Sample records for ternary stannides rerhsn

  1. Magnetic structures of new uranium or rare earth based ternary stannides T{sub 2}M{sub 2}Sn (T = RE, U and M = Ni, Pd); Structures magnetiques de nouveaux stannures ternaires a base d'uranium ou de terres rares T{sub 2}M{sub 2}Sn (T=U, RE et M=Ni, Pd)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laffargue, D


    Magnetic structures of new ternary stannides T{sub 2}M{sub 2}Sn (T = U, RE and M Ni, Pd) have been determined by powder neutron diffraction. A precise study of U{sub 2}M{sub 2}Sn (M = Ni, Pd) compounds showed several relations between structural and magnetic properties. The hybridization effects between 5f(U) and 3d(Ni) states is responsible for the weak magnetic moment observed on the uranium atoms in U{sub 2}Ni{sub 2}Sn, and explains why this stannide is close to a magnetic instability. In the system U{sub 2}Pd{sub 2+x}Sn{sub 1-x}, the reduction of the magnetic moment when the palladium composition increases shows the influence of 5f(U) - 4d(Pd) hybridization. In this solid solution, the evolution of the magnetic structure with the composition confirms an empirical law: the uranium magnetic moments are directed perpendicularly to the shortest U-U links. The extension of this study to the new Rare Earth based stannides RE{sub 2}Pd{sub 2,04}Sn{sub 0,96} (RE = Ce, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er) evidenced systematic correlations between complicated magnetic structures. All these compounds present two magnetic transitions, characterized first by a sine-wave modulation, then at lower temperatures by a commensurate magnetic structure. (author)

  2. Crystal structures of the new ternary stannides La{sub 3}Mg{sub 4−x}Sn{sub 2+x} and LaMg{sub 3−x}Sn{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solokha, P., E-mail: [Università degli Studi di Genova, Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, via Dodecaneso 31, 16146 Genova (Italy); De Negri, S.; Minetti, R. [Università degli Studi di Genova, Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, via Dodecaneso 31, 16146 Genova (Italy); Proserpio, D.M. [Università degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Chimica, Via Golgi 19, 20133 Milano (Italy); Samara Center for Theoretical Materials Science (SCTMS), Samara State University, Samara 443011 (Russian Federation); Saccone, A. [Università degli Studi di Genova, Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, via Dodecaneso 31, 16146 Genova (Italy)


    Synthesis and structural characterization of the two new lanthanum–magnesium–stannides La{sub 3}Mg{sub 4−x}Sn{sub 2+x} (0.12≤x≤0.40) and LaMg{sub 3−x}Sn{sub 2} (0.33≤x≤0.78) are reported. The crystal structures of these intermetallics were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and confirmed by Rietveld refinement of powder X-ray diffraction patterns of the corresponding samples. The La{sub 3}Mg{sub 4−x}Sn{sub 2+x} phase crystallizes in the hexagonal Zr{sub 3}Cu{sub 4}Si{sub 2} structure type (P6¯2m, hP9, Z=3, x=0.12(1), a=7.7974(7), c=4.8384(4) Å), which represents an ordered derivative of the hP9-ZrNiAl prototype, ubiquitous among equiatomic intermetallics. The LaMg{sub 3–x}Sn{sub 2} phase is the second representative of the trigonal LaMg{sub 3−x}Ge{sub 2} type, which is a superstructure of the LaLi{sub 3}Sb{sub 2} structure type (P3¯1c, hP34-0.12, Z=6, x=0.35(1), a=8.3222(9), c=14.9546(16) Å). The scheme describing the symmetry reduction/coloring with respect to the parent type is reported here with the purpose to discuss the LaMg{sub 3−x}Sn{sub 2} off-stoichiometry from the geometrical point of view. Structural relationships between the La–Mg–Sn ternary phases, including the already known equiatomic LaMgSn compound (oP12-TiNiSi), are presented in the framework of the AlB{sub 2}-related compounds family and discussed with the aid of group-subgroup relations in the Bärnighausen formalism. - Graphical abstract: Crystal structure of LaMg{sub 3−x}Sn{sub 2} viewed along the (001) direction together with the puckered layer of Mg and Sn atoms hosting Mg2, Mg3 and vacancy □. - Highlights: • Crystal structures of the new La{sub 3}Mg{sub 4−x}Sn{sub 2+x} and LaMg{sub 3−x}Sn{sub 2} phases were determined. • The off-stoichiometry of LaMg{sub 3−x}Sn{sub 2} was discussed from geometrical point of view. • Structural relations between the known La–Mg–Sn phases were established. • The studied compounds are

  3. Magnetic and electrical properties of the stannides RE sub 3 Co sub 6 Sn sub 5 (RE Sm, Gd, Tb and Dy)

    CERN Document Server

    Kaczorowski, D; Rogl, P; Romaka, L; Gorelenko, Y


    Polycrystalline samples of the ternary intermetallics RE sub 3 Co sub 6 Sn sub 5 (RE Sm, Gd, Tb and Dy) were studied by means of magnetization, dc magnetic susceptibility and electrical resistivity measurements. All these stannides were found to order magnetically at low temperatures. Sm sub 3 Co sub 6 Sn sub 5 is antiferromagnetic below T sub N = 8 K, while Tb sub 3 Co sub 6 Sn sub 5 exhibits ferromagnetic ordering below T sub C = 16 K. The other two compounds show more complex magnetic behaviour with subsequent phase transitions in the ordered regions. For Gd sub 3 Co sub 6 Sn sub 5 one observes the onset of ferromagnetism at T sub C = 25 K, which is followed by a change in the magnetic structure at T sub 1 = 12 K. In the case of Dy sub 3 Co sub 6 Sn sub 5 an antiferromagnetic type of order sets in at T sub N = 7 K, and then a spin structure rearrangement occurs at T sub 1 = 3 K that yields a ferromagnetic component at lower temperatures. All the ternaries studied exhibit metallic-like conductivity with pro...

  4. Anion–Anion Bonding and Topology in Ternary Iridium Seleno–Stannides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trump, Benjamin A.; Tutmaher, Jake A.; McQueen, Tyrel M. (JHU)


    The synthesis and physical properties of two new and one known Ir–Sn–Se compound are reported. Their crystal structures are elucidated with transmission electron microscopy and powder X-ray diffraction. IrSn0.45Se1.55 is a pyrite phase which consists of tilted corner-sharing IrX6 octahedra with randomly distributed (Sn–Se)4– and (Se–Se)2– dimers. Ir2Sn3Se3 is a known trigonally distorted skutterudite that consists of cooperatively tilted corner-sharing IrSn3Se3 octahedra with ordered (Sn–Se)24– tetramers. Ir2SnSe5 is a layered, distorted β-MnO2 (pyrolusite) structure consisting of a double IrSe6 octrahedral row, corner sharing in the a direction and edge sharing in the b direction. This distorted pyrolusite contains (Se–Se)2– dimers and Se2– anions, and each double row is “capped” with a (Sn–Se)n polymeric chain. Resistivity, specific heat, and magnetization measurements show that all three have insulating and diamagnetic behavior, indicative of low-spin 5d6 Ir3+. Electronic structure calculations on Ir2Sn3Se3 show a single, spherical, nonspin–orbit split valence band and suggest that Ir2Sn3Se3 is topologically nontrivial under tensile strain due to inversion of Ir-d and Se-p states.

  5. Magnesium stannide as a high-capacity anode for magnesium-ion batteries (United States)

    Nguyen, Dan-Thien; Song, Seung-Wan


    Driven by the limited global resources of lithium, magnesium metal batteries are considered as potential energy storage systems. The battery chemistry of magnesium metal anode, however, limits the selection of electrolytes, cathode materials and working temperature, making the realization of magnesium metal batteries complicated. Herein, we report the development of a new magnesium-insertion anode, magnesium stannide (Mg2Sn), and demonstrate reversible electrochemical Mg2+-extraction and insertion of Mg2Sn anode at 0.2 V versus Mg, delivering discharge capacity of 270 mAhg-1 in a half-cell with the electrolyte of PhMgCl/THF and enabling of room temperature magnesium-ion batteries with Mg2Sn anode combined with Mg-free oxide cathode and conventional-type electrolyte of Mg(TFSI)2/diglyme. The combination of Mg2Sn anode with various cathodes and electrolytes holds great promise for enabling room temperature magnesium-ion batteries.

  6. Ternary fission

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Aug 5, 2015 ... We present the ternary fission of 252Cf and 236U within a three-cluster model as well as in a level density approach. The competition between collinear and equatorial geometry is studied by calculating the ternary fragmentation potential as a function of the angle between the lines joining the stationary ...

  7. Ternary fission

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Recently, we have studied the various aspects associated with the ternary fission process. A model, called the three-cluster model (TCM) [1–6] has been put forth. This accounts for the energy minimization of all possible ternary breakups of a heavy radioactive nucleus. Further, within the TCM we have analysed the ...

  8. High-pressure high-temperature crystal growth of equiatomic rare earth stannides RENiSn and REPdSn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heymann, Gunter [Institut für Allgemeine, Anorganische und Theoretische Chemie, Leopold-Franzens-Universität Innsbruck, Innrain 80-82, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Heying, Birgit; Rodewald, Ute Ch.; Janka, Oliver [Institut für Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, Universität Münster, Corrensstraße 30, 48149 Münster (Germany); Huppertz, Hubert, E-mail: [Institut für Allgemeine, Anorganische und Theoretische Chemie, Leopold-Franzens-Universität Innsbruck, Innrain 80-82, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Pöttgen, Rainer, E-mail: [Institut für Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, Universität Münster, Corrensstraße 30, 48149 Münster (Germany)


    The two series of equiatomic rare earth (RE) stannides RENiSn and REPdSn were systematically studied with respect to high-pressure modifications. The normal-pressure (NP) low-temperature (LT) modifications were synthesized by arc-melting and subsequently treated under high-pressure (P{sub max}=11.5 GPa) and high-temperature (T{sub max}=1570 K) conditions in a Walker-type multi-anvil press. The pressure and temperature conditions were systematically varied in order to improve the crystallization conditions. The new ZrNiAl-type high-pressure modifications HP-RENiSn (RE=Sc, Y, La, Gd–Lu) and HP-REPdSn (RE=Y, Sm–Dy) were obtained in 80 mg quantities, several of them in X-ray pure form. Some of the REPdSn stannides with the heavy rare earth elements show high-temperature (HT) modifications. The structures of HP-ScNiSn, HP-GdNiSn, HP-DyNiSn (both ZrNiAl-type), NP-YbNiSn, and HT-ErPdSn (both TiNiSi-type) were refined from single crystal diffractometer data, indicating full ordering of the transition metal and tin sites. TiNiSi-type NP-EuPdSn transforms to MgZn{sub 2}-type HP-EuPdSn: P6{sub 3}/mmc, a=588.5(2), c=917.0(3) pm, wR2=0.0769, 211 F{sup 2} values, 11 variables. The structure refinement indicated statistical occupancy of the palladium and tin sites on the tetrahedral network. The X-ray pure high-pressure phases were studied with respect to their magnetic properties. HP-YPdSn is a Pauli paramagnet. The susceptibility data of HP-TbNiSn, HP-DyNiSn, HP-GdPdSn, and HP-TbPdSn show experimental magnetic moments close to the free ion values of RE{sup 3+} and antiferromagnetic ordering at low temperature with the highest Néel temperature of 15.8 K for HP-TbPdSn. HP-SmPdSn shows the typical Van Vleck type behavior along with antiferromagnetic ordering at T{sub N}=5.1 K. HP-EuPdSn shows divalent europium and antiferromagnetic ordering at 8.9 K followed by a spin reorientation at 5.7 K. - Graphical abstract: Packing of the polyhedra in the high-pressure phase of Eu

  9. Ternary chalcopyrite semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Shay, J L; Pamplin, B R


    Ternary Chalcopyrite Semiconductors: Growth, Electronic Properties, and Applications covers the developments of work in the I-III-VI2 and II-IV-V2 ternary chalcopyrite compounds. This book is composed of eight chapters that focus on the crystal growth, characterization, and applications of these compounds to optical communications systems. After briefly dealing with the status of ternary chalcopyrite compounds, this book goes on describing the crystal growth of II-IV-V2 and I-III-VI2 single crystals. Chapters 3 and 4 examine the energy band structure of these semiconductor compounds, illustrat

  10. Approximately Ternary Homomorphisms on C*-Ternary Algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eon Wha Shim


    functional equation: fx2-x1/3+fx1-3x3/3+f3x1+3x3-x2/3=fx1, by the direct method. Under the conditions in the main theorems, we can show that the related mappings must be zero. In this paper, we correct the conditions and prove the corrected theorems. Furthermore, we prove the Hyers-Ulam stability and the superstability of C*-ternary homomorphisms and C*-ternary derivations on C*-ternary algebras by using a fixed point approach.

  11. Data transmission is faster with ternary coding

    CERN Document Server

    Bruins, T


    Discusses a ternary data transmission system for an effective rate of up to 6 megabits per second over a 1-mile line of ordinary twisted- pair cable. The methods are discussed of implementing a ternary data transmission system. (0 refs).

  12. Some new ternary linear codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumen Daskalov


    Full Text Available Let an $[n,k,d]_q$ code be a linear code of length $n$, dimension $k$ and minimum Hamming distance $d$ over $GF(q$. One of the most important problems in coding theory is to construct codes with optimal minimum distances. In this paper 22 new ternary linear codes are presented. Two of them are optimal. All new codes improve the respective lower bounds in [11].

  13. Nearly Ternary Quadratic Higher Derivations on Non-Archimedean Ternary Banach Algebras: A Fixed Point Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Eshaghi Gordji


    Full Text Available We investigate the stability and superstability of ternary quadratic higher derivations in non-Archimedean ternary algebras by using a version of fixed point theorem via quadratic functional equation.

  14. On Some Ternary LCD Codes


    Darkunde, Nitin S.; Patil, Arunkumar R.


    The main aim of this paper is to study $LCD$ codes. Linear code with complementary dual($LCD$) are those codes which have their intersection with their dual code as $\\{0\\}$. In this paper we will give rather alternative proof of Massey's theorem\\cite{8}, which is one of the most important characterization of $LCD$ codes. Let $LCD[n,k]_3$ denote the maximum of possible values of $d$ among $[n,k,d]$ ternary $LCD$ codes. In \\cite{4}, authors have given upper bound on $LCD[n,k]_2$ and extended th...

  15. Superconducting state parameters of ternary metallic glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    pseudopotential to ternary metallic glasses involves the assumption of pseudoions with average properties, which are assumed to replace three types of ions in the ternary systems, and a gas of free electrons is assumed to perme- ate through them. The electron–pseudoion is accounted by the pseudopotential, and the ...

  16. Ternary rhythm and the lapse constraint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elenbaas, N.; Kager, R.W.J.


    Ternary rhythmic systems differ from binary systems in stressing every third syllable in a word, rather than every second. Ternary rhythm is well-established for only a small group of languages, including Chugach Alutiiq, Cayuvava, and Estonian, and possibly Winnebago. Nevertheless the stress

  17. High-Efficient Circuits for Ternary Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Faghih Mirzaee


    Full Text Available New ternary adders, which are fundamental components of ternary addition, are presented in this paper. They are on the basis of a logic style which mostly generates binary signals. Therefore, static power dissipation reaches its minimum extent. Extensive different analyses are carried out to examine how efficient the new designs are. For instance, the ternary ripple adder constructed by the proposed ternary half and full adders consumes 2.33 μW less power than the one implemented by the previous adder cells. It is almost twice faster as well. Due to their unique superior characteristics for ternary circuitry, carbon nanotube field-effect transistors are used to form the novel circuits, which are entirely suitable for practical applications.

  18. Performance Estimation for Lowpass Ternary Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenton Steele


    Full Text Available Ternary filters have tap values limited to −1, 0, or +1. This restriction in tap values greatly simplifies the multipliers required by the filter, making ternary filters very well suited to hardware implementations. Because they incorporate coarse quantisation, their performance is typically limited by tap quantisation error. This paper derives formulae for estimating the achievable performance of lowpass ternary filters, thereby allowing the number of computationally intensive design iterations to be reduced. Motivated by practical communications systems requirements, the performance measure which is used is the worst-case stopband attenuation.

  19. Ternary networks reliability and Monte Carlo

    CERN Document Server

    Gertsbakh, Ilya; Vaisman, Radislav


    Ternary means “based on three”. This book deals with reliability investigations of  networks whose components subject to failures can be in three states –up, down and middle (mid), contrary to traditionally considered networks  having only binary (up/down) components. Extending binary case to ternary allows to consider more realistic and flexible models for communication, flow and supply networks.

  20. Synthesis of ternary nitrides by mechanochemical alloying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, C.J.H.; Zhu, J.J.; Lindelov, H.


    Ternary metal nitrides ( of general formula MxM'N-y(z)) attract considerable interest because of their special mechanical, electrical, magnetic, and catalytic properties. Usually they are prepared by ammonolysis of ternary oxides (MxM'O-y(m)) at elevated temperatures. We show that ternary...... nitrides by mechanochemical alloying of a binary transition metal nitride (MxN) with an elemental transition metal. In this way, we have been able to prepare Fe3Mo3N and Co3Mo3N by ball-milling of Mo2N with Fe and Co, respectively. The transformation sequence from the starting materials ( the binary...... nitride and the transition metal) to the ternary nitride was followed by Mossbauer spectroscopy (for Fe3Mo3N) and by X-ray powder diffraction ( for both Fe3Mo3N and Co3Mo3N). Usually, the preparation of a given ternary nitride by ammonolysis of a ternary oxide is dependent on the availability of an oxide...

  1. Ternary interaction parameters in calphad solution models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eleno, Luiz T.F., E-mail: [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica; Schön, Claudio G., E-mail: [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Computational Materials Science Laboratory. Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering


    For random, diluted, multicomponent solutions, the excess chemical potentials can be expanded in power series of the composition, with coefficients that are pressure- and temperature-dependent. For a binary system, this approach is equivalent to using polynomial truncated expansions, such as the Redlich-Kister series for describing integral thermodynamic quantities. For ternary systems, an equivalent expansion of the excess chemical potentials clearly justifies the inclusion of ternary interaction parameters, which arise naturally in the form of correction terms in higher-order power expansions. To demonstrate this, we carry out truncated polynomial expansions of the excess chemical potential up to the sixth power of the composition variables. (author)

  2. Ternary carbon composite films for supercapacitor applications (United States)

    Tran, Minh-Hai; Jeong, Hae Kyung


    A simple, binder-free, method of making supercapacitor electrodes is introduced, based on modification of activated carbon with graphite oxide and carbon nanotubes. The three carbon precursors of different morphologies support each other to provide outstanding electrochemical performance, such as high capacitance and high energy density. The ternary carbon composite shows six times higher specific capacitance compared to that of activated carbon itself with high retention. The excellent electrochemical properties of the ternary composite attribute to the high surface area of 1933 m2 g-1 and low equivalent series resistance of 2 Ω, demonstrating that it improve the electrochemical performance for supercapacitor applications.

  3. A study of phase separation in ternary alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Ternary systems; Cahn–Hilliard equations; spinodal decomposition. Abstract. We have studied the evolution of microstructure when a disordered ternary alloy is quenched into a ternary miscibility gap. We have used computer simulations based on multicomponent Cahn–Hilliard (CH) equations for A and B, ...

  4. Ternary-fragmentation-driving potential energies of 252Cf (United States)

    Karthikraj, C.; Ren, Zhongzhou


    Within the framework of a simple macroscopic model, the ternary-fragmentation-driving potential energies of 252Cf are studied. In this work, all possible ternary-fragment combinations of 252Cf are generated by the use of atomic mass evaluation-2016 (AME2016) data and these combinations are minimized by using a two-dimensional minimization approach. This minimization process can be done in two ways: (i) with respect to proton numbers (Z1, Z2, Z3) and (ii) with respect to neutron numbers (N1, N2, N3) of the ternary fragments. In this paper, the driving potential energies for the ternary breakup of 252Cf are presented for both the spherical and deformed as well as the proton-minimized and neutron-minimized ternary fragments. From the proton-minimized spherical ternary fragments, we have obtained different possible ternary configurations with a minimum driving potential, in particular, the experimental expectation of Sn + Ni + Ca ternary fragmentation. However, the neutron-minimized ternary fragments exhibit a driving potential minimum in the true-ternary-fission (TTF) region as well. Further, the Q -value energy systematics of the neutron-minimized ternary fragments show larger values for the TTF fragments. From this, we have concluded that the TTF region fragments with the least driving potential and high Q values have a strong possibility in the ternary fragmentation of 252Cf. Further, the role of ground-state deformations (β2, β3, β4, and β6) in the ternary breakup of 252Cf is also studied. The deformed ternary fragmentation, which involves Z3=12 -19 fragments, possesses the driving potential minimum due to the larger oblate deformations. We also found that the ground-state deformations, particularly β2, strongly influence the driving potential energies and play a major role in determining the most probable fragment combinations in the ternary breakup of 252Cf.

  5. Self-triggered coordination with ternary controllers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Persis, Claudio; Frasca, Paolo


    This paper regards coordination of networked systems with ternary controllers. We develop a hybrid coordination system which implements a self-triggered communication policy, based on polling the neighbors upon need. We prove that the proposed scheme ensures finite-time convergence to a neighborhood

  6. Ternary Dynamic Images In Robotic Smooth Pursuit (United States)

    Morasso, Pietro; Tagliasco, Vincenzo


    Early stages of visuo-motor interaction are considered with regard to dynamic scene analysis. Target fixation and tracking is distinguished from target visual analysis. The notion of target specification is elaborated upon. The use of ternary dynamic images is shown as an example of target tracking.

  7. Ternary alloy nanocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ternary alloy nanocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction. SOUMEN SAHA1, SONALIKA VAIDYA2, KANDALAM V RAMANUJACHARY3,. SAMUEL E LOFLAND4 and ASHOK K GANGULI1,2,∗. 1Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016, India. 2Institute of Nano Science and ...

  8. Ternary rare earth-lanthanide sulfides (United States)

    Takeshita, Takuo; Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A.; Beaudry, Bernard J.


    A new ternary rare earth sulfur compound having the formula: La.sub.3-x M.sub.x S.sub.4 where M is a rare earth element selected from the group europium, samarium and ytterbium and x=0.15 to 0.8. The compound has good high-temperature thermoelectric properties and exhibits long-term structural stability up to C.

  9. Panchromatic Sequentially Cast Ternary Polymer Solar Cells. (United States)

    Ghasemi, Masoud; Ye, Long; Zhang, Qianqian; Yan, Liang; Kim, Joo-Hyun; Awartani, Omar; You, Wei; Gadisa, Abay; Ade, Harald


    A sequential-casting ternary method is developed to create stratified bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells, in which the two BHJ layers are spin cast sequentially without the need of adopting a middle electrode and orthogonal solvents. This method is found to be particularly useful for polymers that form a mechanically alloyed morphology due to the high degree of miscibility in the blend. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Ternary alloy nanocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cu–Fe–Ni ternary alloys (size ∼55–80 nm) with varying compositions viz. CuFeNi (A1), CuFe2Ni (A2) and CuFeNi2 (A3) were successfully synthesized using microemulsion. It is to be noted that synthesis of nanocrystallineternary alloys with precise composition is a big challenge which can be overcome by choosing an ...

  11. Equilibrium study for ternary mixtures of biodiesel (United States)

    Doungsri, S.; Sookkumnerd, T.; Wongkoblap, A.; Nuchitprasittichai, A.


    The liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) data for the ternary mixtures of methanol + fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) + palm oil and FAME + palm oil + glycerol at various temperatures from 35 to 55°C, the tie lines and binodial curves were also investigated and plotted in the equilibrium curve. The experimental results showed that the binodial curves of methanol + FAME + palm oil depended significantly with temperature while the binodial curves of FAME + palm oil + glycerol illustrated insignificant change with temperatures. The interaction parameters between liquid pair obtained for NRTL (Nonrandom Two-Liquid) and UNIQUAC (Universal Quasi-Chemical Theory) models from the experimental data were also investigated. It was found that the correlated parameters of UNIQUAC model for system of FAME + palm oil + glycerol, denoted as a13 and a31, were 580.42K and -123.69K, respectively, while those for system of methanol + FAME + palm oil, denoted as a42 and a24, were 71.48 K and 965.57K, respectively. The ternary LLE data reported here would be beneficial for engineers and scientists to use for prediction of yield and purity of biodiesel for the production. The UNIQUAC model agreed well with the experimental data of ternary mixtures of biodiesel.

  12. The Ternary Alpha Energy Distribution Revisited (United States)

    Wagemans, Cyriel; Janssens, Peter; Heyse, Jan; Serot, Olivier; Geltenbort, Peter; Soldner, Torsten


    The shape of the energy distribution of the particles emitted in ternary fission has been studied since the discovery of the phenomenon for a large variety of fissioning systems. The general tendency of the observations is that most particles have a Gaussian-shaped energy distribution, except the α-particles, for which mostly an important non-Gaussian tailing on the low-energy side is reported. The origin of this tailing is generally ascribed to the decay of ternary 5He particles in an α-particle and a neutron. Since the experiments reported in the literature are rarely optimised for measuring the low-energy part of the α-spectrum, we realised good experimental conditions for studying the 235U(nth,f) ternary α energy distribution at the High Flux Reactor of the ILL in Grenoble. Thanks to a very intense and clean neutron beam, a small, very thin sample of highly enriched U could be used, with an activity of only 1.6 Bq. So the measurements could be done without absorber in between the sample and the ΔE-E detector. With the resulting low detection limit of 6 MeV, a clearly asymmetric energy distribution was obtained, in agreement with most data in the literature.

  13. More statistics on intermetallic compounds - ternary phases. (United States)

    Dshemuchadse, Julia; Steurer, Walter


    How many different intermetallic compounds are known so far, and in how many different structure types do they crystallize? What are their chemical compositions, the most abundant ones and the rarest ones? These are some of the questions we are trying to find answers for in our statistical analysis of the structures of the 20,829 intermetallic phases included in the database Pearson's Crystal Data, with the goal of gaining insight into some of their ordering principles. In the present paper, we focus on the subset of 13,026 ternary intermetallics, which crystallize in 1391 different structure types; remarkably, 667 of them have just one representative. What makes these 667 structures so unique that they are not adopted by any other of the known intermetallic compounds? Notably, ternary compounds are known in only 5109 of the 85,320 theoretically possible ternary intermetallic systems so far. In order to get an overview of their chemical compositions we use structure maps with Mendeleev numbers as ordering parameters.

  14. Page 1 Structure and superconductivity in ternary systems of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Structure and superconductivity in ternary systems of compounds 299. Erra B2 structure do not have T. above 1:2 K (Ku and Meisner 1981); (iii) for. Ao.67Pt3B the T. are 1-6, 28 and 56K for A = Ca,Sr and Ba (Shelton 1978) and. (iv) AOs B, A = Th, T = 3 K; A = Y, T = 6K (Ku 1980). 3. Ternary carbides. Of the known ternary ...

  15. Ternary q-Virasoro-Witt Hom-Nambu-Lie algebras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammar, F [Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Sfax, BP 1171, 3000 Sfax (Tunisia); Makhlouf, A [Laboratoire de Mathematiques, Informatique et Applications, Universite de Haute Alsace, 4, rue des Freres Lumiere F-68093 Mulhouse (France); Silvestrov, S, E-mail: Faouzi.Ammar@rnn.fss.t, E-mail: Abdenacer.Makhlouf@uha.f, E-mail: sergei.silvestrov@math.lth.s [Centre for Mathematical Sciences, Lund University, Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden)


    In this paper we construct ternary q-Virasoro-Witt algebras which q-deform the ternary Virasoro-Witt algebras constructed by Curtright, Fairlie and Zachos using su(1, 1) enveloping algebra techniques. The ternary Virasoro-Witt algebras constructed by Curtright, Fairlie and Zachos depend on a parameter and are not Nambu-Lie algebras for all but finitely many values of this parameter. For the parameter values for which the ternary Virasoro-Witt algebras are Nambu-Lie, the corresponding ternary q-Virasoro-Witt algebras constructed in this paper are also Hom-Nambu-Lie because they are obtained from the ternary Nambu-Lie algebras using the composition method. For other parameter values this composition method does not yield a Hom-Nambu-Lie algebra structure for q-Virasoro-Witt algebras. We show however, using a different construction, that the ternary Virasoro-Witt algebras of Curtright, Fairlie and Zachos, as well as the general ternary q-Virasoro-Witt algebras we construct, carry a structure of the ternary Hom-Nambu-Lie algebra for all values of the involved parameters.

  16. Neutron Damage and MAX Phase Ternary Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barsoum, Michael [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Hoffman, Elizabeth [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Sindelar, Robert [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Garcua-Duaz, Brenda [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Kohse, Gordon [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)


    The Demands of Gen IV nuclear power plants for long service life under neutron radiation at high temperature are severe. Advanced materials that would withstand high temperatures (up to 1000+ C) to high doses in a neutron field would be ideal for reactor internal structures and would add to the long service life and reliability of the reactors. The objective of this work is to investigate the response of a new class of machinable, conductive, layered, ternary transition metal carbides and nitrides - the so-called MAX phases - to low and moderate neutron dose levels.

  17. Balanced ternary addition using a gated silicon nanowire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, J.A.; Van der Heijden, J.; Verduijn, J.; Klein, M.; Remacle, F.; Rogge, S.


    Ternary logic has the lowest cost of complexity, here, we demonstrate a CMOS hardware implementation of a ternary adder using a silicon metal-on-insulator single electron transistor. Gate dependent rectifying behavior of a single electron transistor (SET) results in a robust three-valued output as a

  18. Density-Driven segregation in Binary and Ternary Granular Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windows-Yule, Kit; Parker, David


    We present a first experimental study of density-induced segregation within a three-dimensional, vibrofluidised, ternary granular system. Using Positron Emission Particle Tracking (PEPT), we study the steady-state particle distributions achieved by binary and ternary granular beds under a variety of

  19. A high-speed interconnect network using ternary logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jens Kargaard; Long, S. I.


    This paper describes the design and implementation of a high-speed interconnect network (ICN) for a multiprocessor system using ternary logic. By using ternary logic and a fast point-to-point communication technique called STARI (Self-Timed At Receiver's Input), the communication between...

  20. Densities and Excess Molar Volume for the Ternary Systems (1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    methylimidazolium methyl sulphate ([BMIM]+[MeSO4]-) were determined. The ternary systems studied were ([BMIM]+[MeSO4]-+ nitromethane + methanol or ethanol or 1-propanol) at the temperatures (303.15 and 313.15) K. The ternary excess molar ...

  1. Single polymer-based ternary electronic memory material and device. (United States)

    Liu, Shu-Juan; Wang, Peng; Zhao, Qiang; Yang, Hui-Ying; Wong, Jenlt; Sun, Hui-Bin; Dong, Xiao-Chen; Lin, Wen-Peng; Huang, Wei


    A ternary polymer memory device based on a single polymer with on-chain Ir(III) complexes is fabricated by combining multiple memory mechanisms into one system. Excellent ternary memory performances-low reading, writing, and erasing voltages and good stability for all three states-are achieved. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Formation of ternary Mg–Cu–Dy bulk metallic glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. The glass-forming ability (GFA) of ternary Mg–Cu–Dy alloys was systematically investigated by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD) techniques. The results showed that a series of ternary Mg–Cu–Dy bulk metallic glasses (BGMs) with a diameter of 4–8 mm were suc-.

  3. Polycation-Based Ternary Gene Delivery System. (United States)

    Liu, Shuai; Guo, Tianying


    Recent progress in gene therapy has opened the door for various human diseases. The greatest challenge that gene vectors still face is the ability to sufficiently deliver nucleic acid into target cells. To overcome various barriers, plenty of researches have been undertaken utilizing diverse strategies, among which a wide variety of polycation/pDNA vectors have been developed and explored frequently. For enhanced transfection efficiency, polycations are constantly utilized with covalent modifications, which however lead to reduced positive charge density and changed properties of polycation/pDNA complexes. Accordingly, non-covalent or ternary strategy is proposed. The cationic properties of polycations can be retained and the transfection efficiency can be enhanced by introducing additional polymers with functional groups via non-covalent assembly. This review will discuss the construction and advantages of ternary complexes gene delivery system, including low toxicity and enhanced gene expression both in vitro and in vivo. Recent progress and expectations with promising results that may have some reference for clinical application are also discussed.

  4. Plasmonic spectral tunability of conductive ternary nitrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassavetis, S.; Patsalas, P., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Bellas, D. V.; Lidorikis, E. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, GR-45110 Ioannina (Greece); Abadias, G. [Institut Pprime, Département Physique et Mécanique des Matériaux, Université de Poitiers-CNRS-ENSMA, 86962 Chasseneuil-Futuroscope (France)


    Conductive binary transition metal nitrides, such as TiN and ZrN, have emerged as a category of promising alternative plasmonic materials. In this work, we show that ternary transition metal nitrides such as Ti{sub x}Ta{sub 1−x}N, Ti{sub x}Zr{sub 1−x}N, Ti{sub x}Al{sub 1−x}N, and Zr{sub x}Ta{sub 1−x}N share the important plasmonic features with their binary counterparts, while having the additional asset of the exceptional spectral tunability in the entire visible (400–700 nm) and UVA (315–400 nm) spectral ranges depending on their net valence electrons. In particular, we demonstrate that such ternary nitrides can exhibit maximum field enhancement factors comparable with gold in the aforementioned broadband range. We also critically evaluate the structural features that affect the quality factor of the plasmon resonance and we provide rules of thumb for the selection and growth of materials for nitride plasmonics.

  5. Irregular Homogeneity Domains in Ternary Intermetallic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marc Joubert


    Full Text Available Ternary intermetallic A–B–C systems sometimes have unexpected behaviors. The present paper examines situations in which there is a tendency to simultaneously form the compounds ABx, ACx and BCx with the same crystal structure. This causes irregular shapes of the phase homogeneity domains and, from a structural point of view, a complete reversal of site occupancies for the B atom when crossing the homogeneity domain. This work reviews previous studies done in the systems Fe–Nb–Zr, Hf–Mo–Re, Hf–Re–W, Mo–Re–Zr, Re–W–Zr, Cr–Mn–Si, Cr–Mo–Re, and Mo–Ni–Re, and involving the topologically close-packed Laves, χ and σ phases. These systems have been studied using ternary isothermal section determination, DFT calculations, site occupancy measurement using joint X-ray, and neutron diffraction Rietveld refinement. Conclusions are drawn concerning this phenomenon. The paper also reports new experimental or calculated data on Co–Cr–Re and Fe–Nb–Zr systems.

  6. Facile Synthesis of Ternary Boron Carbonitride Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Lijie


    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, a novel and facile approach for the synthesis of ternary boron carbonitride (B–C–N nanotubes was reported. Growth occurred by heating simple starting materials of boron powder, zinc oxide powder, and ethanol absolute at 1150 °C under a mixture gas flow of nitrogen and hydrogen. As substrate, commercial stainless steel foil with a typical thickness of 0.05 mm played an additional role of catalyst during the growth of nanotubes. The nanotubes were characterized by SEM, TEM, EDX, and EELS. The results indicate that the synthesized B–C–N nanotubes exhibit a bamboo-like morphology and B, C, and N elements are homogeneously distributed in the nanotubes. A catalyzed vapor–liquid–solid (VLS mechanism was proposed for the growth of the nanotubes.

  7. The ternary system: Silicon-tantalum-uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogl, Peter, E-mail: [Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Vienna, A-1090 Wien, Waehringerstrasse 42 (Austria); Noel, Henri [Laboratoire de Chimie du Solide et Materiaux, UMR-CNRS 6226, Universite de Rennes I, Avenue du General Leclerc, F-35042 Rennes, Cedex (France)


    Phase equilibria in the ternary system Si-Ta-U have been established in an isothermal section at 1000 {sup o}C by optical microscopy, electron probe microanalysis and X-ray diffraction. Two novel ternary compounds were observed and were characterised by X-ray powder Rietveld refinement: stoichiometric {tau}{sub 1}-U{sub 2}Ta{sub 3}Si{sub 4} (U{sub 2}Mo{sub 3}Si{sub 4}-type, P2{sub 1}/c; a = 0.70011(1), b = 0.70046(1), c = 0.68584(1) nm, ss = 109.38(1); R{sub F} = 0.073, X-ray powder Rietveld refinement) and {tau}{sub 2}-U{sub 2-x}Ta{sub 3+x}Si{sub 4} at x {approx} 0.30 (Sc{sub 2}Re{sub 3}Si{sub 4}-type = partially ordered Zr{sub 5}Si{sub 4}-type, P4{sub 1}2{sub 1}2; a = b = 0.69717(3)(1), c = 1.28709(4) nm; R{sub F} = 0.056; X-ray single crystal data). Mutual solubility of U-silicides and Ta-silicides are found to be very small i.e. below about 1 at.%. Due to the equilibrium tie-line Ta{sub 2}Si-U(Ta), no compatibility exists between the U-rich silicides U{sub 3}Si or U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} and tantalum metal. Single crystals obtained from alloys slowly cooled from liquid (2000 {sup o}C), yielded a fully ordered compound U{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}Si{sub 3}C (unique structure type; Pmna, a = 0.68860(1); b = 2.17837(4); c = 0.69707(1) nm; R{sub F2} = 0.048).

  8. Positron annihilation lifetime study of interfaces in ternary polymer blends (United States)

    Meghala, D.; Ramya, P.; Pasang, T.; Raj, J. M.; Ranganathaiah, C.; Williams, J. F.


    A new method based on positron lifetime spectroscopy is developed to characterize individual interfaces in ternary polymer blends and hence determine the composition dependent miscibility level. The method owes its origin to the Kirkwood-Risemann-Zimm (KRZ) model for the evaluation of the hydrodynamic interaction parameters (αij) which was used successfully for a binary blend with a single interface. The model was revised for the present work for ternary polymer blends to account for three interfaces. The efficacy of this method is shown for two ternary blends namely poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile)/poly (ethylene-co-vinylacetate)/poly(vinyl chloride) (SAN/EVA/PVC) and polycaprolactone /poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile)/poly(vinyl chloride) (PCL/SAN/PVC) at different compositions. An effective hydrodynamic interaction parameter, αeff, was introduced to predict the overall miscibility of ternary blends.

  9. Phase field crystal modeling of ternary solidification microstructures


    Berghoff, Marco; Nestler, Britta


    In the present work, we present a free energy derivation of the multi-component phase-field crystal model [1] and illustrate the capability to simulate dendritic and eutectic solidification in ternary alloys. Fast free energy minimization by a simulated annealing algorithm of an approximated crystal is compared with the free energy of a fully simulated phase field crystal structure. The calculation of ternary phase diagrams from these free energies is described. Based on the free energies rel...

  10. Subarrayed Antenna Array Synthesis Using Ternary Adjusting Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guolong He


    Full Text Available Ternary adjusting method is proposed and combined with particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm for subarrayed antenna array synthesis. Ternary variables are introduced to represent element adjustments between adjacent subarrays. Compared to previous methods, rounding-off operations are not required any longer, and the equation constraint of the fixed total element number is also removed, which effectively reduces the complexity of implementation while obtaining improved topology exploration capability simultaneously.

  11. Charge distribution in the ternary fragmentation of {sup 252}Cf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senthil Kannan, M.T.; Balasubramaniam, M. [Bharathiar University, Department of Physics, Coimbatore (India)


    We present here, for the first time, a study on ternary fragmentation charge distribution of {sup 252}Cf using the convolution integral method and the statistical theory. The charge distribution for all possible charge combinations of a ternary breakup are grouped as a bin containing different mass partitions. Different bins corresponding to various third fragments with mass numbers from A{sub 3} = 16 to 84 are identified with the available experimental masses. The corresponding potential energy surfaces are calculated using the three cluster model for the two arrangements A{sub 1} + A{sub 2} + A{sub 3} and A{sub 1} + A{sub 3} + A{sub 2}. The ternary fragmentation yield values are calculated for the ternary combination from each bin possessing minimum potential energy. The yields of the resulting ternary combinations as a function of the charge numbers of the three fragments are analyzed for both the arrangements. The calculations are carried out at different excitation energies of the parent nucleus. For each excitation energy the temperature of the three fragments are iteratively computed conserving the total energy. The distribution of fragment temperatures corresponding to different excitation energies for some fixed third fragments are discussed. The presence of the closed shell nucleus Sn in the favourable ternary fragmentation is highlighted. (orig.)

  12. Impact of ternary blends of biodiesel on diesel engine performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem Kumar


    Full Text Available The Pongamia and waste cooking oils are the main non edible oils for biodiesel production in India. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the fuel properties and investigate the impact on engine performance using Pongamia and waste cooking biodiesel and their ternary blend with diesel. The investigation of the fuel properties shows that Pongamia biodiesel and waste cooking biodiesel have poor cold flow property. This will lead to starting problem in the engine operation. To overcome this problem the ternary blends of diesel, waste cooking biodiesel and Pongamia biodiesel are prepared. The cloud and pour point for ternary blend, (WCB20:PB20:D60 were found to be 7 °C and 6.5 °C which are comparable to cloud and pour point of diesel 6 °C and 5 °C, respectively. The result of the test showed that brake specific fuel consumption for Pongamia biodiesel and waste cooking biodiesel is higher than ternary blend, (WCB20:PB20:D60 due to their lower energy content. The brake thermal efficiency of ternary blend and diesel is comparable while the Pongamia and waste cooking biodiesel have low efficiency. The result of investigation showed that ternary blend can be developed as alternate fuel.

  13. Maxwell-Stefan diffusion coefficient estimation for ternary systems: an ideal ternary alcohol system. (United States)

    Allie-Ebrahim, Tariq; Zhu, Qingyu; Bräuer, Pierre; Moggridge, Geoff D; D'Agostino, Carmine


    The Maxwell-Stefan model is a popular diffusion model originally developed to model diffusion of gases, which can be considered thermodynamically ideal mixtures, although its application has been extended to model diffusion in non-ideal liquid mixtures as well. A drawback of the model is that it requires the Maxwell-Stefan diffusion coefficients, which are not based on measurable quantities but they have to be estimated. As a result, numerous estimation methods, such as the Darken model, have been proposed to estimate these diffusion coefficients. However, the Darken model was derived, and is only well defined, for binary systems. This model has been extended to ternary systems according to two proposed forms, one by R. Krishna and J. M. van Baten, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 2005, 44, 6939-6947 and the other by X. Liu, T. J. H. Vlugt and A. Bardow, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 2011, 50, 10350-10358. In this paper, the two forms have been analysed against the ideal ternary system of methanol/butan-1-ol/propan-1-ol and using experimental values of self-diffusion coefficients. In particular, using pulsed gradient stimulated echo nuclear magnetic resonance (PGSTE-NMR) we have measured the self-diffusion coefficients in various methanol/butan-1-ol/propan-1-ol mixtures. The experimental values of self-diffusion coefficients were then used as the input data required for the Darken model. The predictions of the two proposed multicomponent forms of this model were then compared to experimental values of mutual diffusion coefficients for the ideal alcohol ternary system. This experimental-based approach showed that the Liu's model gives better predictions compared to that of Krishna and van Baten, although it was only accurate to within 26%. Nonetheless, the multicomponent Darken model in conjunction with self-diffusion measurements from PGSTE-NMR represents an attractive method for a rapid estimation of mutual diffusion in multicomponent systems, especially when compared to exhaustive

  14. Mesoscale inhomogeneities in an aqueous ternary system (United States)

    Subramanian, Deepa; Hayward, Stephen; Altabet, Elia; Collings, Peter; Anisimov, Mikhail


    Aqueous solutions of certain low-molecular-weight organic compounds, such as alcohols, amines, or ethers, which are considered macroscopically homogeneous, show the presence of mysterious mesoscale inhomogeneities, order of a hundred nm in size. We have performed static and dynamic light scattering experiments in an aqueous ternary system consisting of tertiary butyl alcohol and propylene oxide. Tertiary butyl alcohol is completely soluble in water and in propylene oxide, and forms strong hydrogen bonds with water molecules. Based on results of the study, we hypothesize that the mesoscale inhomogeneities are akin to a micro phase separation, resulting from a competition between water molecules and propylene oxide molecules, wanting to be adjacent to amphiphilic tertiary butyl alcohol molecules. Coupling between two competing order parameters, super-lattice binary-alloy-like (``antiferromagnetic'' type) and demixing (``ferromagnetic'' type) may explain the formation of these inhomogeneities. Long-term stability investigation of this supramolecular structure has revealed that these inhomogeneities are exceptionally long-lived non-equilibrium structures that persist for weeks or even months.

  15. Two-layer synchronized ternary quantum-dot cellular automata wire crossings (United States)


    Quantum-dot cellular automata are an interesting nanoscale computing paradigm. The introduction of the ternary quantum-dot cell enabled ternary computing, and with the recent development of a ternary functionally complete set of elementary logic primitives and the ternary memorizing cell design of complex processing structures is becoming feasible. The specific nature of the ternary quantum-dot cell makes wire crossings one of the most problematic areas of ternary quantum-dot cellular automata circuit design. We hereby present a two-layer wire crossing that uses a specific clocking scheme, which ensures the crossed wires have the same effective delay. PMID:22507371

  16. Liquid-liquid equilibria for ternary polymer mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Suk Yung [Division of Chemical Engineering and Molecular Thermodynamics Laboratory, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Young Chan, E-mail: [Division of Chemical Engineering and Molecular Thermodynamics Laboratory, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)


    Graphical abstract: We developed a molecular thermodynamic model for multicomponent systems and discribed the phase equilibrium for ternary polymer mixtures by using the model parameters obtained from the binary systems. Research highlights: {yields} Model parameters were obtained from the binary systems. {yields} The obtained parameters were directly used to predict the ternary data. {yields} The undetermined parameters were used to correlate the ternary data. {yields} The proposed model agreed well with the experimental data. - Abstract: A molecular thermodynamic model for multicomponent systems based on a closed-packed lattice model is presented based on two contributions; entropy and energy contribution. The calculated liquid-liquid equilibria of ternary chainlike mixtures agreed with Monte Carlo simulation results. The proposed model can satisfactorily predict Types 0, 1, 2 and 3 phase separations of the Treybal classification. The model parameters obtained from the binary systems were used to directly predict real ternary systems and the calculated results correlated well with experimental data using few adjustable parameters. Specific interactions in associated binary systems were considered using a secondary lattice.

  17. Completed Local Ternary Pattern for Rotation Invariant Texture Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha H. Rassem


    Full Text Available Despite the fact that the two texture descriptors, the completed modeling of Local Binary Pattern (CLBP and the Completed Local Binary Count (CLBC, have achieved a remarkable accuracy for invariant rotation texture classification, they inherit some Local Binary Pattern (LBP drawbacks. The LBP is sensitive to noise, and different patterns of LBP may be classified into the same class that reduces its discriminating property. Although, the Local Ternary Pattern (LTP is proposed to be more robust to noise than LBP, however, the latter’s weakness may appear with the LTP as well as with LBP. In this paper, a novel completed modeling of the Local Ternary Pattern (LTP operator is proposed to overcome both LBP drawbacks, and an associated completed Local Ternary Pattern (CLTP scheme is developed for rotation invariant texture classification. The experimental results using four different texture databases show that the proposed CLTP achieved an impressive classification accuracy as compared to the CLBP and CLBC descriptors.

  18. On the interpretation, verification and calibration of ternary probabilistic forecasts

    CERN Document Server

    Jupp, Tim E; Coelho, Caio A S; Stephenson, David B


    We develop a geometrical interpretation of ternary probabilistic forecasts in which forecasts and observations are regarded as points inside a triangle. Within the triangle, we define a continuous colour palette in which hue and colour saturation are defined with reference to the observed climatology. In contrast to current methods, forecast maps created with this colour scheme convey all of the information present in each ternary forecast. The geometrical interpretation is then extended to verification under quadratic scoring rules (of which the Brier Score and the Ranked Probability Score are well--known examples). Each scoring rule defines an associated triangle in which the square roots of the \\emph{score}, the \\emph{reliability}, the \\emph{uncertainty} and the \\emph{resolution} all have natural interpretations as root--mean--square distances. This leads to our proposal for a \\emph{Ternary Reliability Diagram} in which data relating to verification and calibration can be summarised. We illustrate these id...

  19. [Synthesis and luminescence properties of reactive ternary europium complexes]. (United States)

    Guo, Dong-cai; Shu, Wan-gen; Zhang, Wei; Liu, You-nian; Zhou, Yue


    In this paper, five new reactive ternary europium complexes were synthesized with the first ligand of 1,10-phenanthroline and the reactive second ligands of maleic anhydride, acrylonitrile, undecenoic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid, and also characterized by means of elemental analysis, EDTA titrimetric method, FTIR spectra and UV spectra. The fluorescence spectra show that the five new ternary complexes have much higher luminescence intensity than their corresponding binary complexes, and the synergy ability sequence of the five reactive ligands is as follows: linoleic acid > oleic acid > acrylonitrile > maleic anhydride > undecenoic acid. At the same time, the reactive ternary europium complexes coordinated with the reactive ligands, which can be copolymerized with other monomers, will provide a new way for the synthesis of bonding-type rare earth polymer functional materials with excellent luminescence properties.

  20. Thermodynamic Study of Sn-Bi-Nd, Tb Ternary Systems (United States)

    Xu, F.; Chen, Y. T.; Ye, R.; Chen, Y. Y.; Su, X. H.; Wang, S. L.; Fu, C. Y.


    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the addition of rare earth elements on Sn-Bi-based alloy, and to study the phase equilibrium of Sn-Bi-Nd, Tb ternary systems by means of establishing the thermodynamic database. Combined with the thermodynamic parameters of relevant binary systems, the thermodynamic database of the Sn-Bi-Nd, Tb ternary systems has been developed to present the significant information for the design of low-temperature lead-free solder alloys.

  1. Ternary jitter-based true random number generator (United States)

    Latypov, Rustam; Stolov, Evgeni


    In this paper a novel family of generators producing true uniform random numbers in ternary logic is presented. The generator consists of a number of identical ternary logic combinational units connected into a ring. All the units are provided to have a random delay time, and this time is supposed to be distributed in accordance with an exponential distribution. All delays are supposed to be independent events. The theory of the generator is based on Erlang equations. The generator can be used for test production in various systems. Features of multidimensional random vectors, produced by the generator, are discussed.

