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Sample records for terrain-vehicle systems european

  1. Design and analysis of a magneto-rheological damper for an all terrain vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan Unni, R.; Tamilarasan, N.

    2018-02-01

    A shock absorber design intended to replace the existing conventional shock absorber with a controllable system using a Magneto-rheological damper is introduced for an All Terrain Vehicle (ATV) that was designed for Baja SAE competitions. Suspensions are a vital part of an All Terrain Vehicles as it endures various surfaces and requires utmost attention while designing. COMSOL multi-physics software is used for applications that have coupled physics problems and is a unique tool that is used for the designing and analysis phase of the Magneto-rheological damper for the considered application and the model is optimized based on Taguchi using DOE software. The magneto-rheological damper is designed to maximize the damping force with the measured geometric constraints for the All Terrain Vehicle.

  2. What Influences Youth to Operate All-Terrain Vehicles Safely?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grummon, A. H.; Heaney, C. A.; Dellinger, W. A.; Wilkins, J. R., III

    2014-01-01

    The operation of all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) by youth has contributed to the incidence of serious and fatal injuries among children. This study explored factors related to the frequency with which youth wore a helmet and refrained from engaging in three risky driving behaviors (driving at risky speeds, on paved roads and on unfamiliar terrain)…

  3. Design and analysis of magneto rheological fluid brake for an all terrain vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Luckachan K.; Tamilarasan, N.; Thirumalini, S.

    2018-02-01

    This work presents an optimised design for a magneto rheological fluid brake for all terrain vehicles. The actuator consists of a disk which is immersed in the magneto rheological fluid surrounded by an electromagnet. The braking torque is controlled by varying the DC current applied to the electromagnet. In the presence of a magnetic field, the magneto rheological fluid particle aligns in a chain like structure, thus increasing the viscosity. The shear stress generated causes friction in the surfaces of the rotating disk. Electromagnetic analysis of the proposed system is carried out using finite element based COMSOL multi-physics software and the amount of magnetic field generated is calculated with the help of COMSOL. The geometry is optimised and performance of the system in terms of braking torque is carried out. Proposed design reveals better performance in terms of braking torque from the existing literature.

  4. Dirt bikes and all terrain vehicles: the real threat to pediatric kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsi-Yang; Gaines, Barbara A

    2007-10-01

    Recent reviews show that bicycles are the major cause of significant renal injury with few injuries occurring during contact sports. All-terrain vehicles are also responsible for significant pediatric renal trauma. We determined whether dirt bikes and all-terrain vehicles cause more significant renal injuries than contact sports. A retrospective review of our pediatric trauma database revealed 115 consecutive patients treated for renal trauma from 2000 to 2005. A total of 20 bicycle injuries occurred, including 6 on dirt bikes. A total of 13 all-terrain vehicle injuries occurred, including 4 involving rollovers. A total of 12 contact sport injuries occurred, including 2 during pick-up games. The mean grade of renal injury was compared among the mechanisms, with grades III-V considered high grade. In descending order of renal injury the mechanisms were dirt bike (2.8), all-terrain vehicle rollover (2.8), bicycle (2.3), all-terrain vehicle (2.1), contact sports (1.8) and organized contact sports (1.4). Dirt bikes and all-terrain vehicle rollovers caused significantly greater renal trauma than organized contact sports (2.8 vs 1.4, p = 0.007 and 0.02, respectively), whereas overall bicycle and all-terrain vehicle accidents resulted in similar renal trauma grades compared to those of all contact sports. The 2 high grade renal injuries during contact sports occurred during pick-up football games without protective gear. Physician advice regarding children with a solitary kidney should include avoiding dirt bikes and all-terrain vehicles. Efforts to limit all-terrain vehicle use in children younger than 16 years would decrease the risk of significant renal injury in this population more effectively than limiting contact sports participation.

  5. What influences youth to operate all-terrain vehicles safely?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grummon, A. H.; Heaney, C. A.; Dellinger, W. A.; Wilkins, J. R.

    2014-01-01

    The operation of all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) by youth has contributed to the incidence of serious and fatal injuries among children. This study explored factors related to the frequency with which youth wore a helmet and refrained from engaging in three risky driving behaviors (driving at risky speeds, on paved roads and on unfamiliar terrain) while operating an ATV. Youth (n = 248) aged 9–14 from central Ohio and one of their parents completed self-report measures of ATV safety behaviors, youth general propensity for risk taking, protection motivation and parental behaviors to facilitate youth safety. Data from two focus groups provided insight on quantitative results. Analyses revealed considerable variation in the frequency with which youth performed the safety behaviors, with 13- and 14-year-olds reporting less frequent safe behavior than 9- to 12-year-olds. Multiple regression analyses suggested that parental behaviors, such as providing reminders to wear a helmet, were associated with more frequent helmet use but were not associated with risky driving behaviors. Youth’s general propensity toward risk taking was not associated with helmet use and only associated with riskydriving behaviors among the 13- and 14-year-olds. Self-efficacy was an important predictor across both age groups and behaviors. Implications for injury prevention are discussed. PMID:24740837

  6. All-terrain vehicle, trampoline and scooter injuries and their prevention in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Deborah

    2006-06-01

    Childhood injuries are the leading cause of death in children and result in significant healthcare utilization. Injuries specifically related to all terrain vehicles, trampolines and scooter usage can be devastating and are often preventable. Our understanding of how and why these injuries occur can aid in preventing morbidity and mortality. The popularity of all-terrain vehicles, nonmotorized scooters and trampolines has soared over recent years. This increased usage has led to a tremendous rise in injuries in children utilizing these recreational activities. Many of the injuries occur in younger children who may not possess the motor and cognitive skills necessary to safely engage in these activities. These activities lead to a number of head and extremity injuries, most of which can be attenuated by the use of protective gear such as helmets and protective padding. Understanding the nature of these injuries can lead to advocacy and hopefully legislation to prevent further injuries from occurring.

  7. All-terrain vehicles (ATVs) on the road: a serious traffic safety and public health concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Gerene; Jennissen, Charles; Harland, Karisa; Ellis, David; Buresh, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    On-road all-terrain vehicle (ATV) crashes are frequent occurrences that disproportionately impact rural communities. These crashes occur despite most states having laws restricting on-road ATV use. A number of overall risk factors for ATV-related injuries have been identified (e.g., lack of helmet, carrying passengers). However, few studies have determined the relative contribution of these and other factors to on-road crashes and injuries. The objective of our study was to determine whether there were differences between on- and off-road ATV crashes in their demographics and/or mechanisms and outcomes of injuries. Data were derived from our statewide ATV injury surveillance database (2002-2009). Crash location and crash and injury mechanisms were coded using a modification of the Department of Transportation (DOT) coding system. Descriptive analyses and statistical comparisons (chi-square test) of variables were performed. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine relative risk. 976 records were included in the final analysis, with 38 percent of the injured individuals from on-road crashes. Demographics were similar for crashes at each location, with approximately 80 percent males, 30 percent under the age of 16, and 15 percent passengers. However, females and youths under 16 were over 4 times more likely to be passengers (P ≤ 0.0001), regardless of crash location. Compared to those off-road, on-road crash victims were approximately 10 times more likely to be involved in a vehicle-vehicle collision (P road crashes were also twice as likely to test positive for alcohol as those off-road (P road victims were only half as likely to be helmeted (P road crashes involved a collision with another vehicle, suggesting that ATVs on the road represent a potential traffic safety concern. Of note, helmets were associated with reduced risk for the number and severity of brain injuries, providing further support for the importance of helmet use. Finally

  8. All-terrain vehicle dealership point-of-sale child safety compliance in Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, John W; Getz, Marjorie A; Begley, Brandon

    2012-08-01

    In 2008, an estimated 37,700 children younger than 16 were treated in US emergency departments for nonfatal all-terrain vehicle (ATV) injuries. This study identifies safety guidelines and recommendations dealers convey to consumers at the point of sale. A telephone survey of all 2004 licensed motorcycle dealers in Illinois was conducted. Trained investigators, using aliases and posing as a parent of a 13-year-old teenager, spoke with dealership personnel. Investigators indicated they wished to purchase an ATV with the dealership, but had no knowledge of ATV use or safety issues. The telephone call's true purpose was concealed during the survey. Specific responses from the salesperson, models and brands of ATVs, price quotes, engine sizes, and safety information/recommendations were recorded in a written survey instrument. One hundred twenty-seven ATV dealers completed the survey. A salesperson most often fielded the telephone interview (124/127). Telephone interviews by male investigators were longer than those by female interviewers (5 minutes 37 seconds vs 3 minutes 51 seconds; P = 0.001). Dealers recommended Consumer Product Safety Commission-based child-size ATVs (vehicles as "safe." Most dealers (83.5%) recommended some form of rider training, with half (49.6%) offered point-of-purchase training. All-terrain vehicle dealers in Illinois recommend child-size vehicles, safety training, and helmet use for the majority of telephone inquiries. Injury prevention efforts targeting ATV dealers may be less needed than those using other populations.

  9. Design, Fabrication and Testing of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Drive Shaft for All Terrain Vehicle using Filament Winding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeshwant Nayak Suhas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Filament winding is a composite material fabrication technique that is used to manufacture concentric hollow components. In this study Carbon/Epoxy composite drive shafts were fabricated using filament winding process with a fiber orientation of [852/±452/252]s. Carbon in the form of multifilament fibers of Tairyfil TC-33 having 3000 filaments/strand was used as reinforcement with low viscosity epoxy resin as the matrix material. The driveshaft is designed to be used in SAE Baja All Terrain Vehicle (ATV that makes use of a fully floating axle in its rear wheel drive system. The torsional strength of the shaft was tested and compared to that of an OEM steel shaft that was previously used in the ATV. Results show that the composite shaft had 8.5% higher torsional strength in comparison to the OEM steel shaft and was also lighter by 60%. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM micrographs were studied to investigate the probable failure mechanism. Delamination, matrix agglomeration, fiber pull-out and matrix cracking were the prominent failure mechanisms identified.

  10. The characteristics and use patterns of all-terrain vehicle drivers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, G B

    1999-07-01

    The consent decrees between the US Consumer Product Safety Commission and the major distributors of all-terrain vehicles (ATV), which were designed to address ATV-related injuries and deaths, expired in April, 1998. While national estimates of nonfatal and fatal injuries involving ATVs declined after the consent decrees went into effect 10 years ago, the injury estimates have stabilized in recent years. To gain a better understanding of current ATV use patterns, the CPSC sponsored a national probability survey of ATV drivers in the fall of 1997. The survey was designed to collect information about the characteristics and use patterns of ATV drivers and to quantify the numbers and types of ATVs in use. It employed a single stage list-assisted random-digit-dial sample design. This article describes the results of the survey, and discusses long term ATV usage trends.

  11. Prognostic framing of stakeholders' subjectivities: A case of all-terrain vehicle management on state public lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley T. Asah; David N. Bengston; Keith Wendt; Leif. DeVaney

    2012-01-01

    Management of all-terrain vehicle (ATV) use on Minnesota state forest lands has a contentious history and land managers are caught between ATV riders, nonmotorized recreationists, private landowners, and environmental advocates. In this paper, we demonstrate the usefulness of framing distinct perspectives about ATV management on Minnesota state public forests,...

  12. Are all-terrain vehicle riders willing to pay trail user fees to ride on public lands in the USA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanie A. Snyder; Robert A. Smail

    2009-01-01

    Some public lands in the USA offer opportunities for all-terrain vehicle (ATV) riding, but few charge trail use fees. In a case study in the US state of Wisconsin, the contingent valuation method was used to examine riders' willingness to pay (WTP) to ride on public lands. Information on riders' habits, preferences and responses to a dichotomous choice WTP...

  13. Pediatric anthropometrics are inconsistent with current guidelines for assessing rider fit on all-terrain vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Andrew C; Mullineaux, David R; Auxier, James T; Forman, Jennifer L; Shapiro, Robert; Pienkowski, David

    2010-07-01

    This study sought to establish objective anthropometric measures of fit or misfit for young riders on adult and youth-sized all-terrain vehicles and use these metrics to test the unproved historical reasoning that age alone is a sufficient measure of rider-ATV fit. Male children (6-11 years, n=8; and 12-15 years, n=11) were selected by convenience sampling. Rider-ATV fit was quantified by five measures adapted from published recommendations: (1) standing-seat clearance, (2) hand size, (3) foot vs. foot-brake position, (4) elbow angle, and (5) handlebar-to-knee distance. Youths aged 12-15 years fit the adult-sized ATV better than the ATV Safety Institute recommended age-appropriate youth model (63% of subjects fit all 5 measures on adult-sized ATV vs. 20% on youth-sized ATV). Youths aged 6-11 years fit poorly on ATVs of both sizes (0% fit all 5 parameters on the adult-sized ATV vs 12% on the youth-sized ATV). The ATV Safety Institute recommends rider-ATV fit according to age and engine displacement, but no objective data linking age or anthropometrics with ATV engine or frame size has been previously published. Age alone is a poor predictor of rider-ATV fit; the five metrics used offer an improvement compared to current recommendations. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Making the message meaningful: a qualitative assessment of media promoting all-terrain vehicle safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brann, Maria; Mullins, Samantha Hope; Miller, Beverly K; Eoff, Shane; Graham, James; Aitken, Mary E

    2012-08-01

    Millions of all-terrain vehicles (ATV) are used around the world for recreation by both adults and youth. This increase in use has led to a substantial increase in the number of injuries and fatalities each year. Effective strategies for reducing this incidence are clearly needed; however, minimal research exists regarding effective educational interventions. This study was designed to assess rural ATV riders' preferences for and assessment of safety messages. 13 focus group discussions with youth and adult ATV riders were conducted. 88 formative research participants provided feedback on existing ATV safety materials, which was used to develop more useful ATV safety messages. 60 evaluative focus group participants critiqued the materials developed for this project. Existing ATV safety materials have limited effectiveness, in part because they may not address the content or design needs of the target population. ATV riders want educational and action-oriented safety messages that inform youth and adult riders about their responsibilities to learn, educate and implement safety behaviours (eg, appropriate-sized ATV, safety gear, solo riding, speed limits, riding locations). In addition, messages should be clear, realistic, visually appealing and easily accessible. Newly designed ATV safety materials using the acronym TRIPSS (training, ride off-road, impairment, plan ahead, safety gear, single rider) meet ATV riders' safety messaging needs. To reach a target population, it is crucial to include them in the development and assessment of safety messages. Germane to this particular study, ATV riders provided essential information for creating useful ATV safety materials.

  15. Imaging findings in 512 children following all-terrain vehicle injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Chetan C.; Greenberg, Bruce S.; Ramakrishnaiah, Raghu H.; Bhutta, Sadaf T.; Parnell-Beasley, Donna N.

    2009-01-01

    Injuries related to all-terrain vehicle (ATV) use by children have increased in recent years, and the pattern of these injuries is not well known among radiologists. Our purpose was to identify different radiologically diagnosed injuries in children suffering ATV-related trauma and determine associations among various injuries as well as between injuries and outcome. The study included 512 consecutive children suffering from ATV injuries treated at a tertiary care pediatric hospital. All imaging studies were reviewed and correlated with injury frequency and outcome using multivariate analysis. Head injuries occurred in 244 children (48%) and in five of six deaths. Calvarial skull fractures occurred in 104 children and were associated with brain, subdural and epidural injuries. Brain and orbit injuries were associated with long-term disability. A total of 227 extremity fractures were present in 172 children (34%). The femur was the most commonly fractured bone. Nine children had partial foot amputations. Multiorgan injuries occurred in nearly half of the 97 children with torso injuries. Determinants for long-term disability or death were head injuries (odds ratio 3.4) and extremity fractures (odds ratio 3.3). Head and extremity injuries are the two most common injuries in children suffering ATV injuries and are associated with long-term disability. ATV use by children is dangerous and is a significant threat to child safety. (orig.)

  16. An image-based method to measure all-terrain vehicle dimensions for engineering safety purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennissen, Charles A; Miller, Nathan S; Tang, Kaiyang; Denning, Gerene M

    2014-04-01

    All-terrain vehicle (ATV) crashes are a serious public health and safety concern. Engineering approaches that address ATV injury prevention are critically needed. Avenues to pursue include evidence-based seat design that decreases risky behaviours, such as carrying passengers and operation of adult-size vehicles by children. The goal of this study was to create and validate an image-based method to measure ATV seat length and placement. Publicly available ATV images were downloaded. Adobe Photoshop was then used to generate a vertical grid through the centre of the vehicle, to define the grid scale using the manufacturer's reported wheelbase, and to determine seat length and placement relative to the front and rear axles using this scale. Images that yielded a difference greater than 5% between the calculated and the manufacturer's reported ATV lengths were excluded from further analysis. For the 77 images that met inclusion criteria, the mean±SD for the difference in calculated versus reported vehicle length was 1.8%±1.2%. The Pearson correlation coefficient for comparing image-based seat lengths determined by two independent measurers (20 models) and image-based lengths versus lengths measured at dealerships (12 models) were 0.95 and 0.96, respectively. The image-based method provides accurate and reproducible results for determining ATV measurements, including seat length and placement. This method greatly expands the number of ATV models that can be studied, and may be generalisable to other motor vehicle types. These measurements can be used to guide engineering approaches that improve ATV safety design.

  17. Youths operating all-terrain vehicles--implications for safety education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgus, Shari K; Madsen, Murray D; Sanderson, Wayne T; Rautiainen, Risto H

    2009-01-01

    All-terrain vehicle (ATV) use has increased in recent years. ATV injuries and deaths have also increased, particularly among youth. The authors administered a survey at a National FFA convention to identify safety-related behaviors, injuries, and effects of ATV safety training. There were 624 participants aged 12 to 20 with a median age of 16; 56% were male and 69% lived on a farm. The median age for first riding an ATV was 9. ATV size recommendations were rarely observed; nearly all ATVs operated by youth less than 16 years of age were over 90 cc. Safety-related behaviors were reported as follows: always wearing a helmet (24%), never taking passengers (12%), never riding as a passenger (16%), and never riding on paved road (19%). A small percentage (22%) had participated in ATV safety training; 41% were willing, but 46% said such training was not available. ATV training was positively associated with always wearing a helmet (odds ratio [OR]: 1.72, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.12-2.63), never taking passengers (OR: 2.31, 95% CI: 1.36-3.91), never riding as a passenger (OR: 3.02, 95% CI: 1.90-4.79), and never riding on paved road (OR: 1.57, 95% CI: 0.99-2.50). However, training was also associated with an increase in injuries (OR: 1.96, 95% CI: 1.31-2.94), although this effect was not found in multivariable models. It was not known if the injuries occurred before or after the training and no exposure time data were available. Gender differences were found in behaviors and injury rates (males 37%, females 20%). The results suggest ATV safety training improved behaviors. Gender differences in operation, behaviors, and injuries should be considered in training.

  18. Cardiac Injury After All-Terrain Vehicle Accidents in 2 Children and a Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Kimberly D; Pian, Phillip; Hanfland, Robert; Nichols, Christopher S; Merritt, Glenn R; Campbell, David; Ing, Richard J

    2016-07-01

    All-terrain vehicle (ATV) accidents leading to severe morbidity and mortality are common. At our institution, 2 children presented within weeks of each other after ATV accidents. Both children required cardiac valve surgery. The surgical management of these 2 children is discussed, and the literature is reviewed. On initial patient presentation, the diagnosis of a ruptured cardiac valve or ventricular septal defect (VSD) associated with these types of accidents is often delayed. We propose that patients presenting with evidence of high-energy blunt thoracic trauma after an ATV accident should undergo an electrocardiogram, cardiac enzyme assessment, and cardiac echocardiogram as part of the initial work-up to rule out significant myocardial injury.

  19. Etiologies of pediatric craniofacial injuries: a comparison of injuries involving all-terrain vehicles and golf carts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lauren C; McKinnon, Brian J; Hughes, C Anthony

    2013-03-01

    To determine incidence and etiologies of craniofacial injuries in the pediatric population through comparison of injuries caused by all-terrain vehicles and golf cart trauma. Case series with chart review. Level 1 trauma center. Retrospective review of pediatric traumas at a tertiary academic medical center from 2003 to 2012 identified 196 patients whose injuries resulted from accidents involving either all-terrain vehicles or golf carts. Data was collected and variables such as age, gender, driver vs. passenger, location of accident, Glasgow coma scale, Injury severity scale, Abbreviated injury scale, and presence or absence of helmet use were examined. 196 pediatric patients were identified: 68 patients had injuries resulting from golf cart accidents, and 128 patients from ATV accidents. 66.4% of ATV-related traumas were male, compared to 52.9% of golf cart-related traumas. Ages of injured patients were similar between the two modalities with average age of ATV traumas 10.8 (±4.0) years and golf cart traumas 10.0 (±4.6) years. Caucasians were most commonly involved in both ATV (79.7%) and golf cart traumas (85.3%). 58.6% of all ATV related trauma and 69.1% of all golf cart trauma resulted in craniofacial injuries. The most common craniofacial injury was a closed head injury with brief loss of consciousness, occurring in 46.1% of the ATV traumas and 54.4% of the golf cart traumas. Temporal bone fractures were the second most common type of craniofacial injury, occurring in 5.5% of ATV accidents and 7.4% of the golf cart traumas. Length of hospital stay and, cases requiring surgery and severity scores were similar between both populations. Intensive care admissions and injury severity scores approached but not reach statistical significance (0.096 and 0.083, respectively). The only statistically significant differences between the two modalities were helmet use (P=0.00018%) and days requiring ventilator assistance (P=0.025). ATVs and golf carts are often exempt

  20. European Marine Information System. Eumaris; European Marine Information System. Eumaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caiaffa, E. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1999-07-01

    The present paper summarises the activities developed by ETC/MCE, under European Environment Agency (EEA) contract, on the Geographic Information System. The aim of present paper is to introduce some general concepts about the Geographic Information Systems and to investigate the potential of G.I.S. as tool for the assessment of the European seas. Care has also been taken to explain the main technical and educational reasons that led to EUMARIS GIS birth, its evolution in the last year, till to its presentation at the Inter-Regional Forum of the European Conventions held in Venice. GIS is a technological tool phenomenon involving various aspects and different issues; many examples of thematic maps involving that different subjects are shown in the paper. [Italian] Il presente articolo riassume le attivita' svolte, nell'ambito del Geographic Information System, dall'ETC/MCE sotto contratto con l'Agenzia Europea per l'Ambiente (EEA) che ha sede a Copenhagen. Scopo del presente articolo e' quello di introdurre alcuni concetti generali sui Geographic Information System (GIS) e di dimostrare la possibilita' di utilizzare il GIS stesso come strumento per la valutazione dello stato dei mari dell'Europa. Si e' cercato di spiegare le principali ragioni tecniche che hanno portato alla nascita del progeto del GIS EUMARIS, alla sua realizzazione fino alla sua presentazione all'Inter-Regional Forum of European Conventions tenutosi a Venezia. Si e' cercato anche di mostrare come un GIS per sua natura e' uno strumento che coinvolge vari aspetti tecnologici e differenti tipi di dati; nell'articolo vengono mostrati diversi esempi di mappe tematiche che contengono tali differenti argomenti.

  1. A Terrain-Vehicle Interaction Model for Analysis of Steering Performance of Track-Laying Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-05-01

    by C !Gerge Y" Baladi and BDhzad Roheni 4.Structures Labratory’J .Army Enghimer waterway, Expeuinsftt Staton "II U . 0.O. Box 631, Vi&sburg, Miss...CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMER(*) George VI/ Baladi -4.Behzad(Rohani . . ERFRMIG ORGANIZTION NAME AND ADDRESS -T0. PROGRAM LEMENT. PROJECT. TASK( U. S.. Army...Project 4A161102AT24, Task A3/E3, Work Unit 003, "Soil Response to Nonlinear Loading Systems." This investigation was conducted by Drs. G. Y. Baladi and

  2. European Conference on Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Pellegrini, Francesco; Caldarelli, Guido; Merelli, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    This work contains a stringent selection of extended contributions presented at the meeting of 2014 and its satellite meetings, reflecting scope, diversity and richness of research areas in the field, both fundamental and applied. The ECCS meeting, held under the patronage of the Complex Systems Society, is an annual event that has become the leading European conference devoted to complexity science. It offers cutting edge research and unique opportunities to study novel scientific approaches in a multitude of application areas. ECCS'14, its eleventh occurrence, took place in Lucca, Italy. It gathered some 650 scholars representing a wide range of topics relating to complex systems research, with emphasis on interdisciplinary approaches. The editors are among the best specialists in the area. The book is of great interest to scientists, researchers and graduate students in complexity, complex systems and networks.

  3. Evaluating and projecting the European security system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, J.

    1991-01-01

    Components of the new European security system are described taking into account the new policy making and possibilities to resolve conflicts. Programmes for political and economic integration and co-operation managed by the European Community will provide main positive content of the new European security system. An insight of the future of nuclear armaments in Europe is included together with confidence building measure and the role of NATO

  4. European nuclear data studies for fast systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rullhusen, P.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Mondelaers, W.; Plompen, A.J.M.; Schillebeeckx, P.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear data needs for fast systems are highlighted and the following projects are described: Joint European research projects: MUSE Experiments for Sub-critical Neutronics Validation; High- and Intermediate Energy Nuclear Data for ADS (HINDAS); and the Time-Of-Flight facility for Nuclear Data Measurements for ADS (n T OF N D A DS); European Research Programme for the Transmutation of High Level Nuclear Waste in an Accelerator Driven System (EUROTRANS-NUDATRA); and CANDIDE; Programmes for transnational access to experimental facilities in Europe: European Facilities for Nuclear Data Measurements (EFNUDAT); Neutron Data Measurements at IRMM (NUDAME); European facility for innovative reactor and transmutation neutron data (EUFRAT) (P.A.)

  5. Benchmarking European Gas Transmission System Operators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrell, Per J.; Bogetoft, Peter; Trinkner, Urs

    This is the final report for the pan-European efficiency benchmarking of gas transmission system operations commissioned by the Netherlands Authority for Consumers and Markets (ACM), Den Haag, on behalf of the Council of European Energy Regulators (CEER) under the supervision of the authors....

  6. The European system of veterinary specialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romagnoli, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    Veterinary specialist diplomas were available in many European countries during the second half of the 20th century. However, such an early recognition of the importance of veterinary specialization actually delayed the concept of the European veterinary specialist in Europe, compared with the United States, where the first specialist colleges were established in the 1960s, because it was felt that the national system was functioning properly and there was therefore no need for a new structure in the European countries. The European Board of Veterinary Specialisation (EBVS) was established in 1996, and currently there are 23 specialist colleges with more than 2,600 veterinarians officially listed in the EBVS register as European specialists. The Advisory Committee on Veterinary Training (ACVT) approved the establishment of EBVS but never implemented a supervising body (with ACVT representation). Such a body, the European Coordinating Committee on Veterinary Training, was later implemented by the profession itself, although it still lacked a political component. Each college depends on the EBVS, which has the function to define standards and criteria for monitoring the quality of college diplomates. To become a European Diplomate, veterinarians must have gone through an intensive period of training supervised by a diplomate, after which candidates must pass an examination. Although the term European veterinary specialist still does not have any legal recognition, national specialist qualifications are being phased out in many countries because of the inherent higher quality of EBVS specialist qualifications.

  7. The governance of the European patent system:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borras, Susana

    2006-01-01

    at the formal and informal dimensions of interactions in economic systems. This is further developed into an analytical framework which is then used in the assessment of the structural features of the current European patent system, one of the most advanced, complex, and contested economic systems in Europe....... The conclusions elaborate on the normative implications regarding the current weaknesses of the European patent system, and examine the general theoretical implications of the findings, particularly looking at the effectiveness and legitimacy of technically complex governance systems....

  8. Exploring the premises of European education systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moutsios, Stavros

    This paper (part of a project carried out under the EU’s Marie Curie programme of Intra-European Fellowships, FP7-People-2011-IEF, CETH, 298656) explores the emergence of the European education systems in Modernity. As the paper argues, the institution of education in Europe was associated....... Understanding the historical premises of European education would allow us to understand the trajectory that education systems have had till today, in Europe and beyond........ This fundamental antinomy, between autonomy and rational control, explicated by Castoriadis, constitutes the very particularity of the European imaginary, which has been incarnated, as the paper argues, in the institution of education since the Enlightenment – although its first traces appeared much earlier...

  9. European Conference on Complex Systems 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkilionis, Markus; Nicolis, Gregoire

    2013-01-01

    The European Conference on Complex Systems, held under the patronage of the Complex Systems Society, is an annual event that has become the leading European conference devoted to complexity science. ECCS'12, its ninth edition, took place in Brussels, during the first week of September 2012. It gathered about 650 scholars representing a wide range of topics relating to complex systems research, with emphasis on interdisciplinary approaches. More specifically, the following tracks were covered:  1. Foundations of Complex Systems 2. Complexity, Information and Computation 3. Prediction, Policy and Planning, Environment 4. Biological Complexity 5. Interacting Populations, Collective Behavior 6. Social Systems, Economics and Finance This book contains a selection of the contributions presented at the conference and its satellite meetings. Its contents reflect the extent, diversity and richness of research areas in the field, both fundamental and applied.  

  10. European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uter, W; Amario-Hita, J C; Balato, A

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Contact allergy is a common condition and can severely interfere with daily life or professional activities. Due to changes in exposures, such as introduction of new substances, new products or formulations and regulatory intervention, the spectrum of contact sensitization changes....... OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the current spectrum of contact allergy to allergens present in the European baseline series (EBS) across Europe. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of data collected by the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA, www.essca-dc.org) in consecutively patch-tested patients......, 2013/14, in 46 departments in 12 European countries. RESULTS: Altogether, 31 689 patients were included in the analysis. Compared to a similar analysis in 2004, the prevalence of contact allergy to methylisothiazolinone went up to around 20% in several departments. In comparison, contact allergy...

  11. European Educational Systems and Assessment Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evans, Robert Harry; Cross, David; Grangeat, Michel

    2018-01-01

    Abstract This chapter surveys the status of educational systems and assessment practices across eight European countries that are part of the ASSIST-ME project. First, variations in country educational systems are examined to identify possible connections between systems and educational practices....... Such associations are useful both for understanding different existing assessment conditions as well as for providing possible pathways for change. Next, the chapter takes a closer look at teacher practices in these educational systems in order to identify the actual assessment practices of teachers in each country....... With these understandings of the systems and current uses of assessment, it is possible to identify affordances and challenges for improving assessment practices....

  12. All-terrain vehicle fatalities on paved roads, unpaved roads, and off-road: Evidence for informed roadway safety warnings and legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Gerene M; Jennissen, Charles A

    2016-05-18

    All-terrain vehicles (ATVs) are designed for off-highway use only, and many of their features create increased risk with roadway travel. Over half of all ATV-related fatalities occur on roadways, and nonfatal roadway crashes result in more serious injuries than those off the road. A number of jurisdictions have passed or have considered legislation allowing ATVs on public roadways, sometimes limiting them to those unpaved, arguing that they are safe for ATVs. However, no studies have determined the epidemiology of ATV-related fatalities on different road surface types. The objective of the study was to compare ATV-related deaths on paved versus unpaved roads and to contrast them with off-road fatalities. Retrospective descriptive and multivariable analyses were performed using U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission fatality data from 1982 through 2012. After 1998, ATV-related deaths increased at twice the rate on paved versus unpaved roads. Still, 42% of all roadway deaths during the study period occurred on unpaved surfaces. States varied considerably, ranging from 18% to 79% of their ATV-related roadway deaths occurring on unpaved roads. Paved road crashes were more likely than those on unpaved surfaces to involve males, adolescents and younger adults, passengers, and collisions with other vehicles. Both the pattern of other vehicles involved in collisions and which vehicle hit the other were different for the 2 road types. Alcohol use was higher, helmet use was lower, and head injuries were more likely in paved versus unpaved roadway crashes. However, head injuries still occurred in 76% of fatalities on unpaved roads. Helmets were associated with lower proportions of head injuries among riders, regardless of road surface type. Relative to off-road crashes, both paved and unpaved roads were more likely to involve collisions with another vehicle. The vast majority of roadway crashes, however, did not involve a traffic collision on either paved or unpaved roads

  13. Development of the European activation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrest, Robin [Euratom/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Kopecky, Jiri [JUKO Research (Netherlands); Sublet, Jean-Christophe [CEA, Service de Physique des Reacteurs et du Cycle, Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2002-08-01

    The ability to predict the effects of neutron irradiation on an arbitrary material is a fundamental need of fusion technology. The European Fusion Technology Programme has long recognised this fact, and has developed the European Activation System (EASY). This integrated package relies on research in several areas and can be described as an example of successful international co-operation. Modern software tools were used to produce a user-friendly application (SAFEPAQ-II) running under Windows-98 or NT in which all nuclear data are stored in relational databases. Cross section data from almost 50 sources are read and converted from standard formats to databases. By a series of manipulations these data are selected, modified and processed to yield SAFEPAQ-II databases. All reactions can be graphically displayed with experimental data and uncertainty estimates. Following internal validation and processing the data can then be written out in standard EAF (European Activation File) format (including a set of nine multi-group files) ready for use by the FISPACT inventory code. The various EAF data libraries have been extensively validated against integral measurements using fusion relevant materials and three complementary neutron spectra. Results from such studies have also been fed back to improve library development. New user tools allow the graphical viewing of all multi-group cross sections and decay data. User feedback on bugs and new options have been incorporated in EASY-2001 which is fully documented and provides a complete and reliable tool for prediction of activation in fusion and other applications. (J.P.N.)

  14. Vertebrobasilar System in the European Hare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flešárová S.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the arterial arrangement of the cervical spinal cord in the hare using the corrosion technique. The study was carried out on 10 adult European hares (Lepus Europeus. The arterial system of the cervical spinal cord was injected using Batson’s corrosion casting kit No. 17. The fusion of the bilateral vertebral arteries was found in 70% of the cases without a connecting branch and in 30% of the cases with one connecting branch just posterior to the fusion. The ventral spinal artery was in connection with the right vertebral artery in 60% of the cases and by means of an anastomosis of two spinal branches arising from the bilateral vertebral arteries in 40% of the cases. Based on the results of this study, it is possible to conclude that there is a high variability of the blood supply to the cervical part of the spinal cord in the hare.

  15. The European Activation System. EASY-2001 overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrest, R.A.

    2001-03-01

    This document gives an overview of the European Activation System (EASY) as released in 2001. EASY-2001 consists of a wide range of codes, data and documentation all aimed at satisfying the objective of calculating the response of materials irradiated in a neutron flux. It is designed to investigate fusion devices that will act as intense sources of high energy (14 MeV) neutrons and cause significant activation of the surrounding materials. However, the very general nature of the calculational method and the data libraries means that it is applicable (with some reservations) to all situations (e.g. fission reactors or neutron sources) where materials are exposed to neutrons below 20 MeV

  16. European quality system for tissue banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyalich, M; Navarro, A; Koller, J; Loty, B; de Guerra, A; Cornu, O; Vabels, G; Fornasari, P M; Costa, A N; Siska, I; Hirn, M; Franz, N; Miranda, B; Kaminski, A; Uhrynowska, I; Van Baare, J; Trias, E; Fernández, C; de By, T; Poniatowski, S; Carbonell, R

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this project were to analyze the factors that influence quality and safety of tissues for transplantation and to develop the method to ensure standards of quality and safety in relation to tissue banking as demanded by European Directive 2004/23/EC and its technical annexes. It is organized in 4 Working Groups, the objectives of each one being focused in a specific area. The Guide of Recommendations for Tissue Banking is structured into 4 parts: (1) quality systems that apply to tissue banking and general quality system requirements, (2) regulatory framework in Europe, (3) standards available, and (4) recommendations of the fundamental quality and safety keypoints. This Working Group handled design of a multinational musculoskeletal tissue registry prototype. This Working Group handled design and validation of a specialized training model structured into online and face-to-face courses. The model was improved with suggestions from students, and 100% certification was obtained. The Guide for Auditing Tissue Establishments provides guidance for auditors, a self-assessment questionnaire, and an audit report form. The effectiveness and sustainability of the outputs were assessed. Both guides are useful for experienced tissue establishments and auditors and also for professionals that are starting in the field. The registry prototype proves it is possible to exchange tissues between establishments throughout Europe. The training model has been effective in educating staff and means having professionals with excellent expertise. Member states could adapt/adopt it. The guides should be updated periodically and perhaps a European organization should take responsibility for this and even create a body of auditors.

  17. Improving the profile of the European tourist destinations through the European tourism indicators system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura CISMARU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Within the most recent European Policy for Tourism, the competitiveness of the European tourism industry is directly linked to the image of Europe and to its perception, as a collection of sustainable and high-quality tourist destinations. In such context, improving the profile of the European tourist destinations has become a main target. During the last years, the European Commission focused on the sustainable development of tourist destinations. Several projects were developed, the most recent one introducing a practical tool - the European Tourism Indicators System (ETIS for the sustainable development of destinations. The present paper advances the idea that such tool can be successfully used in order to achieve the goal of improving the profile of the European tourist destinations.

  18. Envisioning a Common European Asylum System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Türk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A bolder approach is needed if the European Union is to overcome fragmentation and manage refugee movements effectively and in accordance with international obligations. Imaginative moves in this direction could also advance the global refugee protection regime.

  19. Development of European urban tourist systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerković Senta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Relationship between urban development and tourism is a significant process in Europe today. Development of tourism has caused many organizational changes in urban environment. In the middle of the 20th century cultural and historical heritage in the cities was impetus of development of tourism in European cities. Nowadays, in many European cities tourism is recognized as a mean of further economic development. Strategy of polycentricity, outlined in European spatial development perspective is supporting that process, too. Many tourist centres and metropolitan tourist areas have been developed. In the period from 1996. to 2007. number of visitors in European cultural capitals was growing continuously by rate of 25,6%. In the same period, the number of international tourist arrivals increased by rate of only 7%.

  20. The Impacts of Bologna Process on European Higher Education Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer ÇELİK

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the impact of Bologna Process on European higher education systems. It focuses on the influences of the main components of Bologna Process (i.e., implementing two-cycle system, increasing the student and academic staffs' mobility, European Credit Transfer System, quality assurance and qualification framework on the transformation of higher education systems. Although Bologna Process is perceived as a move to increase the quality of higher education system in Turkey, there are very serious criticisms from academics, students, and businessmen to the Bologna Process in various European countries. This study claims that the Process did not achieve its goals, more importantly the main instruments of the Process (qualifications, quality assurance agency etc. brought about hyper-bureaucratization, hierarchization and standardization of European higher education systems.

  1. The European Network of Coloproctology: a strategy towards the European research and healthcare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubbini, Michele

    2016-12-01

    Many documents from the International Institutions point out that Health represents an engine of economic and social development. Based on these documents and concepts, the European Parliament decided to create a system of European Reference Networks as a synthesis of clinical and research activities, particularly in the field of rare diseases. This initiative, properly implemented, could be first step towards a new European health system. This article instead, wanting to deepen this perspective, postulates that the ERNs may also be related to widespread diseases, such as those of coloproctological interest, with the aim of setting up a European Network of Coloproctology (ENCP). Here are analyzed: (a) the documents related to ERNs and others related to research and training, the characteristics of the coloproctological diseases, and proposal of the ENCP; (b) a survey that involves 14 out of 25 of the National and Regional Representative of the European Society of Coloproctology. Hundred percent of the people interviewed agree to the ENCP project. The percentage of the approved proposed fields of activity of the ENCP are: Healthcare 71%, Research 100%, Training 86%, Support to legislation 78%, Professional Mobility 64%, Patient Database 71%, and Expenditure control 64%. From the analysis of the documents and the result of the survey, ERNs are appropriate not only in relation to rare diseases but also in those fields with higher diffusion and the creation of a European Network of Coloproctology is then postulated.

  2. Constructing a unitary title regime for the European Patent System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, V.F.

    2011-01-01

    The European Patent System without any unitary title allows Member States to retain institutional arrangements within their borders and to prevent any moves to delegate responsibility outside the national sphere. This intergovernmental patent regime suffers from fragmentation due to national

  3. TENDENCIES OF ICT INTRODUCTION IN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES EDUCATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna D. Malytska

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Importance of information and communication technologies introduction in education systems is admited by all foreign countries. Information processes, creation of uniform information space, using ICT, become one of priority approaches of the European states and Ukraine development. In the article the international documents of the European Union, the Great Britain, Russia, Ukraine, which form perspective approaches of education systems development are analysed. The priority areas of ICT introduction are outlined by the European countries, the basic tendencies concerning ICT use at schools of the Great Britain are defined, the basic initiatives of the Russian Federation and Ukraine on this problem are considered.

  4. Comparison of property taxation systems in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Krzysztof Adam Firlej; Chrystian Firlej

    2014-01-01

    In this paper an attempt has been made to characterize theoretical and empirical determinants of property taxation systems in the European Union with particular emphasis on the fiscal functions of property tax. The study was conducted based on the method for the analysis and critique of literature. Within the theoretical framework, this study touches upon such issues as: theoretical considerations of property taxation and the classification of property taxation systems within the European Uni...

  5. Towards Signalling Maintenance Scheduling for European Railway Traffic Management System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    M. Pour, Shahrzad

    signalling system. Therefore, the entire maintenance system needs to change from the previous system to the newest system, and hence, new optimisation techniques need to be established so as to facilitate managers in creating ideal maintenance strategies. The aim of this thesis is to develop new maintenance......The European Railway Traffic Management System (ERTMS) is the newest signalling standard that has been introduced in the railway industry. The aim of ERTMS is to ensure better signalling communication amongst various train systems, and hence, to help in attaining improved connectivity and commuting...... between European countries. In various countries across the world, there is a gradual shift from the current signalling systems to ERTMS. Amongst the European countries, Denmark was the first country to commence a full upgrading of its signalling system to ERTMS. A variety of maintenance requirements...

  6. Twenty Years of the European Information Systems Academy at ECIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, Mari-Klara; Galliers, Robert D.; Whitley, Edgar A.

    2016-01-01

    by further developing the profile of European IS research that was reported on in EJIS following the first 10 years of the European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS). On the basis of an analysis of all papers published in ECIS proceedings during the 10-year period 2003–2012, the paper highlights three...... key characteristics of the developing European IS research profile: (1) continuation of the traditional European IS research profile as developed in the first decade; (2) convergence with aspects of the North American tradition and (3) development of a distinct approach to design science. We place...... these observed characteristics within broader historical and contextual features such as the changing European academic landscape, with increasing pressures to ‘publish or perish’ in order to be internationally competitive. Our contribution lies in providing a contemporaneous account of the dominant contextual...

  7. The European standard series in 9 European countries, 2002/2003 - First results of the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uter, W; Hegewald, J; Aberer, W; Ayala, F; Bircher, AJ; Brasch, J; Coenraads, PJ; Schuttelaar, Marielouise; Elsner, P; Fartasch, M; Mahler, V.; Fortina, AB; Frosch, PJ; Fuchs, T; Johansen, JD; Menne, T; Jolanki, R; Krecisz, B; Kiec-Swierczynska, M; Larese, F; Orton, D; Peserico, A; Rantanen, T; Schnuch, A

    Since January 2001, the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA), supported by European Union funding (contract QLK4-CT-2001-00343), has started to collect patch-test data. This comprises a standardized clinical history and the patch-test results using the European standard series,

  8. Future of European Financial Supervision, Towards a European System of Financial Supervisors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arons, T.M.C.

    The 2008 financial crisis made clear the shortcomings in the European structure of financial supervision. In the cur­rent system of financial supervision the financial supervi­sor of the home Member State is in principle the only autho­rity entitled to supervise financial institutions even in case

  9. European Vocational Education Systems. A Guide to Vocational Education and Training in the European Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Helen

    This book describes the 12 vocational education systems conducted by the members of the European Community. The 12 country chapters (Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, and the United Kingdom) follow the same model and are organized into the following six sections: key facts,…

  10. Experiences with Learning Management Systems in 113 European Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Flate Paulsen

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the major findings from six regional analyses conducted within the framework of the European Web-edu project (http://www.nettskolen.com/in_english/webedusite/index.html. It analyses the experiences of European institutions with the Learning Management Systems that they have purchased or developed themselves. Data was collected from in-depth interviews with 113 European experts, usually the systems managers in the institutions, in 17 countries. The analyses of the interviews revealed as many as 52 different commercial and 35 self-developed LMS systems. The article presents the data from these interviews and includes a series of important findings from the study. One conclusion is that there is a host of commercial and self-developed systems that seem to work satisfactorily in various educational institutions throughout Europe. The systems are not able to handle all the functions the institutions want, and they can be improved in many ways. But most systems encountered in the analyses seem to be good enough for handling online education successfully. Another conclusion is that the European market is not dominated by the American LMS systems. In countries that do not use English as the first language, locally developed LMS systems have successfully ousted the American products. Remarkably, a large number of the LMS systems used in Europe are commercial systems developed locally, or self-developed systems built by the institutions.

  11. System driven technology selection for future European launch systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiocco, P.; Ramusat, G.; Sirbi, A.; Bouilly, Th.; Lavelle, F.; Cardone, T.; Fischer, H.; Appel, S.

    2015-02-01

    In the framework of the next generation launcher activity at ESA, a top-down approach and a bottom-up approach have been performed for the identification of promising technologies and alternative conception of future European launch vehicles. The top-down approach consists in looking for system-driven design solutions and the bottom-up approach features design solutions leading to substantial advantages for the system. The main investigations have been focused on the future launch vehicle technologies. Preliminary specifications have been used in order to permit sub-system design to find the major benefit for the overall launch system. The development cost, non-recurring and recurring cost, industrialization and operational aspects have been considered as competitiveness factors for the identification and down-selection of the most interesting technologies. The recurring cost per unit payload mass has been evaluated. The TRL/IRL has been assessed and a preliminary development plan has been traced for the most promising technologies. The potentially applicable launch systems are Ariane and VEGA evolution. The main FLPP technologies aim at reducing overall structural mass, increasing structural margins for robustness, metallic and composite containment of cryogenic hydrogen and oxygen propellants, propellant management subsystems, elements significantly reducing fabrication and operational costs, avionics, pyrotechnics, etc. to derive performing upper and booster stages. Application of the system driven approach allows creating performing technology demonstrators in terms of need, demonstration objective, size and cost. This paper outlines the process of technology down selection using a system driven approach, the accomplishments already achieved in the various technology fields up to now, as well as the potential associated benefit in terms of competitiveness factors.

  12. Policy options for the improvement of the European patent system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsmore, Matthew J.

    2008-01-01

    This project has been initiated - and this report written - in order to assess how the European patent system best fulfils its objective of defining the exclusive rights granted to inventors so as to further the goal of enhancing social and economic welfare by means of encouraging inventions...... and their distribution. Finding the right balance is important, since the reward offered to inventors in the form of exclusive rights provides the incentive to innovate, but if the reward is too excessive, it may hamper innovation and the distribution of knowledge. The general premise of this report is that the European...... patent system has so far been a positive factor in promoting innovation. Therefore, it is not the objective of the report to evaluate whether such system should or should not exist. Rather, the report works from the starting position that the European patent system may be operating in certain ways...

  13. Trans-European transport networks and urban systems in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksin-Mićić Marija

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The trans-European transport network has different effects at interregional macro-regional and mezzo-regional level, and its effectiveness rises at the lower regional levels. Possible approaches to the trans-European transport network impact and effect survey and policy options have been pointed out. In that respect the brief review of survies, strategic framework and policies in European Union has been given. The importance of increased accessibility and mobility for regional expansion and for more balanced and polycentric system of city networks has been underlined. The question is how the new major transport infrastructure affects the development of functional complementarity between cities and regions. The new trans-European or major transport infrastructure does not per se create regional and urban system network development, although it can affect the conditions for the processes that create growth and development. The effects can be increased by co-ordination of measures of regional and urban policy, land use, transport and other policies. The necessary measure is the introduction of spatial impact assessment as sectorial policy instrument for the large transport infrastructure projects.

  14. Revisiting the dose calculation methodologies in European decision support systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Kasper Grann; Roos, Per; Hou, Xiaolin

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents examples of current needs for improvement and extended applicability of the European decision support systems. The systems were originally created for prediction of the radiological consequences of accidents at nuclear installations. They could however also be of great value in...... for, to introduce new knowledge and thereby improve prognoses....

  15. A European Land Mobile Satellite System via EMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananasso, Fulvio; Mistretta, Ignazio

    1991-10-01

    The paper analyzes the technical and market issues that influence the strategy of implementation of a Land Mobile Satellite System via the payload EMS (European Mobile System) embarked on ITALSAT F-2. The final goal is to determine services, network architecture, and added value chain that make LMSS via EMS profitable for a typical telecommunication company.

  16. Aspects of the European system of financial supervision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy Zoltán B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the main stages of the development of the European financial supervisory regulation and the current European System of Financial Supervision. The financial economic crisis highlighted the weaknesses in the supervisory system and the fact that the supervisor has an important role in consumer protection and in the mitigation of risk-taking by financial institutions. The European Union has developed a new financial strategy known as Banking Union, which has a three-pillar framework. These three pillars are the Single Supervisory Mechanism, the Single Resolution Mechanism and the Common Deposit Guarantee Scheme. This system is intended to achieve a single economic and monetary union at supranational level and to avoid the emergence of a new crisis as far as possible.

  17. Comparison of property taxation systems in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Adam Firlej

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an attempt has been made to characterize theoretical and empirical determinants of property taxation systems in the European Union with particular emphasis on the fiscal functions of property tax. The study was conducted based on the method for the analysis and critique of literature. Within the theoretical framework, this study touches upon such issues as: theoretical considerations of property taxation and the classification of property taxation systems within the European Union with a distinction between value systems and surface systems. At the practical level characteristics have been established of property taxation volvasystems in the European Union considering the range of subjective and objective methods for determining and updating the tax base, as well as the amount of tax burden. Subsequently, an analysis has been done of the fiscal functions of property tax within the European Union. It has been noted that the role of the property tax in individual Member States of the European Union is different. Results indicate that the key cause of a significant variation in effects of a fiscal nature is the adopted method of determining the so-called tax value of the property (market value or rental value of the property, as determined for the purposes of establishing the tax base as well as accepted rates. It was found that tax revenues in countries where cadastral systems exist are much greater than in the case of surface systems. It should also be noted that, in countries where the dimension of property taxes is made conditional on the data collected in cadastral records, the tax potential varies, and the reasons for this state of affairs are the specific solutions adopted in particular European countries.

  18. A review of the European offshore wind innovation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieczorek, A.J.; Negro, S.O.; Harmsen, R.; Heimeriks, G.J.; Luo, L.; Hekkert, M.P.

    2013-01-01

    Offshore wind has the potential of becoming an important pillar of the future European energy system. It can contribute to policy objectives on climate change, energy security, green growth and social progress. However, the large potential of offshore wind does not automatically lead to a large

  19. The European Patent System: Dealing with emerging technologies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kica, Evisa; Groenendijk, Nico

    2011-01-01

    In light of recent controversial patent decisions in biotechnology, this article argues that the current European patent examination and opposition procedures do not suffice to balance the patent system These procedures do not provide sufficient guidance for patent examiners to deal effectively with

  20. Dimension, Egalitarianism and Decisiveness of European Voting Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc Carreras

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of three major aspects has been carried out that may apply to any of the successive voting systems used for the European Union Council of Ministers, from the first one established in the Treaty of Rome in 1958 to the current one established in Lisbon. We mainly consider the voting systems designed for the enlarged European Union adopted in the Athens summit, held in April 2003 but this analysis can be applied to any other system. First, it is shown that the dimension of these voting systems does not, in general, reduce. Next, the egalitarian effects of superposing two or three weighted majority games (often by introducing additional consensus are considered. Finally, the decisiveness of these voting systems is evaluated and compared. (original abstract

  1. The European reliability data system. An organized information exchange on the operation of European nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancini, G.; Amesz, J.; Bastianini, P.; Capobianchi, S.

    1983-01-01

    The paper revises the aims and objectives of the European Reliability Data System (ERDS), a centralized system collecting and organizing, at European level, information related to the operation of LWRs. The ERDS project was started in 1977 and after a preliminary feasibility study that ended in 1979 is now proceeding towards the final design and implementation stages. ERDS exploits information collected in national data systems and information deriving from single reactor sources. The paper describes first the development of the four data banks constituting the system: Component Event Data Bank, CEDB; Abnormal Occurrences Reporting System, AORS; Operating Unit Status Report, OUSR; and Generic Reliability Parameter Data Bank, GRPDB. Several typical aspects concerning the project are then outlined from the need of homogeneization of data and therefore the need for setting up reference classifications, to the problem of data transcoding and input into the system. Furthermore, the need is stressed of involving much more deeply nuclear power plant operators into the process of data acquisition by providing them with a useful feedback from the data analysis. (author)

  2. European standards applied by Gas Transmission System Operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witek, M.; Kuchta, K.; Oleszkiewicz, J.; Teperek, T.

    2005-01-01

    The lecture described actual state of implementation of European standards concerning transmission of natural gas and underlined their importance for proper performance of Transmission System Operator (TSO). European standards implemented to Polish Standards as PN-EN, necessary for TSO, related to design, construction and operation of high pressure gas network were also described. The lecture underlined as well the impact of standards application on preparation process of national regulations. They obligate TSO to create the technical conditions that ensure safety of gas transmission network functioning as well as environmental and surroundings safety. (authors)

  3. European health systems and the internal market: reshaping ideology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa Leite Borges, Danielle

    2011-12-01

    Departing from theories of distributive justice and their relation with the distribution of health care within society, especially egalitarianism and libertarianism, this paper aims at demonstrating that the approach taken by the European Court of Justice regarding the application of the Internal Market principles (or the market freedoms) to the field of health care services has introduced new values which are more concerned with a libertarian view of health care. Moreover, the paper also addresses the question of how these new values introduced by the Court may affect common principles of European health systems, such as equity and accessibility.

  4. Feasibility study for the European Reliability Data System (ERDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancini, G.

    1980-01-01

    In the framework of the Reactor Safety Programme of the Commission of the European Communities, the JRC - Ispra Establishment has performed a feasibility study for an integrated European Reliability Data System, the aim of which is the collection and organization of information related to the operation of LWRs with regard to component and systems behaviour, abnormal occurrences, outages, etc. Component Event Data Bank (CEGB), Abnormal Occurrences Reporting System, Generic Reliability Parameter Data Bank, Operating Unit Status Reports and the main activities carried out during the last two years are described. The most important achievements are briefly reported, such as: Reference Classification for Systems, Components and Failure Events, Informatic Structure of the Pilot Experiment of the CEDB, Information Retrieval System for Abnormal Occurrences Reports, Data Bank on Component Reliability Parameters, System on the Exchange of Operation Experience of LWRs, Statistical Data Treatment. Finally, the general conclusions of the feasibility study are summarized: the possibility and the usefulness for the creation of an integrated European Reliability Data System are outlined. (author)

  5. The 25th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Doležel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This short note reports on my experience from The 25th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS. The conference was titled “Information Systems for a smart, sustainable and inclusive world“, and took place in Guimarães, Portugal in June 2017. I discuss the thematic focus of the conference and its scope. Then I refer about two workshops I attended during the conference.

  6. Public financing systems for radiology: experience in 12 European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesteloot, K.

    1999-01-01

    This paper illustrates the evolution in public health care financing systems in 12 European countries, in terms of the financing of radiology services. The financing systems for radiology used by public health care financing agencies are described in detail. The implications of these new financing conditions for health care delivery are briefly sketched. The paper concludes with some strategies to help radiologists cope with the tightening financing conditions for medical imaging. (orig.) (orig.)

  7. Similarities and differences between five European drug reimbursement systems

    OpenAIRE

    Franken, Margreet

    2012-01-01

    3349-357 Objectives: The aim of our study is to compare five European drug reimbursement systems, describe similarities and differences, and obtain insight into their strengths and weaknesses and formulate policy recommendations. Methods: We used the analytical Hutton Framework to assess in detail drug reimbursement systems in Austria, Belgium, France, the Netherlands, and Sweden. We investigated policy documents, explored literature, and conducted fifty-seven interviews with relevant s...

  8. CRASH - Community Road Accident System Homepage : feasibility study on a European Road Safety Information System, financially supported by the European Commission.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, M. Poppe, F. Blokpoel, A. & Kars, V.

    2000-01-01

    This report is the result of a feasibility study, financially supported by the European Commission. The study investigated the possibilities for the development and maintenance of a European Road Safety Information System with relevant and internationally comparable information. Recommendations on

  9. Survey of surveillance systems and select prevention activities for hepatitis B and C, European Union/European Economic Area, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffell, E F; van de Laar, M J

    2015-04-02

    Hepatitis B and C viral infections are leading causes of hepatic cirrhosis and cancer. The incidence and prevalence of both hepatitis B and C varies across European countries. European wide surveillance data help to understand the dynamic epidemiology of hepatitis B and C, which is important for the implementation and effectiveness of prevention and control activities.Comparison of surveillance data between countries in Europe is hampered by the differences in national healthcare and reporting systems. This report presents the results of a survey in 2009 which was undertaken to collect baseline information on surveillance systems and core prevention programmes for hepatitis B and C in individual European Union/ European Economic Area countries. The results provide key information to aid the interpretation of surveillance data, and while indicating heterogeneity in national surveillance systems and programmes, they highlight the potential of these systems. This resource has supported the implementation of a standardised European enhanced surveillance programme.

  10. Secondary mirror system for the European Solar Telescope (EST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaller, L.; Siegel, B.; Prieto, G.; Hernandez, E.; Casalta, J. M.; Mercader, J.; Barriga, J.

    2010-07-01

    The European Solar Telescope (EST) is a European collaborative project to build a 4m class solar telescope in the Canary Islands, which is now in its design study phase. The telescope will provide diffraction limited performance for several instruments observing simultaneously at the Coudé focus at different wavelengths. A multi-conjugated adaptive optics system composed of a tip-tilt mirror and several deformable mirrors will be integrated in the telescope optical path. The secondary mirror system is composed of the mirror itself (Ø800mm), the alignment drives and the cooling system needed to remove the solar heat load from the mirror. During the design study the feasibility to provide fast tip-tilt capabilities at the secondary mirror to work as the adaptive optics tip-tilt mirror is also being evaluated.

  11. The impact of climate change on the European energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowling, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Climate change can affect the economy via many different channels in many different sectors. The POLES global energy model has been modified to widen the coverage of climate change impacts on the European energy system. The impacts considered are changes in heating and cooling demand in the residential and services sector, changes in the efficiency of thermal power plants, and changes in hydro, wind (both on- and off-shore) and solar PV electricity output. Results of the impacts of six scenarios on the European energy system are presented, and the implications for European energy security and energy imports are presented. Main findings include: demand side impacts (heating and cooling in the residential and services sector) are larger than supply side impacts; power generation from fossil-fuel and nuclear sources decreases and renewable energy increases; and impacts are larger in Southern Europe than in Northern Europe. There remain many more climate change impacts on the energy sector that cannot currently be captured due to a variety of issues including: lack of climate data, difficulties translating climate data into energy-system-relevant data, lack of detail in energy system models where climate impacts act. This paper does not attempt to provide an exhaustive analysis of climate change impacts in the energy sector, it is rather another step towards an increasing coverage of possible impacts. - Highlights: • Expanded coverage of climate change impacts on European energy system. • Demand side impacts are larger than supply side impacts. • Power from fossil and nuclear sources decreases, renewable energy increases. • Impacts are larger in Southern Europe than in Northern Europe. • Synergies exist between climate change mitigation and climate change adaptation

  12. Attitudes of European citizens towards pig production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krystallis, Athanasios; de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Kügler, Jens Oliver

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the study is to map citizen attitudes towards pigmeat production systems, and to investigate whether these attitudes associate with pork and pork product consumption. A conjoint experimentwas carried out with empirical data collected from 1931 individuals in four European countries...... pork with specific fat content, and finally the preferred quality characteristics of the pork end-product. The results of the conjoint analysis were used for a subsequent cluster analysis in order to identify European citizen clusters. Respondents' socio-demographic profile, attitudes towards issues...... that are expected to influence the way people evaluate pig meat production systems, and consumption frequency of various pork products are used as background information to identify segment profiles. Pork appears to play a substantial role as a part of the diet for most respondents in the four countries...

  13. REVIEW OF THE EUROPEAN SYSTEMS RESEARCH PROGRAMS OF URBAN TERRITORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Kovalskyi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The model of sustainable development of the territory should be in a state of control and management. The system of urban monitoring of Ukraine does not fully provide information on the level of sustainable development of settlements and regions. Therefore, it is necessary to create systems for monitoring indicators of sustainable development of human settlements and regions. The objective of this study is to analyze the existing programs for stimulating sustainable development in European countries and to develop recommendations on the need to organize such systems in Ukraine and to improve the system of urban monitoring. The article describes such systems and programs: URBACT is a program for sharing best practices between cities by creating thematic networks. URBACT’s mission is to encourage cities to work together and develop integrated solutions to common urban problems, through networking, to learn from each other’s experiences and identify best practices in order to improve urban policies; URBAN AUDIT – a large set of statistical information. The main objective of the system is to provide objective and comparable statistical data on European cities; URBAN ATLAS – provides a pan-European comparison of urban land use data. The information is in the form of open geospatial data. The system is aimed at facilitating work on site planning and site accounting. It is necessary to adopt the best practices of implementing sustainable development technology and apply it in other countries that have chosen a model for their development – a model for sustainable development of the territory. The current system of town-planning monitoring in Ukraine needs to be improved and given a new task – to take into account indicators of sustainable development of the territories. This system is most suitable for this task, since urban monitoring already takes into account certain indicators in the form of spatial data.

