is now considerable evidence that climate change is disrupting the phenology of key pollinator species. The recently reported UK winter activity of the bumblebee Bombus terrestris brings a novel set of thermal challenges to bumblebee workers that would typically only be exposed to summer conditions. Here we assess the ability of workers to survive acute and chronic cold stress (via lower lethal temperatures and lower lethal times at 0°C, the capacity for rapid cold hardening (RCH and the influence of diet (pollen versus nectar consumption on supercooling points (SCP. Comparisons are made with chronic cold stress indices and SCPs in queen bumblebees. Results showed worker bees were able to survive acute temperatures likely to be experienced in a mild winter, with queens significantly more tolerant to chronic cold temperature stress. The first evidence of RCH in any Hymenoptera is shown. In addition, dietary manipulation indicated the consumption of pollen significantly increased SCP temperature. These results are discussed in the light of winter active bumblebees and climate change.

  13. EcoDoses. Improving radiological assessment of doses to man from terrestrial ecosystems. A status report for the NKS-B project 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Sven P.; Isaksson, M.; Nilsson, Elisabeth (and others)

    2005-07-01

    The NKS B-programme EcoDoses project started in 2003 as a collaboration between all the Nordic countries. The aim of the project is to improve the radiological assessments of doses to man from terrestrial ecosystems. The present report sums up the work performed in the second phase of the project. The main topics in 2004 have been: (i) A c