  2. Liquid-liquid equilibria for ternary polymer mixtures (United States)

    Oh, Suk Yung; Bae, Young Chan


    A molecular thermodynamic model for multicomponent systems based on a closed-packed lattice model is presented based on two contributions; entropy and energy contribution. The calculated liquid-liquid equilibria of ternary chainlike mixtures agreed with Monte Carlo simulation results. The proposed model can satisfactorily predict Types 0, 1, 2 and 3 phase separations of the Treybal classification. The model parameters obtained from the binary systems were used to directly predict real ternary systems and the calculated results correlated well with experimental data using few adjustable parameters. Specific interactions in associated binary systems were considered using a secondary lattice.

  3. PM1 steganographic algorithm using ternary Hamming Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Kaczyński


    Full Text Available PM1 algorithm is a modification of well-known LSB steganographic algorithm. It has increased resistance to selected steganalytic attacks and increased embedding efficiency. Due to its uniqueness, PM1 algorithm allows us to use of larger alphabet of symbols, making it possible to further increase steganographic capacity. In this paper, we present the modified PM1 algorithm which utilizies so-called syndrome coding and ternary Hamming code. The modified algorithm has increased embedding efficiency, which means fewer changes introduced to carrier and increased capacity.[b]Keywords[/b]: steganography, linear codes, PM1, LSB, ternary Hamming code

  4. The ternary system: silicon-uranium-vanadium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, Henri [Laboratoire de Chimie du Solide et Materiaux, UMR-CNRS 6226, Universite de Rennes I, Avenue du General Leclerc, F-35042 Rennes, Cedex (France); Rogl, Peter Franz, E-mail: [Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Vienna, A-1090 Wien, Waehringerstrasse 42 (Austria)


    Phase equilibria in the system Si-U-V were established at 1100 {sup o}C by optical microscopy, EMPA and X-ray diffraction. Two ternary compounds were observed, U{sub 2}V{sub 3}Si{sub 4} and (U{sub 1-x}V{sub x}){sub 5}Si{sub 3}, for which the crystal structures were elucidated by X-ray powder data refinement and found to be isotypic with the monoclinic U{sub 2}Mo{sub 3}Si{sub 4}-type (space group P2{sub 1}/c; a = 0.6821(3), b = 0.6820(4), c = 0.6735(3) nm, {beta} = 109.77(1){sup o}) and the tetragonal W{sub 5}Si{sub 3}-type (space group I4/mcm, a = 1.06825(2), c = 0.52764(2) nm), respectively. (U{sub 1-x}V{sub x}){sub 5}Si{sub 3} appears at 1100 {sup o}C without any significant homogeneity region at x {approx} 0.2 resulting in a formula U{sub 4}VSi{sub 3} which corresponds to a fully ordered atom arrangement. DTA experiments clearly show decomposition of this phase above 1206 {sup o}C revealing a two-phase region U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} + V{sub 3}Si. At 1100 {sup o}C U{sub 4}VSi{sub 3} is in equilibrium with V{sub 3}Si, V{sub 5}Si{sub 3}, U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} and U(V). At 800 {sup o}C U{sub 4}VSi{sub 3} forms one vertex of the tie-triangle to U{sub 3}Si and V{sub 3}Si. Due to the rather high thermodynamic stability of V{sub 3}Si and the corresponding tie-lines V{sub 3}Si + liquid at 1100 {sup o}C and V{sub 3}Si + U(V) below 925 {sup o}C, no compatibility exists between U{sub 3}Si or U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} and vanadium metal.

  5. Studies on Molecular Interaction in Ternary Liquid Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Uvarani


    Full Text Available Ultrasonic velocity, density and viscosity for the ternary liquid mixtures of cyclohexanone with 1-propanol and 1-butanol in carbon tetrachloride were measured at 303 K. The acoustical parameters and their excess values were calculated. The trends in the variation of these excess parameters were used to discuss the nature and strength of the interactions present between the component molecules.

  6. Hierarchic structure formation in binary and ternary polymer blends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprenger, M; Walheim, S; Budkowski, A; Steiner, U

    The phase morphology of multi-component polymer blends is governed by the interfacial interactions of its components. We discuss here the domain morphology in thin films of model binary and ternary polymer blends containing polystyrene, poly(methyl metacrylate), and poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PS, PMMA,

  7. Mechanical, microstructure and electrical properties of ternary ZnO ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 38; Issue 3. Mechanical, microstructure and electrical properties of ternary ZnO–V2O5–Mn3O4 varistor with sintering temperature. S El-Rabai A H Khafagy M T Dawoud M T Attia. Volume 38 Issue 3 June 2015 pp 773-781 ...

  8. Intermolecular Interactions in Ternary Glycerol–Sample–H2O

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westh, Peter; Rasmussen, Erik Lumby; Koga, Yoshikata


    We studied the intermolecular interactions in ternary glycerol (Gly)–sample (S)–H2O systems at 25 °C. By measuring the excess partial molar enthalpy of Gly, HGlyEHEGly, we evaluated the Gly–Gly enthalpic interaction, HGly-GlyEHEGly--Gly, in the presence of various samples (S). For S, tert...

  9. Excess isentropic compressibility and speed of sound of the ternary ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These excess properties of the binary mixtures were fitted to Redlich-Kister equation, while the Cibulka's equation was used to fit the values related to the values to the ternary system. These excess properties have been used to discuss the presence of significant interactions between the component molecules in the binary ...

  10. Robust self-triggered coordination with ternary controllers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Persis, Claudio; Frasca, Paolo


    This paper regards the coordination of networked systems, studied in the framework of hybrid dynamical systems. We design a coordination scheme which combines the use of ternary controllers with a self-triggered communication policy. The communication policy requires the agents to measure, at each

  11. Univolatility curves in ternary mixtures: geometry and numerical computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shcherbakova, Nataliya; Rodriguez-Donis, Ivonne; Abildskov, Jens


    We propose a new non-iterative numerical algorithm allowing computation of all univolatility curves in homogeneous ternary mixtures independently of the presence of the azeotropes. The key point is the concept of generalized univolatility curves in the 3D state space, which allows the main...... computational part to be reduced to a simple integration of a system of ordinary differential equations....

  12. Evaluation of griseofulvin binary and ternary solid dispersions with HPMCAS. (United States)

    Al-Obaidi, Hisham; Buckton, Graham


    The stability and dissolution properties of griseofulvin binary and ternary solid dispersions were evaluated. Solid dispersions of griseofulvin and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS) were prepared using the spray drying method. A third polymer, poly[N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylate] (PHPMA), was incorporated to investigate its effect on the interaction of griseofulvin with HPMCAS. In this case, HPMCAS can form H bonds with griseofulvin directly; the addition of PHPMA to the solid dispersion may enhance the stability of the amorphous griseofulvin due to greater interaction with griseofulvin. The X-ray powder diffraction results showed that griseofulvin (binary and ternary solid dispersions) remained amorphous for more than 19 months stored at 85% RH compared with the spray-dried griseofulvin which crystallized totally within 24 h at ambient conditions. The Fourier transform infrared scan showed that griseofulvin carbonyl group formed hydrogen bonds with the hydroxyl group in the HPMCAS, which could explain the extended stability of the drug. Further broadening in the peak could be seen when PHPMA was added to the solid dispersion, which indicates stronger interaction. The glass transition temperatures increased in the ternary solid dispersions regardless of HPMCAS grade. The dissolution rate of the drug in the solid dispersion (both binary and ternary) has significantly increased when compared with the dissolution profile of the spray-dried griseofulvin. These results reveal significant stability of the amorphous form due to the hydrogen bond formation with the polymer. The addition of the third polymer improved the stability but had a minor impact on dissolution.

  13. Excess isentropic compressibility and speed of sound of the ternary ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    relation (NR), Van Deal's ideal mixing relation (IMR) and Junjie's relation (JR). The results are used to ... The compounds used were 2-propanol (>99 mass%), diethyl ether (>99.5 mass%) and n-hexane (>99 .... The excess speed of sound, uE, is estimated in binary and ternary mixtures using the following expression:.

  14. Viscometric and thermodynamic studies of interactions in ternary ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 117; Issue 3. Viscometric and thermodynamic studies of interactions in ternary solutions containing sucrose and aqueous alkali metal halides at 293.15, 303.15 and 313.15 K. Reena Gupta Mukhtar Singh. Volume 117 Issue 3 May 2005 pp 275-282 ...

  15. Modeling adsorption of binary and ternary mixtures on microporous media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monsalvo, Matias Alfonso; Shapiro, Alexander


    The goal of this work is to analyze the adsorption of binary and ternary mixtures on the basis of the multicomponent potential theory of adsorption (MPTA). In the MPTA, the adsorbate is considered as a segregated mixture in the external potential field emitted by the solid adsorbent. This makes i...

  16. A Simple Refraction Experiment for Probing Diffusion in Ternary Mixtures (United States)

    Coutinho, Cecil A.; Mankidy, Bijith D.; Gupta, Vinay K.


    Diffusion is a fundamental phenomenon that is vital in many chemical processes such as mass transport in living cells, corrosion, and separations. We describe a simple undergraduate-level experiment based on Weiner's Method to probe diffusion in a ternary aqueous mixture of small molecular-weight molecules. As an illustration, the experiment…

  17. Electron paramagnetic resonance study of ternary Cu compounds ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We report here electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements at 9 and 34 GHz, and room temperature (T ), in powder and single crystal samples of the ternary compounds of copper nitrate or copper chloride with glycine and 1,10-phenanthroline [Cu(Gly)(phen)(H2O)]·NO3·1.5H2O (1) and.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protective coatings are perhaps the most extensively used system for chemical and mechanical degradation in application. ... mechanical and electrochemical resistance bond needful during application. .... binary phase of SiC and ZrO2 results to a reduction in the hardness value compare to the ternary phase which is in ...

  19. Experimental examination of ternary fission in nuclear track emulsion (United States)

    Mamatkulov, K. Z.; Ambrožová, I.; Artemenkov, D. A.; Bradnova, V.; Firu, E.; Haiduc, M.; Kakona, M.; Kattabekov, R. R.; Marey, A.; Neagu, A.; Ploc, O.; Rusakova, V. V.; Stanoeva, R.; Turek, K.; Zaitsev, A. A.; Zarubin, P. I.; Zarubina, I. G.


    Activities performed in preparation for the search for ternary fission of heavy nuclei and the analysis of fragment angular correlations with nuclear track emulsion and an automated microscope are detailed. Surface irradiation of nuclear emulsion by a Cf source was initiated. Planar events containing nothing but fragment triples were found and studied.

  20. Thermodynamic calculations in ternary titanium–aluminium–manganese system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Thermodynamic calculations in the ternary Ti–Al–Mn system are shown in this paper. The thermodynamic calculations were performed using the FactSage thermochemical software and database, with the aim of determining thermodynamic properties, such as activities, coefficient of activities, partial and integral values of the enthalpies and Gibbs energies of mixing and excess energies at two different temperatures: 2000 and 2100 K. Bearing in mind that no experimental data for the Ti–Al–Mn ternary system have been obtained or reported. The obtained results represent a good base for further thermodynamic analysis and may be useful as a comparison with some future critical experimental results and thermodynamic optimization of this system.

  1. Experimental Investigation of Ternary Alloys for Fusion Breeding Blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, B. William [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chiu, Ing L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    Future fusion power plants based on the deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel cycle will be required to breed the T fuel via neutron reactions with lithium, which will be incorporated in a breeding blanket that surrounds the fusion source. Recent work by LLNL proposed the used of liquid Li as the breeder in an inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant. Subsequently, an LDRD was initiated to develop alternatives ternary alloy liquid metal breeders that have reduced chemical reactivity with water and air compared to pure Li. Part of the work plan was to experimentally investigate the phase diagrams of ternary alloys. Of particular interest was measurement of the melt temperature, which must be low enough to be compatible with the temperature limits of the steel used in the construction of the chamber and heat transfer system.

  2. A New Multifunctional Sensor for Measuring Concentrations of Ternary Solution (United States)

    Wei, Guo; Shida, Katsunori

    This paper presents a multifunctional sensor with novel structure, which is capable of directly sensing temperature and two physical parameters of solutions, namely ultrasonic velocity and conductivity. By combined measurement of these three measurable parameters, the concentrations of various components in a ternary solution can be simultaneously determined. The structure and operation principle of the sensor are described, and a regression algorithm based on natural cubic spline interpolation and the least square method is adopted to estimate the concentrations. The performances of the proposed sensor are experimentally tested by the use of ternary aqueous solution of sodium chloride and sucrose, which is widely involved in food and beverage industries. This sensor could prove valuable as a process control sensor in industry fields.

  3. Cohesion energy calculations for ternary ionic novel crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez P, G.; Cabrera, E. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 20-364, 01000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Mijangos, R.R. [Centro de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, A.P. 5-88, 83190 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Valdez, E. [Escuela Nacional de Estudios Profesionales Acatlan, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Santa Cruz Acatlan, Naucalpan (Mexico); Duarte, C. [Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Sonora, 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)


    The present work calculates the value of the link energy of a crystalline ternary structure newly formed by alkali halides. The ternary structure prepared with different concentrations of KCl{sub x}KBrRbCl{sub 2} maintains a very good miscibility and stability. The calculation is based on the use of a generalization of the Vegard law (which generally is valid for binary compounds) for calculating the values of the lattice constant and the repulsive m exponent. The value of the lattice parameter given by X-ray diffractometry agrees with the close approximation of the calculated value of the method used. It also compares the value of energy cohesion obtained by the Born expression with more complex approximations. (Author)

  4. Optical Properties of Silver Aluminium Sulphide Ternary Thin Films ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ternary thin films of Silver Aluminium Sulphide (AgAlS2) have been prepared by chemical bath deposition techniques. Aqueous solution of 41.5 mls containing AgNO3, Al2(SO4)3, thiourea and EDTA was used, where AgNO3, Al2(SO4)3, thiourea were the source of Ag+, Al+ and S- respectively and EDTA was used as a ...

  5. Evaluation of Griseofulvin Binary and Ternary Solid Dispersions with HPMCAS


    Al-Obaidi, Hisham; Buckton, Graham


    The stability and dissolution properties of griseofulvin binary and ternary solid dispersions were evaluated. Solid dispersions of griseofulvin and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS) were prepared using the spray drying method. A third polymer, poly[N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylate] (PHPMA), was incorporated to investigate its effect on the interaction of griseofulvin with HPMCAS. In this case, HPMCAS can form H bonds with griseofulvin directly; the addition of PHPMA to t...

  6. Some new quasi-twisted ternary linear codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumen Daskalov


    Full Text Available Let [n, k, d]_q code be a linear code of length n, dimension k and minimum Hamming distance d over GF(q. One of the basic and most important problems in coding theory is to construct codes with best possible minimum distances. In this paper seven quasi-twisted ternary linear codes are constructed. These codes are new and improve the best known lower bounds on the minimum distance in [6].

  7. Theoretical prediction of topological insulator in ternary rare earth chalcogenides


    Yan, Binghai; Zhang, Hai-Jun; Liu, Chao-Xing; Qi, Xiao-Liang; Frauenheim, Thomas; Zhang, Shou-Cheng


    A new class of three-dimensional topological insulator, ternary rare earth chalcogenides, is theoretically investigated with ab initio calculations. Based on both bulk band structure analysis and the direct calculation of topological surface states, we demonstrate that LaBiTe3 is a topological insulator. La can be substituted by other rare earth elements, which provide candidates for novel topological states such as quantum anomalous Hall insulator, axionic insulator and topological Kondo ins...

  8. Phase equilibria of the Mo-Al-Ho ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yitai; Chen, Xiaoxian; Liu, Hao [Guangxi Univ., Nanning (China). College of Materials Science and Engineering; Guangxi Univ., Nanning (China). Guangxi Key Laboratory of Processing for Non-ferrous Metal and Featured Materials; Zhan, Yongzhong [Guangxi Univ., Nanning (China). College of Materials Science and Engineering; Guangxi Univ., Nanning (China). Guangxi Key Laboratory of Processing for Non-ferrous Metal and Featured Materials; Guangxi Univ., Nanning (China). Center of Ecological Collaborative Innovation for Aluminum Industry


    Investigation into the reactions and phase equilibria of transition metal elements (i.e. Mo, Zr, Cr, V and Ti), Al and rare earths is academically and industrially important for the development of both refractory alloys and lightweight high-temperature materials. In this work, the equilibria of the Mo-Al-Ho ternary system at 773 K have been determined by using X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray analysis. A new ternary phase Al{sub 4}Mo{sub 2}Ho has been found and the other ternary phase Al{sub 43}Mo{sub 4}Ho{sub 6} is observed. Ten binary phases in the Al-Mo and Al-Ho systems, including Al{sub 17}Mo{sub 4} rather than Al{sub 4}Mo, have been determined to exist at 773 K. The homogeneity ranges of AlMo{sub 3} and Al{sub 8}Mo{sub 3} phase are 7.5 at.% and 1 at.%, respectively. According to the phase-disappearing method, the maximum solubility of Al in Mo is about 16 at.%.

  9. Ternary Ag/epoxy adhesive with excellent overall performance. (United States)

    Ji, Yan-Hong; Liu, Yu; Huang, Gui-Wen; Shen, Xiao-Jun; Xiao, Hong-Mei; Fu, Shao-Yun


    Excellent electrical conductivity (EC) generally conflicts with high lap shear strength (LSS) for electrically conductive adhesives (ECAs) since EC increases while LSS decreases with increasing conductive filler content. In this work, the ECAs with the excellent overall performance are developed based on the ternary hybrid of Ag microflakes (Ag-MFs), Ag nanospheres (Ag-NSs), and Ag nanowires (Ag-NWs). First, a low silver content adhesive system is determined. Then, the effects of the relative contents of Ag fillers on the EC and the LSS are studied. It is shown that a small amount of Ag-NSs or Ag-NWs can dramatically improve the EC for the Ag-MF/epoxy adhesives. The Ag-NSs and Ag-NWs with appropriate contents have a synergistic effect in improving the EC. Meanwhile, the LSS of the as-prepared adhesive with the appropriate Ag contents reaches an optimal value. Both the EC and the LSS of the as-prepared ternary hybrid ECA with a low content of 40 wt % Ag are higher than those of the commercial ECAs filled with the Ag-MF content over 60 wt %. Finally, the ternary hybrid ECA with the optimal formulation is shown to be promising for printing the radio frequency identification tag antennas as an immediate application example.

  10. Valence band electronic structure of Pd based ternary chalcogenide superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohani, H. [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400085 (India); Mishra, P. [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Goyal, R.; Awana, V.P.S. [National Physical Laboratory(CSIR), Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Sekhar, B.R., E-mail: [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400085 (India)


    Highlights: • VB Photoemission study and DFT calculations on Pd based ternary superconductors are presented. • Nb{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.95}S{sub 5} shows a temperature dependent pseudogap. • VB spectral features of ternary superconductors are correlated to their structural geometry. - Abstract: We present a comparative study of the valence band electronic structure of Pd based ternary chalcogenide superconductors Nb{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.95}S{sub 5}, Ta{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.97}S{sub 6} and Ta{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.97}Te{sub 6} using experimental photoemission spectroscopy and density functional based theoretical calculations. We observe a qualitatively similarity between valence band (VB) spectra of Nb{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.95}S{sub 5} and Ta{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.97}S{sub 6}. Further, we find a pseudogap feature in Nb{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.95}S{sub 5} at low temperature, unlike other two compounds. We have correlated the structural geometry with the differences in VB spectra of these compounds. The different atomic packing in these compounds could vary the strength of inter-orbital hybridization among various atoms which leads to difference in their electronic structure as clearly observed in our DOS calculations.

  11. Realizing Ternary Logic in FPGAs for SWL DSP Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayeb Din


    Full Text Available Recently SWL (Short Word Length DSP (Digital Signal Processing applications has been proposed to overcome multiplier complexity that is evident in most of the digital applications. These SWL applications have been processed through sigma-delta modulation as a key element. For such applications, adder design plays vital role and can impact upon the chip area and its performance. In this paper, a ternary approach for adder tree has been proposed instead of binary that can accommodate more data with less chip-area at the cost of extra pin. The proposed ternary adder tree has been designed and developed in Quartus-II using three different design strategies namely T-gate (Ternary gate, LUT (Look Up Table and algebraic equations. Through rigorous simulation it was found that T-gate technique results in superior performance, an average of 23.5 and 33% improvement compared to the same adder structure based on Boolean Algebraic Equation and LUT, respectively. The proposed adder design would benefit the efficient implementation of SWL applications.

  12. Information on individual interfaces in ternary polymer blends from positron annihilation lifetime studies (United States)

    Meghala, D.; Ramya, P.; Pasang, T.; Ravikumar, H. B.; Ranganathaiah, C.


    Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy has been used to determine the free volume content in the ternary blends of SAN/EVA/PVC. The method of deriving hydrodynamic interaction parameter (α) in binary polymer blends was modified for ternary polymer blend system characterized by three distinct interfaces. Each interface characterized, is associated with an α and its assertion for the ternary blend are compared with available literature data.

  13. Liquid-liquid equilibria for binary and ternary polymer solutions with PC-SAFT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindvig, Thomas; Michelsen, Michael Locht; Kontogeorgis, Georgios


    are used for investigating the correlative and predictive capabilities of the thermodynamic model PC-SAFT. The investigation shows that the model correlates well experimental LLE data for binary as well as ternary systems but further predicts the behavior of the ternary systems with reasonably good......Two algorithms for evaluating liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE) for binary and ternary polymer solutions are presented. The binary algorithm provides the temperature versus concentration cloud-point curve at fixed pressure, whereas the ternary algorithm provides component 1 versus component 2...

  14. The Lattice Compatibility Theory: Arguments for Recorded I-III-O2 Ternary Oxide Ceramics Instability at Low Temperatures beside Ternary Telluride and Sulphide Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Boubaker


    Full Text Available Some recorded behaviours differences between chalcopyrite ternary oxide ceramics and telluride and sulphides are investigated in the framework of the recently proposed Lattice Compatibility Theory (LCT. Alterations have been evaluated in terms of Urbach tailing and atomic valence shell electrons orbital eigenvalues, which were calculated through several approximations. The aim of the study was mainly an attempt to explain the intriguing problem of difficulties of elaborating chalcopyrite ternary oxide ceramics (I-III-O2 at relatively low temperatures under conditions which allowed crystallization of ternary telluride and sulphides.

  15. Crystal Growth of Ternary Compound Semiconductors in Low Gravity Environment (United States)

    Su, Ching-Hua


    A low gravity material experiment will be performed in the Material Science Research Rack (MSRR) on International Space Station (ISS). There are two sections of the flight experiment: (I) crystal growth of ZnSe and related ternary compounds, such as ZnSeS and ZnSeTe, by physical vapor transport (PVT) and (II) melt growth of CdZnTe by directional solidification. The main objective of the project is to determine the relative contributions of gravity-driven fluid flows to the compositional distribution, incorporation of impurities and defects, and deviation from stoichiometry observed in the grown crystals as results of buoyancy-driven convection and growth interface fluctuations caused by irregular fluid-flows on Earth. The investigation consists of extensive ground-based experimental and theoretical research efforts and concurrent flight experimentation. This talk will focus on the ground-based studies on the PVT crystal growth of ZnSe and related ternary compounds. The objectives of the ground-based studies are (1) obtain the experimental data and conduct the analyses required to define the optimum growth parameters for the flight experiments, (2) perfect various characterization techniques to establish the standard procedure for material characterization, (3) quantitatively establish the characteristics of the crystals grown on Earth as a basis for subsequent comparative evaluations of the crystals grown in a low-gravity environment and (4) develop theoretical and analytical methods required for such evaluations. ZnSe and related ternary compounds have been grown by vapor transport technique with real time in-situ non-invasive monitoring techniques. The grown crystals have been characterized extensively by various techniques to correlate the grown crystal properties with the growth conditions.

  16. Quantifying the energetics of cooperativity in a ternary protein complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter S; Schuck, Peter; Sundberg, Eric J


    and mathematical modeling to describe the energetics of cooperativity in a trimolecular protein complex. As a model system for quantifying cooperativity, we studied the ternary complex formed by the simultaneous interaction of a superantigen with major histocompatibility complex and T cell receptor, for which...... a structural model is available. This system exhibits positive and negative cooperativity, as well as augmentation of the temperature dependence of binding kinetics upon the cooperative interaction of individual protein components in the complex. Our experimental and theoretical analysis may be applicable...... to other systems involving cooperativity....

  17. Implementation of DFT application on ternary optical computer (United States)

    Junjie, Peng; Youyi, Fu; Xiaofeng, Zhang; Shuai, Kong; Xinyu, Wei


    As its characteristics of huge number of data bits and low energy consumption, optical computing may be used in the applications such as DFT etc. which needs a lot of computation and can be implemented in parallel. According to this, DFT implementation methods in full parallel as well as in partial parallel are presented. Based on resources ternary optical computer (TOC), extensive experiments were carried out. Experimental results show that the proposed schemes are correct and feasible. They provide a foundation for further exploration of the applications on TOC that needs a large amount calculation and can be processed in parallel.

  18. A review on ternary vanadate one-dimensional nanomaterials. (United States)

    Pei, Li Z; Wang, Shuai; Liu, Han D; Pei, Yin Q


    Ternary vanadate one-dimensional nanomaterials exhibit great application potential in the fields of lithium ion batteries, photocatalysis and electrochemical sensors owing to their good electrochemical and photocatalytic properties. The article reviews the recent progress and patents on the vanadate one-dimensional nanomaterials. The synthesis of the vanadate nanorods, nanobelts and nanotubes by hydrothermal method, template method and room temperature wet chemical process is demonstrated. The application of the vanadate one-dimensional nanomaterials for lithium ion batteries, electrochemical sensors and photocatalysis is discussed. The possible development direction of the vanadate one-dimensional nanomaterials for the synthesis and application is also analyzed.

  19. Ternary System with Controlled Structure: A New Strategy toward Efficient Organic Photovoltaics. (United States)

    Cheng, Pei; Wang, Rui; Zhu, Jingshuai; Huang, Wenchao; Chang, Sheng-Yung; Meng, Lei; Sun, Pengyu; Cheng, Hao-Wen; Qin, Meng; Zhu, Chenhui; Zhan, Xiaowei; Yang, Yang


    Recently, a new type of active layer with a ternary system has been developed to further enhance the performance of binary system organic photovoltaics (OPV). In the ternary OPV, almost all active layers are formed by simple ternary blend in solution, which eventually leads to the disordered bulk heterojunction (BHJ) structure after a spin-coating process. There are two main restrictions in this disordered BHJ structure to obtain higher performance OPV. One is the isolated second donor or acceptor domains. The other is the invalid metal-semiconductor contact. Herein, the concept and design of donor/acceptor/acceptor ternary OPV with more controlled structure (C-ternary) is reported. The C-ternary OPV is fabricated by a sequential solution process, in which the second acceptor and donor/acceptor binary blend are sequentially spin-coated. After the device optimization, the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of all OPV with C-ternary are enhanced by 14-21% relative to those with the simple ternary blend; the best PCEs are 10.7 and 11.0% for fullerene-based and fullerene-free solar cells, respectively. Moreover, the averaged PCE value of 10.4% for fullerene-free solar cell measured in this study is in great agreement with the certified one of 10.32% obtained from Newport Corporation. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Fullerene alloy formation and the benefits for efficient printing of ternary blend organic solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angmo, Dechan; Bjerring, Morten; Nielsen, Niels Chr.


    with a third polymer component, the system exhibits pseudo-binary phase behaviour instead of the expected ternary phase behaviour. Our results experimentally confirm the earlier hypothesis that the unexpected composition average dependent IV-behaviour for these supposed ternary mixtures are indeed due to them...

  1. Using a Ternary Diagram to Display a System's Evolving Energy Distribution (United States)

    Brazzle, Bob; Tapp, Anne


    A ternary diagram is a graphical representation used for systems with three components. They are familiar to mineralogists (who typically use them to categorize varieties of solid solution minerals such as feldspar) but are not yet widely used in the physics community. Last year the lead author began using ternary diagrams in his introductory…

  2. Visible and near-infrared light emitting calix[4]arene-based ternary lanthanide complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hebbink, G.A.; Klink, S.I.; Oude Alink, Patrick G.B.; van Veggel, F.C.J.M.


    In this article ternary lanthanide complexes consisting of a calix[4]arene unit and dibenzoylmethane (dbm) as the antenna are described. In the europium complex [(Eu)2]NO3 two solvent molecules are still coordinated to the ion, making substitution of them by the dbm antenna possible. In the ternary

  3. Calculated site substitution in ternary gamma'-Ni3Al: Temperature and composition effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruban, Andrei; Skriver, Hans Lomholt


    The temperature and composition dependence of the site substitution behavior of ternary additions to Ni3Al is examined on the basis of first-principles calculations of the total energies of ternary, partially ordered (gamma') alloys. The calculations are performed by means of the linear muffin...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce the notions of interval-valued fuzzy bi-ideal, interval-valued anti fuzzy bi-ideal and interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy bi-ideal in ternary semirings and some of the basic properties of these ideals are investigated. We also introduce normal interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy ideals in ternary semirings.

  5. Ternary-fission dynamics and asymmetries in reactions with polarized neutrons

    CERN Document Server

    Bunakov, V E


    Experimental results of measuring various asymmetries of charged-particles emission in ternary fission induced by polarized neutrons, namely parity nonconserving asymmetries, left-right asymmetries and triple-odd correlations are presented. It is demonstrated what kind of new information about the mechanism of ternary fission can be obtained from their analysis

  6. Factoring with qutrits: Shor's algorithm on ternary and metaplectic quantum architectures (United States)

    Bocharov, Alex; Roetteler, Martin; Svore, Krysta M.


    We determine the cost of performing Shor's algorithm for integer factorization on a ternary quantum computer, using two natural models of universal fault-tolerant computing: (i) a model based on magic state distillation that assumes the availability of the ternary Clifford gates, projective measurements, classical control as its natural instrumentation set; (ii) a model based on a metaplectic topological quantum computer (MTQC). A natural choice to implement Shor's algorithm on a ternary quantum computer is to translate the entire arithmetic into a ternary form. However, it is also possible to emulate the standard binary version of the algorithm by encoding each qubit in a three-level system. We compare the two approaches and analyze the complexity of implementing Shor's period-finding function in the two models. We also highlight the fact that the cost of achieving universality through magic states in MTQC architecture is asymptotically lower than in generic ternary case.

  7. High-performance ternary blend polymer solar cells involving both energy transfer and hole relay processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Luyao; Chen, Wei; Xu, Tao; Yu, Luping


    The integration of multiple materials with complementary absorptions into a singlejunction device is regarded as an efficient way to enhance the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of organic solar cells (OSCs). However, due to increased complexity with one more component, only limited high performance ternary systems have been demonstrated previously. Here, we report an efficient ternary blend OSC with a PCE of 9.2%. We show for the first time that the third component can reduce surface trap densities in the ternary blend. Detailed studies unravel that the improved performance results from synergistic effects of enlarged open circuit voltage, suppressed trap assisted recombination, enhanced light absorption, increased hole extraction, efficient energy transfer, and better morphology. The novel working mechanism and high device performance demonstrate new insights and design guidelines for high performance ternary blend solar cells and suggest that ternary structure is a promising platform to boost the efficiency of OSCs.

  8. Local Directional Ternary Pattern for Facial Expression Recognition. (United States)

    Ryu, Byungyong; Rivera, Adin Ramirez; Kim, Jaemyun; Chae, Oksam


    This paper presents a new face descriptor, local directional ternary pattern (LDTP), for facial expression recognition. LDTP efficiently encodes information of emotion-related features (i.e., eyes, eyebrows, upper nose, and mouth) by using the directional information and ternary pattern in order to take advantage of the robustness of edge patterns in the edge region while overcoming weaknesses of edge-based methods in smooth regions. Our proposal, unlike existing histogram-based face description methods that divide the face into several regions and sample the codes uniformly, uses a two level grid to construct the face descriptor while sampling expression-related information at different scales. We use a coarse grid for stable codes (highly related to non-expression), and a finer one for active codes (highly related to expression). This multi-level approach enables us to do a finer grain description of facial motions, while still characterizing the coarse features of the expression. Moreover, we learn the active LDTP codes from the emotionrelated facial regions. We tested our method by using persondependent and independent cross-validation schemes to evaluate the performance. We show that our approaches improve the overall accuracy of facial expression recognition on six datasets.

  9. Genetic Synthesis of New Reversible/Quantum Ternary Comparator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEIBUK, V.


    Full Text Available Methods of quantum/reversible logic synthesis are based on the use of the binary nature of quantum computing. However, multiple-valued logic is a promising choice for future quantum computer technology due to a number of advantages over binary circuits. In this paper we have developed a synthesis of ternary reversible circuits based on Muthukrishnan-Stroud gates using a genetic algorithm. The method of coding chromosome is presented, and well-grounded choice of algorithm parameters allowed obtaining better circuit schemes of one- and n-qutrit ternary comparators compared with other methods. These parameters are quantum cost of received reversible devices, delay time and number of constant input (ancilla lines. Proposed implementation of the genetic algorithm has led to reducing of the device delay time and the number of ancilla qutrits to 1 and 2n-1 for one- and n-qutrits full comparators, respectively. For designing of n-qutrit comparator we have introduced a complementary device which compares output functions of 1-qutrit comparators.

  10. Enhanced Light Absorption in Fluorinated Ternary Small-Molecule Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eastham, Nicholas D. [Department; Dudnik, Alexander S. [Department; Harutyunyan, Boris [Department; Aldrich, Thomas J. [Department; Leonardi, Matthew J. [Department; Manley, Eric F. [Department; Chemical; Butler, Melanie R. [Department; Harschneck, Tobias [Department; Ratner, Mark A. [Department; Chen, Lin X. [Department; Chemical; Bedzyk, Michael J. [Department; Department; Melkonyan, Ferdinand S. [Department; Facchetti, Antonio [Department; Chang, Robert P. H. [Department; Marks, Tobin J. [Department; Department


    Using small-molecule donor (SMD) semiconductors in organic photovoltaics (OPVs) has historically afforded lower power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) than their polymeric counterparts. The PCE difference is attributed to shorter conjugated backbones, resulting in reduced intermolecular interactions. Here, a new pair of SMDs is synthesized based on the diketopyrrolopyrrole-benzodithiophene-diketopyrrolopyrrole (BDT-DPP2) skeleton but having fluorinated and fluorinefree aromatic side-chain substituents. Ternary OPVs having varied ratios of the two SMDs with PC61BM as the acceptor exhibit tunable open-circuit voltages (Vocs) between 0.833 and 0.944 V due to a fluorination-induced shift in energy levels and the electronic “alloy” formed from the miscibility of the two SMDs. A 15% increase in PCE is observed at the optimal ternary SMD ratio, with the short-circuit current density (Jsc) significantly increased to 9.18 mA/cm2. The origin of Jsc enhancement is analyzed via charge generation, transport, and diffuse reflectance measurements, and is attributed to increased optical absorption arising from a maximum in film crystallinity at this SMD ratio, observed by grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering.

  11. Evaluation of ternary blended cements for use in transportation concrete structures (United States)

    Gilliland, Amanda Louise

    This thesis investigates the use of ternary blended cement concrete mixtures for transportation structures. The study documents technical properties of three concrete mixtures used in federally funded transportation projects in Utah, Kansas, and Michigan that used ternary blended cement concrete mixtures. Data were also collected from laboratory trial batches of ternary blended cement concrete mixtures with mixture designs similar to those of the field projects. The study presents the technical, economic, and environmental advantages of ternary blended cement mixtures. Different barriers of implementation for using ternary blended cement concrete mixtures in transportation projects are addressed. It was concluded that there are no technical, economic, or environmental barriers that exist when using most ternary blended cement concrete mixtures. The technical performance of the ternary blended concrete mixtures that were studied was always better than ordinary portland cement concrete mixtures. The ternary blended cements showed increased durability against chloride ion penetration, alkali silica reaction, and reaction to sulfates. These blends also had less linear shrinkage than ordinary portland cement concrete and met all strength requirements. The increased durability would likely reduce life cycle costs associated with concrete pavement and concrete bridge decks. The initial cost of ternary mixtures can be higher or lower than ordinary portland cement, depending on the supplementary cementitious materials used. Ternary blended cement concrete mixtures produce less carbon dioxide emissions than ordinary portland cement mixtures. This reduces the carbon footprint of construction projects. The barriers associated with implementing ternary blended cement concrete for transportation projects are not significant. Supplying fly ash returns any investment costs for the ready mix plant, including silos and other associated equipment. State specifications can make

  12. A theoretical study of ternary indole-cation-anion complexes. (United States)

    Carrazana-García, Jorge A; Cabaleiro-Lago, Enrique M; Campo-Cacharrón, Alba; Rodríguez-Otero, Jesús


    The simultaneous interactions of an anion and a cation with a π system were investigated by MP2 and M06-2X theoretical calculations. Indole was chosen as a model π system for its relevance in biological environments. Two different orientations of the anion, interacting with the N-H and with the C-H groups of indole, were considered. The four cations (Na(+), NH4(+), C(NH2)3(+) and N(CH3)4(+)) and the four anions (Cl(-), NO3(-), HCOO(-) and BF4(-)) included in the study are of biological interest. The total interaction energy of the ternary complexes was calculated and separated into its two- and three-body components and all of them are further divided into their electrostatic, exchange, repulsion, polarization and dispersion contributions using the local molecular orbital-energy decomposition analysis (LMO-EDA) methodology. The binding energy of the indole-cation-anion complexes depends on both ions, with the cation having the strongest effect. The intense cation-anion attraction determines the geometric and energetic features in all ternary complexes. These structures, with both ions on the same side of the π system, show an anti-cooperative interaction. However, the interaction is not only determined by electrostatics, but also the polarization contribution is important. Specific interactions like the one established between the anion and the N-H group of indole or the proton transfer between an acidic cation and a basic anion play a significant role in the energetics and the structure of particular complexes. The presence of the polar solvent as modelled with the polarizable continuum model (PCM) does not seem to have a significant effect on the geometry of the ternary complexes, but drastically weakens the interaction energy. Also, the strength of the interaction is reduced at a faster rate when the anion is pushed away, compared to the results obtained in the gas phase. The combination of PCM with the addition of one water molecule indicates that the PCM

  13. Multi-modal fission in collinear ternary cluster decay of 252Cf(sf, fff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. von Oertzen


    Full Text Available We discuss the multiple decay modes of collinear fission in 252Cf(sf, fff, with three fragments as suggested by the potential energy surface (PES. Fission as a statistical decay is governed by the phase space of the different decay channels, which are suggested in the PES-landscape. The population of the fission modes is determined by the minima in the PES at the scission points and on the internal potential barriers. The ternary collinear decay proceeds as a sequential process, in two steps. The originally observed ternary decay of 252Cf(sf into three different masses (e.g. 132–140Sn, 52–48Ca, 68–72Ni, observed by the FOBOS group in the FLNR (Flerov Laboratory for Nuclear Reactions of the JINR (Dubna the collinear cluster tripartition (CCT, is one of the ternary fission modes. This kind of “true ternary fission” of heavy nuclei has often been predicted in theoretical works during the last decades. In the present note we discuss different ternary fission modes in the same system. The PES shows pronounced minima, which correspond to several modes of ternary fragmentations. These decays have very similar dynamical features as the previously observed CCT-decays. The data obtained in the experiments on CCT allow us to extract the yields for different decay modes using specific gates on the measured parameters, and to establish multiple modes of the ternary fission decay.

  14. He and Be ternary spontaneous fission of sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, J K; Ramayya, A V; Hamilton, J H


    Ternary and binary fission studies of sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf have been carried out by using the Gammasphere detector array with light charged particle (LCD) detectors. The relative sup 4 He and sup 5 He ternary fission yields were determined. The kinetic energies of the sup 5 He and sup 4 He ternary particles were found to be approximately 11 and 16 MeV, respectively. The sup 5 He particles contribute 10-20 % to the total observed alpha ternary yield. The data indicate that in nuclei with octupole deformations the population for the negative parity bands might be enhanced in the alpha ternary fission. >From LCP-gamma double gated spectra, neutron multiplicity distributions for alpha ternary fission pairs were measured. The average neutron multiplicity decreases about 0.7 AMU in going from the binary to alpha ternary fission in the approximately same mass splittings (104-146). From the analysis of the gamma-gamma matrix gated on the sup 1 sup 0 Be particles, the two fragment pairs of sup 1 sup 3 sup 8 Xe - sup 1...

  15. Hardware emulation of Memristor based Ternary Content Addressable Memory

    KAUST Repository

    Bahloul, Mohamed A.


    MTCAM (Memristor Ternary Content Addressable Memory) is a special purpose storage medium in which data could be retrieved based on the stored content. Using Memristors as the main storage element provides the potential of achieving higher density and more efficient solutions than conventional methods. A key missing item in the validation of such approaches is the wide spread availability of hardware emulation platforms that can provide reliable and repeatable performance statistics. In this paper, we present a hardware MTCAM emulation based on 2-Transistors-2Memristors (2T2M) bit-cell. It builds on a bipolar memristor model with storing and fetching capabilities based on the actual current-voltage behaviour. The proposed design offers a flexible verification environment with quick design revisions, high execution speeds and powerful debugging techniques. The proposed design is modeled using VHDL and prototyped on Xilinx Virtex® FPGA.

  16. Normal freezing of ideal ternary systems of the pseudobinary type (United States)

    Li, C. H.


    Perfect liquid mixing but no solid diffusion is assumed in normal freezing. In addition, the molar compositions of the freezing solid and remaining liquid, respectively, follow the solidus and liquidus curves of the constitutional diagram. For the linear case, in which both the liquidus and solidus are perfectly straight lines, the normal freezing equation giving the fraction solidified at each melt temperature and the solute concentration profile in the frozen solid was determined as early as 1902, and has since been repeatedly published. Corresponding equations for quadratic, cubic or higher-degree liquidus and solidus lines have also been obtained. The equation of normal freezing for ideal ternary liquid solutions solidified into ideal solid solutions of the pseudobinary type is given. Sample computations with the use of this new equation were made and are given for the Ga-Al-As system.

  17. Nonequilibrium patterns in phase-separating ternary membranes (United States)

    Gómez, Jordi; Sagués, Francesc; Reigada, Ramon


    We present a nonequilibrium approach for the study of a two-dimensional phase-separating ternary mixture. When the component that promotes phase separation is dynamically exchanged with the medium, the separation process is halted and actively maintained finite-size segregation domains appear in the system. In addition to this effect, already reported in our earlier work [J. Gómez, F. Sagués, and R. Reigada, Phys. Rev. E 77, 021907 (2008)], the use of a generic Ginzburg-Landau formalism and the inclusion of thermal fluctuations provide a more dynamic description of the resulting domain organization. Its size, shape, and stability properties are studied. Larger and more circular and stable domains are formed when decreasing the recycling rate, increasing the mobility of the exchanged component, and the mixture is quenched deeper. We expect this outcome to be of applicability in raft phenomenology in plasmatic cell membranes.

  18. A high-throughput search for new ternary superalloys (United States)

    Nyshadham, Chandramouli; Hansen, Jacob; Oses, Corey; Curtarolo, Stefano; Hart, Gus

    In 2006 an unexpected new superalloy, Co3[Al,W], was discovered. This new alloy is cobalt-based, in contrast to conventional superalloys, which are nickel-based. Inspired by this new discovery, we performed first-principles calculations, searching through 2224 ternary metallic systems of the form A3[B0.5C0.5], where A = Ni/Co/Fe and [B, C] = all binary combinations of 40 different elements chosen from the periodic table. We found 175 new systems that are better than the Co3[Al, W] superalloy. 75 of these systems are brand new--they have never been reported in experimental literature. These 75 new potential superalloys are good candidates for further experiments. Our calculations are consistent with current experimental literature where data exists. Work supported under: ONR (MURI N00014-13-1-0635).

  19. Hardness and Microstructure of Binary and Ternary Nitinol Compounds (United States)

    Stanford, Malcolm K.


    The hardness and microstructure of twenty-six binary and ternary Nitinol (nickel titanium, nickel titanium hafnium, nickel titanium zirconium and nickel titanium tantalum) compounds were studied. A small (50g) ingot of each compound was produced by vacuum arc remelting. Each ingot was homogenized in vacuum for 48 hr followed by furnace cooling. Specimens from the ingots were then heat treated at 800, 900, 1000 or 1100 degree C for 2 hr followed by water quenching. The hardness and microstructure of each specimen was compared to the baseline material (55-Nitinol, 55 at.% nickel - 45 at.% titanium, after heat treatment at 900 degC). The results show that eleven of the studied compounds had higher hardness values than the baseline material. Moreover, twelve of the studied compounds had measured hardness values greater 600HV at heat treatments from 800 to 900 degree C.

  20. Comprehensive characterization of chitosan/PEO/levan ternary blend films. (United States)

    Bostan, Muge Sennaroglu; Mutlu, Esra Cansever; Kazak, Hande; Sinan Keskin, S; Oner, Ebru Toksoy; Eroglu, Mehmet S


    Ternary blend films of chitosan, PEO (300,000) and levan were prepared by solution casting method and their phase behavior, miscibility, thermal and mechanical properties as well as their surface energy and morphology were characterized by different techniques. FT-IR analyses of blend films indicated intermolecular hydrogen bonding between blend components. Thermal and XRD analysis showed that chitosan and levan suppressed the crystallinity of PEO up to nearly 25% of PEO content in the blend, which resulted in more amorphous film structures at higher PEO/(chitosan+levan) ratios. At more than 30% of PEO concentration, contact angle (CA) measurements showed a surface enrichment of PEO whereas at lower PEO concentrations, chitosan and levan were enriched on the surfaces leading to more amorphous and homogenous surfaces. This result was further confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) images. Cell proliferation and viability assay established the high biocompatibility of the blend films. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Designing and analysing parallel control for multifeed ternary systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Solar-González


    Full Text Available This paper explores a parallel control structure for improving the behaviour of a chemical plant having recycling and multi- ple feed streams; a ternary system is taken as an example,having an A + B → C second-order irreversible reaction. Material recycling dynamics can induce the so-called snowball effect in the presence of disturbance in the feed stream. The snowball effect can be prevented by distributing load through the parallel control scheme. A control structure was thus pro- posed where product composition was regulated by means of simultaneous feedback manipulation of final column vapour boilup rate and reactor temperature. An extension was made for one reactor, one distillation column and recycle stream configuration. Nonlinear simulations showed that effective composition control could be obtained with moderate vapour boilup control efforts.

  2. Morphological Control Agent in Ternary Blend Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsueh-Chung Liao


    Full Text Available Bulk heterojunction (BHJ organic photovoltaic (OPV promise low cost solar energy and have caused an explosive increase in investigations during the last decade. Control over the 3D morphology of BHJ blend films in various length scales is one of the pillars accounting for the significant advance of OPV performance recently. In this contribution, we focus on the strategy of incorporating an additive into BHJ blend films as a morphological control agent, i.e., ternary blend system. This strategy has shown to be effective in tailoring the morphology of BHJ through different inter- and intra-molecular interactions. We systematically review the morphological observations and associated mechanisms with respect to various kinds of additives, i.e., polymers, small molecules and inorganic nanoparticles. We organize the effects of morphological control (compatibilization, stabilization, etc. and provide general guidelines for rational molecular design for additives toward high efficiency and high stability organic solar cells.

  3. Ternary gypsum-based materials: Composition, properties and utilization (United States)

    Doleželová, M.; Svora, P.; Vimmrová, A.


    In spite of the fact that gypsum is one of the most environmentally friendly binders, utilization of gypsum products is relatively narrow. The main problem of gypsum materials is their low resistance to the wet environment and radical decrease of mechanical properties with increasing moisture. The solution of the problem could be in use of composed gypsum-based binders, usually ternary, comprising gypsum, pozzolan and alkali activator of pozzolan reaction. These materials have a better moisture resistance and often also better mechanical properties. Paper provides literature survey of the possible compositions, properties and ways of utilization of the composed gypsum-based binders with latent hydraulic and pozzolan materials together with some results of present research performed by authors.

  4. Issues Affecting the Synthetic Scalability of Ternary Metal Ferrite Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Morrow


    Full Text Available Ternary Mn-Zn ferrite (MnxZn1-xFe2O4 nanoparticles (NPs have been prepared by the thermal decomposition of an oleate complex, sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS mediated hydrazine decomposition of the chloride salts, and triethylene glycol (TREG mediated thermal decomposition of the metal acetylacetonates. Only the first method was found to facilitate the synthesis of uniform, isolable NPs with the correct Mn : Zn ratio (0.7 : 0.3 as characterized by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES. Scaling allowed for retention of the composition and size; however, attempts to prepare Zn-rich ferrites did not result in NP formation. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA indicated that the incomplete decomposition of the metal-oleate complexes prior to NP nucleation for Zn-rich compositions is the cause.

  5. Ternary cobalt-molybdenum-zirconium coatings for alternative energies (United States)

    Yar-Mukhamedova, Gulmira; Ved', Maryna; Sakhnenko, Nikolay; Koziar, Maryna


    Consistent patterns for electrodeposition of Co-Mo-Zr coatings from polyligand citrate-pyrophosphate bath were investigated. The effect of both current density amplitude and pulse on/off time on the quality, composition and surface morphology of the galvanic alloys were determined. It was established the coating Co-Mo-Zr enrichment by molybdenum with current density increasing up to 8 A dm-2 as well as the rising of pulse time and pause duration promotes the content of molybdenum because of subsequent chemical reduction of its intermediate oxides by hydrogen ad-atoms. It was found that the content of the alloying metals in the coating Co-Mo-Zr depends on the current density and on/off times extremely and maximum Mo and Zr content corresponds to the current density interval 4-6 A dm-2, on-/off-time 2-10 ms. Chemical resistance of binary and ternary coatings based on cobalt is caused by the increased tendency to passivity and high resistance to pitting corrosion in the presence of molybdenum and zirconium, as well as the acid nature of their oxides. Binary coating with molybdenum content not less than 20 at.% and ternary ones with zirconium content in terms of corrosion deep index are in a group ;very proof;. It was shown that Co-Mo-Zr alloys exhibits the greatest level of catalytic properties as cathode material for hydrogen electrolytic production from acidic media which is not inferior a platinum electrode. The deposits Co-Mo-Zr with zirconium content 2-4 at.% demonstrate high catalytic properties in the carbon(II) oxide conversion. This confirms the efficiency of materials as catalysts for the gaseous wastes purification and gives the reason to recommend them as catalysts for red-ox processes activating by oxygen as well as electrode materials for red-ox batteries.