  14. Stabilising system frequency using HVDC between the Continental European, Nordic, and Great Britain systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, J.E.S.; Escudero Concha, C.; Gibescu, M.; van Putten, J.; Doorman, G.L.; Kling, W.L.

    2016-01-01

    For future efficiency improvement of the frequency containment process (primary control) within European power systems, cooperation between (multiple) synchronous areas using their controllable HVDC interconnections is optioned. However, the differences in system size, HVDC interconnection capacity,

  15. Recommendations to harmonize European early warning dosimetry network systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowski, H.; Bleher, M.; De Cort, M.; Dabrowski, R.; Neumaier, S.; Stöhlker, U.

    2017-12-01

    After the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986, followed by the Fukushima Nuclear power plant accident 25 years later, it became obvious that real-time information is required to quickly gain radiological information. As a consequence, the European countries established early warning network systems with the aim to provide an immediate warning in case of a major radiological emergency, to supply reliable information on area dose rates, contamination levels, radioactivity concentrations in air and finally to assess public exposure. This is relevant for governmental decisions on intervention measures in an emergency situation. Since different methods are used by national environmental monitoring systems to measure area dose rate values and activity concentrations, there are significant differences in the results provided by different countries. Because European and neighboring countries report area dose rate data to a central data base operated on behalf of the European Commission, the comparability of the data is crucial for its meaningful interpretation, especially in the case of a nuclear accident with transboundary implications. Only by harmonizing measuring methods and data evaluation, is the comparability of the dose rate data ensured. This publication concentrates on technical requirements and methods with the goal to effectively harmonize area dose rate monitoring data provided by automatic early warning network systems. The requirements and procedures laid down in this publication are based on studies within the MetroERM project, taking into account realistic technical approaches and tested procedures.

  16. SOME CRITICAL ASPECTS CONCERNING THE INSTITUTIONAL SYSTEM OF EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timofte Claudia Simona

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we want to clarify and understand the decisional process in European which is related to the determination of the identity of the Union, answering to several questions concerning the implementation of the European Union into an organization, the different relations with other organizations and with the international law. In the family of the international organizations, the European Union has its own place because it realizes an economic integration project and a political one, a supranational but refusing the traditional categories of constitution and the international law. Qualifying as an international organization sui generis, EU developed a new legal order, deciding to create a supranational organization, formed by Member States and their citizens. The integration process is a permanent challenge opened to a new and developing process for solving all the internal and external problems of the EU. The States have an international "sensitivity" when the application of EU rules exceeds their obligations laid down in the Treaties to third countries and international organizations to which they have not exempted obligations. It was argued that the concept of "demos" or acting people is intrinsically linked to that of the nation-State. The issue of democratic deficit of the European Union is bound to four basic problems: the construction as a whole and therefore of the institutional system, under the principle of conferral, the Union shall act only within the limits that Member States have been conferred in the Treaties to attain the objectives that they set, The Treaty of Lisbon reinforces the legitimacy of the operation of the Union based on free and democratic will expressed by Member States. European construction is achieved through a democratic transfer of competences of the democratic States to a Commission subject to a weak democratic control, while the European Central Bank preserves absolute dominion over its monetary policy

  17. European Reliability Data System: main developments and use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amesz, J.; Capobianchi, S.; Kalfsbeek, H.W.; Mancini, G.

    1985-01-01

    The paper revises the aims and objectives of the European Reliability Data System (ERDS), a centralized system collecting and organizing information related to the operation of light water reactors. The paper first describes the recent developments of the four data banks constituting the system: Component Event Data Bank, Abnormal Occurrences Reporting System, Operating Unit Status Report and Reliability Parameters Data Bank. Then several issues are discussed referring mostly to the status of classification schemes and their use, to the operation of the banks (data input and transcoding) and to the retrieval and utilization of the information; in this latter case particularly the analysis potential of the data collection scheme of the AORS (Abnormal Occurrences Reporting System) is demonstrated. Finally, emphasis is given to the increasing role which artificial intelligence techniques such as natural language and expert systems and fuzzy logic may play in improving the future capabilities of the system

  18. EURADOS intercomparison 2006 to harmonise European early warning dosimetry systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dombrowski, H.; Neumaier, S.; Thompson, I. M. G.; Wissmann, F.

    2009-01-01

    In 2006, the European Radiation Dosimetry (EURADOS) Working Group on Environmental Radiation Monitoring (WG3) organised a third European intercomparison of dosimetry systems operated in national early warning networks. Similar to the intercomparisons in 1999 and 2002, the main aim of this exercise was to support the process of harmonisation of area monitoring in Europe by providing the network operators with basic information on the calibration and performance of their dosimetry systems. In order to characterise these systems, their following basic parameters were investigated: the response to terrestrial and cosmic radiation, the detectors' inherent background, the response at low dose rates, the energy dependence of the response as well as the sensitivity of the detector systems to small changes of the dose rate in a natural environmental radiation field. In the 2006 EURADOS intercomparison, scientists from seven countries participated to study the characteristics of 11 detector systems. All results are presented in terms of the operational quantity ambient dose equivalent, H * (10). The advent of this quantity has caused the development of new detector systems for area monitoring. Some of these new systems participated in a EURADOS intercomparison for the first time. The results are consistently presented together with uncertainties so that statistical effects can be distinguished from real detector features, which improves the interpretation of the results. By using the results of this intercomparison, some detectors were re-calibrated. The achievable improvements concerning harmonisation in dose-rate measurements in the natural environment are discussed. (authors)

  19. Policy Options for the Improvement of the European Patent System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen; Cowin, Robin; Van de Eijck, Wim

    2007-01-01

    , the Working Group recognizes that the protection and enforcement of the rights of inventors through the patent system must be done in a manner to stimulate innovation and the diffusion of knowledge. In order to propose meaningful policy options that meet these objectives as much as possible, the evidence put......The present report is based on an independent, policy-oriented investigation of the current European patent system. The central premise of the report is that the patent system has so far been a positive factor in promoting innovation and the diffusion of knowledge, and thus that the system...... is contributing in a constructive way to economic and social welfare objectives. In acknowledging the importance of the patent system in relation to many aspects of society, it is also essential to continually evaluate whether the system is working as effectively as it could be. In addition, because of some...

  20. The National System for quality control and the European experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimov, A.; Vassileva, J.; Ingilizova, K.; Slavchev, A. and others

    2003-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the work is to present the structure and functions of the National System for quality control (NSQC) in the medical irradiation, created to guarantee the safety and the safe use of the radiological equipment. Material and method: The approaches are studies in the development of the NSQC, applied in Bulgaria and some European Union members - such as Germany and Great Britain - and the specifics of the way in which the Directive for medical irradiation EURATOM 97/43 is implemented in national legislations. Results: The advantages and disadvantages of Bulgarian NSQC are analysed and some ideas for tis improvement are suggested. Conclusions: The developed draft NSQC for medical irradiation is in compliance with the requirement of the European Directive. The real advantages and disadvantages of the NSQC will show after its implementation in the practical radiation protection and control in the country

  1. Organ Donation European Quality System: ODEQUS project methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyalich, M; Guasch, X; Gomez, M P; Páez, G; Teixeira, L

    2013-01-01

    Differences in the number of organ donors among hospitals cannot be explained only by the number of intensive care unit beds used or neurologic patients treated. The figures obtained are influenced by the organizational structure of the donation process and how efficient it is. The Organ Donation European Quality System (ODEQUS) is a 3-year project (from October 2010 to September 2013) co-financed by the European Agency for Health and Consumers (EAHC20091108) which aims to define a methodology to evaluate organ procurement performance at the hospital level. ODEQUS's specific objectives are to identify quality criteria and to develop quality indicators in three types of organ donation (after brain death, after cardiac death, and living donation). Those tools will be useful for hospitals' self-assessment as well as for developing an international auditing model. A consortium has been established involving 14 associated partners from Austria, Croatia, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom, as well as five collaborating partners from Greece, Hungary, Malta, Slovenia, and Turkey. The project has been established in three steps: 1) Design of a survey about the use of quality tools in a wide sample of European hospitals; 2) Development of quality criteria and quality indicators by the project experts. The main fields considered have been organizational structures, clinical procedures, and outcomes; and 3) Elaboration of an evaluation system to test the quality indicators in 11 European hospitals. Two types of training have been designed and performed: one concerns the development of quality criteria and quality indicators, whereas another is focused on how to use evaluation tools. Following this methodology, the project has so far identified 131 quality criteria and developed 31 quality indicators. Currently, the quality indicators are being tested in 11 selected hospitals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  2. Social Justice and Capacity for Self-Development in Educational Systems in European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bo-Ruey

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores social justice and equity in educational policies and systems in the European Union, and analyzes the significance within. Equity indicators of the European educational systems, "Equity of the European Educational Systems: A set of indicators" declared in 2006, introduces the debates on educational justice issues on…

  3. Information technology law and health systems in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossialos, Elias; Thomson, Sarah; Ter Linden, Annemarie

    2004-01-01

    This study aims to examine the impact of European Union (EU) law relating to information technology (IT) on health systems. The study identifies EU directives relating to IT, analyzes them in terms of their impact on the use of IT in health systems, and outlines their implications for health technology assessment (HTA). Analysis is based on a review of literature identified through relevant databases and Internet searches. Developments in IT have serious implications for EU health systems, presenting policy makers with new challenges. The European Commission has adopted a range of legal measures to protect consumers in the "information society" However, as few of them are health-specific, it is not evident that they have implications for health, health systems, or HTA, and they may not be effective in protecting consumers in the health sector. In light of the growing importance of IT in the health sector, legal and nonlegal measures need to be further developed at EU and international level. Where possible, future initiatives should pay attention to the particular characteristics of health goods and services and health systems. Although definitions of HTA usually recognize the importance of evaluating both the indirect, unintended consequences of health technologies and the legal aspects of their application, it seems that, in practice, HTA often overlooks or underestimates legislative matters. Those involved in HTA should be aware of the legal implications of using IT to provide health goods and services and compile, store, transfer, and disseminate health information electronically.

  4. Front hadron calorimeter of the European hybrid spectrometer monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borotav, M.; Vlasov, E.V.; David, Zh. and others.

    1985-01-01

    A complex system for light control (SLC) of the front hadron calorimeter (FHC) of the European hybrid spectrometer is described. The FHC includes 200 plastic scintillators. The SLC permits to conduct autonomous correction of multiplication factor drift of photoelectron multipliers (PEM) and to identify failed elements. Control functions are exercised by two independent subsystems. The first one is a part of the general system of data acquisition. The second one - a system of on-line control of FHC state is intended for continuous successive by-channel analog-to-digital transformation of signals-responses on reper light pulses recorded from the PEM dinodes. The systems are presented in the CAMAC standard. The structural diagram of the system, functional correlation of modules and ideology of software are presented. On-line control permits to bring the detector in the mode corresponding to any of earlier conducted calibrations at the accuracy of 5%

  5. The farming system component of European agricultural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Erling

    2017-01-01

    Agricultural landscapes are the outcome of combined natural and human factors over time. This paper explores the scope of perceiving the agricultural landscapes of the European Union (EU) as distinct patterns of farming systems and landscape elements in homogeneous biophysical and administrative...... landscapes evolve from the praxis of the farmers and takes into account the scale, intensity and specialisation of the agricultural production. From farming system design point of view, the approach can be used to integrate the landscape in the design process. From a policy point of view, the approach offers...... endowments. The focus is on the farming systems component of the agricultural landscapes by applying a typology to the sample farms of the Farm Accountancy Data Network and scaling up the results to the landscape level for the territory of the EU. The farming system approach emphasises that agricultural...

  6. Common cause failure investigations using the European Reliability Data System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Games, A.M.; Breewood, M.; Amendola, A.; Keller, A.Z.

    1984-01-01

    The European Reliability Data System (ERDS) has provided data for use in investigations into common cause failures (CCFs) in nuclear power plants. These investigations have been made on two levels, at a system and inter-system level. Data have been used from the Component Event Data Bank and from the Licensee Event Report Files, both part of the ERDS. The two studies required different methodologies although both commenced with a temporal sorting procedure for the failure events. The studies demonstrated that different types of common cause failure necessitate different search algorithms, and thus a data search must be closely related to an appropriate CCF classification system, which in the first instance would not be based on causes of failure. (author)

  7. Trans-European transport networks and urban systems in European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Maksin-Mićić Marija

    2003-01-01

    The trans-European transport network has different effects at interregional macro-regional and mezzo-regional level, and its effectiveness rises at the lower regional levels. Possible approaches to the trans-European transport network impact and effect survey and policy options have been pointed out. In that respect the brief review of survies, strategic framework and policies in European Union has been given. The importance of increased accessibility and mobility for regional expansion and f...

  8. Do European agroforestry systems enhance biodiversity and ecosystem services?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torralba Viorreta, Mario; Fagerholm, Nora; Burgess, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    Agroforestry has been proposed as a sustainable agricultural system over conventional agriculture and forestry, conserving biodiversity and enhancing ecosystem service provision while not compromising productivity. However, the available evidence for the societal benefits of agroforestry...... is fragmented and does often not integrate diverse ecosystem services into the assessment. To upscale existing case-study insights to the European level, we conducted a meta-analysis on the effects of agroforestry on ecosystem service provision and on biodiversity levels. From 53 publications we extracted...... a total of 365 comparisons that were selected for the meta-analysis. Results revealed an overall positive effect of agroforestry (effect size = 0.454, p agroforestry practices...

  9. Optimized Bunch Compression System for the European XFEL

    CERN Document Server

    Limberg, Torsten; Brinkmann, Reinhard; Decking, Winfried; Dohlus, Martin; Flöettmann, Klaus; Kim, Yujong; Schneidmiller, Evgeny

    2005-01-01

    The European XFEL bunch compressor system has been optimized for greater flexibility in parameter space. Operation beyond the XFEL design parameters is discussed in two directions: achieving the uppermost number of photons in a single pulse on one hand and reaching the necessary peak current for lasing with a pulse as short as possible on the other. Results of start-to-end calculations including 3D-CSR effects, space charge forces and the impact on wake fields demonstrate the potential of the XFEL for further improvement or, respectively, its safety margin for operation at design values.

  10. CAPITALISM EMERGING ERA TAX SYSTEMS OF THE EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsokova Viktoria Aleksandrovna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Three phases should be distinguished in the development of tax systems: I. The Ancient World and Middle Ages (from the IV - III centuries. BC. till. XVII - XVIII centuries AD. II. The new time (from the XVII - XVIII centuries till the end of XIX century. - the era of the emerging capitalism. III. Modern History (from the XX century and up to the present time. The capitalism emerging era scientific ideas and tax systems research relevance (importance is caused by the emergence of the main distinct characteristics of any state, that is by the permanently increasing demand of that institution for money. This fact, in its turn, contributes to the formation of the state tax system, and, of course, the evolution of scientific views on taxation. Nowadays, some theoretical ideas in the field of taxation, clarifying the nature and the role of taxes in the European countries budget formation begin to appear in Europe, especially in the UK. The development of tax systems in England, France and Germany have been analyzed; and , basing on the dialectical, historical and logical approaches, and the method of scientific abstraction, the authors identify the following common features of the capitalism emerging era tax systems in the European countries: the taxation on a regular (permanent basis, the expansion of the tax-payers range – all citizens of the state are becoming tax payers, the introduction of the income tax and the abolishment of the revenue leasing – creation of government agencies system responsible for the administration of taxes, to establishing and collecting taxes only with the Parliament approval and permission. Classical theoretical and practical approaches to creation of tax systems of the states have been formulated in Europe in the era of nascent capitalism and they haven’t lost the relevance yet.

  11. European Train Control System: A Case Study in Formal Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platzer, André; Quesel, Jan-David

    Complex physical systems have several degrees of freedom. They only work correctly when their control parameters obey corresponding constraints. Based on the informal specification of the European Train Control System (ETCS), we design a controller for its cooperation protocol. For its free parameters, we successively identify constraints that are required to ensure collision freedom. We formally prove the parameter constraints to be sharp by characterizing them equivalently in terms of reachability properties of the hybrid system dynamics. Using our deductive verification tool KeYmaera, we formally verify controllability, safety, liveness, and reactivity properties of the ETCS protocol that entail collision freedom. We prove that the ETCS protocol remains correct even in the presence of perturbation by disturbances in the dynamics. We verify that safety is preserved when a PI controlled speed supervision is used.

  12. Oral healthcare systems in the extended European union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widström, Eeva; Eaton, Kenneth A

    2004-01-01

    This article reports a survey of the systems for the provision of oral healthcare in the 28 member and accession states of the EU/EEA in 2003. Descriptions of the systems were collected from the principal dental advisers to governments in the individual states. In many states these were the Chief Dental Officers (CDOs). In states without a CDO, descriptions were gathered from CDO equivalents or senior academics. A template (model description) was used to guide all respondents. Additional statistical information on oral healthcare costs and workforce was collected from the Council of European Chief Dental Officers, WHO and World Bank websites. The study showed that in broad terms there were six patterns (Beveridgian, Bismarkian, The Eastern European (in transition), Nordic, Southern European and Hybrid) for the administration and financing of oral healthcare in the expanding EU. The extent and nature of government involvement in planning and coordinating oral healthcare services and the numbers and pay of the oral healthcare workforce varied between the different models. The biggest recent changes in European oral healthcare were found to have occurred in Eastern Europe, where there has been wide scale privatization of the previously public dental services. However, most of the EU accession (Eastern European) states seemed to be slowly developing insurance systems to cover oral health treatment costs. In the existing EU/EEA, the public dental services such as those in the Nordic countries still have strong political support and some expansion has occurred. In Southern Europe public dental services seemed to have gained some acceptance for the treatment of children and special needs groups. In UK, which has a unique public dental service system, there are plans to make big changes in the delivery, commissioning and remuneration of dental services in the near future. Some EU member states which operate the Bismarkian system with health insurances offering wide

  13. Position of the European Union in the Global Trade System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovićević Mladen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Only a few decades ago, the main drivers of globalization were the exchange of goods and capital flows, while the global trading system of today, fuelled by rapid technological changes increasingly bases itself on knowledge. The Key events - such as the use of the Internet and the increasingly important role of the rising countries economies - have contributed to a faster global exchange, but to a new nature as well. In order to illustrate the scope of the increase, perhaps it would be the best to mention the fact that in the 1970’s the share of trade in the world GDP amounted to 20%, whereas today it makes about one half. On the other hand, modern products represent compounds of raw materials, components, technologies and services originating from different areas and different continents, which has globalized the products themselves. In such conditions of the market competition, imposed by globalization and liberalization, for the European Union to remain as a leader, it had to prepare a sound and well-founded foreign policy strategy. The aim of this paper is to analyse the current position of the European Union in the global trading system, instruments of foreign trade policy, goals, foreign trade and the main challenges placed before the Union.

  14. Efficiency vs Effectiveness: a Benchmarking Study on European Healthcare Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado lo Storto

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. This paper illustrates a benchmarking study concerning the healthcare systems in 32 European countries as of 2011 and 2014. Particularly, this study proposes a two-dimensional approach (efficiency/effectiveness models to evaluate the performance of national healthcare systems. Data Envelopment Analysis has been adopted to compute two performance indices, measuring efficiency and effectiveness of these healthcare systems. The results of the study emphasize that the national healthcare systems achieve different efficiency and effectiveness levels. Their performance indices are uncorrelated and behave differently over time, suggesting that there might be no real trade-off between them. The healthcare systems’ efficiencies remain generally stable, while the effectiveness values significantly improved from 2011 to 2014. However, comparing the efficiency and effectiveness scores, the authors identified a group of countries with the lowest performing healthcare systems that includes Ukraine, Bulgaria, Switzerland, Lithuania, and Romania. These countries need to implement healthcare reforms aimed at reducing resource intensity and increasing the quality of medical services. The results also showed the benefits of the proposed approach, which can help policy makers to identify shortcomings in national healthcare systems and justify the need for their reform.

  15. RODOS: a comprehensive European - integrated decision support system for Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateescu, Gh.; Gheorghiu, Adriana; Gheorghiu, Dorina; Slavnicu, Dan; Craciunescu, Teddy

    1998-01-01

    This work is basically dedicated to RODOS (Real-time On-line DecisiOn support System), a comprehensive (computerized) decision support system ((C)DSS), integrated at European scale, which is in progress to be customized and implemented also for Romania to cope with the off-site response to nuclear emergencies. The first part deals with a short introduction regarding the need for a decision support system especially in case of a nuclear accident; there are also briefly reviewed the criteria one could demand that a CDSS should fulfill and the need for CDSS to give unequivocal answers to all encountered matters. Subsequently, there are mentioned some of the most known DSS in the world for off-site response to nuclear emergencies together with certain recent accomplishment of the IAEA in this field. The next chapter is dedicated to the four basic related projects (ECURIE, EURDEP, OSEP and RODOS) of the European Commission whose purpose consists in the optimisation of the nuclear emergency preparedness and response everywhere in Europe. Further on there are presented the basic features (the overall structure and functions), along with component software subsystems of the RODOS and, then, the background of RODOS implementation in Romania is reviewed (Romanian reasons to adhere to the RODOS project, needs, national legal framework and competent authorities in the nuclear domain, national radiological and meteorological networks. Finally, it is shortly reported the present status of RODOS customization and implementation in Romania (RODOS dedicated technical environment, collection of data and their transfer into RoGIS database, real-time on-line connection to networks, collection of data for countermeasure modules, source term assessment for CANDU-reactor, other related achievements) together with some concluding remarks. (authors)

  16. ETSON proposal on the European operational experience feedback system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maqua, Michael; Bertrand, Remy; Gelder, Pieter de

    2007-01-01

    The new IAEA Safety Fundamentals states regarding the operating experience feedback: The feedback of operating experience from facilities and activities - and, where relevant, from elsewhere - is a key means of enhancing safety. Processes must be put in place for the feedback and analysis of operating experience, including initiating events, accident precursors, near misses, accidents and unauthorized acts, so that lessons may be learned, shared and acted upon. This presentation deals with the proposal of the ETSON (European TSO Network) to optimize the European operating experiences feedback (OEF). It is generally recognized that the efficiency of nuclear safety supervision by public authorities is based on two key requirements: - the existence of a competent authority at national level, benefiting from an appropriate legislative and regulatory basis, from adequate (quantitatively and qualitatively) human resources, particularly for inspection purposes, - the availability of resources devoted to highly specialised independent technical expertise, in order to provide competent authorities with pertinent technical opinions on: -- the safety files provided by operators, for the purpose of licensing corresponding activities, -- the exploitation for regulatory purposes of the operating experience feed back from licensed nuclear installations. There are two worldwide systems intended to learn lessons from experience: the WANO (World Association of Nuclear Operators) system established by the licensees with access restricted to operating organizations and the IRS system jointly operated by IAEA and OECD/NEA accessible to regulators and to some other users nominated by the regulators in their countries. The IRS itself is dedicated to the analysis of safety significant operating events. NEA/CNRA runs a permanent working group on operating experience (WGOE). WGOE provides among other things also generic reports on safety concerns related to operating experiences and

  17. CAPITALISM EMERGING ERA TAX SYSTEMS OF THE EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Виктория Александровна Цокова

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Three phases should be distinguished in the development of tax systems:I. The Ancient World and Middle Ages (from the IV - III centuries. BC. till. XVII - XVIII centuries AD.II. The new time (from the XVII - XVIII centuries till the end of XIX century. - the era of the emerging capitalism.III. Modern History (from the XX century and up to the present time. The capitalism emerging era scientific ideas and tax systems research relevance (importance is caused by the emergence of the main distinct characteristics of any state, that is by the permanently increasing demand of that institution for money. This fact, in its turn, contributes to the formation of the state tax system, and, of course, the evolution of scientific views on taxation.Nowadays, some theoretical ideas in the field of taxation, clarifying the nature and the role of taxes in the European countries budget formation begin to appear in Europe, especially in theUK. The development of tax systems in England, France and Germany have  been analyzed;  and , basing on the  dialectical, historical and logical approaches, and the method of scientific abstraction, the authors identify the following common features of the  capitalism emerging era tax systems in the European countries: the taxation on a regular (permanent basis, the expansion of the tax-payers  range – all citizens of the state are becoming tax payers, the introduction of the income tax and the abolishment  of the revenue leasing – creation of government agencies system responsible for the administration of taxes, to establishing and collecting taxes only with the Parliament approval and permission.Classical theoretical and practical approaches to creation of tax systems of the states have been formulated in Europe in the era of nascent capitalism and they haven’t lost the relevance yet.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-4-55

  18. The evolution of Alexandre Lamfalussy's thought on the international and European monetary system (1961-1993)

    OpenAIRE

    Ivo Maes

    2011-01-01

    The establishment of the European Monetary Institute (EMI), the predecessor of the European Central Bank, on 1 January 1994, was a milestone in the process of European monetary integration. In this paper, we look at the work on the international and European monetary system of Alexandre Lamfalussy, its first president. Lamfalussy pursued a threefold career: as a private banker, a central banker and an academic. Partly under the influence of Robert Triffin, Lamfalussy soon became interested in...

  19. Environmental assessment of 9 European public bus transportation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nanaki, Eva; Koroneos, Christophis; Roset, Jaume

    2017-01-01

    that affect the production of carbon dioxide (CO2) as well as of air pollutants, in 9 major European cities, aiming to provide a comprehensive overview of the actual knowledge on the atmospheric pollution from public transportation systems. CO2 emissions as well as air pollutants, such as CO, HC, PM, NOx......The transportation sector is one of the largest sources of EU’s greenhouse gas emissions. In 2011, transportation represented approximately 25 percent of total EU’s greenhouse gas emissions. Urban mobility accounts for 40% of all CO2 emissions of road transport and up to 70% of other pollutants...... from transport. As, transportation and mobility play a crucial part both in urban economics and the quality of life, it is of great significance to ensure a low carbon transportation sector, so as to deal with the threat that climate change poses to urban areas. This study examines the factors...

  20. Carbon price signal. Impact Analysis on the European Electricity System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-03-01

    The Paris Agreement signed by 195 countries late in December 2015, after COP 21, created a new basis for efficient cooperation between countries in the fight against climate change. The technologies being rolled out by the electricity sector will have very different impacts on climate change and, for the time being, investments other than public aid for renewable energies are being guided primarily by prices. To shed more slight on the issue of greenhouse gas emissions, which is closely related to the challenges addressed at COP21, RTE initiated a study in 2015 based on the models used in its Generation Adequacy Report. ADEME wanted to contribute to this effort and offer its support. The present document outlines the approach taken to assessing the impact of the carbon price signal on emissions from the European electric power system, its production costs and its structural evolution over the medium term. This approach was discussed with members of the 'Network Outlook Committee' of the Transmission System Users' Committee which includes environmental NGOs as well as the main economic actors from the power sector. Key findings resulting from the analysis developed in this report include: Simulations conducted with the current generation fleet show that the carbon price would have to be close to euro 30/tonne at the European level to drive a significant reduction in emissions (about 100 million tonnes a year, or 15 %) from the European power sector. A higher price of about euro 100/tonne would help drive an emissions reduction of close to 30%. Over the medium and long terms, beyond an impact on the number of hours fossil fuel power plants would be run, having a high carbon price would send a signal encouraging investment in renewable energies and could incentivise the development of flexible and storage capacity. It would notably guarantee the profitability of gas-fired plants and renewable power development. The following assumptions are factored into the study

  1. THE PHENOMENON OF EUROPEAN MUSICAL ROMANTICISM IN SYSTEMIC RESEARCH VISION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLOREA AUGUSTINA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Romanticism – European cultural-artistic phenomenon of the 20th century, developed in various fields of philosophy, literature, arts, and in terms of its amplitude and universality marked the respective century as a Romantic Era – is promoted in the most pointed manner in musical art. The Research of musical Romanticism – in the conceptual, aesthetic, musical aspect – can be achieved only on the basis of a systemic vision, which inputs the necessity of a study of synthesis. The respective study will integrate in a single process the investigation of all the above – mentioned aspects and will take place at the intersection of different scientific domains: aesthetics and musical aesthetics, historical and theoretical musicology, history and theory of interpretative art.

  2. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF VAT EVOLUTION IN THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAELA ANDREEA STROE

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study a comparative analysis of VAT in different states of the world. I made some observation on this theme because I believe that VAT is very important in carrying out transactions and the increase or decrease of this tax has a major impact upon national economies and also on the quality of life in developing countries. The papers has to pourpose to make a comparison between the American and European system of taxation with its advantages and disadvantages and, in the end to render an economic model and its statistics components. VAT is a value added tax which appeared about 50 years, initially with two purposes: one to replace certain indirect taxes, and another to reduce the budget deficit according to the faith of that time. The first country that has adopted this model was France, calling it today as value-added tax.

  3. An Information System for European culture collections: the way forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casaregola, Serge; Vasilenko, Alexander; Romano, Paolo; Robert, Vincent; Ozerskaya, Svetlana; Kopf, Anna; Glöckner, Frank O; Smith, David

    2016-01-01

    Culture collections contain indispensable information about the microorganisms preserved in their repositories, such as taxonomical descriptions, origins, physiological and biochemical characteristics, bibliographic references, etc. However, information currently accessible in databases rarely adheres to common standard protocols. The resultant heterogeneity between culture collections, in terms of both content and format, notably hampers microorganism-based research and development (R&D). The optimized exploitation of these resources thus requires standardized, and simplified, access to the associated information. To this end, and in the interest of supporting R&D in the fields of agriculture, health and biotechnology, a pan-European distributed research infrastructure, MIRRI, including over 40 public culture collections and research institutes from 19 European countries, was established. A prime objective of MIRRI is to unite and provide universal access to the fragmented, and untapped, resources, information and expertise available in European public collections of microorganisms; a key component of which is to develop a dynamic Information System. For the first time, both culture collection curators as well as their users have been consulted and their feedback, concerning the needs and requirements for collection databases and data accessibility, utilised. Users primarily noted that databases were not interoperable, thus rendering a global search of multiple databases impossible. Unreliable or out-of-date and, in particular, non-homogenous, taxonomic information was also considered to be a major obstacle to searching microbial data efficiently. Moreover, complex searches are rarely possible in online databases thus limiting the extent of search queries. Curators also consider that overall harmonization-including Standard Operating Procedures, data structure, and software tools-is necessary to facilitate their work and to make high-quality data easily accessible

  4. The Consolidation on Banking Supervision in the Context of a Pan European Banking System

    OpenAIRE

    Teodora Barbu; Georgeta Vintila

    2007-01-01

    The diversity of national banking systems in the European banking system and the absence of consolidated supervision creates the premises for a series of interrogations whose essence is the same: Is it possible to discuss about a Pan European Banking System? The starting point in answering this question was the efforts to create a single banking market, which took place in 1973-1999, and the impact of integration on the European Banking Industry. Among the most representative aspects, it must...

  5. THE ROLE OF THE EUROPEAN EXTERNAL ACTION SERVICE IN THE EU’S INSTITUTIONAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAN VATAMAN

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available European External Action Service (EEAS is a new institution of the European Union, whose foundation was laid by the Treaty of Lisbon with the role to support the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy in fulfilling his mandate and, also to assist the President of the European Council, European Commission, President and other Commissioners to exercise their powers in international relations. Since the establishment of the European External Action Service (EEAS is relatively recent, this article tries to highlight the crucial role of the European External Action Service (EEAS in the European Union's institutional system and its contribution to strengthening the coherence and increasing impact and visibility of European Union action at international level and thus the one of the Member States.

  6. The European standard series in 9 European countries, 2002/2003 -- first results of the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uter, W; Hegewald, J; Aberer, W

    2005-01-01

    Since January 2001, the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA), supported by European Union funding (contract QLK4-CT-2001-00343), has started to collect patch-test data. This comprises a standardized clinical history and the patch-test results using the European standard series...... observed. The prevalence of contact allergy to Myroxylon pereirae resin (balsam of Peru) (5.8%) is coming close to the frequency found with the fragrance mix (6.4%). Regarding contact allergy to chromium compounds, different frequencies were noted in the 2 centres focused on occupational dermatitis (2......-marketing surveillance in the field of contact allergy, ESSCA will meet its objective of increased consumer safety across Europe....

  7. Lessons from a European study[Financing Renewable Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langniss, Ole [German Aerospace Center, Stuttgart (Germany); Helby, Peter [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental and Energy System Studies

    2000-10-01

    A large number of proven technical solutions exists for the use of renewable energies (RE). However, their dissemination is still too slow to meet the political goal of substituting 12 % of the primary energy demand in the European Union by the year 2010. Even renewable energy systems (RES) with economic potential are only partly exploited. There is a long literature concerning the barriers to RE use. In particular it has become clear that the availability of finance and the forms and conditions upon which it is lent have a major impact on RE deployment. An area of importance is the deficiency of appropriate ownership forms and properly adapted financing instruments in certain countries. Moreover, different regulations and institutional barriers in the European countries hinder the free flow of capital for RES within the European common market. On the other hand, solutions have been developed very successfully in individual countries. Differences in cultures and institutions have promoted growth of several approaches to RE investment. These differences can be understood as a European source of experience that constitutes a rich basis for transnational emulation. The research project FIRE analysed and compared the means of financing RES in Austria, Denmark, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom to put forward best practise recommendations so that RE deployments will occur at a faster rate. Main tasks of this study were to analyse the means of financing RES in a number of countries; to provide an analysis of best practise; and to provide an analysis of the barriers to the implementation in the investigated countries. Different means of financing RES were analysed in relation to the country-specific environment. This included exogenous conditions such as tax aspects, legal restrictions and subsidies, as well as individually defined risk management strategies and collateral requirements. Eight in-depth-case studies were undertaken for

  8. THE EUROPEAN BANKING SYSTEM. TRACK RECORD AND ACHIEVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADELA IONESCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The banking system of Europe has experienced two decades of turbulence. Through the 1990’s a wave of mergers, liquidations and bankruptcies has swept the sector. This wave was at its peak the last years of the 1990’s and the 2000-2004 period. Since then the number of exits from the sector has been relatively stable. It is notable that the cooperative banks suffered more than the commercials. This fact can be attributed to their smaller size, ownership structure, management efficiency etc.During the last decade a great number of events have forced the banking system in Europe to transform, to adapt to a new financial, economic, political and social environment. Two financial crisis (2001-2002 and 2008-2009, two voluntary attempts to regulate the financial system (Basel II and III, the introduction of the Euro and the establishment of the European Central Bank, several regulation attempts to create an isomorphic legal environment, financial scandals of 2001-2002, 2008 and the globalization of the financial sector are some of the events that created a new environment for the financial sector.

  9. Joining of Ukraine to the European scientific and metric systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.M. Sazonets

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available At the present stage of development it is necessary to form the knowledge which structures knowledge as the object of management. In conditions of technological globalism there are structural changes in the information environment of countries. Scientific metrics is sufficiently developed in other countries, especially in the EU. The article contains the description of the first index calculation system of scientific references called Science Citation Index (SCI. The main advantage of this project was searching for information not only by the author and thematic categories, but also by the list of cited literature. The authors define the scientific and metric base in the following way: scientific and metric database (SMBD is the bibliographic and abstract database with the tools for tracking citations of articles published in scientific journals. The most prominent European scientific and metric bases are examined. The authors show that the bases have the performance assessment tools which track down the impact of scientific papers and publications of individual scientists and research institutions. The state of crisis in scientific and technological activities in Ukraine as well as the economy as a whole, needs immediate organization of national scientific and metric system.

  10. Tritium systems concepts for the next European torus (NET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sood, S.K.; Bagli, K.S.; Busigin, A.; Kveton, O.K.; Dombra, A.H.; Miller, A.I.

    1986-09-01

    The study deals with the design of the various tritium processing facilities that will be required for the Next European Torus (NET) design. The reference data for the design of the NET Tritium Systems was provided by the NET team. Significant achievements of this study were: (a) Identification of new ways of handling some problems for example: 1) Recovery of tritium from the helium purge of the lithium-ceramic blanket using a novel Adsoprtion and Catalytic Exchange Process, 2) A new way of combining fuel component separation and coolant water detritiation using cryogenic distillation, 3) The use of parasitic refrigeration for the cryogenic isotope separation, 4) Tritium extraction from effluent gas streams at their respective sources, 5) Attempt to eliminate the need for Air Cleanup Systems. (b) Identification of uncertainties, for example: composition of plasma exhaust, required helium purge rate of Li-Pb for tritium recovery, uncertainty in requirements for decontaminating blanket sectors, etc. (c) Review of ways to limit tritium permeation into steam by swamping with hydrogen and to provide quantitative estimates for this permeation

  11. European Sugar Market – Impact of Quota System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Benešová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The European agricultural market has been criticized for its heavy regulations and subsidization. The sugar market is one of the most regulated ones; however, this will change radically in 2017 when the current system of production quotas will end. The aim of this paper is to present the basic characteristics of the EU quota sugar market. The analysis identifies the main drivers of EU sugar market and their position within the EU sugar market. The paper identifies especially those drivers/companies/alliances which take control over the EU sugar production realized under the quota production system. The paper also highlights the level of EU sugar market concentration and also identifies those countries and companies which are the main leaders in the sugar production area realized under the quota system. Based on the results deriving from the paper, it is possible to characterize the EU sugar market as a heavily concentrated one – nearly 75% (10 mil. tonnes of the quota is controlled by five multinational companies only; these companies are operating more than 50% of all the available sugar plants located in the EU. These multinational alliances are also in control of the production capacities of their subsidiaries. In most countries, this causes serious problems as the given quota is controlled by one or two producers only. The EU sugar market is extremely concentrated especially if we take into consideration the location of each alliance’s headquarters. The majority of production capacities are under (the control of especially German and French companies. These two countries are also the main beneficiaries in relation to the EU sugar production quota system.

  12. Open architecture for health care systems: the European RICHE experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frandji, B

    1997-01-01

    Groupe RICHE is bringing to the market of health IT the Open Systems approach allowing a new generation of health information systems to arise with benefit for patients, health care professionals, hospital managers, agencies and citizens. Groupe RICHE is a forum for exchanging information, expertise around open systems in health care. It is open to any organisation interested by open systems in health care and wanting to participate and influence the work done by its user, marketing and technical committees. The Technical Committee is in charge of the maintenance of the architecture and impact the results of industrial experiences on new releases. Any Groupe RICHE member is entitled to participate to this process. This unique approach in Europe allows health care professionals to benefit from applications supporting their business processes, including providing a cooperative working environment, a shared electronic record, in an integrated system where the information is entered only once, customised according to the user needs and available to the administrative applications. This allows Hospital managers to satisfy their health care professionals, to smoothly migrate from their existing environment (protecting their investment), to choose products in a competitive environment, being able to mix and match system components and services from different suppliers, being free to change suppliers without having to replace their existing system (minimising risk), in line with national and regional strategies. For suppliers, this means being able to commercialise products well fitted to their field of competence in a large market, reducing investments and increasing returns. The RICHE approach also allows agencies to define a strategy, allowing to create a supporting infrastructure, organising the market leaving enough freedom to health care organisations and suppliers. Such an approach is based on the definition of an open standard architecture. The RICHE esprit project

  13. Efficiency and Equity within European Education Systems and School Choice Policy: Bridging Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poder, Kaire; Kerem, Kaie; Lauri, Triin

    2013-01-01

    We seek out the good institutional features of the European choice policies that can enhance both equity and efficiency at the system level. For causality analysis we construct the typology of 28 European educational systems by using fuzzy-set analysis. We combine five independent variables to indicate institutional features of school choice…

  14. Challenges posed to the European pharmaceutical regulatory system by highly personalized medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, John D; Feldschreiber, Peter

    2014-03-01

    The European pharmaceutical regulatory system has not yet been challenged by issues related to highly personalized medicines such as those to be found with active substances that affect RNA biochemistry. We review the current status of RNA-based pharmacology and present three possible case histories. The implications for the European pharmaceutical regulatory system are discussed. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  15. The European reliability data system - ERDS: a state of the art and future developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancini, G.; Amesz, J.; Bastianini, P.; Capobianchi, S.

    1982-01-01

    In the frame of the Multiannual Nuclear Safety Programme of the Joint Research Centre of the Commisson of the European Communities, a project is being carried out aiming at the creation of a centralized data system collecting and organizing, at European level, information related to the operation of LWRs. The European Reliability Data System ERDS will exploit information already collected in national data systems and information deriving from single reactor sources. The paper describes the development of the four data systems constituting the ERDS: Component Event Data Bank; Abnormal Occurrences Reporting System; Operating Unit Status Report; Generic Reliability Parameter Data Bank

  16. The Consolidation on Banking Supervision in the Context of a Pan European Banking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora Barbu

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of national banking systems in the European banking system and the absence of consolidated supervision creates the premises for a series of interrogations whose essence is the same: Is it possible to discuss about a Pan European Banking System? The starting point in answering this question was the efforts to create a single banking market, which took place in 1973-1999, and the impact of integration on the European Banking Industry. Among the most representative aspects, it must be emphasized the necessity of consolidating banking supervision at an European level, considering that the International Banking Community studies the problematic of banking regulations at a global level. The two dimensions of the prudential and European bank supervision device – the geographic and the institutional – demand the creation of a structural reform in order to ensure the functioning of a Pan European system of banking supervision and regulations. The considerations on the Consolidation of European Banking Supervision draws into discussion the Financial Supervision Authority which has generalized as an applicable model in numerous European countries and has been mentioned as an alternative of Pan European banking supervision. In the process of the integration of the banking sector, the Basel II Accord represents an opportunity in reaching a convergence of national regulations and practices in matters of risk management, considering that these actions are in line with the preoccupations of realizing a Pan European banking system. Thus, the creation of Pan European banking system involves actions in more directions: legal, institutional, operational meant to ensure the consolidation of banking supervision.

  17. The Demonstrator for the European Plate Observing System (EPOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, T. L.; Euteneuer, F.; Ulbricht, D.; Lauterjung, J.; Bailo, D.; Jeffery, K. G.

    2014-12-01

    An important outcome of the 4-year Preparatory Phase of the ESFRI project European Plate Observing System (EPOS) was the development and first implementation of the EPOS Demonstrator by the project's ICT Working Group 7. The Demonstrator implements the vertical integration of the three-layer architectural scheme for EPOS, connecting the Integrated Core Services (ICS), Thematic Core Services (TCS) and the National Research Infrastructures (NRI). The demonstrator provides a single GUI with central key discovery and query functionalities, based on already existing services by the seismic, geologic and geodetic communities. More specifically the seismic services of the Demonstrator utilize webservices and APIs for data and discovery of raw seismic data (FDSN webservices by the EIDA Network), events (Geoportal by EMSC) and analytical data products (e.g., hazard maps by EFEHR via OGC WMS). For geologic services, the EPOS Demonstrator accesses OneGeology Europe which serves the community with geologic maps and point information via OGC webservices. The Demonstrator also provides access to raw geodetic data via a newly developed universal tool called GSAC. The Demonstrator itself resembles the future Integrated Core Service (ICS) and provides direct access to the end user. Its core functionality lies in a metadata catalogue, which serves as the central information hub and stores information about all RIs, related persons, projects, financial background and technical access information. The database schema of the catalogue is based on CERIF, which has been slightly adapted. Currently, the portal provides basic query functions as well as cross domain search. [www.epos.cineca.it

  18. RF system modeling and controller design for the European XFEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Christian

    2011-06-01

    The European XFEL is being constructed at the Deutsche Elektronen Synchrotron DESY to generate intense, ultrashort pulses of highly coherent and monochromatic X-Rays for material science research. X-ray flashes are generated by accelerating electron bunches within superconducting cavities with radio frequency (RF) fields to energies up to 17.5 GeV. The digital control of these fields requires extremely high quality in order to achieve the physical processes of photon generation. DESY offers with FLASH a pilot test facility, allowing to test and develop most necessary components, even before the XFEL is conducted. Current field control is based on a proportional feedback controller in addition to a constant feedforward drive, which do not meet the high requirements of the XFEL. This thesis shows that a model based controller design can achieve the necessary field regulation requirements. A linear, time invariant ''black box model'' is estimated, which characterizes the essential dynamic behavior. This model is not based on physical assumptions, but describes exclusively the transfer behavior of the plant. The acceleration modules are operated in a pulsed mode, in which the RF field must be kept constant for a finite period. The character of the disturbances and variations from pulse-to-pulse, together with the properties of the system, require a combination of controlled feedforward drive and feedback. Generally unpredictable, low frequency pulse-to-pulse variations are suppressed by the feedback controller. The structural design of the complex multivariable feedback controller is given, which constrains the model based design approach to assign the controller parameters only. Estimation of the parameters, which can not be tuned manually, is done by the method of H loop shaping which is often applied in modern control theory. However, disturbances within a pulse are in a high frequency range concerning the short pulse duration. They are not sufficiently suppressed

  19. RF system modeling and controller design for the European XFEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Christian

    2011-06-15

    The European XFEL is being constructed at the Deutsche Elektronen Synchrotron DESY to generate intense, ultrashort pulses of highly coherent and monochromatic X-Rays for material science research. X-ray flashes are generated by accelerating electron bunches within superconducting cavities with radio frequency (RF) fields to energies up to 17.5 GeV. The digital control of these fields requires extremely high quality in order to achieve the physical processes of photon generation. DESY offers with FLASH a pilot test facility, allowing to test and develop most necessary components, even before the XFEL is conducted. Current field control is based on a proportional feedback controller in addition to a constant feedforward drive, which do not meet the high requirements of the XFEL. This thesis shows that a model based controller design can achieve the necessary field regulation requirements. A linear, time invariant ''black box model'' is estimated, which characterizes the essential dynamic behavior. This model is not based on physical assumptions, but describes exclusively the transfer behavior of the plant. The acceleration modules are operated in a pulsed mode, in which the RF field must be kept constant for a finite period. The character of the disturbances and variations from pulse-to-pulse, together with the properties of the system, require a combination of controlled feedforward drive and feedback. Generally unpredictable, low frequency pulse-to-pulse variations are suppressed by the feedback controller. The structural design of the complex multivariable feedback controller is given, which constrains the model based design approach to assign the controller parameters only. Estimation of the parameters, which can not be tuned manually, is done by the method of H{sub {infinity}} loop shaping which is often applied in modern control theory. However, disturbances within a pulse are in a high frequency range concerning the short pulse duration

  20. EASY-2005.1, European Neutron Activation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrest, R.A.; Sublet, Jean-Christophe

    2008-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: The EASY-2005 (European Activation System) consists of a wide range of codes, data and documentation all aimed at satisfying the objective of calculating the response of materials irradiated in a neutron flux. The main difference from the previous version is the upper energy limit which has increased from 20 to 60 MeV. It is designed to investigate both fusion devices and accelerator based materials test facilities that will act as intense sources of high energy neutrons causing significant activation of the surrounding materials. The very general nature of the calculational method and the data libraries means that it is applicable (with some reservations) to all situations (e.g. fission reactors or neutron sources) where materials are exposed to neutrons below 60 MeV. EASY can be divided into two parts: data and code development tools and user tools and data. The former are required to develop the latter, but EASY users only need to be able to use the inventory code FISPACT and be aware of the contents of the EAF library (the data source). The complete EASY package contains the FISPACT-2005 inventory code, the EAF-2005 library, and the EASY User Interface. The activation package EASY-2005 [1] is the result of significant development to extend the upper energy range from 20 to 60 MeV so that it is capable of being used for IFMIF calculations. The EAF-2005 library contains 62,637 reactions, almost five times more than in EAF-2003 (12,617). Such a large increase means that some mistakes may exist in the new file that need to be corrected. Because of these shortcomings and for other reasons explained below, a maintenance release, EAF-2005.1 has been produced. A deuteron-induced cross section library was also included for the first time, and can be used with EASY to enable calculations of the activation due to deuterons [2]. This library is included in the EASY-2005.1 maintenance release as is a new version of the FISPACT code

  1. European Transportation in the Greenhouse — System and Policy Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    The transport sector in Europe is growing in both absolute and relative terms. Not only because the number of European Union states have increased – 10 new members, including Cyprus welcomed in 2004 - but also because transport is a highly expansive sector in both old and new Member Countries....... The purpose of this paper is to give a brief overall account of the present situation and outlook in terms of transport energy use and GHG emissions in the context of European Union transport policy. The present assessment is based on a personal selection of some indicators that the author belives are key...

  2. Light-water reactors reference system classification for the European reliability data system (ERDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melis, M.; Mancini, G.

    1982-01-01

    The reference system classification represents a basic stage in the organization of the European reliability data system (ERDS) for light-water reactors, a project actually in development at the Joint Research Centre, Ispra. This project is concerned with operational reliability data collection from the various ''national'' data banks, and centralization in a European reliability data system, so improving the significance of the resulting reliability evaluations. In the framework of the ERDS project, the reference system classification provides a LWR functional break-down and represents a plant-unique identification in the process of homogenization of event-data coming from the various ''national'' organizations. The report, after a brief description of the main objectives of the ERDS project, reviews the criteria followed in the elaboration of the reference system classification; then the detailed classification is presented. The nuclear power station is subdivided in about 180 systems. To each system a sheet is associated, containing: a comprehensive description of system-functions and boundaries; a descritpion of the plant operating mode, linked to the various system functions; a list of the main interface system; and finally, a list of the main components, including type and safety classification

  3. Coercion, prohibition and great expectations: The continuing failure of the Common European Asylum System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Heijer, M.; Rijpma, J.; Spijkerboer, T.

    2016-01-01

    This contribution explains the European asylum policy crisis from three structural weaknesses of the Common European Asylum System: its reliance on coercion within the EU, its unrealistic expectations of what borders can achieve and the premise of prohibition of refugee movement in its external

  4. The rising of the Phoenix : building the European Monetary System on a meeting of minds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Esch, F.A.W.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/169008436

    2009-01-01

    Decades later, the sudden and swift establishment of the European Monetary System (EMS) within the context of the 1970s economic downturn and Euro-sclerosis remains a strikingly remarkable achievement. This article argues that this unexpected leap forward in the European economic and monetary

  5. Benchmarking Promotion and Deployment Activities Regarding Intelligent Vehicle Safety Systems in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kievit, M.; Malone, K.M.; Zwijnenberg, H.; van Arem, B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a Benchmarking study performed in the European Union on Awareness and Promotion & Deployment activities related to Intelligent Vehicle Safety (IVS) systems (1). The study, commissioned by the European Commission under the Intelligent Car Initiative (a i2010

  6. MACEDONIAN ADMINISTRATIVE JUDICIAL SYSTEM FOR SOLVING ADMINISTRATIVE DISPUTES COMPARABLE TO EUROPEAN SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sladjana Eftimova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the legal system, through history until today mostly depends on law and policy which is conducted by the country. In European countries, there is position for historical and cultural conceptions for administrative judicature, differences and similarity that leave mark for solving administrative disputes. The obligation – an internal judicial reform to be established in legal system, is conducted by each of the countries after the breaking down and division of Social Federative Republic of Yugoslavia or SFRY due to following the European law for constitution of legitimacy and constitutionality of acts as well as implementing of independent administrative judicature. Analyze of the current condition regarding the independency and objectiveness of the judicature is necessary in our country and it is important to be seen how the conditions for working of the administrative judicature can be improved.

  7. Seven proposals for an efficient and dynamic European electricity system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keppler, J.H.; Geoffon, P.; Finon, D.

    2013-01-01

    While liberalisation of the electricity generation sector is inevitably a long term process, given the complexity of the industry, European consumers expect to reap identifiable benefits in terms of price, innovation in associated services, environmental performance and security of supply. Yet rather than evidence of progress, complexity - indeed confusion - effectively characterises Europe's electricity structure at present. It's time to react. (authors)

  8. The European computer model for optronic system performance prediction (ECOMOS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessler, S.; Bijl, P.; Labarre, L.; Repasi, E.; Wittenstein, W.; Bürsing, H.

    2017-01-01

    ECOMOS is a multinational effort within the framework of an EDA Project Arrangement. Its aim is to provide a generally accepted and harmonized European computer model for computing nominal Target Acquisition (TA) ranges of optronic imagers operating in the Visible or thermal Infrared (IR). The

  9. Seven proposals for an efficient and dynamic European electricity system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keppler, Jan Horst; Geoffron, Patrice; Finon, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    While liberalisation of the electricity generation sector is inevitably a long term process, given the complexity of the industry, European consumers expect to reap identifiable benefits in terms of price, innovation in associated services, environmental performance and security of supply. Yet rather than evidence of progress, complexity - indeed confusion - effectively characterises Europe's electricity structure at present. It is time to react

  10. ARCHITECTURE OF EUROPEAN SYSTEM OF FINANCIAL SUPERVISION AFTER THE GLOBAL ECONOMIC CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Muszyński

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper indicates how the last global financial crisis has affected the european financial system. As the depression evolved it brought all the weaknesses in the system of financial supervision to the surface. Then it became clear that deeper integration of the banking system was strongly needed. To mitigate systemic stability risk and improve the coordination process with international organizations, the European Commission decided to establish the European System of Financial Supervision. However, it seemed that it was not sufficient to prevent from further fragmentation of the financial market in Europe. As a result, in 2012 the European Commission initiated the banking union, a new form of political and economic integration.

  11. The European computer model for optronic system performance prediction (ECOMOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keßler, Stefan; Bijl, Piet; Labarre, Luc; Repasi, Endre; Wittenstein, Wolfgang; Bürsing, Helge

    2017-10-01

    ECOMOS is a multinational effort within the framework of an EDA Project Arrangement. Its aim is to provide a generally accepted and harmonized European computer model for computing nominal Target Acquisition (TA) ranges of optronic imagers operating in the Visible or thermal Infrared (IR). The project involves close co-operation of defence and security industry and public research institutes from France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands and Sweden. ECOMOS uses and combines well-accepted existing European tools to build up a strong competitive position. This includes two TA models: the analytical TRM4 model and the image-based TOD model. In addition, it uses the atmosphere model MATISSE. In this paper, the central idea of ECOMOS is exposed. The overall software structure and the underlying models are shown and elucidated. The status of the project development is given as well as a short discussion of validation tests and an outlook on the future potential of simulation for sensor assessment.

  12. Capturing the complexity of European primary care systems in a European monitoring instrument.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kringos, D.; Boerma, W.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: The investment in PC reforms to improve the overall performance of health care systems has been substantial in Europe. There is however a lack of up to date comparable information to evaluate the development of primary care (PC) systems. This EU-funded PHAMEU (Primary Health Care Activity

  13. Constructing an Efficient and Balanced European Patent System: “Muddling through”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2011-01-01

    The paper discusses ways to construct a more efficient and balanced European patent system. It identifies and describes challenges relating to innovation, to non-economic issues and to governance. In order to improve the patent system, a cautious approach of “Muddling through” is recommended. More...... concretely, the paper puts forward some of the solutions proposed in the STOA Report to the European Parliament on “Policy options for the improvement of the European patent system” and suggest initiatives such as the insertion of a mission statement in the EPC, improvement of patent quality, increasing...... access to patented inventions and enhancement of governance....

  14. Latvia in the System of European Territorial Security: a View from the Inside and Outside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanko Dmitry

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on Latvian contribution to European security, which, for the purposes of this study, is understood as a territorial system of regional security. Such system is a combination of interconnected institutions with Latvian participation operating in the field of security, Latvian cooperation with other European countries in the field of security, and the European perception of major security challenges and threats (that Latvia may or may not agree with. A systemic approach to studying the role of Latvia in the territorial system of European security requires a solid theoretical framework. The theories of international relations discussed in this article fall into two categories: those where territorial security systems are viewed as a product of external factors, and those that focus on internal regional factors. In this article, the authors rely on a variety of methods, including those that are characteristic of classical theories of international relations (such as realism and liberalism, and those employed in social constructivism studies. It is concluded that Latvian cooperation with institutions and countries of the territorial system of European security is rather limited, which indicates either a lack of the country’s integration into the system or a crisis of the system itself. An important result of the study is the validation of a systemic approach to studying regional security systems. This angle proves particularly useful in identifying crises of territorial systems of regional security in various regions of the world.

  15. ANALYSIS OF FREE ROUTE AIRSPACE AND PERFORMANCE BASED NAVIGATION IMPLEMENTATION IN THE EUROPEAN AIR NAVIGATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Pavlova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available European Air Traffic Management system requires continuous improvements as air traffic is increasingday by day. For this purpose it was developed by international organizations Free Route Airspace and PerformanceBased Navigation concepts that allow to offer a required level of safety, capacity, environmental performance alongwith cost-effectiveness. The aim of the article is to provide detailed analysis of Free Route Airspace and PerformanceBased Navigation implementation status within European region including Ukrainian air navigation system.

  16. Photovoltaic module with integrated power conversion and interconnection system - the European project PV-MIPS

    OpenAIRE

    Henze, N.; Engler, A.; Zacharias, P.

    2006-01-01

    Within the 6th framework program funded by the European Commission the project PV-MIPS (Photovoltaic Module with Integrated Power Conversion System) was launched in November 2004. Together with eleven European partners from Germany, Austria, Greece and the Netherlands a solar module with integrated in-verter shall be developed that can feed solar electricity directly into the grid. The challenging objective of the project is to reduce the total costs of a PV system. At the same time lifetime ...

  17. Trans-European transport networks influence on the regional development and urban systems: Serbian experience

    OpenAIRE

    Maksin-Mićić Marija

    2004-01-01

    The trans-European transport network has different effects at macro-regional, mezzo-regional and micro-regional level, and on urban systems development, and its effectiveness rises at the lower regional levels. Possible approaches to the trans-European transport network impact and effect survey and policy options have been pointed out. The importance of increased accessibility and mobility for regional expansion and for more balanced and polycentric system of city networks has been underlined...

  18. The Consolidation on Banking Supervision in the Context of a Pan European Banking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora Barbu

    2007-03-01

    In the process of the integration of the banking sector, the Basel II Accord represents an opportunity in reaching a convergence of national regulations and practices in matters of risk management, considering that these actions are in line with the preoccupations of realizing a Pan European banking system. Thus, the creation of Pan European banking system involves actions in more directions: legal, institutional, operational meant to ensure the consolidation of banking supervision.

  19. Pathways to psychiatric care in European prison systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressing, Harald; Salize, Hans-Joachim

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this study were to describe and analyse the concepts of provision of mental health services for prison inmates in 24 countries in the European Union and the EFTA. Data were gathered by means of a structured questionnaire that was completed by national experts in the participating countries. This article stresses the different organizational models of mental health care for inmates, different legal standards for screening their mental health status and different pathways to psychiatric care and aftercare. The study revealed serious shortcomings. Even the most rudimentary health reporting standards for mental health care in prison are lacking almost everywhere in Europe. Psychiatric screening and assessment procedures at prison entry and during imprisonment differ substantially and do not fulfil recognized quality standards. In many countries, the appointment of inadequately trained staff to perform such screenings increases considerably the risk that mental disorders or psychiatric needs of the inmates will remain undetected. Furthermore, the pathways to care in the case of an acute psychotic episode differ significantly, since referral to prison hospitals, medical prison wards, forensic hospitals, or general psychiatric hospital are used in various combinations depending on different national legal regulations and on the availability of services or other regional circumstances. Therefore, the collaborating experts place the quality of European prison mental health care into serious question. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. System architecture and market aspects of an European Land Mobile Satellite System via EMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananasso, F.; Mistretta, I.

    1992-03-01

    The paper describes an implementation scenario of a Land Mobile Satellite System via the EMS (European Mobile System) payload embarked on Italsat F-2. Some emphasis is given on market issues aiming at singling out business niches of Land Mobile Satellite Services (LMSS) in Europe. Other crucial issues exist such as: the alternate/competitive systems, the problems of interworking with other existing and/or planned systems, the definition of network architecture that better fits the user requirements, the marketing strategy and, last but not least, the financial evaluation of the project. The paper, on the basis of a study performed by Telespazio on behalf of ESA, discusses some of these issues with emphasis on competitive market aspects.

  1. Geographic Information System and Geoportal «River basins of the European Russia»

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yermolaev, O. P.; Mukharamova, S. S.; Maltsev, K. A.; Ivanov, M. A.; Ermolaeva, P. O.; Gayazov, A. I.; Mozzherin, V. V.; Kharchenko, S. V.; Marinina, O. A.; Lisetskii, F. N.

    2018-01-01

    Geographic Information System (GIS) and Geoportal with open access «River basins of the European Russia» were implemented. GIS and Geoportal are based on the map of basins of small rivers of the European Russia with information about natural and anthropogenic characteristics, namely geomorphometry of basins relief; climatic parameters, representing averages, variation, seasonal variation, extreme values of temperature and precipitation; land cover types; soil characteristics; type and subtype of landscape; population density. The GIS includes results of spatial analysis and modelling, in particular, assessment of anthropogenic impact on river basins; evaluation of water runoff and sediment runoff; climatic, geomorphological and landscape zoning for the European part of Russia.

  2. Ideology, Party Systems and Corruption Voting in European Democracies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charron, Nicholas; Bågenholm, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    What is the impact of corruption on citizens' voting behavior? There is a growing literature on an increasingly ubiquitous puzzle in many democratic countries: that corrupt officials continue to be re-elected by voters. In this study we address this issue with a novel theory and newly collected...... original survey data for 24 European countries. The crux of the argument is that voters' ideology is a salient factor in explaining why citizens would continue voting for their preferred party despite the fact that it has been involved in a corruption scandal. Developing a theory of supply (number...... of effective parties) and demand (voters must have acceptable ideological alternatives to their preferred party), we posit that there is a U-shaped relationship between the likelihood of corruption voting and where voters place themselves on the left/right spectrum. The further to the fringes, the more likely...