  6. Cohesion energy calculations for ternary ionic novel crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez Polo, G; Valdes, E. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Mijngos, R. R; Duarte, D. [Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)


    The present work calculates the value of the link energy of a crystalline ternary structure newly formed by alkali halides. The ternary structure prepared with different concentrations of KCI{sub x}KBr{sub y}RbCl{sub z} maintains a very good miscibility and stability. The calculation is based on the use of a generalization of the Vegard's law (which generally is valid for binary compounds) for calculating the values of the lattice constant and the repulsive m exponent. The values of the lattice parameter given X-ray diffractometry agrees with the close approximation of the calculated value of the method used. It also compares the value of energy cohesion obtained by the Born expression with more complex approximations. [Spanish] En el presente trabajo se calcula el valor de la energia de amarre de una estructura ternaria cristalina nueva formada por halogenuros alcalinos. La estructura ternaria preparada con diferentes concentraciones KCI{sub x}KBr{sub y}RbCl{sub z} mantiene una muy buena estabilidad y miscibilidad. El calculo se basa en el uso de una generalizacion de la ley de Vegard (que en general es valida para compuestos binarios) para calcular los valores de la constante de red y de exponente repulsivo m. El valor del parametro de red medido por difractometria de rayos X, concuerda en buena aproximacion con el valor calculado por el metodo usado. Tambien se compara el valor de la energia de cohesion obtenido por la expresion de Born con aproximaciones mas complejas.

  7. Boron-Based Hydrogen Storage: Ternary Borides and Beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vajo, John J. [HRL Laboratories, LLC, Malibu, CA (United States)


    DOE continues to seek reversible solid-state hydrogen materials with hydrogen densities of ≥11 wt% and ≥80 g/L that can deliver hydrogen and be recharged at moderate temperatures (≤100 °C) and pressures (≤100 bar) enabling incorporation into hydrogen storage systems suitable for transportation applications. Boron-based hydrogen storage materials have the potential to meet the density requirements given boron’s low atomic weight, high chemical valance, and versatile chemistry. However, the rates of hydrogen exchange in boron-based compounds are thus far much too slow for practical applications. Although contributing to the high hydrogen densities, the high valance of boron also leads to slow rates of hydrogen exchange due to extensive boron-boron atom rearrangements during hydrogen cycling. This rearrangement often leads to multiple solid phases occurring over hydrogen release and recharge cycles. These phases must nucleate and react with each other across solid-solid phase boundaries leading to energy barriers that slow the rates of hydrogen exchange. This project sought to overcome the slow rates of hydrogen exchange in boron-based hydrogen storage materials by minimizing the number of solid phases and the boron atom rearrangement over a hydrogen release and recharge cycle. Two novel approaches were explored: 1) developing matched pairs of ternary borides and mixed-metal borohydrides that could exchange hydrogen with only one hydrogenated phase (the mixed-metal borohydride) and only one dehydrogenated phase (the ternary boride); and 2) developing boranes that could release hydrogen by being lithiated using lithium hydride with no boron-boron atom rearrangement.

  8. A novel, efficient CNTFET Galois design as a basic ternary-valued logic field. (United States)

    Keshavarzian, Peiman; Mirzaee, Mahla Mohammad


    This paper presents arithmetic operations, including addition and multiplication, in the ternary Galois field through carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNTFETs). Ternary logics have received considerable attention among all the multiple-valued logics. Multiple-valued logics are an alternative to common-practice binary logic, which mostly has been expanded from ternary (three-valued) logic. CNTFETs are used to improve Galois field circuit performance. In this study, a novel design technique for ternary logic gates based on CNTFETs was used to design novel, efficient Galois field circuits that will be compared with the existing resistive-load CNTFET circuit designs. In this paper, by using carbon nanotube technology and avoiding the use of resistors, we will reduce power consumption and delay, and will also achieve a better product. Simulation results using HSPICE illustrate substantial improvement in speed and power consumption.

  9. Serpentine diffusion trajectories and the Ouzo effect in partially miscible ternary liquid mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krishna, R.


    This work investigates the transient equilibration process when partially miscible ternary liquid mixtures of two different compositions are brought into contact with each other. Diffusional coupling effects are shown to become increasingly significant as the mixture compositions approach the

  10. Thermodynamic optimization and phase equilibria in the ternary system Ni–Sn–Zn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandova, V., E-mail: [University of Food Technologies, Inorganic and Physical Chemistry Department, 26 Mariza avenue, 4000 Plovdiv (Bulgaria); Vassilev, G.P. [University of Plovdiv, Faculty of Chemistry, 24 Tsar Asen str., 4000 Plovdiv (Bulgaria)


    Highlights: • Thermodynamic description of the Ni–Sn–Zn system was obtained. • Six isothermal sections were calculated. • Third constituents solubility in binary phases’ extensions were taken into account. • Good correlation between calculated and experimental data was obtained. - Abstract: Recent experimental results obtained by differential scanning calorimetry, Scanning Electron Microscopy and other methods were used to develop a thermodynamic description of the ternary system Ni–Sn–Zn. Four ternary non-stoichiometric compounds (T1–T4), mentioned in the literature, were described using three-sublattice models. Previously known optimizations of the binary subsystems were remodeled to comply with the new experimental data. The solubility of the respective ternary components, i.e., Zn in Ni–Sn phases and Sn in Ni–Zn phases, were taken into account and optimized ternary parameters were derived. Six isothermal sections were calculated using Thermo-Calc software.

  11. A novel ternary quantum-dot cell for solving majority voter gate problem (United States)

    Tehrani, Mohammad A.; Bahrami, Safura; Navi, Keivan


    Since the complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology has experienced many serious problems in fulfilling the need for more robust and efficient circuits, some emerging nanotechnologies have been introduced as the candidates for replacing CMOS. Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) is one of the promising nanotechnology candidates with majority function as its fundamental logic element. It has one implementation in binary QCA and several implantations in ternary QCA, but none of the ternary QCA implementations are as efficient as the binary one. In this paper, a new cell configuration for ternary QCA is proposed which works as well as previous cell configuration. Also, a new design for ternary QCA majority function is proposed which performs faster and occupies less area.

  12. Ternary and Multi-Bit FIR Filter Area-Performance Tradeoffs in FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil-Ur-Rahman Dayo


    Full Text Available In this paper, performance and area of conventional FIR (Finite Impulse Responce filters versus ternary sigma delta modulated FIR filter is compared in FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Arrays using VHDL (Verilog Description Language. Two different approaches were designed and synthesized at same spectral performance by obtaining a TIR (Target Impulse Response. Both filters were synthesized on adaptive LUT (Look Up Table FPGA device in pipelined and non-pipelined modes. It is shown that the Ternary FIR filter occupies approximately the same area as the corresponding multi-bit filter, but for a given specification, the ternary FIR filter has 32% better performance in non-pipelined and 72% in pipelined mode, compared to its equivalent Multi-Bit filter at its optimum 12-bit coefficient quantization. These promising results shows that ternary logic based (i.e. +1,0,-1 filters can be used for huge chip area savings and higher performance.

  13. Binary Ternary Based Nanolaminates Fabricated By Multi Stationary Target PLD (Preprint) (United States)


    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2017-0306 BINARY- TERNARY BASED NANOLAMINATES FABRICATED BY MULTI-STATIONARY TARGET PLD (PREPRINT) Steven R. Smith...December 2013 – 15 July 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE BINARY- TERNARY BASED NANOLAMINATES FABRICATED BY MULTI-STATIONARY TARGET PLD (PREPRINT) of 450 mJ per pulse, a galvanometer mirror system and a background pressure of oxygen. Trends in material properties were identified by

  14. Partially fluorinated aarylene polyethers and their ternary blends with PBI and H3PO4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qingfeng; Jensen, Jens Oluf; Pan, Chao


    Ternary blend membranes based on sulphonated partially fluorinated arylene polyether, polybenzimidazole (PBI) and phosphoric acid were prepared and characterised as electrolyte for high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Partially fluorinated arylene polyether was first prepared from......% and modulus of 50 MPa at 150 degrees C. Based on these ternary membranes large MEAs with an active area of 256 cm(2) have been prepared for a 2 kW(el) stack showing good performance and reproducibility....

  15. Toward Multi Principal Component Alloy Discovery: Assessment of the CALPHAD Approach for Ternary (Preprint) (United States)


    phase names such as “ sigma ” or “r- phase ” were disregarded. Of the ternaries evaluated, 14% of the systems have a phase that is only present with a...principal element systems. However, the uncertainty of phase equilibria predictions within these regions is unknown. This study assesses the current...capabilities of a commercially available CALPHAD databases to accurately predict phase equilibria within ternary phase space as a function of the number

  16. Ternary Organic Solar Cells Based on Two Compatible Nonfullerene Acceptors with Power Conversion Efficiency >10. (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Guo, Yuan; Yi, Yuanping; Huo, Lijun; Xue, Xiaonan; Sun, Xiaobo; Fu, Huiting; Xiong, Wentao; Meng, Dong; Wang, Zhaohui; Liu, Feng; Russell, Thomas P; Sun, Yanming


    Two different nonfullerene acceptors and one copolymer are used to fabricate ternary organic solar cells (OSCs). The two acceptors show unique interactions that reduce crystallinity and form a homogeneous mixed phase in the blend film, leading to a high efficiency of ≈10.3%, the highest performance reported for nonfullerene ternary blends. This work provides a new approach to fabricate high-performance OSCs. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Silk flame retardant finish by ternary silica sol containing boron and nitrogen (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang-hua; Chen, Guo-qiang; Xing, Tie-ling


    A ternary flame retardant sol system containing Si, B and N was prepared via sol gel method using tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as a precursor, boric acid (H3BO3) and urea (CO(NH2)2) as flame retardant additives and then applied to silk fabric flame retardant finish. The FT-IR and SEM results showed that the nitrogen-boron-silica ternary sol was successfully prepared and entrapped onto the surface of silk fibers. The limiting oxygen index (LOI) test indicated that the silk fabric treated with 24% boric acid and 6% urea (relative to the TEOS) doped ternary silica sol system performed excellent flame retardancy with the LOI value of 34.6%. Furthermore, in order to endow silk fabric with durable flame retardancy, the silk fabric was pretreated with 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA) before the ternary sol system treatment. The BTCA pretreat ment applied to silk could effectively promote the washing durability of the ternary sol, and the LOI value of the treated sample after 10 times washing could still maintain at 30.8% compared with that of 31.0% before washing. Thermo gravimetric (TG), micro calorimeter combustion (MCC) and smoke density test results demonstrated that the thermal stability, heat release and smoke suppression of the nitrogen-boron-silica ternary system decreased somewhat compared with the boron-silica binary flame retardant system.

  18. Reduced ternary molybdenum and tungsten sulfides and hydroprocessing catalysis therewith (United States)

    Hilsenbeck, S.J.; McCarley, R.E.; Schrader, G.L.; Xie, X.B.


    New amorphous molybdenum/tungsten sulfides with the general formula M{sup n+}{sub 2x/n}(L{sub 6}S{sub 8})S{sub x}, where L is molybdenum or tungsten and M is a ternary metal, has been developed. Characterization of these amorphous materials by chemical and spectroscopic methods (IR, Raman, PES) shows that the (M{sub 6}S{sub 8}){sup 0} cluster units are present. Vacuum thermolysis of the amorphous Na{sub 2x}(Mo{sub 6}S{sub 8})S{sub x}{hor_ellipsis}yMeOH first produces poorly crystalline NaMo{sub 6}S{sub 8} by disproportionation at 800 C and well-crystallized NaMo{sub 6}S{sub 8} at {>=} 900 C. Ion-exchange of the sodium material in methanol with soluble M{sup 2+} and M{sup 3+} salts (M=Sn, Co, Ni, Pb, La, Ho) produces the M{sup n+}{sub 2x/n}(Mo{sub 6}S{sub 8})S{sub x}{hor_ellipsis}yMeOH compounds. Additionally, the new reduced ternary molybdenum sulfides with the general formula M{sup n+}{sub 2x/n}Mo{sub 6}S{sub 8+x}(MeOH){sub y}[MMOS] (M=Sn, Co, Ni) is an effective hydrodesulfurization (HDS) catalyst both as-prepared and after a variety of pretreatment conditions. Under specified pretreatment conditions with flowing hydrogen gas, the SnMoS type catalyst can be stabilized, and while still amorphous, can be considered as ``Chevrel phase-like`` in that both contain Mo{sub 6}S{sub 8} cluster units. Furthermore, the small cation NiMoS and CoMoS type pretreated catalyst is shown to be very active HDS catalysts with rates that exceeded the model unpromoted and cobalt-promoted MoS{sub 2} catalysts. 9 figs.

  19. Biocatalysis of immobilized chlorophyllase in a ternary micellar system. (United States)

    Gaffar, R; Kermasha, S; Bisakowski, B


    The immobilization of chlorophyllase was optimized by physical adsorption on various inorganic supports, including alumina, celite, Dowex-1-chloride, glass beads and silica gel. The enzyme was also immobilized in different media, including water, Tris-HCl buffer solution and a ternary micellar system containing Tris-HCl buffer solution, hexane and surfactant. The highest immobilization efficiency (84.56%) and specific activity (0.34 mumol hydrolyzed chlorophyll mg protein-1 per min) were obtained when chlorophyllase was suspended in Tris-HCl buffer solution and adsorbed onto silica gel. The effect of different ratios of chlorophyllase to the support and the optimum incubation time for the immobilization of chlorophyllase were determined to be 1-4 and 60 min, respectively. The experimental results showed that the optimum pH and temperature for the immobilized chlorophyllase were 8.0 and 35 degrees C, respectively. The use of optimized amounts of selected membrane lipids increased the specific activity of the immobilized chlorophyllase by approximately 50%. The enzyme kinetic studies indicated that the immobilized chlorophyllase showed a higher affinity towards chlorophyll than pheophytin as substrate.

  20. Contribution to the aluminum–tin–zinc ternary system (United States)

    Drápala, J.; Kostiuková, G.; Losertová, M.


    The Sn–Zn–Al alloys are one of significant candidates in the proposal of alternative lead-free solders for higher temperature soldering. This paper deals with the study of the aluminum–tin–zinc system. Twenty Sn–Zn–Al alloys together with six binary Sn–Zn alloys were prepared and studied experimentally. Alloys were prepared from pure Sn, Zn and Al (melting and cooling in a vacuum resistance furnace). The specimens were studied metallographically including the micro-hardness measurements, complete chemical analysis (ICP-AES, OES), X-ray micro-analysis of alloys by SEM and EDX in order to determine the composition and identification of individual phases. Significant temperatures and enthalpies of phase transformations were determined by DTA. After long-term annealing of selected alloys in vacuum followed by quenching the structural and chemical microanalyses of the present phases and their limit concentrations were carried out. The achieved results were compared with the thermodynamic modelling of the ternary Sn–Zn–Al system (computer programs THERMOCALC, MTDATA, PANDAT and databases CALPHAD, COST). Electrical resistivity, density, magnetic susceptibility and wettability of Sn–Zn–Al solders were measured as well.

  1. Dynamical simulation of sputtering and reflection from a ternary alloy (United States)

    Ishida, M.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yoshinaga, H.; Yamamura, Y.

    The sputtering and the reflection from a Tb0.2Fe0.7Co0.1 alloy due to Ar+ ion bombardment have been investigated by the Monte Carlo simulation code ACAT-DIFFUSE which include the compositional change induced by ion influence. In the Tb-Fe-Co system, Fe atoms are preferentially sputtered. The atomic size of a Tb atom is the largest of these three atoms, and so Tb atoms trap preferentially in vacancies. The steady-state concentration of Tb atoms at the topmost layer is larger than the bulk concentration for the low energy ions due to radiation-induced segregation and preferential sputtering of Fe atoms. As the ion fluence increases, the atomic fractions of sputtered atoms calculated by the ACAT-DIFFUSE code become those of the bulk concentration. The depth profiles of each element at the steady state depend on the incident energy. The total sputtering yield and the reflection coefficient from a Tb-Fe-Co alloy calculated by the ACAT-DIFFUSE code are larger than those by the ACAT code at near-threshold energies, where the ACAT code does not include the ion-influence effect. The energy spectra of back-scattered Ar atoms from the present ternary alloy have very similar profiles to those from a monoatomic Tb target, especially for low-energy Ar+ ions.

  2. Iron binary and ternary coatings with molybdenum and tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yar-Mukhamedova, Gulmira, E-mail: [Institute Experimental and Theoretical Physics Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, 050038, Al-Farabi av., 71, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Ved, Maryna; Sakhnenko, Nikolay; Karakurkchi, Anna; Yermolenko, Iryna [National Technical University “Kharkov Polytechnic Institute”, Kharkov (Ukraine)


    Highlights: • High quality coatings of double Fe-Mo and ternary Fe-Mo-W electrolytic alloys can be produced both in a dc and a pulsed mode. • Application of unipolar pulsed current allows receiving an increased content of the alloying components and their more uniform distribution over the surface. • It is established that Fe-Mo and Fe-Mo-W coatings have an amorphous structure and exhibit improved corrosion resistance and microhardness as compared with the steel substrate due to the inclusion molybdenum and tungsten. - Abstract: Electrodeposition of Fe-Mo-W and Fe-Mo layers from a citrate solution containing iron(III) on steel and iron substrates is compared. The utilization of iron(III) compounds significantly improved the electrolyte stability eliminating side anodic redox reactions. The influence of concentration ratios and electrodeposition mode on quality, chemical composition, and functional properties of the alloys is determined. It has been found that alloys deposited in pulse mode have more uniform surface morphology and chemical composition and contain less impurities. Improvement in physical and mechanical properties as well as corrosion resistance of Fe-Mo and Fe-Mo-W deposits when compared with main alloy forming metals is driven by alloying components chemical passivity as well as by alloys amorphous structure. Indicated deposits can be considered promising materials in surface hardening technologies and repair of worn out items.

  3. Delay Insensitive Ternary CMOS Logic for Secure Hardware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi S. P. Nair


    Full Text Available As digital circuit design continues to evolve due to progress of semiconductor processes well into the sub 100 nm range, clocked architectures face limitations in a number of cases where clockless asynchronous architectures generate less noise and produce less electro-magnetic interference (EMI. This paper develops the Delay-Insensitive Ternary Logic (DITL asynchronous design paradigm that combines design aspects of similar dual-rail asynchronous paradigms and Boolean logic to create a single wire per bit, three voltage signaling and logic scheme. DITL is compared with other delay insensitive paradigms, such as Pre-Charge Half-Buffers (PCHB and NULL Convention Logic (NCL on which it is based. An application of DITL is discussed in designing secure digital circuits resistant to side channel attacks based on measurement of timing, power, and EMI signatures. A Secure DITL Adder circuit is designed at the transistor level, and several variance parameters are measured to validate the efficiency of DITL in resisting side channel attacks. The DITL design methodology is then applied to design a secure 8051 ALU.

  4. Multistate Memristive Tantalum Oxide Devices for Ternary Arithmetic (United States)

    Kim, Wonjoo; Chattopadhyay, Anupam; Siemon, Anne; Linn, Eike; Waser, Rainer; Rana, Vikas


    Redox-based resistive switching random access memory (ReRAM) offers excellent properties to implement future non-volatile memory arrays. Recently, the capability of two-state ReRAMs to implement Boolean logic functionality gained wide interest. Here, we report on seven-states Tantalum Oxide Devices, which enable the realization of an intrinsic modular arithmetic using a ternary number system. Modular arithmetic, a fundamental system for operating on numbers within the limit of a modulus, is known to mathematicians since the days of Euclid and finds applications in diverse areas ranging from e-commerce to musical notations. We demonstrate that multistate devices not only reduce the storage area consumption drastically, but also enable novel in-memory operations, such as computing using high-radix number systems, which could not be implemented using two-state devices. The use of high radix number system reduces the computational complexity by reducing the number of needed digits. Thus the number of calculation operations in an addition and the number of logic devices can be reduced.

  5. Alloy multilayers and ternary nanostructures by direct-write approach (United States)

    Porrati, F.; Sachser, R.; Gazzadi, G. C.; Frabboni, S.; Terfort, A.; Huth, M.


    The fabrication of nanopatterned multilayers, as used in optical and magnetic applications, is usually achieved by two independent steps, which consist in the preparation of multilayer films and in the successive patterning by means of lithography and etching processes. Here we show that multilayer nanostructures can be fabricated by using focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID), which allows the direct writing of nanostructures of any desired shape with nanoscale resolution. In particular, {[{{{Co}}}2{{Fe}}/{{Si}}]}n multilayers are prepared by the alternating deposition from the metal carbonyl precursors, {{{HFeCo}}}3{({{CO}})}12 and {{Fe}}{({{CO}})}5, and neopentasilane, {{{Si}}}5{{{H}}}12. The ability to fabricate nanopatterned multilayers by FEBID is of interest for the realization of hyperbolic metamaterials and related nanodevices. In a second experiment, we treated the multilayers by low-energy electron irradiation in order to induce atomic species intermixing with the purpose to obtain ternary nanostructured compounds. Transmission electron microscopy and electrical transport measurements indicate that in thick multilayers, (n = 12), the intermixing is only partial, taking place mainly in the upper part of the structures. However, for thin multilayers, (n = 2), the intermixing is such that a transformation into the L21 phase of the Co2FeSi Heusler compound takes place over the whole sample volume.

  6. The role of In in III-nitride ternary semiconductors

    CERN Multimedia

    Redondo cubero, A

    This proposal aims to study the role of In in the outstanding efficiency of luminescent devices based on group III-nitride ternary semiconductors. To study the microscopic environments of In in GaInN and AlInN, Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) experiments will be performed using the PAC-probes $^{111m}$Cd($^{111}$Cd), $^{115}$Cd($^{115}$In) and $^{117}$Cd($^{117}$In). Temperature dependent PAC measurements using the $^{111}$In($^{111}$Cd) probe indicated that In in GaN and AlN forms a complex with a defect, possibly a nitrogen vacancy (V$_{N}$), which is stable up to high temperatures and might be involved in the luminescence mechanisms. Analysing these results two questions arose: \\\\ \\\\1. Does the fact that the actual measurement is performed with the daughter nucleus $^{111}$Cd (being an acceptor) influence the probe-defect interaction? This question can be answered by performing measurements with the complementary probe $^{117}$Cd($^{117}$In). \\\\ \\\\ 2. What is the significance of $\\textit{a...

  7. Control mechanism of double-rotator-structure ternary optical computer (United States)

    Kai, SONG; Liping, YAN


    Double-rotator-structure ternary optical processor (DRSTOP) has two characteristics, namely, giant data-bits parallel computing and reconfigurable processor, which can handle thousands of data bits in parallel, and can run much faster than computers and other optical computer systems so far. In order to put DRSTOP into practical application, this paper established a series of methods, namely, task classification method, data-bits allocation method, control information generation method, control information formatting and sending method, and decoded results obtaining method and so on. These methods form the control mechanism of DRSTOP. This control mechanism makes DRSTOP become an automated computing platform. Compared with the traditional calculation tools, DRSTOP computing platform can ease the contradiction between high energy consumption and big data computing due to greatly reducing the cost of communications and I/O. Finally, the paper designed a set of experiments for DRSTOP control mechanism to verify its feasibility and correctness. Experimental results showed that the control mechanism is correct, feasible and efficient.

  8. Internal oxidation of laminated ternary Ru-Ta-Zr coatings (United States)

    Chen, Yung-I.; Lu, Tso-Shen


    Researchers have observed the internal oxidation phenomenon in binary alloy coatings when developing refractory alloy coatings for protective purposes by conducting annealing at high temperatures and in oxygen-containing atmospheres. The coatings were assembled using cyclical gradient concentration deposition during cosputtering by employing a substrate holder rotating at a slow speed. The internally oxidized zone demonstrated a laminated structure, comprising alternating oxygen-rich and oxygen-deficient layers stacked in a general orientation. In the current study, Ru-Ta-Zr coatings were prepared with various stacking sequences during cosputtering. The Ru-Ta-Zr coatings were annealed at 600 °C in an atmosphere continuously purged with 1% O2-99% Ar mixed gas for 30 min. A transmission electron microscope was used to examine the periods of the laminated layers and crystallinity of the annealed coatings. Depth profiles produced using an Auger electron spectroscope and X-ray photoelectron spectroscope were used to certify the periodic variation of the related constituents and chemical states of the elements, respectively. The results indicate that the internally oxidized ternary coatings are stacked of Ru-, Ta2O5-, and ZrO2-dominant sublayers and that the stacking sequences of the sublayers affect the crystalline structure of the coatings. Zr is oxidized preferentially in the Ru-Ta-Zr coatings, increasing the surface hardness of the oxidized coatings.

  9. Growth Mechanism of Nanowires: Binary and Ternary Chalcogenides (United States)

    Singh, N. B.; Coriell, S. R.; Su, Ching-Hua; Hopkins, R. H.; Arnold, B.; Choa, Fow-Sen; Cullum, Brian


    Semiconductor nanowires exhibit very exciting optical and electrical properties including high transparency and a several order of magnitude better photocurrent than thin film and bulk materials. We present here the mechanism of nanowire growth from the melt-liquid-vapor medium. We describe preliminary results of binary and ternary selenide materials in light of recent theories. Experiments were performed with lead selenide and thallium arsenic selenide systems which are multifunctional material and have been used for detectors, acousto-optical, nonlinear and radiation detection applications. We observed that small units of nanocubes and elongated nanoparticles arrange and rearrange at moderate melt undercooling to form the building block of a nanowire. Since we avoided the catalyst, we observed self-nucleation and uncontrolled growth of wires from different places. Growth of lead selenide nanowires was performed by physical vapor transport method and thallium arsenic selenide nanowire by vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) method. In some cases very long wires (>mm) are formed. To achieve this goal experiments were performed to create situation where nanowires grew on the surface of solid thallium arsenic selenide itself.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of some binary and ternary zirconium iodides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guthrie, D.H.


    Studies of binary ZrI/sub 4/-Zr and ternary CsI-Zr-ZrI/sub 4/ systems have produced several new compounds. The new binary compounds include two polymorphs of ZrI/sub 2/ (..cap alpha.. and ..beta..) as well as a phase described earlier as ZrI/sub 1/ /sub 8/. ..cap alpha..-ZrI/sub 2/ forms as black lath-like crystals by vapor phase transport reactions between Zr and ZrI/sub 4/ from 700 to 825/sup 0/C. Its structure is monoclinic space group P2/sub 1//m with a = 6.821(2), b = 3.741(1), c = 14.937(3) A and ..beta.. = 95.66(3)/sup 0/, Z = 4 (R = 0.064). ..beta..-ZrI/sub 2/ is formed as black gem-like crystals between 800 to 975/sup 0/C, crystallizing in the trigonal space group R anti 3 with hexagonal axes a = 14.502(2) and c = 9.996(2) A, Z = 18 (R = 0.109). This phase contains a Zr/sub 6/I/sub 12/ cluster. Guinier x-ray powder diffraction data previously reported for ZrI/sub 1/ /sub 8/ has now been found to arise from ..cap alpha..-ZrI/sub 2/ intergrown with an orthorhombic ZrI/sub 2/ phase (perhaps isostructural with WTe/sub 2/ plus an unknown phase. The ternary compounds include Cs/sub 2/ZrI/sub 6/, Cs/sub 3/Zr/sub 2/T/sub 9/ and CsZr/sub 6/I/sub 14/. The first is isostructural with K/sub 2/PtCl/sub 6/. Cs/sub 3/Zr/sub 2/I/sub 9/ is formed from the reaction of CsI, ZrI/sub 4/ and Zr between 700 to 900/sup 0/C as black gem-like crystals which crystallize in the space group P6/sub 3//mmc with a = 8.269(1) and c = 19.908(3) A, z = 2. This phase was found to have a Cs/sub 3/Cr/sub 2/Cl/sub 9/-type structure, d/sub Zr-Zr/ = 3.134(4) A (R = 0.087). CsZr/sub 6/I/sub 14/ forms both rod and gem crystals by the same reaction with more metal between 900 to 950/sup 0/C. It crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Ccmb with a = 14.275(4), b = 15.880(4) and c = 12.953 (4) A (R = 0.062). This phase also contains a Zr/sub 6/I/sub 12/ cluster.

  11. Investigation of itraconazole ternary amorphous solid dispersions based on povidone and Carbopol. (United States)

    Meng, Fan; Meckel, Jordan; Zhang, Feng


    We investigate a ternary system that consists of itraconazole (ITZ) and two polymers: povidone K12 and Carbopol 907. The interactions between these two polymers and their effects on the properties of ternary ITZ amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) are studied. These two polymers can form a water-insoluble complex in acidic aqueous media. The critical pH is determined to be 4.17. The weight percentage of Carbopol 907 in the interpolymer complex range from 59 to 70%, depending on the initial ratios between these two polymers in the starting solutions. This complexation is driven by a negative enthalpy change from the H-bonding between the two polymers and a positive entropy change from the freed water molecules. Due to the slow precipitation of the interpolymer complex in aqueous media, the attempt to prepare ternary ASD using solvent-controlled coprecipitation is not successful. Melt extrusion is identified to be the only viable method to prepare this ternary ASD. We find that interpolymer complex-based ASDs are physically less stable and demonstrate the poorest drug-release properties when compared to individual polymer-based binary ASDs. This study illustrates that the too strong interaction between polymers in ternary ASDs is detrimental to their performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Heteronanostructured Co@carbon nanotubes-graphene ternary hybrids: synthesis, electromagnetic and excellent microwave absorption properties (United States)

    Qi, Xiaosi; Hu, Qi; Cai, Hongbo; Xie, Ren; Bai, Zhongchen; Jiang, Yang; Qin, Shuijie; Zhong, Wei; Du, Youwei


    In order to explore high efficiency microwave absorption materials, heteronanostructured Co@carbon nanotubes-graphene (Co@CNTs-G) ternary hybrids were designed and produced through catalytic decomposition of acetylene at the designed temperature (400, 450, 500 and 550 °C) over Co3O4/reduced graphene oxide (Co3O4/RGO). By regulating the reaction temperatures, different CNT contents of Co@CNTs-G ternary hybrids could be synthesized. The investigations indicated that the as-prepared heteronanostructured Co@CNTs-G ternary hybrids exhibited excellent microwave absorption properties, and their electromagnetic and microwave absorption properties could be tuned by the CNT content. The minimum reflection loss (RL) value reached approximately -65.6, -58.1, -41.1 and -47.5 dB for the ternary hybrids synthesized at 400, 450, 500 and 550 °C, respectively. And RL values below -20 dB (99% of electromagnetic wave attenuation) could be obtained over the as-prepared Co@CNTs-G ternary hybrids in the large frequency range. Moreover, based on the obtained results, the possible enhanced microwave absorption mechanisms were discussed in details. Therefore, a simple approach was proposed to explore the high performance microwave absorbing materials as well as to expand the application field of graphene-based materials.

  13. Theoretical investigation on electronic and mechanical properties of ternary actinide (U, Np, Pu) nitrides (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Juan; Zhou, Zhang-Jian; Lan, Jian-Hui; Bo, Tao; Ge, Chang-Chun; Chai, Zhi-Fang; Shi, Wei-Qun


    Actinide mononitrides as a promising advanced nuclear fuel have recently earned much attention. We herein studied the electronic and mechanical properties of the ternary actinide mixed mononitrides A0.5B0.5 N (A, B = U, Np, and Pu) using the density functional theory +U method. It is found that in the studied ternary mixed mononitrides, the 5f electronic states of all actinide atoms maintain the local electronic character and do not overlap with each other. Compared with their corresponding binary mononitrides, the U-N bond becomes more ionic, where the Np-N and Pu-N bonds become more covalent in ternary actinide mixed mononitrides. The mechanical properties (such as bulk and shear moduli, Young's modulus, and Poisson's ratio) of three ternary actinide (U-Pu) mononitrides are found to be similar to that of their corresponding binary actinide mononitrides and thus are expected not to misbehave with actinide mononitrides in respect of mechanics. In addition, all the three ternary actinide mononitrides have no imaginary frequencies in their vibration curves and correspondingly satisfy the stability criteria for elastic constants of tetragonal structures.

  14. Dynamic solidification mechanism of ternary Ag-Cu-Ge eutectic alloy under ultrasonic condition (United States)

    Zhai, Wei; Hong, ZhenYu; Mei, CeXiang; Wang, WeiLi; Wei, BingBo


    The dynamic solidification of ternary Ag38.5Cu33.4Ge28.1 eutectic alloy within a 35 kHz ultrasonic field is investigated and compared with both its equilibrium solidification by DSC method and its rapid solidification in drop tube. The volume fractions of the primary (Ge) phase and pseudobinary (Ag+ ɛ 2) eutectic solidified within ultrasonic field are larger than those formed under equilibrium state, whereas that of ternary (Ag+ ɛ 2+Ge) eutectic exhibits the reverse trend. During rapid solidification, the liquid alloy droplet directly solidifies into ternary (Ag+ ɛ 2+Ge) eutectic if its diameter is smaller than 350 μm. The ultrasound stimulates the nucleation of alloy melt and prevents the bulk undercooling. With the increase of sound intensity, the primary (Ge) phase transfers from faceted dendrites to nonfaceted blocks with blunt edges, and its grain size is remarkably reduced. Both pseudobinary (Ag+ ɛ 2) and ternary (Ag+ ɛ 2+Ge) eutectics experience a morphological transition from regular to anomalous structures. This indicates that their cooperative growth mode is replaced by independent growth of eutectic phases under the combined effects of cavitation and acoustic streaming. The ultrasound also shows a prominent coarsening effect to the pseudobinary (Ag+ ɛ 2) and ternary (Ag+ ɛ 2 +Ge) eutectics.

  15. Experimental and predicted refractive index properties in ternary mixtures of associated liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sechenyh, Vitaliy V.; Legros, Jean-Claude [MRC - Microgravity Research Centre, Universite Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), CP165/62, Avenue F.D. Roosevelt 50, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Shevtsova, Valentina, E-mail: [MRC - Microgravity Research Centre, Universite Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), CP165/62, Avenue F.D. Roosevelt 50, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)


    Highlights: > Measurements of refractive indices of 200 different aqueous ternary mixtures have been performed for two wave lengths. > Refractive indices of the associated ternary mixtures can be modeled with a relative error of about 0.9. > Difference between experimental and calculated derivatives of refractive index with concentration is unsatisfactory large. - Abstract: Refractive indices of ternary mixtures formed by (water + ethanol + k-ethylene glycol) (when k is mono, di or tri) and (water + t-butanol + dimethyl sulfoxide) are presented over a wide range of mixture compositions. All measurements have been conducted at 298.15 K and atmospheric pressure using two light sources: one in the visible ({lambda} = 670 nm) and the other in the infrared ({lambda} = 925 nm) spectrum. The performance of several mixing rules that are commonly used in modeling optical constants are examined. We demonstrate that the refractive indices of the associated ternary mixtures can be modeled with a relative error of about 0.9% by using the thermodynamical properties of the pure components. The concentration derivatives of the refractive index are an important parameter, as they are required for different experimental techniques. These derivatives have been determined from the experimental data on refractive indices. However, applying mixing rules for calculation of the derivatives of the refractive indices with respect to concentrations does not provide satisfactory results in the case of ternary mixtures of associated liquids.

  16. Crystallization, data collection and processing of the chymotrypsin–BTCI–trypsin ternary complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteves, Gisele Ferreira; Teles, Rozeni Chagas Lima; Cavalcante, Nayara Silva; Neves, David; Ventura, Manuel Mateus [Laboratório de Biofísica, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade de Brasília, 70910-900 Brasília-DF (Brazil); Barbosa, João Alexandre Ribeiro Gonçalves, E-mail: [Center for Structural Molecular Biology (CeBiME), Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), CP 6192, 13083-970 Campinas-SP (Brazil); Freitas, Sonia Maria de, E-mail: [Laboratório de Biofísica, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade de Brasília, 70910-900 Brasília-DF (Brazil)


    A ternary complex of the proteinase inhibitor (BTCI) with trypsin and chymotrypsin was crystallized and its crystal structure was solved by molecular replacement. A ternary complex of the black-eyed pea trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitor (BTCI) with trypsin and chymotrypsin was crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method with 0.1 M HEPES pH 7.5, 10%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 6000 and 5%(v/v) 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol as precipitant. BTCI is a small protein with 83 amino-acid residues isolated from Vigna unguiculata seeds and is able to inhibit trypsin and chymotrypsin simultaneously by forming a stable ternary complex. X-ray data were collected from a single crystal of the trypsin–BTCI–chymotrypsin ternary complex to 2.7 Å resolution under cryogenic conditions. The structure of the ternary complex was solved by molecular replacement using the crystal structures of the BTCI–trypsin binary complex (PDB code) and chymotrypsin (PDB code) as search models.

  17. Gene expression of ternary complexes through the compaction of nanofiber-polyplexes by mixing with lipofectamine. (United States)

    Aono, Ryuta; Nomura, Kenta; Yuba, Eiji; Harada, Atsushi; Kono, Kenji


    For the development of an effective nonviral gene vector, ternary complexes were prepared through the compaction of nanofiber-polyplexes. These were formed using pDNA and a head-tail type polycation bearing a multi-arm poly(ethylene glycol) head and a poly(l-lysine) tail, and this strategy was based on the crowding effect of poly(ethylene glycol) in the polyplex. Mixing was carried out using a cationic lipid (lipofectamine), which is a commercially available transfection reagent. Through ternary complex formation, the elongated morphology of nanofiber-polyplexes was found to compact into a spherical shape with an average diameter of ca. 100 nm. Accompanying ternary complex formation, the compaction of the nanofiber-polyplexes can improve cellular uptake and helps the ternary complex to retain its smooth transcription/translation process, which is characteristic of nanofiber-polyplexes. As a result, ternary complexes prepared at an optimal mixing ratio exhibit a high transfection efficiency compared with lipofectamine lipoplexes.

  18. Electrochemical combustion of indigo at ternary oxide coated titanium anodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María I. León


    Full Text Available The film of iridium and tin dioxides doped with antimony (IrO2-SnO2–Sb2O5 deposited on a Ti substrate (mesh obtained by Pechini method was used for the formation of ·OH radicals by water discharge. Detection of ·OH radicals was followed by the use of the N,N-dimethyl-p-nitrosoaniline (RNO as a spin trap. The electrode surface morphology and composition was characterized by SEM-EDS. The ternary oxide coating was used for the electrochemical combustion of indigo textile dye as a model organic compound in chloride medium. Bulk electrolyses were then carried out at different volumetric flow rates under galvanostatic conditions using a filter-press flow cell. The galvanostatic tests using RNO confirmed that Ti/IrO2-SnO2-Sb2O5 favor the hydroxyl radical formation at current densities between 5 and 7 mA cm-2, while at current density of 10 mA cm-2 the oxygen evolution reaction occurs. The indigo was totally decolorized and mineralized via reactive oxygen species, such as (·OH, H2O2, O3 and active chlorine formed in-situ at the Ti/IrO2-SnO2-Sb2O5 surface at volumetric flow rates between 0.1-0.4 L min-1 and at fixed current density of 7 mA cm-2. The mineralization of indigo carried out at 0.2 L min-1 achieved values of 100 %, with current efficiencies of 80 % and energy consumption of 1.78 KWh m-3.

  19. Mathematical representation of electrophoretic mobility in ternary solvent electrolyte systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Jouyban A


    Full Text Available Electrophoretic mobilities of salmeterol and phenylpropanolamine in capillary zone electrophoresis were determined using acetate buffer in mixed solvents containing different concentrations of water, methanol and acetonitrile. Maximum electrophoretic mobilities for salmeterol and phenylpropanolamine were observed with water-methanol-acetonitrile ratios of 5:50:45 v/v and 3:60:37 v/v, respectively, and minimum mobilities of both compounds occurred in methanol-acetonitrile ratio of 30:70 v/v. The generated experimental data have been used to evaluate a mathematical model to compute the electrophoretic mobility of the analytes in a ternary solvent electrolyte system. The proposed model is: ln μm =ƒ1 ln μ1+ƒ2 ln μ2+k ƒ3+M1ƒ1 ƒ2+M2 ƒ1ƒ3+M3 ƒ2ƒ3+M4 ƒ1ƒ²1+M5 ƒ²2ƒ3+M6ƒ²2ƒ3+M7ƒ1ƒ2ƒ3. Where μ is the electrophoretic mobility, subscripts m,1, 2 and 3 refer to mixed solvent and solvents 1-3, respectively, f is the volume fraction of the solvent in the mixed solvent system and M1-M7 and K are the model constants calculated by a least squares analysis. The generated experimental data fitted to the model and the back-calculated mobilities were employed to compute the average percentage deviation (APD as an accuracy criterion. The obtained APD for salmeterol and phenylpropanolamine are 3.10 and 2.21%, respectively and the low APD values indicate that the model is able to calculate the mobilities within an acceptable error range.

  20. Luminescent properties of ytterbium-doped ternary lanthanum chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminska, A., E-mail: [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Cybinska, J. [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Wroclaw, Joliot-Curie 14, 50-383 Wroclaw (Poland); Zhydachevskii, Ya. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Lviv Polytechnic National University, 12 Bandera, Lviv 79646 (Ukraine); Sybilski, P. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Meyer, G. [Department of Chemistry, University of Cologne, Greinstrasse 6, D-50939 Koeln (Germany); Suchocki, A. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Physics, University of Bydgoszcz, Weyssenhoffa 11, 85-072, Bydgoszcz (Poland)


    Highlights: > Ytterbium-doped ternary lanthanum chloride as a promising light-emitting material. > The luminescence properties of K{sub 2}LaCl{sub 5}:Yb{sup 3+} powders with different Yb concentration. > Very good temperature stability of the powders for higher Yb concentration. - Abstract: Studies of the absorption and temperature dependence of photoluminescence spectra and luminescence decay times of the intra-shell f-f transitions ({sup 2}F{sub 5/2} {r_reversible} {sup 2}F{sub 7/2}) of Yb{sup 3+} ions in K{sub 2}LaCl{sub 5}:Yb{sup 3+} powders with 5, 10, 15 and 25% of ytterbium are presented. The spectroscopic properties of the powders with different ytterbium content are compared. Experiments were performed at the temperatures from 25 to 300 K. The strong emission around 982 nm has been observed under direct excitation of the luminescence center with 960 nm line of continuous wave Ti:sapphire laser pumped by Ar-ion laser. The temperature quenching effect of the luminescence was rather week, especially in the samples with higher concentration of ytterbium (15 and 25%). Additionally the probability of the f-f radiative transitions of the Yb{sup 3+} ions in these powders was almost temperature independent for more heavily doped samples (with 15 and 25% of Yb) and only weakly temperature dependent for less doped samples (with 5 and 10% of Yb). These results reveal high thermal stability of the optical properties of the examined powders.

  1. Review of Reactivity Experiments for Lithium Ternary Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolodosky, A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Bolind, A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Fratoni, M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Lithium is often the preferred choice as breeder and coolant in fusion blankets as it offers high tritium breeding, excellent heat transfer and corrosion properties, and most importantly, it has very high tritium solubility and results in very low levels of tritium permeation throughout the facility infrastructure. However, lithium metal vigorously reacts with air and water and exacerbates plant safety concerns. Consequently, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is attempting to develop a lithium-based alloy—most likely a ternary alloy—which maintains the beneficial properties of lithium (e.g. high tritium breeding and solubility) while reducing overall flammability concerns for use in the blanket of an inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant. The LLNL concept employs inertial confinement fusion (ICF) through the use of lasers aimed at an indirect-driven target composed of deuterium-tritium fuel. The fusion driver/target design implements the same physics currently experimented at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The plant uses lithium in both the primary coolant and blanket; therefore, lithium related hazards are of primary concern. Reducing chemical reactivity is the primary motivation for the development of new lithium alloys, and it is therefore important to come up with proper ways to conduct experiments that can physically study this phenomenon. This paper will start to explore this area by outlining relevant past experiments conducted with lithium/air reactions and lithium/water reactions. Looking at what was done in the past will then give us a general idea of how we can setup our own experiments to test a variety of lithium alloys.

  2. Ternary eutectic dendrites: Pattern formation and scaling properties (United States)

    Rátkai, László; Szállás, Attila; Pusztai, Tamás; Mohri, Tetsuo; Gránásy, László


    Extending previous work [Pusztai et al., Phys. Rev. E 87, 032401 (2013)], we have studied the formation of eutectic dendrites in a model ternary system within the framework of the phase-field theory. We have mapped out the domain in which two-phase dendritic structures grow. With increasing pulling velocity, the following sequence of growth morphologies is observed: flat front lamellae → eutectic colonies → eutectic dendrites → dendrites with target pattern → partitionless dendrites → partitionless flat front. We confirm that the two-phase and one-phase dendrites have similar forms and display a similar scaling of the dendrite tip radius with the interface free energy. It is also found that the possible eutectic patterns include the target pattern, and single- and multiarm spirals, of which the thermal fluctuations choose. The most probable number of spiral arms increases with increasing tip radius and with decreasing kinetic anisotropy. Our numerical simulations confirm that in agreement with the assumptions of a recent analysis of two-phase dendrites [Akamatsu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 105502 (2014)], the Jackson-Hunt scaling of the eutectic wavelength with pulling velocity is obeyed in the parameter domain explored, and that the natural eutectic wavelength is proportional to the tip radius of the two-phase dendrites. Finally, we find that it is very difficult/virtually impossible to form spiraling two-phase dendrites without anisotropy, an observation that seems to contradict the expectations of Akamatsu et al. Yet, it cannot be excluded that in isotropic systems, two-phase dendrites are rare events difficult to observe in simulations.

  3. Ternary ceramic thermal spraying powder and method of manufacturing thermal sprayed coating using said powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogli, Evelina; Sherman, Andrew J.; Glasgow, Curtis P.


    The invention describes a method for producing ternary and binary ceramic powders and their thermal spraying capable of manufacturing thermal sprayed coatings with superior properties. Powder contain at least 30% by weight ternary ceramic, at least 20% by weight binary molybdenum borides, at least one of the binary borides of Cr, Fe, Ni, W and Co and a maximum of 10% by weight of nano and submicro-sized boron nitride. The primary crystal phase of the manufactured thermal sprayed coatings from these powders is a ternary ceramic, while the secondary phases are binary ceramics. The coatings have extremely high resistance against corrosion of molten metal, extremely thermal shock resistance and superior tribological properties at low and at high temperatures.

  4. Efficient Implementation of Ternary SDM Filters using State-of-the-Art FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayabuddin Memon


    Full Text Available We present the analysis of a ternary FIR filter at varying OSR (Over Sampling Ratios. The sigma delta modulated ternary filter impulse responses obtained using Matlab at varying OSRs show that each doubling of OSR results in an increase of 10dB in the stopband attenuation. BT-FIR (Balanced Ternary FIR Filters at varying OSRs have been implemented in VHDL using an efficient adder tree organization to gather the partial products. Filters in both pipelined and non-pipelined modes were synthesized on a small number of representative commercial FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Arrays devices. Both the filter taps and binary inputs use 2\\'s complement format. The synthesis results show the tradeoffs between hardware area and performance at varying OSRs. In pipelined mode, a 6MHz video stream can easily be handled at an OSR of 64, while occupying less than 8% of a Stratix-III device.

  5. H2SO4-HNO3-H2O ternary system in the stratosphere (United States)

    Kiang, C. S.; Hamill, P.


    Estimation of the equilibrium vapor pressure over the ternary system H2SO4-HNO3-H2O to study the possibility of stratospheric aerosol formation involving HNO3. It is shown that the vapor pressures for the ternary system H2SO4-HNO3-H2O with weight composition around 70-80% H2SO4, 10-20% HNO3, 10-20% H2O at -50 C are below the order of 10 to the minus 8th mm Hg. It is concluded that there exists more than sufficient nitric acid and water vapor in the stratosphere to participate in ternary system aerosol formation at -50 C. Therefore, HNO3 should be present in stratospheric aerosols, provided that H2SO4 is also present.

  6. Thermodynamic description of the Al-Cu-Yb ternary system supported by first-principles calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang G.


    Full Text Available Phase relationships of the ternary Al-Cu-Yb system have been assessed using a combination of CALPHAD method and first principles calculations. A self-consistent thermodynamic parameter was established based on the experimental and theoretical information. Most of the binary intermetallic phases, except Al3Yb, Al2Yb, Cu2Yb and Cu5Yb, were assumed to be zero solubility in the ternary system. Based on the experimental data, eight ternary intermetallic compounds were taken into consideration in this system. Among them, three were treated as line compounds with large homogeneity ranges for Al and Cu. The others were treated as stoichiometric compounds. The calculated phase diagrams were in agreement with available experimental and theoretical data.

  7. A Novel Method for Detecting and Computing Univolatility Curves in Ternary Mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shcherbakov, Nataliya; Rodriguez-Donis, Ivonne; Abildskov, Jens


    of the generalized univolatility and unidistribution curves in the three dimensional composition – temperature state space lead to a simple and efficient algorithm of computation of the univolatility curves. Two peculiar ternary systems, namely diethylamine – chloroform – methanol and hexane – benzene......Residue curve maps (RCMs) and univolatility curves are crucial tools for analysis and design of distillation processes. Even in the case of ternary mixtures, the topology of these maps is highly non-trivial. We propose a novel method allowing detection and computation of univolatility curves...... in homogeneous ternary mixtures independently of the presence of azeotropes, which is particularly important in the case of zeotropic mixtures. The method is based on the analysis of the geometry of the boiling temperature surface constrained by the univolatility condition. The introduced concepts...

  8. Experimental investigation of phase equilibria in the Ni-Nb-V ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xingjun; Yang, Shuiyuan; Wang, Cuiping [Xiamen Univ. (China). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Xiamen Univ. (China). Fujian Provincial Key Lab. of Materials Genome; Zhang, Xianjie; Jiang, Hengxing; Shi, Zhan [Xiamen Univ. (China). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering


    The phase equilibria of the Ni-Nb-V ternary system at 1000 C and 1200 C were established using electron probe microanalysis, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. The results of the investigation revealed that: (1) The Nb solubility in (Ni) and σ{sup '} phases was less than 10 at.%; (2) A ternary compound τ (NiNbV) was confirmed, in which V had a large solubility; (3) A new liquid region was evident at 1200 C, but was absent at 1000 C; (4) The lattice constants of Ni{sub 3}Nb and Ni{sub 6}Nb{sub 7} phase decreased with increase in V content in the Ni{sub 3}Nb and Ni{sub 6}Nb{sub 7}. The phase equilibria of the Ni-Nb-V ternary system will contribute to its thermodynamic assessment.

  9. Binary and ternary cocrystals of sulfa drug acetazolamide with pyridine carboxamides and cyclic amides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetha Bolla


    Full Text Available A novel design strategy for cocrystals of a sulfonamide drug with pyridine carboxamides and cyclic amides is developed based on synthon identification as well as size and shape match of coformers. Binary adducts of acetazolamide (ACZ with lactams (valerolactam and caprolactam, VLM, CPR, cyclic amides (2-pyridone, labeled as 2HP and its derivatives MeHP, OMeHP and pyridine amides (nicotinamide and picolinamide, NAM, PAM were obtained by manual grinding, and their single crystals by solution crystallization. The heterosynthons in the binary cocrystals of ACZ with these coformers suggested a ternary combination for ACZ with pyridone and nicotinamide. Novel supramolecular synthons of ACZ with lactams and pyridine carboxamides are reported together with binary and ternary cocrystals for a sulfonamide drug. This crystal engineering study resulted in the first ternary cocrystal of acetazolamide with amide coformers, ACZ–NAM–2HP (1:1:1.

  10. Ternary mixture of fatty acids as phase change materials for thermal energy storage applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karunesh Kant


    Full Text Available The present study deals with the development of ternary mixtures of fatty acids for low temperature thermal energy storage applications. The commercial grade fatty acids such as Capric Acid (CA, Lauric Acid (LA, Palmitic Acid (PA and Stearic Acid (SA, have been used to prepare stable, solid–liquid phase change material (PCM for the same. In this regard, a series of ternary mixture i.e. CA–LA–SA (CLS and CA–PA–SA (CPS have been developed with different weight percentages. Thermal characteristics of these developed ternary mixture i.e. melting temperature and latent heat of fusion have been measured by using Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC technique. The synthesized materials are found to have melting temperature in the range of 14–21 °C (along with adequate amount of latent heat of fusion, which may be quite useful for several low temperature thermal energy storage applications.

  11. Ternary critical point determination of experimental demixion curve: calculation method, relevance and limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goutaudier C.


    Full Text Available In many cases of miscibility gap in ternary systems, one critical point at least, stable or metastable, can be observed under isobaric and isothermal conditions. The experimental determination of this invariant point is difficult but its knowledge is essential. The authors propose a method for calculating the composition of the invariant solution starting from the composition of the liquid phases in equilibrium. The computing method is based on the barycentric properties of the conjugate solutions (binodal points and an extension of the straight diameter method. A systematic study was carried out on a large number of ternary systems involving diverse constituents (230 sets ternary systems at various temperatures. Thus the results are presented and analyzed by means of consistency tests.

  12. [Synthesis and luminescence properties of ternary complexes of europium with aromatic carboxylic acid and acrylonitrile]. (United States)

    Guo, Dong-cai; Yi, Li-ming; Shu, Wan-gen; Zhang, Zhen-zhen; Zeng, Zhao-rong; Zhang, Xi-qian


    Five ternary complexes were synthesized from europium with aromatic carboxylic acid (p-methylbenzoic acid, methoxybenzoic acid, m-chlorobenzoic acid and benzoic acid, p-hydroxylbenzoic acid) and acrylonitrile, and characterized by means of elemental analysis, thermal analysis, FTIR spectra and UV spectra. The fluorescence spectra show that five ternary complexes have good luminescence properties, and the sequence of the ability of the aromatic carboxylic acids to transfer light energy to europium ion is as follows: p-methylbenzoic acid>benzoic acid>m-chlorobenzoic acid>p-hydroxylbenzoic acid>methoxybenzoic acid. Meanwhile, the ternary europium complexes containing a reactive ligand acrylonitrile will possibly have a potential application to the fabrication of bonding-type europium polymer luminescent materials.

  13. Phase Relations in Ternary Systems in the Subsolidus Region: Methods to Formulate Solid Solution Equations and to Find Particular Compositions (United States)

    Alvarez-Montan~o, Victor E.; Farías, Mario H.; Brown, Francisco; Mun~oz-Palma, Iliana C.; Cubillas, Fernando; Castillon-Barraza, Felipe F.


    A good understanding of ternary phase diagrams is required to advance and/or to reproduce experimental research in solid-state and materials chemistry. The aim of this paper is to describe the solutions to problems that appear when studying or determining ternary phase diagrams. A brief description of the principal features shown in phase diagrams…

  14. A ternary memory module using low-voltage control over optical properties of metal-polypyridyl monolayers. (United States)

    Kumar, Anup; Chhatwal, Megha; Mondal, Prakash Chandra; Singh, Vikram; Singh, Alok Kumar; Cristaldi, Domenico A; Gupta, Rinkoo D; Gulino, Antonino


    A ternary memory module has been designed as a function of precise voltage command. The monolayer based module displays perpetual stability and non-hysteretic reversibility for multiple scans (10(2)). Ternary-state readout provides a vision to integrate the next generation of "smart electro-optical devices" viable for multi-state memory.

  15. Data and analyses of phase relations in the Ce-Fe-Sb ternary system. (United States)

    Zhu, Daiman; Xu, Chengliang; Li, Changrong; Guo, Cuiping; Zheng, Raowen; Du, Zhenmin; Li, Junqin


    These data and analyses support the research article "Experimental study on phase relations in the Ce-Fe-Sb ternary system" Zhu et al. (2017) [1]. The data and analyses presented here include the experimental results of XRD, SEM and EPMA for the determination of the whole liquidus projection and the isothermal section at 823 K in the Ce-Fe-Sb system. All the results enable the understanding of the constituent phases and the solidification processes of the as-cast alloys as well as the phase relations and the equilibrium regions at 823 K in the Ce-Fe-Sb ternary system over the entire composition.

  16. All ternary permutation constraint satisfaction problems parameterized above average have kernels with quadratic numbers of variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutin, Gregory; Van Iersel, Leo; Mnich, Matthias


    A ternary Permutation-CSP is specified by a subset Π of the symmetric group S3. An instance of such a problem consists of a set of variables V and a multiset of constraints, which are ordered triples of distinct variables of V. The objective is to find a linear ordering α of V that maximizes...... the number of triples whose rearrangement (under α) follows a permutation in Π. We prove that all ternary Permutation-CSPs parameterized above average have kernels with quadratic numbers of variables....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Shajeena


    Full Text Available This paper presents an ideal method for object tracking directly in the compressed domain in video sequences. An enhanced rotation-invariant image operator called Largest Difference Indexed Local Ternary Pattern (LDILTP has been proposed. The Local Ternary Pattern which worked very well in texture classification and face recognition is now extended for rotation invariant object tracking. Histogramming the LTP code makes the descriptor resistant to translation. The histogram intersection is used to find the similarity measure. This method is robust to noise and retain contrast details. The proposed scheme has been verified on various datasets and shows a commendable performance.

  18. Ternary chalcogenide micro-pseudocapacitors for on-chip energy storage

    KAUST Repository

    Kurra, Narendra


    We report the successful fabrication of a micro-pseudocapacitor based on ternary nickel cobalt sulfide for the first time, with performance substantially exceeding that of previously reported micro-pseudocapacitors based on binary sulfides. CoNi2S4 micro-pseudocapacitor exhibits a maximum energy density of 18.7 mWh/cm3 at a power density of 1163 mW/cm3, opens up an avenue for exploring new family of ternary oxides/sulfides based micro-pseudocapacitors.

  19. Glass transition behavior of ternary disaccharide-ethylene glycol-water solutions (United States)

    Yu, Tongxu; Zhao, Lishan; Wang, Qiang; Cao, Zexian


    Glass transition behavior of ternary disaccharide-ethylene glycol-water solutions, in reference to that of the binary combinations, has been investigated towards a better understanding of their cryoprotective ability. In water-deficient solutions, the disaccharides, including trehalose, sucrose and maltose, can associate with more than 100 ethylene glycol molecules to form amorphous complex, one order of magnitude larger than the corresponding hydration numbers. In water-rich solutions, a second glass transition emerges with increasing molar fraction of ethylene glycol, indicating the possible synergy of disaccharides and ethylene glycol in vitrification of the ternary aqueous solution.

  20. Rapid assay of the comparative degradation of acetaminophen in binary and ternary combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Mujahid


    Full Text Available The study is intended to monitor the comparative degradation rates of acetaminophen in binary and ternary combinations by UV–vis spectroscopy. The drugs were exposed to UV-rays in blister packing. The exposition time was 24, 48 and 72 h for both shorter and longer wavelengths. The problem of overlapping UV bands of aspirin and caffeine with acetaminophen was solved by extracting them in diethylether, therefore, we developed a straightforward, rapid and accurate assay method for measuring acetaminophen concentration in binary and ternary mixtures and to monitor its degradation.

  1. Design and analysis of 2T-2M Ternary content addressable memories

    KAUST Repository

    Bahloul, M. A.


    Associate and approximate computing using resistive memory based Ternary Content Addressable Memory is becoming widely used. In this paper, a simplified model based analysis of a 2T2M-Ternary Content Addressable Memory using memristors is introduced. A comprehensive study is presented taking into consideration different circuit parameters and parasitic effects. Parameters such as the memristor Rh/Rl ratio, transistor technology, operating frequency, and memory width are taken into consideration. The proposed model is verified with SPICE showing a high degree of matching between theory and simulation. The utility of the model is established using a design example.

  2. Optimisasi Bubuk Slag Nikel Dengan Sistem Ternary C-A-S


    Ashad, Hanafi; Nasution, Amrinsyah; Imran, Iswandi; Soegiri, Saptahari


    . This papers study concerning optimization of nickel slag powder as substitution material to partial cement by C-A-S (CaO-Al2O3-SiO2) ternary system. Optimization conducted to determine procentage of nickel slag powder in the consuming calcium hydroxide compound as hydration product of tricalcium silicate (C3S) and dicalcium silicate (C2S) cement with water so that form secondary of calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) compound. By the phase diagram C-A-S ternary system, procentage of optimum nick...

  3. Thermodynamics of Ga ternary alloys with Na and In, Sn or Zn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dergacheva, M.B. [Institute of Org. Catalysis and Electrochem. NAN RK, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Shatrova, E.G. [Institute of Org. Catalysis and Electrochem. NAN RK, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Harina, O.V. [Institute of Org. Catalysis and Electrochem. NAN RK, Almaty (Kazakhstan)


    Thermodynamic properties of ternary liquid Ga alloys, containing Na (X{sub Na} = 0.025 to 0.045) and In, Sn or Zn have been determined by e.m.f. measurements. The partial thermodynamic properties of Na ({alpha}{sub Na}, {gamma}{sub Na}, {Delta} anti G{sub Na}, {Delta} anti S{sub Na}) have been calculated. The interaction of Na with the other components decreases in the following sequence: In => Sn => Zn. The liquidus temperatures of the investigated ternary alloys have been also determined. (orig.)

  4. Constructing ternary polyaniline-graphene-TiO{sub 2} hybrids with enhanced photoelectrochemical performance in photo-generated cathodic protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Weiwei, E-mail: [College of Material Science and Engineering, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590 (China); State Key Laboratory of Mining Disaster Prevention and Control Co-founded by Shandong Province and the Ministry of Science and Technology, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao, 266590 (China); Guo, Hanlin; Sun, Haiqing [College of Material Science and Engineering, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590 (China); Zeng, Rongchang [College of Material Science and Engineering, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590 (China); State Key Laboratory of Mining Disaster Prevention and Control Co-founded by Shandong Province and the Ministry of Science and Technology, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao, 266590 (China)


    Highlights: • Ternary polyaniline-graphene-TiO{sub 2} hybrids were synthesized. • Flat band potential shift facilitates electron injection to the coupled metal. • Electrons and holes transfer in the hybrids promotes electron–hole separation. • Synergistic effects of the ternary components make the hybrids photo-chargeable. - Abstract: Ternary polyaniline-graphene-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites were constructed through a stepwise synthetic route. The hybrids exhibit remarkable enhancement in photoelectrochemical performance. The transfer of photo-excited carriers in the ternary composites facilitates the photo-induced electron-hole separation. Meanwhile, the flat band potential shift of the hybrids increases the inner electric field intensity that drives the photo-excited electron migration from the composites to the coupled metal. Furthermore, the ternary hybrids were found firstly to be photo-chargeable, which shows application potentials in photo-generated cathodic protection in dark.

  5. Ternary and quaternary oxides of Bi, Sr and Cu (United States)

    Casais, M. T.; Millan, P.; Rasines, I.; Campa, J. A.


    Before the discovery of superconductivity in an oxide of Bi, Sr, and Cu, the system Bi-Sr-Cu-O had not been studied, although several solid phases had been identified in the two-component regions of the ternary system Bi2O3-Si-O-CuO. The oxides Sr2CuO3, SrCu2O2, SrCuO2, and Bi2CuO4 were then well known and characterized, and the phase diagram of the binary system Bi2O3-SrO had been established in the temperature range 620 to 1000 C. Besides nine solutions of compositions Bi(2-2x) Sr(x) O(3-2x) and different symmetries, this diagram includes three definite compounds of stoichiometries Bi(2)BrO4. Bi2Sr2O5, and Bi2Sr3O6 (x - 0.50, 0.67 and 0.75 respectively), only the second of which with known unit-cell of orthorhombic symmetry, dimensions (A) a = 14.293(2), b = 7.651(2), c = 6.172(1), and z = 4. The first superconducting oxide in the system Bi-Sr-Cu-O was initially formulated as Bi2Sr2Cu2O(7+x), with an orthorhombic unit-cell of parameters (A) a = 5.32, b = 26.6, c = 48.8. In a preliminary study the same oxide was formulated with half the copper content, Bi(2)Sr(2)CuO(6+x), and index its reflections assuming an orthorhombic unit-cell of dimensions (A) a = 5.390(2), b = 26.973(8), c = 24.69(4). Subsequent studies by diffraction techniques have confirmed the composition 2:2:1. A new family of oxygen-deficient perovskites, was characterized, after identifying by x ray diffraction the phases present in the products of thermal treatments of about 150 mixtures of analytical grade Bi2O3, Sr(OH)2-8H2O and CuO at different molar ratios. X ray diffraction data are presented for some other oxides of Bi and Sr, as well as for various quaternary oxides, among them an oxide of Bi, Sr, and Cu.

  6. Alternative solution model for the ternary carbonate system CaCO3 - MgCO3 - FeCO3 - I. A ternary Bragg-Williams ordering model (United States)

    McSwiggen, P.L.


    The minerals of the ternary carbonate system CaCO3 - MgCO3 - FeCO3 represent a complex series of solid solutions and ordering states. An understanding of those complexities requires a solution model that can both duplicate the subsolidus phase relationships and generate correct values for the activities. Such a solution model must account for the changes in the total energy of the system resulting from a change in the ordering state of the individual constituents. Various ordering models have been applied to binary carbonate systems, but no attempts have previously been made to model the ordering in the ternary system. This study derives a new set of equations that allow for the equilibrium degree of order to be calculated for a system involving three cations mixing on two sites, as in the case of the ternary carbonates. The method is based on the Bragg-Williams approach. From the degree of order, the mole fractions of the three cations in each of the two sites can be determined. Once the site occupancies have been established, a Margules-type mixing model can be used to determine the free energy of mixing in the solid solution and therefore the activities of the various components. ?? 1993 Springer-Verlag.

  7. A novel, efficient CNTFET Galois design as a basic ternary-valued logic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshavarzian P


    Full Text Available Peiman Keshavarzian1, Mahla Mohammad Mirzaee21Kerman Branch, Computer Engineering Department, Islamic Azad University, Kerman, Iran; 2Science and Research Branch, Computer Engineering Department, IA University, Kerman, IranAbstract: This paper presents arithmetic operations, including addition and multiplication, in the ternary Galois field through carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNTFETs. Ternary logics have received considerable attention among all the multiple-valued logics. Multiple-valued logics are an alternative to common-practice binary logic, which mostly has been expanded from ternary (three-valued logic. CNTFETs are used to improve Galois field circuit performance. In this study, a novel design technique for ternary logic gates based on CNTFETs was used to design novel, efficient Galois field circuits that will be compared with the existing resistive-load CNTFET circuit designs. In this paper, by using carbon nanotube technology and avoiding the use of resistors, we will reduce power consumption and delay, and will also achieve a better product. Simulation results using HSPICE illustrate substantial improvement in speed and power consumption.Keywords: galois field, CNTFET, MVL circuit design

  8. Model for the Prediction of the Hydriding Thermodynamics of Pd-Rh-Co Ternary Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teter, D.F.; Thoma, D.J.


    A dilute solution model (with respect to the substitutional alloying elements) has been developed, which accurately predicts the hydride formation and decomposition thermodynamics and the storage capacities of dilute ternary Pd-Rh-Co alloys. The effect of varying the rhodium and cobalt compositions on the thermodynamics of hydride formation and decomposition and hydrogen capacity of several palladium-rhodium-cobalt ternary alloys has been investigated using pressure-composition (PC) isotherms. Alloying in the dilute regime (<10 at.%) causes the enthalpy for hydride formation to linearly decrease with increasing alloying content. Cobalt has a stronger effect on the reduction in enthalpy than rhodium for equivalent alloying amounts. Also, cobalt reduces the hydrogen storage capacity with increasing alloying content. The plateau thermodynamics are strongly linked to the lattice parameters of the alloys. A near-linear dependence of the enthalpy of hydride formation on the lattice parameter was observed for both the binary Pd-Rh and Pd-Co alloys, as well as for the ternary Pd-Rh-Co alloys. The Pd-5Rh-3Co (at. %) alloy was found to have similar plateau thermodynamics as a Pd-10Rh alloy, however, this ternary alloy had a diminished hydrogen storage capacity relative to Pd-10Rh.

  9. Protein-mediated efficient synergistic "antenna effect" in a ternary system in D₂O medium. (United States)

    Ghorai, Shyamal Kr; Samanta, Swarna Kamal; Mukherjee, Manini; Ghosh, Sanjib


    A ternary system consisting of a protein, catechin (either + or - epimer), and Tb(III) in suitable aqueous buffer medium at physiological pH (= 6.8) has been shown to exhibit highly efficient "antenna effect". Steady state and time-resolved emission studies of each component in the binary complexes (protein with Tb(III) and (+)- or (-)-catechin with Tb(III)) and the ternary systems along with the molecular docking studies reveal that the efficient sensitization could be ascribed to the effective shielding of microenvironment of Tb(III) from O-H oscillator and increased Tb-C (+/-) interaction in the ternary systems in aqueous medium. The ternary system exhibits protein-mediated efficient antenna effect in D(2)O medium due to synergistic ET from both the lowest ππ* triplet state of Trp residue in protein and that of catechin apart from protection of the Tb(III) environment from matrix vibration. The simple system consisting of (+)- or (-)-catechin and Tb(III) in D(2)O buffer at pH 6.8 has been prescribed to be a useful biosensor.

  10. Comparative instrumental evaluation of efficacy and safety between a binary and a ternary system in chemexfoliation. (United States)

    Cameli, Norma; Mariano, Maria; Ardigò, Marco; Corato, Cristina; De Paoli, Gianfranco; Berardesca, Enzo


    To instrumentally evaluate the efficacy and the safety of a new ternary system chemo exfoliating formulation (water-dimethyl isosorbide-acid) vs traditional binary systems (water and acid) where the acid is maintained in both the systems at the same concentration. Different peelings (binary system pyruvic acid and trichloroacetic acid-TCA, and ternary system pyruvic acid and TCA) were tested on the volar forearm of 20 volunteers of both sexes between 28 and 50 years old. The outcomes were evaluated at the baseline, 10 minutes, 24 hours, and 1 week after the peeling by means of noninvasive skin diagnosis techniques. In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy was used for stratum corneum evaluation, transepidermal waterloss, and Corneometry for skin barrier and hydration, Laser Doppler velocimetry in association with colorimetry for irritation and erythema analysis. The instrumental data obtained showed that the efficacy and safety of the new ternary system peel compounds were significantly higher compared with the binary system formulations tested. The new formulation peels improved chemexfoliation and reduced complications such as irritation, redness, and postinflammatory pigmentation compared to the traditional aqueous solutions. The study showed that ternary system chemexfoliation, using a controlled delivery technology, was able to provide the same clinical effects in term of stratum corneum reduction with a significantly reduced barrier alteration, water loss, and irritation/erythema compared to traditional binary system peels. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. First-principle studies of the ternary palladates CaPd3O4 and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Ternary palladates CaPd 3 O 4 and SrPd 3 O 4 have been studied theoretically using density functional theory approach. The calculated structural properties are consistent with the experimental findings. Mechanical properties show that these compounds are elastically stable, anisotropic and ductile in nature.

  12. Cyclodextrin based ternary system of modafinil: Effect of trimethyl chitosan and polyvinylpyrrolidone as complexing agents. (United States)

    Patel, Parth; Agrawal, Y K; Sarvaiya, Jayrajsinh


    Modafinil is an approved drug for the treatment of narcolepsy and have a strong market presence in many countries. The drug is widely consumed for off-label uses and currently listed as a restricted drug. Modafinil has very low water solubility. To enhance the aqueous solubility of modafinil by the formation of a ternary complex with Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin and two hydrophilic polymers was the main objective of the present study. Pyrrolidone (PVP K30) and a water soluble chitosan derivative, trimethyl chitosan (TMC) were studied by solution state and solid state characterization methods for their discriminatory efficiency in solubility enhancement of modafinil. Phase solubility study depicted the highest complexation efficiency (2.22) of cyclodextrin derivative in the presence of TMC compared to the same in the presence of PVP K30 (0.08) and in the absence of any polymer (0.92). FT-IR analysis of binary and ternary complex expressed comparable contribution of both polymers in formation of inclusion complex. The thermal behaviour of binary and ternary complex, involving individual polymers disclosed the influence of TMC on polymorphism of the drug. DSC study revealed efficiency of TMC to prevent conversion of metastable polymorphic form to stable polymorphic form. Ternary complex, involving TMC enhanced water solubility of the drug 1.5 times more compared to the binary complex of the drug whereas PVP K30 reduced the Solubility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Phase equilibria in the ternary In-Ni-Sn system at 700 °C. (United States)

    Schmetterer, C; Zemanova, A; Flandorfer, H; Kroupa, A; Ipser, H


    The phase equilibria of the ternary system In-Ni-Sn were investigated experimentally at 700 °C using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) including electron micro probe analysis (EMPA) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). A corresponding isothermal section was established based on these results. This particular temperature was chosen because it allowed obtaining reliable results within reasonable time. The existence of the ternary phase InNi 6 Sn 5 was confirmed whereas the ternary compound In 2 NiSn, reported earlier in literature, was found to be part of a large solid solution field based on binary InNi. The ternary solubility of the binary phases was established, and continuous solid solutions were found between the isostructural phases Ni 3 Sn LT and InNi 3 as well as between Ni 3 Sn 2 HT and InNi 2 . In addition, this isothermal section could be well reproduced by CALPHAD modelling. The resulting calculated isotherm at 700 °C is presented, too, and compared with the experimental results.

  14. Characterization of Ternary Protein Systems In Vivo with Tricolor Heterospecies Partition Analysis. (United States)

    Hur, Kwang-Ho; Chen, Yan; Mueller, Joachim D


    Tools and assays that characterize protein-protein interactions are of fundamental importance to biology, because protein assemblies play a critical role in the control and regulation of nearly every cellular process. The availability of fluorescent proteins has facilitated the direct and real-time observation of protein-protein interactions inside living cells, but existing methods are mostly limited to binary interactions between two proteins. Because of the scarcity of techniques capable of identifying ternary interactions, we developed tricolor heterospecies partition analysis. The technique is based on brightness analysis of fluorescence fluctuations from three fluorescent proteins that serve as protein labels. We identified three fluorescent proteins suitable for tricolor brightness experiments. In addition, we developed the theory of identifying interactions in a ternary protein system using tricolor heterospecies partition analysis. The theory was verified by experiments on well-characterized protein systems. A graphical representation of the heterospecies partition data was introduced to visualize interactions in ternary protein systems. Lastly, we performed fluorescence fluctuation experiments on cells expressing a coactivator and two nuclear receptors and applied heterospecies partition analysis to explore the interactions of this ternary protein system. Copyright © 2016 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Equilibrium thermodynamics of the ternary membrane-forming system nylon, formic acid and water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulte, A.M.W.; Bulte, A.M.W.; Naafs, E.M.; van Eeten, F.; Mulder, M.H.V.; Smolders, C.A.; Smolders, C.A.; Strathmann, H.


    The binary Flory-Huggins interaction parameters for the ternary membrane-forming system nylon, formic acid and water have been obtained from literature data, swelling values and melting point depression. Nylon 4,6 nylon 6 and a copolymer of nylon 4,6 and 6 were examined. The isothermal

  16. Triethanolamine Stabilization of Methotrexate-β-Cyclodextrin Interactions in Ternary Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahamunna A. A. Barbosa


    Full Text Available The interaction of methotrexate (MTX with beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD in the presence of triethanolamine (TEA was investigated with the aim to elucidate the mechanism whereby self-assembly cyclodextrin systems work in association with this third component. Solubility diagram studies showed synergic increment of the MTX solubility to be about thirty-fold. Experiments using 2D ROESY and molecular modeling studies revealed the inclusion of aromatic ring III of the drug into β-CD cavity, in which TEA contributes by intensifying MTX interaction with β-CD and stabilizes MTX:β-CD:TEA ternary complex by electrostatic interaction. The maintenance of these interactions in solid phase was also studied in ternary MTX:β-CD:TEA and comparisons were made with freeze dried binary MTX:β-CD and physical mixtures. FTIR studies evidenced that MTX–β-CD interaction remained in solid ternary complexes, which was also supported by thermal (differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, thermogravimetric analysis (TG/first derivative of TG analysis (DTG and C,N,H elementary analysis and structural (X-ray diffraction analysis, (XRD studies, mainly regarding the increment of drug stability. The efficient in vitro drug dissolution studies successfully demonstrated the contribution of ternary complexes, which highlights the importance of this possible new raw material for further applications in drug delivery systems.

  17. Role of energy cost in the yield of cold ternary fission of Cf

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The energy costs in the cold ternary fission of 252Cf for various light charged particle emission are calculated by including Wong's correction for Coulomb potential. Energy cost is found to be higher in cold fission than in normal fission. It is found that energy cost always increases with decrease in experimental yield ...

  18. Epitaxial ternary nitride thin films prepared by a chemical solution method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Hongmei [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Feldmann, David M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wang, Haiyan [TEXAS A& M; Bi, Zhenxing [TEXAS A& M


    It is indispensable to use thin films for many technological applications. This is the first report of epitaxial growth of ternary nitride AMN2 films. Epitaxial tetragonal SrTiN2 films have been successfully prepared by a chemical solution approach, polymer-assisted deposition. The structural, electrical, and optical properties of the films are also investigated.

  19. Fac–mer equilibria of coordinated iminodiacetate (ida ) in ternary Cu ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Keywords. Fac–mer equilibria; CuII-iminodiacetate-imidazole/benzimidazole ternary complexes; stability constants. 1. Introduction. Mixed ligand complexes of transition metal ions with amino acids, peptides or their derivatives or analogues, and heterocyclic N-bases can serve as model compounds of bioinorganic interests ...

  20. Experimental investigation of phase equilibria in the Zr-Cu-Ni ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Mujin; Wang, Cuiping; Yang, Shuiyuan; Shi, Zhan; Han, Jiajia; Liu, Xingjun [Xiamen Univ. (China). College of Materials and Fujian Provincial Key Lab. of Materials Genome


    The phase equilibria in the Zr-Cu-Ni ternary system are investigated combined with X-ray diffraction, electron probe micro-analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Two isothermal sections of the Zr-Cu-Ni ternary system at 1 000 C and 1 100 C are experimentally established. Most of the binary intermetallic compounds, e.g. Zr{sub 7}Ni{sub 10}, ZrNi, ZrNi{sub 5}, Zr{sub 14}Cu{sub 51}, and Zr{sub 2}Cu{sub 9}, show a remarkable ternary solubility. A new ternary compound named τ{sub 3} (Zr{sub 31.1-30.7} . Cu{sub 28.5-40.3}Ni{sub 40.4-29.0}) is detected at 1 000 C and dissolved at 1 020 C because the nearby large liquid phase field further expands. The newly determined phase equilibria will provide important information for both thermodynamic assessment and alloy design of Zr-based metallic glass.

  1. Properties of ternary NiFeW alloy coating by jet electrodeposition

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. In this paper, ternary NiFeW alloy coatings were prepared by jet electrodeposition, and the effects of lord salt concentration, jet speed, current density, and temperature on the properties of the coatings, including the composition, microhardness, surface morphology, structure, and corrosion resistance, were ...

  2. Experimental investigation and thermodynamic calculation of phase equilibria in the Mg–Pb–Zn ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Materials, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Yang, Shuiyuan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Materials, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Research Center of Materials Design and Applications, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Liu, Xingjun [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Materials, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Research Center of Materials Design and Applications, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemistry for Energy Materials, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Duh, Jenq-Gong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua Universtiy, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Wang, Cuiping, E-mail: [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Materials, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Research Center of Materials Design and Applications, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)


    The phase equilibria of the Mg–Pb–Zn ternary system were investigated using electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), back scattered electron (BSE) imaging and X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods. Three isothermal sections of the Mg–Pb–Zn ternary system at 200 °C, 300 °C and 400 °C were experimentally established. The phase equilibria of Mg–Pb binary and Mg–Pb–Zn ternary system were thermodynamically assessed by using CALPHAD (Calculation of Phase Diagrams) method on the basis of the presently determined experimental data. A consistent set of thermodynamic parameters has been derived for describing the Gibbs free energies of each solution phase and intermetallic compound in the Mg–Pb and Mg–Pb–Zn systems. The calculated phase diagrams and thermodynamic properties in the Mg–Pb and Mg–Pb–Zn systems are in good agreement with experimental data. - Highlights: • Three isothermal sections of the Mg–Pb–Zn system were experimentally determined. • The phase equilibria of Mg–Pb binary system are thermodynamically reassessed. • The calculated phase diagrams in the Mg–Pb–Zn ternary system are in good agreement with experimental data.

  3. Construction of Lines of Constant Density and Constant Refractive Index for Ternary Liquid Mixtures. (United States)

    Tasic, Aleksandar Z.; Djordjevic, Bojan D.


    Demonstrates construction of density constant and refractive index constant lines in triangular coordinate system on basis of systematic experimental determinations of density and refractive index for both homogeneous (single-phase) ternary liquid mixtures (of known composition) and the corresponding binary compositions. Background information,…

  4. Existence of ternary complexes of procarboxypeptidase A in the pancreas of some ruminant species

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kerfelec, B; Chapus, C; Puigserver, A


    ...), has so far been observed only in the ox pancreas. Evidence, obtained in the present study, shows that a ternary complex of procarboxypeptidase A, with a subunit III highly homologous with that of the bovine complex, is also present in two...

  5. Organic alloy systems suitable for the investigation of regular binary and ternary eutectic growth (United States)

    Sturz, L.; Witusiewicz, V. T.; Hecht, U.; Rex, S.


    Transparent organic alloys showing a plastic crystal phase were investigated experimentally using differential scanning calorimetry and directional solidification with respect to find a suitable model system for regular ternary eutectic growth. The temperature, enthalpy and entropy of phase transitions have been determined for a number of pure substances. A distinction of substances with and without plastic crystal phases was made from their entropy of melting. Binary phase diagrams were determined for selected plastic crystal alloys with the aim to identify eutectic reactions. Examples for lamellar and rod-like eutectic solidification microstructures in binary systems are given. The system (D)Camphor-Neopentylglycol-Succinonitrile is identified as a system that exhibits, among others, univariant and a nonvariant eutectic reaction. The ternary eutectic alloy close to the nonvariant eutectic composition solidifies with a partially faceted solid-liquid interface. However, by adding a small amount of Amino-Methyl-Propanediol (AMPD), the temperature of the nonvariant eutectic reaction and of the solid state transformation from plastic to crystalline state are shifted such, that regular eutectic growth with three distinct nonfaceted phases is observed in univariant eutectic reaction for the first time. The ternary phase diagram and examples for eutectic microstructures in the ternary and the quaternary eutectic alloy are given.

  6. Fac–mer equilibria of coordinated iminodiacetate (ida 2–) in ternary ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    pH potentiometric and spectrophotometric investigations on the complex formation equilibria of CuII with iminodiacetate (ida2-) and heterocyclic N-bases, viz. imidazole and benzimidazole (B), in aqueous solution in binary and ternary systems using different molar ratios of the reactants indicated the formation of complexes ...

  7. Ternary diffusion in Cu-rich fcc Cu–Al–Si alloys at 1073 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Dandan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Zhang, Lijun [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Du, Yong, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Xu, Honghui [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Jin, Zhanpeng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China)


    Highlights: •Interdiffusivities in Cu-rich fcc Cu–Al–Si alloys at 1073 K were determined. •The present results were compared with experimental data in boundary binary systems. •The present results were validated by thermodynamic constraints and Fick’s law. •The sign of ternary cross diffusivities was predicted in terms of thermodynamics. -- Abstract: Utilizing six groups of bulk diffusion couples and with electron probe microanalysis technique, the composition dependence of ternary interdiffusion coefficients in Cu-rich fcc Cu–Al–Si alloys at 1073 K were determined by the Matano-Kirkaldy method. Using a three-dimensional representation, the obtained main ternary diffusion coefficients were found to be consistent with the experimental data in boundary binaries available in the literature. The reliability of the obtained interdiffusivities was further validated by thermodynamic constraints as well as by Fick’s second law applied to numerical simulation. The sign of the ternary cross diffusivities in fcc Cu–Al–Si alloys, which shows a noticeable effect on microstructure, was also successfully predicted in terms of thermodynamics.

  8. Corrosion and wear protective composition modulated alloy coatings based on ternary Ni-P-X alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leisner, P.; Benzon, M. E.; Christoffersen, Lasse


    Scattered reporting in the litterature describes a number of ternary Ni-P-X alloyes (where X can be Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Pd, Re or W) with promising corrosin and wear protective performance. Based on a systematic study of Ni-P-X alloys it is the intention to produce coatings with improved corrosion...

  9. A model ternary heparin conjugate by direct covalent bond strategy applied to drug delivery system. (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Xin, Dingcheng; Hu, Jiawen; Liu, Kaijian; Pan, Jiangao; Xiang, Jiannan


    A model ternary heparin conjugate by direct covalent bond strategy has been developed, in which modified heparin using active mix anhydride as intermediate conjugates with model drug molecule and model specific ligand, respectively. Designed ester bonds between model drug and heparin facilitate hydrolysis kinetics research. The strategy can be extended to design and synthesize a targeted drug delivery system. The key point is to use mixed anhydride groups as activating intermediates to mediate the synthesis of the ternary heparin conjugate. Formation of mixed anhydride is detected by the conductimetry experiment. The ternary heparin conjugate is characterized by (13)C NMR, FT-IR and GPC, respectively. The decreased trend on degree of substitution (DS) is consistent with that of introduced anticancer drug and specific ligand in drug delivery system. Moreover, their anticoagulant activity is evaluated by measuring activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and anti-factor Xa activity. The results show that model ternary heparin conjugate with reduced anticoagulant activity may avoid the risk of severe hemorrhagic complication during the administration and is potential to develop a safe and effective drug delivery system on anticancer research.

  10. Ternary supramolecular quantum-dot network flocculation for selective lectin detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oikonomou, Maria; Wang, Junyou; Carvalho, Rui Rijo; Velders, Aldrik H.


    We present a versatile, tuneable, and selective nanoparticle-based lectin biosensor, based on flocculation of ternary supramolecular nanoparticle networks (NPN), formed through the sequential binding of three building blocks. The three building blocks are β-cyclodextrin-capped CdTe quantum dots,

  11. The ternary sorption system U(VI)-phosphate-silica explained by spectroscopy and thermodynamic modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foerstendorf, Harald; Stockmann, Madlen; Heim, Karsten; Mueller, Katharina; Brendler, Vinzenz [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Surface Processes; Comarmond, M.J.; Payne, T.E. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights (Australia); Steudtner, Robin [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Resource Ecology


    Spectroscopic data of sorption processes potentially provide direct impact on Surface Complexation Modelling (SCM) approaches. Based on spectroscopic data of the ternary sorption system U(VI)/phosphate/silica strongly suggesting the formation of a precipitate as the predominant surface process, SCM calculations accurately reproduced results from classical batch experiments.

  12. Effect of Ni-Co Ternary Molten Salt Catalysts on Coal Catalytic Pyrolysis Process (United States)

    Cui, Xin; Qi, Cong; Li, Liang; Li, Yimin; Li, Song


    In order to facilitate efficient and clean utilization of coal, a series of Ni-Co ternary molten salt crystals are explored and the catalytic pyrolysis mechanism of Datong coal is investigated. The reaction mechanisms of coal are achieved by thermal gravimetric analyzer (TGA), and a reactive kinetic model is constructed. The microcosmic structure and macerals are observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The catalytic effects of ternary molten salt crystals at different stages of pyrolysis are analyzed. The experimental results show that Ni-Co ternary molten salt catalysts have the capability to bring down activation energy required by pyrolytic reactions at its initial phase. Also, the catalysts exert a preferable catalytic action on macromolecular structure decomposition and free radical polycondensation reactions. Furthermore, the high-temperature condensation polymerization is driven to decompose further with a faster reaction rate by the additions of Ni-Co ternary molten salt crystal catalysts. According to pyrolysis kinetic research, the addition of catalysts can effectively decrease the activation energy needed in each phase of pyrolysis reaction.

  13. A nanoindentation study of magnetron co-sputtered nanocrystalline ternary nitride coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeung W.Y.


    Full Text Available Nanoindentation testing was used to determine the hardness, elastic modulus and plasticity parameter of three newly developed ternary nitride coatings with nano-sized grains. With decreasing nitrogen deposition pressure, grain diameter of the coatings decreases that leads to both higher nanohardness and elastic modulus with conservation of satisfactory values of plasticity characteristic.

  14. Phase Behaviour and Structural Aspects of Ternary Clathrate Hydrate Systems. The Role of Additives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooijer-Van den Heuvel, M.M.


    In this study an experimental and modelling approach is applied to obtain fundamental insight into the phase behaviour of ternary systems, in which clathrate hydrates are formed. Proper interpretation of the phase behaviour requires knowledge on the clathrate hydrate structure in these systems,

  15. Ternary logic implemented on a single dopant atom field effect silicon transistor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, M.; Mol, J.A.; Verduijn, J.; Lansbergen, G.P.; Rogge, S.; Levine, R.D.; Remacle, F.


    We provide an experimental proof of principle for a ternary multiplier realized in terms of the charge state of a single dopant atom embedded in a fin field effect transistor (Fin-FET). Robust reading of the logic output is made possible by using two channels to measure the current flowing through

  16. Synthesis, structural and magnetic characterization of soft magnetic nanocrystalline ternary FeNiCo particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toparli, Cigdem [Department of Metallurgical & Materials Eng., Istanbul Technical University, 34469 Istanbul (Turkey); Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung GmbH, Düsseldorf (Germany); Ebin, Burçak [Department of Metallurgical & Materials Eng., Istanbul Technical University, 34469 Istanbul (Turkey); Nuclear Chemistry and Industrial Material Recycling, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, S-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Gürmen, Sebahattin, E-mail: [Department of Metallurgical & Materials Eng., Istanbul Technical University, 34469 Istanbul (Turkey)


    The present study focuses on the synthesis, microstructural and magnetic properties of ternary FeNiCo nanoparticles. Nanocrystalline ternary FeNiCo particles were synthesized via hydrogen reduction assisted ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method in single step. The effect of precursor concentration on the morphology and the size of particles was investigated. The syntheses were performed at 800 °C. Structure, morphology and magnetic properties of the as-prepared products were characterized through X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) studies. Scherer calculation revealed that crystallite size of the ternary particles ranged between 36 and 60 nm. SEM and TEM investigations showed that the particle size was strongly influenced by the precursor concentration and Fe, Ni, Co elemental composition of individual particles was homogeneous. Finally, the soft magnetic properties of the particles were observed to be a function of their size. - Highlights: • Ternary FeNiCo alloy nanocrystalline particles were synthesized in a single step. • Cubic crystalline structure and spherical morphology was observed by XRD, SEM and TEM investigations. • The analysis of magnetic properties indicates the soft magnetic features of particles.

  17. Nanoassembly of Polydisperse Photonic Crystals based on Binary and Ternary Polymer Opal Alloys

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Qibin; Schafer, Christian; Spahn, Peter; Gallei, Markus; Herrmann, Lars; Petukhov, Andrei; Baumberg, Jeremy J


    Ordered binary and ternary photonic crystals, composed of different sized polymer-composite spheres with diameter ratios up to 120%, are generated using bending induced oscillatory shearing (BIOS). This viscoelastic system creates polydisperse equilibrium structures, producing mixed opaline colored films with greatly reduced requirements for particle monodispersity, and very different sphere size ratios, compared to other methods of nano-assembly.

  18. Impact toughness of ternary Al–Zn–Mg alloys in as cast and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    present work. The alloys were used in as cast and homogenized condition purely on the basis of theoretical and academic interest. 2. Experimental. Al–Zn–Mg alloys were obtained by melt casting and air ... six ternary alloys of different compositions were obtained. ... the ratio of shear stress to normal stress (it is equal to 1.

  19. Molecular dynamics simulations of ternary PtxPdyAuz fuel cell nanocatalyst growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brault, P.; Coutanceau, C.; C. Jennings, Paul


    Molecular dynamics simulation of PEMFC cathodes based on ternary Pt70Pd15Au15 and Pt50Pd25Au25 nanocatalysts dispersed on carbon indicate systematic Au segregation from the particle bulk to the surface, leading to an Au layer coating the cluster surface and to the spontaneous formation of a Pt@Pd...

  20. Microstructural evolution and thermal stability of aluminum-cerium-nickel ternary eutectic (United States)

    Fodran, Eric John

    The engineering community has identified several applications in which the use of a lightweight alloy for elevated temperature service, in substitution for current heavier and more costly alloys, would have a substantial benefit. This need for structural materials to perform at elevated temperatures has driven researchers to develop novel alloys as well as processing routes to manufacture them and obtain optimum microstructures. Previous studies on aluminum based binary eutectic systems have proven that the aluminum alloy system shows promising potential for satisfying this need. This has motivated the investigation of the solidification and thermal stability of the Al-12 wt% Ce-5 wt% Ni ternary eutectic performed in this investigation. The solidification behavior of the Al-Ce-Ni ternary eutectic was conducted via solidification of various compositions at and above the eutectic composition in a copper chill mold, thus allowing the observation of various solidification rates on a single ingot. Directional solidification of the ternary eutectic was also conducted to further study the unique microstructures forms. After casting the ingots were analyzed for the composition of phases in the microstructure via X-ray diffraction, and the distribution of the phases determined by scanning electron microscopy. The solidification of the ternary eutectic was found to occur much like that of a faceted/non-faceted binary couples growth. The thermal stability of the microstructure was also studied. Ternary eutectic microstructures were heat treated at various temperatures for time intervals up to 100 hours. The coupled growth microstructures were found to coarsen at temperature above 400°C, which was associated with a loss in hardness. Coarsening of the microstructures at elevated temperatures was also observed to occur by multiple mechanisms: an Ostwald ripening within the eutectic cell, and an accelerated coarsening at the cell boundaries due to increased diffusion at

  1. Multi-modal fission in collinear ternary cluster decay of {sup 252}Cf(sf, fff)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oertzen, W. von, E-mail: [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, FLNR, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Nasirov, A.K. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, FLNR, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Institute of Nuclear Physics, 100214, Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Kyungpook National University, 702-701, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Tashkhodjaev, R.B. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, 100214, Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Inha University in Tashkent, 100170, Tashkent (Uzbekistan)


    We discuss the multiple decay modes of collinear fission in {sup 252}Cf(sf, fff), with three fragments as suggested by the potential energy surface (PES). Fission as a statistical decay is governed by the phase space of the different decay channels, which are suggested in the PES-landscape. The population of the fission modes is determined by the minima in the PES at the scission points and on the internal potential barriers. The ternary collinear decay proceeds as a sequential process, in two steps. The originally observed ternary decay of {sup 252}Cf(sf) into three different masses (e.g. {sup 132–140}Sn, {sup 52–48}Ca, {sup 68–72}Ni), observed by the FOBOS group in the FLNR (Flerov Laboratory for Nuclear Reactions) of the JINR (Dubna) the collinear cluster tripartition (CCT), is one of the ternary fission modes. This kind of “true ternary fission” of heavy nuclei has often been predicted in theoretical works during the last decades. In the present note we discuss different ternary fission modes in the same system. The PES shows pronounced minima, which correspond to several modes of ternary fragmentations. These decays have very similar dynamical features as the previously observed CCT-decays. The data obtained in the experiments on CCT allow us to extract the yields for different decay modes using specific gates on the measured parameters, and to establish multiple modes of the ternary fission decay.

  2. The effect of the head group on branched-alkyl chain surfactants in glycolipid/n-octane/water ternary system. (United States)

    Nainggolan, Irwana; Radiman, Shahidan; Hamzah, Ahmad Sazali; Hashim, Rauzah


    Two novel glycolipids have been synthesized and their phase behaviour studied. They have been characterized using FT-IR, FAB and 13C NMR and 1H NMR to ensure the purity of novel glycolipids. The two glycolipids are distinguished based on the head group of glycolipids (monosaccharide/glucose and disaccharide/maltose). These two novel glycolipids have been used as surfactant to perform two phase diagrams. Phase behaviours that have been investigated are 2-hexyldecyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2-HDG)/n-octane/water ternary system and 2-hexyldecyl-beta-D-maltoside (2-HDM)/n-octane/water ternary system. SAXS and polarizing optical microscope have been used to study the phase behaviours of these two surfactants in ternary phase diagram. Study of effect of the head group on branched-alkyl chain surfactants in ternary system is a strategy to derive the structure-property relationship. For comparison, 2-HDM and 2-HDG have been used as surfactant in the same ternary system. The phase diagram of 2-hexyldecyl-beta-D-maltoside/n-octane/water ternary system exhibited a Lalpha phase at a higher concentration regime, followed with two phases and a micellar solution region in a lower concentration regime. The phase diagram of 2-HDG/water/n-octane ternary system shows hexagonal phase, cubic phase, rectangular ribbon phase, lamellar phase, cubic phase as the surfactant concentration increase.

  3. Application of novel ternary deep eutectic solvents as a functional monomer in molecularly imprinted polymers for purification of levofloxacin. (United States)

    Li, Xiaoxia; Row, Kyung Ho


    A series of ecofriendly ternary deep eutectic solvents (DESs) with different molar ratios were prepared as candidate functional monomers. Three of the optimal ternary DESs as functional monomers were applied to the preparation of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs). After synthesis, the proposed polymers were characterized by elemental analysis (EA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area measurements (BET) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). These MIPs based on ternary DESs with different molar ratios exhibited different absorption capacities of levofloxacin. A sample of levofloxacin (500ng) was dissolved in a millet extractive (10mL). All MIPs were used as SPE adsorbents to purify the extracts. According to characterization result, the ternary DES-3 (1:3:1.5) was joined in the synthetic process of MIP-1. The green ternary DES-3-based MIPs had the best selectivity recovery for levofloxacin (91.4%) from the millet extractive. The best selectivity of MIP-1 was attributed to the novel monomer (ternary DES) in the preparation of the materials. Overall, ternary DES-based MIPs have potential applications as media in many research areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Reinvestigation of the Ce–Co–Al ternary system: Isothermal section at 973 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasri, N. [Unité de Recherche de Chimie des Matériaux et de l’Environnement, ISSBAT, Université de Tunis El Manar, 9 av. Dr. Zoheir Safi, 1006 Tunis (Tunisia); Gastebois, J. [Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, Chimie du Solide et Matériaux, UMR CNRS 6226, Université Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, 263 av. Général Leclerc, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Pasturel, M., E-mail: [Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, Chimie du Solide et Matériaux, UMR CNRS 6226, Université Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, 263 av. Général Leclerc, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Belgacem, B. [Unité de Recherche de Chimie des Matériaux et de l’Environnement, ISSBAT, Université de Tunis El Manar, 9 av. Dr. Zoheir Safi, 1006 Tunis (Tunisia); Péron, I.; Gouttefangeas, F. [Centre de Microscopie Electronique à Balayage et microAnalyse, Université Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, 263 av. Général Leclerc, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Ben Hassen, R. [Unité de Recherche de Chimie des Matériaux et de l’Environnement, ISSBAT, Université de Tunis El Manar, 9 av. Dr. Zoheir Safi, 1006 Tunis (Tunisia); and others


    Highlights: • The experimental isothermal section at 973 K of the Ce–Co–Al system is presented. • This section contains 5 ternary phases and 7 ternary extensions of pseudo-binaries. • DTA experiments are used to estimate the liquid areas. - Abstract: The Ce–Co–Al ternary phase diagram has been reinvestigated at 973 K by means of powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and differential thermal analyses. It contains 5 ternary phases (CeCo{sub 2}Al{sub 8}, Ce{sub 2}Co{sub 6}Al{sub 19}, CeCoAl{sub 4}, Ce{sub 3}Co{sub 3}Al{sub 4} and CeCoAl) as well as 7 extensions in the ternary field of pseudo-binaries (CeAl{sub 2−x}Co{sub x} with 0 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.18; CeCo{sub 2−x}Al{sub x} with 0 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.21; CeCo{sub 3−y}Al{sub y} with 0 ⩽ y ⩽ 0.20; Ce{sub 2}Co{sub 7−x}Al{sub x} with 0 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.73; Ce{sub 5}Co{sub 19−y}Al{sub y} with 0 ⩽ y ⩽ 0.20; CeCo{sub 5−x}Al{sub x} with 0 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.71 and Ce{sub 2}Co{sub 17−y}Al{sub y} with 0 ⩽ y ⩽ 2.2). Two liquid areas are present at the Al and Ce-rich corners of this isothermal section.

  5. Development of a new combinatorial mask for addressable ternary phase diagramming: application to rare earth doped phosphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, R.; Kubota, H.; Tanigawa, T.; Murakami, M.; Yamamoto, Y.; Matsumoto, Y.; Koinuma, H


    We report on the computer-aided design of a novel mask for the addressable ternary phase diagram to serve a quick screening of multi-component functional materials. Masking patterns were optimized to make a triangular ternary diagram with each composition changed from 0 to 100% by simulating the deposition process under the condition of synchronous control of the mask motion, target exchange, and laser pulses. Fabrication of a ternary M{sub 0.01}Y{sub 1.99}O{sub 3} (M=Eu, Tm, Tb) phosphor material demonstrates of the direct mapping relationship between the film composition and its cathode luminescence (CL) property.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Changrui


    Full Text Available An entirely aqueous solution-gel route has been developed for the synthesis of zirconium carbide, hafnium carbide and their ternary carbide powders. Zirconium oxychloride (ZrOCl₂.8H₂O, malic acid (MA and ethylene glycol (EG were dissolved in water to form the aqueous zirconium carbide precursor. Afterwards, this aqueous precursor was gelled and transformed into zirconium carbide at a relatively low temperature (1200 °C for achieving an intimate mixing of the intermediate products. Hafnium and the ternary carbide powders were also synthesized via the same aqueous route. All the zirconium, hafnium and ternary carbide powders exhibited a particle size of ∼100 nm.