  3. Technical and economic analysis of the European electricity system with 60% RES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtin, Alain; Silva, Vera

    2015-01-01

    This document examines the impacts of the integration of a large share of variable renewable generation into the generation mix of the European interconnected electricity system. The analysis, which is based on the results of long term studies performed by EDF R and D, aims at improving the current understanding of the technical and economic feasibility of a massive deployment of wind and PV across the European system. The document addresses several aspects of the system integration of variable generation in particular, including the characterization of variable RES generation, the need for generation and interconnection infrastructure, the impacts on short-term system operation and market profitability. (authors)

  4. European Banking Recovery and Resolution Directive: Potential Impacts on European Systemic Important Financial Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clements Akinsoyinu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The great recession heralded in by the subprime mortgage crisis, took a dramatic turn for worse as a result of collapse of the Lehman Brothers bank in September 2008. The crisis deemed to be the most devastating after the Great Depression of 1929, had a debilitating effect on world economies, developing and advanced alike.  The extent of its devastation which  is still being felt in Europe and many parts of the globe reminds us the interconnectedness of financial institutions, particularly those tagged TBTF or SIFIs. Policy makers scrambled to curtail the ugly effect of the crisis by rescuing the SIFIs within their jurisdiction largely through bailout mechanism and provision of implicit guarantee for the debts of failing/failed institutions. As soon as the tide is stemmed, they cast their gaze on new crisis resolution and recovery measures that could rein in systemic risks associated with SIFIs, prevent future crises and reduce the concomitant moral hazards in the current resolution measures. This paper assesses ex ante the potential impact of implementing the new Banking recovery and resolution directives on Europe’s TBTF banksThe great recession heralded in by the subprime mortgage crisis, took a dramatic turn for worse as a result of collapse of the Lehman Brothers bank in September 2008. The crisis deemed to be the most devastating after the Great Depression of 1929, had a debilitating effect on world economies, developing and advanced alike.  The extent of its devastation which  is still being felt in Europe and many parts of the globe reminds us the interconnectedness of financial institutions, particularly those tagged TBTF or SIFIs. Policy makers scrambled to curtail the ugly effect of the crisis by rescuing the SIFIs within their jurisdiction largely through bailout mechanism and provision of implicit guarantee for the debts of failing/failed institutions. As soon as the tide is stemmed, they cast their gaze on new crisis

  5. Cybernetics and systems research. Proceedings of the sixth European meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trappl, R

    1982-01-01

    The following topics were dealt with: general systems methodology; system and decision theory; cybernetics in biology and medicine; cybernetics in cognition and learning; cybernetics in organisation; management and society; health care systems; energy systems; fuzzy sets; communication and computers; artificial intelligence. 211 papers were presented, all of which are published in full in the present proceedings.

  6. Trans-European transport networks influence on the regional development and urban systems: Serbian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksin-Mićić Marija

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The trans-European transport network has different effects at macro-regional, mezzo-regional and micro-regional level, and on urban systems development, and its effectiveness rises at the lower regional levels. Possible approaches to the trans-European transport network impact and effect survey and policy options have been pointed out. The importance of increased accessibility and mobility for regional expansion and for more balanced and polycentric system of city networks has been underlined. The question is how the new major transport infrastructure affects the development of functional complementarity between cities and regions. Changes of the spatial organization, utilization and structure of cities, as well as of social benefits and losses subsequent to impacts of trans-European transport corridor "X" on urban system Ćuprija-Jagodina-Paraćin at section Belgrade-Nis have been analysed. The new trans-European or major transport infrastructure does not per se create regional and urban system network development, although it can affect the conditions for the processes that create growth and development. The effects can be increased by co-ordination of measures of regional and urban policy, land use, transport and other policies. The guidances and options of urban systems and urban centres development policies in trans-European transport corridor, as well as possibilities to improve our planning system have been given. The necessary measure is the introduction of spatial impact assessment as sectorial policy instrument for the large transport infrastructure projects.

  7. Towards European organisation for integrated greenhouse gas observation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaukolehto, Marjut; Vesala, Timo; Sorvari, Sanna; Juurola, Eija; Paris, Jean-Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Climate change is one the most challenging problems that humanity will have to cope with in the coming decades. The perturbed global biogeochemical cycles of the greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide) are a major driving force of current and future climate change. Deeper understanding of the driving forces of climate change requires full quantification of the greenhouse gas emissions and sinks and their evolution. Regional greenhouse gas budgets, tipping-points, vulnerabilities and the controlling mechanisms can be assessed by long term, high precision observations in the atmosphere and at the ocean and land surface. ICOS RI is a distributed infrastructure for on-line, in-situ monitoring of greenhouse gases (GHG) necessary to understand their present-state and future sinks and sources. ICOS RI provides the long-term observations required to understand the present state and predict future behaviour of the global carbon cycle and greenhouse gas emissions. Linking research, education and innovation promotes technological development and demonstrations related to greenhouse gases. The first objective of ICOS RI is to provide effective access to coherent and precise data and to provide assessments of GHG inventories with high temporal and spatial resolution. The second objective is to provide profound information for research and understanding of regional budgets of greenhouse gas sources and sinks, their human and natural drivers, and the controlling mechanisms. ICOS is one of several ESFRI initiatives in the environmental science domain. There is significant potential for structural and synergetic interaction with several other ESFRI initiatives. ICOS RI is relevant for Joint Programming by providing the data access for the researchers and acting as a contact point for developing joint strategic research agendas among European member states. The preparatory phase ends in March 2013 and there will be an interim period before the legal entity will

  8. Mobile satellite business networks: A part of the European mobile system

    Science.gov (United States)

    deMateo, M. L.; Jongejans, A.; Loisy, C.; VanHimbeeck, C.; Marchal, J. P.; Borella, A.; Sartori, M.

    1995-01-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) is presently procuring an L-band payload EMS, to be embarked on the ITALSAT-2 satellite due for launch in early 1996, in order to promote a regional European mobile system. One of the Land Mobile Communication systems supported by EMS is the MSBN (Mobile Satellite Business Network) voice and data system which will offer the services of a business network on a seamless European coverage. This paper will first recall the characteristics of the MSBN system, which is based on quasi-synchronized CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) techniques in both directions, and then describe the CDMA receivers implementation. Main validation test results will also be reported confirming predicted performances.

  9. MIGRATION PROCESSES "EAST-WEST" IN THE CONTEXT OF THE EUROPEAN SYSTEM OF ECONOMIC SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Ryazantsev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article refl ects the infl uence of the migration processes to the economic security of European Union. The article underlines most common economical risks in case if there is an increase of the volume of migration and describes the ways how to reduce those risks.The main conclusions obtained from the results of the study, can be structured as follows: trends and consequences of the migration crisis in the European Union are defi ned by the set of reasons that are due on the one hand the policy of transparency being implemented by individual countries, making the whole European Union is the center of attraction of immigrants (primarily from the MENA countries and other hand, the intense and growing fl ow of migrants creates regional threats, including the European Union's economic security; the problem of ensuring the economic security of the European Union in the context of the impact of the migration crisis is most actual issue at the moment and the main reason is that the accumulation of the fl ow of migrants to the strongest European economy – Germany. In this case, not only Germany, but also France (and until recently UK had to improve the economic and social consequences of migration and also to implement measures aimed to recover from fi nancial crisis of the last few years, the consequences of which to date are shown in the many social and economic areas of the European Union; addressing the problem with migration crisis in the European Union seems to use a special system of measures, in which on the one hand realized containment of migration fl ows and on the other hand held solutions aimed at the assimilation of migrants in multicultural environment with full adoption of the latest socio-economic, democratic and moral values specifi c to European societies.

  10. Art of disaster preparedness in European union: a survey on the health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djalali, Ahmadreza; Della Corte, Francesco; Foletti, Marco; Ragazzoni, Luca; Ripoll Gallardo, Alba; Lupescu, Olivera; Arculeo, Chris; von Arnim, Götz; Friedl, Tom; Ashkenazi, Michael; Fischer, Philipp; Hreckovski, Boris; Khorram-Manesh, Amir; Komadina, Radko; Lechner, Konstanze; Patru, Cristina; Burkle, Frederick M; Ingrassia, Pier Luigi

    2014-12-17

    Naturally occurring and man-made disasters have been increasing in the world, including Europe, over the past several decades. Health systems are a key part of any community disaster management system. The success of preparedness and prevention depends on the success of activities such as disaster planning, organization and training. The aim of this study is to evaluate health system preparedness for disasters in the 27 European Union member countries. A cross-sectional analysis study was completed between June-September 2012. The checklist used for this survey was a modified from the World Health Organization toolkit for assessing health-system capacity for crisis management. Three specialists from each of the 27 European Union countries were included in the survey. Responses to each survey question were scored and the range of preparedness level was defined as 0-100%, categorized in three levels as follows: Acceptable; Transitional; or Insufficient. Response rate was 79.1%. The average level of disaster management preparedness in the health systems of 27 European Union member states was 68% (Acceptable). The highest level of preparedness was seen in the United Kingdom, Luxemburg, and Lithuania. Considering the elements of disaster management system, the highest level of preparedness score was at health information elements (86%), and the lowest level was for hospitals, and educational elements (54%). This survey study suggests that preparedness level of European Union countries in 2012 is at an acceptable level but could be improved. Elements such as hospitals and education and training suffer from insufficient levels of preparedness. The European Union health systems need a collective strategic plan, as well as enough resources, to establish a comprehensive and standardized disaster management strategy plan. A competency based training curriculum for managers and first responders is basic to accomplishing this goal. Disaster medicine; Disaster preparedness

  11. Profitability of Western European banking systems: panel evidence on structural and cyclical determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Beckmann, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses structural and cyclical determinants of banking profitability in 16 Western European countries. We find that financial structure matters, particularly through the beneficial effect of the capital market orientation in the respective national financial system. Furthermore, higher diversification regarding banks' income sources shows a positive effect. The industry concentration of national banking systems, though, does not significantly affect aggregate profitability. Busin...

  12. Eastern European financial systems : the creation of inside money

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.

    1993-01-01

    This paper offers a classification of credit markets in transition economies. It describes a continuum of systems by identifying its polar cases: countries where the entire financial system still relies on outside money, mostly republics of the former Soviet Union; and those where a more

  13. Systems of innovation theory and the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borras, Susana

    2004-01-01

    framework is proposed that provides an interdisciplinary approach to institution-building processes and system formation for the analysis of the EU. The preliminary conclusion is that, in spite of the recent and rapid formal institutional-building efforts at EU level and its clear process of system...

  14. [European health systems and the integration problem of modern societies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüschen, G

    2000-04-01

    With reference to the national health systems in Germany and the UK we must acknowledge that it was in particular Bismarck's Reform, originally directed toward a solidarity among the socially weak, which entailed in its development a marked redistribution via progressive health fees and standardized health services. In view of Alfred Marshall's original expectations this has resulted in a specific integration of the socially weak and with some difference for nationally tax-financed and social security financed health systems to a genuine contribution towards integration of modern society. An open research question is whether as a consequence of solidarity and integration through health systems there is a decline of social inequality for health. Equally open is the question as to the socio-structural and economic consequences the expansion of modern health systems has.

  15. Quality and quantity: Can we have both within the European patent system?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsmore, Matthew J.

    2009-01-01

    Scrutiny of patent systems is never far away. The European Patent Office has long faced rising levels of 'inventive activity'. Fast, fluid technologies and strategic firm behavior add to the difficulties faced in trying to reward inventions with commensurate rights. Analysis suggests stronger...... patent protection does not necessarily equate with more innovation and greater diffusion of knowledge; nor do more patents lead to or reflect more innovation. This article focuses on improving the fundamental workings of the European system as is stands, and proposes a focus on quality and patent...

  16. Landslide hazards and systems analysis: A Central European perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, Martin; Damm, Bodo; Kreuzer, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Part of the problem with assessing landslide hazards is to understand the variable settings in which they occur. There is growing consensus that hazard assessments require integrated approaches that take account of the coupled human-environment system. Here we provide a synthesis of societal exposure and vulnerability to landslide hazards, review innovative approaches to hazard identification, and lay a focus on hazard assessment, while presenting the results of historical case studies and a landslide time series for Germany. The findings add to a growing body of literature that recognizes societal exposure and vulnerability as a complex system of hazard interactions that evolves over time as a function of social change and development. We therefore propose to expand hazard assessments by the framework and concepts of systems analysis (e.g., Liu et al., 2007) Results so far have been promising in ways that illustrate the importance of feedbacks, thresholds, surprises, and time lags in the evolution of landslide hazard and risk. In densely populated areas of Central Europe, landslides often occur in urbanized landscapes or on engineered slopes that had been transformed or created intentionally by human activity, sometimes even centuries ago. The example of Germany enables to correlate the causes and effects of recent landslides with the historical transition of urbanization to urban sprawl, ongoing demographic change, and some chronic problems of industrialized countries today, including ageing infrastructures or rising government debts. In large parts of rural Germany, the combination of ageing infrastructures, population loss, and increasing budget deficits starts to erode historical resilience gains, which brings especially small communities to a tipping point in their efforts to risk reduction. While struggling with budget deficits and demographic change, these communities are required to maintain ageing infrastructures that are particularly vulnerable to

  17. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE REFORM OF THE EUROPEAN FINANCIAL SUPERVISION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persida Cechin Crista

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Financial stability has a crucial role in the financial system and in the economy as a whole, as shown by the current worldwide economic crisis. Therefore, in order to protect the financial system and to ensure financial stability, the identification of the main risk and vulnerability sources is of utmost importance. All involved parties, as well as financial institutions and supervision authorities need to be informed about the risks.Banks, insurance companies and other financial institutions represent the first line of defence against financial crises. These institutions are responsible for maintaining their viability and solvency, as well as for checking the debtors’ credit worthiness and for managing the undertaken risks.

  18. The European debate on rate systems in the interwar period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madureira, Nuno Luis

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a particular branch that evolved in the diffusion of electrical rate systems in twentieth-century Europe and the debate that ensued between the competitive, promotional and cost based approaches. Three major questions are addressed: What factors and historical circumstances favoured the emergence of more or less efficient pricing schemes? Why did some enterprises opt for promotional rates while others defended the cost based alternative? What is the historical origin of marginal cost pricing? It is shown how the volatility of the costs that characterize hydro-electric production made this particular technology very sensitive to a cost approach towards pricing and to a seasonal and time-of-day perspective on rate systems. (author)

  19. The European Southern Observatory-MIDAS table file system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peron, M.; Grosbol, P.

    1992-01-01

    The new and substantially upgraded version of the Table File System in MIDAS is presented as a scientific database system. MIDAS applications for performing database operations on tables are discussed, for instance, the exchange of the data to and from the TFS, the selection of objects, the uncertainty joins across tables, and the graphical representation of data. This upgraded version of the TFS is a full implementation of the binary table extension of the FITS format; in addition, it also supports arrays of strings. Different storage strategies for optimal access of very large data sets are implemented and are addressed in detail. As a simple relational database, the TFS may be used for the management of personal data files. This opens the way to intelligent pipeline processing of large amounts of data. One of the key features of the Table File System is to provide also an extensive set of tools for the analysis of the final results of a reduction process. Column operations using standard and special mathematical functions as well as statistical distributions can be carried out; commands for linear regression and model fitting using nonlinear least square methods and user-defined functions are available. Finally, statistical tests of hypothesis and multivariate methods can also operate on tables.

  20. European Workshop Industrical Computer Science Systems approach to design for safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewski, Janusz

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents guidelines on designing systems for safety, developed by the Technical Committee 7 on Reliability and Safety of the European Workshop on Industrial Computer Systems. The focus is on complementing the traditional development process by adding the following four steps: (1) overall safety analysis; (2) analysis of the functional specifications; (3) designing for safety; (4) validation of design. Quantitative assessment of safety is possible by means of a modular questionnaire covering various aspects of the major stages of system development.

  1. Project IVOR - Implementing victim-oriented reform of the criminal justice system in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biffi, Emanuela; Mulder, Eva; Pemberton, Antony; Santos, Manuela; Valério, Mafalda; Vanfraechem, Inge; van der Vorm, Benny

    2016-01-01

    Project IVOR – Implementing victim-oriented reform of the criminal justice system in the European Union (2014-2016) offers an overview of current research into and with victims’ rights and services, identifying lacunas in the knowledge base and offering a model which can serve to connect experience

  2. Legislative codecision and its impact on the political system of the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burns, Charlotte; Rasmussen, Anne; Reh, Christine

    2013-01-01

    of the codecision procedure in 1993, which empowered the European Parliament (EP) and transformed the EU system of governance. Following the entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon the majority of legislation is now subject to codecision under the ordinary legislative procedure. Consequently, the operation...

  3. Reimbursement of targeted cancer therapies within three different European health care systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihajlovic, Jovan; Dolk, C.; Postma, Maarten

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To identify differences in the recommendations for targeted cancer therapies (TCT) in three distinctive European health care systems: Serbian, Scottish and Dutch, and to examine the role of cost effectiveness analyses (CEA) in such recommendations. Methods: A list of currently approved

  4. The Redistribution of Responsibilities in Five European Educational Systems: From Global Trends to National Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Susana

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a comparative analysis on the evolution of the distribution of responsibilities--the authority of deciding over a particular domain--at the national, regional, and local levels in the European Union educational systems. After explaining common trends in the institutional arrangements through the role of evaluation, the…

  5. Gynecologic oncology training systems in europe: a report from the European network of young gynaecological oncologists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gultekin, Murat; Dursun, Polat; Vranes, Boris

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to highlight some of the differences in training systems and opportunities for training in gynecologic oncology across Europe and to draw attention to steps that can be taken to improve training prospects and experiences of European trainees in gynecologic oncology....

  6. Are EMS environmentally effective? The link between environmental management systems and environmental performance in European companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hertin, J.; Berkhout, F.G.H.; Wagner, M.; Tyteca, D.

    2008-01-01

    Based on the analysis of a large dataset on the environmental performance of European companies in five industrial sectors, this paper examines the question of whether the presence of an environmental management system (EMS) has a positive impact on the eco-efficiency of companies. It begins with a

  7. Bank guarantee in Serbian and European legal systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajtić Bojan L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses a bank guarantee as an institute derived from a surety contract. By issuing a bank guarantee the bank commits to the creditor that it will fulfill valid and due liabilities of a debtor, in the event of default by the debtor. This collateral demonstrates significant advantages as compared to other personal assets, particularly with regards to a higher level of protection to creditors in contractual relations. Due to the aforementioned benefit the institute has been increasingly applied in legal dealings, both in our and other legal systems. In the paper, I will point out normative solutions in terms of regulation of a bank guarantee as a specific legal activity in which there is no accessoriness, which is not the case with security. This research particularly focuses on the comparative legal analysis of this collateral.

  8. Vaccine adverse event monitoring systems across the European Union countries: time for unifying efforts.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Zanoni, Giovanna

    2009-05-26

    A survey conducted among 26 European Countries within the Vaccine European New Integrated Collaboration Effort (VENICE) project assessed the status of organization in prevention and management of adverse events following immunization (AEFI) and level of interconnection, with the aim at individuating points of strength and weakness. The emerging picture is for a strong political commitment to control AEFIs in Member States (MS), but with consistent heterogeneity in procedures, regulations and capacity of systems to collect, analyze and use data, although with great potentialities. Suggestions are posed by authors to promote actions for unifying strategies and policies among MS.

  9. Policies for the setting up of alternative energy systems in European SMEs: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarpellini, S.; Romeo, L.M.

    1999-01-01

    SMEs--which provide two-thirds of all jobs in the european Union--have proven to be particularly dynamic vehicles for innovation so they must be given easy access to available advanced energy systems. In this scenario, renewable energies represent the most adequate resource to supply SMEs, included in rural areas, assuring continuity and without dependence to the fluctuations of energy market. SMEnergy project results have to be taken into account because the project, specially designed for the Spanish Region of Aragon, can be implemented to specific European Areas needs and integrated at a wider key synergy's project. (Author)

  10. Student Mentors' system in the Higher European Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saa-Requejo, Antonio; Medina-Rojas, Silvia; Sanchez, Maria Elena; Gascó, Gabriel; Moratiel, Ruben; Antón, Jose Manuel; Durán-Altisent, Jose Maria; Tarquis, Ana Maria

    2013-04-01

    For several years the Spanish University has been experiencing changes that affect not only the educational area but also innovation and investigation in the classroom. Even the use of so-called New Technologies has been focus of much attention in the Higher Educational System, student mentoring has been revealed as an important factor in the first university courses. In this sense, we carried out a first step in a senior student mentor project in order to facilitate adaptation of the new students, providing information, advice and guidance on different academic and social aspects. Here, we understand mentoring as a relationship between a more senior student (mentor) and a few junior lesser experienced students (mentees). Mentoring is intended to develop and grow the skills, knowledge, confidence, and cultural understanding of the mentees aiming to help them succeed. Consequently, this work arises from our concern about students need. A test has been designed to assess students interest in the three fundamental aspects of mentoring: academic, social and administrative orientation. The test involved 16 questions related to these three different aspects on mentoring, evaluating each question from 1 (none) to 4 (totally). Surveys have been conducted on this topic at the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM) with students on different levels and modules of degrees in Agricultural Engineering. The same activity has been applied to the new degrees that have started at 2010-11 course in the Bologna Plan's requirements and are replacing the precedents progressively. We have analysed the answers performing a multifactor analysis of variance for each question. It constructs various tests and graphs to determine which questions have statistically significant interactions, given sufficient data. The F-tests in the ANOVA table allowed identifying the significant ones. For each significant factor, the Multiple Range Tests (MRT) tells which means are significantly different

  11. European BWR R and D cluster for innovative passive safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicken, E.F.; Lensa, W. von

    1996-01-01

    The main technological innovation trends for future nuclear power plants tend towards a broader use of passive safety systems for the prevention, mitigation and managing of severe accident scenarios. Several approaches have been undertaken in a number of European countries to study and demonstrate the feasibility and charateristics of innovative passive safety systems. The European BWR R and D Cluster combines those experimental and analytical efforts that are mainly directed to the introduction of passive safety systems into boiling water reactor technology. The Cluster is grouped around thermohydraulic test facilities in Europe for the qualification of innovative BWR safety systems, also taking into account especially the operating experience of the nuclear power plant Dodewaard and other BWRs, which already incorporated some passive safety features. The background, the objectives, the structure of the project and the work programme are presented in this paper as well as an outline of the significance of the expected results. (orig.) [de

  12. National critical incident reporting systems relevant to anaesthesia: a European survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, S; Arnal, D; Frank, O; Gomez-Arnau, J I; Hansen, J; Lester, O; Mikkelsen, K L; Rhaiem, T; Rosenberg, P H; St Pierre, M; Schleppers, A; Staender, S; Smith, A F

    2014-03-01

    Critical incident reporting is a key tool in the promotion of patient safety in anaesthesia. We surveyed representatives of national incident reporting systems in six European countries, inviting information on scope and organization, and intelligence on factors determining success and failure. Some systems are government-run and nationally conceived; others started out as small, specialty-focused initiatives, which have since acquired a national reach. However, both national co-ordination and specialty enthusiasts seem to be necessary for an optimally functioning system. The role of reporting culture, definitional issues, and dissemination is discussed. We make recommendations for others intending to start new systems and speculate on the prospects for sharing patient safety lessons relevant to anaesthesia at European level.

  13. Adequacy of operating reserves for power systems in future european wind power scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Kaushik; Litong-Palima, Marisciel; Maule, Petr

    2015-01-01

    operating reserves. To study the effects of these imbalances, anticipated wind scenarios for European power systems are modelled for 2020 and 2030. Wind power forecasts for different time scales and real-time available wind power are modelled. Based on these studies, this paper qualitatively analyzes......Wind power generation is expected to increase in Europe by large extent in future. This will increase variability and uncertainty in power systems. Imbalances caused due to uncertainty in wind power forecast can trigger frequency instability in the system. These imbalances are handled using...... the adequacy of primary and secondary reserves requirements for future European power systems. This paper also discusses the challenges due to the uncertainty in wind power forecasts and their possible solutions for wind installation scenarios for 2020 and 2030....

  14. The on-line European Community urgent radiological information exchange (ECURIE) information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Cort, M.; Breitenbach, L.; De Vries, G.

    1998-01-01

    Immediately after the accident at the Chernobyl NPP, both the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) set up a system to meet the requirements for early warning and exchange of information. The Environment Institute of the CEC JRC-Ispra provides technical assistance for the European community Urgent Radiological Information Exchange system (ECURIE). By this system, Member State contact points can exchange information in a coded format. In order to facilitate the use and to assure the data quality, a Coding-Decoding Software (CDS) was developed in collaboration with the I.A.E.A. A new version, called CoDecS, is under development. An ECURIE data bank is under construction, which will automatically recognize and store incoming ECURIE messages. Further on, query and reporting software will be developed. The background objectives and the conceptual basis for the structure of the on-line information system is described. (author)

  15. The European Power System. Decarbonization and Cost Reduction: Lost in Transmissions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaureguy-Naudin, Maite

    2012-01-01

    constraints. Wind energy is expected to provide most of the extra renewable energy required in electricity generation to meet this objective. Even though photovoltaic electricity production is less mature than wind energy, this technology is also strongly supported by new energy policies. Overall, the variability of these intermittent technologies can be dealt with by interconnection capacities, to a certain extent. Strong interconnections between neighboring countries are crucial for greater wind-power and solar penetration in the European system

  16. Air Traffic Management and Space Transportation - System Wide Information Management and the Integration in European Airspace

    OpenAIRE

    Kaltenhäuser, Sven; Morlang, Frank; Hampe, Jens; Jakobi, Jörn; Schmitt, Dirk-Roger

    2015-01-01

    Space Travel becomes an international business and requires landing opportunities all over the world. The integration of space vehicles in airspace therefore is an increasingly important topic to be considered on an international scale. With the Single European Sky ATM Research Programme (SESAR) preparing the implementation of a new ATM system in Europe, requirements have been defined for Shared and Reference Business Trajectories as well as System Wide Information Management (SWIM). The s...

  17. Economic analysis of the cross-border coordination of operation in the European power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen, Tanguy

    2014-01-01

    The electricity high voltage transmission networks are interconnected over most of the continents but this is not the case of the power system organizations. Indeed, as described with the concept of integrated power system, the organization over these large networks is divided by several kinds of internal borders. In this context, the research object, the cross-border coordination of operation, is a set of coordination arrangements over internal borders between differing regulatory, technical and market designs. These arrangements can include for instance the famous market couplings, some cost-sharing agreements or common security assessments among several other solutions. The existence and improvement of the cross-border coordination of operation can be beneficial to the whole integrated power system. This statement is verified in the European case as in 2012 where several regional and continental coordination arrangements are successfully implemented.In order to benefit from the European experience and contribute to support the European improvement process, this thesis investigates the cross-border coordination of operation in the European case with four angles of study. First, a modular framework is built to describe the existing solutions and the implementation choices from a regulatory point of view. Second, the thesis analyses the tools available to assess the impact of an evolution of the cross-border coordination. Third, the role of the European Union (EU) is described as critical both for the existing arrangements and to support the improvement process. The last angle of study focuses on two dimensions of the economic modes of coordination between transmission system operators. (author)

  18. [E-health developments in the system of health services in Hungary and the European Union].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Váradi, Ágnes

    2014-05-25

    The question of electronic solutions in public health care has become a contemporary issue at the European Union level since the action plan of the Commission on the e-health developments of the period between 2012 and 2020 has been published. In Hungary this issue has been placed into the centre of attention after a draft on modifications of regulations in health-care has been released for public discourse, which - if accepted - would lay down the basics of an electronic heath-service system. The aim of this paper is to review the basic features of e-health solutions in Hungary and the European Union with the help of the most important pieces of legislation, documents of the European Union institutions and sources from secondary literature. When examining the definition of the basic goals and instruments of the development, differences between the European Union and national approaches can be detected. Examination of recent developmental programs and existing models seem to reveal difficulties in creating interoperability and financing such projects. Finally, the review is completed by the aspects of jurisdiction and fundamental rights. It is concluded that these issues are mandatory to delineate the legislative, economic and technological framework for the development of the e-health systems.

  19. The Great Recession And Increased Cost Sharing In European Health Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palladino, Raffaele; Lee, John Tayu; Hone, Thomas; Filippidis, Filippos T; Millett, Christopher

    2016-07-01

    European health systems are increasingly adopting cost-sharing models, potentially increasing out-of-pocket expenditures for patients who use health care services or buy medications. Government policies that increase patient cost sharing are responding to incremental growth in cost pressures from aging populations and the need to invest in new health technologies, as well as to general constraints on public expenditures resulting from the Great Recession (2007-09). We used data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe to examine changes from 2006-07 to 2013 in out-of-pocket expenditures among people ages fifty and older in eleven European countries. Our results identify increases both in the proportion of older European citizens who incurred out-of-pocket expenditures and in mean out-of-pocket expenditures over this period. We also identified a significant increase over time in the percentage of people who incurred catastrophic health expenditures (greater than 30 percent of the household income) in the Czech Republic, Italy, and Spain. Poorer populations were less likely than those in the highest income quintile to incur an out-of-pocket expenditure and reported lower mean out-of-pocket expenditures, which suggests that measures are in place to provide poorer groups with some financial protection. These findings indicate the substantial weakening of financial protection for people ages fifty and older in European health systems after the Great Recession. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  20. Trans-European transport networks influence on the regional development and urban systems: Serbian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksin-Mićić Marija

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The trans-European transport network has different effects at macro regional mezzo-regional and micro-regional level, and its effectiveness rises with the lower regional levels. Possible approaches to the trans-European transport network impact and effect survey and policy options have been pointed out. The importance of increased accessibility and mobility for regional expansion and for a more balanced and polycentric system of city networks has been underlined. Changes in the spatial organization utilization and structure of cities, as well as in social benefits and losses subsequent to impacts of trans-European transport corridor "X" section Belgrade-Niš have been analyzed. The new trans-European or major transport infrastructure does not per se create regional and urban system network development, although it can affect the conditions for the processes that create growth and development. The effects can be increased by co-ordination of measures of regional, spatial and urban policy, land use transport, environmental and other policies. The necessary measure is the introduction of spatial impact assessment as sartorial policy instrument for the large transport infrastructure plans and projects.

  1. Convergence of the National Public Administration Systems within the European Union in the Context of the European Model Emergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezar Corneliu MANDA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The long running history for over half a century of the European Union was marked initially by the need to approach the member states’ administrations, with a view to getting them more compatible, as a prerequisite of the EU’s functioning, at the foreseen political-legal and economic parameters, and then the respective tendency started to intensify progressively relative to the more and more ambitious goals and objectives of the European Union establishment. Today we witness an increased dynamics of such a process which seems to integrate even the specificities derived from the sovereignty elements, considered not long ago as sacred, at the states level, a processuality whose finality consists in the continuous consolidation of the European administrative area, as an essential corollary to the effective inter-community mechanisms development, equally as an effect of the states’ integration but also a condition for the European project success. In such a context, the present approach proposes to analyse and identify the degree of cohesion and of similarity between the EU states administrations, which revolve around the emergence of the common characteristics, considered as authentic values of the administrative area, susceptible to be accepted altogether as bases for the European administration model, whose outline tends to become more visible.

  2. European passive plant program preliminary safety analyses to support system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiu, Gianfranco; Barucca, Luciana; King, K.J.

    1999-01-01

    In 1994, a group of European Utilities, together with Westinghouse and its Industrial Partner GENESI (an Italian consortium including ANSALDO and FIAT), initiated a program designated EPP (European Passive Plant) to evaluate Westinghouse Passive Nuclear Plant Technology for application in Europe. In the Phase 1 of the European Passive Plant Program which was completed in 1996, a 1000 MWe passive plant reference design (EP1000) was established which conforms to the European Utility Requirements (EUR) and is expected to meet the European Safety Authorities requirements. Phase 2 of the program was initiated in 1997 with the objective of developing the Nuclear Island design details and performing supporting analyses to start development of Safety Case Report (SCR) for submittal to European Licensing Authorities. The first part of Phase 2, 'Design Definition' phase (Phase 2A) was completed at the end of 1998, the main efforts being design definition of key systems and structures, development of the Nuclear Island layout, and performing preliminary safety analyses to support design efforts. Incorporation of the EUR has been a key design requirement for the EP1000 form the beginning of the program. Detailed design solutions to meet the EUR have been defined and the safety approach has also been developed based on the EUR guidelines. The present paper describes the EP1000 approach to safety analysis and, in particular, to the Design Extension Conditions that, according to the EUR, represent the preferred method for giving consideration to the Complex Sequences and Severe Accidents at the design stage without including them in the design bases conditions. Preliminary results of some DEC analyses and an overview of the probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) are also presented. (author)

  3. An efficient rapid warning system for earthquakes in the European - Mediterranean region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazet-Roux, G.; Bossu, R; Tome, M.; Giovambattista, R. Di

    2002-01-01

    Every year a few damaging earthquakes occur in the European-Mediterranean region. It is therefore indispensable to operate a real-time warning system in order to provide rapidly reliable estimates of the location, depth and magnitude of these seismic events. In order to provide this information in a timely manner both to the scientific community and to the European and national authorities dealing with natural hazards and relief organisation, the European-Mediterranean Seismological Centre (EMSC) has federated a network of seismic networks exchanging their data in quasi real-time. Today, thanks to the Internet, the EMSC receives real-time information about earthquakes from about thirty seismological institutes. As soon as data reach the EMSC, they are displayed on the EMSC Web pages (www.emsc-csem.org). A seismic alert is generated for any potentially damaging earthquake in the European-Mediterranean region and disseminated within one hour following its occurrence. Potentially damaging earthquakes are defined as seismic events of magnitude 5 or above in the European-Mediterranean region. The utility of this EMSC service is clearly demonstrated by its following among the public: EMSC e-mail dissemination list has been subscribed by about 300 institutions (ECHO, NGO, civil defence services, seismological institutes) or individuals and the rate of internet connections to EMSC web site dramatically increase following an alert. The aim of this presentation is to give a complete technical description of the EMSC warning system. We will also take this opportunity to thank each of the contributing institutions for their support and efforts to enhance the system performances. (authors)

  4. Harmonisation of food categorisation systems for dietary exposure assessments among European children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Neve, Melissa; Sioen, Isabelle; Boon, Polly

    2010-01-01

    Within the European project called EXPOCHI (Individual Food Consumption Data and Exposure Assessment Studies for Children), 14 different European individual food consumption databases of children were used to conduct harmonised dietary exposure assessments for lead, chromium, selenium and food...... colours. For this, two food categorisation systems were developed to classify the food consumption data in such a way that these could be linked to occurrence data of the considered compounds. One system served for the exposure calculations of lead, chromium and selenium. The second system was developed...... for the exposure assessment of food colours. The food categories defined for the lead, chromium and selenium exposure calculations were used as a basis for the food colour categorisation, with adaptations to optimise the linkage with the food colour occurrence data. With this work, an initial impetus was given...

  5. Centralized vs decentralized options for a european data relay satellite system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, Ph. Saint; Hervieux, M.; Perbos, J. L.; Saggese, E.; Soprano, C.

    The European Data Relay Satellite (DRS) is now being planned to support future European missions in the nineties and in particular the various elements of the in-orbit infrastructure. Studies are being conducted to investigate the usefulness of the Relay System as well as to provide the basis for issuing technical specifications for a development and launch in 1993. This paper presents the results of a study issued by ESA on possible options for a DRS System, concentrating on the comparison between a centralized and a decentralized data distribution concept. After recalling the space programmes foreseen in Europe, the paper discusses the architecture and design of the various elements of the System: space segment, DRS ground segment and user ground segment for different options of data dissemination.

  6. Centralized vs decentralized options for an European Data Relay Satellite system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint Aubert, S.; Hervieux, M.; Perbos, J. L.; Saggese, E.; Soprano, C.

    1985-10-01

    The European Data Relay Satellite (DRS) is now being planned to support future European missions in the nineties and in particular the various elements of the in-orbit infrastructure. Studies are being conducted to investigate the usefulness of the relay system as well as to provide the basis for issuing technical specifications for a development and launch in 1993. This paper presents the results of a study issued by ESA on possible options for a DRS System, concentrating on the comparison between a centralized and a decentralized data distribution concept. After recalling the space programs foreseen in Europe, the paper discusses the architecture and design of the various elements of the System: space segment, DRS ground segment, and user ground segment for different options of data dissemination.

  7. RISK MITIGATION IN THE BANKING SYSTEM IN THE CONTEXT OF INTEGRATION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura – Maria POPESCU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to highlight the measures adopted in the financial-banking system in the context of the European integration, according to risk analysis perspectives. The first part provides details on the vulnerability sources in terms of banking risks and their approach from various perspectives. Subsequently, based on the identified risks, a series of measures are proposed to limit them within the banking system. In terms of the work hypotheses, they are confirmed, thus increasing the harmonization level of theories throughout the European Union. Research was based on methods such as analysis, synthesis and induction, used to select the opinion of specialists in the field on the studied matter, and deduction, through the cross-section method, thus following the evolution and measures adopted in time. Following the analysis, a need was noticed for the implementation of an efficient banking risk management system, together with drafting additional regulations, so that the banking system is better prepared to handle new challenges generated by the crisis. The term afferent to the accession and integration in the European Union implied a stage requiring a radical change of the Romanian banking system, considering issues such as Romania’s economic development, leading to an increase of the banking mediation process.

  8. The Financing Mechanism of the Social Health Insurance System in Romania and in other European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin AFANASE

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The social insurance system is part of the social security system and it works based on the payment of a contribution through which risks and services defined by the law are insured. The social security system, independent of the structure or political and economical order of a state, has the attribution of giving help to those in conditions of social helplessness, as well as preventing such circumstances. In this paper we made a comparative analysis of the financing mechanism of the social health insurance system in Romania with other European countries.

  9. Vision of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems: a European Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollier, G.; Craglia, M.; Nativi, S.

    2013-12-01

    The possibility of involving citizens in measuring and providing data is becoming a reality through the concept of "Citizen Observatories". This takes advantage of everybody's capacity to use mobile phone/tablet/laptop to monitor the environment and by trying to find cheap solutions to strengthen the in-situ network of observatories needed for a Global Earth Observation System. Further to the Citizen Observatories approach, the development of cheap sensors based on disposable technologies, nanotech and the piggy-back approach could also be applied to several Societal Challenges and contribute to the GEOSS. The involvement of citizens in the domain of Earth Observation implies dealing with many diverse communities that need to be fully connected into the overall GEOSS architecture. With the introduction of a brokering capability this becomesnow possible. The value of the brokering approach has been demonstrated within the European Union funded EuroGEOSS research project. The EuroGEOSS brokering capability has now been incorporated into the GEOSS information system, (known as the GEOSS Common Infrastructure, or GCI) and renamed the GEOSS Discovery and Access Broker. In a matter of a few months the GEOSS DAB has enabled the GEOSS to extend the data resources available from a few hundred to over 28 million The vison which is discussed here is that with a more active participation of the Citizens one could imagine a world with instant information flow about the state and future evolution of the environment available, similar to what has been achieved in weather forecasting but covering fields such as climate, agriculture, water etc. and covering larger forecast time spans from months to years. Failure on crops for instance could be forecasted and measures to mitigate potential upcoming problems could be put in place well in advance. Obviously, the societal and economic benefits would be manifold and large

  10. Promoting and Protecting Public Health: How the European Union Pharmacovigilance System Works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Aniello; Genov, Georgy; Spooner, Almath; Raine, June; Arlett, Peter

    2017-10-01

    This article provides an overview of the European Union pharmacovigilance system resulting from the rationalisation and strengthening delivered through the implementation of the revised pharmacovigilance legislation. It outlines the system aims, underlying principles, components and drivers for future change. At its core, the Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee is responsible for assessing all aspects of the risk management of medicinal products, thus ensuring that medicines approved for the European Union market are optimally used by maximising their benefits and minimising risks. The main objectives of the system are to promote and protect public health by supporting the availability of medicines including those that fulfil previously unmet medical needs, and reducing the burden of adverse drug reactions. These are achieved through a proactive, risk proportionate and patient-centred approach, with high levels of transparency and engagement of civil society. In the European Union, pharmacovigilance is now fully integrated into the life cycle of medicinal products, with the planning of pharmacovigilance activities commencing before a medicine is placed on the market, and companies encouraged to start planning very early in development for high-innovation products. After authorisation, information on the safety of medicines continues to be obtained through a variety of sources, including spontaneous reports of adverse drug reactions or monitoring real-world data. Finally, the measurement of the impact of pharmacovigilance activities, auditing and inspections, as well as capacity building ensure that the system undergoes continuous improvement and can always rely on the best methodologies to safeguard public health.

  11. Application Model for a Stirling Engine Micro-Generation System in Caravans in Different European Locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ulloa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a simple model obtained from a commercial Stirling engine and used for heating a caravan. The Stirling engine has been tested in the lab under different electrical load conditions, and the operating points obtained are presented. As an application of the model, a series of transient simulations was performed using TRNSYS. During these simulations, the caravan is traveling throughout the day and is stationary at night. Therefore, during the night-time hours, the heating system is turned on by means of the Stirling engine. The study was performed for each month of the year in different European cities. The different heating demand profiles for different cities induce variation in the electricity production, as it has been assumed that electricity is only generated when the thermal demand requires the operation of the Stirling system. As a result, a comparison of the expected power generation in different European cities is presented.

  12. Reforming the court management system of Romania in the European Union integration process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Elvis Cioabă

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Superior Council of Magistracy represent a cornerstone of the Romanian court management system. This responsibility is partly shared with the Ministry of Justice. The reform of the court management system in Romania has been and still is disputable, the main actors being on one hand the magistrates and on the other the Ministry of Justice. While observing this „dispute“ we may discover a third actor, namely the European Union, who has entered scene in the context of Romania’s European integration. This research is looking to plausibly explain which was the part played by the EU and how did it influence the above mentioned reform, with special emphasis on the Superior Council of Magistracy.

  13. Adapting the European tourism indicators system to Braşov – tourist destination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel BRĂTUCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The industry of tourism contributes mainly to the social and economic development of a destination. However this development has to be made in a sustainable manner, with an emphasis on preserving the area where it is practiced. In order to evaluate the sustainable development of a destination, the European Commission developed an Indicators System that measures and monitors, at a local level, the processes of sustainable development and communicates to the interested parties its progress and its future performances. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to identify the set of indicators from European Tourism Indicators System that are relevant in evaluating the sustainable development of tourism in Braşov. In order to achieve this objective 3 focus Groups were conducted among 30 specialists in this field. The results can serve as a guid

  14. Implementation of the Orbital Maneuvering Systems Engine and Thrust Vector Control for the European Service Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, Jon

    2014-01-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) has entered into a partnership with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to develop and provide the Service Module (SM) for the Orion Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Program. The European Service Module (ESM) will provide main engine thrust by utilizing the Space Shuttle Program Orbital Maneuvering System Engine (OMS-E). Thrust Vector Control (TVC) of the OMS-E will be provided by the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) TVC, also used during the Space Shuttle Program. NASA will be providing the OMS-E and OMS TVC to ESA as Government Furnished Equipment (GFE) to integrate into the ESM. This presentation will describe the OMS-E and OMS TVC and discuss the implementation of the hardware for the ESM.

  15. Improvement of the Pension System in Uzbekistan: Through the Experience of the European Union Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilshodjon Alidjonovich Rakhmonov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Government’s policy in financing social sphere is becoming more and more topical. In this regard, managing pension system effectively, conducting research basing on “income distribution through the time” principle in its financing is of particular significance. In this article the possibility of applying the experience of European Union countries in the level of coverage of population by the pension plan and its development in Uzbekistan.

  16. The impact of decisions the european court of human rights on the legal system of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. О. Сидоренко

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the identifying areas of influence of the European Court on the legal system of Ukraine, as well as the enforcement mechanism of decisions. Analyzes the problems that affect the designated question and points of view of different scholars and practitioners. In Europe there are different documents – convention covenants, charters that provide and ensure the inclusion of a special protection mechanism in case of violation of human rights. These documents Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (Rome, 1950, hereinafter - the Convention, which provides the most effective and real protection mechanism for human rights. Convention not only proclaimed fundamental human rights, but also created a special mechanism to protect them. The key to this mechanism is the European Court of Human Rights. European Court of Human Rights (hereinafter - the Court located in Strasbourg, France. Its jurisdiction extends to forty-seven European states that are members of the Council of Europe and signatories. Article 9 of the Constitution of Ukraine clearly states that international treaties, ratified by the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine are part of the national legislation of Ukraine. The Court can not apply the law that governs the legal relationship in question, other than an international agreement. However, international agreements apply if they do not contradict the Constitution of Ukraine. Urgency of the problem by the growth requirements of the rule of law in the judiciary, increasing legal awareness of citizens and their activity to protect their rights and freedoms, the presence of non judicial legislation with international legal acts. Procedural legislation of Ukraine in many aspects not harmonized not only in line with the decisions of the European Court, but also to the current constitution. Ukraine ratified the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms July 17, 1997. Since then, the citizens of

  17. The Preventive Signaling Maintenance Crew Scheduling Problem for European Railway Traffic Management system (ERTMS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    M. Pour, Shahrzad; Stidsen, Thomas Jacob Riis; Rasmussen, Kourosh Marjani

    , the western part of Denmark. This case is particularly interesting, since the entire railway signalling system is currently being upgraded to the new European Railway Traffic Management System (ERTMS) standard. The new signals need continuous maintenance and in this article we plan the distribution of crew......A railway system is a large and complex infrastructure, which requires continuous maintenance in order to function correctly. Proper maintenance is critical but can also be costly. In this paper we consider the practical case of planning the preventive maintenance of railway signals in Jutland...

  18. The perceived impact of the European registration system for genetic counsellors and nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paneque, Milena; Moldovan, Ramona; Cordier, Christophe; Serra-Juhé, Clara; Feroce, Irene; Pasalodos, Sara; Haquet, Emmanuelle; Lambert, Debby; Bjørnevoll, Inga; Skirton, Heather

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the European Board of Medical Genetics has been to develop and promote academic and professional standards necessary in order to provide competent genetic counselling services. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of the European registration system for genetic nurses and counsellors from the perspectives of those professionals who have registered. Registration system was launched in 2013. A cross-sectional, online survey was used to explore the motivations and experiences of those applying for, and the effect of registration on their career. Fifty-five Genetic Nurses and Counsellors are registered till now, from them, thirty-three agreed to participate on this study. The main motivations for registering were for recognition of their work value and competence (30.3%); due to the absence of a registration system in their own country (15.2%) and the possibility of obtaining a European/international certification (27.3%), while 27.3% of respondents registered to support recognition of the genetic counselling profession. Some participants valued the registration process as an educational activity in its own right, while the majority indicated the greatest impact of the registration process was on their clinical practice. The results confirm that registrants value the opportunity to both confirm their own competence and advance the genetic counselling profession in Europe.

  19. Storage and balancing synergies in a fully or highly renewable pan-European power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, Morten Grud; Andresen, Gorm Bruun; Greiner, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Through a parametric time-series analysis of 8 years of hourly data, we quantify the storage size and balancing energy needs for highly and fully renewable European power systems for different levels and mixes of wind and solar energy. By applying a dispatch strategy that minimizes the balancing energy needs for a given storage size, the interplay between storage and balancing is quantified, providing a hard upper limit on their synergy. An efficient but relatively small storage reduces balancing energy needs significantly due to its influence on intra-day mismatches. Furthermore, we show that combined with a low-efficiency hydrogen storage and a level of balancing equal to what is today provided by storage lakes, it is sufficient to meet the European electricity demand in a fully renewable power system where the average power generation from combined wind and solar exceeds the demand by only a few percent. - Highlights: ► We model a wind and solar based European power system with storage and balancing. ► We find that storage needs peaks when average renewable generation matches load. ► We find strong synergetic effects when combining storage and balancing. ► We study the effects of a storage capable of storing 6 h average use. ► We find a realisable fully renewable scenario based on wind, solar and hydro power.

  20. European roadmap to the realization of fusion energy: Mission for solution on heat-exhaust systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turnyanskiy, M., E-mail: mikhail.turnyanskiy@euro-fusion.org [EUROfusion PMU Garching, Boltzmannstraße 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Neu, R. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmapysik, Boltzmannstraße 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Technische Universität München, Fachgebiet Plasma-Wand-Wechselwirkung, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Albanese, R.; Ambrosino, R. [Assoc. EURATOM/ENEA/CREATE/DIETI – Univ. Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio 21, I-80125 (Italy); Bachmann, C. [EUROfusion PMU Garching, Boltzmannstraße 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Brezinsek, S. [Association EURATOM/Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Donne, T. [EUROfusion PMU Garching, Boltzmannstraße 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Eich, T. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmapysik, Boltzmannstraße 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Falchetto, G. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Federici, G.; Kalupin, D.; Litaudon, X.; Mayoral, M.L.; McDonald, D.C. [EUROfusion PMU Garching, Boltzmannstraße 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Reimerdes, H. [EPFL, CRPP, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Romanelli, F.; Wenninger, R. [EUROfusion PMU Garching, Boltzmannstraße 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); You, J.-H. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmapysik, Boltzmannstraße 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A summary of the main aims of the Mission 2 for a solution on heat-exhaust systems. • A description of the EUROfusion consortium strategy to address Mission 2. • A definition of main unresolved issues and challenges in Mission 2. • Work Breakdown Structure to set up the collaborative efforts to address these challenges. - Abstract: Horizon 2020 is the largest EU Research and Innovation programme to date. The European fusion research programme for Horizon 2020 is outlined in the “Roadmap to the realization of fusion energy” and published in 2012 [1]. As part of it, the European Fusion Consortium (EUROfusion) has been established and will be responsible for implementing this roadmap through its members. The European fusion roadmap sets out a strategy for a collaboration to achieve the goal of generating fusion electricity by 2050. It is based on a goal-oriented approach with eight different missions including the development of heat-exhaust systems which must be capable of withstanding the large heat and particle fluxes of a fusion power plant (FPP). A summary of the main aims of the mission for a solution on heat-exhaust systems and the EUROfusion consortium strategy to set up an efficient Work Breakdown Structure and the collaborative efforts to address these challenges will be presented.

  1. European roadmap to the realization of fusion energy: Mission for solution on heat-exhaust systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turnyanskiy, M.; Neu, R.; Albanese, R.; Ambrosino, R.; Bachmann, C.; Brezinsek, S.; Donne, T.; Eich, T.; Falchetto, G.; Federici, G.; Kalupin, D.; Litaudon, X.; Mayoral, M.L.; McDonald, D.C.; Reimerdes, H.; Romanelli, F.; Wenninger, R.; You, J.-H.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A summary of the main aims of the Mission 2 for a solution on heat-exhaust systems. • A description of the EUROfusion consortium strategy to address Mission 2. • A definition of main unresolved issues and challenges in Mission 2. • Work Breakdown Structure to set up the collaborative efforts to address these challenges. - Abstract: Horizon 2020 is the largest EU Research and Innovation programme to date. The European fusion research programme for Horizon 2020 is outlined in the “Roadmap to the realization of fusion energy” and published in 2012 [1]. As part of it, the European Fusion Consortium (EUROfusion) has been established and will be responsible for implementing this roadmap through its members. The European fusion roadmap sets out a strategy for a collaboration to achieve the goal of generating fusion electricity by 2050. It is based on a goal-oriented approach with eight different missions including the development of heat-exhaust systems which must be capable of withstanding the large heat and particle fluxes of a fusion power plant (FPP). A summary of the main aims of the mission for a solution on heat-exhaust systems and the EUROfusion consortium strategy to set up an efficient Work Breakdown Structure and the collaborative efforts to address these challenges will be presented.

  2. The State of Ethical Learning of Students in the Spanish University System: Considerations for the European Higher Education Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxarrais, Maria Rosa; Esteban, Francisco; Mellen, Teodor

    2015-01-01

    With the establishment of the European higher education area (EHEA), the ethical learning of students is a matter of central importance in European universities. This paper examines the current state of ethical learning of students in the Spanish university system. We present the results of a descriptive survey, which used a training model for…

  3. Application of a new Terrestrial Telecommunications System in the European Air Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Draško Marin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Aeronautical Public Correspondence (APC is a telecommtmicationsse!Vice, which enables passengers onboard aircraftto make telecommunication calls to people on the ground.This article describes the terrestrial communications seiVicewhich is based on cellular network for the European CEPTmember countries (CEPT- European Conference of Postaland Telecommunications Administrations named TerrestrialFlight Telecommunications System (TFTS.This system is a Pan-European System, which means theusage of hannonised frequencies in Europe with hannonisedstandards for the TFTS equipment, which have been issued bythe European Telecommunications Standard Institute (ETSI.Frequencies allocated for TFTS have been designated bythe World Administrative Radio Conference, WARC-92 withfrequency bandwidth of 2x5 MHz:1670- 1675 MHz, for ground to air1800- 1805 MHz, for air to ground.TFTS planning is perfonned by the application of frequencyblocks (42 blocks with 164 channels in total. Bandwidthof each radio channel, which contains 4 speech channels,is equal to 30.3 kHz.Due to the very high flight of the aircraft (about 13,000 m,it needs a long distance between the centres of cells (radio stationon the ground to avoid the eo-channel or adjacent channelinteJference.The article presents the planning process with typical cellradius of240km or 350km. In the viewofthatfact, the need ispointed out for finding a compromise solution with regard toemitting power and the influence of interference.Final(v, it is noted that TFTS ground radio stations inCroatia, which are located in Zagreb and Split, may cover theterritory of some neighbouring countries other than Croatia,which is important from the commercial point of view.

  4. 77 FR 51731 - All-Terrain Vehicle Safety Summit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ...; Physical sizing of ATVs 2. Consumer Awareness Suggested topics: Point-of-purchase information; on-product... safety require additional research that is beyond the Commission's current budget and resources. CPSC.... The Summit will take place over 2 days and will feature a mix of rulemaking and nonrulemaking topic...

  5. Status and functioning of the European Commission's major accident reporting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchsteiger, C.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the background, functioning and status of the European Commission's Major Accident Reporting System (MARS), dedicated to collect, in a consistent way, data on major industrial accidents involving dangerous substances from the Member States of the European Union, to analyse and statistically process them, and to create subsets of all non-confidential accidents data and analysis results for export to all Member States. This modern information exchange and analysis tool is made up of two connected parts: one for each local unit (i.e., for the Competent Authority of each EU Member State), and one central part for the European Commission. The local, as well as the central parts of this information network, can serve both as data logging systems and, on different levels of complexity, as data analysis tools. The central database allows complex cluster and pattern analysis, identifying and analysing the succession of the disruptive factors leading to an accident. On this basis, 'lessons learned' can be formulated for the industry for the purposes of further accident prevention. Further, results from analysing data of major industrial accidents reported to MARS are presented. It can be shown that some of the main assumptions in the new 'Seveso II Directive' can directly be validated from MARS data. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  6. The control system for the multiple-pellet injector on the Joint European Torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baylor, L.R.; Jernigan, T.C.; Stewart, K.A.

    1989-01-01

    A stand-alone control and data acquisition system for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) multiple-pellet injector installed on the Joint European Torus (JET) has been designed and installed with the injector. This system, which is based on a MicroVAX II computer and a programmable logic controller (PLC), is an upgrade of previous systems designed for ORNL pellet injectors installed on other fusion experiments. The primary control system upgrades are in the user interface, in the automation of sequential injector operation, and in the analysis of the transient data acquired for each pellet fired. The system is integrated into the JET CODAS environment through CAMAC communications modules with customized communications software. Routine operation of the injector is automated and requires no operator intervention. Details of the hardware and software design and the operation of the system are presented in this paper. 4 refs., 3 figs

  7. European type NPP electric power and vent systems. For safety improvement and proposal of international center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Kenichiro

    2011-01-01

    For prevention of reactor accidents of nuclear power plants, multiplicity and redundancy of emergency power would be most important. At station blackout accident, European type manually operated vent operation could minimize release amount of radioactive materials and keep safety of neighboring residents. After Fukushima Daiichi accident, nuclear power plants could not restart operation even after completion of periodical inspection. This article introduced European type emergency power and vent systems in Swiss, Sweden and Germany with state of nuclear power phaseout for reference at considering to upgrade safety and accident mitigation measures for better understanding of the public. In addition, it would be important to recover trust of nuclear technology to continue to disseminate latest information on new knowledge of accident site and decontamination technologies to domestic and overseas people. As its implementation, establishment of Fukushima international center was proposed. (T. Tanaka)

  8. Legal analysis of systemic investment protection regulation in the European Union’s financial sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bocs L.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available After the Treaty of Lisbon the European Union has an exclusive and uniform competence regarding investment agreements within its common commercial policy. Yet the political events in 2016 showed that there are still many regional differences politically and economically, especially after the so-called Brexit and negotiations with the United States of America in relation to transatlantic trade and investment. Therefore, the aim of the research is to determine the legal framework and related problems for unified investment protection within the European Union. Using descriptive, logical and deductive methodology the paper establishes a juristic base consensus for trade and investment policies, concludes that so far those policies have been systemically neglected due to regional differences in economic development and accordingly suggests to unify and protect the common investment policies by using already existing regional judicial mechanisms of member states within a unified code of conduct.

  9. Swiss hydropower in competition - an analysis with reference to the future European power supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmer, M.; Spreng, D.; Moest, D.

    2006-01-01

    This article takes a look at a number of questions in relation to the future use of Swiss hydropower that are neither clear nor unchallenged. Questions concerning the replacement or refurbishment of hydropower schemes that will have to be renewed in the next few years are asked. Also, developments in the European power market are looked at. The future influence of wind power, trading with CO 2 certificates, increases in the price of gas etc. are examined. An analysis of the competitiveness of Swiss hydropower with reference to the European power supply system that was made by the Centre for Energy Policy and Economics CEPE at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH is described. The 'Perseus'-model developed by CEPE and the Industrial Technology Institute at the University of Karlsruhe in Germany is used to analyse possible developments over the period up to 2030. The results are presented in graphical form and commented on

  10. Multi-agent simulation of competitive electricity markets: Autonomous systems cooperation for European market modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Gabriel; Pinto, Tiago; Morais, Hugo; Sousa, Tiago M.; Pereira, Ivo F.; Fernandes, Ricardo; Praça, Isabel; Vale, Zita

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Definition of an ontology allowing the communication between multi-agents systems. • Social welfare evaluation in different electricity markets. • Demonstration of the use of the proposed ontology between two multi-agents systems. • Strategic biding in electricity markets. • European electricity markets comparison. - Abstract: The electricity market restructuring, and its worldwide evolution into regional and even continental scales, along with the increasing necessity for an adequate integration of renewable energy sources, is resulting in a rising complexity in power systems operation. Several power system simulators have been developed in recent years with the purpose of helping operators, regulators, and involved players to understand and deal with this complex and constantly changing environment. The main contribution of this paper is given by the integration of several electricity market and power system models, respecting to the reality of different countries. This integration is done through the development of an upper ontology which integrates the essential concepts necessary to interpret all the available information. The continuous development of Multi-Agent System for Competitive Electricity Markets platform provides the means for the exemplification of the usefulness of this ontology. A case study using the proposed multi-agent platform is presented, considering a scenario based on real data that simulates the European Electricity Market environment, and comparing its performance using different market mechanisms. The main goal is to demonstrate the advantages that the integration of various market models and simulation platforms have for the study of the electricity markets’ evolution

  11. EUGRIS: ''European Substainable Land and Groundwater Management Information System''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frauenstein, J. [Federal Environmental Agency (UBA), Berlin (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    The presentation outlines and Accompanying Measure with the FP 5 to develop an web based EUropean Sustainable Land and GRoundwater Management Information System information system (EUGRIS). The management of contaminated land and groundwater requires an interdisciplinary approach and a considerable amount of supporting technical information and knowledge. EUGRIS will provide a generally available comprehensive and overarching information and innovation resource, to support both research and practical contaminated land and groundwater management. EUGRI is a gateway to provide a 'one stop shop' for information provided by research projects, legislation, standards, best practice and other technical guidance and policy/regulatory publications from the EC, participating Member and Accession States and from various international networks dealing with groundwater and land management issues. Different types of user can access information through different windows according to their needs. EUGRIS will provide its visitors with summary information (digests) and links to sources of more detailed and/or original information in a scaleable holistic and contexturally meaningful way. EUGRIS is being built in three stages: the design of the information system, the development of its software implementation, and the population of the system with information. The presentation is focussed on the concept of the development of the information system with the individual work packages. In the second part of the lecture in particular the work procedures are presented for the content wise replenishment by EUGRIS. The data collation for the proven pilot countries and the production of a European research data base, which opens contents and results of European-wide locked and current projects, form the emphasis thereby. (orig.)

  12. RE-Europe, a large-scale dataset for modeling a highly renewable European electricity system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Tue V.; Pinson, Pierre

    2017-11-01

    Future highly renewable energy systems will couple to complex weather and climate dynamics. This coupling is generally not captured in detail by the open models developed in the power and energy system communities, where such open models exist. To enable modeling such a future energy system, we describe a dedicated large-scale dataset for a renewable electric power system. The dataset combines a transmission network model, as well as information for generation and demand. Generation includes conventional generators with their technical and economic characteristics, as well as weather-driven forecasts and corresponding realizations for renewable energy generation for a period of 3 years. These may be scaled according to the envisioned degrees of renewable penetration in a future European energy system. The spatial coverage, completeness and resolution of this dataset, open the door to the evaluation, scaling analysis and replicability check of a wealth of proposals in, e.g., market design, network actor coordination and forecasting of renewable power generation.