  7. Isothermal section of the Er-Cu-Ga ternary system at 973 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belgacem, B. [Unite de Recherche de Chimie des Materiaux et de l' Environnement (UR11ES25), ISSBAT, Universite de Tunis ElManar, 9 Avenue Dr. Zoheir Safi, 1006 Tunis (Tunisia); Pasturel, M., E-mail: [Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, Chimie du Solide et Materiaux, UMR CNRS 6226, Universite de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes (France); Tougait, O. [Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, Chimie du Solide et Materiaux, UMR CNRS 6226, Universite de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes (France); Nouri, S. [Unite de Recherche de Chimie des Materiaux et de l' Environnement (UR11ES25), ISSBAT, Universite de Tunis ElManar, 9 Avenue Dr. Zoheir Safi, 1006 Tunis (Tunisia); Bekkachi, H. El; Peron, I. [Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, Chimie du Solide et Materiaux, UMR CNRS 6226, Universite de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes (France); Hassen, R. Ben [Unite de Recherche de Chimie des Materiaux et de l' Environnement (UR11ES25), ISSBAT, Universite de Tunis ElManar, 9 Avenue Dr. Zoheir Safi, 1006 Tunis (Tunisia); Noeel, H. [Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, Chimie du Solide et Materiaux, UMR CNRS 6226, Universite de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes (France)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The isothermal section at 973 K of the Er-Cu-Ga ternary phase diagram has been established for the first time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Eight extensions of binary compounds in the ternary domain have been identified, as well as six ternary intermediate solid solutions characterized by an important Cu/Ga mutual substitution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic properties of Er{sub 3}(Cu,Ga){sub 11} are reported for the first time and confirms the paramagnetic Curie-Weiss behavior of all the six intermediate intermetallics. - Abstract: Phase relations in the Er-Cu-Ga ternary system have been established at 973 K by means of powder X-ray diffraction complemented by energy dispersive spectroscopy coupled to scanning electron microscopy. The isothermal section of the phase diagram comprises eight extensions of binaries into the ternary system, ErCu{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x} (x {<=} 0.5), ErCu{sub 2-x}Ga{sub x} (x {<=} 1.1), ErCu{sub 5-x}Ga{sub x} (x {<=} 0.5), Er{sub 5}Cu{sub x}Ga{sub 3-x} (x {<=} 0.60), Er{sub 3}Cu{sub x}Ga{sub 2-x} (x {<=} 0.24), ErCu{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x} (x {<=} 0.10), ErCu{sub x}Ga{sub 2-x} (x {<=} 0.30) and ErCu{sub x}Ga{sub 3-x} (x {<=} 0.35), as well as six ternary intermediate phases, ErCu{sub x}Ga{sub 2-x} (0.4 {<=} x {<=} 0.7), Er{sub 14}Cu{sub 51-x}Ga{sub x} (5.5 {<=} x {<=} 11.0), ErCu{sub 5-x}Ga{sub x} (0.8 {<=} x {<=} 2.3), Er{sub 2}Cu{sub 17-x}Ga{sub x} (4.9 {<=} x {<=} 8.0), ErCu{sub 12-x}Ga{sub x} (5.7 {<=} x {<=} 6.7) and Er{sub 3}Cu{sub x}Ga{sub 11-x} (1.5 {<=} x {<=} 4.4), all deriving from binary structure-types.

  8. Ternary iron, magnesium, calcium carbonates; a thermodynamic model for dolomite as an ordered derivative of calcite-structure solutions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davidson, Paula M


      The simplest solution model that can account for dolomite as an ordered derivative structure of the disordered calcite structure solution, based on a ternary extension of the generalized point approximation given by C...

  9. Preparation of meloxicam-β-cyclodextrin-polyethylene glycol 6000 ternary system: characterization, in vitro and in vivo bioavailability. (United States)

    Radia, Ourezki; Rogalska, Ewa; Moulay-Hassane, Guermouche


    Ternary complexes of meloxicam (ML), a poorly water-soluble anti-inflammatory drug, with β-cyclodextrin (βCD) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000 were prepared from an equimolar (ML-βCD) and 10% of PEG. Characterization of the ternary complex was carried out by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffractometry. The solubility of ML increased as a function of increasing the concentration of βCD and PEG 6000. Ternary system increased significantly ML solubility in water. Ternary complexes improved drug release compared with ML and ML-βCD. The oral bioavailability of ML-βCD-PEG was investigated by administration to rat and compared with ML and ML-βCD. The results confirmed that the oral bioavailability of ML was significantly improved by complexation with βCD in the presence of PEG.

  10. Binary and ternary VLE of the 2-(diethylamino)-ethanol (DEEA)/ 3-(methylamino)-propylamine (MAPA)/ water system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartono, Ardi; Saleem, Fahad; Waseem Arshad, Muhammad


    -T-x-y, activity coefficient, excess enthalpy and freezing point depression for both the binary and ternary systems. However, a small inconsistency was observed between water activity coefficients determined from ebulliometer and freezing point depression measurements....


    We compared the use of ternary and bivariate diagrams to distinguish the effects of atmospheric precipitation, rock weathering, and evaporation on inland surface and subsurface water chemistry. The three processes could not be statistically differentiated using bivariate models e...

  12. Properties of the Band Gaps in 1D Ternary Lossy Photonic Crystal Containing Double-Negative Materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alireza Aghajamali; Maryam Akbarimoosavi; Mahmood Barati


    ... are composed of double-negative and double-positive materials. This study shows that by varying the angle of incidence, the band gaps for TM and TE waves behave differently in both ternary and binary lossy structures...

  13. Influence of the synergy between mineral additions and Portland cement in the physical-mechanical properties of ternary binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Á. Fernández


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the synergistic effect of mineral additions on the physical-mechanical performance of ternary blends prepared with different Portland cements (PC. The effect in setting and heat flow release is also analyzed. The mineral additions used are blast furnace slag (BFS, fly ash (FA and limestone filler (LF. PCs with different C3A and alkali content have been tested to study the synergy in ternary blends. Ternary binders with PC low in C3A and alkali content achieve similar mechanical strength gain as plain PC and refinement of pore size distribution from early hydration ages due to the acceleration of PC hydration induced by the mineral additions. In contrast, ternary binders with PC higher in C3A and alkali content have a delayed in mechanical strength at early hydration ages, but significantly higher at long hydration times.

  14. Solid-State Characterization and Dissolution Properties of Meloxicam–Moringa Coagulant–PVP Ternary Solid Dispersions


    Noolkar, Suhail B.; Namdeo R Jadhav; Bhende, Santosh A.; Killedar, Suresh G.


    The effect of ternary solid dispersions of poor water-soluble NSAID meloxicam with moringa coagulant (obtained by salt extraction of moringa seeds) and polyvinylpyrrolidone on the in vitro dissolution properties has been investigated. Binary (meloxicam–moringa and meloxicam–polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)) and ternary (meloxicam–moringa–PVP) systems were prepared by physical kneading and ball milling and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, a...

  15. Synthesis and application of a ternary composite of clay, saw-dust and peanut husks in heavy metal adsorption. (United States)

    Mungondori, Henry H; Mtetwa, Sandile; Tichagwa, Lilian; Katwire, David M; Nyamukamba, Pardon


    The adsorption of a multi-component system of ferrous, chromium, copper, nickel and lead on single, binary and ternary composites was studied. The aim of the study was to investigate whether a ternary composite of clay, peanut husks (PH) and saw-dust (SD) exhibited a higher adsorption capacity than that of a binary system of clay and SD as well as a single component adsorbent of PH alone. The materials were used in their raw state without any chemical modifications. This was done to retain the cost effective aspect of the naturally occurring adsorbents. The adsorption capacities of the ternary composite for the heavy metals Fe 2+ , Cr 3+ , Cu 2+ , Ni 2+ and Pb 2+ were 41.7 mg/g, 40.0 mg/g, 25.5 mg/g, 41.5 mg/g and 39.0 mg/g, respectively. It was found that the ternary composite exhibited excellent and enhanced adsorption capacity compared with both a binary and single adsorbent for the heavy metals Fe 2+ , Ni 2+ and Cr 3+ . Characterization of the ternary composites was done using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Kinetic models and adsorption isotherms were also studied. The pseudo second order kinetic model and the Langmuir adsorption isotherm best described the adsorption mechanisms for the ternary composite towards each of the heavy metal ions.

  16. Solid-liquid equilibria in the ternary system NaBr-KBr-H2O at 398 K (United States)

    Cui, Rui-Zhi; Zhang, Ting-Ting; Wang, Wei; Sang, Shi-Hua


    The solubilities of the ternary system NaBr-KBr-H2O were investigated by isothermal method at 398 K. On the basis of the experimental data, the phase diagram was plotted. In the phase diagram of ternary system NaBr-KBr-H2O at 398 K, no complex salt or solid solution was found. It belongs to simple co-saturation type. There are only one invariant point, two univariant curves, and two crystallization fields corresponding to NaBr and KBr. Using the equilibrium solubilities data of the ternary system at 398 K, mixing ioninteraction parameter ΨNa,K,Br of Pitzer's equation was fitted by multiple linear regression method. Based on the Pitzer model and its extended Harvie-Weare (HW) model, the solubilities of phase equilibrium in the ternary system NaBr-KBr-H2O at 398 K were calculated. The phase diagram of the ternary system was plotted. The results show that calculated values have a good agreement with measured experimental data. It can demonstrate the accuracy of the experimental data, and it also shows that reasonable parameters of the Pitzer model can be used in ternary system NaBr-KBr-H2O at 398 K.

  17. separation of strontium and cesium from ternary and quaternary lithium chloride-potassium chloride salts via melt crystallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammon N. Williams


    Full Text Available Separation of cesium chloride (CsCl and strontium chloride (SrCl2 from the lithium chloride-potassium chloride (LiCl-KCl salt was studied using a melt crystallization process similar to the reverse vertical Bridgeman growth technique. A ternary SrCl2-LiCl-KCl salt was explored at similar growth rates (1.8–5 mm/h and compared with CsCl ternary results to identify similarities. Quaternary experiments were also conducted and compared with the ternary cases to identify trends and possible limitations to the separations process. In the ternary case, as much as 68% of the total salt could be recycled per batch process. In the quaternary experiments, separation of Cs and Sr was nearly identical at the slower rates; however, as the growth rate increased, SrCl2 separated more easily than CsCl. The quaternary results show less separation and rate dependence than in both ternary cases. As an estimated result, only 51% of the total salt could be recycled per batch. Furthermore, two models have been explored to further understand the growth process and separation. A comparison of the experimental and modeling results reveals that the nonmixed model fits reasonably well with the ternary and quaternary data sets. A dimensional analysis was performed and a correlation was identified to semipredict the segregation coefficient.

  18. Experimental investigation of phase equilibria in the Nb-Si-Ta ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jian; Wang, Cuiping; Yao, Jun; Yang, Shuiyuan; Zhan Shi; Liu, Xingjun [Xiamen Univ. (China). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Xiamen Univ. (China). Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Materials Genome; Kang, Yongwang [Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials (China). Science and Technology on Advanced High Temperature Structural Materials Lab.


    The phase equilibria in the Nb-Si-Ta ternary system at 1 373 K, 1 473 K and 1 573 K were investigated by means of back-scattered electron imaging, electron probe microanalysis and X-ray diffraction. The isothermal sections at 1 373 K, 1 473 K and 1 573 K consist of two three-phase regions and seven two-phase regions, without any ternary compounds. The compounds of NbSi{sub 2} and TaSi{sub 2}, αNb{sub 5}Si{sub 3} and αTa{sub 5}Si{sub 3} form continuous solid solutions, respectively. The solubilities of Nb in Ta{sub 3}Si and Ta{sub 2}Si phases are extremely large, whereas the solubility of Si in the β(Nb, Ta) phase is relatively small.

  19. Residual characteristic properties of ternary blended steel fibre reinforced concrete subjected to sustained elevated temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha Deepa A.


    Full Text Available To study the behavior of ternary blended steel fibre reinforced concrete when subjected to 800 Deg.C and 1000 Deg.C for 3 hours. It has been found that the ternary blended steel fibre reinforced concrete containing (FA+GGBFS and (FA+MK offer higher resistance to sustained elevated temperatures upto 800 Deg.C, where as the blend containing (FA+SF does not offer any resistance at this temperature. The study reveals that the blend containing (FA+GGBFS and (FA+MK gives highest resistance at replacement levels of (10+20 and (15+15 respectively at sustained exposure to 800 Deg.C.

  20. Improved Domain Size and Purity Enables Efficient All-Small-Molecule Ternary Solar Cells. (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Wang, Xiaohui; Yang, Liyan; Zhang, Shaoqing; Zhang, Yun; He, Chang; Ma, Wei; Hou, Jianhui


    An all-small-molecule ternary solar cell is achieved with a power conversion efficiency of 10.48% by incorporating phenyl-C 71 -butyric-acid-methyl ester (PC 71 BM) into a nonfullerene binary system. The addition of PC 71 BM is found to modulate the film morphology by improving the domain purity and decreasing the domain size. This modulation facilitates charge generation and suppresses charge recombination, as manifested by the significantly enhanced short-circuit current density and fill factor. The results correlate the domain characteristics with the device performance and offer new insight from the perspective of morphology modulation for constructing efficient ternary devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Magnetic features of a mixed ferro-ferrimagnetic ternary alloy cylindrical nanowire (United States)

    Vatansever, Z. D.


    In the present study, we have investigated the finite temperature magnetic phase transition properties of a mixed ferro-ferrimagnetic ternary alloy cylindrical nanowire of the type ABpC1-p by Monte Carlo simulation technique. The nanowire system consists of two interpenetrating sublattices, one of which contains type-A magnetic components with spin-3/2 and the other one is randomly occupied type-B and type-C magnetic components with spin-1 and spin-5/2, respectively. We have examined the effect of exchange interaction ratio, R, and the concentration value of type-B magnetic ions, p, on the transition temperature of the system. It has been found that one can modify the transition temperature and saturation magnetization of the system by varying concentration value and interaction ratio. Moreover, our numerical results show that the ternary alloy nanowire system exhibits compensation behavior for particular values of the system parameters.

  2. The research and application of a new spectrophotometric method for ofloxacin ternary complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUN Jie


    Full Text Available Lanthanum(Ⅲ ion is coordinated with ofloxacinand and alizarin to form a rare earth ternary complex with potassium dihydrogen phosphate - sodium hydroxide buffer solution ( pH = 5.8 in the solvent of ethanol. The absorption peak of the rare earth ternary complex is centered at 295 nm. Its apparent molar absorptivity at 295.0 nm is 3.60×104 L·mol-1·cm-1. The linear range was 0.54~30.36 mg·L-1 with a detection limit of 0.012 mg·L-1.It′s a simple, rapid, and convenient method for the determination of the investigated drug in tablet.

  3. Deviations from Vegard’s law in ternary III-V alloys

    KAUST Repository

    Murphy, S. T.


    Vegard’s law states that, at a constant temperature, the volume of an alloy can be determined from a linear interpolation of its constituent’s volumes. Deviations from this description occur such that volumes are both greater and smaller than the linear relationship would predict. Here we use special quasirandom structures and density functional theory to investigate such deviations for MxN1−xAs ternary alloys, where M and N are group III species (B, Al, Ga, and In). Our simulations predict a tendency, with the exception of AlxGa1−xAs, for the volume of the ternary alloys to be smaller than that determined from the linear interpolation of the volumes of the MAs and BAs binary alloys. Importantly, we establish a simple relationship linking the relative size of the group III atoms in the alloy and the predicted magnitude of the deviation from Vegard’s law.

  4. Carbonation of ternary cementitious concrete systems containing fly ash and silica fume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eehab Ahmed Badreldin Khalil


    Full Text Available Carbonation is quite a complex physical negative effect phenomenon on concrete especially in the ones containing ternary blends of Portland Cement, fly ash, and silica fume. Nine selected concrete mixtures were prepared with various water to cementitious materials’ ratios and various cementitious contents. The concrete mixtures were adapted in such a way to have the same workability and air content. The fresh concrete properties were kept near identical in slump, air content, and unit weight. The variation was in the hardened concrete mechanical properties of compression and tension strength. The carbonation phenomenon was studied for these mixes showing at which mixes of ternary cementitious content heavy carbonation attacks maybe produced. The main components of such mixes that do affect the carbonation process with time were presented.

  5. Nanoparticle formation of poorly water-soluble drugs from ternary ground mixtures with PVP and SDS. (United States)

    Itoh, Koichi; Pongpeerapat, Adchara; Tozuka, Yuichi; Oguchi, Toshio; Yamamoto, Keiji


    Poorly water-soluble drugs N-5159, griseofulvin (GFV), glibenclamide (GBM) and nifedipine (NFP) were ground in a dry process with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Different crystallinity behavior of each drug during grinding was shown in the ternary Drug/PVP/SDS system. However, when each ternary Drug/PVP/SDS ground mixture was added to distilled water, crystalline nanoparticles which were 200 nm or less in size were formed and had excellent stability. Zeta potential measurement suggested that the nanoparticles had a structure where SDS was adsorbed onto the particles that were formed by the adsorption of PVP on the surface of drug crystals. Stable existence of crystalline nanoparticles was attributable to the inhibition of aggregation caused by the adsorption of PVP and SDS on the surface of drug crystals. Furthermore, the electrostatic repulsion due to the negative charge of SDS on a shell of nanoparticles could be assumed to contribute to the stable dispersion.

  6. Superconductivity in the metal rich Li-Pd-B ternary boride. (United States)

    Togano, K; Badica, P; Nakamori, Y; Orimo, S; Takeya, H; Hirata, K


    Superconductivity at about 8 K was observed in the metal-rich Li-Pd-B ternary system. Structural, microstructural, electrical, and magnetic investigations for various compositions proved that the Li2Pd3B compound, which has an antiperovskite cubic structure composed of distorted Pd6B octahedrons, is responsible for the superconductivity. This is the first observation of superconductivity in metal-rich ternary borides containing alkaline metal and Pd as a late transition metal. The compound prepared by arc melting has a high density and is relatively stable in the air. The upper critical fields H(c2)(0) estimated by linear extrapolation and the Werthamer-Helfand-Hohenberg theory are 6.2 and 4.8 T, respectively.

  7. The structure and physical properties of the ternary CuZnPt{sub 6} alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziya, A.B. [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan-60800 (Pakistan); Institute of Materials Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8573 (Japan)], E-mail:; Takahashi, M.; Ohshima, K. [Institute of Materials Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8573 (Japan)


    The ternary addition of Zn to the binary Cu-Pt system was found to result in a complete miscibility at a stoichiometric composition of CuZnPt{sub 6}. The equilibrium ground state structure is face-centered cubic (fcc) (A{sub 1}-type). The results are associated with the alloying behavior in the ternary CuMPt{sub 6} (M=3d metals) system reported previously. They verify the fact that the Pt-based primary solid solution found in binary MPt{sub 3} alloys extends its region in the phase diagram to the composition of Cu:M:Pt=1:1:6. The Debye temperature ({theta}{sub D}) obtained is smaller than that of pure Pt, whereas no significant effect is observed on the linear thermal expansion and magnetic property of the alloy.

  8. Superconductor based ternary periodic multilayered structure as a single and multichanneled filter in the terahertz region. (United States)

    D'souza, Nirmala Maria; Mathew, Vincent


    A single as well as a multichanneled filter in the terahertz region has been proposed by designing a one-dimensional photonic crystal (PhC) structure using a high-temperature superconductor air-dielectric ternary periodic structure. The filter is designed without incorporating any defect, which has rarely been proposed in a ternary PhC structure. The theoretical study of transmittance was performed by applying the transfer matrix method. The transition from single channel to desired multichannel is achieved by adjusting the number of periods. Furthermore, the impact of the thicknesses and dielectric constants of the constituting layers was investigated. In addition to this, the tunability is achieved by the influence of temperature-dependent dielectric constant of the superconductor.

  9. Regular Functions with Values in Ternary Number System on the Complex Clifford Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Eun Kim


    Full Text Available We define a new modified basis i^ which is an association of two bases, e1 and e2. We give an expression of the form z=x0+ i ^z0-, where x0 is a real number and z0- is a complex number on three-dimensional real skew field. And we research the properties of regular functions with values in ternary field and reduced quaternions by Clifford analysis.

  10. Surface tension of decane binary and ternary mixtures with eicosane, docosane, and tetracosane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Queimada, Antonio; Cao, A.I.; Marrucho, I.M.


    A tensiometer operating on the Wilhelmy plate method was employed to measure liquid-vapor interfacial tensions of three binary mixtures and one ternary mixture of decane with eicosane, docosane, and tetracosane. Tensions of binary mixtures n-C10H22 + n-C20H42, n-C10H22 + n-C22H46, and n-C10H22 + n...

  11. Odorant Receptor Modulation: Ternary Paradigm for Mode of Action of Insect Repellents (United States)


    CqOR10-CqOrco exhibit sensitivity to these compounds in the high nanomolar range, which is matched by pheromone receptors of other insects in the same...transitions: a plausible model. J. Mol. Biol. 12, 88e118. Nakagawa, T., Sakurai, T., Nishioka, T., Touhara, K., 2005. Insect sex- pheromone signals mediated...Author’s personal copy Odorant receptor modulation: Ternary paradigm for mode of action of insect repellents Jonathan D. Bohbot, Joseph C. Dickens

  12. Bismuth-based ternary nanowires as efficient electrocatalysts for dye sensitized solar cells. (United States)

    Wu, Yihui; Zhou, Bin; Yang, Chi; Zhou, Xin; Zhang, Wen-Hua


    Bismuth-based ternary nanowires (NWs), including Bi19S27Br3 and Bi19S27I3, have been exploited as cost-effective and highly efficient Pt-free electrocatalysts in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Devices with them as counter electrodes (CEs) display a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of over 8.70%, superior to that of a cell with Pt as a CE (7.99% PCE) under the same conditions.

  13. First principles total energy study of NbCr{sub 2} + V Laves phase ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ormeci, A. [Koc Univ., Istanbul (Turkey); Chen, S.P.; Wills, J.M.; Albers, R.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)


    The C15 NbCr{sub 2} + V Laves phase ternary system is studied by using a first-principles, self-consistent, full-potential total energy method. Equilibrium lattice parameters, cohesive energies, density of states and formation energies of substitutional defects are calculated. Results of all these calculations show that in the C15 NbCr{sub 2} + V compounds, V atoms substitute Cr atoms only.

  14. Metal-amino acid (or peptide)-nucleoside (or related bases) ternary complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terron, A.; Fiol, J.J.; Herrero, L.A.; Garcia-Raso, A. [Departament de Quimica. Universitat de les Illes Balears. Palma de Mallorca. (Spain); Apella, M.C. [Cerela Centro de Referencia de Lactobacilos, Tucaman, Argentina (Antigua and Barbuda); Caubet, A.; Moreno, V. [Departament de Quimica Inorganica. Universitat de Barcelona. Barcelona (Spain)


    The knowledge of simultaneous metal ion interaction with proteins and nucleic acids is one of the most exciting subjects inside the Inorganic Biochemistry. In the last years, several groups have published articles on the synthesis and characterization of ternary complexes bringing relevant data on the structure and stability of metallo biomolecules. In this short review, the last contributions found in the literature are collected. Comments on the factors influencing the behaviour and stability of these systems are offered. (Author) 100 refs.

  15. Facial expression recognition based on improved local ternary pattern and stacked auto-encoder (United States)

    Wu, Yao; Qiu, Weigen


    In order to enhance the robustness of facial expression recognition, we propose a method of facial expression recognition based on improved Local Ternary Pattern (LTP) combined with Stacked Auto-Encoder (SAE). This method uses the improved LTP extraction feature, and then uses the improved depth belief network as the detector and classifier to extract the LTP feature. The combination of LTP and improved deep belief network is realized in facial expression recognition. The recognition rate on CK+ databases has improved significantly.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Nenastіna


    Full Text Available The environmentally friendly and resource-saving technologies for producing multifunctional coatings based on cobalt and silver alloys with refractory metals are proposed. The catalytic activity testing results of binary and ternary alloys based on cobalt in the carbon monoxide oxidation reaction in carbon dioxide were analyzed. It was revealed that there is on improvement of functional properties of galvanic alloys when the content of tungsten and molybdenum is within the range of 10–30 wt. %.

  17. Lethal synergism between organic and inorganic wood preservatives via formation of an unusual lipophilic ternary complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, Zhi-Guo; Li, Yan; Fan, Rui-Mei; Chao, Xi-Juan [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Zhu, Ben-Zhan, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States)


    We have shown previously that exposing bacteria to wood preservatives pentachlorophenol (PCP) and copper-containing compounds together causes synergistic toxicity. However, it is not clear whether these findings also hold true in mammalian cells; and if so, what is the underlying molecular mechanism? Here we show that PCP and a model copper complex bis-(1,10-phenanthroline) cupric (Cu(OP){sub 2}), could also induce synergistic cytotoxicity in human liver cells. By the single crystal X-ray diffraction and atomic absorption spectroscopy assay, the synergism was found to be mainly due to the formation of a lipophilic ternary complex with unusual structural and composition characteristics and subsequent enhanced cellular copper uptake, which markedly promoted cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, leading to apoptosis by decreasing mitochondrial membrane potential, increasing pro-apoptotic protein expression, releasing cytochrome c from mitochondria and activating caspase-3, and -9. Analogous results were observed with other polychlorinated phenols (PCPs) and Cu(OP){sub 2}. Synergistic cytotoxicity could be induced by PCP/Cu(OP){sub 2} via formation of an unusual lipophilic complex in HepG2 cells. The formation of ternary complexes with similar lipophilic character could be of relevance as a general mechanism of toxicity, which should be taken into consideration especially when evaluating the toxicity of environmental pollutants found at currently-considered non- or sub-toxic concentrations. -- Highlights: ► The combination of PCP/Cu(OP){sub 2} induces synergistic cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. ► The synergism is mainly due to forming a lipophilic ternary complex between them. ► The formation of lipophilic ternary complex enhances cellular copper uptake. ► PCP/Cu(OP){sub 2} stimulates the cellular ROS production. ► The ROS promoted by PCP/Cu(OP){sub 2} induces mitochondria-dependent apoptosis.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available All over the world billions of tires are being discarded and buried representing a serious ecological threat. Up to now a small part is recycled and millions of tires are just stockpiled, landfilled or buried. This paper presents results about the properties and the durability of green concrete contains recycled concrete as a coarse aggregate with partial replacement of sand by tire rubber wastes for pavement use. Ternary cementious system, Silica fume, Fly ash and Cement Kiln Dust are used as partial replacement of cement by weight. Each one replaced 10% of cement weight to give a total replacement of 30%. The durability performance was assessed by means of water absorption, chloride ion permeability at 28 and 90 days, and resistance to sulphuric acid attack at 1, 7, 14 and 28 days. Also to the compression behaviors for the tested specimens at 7, 14, 28 and 90 days were detected. The results show the existence of ternary cementitious system, silica fly ash and Cement Kiln Dust minimizes the strength loss associated to the use of rubber waste. In this way, up to 10% rubber content and 30% ternary cementious system an adequate strength class value (30 MPa, as required for a wide range of common structural uses, can be reached both through natural aggregate concrete and recycled aggregate concrete. Results also show that, it is possible to use rubber waste up to 15% and still maintain a high resistance to acid attack. The mixes with 10%silica fume, 10% fly ash and 10% Cement Kiln Dust show a higher resistance to sulphuric acid attack than the reference mix independently of the rubber waste content. The mixes with rubber waste and ternary cementious system was a lower resistance to sulphuric acid attack than the reference mix.

  19. Vinyl Acetate/butyl acrylate/acrylate Research of Ternary Soap-free Emulsion Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Li-guang


    Full Text Available Through the vinyl acetate/butyl acrylate/acrylic acrylic emulsion preparation without soap vinegar, with solid content, gel, emulsion stability and film forming properties and tensile strength as the main index to study the effect of raw materials on the properties of emulsion. Through the infrared spectrometer soap-free emulsion for microscopic analysis research. Study of the ternary soap-free vinegar acrylic emulsion with good performance.

  20. Experimental investigation of phase equilibria in the Co-Ni-Zr ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xingjun; Yang, Shuiyuan; Yu, Wenjie; Wang, Cuiping [Xiamen Univ. (China). Fujian Key Laboratory of Materials Genome; Xiong, Huaping; Cheng, Yaoyong; Wu, Xin [Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials (China). Div. of Welding and Forging


    The phase equilibria of the Co-Ni-Zr ternary system at 1 000 C, 1 100 C and 1 200 C were experimentally investigated by means of back-scattered electron imaging, electron probe microanalysis and X-ray diffraction on the equilibrated ternary alloys. In this study, no ternary compound is found. The (αCo, Ni) phase region extends from the Ni-rich corner to the Co-rich corner with small solubility of Zr at three sections. At 1 000 C and 1 100 C, Ni{sub 5}Zr, Co{sub 2}Zr and Ni{sub 10}Zr{sub 7} phases have large solid solution ranges, but Ni{sub 10}Zr{sub 7} phase disappears at 1 200 C. The Ni{sub 7}Zr{sub 2}, NiZr, Co{sub 11}Zr{sub 2}, Co{sub 23}Zr{sub 6} and CoZr phases exhibit nearly linear compounds in the studied sections, and have large composition ranges. Additionally, some differences in phase relationship exist among the above three isothermal sections.

  1. Ternary toxicological interactions of insecticides, herbicides, and a heavy metal on the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yanhua [State Key Laboratory Breeding Base for Zhejiang Sustainable Pest and Disease Control/Key Laboratory for Pesticide Residue Detection of Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Quality and Standard for Agro-products, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou 310021 (China); Chen, Chen [Key Laboratory of Agro-Product Quality and Safety of Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Quality Standards and Testing Technology for Agro-Products, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Qian, Yongzhong, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Agro-Product Quality and Safety of Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Quality Standards and Testing Technology for Agro-Products, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhao, Xueping [State Key Laboratory Breeding Base for Zhejiang Sustainable Pest and Disease Control/Key Laboratory for Pesticide Residue Detection of Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Quality and Standard for Agro-products, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou 310021 (China); Wang, Qiang, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory Breeding Base for Zhejiang Sustainable Pest and Disease Control/Key Laboratory for Pesticide Residue Detection of Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Quality and Standard for Agro-products, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou 310021 (China)


    Highlights: • The combined toxicity of insecticides, herbicides, and a heavy metal was examined. • Acute earthworm toxicity assays were conducted in twenty-one ternary mixtures. • Synergism predominated in the majority of the mixtures at low effect levels. • Combination index method could more accurately predict the combined toxicity. - Abstract: The combined toxicities of five insecticides (chlorpyrifos, avermectin, imidacloprid, λ-cyhalothrin, and phoxim), two herbicides (atrazine and butachlor), and a heavy metal (cadmium) have been examined using the acute toxicity test on the earthworm. With a concentration of 2.75 mg/kg being lethal for 50% of the organisms, imidacloprid exhibited the highest acute toxicity toward the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Toxicological interactions of these chemicals in ternary mixtures were studied using the combination-index (CI) equation method. Twenty-one ternary mixtures exhibited various interactive effects, in which 11 combinations showed synergistic effects, four led to dual synergistic/additive behaviors, one exhibited an additive effect, and five showed increasing antagonism within the entire range of effects. The CI method was compared with the classical models of concentration addition and independent action, and it was found that the CI method could accurately predict combined toxicity of the chemicals studied. The predicted synergism in the majority of the mixtures, especially at low-effect levels, might have implications in the real terrestrial environment.

  2. Divergent synthesis routes and superconductivity of ternary hydride MgSiH6 at high pressure (United States)

    Ma, Yanbin; Duan, Defang; Shao, Ziji; Yu, Hongyu; Liu, Hanyu; Tian, Fubo; Huang, Xiaoli; Li, Da; Liu, Bingbing; Cui, Tian


    We predict a new ternary hydride MgSiH6 under high pressures, which is a metal with an ionic feature and takes on a simple cubic structure with space group P m -3 above 250 GPa. Our first-principles calculations show that the cubic MgSiH6 is a potential high-temperature superconductor with a superconducting transition temperature Tc of ˜63 K at 250 GPa. Further analysis suggests that phonon softening along mainly Γ -X and Γ -M directions induced by Fermi surface nesting plays a crucial role in the high-temperature superconductivity. Herein we propose the "triangle straight-line method" which provides a clear guide to determine the specific A + B → D type formation routes for ternary hydrides of the Mg-Si-H system and it effectively reveals two divergent paths to obtain MgSiH6 under high pressures: MgH2+SiH4→MgSiH6 and MgSi + 3 H2→MgSiH6 . This method might be applicable to all ternary compounds, which will be very significant for further experimental synthesis.

  3. Enhancing Performance of Large-Area Organic Solar Cells with Thick Film via Ternary Strategy. (United States)

    Zhang, Jianqi; Zhao, Yifan; Fang, Jin; Yuan, Liu; Xia, Benzheng; Wang, Guodong; Wang, Zaiyu; Zhang, Yajie; Ma, Wei; Yan, Wei; Su, Wenming; Wei, Zhixiang


    Large-scale fabrication of organic solar cells requires an active layer with high thickness tolerability and the use of environment-friendly solvents. Thick films with high-performance can be achieved via a ternary strategy studied herein. The ternary system consists of one polymer donor, one small molecule donor, and one fullerene acceptor. The small molecule enhances the crystallinity and face-on orientation of the active layer, leading to improved thickness tolerability compared with that of a polymer-fullerene binary system. An active layer with 270 nm thickness exhibits an average power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 10.78%, while the PCE is less than 8% with such thick film for binary system. Furthermore, large-area devices are successfully fabricated using polyethylene terephthalate (PET)/Silver gride or indium tin oxide (ITO)-based transparent flexible substrates. The product shows a high PCE of 8.28% with an area of 1.25 cm 2 for a single cell and 5.18% for a 20 cm 2 module. This study demonstrates that ternary organic solar cells exhibit great potential for large-scale fabrication and future applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Stability of a density-change flow in the solidification of a ternary alloy (United States)

    Guba, Peter; Anderson, Daniel


    We consider phase-change driven flow and solidification of a ternary (three-component) alloy. The ternary system is characterized by the formation of two distinct mushy layers (primary and secondary), distinguished by the number of components present in their solid phases. A primary layer has the solid phase composed of a single component and, beneath the primary layer, a secondary layer has the solid phase composed of two components. Generally, the densities of the liquid, primary solid and secondary solid phases during solidification are different, and these differences give rise to a flow of the interstitial liquid. We identify four different flow regimes dependent upon whether the two solid phases shrink or expand upon solidification. The stability of this density-change flow in the absence of buoyancy is studied numerically applying a spectral method. A simple power law is employed to describe the permeability of the ternary mushy layers, with a sensitivity of permeability to changes in porosity used as the control parameter. An instability is found to occur not only in the case of expansion but also contraction, an option that is apparently unavailable for the binary case. A reduced model is derived which contains the bare essentials required to capture this instability.

  5. Prediction of high-Tc conventional superconductivity in the ternary lithium borohydride system (United States)

    Kokail, Christian; von der Linden, Wolfgang; Boeri, Lilia


    We investigate the superconducting ternary lithium borohydride phase diagram at pressures of 0 and 200 GPa using methods for evolutionary crystal structure prediction and linear-response calculations for the electron-phonon coupling. Our calculations show that the ground state phase at ambient pressure, LiBH4, stays in the P n m a space group and remains a wide band-gap insulator at all pressures investigated. Other phases along the 1 :1 :x Li:B:H line are also insulating. However, a full search of the ternary phase diagram at 200 GPa revealed a metallic Li2BH6 phase, which is thermodynamically stable down to 100 GPa. This superhydride phase, crystallizing in a F m 3 ¯m space group, is characterized by sixfold hydrogen-coordinated boron atoms occupying the fcc sites of the unit cell. Due to strong hydrogen-boron bonding this phase displays a critical temperature of ˜100 K between 100 and 200 GPa. Our investigations confirm that ternary compounds used in hydrogen-storage applications should exhibit high-Tc conventional superconductivity in diamond anvil cell experiments, and suggest a viable route to optimize the superconducting behavior of high-pressure hydrides, exploiting metallic covalent bonds.

  6. Ternary effects on the gas exchange of isotopologues of carbon dioxide. (United States)

    Farquhar, Graham D; Cernusak, Lucas A


    The ternary effects of transpiration rate on the rate of assimilation of carbon dioxide through stomata, and on the calculation of the intercellular concentration of carbon dioxide, are now included in standard gas exchange studies. However, the equations for carbon isotope discrimination and for the exchange of oxygen isotopologues of carbon dioxide ignore ternary effects. Here we introduce equations to take them into account. The ternary effect is greatest when the leaf-to-air vapour mole fraction difference is greatest, and its impact is greatest on parameters derived by difference, such as the mesophyll resistance to CO(2) assimilation, r(m) . We show that the mesophyll resistance to CO(2) assimilation has been underestimated in the past. The impact is also large when there is a large difference in isotopic composition between the CO(2) inside the leaf and that in the air. We show that this partially reconciles estimates of the oxygen isotopic composition of CO(2) in the chloroplast and mitochondria in the light and in the dark, with values close to equilibrium with the estimated oxygen isotopic composition of water at the sites of evaporation within the leaf. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. An electrochemical hydrogen meter for measuring hydrogen in sodium using a ternary electrolyte mixture

    CERN Document Server

    Sridharan, R; Nagaraj, S; Gnanasekaran, T; Periaswami, G


    An electrochemical sensor for measuring hydrogen concentration in liquid sodium that is based on a ternary mixture of LiCl, CaCl sub 2 and CaHCl as the electrolyte has been developed. DSC experiments showed the eutectic temperature of this ternary system to be approx 725 K. Impedance spectroscopic analysis of the electrolyte indicated ionic conduction through a molten phase at approx 725 K. Two electrochemical hydrogen sensors were constructed using the ternary electrolyte of composition 70 mol% LiCl:16 mol% CaHCl:14 mol% CaCl sub 2 and tested at 723 K in a mini sodium loop and at hydrogen levels of 60-250 ppb in sodium. The sensors show linear response in this concentration range and are capable of detecting a change of 10 ppb hydrogen in sodium over a background level of 60 ppb. Identification of this electrolyte system and its use in a sensor for measuring hydrogen in sodium are described in this paper.

  8. Experimental determination of the phase equilibria in the Co–Cr–Ta ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, C.C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Materials, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Yang, S.Y.; Liu, X.J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Materials, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Research Center of Materials Design and Applications, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Wang, C.P., E-mail: [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Materials, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Research Center of Materials Design and Applications, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)


    Highlights: • Three isothermal sections at 800, 1000, and 1100 °C were established. • A large solubility of Cr is identified in the Co{sub 6}Ta{sub 7} phase. • The high–temperature phase (Co,Cr){sub 2}Ta(HT) was found to be stabilized at low temperatures. - Abstract: The phase equilibria in the Co–Cr–Ta ternary system were experimentally investigated by using backscattered electron (BSE), wavelength dispersive X-ray analyzer (WDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Three isothermal sections of the Co–Cr–Ta ternary system at 800 °C, 900 °C and 1100 °C were experimentally determined. The experimental results show that: (1) No ternary compound is found in this system; (2) A large solubility of Cr is identified in the Co{sub 6}Ta{sub 7} phase; (3) The (Co, Cr){sub 2}Ta(HT) phase is stabilized at temperatures below it stability limits in Co–Ta and Cr–Ta binary systems in the range of Cr concentrations from 4 to 61 at.% and from 24 to 41 at.% Ta.

  9. Characterization and photocatalytic performance of ternary Cu-doped ZnO/Graphene materials (United States)

    Hsieh, Shu-Han; Ting, Jyh-Ming


    We report a novel ternary nanocomposite photocatalyst exhibiting enhanced efficiency as compared to ZnO. The nanocomposite photocatalyst consists of Cu-doped ZnO and reduced graphene oxide (RGO). A facile one step microwave-assisted hydrothermal method, which requires no high calcination temperature or long process time, was used to synthesize the ternary nanocomposite. The photocatalytic activity of the obtained Cu-doped ZnO/RGO nanocomposite photocatalyst was evaluated by measuring the photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) in H2O. In the Cu-doped ZnO/RGO nanocomposite photocatalyst, the copper doping serves to enhance the visible light response due to the resulting ZnO bandgap narrowing and the RGO functions to reduce recombination due to the excellent electrical conductivity of the RGO. The material characteristics, which are important but often missing for a photocatalyst material, of the ternary nanocomposites have been determined. The relation between the material characteristics and the photocatalytic performance is explored.

  10. Enhanced electrochemical performance of amorphous carbon nanotube-manganese-di-oxide-poly-pyrrole ternary nanohybrid (United States)

    Pahari, D.; Das, N. S.; Das, B.; Howli, P.; Chattopadhyay, K. K.; Banerjee, D.


    Amorphous carbon nanotubes (a-CNTs) manganese di oxide (MnO2)-poly pyrrole (PPy) ternary nanocomposites have been synthesized by a simple chemical route. The as prepared samples have been characterized with different characterization tools that include field emission scanning and high resolution transmission electron microscopy, Raman, Fourier transformed infrared as well as UV-Vis spectroscopy. The electrochemical performance of all the as prepared pure and hybrid samples have been studied in detail. It has been seen that the ternary hybrid shows efficient electrochemical performance with high value of specific capacitance with good stability even up to 2000 cycles. The superior performance of the hybrid samples can be attributed to the strong synergistic effect between the components resulting electron shuttling along PPy main chains and inter-chain raising built-in continuous conductive network. The ternary composite approach offers an effective solution to enhance the device performance of metal-oxide based supercapacitors for long cycling applications. These studies can well speculate the existence of another supercapacitor hybrid for the use in environment friendly electrode and thus a pollution free nature.

  11. Experimental Realization of Three-dimensional Topological Insulator in Ternary Chalcogenides (United States)

    Kuroda, K.; Ye, M.; Kimura, A.; Ueda, Y.; Eremeev, S. V.; Krasovskii, E. E.; Chulkov, E. V.; Miyamoto, K.; Okuda, T.; Shimada, K.; Namatame, H.; Taniguchi, M.


    Three-dimensional topological insulators (TIs) featured with spin-helical massless surface state have attracted a great attention. Up to now, the experimentally confirmed topological insulators are limited to some binary compounds, such as Bi 2 Te 3 , Bi 2 Se 3 and so on. Recently, several ternary chalcogenides have been proposed as a new family of TI. In contrast to the layered binary chalcogenides, in ternary chalcogenides with a more substantial three dimensional character, the surface state depends on the topmost layer because the broken bonds at the surface may give rise also to trivial surface state. Therefore, the experimental realization of non-trivial surface state in TI has been strongly required. In this work, we have performed an angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy by using synchrotron radiation to prove the surface state in the ternary compounds. Especially, for one of the candidate materials, TlBiSe 2 , two important aspects have been revealed: (i) The Dirac cone is more ideal than that of Bi 2 Se 3 . (ii) There are no bulk continuum states that energetically overlap with the Dirac point. This means that the scattering channel from the topological surface state to the bulk continuum is strongly suppressed in TlBiSe 2 .

  12. Ternary and coupled binary zinc tin oxide nanopowders: Synthesis, characterization, and potential application in photocatalytic processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivetić, T.B., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Trg Dositeja Obradovića 4, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia); Finčur, N.L. [Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry and Environmental Protection, Faculty of Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Trg Dositeja Obradovića 3, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia); Đačanin, Lj. R. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Trg Dositeja Obradovića 4, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia); Abramović, B.F. [Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry and Environmental Protection, Faculty of Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Trg Dositeja Obradovića 3, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia); Lukić-Petrović, S.R. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Trg Dositeja Obradovića 4, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia)


    Highlights: • Mechanochemically synthesized nanocrystalline zinc tin oxide (ZTO) powders. • Photocatalytic degradation of alprazolam in the presence of ZTO water suspensions. • Coupled binary ZTO exhibits enhanced photocatalytic activity compared to ternary ZTO. - Abstract: In this paper, ternary and coupled binary zinc tin oxide nanocrystalline powders were prepared via simple solid-state mechanochemical method. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Raman and reflectance spectroscopy were used to study the structure and optical properties of the obtained powder samples. The thermal behavior of zinc tin oxide system was examined through simultaneous thermogravimetric-differential scanning calorimetric analysis. The efficiencies of ternary (Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} and ZnSnO{sub 3}) and coupled binary (ZnO/SnO{sub 2}) zinc tin oxide water suspensions in the photocatalytic degradation of alprazolam, short-acting anxiolytic of the benzodiazepine class of psychoactive drugs, under UV irradiation were determined and compared with the efficiency of pure ZnO and SnO{sub 2}.

  13. Modeling of Plasmodium falciparum Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase Ternary Complex: Repurposing of Nucleoside Analog Inhibitors. (United States)

    Mohanty, Pallavi; Gupta, Akanksha; Bhatnagar, Sonika


    The Plasmodium falciparum telomerase reverse transcriptase (PfTERT) is a ribonucleoprotein that assists the maintenance of the telomeric ends of chromosomes by reverse transcription of its own RNA subunit. It represents an attractive therapeutic target for eradication of the plasmodial parasite at the asexual liver stage. Automated modeling using MUSTER and knowledge-based techniques were used to obtain a three-dimensional model of the active site of reverse transcriptase domain of PfTERT, which is responsible for catalyzing the addition of incoming dNTPs to the growing DNA strand in presence of divalent magnesium ions. Further, the ternary complex of the active site of PfTERT bound to a DNA-RNA duplex was also modeled using Haddock server and represents the functional form of the enzyme. Initially, established nucleoside analog inhibitors of PfTERT, AZTTP, and ddGTP were docked in the modeled binding site of the PfTERT ternary complex using AutoDock v4.2. Subsequently, docking studies were carried out with 14 approved nucleoside analog inhibitors. Docking studies predicted that floxuridine, gemcitabine, stavudine, and vidarabine have high affinity for the PfTERT ternary complex. Further analysis on the basis of known side effects led us to propose repositioning of vidarabine as a suitable drug candidate for inhibition of PfTERT.

  14. Ternary solution-processed organic solar cells incorporating 2D materials (United States)

    Stylianakis, Minas M.; Konios, Dimitrios; Petridis, Constantinos; Kakavelakis, George; Stratakis, Emmanuel; Kymakis, Emmanuel


    Recently, the study of ternary organic solar cells (OSCs) has attracted the efforts of the scientific community, leading to significantly higher performance due to the enhanced harvesting of incoming irradiation. Here, for the first time, and in order to promote this OSC architecture, we review the progress implemented by the application of two-dimensional (2D) materials in the field of blend bulk heterojunction ternary OSCs. Power conversion efficiency (PCE) improvements of the order of 40% compared to the reference binary devices, and PCEs in excess of 8% have been reported by incorporating graphene-based or other 2D materials as a third element inside the active layer. These OSCs combine the synergetic advantages of ternary devices and the superb properties of the 2D material family. In conclusion, the incorporation of the unique properties of graphene and other 2D materials inside the active layer opens up a very promising pathway in the design and construction of high-performance, simply fabricated and low- cost photovoltaic devices.

  15. Asymmetric supercapacitors with metal-like ternary selenides and porous graphene electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Chuan


    Asymmetric supercapacitors provide a promising approach to fabricate capacitive energy storage devices with high energy and power densities. In this work, asymmetric supercapacitors with excellent performance have been fabricated using ternary (Ni, Co)0.85Se on carbon fabric as bind-free positive electrode and porous free-standing graphene films as negative electrode. Owing to their metal-like conductivity (~1.67×106 S m−1), significant electrochemical activity, and superhydrophilic nature, our nanostructured ternary nickel cobalt selenides result in a much higher areal capacitance (2.33 F cm−2 at 4 mA cm−2), better rate performance and cycling stability than their binary selenide equivalents, and other ternary oxides and chalcogenides. Those hybrid supercapacitors can afford impressive areal capacitance and stack capacitance of 529.3 mF cm−2 and 6330 mF cm−3 at 1 mA cm−2, respectively. More impressively, our optimized asymmetric device operating at 1.8 V delivers a very high stack energy density of 2.85 mWh cm−3 at a stack power density of 10.76 mW cm−3, as well as 85% capacitance retention after 10,000 continuous charge-discharge cycles. Even at a high stack power density of 1173 mW cm−3, this device still deliveries a stack energy density of 1.19 mWh cm−3, superior to most of the reported supercapacitors.

  16. Experimental and thermodynamic investigation of Al-Cu-Nd ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, W.M. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Jiang, Y. [Hunan Sushi Guangbo Testing Techniques Co. LTD, Changsha (China); Guo, Z.Y.; Zeng, L.J.; Tan, M.Y. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Meggs, C. [School of Metallurgy and Materials, The University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Zhang, L.G., E-mail: [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Liu, L.B., E-mail: [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Jin, Z.P. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China)


    The phase relationships in the Al–Cu-Nd ternary system at 673 K have been investigated by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy disperse X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) in backscattered electron imaging (BSE) modes. The existence of six ternary Stoichiometric compounds, namely τ{sub 1}-Al{sub 8}Cu{sub 4}Nd, τ{sub 2}-Al{sub 9}Cu{sub 8}Nd{sub 2}, τ{sub 3}-Al{sub 6}Cu{sub 7}Nd, τ{sub 4}-Al{sub 2.4}Cu{sub 8.6}Nd, τ{sub 5}-Al{sub 3}CuNd, τ{sub 6}-AlCuNd, have been confirmed. A complete thermodynamic description of the Al–Cu-Nd ternary system coupled with the CALPHAD method is obtained based on experimental results and first-principles calculations. The calculated phase equilibria were in agreement with the available experimental data. - Highlights: • Phase relationships in the Al-Cu-Nd system has been systematically investigated. • 9 three-phase regions and 4 two-phase regions are confirmed. • A complete thermodynamic description of the Al-Cu-Nd system is obtained. • Results of first-principle calculation consist with thermodynamic calculation.

  17. Design and implementation of the modified signed digit multiplication routine on a ternary optical computer. (United States)

    Xu, Qun; Wang, Xianchao; Xu, Chao


    Multiplication with traditional electronic computers is faced with a low calculating accuracy and a long computation time delay. To overcome these problems, the modified signed digit (MSD) multiplication routine is established based on the MSD system and the carry-free adder. Also, its parallel algorithm and optimization techniques are studied in detail. With the help of a ternary optical computer's characteristics, the structured data processor is designed especially for the multiplication routine. Several ternary optical operators are constructed to perform M transformations and summations in parallel, which has accelerated the iterative process of multiplication. In particular, the routine allocates data bits of the ternary optical processor based on digits of multiplication input, so the accuracy of the calculation results can always satisfy the users. Finally, the routine is verified by simulation experiments, and the results are in full compliance with the expectations. Compared with an electronic computer, the MSD multiplication routine is not only good at dealing with large-value data and high-precision arithmetic, but also maintains lower power consumption and fewer calculating delays.

  18. Role of nanosilica localization on morphology development of HDPE/PS/PMMA immiscible ternary blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Javidi


    Full Text Available In this work, we studied the parameters affecting the localization of hydrophobic nanosilica particles and its impact on morphology development of polyethylene/polystyrene/poly (methyl methacrylate (HDPE/PS/PMMA ternary blends, which originally have a thermodynamically preferred core–shell type morphology, by means of a combination of rheology and electron microscopy. An attempt was also made to compare the experimental results with thermodynamic predictions. The ternary blend samples with the same blend ratio but varying in nanosilica loadings were prepared by melt compounding using a laboratory internal mixer. It was demonstrated that the nanosilica localization which could be controlled by the sequence of feeding, would play a significant role in determining the morphology development of the nanofilled ternary blend samples. It was shown that in contrary to thermodynamic prediction of a core shell morphology for the nanofilled samples, the highly enhanced melt elasticity of nanosilica filled polystyrene phase did not allow the PS phase to form a complete encapsulating shell.

  19. Composition dependences of thermodynamical properties associated with Pb-free ternary, quaternary, and quinary solder systems (United States)

    Dogan, A.; Arslan, H.


    In the present study, Chou's General Solution Model (GSM) has been used to predict the enthalpy and partial enthalpies of mixing of the liquid Ag-In-Sn ternary, Ag-In-Sn-Zn quaternary, and Ag-Au-In-Sn-Zn quinary systems. These are of technical importance to optimize lead-free solder alloys, in selected cross-sections: x In/ x Sn = 0.5/0.5 (ternary), Au-In0.1-Sn0.8-Zn0.1, Ag-In0.1-Sn0.8-Zn0.1 (quaternary), and t = x Au/ x In = 1, x In = x Sn = x Zn (quinary) at 1173, 773, and 773 K, respectively. Moreover, the activity of In content in the ternary alloy system Ag-In-Sn has been calculated and its result is compared with that determined from the experiment, while the activities of Ag contents associated with the alloys mentioned above have been calculated. The other traditional models such as of Colinet, Kohler, Muggianu, Toop, and Hillert are also included in calculations. Comparing those calculated from the proposed GSM with those determined from experimental measurements, it is seen that this model becomes considerably realistic in computerization for estimating thermodynamic properties in multicomponent systems.

  20. Adsorption Studies of Lead(II) from aqueous solution onto Nanochitosan /Polyurethane /Polypropylene glycol ternary blends. (United States)

    M, Saranya; Srinivasan, Latha; M R, Gopal Reddi; T, Gomathi; P N, Sudha; Sukumaran, Anil


    Chitosan is one of the most abundant natural biopolymer after cellulose. Nanochitosan (NCS) was prepared from chitosan by ionic gelation method with sodium tripolyphosphate. Polyurethanes (PU) find wide range of applications as good materials for the concentration and removal of both organic and inorganic pollutants because of their high efficiency for sorption of various ionic and neutral materials. Polypropylene glycol (PPG) is a family of long chain polymers attached to a glycerine backbone. The present project deals with the aims in exploiting the positive behaviour of the three polymers by preparing a ternary blends of NCS/PU/PPG(1:1:1) ratio. Batch adsorption process was carried out using prepared ternary blend of various parameters influencing the Pb(II) adsorption such as initial concentration of the metal solutions, pH, agitation time and adsorbent concentrations have been studied. The characterization of the prepared sample was carried out using FTIR, XRD, TGA, DSC and SEM studies. Langmuir, Freundlich and Tempkin isotherm parameters have been determined. Adsorption kinetic data were tested using pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and Elovich model. The kinetics of the adsorption was found to fit the pseudo-second order model. The present work proves the suitability of the ternary blend as an effective adsorbent for Pb(II). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Acid resistance of palm oil fuel ash and metakaolin ternary blend cement mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamilu Usman


    Full Text Available This paper examines the effects of blend of Palm Oil fuel ash (POFA and Metakaolin (MK on the resistance of cement mortar to sulphuric acid (H2SO4 attack. Tests were conducted on POFA and MK ternary blended cement mortar immersed in a 3% H2SO4 solution for up 180 d. Binaries of POFA/cement and MK/cement as well as plain ordinary Portland cement (OPC mortar was also tested for comparison. The parameters measured include residual compressive strength and residual mass. Additionally, the microstructures of the specimens were analysed using the X-ray diffraction and Fourier transformed infrared techniques. The residual compressive strengths of the mortar specimens for plain OPC, binary blend of POFA and cement, binary blend of MK and cement, and ternary blend of POFA, MK and cement after 180 d of immersion in the acid solution were 25, 30, 33, and 32%, respectively. Moreover, the corresponding residual masses of the specimens were 39, 52, 58, and 54%. Accordingly, the ternary blended mortar performed better in resisting H2SO4 attack than the plain OPC and binary blend of POFA/cement mortars.

  2. The Relationship of the Chemical Bonding Topology of High Critical Temperature Copper Oxide Superconductors to that of the Chevrel Phases and the Ternary Lanthanide Rhodium Borides. (United States)


    to those of the ternary molybdenum chalcogenides and ternary lanthanide rhodium borides in which the conducting skeleton is constructed from metal...Bonding Topology of High Critical Temperature Copper Oxide Superconductors to That of The Chevrel Phases and the Ternary Lanthanide Rhodium Borides by R...REPORT NUMBER P Rhodium Borides 7 AUTHOR(s ) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMIER(*) f, % .0, R.B. King N00014-84-K-0365 S. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND

  3. Photophysical study of blue-light excitable ternary Eu(III) complexes and their encapsulation into polystyrene nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Räsänen, Markus, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, University of Turku, FIN-20014 Turku (Finland); Takalo, Harri [DHR Finland Oy, Innotrac Diagnostics, Biolinja 12, FIN-20750 Turku (Finland); Soukka, Tero [Department of Biochemistry/Biotechnology, University of Turku, FIN-20014 Turku (Finland); Haapakka, Keijo; Kankare, Jouko [Department of Chemistry, University of Turku, FIN-20014 Turku (Finland)


    In this work, 14 ternary Eu(III) complexes were studied by means of spectroscopy. The studied Eu(III) complexes consisted of Lewis bases (4′-(4-diethylaminophenyl)-2,2′:6′,2″-terpyridine (L{sup 8}) or 1,10-phenanthroline (L{sup 9})) and differently substituted β-diketones. The ternary complexes with L{sup 8} show the excitation peak at 405 nm and the quantum yield even 76%. The brightest ternary complex at the 405 nm excitation was Eu(L{sup 3}){sub 3}L{sup 8} while Eu(L{sup 7}){sub 3}L{sup 8} (HL{sup 3}=4,4,4-trifluoro-1-(2-thienyl)-1,3-butanedione, HL{sup 7}=1-(9-ethyl-9H-carbazol-3-yl)-4,4,5,5,5-pentafluoro-1,3-pentanedione) was found to be the brightest at the ligand-centred excitation maximum. The ternary complexes were studied mainly in toluene as the model environment for the polystyrene nanoparticle cavities. The complexes were successfully loaded into the polystyrene nanoparticles enabling their bioanalytical application in aqueous environment. The encapsulation of the complexes preserved, or even enhanced, their good photophysical features. - Highlights: • Ternary Eu{sup 3+} complexes with some β-diketone and substituted terpyridine were studied. • Ternary complexes with substituted terpyridine showed blue-light excitability. • Ternary complexes were successfully loaded into the polystyrene nanoparticles. • Encapsulation of the complexes preserved their good photophysical features.

  4. Phase relationships in the {Ho, Er}–Ni–Sn ternary systems at 673 K and crystal structure of new ternary compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romaka, L., E-mail: [Ivan Franko L’viv National University, Kyryl & Mephodiy Str. 6, 79005 L’viv (Ukraine); Romaniv, I. [Ivan Franko L’viv National University, Kyryl & Mephodiy Str. 6, 79005 L’viv (Ukraine); Romaka, V.V. [Lviv Polytechnic National University, Ustyyanovycha Str. 5, 79013 Lviv (Ukraine); Pavlyuk, V. [Ivan Franko L’viv National University, Kyryl & Mephodiy Str. 6, 79005 L’viv (Ukraine)


    Highlights: • Ho–Ni–Sn and Er–Ni–Sn phase diagrams were constructed at 673 K. • Eight ternary compounds exist in both investigated systems. • HoNi{sub x}Sn{sub 2} (up to 7 at.% Ni) and ErNi{sub x}Sn{sub 2} (up to 5 at.% Ni) solid solutions were found. - Abstract: The phase equilibria of the Ho–Ni–Sn and Er–Ni–Sn ternary systems were studied at 673 K in the whole concentration range using electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and X-ray powder diffraction (XPD). Each system is characterized by formation of eight ternary compounds at 673 K: Ho{sub 6}Ni{sub 2}Sn, Er{sub 6}Ni{sub 2}Sn (Ho{sub 6}Ni{sub 2}Ga-type), Ho{sub 2}Ni{sub 2}Sn, Er{sub 2}Ni{sub 2}Sn (Mo{sub 2}FeB{sub 2}-type), HoNi{sub 5}Sn, ErNi{sub 5}Sn (CeCu{sub 4.38}In{sub 1.62}-type), HoNi{sub 1.73}Sn, ErNi{sub 1.72}Sn (YbNi{sub 1.705}Sn-type), HoNiSn, ErNiSn (TiNiSi-type), HoNiSn{sub 2}, ErNiSn{sub 2} (LuNiSn{sub 2}-type), HoNiSn{sub 4}, ErNiSn{sub 4} (LuNiSn{sub 4}-type), and Ho{sub 2}NiSn{sub 6}, Er{sub 2}NiSn{sub 6} (Lu{sub 2}NiSn{sub 6}-type). The interstitial solid solutions HoNi{sub x}Sn{sub 2} (up to 7 at.% Ni) and ErNi{sub x}Sn{sub 2} (up to 5 at.% Ni) based on the RSn{sub 2} (ZrSi{sub 2}-type) binary compounds were found.

  5. Enhanced Dissolution of a Porous Carrier-Containing Ternary Amorphous Solid Dispersion System Prepared by a Hot Melt Method. (United States)

    Hanada, Masataka; Jermain, Scott V; Williams, Robert O


    The focus of our study was to employ a solvent-free, thermal process to evaluate the use of a porous carrier in a drug-polymer-porous carrier ternary formulation containing a high drug load (e.g., ≥50% w/w). The purpose of the study was to improve the dissolution properties of the biopharmaceutical classification system class II drug, indomethacin, in the ternary formulation. The effect that the selected polymer has on properties of the formulation was studied, and the formulation characteristics of hypromellose (AF15), copovidone (VA64), and polyvinyl alcohol-polyethylene glycol graft copolymer was evaluated to understand differences in dissolution rates and drug adsorption onto the porous carrier. The ternary formulations were manufactured using a thermal technique that relied on heating and mixing, without the necessity of mechanical shear. All thermally processed granules that employed the porous carrier exhibited immediate release compared with crystalline indomethacin and physical mixtures. In addition, the ternary formulations maintained supersaturation compared with the binary formulations without polymer. The results of this study indicated that the thermally processed ternary formulations containing a porous carrier demonstrated a much improved dissolution profile in nonsink conditions. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Robust tribo-mechanical and hot corrosion resistance of ultra-refractory Ta-Hf-C ternary alloy films. (United States)

    Yate, Luis; Coy, L Emerson; Aperador, Willian


    In this work we report the hot corrosion properties of binary and ternary films of the Ta-Hf-C system in V 2 O 5 -Na 2 SO 4 (50%wt.-50%wt.) molten salts at 700 °C deposited on AISI D3 steel substrates. Additionally, the mechanical and nanowear properties of the films were studied. The results show that the ternary alloys consist of solid solutions of the TaC and HfC binary carbides. The ternary alloy films have higher hardness and elastic recoveries, reaching 26.2 GPa and 87%, respectively, and lower nanowear when compared to the binary films. The corrosion rates of the ternary alloys have a superior behavior compared to the binary films, with corrosion rates as low as 0.058 μm/year. The combination and tunability of high hardness, elastic recovery, low nanowear and an excellent resistance to high temperature corrosion demonstrates the potential of the ternary Ta-Hf-C alloy films for applications in extreme conditions.

  7. Solid-state characterization and dissolution properties of meloxicam-moringa coagulant-PVP ternary solid dispersions. (United States)

    Noolkar, Suhail B; Jadhav, Namdeo R; Bhende, Santosh A; Killedar, Suresh G


    The effect of ternary solid dispersions of poor water-soluble NSAID meloxicam with moringa coagulant (obtained by salt extraction of moringa seeds) and polyvinylpyrrolidone on the in vitro dissolution properties has been investigated. Binary (meloxicam-moringa and meloxicam-polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)) and ternary (meloxicam-moringa-PVP) systems were prepared by physical kneading and ball milling and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray diffractometry. The in vitro dissolution behavior of meloxicam from the different products was evaluated by means of United States Pharmacopeia type II dissolution apparatus. The results of solid-state studies indicated the presence of strong interactions between meloxicam, moringa, and PVP which were of totally amorphous nature. All ternary combinations were significantly more effective than the corresponding binary systems in improving the dissolution rate of meloxicam. The best performance in this respect was given by the ternary combination employing meloxicam-moringa-PVP ratio of [1:(3:1)] prepared by ball milling, with about six times increase in percent dissolution rate, whereas meloxicam-moringa (1:3) and meloxicam-PVP (1:4) prepared by ball milling improved dissolution of meloxicam by almost 3- and 2.5-folds, respectively. The achieved excellent dissolution enhancement of meloxicam in the ternary systems was attributed to the combined effects of impartation of hydrophilic characteristic by PVP, as well as to the synergistic interaction between moringa and PVP.

  8. Protamine/DNA/Niosome Ternary Nonviral Vectors for Gene Delivery to the Retina: The Role of Protamine. (United States)

    Puras, G; Martínez-Navarrete, G; Mashal, M; Zárate, J; Agirre, M; Ojeda, E; Grijalvo, S; Eritja, R; Diaz-Tahoces, A; Avilés-Trigueros, M; Fernández, E; Pedraz, J L


    The present study aimed to evaluate the incorporation of protamine into niosome/DNA vectors to analyze the potential application of this novel ternary formulation to deliver the pCMS-EGFP plasmid into the rat retina. Binary vectors based on niosome/DNA and ternary vectors based on protamine/DNA/niosomes were prepared and physicochemically characterized. In vitro experiments were performed in ARPE-19 cells. At 1:1:5 protamine/DNA/niosome mass ratio, the resulted ternary vectors had 150 nm size, positive charge, spherical morphology, and condensed, released, and protected the DNA against enzymatic digestion. The presence of protamine in the ternary vectors improved transfection efficiency, cell viability, and DNA condensation. After ocular administration, the EGFP expression was detected in different cell layers of the retina depending on the administration route without any sign of toxicity associated with the formulations. While subretinal administration transfected mainly photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelial cells at the site of injection, intravitreal administration produced a more uniform distribution of the protein expression through the inner layers of the retina. The protein expression in the retina persisted for at least one month after both administrations. Our study highlights the flattering properties of protamine/DNA/niosome ternary vectors for efficient and safe gene delivery to the rat retina.

  9. Growth and characterization of III-N ternary thin films by plasma assisted atomic layer epitaxy at low temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nepal, Neeraj; Anderson, Virginia R.; Hite, Jennifer K.; Eddy, Charles R.


    We report the growth and characterization of III-nitride ternary thin films (Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N, In{sub x}Al{sub 1−x}N and In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N) at ≤ 500 °C by plasma assisted atomic layer epitaxy (PA-ALE) over a wide stoichiometric range including the range where phase separation has been an issue for films grown by molecular beam epitaxy and metal organic chemical vapor deposition. The composition of these ternaries was intentionally varied through alterations in the cycle ratios of the III-nitride binary layers (AlN, GaN, and InN). By this digital alloy growth method, we are able to grow III-nitride ternaries by PA-ALE over nearly the entire stoichiometry range including in the spinodal decomposition region (x = 15–85%). These early efforts suggest great promise of PA-ALE at low temperatures for addressing miscibility gap challenges encountered with conventional growth methods and realizing high performance optoelectronic and electronic devices involving ternary/binary heterojunctions, which are not currently possible. - Highlights: • III-N ternaries grown at ≤ 500 °C by plasma assisted atomic layer epitaxy • Growth of InGaN and AlInN in the spinodal decomposition region (15–85%) • Epitaxial, smooth and uniform III-N film growth at low temperatures.

  10. Ternary system of dihydroartemisinin with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin and lecithin: simultaneous enhancement of drug solubility and stability in aqueous solutions. (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Li, Haiyan; Gu, Jingkai; Guo, Tao; Yang, Shuo; Guo, Zhen; Zhang, Xueju; Zhu, Weifeng; Zhang, Jiwen


    The purpose of this study was to simultaneously improve the solubility and stability of dihydroartemisinin (DHA) in aqueous solutions by a ternary cyclodextrin system comprised of DHA, hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) and a third auxiliary substance. Solubility and phase solubility studies were carried out to evaluate the solubilizing efficiency of HP-β-CD in association with various auxiliary substances. Then, the solid binary (DHA-HP-β-CD or DHA-lecithin) and ternary systems were prepared and characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and power X-ray diffraction (PXRD). The effect of the ternary system on the solubility, dissolution and stability of DHA in aqueous solutions was also investigated. As a result, the soybean lecithin was found to be the most promising third component in terms of solubility enhancement. For the solid characterization, the disappearance of the drug crystallinity indicated the formation of new solid phases, implicating the formation of the ternary system. The dissolution rate of the solid ternary system was much faster than that of the drug alone and binary systems. Importantly, compared with binary systems, the ternary system showed a significant improvement in the stability of DHA in Hank's balanced salt solutions (pH 7.4). The solubility and stability of DHA in aqueous solutions were simultaneously enhanced by the ternary system, which might be attributed to the possible formation of a ternary complex. For the ternary interactions, results of molecular docking studies further indicated that the lecithin covered the top of the wide rim of HP-β-CD and surrounded around the peroxide bridging of DHA, providing the possibility for the ternary complex formation. In summary, the ternary system prepared in our study, with simultaneous enhancement of DHA solubility and stability in aqueous solutions, might have an important pharmaceutical potential in the development of a better

  11. High Permeability Ternary Palladium Alloy Membranes with Improved Sulfur and Halide Tolerances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Coulter


    The project team consisting of Southwest Research Institute{reg_sign} (SwRI{reg_sign}), Georgia Institute of Technology (GT), the Colorado School of Mines (CSM), TDA Research, and IdaTech LLC was focused on developing a robust, poison-tolerant, hydrogen selective free standing membrane to produce clean hydrogen. The project completed on schedule and on budget with SwRI, GT, CSM, TDA and IdaTech all operating independently and concurrently. GT has developed a robust platform for performing extensive DFT calculations for H in bulk palladium (Pd), binary alloys, and ternary alloys of Pd. Binary alloys investigated included Pd96M4 where M = Li, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Te, Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, Au, Tl, Pb, Bi, Ce, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu. They have also performed a series of calculations on Pd{sub 70}Cu{sub 26}Ag{sub 4}, Pd{sub 70}Cu{sub 26}Au{sub 4}, Pd{sub 70}Cu{sub 26}Ni{sub 4}, Pd{sub 70}Cu{sub 26}Pt{sub 4}, and Pd{sub 70}Cu{sub 26}Y{sub 4}. SwRI deposited and released over 160 foils of binary and ternary Pd alloys. There was considerable work on characterizing and improving the durability of the deposited foils using new alloy compositions, post annealing and ion bombardment. The 10 and 25 {micro}m thick films were sent to CSM, TDA and IdaTech for characterization and permeation testing. CSM conducted over 60 pure gas permeation tests with SwRI binary and ternary alloy membranes. To date the PdAu and PdAuPt membranes have exhibited the best performance at temperatures in the range of 423-773 C and their performance correlates well with the predictions from GT. TDA completed testing under the Department of Energy (DOE) WGS conditions on over 16 membranes. Of particular interest are the PdAuPt alloys that exhibited only a 20% drop in flux when sulfur was added to the gas mixture and the flux was completely recovered when the sulfur flow was stopped. IdaTech tested binary

  12. Optimisation and Characterisation of Anti-Fouling Ternary SAM Layers for Impedance-Based Aptasensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Miodek


    Full Text Available An aptasensor with enhanced anti-fouling properties has been developed. As a case study, the aptasensor was designed with specificity for human thrombin. The sensing platform was developed on screen printed electrodes and is composed of a self-assembled monolayer made from a ternary mixture of 15-base thiolated DNA aptamers specific for human thrombin co-immobilised with 1,6-hexanedithiol (HDT and further passivated with 1-mercapto-6-hexanol (MCH. HDT binds to the surface by two of its thiol groups forming alkyl chain bridges and this architecture protects from non-specific attachment of molecules to the electrode surface. Using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS, the aptasensor is able to detect human thrombin as variations in charge transfer resistance (Rct upon protein binding. After exposure to a high concentration of non-specific Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA solution, no changes in the Rct value were observed, highlighting the bio-fouling resistance of the surface generated. In this paper, we present the optimisation and characterisation of the aptasensor based on the ternary self-assembled monolayer (SAM layer. We show that anti-fouling properties depend on the type of gold surface used for biosensor construction, which was also confirmed by contact angle measurements. We further studied the ratio between aptamers and HDT, which can determine the specificity and selectivity of the sensing layer. We also report the influence of buffer pH and temperature used for incubation of electrodes with proteins on detection and anti-fouling properties. Finally, the stability of the aptasensor was studied by storage of modified electrodes for up to 28 days in different buffers and atmospheric conditions. Aptasensors based on ternary SAM layers are highly promising for clinical applications for detection of a range of proteins in real biological samples.

  13. Specific recognition of polyphenols by molecularly imprinted polymers based on a ternary deep eutectic solvent. (United States)

    Fu, Najing; Li, Liteng; Liu, Xiao; Fu, Nian; Zhang, Chenchen; Hu, Liandong; Li, Donghao; Tang, Baokun; Zhu, Tao


    Typically, a target compound is selected as a template for a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP); however, some target compounds are not suitable as templates because of their poor solubility. Using the tailoring properties of a deep eutectic solvent (DES), the insoluble target compound caffeic acid was transformed into a ternary choline chloride-caffeic acid-ethylene glycol (ChCl-CA-EG) DES, which was then employed as a template to prepare MIPs. The ternary DES-based MIPs were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The effects of time, temperature, ionic strength, and pH on the recognition processes for four polyphenols (caffeic acid, protocatechuic acid, catechin, and epicatechin) by 13 ChCl-CA-EG ternary DES-based MIPs was investigated using high-performance liquid chromatography. The recognition specificity of the MIPs for CA was significantly better than that for the other polyphenols, and the MIPs exhibited obvious characteristics of chromatographic packing materials. In addition, the recognition processes mainly followed a second-order kinetics model and the Freundlich isotherm model, which together indicated that the MIPs mainly recognized the polyphenols by chemical interactions including ion exchange, electron exchange, and new bond formation. Furthermore, the specific recognition ability of the MIPs for polyphenols, which was better than those of C18, C8, or non-molecularly imprinted polymer adsorbents, was successfully applied to the recognition of polyphenols in a Radix asteris sample. The transformation of an insoluble target compound in a polymeric DES for MIP preparation and recognition is a novel and feasible strategy suitable for use in further MIP research developments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Greatly extended storage stability of electrochemical DNA biosensors using ternary thiolated self-assembled monolayers. (United States)

    Kuralay, Filiz; Campuzano, Susana; Wang, Joseph


    While high storage stability of sequence-selective DNA biosensors is crucial towards their routine applications, commonly used electrochemical hybridization biosensors are characterized with limited storage stability. In this article we demonstrate that recently developed ternary thiolated monolayers impart dramatic improvement in the storage stability of DNA electrochemical biosensors. In particular, highly stable multicomponent interfaces are prepared by co-immobilizing the thiolated capture probe (SHCP) with 1,6-hexanedithiol (HDT) on gold substrates, followed by the incorporation of 6-mercapto-1-hexanol (MCH) diluent. The resulting (SHCP/HDT+MCH) DNA hybridization recognition platform offers substantially higher storage stability compared to conventional binary (SHCP+MCH) monolayers. The (SHCP/HDT+MCH) ternary monolayers maintain their initial signal (S)-to-noise (N) ratio (S/N) over a prolonged 3 months period upon storage at 4 °C, compared to the rapid sensitivity loss observed using the common binary interfaces. This attractive stability performance promises the convenient usage of pre-prepared electrodes after prolonged time storage without any treatment. Such dramatic improvements in the storage stability have been achieved through a rational optimization of the concentration ratio of the SHCP and the other components of the ternary SAM. The improved storage stability of SHCP/HDT+MCH interfaces observed at higher concentrations of SHCP is attributed to a hindered displacement of SHCP by MCH in the resulting compact layers. The ability to design highly stable nucleic acid interfaces using common chemicals obviates the need of using specialized expensive reagents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Synthesis, characterization and biocompatibility evaluation of hydroxyapatite - gelatin polyLactic acid ternary nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Nabipour


    Full Text Available Objective(s: The current study reports the production and biocompatibility evaluation of a ternary nanocomposite consisting of HA, PLA, and gelatin for biomedical application.Materials and Methods: Hydroxyapatite nanopowder (HA: Ca10(PO46(OH2 was produced by burning the bovine cortical bone within the temperature range of 350-450 oC followed by heating in an oven at 800. Synthesis of the ternary nanocomposite was carried out in two steps: synthesis of gelatin-hydroxyapatite binary nanocomposite and addition of poly lactic acid with different percentages to the resulting composition. The crystal structure was determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD, while major elements and impurities of hydroxyapatite were identified by elemental analysis of X-ray fluorescence (XRF. Functional groups were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. Morphology and size of the nanocomposites were evaluated using field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM.Biocompatibility of nanocomposites was investigated by MTT assay. Results: XRD patterns verified the ideal crystal structure of the hydroxyapatite, which indicated an appropriate synthesis process and absence of disturbing phases. Results of FTIR analysis determined the polymers’ functional groups, specified formation of the polymers on the hydroxyapatite surface, and verified synthesis of nHA/PLA/Gel composite. FESEM images also indicated the homogeneous structure of the composite in the range of 50 nanometers. MTT assay results confirmed the biocompatibility of nanocomposite samples.Conclusion: This study suggested that the ternary nanocomposite of nHA/PLA/Gel can be a good candidate for biomedical application such as drug delivery systems, but for evaluation of its potential in hard tissue replacement, mechanical tests should be performed.

  16. A ternary age-mixing model to explain contaminant occurrence in a deep supply well. (United States)

    Jurgens, Bryant C; Bexfield, Laura M; Eberts, Sandra M


    The age distribution of water from a public-supply well in a deep alluvial aquifer was estimated and used to help explain arsenic variability in the water. The age distribution was computed using a ternary mixing model that combines three lumped parameter models of advection-dispersion transport of environmental tracers, which represent relatively recent recharge (post-1950s) containing volatile organic compounds (VOCs), old intermediate depth groundwater (about 6500 years) that was free of drinking-water contaminants, and very old, deep groundwater (more than 21,000 years) containing arsenic above the USEPA maximum contaminant level of 10 µg/L. The ternary mixing model was calibrated to tritium, chloroflorocarbon-113, and carbon-14 (14C) concentrations that were measured in water samples collected on multiple occasions. Variability in atmospheric 14C over the past 50,000 years was accounted for in the interpretation of (14) C as a tracer. Calibrated ternary models indicate the fraction of deep, very old groundwater entering the well varies substantially throughout the year and was highest following long periods of nonoperation or infrequent operation, which occured during the winter season when water demand was low. The fraction of young water entering the well was about 11% during the summer when pumping peaked to meet water demand and about 3% to 6% during the winter months. This paper demonstrates how collection of multiple tracers can be used in combination with simplified models of fluid flow to estimate the age distribution and thus fraction of contaminated groundwater reaching a supply well under different pumping conditions. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Groundwater published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of National Ground Water Association.

  17. Ternary Au/ZnO/rGO nanocomposites electrodes for high performance electrochemical storage devices (United States)

    Chaudhary, Manchal; Doong, Ruey-an; Kumar, Nagesh; Tseng, Tseung Yuen


    The combination of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles with reduced graphene oxides (rGO) is an active electrode material for electrochemical storage devices. Herein, we have, for the first time, reported the fabrication of ternary Au/ZnO/rGO nanocomposites by using a rapid and environmentally friendly microwave-assisted hydrothermal method for high performance supercapacitor applications. The ZnO/rGO provides excellent electrical conductivity and good macro/mesopore structures, which can facilitate the rapid electrons and ions transport. The Au nanoparticles with particle sizes of 7-12 nm are homogeneously distributed onto the ZnO/rGO surface to enhance the electrochemical performance by retaining the capacitance at high current density. The Au/ZnO/rGO nanocomposites, prepared with the optimized rGO amount of 100 mg exhibit a high specific capacitance of 875 and 424 F g-1 at current densities of 1 and 20 A g-1, respectively, in 2 M KOH. In addition, the energy and power densities of ternary Au/ZnO/rGO can be up to 17.6-36.5 Wh kg-1 and 0.27-5.42 kW kg-1, respectively. Results obtained in this study clearly demonstrate the excellence of ternary Au/ZnO/rGO nanocomposites as the active electrode materials for electrochemical pseudocapacitor performance and can open an avenue to fabricate metal/metal oxide/rGO nanocomposites for electrochemical storage devices with both high energy and power densities.

  18. Synthesis and Characterization of Novel Ternary and Quaternary Alkali Metal Thiophosphates

    KAUST Repository

    Alahmary, Fatimah S.


    The ongoing development of nonlinear optical (NLO) crystals such as coherent mid-IR sources focuses on various classes of materials such as ternary and quaternary metal chalcophosphates. In case of thiophosphates, the connection between PS4-tetrahedral building blocks and metals gives rise to a broad structural variety where approximately one third of all known ternary (A/P/S) and quaternary (A/M/P/S) (A = alkali metal, M = metal) structures are acentric and potential nonlinear optical materials. The molten alkali metal polychalcophosphate fluxes are a well-established method for the synthesis of new ternary and quaternary thiophosphate and selenophosphate compounds. It has been a wide field of study and investigation through the last two decades. Here, the flux method is used for the synthesis of new quaternary phases containing Rb, Ag, P and S. Four new alkali metal thiophosphates, Rb4P2S10, RbAg5(PS4), Rb2AgPS4 and Rb3Ag9(PS4)4, have been synthesized successfully from high purity elements and binary starting materials. The new compounds were characterized by single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS), Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). These compounds show interesting structural variety and physical properties. The crystal structures feature 3D anionic framework built up of PS4 tetrahedral units and charge balanced by Ag and alkali metal cations. All prepared compounds are semiconductors with band gap between 2.3 eV to 2.6 eV and most of them are thermally stable up to 600ºC.

  19. Preparation and application of agar/alginate/collagen ternary blend functional food packaging films. (United States)

    Wang, Long-Feng; Rhim, Jong-Whan


    Ternary blend agar/alginate/collagen (A/A/C) hydrogel films with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and grapefruit seed extract (GSE) were prepared. Their performance properties, transparency, tensile strength (TS), water vapor permeability (WVP), water contact angle (CA), water swelling ratio (SR), water solubility (WS), and antimicrobial activity were determined. The A/A/C film was highly transparent, and both AgNPs and GSE incorporated blend films (A/A/C(AgNPs) and A/A/C(GSE)) exhibited UV-screening effect, especially, the A/A/C(GSE) film had high UV-screening effect without sacrificing the transmittance. In addition, the A/A/C blend films formed efficient hydrogel film with the water holding capacity of 23.6 times of their weight. Both A/A/C(AgNPs) and A/A/C(GSE) composite films exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive (Listeria monocytogenes) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) food-borne pathogenic bacteria. The test results of fresh potatoes packaging revealed that all the A/A/C ternary blend films prevented forming of condensed water on the packaged film surface, both A/A/C(AgNPs) and A/A/C(GSE) composite films prevented greening of potatoes during storage. The results indicate that the ternary blend hydrogel films incorporated with AgNPs or GSE can be used not only as antifogging packaging films for highly respiring fresh agriculture produce, but also as an active food packaging system utilizing their strong antimicrobial activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Decoupling Strain and Ligand Effects in Ternary Nanoparticles for Improved ORR Electrocatalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    C. Jennings, Paul; Lysgaard, Steen; Hansen, Heine Anton


    Density functional theory is used to investigate OH adsorption on ternary Pt-Au-M (M = 3d-metal) nanoparticles in order to address their potential to improve activity for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) compared to pure Pt nanoparticles. The nanoparticles are investigated through a method dev...... activity and stability with respect to pure Pt nanoparticles. It is suggested that the Pt-Au-M for M = Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn nanoparticles are of particular interest as they exhibit an optimal interplay between strain, ligand effects and stability....

  1. A pillararene-based ternary drug-delivery system with photocontrolled anticancer drug release. (United States)

    Yu, Guocan; Yu, Wei; Mao, Zhengwei; Gao, Changyou; Huang, Feihe


    A novel ternary drug delivery system (DDS) is constructed using a photodegradable anticancer prodrug (Py-Cbl), a water-soluble pillararene supramolecular container (WP6), and the diblock copolymer methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol)114 -block-poly(L -lysine hydrochloride)200. This DDS successfully addresses three important issues: enhancement of the water solubility of the anticancer prodrug; controlled release of the anticancer drug; accurate and quantitative measurement of the drug release. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Spectral study of ternary complexes of rare earths with different amino acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhutra, M.P.; Gupta, A.K. (Jodhpur Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics)


    Absorption spectra of eight ternary complexes of neodymium and praseodymium with different amino acids (glycine, alanine, valine and methionine) as primary ligand and propane-1, 2-diol as secondary ligand have been recorded in dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) in the visible region. The observed values of energy and intensity of various transitions have been compared with those calculated by using Judd-Ofelt relation. The observed and calculated values are in good agreement. Based on the calculated values of different energy and intensity parameters, the covalency and its dependence on atomic number of metal ion, metal-ligand interaction, nephelauxetic effect, etc. have been discussed.

  3. Effect of environment in hypersensitive transitions of Nd/sup 3 +/ ternary complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, A.K.; Bhutra, M.P. (Jodhpur Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics)


    Absorption spectra of ternary complexes of Nd/sup 3 +/ in different environments, viz. methanol, formamide and dimethyl sulphoxide, have been recorded taking glycine, alanine, valine and methionine as primary ligands and propane-1, 2-diol as secondary, ligand. The transition /sup 4/Gsub(5/2)<-/sup 4/Isub(9/2) obeying the selection rule<=2, known as hypersensitive transition has been studied for four Nd/sup 3 +/ complexes. The results indicate that the hypersensitivity may be explained by means of vibronic mechanism with inclusion of covalency. Effect of different environments on hypersensitive transition has been discussed.

  4. Molecular dynamics simulations of ternary PtxPdyAuz fuel cell nanocatalyst growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brault, P.; Coutanceau, C.; C. Jennings, Paul


    Molecular dynamics simulation of PEMFC cathodes based on ternary Pt70Pd15Au15 and Pt50Pd25Au25 nanocatalysts dispersed on carbon indicate systematic Au segregation from the particle bulk to the surface, leading to an Au layer coating the cluster surface and to the spontaneous formation of a Pt......@Pd@Au core-shell structure. For Au content below 25 at%, surface PtxPdy active sites are available for efficient oxygen reduction reaction, in agreement with DFT calculations and experimental data. Simulations of direct core@shell system prepared in conditions mimicking those of plasma sputtering deposition...

  5. The use of Ternary Diagrams in the Analysis and the Mathematical Modeling of Bank Assets Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Mariana CALINICA


    Full Text Available The objectives pursued in this paper are: to obtain by means of ternary diagrams imagistic representations of the structure of assets in credit banking institutions operating in Romania in case of stability, turbulence and intense manifestation of the crisis; identifying functional discontinuities and achieve a comparative database. The ultimate goal of this paper is reporting the results obtained from comparative database to find out what signals preceding a turbulent situation in the banking sector and how far away is the banking system by the normal situation.

  6. A New Class of Ternary Compound for Lithium-Ion Battery: from Composite to Solid Solution. (United States)

    Wang, Jiali; Wu, Hailong; Cui, Yanhua; Liu, Shengzhou; Tian, Xiaoqing; Cui, Yixiu; Liu, Xiaojiang; Yang, Yin


    Searching for high-performance cathode materials is a crucial task to develop advanced lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) with high-energy densities for electrical vehicles (EVs). As a promising lithium-rich material, Li 2 MnO 3 delivers high capacity over 200 mAh g -1 but suffers from poor structural stability and electronic conductivity. Replacing Mn 4+ ions by relatively larger Sn 4+ ions is regarded as a possible strategy to improve structural stability and thus cycling performance of Li 2 MnO 3 material. However, large difference in ionic radii of Mn 4+ and Sn 4+ ions leads to phase separation of Li 2 MnO 3 and Li 2 SnO 3 during high-temperature synthesis. To prepare solid-solution phase of Li 2 MnO 3 -Li 2 SnO 3 , a buffer agent of Ru 4+ , whose ionic radius is in between that of Mn 4+ and Sn 4+ ions, is introduced to assist the formation of a single solid-solution phase. The results show that the Li 2 RuO 3 -Li 2 MnO 3 -Li 2 SnO 3 ternary system evolves from mixed composite phases into a single solid-solution phase with increasing Ru content. Meanwhile, discharge capacity of this ternary system shows significantly increase at the transformation point which is ascribed to the improvement of Li + /e - transportation kinetics and anionic redox chemistry for solid-solution phase. The role of Mn/Sn molar ratio of Li 2 RuO 3 -Li 2 MnO 3 -Li 2 SnO 3 ternary system has also been studied. It is revealed that higher Sn content benefits cycling stability of the system because Sn 4+ ions with larger sizes could partially block the migration of Mn 4+ and Ru 4+ from transition metal layer to Li layer, thus suppressing structural transformation of the system from layered-to-spinel phase. These findings may enable a new route for exploring ternary or even quaternary lithium-rich cathode materials for LIBs.

  7. Special quasirandom structures for binary/ternary group IV random alloys

    KAUST Repository

    Chroneos, Alexander I.


    Simulation of defect interactions in binary/ternary group IV semiconductor alloys at the density functional theory level is difficult due to the random distribution of the constituent atoms. The special quasirandom structures approach is a computationally efficient way to describe the random nature. We systematically study the efficacy of the methodology and generate a number of special quasirandom cells for future use. In order to demonstrate the applicability of the technique, the electronic structures of E centers in Si1-xGex and Si1-x -yGexSny alloys are discussed for a range of nearest neighbor environments. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. E centers in ternary Si1−x−yGexSny random alloys

    KAUST Repository

    Chroneos, Alexander


    Density functional theory calculations are used to study the association of arsenic (As) atoms to lattice vacancies and the formation of As-vacancy pairs, known as E centers, in the random Si0.375Ge0.5Sn0.125 alloy. The local environments are described by 32-atom special quasirandom structures that represent random Si1−x−yGexSny alloys. It is predicted that the nearest-neighbor environment will exert a strong influence on the stability of E centers in ternary Si0.375Ge0.5Sn0.125.

  9. True ternary fission and quasifission of superheavy nuclear systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greiner Walter


    Full Text Available We found that a true ternary fission with formation of a heavy third fragment (a new kind of radioactivity is quite possible for superheavy nuclei due to the strong shell effects leading to a three-body clusterization with the two doubly magic tin-like cores. The three-body quasifission process could be even more pronounced for giant nuclear systems formed in collisions of heavy actinide nuclei. In this case a three-body clusterization might be proved experimentally by detection of two coincident lead-like fragments in low-energy U+U collisions.

  10. Neutron spin echo studies of the effects of temperature and pressure in a ternary microemulsion

    CERN Document Server

    Kawabata, Y; Seto, H; Takeda, T; Komura, S; Schwahn, D


    In order to clarify the self-assembling mechanisms in complex fluids involving amphiphiles, we have investigated dynamic features of amphiphilic membranes and droplets at high temperature and at high pressure in a ternary microemulsion, consisting of AOT, water, and n-decane. A high-pressure cell for neutron spin echo (NSE) experiments has been improved, and the static and dynamic features of droplets are observed in detail by means of small angle neutron scattering and NSE. It is found that the size fluctuation and the diffusion of droplets are enhanced by increasing temperature, while they are suppressed by increasing pressure. (orig.)

  11. Liquid - liquid equilibria of the water + butyric acid + decanol ternary system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.I. Kirbaslar


    Full Text Available Liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE data for the water + butyric acid + decanol ternary system were determined experimentally at temperatures of 298.15, 308.15 and 318.15 K. Complete phase diagrams were obtained by determining the solubility curve and the tie lines. The reliability of the experimental tie line data was confirmed with the Othmer-Tobias correlation. The UNIFAC method was used to predict the phase equilibrium of the system using the interaction parameters for groups CH3, CH2, COOH, OH and H2O determined experimentally. Distribution coefficients and separation factors were evaluated for the immiscibility region.

  12. Ternary liquid-liquid equilibria measurement for epoxidized soybean oil + acetic acid + water. (United States)

    Cai, Shuang-Fei; Wang, Li-Sheng; Yan, Guo-Qing; Li, Yi; Feng, Yun-Xia; Linghu, Rong-Gang


    Liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE) data were measured for ternary system epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) + acetic acid + water at 313.15, 323.15 and 333.15 K, respectively. The consistency of the measured LLE data was tested, using Othmer-Tobias correlation and root-mean-square deviation (sigma) in mass fraction of water in the lower phase and average value of the absolute difference (AAD) between experimental mass fraction of epoxidized soybean oil in the upper phase and that calculated using Othmer-Tobias correlation.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of the ternary telluroargentate K4[Ag18Te11

    KAUST Repository

    Davaasuren, Bambar


    The ternary potassium telluroargentate(I), K4[Ag18Te11], was prepared by solvothermal synthesis in ethylenediamine at 160 °C. It crystallizes in the cubic space group Fm3¯ m (no. 225) with the cell parameter a = 18.6589(6) Å. The crystal structure can be described as a [Ag18Te11]4- three-dimensional anionic framework with the voids accommodating potassium cations. Chemical bonding analysis reveals polar covalent Ag-Te bonds and considerable Ag-Ag interactions, which support the complex anionic character of the structure. The compound is thermally stable up to 450 °C in an inert atmosphere.

  14. Morphology of tetragonal ZrO/sub 2/ in a ternary (Mg,Y)-PSZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, R.R.; Heuer, A.H.


    The high fracture toughness of optimally-fabricated precipitation-toughened partially-stabilized ZrO/sub 2/'s (PSZ's) is due to the stress-induced martensitic transformation of tetragonal (t) precipitates to monoclinic (m) symmetry in the stress fields of propagating cracks. The precipitation of tetragonal (t) ZrO/sub 2/ in a ternary (Mg,Y)-PSZ has been studied. Nucleation of t-ZrO/sub 2/ occurs homogeneously, as in other PSZ's, and coarsened precipitates are multivariant and have an unusual tetrahedral morphology.

  15. Green options for anti-corrosion of high strength concrete incorporating ternary pozzolan materials


    Chen Yuan-Yuan; Yang Chien-Jou


    This paper applied the densified mixture design algorithm(DMDA) method by incorporating ternary pozzolans (fly ash, slag and silica fume; mix I and mix II) to design high strength concrete (HSC) mixtures with w/cm ratios from 0.24 to 0.30. Concrete without pozzolans was used as a control group (mix III, w/c from 0.24 to 0.30), and silica fume (5%) was added as a substitute for part of the cement and set as mix IV. Experiments performed compressive strength, four-point resistance meter to meas...

  16. Flash Point Measurements and Modeling for Ternary Partially Miscible Aqueous­Organic Mixtures


    Liaw, Horng-Jang; Gerbaud, Vincent; Wu, Hsuan-Ta


    Flash point is the most important variable used to characterize the fire and explosion hazard of liquids. This paper presents the first partially miscible aqueousorganic mixtures flash point measurements and modeling for the ternary type-I mixtures, water + ethanol + 1-butanol, water + ethanol + 2-butanol, and the type-II mixture, water + 1-butanol + 2-butanol. Results reveal that the flash points are constant in each tie line. Handling the non-ideality of the liquid phase through the use of...

  17. The role of Glu259 in Escherichia coli elongation factor Tu in ternary complex formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nautrup Pedersen, Gitte; Rattenborg, Thomas; Knudsen, Charlotte Rohde


    Determination of the crystal structure of the ternary complex formed between elongation factor Tu:GTP and aminoacylated tRNA revealed three regions of interaction between elongation factor Tu and tRNA. The structure indicates that the conserved glutamic acid at position 271 in Thermus aquaticus EF...... spatially and chemically so that only a residue with almost the same size and chemical properties as glutamic acid fulfils the requirements with regard to size, salt bridge-formation potential and maintenance of the backbone conformation at the 259 position. Udgivelsesdato: 1998-Feb...

  18. Bergman Clusters, Multiple Bonds, and Defect Planes: Synthetic Outcomes of Chemical Frustration in Ternary Intermetallic Systems (United States)

    Hadler, Amelia Beth

    Intermetallics crystallize in a variety of complex structures, many of which show unusual bonding or intriguing properties. Understanding what factors drive this structural chemistry would be a valuable step towards designing new intermetallics with specific structures or properties. One pathway towards understanding and predicting the structures of complex intermetallics is chemical frustration, a design tool which harnesses competition between incompatible bonding or packing modes to induce complexity in ternary intermetallic systems. The research outlined in this thesis focuses on developing chemical frustration through exploratory synthesis in ternary systems designed to induce frustration between the tetrahedral close packing of many intermetallics and the simple cubic packing seen for ionic salts or elemental metals. Syntheses in three systems yielded six new ternary intermetallics, four of which crystallize in novel structure types. Three were discovered in the Ca-Cu-Cd system: Ca5Cu2Cd and Ca2Cu 2Cd9, which adopt ternary variants of binary structures, and Ca10Cu2Cd27, which crystallizes in a new structure built from Bergman clusters. All three structures can be traced to electronic packing frustration induced by the similar electronegativities but different metallic radii of Cu and Cd. The Gd-Fe-C system yielded the new carbometalate Gd13Fe 10C13 and an oxycarbide derivative. These phases crystallize in structures built from Gd tricapped trigonal prisms interpenetrated by an Fe-C network. Theoretical analyses reveal that Fe-Fe and Fe-C multiple bonding is found throughout this network. A theoretical investigation of similar carbides uncovers additional metal-metal, metal-carbon, and carbon-carbon multiple bonding. This unusual bonding stabilizes the carbides by satisfying preferred electron counts for their transition metal sites. One new phase, Mg4.5Pd5Ge1.5, was found in the Mg-Pd-Ge system. Its structure is closely related to the CsCl-type structure of

  19. Deposition and Phase Transformations of Ternary Al-Cr-O Thin Films


    Khatibi, Ali


    This thesis concerns the ternary Al-Cr-O system. (Al1-xCrx)2O3 solid solution thin films with 0.6

  20. Interaction of three fission fragments and yields of various ternary fragments (United States)

    Denisov, V. Yu.; Pilipenko, N. A.; Sedykh, I. Yu.


    The interaction potential energy of the three deformed fragments formed in fission of 252Cf is studied for various combinations of three-fragment fission. The lowest height of the potential energy ridge between three touching and separated deformed fragments is sought. The excitation energies of various three-deformed-fragment configurations, at the lowest barrier heights related to the yield of the corresponding configuration, are considered in detail. The most probable three-fragment fission configurations are discussed. The yields of various ternary fragments in fission of 250Cf agree well with available experimental data.

  1. Pre-scission configuration of the tri-nuclear system at spontaneous ternary fission of {sup 252}Cf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasirov, A.K. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, BLTP, Dubna (Russian Federation); Institute of Nuclear Physics, Ulugbek, Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Tashkhodjaev, R.B. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Ulugbek, Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Inha University in Tashkent, Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Oertzen, W. von [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Freie Universitaet, Fachbereich Physik, Berlin (Germany)


    The potential energy surface for the pre-scission configurations of tri-nuclear systems formed in the spontaneous ternary fission of {sup 252}Cf is calculated. The fission channel {sup 70}Ni+{sup 50}Ca+{sup 132}Sn is chosen as one of the more probable channels of true ternary fission of {sup 252}Cf. A study of the collinear arrangement of the reaction products for true ternary fission is the aim of this work. The results are presented as a function of the relative distance R{sub 12} between the centres of mass of {sup 70}Ni and {sup 132}Sn and the distance from the centre of mass of {sup 50}Ca, which is perpendicular to R{sub 12}. The results show that only for a particular range of the R{sub 12} values the collinear tripartion of the fissioning nucleus occurs. (orig.)

  2. Theoretical prediction and experimental confirmation of unusual ternary ordered semiconductor compounds in Sr-Pb-S system. (United States)

    Hao, Shiqiang; Zhao, Li-Dong; Chen, Chang-Qiang; Dravid, Vinayak P; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G; Wolverton, Christopher M


    We examine the thermodynamics of phase separation and ordering in the ternary Ca(x)Pb(1-x)S and Sr(x)Pb(1-x)S systems by density-functional theory combined with a cluster expansion and Monte Carlo simulations. Similar to most other ternary III-V or IV-VI semiconductor alloys, we find that bulk phase separation is thermodynamically preferred for PbS-CaS. However, we predict the surprising existence of stable, ordered ternary compounds in the PbS-SrS system. These phases are previously unreported ordered rocksalt-based compounds: SrPb3S4, SrPbS2, and Sr3PbS4. The stability of these predicted ordered phases is confirmed by transmission electron microscopy observations and band gap measurements. We believe this work paves the way for a combined theory-experiment approach to decipher complex phase relations in multicomponent chalcogenide systems.