  13. RE-Europe, a large-scale dataset for modeling a highly renewable European electricity system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Tue V; Pinson, Pierre

    2017-11-28

    Future highly renewable energy systems will couple to complex weather and climate dynamics. This coupling is generally not captured in detail by the open models developed in the power and energy system communities, where such open models exist. To enable modeling such a future energy system, we describe a dedicated large-scale dataset for a renewable electric power system. The dataset combines a transmission network model, as well as information for generation and demand. Generation includes conventional generators with their technical and economic characteristics, as well as weather-driven forecasts and corresponding realizations for renewable energy generation for a period of 3 years. These may be scaled according to the envisioned degrees of renewable penetration in a future European energy system. The spatial coverage, completeness and resolution of this dataset, open the door to the evaluation, scaling analysis and replicability check of a wealth of proposals in, e.g., market design, network actor coordination and forecasting of renewable power generation.

  14. Experience with the european quality assurance guidelines for digital mammography systems in a national screening programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCullagh, J.; Keavey, E.; Egan, G.; Phelan, N.

    2013-01-01

    The transition to a fully digital breast screening programme, utilising three different full-field digital mammography (FFDM) systems has presented many challenges to the implementation of the European guidelines for physico-technical quality assurance (QA) testing. An analysis of the QA results collected from the FFDM systems in the screening programme over a 2-y period indicates that the three different systems have similar QA performances. Generally, the same tests were failed by all systems and failure rates were low. The findings provide some assurance that the QA guidelines are being correctly implemented. They also suggest that there is more scope for the development of the relevance of the guidelines with respect to modern FFDM systems. This study has also shown that a summary review of the QA data can be achieved by simple organisation of the QA data storage and by automation of data query and retrieval using commonly available software. (authors)

  15. Creating European guidelines for Chiropractic Incident Reporting and Learning Systems (CIRLS: relevance and structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wangler Martin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2009, the heads of the Executive Council of the European Chiropractors' Union (ECU and the European Academy of Chiropractic (EAC involved in the European Committee for Standardization (CEN process for the chiropractic profession, set out to establish European guidelines for the reporting of adverse reactions to chiropractic treatment. There were a number of reasons for this: first, to improve the overall quality of patient care by aiming to reduce the application of potentially harmful interventions and to facilitate the treatment of patients within the context of achieving maximum benefit with a minimum risk of harm; second, to inform the training objectives for the Graduate Education and Continuing Professional Development programmes of all 19 ECU member nations, regarding knowledge and skills to be acquired for maximising patient safety; and third, to develop a guideline on patient safety incident reporting as it is likely to be part of future CEN standards for ECU member nations. Objective To introduce patient safety incident reporting within the context of chiropractic practice in Europe and to help individual countries and their national professional associations to develop or improve reporting and learning systems. Discussion Providing health care of any kind, including the provision of chiropractic treatment, can be a complex and, at times, a risky activity. Safety in healthcare cannot be guaranteed, it can only be improved. One of the most important aspects of any learning and reporting system lies in the appropriate use of the data and information it gathers. Reporting should not just be seen as a vehicle for obtaining information on patient safety issues, but also be utilised as a tool to facilitate learning, advance quality improvement and to ultimately minimise the rate of the occurrence of errors linked to patient care. Conclusions Before a reporting and learning system can be established it has to be clear

  16. Getting patent policy right: an introduction to a special issue on the European Patent System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsmore, Matthew J.

    2009-01-01

    An editorial on the Special Issue: Dealing with the major questions confronting the basics of the European patent system; plus a look at the possible solutions; includes an overview of the article contributions....

  17. Association of systemic lupus erythematosus clinical features with European population genetic substructure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Alonso-Perez

    Full Text Available Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE is an autoimmune disease with a very varied spectrum of clinical manifestations that could be partly determined by genetic factors. We aimed to determine the relationship between prevalence of 11 clinical features and age of disease onset with European population genetic substructure. Data from 1413 patients of European ancestry recruited in nine countries was tested for association with genotypes of top ancestry informative markers. This analysis was done with logistic regression between phenotypes and genotypes or principal components extracted from them. We used a genetic additive model and adjusted for gender and disease duration. Three clinical features showed association with ancestry informative markers: autoantibody production defined as immunologic disorder (P = 6.8×10(-4, oral ulcers (P = 6.9×10(-4 and photosensitivity (P = 0.002. Immunologic disorder was associated with genotypes more common in Southern European ancestries, whereas the opposite trend was observed for photosensitivity. Oral ulcers were specifically more common in patients of Spanish and Portuguese self-reported ancestry. These results should be taken into account in future research and suggest new hypotheses and possible underlying mechanisms to be investigated. A first hypothesis linking photosensitivity with variation in skin pigmentation is suggested.

  18. Association of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Clinical Features with European Population Genetic Substructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calaza, Manuel; Witte, Torsten; Papasteriades, Chryssa; Marchini, Maurizio; Migliaresi, Sergio; Kovacs, Attila; Ordi-Ros, Josep; Bijl, Marc; Santos, Maria Jose; Ruzickova, Sarka; Pullmann, Rudolf; Carreira, Patricia; Skopouli, Fotini N.; D'Alfonso, Sandra; Sebastiani, Gian Domenico; Suarez, Ana; Blanco, Francisco J.; Gomez-Reino, Juan J.; Gonzalez, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease with a very varied spectrum of clinical manifestations that could be partly determined by genetic factors. We aimed to determine the relationship between prevalence of 11 clinical features and age of disease onset with European population genetic substructure. Data from 1413 patients of European ancestry recruited in nine countries was tested for association with genotypes of top ancestry informative markers. This analysis was done with logistic regression between phenotypes and genotypes or principal components extracted from them. We used a genetic additive model and adjusted for gender and disease duration. Three clinical features showed association with ancestry informative markers: autoantibody production defined as immunologic disorder (P = 6.8×10−4), oral ulcers (P = 6.9×10−4) and photosensitivity (P = 0.002). Immunologic disorder was associated with genotypes more common in Southern European ancestries, whereas the opposite trend was observed for photosensitivity. Oral ulcers were specifically more common in patients of Spanish and Portuguese self-reported ancestry. These results should be taken into account in future research and suggest new hypotheses and possible underlying mechanisms to be investigated. A first hypothesis linking photosensitivity with variation in skin pigmentation is suggested. PMID:22194982

  19. The Threat from European Missile Defence System to Russian National Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey I. Podberezkin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the political and military aspects of progress in the dialogue between Russia and the U.S./NATO on cooperation in missile defense; investigates the past experiences and current state of cooperation between Russia and the Alliance on missile defense issues; examines the technical features of American missile defence systems today; finds a solution to question whether or not the European Missile Defence Program actually threatens Russia's nuclear deterrent and strategic stability in general; identifies both potential benefits and possible losses for Russia stemming from the development of cooperation with the United States and NATO in countering ballistic missile threats, or from refusal to have such cooperation. Evidently, the initiative of creation of a missile defense in Europe surely belongs to the USA. Washington has enormous technological, financial, economic, military and institutional capabilities in the field of a missile defense, exceeding by far other NATO member-states. In February 2010, the President of the United States B. Obama adopted a project "European Phased Adaptive Approach" (EPAA as an alternative to G. Bush's global strategic missile defense plan. The first two stages of the Phased Adaptive Approach are focused on creating a system capable of intercepting small, medium and intermediate-range ballistic missiles. The possibility of intercepting long-range missiles is postponed to the third (2018 and forth phases (2020. Moscow finds especially troublesome the third and the fourth phases of Washington's project of creating a European segment of the global antiballistic missile system, considering prospective capabilities of the U.S. interceptor missiles 61 and the envisioned areas of their deployment. The U.S. counter-evidence is that phase four interceptors do not exist yet. Russia insists on getting the political and legal guarantees from the U.S. and NATO that their missile defense systems will not slash

  20. PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF SYSTEM MODERNIZATION OF THE ARCTIC NATURAL GAS EXPORT ON THE EUROPEAN MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Selin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A research purpose is the analysis of the European natural gas market environment and the modernization opportunities of the delivery system from Russia in connection with the current geo-economic changes. The main methods are the factorial approaches and the content analysis, which allows allocate and structure this sector’s driving forces.Export of the Russian natural gas on the European market still remains the dominating activity, in terms of the total amounts of deliveries, though over the last ten years its specific weight has been considerably reduced. The situation has sharply become aggravated both in connection with the "Ukrainian" crisis, and that of the European Union policy, which is taking the active measures for the gas supply system diversification. As a result of the conducted research it is proved that the Russian gas transportation system in the Arctic regions requires the strategic upgrade which shall go in two main directions.The first direction is the forming of the new pipeline schemes replacing the unreliable transit routes. The second direction is a rather innovative development of exploration and transportation of the liquefied natural gas which amount exceeds thirty percent in world export and in Russian has not yet reached ten percent.Scientific novelty of the received results consists in system approval of the opportunities of adaptation of Russian export deliveries to the market demand changes. The proposals of increase of the liquefied natural gas exploration in the Arctic regions and formation of the basic centers (special zones have also a practical importance.

  1. Using Combined Marine Spatial Planning Tools and Observing System Experiments to define Gaps in the Emerging European Ocean Observing System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, G.; Pinardi, N.; Vukicevic, T.; Le Traon, P. Y.; Fernandez, V.

    2016-02-01

    Ocean observations are critical to providing accurate ocean forecasts that support operational decision making in European open and coastal seas. Observations are available in many forms from Fixed platforms e.g. Moored Buoys and tide gauges, underway measurements from Ferrybox systems, High Frequency radars and more recently from underwater Gliders and profiling floats. Observing System Simulation Experiments have been conducted to examine the relative contribution of each type of platform to an improvement in our ability to accurately forecast the future state of the ocean with HF radar and Gliders showing particular promise in improving model skill. There is considerable demand for ecosystem products and services from today's ocean observing system and biogeochemical observations are still relatively sparse particularly in coastal and shelf seas. There is a need to widen the techniques used to assess the fitness for purpose and gaps in the ocean observing system. As well as Observing System Simulation Experiments that quantify the effect of observations on the overall model skill we present a gap analysis based on (1) Examining where high model skill is required based on a marine spatial planning analysis of European seas i.e where does activity take place that requires more accurate forecasts? and (2) assessing gaps based on the capacity of the observing system to answer key societal challenges e.g. site suitability for aquaculture and ocean energy, oil spill response and contextual oceanographic products for fisheries and ecosystems. The broad based analysis will inform the development of the proposed European Ocean Observing System as a contribution to the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS).

  2. The Crisis of the European Electricity System. Diagnosis and possible ways forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auverlot, Dominique; Beeker, Etienne; Hossie, Gaelle; Oriol, Louise; Rigard-Cerison, Aude; Bettzuege, Marc Oliver; Helm, Dieter; Roques, Fabien

    2014-01-01

    The European energy system is currently in crisis. By adopting the Climate and Energy Package at the end of 2008, the European Union made strong commitments for 2020: a 20% reduction in EU greenhouse gas emissions from 1990 levels, 20% of EU energy consumption produced from renewable resources and a 20% improvement in the EU's energy efficiency. But these targets were based on misguided assumptions. The expected economic growth made the first commitment a challenging target but it was also supposed to ensure that the deployment of renewable energy sources would be affordable. The expected rise in fossil fuel prices would make renewables profitable and would allow subsidies to be phased out. By paving the way for a climate-friendly economic growth, the European Union had the ambition to become the world leader in renewable energy manufacturing and in the invention of innovative and sustainable ways of life. For once, the EU strategy was ambitious and comprehensive. But none of its underlying assumptions proved accurate. The financial crisis is partly to blame but so is the US shale gas revolution whose full effects on energy markets have not yet been seen. Besides, the international community is not on track to develop a satisfying response to global warming. The share of electricity generated from coal has been increasing as coal prices went down due to shale gas production (European coal prices fell by 30% between January 2012 and June 2013) and German CO 2 emissions rose in 2012. Moreover, the rise in power of China in the photovoltaic industry has rattled European leadership in renewables, at least partially. Incorrectly adjusted, the EU climate policy has failed to give visibility on carbon price and to provide industrials with a framework conducive to long term investments. And yet, electricity prices for households have increased considerably (by 27% between 2008 and 2013). In Germany, they have doubled in ten years and it is now a major political issue there

  3. 16th East-European Conference on Advances in Databases and Information Systems (ADBIS 2012)

    CERN Document Server

    Härder, Theo; Wrembel, Robert; Advances in Databases and Information Systems

    2013-01-01

    This volume is the second one of the 16th East-European Conference on Advances in Databases and Information Systems (ADBIS 2012), held on September 18-21, 2012, in Poznań, Poland. The first one has been published in the LNCS series.   This volume includes 27 research contributions, selected out of 90. The contributions cover a wide spectrum of topics in the database and information systems field, including: database foundation and theory, data modeling and database design, business process modeling, query optimization in relational and object databases, materialized view selection algorithms, index data structures, distributed systems, system and data integration, semi-structured data and databases, semantic data management, information retrieval, data mining techniques, data stream processing, trust and reputation in the Internet, and social networks. Thus, the content of this volume covers the research areas from fundamentals of databases, through still hot topic research problems (e.g., data mining, XML ...

  4. A New Cogeneration Residential System Based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells for a Northern European Climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vialetto, Giulio; Rokni, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    of them received subsidies to increase installation and reduce cost. This article presents an innovative cogeneration system based on a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system and heat pump for household applications with a focus on primary energy and economic savings using electric equivalent load parameter...... which is a function of the electricity and heat demand of the user, and allows different operation strategies to be considered. The proposal is to maximize the efficiency of the system and to make it profitable, even though technologies with a high purchase cost are considered. Simulations of the system...... are performed under different strategies at a resort located in a northern European climate (Denmark) to cover electricity, space heating and domestic hot water (DHW) demands. The results of these simulations are analyzed with thermodynamic and techno-economic benchmarks, considering different economic...

  5. THE EUROPEAN BANKING UNION AND ROMANIA. THE IMPACT OF THE NEW EUROPEANLEGAL FRAME ON THE ROMANIAN FINANCIAL AND BANKING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan-Adrian Cărămidariu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies from a legal and economical perspective the European Banking Union, the latest set of measures adopted by the European Union in order to assure the stability of Europe’s financial and banking system and to prevent future crises. At the same time, the paper analyzes the influence this new institutional and legal mechanism could have on the Romanian financial and banking system, if our country is to take part in the European Banking Union. The paper will discuss the four European legal texts, namely the EU Regulation No 575/2013 and the three directives concerning the capital requirements for the banking system, the recovery and resolution of credit institutions and the deposit guarantee schemes, which, together, set up the European Banking Union’s legal frame. Further, the paper will study the implementation and the transposition of these European provisions into national law. The study’s conclusions will take into consideration the advantages and disadvantages connected to Romania’s participation to the European Banking Union, by showing that, in the context of the introduction of the single currency, the participation to the Banking Union is a necessary exercise.

  6. Genetic patterns in European geometrid moths revealed by the Barcode Index Number (BIN system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Hausmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The geometrid moths of Europe are one of the best investigated insect groups in traditional taxonomy making them an ideal model group to test the accuracy of the Barcode Index Number (BIN system of BOLD (Barcode of Life Datasystems, a method that supports automated, rapid species delineation and identification. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study provides a DNA barcode library for 219 of the 249 European geometrid moth species (88% in five selected subfamilies. The data set includes COI sequences for 2130 specimens. Most species (93% were found to possess diagnostic barcode sequences at the European level while only three species pairs (3% were genetically indistinguishable in areas of sympatry. As a consequence, 97% of the European species we examined were unequivocally discriminated by barcodes within their natural areas of distribution. We found a 1:1 correspondence between BINs and traditionally recognized species for 67% of these species. Another 17% of the species (15 pairs, three triads shared BINs, while specimens from the remaining species (18% were divided among two or more BINs. Five of these species are mixtures, both sharing and splitting BINs. For 82% of the species with two or more BINs, the genetic splits involved allopatric populations, many of which have previously been hypothesized to represent distinct species or subspecies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study confirms the effectiveness of DNA barcoding as a tool for species identification and illustrates the potential of the BIN system to characterize formal genetic units independently of an existing classification. This suggests the system can be used to efficiently assess the biodiversity of large, poorly known assemblages of organisms. For the moths examined in this study, cases of discordance between traditionally recognized species and BINs arose from several causes including overlooked species, synonymy, and cases where DNA barcodes revealed

  7. IDENTIFYING BRAȘOV COUNTY’S TOURISTIC VISITORS’ PROFILE USING EUROPEAN TOURISM INDICATORS SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghita Dinca

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The need for sustainable development of regions is a current topic that concern both local authorities and academic experts, as demonstrated by this paper through case study in Brașov County, one of Romania’s main tourist regions. This paper is based on a research project meant to develop an original testing technique of European Tourism Indicators System of Sustainable Destinations (ETIS for Brașov County. The paper presents the results of a market survey carried out on a sample of 1,119 visitors and meant to identify travel characteristics of tourists from

  8. Web-based Media at European Universities: Systems, Usage, and Motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godsk, Mikkel

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results of two surveys analyzing the usage of and the systems available for web-based media at European universities, and how the teachers can be motivated to increase their usage of such materials in their teaching practice. The surveys were carried out April-May 2009 among...... obvious. The surveys also show that many teachers are already using web-based media in their teaching practice and by addressing some of their teaching circumstances it would be possible to increase the usage even further. Based on these results the paper presents five initiatives to motivate the teachers...

  9. An experts survey on sustainability across twenty-seven extensive European systems of grassland management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Rafael; Gil, Angel; Fernández-Santos, Xavier

    2008-08-01

    European Large Scale Grazing Systems (LSGS) are at a crossroad with environmental, agronomic, and social factors interacting on their future viability. This research assesses the current environmental and socio-economic status of a wide range of European LSGS according to an agreed subset of sustainability criteria and indicators, which have been recognized by corresponding experts and privileged observers on their respective case-study system. A survey questionnaire was drafted containing five main criteria (pastoral use, environmental, economic, social, and market and development), with four conceptual-scored variables (indicators) within each criterion. Descriptive, analytical and clustering statistical techniques helped to draw a synthesis of the main result and to standardize sustainability variables across different biogeographical regions and management situations. The results show large multicollinearity among the 20 variables proposed. This dependence was revealed by the reduction to six main factor-components, which accounted for about 73% of the total variance in responses. Aggregation of point-score indicators across criteria to obtain a sustainability index can be of less policy relevance than responses to specific criteria or indicators. Affinity between case-study systems, as judged by collaborative-expert responses, was not related to biogeographical location, operating livestock sector, or population density in their areas. The results show larger weaknesses and constraints in the economic and social criteria than in the pastoral and environmental criteria, and the large heterogeneity of responses appears in the social criterion.

  10. Systems Analysis of Interaction between Russia and the European Union in the Post-Soviet Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Vasfilov

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes post-Soviet relations between Russia and the European Union using the theoretical framework of neoclassical realism. It finds that the post-Soviet level of competition between Russia and the EU is higher than required by the international system. The reason is rooted in the influence of a number of internal factors (or intervening variables. Consequently, elites in both Russia and the EU are not able to adequately understand the signals sent by the international system. There is a wide variety of intervening variables; for example, there are factors caused by the political elites’ perceptions of each other’s intentions and of the international situation, factors related to inadequate information, factors related to the complex institutional structure of the EU and factors related to domestic political issues. In addition, the current international environment, characterized by a high degree of uncertainty, increases the effects of these intervening variables. These effects result in inaccurate and incorrect processing of the signals of the international system by Russian and European elites. As a result, a subsystem of international relations has arisen in the post-Soviet space, featuring a highly competitive environment. However, there are only two major actors in the region: Russia and the EU. Small countries are too weak, so must choose to align themselves with either Russia or the Euone or the other. This causes a rivalry between Russia and the EU for influence on small and medium-sized countries in the post-Soviet space.

  11. Report of the First European workshop on the ethical dimensions of the radiological protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this first European Workshop was to explore further the ethical values underlying the system of radiological protection but also to shed some light on different aspects of the practical implementation of the system that raise ethical questions and value judgments, such as: scientific uncertainty; rationale of the dose limits; stakeholder engagement; and, sustainable development. The workshop has been organized around lectures in plenary sessions, while the discussion activities have been developed within three working groups involving all the participants discussing two questions: - what issues of radiation protection refer to ethics; and what are the ethical values (explicit and implicit) that underlie the system of radiological protection? The present report presents some of the essential points that emerged from the lectures and from the discussion developed around them. It also presents a summary of the main subjects discussed in the working groups, and the main points addressed during the general discussion

  12. 17th East European Conference on Advances in Databases and Information Systems and Associated Satellite Events

    CERN Document Server

    Cerquitelli, Tania; Chiusano, Silvia; Guerrini, Giovanna; Kämpf, Mirko; Kemper, Alfons; Novikov, Boris; Palpanas, Themis; Pokorný, Jaroslav; Vakali, Athena

    2014-01-01

    This book reports on state-of-art research and applications in the field of databases and information systems. It includes both fourteen selected short contributions, presented at the East-European Conference on Advances in Databases and Information Systems (ADBIS 2013, September 1-4, Genova, Italy), and twenty-six papers from ADBIS 2013 satellite events. The short contributions from the main conference are collected in the first part of the book, which covers a wide range of topics, like data management, similarity searches, spatio-temporal and social network data, data mining, data warehousing, and data management on novel architectures, such as graphics processing units, parallel database management systems, cloud and MapReduce environments. In contrast, the contributions from the satellite events are organized in five different parts, according to their respective ADBIS satellite event: BiDaTA 2013 - Special Session on Big Data: New Trends and Applications); GID 2013 – The Second International Workshop ...

  13. 18th East European Conference on Advances in Databases and Information Systems and Associated Satellite Events

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanovic, Mirjana; Kon-Popovska, Margita; Manolopoulos, Yannis; Palpanas, Themis; Trajcevski, Goce; Vakali, Athena

    2015-01-01

    This volume contains the papers of 3 workshops and the doctoral consortium, which are organized in the framework of the 18th East-European Conference on Advances in Databases and Information Systems (ADBIS’2014). The 3rd International Workshop on GPUs in Databases (GID’2014) is devoted to subjects related to utilization of Graphics Processing Units in database environments. The use of GPUs in databases has not yet received enough attention from the database community. The intention of the GID workshop is to provide a discussion on popularizing the GPUs and providing a forum for discussion with respect to the GID’s research ideas and their potential to achieve high speedups in many database applications. The 3rd International Workshop on Ontologies Meet Advanced Information Systems (OAIS’2014) has a twofold objective to present: new and challenging issues in the contribution of ontologies for designing high quality information systems, and new research and technological developments which use ontologie...

  14. The impact of globalization on the characteristics of European countries’ tax systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luković Stevan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the international literature, a great number of studies have sought to determine the relationship between the characteristics of the national tax systems and globalization. Most of the research was conducted to prove the impact of the tax system on the competitiveness of the national economy, in order to give a clear recommendation for how economic and fiscal policy should create a stimulating economic background and enable greater involvement of the national economy in international flows. However, the process can be viewed from the reverse perspective, in the sense that the process of globalization and international competition can shape the characteristics of national tax systems. This paper aims to determine by empirical evidence the impact of the process of globalization and international competition on the characteristics of taxation in observed European countries.

  15. Fundamental properties of and transition to a fully renewable pan-European power system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun Andresen, Gorm; Rasmussen, Morten Grud; Rodriguez, Rolando A.

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a top-down stylized model to analyse the impact of a transition to a European power system based only on wind and solar power. Wind and solar power generation is calculated from high-resolution weather data and based on the country specific electricity demand alone, we introduce...... a model of the conventional power system that facilitates simple spatio-temporal modelling of its macroscopic behaviour without direct reference to the underlying technological, economical, and political development in the system. Using this model, we find that wind and solar power generation can replace...... conventional power generation and power capacity to a large degree if power transmission across the continent is made possible....

  16. Waste processing plant eco-auditing system for minimization of environmental risk: European Communities regulatory proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunetti, N.

    1993-01-01

    This paper delineates a system of process control and monitoring checks to be applied to municipal-industrial waste processing and disposal plants to ensure their energy efficient, environmentally safe and reliable operation. In line with European Communities environmental protection strategies, this eco-auditing system requires the preparation of environmental impacts statements on a regular basis during plant operation, as well as, prior to plant start-up. Continuous plant environmental compatibility evaluations are to ascertain: material and energy inputs and outputs; the composition and amounts of exhaust gases released into the atmosphere and the integrity of treatment liquids; control and monitoring instrumentation reliability. The implementation of the auditing system is to be carried out under the supervision of authorized auditing personnel. Waste processing and disposal plants are to make maximum use of energy and materials recovery processes so as to minimize energy consumption and risk to the environment

  17. Prediction of Pig Trade Movements in Different European Production Systems Using Exponential Random Graph Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relun, Anne; Grosbois, Vladimir; Alexandrov, Tsviatko; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Jose M; Waret-Szkuta, Agnes; Molia, Sophie; Etter, Eric Marcel Charles; Martínez-López, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    In most European countries, data regarding movements of live animals are routinely collected and can greatly aid predictive epidemic modeling. However, the use of complete movements' dataset to conduct policy-relevant predictions has been so far limited by the massive amount of data that have to be processed (e.g., in intensive commercial systems) or the restricted availability of timely and updated records on animal movements (e.g., in areas where small-scale or extensive production is predominant). The aim of this study was to use exponential random graph models (ERGMs) to reproduce, understand, and predict pig trade networks in different European production systems. Three trade networks were built by aggregating movements of pig batches among premises (farms and trade operators) over 2011 in Bulgaria, Extremadura (Spain), and Côtes-d'Armor (France), where small-scale, extensive, and intensive pig production are predominant, respectively. Three ERGMs were fitted to each network with various demographic and geographic attributes of the nodes as well as six internal network configurations. Several statistical and graphical diagnostic methods were applied to assess the goodness of fit of the models. For all systems, both exogenous (attribute-based) and endogenous (network-based) processes appeared to govern the structure of pig trade network, and neither alone were capable of capturing all aspects of the network structure. Geographic mixing patterns strongly structured pig trade organization in the small-scale production system, whereas belonging to the same company or keeping pigs in the same housing system appeared to be key drivers of pig trade, in intensive and extensive production systems, respectively. Heterogeneous mixing between types of production also explained a part of network structure, whichever production system considered. Limited information is thus needed to capture most of the global structure of pig trade networks. Such findings will be useful

  18. The relationship between social capital and quality management systems in European hospitals: a quantitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Antje; Arah, Onyebuchi A; Dersarkissian, Maral; Thompson, Caroline A; Mannion, Russell; Wagner, Cordula; Ommen, Oliver; Sunol, Rosa; Pfaff, Holger

    2013-01-01

    Strategic leadership is an important organizational capability and is essential for quality improvement in hospital settings. Furthermore, the quality of leadership depends crucially on a common set of shared values and mutual trust between hospital management board members. According to the concept of social capital, these are essential requirements for successful cooperation and coordination within groups. We assume that social capital within hospital management boards is an important factor in the development of effective organizational systems for overseeing health care quality. We hypothesized that the degree of social capital within the hospital management board is associated with the effectiveness and maturity of the quality management system in European hospitals. We used a mixed-method approach to data collection and measurement in 188 hospitals in 7 European countries. For this analysis, we used responses from hospital managers. To test our hypothesis, we conducted a multilevel linear regression analysis of the association between social capital and the quality management system score at the hospital level, controlling for hospital ownership, teaching status, number of beds, number of board members, organizational culture, and country clustering. The average social capital score within a hospital management board was 3.3 (standard deviation: 0.5; range: 1-4) and the average hospital score for the quality management index was 19.2 (standard deviation: 4.5; range: 0-27). Higher social capital was associated with higher quality management system scores (regression coefficient: 1.41; standard error: 0.64, p=0.029). The results suggest that a higher degree of social capital exists in hospitals that exhibit higher maturity in their quality management systems. Although uncontrolled confounding and reverse causation cannot be completely ruled out, our new findings, along with the results of previous research, could have important implications for the work of

  19. The Relationship between Social Capital and Quality Management Systems in European Hospitals: A Quantitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Antje; Arah, Onyebuchi A.; DerSarkissian, Maral; Thompson, Caroline A.; Mannion, Russell; Wagner, Cordula; Ommen, Oliver; Sunol, Rosa; Pfaff, Holger

    2013-01-01

    Background Strategic leadership is an important organizational capability and is essential for quality improvement in hospital settings. Furthermore, the quality of leadership depends crucially on a common set of shared values and mutual trust between hospital management board members. According to the concept of social capital, these are essential requirements for successful cooperation and coordination within groups. Objectives We assume that social capital within hospital management boards is an important factor in the development of effective organizational systems for overseeing health care quality. We hypothesized that the degree of social capital within the hospital management board is associated with the effectiveness and maturity of the quality management system in European hospitals. Methods We used a mixed-method approach to data collection and measurement in 188 hospitals in 7 European countries. For this analysis, we used responses from hospital managers. To test our hypothesis, we conducted a multilevel linear regression analysis of the association between social capital and the quality management system score at the hospital level, controlling for hospital ownership, teaching status, number of beds, number of board members, organizational culture, and country clustering. Results The average social capital score within a hospital management board was 3.3 (standard deviation: 0.5; range: 1-4) and the average hospital score for the quality management index was 19.2 (standard deviation: 4.5; range: 0-27). Higher social capital was associated with higher quality management system scores (regression coefficient: 1.41; standard error: 0.64, p=0.029). Conclusion The results suggest that a higher degree of social capital exists in hospitals that exhibit higher maturity in their quality management systems. Although uncontrolled confounding and reverse causation cannot be completely ruled out, our new findings, along with the results of previous research, could

  20. Progresses and challenges in supporting activities toward a license to operate European TBM systems in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poitevin, Y., E-mail: yves.poitevin@f4e.europa.eu [Fusion for Energy, Barcelona (Spain); Ricapito, I.; Zmitko, M. [Fusion for Energy, Barcelona (Spain); Tavassoli, F. [CEA, DEN, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Thomas, N. [ATMOSTAT, F-94815 Villejuif (France); De Dinechin, G. [CEA, DEN, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Bucci, Ph. [CEA DRT, 38000 Grenoble (France); Rey, J. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Postfach 3640, Karlsruhe (Germany); Ibarra, A. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Panayotov, D. [Fusion for Energy, Barcelona (Spain); Giancarli, L. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); Calderoni, P.; Galabert, J.; Vallory, J. [Fusion for Energy, Barcelona (Spain); Aiello, A. [C.R. ENEA Brasimone, I-40032 Camugnano (Italy)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • First EUROFER steel design limits have been introduced in RCC-MRx. • Preliminary fabrication/welding procedure specifications for the European TBM box are under standardization. • Post irradiation examination (PIE) of beryllium pebbles irradiated at 17% of DEMO fluence target has been achieved. • Dynamic modeling of the TBM Systems with EcosimPro{sup ®} has been developed. - Abstract: Licensing a pressurized nuclear equipment like the European Test Blanket Modules (TBM) Systems and, on the longer term, breeder blankets of a fusion demonstration reactor (DEMO), will require presenting to the Regulator and the Agreed Notified Body, along with design and safety analyses, supporting data like consolidated materials data and design limits, qualified fabrication procedures specifications and validated modeling tools that go often over today's state-of-the-art of nuclear industry. TBM systems feature indeed a newly developed structural material and advanced fabrication processes that were not referenced in any nuclear construction codes before, new type of functional materials, complex structures geometry and many interconnected sub-systems exchanging tritium by permeation or fluid mass transfer. For many years now, Europe has structured its development activities on TBM Systems toward the preparation of licensing. First tangible results are now arising: the EUROFER structural material has been introduced in the RCC-MRx nuclear code, supported by a database of several thousands of test records; TBM box fabrication procedure specifications are under standardization by industry in view of their qualification; a modeling tool for accurate simulation of tritium transport in TBM systems has been developed in view of refining conservative inventory data published in preliminary safety reports and optimizing waste management. Remaining challenges are identified and discussed.

  1. Quality assurance systems of higher education - The case of european institutions: origin, evolution and trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángela Corengia

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1983-4535.2014v7n3p61 The purpose of this research is to analyze the origin, evolution, performance and trends of higher education quality assurance systems in the following European countries: Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Austria, Italy, Switzerland, Germany, Netherlands, United Kingdom and France. It also studies the performance and impact of the organizations that join the European Quality Assurance Agencies together. The main sources of data collection were in situ semi-structured interviews to members of these agencies. It was found that in higher education institutions there is a strong trend towards the development of ‘internal quality assurance systems' in response to the public policies known as 'quality audits'. This overview about what is taking place in Europe may provide innovative instruments that could be considered for higher education quality evaluation and accreditation in Latin-American countries: quality audits, disciplinary agencies, evaluation of the quality assurance agencies, among others.

  2. Development/Testing of a Monitoring System Assisting MCI Patients: The European Project INLIFE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaimakamis, Evangelos; Karavidopoulou, Vaia; Kilintzis, Vassilios; Stefanopoulos, Leandros; Papageorgiou, Valentini

    2017-01-01

    INLIFE is a project cofounded from the European Union aiming in prolonging independent living of elderly people with cognitive impairment based on open, seamless ICT services supporting communication, daily activities, providing health services and professional care to the elderly. The main innovation stems from ICT solutions offering 19 different services adapted on specific characteristics elderly people with mild cognitive impairment, early and later stages of Dementia, cognitive impairment and co-morbid condition, as well as their formal and informal caregivers. All services have different focus areas and are incorporated into a unified system based on cloud architecture implemented in patients of 6 European countries, including Greece. More than 1200 patients, caregivers and healthcare providers participate in the pilot testing of the project. Primary parameter for assessing the effectiveness of the interventions is their impact on the quality of life of the elderly patients and their caregivers, contributing to prolonging independent living of the affected. A special digital platform has been developed in the Greek pilot site aiming to adapt and monitor all the implemented applications. This includes a medical decision support system that receives biosignals from patients and interaction interfaces in which all participants are involved. Recruitment and patients' participation has already started in the pilot site of Thessaloniki for the services that are to be tested in Greece.

  3. EUROPEAN PENSION SYSTEMS - THE REAL CHALLENGE OF THE 21ST CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Augusztinovics

    2003-07-01

    feasible ways of transition to them? How much and what type of European harmonization of pension systems is and will be required? (For example, how could a harmonized European system react to country-specific mortality rates and to the emerging problem of the "oldest old"? The paper is intended to discuss these and several related

  4. The Stranger within: Luxembourg's Early School System as a European Prototype of Nationally Legitimized International Blends (ca. 1794-1844)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyssen, Geert

    2013-01-01

    This comparative analysis of Luxembourg's early school (law) system reveals the extent to which European school systems reflect "national-cultural idiosyncrasies" apart from "structural isomorphism". It first examines the legal soil into which the Luxembourg school system was implanted. Legislative pendular swings, reflecting…

  5. Unravelling networks in local public health policymaking in three European countries - a systems analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitters, Hilde P E M; Lau, Cathrine J; Sandu, Petru; Quanjel, Marcel; Dulf, Diana; Glümer, Charlotte; van Oers, Hans A M; van de Goor, Ien A M

    2017-02-03

    Facilitating and enhancing interaction between stakeholders involved in the policymaking process to stimulate collaboration and use of evidence, is important to foster the development of effective Health Enhancing Physical Activity (HEPA) policies. Performing an analysis of real-world policymaking processes will help reveal the complexity of a network of stakeholders. Therefore, the main objectives were to unravel the stakeholder network in the policy process by conducting three systems analyses, and to increase insight into the similarities and differences in the policy processes of these European country cases. A systems analysis of the local HEPA policymaking process was performed in three European countries involved in the 'REsearch into POlicy to enhance Physical Activity' (REPOPA) project, resulting in three schematic models showing the main stakeholders and their relationships. The models were used to compare the systems, focusing on implications with respect to collaboration and use of evidence in local HEPA policymaking. Policy documents and relevant webpages were examined and main stakeholders were interviewed. The systems analysis in each country identified the main stakeholders involved and their position and relations in the policymaking process. The Netherlands and Denmark were the most similar and both differed most from Romania, especially at the level of accountability of the local public authorities for local HEPA policymaking. The categories of driving forces underlying the relations between stakeholders were formal relations, informal interaction and knowledge exchange. A systems analysis providing detailed descriptions of positions and relations in the stakeholder network in local level HEPA policymaking is rather unique in this area. The analyses are useful when a need arises for increased interaction, collaboration and use of knowledge between stakeholders in the local HEPA network, as they provide an overview of the stakeholders involved and

  6. A quality assessment of the MARS crop yield forecasting system for the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velde, Marijn; Bareuth, Bettina

    2015-04-01

    Timely information on crop production forecasts can become of increasing importance as commodity markets are more and more interconnected. Impacts across large crop production areas due to (e.g.) extreme weather and pest outbreaks can create ripple effects that may affect food prices and availability elsewhere. The MARS Unit (Monitoring Agricultural ResourceS), DG Joint Research Centre, European Commission, has been providing forecasts of European crop production levels since 1993. The operational crop production forecasting is carried out with the MARS Crop Yield Forecasting System (M-CYFS). The M-CYFS is used to monitor crop growth development, evaluate short-term effects of anomalous meteorological events, and provide monthly forecasts of crop yield at national and European Union level. The crop production forecasts are published in the so-called MARS bulletins. Forecasting crop yield over large areas in the operational context requires quality benchmarks. Here we present an analysis of the accuracy and skill of past crop yield forecasts of the main crops (e.g. soft wheat, grain maize), throughout the growing season, and specifically for the final forecast before harvest. Two simple benchmarks to assess the skill of the forecasts were defined as comparing the forecasts to 1) a forecast equal to the average yield and 2) a forecast using a linear trend established through the crop yield time-series. These reveal a variability in performance as a function of crop and Member State. In terms of production, the yield forecasts of 67% of the EU-28 soft wheat production and 80% of the EU-28 maize production have been forecast superior to both benchmarks during the 1993-2013 period. In a changing and increasingly variable climate crop yield forecasts can become increasingly valuable - provided they are used wisely. We end our presentation by discussing research activities that could contribute to this goal.

  7. Classification of parotidectomy: a proposed modification to the European Salivary Gland Society classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wai Keat; Shetty, Subhaschandra

    2017-08-01

    Parotidectomy remains the mainstay of treatment for both benign and malignant lesions of the parotid gland. There exists a wide range of possible surgical options in parotidectomy in terms of extent of parotid tissue removed. There is increasing need for uniformity of terminology resulting from growing interest in modifications of the conventional parotidectomy. It is, therefore, of paramount importance for a standardized classification system in describing extent of parotidectomy. Recently, the European Salivary Gland Society (ESGS) proposed a novel classification system for parotidectomy. The aim of this study is to evaluate this system. A classification system proposed by the ESGS was critically re-evaluated and modified to increase its accuracy and its acceptability. Modifications mainly focused on subdividing Levels I and II into IA, IB, IIA, and IIB. From June 2006 to June 2016, 126 patients underwent 130 parotidectomies at our hospital. The classification system was tested in that cohort of patient. While the ESGS classification system is comprehensive, it does not cover all possibilities. The addition of Sublevels IA, IB, IIA, and IIB may help to address some of the clinical situations seen and is clinically relevant. We aim to test the modified classification system for partial parotidectomy to address some of the challenges mentioned.

  8. Host social organization and mating system shape parasite transmission opportunities in three European bat species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaik, J; Kerth, G

    2017-02-01

    For non-mobile parasites living on social hosts, infection dynamics are strongly influenced by host life history and social system. We explore the impact of host social systems on parasite population dynamics by comparing the infection intensity and transmission opportunities of three mite species of the genus Spinturnix across their three European bat hosts (Myotis daubentonii, Myotis myotis, Myotis nattereri) during the bats' autumn mating season. Mites mainly reproduce in host maternity colonies in summer, but as these colonies are closed, opportunities for inter-colony transmission are limited to host interactions during the autumn mating season. The three investigated hosts differ considerably in their social system, most notably in maternity colony size, mating system, and degree of male summer aggregation. We observed marked differences in parasite infection during the autumn mating period between the species, closely mirroring the predictions made based on the social systems of the hosts. Increased host aggregation sizes in summer yielded higher overall parasite prevalence and intensity, both in male and female hosts. Moreover, parasite levels in male hosts differentially increased throughout the autumn mating season in concordance with the degree of contact with female hosts afforded by the different mating systems of the hosts. Critically, the observed host-specific differences have important consequences for parasite population structure and will thus affect the coevolutionary dynamics between the interacting species. Therefore, in order to accurately characterize host-parasite dynamics in hosts with complex social systems, a holistic approach that investigates parasite infection and transmission across all periods is warranted.

  9. The healthcare system and provision of oral healthcare in European Union member states. Part 4: Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damaskinos, P; Koletsi-Kounari, H; Economou, C; Eaton, K A; Widström, E

    2016-03-11

    This paper presents a description of the healthcare system and how oral healthcare is organised and provided in Greece, a country in a deep economic and social crisis. The national health system is underfunded, with severe gaps in staffing levels and the country has a large private healthcare sector. Oral healthcare has been largely provided in the private sector. Most people are struggling to survive and have no money to spend on general and oral healthcare. Unemployment is rising and access to healthcare services is more difficult than ever. Additionally, there has been an overproduction of dentists and no development of team dentistry. This has led to under or unemployment of dentists in Greece and their migration to other European Union member states, such as the United Kingdom, where over 600 Greek dentists are currently working.

  10. Financial incentives to promote renewable energy systems in European electricity markets: a survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, R.; Huber, C.; Wohlgemuth, N.

    2001-01-01

    Renewable energy systems may contribute to sustainable development. Therefore, one of the challenges for energy policy is to ensure that renewable energy options have a fair opportunity to compete with other supply resources. This paper presents a survey on promotion mechanisms to enhance the market penetration of renewable energies in European electricity markets. Strategies include rebates and tax incentives, regulated rates, system benefit charges, bidding-oriented mechanisms and various types of green pricing programs. The paper concludes that efficient promotion mechanisms should focus on incentives per kWh generated rather than on rebates on the investment in generating capacity (kW), and that there is no one single program type which has the best application to the promotion of all renewable technologies. For example, enhanced buy-back rates work as a dissemination strategy for wind energy but they do not work for photovoltaics. (author)

  11. Educational Systems and Inequalities in Educational Attainment in Central and Eastern European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Kogan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Before exploring the selectivity of educational attainment in detail, this article extensively describes the contours of educational systems in Central and Eastern European (CEE countries. These countries provide an interesting setting in view of their post-secondary education expansion and differentiation, as well as their variation in the degree of vocational orientation at the secondary level. Drawing on high quality, national micro data, we find that students from disadvantaged family backgrounds who manage to enter post-secondary education are ʽdivertedʼ to second-tier post-secondary institutions, while long-term university programs are more likely to be dominated by students whose parents have an academic background. At the secondary level, we confirm the patterns of negative selection among students from lower social backgrounds into lower vocational programs. This diversion effect at the secondary level is especially pronounced in CEE countries that inherited a strong secondary vocational system and reinstalled early tracking.

  12. THE ROLE OF THE EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR SOCIAL RIGHTS (ECSR IN THE EUROPEAN SYSTEM FOR THE PROTECTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS. INTERACTIONS WITH ECHR JURISPRUDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Sâmboan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Upon its foundation in 1961, the European Committee for Social Rights (ECSR was meant to be a counterpart of the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR in the field of economic, social and cultural rights, i.e. an international body of control regarding the manner in which states understand to respect human rights. But, given the fastidious contents of ESCR and for political reasons, ECSR has never enjoyed the same guarantee mechanisms or level of accessibility that have characterized ECHR. The aim of this study is to show that, in spite of such flaws, the ECSR has proven its efficiency in the European system for the protection of human rights. The analysis of its decisions, as well as their interactions with the ECHR jurisprudence proves that the flexible and protectionist decisions of this jurisdictional body command authority and their coercive nature is recognized at national level. Moreover, this body has an important influence on ECHR. The jurisprudential interpretations of ECSR may also serve as reference points for national users (lawyers, magistrates, organizations, which makes it even more necessary to know and understand it at this level.

  13. Operationalising and piloting the IUHPE European accreditation system for health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battel-Kirk, Barbara; Barry, Margaret M; van der Zanden, Gerard; Contu, Paolo; Gallardo, Carmen; Martinez, Ana; Speller, Viv; Debenedetti, Sara

    2015-09-01

    The International Union for Health Promotion and Education (IUHPE) European Accreditation System for Health Promotion aims to promote quality assurance in health promotion practice, education and training. The System is designed to be flexible and sensitive to the different contexts for health promotion practice, education and training in Europe, while maintaining robust criteria. These competency-based criteria were developed in the CompHP Project (2009-2012) that developed core competencies, professional standards and an accreditation framework for health promotion practice, education and training in the context of workforce capacity development in Europe.This paper describes how consultations undertaken with the health promotion community informed the structure and processes of the IUHPE Accreditation System. An overview of its development, key functions and the piloting of its implementation, which was co-funded by the European Union in the context of the EU Health Programme, is presented.Feedback from consultations with key health promotion stakeholders in Europe indicated overall support for the development of an accreditation system for health promotion. However, a number of potential barriers to its implementation were noted including: absence of dedicated practitioners and professional bodies in some countries; lack of clarity about professional boundaries; lack of financial resources required to facilitate capacity building; and concerns about the costs, objectivity and transparency of the system. Feedback from the consultations shaped and informed the process of designing an operational accreditation system to ensure that it would be responsive to potential users' needs and concerns.Based on the agreed structures and processes, a web-based application system was developed and managed at IUHPE headquarters. A governance structure was established together with agreed policies and procedures for the System. During the pilot period, applications from 20

  14. Electrical Pressurization Concept for the Orion MPCV European Service Module Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiss, Jan-Hendrik; Weber, Jorg; Ierardo, Nicola; Quinn, Frank D.; Paisley, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the design of the pressurization system of the European Service Module (ESM) of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). Being part of the propulsion subsystem, an electrical pressurization concept is implemented to condition propellants according to the engine needs via a bang-bang regulation system. Separate pressurization for the oxidizer and the fuel tank permits mixture ratio adjustments and prevents vapor mixing of the two hypergolic propellants during nominal operation. In case of loss of pressurization capability of a single side, the system can be converted into a common pressurization system. The regulation concept is based on evaluation of a set of tank pressure sensors and according activation of regulation valves, based on a single-failure tolerant weighting of three pressure signals. While regulation is performed on ESM level, commanding of regulation parameters as well as failure detection, isolation and recovery is performed from within the Crew Module, developed by Lockheed Martin Space System Company. The overall design and development maturity presented is post Preliminary Design Review (PDR) and reflects the current status of the MPCV ESM pressurization system.

  15. Transparency in European banking system – a technical and economic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ștefănescu Cristina Alexandrina

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our paper is to provide a comprehensive analysis of possible relationships between two different approaches of “transparency” – the technical vs. the economic one. Thus, irrespective of prior literature, our paper goes beyond a “solo” analysis of either of two above-mentioned “facets”, by providing a combined study. So, we focused on both (1 XBRL’s role in enhancing the quality of disclosure, by assessing its benefices and consequences and (2 corporate governance mechanism’s power to improve efficiency and effectiveness of banking supervision by encouraging transparency. The results of the performed analysis generally reveal that there is a strong and positive relationship between the level of disclosure promoted by corporate governance codes enforced in European Union countries and the degree of implementation of both XBRL-based projects designed for banking environment (FINREP and COREP. Consequently, we can assert that there is a consensus between the economic and technical approach of transparency in European banking system

  16. a European Global Navigation Satellite System — the German Market and Value Adding Chain Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollerthun, A.; Wieser, M.

    2002-03-01

    Since Europe is considering to establish a "market-driven" European Global Navigation Satellite System, the German Center of Aerospace initiated a market research to justify a German investment in such a European project. The market research performed included the following market segments: aviation, railway, road traffic, shipping, surveying, farming, military, space applications, leisure, and sport. In these market segments, the forementioned inputs were determined for satellite navigation hardware (receivers) as well as satellite navigation services. The forecast period was from year 2007 to 2017. For the considered period, the market amounts to a total of DM 83.0 billion (approx. US $50 billion), whereas the satellite navigation equipment market makes up DM 39.8 billion, and charges for value-added-services amount to DM 43.2 billion. On closer examination road traffic can be identified as the dominant market share, both in the receiver-market and service-market. With a share of 96% for receivers and 73% for services the significance of the road traffic segment becomes obvious. The second part of this paper investigates the effects the market potential has on the Value-Adding-Chain. Therefore, all participants in the Value-Adding-Chain are identified, using industrial cost structure models the employment effect is analyzed, and possible tax revenues for the state are examined.

  17. Changes in European legislation make it timely to introduce a transparent market surveillance system for cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodén, Marie; Ungerth, Louise; Serup, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    Marketing of cosmetics often makes strong claims linked to active ingredients. This is especially so for anti-ageing products, where the presentation and content of "active" ingredients may create new difficulties in their classification as cosmetics or medicinal products. A recent change in European legislation classifies a product as medicinal by virtue of its "function", in addition to the previous definition of "presentation" (i.e. marketing linked to diseases). Thus, formulations that also restore, correct or modify physiological functions by exerting a pharmacological, immunological or metabolic action should henceforth be covered by the Medicinal Products Directive. A cosmetic product must be suitable for its purpose and should not lead to adverse reactions that are disproportional in relation to its intended effect. However, the forthcoming ban on animal testing of cosmetic ingredients and the new European regulation, REACH (Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals), which aims to ensure a high level of chemical safety to protect human health and the environment, will probably have limited impact on the safety assessment of cosmetics. In order to enable consumers to make informed purchasing decisions, greater transparency in the process of assessing the performance of cosmetics is needed. Introduction of a more transparent system, enabling consumers and professionals to examine the scientific evidence for the claimed effect and the safety assessment of cosmetics, is therefore timely. Lack of transparency increases the risk of consumers wasting money on cosmetics that do not deliver the desired effects. This may jeopardize public trust in the cosmetic industry.

  18. How to design a border adjustment for the European Union Emissions Trading System?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monjon, Stephanie; Quirion, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Border adjustments are currently discussed to limit the possible adverse impact of climate policies on competitiveness and carbon leakage. We discuss the main choices that will have to be made if the European Union implements such a system alongside the EU ETS. Although more analysis is required on some issues, on others some design options seem clearly preferable to others. First, the import adjustment should be a requirement to surrender allowances rather than a tax. Second, the general rule to determine the amount of allowances per ton imported should be the product-specific benchmarks that the European Commission is currently elaborating for a different purpose (i.e. to determine the amount of free allowances). Third, this obligation should apply when the imported product is registered at the EU border, and not after the end of the year as is the case for domestic emitters. Fourth, the export adjustment should take the form of a rebate on the amount of allowances a domestic emitter has to surrender. Five, this rebate should equal the above-mentioned product-specific benchmarks, not the emissions of the particular exporting plant or firm. Finally, the adjustment does not have to apply to consumer products but mostly to basic products. (author)

  19. Calculation of the yearly energy performance of heating systems based on the European Building Energy Directive and related CEN Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Bjarne W.; de Carli, Michele

    2011-01-01

    According to the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) all new European buildings (residential, commercial, industrial, etc.) must since 2006 have an energy declaration based on the calculated energy performance of the building, including heating, ventilating, cooling and lighting syst......–20% of the building energy demand. The additional loss depends on the type of heat emitter, type of control, pump and boiler. Keywords: Heating systems; CEN standards; Energy performance; Calculation methods......According to the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) all new European buildings (residential, commercial, industrial, etc.) must since 2006 have an energy declaration based on the calculated energy performance of the building, including heating, ventilating, cooling and lighting...... systems. This energy declaration must refer to the primary energy or CO2 emissions. The European Organization for Standardization (CEN) has prepared a series of standards for energy performance calculations for buildings and systems. This paper presents related standards for heating systems. The relevant...

  20. MONITORING OF THE ACTIVITY OF PUBLIC PROCUREMENT SYSTEM IN COUNTRIES OF EUROPEAN UNION AND UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Ksonzhyk

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The research objective is to study and summarize the experience of the European Union countries in the field of public procurement monitoring; to study the activities that form its mechanism; to analyse forms of monitoring. Also, the current state, problems and prospects of creation and implementation of the mechanism for public procurement monitoring in Ukraine are studied; administrative and corruption risks are revealed. Methodology. Theoretical and methodological backgrounds of the research are formed on the basis of the provisions, categories, and concepts of economic theory, national and world economy, strategic development of public procurement, modelling. Laws and regulations that are regulators of the public procurement system and its monitoring, the works of domestic and foreign scientists on investigated issues were of greater importance. The system-structural analysis and synthesis, general scientific methods and methods of economic research are used to analyse and evaluate the phenomena and processes that accompany the functioning of the public procurement market and the mechanism for its monitoring. In particular, historical and dialectical methods (when studying the development of public procurement system in Western countries, the definition of stages and trends in its formation, the development and adoption of treaties for the regulation of public procurement within the European Union; method of expert assessments (for assessing the regulatory and legal support for public procurement monitoring; abstractlogical method (when establishing the factors for the formation of a monitoring mechanism in the field of public procurement in Ukraine, in particular, the institutional and organizational-economic features of its implementation, when assessing the criteria and performance indicators for the functioning of the monitoring system and its impact on the public procurement market, for theoretical generalization and conclusions

  1. Upgrading the data acquisition and control systems of the European Breeding Blanket Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannori, Simone; Sermenghi, Valerio; Utili, Marco; Malavasi, Andrea; Gianotti, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Data Acquisition and Control Systems (DACS) upgrading of experimental plant for full size thermo hydraulic testing of nuclear subsystems. • DACS development using integrated hardware/software platform with graphical programming (LabVIEW). • Development of simplified models for real-time simulation. • Rapid prototyping with real time simulation of the complete plant. • Using the code developed for the real time simulator for the real plant DACS. -- Abstract: The EBBTF (European Breeding Blanket Test Facility) experimental plant is a key component for the development of the breeding blankets (TBMs test blanket modules, HCLL helium cooled lithium lead and HCPB helium cooled pebble bed types) used by ITER. EBBTF is an experimental plant which provides the double breeding/cooling loops (liquid metal and gas) required for HCLL testing. EBBTF is composed of four subsystems (TBM, IELLLO integrated European lead lithium loop, HE-FUS3 helium fusion loop, version 3 and helium compressor build by ATEKO) with dedicated control systems realized with hardware/software combinations covering 15 years (1995–2010) time span. At the end of 2010 we began to upgrade the HE-FUS3 data acquisition control systems (DACS) replacing the obsolete PLC Siemens S5 with National Instruments Compact FieldPoint and LabVIEW. The control room has been completely reorganized using high resolution monitors and workstations linked with standard Ethernet interfaces. The data acquisition, control, safety and SCADA software has been completely developed in ENEA using LabVIEW. In this paper we are going to discuss the technical difficulties and the solutions that we have used to accomplish the upgrade

  2. ENES the European Network for Earth System modelling and its infrastructure projects IS-ENES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmo, Francesca; Joussaume, Sylvie; Parinet, Marie

    2016-04-01

    The scientific community working on climate modelling is organized within the European Network for Earth System modelling (ENES). In the past decade, several European university departments, research centres, meteorological services, computer centres, and industrial partners engaged in the creation of ENES with the purpose of working together and cooperating towards the further development of the network, by signing a Memorandum of Understanding. As of 2015, the consortium counts 47 partners. The climate modelling community, and thus ENES, faces challenges which are both science-driven, i.e. analysing of the full complexity of the Earth System to improve our understanding and prediction of climate changes, and have multi-faceted societal implications, as a better representation of climate change on regional scales leads to improved understanding and prediction of impacts and to the development and provision of climate services. ENES, promoting and endorsing projects and initiatives, helps in developing and evaluating of state-of-the-art climate and Earth system models, facilitates model inter-comparison studies, encourages exchanges of software and model results, and fosters the use of high performance computing facilities dedicated to high-resolution multi-model experiments. ENES brings together public and private partners, integrates countries underrepresented in climate modelling studies, and reaches out to different user communities, thus enhancing European expertise and competitiveness. In this need of sophisticated models, world-class, high-performance computers, and state-of-the-art software solutions to make efficient use of models, data and hardware, a key role is played by the constitution and maintenance of a solid infrastructure, developing and providing services to the different user communities. ENES has investigated the infrastructural needs and has received funding from the EU FP7 program for the IS-ENES (InfraStructure for ENES) phase I and II

  3. European tendencies and co-operation in the field of ITS systems - national achievements and challenges in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindenbach Ágnes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the role of intelligent transport systems/services related to the implementation of the essential European and Hungarian transport policy objectives. The ‘ITS Directive’ will provide a framework for the tasks/works to be performed in the forthcoming years within the priority areas of ITS. The European Commission published regulations / specifications for the priority actions in the form of delegated acts defining the tasks/responsibilities of Member States. Regional/European co-operation for Hungary started after the EU-accession of the country. Hungary was an active partner within the European CONNECT and EasyWay projects, currently Hungary is a member of the CROCODILE consortium.

  4. From networks to hybrids : Strategic behaviour and crisis-driven change in the regulation and governance of the European financial and economic system,

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenleer, M.L.P.; Mijs, A.; Ten Heuvelhof, E.F.; Meeuwen, B.; Van der Puil, J.

    2014-01-01

    A key challenge that European decision-makers struggle with today is regulating and governing the European financial and economic system in a way that is both effective and legitimate. To help address this challenge, this paper asks why regulatory gaps occurred and European governance has been weak,

  5. THE IMPACT OF NEW REGULATION ON FOUR EUROPEAN BANKING SYSTEMS. A BASEL III APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaria AVADANEI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the solutions designed to rebuild the banking system is the reconfiguration of the regulatory framework. Still active, the episodes of liquidity shortage and bank failure ask for solid measures in order to increase the solidity of individual institutions, to protect the financial stability of the banking systems and to maintain confidence on the markets. The aim of this paper is to analyze the situation of four European banking systems (Czech Republic, Poland, Romania and Croatia in terms of Basel III standards. Structured on three parts, the study points out the real concerns regarding Basel III effectiveness; analyzes the evolutions of capital, leverage and liquidity indicators and highlights the future possible scenarios/actions for aligning to the new regulation. To conclude, we determine the white and the black spots of the selected banking systems related to Basel III implementation. The results show good levels of capital in Poland, Czech Republic, Croatia and Romania, and some liquidity issues in Poland. The Czech and the Croatian banking systems are the best prepared for shocks.

  6. Visualization of Operational Performance of Grid-Connected PV Systems in Selected European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bala Bhavya Kausika

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the analyses of operational performance of small-sized residential PV systems, connected to the grid, in the Netherlands and some other European countries over three consecutive years. Web scraping techniques were employed to collect detailed yield data at high time resolution (5–15 min from a large number (31,844 of systems with 741 MWp of total capacity, delivering data continuously for at least one year. Annual system yield data was compared from small and medium-sized installations. Cartography and spatial analysis techniques in a geographic information system (GIS were used to visualize yield and performance ratio, which greatly facilitates the assessment of performance for geographically scattered systems. Variations in yield and performance ratios over the years were observed with higher values in 2015 due to higher irradiation values. The potential of specific yield and performance maps lies in the updating of monitoring databases, quality control of data, and availability of irradiation data. The automatic generation of performance maps could be a trend in future mapping.

  7. Navigating oceans and cultures: Polynesian and European navigation systems in the late eighteenth century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, M.

    2012-05-01

    Significant differences in the rotation of the celestial dome between the tropical and temperate zones did not stop the peoples of either the tropical Pacific or temperate Europe from using geocentric astronomy to guide exploration of the oceans. Although the differences in the night sky contributed to differences between the Pacific Island and European systems for navigation at sea, the two navigation systems exhibit substantial similarities. Both systems define positions on the surface of the Earth using two coordinates that vary at right angles to each other and use stars, and to a lesser extent the sun, to determine directions. This essay explores similarities and differences in the use of geocentric astronomy for navigation at sea by the peoples of Polynesia and Europe in the late eighteenth century. Captain Cook's orders to discover the unknown southern continent after observing the transit of Venus combined with differences in language and culture to obscure the deeper similarities between the navigation systems used by Cook and the Polynesians. Although it was a further 200 years before anthropologists studied Pacific navigation, collaborations in voyaging with communities in Oceania demonstrated the effectiveness of Pacific navigation systems, revived interest in traditional voyaging in island communities around the Pacific, and potentially open the way for further collaborations in other areas.