  3. Inland dissolved salt chemistry: statistical evaluation of bivariate and ternary diagram models for surface and subsurface waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen T. THRELKELD


    Full Text Available We compared the use of ternary and bivariate diagrams to distinguish the effects of atmospheric precipitation, rock weathering, and evaporation on inland surface and subsurface water chemistry. The three processes could not be statistically differentiated using bivariate models even if large water bodies were evaluated separate from small water bodies. Atmospheric precipitation effects were identified using ternary diagrams in water with total dissolved salts (TDS 1000 mg l-1. A principal components analysis showed that the variability in the relative proportions of the major ions was related to atmospheric precipitation, weathering, and evaporation. About half of the variation in the distribution of inorganic ions was related to rock weathering. By considering most of the important inorganic ions, ternary diagrams are able to distinguish the contributions of atmospheric precipitation, rock weathering, and evaporation to inland water chemistry.

  4. Formation mechanism of the low-frequency locally resonant band gap in the two-dimensional ternary phononic crystals (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Liu, Yao-Zong; Wen, Ji-Hong; Yu, Dian-Long


    The low-frequency band gap and the corresponding vibration modes in two-dimensional ternary locally resonant phononic crystals are restudied successfully with the lumped-mass method. Compared with the work of C. Goffaux and J. Sánchez-Dehesa (Phys. Rev. B 67 14 4301(2003)), it is shown that there exists an error of about 50% in their calculated results of the band structure and one band is missing in their results. Moreover, the in-plane modes shown in their paper are improper, which results in the wrong conclusion on the mechanism of the ternary locally resonant phononic crystals. Based on the lumped-mass method and better description of the vibration modes according to the band gaps, the locally resonant mechanism in forming the subfrequency gaps is thoroughly analysed. The rule used to judge whether a resonant mode in the phononic crystals can result in a corresponding subfrequency gap is also verified in this ternary case.

  5. Flashpoint prediction for ternary mixtures of alcohols with water for CFD simulation of unsteady flame propagation during explosion (United States)

    Skřínský, Jan; Vereš, Ján; Ševčíková, Silvie Petránková


    Aqueous solutions of binary and ternary mixtures of alcohols are of considerable interest for a wide range of scientists and technologists. Simple dimensionless experimental formulae based on rational reciprocal and polynomial functions are proposed for correlation of the flashpoint data of binary mixtures of two components. The formulae are based on data obtained from flashpoint experiments and predictions. The main results are the derived experimental flashpoint values for ternary mixtures of two aqueous-organic solutions and the model prediction of maximum explosion pressure values for the studied mixtures. Potential application for the results concerns the assessment of fire and explosion hazards, and the development of inherently safer designs for chemical processes containing binary and ternary partially miscible mixtures of an aqueous-organic system. The goal of this article is to present the results of modelling using these standard models and to demonstrate its importance in the area of CFD simulation.

  6. An intimately bonded titanate nanotube–polyaniline–gold nanoparticle ternary composite as a scaffold for electrochemical enzyme biosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaoqiang, E-mail: [Institute of Environmental and Analytical Sciences, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan Province, 475004 (China); Zhu, Jie; Huo, Xiaohe; Yan, Rui [Institute of Environmental and Analytical Sciences, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan Province, 475004 (China); Wong, Danny K.Y., E-mail: [Department of Chemistry and Biomolecular Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia)


    In this work, titanate nanotubes (TNTs), polyaniline (PANI) and gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were assembled to form a ternary composite, which was then applied on an electrode as a scaffold of an electrochemical enzyme biosensor. The scaffold was constructed by oxidatively polymerising aniline to produce an emeraldine salt of PANI on TNTs, followed by gold nanoparticle deposition. A novel aspect of this scaffold lies in the use of the emeraldine salt of PANI as a molecular wire between TNTs and GNPs. Using horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as a model enzyme, voltammetric results demonstrated that direct electron transfer of HRP was achieved at both TNT-PANI and TNT-PANI-GNP-modified electrodes. More significantly, the catalytic reduction current of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} by HRP was ∼75% enhanced at the TNT-PANI-GNP-modified electrode, compared to that at the TNT-PANI-modified electrode. The heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant of HRP was found to be ∼3 times larger at the TNT-PANI-GNP-modified electrode than that at the TNT-PANI-modified electrode. Based on chronoamperometric detection of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, a linear range from 1 to 1200 μM, a sensitivity of 22.7 μA mM{sup −1} and a detection limit of 0.13 μM were obtained at the TNT-PANI-GNP-modified electrode. The performance of the biosensor can be ascribed to the superior synergistic properties of the ternary composite. - Highlights: • A ternary TiO{sub 2} nanotube–polyaniline–gold nanoparticle composite was developed. • New synthetic route for ternary composite with a polyaniline molecular wire between TiO{sub 2} nanotubes and gold nanoparticles. • An electrochemical biosensor with ternary composite as a scaffold. • Ternary composite facilitated improved analytical performance of electrochemical biosensor.

  7. Novel siRNA delivery system using a ternary polymer complex with strong silencing effect and no cytotoxicity. (United States)

    Kodama, Yukinobu; Shiokawa, Yumi; Nakamura, Tadahiro; Kurosaki, Tomoaki; Aki, Keisei; Nakagawa, Hiroo; Muro, Takahiro; Kitahara, Takashi; Higuchi, Norihide; Sasaki, Hitoshi


    We developed a novel small interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery system using a ternary complex with polyethyleneimine (PEI) and γ-polyglutamic acid (γ-PGA), which showed silencing effect and no cytotoxicity. The binary complexes of siRNA with PEI were approximately 73-102 nm in particle size and 45-52 mV in ζ-potential. The silencing effect of siRNA/PEI complexes increased with an increase of PEI, and siRNA/PEI complexes with a charge ratio greater than 16 showed significant luciferase knockdown in a mouse colon carcinoma cell line regularly expressing luciferase (Colon26/Luc cells). However, strong cytotoxicity and blood agglutination were observed in the siRNA/Lipofectamine complex and siRNA/PEI16 complex. Recharging cationic complexes with an anionic compound was reported to be a promising method for overcoming these toxicities. We therefore prepared ternary complexes of siRNA with PEI (charge ratio 16) by the addition of γ-PGA to reduce cytotoxicity and deliver siRNA. As expected, the cytotoxicity of the ternary complexes decreased with an increase of γ-PGA content, which decreased the ζ-potential of the complexes. A strong silencing effect comparable to siRNA/Lipofectamine complex was discovered in ternary complexes including γ-PGA with an anionic surface charge. The high incorporation of ternary complexes into Colon26/Luc cells was confirmed with fluorescence microcopy. Having achieved knockdown of an exogenously transfected gene, the ability of the complex to mediate knockdown of an endogenous housekeeping gene, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), was assessed in B16-F10 cells. The ternary complex (siRNA/PEI16/γ-PGA12 complex) exhibited a significant GAPDH knockdown effect. Thus, we developed a useful siRNA delivery system.

  8. Tuning of "antenna effect" of Eu(III) in ternary systems in aqueous medium through binding with protein. (United States)

    Ghorai, Shyamal Kr; Samanta, Swarna Kamal; Mukherjee, Manini; Saha Sardar, Pinki; Ghosh, Sanjib


    A simple ternary system containing a protein [human serum albumin (HSA)/bovine serum albumin (BSA)], tetracycline hydrochloride (TC), and Eu(III) in suitable aqueous buffer medium at physiological pH (= 7.2) has been shown to exhibit highly efficient "antenna effect" compared to the binary complex of TC with Eu(III) (Eu(3)TC). The ternary system containing E. coli alkaline phosphatase (AP), TC, and Eu(III), however, shows a slight enhancement of Eu(III) emission, although the binding constant of AP with TC is 2 orders of magnitude greater than with BSA/HSA. The enhanced emission of bound TC in the binary systems containing proteins and TC gets quenched in the ternary systems containing HSA/BSA, showing the efficient energy transfer (ET) from TC to Eu(III). Steady state and time-resolved emission studies of each component in all the ternary systems in H(2)O and in D(2)O medium reveal that Eu(III) is very well protected from the O-H oscillator in the ternary system containing HSA/BSA compared to that containing AP. The docking studies locating the binding site of TC in the proteins suggest that TC binds near the surface of AP. In the case of HSA/BSA, TC resides in the interior of the protein resulting in a large shielding effect of Eu(III). The rotational correlation time (θ(c)) determined from the anisotropy decay of bound TC in the complexes and the accessible surface area (ASA) of the ligand in the complexes obtained from the docking studies also support the contention that Eu(3)TC is more exposed to solvent in the case of the ternary system consisting of AP, TC, and Eu(III). The calculated radiative lifetime and the sensitization efficiency ratio of Eu(III) in all the systems clearly demonstrate the protein mediated tuning of "antenna effect" in Eu(III).

  9. Experimental measurements of vapor-liquid equilibria of the H2O + CO2 + CH4 ternary system (United States)

    Qin, J.; Rosenbauer, R.J.; Duan, Zhenhao


    Reported are the experimental measurements on vapor-liquid equilibria in the H2O + CO2 + CH4 ternary system at temperatures from (324 to 375) K and pressures from (10 to 50) MPa. The results indicate that the CH4 solubility in the ternary mixture is about 10 % to 40 % more than that calculated by interpolation from the Henry's law constants of the binary system, H2O + CH4, and the solubility of CO2 is 6 % to 20 % more than what is calculated by the interpolation from the Henry's law constants of the binary mixture, H 2O + CO2. ?? 2008 American Chemical Society.

  10. Every ternary permutation constraint satisfaction problem parameterized above average has a kernel with a quadratic number of variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutin, Gregory; Van Iersel, Leo; Mnich, Matthias


    A ternary Permutation-CSP is specified by a subset Π of the symmetric group S3. An instance of such a problem consists of a set of variables V and a multiset of constraints, which are ordered triples of distinct variables of V. The objective is to find a linear ordering α of V that maximizes...... the number of triples whose rearrangement (under α) follows a permutation in Π. We prove that every ternary Permutation-CSP parameterized above average has a kernel with a quadratic number of variables....

  11. Investigation of neutron-induced ternary fission of 238U and 235U with the NIFFTE time projection chamber (United States)

    Kemnitz, A.; Klay, J. L.; Niffte Collaboration


    Ternary fission is a rare process in which a nucleus breaks up into three daughters rather than two. The most common outcome is two heavier fragments accompanied by an alpha particle, with the upper limit for the third daughter set by tri-partition of the nucleus into three nearly equal mass fragments. Tracked fission event data recorded by the NIFFTE collaboration for neutron-induced fission of 238U and 235U targets have been analyzed to determine average opening angles, fragment energies, and production rates as a function of neutron energy for ternary candidates. Preliminary results from these studies will be presented.

  12. Optical characterization of one-step synthesis of ternary nanoalloy by laser ablation of stainless steel target in Hexane (United States)

    Soliman, Wafaa; El-Ansary, Sara; Badr, Yehia


    In this work, we ablated stainless steel target in Hexane by 355 nm by tuning laser power to synthesize ternary nanoalloys from its constituents. XRD patterns didn't match with any machine code of carbides, carbonyls and oxides of target elements. Also, they didn't match with any of binary alloys, suggesting the formation of carbides or carbonyls of ternary nanoalloys. In addition, the optical properties of nanoalloys confirms the resonance fluorescence and multistep excitation. By tuning laser power, the shape of nanoalloys is controlled.

  13. Modification of both d33 and TC in a potassium-sodium niobate ternary system. (United States)

    Wu, Bo; Wu, Jiagang; Xiao, Dingquan; Zhu, Jianguo


    In this work, we simultaneously achieved a giant d33 and a high TC in a lead-free piezoelectric ternary system of (1-x-y)K0.48Na0.52NbO3-xBiFeO3-yBi0.5Na0.5ZrO3 {(1-x-y)KNN-xBF-yBNZ}. Owing to the rhombohedral-orthorhombic-tetragonal (R-O-T) phase coexistence and the enhanced dielectric and ferroelectric properties, the ceramics with a composition of (x = 0.006, y = 0.04) show a giant d33 of ∼428 pC N(-1) together with a TC of ∼318 °C, thereby proving that the design of ternary systems is an effective way to achieve both high d33 and high TC in KNN-based materials. In addition, a good thermal stability for piezoelectricity was also observed in these ceramics (e.g., d33 > 390 pC N(-1), T ≤ 300 °C). This is the first time such a good comprehensive performance in potassium-sodium niobate materials has been obtained. As a result, we believe that this type of material system with both giant d33 and high TC is a promising candidate for high-temperature piezoelectric devices.

  14. Ternary WD40 repeat-containing protein complexes: evolution, composition and roles in plant immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimi C. Miller


    Full Text Available Plants, like mammals, rely on their innate immune system to perceive and discriminate among the majority of their microbial pathogens. Unlike mammals, plants respond to this molecular dialogue by unleashing a complex chemical arsenal of defense metabolites to resist or evade pathogen infection. In basal or non-host resistance, plants utilize signal transduction pathways to detect non-self, damaged-self and altered-self-associated molecular patterns and translate these danger signals into largely inducible chemical defenses. The WD40 repeat (WDR-containing proteins Gβ and TTG1 are constituents of two independent ternary protein complexes functioning at opposite ends of a plant immune signaling pathway. Gβ and TTG1 are also encoded by single-copy genes that are ubiquitous in higher plants, implying the limited diversity and functional conservation of their respective complexes. In this review, we summarize what is currently known about the evolutionary history of these WDR-containing ternary complexes, their repertoire and combinatorial interactions, and their downstream effectors and pathways in plant defense.

  15. Establishment of a ternary network system for evaluating the antioxidant fraction of Danhong injection. (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Jiang, Zhenzuo; Yang, Fan; Chai, Xin; Zhu, Yan; Zhao, Xiaoya; Jiang, Miaomiao; Yang, Jing; Zhao, Buchang; Qian, Ke; Wang, Yuefei


    Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in numerous cardiovascular diseases. As an effective therapy, Danhong injection (DHI) is considered to act through an antioxidant mechanism for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. In our study, we focused on the potential contribution of the antioxidant capacity of DHI fractions (Frs) and established an innovative screening method based on a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity assay. A ternary network evaluation system, which was constructed based on the radical scavenging activity, the area under the activity-concentration curve and the solid content of the fractions, was implemented to select the fractions that posed the greatest antioxidant effect. As a result, Frs 5-7 and Frs 17-19 were shown to exhibit superior antioxidant activity according to the regression area of the ternary network, which was >0.5. Furthermore, the active fractions were characterized by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry combined with nuclear magnetic resonance. This study provided an effective method for the comprehensive evaluation of the antioxidant effect of DHI fractions. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Physicochemical, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic evaluations of novel ternary solid dispersion of rebamipide with poloxamer 407. (United States)

    Park, Chun-Woong; Tung, Nguyen-Thach; Rhee, Yun-Seok; Kim, Ju-Young; Oh, Tack-Oon; Ha, Jung-Myung; Chi, Sang-Cheol; Park, Eun-Seok


    This study was conducted primarily to improve the solubility of rebamipide, a poorly water-soluble anti-ulcer drug, using novel ternary solid dispersion (SD) systems and secondly to evaluate the effect of solubility enhancement on its pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) profile. After dissolving the three components in aqueous medium, ternary SD containing the drug, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and PVP-VA 64 was achieved by spray drying method, which was used as primary SD. Poloxamer 407, a surfactant polymer, was incorporated in this primary SD by four different methods: co-grinding, physical mixing, melting or spray drying. SD was then characterized by dissolution test, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The spray dried SD of poloxamer 407 together with primary SD displayed highest dissolution rate of the drug of about 70% after 2 h. DSC, PXRD and FT-IR characterized the amorphous state and molecular dispersion of the drug in the SD. PK and PD studies in Sprague-Dawley rats revealed that the bioavailability of the drug using optimal SD was about twofold higher than that of reference product, and the irritation area of stomach was significantly reduced in the ulcer-induced rat model using optimal SD as compared to the reference product.

  17. Study on La–Mg based ternary system for hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capurso, Giovanni, E-mail: [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Università di Padova, via Marzolo 9, 35131 Padova (Italy); Naik, Mehraj-ud-din; Lo Russo, Sergio [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “Galileo Galilei”, Università di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Maddalena, Amedeo [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Università di Padova, via Marzolo 9, 35131 Padova (Italy); Saccone, Adriana; Gastaldo, Federica; De Negri, Serena [Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, Università di Genova, via Dodecaneso 31, 16146 Genova (Italy)


    Highlights: ► Explorative study in the Mg-rich corner of the La–Pd–Mg ternary system. ► The studied alloys lay on the La{sub 2}(Mg{sub 1−x}Pd{sub x}){sub 17} compositional line. ► Higher Pd content results in lower H{sub 2} capacity, but higher equilibrium pressures. ► The highest absorbed hydrogen quantity is 4.8 wt% at 2 MPa and 310 °C. -- Abstract: An explorative study on the hydriding/dehydriding characteristics of the La{sub 2}(Mg,Pd){sub 17} ternary alloy, with different Pd content, is presented. All the samples were prepared by induction melting of the selected elements, characterized with scanning electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction, to detect present phases, and subsequently milled with a high-energy shaker apparatus. The hydrogen reaction kinetics and thermodynamics properties have been investigated by means of a volumetric Sievert’s apparatus. The measured H{sub 2} gravimetric capacity of the alloy varied with the Pd content, being the highest for the sample without Pd (>4.5 wt%). A possible correlation between the constituent phases individuated with microanalysis and the variation in the hydrogenation behaviour is proposed.

  18. Single-Layer Ternary Chalcogenide Nanosheet as a Fluorescence-Based "Capture-Release" Biomolecular Nanosensor. (United States)

    Kenry; Geldert, Alisha; Lai, Zhuangchai; Huang, Ying; Yu, Peng; Tan, Chaoliang; Liu, Zheng; Zhang, Hua; Lim, Chwee Teck


    The novel application of two-dimensional (2D) single-layer ternary chalcogenide nanosheets as "capture-release" fluorescence-based biomolecular nanosensors is demonstrated. Fluorescently labeled biomolecular probe is first captured by the ultrathin Ta2 NiS5 nanosheets and then released upon adding analyte containing a target biomolecule due to the higher probe-target affinity. Here, the authors use a nucleic acid probe for the model target biomolecule Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase, which is an important malarial biomarker. The ultrathin Ta2 NiS5 nanosheet serves as a highly efficient fluorescence quencher and the nanosensor developed from the nanosheet is highly sensitive and specific toward the target biomolecule. Apart from the specificity toward the target biomolecule in homogeneous solutions, the developed nanosensor is capable of detecting and differentiating the target in heterogeneous solutions consisting of either a mixture of biomolecules or serum, with exceptional specificity. The simplicity of the "capture-release" method, by eliminating the need for preincubation of the probe with the test sample, may facilitate further development of portable and rapid biosensors. The authors anticipate that this ternary chalcogenide nanosheet-based biomolecular nanosensor will be useful for the rapid detection and differentiation of a wide range of chemical and biological species. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Green options for anti-corrosion of high strength concrete incorporating ternary pozzolan materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yuan-Yuan


    Full Text Available This paper applied the densified mixture design algorithm(DMDA method by incorporating ternary pozzolans (fly ash, slag and silica fume; mix I and mix II to design high strength concrete (HSC mixtures with w/cm ratios from 0.24 to 0.30. Concrete without pozzolans was used as a control group (mix III, w/c from 0.24 to 0.30, and silica fume (5% was added as a substitute for part of the cement and set as mix IV. Experiments performed compressive strength, four-point resistance meter to measure the conductivity, and rapid chloride ion penetrability tests (ASTM C1202 were assessed the anti-corrosion. The life cycle inventory of LEED suggested by the PCA indicated the green options for cementitious materials. Results showed that mix I and II indicated cement used, CO2 reduction, raw materials and energy consumption all decreased more 50% than mix III, and mix IV was 5% less. The compressive strength and anti-corrosion levels showed that mix I and II were better than mix III and IV, and with ternary pozzolans could enhance the long-term durability (92 days due to a resistivity greater 20 KΩ-cm and a charge passed lower than 2000 Coulombs. HSC with an appropriate design could reduce the carbon footprint and improve the durability.

  20. Stretchable, Highly Durable Ternary Nanocomposite Strain Sensor for Structural Health Monitoring of Flexible Aircraft. (United States)

    Yin, Feng; Ye, Dong; Zhu, Chen; Qiu, Lei; Huang, YongAn


    Harmonious developments of electrical and mechanical performances are crucial for stretchable sensors in structural health monitoring (SHM) of flexible aircraft such as aerostats and morphing aircrafts. In this study, we prepared a highly durable ternary conductive nanocomposite made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), carbon black (CB) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) to fabricate stretchable strain sensors. The nanocomposite has excellent electrical and mechanical properties by intensively optimizing the weight percentage of conducting fillers as well as the ratio of PDMS pre-polymer and curing agent. It was found that the nanocomposite with homogeneous hybrid filler of 1.75 wt % CB and 3 wt % MWCNTs exhibits a highly strain sensitive characteristics of good linearity, high gauge factor (GF ~ 12.25) and excellent durability over 10⁵ stretching-releasing cycles under a tensile strain up to 25% when the PDMS was prepared at the ratio of 12.5:1. A strain measurement of crack detection for the aerostats surface was also employed, demonstrating a great potential of such ternary nanocomposite used as stretchable strain sensor in SHM.

  1. Comparison of three ternary lipid bilayer mixtures: FRET and ESR reveal nanodomains. (United States)

    Heberle, Frederick A; Wu, Jing; Goh, Shih Lin; Petruzielo, Robin S; Feigenson, Gerald W


    Phase diagrams of ternary lipid mixtures containing cholesterol have provided valuable insight into cell membrane behaviors, especially by describing regions of coexisting liquid-disordered (Ld) and liquid-ordered (Lo) phases. Fluorescence microscopy imaging of giant unilamellar vesicles has greatly assisted the determination of phase behavior in these systems. However, the requirement for optically resolved Ld + Lo domains can lead to the incorrect inference that in lipid-only mixtures, Ld + Lo domain coexistence generally shows macroscopic domains. Here we show this inference is incorrect for the low melting temperature phosphatidylcholines abundant in mammalian plasma membranes. By use of high compositional resolution Förster resonance energy transfer measurements, together with electron spin resonance data and spectral simulation, we find that ternary mixtures of DSPC and cholesterol together with either POPC or SOPC, do indeed have regions of Ld + Lo coexistence. However, phase domains are much smaller than the optical resolution limit, likely on the order of the Förster distance for energy transfer (R(0), ∼2-8 nm). Copyright © 2010 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Graphical tests for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium based on the ternary plot. (United States)

    Graffelman, Jan; Camarena, Jair Morales


    We design a graphical test for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. This can circumvent the calculation of p values and the statistical (non)significance of a large number of bi-allelic markers can be inferred from their position in a graph. By rewriting expressions for the chi(2) statistic (with and without continuity correction) in terms of the heterozygote frequency an acceptance region for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium is obtained that can be depicted in a ternary plot. We obtain equations for curves in the ternary plot that separate markers that are out of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium from those that are in equilibrium. The curves depend on the chosen significance level, the sample size and on a continuity correction parameter. Some examples of graphical tests using a set of 106 SNPs on the long arm of human chromosome 22 are described. Significant markers and poor markers with a lot of missing values are easily identified in the proposed plots. R software for making the diagrams is provided. The proposed graphs can be used as control charts for spotting problematic markers in large scale genotyping studies, and constitute an excellent tool for the graphical exploration of bi-allelic marker data. (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Ultrathin ternary semiconductor TlGaSe2 phototransistors with broad-spectral response (United States)

    Yang, Shengxue; Wu, Minghui; Wang, Hui; Cai, Hui; Huang, Li; Jiang, Chengbao; Tongay, Sefaattin


    Ternary layered III-III-VI2-type metal chalcogenides are a comparatively new group of semiconductors and have attracted strong interest due to their distinct optical and electrical properties in view of potential applications in nonlinear optical, acousto-optical and optoelectronic devices. Here, we report on the fabrication of two-terminal phototransistors based on ultrathin direct-bandgap TlGaSe2 sheets for the first time. Devices exhibit typical p-type conducting behaviors with current on/off ratio of ~102 and gate-tunable transport characteristics. The photocurrent presents stable and reproducible response for various wavelengths of light from ultraviolet (UV) to near-infrared region, confirming the broadband photodetection capability. Photoresponsive behavior of ultrathin TlGaSe2 phototransistors can be modulated by the incident optical power density or wavelength, as well as bias or back-gate voltages. Owing to the presence of direct bandgap, devices possess high photoresponsivity (270 mA W-1) under white light in vacuum, and it is higher than that of single-layer MoS2 phototransistor and graphene photodetectors, accompanying by a fast response time of ~0.2 s. Our studies introduce ternary alloy monochalcogenides phototransistors, and expand the library of ultrathin flexible semiconductors.

  4. Experimental investigation and thermodynamic assessment of phase equilibria in the Nb–Si–Zr ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, J.; Guo, Y.H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Materials, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Yang, S.Y.; Shi, Z.; Wang, C.P. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Materials, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Research Center of Materials Design and Applications, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Liu, X.J., E-mail: [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Materials, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Research Center of Materials Design and Applications, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)


    Highlights: • The sections of Nb–Si–Zr system at 1373, 1473 and 1573 K were determined. • Large solubilities of Nb in αZr{sub 5}Si{sub 4}, Zr{sub 3}Si{sub 2} and Zr{sub 2}Si phases were observed. • The thermodynamic assessment of Nb–Si–Zr ternary system was carried out. - Abstract: In this study, the phase equilibria of Nb–Si–Zr at 1373 K, 1473 K and 1573 K were experimentally determined by means of back-scattered electron (BSE), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results show that there were five three-phase regions and sixteen two-phase regions in the studied isothermal sections, and no any ternary compounds were found. The solubility of Si in the Nb–Zr side is very small. Large solubilities of Nb in αZr{sub 5}Si{sub 4}, Zr{sub 3}Si{sub 2} and Zr{sub 2}Si phases were observed, otherwise the solubilities of Nb in ZrSi{sub 2}, αZrSi and Zr{sub 3}Si phases are relatively small. Based on the present experimental results, the thermodynamic assessment of Nb–Si–Zr system was carried out using the CALPHAD (Calculation of Phase Diagrams) method. The current calculated phase diagrams are in reasonable agreement with the present experimental data.

  5. Study on Flexural Behaviour of Ternary Blended Reinforced Self Compacting Concrete Beam with Conventional RCC Beam (United States)

    Marshaline Seles, M.; Suryanarayanan, R.; Vivek, S. S.; Dhinakaran, G.


    The conventional concrete when used for structures having dense congested reinforcement, the problems such as external compaction and vibration needs special attention. In such case, the self compacting concrete (SCC) which has the properties like flow ability, passing and filling ability would be an obvious answer. All those SCC flow behavior was governed by EFNARC specifications. In present study, the combination type of SCC was prepared by replacing cement with silica fume (SF) and metakaolin (MK) along with optimum dosages of chemical admixtures. From the fresh property test, cube compressive strength and cylinder split tensile strength, optimum ternary mix was obtained. In order to study the flexural behavior, the optimum ternary mix was taken in which beam specimens of size 1200 mm x 100 mm x 200 mm was designed as singly reinforced section according to IS: 456-2000, Limit state method. Finally the comparative experimental analysis was made between conventional RCC and SCC beams of same grade in terms of flexural strength namely yield load & ultimate load, load- deflection curve, crack size and pattern respectively.

  6. Structural and thermal properties of Cd–Zn–Te ternary nanoparticles: Molecular-dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurban, Mustafa [Department of Physics, Middle East Technical University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Barış Malcıoğlu, O. [Lehrstuhl fuer Theoretische Festkoerperphysik, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Staudtstr. 7/B2D, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Erkoç, Şakir, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Middle East Technical University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)


    Highlights: • Heat capacity values show size and composition dependence in CdZnTe ternary nanoparticles. • The order parameter of Cd{sub 0.75}Zn{sub 0.25}Te is largest with respect to that of Cd{sub 0.25}Zn{sub 0.75}Te and Cd{sub 0.50}Zn{sub 0.50}Te. • The RDF shows a temperature dependence; peaks are sharper and higher at 100 K with respect to that of at 600 K. - Abstract: A molecular dynamics simulations using a recently developed CdZnTe bond order potential is carried out to study structural and thermodynamical properties of the CdZnTe spherical-like ternary nanoparticles with 167–357 atoms in the temperature range 100 K–600 K. The heat capacity calculation is performed as depending the size and the stoichiometry at various temperatures using a non-equilibrated molecular dynamics simulation strategy. Furthermore, the segregation phenomena of Cd, Zn, and Te atoms in the Cd–Zn–Te nanoparticles are investigated by calculating the order parameter R depending on nanoparticle size and temperature. The radial distribution function has also been calculated for the Cd{sub 0.50}Zn{sub 0.50}Te nanoparticle with 357 atoms at 100 K and 600 K.

  7. Application of Differential Colorimetry To Evaluate Anthocyanin-Flavonol-Flavanol Ternary Copigmentation Interactions in Model Solutions. (United States)

    Gordillo, Belén; Rodríguez-Pulido, Francisco J; González-Miret, M Lourdes; Quijada-Morín, Natalia; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; García-Estévez, Ignacio; Heredia, Francisco J; Escribano-Bailón, M Teresa


    The combined effect of anthocyanin-flavanol-flavonol ternary interactions on the colorimetric and chemical stability of malvidin-3-glucoside has been studied. Model solutions with fixed malvidin-3-glucoside/(+)-catechin ratio (MC) and variable quercetin-3-β-d-glucoside concentration (MC+Q) and solutions with fixed malvidin-3-glucoside/quercetin-3-β-d-glucoside ratio (MQ) and variable (+)-catechin concentration (MQ+C) were tested at levels closer to those existing in wines. Color variations during storage were evaluated by differential colorimetry. Changes in the anthocyanin concentration were monitored by HPLC-DAD. CIELAB color-difference formulas were demonstrated to be of practical interest to assess the stronger and more stable interaction of quercetin-3-β-d-glucoside with MC binary mixture than (+)-catechin with MQ mixture. The results imply that MC+Q ternary solutions kept their intensity and bluish tonalities for a longer time in comparison to MQ+C solutions. The stability of malvidin-3-glucoside improves when the concentration of quercetin-3-β-d-glucoside increases in MC+Q mixtures, whereas the addition of (+)-catechin in MQ+C mixtures resulted in an opposite effect.

  8. Prediction of the Flash Point of Binary and Ternary Straight-Chain Alkane Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Li


    Full Text Available The flash point is an important physical property used to estimate the fire hazard of a flammable liquid. To avoid the occurrence of fire or explosion, many models are used to predict the flash point; however, these models are complex, and the calculation process is cumbersome. For pure flammable substances, the research for predicting the flash point is systematic and comprehensive. For multicomponent mixtures, especially a hydrocarbon mixture, the current research is insufficient to predict the flash point. In this study, a model was developed to predict the flash point of straight-chain alkane mixtures using a simple calculation process. The pressure, activity coefficient, and other associated physicochemical parameters are not required for the calculation in the proposed model. A series of flash points of binary and ternary mixtures of straight-chain alkanes were determined. The results of the model present consistent experimental results with an average absolute deviation for the binary mixtures of 0.7% or lower and an average absolute deviation for the ternary mixtures of 1.03% or lower.

  9. Novel PdAgCu ternary alloy: Hydrogen permeation and surface properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarditi, Ana M.; Braun, Fernando [Instituto de Investigaciones en Catalisis y Petroquimica (FIQ, UNL-CONICET), Santiago del Estero 2829, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina); Cornaglia, Laura M., E-mail: [Instituto de Investigaciones en Catalisis y Petroquimica (FIQ, UNL-CONICET), Santiago del Estero 2829, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina)


    Dense PdAgCu ternary alloy composite membranes were synthesized by the sequential electroless plating of Pd, Ag and Cu on top of both disk and tubular porous stainless steel substrates. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were employed to study the structure and morphology of the tested samples. The hydrogen permeation performance of these membranes was investigated over a 350-450 deg. C temperature range and a trans-membrane pressure up to 100 kPa. After annealing at 500 deg. C in hydrogen stream followed by permeation experiments, the alloy layer presented a FCC crystalline phase with a bulk concentration of 68% Pd, 7% Ag and 25% Cu as revealed by EDS. The PdAgCu tubular membrane was found to be stable during more than 300 h on hydrogen stream. The permeabilities of the PdAgCu ternary alloy samples were higher than the permeabilities of the PdCu alloy membranes with a FCC phase. The co-segregation of silver and copper to the membrane surface was observed after hydrogen permeation experiments at high temperature as determined by XPS.

  10. Thermophysical properties for (diethyl carbonate + p-xylene + octane) ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosteiro, L. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Vigo, Lagoas Marcosende s/n, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Casas, L.M., E-mail: [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Vigo, Lagoas Marcosende s/n, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Curras, M.R. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Vigo, Lagoas Marcosende s/n, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Mariano, A.B. [Laboratorio de Fisicoquimica, Departamento de Quimica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de Comahue, 8300 Neuquen (Argentina); Legido, J.L. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Vigo, Lagoas Marcosende s/n, 36310 Vigo (Spain)


    Highlights: > Thermophysical properties of (diethyl carbonate + p-xylene + octane) were measured. > Excess molar volumes and isentropic compressibilities were determined and correlated. > Ternary surface tension deviations were correlated using Cibulka equation. > Intermolecular interactions based on the derived properties trend were discussed. - Abstract: The density and speed of sound of the ternary mixture (diethyl carbonate + p-xylene + octane) have been measured at atmospheric pressure and in the temperature range T = (288.15 to 308.15) K. Besides, surface tension has been also determined for the same mixture at T = 298.15 K. The experimental measurements have allowed the calculation of the corresponding derived properties: excess molar volumes, excess isentropic compressibilities, and surface tension deviations. Excess properties have been correlated using Nagata and Tamura equation and correlation for the surface tension deviation has been done with the Cibulka equation. Good accuracy has been obtained. Based on the variations of the derived properties values with composition, a qualitative discussion about the intermolecular interactions was drawn.

  11. Crystal Structures of Murine Carnitine Acetyltransferase in Ternary Complexes with Its Substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsiao,Y.; Jogl, G.; Tong, L.


    Carnitine acyltransferases catalyze the reversible exchange of acyl groups between coenzyme A (CoA) and carnitine. They have important roles in many cellular processes, especially the oxidation of long-chain fatty acids in the mitochondria for energy production, and are attractive targets for drug discovery against diabetes and obesity. To help define in molecular detail the catalytic mechanism of these enzymes, we report here the high resolution crystal structure of wild-type murine carnitine acetyltransferase (CrAT) in a ternary complex with its substrates acetyl-CoA and carnitine, and the structure of the S554A/M564G double mutant in a ternary complex with the substrates CoA and hexanoylcarnitine. Detailed analyses suggest that these structures may be good mimics for the Michaelis complexes for the forward and reverse reactions of the enzyme, representing the first time that such complexes of CrAT have been studied in molecular detail. The structural information provides significant new insights into the catalytic mechanism of CrAT and possibly carnitine acyltransferases in general.

  12. Rheological study of self-compacting mortars based on ternary cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elhadja Dada


    Full Text Available Self-compacting concrete (SCC is able to provide the ability to be easily implemented without vibration and to achieve spectacular structures, by its high fluidity and its rheological stability. By against its formulation requires a large volume of cement, which is necessary to allow its flow. The current environmental considerations lead to reduce the production of clinker however, it is essential to use cementitious additions to replace cement, because of their high availability and their moderate price. Furthermore, their use contributes in a simple and economical way to solve the problems related to the environment. The objective of our work is to study the effects of the incorporation of mineral additions such as: blast furnace slag of El-Hadjar (BFS, and marble powder (MP on the rheological parameters of selfcompacting mortars developed in different combinations in ternary system with a substitution rate ranging from 20% to 60%. According to this study, it been found that the substitution of cement by blast furnace slag and marble powder has negatively affected the rheological behavior of the mixtures. In addition, a considerable decrease in the rheological parameters has been achieved with a substitution rate of 20% of slag and 30% of marble powder. As well as an improvement of workability has been proven to self-compacting mortars and this is due to the increase of ternary cement replacement rate by marble powder from 20% to 30%.

  13. Liquid-liquid equilibria of the ternary system thiophene + octane + dimethyl sulfoxide at several temperatures. (United States)

    Zhang, Wenlin; Hou, Kaihu; Mi, Guanjie; Chen, Na


    Liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE) data of the ternary system thiophene + octane + dimethyl sulfoxide at 40 degrees C, 50 degrees C, and 60 degrees C under atmospheric pressure were determined using an equilibrium cell with the standard curve method. The distribution of thiophene between extract and raffinate was measured and a practical formula of equilibria data for industrial extraction was proposed. NRTL model and UNIQUAC model were used to correlate and calculate LLE data of the system, and model parameters were determined using the simplex optimization method and imitative Newton method with a minimized objective function of mole fraction deviation. The rule of thermodynamic equilibria was used to deal with multi-roots problem in correlating process. Agreement between predicted and experimental data was satisfactory. The average absolute deviations of the NRTL and UNIQUAC models of thiophene mass fraction were 0.0040 and 0.0078, respectively. Both NRTL and UNIQUAC models were suitable for the calculation of LLE data of the ternary system thiophene + octane + dimethyl sulfoxide. The correlation accuracy of NRTL model is inferior to that of UNIQUAC model.

  14. Scalable Preparation of Ternary Hierarchical Silicon Oxide-Nickel-Graphite Composites for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang , Jing [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Key Laboratory of Environmental Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 China; National Development Center of High Technology Green Materials, Beijing 100081 China; Innovation Center of Electric Vehicles, Beijing 100081 China; Bao, Wurigumula [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Key Laboratory of Environmental Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 China; Ma, Lu [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue Lemont Illinois 60439 USA; Tan, Guoqiang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Key Laboratory of Environmental Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 China; Su , Yuefeng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Key Laboratory of Environmental Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 China; National Development Center of High Technology Green Materials, Beijing 100081 China; Innovation Center of Electric Vehicles, Beijing 100081 China; Chen , Shi [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Key Laboratory of Environmental Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 China; National Development Center of High Technology Green Materials, Beijing 100081 China; Innovation Center of Electric Vehicles, Beijing 100081 China; Wu , Feng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Key Laboratory of Environmental Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 China; National Development Center of High Technology Green Materials, Beijing 100081 China; Innovation Center of Electric Vehicles, Beijing 100081 China; Lu, Jun [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue Lemont Illinois 60439 USA; Amine, Khalil [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue Lemont Illinois 60439 USA


    Silicon monoxide is a promising anode candidate because of its high theoretical capacity and good cycle performance. To solve the problems associated with this material, including large volume changes during charge-discharge processes, we report a ternary hierarchical silicon oxide–nickel–graphite composite prepared by a facile two-step ball-milling method. The composite consists of nano-Si dispersed silicon oxides embedded in nano-Ni/graphite matrices (Si@SiOx/Ni/graphite). In the composite, crystalline nano-Si particles are generated by the mechanochemical reduction of SiO by ball milling with Ni. These nano-Si dispersed oxides have abundant electrochemical activity and can provide high Li-ion storage capacity. Furthermore, the milled nano-Ni/graphite matrices stick well to active materials and interconnect to form a crosslinked framework, which functions as an electrical highway and a mechanical backbone so that all silicon oxide particles become electrochemically active. Owing to these advanced structural and electrochemical characteristics, the composite enhances the utilization efficiency of SiO, accommodates its large volume expansion upon cycling, and has good ionic and electronic conductivity. The composite electrodes thus exhibit substantial improvements in electrochemical performance. This ternary hierarchical Si@SiOx/Ni/graphite composite is a promising candidate anode material for high-energy lithium-ion batteries. Additionally, the mechanochemical ball-milling method is low cost and easy to reproduce, indicating potential for the commercial production of the composite materials.

  15. The ternary post-transition metal carbodiimide SrZn(NCN){sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corkett, Alex J.; Konze, Philipp M. [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Dronskowski, Richard [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Juelich-Aachen Research Alliance (JARA-HPC), RWTH-Aachen University, Aachen (Germany)


    SrZn(NCN){sub 2}, the first example of a ternary post-transition metal carbodiimide, was prepared by a solid-state metathesis reaction. The crystal structure was solved from PXRD data and found to adopt the orthorhombic (Cmcm) BaZnSO structure, a high symmetry modification of that expressed by the oxide analogue SrZnO{sub 2}. Locally, SrZn(NCN){sub 2} features ZnN{sub 4} tetrahedra and SrN{sub 6} trigonal prisms similar to those in quarternary LiSr{sub 2}M(NCN){sub 4} (M = Al{sup 3+} and Ga{sup 3+}) phases, however, the overall topologies are distinct with single chains in the former and double chains in the latter. Electronic structure calculations indicate an indirect bandgap of about 2.95 eV in SrZn(NCN){sub 2}, slightly lower than the experimentally observed bandgap of 3.4 eV in SrZnO{sub 2} and consistent with a greater degree of covalency. The structural similarities between SrZn(NCN){sub 2} and oxychalcogenide analogues highlight the pseudochalcogenide character of NCN{sup 2-} and suggest that the title compound may serve as a template for accessing novel ternary carbodiimides featuring tetrahedrally coordinated transition metals. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Analysis of cutoff frequency in one dimensional ternary superconducting photonic crystal (United States)

    K. P., Sreejith; Maria D'souza, Nirmala; Mathew, Vincent


    By means of two fluid model and transfer matrix method, we have theoretically investigated the transmittance property of a one dimensional ternary photonic crystal consist of a pair of superconducting materials and a dielectric in the infrared frequency region. We mainly focus on the analysis of cutoff frequency since the calculations can be useful in the fabrication of optical devices such as reflector, high pass filter etc. The study reveals that the cutoff frequency is sensitive to thickness of superconducting materials, dielectric layer thickness, operating temperature and refractive index of intermediate dielectric. Cutoff frequency shifted to higher frequency region on increasing number of periods and superconductor layer thickness where as it reduces on increasing dielectric thickness, operating temperature and refractive index of intermediate dielectric. Furthermore, we compared the cutoff frequency of three different 1D ternary photonic crystals comprising of a dielectric and a pair of high-high, high-low and low-low temperature superconducting materials. Our comparison results shows that the cutoff frequency can be effectively modified with different combination of superconducting materials.

  17. Synthesis, characterization and microwave characteristics of ternary nanocomposite of MWCNTs/doped Sr-hexaferrite/PANI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seyyed Afghahi, Seyyed Salman [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Imam Hossein University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Peymanfar, Reza; Javanshir, Shahrzad [Department of Chemistry, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Atassi, Yomen [Department of Applied Physics, Higher Institute for Applied Sciences and Technology, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Jafarian, Mojtaba, E-mail: [Young Researchers and Elites Club, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Substituted strontium ferrite (sub-SF) nanoparticles are prepared by a sol-gel method and added to functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The ternary nanocomposite of MWCNTs/sub-SF/polyaniline (PANI) is prepared by in-situ polymerization of aniline on MWCNTs/sub-SF reaction mixture. The morphology, structure and magnetic properties of the nanocomposites are investigated by SEM, XRD, FTIR and VSM, respectively. The microwave characteristics are measured using a vector network analyzer. The XRD patterns exhibit representative diffraction peaks corresponding to hexagonal structure, and the structure of the MWCNTs is not distorted. SEM micrographs show that sub-SF nanoparticles and PANI chains are uniformly dispersed on the surface of MWCNTs. The MWCNTs/sub-SF/PANI exhibit a minimum reflection loss of −26 dB at 10 GHz with 3 GHz bandwidth and a matching thickness of 5 mm. This excellent microwave characteristic indicates the synergistic effect of the three components to enhance the impedance matching and improve the microwave absorption properties of the composite. - Highlights: • Novel ternary nanocomposite of MWCNTs/sub-SF/polyaniline (PANI) is prepared by in-situ polymerization. • The prepared single composite absorber are lightweight with 20 wt% filler content in parafin. • Composites with a combination of magnetic and dielectric fillers exhibit wider reflection loss peaks. • Composite absorber exhibit a minimum reflection loss of −26 dB at 10 GHz with 3 GHz bandwidth with a matching thickness of 5 mm.

  18. Hierarchical ternary Ni-Co-Se nanowires for high-performance supercapacitor device design. (United States)

    Guo, Kailu; Cui, Shizhong; Hou, Hongwei; Chen, Weihua; Mi, Liwei


    Large-scale uniform Ni-Co-Se bimetallic ternary nanowires have been successfully synthesized through a successive cation exchange. First, NiSe nanowires in situ grown on nickel foam (NF) were prepared by a facile solvothermal route. Next, a series of ternary materials possessing different proportions of Ni and Co were fabricated by a Co-exchange method using the Ni@NiSe material as a template, which effectively achieved morphological inheritance from the parent material. To explore the electrochemical performance, all synthetic materials were assembled into asymmetric supercapacitor devices. Among asymmetric supercapacitor devices, the Ni@Ni0.8Co0.2Se//active carbon (AC) device exhibited a high specific capacitance of 86 F g-1 at a current density of 1 A g-1 and excellent cycling stability with virtually no decrease in capacitance after 2000 continuous charge-discharge cycles. This device still delivered an energy density of 17 Wh kg-1 even at a high power density of 1526.8 W kg-1. These superior electrochemical properties of Ni@Ni0.8Co0.2Se as an electrode material for supercapacitor devices confirmed the synergistic effect between Co and Ni ions, suggesting their potential application in the field of energy storage.

  19. On the site preferences of ternary additions to triple defect B2 intermetallic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pike, L.M.; Chen, S.L.; Chang, Y.A. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)] [and others


    Knowledge of the site preference of ternary solute additions is essential to developing an understanding of how these solutes affect the properties of B2 intermetallic compounds. A quasichemical model will be presented which is able to predict the site preferences of dilute solute additions to triple defect B2 compounds. The only parameters required are enthalpies of formation at the stoichiometric composition. General equations are developed which can be used to determine site occupations and defect concentrations for dilute as well as non-dilute solute additions. These equations use atom pair bond enthalpies as the parameters. It is found that the site preferences of dilute additions are not always in agreement with predictions based on the solubility lobes in ternary Gibbs isotherms, Predictions for dilute additions to NiAl and FeAl are compared to experimental results found in the literature. Satisfactory correlation is found between the model and the experimental results. In addition, the predictions from the model on vacancy concentrations in Fe doped NiAl are compared to recent experimental results by the authors.

  20. The band gap of II-Vi ternary alloys in a tight-binding description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olguin, Daniel; Blanquero, Rafael [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico, D.F (Mexico); De Coss, Romeo [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Yucatan (Mexico)


    We present tight-binding calculations for the band gap of II-Vi pseudobinary ternary alloys. We use an sp{sup 3} s* tight-binding Hamiltonian which include spin-orbit coupling. The band gap composition dependence is calculated using a extended version of the virtual crystal approximation, which introduce an empirical correction factor that takes into account the non-linear dependence of the band gap with the composition. The results compare quite well with the experimental data, both for the ternary alloys with wide band gap and for the narrow band gap ones. [Spanish] Presentamos el calculo de la banda de energia prohibida de aleaciones ternarias de compuestos II-VI. El calculo, que incluye interaccion espin-orbita, se hace con el metodo de enlace fuerte, utilizando una base ortogonal de cinco orbitales atomicos por atomo (sp{sup 3} s*), en conjunto con la aproximacion del cristal virtual. En la aproximacion del cristal virtual, incluimos un factor de correccion que toma en cuenta la no linealidad de la banda de energia prohibida como funcion de la concentracion. Con esta correccion nuestros resultados reproducen aceptablemente los datos experimentales hallados en la literatura.

  1. Ternary feldspar thermometry of Paleoproterozoic granulites from In-Ouzzal terrane (Western Hoggar, southern Algeria) (United States)

    Benbatta, A.; Bendaoud, A.; Cenki-Tok, B.; Adjerid, Z.; Lacène, K.; Ouzegane, K.


    The In Ouzzal terrane in western Hoggar (Southern Algeria) preserves evidence of ultrahigh temperature (UHT) crustal metamorphism. It consists in Archean crustal units, composed of orthogneissic domes and greenstone belts, strongly remobilized during the Paleoproterozoic orogeny which was recognized as an UHT event (peak T > 1000 °C and P ≈ 9-12 kbar). This metamorphism was essentially defined locally in Al-Mg granulites, Al-Fe granulites and quartzites outcropping in the Northern part of the In Ouzzal terrane (IOT). In order to test and verify the regional spread of the UHT metamorphism in this terrane, ternary feldspar thermometry on varied rock types (Metanorite, Granulite Al-Mg and Orthogneiss) and samples that crop out in different zones of the In Ouzzal terrane. These rocks contain either perthitic, antiperthitic or mesoperthitic parageneses. Ternary feldspars used in this study have clearly a metamorphic origin. The obtained results combined with previous works show that this UHT metamorphism (>900 °C) affected the whole In Ouzzal crustal block. This is of major importance as for future discussion on the geodynamic context responsible for this regional UHT metamorphism.

  2. Effect of rubber polarity on selective wetting of carbon nanotubes in ternary blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. H. Le


    Full Text Available Based on atomic force microscopy (AFM and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR analysis of the rubber-filler gel (wetting concept the kinetics of selective wetting of carbon nanotubes (CNTs in ternary styrene butadiene rubber (SBR/butadiene rubber (BR/natural rubber (NR blends was qualitatively and quantitatively characterized. Almost all CNTs are found to be wetted by the non-polar NR but not by the other non-polar rubber like BR or weakly polar SBR. It was proposed that phospholipids, which are linked to the α-terminal of NR can interact with the CNT surface through cation-π interactions forming strong bonding between NR and CNTs. Using the corrected surface tension value of NR, which involves the effect of phospholipids found in our previous work the selective wetting of CNTs in ternary rubber blends can be well predicted using the Z-model for a thermodynamic equilibrium state. By replacing the non-polar BR by a polar rubber like nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR as a blend component CNTs are wetted by NBR slightly more than by NR thanks to the strong interaction between CNTs and nitrile groups of NBR. SBR remains unbound to CNTs in both blends.

  3. Synergistic Action of a Ternary System of Portland Cement - Limestone - Silica Fume in Concrete (United States)

    Zelić, J.; Jozić, D.; Krpan-Lisica, D.