  8. Prospects for Improving Gravity-Fed Surface Irrigation Systems in Mediterranean European Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Masseroni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, most irrigation practices in Southern Europe have been based on gravity-fed surface irrigation systems. Currently, these systems remain a relevant typology in the European Union (EU member states of the Mediterranean areas, where it is often the only sustainable method for farmers due to the small size of agricultural holdings, their reduced capacity and readiness to invest and the low ratio between yield profits and irrigation costs. In the last several years, in response to European and national directives, surface irrigation has garnered increasing attention at the political and bureaucratic levels due to frequent criticisms of its postulated low efficiency and high water wastage. However, these systems commonly provide a number of ecosystem services and nature-based solutions that increase the positive externalities in different rural socio-ecological contexts and often have the potential to extend these services and provide solutions that are compatible with economical sustainability. This study aims to discuss the prospects for new practices and for the rehabilitation and modernization of the gravity-fed surface irrigation systems in EU Mediterranean areas to enhance water efficiency, thus gaining both economic advantages and environmental benefits. The difficulties, stimuli for improvements and peculiarities of the irrigation water management of four rural environments located in Italy, Spain and Portugal were analyzed and compared to the current state of the gravity-fed surface irrigation systems with hypothetical future improvements achievable by innovative technologies and practices. In these different case studies, the current gravity-fed surface irrigation systems have an obsolete regulatory structure; water-use efficiency is not a driving criterion for the management of the conveyance and distribution canal network, and farmers are not yet adequately encouraged to adopt more efficient gravity-fed irrigation practices

  9. Nacionalni medijski (televizijski) sustavi u zajednickom europskom audiovizualnom prostoru (National Media [Television] Systems in the Common European Audiovisual Area).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavsek, Kristina

    1995-01-01

    Examines regulations for the audiovisual (broadcasting) media as laid down by the European Economic Community, as well as their implementation. Focuses also on the problem of small states and their television systems. Defines the characteristics of small state television systems and their strategies. Illustrates two extreme…

  10. National system for radioactive waste management in Lithuania and its harmonization with the European Union legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adomaitis, J. E.; Poshkas, P.

    1999-01-01

    Radioactive waste management philosophies and technologies are still emerging, and there is therefore a need to reorganize and improve the national system for radioactive waste management in Lithuania. Lithuania's Law on Radioactive Waste Management and the new regulations will be harmonized with the European Union legislation in this field, with the IAEA general principles and with the obligations of the Republic of Lithuania under the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management. Different organizational and financial schemes available in the EU countries for radioactive waste management are described and analyzed. The most important aspects needed to establish the Lithuania's Radioactive Waste Management Agency and Fund are defined and developed. (author)

  11. Is the Family System in Romania Similar to those of Southern European Countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Castiglioni

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In his influential 1998 study, David S. Reher discusses historical differences between countries with strong and weak family ties. He focuses on the “Western World”, comparing Italy and the Iberian Peninsula with Scandinavia, the British Isles, the Low Countries, Germany and Austria, together with North America. In this paper, we explore whether Romania, in Eastern Europe, can be characterised as having a strong family system, given the increasingly important role family has played for individual well-being following the end of the socialist regime. We observe a number of similarities between Romania and Southern European countries in terms of behaviours associated with “strong family ties”, opinions on family care and mutual intergenerational support. Differences can be explained in light of Romania’s economic and housing crisis. Overall, it is likely that the importance of family ties in Romania increased after the end of the socialist regime.

  12. The European Plate Observing System (EPOS) Services for Solid Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocco, Massimo; Atakan, Kuvvet; Pedersen, Helle; Consortium, Epos

    2016-04-01

    The European Plate Observing System (EPOS) aims to create a pan-European infrastructure for solid Earth science to support a safe and sustainable society. The main vision of the European Plate Observing System (EPOS) is to address the three basic challenges in Earth Sciences: (i) unravelling the Earth's deformational processes which are part of the Earth system evolution in time, (ii) understanding the geo-hazards and their implications to society, and (iii) contributing to the safe and sustainable use of geo-resources. The mission of EPOS is to monitor and understand the dynamic and complex Earth system by relying on new e-science opportunities and integrating diverse and advanced Research Infrastructures in Europe for solid Earth Science. EPOS will enable innovative multidisciplinary research for a better understanding of the Earth's physical and chemical processes that control earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, ground instability and tsunami as well as the processes driving tectonics and Earth's surface dynamics. EPOS will improve our ability to better manage the use of the subsurface of the Earth. Through integration of data, models and facilities EPOS will allow the Earth Science community to make a step change in developing new concepts and tools for key answers to scientific and socio-economic questions concerning geo-hazards and geo-resources as well as Earth sciences applications to the environment and to human welfare. EPOS has now started its Implementation Phase (EPOS-IP). One of the main challenges during the implementation phase is the integration of multidisciplinary data into a single e-infrastructure. Multidisciplinary data are organized and governed by the Thematic Core Services (TCS) and are driven by various scientific communities encompassing a wide spectrum of Earth science disciplines. These include Data, Data-products, Services and Software (DDSS), from seismology, near fault observatories, geodetic observations, volcano observations

  13. Reaching an entrepreneurial management system of amoebas. A qualitative insight into the European experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urban Wiesław

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is an assessment of the Amoeba Management System (AMS introduction advancements in some European companies. The study takes the practically focused research approach. The approaches, achievements and phases whilst introducing the AMS principles by companies are observed and critically assessed. First insight into the challenges of AMS introduction is taken basing on critical study of the literature output. The scientific studies and managerial publications are taken into consideration. The empirical part of the study is based on the qualitative approach. A multiple case study methodology is employed. The research objects are three companies, one of them operates in Sweden, the next two in Poland. Each of them have different experiences in AMS implementation, they also manifest different management styles and habits. The study demonstrates that AMS is a very prospective management methodology which can support companies in employees commitment during their journey towards operational excellence. The analysis results show different motivations for AMS introduction as well as different development paths, these are harmonized with different management styles in companies and culture occurring in countries. The study is particularly valuable because this is one of the first empirical investigations of AMS implementation in European companies. In the field of theory the study proposes the four level scale for amoebas system maturity. This scale allows to classify companies following AMS principles and, at the same time, this scale is also the kind of path of AMS implementation. The study points out basic tools for companies which support AMS implementation. These tools are already known in management literature, but experience of investigated companies shows that they are fundamental for successful AMS implementation.

  14. National advisory bodies in the system of public governance in science and higher education: european practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Degtyarova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the analysis of organizational and legal conditions for the functioning of the highest advisory bodies in the fields of research and higher education, created at the state level at the central governing institutions in Ukraine and selected European countries. The article is aimed at the research of the model of formation and functioning of the national advisory bodies on research and higher education in Poland, Germany, and Czech Republic in the system of science management, based on the national legislation. The following national bodies are studied in the paper: National Council of Science and Higher Education of Poland, the Committee of Science Policy of Poland, the Council for Research, Development and Innovation of Czech Republic, National Council for Research, Innovation and Science Policy of Hungary, the German Research Council and others. It is proved that advisory bodies are an important element of the system of public governance, as well as actors in shaping of the national science and higher education policy. They are formed in a democratic way due to the principle of shared governance and mostly of institutional representation. The article considered selected aspects of the establishment of the National R&D Council of Ukraine, as stated in the Law of Ukraine «On Scientific and R&D Activity» comparing with the relevant European institutions. The analysis of the concept for the National Council for Science and Technologies (R&D of Ukraine along with the administrative and management risks could be considered while implementation of the Law of Ukraine «On Scientific and R&D Activity».

  15. Talking about quality: exploring how 'quality' is conceptualized in European hospitals and healthcare systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiig, Siri; Aase, Karina; von Plessen, Christian; Burnett, Susan; Nunes, Francisco; Weggelaar, Anne Marie; Anderson-Gare, Boel; Calltorp, Johan; Fulop, Naomi

    2014-10-11

    Conceptualization of quality of care - in terms of what individuals, groups and organizations include in their meaning of quality, is an unexplored research area. It is important to understand how quality is conceptualised as a means to successfully implement improvement efforts and bridge potential disconnect in language about quality between system levels, professions, and clinical services. The aim is therefore to explore and compare conceptualization of quality among national bodies (macro level), senior hospital managers (meso level), and professional groups within clinical micro systems (micro level) in a cross-national study. This cross-national multi-level case study combines analysis of national policy documents and regulations at the macro level with semi-structured interviews (383) and non-participant observation (803 hours) of key meetings and shadowing of staff at the meso and micro levels in ten purposively sampled European hospitals (England, the Netherlands, Portugal, Sweden, and Norway). Fieldwork at the meso and micro levels was undertaken over a 12-month period (2011-2012) and different types of micro systems were included (maternity, oncology, orthopaedics, elderly care, intensive care, and geriatrics). The three quality dimensions clinical effectiveness, patient safety, and patient experience were incorporated in macro level policies in all countries. Senior hospital managers adopted a similar conceptualization, but also included efficiency and costs in their conceptualization of quality. 'Quality' in the forms of measuring indicators and performance management were dominant among senior hospital managers (with clinical and non-clinical background). The differential emphasis on the three quality dimensions was strongly linked to professional roles, personal ideas, and beliefs at the micro level. Clinical effectiveness was dominant among physicians (evidence-based approach), while patient experience was dominant among nurses (patient

  16. The European contribution to the procurement of the ITER Remote Handling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damiani, Carlo; Irving, Mike; Semeraro, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    Fusion for Energy (F4E) will manage the European in-kind contribution of various remote handling (RH) systems for the maintenance of ITER components: (i) the divertor cassette movers, end effectors, manipulator arms and tooling; (ii) 50% of the transfer casks, in particular the air transfer systems and some in-cask devices; (iii) the in-vessel viewing and metrology system (IVVS); (iv) the Neutral Beam (NB) Cell crane, manipulator arms, tooling, Caesium Oven replacement tooling, NB source installation/removal trolley, auxiliary vehicles. A wide range of technologies is involved: special monorail crane, movers, manipulator arms, pipe cutting/welding tooling, special cameras, laser-based metrology devices, control systems, virtual reality. An important aspect to consider is the resistance to radiation levels that range from max ∼10 KGy/h for IVVS down to ∼1 Gy/h for the RH devices operating in the NB cell. Given the unprecedented complexity of the ITER maintenance scenario, a development strategy is being implemented that includes prototyping and testing of RH subsystems before proceeding with the final production for ITER. This paper presents an overview of the various procurement packages, the status of development for each of them, the validation and procurement strategy, including issues like radiation resistance and standardisation policy, and the organisational and managerial challenges in relation with the complex ITER Organisation (IO).

  17. System of own resources in the formation of the European Union budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrii Boiar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the article there has been made a structural and critical analysis of the basic component of the EU budget revenue – the system of own resources. In particular, there are considered the stages of formation, structure, legal and institutional mechanisms of this system. There were developed methodical approaches which are used by the European Commission for calculating the key parameters of the EU system of own resources, namely: the volume of payments to the EU budget, which the member states of the Community pay according to each of the existing categories of own resources; harmonized basis of value-added tax and gross national income of member states; the volume of compensations to particular member states, which have negative balanced trade in the EU budget (Great Britain, Sweden, Holland etc. Great attention is paid to reasoning strong and weak aspects of the working system. There are highlighted the possible ways of solving the current problems and singled out the most anticipated, according to the author’s opinion, reform directions of the EU revenue in the short and medium-term prospect.

  18. A European benchmarking system to evaluate in-hospital mortality rates in acute coronary syndrome: the EURHOBOP project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dégano, Irene R; Subirana, Isaac; Torre, Marina; Grau, María; Vila, Joan; Fusco, Danilo; Kirchberger, Inge; Ferrières, Jean; Malmivaara, Antti; Azevedo, Ana; Meisinger, Christa; Bongard, Vanina; Farmakis, Dimitros; Davoli, Marina; Häkkinen, Unto; Araújo, Carla; Lekakis, John; Elosua, Roberto; Marrugat, Jaume

    2015-03-01

    Hospital performance models in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are useful to assess patient management. While models are available for individual countries, mainly US, cross-European performance models are lacking. Thus, we aimed to develop a system to benchmark European hospitals in AMI and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), based on predicted in-hospital mortality. We used the EURopean HOspital Benchmarking by Outcomes in ACS Processes (EURHOBOP) cohort to develop the models, which included 11,631 AMI patients and 8276 acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients who underwent PCI. Models were validated with a cohort of 55,955 European ACS patients. Multilevel logistic regression was used to predict in-hospital mortality in European hospitals for AMI and PCI. Administrative and clinical models were constructed with patient- and hospital-level covariates, as well as hospital- and country-based random effects. Internal cross-validation and external validation showed good discrimination at the patient level and good calibration at the hospital level, based on the C-index (0.736-0.819) and the concordance correlation coefficient (55.4%-80.3%). Mortality ratios (MRs) showed excellent concordance between administrative and clinical models (97.5% for AMI and 91.6% for PCI). Exclusion of transfers and hospital stays ≤1day did not affect in-hospital mortality prediction in sensitivity analyses, as shown by MR concordance (80.9%-85.4%). Models were used to develop a benchmarking system to compare in-hospital mortality rates of European hospitals with similar characteristics. The developed system, based on the EURHOBOP models, is a simple and reliable tool to compare in-hospital mortality rates between European hospitals in AMI and PCI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The European Arrest Warrant in the Italian legal system. Between mutual recognition and mutual fear within the European area of Freedom, Security and Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Impalà

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Italy was the last Member State to transpose the Framework Decision on the European Arrest Warrant. The Italian law entered into full force on 14 May 2005, a full sixteen months later than the appointed date. Conversely, whilst the Framework Decision aimed to speed up extradition between Member States, the Italian implementation law seems to complicate things, providing for dozens of new legal obstacles to surrender. In fact, the execution of an EAW in Italy threatens to become something highly unpredictable. The responsibility for this outcome is shared by the national and the European legislator. Perhaps the latter underestimated the seriousness of the conflict between Third Pillar law and domestic constitutional systems which aim to protect their acquis in the field of fundamental rights. Considering that many Member States seem to be struggling with similar problems, the first part of this article is devoted to describing the current scenario and analysing possible solutions at the supranational level, such as the establishment of a coherent system regulating the allocation of penal competences among Member States. In the next part, the problem of the Framework Decision’s incompatibility with the Italian Constitution will be discussed, and in the final part the Italian implementation law is analysed in more detail.

  20. The information system of learning quality control in higher education institutions: achievements and problems of European universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orekhova Elena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the main trends in the development of the system of learning quality control connected with the European integration of higher education and the democratization of education. The authors analyze the state of information systems of learning quality control existing in European higher education and identify their strong and weak points. The authors show that in the learning process universities actively use innovative analytic methods as well as modern means of collecting, storing and transferring information that ensure the successful management of such a complex object as the university of the 21st century.

  1. Connection of European particle therapy centers and generation of a common particle database system within the European ULICE-framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessel, Kerstin A; Pötter, Richard; Dosanjh, Manjit; Debus, Jürgen; Combs, Stephanie E; Bougatf, Nina; Bohn, Christian; Habermehl, Daniel; Oetzel, Dieter; Bendl, Rolf; Engelmann, Uwe; Orecchia, Roberto; Fossati, Piero

    2012-01-01

    To establish a common database on particle therapy for the evaluation of clinical studies integrating a large variety of voluminous datasets, different documentation styles, and various information systems, especially in the field of radiation oncology. We developed a web-based documentation system for transnational and multicenter clinical studies in particle therapy. 560 patients have been treated from November 2009 to September 2011. Protons, carbon ions or a combination of both, as well as a combination with photons were applied. To date, 12 studies have been initiated and more are in preparation. It is possible to immediately access all patient information and exchange, store, process, and visualize text data, any DICOM images and multimedia data. Accessing the system and submitting clinical data is possible for internal and external users. Integrated into the hospital environment, data is imported both manually and automatically. Security and privacy protection as well as data validation and verification are ensured. Studies can be designed to fit individual needs. The described database provides a basis for documentation of large patient groups with specific and specialized questions to be answered. Having recently begun electronic documentation, it has become apparent that the benefits lie in the user-friendly and timely workflow for documentation. The ultimate goal is a simplification of research work, better study analyses quality and eventually, the improvement of treatment concepts by evaluating the effectiveness of particle therapy

  2. Connection of European particle therapy centers and generation of a common particle database system within the European ULICE-framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kessel Kerstin A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To establish a common database on particle therapy for the evaluation of clinical studies integrating a large variety of voluminous datasets, different documentation styles, and various information systems, especially in the field of radiation oncology. Methods We developed a web-based documentation system for transnational and multicenter clinical studies in particle therapy. 560 patients have been treated from November 2009 to September 2011. Protons, carbon ions or a combination of both, as well as a combination with photons were applied. To date, 12 studies have been initiated and more are in preparation. Results It is possible to immediately access all patient information and exchange, store, process, and visualize text data, any DICOM images and multimedia data. Accessing the system and submitting clinical data is possible for internal and external users. Integrated into the hospital environment, data is imported both manually and automatically. Security and privacy protection as well as data validation and verification are ensured. Studies can be designed to fit individual needs. Conclusions The described database provides a basis for documentation of large patient groups with specific and specialized questions to be answered. Having recently begun electronic documentation, it has become apparent that the benefits lie in the user-friendly and timely workflow for documentation. The ultimate goal is a simplification of research work, better study analyses quality and eventually, the improvement of treatment concepts by evaluating the effectiveness of particle therapy.

  3. Modeling and application of VSC-HVDC in the European transmission system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'Abatte, A.; Fulli, G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigated the potential technical, environmental, and economic impacts of voltage source converter (VSC) based high voltage direct current (HVDC) technologies on the European power system, with particular emphasis on enhancing the attainable transmission capacity in specific applications. To this end, an original steady-state model of the VSC-HVDC was presented and tested. A techno-economic analysis of the potential impact of VSC-HVDC on liberalized power systems in Europe was performed to determine the feasibility of such investment compared to building conventional high voltage alternating current (HVAC) transmission infrastructures. The land use and environmental impact of HVDC may be lower than HVAC technologies. VSC-HVDC offers several advantages over conventional HVDC, including flexibility and range of power control, compactness and modularity of converter stations, easier expandability for multi-terminal configurations, and greater environmental friendliness. The relative disadvantages of the VSC-HVDC include a greater expense and higher converter losses. When replacing existing HVAC lines, some targeted VSC-HVDC installations were shown to be technologically and economically feasible, particularly when installed on lines between regions with a high electricity price differential, although less profitable than building new HVAC lines. VSC-HVDC can be a more feasible option when socio-political and environmental restraints curtail the extension of the HVAC transmission system. 29 refs., 6 tabs., 4 figs.

  4. The European integration process and the future of national tax systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević Marina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of the European Union (EU has had a huge impact on Europe which has become a substantially different place as compared to what it used to be in some earlier times. In the field of taxation, the EU Member States are generally required to fully implement of the process of tax harmonization. In fiscal terms, harmonization implies the coordination of particular taxes, tax structures and tax policies among states. As the primary objective of the EU is to establish the common market, to prevent distortion and to eliminate obstacles hindering the free movement of goods, services, capital and people, the first step towards accomplishing these goals has been the harmonization of indirect taxes: the Value Added Tax and (partly excises. The results have been much more inconspicuous in the harmonization of direct taxes: the personal-income tax, the corporate tax, and property taxes. The harmonization of direct taxes in the EU is still a current issue, particularly in view of the unfair tax competition and the need to strengthen and promote the development of the European common market. However, in reality, EU Member States consistently keep protecting their tax sovereignty and putting off the full harmonization of their legislation on direct taxes for some other time. In the contemporary circumstances, the activities which deserve undivided attention are the efforts aimed at improving tax cooperation between EU Member States and their tax administrations. In this paper, the author analyses the characteristics of tax harmonization and tax competition. Further on, the author discusses the arguments for and against tax harmonization, as well as the pros and cons of tax competition. Bearing in mind the current state of affairs, the evident problems in the field of tax harmonization at the EU level and the willingness of Member States to improve their tax cooperation, the author suggests possible directions for the development of national tax

  5. Doctors on the move: a European case study on the key characteristics of national recertification systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehlbach, Carolin; Govaerts, Marjan J; Mitchell, Sharon; Rohde, Gernot G U; Smeenk, Frank W J M; Driessen, Erik W

    2018-04-17

    With increased cross-border movement, ensuring safe and high-quality healthcare has gained primacy. The purpose of recertification is to ensure quality of care through periodically attesting doctors' professional proficiency in their field. Professional migration and facilitated cross-border recognition of qualifications, however, make us question the fitness of national policies for safeguarding patient care and the international accountability of doctors. We performed document analyses and conducted 19 semistructured interviews to identify and describe key characteristics and effective components of 10 different European recertification systems, each representing one case (collective case study). We subsequently compared these systems to explore similarities and differences in terms of assessment criteria used to determine process quality. Great variety existed between countries in terms and assessment formats used, targeting cognition, competence and performance (Miller's assessment pyramid). Recertification procedures and requirements also varied significantly, ranging from voluntary participation in professional development modules to the mandatory collection of multiple performance data in a competency-based portfolio. Knowledge assessment was fundamental to recertification in most countries. Another difference concerned the stakeholders involved in the recertification process: while some systems exclusively relied on doctors' self-assessment, others involved multiple stakeholders but rarely included patients in assessment of doctors' professional competence. Differences between systems partly reflected different goals and primary purposes of recertification. Recertification systems differ substantially internationally with regard to the criteria they apply to assess doctors' competence, their aims, requirements, assessment formats and patient involvement. In the light of professional mobility and associated demands for accountability, we recommend that

  6. Comparison of the Hungarian and Scottish communicable disease control systems: lessons for a convergent European Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefler, D; Bhopal, R

    2010-03-01

    European public health systems are converging, particularly in relation to communicable disease control. This process requires mutual learning through comparison; this was undertaken for Scotland (population 5.1 million) and Hungary (population 10.5 million). Using the official web- and paper-based publications, the practice of communicable disease control was compared between the two countries in three specific fields: seasonal influenza surveillance; human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) surveillance; and the childhood vaccination system. The organization structure for communicable disease control was very similar, comprising of government, national, regional and sub-regional tiers in Hungary, and government, national and local (sub-regional) tiers in Scotland. The influenza surveillance system in both countries was mainly based on the 'fluspotter system'. In the 2005/6, 2006/7 and 2007/8 seasons, there was no exceptional influenza activity in either country. Although the data collection and surveillance system of HIV is similar, there was a massive difference in the number of reported cases. In 2007, the cumulative incidence of reported HIV cases was 14.74/100,000 in Hungary and 105.21/100,000 in Scotland. The routine childhood vaccination schedule is similar in the two countries. However, while the vaccine uptake rates were nearly 100% in Hungary, these rates were lower in Scotland. The numbers of reported pertussis (98 vs 48), mumps (2741 vs 16), rubella (146 vs 0) and measles (168 vs zero) cases were significantly higher in Scotland than in Hungary. There were no differences for polio and chickenpox. The economic difference between the two countries not reflected in the efficiency of communicable disease control and in communicable disease patterns. The historical, political and cultural differences seem more determinative in this comparison. Copyright (c) 2010 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The institutional structure and political economy of food distribution systems: A comparative analysis of six Eastern European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Skytte, Hans

    This paper discusses the food distribution systems of six Eastern European countries. It considers the macro and task environments of distribution systems, discussing the constraints and opportunities the environments present to companies. The institutional structure of retailing and wholesaling...... are analysed and important developments in the institutional structure are noted. The internal political economy of distribution channels in Eastern Europe is analysed and the modernisation of distribution systems discussed. Finally, some conclusions are offered and areas for future research suggested....

  8. Ideas, Individuals, and Institutions : Notion and Practices of a European Electricity System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagendijk, Vincent

    2018-01-01

    Based upon extensive multi-archival research, this article traces the long lineage of the notion of European electricity network. Since the 1930s engineers and policy makers conceived of a geographical conception for rationalising and optimising electricity supply: a European one. This article

  9. Towards a European renewable-based energy system enabled by smart grid: status and prospects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yi; Østergaard, Jacob; Wu, Qiuwei

    2011-01-01

    Renewable energy plays an important role in the future energy framework of the European Union. The European Union will reach a 20% share of renewable energy in total energy consumption and increase energy efficiency by 20% by 2020. Smart grids will be the backbone of the future electricity networ...

  10. Major knowledge gaps and system barriers to guideline implementation among European physicians treating patients with atrial fibrillation: a European Society of Cardiology international educational needs assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidbuchel, Hein; Dagres, Nikolaos; Antz, Matthias; Kuck, Karl-Heinz; Lazure, Patrice; Murray, Suzanne; Carrera, Céline; Hindricks, Gerhard; Vahanian, Alec

    2018-03-12

    Guideline-adherent treatment is associated with improved prognosis in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients but is insufficiently implemented in clinical practice. The European Society of Cardiology (ESC) performed a multinational educational needs assessment study among cardiologists, general practitioners/family physicians (GPs/FPs), and neurologists in order to evaluate knowledge and skills of physicians and system factors related to AF care delivery. A total of 561 physicians (294 cardiologists, 131 neurologists, and 136 GPs/FPs) from six European countries participated. This mixed-methods study included exploratory semi-structured qualitative interviews (n = 30) and a quantitative survey that included two clinical cases (n = 531). We identified eight key knowledge gaps and system barriers across all domains of AF care. A majority across all specialties reported skills needing improvement to classify AF pathophysiologically, rather than based on duration of episodes, and reported lack of availability of long-term electrocardiogram recording. Skills interpreting the CHA2DS2-VASc and the HAS-BLED scores were reported as needing improvement by the majority of neurologists (52% and 60%, respectively) and GPs/FPs (65% and 74%). Cardiologists calculated the CHA2DS2-VASc and HAS-BLED scores in 94%/70% in a presented case patient, but only 60%/49% of neurologists and 58%/42% of GPs/FPs did. There was much uncertainty on how to deal with anticoagulant therapy in complex patients. There was also a high disparity in using rate or rhythm control strategies, and indications for ablation. Information delivery to patients and communication between different specialties was often considered suboptimal, while national regulations and restrictions often hamper international guideline implementation. We identified major gaps in physicians' knowledge and skills across all domains of AF care, as well as system factors hampering guideline-compliant care implementation and

  11. THE EUROPEAN PUBLIC SYSTEM OF HUMAN RESOURCES. PERFORMANCE IN ORGANIZATIONS AND GOOD PRACTICES FOR ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan-Călin BEȘLIU

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the fact that recruitment and selection activities are vital in ensuring the human resources flow in every private or public organization sector, the present paper seeks to elaborate a proposal aimed to modernize the recruiting and selection process within the Romanian public service based on best practices models implemented in other European states. From the perspective of providing adequate training skills and abilities needed by the qualified personnel, initial training is very poor. Practical training is not on the same level of quality with theoretical one and the current system of examinations in education units, based predominantly on theoretical assessment, do not motivate learners well enough in order to gain practical skills. Continuous training programs organized by the units do not always take into account the needs of the personnel or are not adapted to the job description, the category and level of specialization of the beneficiaries' functions and the degree of novelty and utility of most of the presented theoretical information is usually low. The costs of selecting one person for the public service are usually very high, including not only the cost of the initial recruiting, but also the long term cost, represented by the continuous training of the employee. Consequently, recruiting human resources is a basic part of both public and private systems.

  12. Full scale test platform for European TBM systems integration and maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vála, Ladislav, E-mail: ladislav.vala@cvrez.cz; Reungoat, Mathieu; Vician, Martin

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • A platform for EU-TBS maintenance and integration tests is described. • Its modular design allows adaptation to non-EU TBSs. • Assembling of the facility will be followed by initial tests in 2016. - Abstract: This article deals with description and current status of a project of a non-nuclear, full size (1:1 scale) test platform dedicated to tests, optimization and validation of integration and maintenance operations for the European TBM systems in the ITER port cell #16. The facility called TBM platform reproduces the ITER port cell #16 and port interspace with all the relevant interfaces and mock-ups of the corresponding main components. Thanks to the modular design of the platform, it is possible to adapt or change completely the interfaces in the future if needed or required according to the updated configuration of TBSs. In the same way, based on customer requirements, it will be possible to adapt the interfaces and piping inside the mock-ups in order to represent also the other, non-EU configurations of TBM systems designed for port cells #02 and #18. Construction of this test platform is realized and funded within the scope of the SUSEN project.

  13. The lock-in effect and the greening of automotive cooling systems in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørnåvold, Amalie; Van Passel, Steven

    2017-12-01

    As of 2017, the sale and use of the refrigerants most commonly used in automotive cooling systems - hydrofluorocarbons - are entirely banned in all new vehicles placed on the market in the European Union. These refrigerants have been recognised as potent greenhouse gases and, therefore, direct contributors to climate change. It is within this regulation-driven market that the technologies for a sustainable solution have been developed. However, this paper argues that the market for automotive cooling systems has been 'locked-in', which means that competing technologies, operating under dynamic increasing returns, will allow for one - potentially inferior technology - to dominate the market. Whilst such a situation is not uncommon, this paper discusses the way that regulation has reinforced a patented monopoly in 'picking winners': to the advantage of a synthetic chemical, R-1234yf, as opposed to the natural solution, which is CO 2 . By developing a generic conceptual framework of path dependence and lock-in, the presented evidence seeks to show how a snowballing effect has led to the intensification of differences in market share. We also argue that the automotive industry is potentially promoting short-term fixes, rather than long-term, sustainable and economically viable solutions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. National Food Safety Systems in the European Union: A Comparative Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Hadjigeorgiou

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a comparative survey of the National Food Safety Systems (NFSS of the European Union (EU Member-States (MS and the Central EU level. The main organizational structures of the NFSS, their legal frameworks, their responsibilities, their experiences, and challenges relating to food safety are discussed. Growing concerns about food safety have led the EU itself, its MS and non-EU countries, which are EU trade-partners, to review and modify their food safety systems. Our study suggests that the EU and 22 out of 27 Member States (MS have reorganized their NFSS by establishing a single food safety authority or a similar organization on the national or central level. In addition, the study analyzes different approaches towards the establishment of such agencies. Areas where marked differences in approaches were seen included the division of responsibilities for risk assessment (RA, risk management (RM, and risk communication (RC. We found that in 12 Member States, all three areas of activity (RA, RM, and RC are kept together, whereas in 10 Member States, risk management is functionally or institutionally separate from risk assessment and risk communication. No single ideal model for others to follow for the organization of a food safety authority was observed; however, revised NFSS, either in EU member states or at the EU central level, may be more effective from the previous arrangements, because they provide central supervision, give priority to food control programs, and maintain comprehensive risk analysis as part of their activities.

  15. Future systems for regional defence: The case in an enlarged European Union. Report on working group 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Report deals with the future systems for regional defense in case of an enlarged European Union. In the frame of security issues the future of nuclear arms control and disarmament if of concern. The implications of NATO expansion to the east and desirability of establishing a nuclear-weapon-free-zone from the Baltic to the Black Sea are discussed at length

  16. An EAACI “European Survey on Adverse Systemic Reactions in Allergen Immunotherapy (EASSI)”: the methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calderón, Moises A; Rodríguez Del Río, Pablo; Vidal, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    and a "harmonised terminology" according to MedDRA, we aimed to prospectively collect systemic adverse reactions due to AIT from real life clinical settings. Under the framework of the EAACI, a team of European specialists in AIT, pharmacovigilance, epidemiology and drugs regulation set up a web-based prospective...

  17. Harmonisation of the acute respiratory infection reporting system in the Czech Republic with the European community networks.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kyncl, J.; Paget, W.J.; Havlickova, M.; Kriz, B.

    2005-01-01

    Respiratory virus activity is detected in Europe each winter, yet the precise timing and size of this activity is highly unpredictable. The impact of influenza infection and/or acute respiratory infection in European countries is continuously monitored through a variety of surveillance systems. All

  18. Advanced windows Information System (WIS): A uniform European tool to calculate the thermal and solar properties of windows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, L.G.; Dijk, H.A.L. van

    1996-01-01

    WIS is a uniform, user friendly, PC-based, European software tool to determine the thermal and solar character-istics of window systems (glazing, frames, solar shading, etc.) and window components. WIS includes databases with component properties and routines for calculation of the thermal-optical

  19. Contact allergy to ingredients of topical medications : results of the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA), 2009-2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uter, Wolfgang; Spiewak, Radoslaw; Cooper, Susan M.; Wilkinson, Mark; Sanchez Perez, Javier; Schnuch, Axel; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise

    2016-01-01

    PurposeThe aim of this study was to give an overview of the prevalence of contact allergy to active ingredients and excipients of topical medications across Europe. MethodsRetrospective analysis of data collected by the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies () with substances applied to

  20. The common European asylum system and the rights of the child : an exploration of meaning and compliance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smyth, Ciara Mary

    2013-01-01

    This thesis addresses the question of whether the EU Common European Asylum System (CEAS) complies with the rights of the child. A significant proportion of people seeking asylum in EU countries are children. These children may be totally alone, with people who are not their customary caregivers

  1. Experience of Forming Professional and Communicative Competency of Future Social Workers in Education Systems of Western European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranyuk, Vita

    2015-01-01

    The article analyzes the experience of forming professional and communicative competency of future social workers in the education systems of Western European countries, in particular, France, Germany and Switzerland. On the basis of generalization of the studied data it has been found out that each country has its own techniques of forming…

  2. European activities on crosscutting thermal-hydraulic phenomena for innovative nuclear systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, X., E-mail: xu.cheng@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) (Germany); Batta, A. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) (Germany); Bandini, G. [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA) (Italy); Roelofs, F. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG) (Netherlands); Van Tichelen, K. [Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie – Centre d’étude de l’Energie Nucléaire (SCK-CEN) (Belgium); Gerschenfeld, A. [Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique (CEA) (France); Prasser, M. [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) (Switzerland); Papukchiev, A. [Gesellschaft für Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS) (Germany); Hampel, U. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V. (HZDR) (Germany); Ma, W.M. [Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan (KTH) (Sweden)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • This paper serves as a guidance of the special issue. • The technical tasks and methodologies applied to achieve the objectives have been described. • Main results achieved so far are summarized. - Abstract: Thermal-hydraulics is recognized as a key scientific subject in the development of innovative reactor systems. In Europe, a consortium is established consisting of 24 institutions of universities, research centers and nuclear industries with the main objectives to identify and to perform research activities on important crosscutting thermal-hydraulic issues encountered in various innovative nuclear systems. For this purpose the large-scale integrated research project THINS (Thermal-Hydraulics of Innovative Nuclear Systems) is launched in the 7th Framework Programme FP7 of European Union. The main topics considered in the THINS project are (a) advanced reactor core thermal-hydraulics, (b) single phase mixed convection, (c) single phase turbulence, (d) multiphase flow, and (e) numerical code coupling and qualification. The main objectives of the project are: • Generation of a data base for the development and validation of new models and codes describing the selected crosscutting thermal-hydraulic phenomena. • Development of new physical models and modeling approaches for more accurate description of the crosscutting thermal-hydraulic phenomena. • Improvement of the numerical engineering tools for the design analysis of the innovative nuclear systems. This paper describes the technical tasks and methodologies applied to achieve the objectives. Main results achieved so far are summarized. This paper serves also as a guidance of this special issue.

  3. Prediction of population with Alzheimer's disease in the European Union using a system dynamics model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaskova, Hana; Kuhnova, Jitka; Cimler, Richard; Dolezal, Ondrej; Kuca, Kamil

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a slowly progressing neurodegenerative brain disease with irreversible brain effects; it is the most common cause of dementia. With increasing age, the probability of suffering from AD increases. In this research, population growth of the European Union (EU) until the year 2080 and the number of patients with AD are modeled. The aim of this research is to predict the spread of AD in the EU population until year 2080 using a computer simulation. For the simulation of the EU population and the occurrence of AD in this population, a system dynamics modeling approach has been used. System dynamics is a useful and effective method for the investigation of complex social systems. Over the past decades, its applicability has been demonstrated in a wide variety of applications. In this research, this method has been used to investigate the growth of the EU population and predict the number of patients with AD. The model has been calibrated on the population prediction data created by Eurostat. Based on data from Eurostat, the EU population until year 2080 has been modeled. In 2013, the population of the EU was 508 million and the number of patients with AD was 7.5 million. Based on the prediction, in 2040, the population of the EU will be 524 million and the number of patients with AD will be 13.1 million. By the year 2080, the EU population will be 520 million and the number of patients with AD will be 13.7 million. System dynamics modeling approach has been used for the prediction of the number of patients with AD in the EU population till the year 2080. These results can be used to determine the economic burden of the treatment of these patients. With different input data, the simulation can be used also for the different regions as well as for different noncontagious disease predictions.

  4. Modelling the impacts of challenging 2050 European climate mitigation targets on Ireland’s energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiodi, Alessandro; Gargiulo, Maurizio; Rogan, Fionn; Deane, J.P.; Lavigne, Denis; Rout, Ullash K.; Ó Gallachóir, Brian P.

    2013-01-01

    The Copenhagen Accord established political consensus on the 2 °C limit (in global temperature increase) and for deep cuts in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions levels to achieve this goal. The European Union has set ambitious GHG targets for the year 2050 (80–95% below 1990 levels), with each Member State developing strategies to contribute to these targets. This paper focuses on mitigation targets for one Member State, Ireland, an interesting case study due to the growth in GHG emissions (24% increase between 1990 and 2005) and the high share of emissions from agriculture (30% of total GHG emissions). We use the Irish TIMES energy systems modelling tool to build a number of scenarios delivering an 80% emissions reduction target by 2050, including accounting for the limited options for agriculture GHG abatement by increasing the emissions reduction target for the energy system. We then compare the scenario results in terms of changes in energy technology, the role of energy efficiency and renewable energy. We also quantify the economic impacts of the mitigation scenarios in terms of marginal CO 2 abatement costs and energy system costs. The paper also sheds light on the impacts of short term targets and policies on long term mitigation pathways. - Highlights: ► We developed a techno-economic energy model of Ireland to the year 2050. ► Reductions between 80% and 95% of GHG emissions can be technically achieved. ► A 50% emissions cut in agriculture requires a 95% reductions from the energy system. ► Extending current policies implies greater electrification and efficiency measures. ► The additional cost to achieve mitigation remain less than 2% of GDP levels in 2050.

  5. Semiperipheries in the World-System: Reflecting Eastern European and Latin American Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Boatca

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper claims that, since many of the concepts relevant to our analysis of systemic change were coined in and about the core, the potential with which solutions to world-systemic crisis are credited in the long run should be assessed differently depending on the structural location of their origin. In the periphery, such concepts as conservatism, socialism and even liberalism took forms that often retained nothing of the original model but the name, such that strategies of applying them to (semiperipheral situations ranged from “stretching the ideology” to “discarding the (liberal myth” altogether. In a first step, “the hypothesis of semiperipheral development” (Chase-Dunn and Hall, according to which the semiperiphery represents the most likely locus of political, economical, and institutional change, is amended to say that, at least for the late modern world-system, the strength of the semiperiphery resides primarily in the cultural and epistemic sphere. In a second step, this contention is illustrated with the help of major challenges that the Eastern European and Latin American (semiperipheries have posed to the world-system’s political fields and institutional settings both in the past and to date—with different degrees of success corresponding to their respective structural position. In light of these examples, it is argued that a comparative analysis of continuities among political epistemologies developed in the semiperiphery can help us understand the ways in which similar attempts can become antisystemic today.

  6. Development of archetypes for non-ranking classification and comparison of European National Health Technology Assessment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Nicola; Pichler, Franz; Wang, Tina; Patel, Sundip; Salek, Sam

    2013-12-01

    European countries are increasingly utilising health technology assessment (HTA) to inform reimbursement decision-making. However, the current European HTA environment is very diverse, and projects are already underway to initiate a more efficient and aligned HTA practice within Europe. This study aims to identify a non-ranking method for classifying the diversity of European HTA agencies process and the organisational architecture of the national regulatory review to reimbursement systems. Using a previously developed mapping methodology, this research created process maps to describe national processes for regulatory review to reimbursement for 33 European jurisdictions. These process maps enabled the creation of 2 HTA taxonomic sets. The confluence of the two taxonomic sets was subsequently cross-referenced to identify 10 HTA archetype groups. HTA is a young, rapidly evolving field and it can be argued that optimal practices for performing HTA are yet to emerge. Therefore, a non-ranking classification approach could objectively characterise and compare the diversity observed in the current European HTA environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Balancing reserves within a decarbonized European electricity system in 2050. From market developments to model insights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, Casimir

    2017-01-01

    This paper expands the discussion about future balancing reserve provision to the long-term perspective of 2050. Most pathways for a transformation towards a decarbonized electricity sector rely on very high shares of fluctuating renewables. This can be a challenge for the provision of balancing reserves, although their influence on the balancing cost is unclear. Apart from the transformation of the generation portfolio, various technical and regulatory developments within the balancing framework might further influence balancing costs: i) dynamic dimensioning of balancing reserves, ii) provision by fluctuating renewables or new (battery) storage technologies, and iii) exchange of balancing reserves between balancing zones. The first part of this paper discusses and transforms these developments into quantitative scenario definitions. The second part applies these scenarios to dynELMOD (dynamic Electricity Model), an investment model of the European electricity system that is extended to include balancing reserve provision. In contrast to other models applied in most papers on balancing reserves, this model is capable of evaluating the interdependencies between developments in balancing reserve provision and high shares of fluctuating renewables jointly. The results show that balancing reserve cost can be kept at current levels for a renewable electricity system until 2050, when using a dynamic reserve sizing horizon. Apart from the sizing horizon, storage capacity withholding duration and additional balancing demand from RES are the main driver of balancing costs. Renewables participation in balancing provision is mainly important for negative reserves, while storages play an important role for the provision of positive reserves. However, only on very few occasions, additional storage investments are required for balancing reserve provision, as most of the time sufficient storage capacities are available in the electricity system.

  8. Skin and skeletal system lesions of european pond turtles (Emys orbicularis) from natural habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksić-Kovačević, Sanja; Ozvegy, József; Krstić, Nikola; Rusvai, Miklós; Jakab, Csaba; Stanimirović, Zoran; Becskei, Zsolt

    2014-06-01

    Water pollution is known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of plastron, carapace and skin diseases of turtles. In this study, a total of 150 European pond turtles (Emys orbicularis) of different age and both sexes, originating from natural habitats in Serbia, were examined for morphological changes of the skin, plastron, carapace and skeletal system. The turtles were taken out from their natural habitats in Lake Ludas, Lake Palic and Lake Tresetiste. After artificial hibernation, they were subjected to detailed examination, sampled and treated, and finally returned into their natural habitat. Biopsies from the skin and shell were subjected to histopathological examination and microbiological analysis. X-ray scanning was also performed to detect changes in the skeletal system. Macroscopic changes of the skin, most frequently degenerative, inflammatory or neoplastic diseases, were diagnosed in 49.33% of the turtles examined. Dermatitis of different origin and form was the most prominent histopathological finding (28.00%). In the plastron, inflammatory and degenerative processes were frequently found. Osteopathy and mechanical injuries were the dominant findings. Macroscopic changes of the plastron, carapace and skeletal system were diagnosed in 67.33% of the turtles examined. Using X-ray scanning, generalised osteopathy, anomalies and malformations of different aetiology were also diagnosed on the tail and legs. Microbiological examinations showed the presence of a variety of bacterial and fungal agents, either primary pathogens or potential polluters, which invaded the skin and shell, or were present in cloacal swab samples. Bacterial infection was diagnosed in 76.66% of the turtles, first of all in those with skin and shell necrosis. Mycoses were diagnosed in 33.33% of the animals.

  9. Balancing reserves within a decarbonized European electricity system in 2050. From market developments to model insights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, Casimir [German Institute for Economic Research (DIW Berlin), Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Energy, Transportation, Environment; Univ. of Technology, Berlin (Germany). Workgroup for Infrastructure Policy (WIP)

    2017-03-30

    This paper expands the discussion about future balancing reserve provision to the long-term perspective of 2050. Most pathways for a transformation towards a decarbonized electricity sector rely on very high shares of fluctuating renewables. This can be a challenge for the provision of balancing reserves, although their influence on the balancing cost is unclear. Apart from the transformation of the generation portfolio, various technical and regulatory developments within the balancing framework might further influence balancing costs: i) dynamic dimensioning of balancing reserves, ii) provision by fluctuating renewables or new (battery) storage technologies, and iii) exchange of balancing reserves between balancing zones. The first part of this paper discusses and transforms these developments into quantitative scenario definitions. The second part applies these scenarios to dynELMOD (dynamic Electricity Model), an investment model of the European electricity system that is extended to include balancing reserve provision. In contrast to other models applied in most papers on balancing reserves, this model is capable of evaluating the interdependencies between developments in balancing reserve provision and high shares of fluctuating renewables jointly. The results show that balancing reserve cost can be kept at current levels for a renewable electricity system until 2050, when using a dynamic reserve sizing horizon. Apart from the sizing horizon, storage capacity withholding duration and additional balancing demand from RES are the main driver of balancing costs. Renewables participation in balancing provision is mainly important for negative reserves, while storages play an important role for the provision of positive reserves. However, only on very few occasions, additional storage investments are required for balancing reserve provision, as most of the time sufficient storage capacities are available in the electricity system.

  10. Optimising waste from electric and electronic equipment collection systems: a comparison of approaches in European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friege, Henning; Oberdörfer, Michael; Günther, Marko

    2015-03-01

    The first European waste from electric and electronic equipment directive obliged the Member States to collect 4 kg of used devices per inhabitant and year. The target of the amended directive focuses on the ratio between the amount of waste from electric and electronic equipment collected and the mass of electric and electronic devices put on the market in the three foregoing years. The minimum collection target is 45% starting in 2016, being increased to 65% in 2019 or alternatively 85% of waste from electric and electronic equipment generated. Being aware of the new target, the question arises how Member States with 'best practice' organise their collection systems and how they enforce the parties in this playing field. Therefore the waste from electric and electronic equipment schemes of Sweden, Denmark, Switzerland, Germany and the Flemish region of Belgium were investigated focusing on the categories IT and telecommunications equipment, consumer equipment like audio systems and discharge lamps containing hazardous substances, e.g. mercury. The systems for waste from electric and electronic equipment collection in these countries vary considerably. Recycling yards turned out to be the backbone of waste from electric and electronic equipment collection in most countries studied. For discharge lamps, take-back by retailers seems to be more important. Sampling points like special containers in shopping centres, lidded waste bins and complementary return of used devices in all retail shops for electric equipment may serve as supplements. High transparency of collection and recycling efforts can encourage ambition among the concerned parties. Though the results from the study cannot be transferred in a simplistic manner, they serve as an indication for best practice methods for waste from electric and electronic equipment collection. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. EAC european accident code. A modular system of computer programs to simulate LMFBR hypothetical accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wider, H.; Cametti, J.; Clusaz, A.; Devos, J.; VanGoethem, G.; Nguyen, H.; Sola, A.

    1985-01-01

    One aspect of fast reactor safety analysis consists of calculating the strongly coupled system of physical phenomena which contribute to the reactivity balance in hypothetical whole-core accidents: these phenomena are neutronics, fuel behaviour and heat transfer together with coolant thermohydraulics in single- and two-phase flow. Temperature variations in fuel, coolant and neighbouring structures induce, in fact, thermal reactivity feedbacks which are added up and put in the neutronics calculation to predict the neutron flux and the subsequent heat generation in the reactor. At this point a whole-core analysis code is necessary to examine for any hypothetical transient whether the various feedbacks result effectively in a negative balance, which is the basis condition to ensure stability and safety. The European Accident Code (EAC), developed at the Joint Research Centre of the CEC at Ispra (Italy), fulfills this objective. It is a modular informatics structure (quasi 2-D multichannel approach) aimed at collecting stand-alone computer codes of neutronics, fuel pin mechanics and hydrodynamics, developed both in national laboratories and in the JRC itself. EAC makes these modules interact with each other and produces results for these hypothetical accidents in terms of core damage and total energy release. 10 refs

  12. Operation and reliability of a pneumatic hydrogen pellet injection system on the Joint European Torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combs, S.K.; Jernigan, T.C.; Baylor, L.R.; Milora, S.L.; Foust, C.R.; Kupschus, P.; Gadeberg, M.; Bailey, W.; Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon

    1989-01-01

    A pneumatic-based, hydrogen isotope pellet injector that was developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the plasma fueling application on the Joint European Torus (JET) was described at the last Symposium on Fusion Engineering (1987). The injector was installed on JET during 1987 and has since been used in plasma fueling experiments. The injector consists of three independent machine-gun-like mechanisms (nominal pellet sizes of 2.7, 4.0, and 6.0 mm in diameter), and it features repetitive operation (1-5 Hz) for quasi-steady-state conditions (>10 s). An extensive set of injector diagnostics permits evaluation of parameters for each pellet shot, including speed, mass, and integrity. Pellet speeds can be varied but typically range from 1.0 to 1.5 km/s. Over 5000 pellets have been fired with the equipment at JET, including about 2000 pellets shot for plasma fueling experiments. In recent experiments, the system performance has been outstanding, including excellent reproducibility in pellet speed and mass and a reliability of >98% in delivery of pellets to the plasma. 7 refs., 5 figs

  13. Conceptual design of a cold methane moderator system for the European Spallation Source (ESS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnert-Wiemer, H.

    2002-02-01

    As part of the work for the target station of the planned European spallation source (ESS) the Central Department of Technology at the Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH is also concerned with the moderators, particular attention being given to the development of cold methane moderators. This report discusses the technical feasibility of solid methane moderators. Methods to tailor the neutron output by adding absorption materials (decouplers or poisons) are not considered here, neither are composite moderators. Based on the given target-moderator-reflector assembly of the ESS project a concept for the ESS cold methane moderators has been developed and is being examined at the Forschungszentrum Juelich. According to this moderator concept the moderator is a fixed bed of small spheres, which makes moderator container filling homogeneous and reproducible. Since spheres form a defined packed bed, cooling of the moderator bed by H 2 is reliable. The process of filling the moderator container and of removing the pellets is batchwise to ensure complete removal of the pellets, so that no spent methane pellets accumulate in the system. For removal of the moderator spheres the fixed bed in the moderator container is fluidized with subsequent hydraulic transport of the pellets. The spent methane pellets are separated from the transport fluid and the methane is released over the stack or purified and reused. Depending on the kind and amount of the radioactive isotopes present these may have to be separated and stored. (orig.)

  14. Adaptation of the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) for European Portuguese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Ana Paula; Pinheiro, Ana P; Costa, Ana; Frade, Carla Sofia; Comesaña, Montserrat; Pureza, Rita

    2015-12-01

    This study presents the results of the adaptation of the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) for European Portuguese (EP). Following the original procedure of Lang et al., 2000 native speakers of EP rated the 1,182 pictures of the last version of the IAPS set on the three affective dimensions of valence, arousal, and dominance, using the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM). Results showed that the normative values of the IAPS for EP are properly distributed in the affective space of valence and arousal, showing the typical boomerang-shaped distribution observed in previous studies. Results also point to important differences in the way Portuguese females and males react to affective pictures that should be taken into consideration when planning and conducting research with Portuguese samples. Furthermore, the results from the cross-cultural comparisons between the EP ratings and the ratings from the American, Spanish, Brazilian, Belgian, Chilean, Indian, and Bosnian-Herzegovinian standardizations, showed that in spite of the fact that IAPS stimuli elicited affective responses that are similar across countries and cultures (at least in Western cultures), there are differences in the way Portuguese individuals react to IAPS pictures that strongly recommend the use of the normative values presented in this work. They can be downloaded as a supplemental archive at http://brm.psychonomic-journals.org/content/supplemental or at http://p-pal.di.uminho.pt/about/databases.

  15. Application of hydrometeorological coupled European flood forecasting operational real time system in Yellow River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-qi Yan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the application of the European flood forecasting operational real time system (EFFORTS to the Yellow River. An automatic data pre-processing program was developed to provide real-time hydrometeorological data. Various GIS layers were collected and developed to meet the demands of the distributed hydrological model in the EFFORTS. The model parameters were calibrated and validated based on more than ten years of historical hydrometeorological data from the study area. The San-Hua Basin (from the Sanmenxia Reservoir to the Huayuankou Hydrological Station, the most geographically important area of the Yellow River, was chosen as the study area. The analysis indicates that the EFFORTS enhances the work efficiency, extends the flood forecasting lead time, and attains an acceptable level of forecasting accuracy in the San-Hua Basin, with a mean deterministic coefficient at Huayuankou Station, the basin outlet, of 0.90 in calibration and 0.96 in validation. The analysis also shows that the simulation accuracy is better for the southern part than for the northern part of the San-Hua Basin. This implies that, along with the characteristics of the basin and the mechanisms of runoff generation of the hydrological model, the hydrometeorological data play an important role in simulation of hydrological behavior.

  16. Development of a European Ensemble System for Seasonal Prediction: Application to crop yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terres, J. M.; Cantelaube, P.

    2003-04-01

    Western European agriculture is highly intensive and the weather is the main source of uncertainty for crop yield assessment and for crop management. In the current system, at the time when a crop yield forecast is issued, the weather conditions leading up to harvest time are unknown and are therefore a major source of uncertainty. The use of seasonal weather forecast would bring additional information for the remaining crop season and has valuable benefit for improving the management of agricultural markets and environmentally sustainable farm practices. An innovative method for supplying seasonal forecast information to crop simulation models has been developed in the frame of the EU funded research project DEMETER. It consists in running a crop model on each individual member of the seasonal hindcasts to derive a probability distribution of crop yield. Preliminary results of cumulative probability function of wheat yield provides information on both the yield anomaly and the reliability of the forecast. Based on the spread of the probability distribution, the end-user can directly quantify the benefits and risks of taking weather-sensitive decisions.

  17. Brexit and the European financial system: mapping markets, players and jobs

    OpenAIRE

    Batsaikhan, Uuriintuya; Kalcik, Robert; Schoenmaker, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    London is an international financial centre, serving European and global clients. A hard Brexit would lead to a partial migration of financial firms from London to the EU27 (EU minus UK) to ensure they can continue to serve their EU27 clients. Four major cities will host most of the new EU27 wholesale markets - Frankfurt, Paris, Dublin and Amsterdam. These cities have far fewer people employed in finance than London. Moreover, they host the European headquarters of fewer large companies. The ...

  18. Swedish industrial and energy supply measures in a European system perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Trygg, Louise

    2006-01-01

    A common electricity market in Europe will in all probability lead to a levelling out of the electricity price, which implies that Swedish consumers will face higher electricity prices with a European structure. This new market situation will force industry and energy suppliers to take new essential measures as actors in a deregulated European electricity market. In this thesis it is shown how over 30 Swedish small and medium-sized industries can reduce their use of electricity by about 50%. ...

  19. Impact of di-n-butyl phthalate on reproductive system development in European pikeperch (Sander lucioperca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Jarmołowicz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phthalic acid, di-n-butyl ester known as di-n-butyl phthalate, is an organic chemical compound that belongs to the group of endocrine disruptor compounds that have a documented negative impact on mammalian endocrine systems. Di-n-butyl phthalate is used widely as a plasticizer in the manufacture of artificial materials, which is why it is found in all types of environmental samples including those from water basins. The aim of the study was to describe the impact of di-n-butyl phthalate on the development of the reproductive system of European pikeperch (Sander lucioperca during the sex differentiation period (age 61–96 days post hatch. A total of 240 fish were divided into 6 groups (40 fish per tank. Treatments consisted of a control group (0 g di-n-butyl phthalate·kg-1 feed and five trial groups with 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2 g di-n-butyl phthalate·kg-1 feed, respectively. Histological changes of the fish gonads, sex ratio, survival and growth of fish were evaluated. Di-n-butyl phthalate seriously disturbed sex differentiation process of pikeperch. Histopathological analyses revealed that the administration of 2 g di-n-butyl phthalate·kg-1 significantly affected the sex ratio. The feminization process (intersex gonads at concentrations of 1 g and 2 g di-n-butyl phthalate·kg-1 were observed. All analyzed concentrations delayed testicular development. Phthalate did not have a significant impact on the survival or growth rates of the pikeperch. This is the first report of disruption sex differentiation processes in fish by di-n-butyl phthalate.

  20. COST ES0602: towards a European network on chemical weather forecasting and information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kukkonen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The COST ES0602 action provides a forum for benchmarking approaches and practices in data exchange and multi-model capabilities for chemical weather forecasting and near real-time information services in Europe. The action includes approximately 30 participants from 19 countries, and its duration is from 2007 to 2011 (http://www.chemicalweather.eu/. Major efforts have been dedicated in other actions and projects to the development of infrastructures for data flow. We have therefore aimed for collaboration with ongoing actions towards developing near real-time exchange of input data for air quality forecasting. We have collected information on the operational air quality forecasting models on a regional and continental scale in a structured form, and inter-compared and evaluated the physical and chemical structure of these models. We have also constructed a European chemical weather forecasting portal that includes links to most of the available chemical weather forecasting systems in Europe. The collaboration also includes the examination of the case studies that have been organized within COST-728, in order to inter-compare and evaluate the models against experimental data. We have also constructed an operational model forecasting ensemble. Data from a representative set of regional background stations have been selected, and the operational forecasts for this set of sites will be inter-compared and evaluated. The Action has investigated, analysed and reviewed existing chemical weather information systems and services, and will provide recommendations on best practices concerning the presentation and dissemination of chemical weather information towards the public and decision makers.

  1. The Cost-Optimal Distribution of Wind and Solar Generation Facilities in a Simplified Highly Renewable European Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kies, Alexander; von Bremen, Lüder; Schyska, Bruno; Chattopadhyay, Kabitri; Lorenz, Elke; Heinemann, Detlev

    2016-04-01

    The transition of the European power system from fossil generation towards renewable sources is driven by different reasons like decarbonisation and sustainability. Renewable power sources like wind and solar have, due to their weather dependency, fluctuating feed-in profiles, which make their system integration a difficult task. To overcome this issue, several solutions have been investigated in the past like the optimal mix of wind and PV [1], the extension of the transmission grid or storages [2]. In this work, the optimal distribution of wind turbines and solar modules in Europe is investigated. For this purpose, feed-in data with an hourly temporal resolution and a spatial resolution of 7 km covering Europe for the renewable sources wind, photovoltaics and hydro was used. Together with historical load data and a transmission model , a simplified pan-European power power system was simulated. Under cost assumptions of [3] the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) for this simplified system consisting of generation, consumption, transmission and backup units is calculated. With respect to the LCOE, the optimal distribution of generation facilities in Europe is derived. It is shown, that by optimal placement of renewable generation facilities the LCOE can be reduced by more than 10% compared to a meta study scenario [4] and a self-sufficient scenario (every country produces on average as much from renewable sources as it consumes). This is mainly caused by a shift of generation facilities towards highly suitable locations, reduced backup and increased transmission need. The results of the optimization will be shown and implications for the extension of renewable shares in the European power mix will be discussed. The work is part of the RESTORE 2050 project (Wuppertal Institute, Next Energy, University of Oldenburg), that is financed by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF, Fkz. 03SFF0439A). [1] Kies, A. et al.: Kies, Alexander, et al

  2. The European Survey on Adverse Systemic Reactions in Allergen Immunotherapy (EASSI): A paediatric assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Del Río, Pablo; Vidal, Carmen; Just, Jocelyne; Tabar, Ana I; Sanchez-Machin, Inmaculada; Eberle, Peter; Borja, Jesus; Bubel, Petra; Pfaar, Oliver; Demoly, Pascal; Calderón, Moises A

    2017-02-01

    Safety data on 'real-life' allergen immunotherapy (AIT) in children and adolescents is usually extrapolated from studies in adults. Patients aged 18 or under initiating aeroallergen AIT were evaluated in a prospective European survey. Patient profiles and systemic reactions (SRs) were recorded. Descriptive, univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify risk factors for SRs. A total of 1563 patients (mean ± SD age: 11.7 ± 3.9 years; rhinitis: 93.7%; asthma: 61.5%; polysensitization: 62.5%) and 1578 courses of AIT were assessed. Single-allergen AIT was administered in 89.5% of cases (n = 1412; mites: 49%; grass pollen: 25.8%; tree pollen: 8.7%; Alternaria: 4.6%; dander: 0.8%; weed pollen: 0.6%). Subcutaneous AIT (SCIT) was used in 71.4% (n = 1127) of the treatments, including 574 (50.9%) with natural extracts. Sublingual AIT (SLIT) was used for the remaining 451 treatments (drops: 73.8%; tablets: 26.2%). The mean ± SD follow-up period was 12.9 ± 3.3 months. The estimated total number of doses was 19,669 for SCIT and 131,550 for SLIT. Twenty-four patients (1.53%) experienced 29 SRs. Respiratory (55.7%) and skin symptoms (37.9%) were most frequent. Anaphylaxis was diagnosed in 3 SRs (10.3%), and adrenaline was administered in 2 of these cases. In a univariate analysis, the risk of SRs was lower in mite-sensitized patients and higher in cases of pollen polysensitization (>3), grass pollen extracts and the use of natural extracts (vs. allergoids). In a real-life paediatric setting, AIT is safe. SRs are infrequent and generally not severe. Pollen polysensitization, grass pollen extracts and natural extracts (vs. allergoids) were risk factors for AIT-associated SRs. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. European organic dairy farmers' preference for animal health management within the farm management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Soest, F J S; Mourits, M C M; Hogeveen, H

    2015-11-01

    The expertise and knowledge of veterinary advisors on improving animal health management is key towards a better herd health status. However, veterinary advisors are not always aware of the goals and priorities of dairy farmers. To dairy farmers animal health is only one aspect of farm management and resources may be allocated to other more preferred areas. Veterinary advisors may experience this as non-compliant with their advice. To explore the preferences of European Union (EU) organic dairy farmers for improved animal health management relative to other farm management areas an adaptive conjoint analysis (ACA) was performed. A total of 215 farmers participated originating from organic dairy farms in France (n = 70), Germany (n = 60), Spain (n = 28) and Sweden (n = 57). The management areas udder health and claw health represented animal health management whereas barn, calf and pasture management represented potential conflicting management areas. Results indicate that EU organic dairy farmers differ in their preferences for improved animal health management within the farming system. In general, improved calf management was the most preferred area and improved claw health management was found to be least preferred, the remaining areas were of intermediate interest. Cluster analyses on claw health measures and udder health measures resulted in respectively seven and nine distinct preference profiles. The results indicate a high degree of variation in farmers' preference, which cannot be explained by the typical herd characteristics. With the individual preferences revealed by ACA, a veterinary advisor can now find out whether his intended advice is directed at a favourable or unfavourable management area of the farmer. If the latter is the case the veterinarian should first create awareness of the problem to the farmer. Insights in individual farmers preferences will allow veterinary advisors to better understand why farmers were incompliant with their advice

  4. Travelling energy systems: knowledge transfer for energy efficiency and conservation from European to Australian building projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glad, Wiktoria (Tema Technology and Social Change, Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden); Inst. for Sustainable Futures, Univ. of Technology, Sydney (Australia))

    2009-07-01

    Energy efficiency and conservation in the Australian built environment have not yet been implemented to any great extent. Despite favourable prerequisites, such as vast windswept unpopulated areas suitable for wind power and many hours of direct sunlight in most populated areas, electricity is mainly generated by burning brown coal and buildings are poorly equipped for hot summers and cool winters. Australia urgently needs to convert to alternative energy sources and implement energy efficiency measures, since its carbon dioxide emissions per capita are among the highest in the world. In a recent major redevelopment in Sydney, the Carlton and United Brewery (CUB) site knowledge of energy efficiency and conservation measures used in European buildings was transferred and implemented in local designs and infrastructure. This knowledge came mainly from urban planning and developments in London, but also from high-profile architectural firms based in Paris and Germany. The arrival of this knowledge in Australia led to phases when the knowledge was translated and enacted in local spaces and the constituent ideas were transformed into action. The present research is based on ten months of ethnographic fieldwork in which the planning and design of the CUB site was observed. The results of the study identify barriers to and opportunities for energy system knowledge transfer between different cultures and local spaces. Substantial time must be spent overcoming cultural barriers, so the involved parties can start talking the same language. This is not only true for stakeholders operating in different continents, but for stakeholders operating in different local arenas in the same country.

  5. Further Evidence of Subphenotype Association with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Susceptibility Loci: A European Cases Only Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Perez, Elisa; Suarez-Gestal, Marian; Calaza, Manuel; Ordi-Ros, Josep; Balada, Eva; Bijl, Marc; Papasteriades, Chryssa; Carreira, Patricia; Skopouli, Fotini N.; Witte, Torsten; Endreffy, Emöke; Marchini, Maurizio; Migliaresi, Sergio; Sebastiani, Gian Domenico; Santos, Maria Jose; Suarez, Ana; Blanco, Francisco J.; Barizzone, Nadia; Pullmann, Rudolf; Ruzickova, Sarka; Lauwerys, Bernard R.; Gomez-Reino, Juan J.; Gonzalez, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) shows a spectrum of clinical manifestations that complicate its diagnosis, treatment and research. This variability is likely related with environmental exposures and genetic factors among which known SLE susceptibility loci are prime candidates. The first published analyses seem to indicate that this is the case for some of them, but results are still inconclusive and we aimed to further explore this question. Methods European SLE patients, 1444, recruited at 17 centres from 10 countries were analyzed. Genotypes for 26 SLE associated SNPs were compared between patients with and without each of 11 clinical features: ten of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) classification criteria (except ANAs) and age of disease onset. These analyses were adjusted for centre of recruitment, top ancestry informative markers, gender and time of follow-up. Overlap of samples with previous studies was excluded for assessing replication. Results There were three new associations: the SNPs in XKR6 and in FAM167A-BLK were associated with lupus nephritis (OR = 0.76 and 1.30, Pcorr = 0.007 and 0.03, respectively) and the SNP of MECP2, which is in chromosome X, with earlier age of disease onset in men. The previously reported association of STAT4 with early age of disease onset was replicated. Some other results were suggestive of the presence of additional associations. Together, the association signals provided support to some previous findings and to the characterization of lupus nephritis, autoantibodies and age of disease onset as the clinical features more associated with SLE loci. Conclusion Some of the SLE loci shape the disease phenotype in addition to increase susceptibility to SLE. This influence is more prominent for some clinical features than for others. However, results are only partially consistent between studies and subphenotype specific GWAS are needed to unravel their genetic component. PMID:23049788

  6. Gravity signals from the lithosphere in the Central European Basin System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yegorova, T.; Bayer, U.; Thybo, H.; Maystrenko, Y.; Scheck-Wenderoth, M.; Lyngsie, S. B.

    2007-01-01

    We study the gravity signals from different depth levels in the lithosphere of the Central European Basin System (CEBS). The major elements of the CEBS are the Northern and Southern Permian Basins which include the Norwegian-Danish Basin (NDB), the North-German Basin (NGB) and the Polish Trough (PT). An up to 10 km thick sedimentary cover of Mesozoic-Cenozoic sediments, hides the gravity signal from below the basin and masks the heterogeneous structure of the consolidated crust, which is assumed to be composed of domains that were accreted during the Paleozoic amalgamation of Europe. We performed a three-dimensional (3D) gravity backstripping to investigate the structure of the lithosphere below the CEBS. Residual anomalies are derived by removing the effect of sediments down to the base of Permian from the observed field. In order to correct for the influence of large salt structures, lateral density variations are incorporated. These sediment-free anomalies are interpreted to reflect Moho relief and density heterogeneities in the crystalline crust and uppermost mantle. The gravity effect of the Moho relief compensates to a large extent the effect of the sediments in the CEBS and in the North Sea. Removal of the effects of large-scale crustal inhomogeneities shows a clear expression of the Variscan arc system at the southern part of the study area and the old crust of Baltica further north-east. The remaining residual anomalies (after stripping off the effects of sediments, Moho topography and large-scale crustal heterogeneities) reveal long wavelength anomalies, which are caused mainly by density variations in the upper mantle, though gravity influence from the lower crust cannot be ruled out. They indicate that the three main subbasins of the CEBS originated on different lithospheric domains. The PT originated on a thick, strong and dense lithosphere of the Baltica type. The NDB was formed on a weakened Baltica low-density lithosphere formed during the Sveco

  7. Health system factors influencing management of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in four European Union countries - learning from country experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard de Vries

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the European Union and European Economic Area only 38% of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients notified in 2011 completed treatment successfully at 24 months’ evaluation. Socio-economic factors and patient factors such as demographic characteristics, behaviour and attitudes are associated with treatment outcomes. Characteristics of healthcare systems also affect health outcomes. This study was conducted to identify and better understand the contribution of health system components to successful treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Methods We selected four European Union countries to provide for a broad range of geographical locations and levels of treatment success rates of the multidrug-resistant tuberculosis cohort in 2009. We conducted semi-structured interviews following a conceptual framework with representatives from policy and planning authorities, healthcare providers and civil society organisations. Responses were organised according to the six building blocks of the World Health Organization health systems framework. Results In the four included countries, Austria, Bulgaria, Spain, and the United Kingdom, the following healthcare system factors were perceived as key to achieving good treatment results for patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: timely diagnosis of drug-resistant tuberculosis; financial systems that ensure access to a full course of treatment and support for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients; patient-centred approaches with strong intersectoral collaboration that address patients’ emotional and social needs; motivated and dedicated healthcare workers with sufficient mandate and means to support patients; and cross-border management of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis to secure continuum of care between countries. Conclusion We suggest that the following actions may improve the success of treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients: deployment of

  8. Characteristics of patients patch tested in the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA) network, 2009-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uter, Wolfgang; Gefeller, Olaf; Giménez-Arnau, Ana

    2015-01-01

    from 63 530 consultations collected by 53 departments from 12 countries participating in the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA) ( www.essca-dc.org) between 2009 and 2012. RESULTS: Considerable variation in the prevalence of the MOAHLFA factors between departments was found...... one department per country give valuable insights into the spectrum of contact allergy prevalence rates in that country, but are not as representative as national data pooled from several departments....

  9. Student-Centered European Education System as a Factor of Professional Competence of a Future Teacher's Personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Boychev

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Student-centered education system is seen as the most perspective didactic paradigm of future teachers’ training which directs institutes of higher education of our country towards the convergence with education system of Europe. Student-centered European education system shifts the focus at the educational process organization to the active didactic management and control, as well as the quality evaluation of future teachers’ independent work. It implies their active educational activities requiring substitution of monological presentation of teaching material in the form of informational lecture at its understanding at the form of pedagogics of creative cooperation and dialogue with teachers.

  10. Patterns of exchange of forensic DNA data in the European Union through the Prüm system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Filipe; Machado, Helena

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a study of the 5-year operation (2011-2015) of the transnational exchange of forensic DNA data between Member States of the European Union (EU) for the purpose of combating cross-border crime and terrorism within the so-called Prüm system. This first systematisation of the full official statistical dataset provides an overall assessment of the match figures and patterns of operation of the Prüm system for DNA exchange. These figures and patterns are analysed in terms of the differentiated contributions by participating EU Member States. The data suggest a trend for West and Central European countries to concentrate the majority of Prüm matches, while DNA databases of Eastern European countries tend to contribute with profiles of people that match stains in other countries. In view of the necessary transparency and accountability of the Prüm system, more extensive and informative statistics would be an important contribution to the assessment of its functioning and societal benefits. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Current and future prospects for heat recovery from waste in European district heating systems: A literature and data review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Urban; Münster, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Municipal solid waste has seen increasing annual volumes for many decades in contemporary Europe and constitutes, if not properly managed, an environmental problem due to local pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. From an energy perspective, waste is also an alternative fuel for power and heat generation; energy recovery from waste represents an effective measure to reduce landfilling and avoid disposal emissions while simultaneously reducing the equivalent demand for primary energy supply. A key factor for obtaining the full synergetic benefits of this energy recovery is the presence of local heat distribution infrastructures, without which no large-scale recovery and utilisation of excess heat is possible. In this paper, which aims to estimate municipal solid waste volumes available for heat recovery in European district heating systems in 2030, a literature and data review is performed to establish and assess current and future EU (European Union) waste generation and management. Main conclusions are that more heat can be recovered from current Waste-to-Energy facilities operating at low average heat recovery efficiencies, that efficient incineration capacity is geographically concentrated, and that waste available for heat recovery in 2030 is equally determined by total generation volumes by this year as by future EU deployment levels of district heating. - Highlights: • European municipal solid waste time series data analysed from 1995 to 2012. • Review of modelling approaches to assess future European waste generation. • Weather corrected district heat data for EU Member States in 1995 and 2012. • Low average heat recovery efficiency in current European waste incineration. • Future heat recovery efficiencies as determinant as future generation volumes.

  12. About opportunity and advantages of adaptation the system of education of experts on atomic engineering specialty in Odessa Polytechnic University to the European system of education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazurenko, A.

    2004-01-01

    Education of experts for atomic engineering in Odessa Polytechnic University is conducted for almost thirty years and has developed traditions. Approaching of education systems of experts of Ukraine and Europe inevitably in the modern integrated world including nuclear engineering. Thus it is necessary to take into account experience of progressive World and European countries and Eastern Europe countries - Russia and Ukraine. Creation of All-European Methodical Center for coordination of education of experts for Nuclear industry with the main functions - coordinating, supervising and consulting is expedient. (author)

  13. Panorama 2016 - Overview of the refining industry in the European Union Emissions Trading System (EU ETS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coussy, Paula; Jalard, Matthieu

    2015-12-01

    Since 2008, emissions from the refining sector have fallen by more than 12%, reaching 128 MtCO 2 e in 2014. Germany was the largest emitter of CO 2 e for the 2005- 2014 period. With Italy, Spain, the United Kingdom, France and the Netherlands, these six countries accounted for 71% of the industry's emissions in the EU ETS for 2014. During the 2008-2014 period, the European refining sector had a surplus of 74 MtCO 2 e, but since 2013 has had an annual deficit. Estimates show that the overall surplus of 74 MtCO 2 e should vanish by 2015. In the future, European demand for petroleum products will drop, and forecasts for crude processing are expected to decline. IFPEN estimates that, by 2035, this decline should reach 30%, leading to a 20% drop in the sector's emissions. Against this background, the amount of free allowances in the refining sector will fall, from 80% in 2014 to nearly 75% in 2020, leading to compliance costs for the European refining sector of approximately euro 600 million for 2020 alone, compared with the $6 billion needed for investment in Europe by 2035. Due to the great disparity in efficiency among European refineries (difference when compared with the benchmark), it is clear that it will be extremely costly for certain refineries to remain in operation. This will lead to the likely closure of refineries that are less efficient in terms of GHG emissions. (authors)

  14. Millefeuille. The emergence of a multi-layered controls system in the European food sector.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der B.M.J.; Freriks, A.A.

    2006-01-01

    More and more substances used in (the processing of) food as well as food products travel world wide and as a result the food production chain is becoming increasingly complex. It goes without saying that within a free European market, the safety of food products that reach the consumer at the end

  15. Millefeuille The emergence of a multi-layered controls system in the European food sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, Bernd M.J. van der; Freriks, A.A.

    2006-01-01

    More and more substances used in (the processing of) food as well as food products travel world wide and as a result the food production chain is becoming increasingly complex. It goes without saying that within a free European market, the safety of food products that reach the consumer at the end

  16. Structures of the Education and Initial Training Systems in the European Union. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Thessaloniki (Greece).

    This report provides information on the administration and structure of all levels of education and initial vocational training in 17 countries--the 15 Member States of the European Union and Iceland and Norway. Country reports are arranged in a similar way to facilitate comparison. Chapter 1 contains information on each country, the basic…

  17. Policy issues surrounding processes of centralization and decentralization in European education systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Amelsvoort, H.W.C.H.; Scheerens, Jaap

    1997-01-01

    Four levels of authority within the educational decision‐making structure in seven European countries and states for primary and lower secondary education are analyzed. Next, the results of an investigation on loci, domains and modes of decision making are presented, indicating a slightly higher

  18. The european flood alert system EFAS – Part 2: Statistical skill assessment of probabilistic and deterministic operational forecasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Bartholmes

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Since 2005 the European Flood Alert System (EFAS has been producing probabilistic hydrological forecasts in pre-operational mode at the Joint Research Centre (JRC of the European Commission. EFAS aims at increasing preparedness for floods in trans-national European river basins by providing medium-range deterministic and probabilistic flood forecasting information, from 3 to 10 days in advance, to national hydro-meteorological services.

    This paper is Part 2 of a study presenting the development and skill assessment of EFAS. In Part 1, the scientific approach adopted in the development of the system has been presented, as well as its basic principles and forecast products. In the present article, two years of existing operational EFAS forecasts are statistically assessed and the skill of EFAS forecasts is analysed with several skill scores. The analysis is based on the comparison of threshold exceedances between proxy-observed and forecasted discharges. Skill is assessed both with and without taking into account the persistence of the forecasted signal during consecutive forecasts.

    Skill assessment approaches are mostly adopted from meteorology and the analysis also compares probabilistic and deterministic aspects of EFAS. Furthermore, the utility of different skill scores is discussed and their strengths and shortcomings illustrated. The analysis shows the benefit of incorporating past forecasts in the probability analysis, for medium-range forecasts, which effectively increases the skill of the forecasts.

  19. Current and future prospects for heat recovery from waste in European district heating systems: A literature and data review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Urban; Münster, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Municipal solid waste has seen increasing annual volumes for many decades in contemporary Europe and constitutes, if not properly managed, an environmental problem due to local pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. From an energy perspective, waste is also an alternative fuel for power and heat...... to establish and assess current and future EU (European Union) waste generation and management. Main conclusions are that more heat can be recovered from current Waste-to-Energy facilities operating at low average heat recovery efficiencies, that efficient incineration capacity is geographically concentrated...... heat distribution infrastructures, without which no large-scale recovery and utilisation of excess heat is possible. In this paper, which aims to estimate municipal solid waste volumes available for heat recovery in European district heating systems in 2030, a literature and data review is performed...

  20. Pilot Study for the Creation of a European Union Radiation Accident and Incident Data Exchange System (EURAIDE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, J.E.; Lefaure, C; Czarwinski, R.

    2004-01-01

    This study has had the objective of evaluating the feasibility of: (i) facilitating the establishment of national radiation accident and incident databases where there are none and to encourage the compatibility of such databases, (ii) establishing a European network to exchange radiological protection feedback from accidents and incidents, (iii) establishing summary reports of relevant accidents and incidents with the aim of identifying lessons to be learned, so that they can be used in radiation protection training programs, and (iv) upgrading the radiological safety in the countries applying to join the EU, by integrating them into the above efficient feedback exchange system. This report details the first stage of the project, which was to review the status of existing (or proposed) national mechanisms for collating data on radiation incidents. The objectives of this initial review were to: i) obtain detailed information regarding the means of capturing and collating data, the format of established or proposed data systems and accessibility of the final data, ii) to use this information to consider how a European platform to gather relevant data/accident reports might be established., and iii) to consider how the various elements of national data systems might be harmonised in order to facilitate the presentation and distribution of lessons learned. It was considered that the key aspects that would need to be addressed in order to determine the feasibility of a European wide data exchange mechanism were: - the criteria used for the classification and categorisation of incidents, - criteria for the selection of incidents from national data systems for inclusion in a European-wide system, - the implication of possible language problems. In order to illicit the required information a detailed questionnaire was sent to a total of 31 countries, being existing European Member States, applicant or associated countries. A full list of the countries and institutions

  1. Patterns of exchange of forensic DNA data in the European Union through the Pr?m system

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Filipe; Machado, Helena

    2017-01-01

    Article in press This paper presents a study of the 5-year operation (2011–2015) of the transnational exchange of forensic DNA data between Member States of the European Union (EU) for the purpose of combating cross-border crime and terrorism within the so-called Prüm system. This first systematisation of the full official statistical dataset provides an overall assessment of the match figures and patterns of operation of the Prüm system for DNA exchange. These figures and patterns are ana...

  2. Current status of the European contribution to the Remote Data Access System of the ITER Remote Experimentation Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Tommasi, G.; Manduchi, G.; Muir, D.G.; Ide, S.; Naito, O.; Urano, H.; Clement-Lorenzo, S.; Nakajima, N.; Ozeki, T.; Sartori, F.

    2015-01-01

    The ITER Remote Experimentation Centre (REC) is one of the projects under implementation within the BA agreement. The final objective of the REC is to allow researchers to take part in the experimentation on ITER from a remote location. Before ITER first operations, the REC will be used to evaluate ITER-relevant technologies for remote participation. Among the different software tools needed for remote participation, an important one is the Remote Data Access System (RDA), which provides a single software infrastructure to access data stored at the remotely participating experiment, regardless of the geographical location of the users. This paper introduces the European contribution to the RDA system for the REC.

  3. Can Organic Farming Reduce Vulnerabilities and Enhance the Resilience of the European Food System? A Critical Assessment Using System Dynamics Structural Thinking Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Brzezina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In a world of growing complexity and uncertainty, food systems must be resilient, i.e., able to deliver sustainable and equitable food and nutrition security in the face of multiple shocks and stresses. The resilience of the European food system that relies mostly on conventional agriculture is a matter of genuine concern and a new approach is called for. Does then organic farming have the potential to reduce vulnerabilities and improve the resilience of the European food system to shocks and stresses? In this paper, we use system dynamics structural thinking tools to identify the vulnerabilities of the conventional food system that result from both its internal structure as well as its exposure to external disturbances. Further, we evaluate whether organic farming can reduce the vulnerabilities. We argue here that organic farming has some potential to bring resilience to the European food system, but it has to be carefully designed and implemented to overcome the contradictions between the dominant socio-economic organization of food production and the ability to enact all organic farming’s principles—health, ecology, fairness and care—on a broader scale.

  4. History of the idea of a European electric power system. project, advancement, continuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagendijk, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    Creating a European electrical network is an idea originating from the inter-war years and that was to be realized only in 1995. By replacing the history of this idea within its historic dimension, this article breaks with the determinist visions. The actor's play and more particularly the international institutions, can explain that the European dimension, even though continually asserted, has only been designed as the growth of the regional networks. Additionally, in the context of cold war, the projects that associate the East to the West had to overcome several obstacles. Parties were brought together many times, but only the fall of the Iron Curtain has enabled a true interconnection between the two halves of Europe

  5. Adequate intraday market design to enable the integration of wind energy into the European power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Christoph [University Duisburg-Essen, Chair for Energy Economics and Management Sciences, Universitaetsstrasse 12, 45 117 Essen (Germany)

    2010-07-15

    This contribution analyses the European electricity markets with respect to their aptitude to absorb large amounts of wind energy. Thereby in a first step the market designs of the major European power markets in France, Germany, Scandinavia, Spain and UK are reviewed, with a particular focus on liquidity in the spot and intraday markets. Then some key features of the short-term adjustments required by wind energy are discussed and the necessity of sufficient liquidity in intraday markets is highlighted. For the example of the German market subsequently the discrepancy between the physical short-term adjustment needs and the traded volumes on the intraday market is analyzed. This leads to an evaluation of proposals for improving the liquidity on the short-term market, including the use of continuous spot trading like in UK or the use of intraday auctions like in Spain. (author)

  6. ARTICULATED MODES OF INTEGRATION: THE STRUCTURING OF THE EUROPEAN URBAN SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Rozenblat, Céline; Pumain, Denise

    2008-01-01

    European integration is for its essential part reflected in the building of urban networks that are increasing interdependencies between cities. Evidence of this process is brought through the observation of a variety of networks whose nodes are located in cities, especially the development of international functions. Analysis of airlines networks (2000) as well as the economic linkages between multinational firms (1990,1996) provide a good illustration reflecting the dominant features of suc...

  7. OPPORTUNITIES AND OBSTACLES TO EUROPEAN INTEGRATION, DEPENDING ON THE FUTURE OF THE GLOBAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUŢĂ ALEXANDRU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The hypothesis of the paper is that the future of the European Union cannot be understood outside of the global context. Here are the main strategic options for the 21st century - Friedman, Attali, Fukuyama and Huntigton. Without denying any possible conflicts, a global war involving the nucleus of the great civilizations is highly unlikely. Our view is that the United States of Europe is a strategically achievable target, bringing some arguments in favor of the advanced hypothesis.

  8. SME e rapporti esterni. (The European monetary system – managing the external relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. LANGUETIN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Questo documento è stato presentato in occasione del quarto Seminario Internazionale sui diritti economici e monetari dell'Unione  Europea, tenutosi a Copenaghen nel marzo del 1981. Il lavoro sottolinea segnali incoraggianti di una maggiore cooperazione tra gli Stati Uniti e le autorità europee sugli interventi coordinati che si è sviluppato nel 1980. Tuttavia, l'autore vede possibile un ulteriore margine di miglioramento nell' l'idea di Jacques van Ypersele di set-up di contratti di swap in dollari / ECU tra il Fondo europeo di cooperazione monetaria e la Federal Reserve.  This paper was presented at the Fourth International Seminar on European Economic and Monetary Union, held in Copenhagen in March of 1981. The work points out encouraging signs of improved cooperation between US and European authorities on coordinated interventions which developed in 1980. However, the author sees possible further scope for improvement in the idea of Jacques van Ypersele to set-up dollar/ECU swap arrangements between the European Monetary Cooperation Fund and the Federal Reserve. JEL: E42, F36

  9. The system of Regional Contact Offices for promoting GMES services and the use of Space Technologies in European Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrara, Paola; Antoninetti, Massimo; Bacai, Hina; Basoni, Anna; Bosc, Christelle; Clave, Magali; Cornacchia, Carmela; L'Astorina, Alba; Monbet, Philippe; Mueller, Bastian; Nicolau, Sonia; Pergola, Nicola; Rampini, Anna; Tramutoli, Valerio; Schumacher, Volker; Wells, Alan; Zepeda Juarez, Jesus; Zolotikova, Svetlana

    2013-04-01

    which have significant impact on the economy, environment and the quality of life of the citizens To this aim since 2011 the system of Regional Contact Offices (RCOs) was promoted by the EU FP7 DORIS_Net (Downsteam Observatory organized by Regions Active in Space - Network, http://www.doris-net.eu/) project as the regional link to the services provided by the European GMES programme. Since then a first nucleus of 12 pilot European Regions were working together establishing 6 first RCOs around Europe. This paper will present RCOs network goals, achievements and perspectives as well as its planned actions devoted to improve quality of Space Technology products from one side, to promote awareness and use of them by potential end-users (and particularly LRAs), from the other side.

  10. The "Volcano Observations" Thematic Core Service of the European Plate Observing System (EPOS): status of the implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglisi, Giuseppe

    2017-04-01

    The European volcanological community contributes to implementation of European Plate Observing System (EPOS) by making operational an integrated platform to guarantee a seamless access to the data provided by the European Solid Earth communities. To achieve this objective, the Volcano Observations Work Package (WP11) will implement a Thematic Core Services (TCS) which is planned to give access to the data and services provided by the European Volcano Observatories (VO) and some Volcanological Research Institutions (VRI; as university departments, laboratories, etc.); both types are considered as national research infrastructures (RI) over which to build the TCS. Currently, the networks on European volcanoes consist of thousands of stations or sites where volcanological parameters are continuously or periodically measured. These sites are equipped with instruments for geophysical (seismic, geodetic, gravimetric, electromagnetic), geochemical (volcanic plumes, fumaroles, groundwater, rivers, soils), environmental observations (e.g. meteorological and air quality parameters), as well as various prototypal monitoring systems (e.g. Doppler radars, ground based SAR). In Europe also operate laboratories for sample analysis (rocks, gases, isotopes, etc.), and almost continuous analysis of space-borne data (SAR, thermal imagery, SO2 and ash), as well as high-performance computing centres. All these RIs provide high-quality information (observations) on the current status of European volcanoes and the geodynamic background of the surrounding areas. The implementation of the Volcano Observations TCS is addressing technical and management issues, both considering the current heterogeneous state of the art of the volcanological research infrastructures in Europe. Indeed, the frame of the VO and VRI is now too fragmented to be considered as a unique distributed infrastructure, thus the main effort planned in the frame of the EPOS-IP is focused to create services aimed at

  11. The European Plate Observing System (EPOS): Integrating Thematic Services for Solid Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atakan, Kuvvet; Bailo, Daniele; Consortium, Epos

    2016-04-01

    The mission of EPOS is to monitor and understand the dynamic and complex Earth system by relying on new e-science opportunities and integrating diverse and advanced Research Infrastructures in Europe for solid Earth Science. EPOS will enable innovative multidisciplinary research for a better understanding of the Earth's physical and chemical processes that control earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, ground instability and tsunami as well as the processes driving tectonics and Earth's surface dynamics. Through integration of data, models and facilities EPOS will allow the Earth Science community to make a step change in developing new concepts and tools for key answers to scientific and socio-economic questions concerning geo-hazards and geo-resources as well as Earth sciences applications to the environment and to human welfare. EPOS, during its Implementation Phase (EPOS-IP), will integrate multidisciplinary data into a single e-infrastructure. Multidisciplinary data are organized and governed by the Thematic Core Services (TCS) and are driven by various scientific communities encompassing a wide spectrum of Earth science disciplines. These include Data, Data-products, Services and Software (DDSS), from seismology, near fault observatories, geodetic observations, volcano observations, satellite observations, geomagnetic observations, as well as data from various anthropogenic hazard episodes, geological information and modelling. In addition, transnational access to multi-scale laboratories and geo-energy test-beds for low-carbon energy will be provided. TCS DDSS will be integrated into Integrated Core Services (ICS), a platform that will ensure their interoperability and access to these services by the scientific community as well as other users within the society. This requires dedicated tasks for interactions with the various TCS-WPs, as well as the various distributed ICS (ICS-Ds), such as High Performance Computing (HPC) facilities, large scale data storage

  12. Near Fault Observatories (NFO) services and integration plan for European Plate Observing System (EPOS) Implementation Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaraluce, Lauro

    2016-04-01

    Coherently with the EPOS vision aimed at creating a pan-European infrastructure for Earth Sciences supporting research for a more sustainable society, we are working on the integration of NFOs and services implementation facilitating their data and products discovery and usage. NFOs are National Research Infrastructures (NRI) consisting of advanced networks of multi-parametric sensors continuously monitoring the chemical and physical processes related to the common underlying Earth instabilities governing active faults evolution and the genesis of earthquakes. These infrastructures will enable advancements in understanding of earthquakes generation processes and associated ground shaking due to their high-quality near-source multidisciplinary data. In EPOS-IP seven NFOs are going to be linked: 1) the Altotiberina and 2) Irpinia Observatories in Italy, 3) Corinth in Greece, 4) South-Iceland Seismic Zone, 5) Valais in Switzerland, 6) Marmara Sea (GEO Supersite) in Turkey and 7) Vrancea in Romania. EPOS-IP aims to implement integrated services from a technical, legal, governance and financial point of view. Accordingly, our first effort within this first core group of NFOs will be establishing legal governance for such a young community to ensure a long-term sustainability of the envisaged services including the full adoption of the EPOS data policy. The establishment of a Board including representatives of each NFO formally appointed by the Institutions supporting the NRI is a basic requirement to provide and validate a stable governance mechanism supporting the initiatives finalised to the services provision. Extremely dense networks and less common instruments deserve an extraordinary work on data quality control and description. We will work on linking all the NFOs in a single distributed network of observatories with instrumental and monitoring standards based on common protocols for observation, analysis, and data access and distributed channels. We will rely on

  13. How different farming systems respond to the continuously evolving European dairy market – a comparative case study of four different EU countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsøe, Martin Hvarregaard; Noe, Egon; Aubert, Pierre-Marie

    2017-01-01

    This Paper analyses how five different Eu-ropean farming systems have been influenced by the increasingly volatile milk market and the strategic re-sponse that has been adopted by farmers and the dairy sector.......This Paper analyses how five different Eu-ropean farming systems have been influenced by the increasingly volatile milk market and the strategic re-sponse that has been adopted by farmers and the dairy sector....

  14. Effects of national energy policies on carbon dioxide emissions in a European internal electricity market: Results from a simulation model of the European power systems

    OpenAIRE

    Hoster, Frank

    1997-01-01

    This article considers the economic and environmental (in terms of CO2) effects of national energy policies in a European Single Market for electricity. It was found that the combined CO2/Energy-tax proposed by the European Commission would be able to stabilise the current volume of CO2-emissions in the electricity sector. A national single handed effort in introducing a CO2-tax to reduce the emissions was found to be ineffective in the long term and would be in addition allocative inefficien...

  15. The individual and societal effects of the European education systems. How does structure influence the tasks of education?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morena Cuconato

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Across European countries, the expansion of education has increased during the 20th century the opportunities of young people’s access to and within schooling, but it has not reduced socioeconomic and cultural inequality both in term of labour market’s entry and participation to the democratic public life. This paper proposes an analysis of the ways in which education systems are institutionalised in Europe and the effects of this institutionalisation on educational inequality, young people’ labor market entry and the promotion of their active citizenship: three hot topics in the EU agenda framing the implementation of the European knowledge societies. Educational inequality becomes particularly evident at the transition point from lower to upper secondary education as this passage confronts young people with new (adult expectations, status and practices and contributes to their positioning in a segmented labor market and an unequal society. Therefore, our special focus is set on the kinds of transitions foreseen in the education systems of the eight countries participating to an EU-funded research project on the Governance of Educational Trajectories in Europe (GOETE. The aim is to highlight how different the tasks of education are interpreted through the systemic structure of the different national education systems.

  16. The pituitary gland of the European eel reveals massive expression of genes involved in the melanocortin system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eirill Ager-Wick

    Full Text Available Hormones secreted from the pituitary gland regulate important processes such as development, growth and metabolism, reproduction, water balance, and body pigmentation. Synthesis and secretion of pituitary hormones are regulated by different factors from the hypothalamus, but also through feedback mechanisms from peripheral organs, and from the pituitary itself. In the European eel extensive attention has been directed towards understanding the different components of the brain-pituitary-gonad axis, but little is known about the regulation of upstream processes in the pituitary gland. In order to gain a broader mechanistic understanding of the eel pituitary gland, we have performed RNA-seq transcriptome profiling of the pituitary of prepubertal female silver eels. RNA-seq reads generated on the Illumina platform were mapped to the recently assembled European eel genome. The most abundant transcript in the eel pituitary codes for pro-opiomelanocortin, the precursor for hormones of the melanocortin system. Several genes putatively involved in downstream processing of pro-opiomelanocortin were manually annotated, and were found to be highly expressed, both by RNA-seq and by qPCR. The melanocortin system, which affects skin color, energy homeostasis and in other teleosts interacts with the reproductive system, has so far received limited attention in eels. However, since up to one third of the silver eel pituitary's mRNA pool encodes pro-opiomelanocortin, our results indicate that control of the melanocortin system is a major function of the eel pituitary.

  17. Distributed Energy Systems in the Built Environment - European Legal Framework on Distributed Energy Systems in the Built Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pront-van Bommel, S.; Bregman, A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to outline the stimuli provided by European law for promoting integrated planning of distributed renewable energy installations on the one hand and its limitations thereof on the other hand, also with regard to the role of local governments.

  18. Storage- and grid expansion needs in a European electricity-supply-system with a high share of renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thien, Tjark; Cai, Zhuang [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Power Generation and Storage Systems (PGS), E.ON ERC; Juelich Aachen Research Alliance, JARA-Energy (Germany); Alvarez, Ricardo; Awater, Philipp; Moser, Albert [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Chair and Inst. of Power Systems and Power Economics (IAEW); Juelich Aachen Research Alliance, JARA-Energy (Germany); Leuthold, Matthias; Sauer, Dirk Uwe [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage Systems Group; RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Power Generation and Storage Systems (PGS), E.ON ERC; Juelich Aachen Research Alliance, JARA-Energy (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The transformation of the European electricity supply system to fully supply from renewable energy sources (RES), which is associated with the German ''Energiewende'', brings up the question how RES could be optimally allocated throughout Europe in order to minimize the total generation costs. For this task, an optimization tool based on a genetic algorithm was developed. The tool is able to optimize the capacity and allocation of RES, storage system and transmission network in a given energy system in order to get minimal overall economic costs. Exemplary results for the EUMENA region (Europe, Middle East and North Africa) show an optimal RES installed capacity of 2913 MW (Wind and PV),a storage capacity of 325 TWh and the installation of an HVDC overlay-grid with 1,140,000 GWkm transmission capacity. If such a system was realized, costs of 11.9 Eurocent per consumed Kilowatt-hour would occur.

  19. European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaller, K.

    1995-01-01

    Different instruments used by European Commission of the European Union for financial support radioactive waste management activities in the Russian Federation are outlined. Three particular programmes in the area are described

  20. Implications of the accession of the Republic of Croatia to the European Union for Croatian health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostojić, Rajko; Bilas, Vlatka; Franc, Sanja

    2012-09-01

    The Republic of Croatia's accession to the European Union (EU) will affect all segments of economy and society, including the health care system. The aim of this paper is to establish the potential effects of joining the EU on Croatian health care, as well as to assess its readiness to enter this regional economic integration. The paper identifies potential areas of impact of EU accession on Croatian health care and analyzes the results of the conducted empirical research. In this research, a method of in-depth interviews was applied on a sample of 49 subjects; health professionals from public and private sectors, health insurance companies, pharmaceutical companies, drug wholesalers, and non-governmental organisations (patient associations). Once Croatia joins the EU, it will face: new rules and priorities in line with the current European health strategy; the possibilities of drawing funds from European cohesion funds; labour migrations; new guidelines on patient safety and mobility. From the aspect of harmonising national regulations with EU regulations in the area of health care, Croatian system can be assessed as ready to enter the EU. Croatia's accession to the EU can result in a better information flow, growth of competitiveness of Croatian health care system, enhanced quality, inflow of EU funds, development of health tourism, but also in increased migration of health care professionals, and potential increase in the cost of health care services. Functioning within the EU framework might result in adaptation to the EU standards, but it could also result in the concentration of staff and institutions in larger cities.

  1. The Spanish Long-Term Care System in the European Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De la Fuente Robles, Yolanda

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The recent exponential increase in the number of people in situations of dependency and demand for social, health and residential coverage in Europe currently presents a troubling demographic forecast. This article describes the peculiarities of the Spanish care model within the European context. In order to do this, we review previous analyses that show the differences in the dependency care in European countries, such as the form of residence of its beneficiaries or the capacity of social networks to meet their care needs. Then, we proceed to present the purposes underlying the Spanish legal framework, as well as its strengths and limitations. The findings suggest that the universal model implemented in Spain could serve as referent for the European context, although this depends on the social models of coexistence and prior context in which the dependency occurs.Europa presenta en la actualidad unas previsiones demográficas preocupantes, incrementando exponencialmente el número de las personas en situación de dependencia y su demanda de cobertura social, sanitaria y residencial. En este contexto europeo, creemos oportuno destacar el modelo de atención español, señalando sus particularidades. Para ello, en primer lugar, hemos realizado una revisión de los análisis que profundizan en las divergencias de la atención a la dependencia en los países europeos, como la forma de residencia de este sector poblacional o la capacidad de las redes sociales de cubrir sus necesidades de atención. En segundo lugar, procedemos a exponer las pretensiones del marco legislativo español, así como sus fortalezas y limitaciones. Las conclusiones apuntan a que el modelo universal implantado en España pudiera ser un referente en el contexto europeo, aunque ello dependerá de sus modelos sociales de convivencia y el contexto previo en que se desenvuelva la dependencia.

  2. The gross anatomy of the male reproductive system of the European hedgehog (Erinaceus Europaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, G; Babaei, M; Kianifard, D; Mohebi, D

    2018-01-01

    Hedgehogs are small spiny-coated insectivores. Due to their low body weight, calm character, and easy maintenance, they are kept as pets. It is therefore worthwhile to care about hedgehogs' health problems and to provide pet owners with information about their reproduction. Moreover, it is necessary to be familiar with their anatomy so as to satisfy the need to improve nutrition and medical care, even surgery. This study was carried out on five adult male European hedgehogs euthanased in a chloroform chamber. The European hedgehog's oval testes are invisible in inguinal region because they have no true scrotal sac. The testes are located in the craniocaudal direction with dorsolateral epididymal attachments. The vesicular glands, the European hedgehog's largest accessory sex glands, are lobulated structures containing dorsomedial and ventrolateral parts on each side. The prostate is an oval gland with right and left lobes. The paired bulbourethral glands are laid on the ischiocavernosus muscle. Histologically the vesicular, prostate gland ducts and ductus deferens as well as urethra separately were discharged in a diverticlum at the level of the pelvic urethra end. A sigmoid flexure exists in the proximal part of shaft body of the penis. There are two retractor penile muscles. In dorsal end of the penile glans, there is a small urethral process with two nail- -like, needle-shaped structures. They are on both sides of the urethral process. Furthermore, there are two intromittent sacs (Sacculus urethralis) in the ventral part of the end of the penis. (Folia Morphol 2018; 77, 1: 36-43).

  3. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS OF MULTILEVEL SYSTEM OF CONSUMER COOPERATION IN UKRAINE, ITS INFORMATIONAL COMPLIANCE WITH MODERN EUROPEAN REQUIREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepan KOSHKAROV

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available More than 120 countries use the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS and the International Accounting Standards (IAS. The Association Agreement between Ukraine and the EU obliges Ukraine to European convergence of accounting. Since 2012, for some entities it has been introduced compulsory, but for others - is that self-application of IFRS and INBO. This trend coincides with the imperative necessity of the consumer cooperation of Ukraine to reform its information system as a key component of its effective management and successful implementation of the controlling. It is proposed to start reforming with the introduction of MSFS and IAS.

  4. How to make a European integrated market in small and isolated electricity systems? The case of the Canary Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, Yannick; Ramos Real, Francisco Javier

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a geographic dimension not often studied in the dynamics of creating an internal market for electricity within the European Union, namely the case of small European electricity systems like those found on the Greek islands of Cyprus and Crete. Our question, then, is how to achieve a suitable internal market for electricity in small and isolated systems. To address this issue, we identify the main problems to be overcome by introducing a methodology in which the Canary Islands experience is taken as a case study for understanding the challenges in creating an 'EU-like market for electricity'. Our results show that the design of the vertical industrial structure and the figure of the grid operator and its attributes are key features for the proper operation of any electrical system. We also stress the minor roles of other possible options to achieve this EU-compatible market by highlighting first, in the wholesale market, the call-for-tender solution to introduce more generation and the risk of using safety requirements as barriers to entry in these small markets, and second, in the supply activities, the potential problems of an improperly regulated tariff scheme. (author)

  5. The contribution of the Volcano Observations Work Package to the implementation of the European Plate Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglisi, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    The overall aim of the implementation phase of European Plate Observing System (EPOS) is to make the integrated platform operational in order to guarantee seamless access to the data provided by the European Solid Earth communities. The Volcano Observations Work Package (WP11) contributes to this objective by implementing a Thematic Core Service (TCS) which is planned to give access to the data and services provided by the European Volcano Observatories (VO) and some Volcanological Research Institutions (VRI; such as university departments, laboratories, etc.). Both types are considered as national research infrastructures (RI) which the TCS will integrate. Currently, monitoring networks on European volcanoes consist of thousands of stations or sites where volcanological parameters are continuously or periodically measured. These sites are equipped with instruments for geophysical (seismic, geodetic, gravimetric, electromagnetic), geochemical (volcanic plumes, fumaroles, groundwater, rivers, soils), environmental observations (e.g. meteorological and air quality parameters), as well as various prototypal monitoring systems (e.g. Doppler radars, ground based SAR). Across Europe several laboratories provide sample characterization (rocks, gases, isotopes, etc.), quasi-continuous analysis of space-borne data (SAR, thermal imagery, SO2 and ash), as well as high-performance computing facilities. All these RIs provide high-quality information (observations) on the current status of European volcanoes and the geodynamic background of the surrounding areas. The implementation of the Volcano Observations TCS will address technical as well as managerial issues, both considering the current heterogeneous state-of-the-art of the volcanological research infrastructures in Europe. Indeed, the current arrangement of individual VO and VRI is considered too fragmented to be considered as a unique distributed infrastructure. Therefore, the main effort in the framework of the EPOS

  6. THE QUANTIFICATION OF THE EUROPEAN INTEGRATION DEGREE OF ROMANIA’S BANKING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina RĂDOI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available There are many methodologies described in the literature for approaching the integration process of financial markets in a given area (a comprehensive study of this subject can be found in Adam K, Jappelli T, Menichini A, Padula M, Pagano M (2002. Financists Emiris (1, Stulz (2, Ferson and Harvey (3 focus their work on the integration of capital markets. Other works look at financial integration from the angle of benefit and cost (4, from a legislative perspective (5, 6, or studying various segments of financial markets (7. In this paper, the subject of convergence is approached first of all by analysing interest rates in the Romanian interbank market, which are on a converging trend to similar values in the EU. In the second part, we propose a model for testing both the mobility of Romanian banking capitals and the European integration process of Romania’s banking sector. The model is based on the idea of maximising the Sharpe index in the portfolio theory. Furthermore, knowing that the Romanian economy and its macroeconomic variables have been a function of the American currency more than the European one, we deemed it useful to study whether and to which extent the Romanian banking sector has any converging trend to the American currency market.

  7. THE IMPORTANCE OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF INTEGRATED INFORMATION SYSTEMS IN THE RESTRUCTURING AND EUROPEAN INTEGRATION PROCESS OF ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steliac Nela

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Many of the organizations that are part of the public and private domain in Romania have reached the stage in which the existing information systems can no longer comply with the requests of users. Therefore, we are compelled by necessity to use integrated information systems which should be able to control all kinds of data and to allow access to them, to ensure the coherence and consistency of the stored information. Managers must be aware of the importance of the implementation of integrated information systems in the background restructuring of the organization, which can thus become consistent and competitive with the European Union one, so the integration process becomes a real and possible one.

  8. Multi-parameter analysis for the technical and economic assessment of photovoltaic systems in the main European Union countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortolini, Marco; Gamberi, Mauro; Graziani, Alessandro; Mora, Cristina; Regattieri, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Performance cost model assesses the feasibility and profitability of PV systems. • Multi-country and multi-parameter analysis of PV systems in the European Union area. • The impact of key technical, environmental, economic and financial data is assessed. • Germany, Italy and Spain present the most effective PV sector support strategies. • The rated power and energy self-consumption ratio affect PV plant profitability. - Abstract: In the last decades, the attention to solar energy as a renewable and nonpolluting energy source increased a lot through scientists, private and public institutions. Several efforts are made to increase the diffusion of such a source and to create the conditions making it competitive for the energy market. Particularly, for the photovoltaic (PV) sector, the module efficiency increase, manufacturing cost reduction and a strong public support, through favorable incentive schemes, generates a significant rise in the installed power, exceeding 40 GWp in 2010. Although the global trend of the PV sector is positive, differences among countries arise out of local peculiarities and evolutions in the national support policies. This paper investigates such issues focusing on the feasibility analysis of PV solar systems for eight relevant countries in the European Union area, i.e. France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Spain, The Netherlands, Turkey and United Kingdom. A multi-country and multi-parameter comparative analysis, based on the net present value and payback capital budget indices, allows to highlight the conditions most affecting the economic feasibility of PV systems. The national support strategies, along with the most relevant technical, environmental, economic and financial parameters, are the key features included and compared in the analysis. The major results deal with the conditions which make PV systems potentially profitable for each country and installation feature. The national support strategies to the PV

  9. Effects of Scandinavian hydro power on storage needs in a fully renewable European power system for various transmission capacity scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kies, Alexander; Nag, Kabitri; von Bremen, Lueder; Lorenz, Elke; Heinemann, Detlev

    2015-04-01

    The penetration of renewable energies in the European power system has increased in the last decades (23.5% share of renewables in the gross electricity consumption of the EU-28 in 2012) and is expected to increase further up to very high shares close to 100%. Planning and organizing this European energy transition towards sustainable power sources will be one of the major challenges of the 21st century. It is very likely that in a fully renewable European power system wind and photovoltaics (pv) will contribute the largest shares to the generation mix followed by hydro power. However, feed-in from wind and pv is due to the weather dependant nature of their resources fluctuating and non-controllable. To match generation and consumption several solutions and their combinations were proposed like very high backup-capacities of conventional power generation (e.g. fossile or nuclear), storages or the extension of the transmission grid. Apart from those options hydro power can be used to counterbalance fluctuating wind and pv generation to some extent. In this work we investigate the effects of hydro power from Norway and Sweden on residual storage needs in Europe depending on the overlaying grid scenario. High temporally and spatially resolved weather data with a spatial resolution of 7 x 7 km and a temporal resolution of 1 hour was used to model the feed-in from wind and pv for 34 investigated European countries for the years 2003-2012. Inflow into hydro storages and generation by run-of-river power plants were computed from ERA-Interim reanalysis runoff data at a spatial resolution of 0.75° x 0.75° and a daily temporal resolution. Power flows in a simplified transmission grid connecting the 34 European countries were modelled minimizing dissipation using a DC-flow approximation. Previous work has shown that hydro power, namely in Norway and Sweden, can reduce storage needs in a renewable European power system by a large extent. A 15% share of hydro power in Europe

  10. European economic area in the system of the EU foreign policy: norwegian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohdan Y. Barna

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available European Economic Area was one of the first examples of developing the relations between the EU and other partner countries on the continent that rejected a full membership in this organization. This form of cooperation for over twenty years provides stability, predictability and constructive development of relations with the three European partners, including Norway. Currently, the EEA is seen as a model of deeper integration without getting a full-fledged membership in the EU. It should also be noted that this arrangement has proven its resistance to external shocks as reduction of members of EFTA, EU enlargement and adoption of new EU treaties. Therefore, Brussels supports the existence of the EEA and never officially put on the agenda of the termination of the agreement or revision of its provisions. For their part, most Norwegian political parties also defend the status quo. However, there are voices on the need to modernize the EEA, especially after the adoption of the Lisbon Treaty. It is also necessary to point out that the Norwegian model of cooperation with the EU has lost its original exceptionality, especially after the entry into force of the Association Agreement with Ukraine. Oslo has also to compete with a number of other countries, NGOs and other lobby groups for attention from the EU. Relations between Norway and the EU are characterized by the asymmetry of obligations under the EEA, as Oslo is obliged to unilaterally implement acquis communautaire, while having no effective leverage over decision-making in the EU. Another challenge is the weakness of the EFTA pillars in the EEA, as it is necessary to interact with an organization, which has 28 European member-countries. There are other negative aspects that gradually reduce the role of Norway in relations with the EU. Given the current challenges, different scenarios have been prepared focusing on for the further development of relations between the EU and Norway. According to

  11. SIBIU EUROPEAN CULTURAL CAPITAL PROGRAM: MEASURING THE IMPACT ON THE ACCOMMODATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotariu Ilie

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Sibiu 2007 European Cultural Capital (ECOC was monitored in order to highlight the long-term impacts of the event. Preliminary findings on the tourism impacts are presented based on field research among visitors and statistics and field inventory. The most visible as well as the most significant impact on the city is the growth of accommodation supply. Not only did the number of licensed units and room grow substantially, but there was also considerable growth in the informal accommodation sector. Not only the city of Sibiu, but also the surrounding region benefited from the ECOC opportunity. The research shows that although the informal sector was able to respond fastest to the growth in accommodation demand, the greatest economic impact came from the development of large commercial hotels in the city itself.

  12. New Developing Methodologies for Strategic and Operational Limits in the European and Romanian Banking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stratulat Angelica

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The most important recommendations of the de Larosiere report and subsequently implemented in the Union were to create a single regulatory framework and a European framework for macro-prudential supervision, both elements conjugated are designed to ensure financial stability. The single regulatory framework ensures a uniform and robust regulatory framework that facilitates the functioning of the single market and prevents regulatory arbitrage opportunities. However, in the internal market for financial services, macro-prudential risks can exhibit several types of differences, with a number of national peculiarities that lead to variations that can be seen, for example, in terms of structure and size of the banking sector compared to economy and credit cycle in a wider sense.

  13. Free allocation in the European Emissions Trading System (EU ETS): identifying efficient mechanisms through to 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalard, Matthieu; Alberola, Emilie

    2015-11-01

    In a world with asymmetrical climate policies, the conclusions of the European Council of October 2014 agreed on continuing the allocation of free CO 2 emissions allowances beyond 2020 to industrial sectors in the EU ETS. This statement has been confirmed in the European Commission's proposal to revise EU ETS directive for phase IV disclosed in July 2015. The stated objective is to ensure that the most efficient industrial installations do not face undue carbon costs which would lead to carbon leakages. Furthermore, free allocations should not undermine the incentive to cut CO 2 emissions, lead to distortions or windfall profits and reduce the auctioning share of allowances. From 2013 to 2020, the allocation of free allowances has been defined according to harmonized European rules based on benchmarks (carbon intensity targets) and historical output adjusted to the free allocation cap by applying the Cross-Sectoral Correction Factor (CSCF). What would be the impact of pursuing the current mechanism through to 2030? Does the EU Commissions' proposal of 15 July respond to the Council's requirements? Which alternative mechanisms could do so? This study examines four scenarios and their potential consequences. - Scenario 1 continues the current free allocation mechanism until 2030. The volume of free allocations thus calculated would be higher than the available free allocation cap and would need to be reduced by a Cross-Sectoral Correction Factor (CSCF) of 66% in 2030. Carbon costs would thus increase for all installations, regardless their exposure to carbon leakages, reducing the protection of most exposed sectors, while widely allocating sectors with limited exposure. - Scenario 2 analyses the proposal to implement an allocation mechanism based on recent industrial output combined with appropriate updating of benchmarks. This allocation method is more effective in combating carbon leakage, as it gives clearer incentive to maintain domestic production

  14. Conceptual design of a cold methane moderator system for the European Spallation Source (ESS)

    CERN Document Server

    Barnert-Wiemer, H

    2002-01-01

    As part of the work for the target station of the planned European spallation source (ESS) the Central Department of Technology at the Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH is also concerned with the moderators, particular attention being given to the development of cold methane moderators. This report discusses the technical feasibility of solid methane moderators. Methods to tailor the neutron output by adding absorption materials (decouplers or poisons) are not considered here, neither are composite moderators. Based on the given target-moderator-reflector assembly of the ESS project a concept for the ESS cold methane moderators has been developed and is being examined at the Forschungszentrum Juelich. According to this moderator concept the moderator is a fixed bed of small spheres, which makes moderator container filling homogeneous and reproducible. Since spheres form a defined packed bed, cooling of the moderator bed by H sub 2 is reliable. The process of filling the moderator container and of removing the pe...

  15. Integration of marine transport into the European Emissions Trading System. Environmental, economic and legal analysis of different options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeuerle, Tim [Rechtsanwaelte Zimmermann - Gretz - Trautmann - Baeuerle, Heidelberg (Germany); Graichen, Jakob; Meyer, Kristin; Seum, Stefan [Oeko-Institut e.V., Berlin (Germany); Kulessa, Margareta [Mainz Univ. of Applied Sciences (Germany); Oschinski, Matthias

    2010-05-15

    Marine vessels globally contribute to carbon dioxide emissions with approximately 3.3% (IMO 2009). Interna-tional ocean shipping has been growing significantly over recent years. To date international marine emissions are not part of the Kyoto obligations and the member states at IMO have not implemented instruments that would have limited or reduced the amount of greenhouse gas emissions from ships. The European Union has announced that if no international agreement including reduction targets for seaborne emissions has been approved by the UNFCCC by December 31, 2011, the EC is tasked to submit a proposal for including international marine transport in Euro-pean reduction targets and policy measures. An inclusion of international marine transport in the European Emis-sions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) is a likely scenario. The study investigates three options for integrating international ocean shipping into the EU ETS based on: a last period; the last distance travelled and the distance the cargo has travelled. Basing the system on a last period is superior to basing it on last trip or cargo in terms of environmental effectiveness. However, the system would cover vessel activities in international waters, even potentially between two non-European ports, and thus the legal feasi-bility of this challenge is discussed. Another element of the study is the analysis of the economic effects of the inte-gration of international seaborne greenhouse gas emissions into the EU ETS. Overall it can be concluded that the integration of international ocean shipping into the EU ETS is a legally and technically feasible option with no significantly negative or even beneficial economic effects. The extension to vessel activity in international waters secures adequate coverage and environmental effectiveness. This extension to vessel activity in international waters is not only a prerequisite for adequate emissions coverage, but is also associated with the least legal obstacles, is

  16. Performance assessment of food safety management systems in animal-based food companies in view of their context characteristics: A European study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luning, P.A.; Kirezieva, K.; Hagelaar, G.; Rovira, J.; Uyttendaele, M.; Jacxsens, L.

    2015-01-01

    Recurrently the question arises if efforts in food safety management system (FSMS) have resulted in effective systems in animal-based food production systems. The aim of this study was to gain an insight in the performance of FSMS in European animal-based food production companies in view of their

  17. Experience of the pilot implementation of the european information sharing and alerting system in the field of information security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly A. Malyuk

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The formation of a global information society poses a particular challenge to the development of an information security culture. In the Doctrine of Information Security of the Russian Federation, adopted in December 2016, one of the main threats is the low awareness of citizens in matters of ensuring personal information security. One of the most important mechanisms for increasing competence and forming an in-formation security culture, in addition to mass training of people, are methods of propaganda and creation of "hot lines". They allow the general public to take the initiative in monitoring and reporting computer incidents. The development of such approaches should be carried out taking into account the international experience accumulated today. To this end, the article examines the European experience of creating a system of information and advisory assistance in the field of preventing threats to the security of public and corporate information systems, primarily information and telecommunications networks, as well as eliminating the consequences of threats in the information sphere. The analysis of the experience of implementing the pilot project of the European Information Sharing and Alert System has revealed the advisability of designing such systems on the basis of a management model with four players that unites network operators, information producers (who are IT product suppliers or IT security specialists; local information intermediaries and consumers of information. As a model of the information flow, a node can be selected that runs a local web portal that provides information to end users, generates new information, adapts information to the constraints of various distribution channels, and to the characteristics of end-user target groups. The methodology of the pilot project can be used in the design and deployment of a notification and information exchange system aimed at end-users of several regions or countries

  18. THE IMPACT OF TAX SYSTEM ON GLOBAL COMPETITIVENESS. ANALYSIS ON THE LEVEL OF EUROPEAN UNION MEMBER STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandusa Tudose

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Summarizing the results of theoretical and empirical research, the paper aims to analyze the impact of tax system on global competitiveness through the following three variables: taxation on incentives to invest; total tax rate and taxation on incentives to work. Summarizing the analysis to the European Union member states, the paper presents rankings and provides interpretations for each case. Luxembourg is the country where there is registered: a the biggest impact on competitiveness of tax policies supporting investment, b the largest fiscal affordability (measured by GDP/capita and total tax rate and c the most generous labor taxation system in the EU. However, in the ranking realized based on the global competitiveness index Luxembourg ranks on the 22nd place, on the first place being Finland.

  19. The EUVAC-NET survey: national pertussis surveillance systems in the European Union, Switzerland, Norway, and Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, J E; Tozzi, A E; Rava, L; Glismann, S

    2001-06-01

    A questionnaire was mailed out to member states of the European Union (EU) plus Switzerland, Norway, and Iceland, to inquire about the type of information routinely recorded in national pertussis surveillance systems. Information was requested on surveillance methods, type of information recorded for cases of pertussis, vaccination schedule, type of vaccine used, and methods for estimating vaccination coverage. Local surveillance methods, vaccination strategies, and methods to estimate vaccination coverage were found to differ widely across the participating countries. The results of the questionnaire survey show, however, that there are comparable subsets of variables common to many countries. Future activities of the EUVAC-NET project will include defining the homogeneous elements in national systems and to group appropriately those countries with common surveillance features.

  20. The Impact of Strong Climate Change on Inter-state Balancing in a Fully-renewable Simplified European Electricity System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohland, Jan; Witthaut, Dirk

    2017-04-01

    Electricity systems with a high penetration of renewables are strongly affected by weather patterns. Due to the variability of the climate system, a substantial fraction of energy supply needs to be provided by dispatchable power plants even if the consumption is on average balanced by renewables (e.g. Rodriguez et al. [2014]). In an interconnected system like the European electricity grid, benefits can arise from balancing generation mismatches spatially as long as overproduction in one region coincides with lack of generation in another region. These benefits might change as the climate changes and we thus investigate alterations of correlations between wind timeseries and Backup energy requirements. Our analysis is based on a five member model-ensemble from the EUROCORDEX initiative and we focus on onshore wind energy. We use the highest temporal (3h) and spatial (0.11°) resolution available to capture the intermittent and spatially diverse nature of renewable generation. In view of inter-model spread and other uncertainties, we use the strong climate change scenario rcp8.5 in order to obtain a high signal-to-noise ratio. We argue that rcp8.5 is best suited to reveal interesting interactions between climate change and renewable electricity system despite the fact that is in contradiction to the UNFCCC temperature goals (e.g. Schleussner et al. [2016]). We report spatially inhomogeneous alterations of correlations. In particular, we find increasing correlations between central and northern European states and decreasing correlations at the south-western and south-eastern margins of Europe. This hints to a lowering of balancing potentials within central and northern Europe due to climate change. A possible explanation might be associated to polar amplification and increasing frequencies of blocking events (Coumou [2015]). Moreover, we compute wind energy generation using a single-turbine model and a semi-random deployment procedure as developed in Monforti et al

  1. European communion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2013-01-01

    Political theory of European union, through an engagement between political concepts and theoretical understandings, provides a means of identifying the EU as a political object. It is argued that understanding the projects, processes and products of European union, based on ‘sharing’ or ‘communion......’, provides a better means of perceiving the EU as a political object rather than terms such as ‘integration’ or ‘co-operation’. The concept of ‘European communion’ is defined as the ‘subjective sharing of relationships’, understood as the extent to which individuals or groups believe themselves to be sharing...... relations (or not), and the consequences of these beliefs for European political projects, processes and products. By exploring European communion through an engagement with contemporary political theory, using very brief illustrations from the Treaty of Lisbon, the article also suggests that European...

  2. Geo-energy Test Beds: part of the European Plate Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Michael; Schofield, David; Luton, Christopher; Haslinger, Florian; Henninges, Jan; Giardini, Domenico

    2016-04-01

    For 2020, the EU has committed to cutting its greenhouse gas emissions to 20% below 1990 levels and further cuts are being decided for 2050. This commitment is one of the headline targets of the Europe 2020 growth strategy and is being implemented through binding legislation. This decarbonisation of the EU economy is one dimension of an overall EU energy and climate framework that is mutually interlinked with the need to ensure energy security, promote a fully integrated energy market, promote energy efficiency and promote research innovation and competitiveness. Power generation will have to take a particularly large part in emissions reductions (-54 to -68% by 2030 and -93 to -99% by 2050), mainly by focussing on increasing surface renewables (wind, tidal and solar) but also on carbon capture and storage on fossil fuel and biofuel power plants, shale gas, nuclear and geothermal power. All the above generation technologies share common geological challenges around containment, safety and environmental sustainability. In a densely populated continent, this means that high levels of subsurface management are needed to fully realise the energy potential. In response to this need, across Europe, public and private sector funded, experimental test and monitoring facilities and infrastructures (Geo-energy Test Beds, GETB) are being developed. These GETB investigate the processes, technology and practices that facilitate the sustainable exploitation of Geo-energy resources and are of intense interest to the public and regulators alike. The vision of EPOS IP Work Package 17 (wp17) is to promote research and innovation in Geo-energy that reflects core European energy priorities through provision of virtual access to data and protocols and trans-national access to GETB experiments. This will be achieved through provision of access to continuous strategic observations, promotion of the integrated use of data and models from European GETB, development of underpinning research

  3. Exploration of plant growth and development using the European Modular Cultivation System facility on the International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittang, A-I; Iversen, T-H; Fossum, K R; Mazars, C; Carnero-Diaz, E; Boucheron-Dubuisson, E; Le Disquet, I; Legué, V; Herranz, R; Pereda-Loth, V; Medina, F J

    2014-05-01

    Space experiments provide a unique opportunity to advance our knowledge of how plants respond to the space environment, and specifically to the absence of gravity. The European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS) has been designed as a dedicated facility to improve and standardise plant growth in the International Space Station (ISS). The EMCS is equipped with two centrifuges to perform experiments in microgravity and with variable gravity levels up to 2.0 g. Seven experiments have been performed since the EMCS was operational on the ISS. The objectives of these experiments aimed to elucidate phototropic responses (experiments TROPI-1 and -2), root gravitropic sensing (GRAVI-1), circumnutation (MULTIGEN-1), cell wall dynamics and gravity resistance (Cell wall/Resist wall), proteomic identification of signalling players (GENARA-A) and mechanism of InsP3 signalling (Plant signalling). The role of light in cell proliferation and plant development in the absence of gravity is being analysed in an on-going experiment (Seedling growth). Based on the lessons learned from the acquired experience, three preselected ISS experiments have been merged and implemented as a single project (Plant development) to study early phases of seedling development. A Topical Team initiated by European Space Agency (ESA), involving experienced scientists on Arabidopsis space research experiments, aims at establishing a coordinated, long-term scientific strategy to understand the role of gravity in Arabidopsis growth and development using already existing or planned new hardware. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  4. Lobbying during the revision of the European emissions trading system: Easier for Swedish industrial insiders than for Norwegian outsiders?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miard, Kadri

    2011-07-01

    This report examines and compares the lobbying routes taken by Swedish and Norwegian energy-intensive industry firms during the revision of the European Emissions Trading System. Two key explanatory factors are in focus here - whether the company has its origin in the EU member state Sweden or in non-member Norway; and the size of the company. Six companies are chosen as cases: Norsk Hydro, Norcem and Norske Skog from Norway; and SSAB, Cementa and Svenska Cellulosa Aktiebolaget from Sweden. A key finding is the extensive use of European associations by all these firms in lobbying EU institutions. Also prevalent is the use of national associations, which would indicate benefits in the form of better institutional response to collective lobbying and resource-sharing aspects. Although Norwegian firms seem to have struggled more than Swedish firms when it comes to lobbying EU institutions, due to lack of access to the EU, not all differences can be explained by the fact of originating in an EU member state Sweden or non-member Norway. While company size has a positive effect on the number of available lobbying routes, this appears to depend on cross-border production and possibly other influences as well.(auth)

  5. Innovative Household Systems Based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells for a Northern European climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud; Vialetto, Giulio

    2015-01-01

    which is a function of the electricity and heat demand of the user, and allows different operation strategies to be considered. The proposal is to maximize the efficiency of the system and to make it profitable, even though technologies with a high purchase cost are considered.Simulations of the system....... The calculations show the high primary energy saving and profitability of the system....

  6. Basic ICT adoption and use by general practitioners: an analysis of primary care systems in 31 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rosis, Sabina; Seghieri, Chiara

    2015-08-22

    There is general consensus that appropriate development and use of information and communication technologies (ICT) are crucial in the delivery of effective primary care (PC). Several countries are defining policies to support and promote a structural change of the health care system through the introduction of ICT. This study analyses the state of development of basic ICT in PC systems of 31 European countries with the aim to describe the extent of, and main purposes for, computer use by General Practitioners (GPs) across Europe. Additionally, trends over time have been analysed. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed on data from the QUALICOPC (Quality and Costs of Primary Care in Europe) survey, to describe the geographic differences in the general use of computer, and in specific computerized clinical functions for different health-related purposes such as prescribing, medication checking, generating health records and research for medical information on the Internet. While all the countries have achieved a near-universal adoption of a computer in their primary care practices, with only a few countries near or under the boundary of 90 %, the computerisation of primary care clinical functions presents a wide variability of adoption within and among countries and, in several cases (such as in the southern and central-eastern Europe), a large room for improvement. At European level, more efforts could be done to support southern and central-eastern Europe in closing the gap in adoption and use of ICT in PC. In particular, more attention seems to be need on the current usages of the computer in PC, by focusing policies and actions on the improvement of the appropriate usages that can impact on quality and costs of PC and can facilitate an interconnected health care system. However, policies and investments seem necessary but not sufficient to achieve these goals. Organizational, behavioural and also networking aspects should be taken in consideration.

  7. Systemic and Ocular Determinants of Peripapillary Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness Measurements in the European Eye Epidemiology (E3) Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauschitz, Matthias M; Bonnemaijer, Pieter W M; Diers, Kersten; Rauscher, Franziska G; Elze, Tobias; Engel, Christoph; Loeffler, Markus; Colijn, Johanna Maria; Ikram, M Arfan; Vingerling, Johannes R; Williams, Katie M; Hammond, Christopher J; Creuzot-Garcher, Catherine; Bron, Alain M; Silva, Rufino; Nunes, Sandrina; Delcourt, Cécile; Cougnard-Grégoire, Audrey; Holz, Frank G; Klaver, Caroline C W; Breteler, Monique M B; Finger, Robert P

    2018-04-28

    To investigate systemic and ocular determinants of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (pRNFLT) in the European population. Cross-sectional meta-analysis. A total of 16 084 European adults from 8 cohort studies (mean age range, 56.9±12.3-82.1±4.2 years) of the European Eye Epidemiology (E3) consortium. We examined associations with pRNFLT measured by spectral-domain OCT in each study using multivariable linear regression and pooled results using random effects meta-analysis. Determinants of pRNFLT. Mean pRNFLT ranged from 86.8±21.4 μm in the Rotterdam Study I to 104.7±12.5 μm in the Rotterdam Study III. We found the following factors to be associated with reduced pRNFLT: Older age (β = -0.38 μm/year; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.57 to -0.18), higher intraocular pressure (IOP) (β = -0.36 μm/mmHg; 95% CI, -0.56 to -0.15), visual impairment (β = -5.50 μm; 95% CI, -9.37 to -1.64), and history of systemic hypertension (β = -0.54 μm; 95% CI, -1.01 to -0.07) and stroke (β = -1.94 μm; 95% CI, -3.17 to -0.72). A suggestive, albeit nonsignificant, association was observed for dementia (β = -3.11 μm; 95% CI, -6.22 to 0.01). Higher pRNFLT was associated with more hyperopic spherical equivalent (β = 1.39 μm/diopter; 95% CI, 1.19-1.59) and smoking (β = 1.53 μm; 95% CI, 1.00-2.06 for current smokers compared with never-smokers). In addition to previously described determinants such as age and refraction, we found that systemic vascular and neurovascular diseases were associated with reduced pRNFLT. These may be of clinical relevance, especially in glaucoma monitoring of patients with newly occurring vascular comorbidities. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Patch test results of the European baseline series among patients with occupational contact dermatitis across Europe - analyses of the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergy network, 2002-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesonen, Maria; Jolanki, Riitta; Larese Filon, Francesca; Wilkinson, Mark; Kręcisz, Beata; Kieć-Świerczyńska, Marta; Bauer, Andrea; Mahler, Vera; John, Swen M; Schnuch, Axel; Uter, Wolfgang

    2015-03-01

    Occupational contact dermatitis is one of the most common occupational diseases in Europe. In order to develop effective preventive measures, detailed and up-to-date data on the incidence, main causes and professions at risk of occupational contact dermatitis are needed. To describe the pattern of patch test reactivity to allergens in the European baseline series of patients with occupational contact dermatitis in different occupations. We analysed data collected by the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergy (ESSCA) network from 2002 to 2010, from 11 European countries. Allergens in the European baseline series associated with an at least doubled risk of occupational contact dermatitis include: thiuram rubber chemical accelerators, epoxy resin, and the antimicrobials methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone, methyldibromo glutaronitrile, and formaldehyde. The highest risk of occupational contact dermatitis was found in occupations classified as 'other personal services workers', which includes hairdressers, nursing and other healthcare professionals, precision workers in metal and related materials, and blacksmiths, tool-makers and related trades workers. In the planning and implementation of measures aimed at preventing occupational contact dermatitis, the focus should be on the identified high-risk occupational groups and the most common occupational allergies. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. European standards for composite construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stark, J.W.B.

    2000-01-01

    The European Standards Organisation (CEN) has planned to develop a complete set of harmonized European building standards. This set includes standards for composite steel and concrete buildings and bridges. The Eurocodes, being the design standards, form part of this total system of European

  10. European Plate Observing System - Norway (EPOS-N): A National Consortium for the Norwegian Implementation of EPOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atakan, Kuvvet; Tellefsen, Karen

    2017-04-01

    The European Plate Observing System (EPOS) aims to create a pan-European infrastructure for solid Earth science to support a safe and sustainable society. The main vision of the European Plate Observing System (EPOS) is to address the three basic challenges in Earth Science: (i) unravelling the Earth's deformational processes which are part of the Earth system evolution in time, (ii) understanding geo-hazards and their implications to society, and (iii) contributing to the safe and sustainable use of geo-resources. The mission of EPOS-Norway is therefore in line with the European vision of EPOS, i.e. monitor and understand the dynamic and complex Earth system by relying on new e-science opportunities and integrating diverse and advanced Research Infrastructures for solid Earth science. The EPOS-Norway project started in January 2016 with a national consortium consisting of six institutions. These are: University of Bergen (Coordinator), NORSAR, National Mapping Authority, Geological Survey of Norway, Christian Michelsen Research and University of Oslo. EPOS-N will during the next five years focus on the implementation of three main components. These are: (i) Developing a Norwegian e-Infrastructure to integrate the Norwegian Solid Earth data from the seismological and geodetic networks, as well as the data from the geological and geophysical data repositories, (ii) Improving the monitoring capacity in the Arctic, including Northern Norway and the Arctic islands, and (iii) Establishing a national Solid Earth Science Forum providing a constant feedback mechanism for improved integration of multidisciplinary data, as well as training of young scientists for future utilization of all available solid Earth observational data through a single e-infrastructure. Currently, a list of data, data products, software and services (DDSS) is being prepared. These elements will be integrated in the EPOS-N data/web-portal, which will allow users to browse, select and download

  11. Present status and future development of the European Community rapid information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, G.

    1990-01-01

    Following the Chernobyl reactor accident it was rapidly appreciated that, in addition to upgrading national radiological monitoring systems, action was required to facilitate international communication of the results obtained. The first such system was established by the Vienna Convention, drawn up under the auspices of the IAEA, which came into force in September, 1986. Subsequently the EC Council of Ministers decided in December, 1987, to set up a Community system which in many ways parallels that established by the Convention but differs significantly in certain aspects concerning its legal basis, initiation criteria, data provisions and communications requirements. The present paper describes the present status of the Community system and foreseeable future developments. It is a matter of policy that, to avoid unnecessary complications, this system should be, to the maximum extent practicable, fully compatible with that established by the Convention. Where appropriate, therefore, reference is also made to the latter system

  12. Scandinavian interconnections as a means for an integrated and sustainable European system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedenstedt, A.; Hansson, B.

    1996-01-01

    After the national grids had been established the comprehensive integration of the Nordic countries took place during a 20 year's period that started in early 1960's. A characteristic feature of the interconnection of the Nordic electric power systems is the need for long HVDC submarine cables for several of the interconnection links. Today the Nordel system is almost considered as one system. At present there are several ongoing, actively considered and planned projects for the integration of the Nordel system and the UCPTE system. The interconnection links offer a number of benefits for both the systems. One very important benefit is the stabilisation effect on the power supply security and the price for electricity. This is of special importance in view of the expected de-regulation of the electricity market. (author)

  13. LPXRFa peptide system in the European sea bass: A molecular and immunohistochemical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paullada-Salmerón, José A; Cowan, Mairi; Aliaga-Guerrero, María; Gómez, Ana; Zanuy, Silvia; Mañanos, Evaristo; Muñoz-Cueto, José A

    2016-01-01

    Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) is a neuropeptide that suppresses reproduction in birds and mammals by inhibiting GnRH and gonadotropin secretion. GnIH orthologs with a C-terminal LPXRFamide (LPXRFa) motif have been identified in teleost fish. Although recent work also suggests its role in fish reproduction, studies are scarce and controversial, and have mainly focused on cyprinids. In this work we cloned a full-length cDNA encoding an LPXRFa precursor in the European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax. In contrast to other teleosts, the sea bass LPXRFa precursor contains only two putative RFamide peptides, termed sbLPXRFa1 and sbLPXRFa2. sblpxrfa transcripts were expressed predominantly in the olfactory bulbs/telencephalon, diencephalon, midbrain tegmentum, retina, and gonads. We also developed a specific antiserum against sbLPXRFa2, which revealed sbLPXRFa-immunoreactive (ir) perikarya in the olfactory bulbs-terminal nerve, ventral telencephalon, caudal preoptic area, dorsal mesencephalic tegmentum, and rostral rhombencephalon. These sbLPXRFa-ir cells profusely innervated the preoptic area, hypothalamus, optic tectum, semicircular torus, and caudal midbrain tegmentum, but conspicuous projections also reached the olfactory bulbs, ventral/dorsal telencephalon, habenula, ventral thalamus, pretectum, rostral midbrain tegmentum, posterior tuberculum, reticular formation, and viscerosensory lobe. The retina, pineal, vascular sac, and pituitary were also targets of sbLPXRFa-ir cells. In the pituitary, this innervation was observed close to follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and growth hormone (GH) cells. Tract-tracing retrograde labeling suggests that telencephalic and preoptic sbLPXRFa cells might represent the source of pituitary innervation. The immunohistochemical distribution of sbLPXRFa cells and fibers suggest that LPXRFa peptides might be involved in some functions as well as reproduction, such as feeding, growth, and behavior.

  14. FUTUREVOLC: A European volcanological supersite in Iceland, a monitoring system and network for the future (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmundsson, F.; Vogfjord, K. S.; Gudmundsson, M. T.; Kristinsson, I.; Loughlin, S. C.; Ilyinskaya, E.; Hooper, A. J.; Kylling, A.; Witham, C. S.; Bean, C. J.; Braiden, A.; Ripepe, M.; Prata, F.; Jordan, C. J.; Team, F.

    2013-12-01

    FUTURVOLC is a collaborative project funded through a FP7 Environment 'supersite' call of the European Union, with 26 partners in 10 countries. The main objectives of FUTUREVOLC are to establish an integrated volcanological monitoring procedure, develop new methods to evaluate volcanic crises, increase scientific understanding of magmatic processes and improve delivery of relevant information to civil protection and authorities. To reach these objectives the project combines broad expertise in seismology, volcano deformation, volcanic gas and geochemistry, infrasound, eruption monitoring, physical volcanology, satellite studies of plumes, meteorology, ash dispersal forecasting, and civil protection. The consortium members together with a more extensive group of collaborators, has applied to CEOS for making the Iceland volcanoes a permanent geohazard supersite. In summer 2013 FUTUREVOLC partners improved volcano monitoring in Iceland by installing new equipment, including seismometers, GPS receivers, an infrasound array, and electrical sensors. A key element of the project is to combine Icelandic ground based monitoring data with satellite observations in an improved manner. This applies to different disciplines, including e.g. deformation from ground observations and InSAR, and quantification of volcanic ash clouds during eruptions by combining measurements from ground based infrared (IR) cameras and satellite microwave and IR detectors. The FUTUREVOLC project has open data policy for real-time data streams, near real-time data and science products. Implementation of a data hub will begin in 2013 with making available data for the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption. Access of monitoring data through one common interface will allow timely information on magma movements from combined interpretation of relocated earthquake sources, magma sources inferred from ground and space geodetic data, and measurements of volcanic volatiles. For better response during eruptions, the

  15. Publicity in secured transactions law: Towards a European public notice filing system for non-possessory security rights in movable assets?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamwijk, D.J.Y.

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing call to introduce a European public notice filing system for security rights in movable goods comparable to the notice filing system of Art. 9 UCC. A proposal to this effect has been adopted in Book IX DCFR, which represents a comprehensive framework of rules for proprietary

  16. Mechanisms blocking the dynamics of the European offshore wind energy innovation system – Challenges for policy intervention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsson, Staffan; Karltorp, Kersti

    2013-01-01

    Decarbonizing electricity production in the EU may necessitate building new “low-carbon” capacity (excluding nuclear investments) to deliver 3500 TWh by 2050. Offshore wind power has the potential to contribute substantially to fill this gap. Realizing this potential is, however, difficult since deployment offshore does not constitute a simple diversification by the onshore wind turbine industry to a new segment. This paper identifies factors obstructing the development of the northern European innovation system centered on offshore wind power, specifies a set of associated policy challenges and discusses various policy responses. - Highlights: • Offshore wind power has a strategic role in decarbonizing EU's supply of electricity. • There are numerous obstacles to deployment of offshore wind turbines. • We specify seven major policy challenges in diverse policy domains. • Managing these requires coordination of interventions across policy domains and national boundaries

  17. Reduced storage and balancing needs in a fully renewable European power system with excess wind and solar power generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide, Dominik; Greiner, Martin; von Bremen, Lüder

    The storage and balancing needs of a simplified European power system, which is based on wind and solar power generation only, are derived from an extensive weather-driven modeling of hourly power mismatches between generation and load. The storage energy capacity, the annual balancing energy...... and the balancing power are found to depend significantly on the mixing ratio between wind and solar power generation. They decrease strongly with the overall excess generation. At 50% excess generation the required long-term storage energy capacity and annual balancing energy amount to 1% of the annual consumption....... The required balancing power turns out to be 25% of the average hourly load. These numbers are in agreement with current hydro storage lakes in Scandinavia and the Alps, as well as with potential hydrogen storage in mostly North-German salt caverns....

  18. Reduced storage and balancing needs in a fully renewable European power system with excess wind and solar power generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide, Dominik; Greiner, Martin; von Bremen, Lüder

    2011-01-01

    The storage and balancing needs of a simplified European power system, which is based on wind and solar power generation only, are derived from an extensive weather-driven modeling of hourly power mismatches between generation and load. The storage energy capacity, the annual balancing energy...... and the balancing power are found to depend significantly on the mixing ratio between wind and solar power generation. They decrease strongly with the overall excess generation. At 50% excess generation the required long-term storage energy capacity and annual balancing energy amount to 1% of the annual consumption....... The required balancing power turns out to be 25% of the average hourly load. These numbers are in agreement with current hydro storage lakes in Scandinavia and the Alps, as well as with potential hydrogen storage in mostly North-German salt caverns....

  19. European Institutions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meacham, Darian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to sketch a phenomenological theory of political institutions and to apply it to some objections and questions raised by Pierre Manent about the project of the European Union and more specifically the question of “European Construction”, i.e. what is the aim of the

  20. European Whiteness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    2008-01-01

    Born out of the United States’ (U.S.) history of slavery and segregation and intertwined with gender studies and feminism, the field of critical whiteness studies does not fit easily into a European setting and the particular historical context that entails. In order for a field of European...

  1. Access to Justice in the European Convention on Human Rights System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glas, L.R.; Gerards, J.H.

    2017-01-01

    The numerous reforms to the Convention system of the past two decades have unquestionably had an effect on applicants’ means to access justice in the system. It is, however, open to question how these changes should be evaluated: with reference to the individual right to petition, or with reference

  2. Palliative Care Medical Education in European Universities: A Descriptive Study and Numerical Scoring System Proposal for Assessing Educational Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, José Miguel; Lynch, Thomas J; Garralda, Eduardo; Woitha, Kathrin; Elsner, Frank; Filbet, Marilène; Ellershaw, John E; Clark, David; Centeno, Carlos

    2015-10-01

    The lack of palliative medicine (PM) education has been identified as a barrier to the development of the discipline. A number of international institutions have called for its implementation within undergraduate medical curricula. The objectives are to describe the situation of undergraduate PM education in Europe and to propose a scoring system to evaluate its status. This descriptive study was conducted with data provided by key experts from countries of the World Health Organization European Region (n = 53). A numerical scoring system was developed through consensus techniques. Forty-three countries (81%) provided the requested information. In 13 countries (30%), a PM course is taught in all medical schools, being compulsory in six of them (14%). In 15 countries (35%), PM is taught in at least one university. In 14 countries (33%), PM is not taught within medical curricula. A full professor of PM was identified in 40% of countries. Three indicators were developed to construct a scale (rank 0-100) of educational development: 1) proportion of medical schools that teach PM (weight = 32%); 2) proportion of medical schools that offer PM as a compulsory subject (weight = 40%); 3) total number of PM professors (weight = 28%). The highest level of PM educational development was found in Israel, Norway, the U.K., Belgium, France, Austria, Germany, and Ireland. PM is taught in a substantial number of undergraduate medical programs at European universities, and a qualified teaching structure is emerging; however, there is a wide variation in the level of PM educational development between individual countries. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Calibration of gamma camera systems for a multicentre European {sup 123}I-FP-CIT SPECT normal database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tossici-Bolt, Livia [Southampton Univ. Hospitals NHS Trust, Dept. of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, Southampton (United Kingdom); Dickson, John C. [UCLH NHS Foundation Trust and Univ. College London, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Sera, Terez [Univ. of Szeged, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Euromedic Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); Nijs, Robin de [Rigshospitalet and Univ. of Copenhagen, Neurobiology Research Unit, Copenhagen (Denmark); Bagnara, Maria Claudia [Az. Ospedaliera Universitaria S. Martino, Medical Physics Unit, Genoa (Italy); Jonsson, Cathrine [Karolinska Univ. Hospital, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Medical Physics, Stockholm (Sweden); Scheepers, Egon [Univ. of Amsterdam, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Zito, Felicia [Fondazione IRCCS Granda, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Milan (Italy); Seese, Anita [Univ. of Leipzig, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Koulibaly, Pierre Malick [Univ. of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Nuclear Medicine Dept., Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France); Kapucu, Ozlem L. [Gazi Univ., Faculty of Medicine, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Koole, Michel [Univ. Hospital and K.U. Leuven, Nuclear Medicine, Leuven (Belgium); Raith, Maria [Medical Univ. of Vienna, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Vienna (Austria); George, Jean [Univ. Catholique Louvain, Nuclear Medicine Division, Mont-Godinne Medical Center, Mont-Godinne (Belgium); Lonsdale, Markus Nowak [Bispebjerg Univ. Hospital, Dept. of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Copenhagen (Denmark); Muenzing, Wolfgang [Univ. of Munich, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Tatsch, Klaus [Univ. of Munich, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Municipal Hospital of Karlsruhe Inc., Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Karlsruhe (Germany); Varrone, Andrea [Center for Psychiatric Research, Karolinska Inst., Dept. of Clinical Neuroscience, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2011-08-15

    A joint initiative of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) Neuroimaging Committee and EANM Research Ltd. aimed to generate a European database of [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scans of healthy controls. This study describes the characterization and harmonization of the imaging equipment of the institutions involved. {sup 123}I SPECT images of a striatal phantom filled with striatal to background ratios between 10:1 and 1:1 were acquired on all the gamma cameras with absolute ratios measured from aliquots. The images were reconstructed by a core lab using ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) without corrections (NC), with attenuation correction only (AC) and additional scatter and septal penetration correction (ACSC) using the triple energy window method. A quantitative parameter, the simulated specific binding ratio (sSBR), was measured using the ''Southampton'' methodology that accounts for the partial volume effect and compared against the actual values obtained from the aliquots. Camera-specific recovery coefficients were derived from linear regression and the error of the measurements was evaluated using the coefficient of variation (COV). The relationship between measured and actual sSBRs was linear across all systems. Variability was observed between different manufacturers and, to a lesser extent, between cameras of the same type. The NC and AC measurements were found to underestimate systematically the actual sSBRs, while the ACSC measurements resulted in recovery coefficients close to 100% for all cameras (AC range 69-89%, ACSC range 87-116%). The COV improved from 46% (NC) to 32% (AC) and to 14% (ACSC) (p < 0.001). A satisfactory linear response was observed across all cameras. Quantitative measurements depend upon the characteristics of the SPECT systems and their calibration is a necessary prerequisite for data pooling. Together with accounting for partial volume, the

  4. 19. srednjeevropska konferenca o informatiki in inteligentnih sistemih = 19th Central European Conference on Information and Intelligent Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armand Faganel

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to present the 19th Central European Conference on Information and Intelligent Systems, CECIIS 2008, which took place between 24th and 26th September in Varaždin and was organised by the Faculty of Organisation and Informatics in Varaždin. The central theme of this year’s conference was e-government. During those 3 days, 250 participants could attend presentations of 90 scientific and professional works in 15 sections and 9 invited lectures on the newest trends in the area of information and communication technology management, information technologies, security of information systems, multimedia systems, strategic planning of information systems, education for information society. Two other parallel events were held within the international conference, namely the workshop ‘Activities towards ICT professionalism’ and a round table on the subject ‘Competences of ICT Professionals’. Experts in the field of human resources, leaders of information centres and managers of the leading Croatian companies participated in the latter.

  5. Economic and environmental impacts from the implementation of an intelligent demand side management system at the European level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papagiannis, G.; Dagoumas, A.; Lettas, N.; Dokopoulos, P.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an analysis on the economic and environmental impacts of the application of an intelligent demand side management system, called the Energy Consumption Management System (ECMS), in the European countries. The ECMS can be applied for the control of individual, widely distributed electric loads, using the power distribution network as the command communication channel. The system can be applied in public lighting, in the tertiary and residential sectors, as well as in the industry. A top-down analysis investigates the possible penetration levels in each application area. The long-term impacts following the application of system are evaluated using the LEAP2006 platform. The WASP IV model is also used for the optimization of the power generation expansion and the corresponding calibration of LEAP2006. Several operational strategies combining variable market penetration of the ECMS and expected energy savings are examined. Results show that, under a logical market penetration, a reduction of 1-4% in primary energy, of 1.5-5% in CO 2 emissions and a 2-8% saving in investment costs for power generation expansion is to be expected for the EU-15. The results also justify that innovative devices may be attractive to end users and also help in the implementation of global energy-saving policies

  6. Integrated weed management systems with herbicide-tolerant crops in the European Union: lessons learnt from home and abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamichhane, Jay Ram; Devos, Yann; Beckie, Hugh J; Owen, Micheal D K; Tillie, Pascal; Messéan, Antoine; Kudsk, Per

    2017-06-01

    Conventionally bred (CHT) and genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) crops have changed weed management practices and made an important contribution to the global production of some commodity crops. However, a concern is that farm management practices associated with the cultivation of herbicide-tolerant (HT) crops further deplete farmland biodiversity and accelerate the evolution of herbicide-resistant (HR) weeds. Diversification in crop systems and weed management practices can enhance farmland biodiversity, and reduce the risk of weeds evolving herbicide resistance. Therefore, HT crops are most effective and sustainable as a component of an integrated weed management (IWM) system. IWM advocates the use of multiple effective strategies or tactics to manage weed populations in a manner that is economically and environmentally sound. In practice, however, the potential benefits of IWM with HT crops are seldom realized because a wide range of technical and socio-economic factors hamper the transition to IWM. Here, we discuss the major factors that limit the integration of HT crops and their associated farm management practices in IWM systems. Based on the experience gained in countries where CHT or GMHT crops are widely grown and the increased familiarity with their management, we propose five actions to facilitate the integration of HT crops in IWM systems within the European Union.

  7. Using a centralised database system and server in the European Union Framework Programme 7 project SEPServer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heynderickx, Daniel

    2012-07-01

    The main objective of the SEPServer project (EU FP7 project 262773) is to produce a new tool, which greatly facilitates the investigation of solar energetic particles (SEPs) and their origin: a server providing SEP data, related electromagnetic (EM) observations and analysis methods, a comprehensive catalogue of the observed SEP events, and educational/outreach material on solar eruptions. The project is coordinated by the University of Helsinki. The project will combine data and knowledge from 11 European partners and several collaborating parties from Europe and US. The datasets provided by the consortium partners are collected in a MySQL database (using the ESA Open Data Interface under licence) on a server operated by DH Consultancy, which also hosts a web interface providing browsing, plotting and post-processing and analysis tools developed by the consortium, as well as a Solar Energetic Particle event catalogue. At this stage of the project, a prototype server has been established, which is presently undergoing testing by users inside the consortium. Using a centralized database has numerous advantages, including: homogeneous storage of the data, which eliminates the need for dataset specific file access routines once the data are ingested in the database; a homogeneous set of metadata describing the datasets on both a global and detailed level, allowing for automated access to and presentation of the various data products; standardised access to the data in different programming environments (e.g. php, IDL); elimination of the need to download data for individual data requests. SEPServer will, thus, add value to several space missions and Earth-based observations by facilitating the coordinated exploitation of and open access to SEP data and related EM observations, and promoting correct use of these data for the entire space research community. This will lead to new knowledge on the production and transport of SEPs during solar eruptions and facilitate the

  8. Potential of extensification of European agriculture for a more sustainable food system, focusing on nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Grinsven, Hans J. M.; Willem Erisman, Jan; de Vries, Wim; Westhoek, Henk

    2015-02-01

    Most global strategies for future food security focus on sustainable intensification of production of food and involve increased use of nitrogen fertilizer and manure. The external costs of current high nitrogen (N) losses from agriculture in the European Union, are 0.3-1.9% of gross domestic product (GDP) in 2008. We explore the potential of sustainable extensification for agriculture in the EU and The Netherlands by analysing cases and scenario studies focusing on reducing N inputs and livestock densities. Benefits of extensification are higher local biodiversity and less environmental pollution and therefore less external costs for society. Extensification also has risks such as a reduction of yields and therewith a decrease of the GDP and farm income and a smaller contribution to the global food production, and potentially an i0ncrease of global demand for land. We demonstrate favourable examples of extensification. Reducing the N fertilization rate for winter wheat in Northwest Europe to 25-30% below current N recommendations accounts for the external N cost, but requires action to compensate for a reduction in crop yield by 10-20%. Dutch dairy and pig farmers changing to less intensive production maintain or even improve farm income by price premiums on their products, and/or by savings on external inputs. A scenario reducing the Dutch pig and poultry sector by 50%, the dairy sector by 20% and synthetic N fertilizer use by 40% lowers annual N pollution costs by 0.2-2.2 billion euro (40%). This benefit compensates for the loss of GDP in the primary sector but not in the supply and processing chain. A 2030 scenario for the EU27 reducing consumption and production of animal products by 50% (demitarean diet) reduces N pollution by 10% and benefits human health. This diet allows the EU27 to become a food exporter, while reducing land demand outside Europe in 2030 by more than 100 million hectares (2%), which more than compensates increased land demand when

  9. Potential of extensification of European agriculture for a more sustainable food system, focusing on nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Grinsven, Hans J M; Westhoek, Henk; Erisman, Jan Willem; De Vries, Wim

    2015-01-01

    Most global strategies for future food security focus on sustainable intensification of production of food and involve increased use of nitrogen fertilizer and manure. The external costs of current high nitrogen (N) losses from agriculture in the European Union, are 0.3–1.9% of gross domestic product (GDP) in 2008. We explore the potential of sustainable extensification for agriculture in the EU and The Netherlands by analysing cases and scenario studies focusing on reducing N inputs and livestock densities. Benefits of extensification are higher local biodiversity and less environmental pollution and therefore less external costs for society. Extensification also has risks such as a reduction of yields and therewith a decrease of the GDP and farm income and a smaller contribution to the global food production, and potentially an i0ncrease of global demand for land. We demonstrate favourable examples of extensification. Reducing the N fertilization rate for winter wheat in Northwest Europe to 25–30% below current N recommendations accounts for the external N cost, but requires action to compensate for a reduction in crop yield by 10–20%. Dutch dairy and pig farmers changing to less intensive production maintain or even improve farm income by price premiums on their products, and/or by savings on external inputs. A scenario reducing the Dutch pig and poultry sector by 50%, the dairy sector by 20% and synthetic N fertilizer use by 40% lowers annual N pollution costs by 0.2–2.2 billion euro (40%). This benefit compensates for the loss of GDP in the primary sector but not in the supply and processing chain. A 2030 scenario for the EU27 reducing consumption and production of animal products by 50% (demitarean diet) reduces N pollution by 10% and benefits human health. This diet allows the EU27 to become a food exporter, while reducing land demand outside Europe in 2030 by more than 100 million hectares (2%), which more than compensates increased land demand when

  10. Current design of the European TBM systems and implications on DEMO breeding blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricapito; Calderoni, P. [Fusion for Energy, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Aiello, A. [ENEA, Bacino del Brasimone, I-40032 Camugnano, Bo (Italy); Ghidersa, B. [Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Poitevin, Y.; Pacheco, J. [Fusion for Energy, 08019 Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Description of the Helium Cooling Systems of HCLL and HCPB-TBS after the Conceptual Design Review. • Description of the PbLi loop of HCLL-TBS after the Conceptual Design Review. • Description of the possible ROX (Return of Experience) from design and operation of the Test Blanket Systems. • Discussion on the DEBO relevancy of the main technologies adopted in the Helium Cooling Systems and PbLi loop. - Abstract: Europe is committed in developing the design of the two Test Blanket Systems (TBS) based on HCLL (Helium Cooled Lithium Lead) and HCPB (Helium Cooled Pebble Bed) breeding blanket (BB) concepts. The complexity of the TBS design comes not only from the innovative fabrication technologies and materials adopted for Test Blanket Modules (TBM) but also from the requirements and functions that the TBM ancillary systems have to satisfy and implement. Indeed, the main TBM ancillary systems, namely the Helium Cooling System, the Coolant Purification System and Tritium Extraction System, all belonging to the Safety Important Class (SIC), have to implement fundamental functions, like the transport of the surface and volumetric heat from the TBM to the heat sink, the extraction and processing of the tritium generated in the TBM, the confinement of radioactive inventory, the support to the investment protection and safety functions. On top of the full compliance with the ITER safety principles, the design of the TBM systems is focused on providing high operational reliability and availability not to jeopardize ITER program and, at the same time, also a good operational flexibility to make possible the achievement of the main TBM scientific objectives. This paper gives an overview of the design status of the HCLL and HCPB-TBM (ancillary) systems, updated to the conclusion of the conceptual design phase (CDR). The most relevant technologies, the still open points, the main issues related to the integration in ITER and last relevant results from the on

  11. Analyzing resilience with communicative systems theory an example from European fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Douglas Clyde; Jacobsen, Rikke Becker

    2013-01-01

    The present paper argues that our understanding of the resilience of social-ecological systems can be improved by considering “communicative resilience” based on Communicative Systems Theory, which focuses on communicative action oriented to achieving mutual understandings. It further argues...... that it is possible to theorise and analyse resilience within complex social-ecological systems from this communicative perspective in a way that is very different from, but complementary to, agent-based approaches focussed on incentives. The paper presents data from multispecies mixed fisheries in Europe...

  12. The european Laboratory for particle physics uses a new documental system created by a UGR researcher

    CERN Multimedia

    Ruiz, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    "The growing digitalization of traditional libraries and the increase of scientific production, like in the fields of high energies physics, have leaded to consider the manual indexing systems to be obsolete, as they are unviable in practice." (1 page)

  13. 16th East-European Conference on Advances in Databases and Information Systems (ADBIS 2012)

    CERN Document Server

    Wojciechowski, Marek; New Trends in Databases and Information Systems

    2013-01-01

    Database and information systems technologies have been rapidly evolving in several directions over the past years. New types and kinds of data, new types of applications and information systems to support them raise diverse challenges to be addressed. The so-called big data challenge, streaming data management and processing, social networks and other complex data analysis, including semantic reasoning into information systems supporting for instance trading, negotiations, and bidding mechanisms are just some of the emerging research topics. This volume contains papers contributed by six workshops: ADBIS Workshop on GPUs in Databases (GID 2012), Mining Complex and Stream Data (MCSD'12), International Workshop on Ontologies meet Advanced Information Systems (OAIS'2012), Second Workshop on Modeling Multi-commodity Trade: Data models and processing (MMT'12), 1st ADBIS Workshop on Social Data Processing (SDP'12), 1st ADBIS Workshop on Social and Algorithmic Issues in Business Support (SAIBS), and the Ph.D. Conso...

  14. The impacts of football point systems on the competitive balance: evidence from some European footbal leagues

    OpenAIRE

    HALICIOGLU, Ferda

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. – 1. Outcome of uncertainty and competitive balance in professional team sports. – 2. Measurement of competitive balance in professional team sports. – 3. Football point systems and competitive balance: empirical evidence . – 4. Some concluding remarks.

  15. The impact of football point systems on the competitive balance: evidence from some european football leagues

    OpenAIRE

    Ferda Halicioglu

    2006-01-01

    Introduction - 1 Outcome of uncertainty and competitive balance in professional team sports - 2 Measurement of competitive balance in professional team sports - 3 Football point systems and competitive balance: empirical evidence - 4. Concluding remarks

  16. Multi-agent simulation of competitive electricity markets: Autonomous systems cooperation for European market modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Gabriel; Pinto, Tiago; Morais, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    The electricity market restructuring, and its worldwide evolution into regional and even continental scales, along with the increasing necessity for an adequate integration of renewable energy sources, is resulting in a rising complexity in power systems operation. Several power system simulators...... have been developed in recent years with the purpose of helping operators, regulators, and involved players to understand and deal with this complex and constantly changing environment. The main contribution of this paper is given by the integration of several electricity market and power system models......, respecting to the reality of different countries. This integration is done through the development of an upper ontology which integrates the essential concepts necessary to interpret all the available information. The continuous development of Multi-Agent System for Competitive Electricity Markets platform...

  17. The role of facts and HVDC in the future pan-European transmission system development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L'Abbate, A.; Migliavacca, G.; Hager, U.; Rehtanz, C.; Ruberg, S.; Lopes Ferreira, H.M.; Fulli, G.; Purvins, A.

    2010-01-01

    The present paper focuses on FACTS (Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System) and HVDC (High Voltage Direct Current) transmission technologies. Particular attention is paid to different specific technical, economic and environmental features of these power electronics-based devices. Final

  18. Analysis of air safety in the European system of air traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.Є. Луппо

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available  Article describes air traffic safety provision requirements in the Air Traffic Management system of Europe. Consideration of air traffic variation which affecting the air traffic management operations have been reviewed.

  19. Cross-cutting european thermal-hydraulics research for innovative nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roelofs, F.; Class, A.; Cheng, X.; Meloni, P.; Van Tichelen, K.; Boudier, P.; Prasser, M.

    2010-01-01

    Thermal-hydraulics is recognized as a key scientific subject in the development of different innovative nuclear reactor systems. From the thermal-hydraulic point of view, different innovative reactors are mainly characterized by their coolants (gas, water, liquid metals and molten salt). This results in different micro- and macroscopic behavior of flow and heat transfer and requires specific models and advanced analysis tools. However, many common thermal-hydraulic issues are identified among various innovative nuclear systems. In Europe, such cross-cutting thermal-hydraulic issues are the subject of the 7. framework programme THINS (Thermal-Hydraulics of Innovative Nuclear Systems) project which runs from 2010 until 2014. This paper will describe the activities in this project which address the main identified thermal hydraulics issues for innovative nuclear systems. (authors)

  20. Success Factors of European Syndromic Surveillance Systems: A Worked Example of Applying Qualitative Comparative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemann, Alexandra; Fouillet, Anne; Brand, Helmut; Krafft, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Syndromic surveillance aims at augmenting traditional public health surveillance with timely information. To gain a head start, it mainly analyses existing data such as from web searches or patient records. Despite the setup of many syndromic surveillance systems, there is still much doubt about the benefit of the approach. There are diverse interactions between performance indicators such as timeliness and various system characteristics. This makes the performance assessment of syndromic surveillance systems a complex endeavour. We assessed if the comparison of several syndromic surveillance systems through Qualitative Comparative Analysis helps to evaluate performance and identify key success factors. We compiled case-based, mixed data on performance and characteristics of 19 syndromic surveillance systems in Europe from scientific and grey literature and from site visits. We identified success factors by applying crisp-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis. We focused on two main areas of syndromic surveillance application: seasonal influenza surveillance and situational awareness during different types of potentially health threatening events. We found that syndromic surveillance systems might detect the onset or peak of seasonal influenza earlier if they analyse non-clinical data sources. Timely situational awareness during different types of events is supported by an automated syndromic surveillance system capable of analysing multiple syndromes. To our surprise, the analysis of multiple data sources was no key success factor for situational awareness. We suggest to consider these key success factors when designing or further developing syndromic surveillance systems. Qualitative Comparative Analysis helped interpreting complex, mixed data on small-N cases and resulted in concrete and practically relevant findings.

  1. A European roadmap for developing accelerator driven systems (ADS) for nuclear waste incineration. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Technical Working Group on ADS

    2001-01-01

    In 1998 the Research Ministers of France, Italy and Spain, set up a Ministers' Advisors Group on the use of accelerator driven systems (ADS) for nuclear waste transmutation. This led to the establishing of a technical working group under the chairmanship of Prof. Carlo Rubbia to identify the critical technical issues and to prepare a 'Roadmap' for a demonstration programme to be performed within 12 years. In the following Roadmap, the technical working group (consisting of representatives from Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and the JRC) has identified the steps necessary to start the construction of an experimental accelerator driven system towards the end of the decade. This is considered as an essential prerequisite to assess the safe and efficient behaviour of such systems for a large-scale deployment for transmutation purposes in the first half of this century. The development and deployment of accelerator driven systems requires three steps: a comprehensive mid- and long-term R and D program, to develop the single elements and components of the system. This includes development of new fuels and fuel cycle systems; planning, design, construction and operation of an Experimental Accelerator Driven System for the demonstration of the concept; planning, design, construction and operation of a large size prototype accelerator driven systems with subsequent large-scale deployment. Following a first phase of R and D focused on the understanding of the basic principles of ADS (already partly underway), the programmes should be streamlined and focused on a practical demonstration of the key issues. These demonstrations should cover high intensity proton accelerators (beam currents in the range 1-20 mA), spallation targets of high power (of power in excess of 1 megawatt), and their effective coupling with a sub-critical core. Cost estimates are taken into account as well as the ADS activities in Japan and USA

  2. Modeling European ruminant production systems: facing the challenges of climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kipling, Richard Philip; Bannink, Andre; Bellocchi, Gianni

    2016-01-01

    Ruminant production systems are important producers of food, support rural communities and culture, and help to maintain a range of ecosystem services including the sequestering of carbon in grassland soils. However, these systems also contribute significantly to climate change through greenhouse...... gas (GHG) emissions, while intensification of production has driven biodiversity and nutrient loss, and soil degradation. Modeling can offer insights into the complexity underlying the relationships between climate change, management and policy choices, food production, and the maintenance...... of ecosystem services. This paper 1) provides an overview of how ruminant systems modeling supports the efforts of stakeholders and policymakers to predict, mitigate and adapt to climate change and 2) provides ideas for enhancing modeling to fulfil this role. Many grassland models can predict plant growth...

  3. Application and sensitivity testing of a eutrophication assessment method on coastal systems in the United States and European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, João Gomes; Bricker, Suzanne B; Simas, Teresa Castro

    2007-03-01

    The Assessment of Estuarine Trophic Status (ASSETS) screening model has been extended to allow its application to both estuarine and coastal systems. The model, which combines elements of pressure, state and response, was tested on four systems: Maryland Coastal Bays and Long Island Sound in the United States and The Firth of Clyde (Scotland) and Tagus Estuary (Portugal) in the European Union. The overall scores were: Maryland Coastal Bays: Bad; Firth of Clyde: Poor; Tagus Estuary: Good. Long Island Sound was modelled along a timeline, using 1991 data (score: Bad) and 2002 data (score: Moderate). The improvement registered for Long Island Sound is a consequence of the reduction in nutrient loading, and the ASSETS score changed accordingly. The two main areas where developments are needed are (a) In the definition of type-specific ranges for eutrophication parameters, due to the recognition that natural or pristine conditions may vary widely, and the use of a uniform set of thresholds artificially penalizes some systems and potentially leads to misclassification; (b) In the definition and quantification of measures which will result in an improved state through a change in pressures, as well as in the definition of appropriate metrics through which response may be assessed. One possibility is the use of detailed research models where different response scenarios potentially produce changes in pressure and state. These outputs may be used to drive screening models and analyze the suitability of candidate metrics for evaluating management options.

  4. Microbunch preserving bending system for a helical radiator at the European X-ray Free Electron Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Li

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available At the European X-ray Free Electron Laser there is a planar undulator system under construction called SASE3, which produces intense linearly polarized light in the wavelength range from 0.4–1.6 nm. Nevertheless there is a strong demand for circularly polarized radiation in this wavelength range. An important part of a potential solution is described in this paper. After the planar undulator the electron beam, which is completely bunched, is sent through a suitable radiator. This can be an economically and technically convenient method to generate radiation with polarization properties, which are determined only by the radiator. If in addition a bend is used to separate the light created by the linear SASE3 from that of the radiator, two beam lines may be served, one with planar and one with circular radiation. In this case the light of the helical radiator is not contaminated by the light generated by the planar system. In order to obtain coherent radiation in the radiator, the microbunching of the planar undulator must be preserved throughout the bend. This is the basic problem. In this paper a fundamental, basic study is made. Several solutions for bending systems are presented, whose complexities, wavelength ranges, and debunching effects are different. The expected circular polarization and radiation power by such a bend are simulated for a model radiator.

  5. Selective Europeanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoch Jovanovic, Tamara; Lynggaard, Kennet

    2014-01-01

    and rules. The article examines the reasons for both resistance and selectiveness to Europeanization of the Danish minority policy through a “path dependency” perspective accentuating decision makers’ reluctance to deviate from existing institutional commitments, even in subsequently significantly altered...... political contexts at the European level. We further show how the “translation” of international norms to a domestic context has worked to reinforce the original institutional setup, dating back to the mid-1950s. The translation of European-level minority policy developed in the 1990s and 2000s works most...

  6. Weather hazards and vulnerabilities for the European transport system - a risk panorama. EWENT project D5.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molarius, R.; Leviakangas, P.; Ronty, J.; Oiva, K. (eds.)

    2012-09-15

    This deliverable of EWENT project estimates the risks of extreme weather on European transport system. The main object of work package 5 in EWENT project was to perform a risk analysis based on impact and probability assessments carried out in earlier work packages (WP2-WP3). The results of WP 5 can be used as a starting point when deciding on the risk reduction measures, strategies and policies in the European Union. This deliverable also serves as a background material for the synthesis report (named shortly as Risk Panorama), which will summarise the findings of risk assessment and previous work packages. The methodological approach of EWENT is based on the generic risk management standard (IEC 60300-3-9) and starts with the identification of hazardous extreme weather phenomena, followed by an impact assessment and concluded by mitigation and risk control measures. This report pools the information from EWENT's earlier work packages, such as risk identification and estimation, into a 'risk panorama' and provides a holistic picture on the risks of extreme weather in different parts of Europe and EU transport network. The risk assessment is based on the definition of transport systems' vulnerability to extreme weather events in different countries and on calculations of the most probable causal chains, starting from adverse weather phenomena and ending up with events that pose harmful consequences to the transport systems in different climate regions. The latter part, the probabilistic section, is the hazard analysis. The vulnerability of a particular mode in a particular country is a function of exposure (indicated by transport or freight volumes and population density), susceptibility (infrastructure quality index, indicating overall resilience) and coping capacity (measured by GDP per capita). Hence, we define the extreme weather risk as Risk = hazard times vulnerability = P(negative consequences) times V[f(exposure, susceptibility, coping

  7. Strategies for structuring interdisciplinary education in Systems Biology: an European perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cvijovic, Marija; Höfer, Thomas; Acimovic, Jure; Alberghina, Lilia; Almaas, Eivind; Besozzi, Daniela; Blomberg, Anders; Bretschneider, Till; Cascante, Marta; Collin, Olivier; Atauri, de Pedro; Depner, Cornelia; Dickinson, Robert; Dobrzynski, Maciej; Fleck, C.; Garcia-Ojalvo, Jordi; Gonze, Didier; Hahn, Jens; Hess, Heide Marie; Hollmann, Susanne; Krantz, Marcus; Kummer, Ursula; Lundh, Torbjörn; Martial, Gifta; Martins dos Santos, V.A.P.; Mauer-Oberthür, Angela; Regierer, Babette; Skene, Barbara; Stalidzans, Egils; Stelling, Jörg; Teusink, Bas; Workman, Christopher T.; Hohmann, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Systems Biology is an approach to biology and medicine that has the potential to lead to a better understanding of how biological properties emerge from the interaction of genes, proteins, molecules, cells and organisms. The approach aims at elucidating how these interactions govern biological

  8. European Perspectives on the Adoption of Nonchemical Weed Management in Reduced -Tillage Systems for Arable Crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melander, Bo; Munier-Jolain, Nicolas; Charles, Raphaël

    2013-01-01

    Non-inversion tillage with tine or disc based cultivations prior to crop establishment is the most common way of reducing tillage for arable cropping systems with small grain cereals, oilseed rape and maize in Europe. However, new regulations on pesticide use may hinder further expansion of reduc...

  9. Genetic patterns in European Geometrid Moths revealed by the Barcode Index Number (BIN) System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hausmann, A.; Godfray, H.C.J.; Huemer, J.; Mutane, M.; Rougerie, R.; Nieukerken, van E.J.; Ratnasingham, S.; Hebert, P.D.N.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The geometrid moths of Europe are one of the best investigated insect groups in traditional taxonomy making them an ideal model group to test the accuracy of the Barcode Index Number (BIN) system of BOLD (Barcode of Life Datasystems), a method that supports automated, rapid species

  10. Norway as a Battery for the Future European Power System—Impacts on the Hydropower System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingeborg Graabak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Future power production in Europe is expected to include large shares of variable wind and solar power production. Norway, with approximately half of the hydropower reservoir capacity in Europe, can contribute to balance the variability. The aim of this paper is to assess how such a role may impact the Norwegian hydropower system in terms of production pattern of the plants, changes in reservoir level and water values. The study uses a stochastic optimization and simulation model and analyses an eHighway2050 scenario combined with increases in the hydropower production capacities in Norway. The capacity increases from ca. 31 GW in the present system to 42 and 50 GW respectively. The study uses 75 years with stochastic wind, solar radiation, temperature and inflow data. The results show that the hydropower system is able to partly balance the variable production and significantly reduce the power prices for the analyzed case. The paper shows that some of the power plants utilize their increased capacity, while other plants do not due to hydrological constraints and model limitations. The paper discusses how the modelling can be further improved in order to quantify more of the potential impacts on the future power system.

  11. Can European sustainability and innovation policies accelerate the uptake of product-service systems?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, A.R.; Diaz Lopez, F.J.; Mudgal, S.; Tukker, A.

    2013-01-01

    This review paper presents preliminary results from on-going research on PSS policies in Europe. Despite the apparent potential of product-service systems (PSS) as more profitable, resource efficient and socially responsible, there has seemingly been limited uptake of this type of business model. A

  12. Tax-benefit system and European households with children: East meeting West?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mitchell, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 3 (2011), s. 7-20 ISSN 1583-0608 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB700280901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : family * social policy * tax-benefit system Subject RIV: AE - Management ; Administration

  13. Can European eco-innovation policies accelerate the uptake of product-service systems?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, A.R.; Diaz Lopez, F.J.; Mudgal, S.; Tukker, A.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the apparent potential of product-service systems (PSS) as a more profitable, resource efficient and socially responsible form of eco-innovation, there has seemingly been limited uptake of this type of business model. A current gap in the literature is that most of the available academic

  14. National Registries of Systemic Treatment for Psoriasis and the European 'Psonet' Initiative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lecluse, L. L. A.; Naldi, L.; Stern, R. S.; Spuls, P. I.

    2009-01-01

    About 11 million people suffer from psoriasis in Europe. This chronic condition may have a dramatic impact on quality of life. About 20% of patients may need systemic treatment to effectively control their disease activity. The introduction of biological agents greatly increased the options of

  15. Environmental assessment tools for the evaluation and improvement of European livestock production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halberg, N.; Werf, H.M.G.; Basset-Mens, C.; Dalgaard, P.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Different types of assessment tools have been developed in Europe with the purpose of determining the environmental impact of various livestock production systems at farm level. The assessment tools differ in terms of which environmental objectives are included and how indicators are constructed and

  16. Proceedings of the First European workshop on the ethical dimensions of the radiological protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-12-01

    The System of radiological protection develops gradually integrating advances in knowledge about the effects of radiation, the feedback from its practical implementation in all relevant domains, as well as the evolution of the ethical and social values that shape community life in modern societies. Although there is a long tradition of ICRP to consider such values in the development of its Recommendations, there is a need to make them explicit. This should facilitate the understanding of the system for specialists and non-specialists in radiological protection and allow a renewed dialogue on its foundations, its objectives and rationality. It should also encourage the emergence of informed behaviours in society vis-a-vis radiations. In this perspective, ICRP has initiated a reflection in the recent years on the ethical dimensions of the radiological protection system. This reflection has highlighted the links between the fundamental principles of radiation protection (justification, optimization, limitation) and the theories of normative ethics. The recommendations of the Commission are designed to respect individual rights (deontological ethics), to promote the collective interest (utilitarian ethics) and favour vigilance and equity (virtue ethics). This reflection it also identified the interest for the analysis of the radiological protection system to distinguish the ethical values defining the standards by which action should be taken, the ethical procedures for integrating these values in decision making and in the implementation of the decisions, and the ethical behaviour corresponding to the values that are supposed to guide the conduct of the various actors. Because the radiation protection system is intended to be international, the reflection also emphasized the importance of promoting through the Recommendations, values common to different cultures such as autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence and justice. The objective of the Workshop is to explore

  17. A MACROPRUDENTIAL SUPERVISION MODEL. EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM THE CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN BANKING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trenca Ioan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the positive effects of the financial crises is the increasing concern of the supervisors regarding the financial system’s stability. There is a need to strengthen the links between different financial components of the financial system and the macroeconomic environment. Banking systems that have an adequate capitalization and liquidity level may face easier economic and financial shocks. The purpose of this empirical study is to identify the main determinants of the banking system’s stability and soundness in the Central and Eastern Europe countries. We asses the impact of different macroeconomic variables on the quality of capital and liquidity conditions and examine the behaviour of these financial stability indicators, by analyzing a sample of 10 banking systems during 2000-2011. The availability of banking capital signals the banking system’s resiliency to shocks. Capital adequacy ratio is the main indicator used to assess the banking fragility. One of the causes of the 2008-2009 financial crisis was the lack of liquidity in the banking system which led to the collapse of several banking institutions and macroeconomic imbalances. Given the importance of liquidity for the banking system, we propose several models in order to determine the macroeconomic variables that have a significant influence on the liquid reserves to total assets ratio. We found evidence that GDP growth, inflation, domestic credit to private sector, as well as the money and quasi money aggregate indicator have significant impact on the banking stability. The empirical regression confirms the high level of interdependence of the real sector with the financial-banking sector. Also, they prove the necessity for an effective macro prudential supervision at country level which enables the supervisory authorities to have an adequate control over the macro prudential indicators and to take appropriate decisions at the right time.

  18. Normalization references for USEtoxTM-based toxic impact categories: North American and European economic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurent, Alexis; Lautier, Anne; Rosenbaum, Ralph K.

    2011-01-01

    economic regions, North America and Europe, to calculate normalization references for the three currently-modelled USEtoxTM-based impact categories, i.e. freshwater ecotoxicity, human toxicity, divided into cancer effects and non-cancer effects. Base years for the references are 2004 for Europe and 2006...... coverage of organics in both the inventory and the CF databases. With respect to the intended global character of the USEtoxTM model, different approaches to determine normalization references of other economic systems (e.g. Asia or world) are discussed in relation to these findings. Overall, we thus...... recommend the use of the provided set of normalization references for USEtoxTM, but we also advocate 1) to perform an update as soon as a more comprehensive inventory can be obtained and as soon as characterization factors for metals are revised; 2) to consider extension to other economic systems in order...

  19. RE-Europe, a large-scale dataset for modeling a highly renewable European electricity system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tue Vissing; Pinson, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    , we describe a dedicated large-scale dataset for a renewable electric power system. The dataset combines a transmission network model, as well as information for generation and demand. Generation includes conventional generators with their technical and economic characteristics, as well as weather-driven...... to the evaluation, scaling analysis and replicability check of a wealth of proposals in, e.g., market design, network actor coordination and forecastingof renewable power generation....

  20. Evaluation of European District Heating Systems for Application to Army Installations in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    of the conurbation, the effectiveness of the investments as well as the plant’s management and the owner’s return requirements ( Energia 2004...37 p. Design Manual of ThermoNet Systems. 32 p. (In Finnish). ECONET Manual. 2005. Fläktwoods. Energia 2004. Energy year 2004. “District Heating...Pulliainen, K. 2005. Helsingin Energia . Oral source. Seppänen, O. 1995. ISBN 951-97233-1-5. Heating of Buildings. Publisher Suomen LVI- yhdistyken

  1. Improving accuracy in road safety data exchange for navigation systems: European Union Location Framework Transportation Pilot

    OpenAIRE

    BORZACCHIELLO MARIA TERESA; BOGUSLAWSKI RAYMOND; PIGNATELLI Francesco

    2016-01-01

    In the near future, the travel experience for drivers will radically change from what they were used to a decade ago: advanced safety systems will guide drivers and help reduce road accidents; built-in vehicle sensors will detect road and traffic conditions and adapt the behaviour of the vehicle; automatic control of the engine will enable the reduction of emissions and contribute to the objective of decarbonisation of transport. All this will be possible thanks to the application of Informat...

  2. IS THE ROMANIAN BANKING SYSTEM INTEGRATED INTO THE EUROPEAN ONE? A MONEY MARKET PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    LOVIN Horatiu

    2012-01-01

    The study aims to analyze contagion risk from euro area money market to the Romanian one since the onset of global financial crisis (October 2008). Most banks in Romania are owned by financial institutions located into euro area, resulting in a strong connection between the two banking systems. The empirical results reveal linkages between the euro area money market and the Romanian one, but also partial decoupling during the sovereign debt crisis within euro area, when volatility jumped on e...

  3. Bioenergy for District Bioheating System (DBS) from eucalyptus residues in a European coal-producing region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paredes-Sánchez, José P.; López-Ochoa, Luis M.; López-González, Luis M.; Xiberta-Bernat, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The paper introduces a combined method to evaluate bioenergy. • Forest biomass needs to be studied as a fuel supplier and carbon sink. • The forests under study produce about 28 kt dry and 0.15 Mt CO 2 per year. • Examined a District Bioheating System (DBS) with the available biomass. - Abstract: Since forest biomass can substitute for CO 2 -emitting fossil fuels in the energy sector, forest management can greatly affect the global carbon cycle. Eucalyptus globulus has adapted very well in the coal region of the Principality of Asturias (Northwestern Spain) and has become highly regarded as a valuable raw material for the pulp and paper industry. In the present work, the Eucalyptus globulus is studied as a key natural energy source in order to improve existing methods and develop new ways of optimizing the evaluation and use of both forest biomass and woody residue in energy systems, in accordance with sustainable forestry industry safety and environmental requirements. The feasibility of utilizing forest biomass instead of natural gas in a District Bioheating System (DBS) has been examined based on an analysis of its economical and environmental impacts.

  4. THE BANKING UNION – THE SOLUTION TO REDUCE THE EUROPEAN BANKING SYSTEM RISKS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALINA LIGIA DUMITRESCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The banking union has been seen as "a panacea" for solving the system risks of the EU banking system. This paper objectives are to find out if is the banking union, with is strong and week sides, will be right answer to solve the actual issues that EU banking system has as: the fragmentation in the EU single market, the deterioration in asset quality, the need for recapitalization and the quality of banks’ loan portfolios. According with most of the experts the banking union will strength the process of economic integration. On the other side, the non-euro area member states are questioning about "equal rights and obligations for all Member States" inside the banking union. But, with all pros and cons of the banking union, the ECB's making decisions and tasks can be questioned, although its role of supervisor can not be disputed. The most important thing is that the banking union breaks the vicious circle between banks and sovereign debts, and ends "to big to fail"

  5. Soil food web properties explain ecosystem services across European land use systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Franciska T; Thébault, Elisa; Liiri, Mira; Birkhofer, Klaus; Tsiafouli, Maria A; Bjørnlund, Lisa; Bracht Jørgensen, Helene; Brady, Mark Vincent; Christensen, Søren; de Ruiter, Peter C; d'Hertefeldt, Tina; Frouz, Jan; Hedlund, Katarina; Hemerik, Lia; Hol, W H Gera; Hotes, Stefan; Mortimer, Simon R; Setälä, Heikki; Sgardelis, Stefanos P; Uteseny, Karoline; van der Putten, Wim H; Wolters, Volkmar; Bardgett, Richard D

    2013-08-27

    Intensive land use reduces the diversity and abundance of many soil biota, with consequences for the processes that they govern and the ecosystem services that these processes underpin. Relationships between soil biota and ecosystem processes have mostly been found in laboratory experiments and rarely are found in the field. Here, we quantified, across four countries of contrasting climatic and soil conditions in Europe, how differences in soil food web composition resulting from land use systems (intensive wheat rotation, extensive rotation, and permanent grassland) influence the functioning of soils and the ecosystem services that they deliver. Intensive wheat rotation consistently reduced the biomass of all components of the soil food web across all countries. Soil food web properties strongly and consistently predicted processes of C and N cycling across land use systems and geographic locations, and they were a better predictor of these processes than land use. Processes of carbon loss increased with soil food web properties that correlated with soil C content, such as earthworm biomass and fungal/bacterial energy channel ratio, and were greatest in permanent grassland. In contrast, processes of N cycling were explained by soil food web properties independent of land use, such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and bacterial channel biomass. Our quantification of the contribution of soil organisms to processes of C and N cycling across land use systems and geographic locations shows that soil biota need to be included in C and N cycling models and highlights the need to map and conserve soil biodiversity across the world.

  6. European monitoring systems and data for assessing environmental and climate impacts on human infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Gordon L; Andersson, Yvonne; Lindgren, Elisabet; Devaux, Isabelle; Semenza, Jan C

    2014-04-09

    Surveillance is critical to understanding the epidemiology and control of infectious diseases. The growing concern over climate and other drivers that may increase infectious disease threats to future generations has stimulated a review of the surveillance systems and environmental data sources that might be used to assess future health impacts from climate change in Europe. We present an overview of organizations, agencies and institutions that are responsible for infectious disease surveillance in Europe. We describe the surveillance systems, tracking tools, communication channels, information exchange and outputs in light of environmental and climatic drivers of infectious diseases. We discuss environmental and climatic data sets that lend themselves to epidemiological analysis. Many of the environmental data sets have a relatively uniform quality across EU Member States because they are based on satellite measurements or EU funded FP6 or FP7 projects with full EU coverage. Case-reporting systems for surveillance of infectious diseases should include clear and consistent case definitions and reporting formats that are geo-located at an appropriate resolution. This will allow linkage to environmental, social and climatic sources that will enable risk assessments, future threat evaluations, outbreak management and interventions to reduce disease burden.

  7. ELSY. European LFR activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alemberti, Alessandro; Carlsson, Johan; Malambu, Edouard; Orden, Alfredo; Cinotti, Luciano; Struwe, Dankward; Agostini, Pietro; Monti, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    The European Lead Fast Reactor has been developed in the frame of the European lead system (ELSY) project funded by the Sixth Framework Programme of EURATOM. The project, coordinated by Ansaldo Nucleare, involved a wide consortium of European organizations. The ELSY reference design is a 600 MWe pool-type reactor cooled by pure lead. The project demonstrates the possibility of designing a competitive and safe fast critical reactor using simple engineered technical features, whilst fully complying with the Generation IV goals. The paper focuses on the main aspects of the proposed design for the European lead fast reactor highlighting the innovation of this reactor concept and overall objectives. Special attention has been dedicated to safety starting from the first step of the design development taking into account other important aspects, such as the investment protection, the compactness of the primary system as well as sustainability. The main safety features of the proposed innovative decay heat removal (DHR) systems are presented. From the beginning of 2010, and for a duration of three years, the European Commission (EC) is financing the new project Lead European Advanced Demonstration Reactor (LEADER) as part of the 7th Framework Program. This paper highlights the main objectives of the LEADER project. (author)

  8. European Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Bjørn

    Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"......Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"...

  9. An introduction to the European Hydrological SystemSysteme Hydrologique Europeen, ``SHE'', 2: Structure of a physically-based, distributed modelling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, M. B.; Bathurst, J. C.; Cunge, J. A.; O'Connell, P. E.; Rasmussen, J.

    1986-10-01

    The paper forms the second part of an introduction to the SHE, a physically-based, distributed catchment modelling system produced jointly by the Danish Hydraulic Institute, the British Institute of Hydrology and SOGREAH (France) with the financial support of the Commission of the European Communities. The SHE is physically-based in the sense that the hydrological processes of water movement are modelled either by finite difference representations of the partial differential equations of mass, momentum and energy conservation, or by empirical equations derived from independent experimental research. Spatial distribution of catchment parameters, rainfall input and hydrological response is achieved in the horizontal by an orthogonal grid network and in the vertical by a column of horizontal layers at each grid square. Each of the primary processes of the land phase of the hydrological cycle is modelled in a separate component as follows: interception, by the Rutter accounting procedure; evapotranspiration, by the Penman-Monteith equation; overland and channel flow, by simplifications of the St. Venant equations; unsaturated zone flow, by the one-dimensional Richards equation; saturated zone flow, by the two-dimensional Boussinesq equation; snowmelt, by an energy budget method. Overall control of the parallel running of the components and the information exchanges between them is managed by a FRAME component. Careful attention has been devoted to a modular construction so that improvements or additional components (e.g. water quality and sediment yield) can be added in the future. Considerable operating flexibility is provided through the ability to vary the level of sophistication of the calculation mode to match the availability or quality of the data.

  10. European Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    The European Community was established in 1951 to reconcile France and Germany after World War II and to make possible the eventual federation of Europe. By 1986, there were 12 member countries: France, Italy, Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Denmark, Ireland, the United Kingdom, Greece, Spain, and Portugal. Principal areas of concern are internal and external trade, agriculture, monetary coordination, fisheries, common industrial and commercial policies, assistance, science and research, and common social and regional policies. The European Community has a budget of US$34.035 billion/year, funded by customs duties and 1.4% of each member's value-added tax. The treaties establishing the European Community call for members to form a common market, a common customs tariff, and common agricultural, transport, economic, and nuclear policies. Major European Community institutions include the Commission, Council of Ministers, European Parliament, Court of Justice, and Economic and Social Committee. The Community is the world's largest trading unit, accounting for 15% of world trade. The 2 main goals of the Community's industrial policy are to create an open internal market and to promote technological innovation in order to improve international competitiveness. The European Community aims to contribute to the economic and social development of Third World countries as well.

  11. Calibration of gamma camera systems for a multicentre European ¹²³I-FP-CIT SPECT normal database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tossici-Bolt, Livia; Dickson, John C; Sera, Terez

    2011-01-01

    A joint initiative of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) Neuroimaging Committee and EANM Research Ltd. aimed to generate a European database of [(123)I]FP-CIT single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scans of healthy controls. This study describes the characterization...

  12. Hydrological deformation signals in karst systems: new evidence from the European Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpelloni, E.; Pintori, F.; Gualandi, A.; Scoccimarro, E.; Cavaliere, A.; Anderlini, L.; Belardinelli, M. E.; Todesco, M.

    2017-12-01

    The influence of rainfall on crustal deformation has been described at local scales, using tilt and strain meters, in several tectonic settings. However, the literature on the spatial extent of rainfall-induced deformation is still scarce. We analyzed 10 years of displacement time-series from 150 continuous GPS stations operating across the broad zone of deformation accommodating the N-S Adria-Eurasia convergence and the E-ward escape of the Eastern Alps toward the Pannonian basin. We applied a blind-source-separation algorithm based on a variational Bayesian Independent Component Analysis method to the de-trended time-series, being able to characterize the temporal and spatial features of several deformation signals. The most important ones are a common mode annual signal, with spatially uniform response in the vertical and horizontal components and a time-variable, non-cyclic, signal characterized by a spatially variable response in the horizontal components, with stations moving (up to 8 mm) in the opposite directions, reversing the sense of movement in time. This implies a succession of extensional/compressional strains, with variable amplitudes through time, oriented normal to rock fractures in karst areas. While seasonal displacements in the vertical component (with an average amplitude of 4 mm over the study area) are satisfactorily reproduced by surface hydrological loading, estimated from global assimilation models, the non seasonal signal is associated with groundwater flow in karst systems, and is mainly influencing the horizontal component. The temporal evolution of this deformation signal is correlated with cumulated precipitation values over periods of 200-300 days. This horizontal deformation can be explained by pressure changes associated with variable water levels within vertical fractures in the vadose zones of karst systems, and the water level changes required to open or close these fractures are consistent with the fluctuations of precipitation

  13. The System of Public Acquisitions by Means of Electronic Bids in the Light of European Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costantin Roman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available E-commerce can lead in many different ways to cost reduction in case of a supplier and can subsequently increase the competition potential of a company. As for the competition mechanism, such changes produce significant modifications within a market economy. The Internet renders the possibility of creating business contacts in a rapid and geographically independent manner, as well as possibilities of obtaining data and realizing transactions within the world’s economy. Public acquisitions by means of dynamic systems and electronic bids are currently one of the significant areas of electronic commerce.

  14. Improvement of the Performance of Scheduled Stepwise Power Programme Changes within the European Power System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welfonder, E.; Weissbach, T.; Schulz, U.

    2008-01-01

    Since the deregulation of the electrical energy market, the technical realisation of power transactions based on energy market contracts often effects large stepwise power programme changes – especially at the change of the hour. Due to mainly economic reasons these stepwise power programme changes...... extended discussions with power plant and power system operators as well as with power plant dispatchers the described issues will be adopted into a VGB-recommendation which shall be published by VGB Powertech for Germany and Europe. Subsequently, it is intended to include the main elements of the VGB...

  15. The quality management system at the European tritium handling experimental laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dizadji, F.; Ferrario, L.

    1992-01-01

    The main limitations of conventional Quality Assurance (QA) are discussed with reference to the operational phase of a radio-chemical research laboratory. The paper suggests a broader approach utilizing a Quality Management System (QMS) which focuses on the operational efficiency of a R ampersand D organization in terms of reliability, reproducibility, cost effectiveness and safety. The management's role is presented with particular reference to the best fit of managerial style to the organization's mission, culture, personnel and surrounding environment. Qt. QMS policies and QA criteria are suggested for ETHEL to replace conventional QA requirements. Finally, guidelines for designing the ETHEL organizational structure are discussed

  16. Efficient integration of renewable energy into future energy systems. Development of European energy infrastructures in the period 2030 to 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funk, Carolin; Uhlig, Jeanette; Zoch, Immo (eds.)

    2011-10-15

    In consideration of strategic climate mitigation, energy security and economic competitiveness goals, the EU passed the Directive 2009/28/EC, including a binding target of 20 per cent renewable energy consumption in the EU by 2020. This target is comprehensive and includes energy generation, transport, heating and cooling sectors. In 2008, renewable energy consumption in the EU was about 10 per cent. So meeting the 20 per cent renewable energy objective will require massive changes in energy production, transmission and consumption in the EU. Furthermore, it is obvious that the development of the energy system will not stop in 2020, but that it will continue towards 2050 and beyond. Over the past century, the European electricity system was developed in line with a national utilit y perspective which heavily emphasised large, centralised conventional power production. Investment decisions for new energy infrastructure and technology were typically made at the national level. In the future, much more energy production will be based on local or regional renewable energy sources (RES). Many consumers may also become energy producers feeding into the infrastructures. Transnational energy transfers will gain in importance. These changes will require very different electricity and gas infrastructures and decision-making processes from today. Lack of infrastructure capacity is already a barrier for the further deployment of RES-based energy production in some regions in Europe. (orig.)

  17. Development of a dispatch model of the European power system for coupling with a long-term foresight energy model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despres, Jacques

    2015-12-01

    Renewable sources of electricity production are strongly increasing in many parts of the world. The production costs are going down quickly, thus accelerating the deployment of new solar and wind electricity generation. In the long-term, these variable sources of electricity could represent a high share of the power system. However, long-term foresight energy models have difficulties describing precisely the integration challenges of Variable Renewable Energy Sources (VRES) such as wind or solar. They just do not represent the short-term technical constraints of the power sector. The objective of this paper is to show a new approach of the representation of the challenges of variability in the long-term foresight energy model POLES (Prospective Outlook on Long-term Energy Systems). We develop a short-term optimization model for the power sector operation, EUCAD (European Unit Commitment and Dispatch) and we couple it to POLES year after year. The direct coupling, with bi-directional exchanges of information, brings technical precision to the long-term coherence of energy scenarios. (author)

  18. The European Emission Trading System and competition. Anticompetitive measures beyond reach? An assessment of the grandfathering allocation method and the Performance Standard Rate system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weishaar, S.

    2006-10-01

    The center piece of the European Climate Change Program is the ambitious Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS, Directive 2003/87/EC) which helps Member States to fulfill their Kyoto commitments. It particularly facilitates the old EU 15 Member States to make progress towards meeting their particular greenhouse gas emissions reduction goals committed under the Burden Sharing Agreement. EU Member States have developed national greenhouse gas allowances allocation plans and distributed these allowances to around 5000 operators with approximately 12.000 installations. Differences between allocations can give rise to severe anticompetitive effects. Undue interventions by Member States are largely contained through the application of the four freedoms, while EC Competition law (Articles 81 and 82) is geared to the containment of competitive distortions arising in particular from undue behavior of firms. State involvement in infringements is addressed through Articles 87 (State aid) and 86 (public undertakings) and the 'joint application doctrine' (Articles 10(2), 3(g), 81 and 82) which was developed by the ECJ upon recognition that State measures can undermine the effectiveness of the EC Treaty. The paper examines how anticompetitive distortions originating from Member State action under National Allocation Plans in general and by application of (historical) grandfathering and the (hypothetical) Performance Standard Rate (PSR) allocation format in particular are dealt with under European competition law rules. The PSR System is a relative benchmark system with an intended cap for all participants but without a cap for individual operators. This alternative approach has been developed and is actually in use for the Dutch NOx Emission Trading System. An interdisciplinary industrial economic and competition law framework is chosen to formulate an economic critique. After the introductory part the anticompetitive effects originating in State measures are examined

  19. Differentiating between hospitals according to the "maturity'' of quality improvement systems: a new classification scheme in a sample of European hospitals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombarts, M. J. M. H.; Rupp, I.; Vallejo, P.; Klazinga, N. S.; Suñol, R.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: This study, part of the Methods of Assessing Response to Quality Improvement Strategies (MARQuIS) research project focusing on cross-border patients in Europe, investigated quality policies and improvement in healthcare systems across the European Union (EU). The aim was to develop a

  20. Determination of new European biometric equations for the calibration of in vivo lung counting systems using Livermore phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierrat, N.; Prulhiere, G.; Carlan de, L.; Franck, D.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: In vivo lung measurement is a widely used method for nuclear workers monitoring. This technique consists of assessing retained activity in lungs after an inhalation, by means of an external direct measurement of x- or gamma rays emitted during disintegration of incorporated nuclides. This estimation is always done by comparing the measurement of the subject to the measurement obtained using a physical calibration phantom. However, due to emissions by actinides of x and γ-rays with energies below 200 keV and low emission ratio, calibration of in vivo measurement systems is very delicate, leading to important systematic errors despite the improvements realized in the design of sophisticated phantoms. Moreover, in France, calibration factors for a given subject are generally corrected thanks to biometric equations determining chest wall thickness according to weight/height ratio of the measured person. Nevertheless these equations were determined for a 2, 3 or 6 detectors system in chair geometry and for American subjects, that doesn't represent the geometry encountered in French laboratories. The work presented here is dedicated to the determination of new biometric equations more adapted to the French measurement systems using 4 germanium detectors in bed geometry with a Livermore calibration phantom. These equations were determined on the basis of computed tomography (CT) images of 33 adult males and for energies of 17 and 60 keV (respectively full absorption peaks of 239 Pu and 241 Am). These biometric equations which can be directly converted into Livermore chest thicknesses, were calculated for all kinds of Livermore phantoms: 16 mm and 19 mm torso plate (100 % muscle equivalent) and for all composition of overlay plates (100 % muscle; 50 % muscle-50 % adipose; 13 % muscle-87 % adipose). The obtained results could directly be used in the different European radiobioassay laboratories to improve the calibration of in vivo lung counting systems. (author)

  1. Sentinel 2 MMFU: The first European Mass Memory System Based on NAND-Flash Storage Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staehle, M.; Cassel, M.; Lonsdorfer, U.; Gliem, F.; Walter, D.; Fichna, T.

    2011-08-01

    Sentinel-2 is the multispectral optical mission of the EU-ESA GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) program, currently under development by Astrium-GmbH in Friedrichshafen (Germany) for a launch in 2013. The mission features a 490 Mbit/s optical sensor operating at high duty cycles, requiring in turn a large 2.4 Tbit on-board storage capacity.The required storage capacity motivated the selection of the NAND-Flash technology which was already secured by a lengthy period (2004-2009) of detailed testing, analysis and qualification by Astrium GmbH, IDA and ESTEC. The mass memory system is currently being realized by Astrium GmbH.

  2. The challenge of the abstract mind: symbols, signs and notational systems in European prehistory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Haarmann

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the earliest manifestations of symbolic activity in modern humans (Homo sapiens sapiens in the Upper Palaeolithic, there is evidence for two independent cognitive procedures, for the production of representational images (naturalistic pictures or sculptures and of abstract signs. The use of signs and symbols is attested for archaic humans (Homo neanderthalensis and for Homo erectus while art in naturalistic style is an innovation among modern humans. The symbiotic interaction of the two symbolic capacities is illustrated for the visual heritage of Palaeolithic cave paintings in Southwestern Europe, for rock engravings in the Italian Alps (Val Camonica and for the vivid use of signs and symbols in Southeastern Europe during the Neolithic. Around 5500 BC, sign use in Southeastern Europe reached a sophisticated stage of organization as to produce the earliest writing system of mankind. Since abstractness is the main theme in the visual heritage of the region, this script, not surprisingly, is composed of predominantly abstract signs.

  3. Six calendar systems in the European history from 18^{th} to 20^{th} Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodossiou, Efstratios; Manimanis, Vassilios N.; Dimitrijević, Milan S.

    The following calendar systems, introduced in Europe from 18^{th} to 20^{th} century, which were in use for a shorter or longer period by a larger or smaller community, were reviewed and discussed: The French Revolutionary Calendar, the Theosebic calendar invented by Theophilos Kairis, the Revolutionary Calendar of the Soviet Union (or 'Bolshevik calendar'), the Fascist calendar in Italy and the calendar of the Metaxas dictatorship in Greece before World War II. Also the unique of them, which is still in use, the New Rectified Julian calendar of the Orthodox Church, adopted according to proposition of Milutin Milanković on the Congress of Orthodox Churches in 1923 in Constantinople, is presented and discussed. At the end, difficulties to introduce a new calendar are discussed as well.

  4. The energy system of Central and Eastern European Countries: what does the future hold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locatelli, C.

    1992-01-01

    The countries of Central and Eastern Europe have inherited an energy supply and demand system that was forged by centralized command planning and an administrative-type organization and management mode. The two strongest features of this landscape are without doubt the energy-intensive economic growth and over-investment in the energy sector, that is becoming more and more difficult to sustain in light of declining economic performance. In this context, one of the stakes in the economic transition and reforms is to push for new energy management on both the supply and demand sides. Although the objectives are clear, the ways and means of achieving them are less so, because they depend essentially on the broader economic reform options that are currently in the making

  5. Functioning of the direct subsidies system in Poland and other European Union countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Marks-Bielska

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to present the functioning of the direct subsidies system in Poland. Given the profitable nature of this instrument the particular attention has been paid to the disposal of funds received by agricultural producers in the region of Warmia and Mazury in the form of subsidies. There is no doubt that the direct payments represent an important aid instrument supporting agriculture within the frameworks of the first pillar of the Common Agricultural Policy. The survey revealed that subsidies have significantly contributed to the improvement of financial condition of farms. Funds received in the form of direct payments have been mainly spent on financing current expenditures and to purchase means of production used in the farms (72.88%.

  6. A Decision Support System Based on Soil Ecological Criteria: Results from the European ECOGEN Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortet, J.; Bohanec, M.; ?nidar?ic, M.

    and the public who are concerned about the possible ecological implications. The ECOGEN (www.ecogen.dk) project Soil ecological and economic evaluation of genetically modified crops is an EU-funded project aimed at combining simple lab tests, multi-species model ecosystems and field studies to acquire...... mechanistic and realistic knowledge about economic and ecological impacts of GM crops on the soil (Cortet et al, 2005, Griffiths et al, 2005, Vercesi et al, 2005). Economic trade-offs are assessed and related to ecological effects (Scatasta at al, 2005). One of the goals of the project is to develop...... a computer-based decision support system for the assessment of economic and ecological impacts of using GM crops, with special emphasis on soil biology and ecology. For model development, we have taken the approach of qualitative multi-attribute modeling (Bohanec 2003). The idea is to develop a hierarchical...

  7. Bayesian modelling of the emission spectrum of the Joint European Torus Lithium Beam Emission Spectroscopy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Sehyun; Svensson, J; Brix, M; Ghim, Y-C

    2016-02-01

    A Bayesian model of the emission spectrum of the JET lithium beam has been developed to infer the intensity of the Li I (2p-2s) line radiation and associated uncertainties. The detected spectrum for each channel of the lithium beam emission spectroscopy system is here modelled by a single Li line modified by an instrumental function, Bremsstrahlung background, instrumental offset, and interference filter curve. Both the instrumental function and the interference filter curve are modelled with non-parametric Gaussian processes. All free parameters of the model, the intensities of the Li line, Bremsstrahlung background, and instrumental offset, are inferred using Bayesian probability theory with a Gaussian likelihood for photon statistics and electronic background noise. The prior distributions of the free parameters are chosen as Gaussians. Given these assumptions, the intensity of the Li line and corresponding uncertainties are analytically available using a Bayesian linear inversion technique. The proposed approach makes it possible to extract the intensity of Li line without doing a separate background subtraction through modulation of the Li beam.

  8. Detailed and exhaustive study of the authentication of European virgin olive oils by SEXIA expert system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparicio, R.

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available The authentication of extra virgin olive oils from different regions of Spain, Italy and Portugal, by means of their fatty acids, alcohols, sterols, methyl sterols and hydrocarbons content, has been investigated. Multivariate statistical methods and Evidence's Theory were applied. The comparative study shows greater predictive ability using this theory than the traditional statistical methods or expert systems that do not implement the possibility theory. A detailed and exhaustive study of Italian (Tuscany and Basilicata, Portuguese and Spanish virgin olive oils has been made. Geographically coloured maps of the studied regions are shown to strengthen the numerical results.

    Se ha estudiado la autentificación de aceites de oliva virgen de diferentes regiones de España, Italia y Portugal, por su contenido en ácidos grasos, alcoholes, esteroles, metil esteroles e hidrocarburos. Se aplicaron métodos estadísticos multivariantes junto a la Teoría de la Evidencia. El estudio mostró una mejora en la capacidad predictiva utilizando esta teoría frente a otros métodos o sistemas expertos que no implementan la teoría de la posibilidad. Se ha realizado un estudio detallado y exhaustivo con aceites de oliva virgen italianos (Toscana y Basilicata, portugueses y españoles. Los resultados numéricos se muestran sobre mapas geográficos de las diferentes regiones estudiadas.

  9. Conceptual design of Tritium Extraction System for the European HCPB Test Blanket Module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciampichetti, A.; Nitti, F.S.; Aiello, A.; Ricapito, I.; Liger, K.; Demange, D.; Sedano, L.; Moreno, C.; Succi, M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► HCPB (Helium Cooled Pebble Bed) Test Blanket Module (TBM) to be tested in ITER. ► Tritium extraction by gas purging, removal and transfer to the Tritium Plant. ► Conceptual design of TES and revision of the previous configuration. ► Main components: adsorption column, ZrCo getter beds and PERMCAT reactor. - Abstract: The HCPB (Helium Cooled Pebble Bed) Test Blanket Module (TBM), developed in EU to be tested in ITER, adopts a ceramic containing lithium as breeder material, beryllium as neutron multiplier and helium at 80 bar as primary coolant. In HCPB-TBM the main function of Tritium Extraction System (TES) is to extract tritium from the breeder by gas purging, to remove it from the purge gas and to route it to the ITER Tritium Plant for the final tritium processing. In this paper, starting from a revision of the so far reference process considered for HCPB-TES and considering a new modeling activity aimed to evaluate tritium concentration in purge gas, an updated conceptual design of TES is reported.

  10. From Product to System Approaches in European Sustainable Product Policies: Analysis of the Package Concept of Heating Systems in Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Calero-Pastor

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Different policies with the goal of reducing energy consumption and other environmental impacts in the building sector coexist in Europe. Sustainable product polices, such as the Ecodesign and Energy Labelling Directives, have recently broadened the scope of their target product groups from a strict product approach to extended product and system approaches. Indeed, there is a potential for greater savings when the focus is at a system level rather than on regulating individual products. Product policies for space and water heating systems have recently introduced and implemented the package label, which is a modular approach, standing between the extended product and the system approaches. This paper presents a systematic analysis of the different system approaches of various policies from an engineering perspective. It analyses in detail the package concept and its features through a practical application using a real case study. It focuses on how the package concept can support decisions made in the building design phase and, in particular, how can support the choice of appropriate components based on estimating system performances. This brings building engineers and regulators closer regarding the use of more consistent data on energy performance. Finally, this paper highlights the need to improve the alignment of the building-related product policies with the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive.

  11. Preparing tomorrow's network today: RTE at the crossroads of the European electricity system. Cross-border electricity interconnections Key issues and figures - 2014 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-10-01

    The interconnected electricity transmission network is a key element for ensuring security of supply, the creation of a single market and the integration of renewable energies. RTE and its European partners provide strengthened coordination by the use of interconnections to ensure solidarity between European countries. Interconnections also allow an electricity supplier to sell its energy to a customer located in another country in Europe. They contribute on a European scale to optimising the use of production means and in particular the integration of variable renewable energies. RTE, within the EnTSo-E (European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity), contributes to the publication of a common vision of the future of networks by 2030. The needs for new interconnection capacity are identified in the ten-year European network development plan (TYnDP) on the basis of a cost-benefit analysis. France is interconnected to all its neighbours via many cross-border links. However interconnection capacity with the various countries and its use differ widely. The usage profile of the interconnections is specific to each border and varies according to: - the characteristics of the production mix of each country, and in particular the level of production of renewable energies. - the level of consumption, which depends on the season, the type of day (working or non-working) the time of day, etc. - import and export capacity, which may be different depending on the internal constraints of the networks of each country

  12. European visit

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, (on the right) visited the CMS assembly hall accompanied by Jim Virdee, Deputy Spokesman of CMS (on the left), and Robert Aymar, Director-General of CERN. The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, visited CERN on Tuesday 31 January. He was welcomed by the Director-General, Robert Aymar, who described the missions and current activities of CERN to him, in particular the realisation of the LHC with its three components: accelerator, detectors, storage and processing of data. The European Commissioner then visited the CMS assembly hall, then the hall for testing the LHC magnets and the ATLAS cavern. During this first visit since his appointment at the end of 2004, Janez Potočnik appeared very interested by the operation of CERN, an example of successful scientific co-operation on a European scale. The many projects (30 on average) that CERN and the European Commission carry out jointly for the benefit of res...

  13. Evolving African attitudes to European education: Resistance, pervert effects of the single system paradox, and the ubuntu framework for renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assié-Lumumba, N'Dri Thérèse

    2016-02-01

    This paper is a reflection that critically examines the dynamics of education and the struggle by African people for freedom, control of the mind, self-definition and the right to determine their own destiny from the start of colonial rule to the present. The primary methodological approach is historical structuralism, which stipulates that social reality and facts are determined and created by social agents within structural and historical contingencies. It addresses some of the most powerful challenges and contradictions that explain the ineffectiveness of numerous post-independence reforms, and presents the arguments for relevance and use of African languages, for instance, that have been made since the 1960s. The first section of the paper deals with the colonial imperatives for setting new education systems in the colonised societies of Africa and the initial attitudes of the Africans towards colonial education. The second section critically examines the evolving meanings of Western education in Europeanising African societies, the articulation of their rationale and the mechanism for resistance. It analyses the turning point when Africans began to embrace European education and demand it in the colonial and post-independence era. The third section addresses the roots of the inadequacies of received post-colonial education and the imperative of deconstruction and re-appropriation of African education using an ubuntu framework for an African renewal.

  14. AN APPLE GRADING SYSTEM ACCORDING TO EUROPEAN FRUIT QUALITY STANDARDS USING GABOR FILTER AND ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KEYVAN ASEFPOUR VAKILIAN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of applications of machine learning methods in food engineering in recent decades, several intelligent methods have been introduced in fruit grading technology. In this study, an apple grading system is presented using image’s textural features extraction and artificial intelligence. The objective of this study was to simplify the use of Gabor filter in classification of two varieties of apple fruits (Golden Delicious and Red Delicious in four categories according to the European fruit quality standards. Using this filter, neural network classifier was trained for four category grading of the fruits. Two textural parameters were extracted from each obtained image: mean and variance of energy values of obtained image representing image’s luminous intensity and contrast, respectively. Experimental results indicated that the training of extracted features of about 350 fruits enabled the network to classify the test samples with appropriate accuracy. Compared to the state-of-the-art, the proposed grading categories (‘Extra’, ‘Type 1’, ‘Type 2’ and ‘Rejected’ classes achieved acceptable recognition rates of about 89 % and 92 % overall accuracy for Golden Delicious and Red Delicious varieties, respectively. These experimental results show the appropriate application of proposed method in fast grading of apple fruits. Furthermore, proposed feature extraction and network training methods can be used efficiently in online applications.

  15. Modelling of electricity generation of large interconnected power systems: How can a CO2 tax influence the European generation mix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voorspools, Kris R.; D'haeseleer, William D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses a methodology for detailed modelling of electricity generation of large interconnected power systems in a liberalised market. The resulting model, called E-Simulate, respects the technological restrictions and boundary conditions inherent to power generation and simulates the power generation and cross border trade on an hourly basis and on a power plant level. Nevertheless, E-Simulate is sufficiently flexible, transparent and fast. It is a valid, objective and useful tool in the simulation of the impact of power generation topics in the context of liberalised markets and GHG emission reduction. As a comprehensive example of the use and the strength of E-Simulate, we study the effect of a CO 2 tax on power generation and electricity trade in and between eight interconnected European zones: The Netherlands, Belgium/Luxemburg, France, Germany, Spain, Portugal, Switzerland and Italy. A CO 2 tax of 10 Euro /ton CO 2 causes an overall CO 2 emission reduction of about 6%. We notice an overall increase in gas fired generation and a corresponding reduction of coal and lignite fired generation on a trans-national level. In some zones (The Netherlands, Belgium/Luxemburg and Italy), the emissions will rise. In others (France, Germany and Spain), emissions will decrease. This is a result of the CO 2 tax that not only causes a shift towards fuels with lower carbon content but also, and correspondingly, leads to a redistribution of cross border trade

  16. Which complexity of regional climate system models is essential for downscaling anthropogenic climate change in the Northwest European Shelf?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, Moritz; Elizalde, Alberto; Mikolajewicz, Uwe

    2018-04-01

    Climate change impact studies for the Northwest European Shelf (NWES) make use of various dynamical downscaling strategies in the experimental setup of regional ocean circulation models. Projected change signals from coupled and uncoupled downscalings with different domain sizes and forcing global and regional models show substantial uncertainty. In this paper, we investigate influences of the downscaling strategy on projected changes in the physical and biogeochemical conditions of the NWES. Our results indicate that uncertainties due to different downscaling strategies are similar to uncertainties due to the choice of the parent global model and the downscaling regional model. Downscaled change signals reveal to depend stronger on the downscaling strategy than on the model skills in simulating present-day conditions. Uncoupled downscalings of sea surface temperature (SST) changes are found to be tightly constrained by the atmospheric forcing. The incorporation of coupled air-sea interaction, by contrast, allows the regional model system to develop independently. Changes in salinity show a higher sensitivity to open lateral boundary conditions and river runoff than to coupled or uncoupled atmospheric forcings. Dependencies on the downscaling strategy for changes in SST, salinity, stratification and circulation collectively affect changes in nutrient import and biological primary production.

  17. Comparison of two systemic antifungal agents, itraconazole and terbinafine, for the treatment of dermatophytosis in European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bexton, Steve; Nelson, Helen

    2016-12-01

    Dermatophytosis caused by Trichophyton erinacei is a common scaling and crusting skin disease affecting European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) admitted to wildlife rescue centres. The application of topical therapy can be challenging because wild hedgehogs are subject to stress and often roll into a ball when handled. Systemic antifungal therapy is more convenient but has not been evaluated in this species. To compare the efficacy of oral itraconazole versus oral terbinafine for the treatment of dermatophytosis affecting hedgehogs. A treatment trial was undertaken in a wildlife hospital involving 165 hedgehogs with naturally occurring dermatophytosis. Animals were randomly divided into two groups and treated with either itraconazole or terbinafine orally for 28 days. The therapeutic efficacy was evaluated after 14 and 28 days by mycological culture and clinical dermatological lesion scores. Both drugs were well tolerated and clinically effective. After 14 and 28 days of treatment, the respective mycological cure rate was 36.6% and 65.9% for the itraconazole-treated group and 92.8% and 98.8% for the terbinafine-treated group. Itraconazole and terbinafine were both effective for the treatment of dermatophytosis affecting hedgehogs; however, terbinafine was more effective. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.

  18. Calculation of residual electricity mixes when accounting for the EECS (European Electricity Certificate System) - The need for a harmonised system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raadal, H. L.; Nyland, C. A.; Hanssen, O. J.

    2009-01-01

    According to the Electricity Directive, suppliers of electricity must disclose their electricity portfolio with regards to energy source and environmental impact. This paper gives some examples of disclosure systems and residual electricity mixes in Norway, Sweden and Finland, compared to an approach based on a common regional disclosure. Disclosures based on the E-TRACK standard are presented, as well as the variation in CO 2 emissions from different residual mixes. The results from this study clearly show that there is a need for a harmonised, transparent and reliable system for the accounting of electricity disclosure in Europe. (author)

  19. European hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The European Hadron Facility (EHF) is a project for particle and nuclear physics in the 1990s which would consist of a fast cycling high intensity proton synchrotron of about 30 GeV primary energy and providing a varied spectrum of intense high quality secondary beams (polarized protons, pions, muons, kaons, antiprotons, neutrinos). The physics case of this project has been studied over the last two years by a European group of particle and nuclear physicists (EHF Study Group), whilst the conceptual design for the accelerator complex was worked out (and is still being worked on) by an international group of machine experts (EHF Design Study Group). Both aspects have been discussed in recent years in a series of working parties, topical seminars, and workshops held in Freiburg, Trieste, Heidelberg, Karlsruhe, Les Rasses and Villigen. This long series of meetings culminated in the International Conference on a European Hadron Facility held in Mainz from 10-14 March

  20. Ethics issues in scientific data and service provision: evidence and challenges for the European Plate Observing System (EPOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocco, Massimo; Freda, Carmela; Haslinger, Florian; Consortium, Epos

    2016-04-01

    Addressing Ethics issues is nowadays a relevant challenge for any initiative, program or project dealing with scientific data and products provision, access to services for scientific purposes and communication with different stakeholders, including society. This is corroborated by the evidence that Ethics has very high priority in EU funded research. Indeed, all the activities carried out under Horizon 2020 must comply with ethical principles and national, Union and international legislation. This implies that "For all activities funded by the European Union, Ethics is an integral part of research from beginning to end, and ethical compliance is seen as pivotal to achieve real research excellence." Here, we present the experience of EPOS, a public pan-European research infrastructure. EPOS aims at integrating data, data products, services and software (DDSS) for solid Earth science generated and provided by monitoring networks, observing systems and facilities belonging to European countries. EPOS fosters the integrated use of multidisciplinary solid Earth data to improve the understanding of physical and chemical processes controlling earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis as well as those driving tectonics and surface dynamics. The EPOS integration plan will make significant contributions to understanding and mitigating geo-hazards, yielding data for hazard assessment, data products for engaging different stakeholders, and services for training, education and communication to society. Numerous national research infrastructures engaged in EPOS are deployed for the monitoring of areas prone to geo-hazards and for the surveillance of the national territory including areas used for exploiting geo-resources. The EPOS community is therefore already trained to provide services to public (civil defence agencies, local and national authorities) and private (petroleum industry, mining industry, geothermal companies, aviation security) stakeholders. Our ability to

  1. Market integration of local energy systems: Is local energy management compatible with European regulation for retail competition?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eid, C.; Bollinger, L.A.; Koirala, B.P.; Scholten, D.J.; Facchinetti, E.; Lilliestam, J.; Hakvoort, R.A.

    2016-01-01

    The growing penetration of distributed energy resources is opening up opportunities for local energy management (LEM) – the coordination of decentralized energy supply, storage, transport, conversion and consumption within a given geographical area. Because European electricity market liberalization

  2. Reporting systems in gastrointestinal endoscopy: Requirements and standards facilitating quality improvement: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy position statement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bretthauer, Michael; Aabakken, Lars; Dekker, Evelien; Kaminski, Michal F.; Rösch, Thomas; Hultcrantz, Rolf; Suchanek, Stepan; Jover, Rodrigo; Kuipers, Ernst J.; Bisschops, Raf; Spada, Cristiano; Valori, Roland; Domagk, Dirk; Rees, Colin; Rutter, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    To develop standards for high quality of gastrointestinal endoscopy, the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) has established the ESGE Quality Improvement Committee. A prerequisite for quality assurance and improvement for all gastrointestinal endoscopy procedures is

  3. Systemic and local anti-Mullerian hormone reflects differences in the reproduction potential of Zebu and European type cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojsin-Carter, Anja; Mahboubi, Kiana; Costa, Nathalia N; Gillis, Daniel J; Carter, Timothy F; Neal, Michael S; Miranda, Moyses S; Ohashi, Otavio M; Favetta, Laura A; King, W Allan

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate plasma anti-Mullerian hormone (Pl AMH), follicular fluid AMH (FF AMH) and granulosa cell AMH transcript (GC AMH) levels and their relationships with reproductive parameters in two cattle subspecies, Bos taurus indicus (Zebu), and Bos taurus taurus (European type cattle). Two-dimensional ultrasound examination and serum collection were performed on Zebu, European type and crossbreed cows to determine antral follicle count (AFC), ovary diameter (OD) and Pl AMH concentration. Slaughterhouse ovaries for Zebu and European type cattle were collected to determine FF AMH concentrations, GC AMH RNA levels, AFC, oocyte number, cleavage and blastocyst rate. Additionally GC AMH receptor 2 (AMHR2) RNA level was measured for European type cattle. Relationship between AMH and reproductive parameters was found to be significantly greater in Zebu compared to European cattle. Average Pl AMH mean ± SE for Zebu and European cattle was 0.77 ± 0.09 and 0.33 ± 0.24 ng/ml respectively (p = 0.01), whereas average antral FF AMH mean ± SE for Zebu and European cattle was 4934.3 ± 568.5 and 2977.9 ± 214.1 ng/ml respectively (p cattle. Levels of GC AMHR2 RNA in European cattle were correlated to oocyte number (p = 0.01). Crossbred animals were found more similar to their maternal Zebu counterparts with respect to their Pl AMH to AFC and OD relationships. These results demonstrate that AMH reflects differences between reproduction potential of the two cattle subspecies therefore can potentially be used as a reproductive marker. Furthermore these results reinforce the importance of separately considering the genetic backgrounds of animals when collecting or interpreting bovine AMH data for reproductive performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Bureaucratic structure, geographical location and the autonomy of administrative systems. Evidence from the European External Action Service

    OpenAIRE

    Henökl, Thomas; Trondal, Jarle

    2013-01-01

    Presentation on department page: http://www.uia.no/no/portaler/om_universitetet/oekonomi_og_samfunnsvitenskap/statsvitenskap_og_ledelsesfag/ forskning_isl/isl_working_papers_series Formulating and implementing public policy in Europe has historically been a prerogative of national administrations. This paper explores how these prerogatives may have become challenged with the ‘autonomization’ of the European Union’s (EU’s) foreign affairs administration (The European External Action Service...

  5. Common measure of quality of life for people with systemic sclerosis across seven European countries: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndosi, Mwidimi; Alcacer-Pitarch, Begonya; Allanore, Yannick; Del Galdo, Francesco; Frerix, Marc; García-Díaz, Sílvia; Hesselstrand, Roger; Kendall, Christine; Matucci-Cerinic, Marco; Mueller-Ladner, Ulf; Sandqvist, Gunnel; Torrente-Segarra, Vicenç; Schmeiser, Tim; Sierakowska, Matylda; Sierakowska, Justyna; Sierakowski, Stanslaw; Redmond, Anthony

    2018-02-20

    The aim of this study was to adapt the Systemic Sclerosis Quality of Life Questionnaire (SScQoL) into six European cultures and validate it as a common measure of quality of life in systemic sclerosis (SSc). This was a seven-country (Germany, France, Italy, Poland, Spain, Sweden and UK) cross-sectional study. A forward-backward translation process was used to adapt the English SScQoL into target languages. SScQoL was completed by patients with SSc, then data were validated against the Rasch model. To correct local response dependency, items were grouped into the following subscales: function, emotion, sleep, social and pain and reanalysed for fit to the model, unidimensionality and cross-cultural equivalence. The adaptation of the SScQoL was seamless in all countries except Germany. Cross-cultural validation included 1080 patients with a mean age 58.0 years (SD 13.9) and 87% were women. Local dependency was evident in individual country data. Grouping items into testlets corrected the local dependency in most country specific data. Fit to the model, reliability and unidimensionality was achieved in six-country data after cross-cultural adjustment for Italy in the social subscale. The SScQoL was then calibrated into an interval level scale. The individual SScQoL items have translated well into five languages and overall, the scale maintained its construct validity, working well as a five-subscale questionnaire. Measures of quality of life in SSc can be directly compared across five countries (France, Poland Spain, Sweden and UK). Data from Italy are also comparable with the other five countries although require an adjustment. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Dosimetric inter-institutional comparison in European radiotherapy centres: Results of IAEA supported treatment planning system audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershkevitsh, Eduard; Pesznyak, Csilla; Petrovic, Borislava; Grezdo, Joseph; Chelminski, Krzysztof; do Carmo Lopes, Maria; Izewska, Joanna; Van Dyk, Jacob

    2014-05-01

    One of the newer audit modalities operated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) involves audits of treatment planning systems (TPS) in radiotherapy. The main focus of the audit is the dosimetry verification of the delivery of a radiation treatment plan for three-dimensional (3D) conformal radiotherapy using high energy photon beams. The audit has been carried out in eight European countries - Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Serbia, Slovakia, Poland and Portugal. The corresponding results are presented. The TPS audit reviews the dosimetry, treatment planning and radiotherapy delivery processes using the 'end-to-end' approach, i.e. following the pathway similar to that of the patient, through imaging, treatment planning and dose delivery. The audit is implemented at the national level with IAEA assistance. The national counterparts conduct the TPS audit at local radiotherapy centres through on-site visits. TPS calculated doses are compared with ion chamber measurements performed in an anthropomorphic phantom for eight test cases per algorithm/beam. A set of pre-defined agreement criteria is used to analyse the performance of TPSs. TPS audit was carried out in 60 radiotherapy centres. In total, 190 data sets (combination of algorithm and beam quality) have been collected and reviewed. Dosimetry problems requiring interventions were discovered in about 10% of datasets. In addition, suboptimal beam modelling in TPSs was discovered in a number of cases. The TPS audit project using the IAEA methodology has verified the treatment planning system calculations for 3D conformal radiotherapy in a group of radiotherapy centres in Europe. It contributed to achieving better understanding of the performance of TPSs and helped to resolve issues related to imaging, dosimetry and treatment planning.

  7. Design and Development of a Model to Simulate 0-G Treadmill Running Using the European Space Agency's Subject Loading System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, E. C.; Cowley, M. S.; Scott-Pandorf, M. M.

    2010-01-01

    Develop a model that simulates a human running in 0 G using the European Space Agency s (ESA) Subject Loading System (SLS). The model provides ground reaction forces (GRF) based on speed and pull-down forces (PDF). DESIGN The theoretical basis for the Running Model was based on a simple spring-mass model. The dynamic properties of the spring-mass model express theoretical vertical GRF (GRFv) and shear GRF in the posterior-anterior direction (GRFsh) during running gait. ADAMs VIEW software was used to build the model, which has a pelvis, thigh segment, shank segment, and a spring foot (see Figure 1).the model s movement simulates the joint kinematics of a human running at Earth gravity with the aim of generating GRF data. DEVELOPMENT & VERIFICATION ESA provided parabolic flight data of subjects running while using the SLS, for further characterization of the model s GRF. Peak GRF data were fit to a linear regression line dependent on PDF and speed. Interpolation and extrapolation of the regression equation provided a theoretical data matrix, which is used to drive the model s motion equations. Verification of the model was conducted by running the model at 4 different speeds, with each speed accounting for 3 different PDF. The model s GRF data fell within a 1-standard-deviation boundary derived from the empirical ESA data. CONCLUSION The Running Model aids in conducting various simulations (potential scenarios include a fatigued runner or a powerful runner generating high loads at a fast cadence) to determine limitations for the T2 vibration isolation system (VIS) aboard the International Space Station. This model can predict how running with the ESA SLS affects the T2 VIS and may be used for other exercise analyses in the future.

  8. Effects of pinealectomy on the neuroendocrine reproductive system and locomotor activity in male European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Mairi; Paullada-Salmerón, José A; López-Olmeda, José Fernando; Sánchez-Vázquez, Francisco Javier; Muñoz-Cueto, José A

    2017-05-01

    The seasonally changing photoperiod controls the timing of reproduction in most fish species, however, the transduction of this photoperiodic information to the reproductive axis is still unclear. This study explored the potential role of two candidate neuropeptide systems, gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (Gnih) and kisspeptin, as mediators between the pineal organ (a principle transducer of photoperiodic information) and reproductive axis in male European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax. Two seven-day experiments of pinealectomy (Px) were performed, in March (end of reproductive season) and August (resting season). Effects of Px and season on the brain expression of gnih (sbgnih) and its receptor (sbgnihr), kisspeptins (kiss1, kiss2) and their receptors (kissr2, kissr3) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (gnrh1, gnrh2, gnrh3) and the main brain receptor (gnrhr-II-2b) genes, plasma melatonin levels and locomotor activity rhythms were examined. Results showed that Px reduced night-time plasma melatonin levels. Gene expression analyses demonstrated a sensitivity of the Gnih system to Px in March, with a reduction in sbgnih in the mid-hindbrain, a region with bilateral connections to the pineal organ. In August, kiss2 levels increased in Px animals but not in controls. Significant differences in expression were observed for diencephalic sbgnih, sbgnihr, kissr3 and tegmental gnrh2 between seasons. Recordings of locomotor activity following surgery revealed a change from light-synchronised to free-running rhythmic behavior. Altogether, the Gnih and Kiss2 sensitivity to Px and seasonal differences observed for Gnih and its receptor, Gnrh2, and the receptor for Kiss2 (Kissr3), suggested they could be mediators involved in the relay between environment and seasonal reproduction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The use of a European coinage alloy to compare the detection limits of mobile XRF systems. A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesareo, R. [Struttura Dipartimentale di Matematica e Fisica, Universita di Sassari, Sassari (Italy); Ferretti, M. [CNR-Istituto per le Tecnologie Applicate ai Beni Culturali, Rome (Italy); Gigante, G.E. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , Rome (Italy); Guida, G. [Laboratorio di Chimica, Istituto Centrale per il Restauro, Rome (Italy); Moioli, P. [Unita Tecnico-Scientifica Materiali e Nuove Tecnologie, ENEA, Rome (Italy); Ridolfi, S. [Ars Mensurae, Rome (Italy); Roldan Garcia, C. [Unidad de Arqueometria, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales, Universidad de Valencia, Valencia (Spain)

    2007-05-15

    The investigation of archaeological and historical materials makes use of techniques that, though borrowed from other fields of research and industrial production, frequently have to be 're-invented' because of peculiar characteristics of the analysed objects. Artistic relevance, limited movability, compositional and structural heterogeneity radically change the experimental approach and often require ad hoc designed equipment. These considerations also apply to x-ray fluorescence, especially regarding mobile systems. The extensive development and use of mobile spectrometers has produced an extremely diversified context and created the need for common criteria to evaluate their performances as well as the advisability of a survey on the existing equipment. This paper shows the feasibility of such an idea through a demonstrative survey that was carried out among users of different mobile x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) systems in the areas of Rome, Italy and Valencia, Spain. The experimental protocol was based on measuring spectrometer detection limits with the single standard method. The standard was the 50 Euro-cent coin, whose alloy is made of 89% Cu, 5% Al, 5% Zn, 1% Sn; the large spread of the European currency guarantees maximum availability. The experimental data show that the use of different x-ray tubes and detectors results in detection limits that may differ from each other by a factor of 6 for Zn and almost 100 for Sn; despite the large number of variables that in principle affect the performance, it was observed that the high voltage of the x-ray tube is the most important parameter. (authors)

  10. Patch test results with fragrance markers of the baseline series - analysis of the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA) network 2009-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frosch, Peter J; Duus Johansen, Jeanne; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Contact allergy to fragrances is common, and impairs quality of life, particularly in young women. OBJECTIVE: To provide current results on the prevalences of sensitization to fragrance allergens used as markers in the baseline series of most European countries. METHODS: Data of patie......BACKGROUND: Contact allergy to fragrances is common, and impairs quality of life, particularly in young women. OBJECTIVE: To provide current results on the prevalences of sensitization to fragrance allergens used as markers in the baseline series of most European countries. METHODS: Data...... of patients consecutively patch tested between 2009 and 2012 in 12 European countries with fragrance allergens contained in the baseline series were collected by the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies network and descriptively analysed. Four departments used the TRUE Test(®) system. RESULTS......: Contact allergy to fragrances is common throughout Europe, with regional variation probably being explained by patch test technique, and differences in exposure and referral patterns. The current basic markers of fragrance sensitivity in the baseline series should be supplemented with additional fragrance...

  11. A flexible and testable software architecture: applying presenter first to a device server for the DOOCS accelerator control system of the European XFEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckmann, A.; Karabekyan, S.; Pflüger, J.

    2012-01-01

    Presenter First (PF) uses a variant of Model View Presenter design pattern to add implementation flexibility and to improve testability of complex event-driven applications. It has been introduced in the context of GUI applications, but can easily be adapted to server applications. This paper describes how Presenter First methodology is used to develop a device server for the Programmable Logic Controls (PLC) of the European XFEL undulator systems, which are Windows PCs running PLC software from Beckhoff. The server implements a ZeroMQ message interface to the PLC allowing the DOOCS accelerator control system of the European XFEL to exchange data with the PLC by sending messages over the network. Our challenge is to develop a well-tested device server with a flexible architecture that allows integrating the server into other accelerator control systems like EPICS. (author)

  12. European Cinema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    In the face of renewed competition from Hollywood since the early 1980s and the challenges posed to Europe's national cinemas by the fall of the Wall in 1989, independent filmmaking in Europe has begun to re-invent itself. European Cinema: Face to Face with Hollywood re-assesses the different

  13. The healthcare system and the provision of oral healthcare in European Union member states. Part 8: Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindi, M; Paganelli, C; Eaton, K A; Widström, E

    2017-05-26

    In Italy healthcare is provided for all Italian citizens and residents and it is delivered mainly by public providers, with some private or private-public entities. Italy's public healthcare system - the Servizio Sanitario Nazionale (SSN) - is organised by the Ministry of Health and administered on a devolved regional basis. It is financed by general taxation that provides universal coverage, largely free of charge at the point of service. The central government establishes the basic national health benefits package, which must be uniformly provided throughout the country, through services guaranteed under the NHS provision called LEA - (Livelli Essenziali di Assistenza [Essential Level of Assistance]) and allocates national funds to the regions. The regions, through their regional health departments, are responsible for organising, administering and delivering primary, secondary and tertiary healthcare services as well as preventive and health promotion services. Regions are allowed a large degree of autonomy in how they perform this role and regarding decisions about the local structure of the system. Complementary and supplementary private health insurance is also available. However, as in most other Mediterranean European countries, in Italy oral healthcare is mainly provided under private arrangements. The public healthcare system provides only 5-8% of oral healthcare services and this percentage varies from region to region. Oral healthcare is included in the Legislation on Essential levels of care (LEAs) for specific populations such as children, vulnerable people (medically compromised and those on low income) and individuals who need oral healthcare in some urgent/emergency cases. For other people, oral healthcare is generally not covered. Apart from the national benefits package, regions may also carry out their own initiatives autonomously, but must finance these themselves. The number of dentists working in Italy has grown rapidly in the last few years

  14. Eastern Dimension of the European Neighbourhood Policy: Europeanization Mutual Trap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Latkina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the Europeanization policy of the European Union towards the Eastern Partnership participant countries. Suffering from the lack of clear strategy and ultimate goal in the European Neighbourhood Policy the European Union enhances external democratization and its governance in post soviet states without immediate Union's membership perspective. Underestimation of common neighbourhood geopolitical duality in the context of growing rivalry between European (EU and Eurasian (Custom Union/Eurasian Economic Union integration gravitation centers presents the Eastern partners of the EU with a fierce dilemma of externally forced immediate geopolitical and civilizational choice while not all of them are well prepared to such a choice. The mutual Europeanization trap here to be studied both for the EU and its Eastern partners (involving Russia is a deficiency of regulating cooperation mechanism in the situation of European and Eurasian free trades zones overlapping. Vilnius Summit 2013 results test the "European aspirations" of the New Independent States and upset the ongoing process of the European Neighbourhood Policy in the context of growing economic interdependence in Wider Europe. Besides, the Ukrainian crisis escalation during 2014 as a new seat of tension provokes unbalance of the whole European security system and creates new dividing lines in Europe from Vancouver to Vladivostok.

  15. Long-term outcome of the adjustable transobturator male system (ATOMS): results of a European multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedl, Alexander; Mühlstädt, Sandra; Zachoval, Roman; Giammò, Alessandro; Kivaranovic, Danijel; Rom, Maximilian; Fornara, Paolo; Brössner, Clemens

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the long-term effectiveness and safety of the adjustable transobturator male system (ATOMS ® , Agency for Medical Innovations A.M.I., Feldkirch, Austria) in a European-wide multicentre setting. In all, 287 men with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) were treated with the ATOMS device between June 2009 and March 2016. Continence parameters (daily pad test/pad use), urodynamics (maximum urinary flow rate, voiding volume, residual urine), and pain/quality of life (QoL) ratings (visual analogue scale/Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs, International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form [ICIQ-SF]/Patient Global Impression of Improvement [PGI-I]) were compared preoperatively and after intermediate (12 months) as well as after individual maximum follow-up. Overall success rate, dry rate (ATOMS devices are still functioning; 56 (20%) were removed, the most common reason being local titanium intolerance (41%) and leak/dysfunction (30%). The operating time and continence outcome varied between port generations. In this regard the latest port generation (silicone-covered scrotal port) was superior to its predecessors. Primary implantation (P = 0.002), good physical health (P = 0.001), and no history of radiotherapy (P ATOMS device is safe and shows high treatment efficacy and patient satisfaction in the largest cohort study to date. The latest generation, with its pre-attached silicone-covered scrotal port, is superior to its predecessors. Significantly better results were achieved with primary implantation and in those without a history of radiotherapy. © 2016 The Authors BJU International © 2016 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Creating a level playing field? The concentration and centralisation of emissions in the European Union Emissions Trading System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, Gareth

    2016-01-01

    This article questions the assumption that carbon markets create a level playing field by exploring the relationship between the organisation of capital and the organisation of emissions in the European Union Emissions Trading System (EU ETS). It constructs a database by matching installations and owners to reveal that a relatively small number of large-scale coal-fired power stations, owned by a very small group of states and corporations, are responsible for a significant proportion of greenhouse gas emissions. The findings are analysed by considering how technological dependence on coal together with the corporate institutional form combine to support the socio-spatial concentration and centralisation of capital and emissions. Case studies of the consolidation of the seven largest polluting owners from Europe's coal-dependent electricity sector and the carbon trading strategies of the two largest polluters, RWE and E.ON, then assess the impacts of energy liberalisation and emissions trading policies. The article concludes that EU energy and climate policies are pulling in different directions by clustering responsibility for greenhouse gas emissions and diffusing responsibility to address climate change. The uneven distribution of emissions within the EU ETS makes an alternative policy approach that directly targets the biggest corporate and state polluters both feasible and necessary. - Highlights: • 20 ultimate owners are responsible for one-half of 2005–12 EU ETS emissions. • 83 installations are responsible for one-third of 2005–12 EU ETS emissions. • Focus on technological dependence on coal and the corporate institutional form. • Energy liberalisation policy has consolidated responsibility for emissions. • Carbon markets have diffused responsibility for addressing climate change.

  17. The System of the Geographical Indication – Important Component of the Politics of the Consumers` Protection in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Velčovská

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the use and diffusion of the geographical indication in the European Union countries, having as objective the protection of the products’ names, which are registered as Protected Geographical Indication (PGI and Protected Designation of Origin (PDO labels. The reason for treating this theme started from the fact that the level of knowledge of the system and its symbols by the consumers is very low. In the introductory part, specification of surveyed topic is given and importance of consumer education and information is highlighted. Empirical research is based on two approaches. First, 1114 product names from DOOR database (Database for agricultural products and foodstuffs in EU countries were analysed in order to investigate the frequency of labels utilization by country and product classes, cluster analysis was applied to show the labels distribution by countries. Dominant countries in number of labels are Italy, France and Spain having registered over 50 % of all products. The most frequent product class is Fruits, vegetables and cereals for PGI and Cheeses for PDO. The second approach reflects consumer view on the issue; survey of 250 consumers in the Czech Republic was carried out with the purpose to identify awareness and perceived credibility of labels. Findings reveal a low awareness of labels, credibility of labels is influenced by their low familiarity. The main problem is lack of information. Respondents show interest in getting information regarding this topic. Quality labels have potential to communicate with consumers and facilitate their food purchases, but it is necessary to improve their promotion.

  18. The European Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology-European Institute of Radiotherapy (ESTRO-EIR) report on 3D CT-based in-room image guidance systems: a practical and technical review and guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korreman, Stine; Rasch, Coen; McNair, Helen; Verellen, Dirk; Oelfke, Uwe; Maingon, Philippe; Mijnheer, Ben; Khoo, Vincent

    2010-02-01

    The past decade has provided many technological advances in radiotherapy. The European Institute of Radiotherapy (EIR) was established by the European Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ESTRO) to provide current consensus statement with evidence-based and pragmatic guidelines on topics of practical relevance for radiation oncology. This report focuses primarily on 3D CT-based in-room image guidance (3DCT-IGRT) systems. It will provide an overview and current standing of 3DCT-IGRT systems addressing the rationale, objectives, principles, applications, and process pathways, both clinical and technical for treatment delivery and quality assurance. These are reviewed for four categories of solutions; kV CT and kV CBCT (cone-beam CT) as well as MV CT and MV CBCT. It will also provide a framework and checklist to consider the capability and functionality of these systems as well as the resources needed for implementation. Two different but typical clinical cases (tonsillar and prostate cancer) using 3DCT-IGRT are illustrated with workflow processes via feedback questionnaires from several large clinical centres currently utilizing these systems. The feedback from these clinical centres demonstrates a wide variability based on local practices. This report whilst comprehensive is not exhaustive as this area of development remains a very active field for research and development. However, it should serve as a practical guide and framework for all professional groups within the field, focussed on clinicians, physicists and radiation therapy technologists interested in IGRT. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Economics of intermittent renewable energy sources: four essays on large-scale integration into European power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriot, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    This thesis centres on issues of economic efficiency originating from the large-scale development of intermittent renewable energy sources (RES) in Europe. The flexible resources that are necessary to cope with their specificities (variability, low-predictability, site specificity) are already known, but adequate signals are required to foster efficient operation and investment in these resources. A first question is to what extent intermittent RES can remain out of the market at times when they are the main driver of investment and operation in power systems. A second question is whether the current market design is adapted to their specificities. These two questions are tackled in four distinct contributions.The first chapter is a critical literature review. This analysis introduces and confronts two (often implicit) paradigms for RES integration. It then identifies and discusses a set of evolutions required to develop a market design adapted to the large-scale development of RES, such as new definitions of the products exchanged and reorganisation of the sequence of electricity markets.In the second chapter, an analytical model is used to assess the potential of intra-day markets as a flexibility provider to intermittent RES with low production predictability. This study highlights and demonstrates how the potential of intra-day markets is heavily dependent on the evolution of the forecast errors.The third chapter focuses on the benefits of curtailing the production by intermittent RES, as a tool to smooth out their variability and reduce overall generation costs. Another analytical model is employed to anatomise the relationship between these benefits and a set of pivotal parameters. Special attention is also paid to the allocation of these benefits between the different stakeholders.In the fourth chapter, a numerical simulation is used to evaluate the ability of the European transmission system operators to tackle the investment wave required in order to

  20. Assessment of the waste electrical and electronic equipment management systems profile and sustainability in developed and developing European Union countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibanescu, Dumitrita; Cailean Gavrilescu, Daniela; Teodosiu, Carmen; Fiore, Silvia

    2018-03-01

    The assessment of waste management systems for electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) from developed economies (Germany, Sweden and Italy) and developing countries (Romania and Bulgaria), is discussed covering the period 2007-2014. The WEEE management systems profiles are depicted by indicators correlated to WEEE life cycle stages: collection, transportation and treatment. The sustainability of national WEEE management systems in terms of greenhouse gas emissions is presented, together with the greenhouse gas efficiency indicator that underlines the efficiency of WEEE treatment options. In the countries comparisons, the key elements are: robust versus fragile economies, the overall waste management performance and the existence/development of suitable management practices on WEEE. Over the life cycle perspective, developed economies (Germany, Sweden and Italy) manage one order of magnitude higher quantities of WEEE compared to developing countries (Romania and Bulgaria). Although prevention and reduction measures are encouraged, all WEEE quantities were larger in 2013, than in 2007. In 2007-2014, developed economies exceed the annual European collection target of 4 kg WEEE/capita, while collection is still difficult in developing countries. If collection rates are estimated in relationship with products placed on market, than similar values are registered in Sweden and Bulgaria, followed by Germany and Italy and lastly Romania. WEEE transportation shows different patterns among countries, with Italy as the greatest exporter (in 2014), while Sweden treats the WEEE nationally. WEEE reuse is a common practice in Germany, Sweden (from 2009) and Bulgaria (from 2011). By 2014, recycling was the most preferred WEEE treatment option, with the same kind of rates performance, over 80%, irrespective of the country, with efforts in each of the countries in developing special collection points, recycling facilities and support instruments. The national total and the