    Some experimental investigations on a synergistic action when a ternary system of Portland cement - silica fume - limestone is used in mortar or concrete are present in this paper. Standard laboratory tests with respect to the pore size distribution, micromorphology, compressive strength and sulphate resistance in both sodium and magnesium sulphate solutions were performed on mortars made with 70% (by mass) of Portland cement (PC), type CEM II/B-S and 30% of cement replacement materials consisted of various combination of fine ground limestone filler (LF) and silica fume (SF). In addition to these ternary systems, binary blends, such as: PC-LF, as well as PC-SF, along with 100 % PC mortars, were investigated for comparison. It is found that SF-blends reach higher compressive strengths than LF-blends for the same replacement of cement. When SF was added together with LF, the mortars show considerable increase in the compressive strength and show a lower expansion than a control, sulphate-resisting mortar, independent of the type of sulphate solutions, due to pore size refinement microstructure of mortars.

  4. A suite of Gateway® compatible ternary expression vectors for functional analysis in Zymoseptoria tritici. (United States)

    Sidhu, Y S; Chaudhari, Y K; Usher, J; Cairns, T C; Csukai, M; Haynes, K


    Gene overexpression is a widely used functional genomics approach in fungal biology. However, to date it has not been established in Zymoseptoria tritici which is an important pathogen of wheat (Triticum species). Here we report a suite of Gateway® recombination compatible ternary expression vectors for Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation of Z. tritici. The suite of 32 vectors is based on a combination of four resistance markers for positive selection against glufosinate ammonium, geneticin, hygromycin and sulfonylurea; three constitutive Z. tritici promoters (pZtATUB, pZtGAPDH and pZtTEF) and a nitrogen responsive promoter (pZtNIA1) for controlled expression of the open reading frames. Half of the vectors facilitate expression of proteins tagged with C-terminal EGFP. All 32 vectors allow high frequency targeting of the overexpression cassette into the Ku70 locus and complement the Ku70 gene when transformed into a Z. tritici ku70 null strain, thus circumventing additional phenotypes that can arise from random integration. This suite of ternary expression vectors will be a useful tool for functional analysis through gene overexpression in Z. tritici. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Incommensurate and commensurate magnetic structures of the ternary germanide CeNiGe sub 3

    CERN Document Server

    Durivault, L; Chevalier, B; André, G; Weill, F; Etourneau, J; Martinez-Samper, P; Rodrigo, J G; Suderow, H; Vieira, S


    The structural properties of CeNiGe sub 3 have been investigated via electron diffraction and neutron powder diffraction (NPD). This ternary germanide crystallizes in the orthorhombic SmNiGe sub 3 -type structure (Cmmm space group). Electrical resistivity, ac- and dc-magnetization measurements show that CeNiGe sub 3 orders antiferromagnetically below T sub N = 5.5(2) K and exclude the occurrence at low temperatures of a spin-glass state for CeNiGe sub 3 as previously reported. Specific heat measurements and NPD both reveal two magnetic transitions, observed at T sub N sub 1 = 5.9(2) K and T sub N sub 2 = 5.0(2) K. Between T sub N sub 1 and T sub N sub 2 , the Ce magnetic moments in CeNiGe sub 3 are ordered in a collinear antiferromagnetic structure associated with the k sub 1 = (100) wavevector and showing a relationship with the magnetic structure of the Ce sub 3 Ni sub 2 Ge sub 7 ternary germanide. Below T sub N sub 2 , this k sub 1 = (100) commensurate magnetic structure coexists with an incommensurate hel...

  6. Crystal growth and property characterization for PIN–PMN–PT ternary piezoelectric crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Tian


    Full Text Available Binary piezoelectric crystal Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3O3–PbTiO3 (PMN–PT has excellent dielectric and piezoelectric properties, which has led to the commercialization for medical ultrasound imaging. Recently, there is a growing demand for piezoelectric crystals with improved thermal and electrical properties. Ternary piezoelectric crystals Pb(In1/2Nb1/2O3–Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3O3–PbTiO3 (PIN–PMN–PT have increased depoling temperature and coercive field than binary PMN–PT. To better understand the ternary crystal system and improve crystal properties, we systematically investigated crystal growth of PIN–PMN–PT with modified Bridgman method. Like PMN–PT, PIN–PMN–PT crystals have excellent piezoelectric properties (e.g., k33 ~ 0.87–0.92, d33 ~ 1000–2200 pm/V. Higher PIN content leads to ~40°C increase in depoling temperature and more than doubling of coercive field(~7.0 kV/cm. Such improvements are advantageous for applications where high temperature and/or high-drive are needed.

  7. Studies on ternary silver sulfides; Fukugo gin ryukabutsu ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Some sulfides containing silver show high ion mobility based on movability of silver, whose application is expected. Studies have been carried out centrally on synthesis of new compounds of ternary silver sulfides by elucidating the relationship among their compositions, structures and properties by means of crystal chemical studies mainly on their phase relationship. A few new compounds have been synthesized, such as the ones having the argyrodite family compound structure including transition metals. The synthesizing process takes a kind of turbulent liquid state structure at elevated temperatures because of movability of silver, but silver is fixed at low temperatures in different sites between skeleton structures made by other atoms. These studies on phase transfer, structures, and silver movability have been based on X-ray diffraction, infrared and Raman spectroscopic measurements, NMR, measurements of electric and thermal characteristics. For the studies related to compositions and structures of ternary metal sulfides which take compound crystalline structure, a structure analyzing method based on multi-dimensional hyperspatial groups was used. This paper reports the summary of the studies in seven chapters, and dwells on the remaining problems and future prospects. 158 refs., 114 figs., 65 tabs.

  8. Ternary Ni–Cu–OH and Ni–Co–OH electrodes for electrochemical energy storage

    KAUST Repository

    Alhebshi, Nuha


    In this project, Ni–Cu–OH and Ni–Co–OH ternary electrodes have been prepared. Different Ni:Cu and Ni:Co ratios were deposited by chemical bath deposition (CBD) at room temperature on carbon microfibers. Since Ni(OH)2 is notorious for poor cycling stability, the goal of the work was to determine if doping with Cu or Co could improve Ni(OH)2 cycling stability performance and conductivity against reaction with electrolyte. It is observed that the electrodes with Ni:Cu and Ni:Co composition ratio of 100:10 result in the optimum capacitance and cycling stability in both Ni–Cu–OH and Ni–Co–OH electrodes. This improvement in cycling stability can be attributed to the higher redox reversibility as indicated by the smaller CV redox peak separation. In addition, it is found that decreasing Cu and Co ratios, with fixed CBD time, enhances nanoflakes formation, and hence increases electrode capacitance. For the optimum composition (Ni:Co = 100:10), composites of the ternary electrodes with graphene and carbon nanofibers were also tested, with resultant improvement in potential window, equivalent series resistance, areal capacitance and cycling stability.

  9. The ternary system K2SO4MgSO4CaSO4 (United States)

    Rowe, J.J.; Morey, G.W.; Silber, C.C.


    Melting and subsolidus relations in the system K2SO4MgSO4CaSO4 were studied using heating-cooling curves, differential thermal analysis, optics, X-ray diffraction at room and high temperatures and by quenching techniques. Previous investigators were unable to study the binary MgSO4CaSO4 system and the adjacent area in the ternary system because of the decomposition of MgSO4 and CaSO4 at high temperatures. This problem was partly overcome by a novel sealed-tube quenching method, by hydrothermal synthesis, and by long-time heating in the solidus. As a result of this study, we found: (1) a new compound, CaSO4??3MgSO4 (m.p. 1201??C) with a field extending into the ternary system; (2) a high temperature form of MgSO4 with a sluggishly reversible inversion. An X-ray diffraction pattern for this polymorphic form is given; (3) the inversion of ??-CaSO4 (anhydrite) to ??-CaSO4 at 1195??C, in agreement with grahmann; (1) (4) the melting point of MgSO4 is 1136??C and that of CaSO4 is 1462??C (using sealed tube methods to prevent decomposition of the sulphates); (5) calcium langbeinite (K2SO4??2CaSO4) is the only compound in the K2SO4CaSO4 binary system. This resolved discrepancies in the results of previous investigators; (6) a continuous solid solution series between congruently melting K2SOP4??2MgSO4 (langbeinite) and incongruently melting K2SO4??2CaSO4 (calcium langbeinite); (7) the liquidus in the ternary system consists of primary phase fields of K2SO4, MgSO4, CaSO4, langbeinite-calcium langbeinite solid solution, and CaSO4??3MgSO4. The CaSO4 field extends over a large portion of the system. Previously reported fields for the compounds (K2SO4??MgSO4??nCaSO4), K2SO4??3CaSO4 and K2SO4??CaSO4 were not found; (8) a minimum in the ternary system at: 740??C, 25% MgSO4, 6% CaSO4, 69% K2SO4; and ternary eutectics at 882??C, 49% MgSO4, 19% CaSO4, 32% K2SO4; and 880??, 67??5% MgSO4, 5% CaSO4, 27??5% K2SO4. ?? 1967.

  10. Solid-liquid equilibria for a pyrrolidinium-based common-cation ternary ionic liquid system, and for a pyridinium-based ternary reciprocal ionic liquid system: an experimental study and a thermodynamic model. (United States)

    Mirarabrazi, Meysam; Stolarska, Olga; Smiglak, Marcin; Robelin, Christian


    The present paper describes an experimental study and a thermodynamic model for the phase diagrams of the common-cation ternary system [C 4 MPyrr]Cl-[C 4 MPyrr]Br-[C 4 MPyrr]BF 4 (where [C 4 MPyrr] refers to 1-butyl-1-methyl-pyrrolidinium) and of the ternary reciprocal system [C 2 Py], [C 4 Py]‖Cl, Br (where [C n Py] refers to 1-alkyl-pyridinium). Phase equilibria were measured by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) for two isoplethal sections in the common-cation pyrrolidinium-based ternary system. Phase diagram measurements were recently performed for the four common-ion binary subsystems and the two diagonal sections in the pyridinium-based ternary reciprocal system. In each case, the Modified Quasichemical Model was used to model the liquid solution, and the Compound Energy Formalism was used for the relevant solid solutions. For the ternary reciprocal system, the missing thermodynamic properties of the pure compounds were assessed using the Volume-based Thermodynamics (VBT) from Glasser and Jenkins, making it possible to estimate the exchange Gibbs free energy for the reaction [C 2 Py]Br (liquid) + [C 4 Py]Cl (liquid) = [C 2 Py]Cl (liquid) + [C 4 Py]Br (liquid). The experimental diagonal sections [C 4 Py]Br-[C 2 Py]Cl and [C 4 Py]Cl-[C 2 Py]Br were satisfactorily reproduced using solely the optimized model parameters for the four common-ion binary subsystems.

  11. Measurement of Soret coefficients in a ternary mixture of toluene-methanol-cyclohexane in convection-free environment (United States)

    Mialdun, A.; Ryzhkov, I.; Khlybov, O.; Lyubimova, T.; Shevtsova, V.


    We report on the measurement of Soret (ST) coefficients in the ternary system toluene (T)-methanol (M)-cyclohexane (Ch) onboard the International Space Station in the experiment selectable optical diagnostic instrument/DCMIX2 (Diffusion Coefficients Measurement in ternary mIXtures). Nine experiments were conducted in the range of mean temperatures between 298.15 K and 306.15 K in the mixture with composition 0.62 (T)-0.31 (M)-0.07 (Ch) in mass fractions. A linear dependence of the Soret coefficients on temperature was established for the ternary mixture. It has also been found that, over considered range of mean temperatures, the Soret coefficients of toluene are small and positive, while the Soret coefficients for methanol are negative and, at least, two times larger. The present work also presents a comprehensive study of possible methodologies to process raw data from the Soret experiment in ternary mixtures. All the experiments were processed by seven different schemes and two of them were identified as the most reliable. We also investigate the error propagation and explain the reasons for the discrepancy of the results obtained by different schemes.

  12. On the Growth of Ternary System HNO3/H2SO4/H2O Aerosol Particles in the Stratosphere (United States)

    Hamill, Patrick; Tabazadeh, A.; Kinne, S.; Toon, O. B.; Turco, R. P.


    We present a study of the growth of ternary solution (nitric acid, sulfuric acid and water) droplets in the stratosphere. The growth mechanism is hetero-molecular condensation in which the particle is assumed to be in equilibrium with environmental water vapor. Model results are in reasonable agreement with the averaged extinction ratio obtained by the SAM II satellite system.

  13. The dynamics of nucleation and growth of a particle in the ternary alloy melt with anisotropic surface tension. (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Wen; Li, Lin-Yan; Guo, Hui-Min


    The dynamics of nucleation and growth of a particle affected by anisotropic surface tension in the ternary alloy melt is studied. The uniformly valid asymptotic solution for temperature field, concentration field, and interface evolution of nucleation and particle growth is obtained by means of the multiple variable expansion method. The asymptotic solution reveals the critical radius of nucleation in the ternary alloy melt and an inward melting mechanism of the particle induced by the anisotropic effect of surface tension. The critical radius of nucleation is dependent on isotropic surface tension, temperature undercooling, and constitutional undercooling in the ternary alloy melt, and the solute diffusion melt decreases the critical radius of nucleation. Immediately after a nucleus forms in the initial stage of solidification, the anisotropic effect of surface tension makes some parts of its interface grow inward while some parts grow outward. Until the inward melting attains a certain distance (which is defined as "the melting depth"), these parts of interface start to grow outward with other parts. The interface of the particle evolves into an ear-like deformation, whose inner diameter may be less than two times the critical radius of nucleation within a short time in the initial stage of solidification. The solute diffusion in the ternary alloy melt decreases the effect of anisotropic surface tension on the interface deformation.

  14. Tensiometric investigation of the interaction and phase separation in a polymer mixture–ionic surfactant ternary system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The interaction and phase separation in a ternary mixture composed of hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC, and sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS were investigated by tensiometry. Surface tension measurements of binary mixtures (0.7 % HPMC and 0.00–2.00 % SDS and of ternary mixtures (0.7 % HPMC, 0.3 % NaCMC, and 0.00–2.00 % SDS were performed. The measurements indicated interaction between HPMC and SDS, which resulted in HPMC–SDS complex formation. The critical association concentration, CAC, and polymer saturation point, PSP, were determined. Phase separation of ternary HPMC/SDS/NaCMC mixtures occurs at SDS concentration > CAC, i.e., when the HPMC–SDS complex is formed. The volume of the coacervate increases with increasing SDS concentration, and at SDS concentrations > 1.00 %, the coacervate vanishes. The surface tensions (s of ternary HPMC/SDS/NaCMC mixtures in the pre-coacervation region and at the onset of the coacervation region are similar to the σ of the corresponding binary HPMC–SDS mixtures, while in the coacervation and post coacervation region, they are close to the s of the corresponding SDS solutions

  15. Liquid-liquid phase equilibria for ternary systems of several polyethers with NaCl and H2O

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milosevic, M.; Staal, K.J.J.; Schuur, Boelo; de Haan, A.B.


    Liquid–liquid extraction using polymers followed by induced phase separation is a potential energy reducing technology for water–salt separation. Ternary equilibrium data have been determined and reported for the (block co)poly ethers–sodium chloride–water systems at two different temperatures at

  16. Binary and ternary gas mixtures with temperature enhanced diffuse glow discharge characteristics for use in closing switches (United States)

    Christophorou, L.G.; Hunter, S.R.


    An improvement to the gas mixture used in diffuse glow discharge closing switches is disclosed which includes binary and ternary gas mixtures which are formulated to exhibit decreasing electron attachment with increasing temperature. This increases the efficiency of the conductance of the glow discharge and further inhibits the formation of an arc. 11 figs.

  17. The use of Nile Red to monitor the aggregation behavior in ternary surfactant-water-organic solvent systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuart, MCA; van de Pas, JC; Engberts, JBFN; Pas, John C. van de

    Ternary systems of surfactants, water and organic solvents were studied by monitoring the steady-state fluorescence of the versatile solvatochromic probe Nile Red. We found not only that Nile Red can be used throughout the whole isotropic regions in the phase diagram, but also that subtle changes in

  18. Linearized cloudpoint curve correlation for ternary systems consisting of one polymer, one solvent and one non-solvent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, R.M.; Boom, R.M.; van den Boomgaard, Anthonie; van den Berg, J.W.A.; Smolders, C.A.; Smolders, C.A.


    A linear correlation function is found for cloudpoint composition curves of ternary systems consisting of one polymer, one solvent and one non-solvent. The conditions for validity of this correlation function appear to be that the polymer is strongly incompatible with the non-solvent, and that only

  19. A simple method for determining the lattice parameter and chemical composition in ternary bcc-Fe rich nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moya, Javier A., E-mail: [Grupo Interdisciplinario en Materiales-IESIING, Universidad Católica de Salta, INTECIN UBA-CONICET, Salta (Argentina); Gamarra Caramella, Soledad; Marta, Leonardo J. [Grupo Interdisciplinario en Materiales-IESIING, Universidad Católica de Salta, INTECIN UBA-CONICET, Salta (Argentina); Berejnoi, Carlos [Universidad Nacional de Salta, Facultad de Ingeniería, Salta (Argentina)


    Highlights: • A method for determining composition in ternary nanocrystals is presented. • X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy data were employed. • We perform theoretical charts for lattice parameter of Fe-rich ternary alloys. • A linear relationship in lattice parameter for binary alloys is evaluated. • A parabolic relationship is proposed for the Fe–Co–Si alloy. - Abstract: Charts containing lattice parameters of Fe{sub 1−x}(M,N){sub x} ternary systems with M and N = Si, Al, Ge or Co, and 0 ⩽ x ⩽ ∼0.3, were developed by implementing a linear relationship between the respective binary alloys with the same solute content of the ternary one. Charts were validated with experimental data obtained from literature. For the Fe–Co–Si system, the linear relationship does not fit the experimental data. For the other systems (except the Fe–Co–Ge one where no experimental data was found), the lineal relationship constitute a very good approximation. Using these charts and the lattice parameter data obtained from X-ray diffraction technique combining with the solute content data obtained from Mössbauer spectroscopy technique it is possible to determine the chemical composition of nanograins in soft magnetic nanocomposite materials and some examples are provided.

  20. Integrated Ternary Bioinspired Nanocomposites via Synergistic Toughening of Reduced Graphene Oxide and Double-Walled Carbon Nanotubes. (United States)

    Gong, Shanshan; Cui, Wei; Zhang, Qi; Cao, Anyuan; Jiang, Lei; Cheng, Qunfeng


    With its synergistic toughening effect and hierarchical micro/nanoscale structure, natural nacre sets a "gold standard" for nacre-inspired materials with integrated high strength and toughness. We demonstrated strong and tough ternary bioinspired nanocomposites through synergistic toughening of reduced graphene oxide and double-walled carbon nanotube (DWNT) and covalent bonding. The tensile strength and toughness of this kind of ternary bioinspired nanocomposites reaches 374.1 ± 22.8 MPa and 9.2 ± 0.8 MJ/m(3), which is 2.6 and 3.3 times that of pure reduced graphene oxide film, respectively. Furthermore, this ternary bioinspired nanocomposite has a high conductivity of 394.0 ± 6.8 S/cm and also shows excellent fatigue-resistant properties, which may enable this material to be used in aerospace, flexible energy devices, and artificial muscle. The synergistic building blocks with covalent bonding for constructing ternary bioinspired nanocomposites can serve as the basis of a strategy for the construction of integrated, high-performance, reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-based nanocomposites in the future.

  1. A Stimulation Function of Synaptotagmin-1 in Ternary SNARE Complex Formation Dependent on Munc18 and Munc13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Li


    Full Text Available The Ca2+ sensor synaptotagmin-1 (Syt1 plays an essential function in synaptic exocytosis. Recently, Syt1 has been implicated in synaptic vesicle priming, a maturation step prior to Ca2+-triggered membrane fusion that is believed to involve formation of the ternary SNARE complex and require priming proteins Munc18-1 and Munc13-1. However, the mechanisms of Syt1 in synaptic vesicle priming are still unclear. In this study, we found that Syt1 stimulates the transition from the Munc18-1/syntaxin-1 complex to the ternary SNARE complex catalyzed by Munc13-1. This stimulation can be further enhanced in a membrane-containing environment. Further, we showed that Syt1, together with Munc18-1 and Munc13-1, stimulates trans ternary SNARE complex formation on membranes in a manner resistant to disassembly factors NSF and α-SNAP. Disruption of a proposed Syt1/SNARE binding interface strongly abrogated the stimulation function of Syt1. Our results suggest that binding of Syt1 to an intermediate SNARE assembly with Munc18-1 and Munc13-1 is critical for the stimulation function of Syt1 in ternary SNARE complex formation, and this stimulation may underlie the priming function of Syt1 in synaptic exocytosis.

  2. Density functional theory based screening of ternary alkali-transition metal borohydrides: A computational material design project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hummelshøj, Jens Strabo; Landis, David; Voss, Johannes


    We present a computational screening study of ternary metal borohydrides for reversible hydrogen storage based on density functional theory. We investigate the stability and decomposition of alloys containing 1 alkali metal atom, Li, Na, or K (M1); and 1 alkali, alkaline earth or 3d/4d transition...

  3. The binary-to-ternary rhythmic continuum in stress typology : layered feet and non-intervention constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez-Paricio, Violeta; Kager, R.W.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072294124


    This article presents a novel OT analysis of ternary rhythm, using the restrictive format of McCarthy (2003)'s categorical alignment constraints, which we will refer to as ‘non-intervention constraints’, using the terminology of Ellison (1994), and argues for the rehabilitation of internally layered

  4. Properties of the Band Gaps in 1D Ternary Lossy Photonic Crystal Containing Double-Negative Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Aghajamali


    Full Text Available Theoretically, the characteristics matrix method is employed to investigate and compare the properties of the band gaps of the one-dimensional ternary and binary lossy photonic crystals which are composed of double-negative and double-positive materials. This study shows that by varying the angle of incidence, the band gaps for TM and TE waves behave differently in both ternary and binary lossy structures. The results demonstrate that, by increasing the angle of incidence for the TE wave, the width and the depth of zero-n¯, zero-μ, and Bragg gap increase in both ternary and binary structures. On the other hand, the enhancement of the angle of incidence for the TM wave contributes to reduction of the width and the depth of the zero-n¯ and Bragg gaps, and they finally disappear for incidence angles greater than 50° and 60° for the binary structure and 40° and 45° for the ternary structures, respectively. In addition, the details of the edges of the band gaps variations as a function of incidence angle for both structures are studied.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süheyla ÇEHRELİ


    Full Text Available The liquid-liquid equilibria of Water-Propionic Acid-Benzyl Alcohol, Water-Propionic Acid-Benzyl Acetate and Water-Propionic Acid-Dibenzyl Ether ternary systems were predicted by means of UNIFAC Model. For this purpose, multivariable Newton-Raphson convergence procedure was used. Experimental and model results were compared.

  6. The Crystal Growth and Characterization of CeT2Si2 Ternary Intermetallics (T = Ni, Pd, Pt)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menovsky, A.A.; Snel, C.E.; Gortenmulder, T.J.; Palstra, T.T.M.


    Bulk single crystals of the ternary intermetallic compounds CeNi2Si2, CePd2Si2 and CePt2Si2 have been grown from the melt with a modified “tri-arc” Czochralski method. The as-grown crystals were characterized by X-ray, microprobe, and chemical analyses. The measured densities were compared with the


    Adsorption isotherms were measured for ethanol, acetic acid, and water adsorbed on high-silica ZSM-5 zeolite powder from binary and ternary liquid mixtures at room temperature. Ethanol and water adsorption on two high-silica ZSM-5 zeolites with different aluminum contents and a h...

  8. Magnetoelectric and multiferroic properties of ternary copper chalcogenides (Cu2MMS4)-M-II-S-IV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nenert, G.; Palstra, T. T. M.


    We investigate theoretically the ternary copper chalcogenides with the general formula (Cu2MMS4)-M-II-S-IV. This family of compounds can crystallize in two different non-centrosymmetric structures, I (4) over bar 2m or Pnm2(1). We show that all the reported members of (Cu2MMS4)-M-II-S-IV having the

  9. Dynamic visualisation of municipal waste management performance in the EU using Ternary Diagram method. (United States)

    Pomberger, R; Sarc, R; Lorber, K E


    This contribution describes the dynamic visualisation of European (EU 28) municipal waste management performance, using the Ternary Diagram Method. Municipal waste management performance depends primarily on three treatment categories: recycling & composting, incineration and landfilling. The framework of current municipal waste management including recycling targets, etc. is given by the Waste Framework Directive - 2008/98/EC. The proposed Circular Economy Package should stimulate Europe's transition towards more sustainable resources and energy oriented waste management. The Package also includes a revised legislative proposal on waste that sets ambitious recycling rates for municipal waste for 2025 (60%) and 2030 (65%). Additionally, the new calculation method for monitoring the attainment of the targets should be applied. In 2014, ca. 240 million tonnes of municipal waste were generated in the EU. While in 1995, 17% were recycled and composted, 14% incinerated and 64% landfilled, in 2014 ca. 71% were recovered but 28% landfilled only. Considering the treatment performance of the individual EU member states, the EU 28 can be divided into three groups, namely: "Recovery Countries", "Transition Countries" and "Landfilling Countries". Using Ternary Diagram Method, three types of visualization for the municipal waste management performance have been investigated and extensively described. Therefore, for better understanding of municipal waste management performance in the last 20years, dynamic visualisation of the Eurostat table-form data on all 28 member states of the EU has been carried out in three different ways: 1. "Performance Positioning" of waste management unit(s) at a specific date; 2. "Performance dynamics" over a certain time period and; 3. "Performance development" expressed as a track(s). Results obtained show that the Ternary Diagram Method is very well suited to be used for better understanding of past developments and coherences, for monitoring of

  10. Phenomena of nanotube nucleation and growth on new ternary titanium alloys. (United States)

    Choe, Han-Cheol; Jeong, Yong-Hoon; Brantley, William A


    Ti-30Nb-xZr and Ti-30Ta-xNb alloys have been investigated using various methods of surface nanotube formation. Ternary Ti-30Nb-xZr (x = 3 and 15 wt%) and Ti-30Ta-xNb (x = 3 and 15 wt%) alloys were prepared by using high-purity sponge Ti (Grade 4, G&S Titanium, USA), Ta, Zr and Nb spheres. The two groups of ternary Ti alloys were prepared using a vacuum arc melting furnace. Nanotube formation was carried out with a conventional three-electrode configuration with the Ti alloy specimen, a platinum counterelectrode, and a saturated calomel (SCE) reference electrode. Experiments were performed in 1 M H3PO4 with small additions of NaF (0.1-0.8 wt%), using a potentiostat. Nanotubes formed on the surfaces of the two ternary Ti alloys were examined by field emission scanning electron microscopy, EDS and XRD. The Ti-30Ta-xZr alloys had microstructure with entirely needle-like constituents; the thickness of the needle-like alpha-phase increased as the Zr content increased. The Ti-30Nb-xZr alloys had equiaxed microstructures of the beta-phase, and increasing amounts of the needle-like alpha phase appeared at the grain boundaries of the beta-phase as the Zr content increased. The nanotubes were nucleated and grew mainly on the beta phase for the Ti-30Ta-3Zr and Ti-30Nb-3Zr alloys, which had nanotubes with uniform shape, but the nanotubes were nucleated at the alpha phase for the Ti-30Ta-15Zr and Ti-30Nb-15Zr alloys, which had nanotubes with irregular shape and diameters of two sizes. The diameter and depth of the nanotubes could be controlled, depending upon the alloy composition and composition of the surface oxide films (TiO2, Nb2O5, Ta2O5, and ZrO2). It is concluded that this research that selection of the appropriate alloying element can allow significant control of the nanotopography of these Ti alloy surfaces and that it is possible to control the surface nanotube size to promote long-term osseointegration for clinical dental or orthopedic use.

  11. Thermodynamic Calculations of Ternary Polyalcohol and Amine Phase Diagrams for Thermal Energy Storage Materials (United States)

    Shi, Renhai

    Organic polyalcohol and amine globular molecular crystal materials as phase change materials (PCMs) such as Pentaglycerine (PG-(CH3)C(CH 2OH)3), Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (TRIS-(NH2)C(CH 2OH)3), 2-amino-2methyl-1,3-propanediol (AMPL-(NH2)(CH3)C(CH2OH)2), and neopentylglycol (NPG-(CH3)2C(CH2OH) 2) can be considered to be potential candidates for thermal energy storage (TES) applications such as waste heat recovery, solar energy utilization, energy saving in buildings, and electronic device management during heating or cooling process in which the latent heat and sensible heat can be reversibly stored or released through solid state phase transitions over a range of temperatures. In order to understand the polymorphism of phase transition of these organic materials and provide more choice of materials design for TES, binary systems have been studied to lower the temperature of solid-state phase transition for the specific application. To our best knowledge, the study of ternary systems in these organic materials is limited. Based on this motivation, four ternary systems of PG-TRIS-AMPL, PG-TRIS-NPG, PG-AMPL-NPG, and TRIS-AMPL-NPG are proposed in this dissertation. Firstly, thermodynamic assessment with CALPHAD method is used to construct the Gibbs energy functions into thermodynamic database for these four materials based on available experimental results from X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The phase stability and thermodynamic characteristics of these four materials calculated from present thermodynamic database with CALPHAD method can match well the present experimental results from XRD and DSC. Secondly, related six binary phase diagrams of PG-TRIS, PG-AMPL, PG-NPG, TRIS-AMPL, TRIS-NPG, and AMPL-NPG are optimized with CALPHAD method in Thermo-Calc software based on available experimental results, in which the substitutional model is used and excess Gibbs energy is expressed with Redlich-Kister formalism. The

  12. Molecular dynamics simulations show altered secondary structure of clawless in binary complex with DNA providing insights into aristaless-clawless-DNA ternary complex formation. (United States)

    Kachhap, Sangita; Priyadarshini, Pragya; Singh, Balvinder


    Aristaless (Al) and clawless (Cll) homeodomains that are involved in leg development in Drosophila melanogaster are known to bind cooperatively to 5'-(T/C)TAATTAA(T/A)(T/A)G-3' DNA sequence, but the mechanism of their binding to DNA is unknown. Molecular dynamics (MD) studies have been carried out on binary, ternary, and reconstructed protein-DNA complexes involving Al, Cll, and DNA along with binding free energy analysis of these complexes. Analysis of MD trajectories of Cll-3A01, binary complex reveals that C-terminal end of helixIII of Cll, unwind in the absence of Al and remains so in reconstructed ternary complex, Cll-3A01-Al. In addition, this change in secondary structure of Cll does not allow it to form protein-protein interactions with Al in the ternary reconstructed complex. However, secondary structure of Cll and its interactions are maintained in other reconstructed ternary complex, Al-3A01-Cll where Cll binds to Al-3A01, binary complex to form ternary complex. These interactions as observed during MD simulations compare well with those observed in ternary crystal structure. Thus, this study highlights the role of helixIII of Cll and protein-protein interactions while proposing likely mechanism of recognition in ternary complex, Al-Cll-DNA.

  13. Hydrothermal synthesis of graphene oxide/multiwalled carbon nanotube/Fe3O4 ternary nanocomposite for removal of Cu (II) and methylene blue (United States)

    Long, Zhihang; Zhan, Yingqing; Li, Fei; Wan, Xinyi; He, Yi; Hou, Chunyan; Hu, Hai


    In this work, highly activated graphene oxide/multiwalled carbon nanotube/Fe3O4 ternary nanocomposite adsorbent was prepared from a simple hydrothermal route by using ferrous sulfate as precursor. For this purpose, the graphene oxide/multiwalled carbon nanotube architectures were formed through the π-π attractions between them, followed by attaching Fe3O4 nanoparticles onto their surface. The structure and composition of as-prepared ternary nanocomposite were characterized by XRD, FTIR, XPS, SEM, TEM, Raman, TGA, and BET. It was found that the resultant porous graphene oxide/multiwalled carbon nanotube/Fe3O4 ternary nanocomposite with large surface area could effectively prevent the π-π stacking interactions between graphene oxide nanosheets and greatly improve sorption sites on the surfaces. Thus, owing to the unique ternary nanocomposite architecture and synergistic effect among various components, as-prepared ternary nanocomposite exhibited high separation efficiency when they were used to remove the Cu (II) and methylene blue from aqueous solutions. Furthermore, the adsorption isotherms of ternary nanocomposite structures for Cu (II) and methylene blue removal fitted the Langmuir isotherm model. This work demonstrated that the graphene oxide/multiwalled carbon nanotube/Fe3O4 ternary nanocomposite was promising as an efficient adsorbent for heavy metal ions and organic dye removal from wastewater in low concentration.

  14. Elongation factor Ts directly facilitates the formation and disassembly of the Escherichia coli elongation factor Tu·GTP·aminoacyl-tRNA ternary complex. (United States)

    Burnett, Benjamin J; Altman, Roger B; Ferrao, Ryan; Alejo, Jose L; Kaur, Navdep; Kanji, Joshua; Blanchard, Scott C


    Aminoacyl-tRNA (aa-tRNA) enters the ribosome in a ternary complex with the G-protein elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) and GTP. EF-Tu·GTP·aa-tRNA ternary complex formation and decay rates are accelerated in the presence of the nucleotide exchange factor elongation factor Ts (EF-Ts). EF-Ts directly facilitates the formation and disassociation of ternary complex. This system demonstrates a novel function of EF-Ts. Aminoacyl-tRNA enters the translating ribosome in a ternary complex with elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) and GTP. Here, we describe bulk steady state and pre-steady state fluorescence methods that enabled us to quantitatively explore the kinetic features of Escherichia coli ternary complex formation and decay. The data obtained suggest that both processes are controlled by a nucleotide-dependent, rate-determining conformational change in EF-Tu. Unexpectedly, we found that this conformational change is accelerated by elongation factor Ts (EF-Ts), the guanosine nucleotide exchange factor for EF-Tu. Notably, EF-Ts attenuates the affinity of EF-Tu for GTP and destabilizes ternary complex in the presence of non-hydrolyzable GTP analogs. These results suggest that EF-Ts serves an unanticipated role in the cell of actively regulating the abundance and stability of ternary complex in a manner that contributes to rapid and faithful protein synthesis.

  15. Adsorption behavior of ternary mixtures of noble gases inside single-walled carbon nanotube bundles (United States)

    Foroutan, Masumeh; Nasrabadi, Amir Taghavi


    In order to study the gas-storage and gas-filtering capability of carbon nanotube (CNT) bundles simultaneously, we considered the adsorption behavior of a ternary mixture of noble gases, including Argon (Ar), Krypton (Kr), and Xenon (Xe), i.e., Ar-Kr-Xe mixture, on (10, 10) single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) bundles. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations at different temperatures of (75, 100, 150, 200, 250, and 300) K were performed, and adsorption energies, self-diffusion coefficients, activation energies, and radial distribution functions (RDFs) were computed to analyze the thermodynamics, transport and structural properties of the adsorption systems. It is observed that the SWCNT bundles have larger contents of heavier noble gases compared to the lighter ones. This interesting behavior of SWCNT bundles makes them proper candidates for gas-storage and gas molecular-sieving processes.

  16. Direct observation of interface and nanoscale compositional modulation in ternary III-As heterostructure nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatesan, Sriram; Scheu, Christina [Department of Chemistry and Center for NanoScience, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Butenandstr 5-13(E), 81377 München (Germany); Madsen, Morten H.; Krogstrup, Peter; Johnson, Erik [Nano-Science Center and Center for Quantum Devices, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Schmid, Herbert [INM-Leibniz Institute for New Materials, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany)


    Straight, axial InAs nanowire with multiple segments of Ga{sub x}In{sub 1−x}As was grown. High resolution X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) mapping reveals the distribution of group III atoms at the axial interfaces and at the sidewalls. Significant Ga enrichment, accompanied by a structural change is observed at the Ga{sub x}In{sub 1−x}As/InAs interfaces and a higher Ga concentration for the early grown Ga{sub x}In{sub 1−x}As segments. The elemental map and EDS line profile infer Ga enrichment at the facet junctions between the sidewalls. The relative chemical potentials of ternary alloys and the thermodynamic driving force for liquid to solid transition explains the growth mechanisms behind the enrichment.

  17. Recognition and sensing of low-epitope targets via ternary complexes with oligonucleotides and synthetic receptors (United States)

    Yang, Kyung-Ae; Barbu, Mihaela; Halim, Marlin; Pallavi, Payal; Kim, Benjamin; Kolpashchikov, Dmitry M.; Pecic, Stevan; Taylor, Steven; Worgall, Tilla S.; Stojanovic, Milan N.


    Oligonucleotide-based receptors or aptamers can interact with small molecules, but the ability to achieve high-affinity and specificity of these interactions depends strongly on functional groups or epitopes displayed by the binding targets. Some classes of targets are particularly challenging: for example, monosaccharides have scarce functionalities and no aptamers have been reported to recognize, let alone distinguish from each other, glucose and other hexoses. Here we report aptamers that differentiate low-epitope targets such as glucose, fructose or galactose by forming ternary complexes with high-epitope organic receptors for monosaccharides. In a follow-up example, we expand this method to isolate high-affinity oligonucleotides against aromatic amino acids complexed in situ with a nonspecific organometallic receptor. The method is general and enables broad clinical use of aptamers for the detection of small molecules in mix-and-measure assays, as demonstrated by monitoring postprandial waves of phenylalanine in human subjects.

  18. Thermal conductivity of rare earth-uranium ternary oxides of the type RE 6UO 12 (United States)

    Krishnaiah, M. V.; Seenivasan, G.; Srirama Murti, P.; Mathews, C. K.


    The knowledge of thermophysical properties of the rare earth uranium ternary oxides of the type RE 6UO 12 (RE=La, Gd and Dy) is essential to understand the fuel performance during reactor operation and for modeling fuel behavior. Literature on the high temperature properties of this compound is not available and there is no report at all on the thermal conductivity of these compounds. Hence a study of thermal conductivity of this compound has been taken up. The compounds were synthesized by a solution combustion method using metal nitrates and urea. Thermal diffusivity of these compounds was measured by the laser flash method in the temperature range 673-1373 K. The specific heat data was computed using Neumann-Kopp's law. Thermal conductivity was calculated using the measured thermal diffusivity value, density and specific heat data for different temperatures. The temperature dependence of thermal conductivity and the implication of structural aspects of these compounds on the data are discussed here.

  19. Atomistic study of ternary oxides as high-temperature solid lubricants (United States)

    Gao, Hongyu

    Friction and wear are important tribological phenomena tightly associated with the performance of tribological components/systems such as bearings and cutting machines. In the process of contact and sliding, friction and wear lead to energy loss, and high friction and wear typically result in shortened service lifetime. To reduce friction and wear, solid lubricants are generally used under conditions where traditional liquid lubricants cannot be applied. However, it is challenging to maintain the functionality of those materials when the working environment becomes severe. For instance, at elevated temperatures (i.e., above 400 °C), most traditional solid lubricants, such as MoS2 and graphite, will easily oxidize or lose lubricity due to irreversible chemical changes. For such conditions, it is necessary to identify materials that can remain thermally stable as well as lubricious over a wide range of temperatures. Among the currently available high-temperature solid lubricants, Ag-based ternary metal oxides have recently drawn attention due to their low friction and ability to resist oxidation. A recent experimental study showed that the Ag-Ta-O ternary exhibited an extremely low coefficient of friction (0.06) at 750 °C. To fully uncover the lubricious nature of this material as a high-temperature solid lubricant, a series of tribological investigations were carried out based on one promising candidate - silver tantalate (AgTaO3). The study was then extended to alternative materials, Cu-Ta-O ternaries, to accommodate a variety of application requirements. We aimed to understand, at an atomic level, the effects of physical and chemical properties on the thermal, mechanical and tribological behavior of these materials at high temperatures. Furthermore, we investigated potassium chloride films on a clean iron surface as a representative boundary lubricating system in a nonextreme environment. This investigation complemented the study of Ag/Cu-Ta-O and enhanced the

  20. Phase Behavior at High Pressure of the Ternary System: CO2, Ionic Liquid and Disperse Dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen R. Mazzer


    Full Text Available High pressure phase behavior experimental data have been measured for the systems carbon dioxide (CO2 + 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([bmim] [PF6] and carbon dioxide (CO2 + 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([bmim] [PF6] + 1-amino-2-phenoxy-4-hydroxyanthraquinone (C.I. Disperse Red 60. Measurements were performed in the pressure up to 18 MPa and at the temperature (323 to 353 K. As reported in the literature, at higher concentrations of carbon dioxide the phase transition pressure increased very steeply. The experimental data for the binary and ternary systems were correlated with good agreement using the Peng-Robinson equation of state. The amount of water in phase behavior of the systems was evaluated.

  1. Atomic mobility in a ternary liquid Ga-In-Sn alloy of the eutectic composition (United States)

    Nefedov, D. Yu.; Antonenko, A. O.; Podorozhkin, D. Yu.; Uskov, A. V.; Charnaya, E. V.; Lee, M. K.; Chang, J. L.; Haase, J.; Michel, D.; Kumzerov, Yu. A.; Fokin, A. V.; Samoilovich, M. I.; Bugaev, A. S.


    The nuclear spin-lattice relaxation and Knight shift of 71Ga, 69Ga, and 115In nuclei in a ternary liquid gallium-indium-tin alloy of the eutectic composition, which was introduced into pores of an opal matrix and porous glasses with pore sizes of 18 and 7 nm, have been investigated and compared with those for the bulk melt. It has been found that longitudinal relaxation is accelerated and the Knight shift is decreased, depending on the size of pores. The correlation time of the atomic motion has been calculated for the nanostructured melt in porous matrices. It has been shown that the atomic mobility in the melt decreases with decreasing size of pores in the glasses.

  2. Ternary Bi-Cu-Ni alloys – thermodynamics, characterization, mechanical and electrical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Radomir Marković


    Full Text Available The Bi–Cu–Ni ternary system belongs to the group of potential Cu-Ni-based advanced lead-free solder materials for high temperature application. The paper shows results of the thermodynamic calculations using general solution model along the line with the molar ratio of Cu: Ni = 1:1. The experimental part shows thermal, structural, electrical and mechanical properties based on differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS, electroconductivity and hardness measurements of the alloys selected in the section from bismuth corner with molar ratio Cu: Ni = 1:1, Cu: Ni = 3:1, and Cu: Ni = 1:3.

  3. Mutual information of sparsely coded associative memory with self-control and ternary neurons. (United States)

    Bollé, D; Dominguez, D R; Amari, S


    The influence of a macroscopic time-dependent threshold on the retrieval dynamics of attractor associative memory models with ternary neurons ¿-1, 0, +1¿ is examined. If the threshold is chosen appropriately as a function of the cross-talk noise and of the activity of the memorized patterns in the model, adapting itself in the course of the time evolution, it guarantees an autonomous functioning of the model. Especially in the limit of sparse coding, it is found that this self-control mechanism considerably improves the quality of the fixed-point retrieval dynamics, in particular the storage capacity, the basins of attraction and the information content. The mutual information is shown to be the relevant parameter to study the retrieval quality of such sparsely coded models. Numerical results confirm these observations.

  4. The analysis of fuel constituent redistribution for ternary metallic fuel slug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byoung Oon; Lee, Dong Uk; Kim, Young Kyun; Chang, Jin Wook; Lee, Ki Bok; Kim, Young Il


    U-TRU-Zr metallic alloy is being considered as the fuel slug for the proliferation resistance core of KALIMER. The radial fuel constituent migration is a general phenomenon in the metallic alloys. This phenomenon may affect the in-reactor performance of metallic fuel rods, influencing such factors as melting temperature, thermal conductivity, power generation rate, phase boundaries and eutectic melting of the fuel slug. Thus, constituent redistribution modeling is essential when developing a metallic fuel performance code. The constituent migration model adopted in this report was based on the Ishida's model and Hofman's theory. A subroutine program has been made and installed into the MACSIS code to simulate constituent redistribution. The radial profile of Zr redistribution was calculated for the ternary metallic fuel, and compared with the measured data.

  5. Thermoluminescence response of a mixed ternary alkali halide crystals exposed to gamma rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez M, R.; Perez S, R. [Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, Apdo. Postal 5-088, 83190 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Vazquez P, G.; Riveros, H. [UNAM, Instituto de Fisica, Apdo. Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Gonzalez M, P., E-mail: [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)


    Ionic crystals, mainly alkali halide crystals have been the subject of intense research for a better understanding of the luminescence properties of defects induced by ionizing radiation. The defects in crystals can be produced in appreciable concentration due to elastic stresses, radiation, and addition of impurities. These defects exhibit remarkable thermoluminescence properties. This work is concerned with the Tl properties of a ternary alkali halide crystal after being irradiated with gamma and beta rays. It has been found that the Tl glow peak of the crystal follows a rule of average associated to the Tl Temperatures of the components of the mixture, similarly to the response of europium doped binary mixed crystals KCl{sub x}KBr{sub 1-x} and KBr{sub x}RbBr{sub 1-x}. (Author)

  6. Polyion-counterion interactions in sodium carboxymethylcellulose-ethylene glycol-water ternary solutions. (United States)

    Sharma, Ramesh; Das, Chanchal; Dahal, Sanjay; Das, Bijan


    Polyion-counterion interactions in sodium carboxymethylcellulose-ethylene glycol-water ternary system have been investigated with special reference to their variations with the polyelectrolyte concentration, the medium relative permittivity and the temperature using electrical conductance measurements. The experimental data have been analyzed on the basis of a model for semidilute polyelectrolyte conductivity which takes into account the scaling arguments proposed by Dobrynin et al. Concentration-dependent moderate counterion condensation (24-33%) was observed. Counterion condensation is found to be spontaneous which depends upon the EG-content of the medium and the temperature. A major proportion of the current is transported by the carboxymethylcellulose polyions. The results further demonstrated that the monomer units experience more frictional resistance in solution as the EG-content increases or as the temperature decreases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ordered CoSn-type ternary phases in Co3Sn3-xGex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allred, Jared M.; Jia, Shuang; Bremholm, Martin


    CoSn is the prototype compound of the B35 structure, which has long been of interest due to its rarity and unusually low packing density. We report the synthesis and properties of the solid solution Co3Sn3-xGex for 0 ⩽ x ⩽ 2, in order to clarify the conditions necessary to stabilize such a phase....... By taking advantage of the chemical differences between the two crystallographically inequivalent Sn sites in the structure, we observe ordered ternary phases, nominally Co3SnGe2 and Co3Sn2Ge. The electron count and unit cell configuration remain unchanged from CoSn; these observations thus help to clarify...

  8. Correlated process of phase separation and microstructure evolution of ternary Co-Cu-Pb alloy (United States)

    Yan, N.; Wang, W. L.; Luo, S. B.; Hu, L.; Wei, B.


    The phase separation and rapid solidification of liquid ternary Co45Cu42Pb13 immiscible alloy have been investigated under both bulk undercooling and containerless processing conditions. The undercooled bulk alloy is solidified as a vertical two-layer structure, whereas the containerlessly solidified alloy droplet is characterized by core-shell structures. The dendritic growth velocity of primary α(Co) phase shows a power-law relation to undercooling and achieves a maximum of 1.52 m/s at the undercooling of 112 K. The Pb content is always enriched in Cu-rich zone and depleted in Co-rich zone. Numerical analyses indicate that the Stokes motion, solutal Marangoni convection, thermal Marangoni convection, and interfacial energy play the main roles in the correlated process of macrosegregation evolution and microstructure formation.

  9. (Vapour + liquid) equilibria of ternary systems with ionic liquids using headspace gas chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhtarani, Babak [Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Research Center of Iran, P.O. Box 14335-186, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gmehling, Juergen, E-mail: gmehling@tech.chem.uni-oldenburg.d [Carl von Ossietzky Universitaet Oldenburg, Technische Chemie, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany)


    (Vapour + liquid) equilibrium (VLE) data for the ternary systems (hexane + benzene), (hexane + cyclohexane), (benzene + cyclohexane), and (ethanol + water) with an ionic liquid as entrainer for extractive distillation were measured by headspace gas chromatography. As ionic liquids, 1-hexyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis (trifluoromethyl-sulfonyl) imide [HMIM][BTI], 1-octyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis (trifluoromethyl-sulfonyl) imide [OMIM][BTI], 1-octyl-3-methyl-imidazolium trifluoro-methanesulfonate [OMIM][OTF], and 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium trifluoro-methanesulfonate [BMIM][OTF] were used. The experimental data show that the ionic liquids investigated have a great influence on the separation factors of the systems (hexane + benzene), (hexane + cyclohexane), and (benzene + cyclohexane). The experimental data were compared with the predicted results using mod. UNIFAC (Do). The predicted results are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  10. Morphological study of ternary Ni Cu P alloys by atomic force microscopy (United States)

    Balaraju, J. N.; Anandan, C.; Rajam, K. S.


    Ternary electroless Ni-Cu-P alloy films were deposited by using nickel sulphate (B1)- and nickel chloride (B2)-based alkaline baths. Alloy films were characterized for their structure, morphology, chemical composition and microhardness. A single broad peak was obtained in XRD for both B1 and B2 films and the calculated grain sizes are 1.6 and 1.9 nm, respectively. Optical microscopic examination of the deposited coatings revealed a less nodular structure for B2-based coatings. SEM micrographs showed that films were smooth and nodular. Compositional analysis made on these deposits using EDX and the chemical state identification by XPS showed that the coatings are almost identical. AFM studies showed that the deposits from B2 bath are comparatively smoother with less nodular structure. Microhardness measurements and potentiodynamic polarization studies in 3.5% NaCl solution showed that both deposits have similar properties.

  11. Morphological study of ternary Ni-Cu-P alloys by atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balaraju, J.N. [Surface Engineering Division, National Aerospace Laboratories, Post Bag No. 1779, Bangalore 560 017 (India)]. E-mail:; Anandan, C. [Surface Engineering Division, National Aerospace Laboratories, Post Bag No. 1779, Bangalore 560 017 (India); Rajam, K.S. [Surface Engineering Division, National Aerospace Laboratories, Post Bag No. 1779, Bangalore 560 017 (India)


    Ternary electroless Ni-Cu-P alloy films were deposited by using nickel sulphate (B1)- and nickel chloride (B2)-based alkaline baths. Alloy films were characterized for their structure, morphology, chemical composition and microhardness. A single broad peak was obtained in XRD for both B1 and B2 films and the calculated grain sizes are 1.6 and 1.9 nm, respectively. Optical microscopic examination of the deposited coatings revealed a less nodular structure for B2-based coatings. SEM micrographs showed that films were smooth and nodular. Compositional analysis made on these deposits using EDX and the chemical state identification by XPS showed that the coatings are almost identical. AFM studies showed that the deposits from B2 bath are comparatively smoother with less nodular structure. Microhardness measurements and potentiodynamic polarization studies in 3.5% NaCl solution showed that both deposits have similar properties.

  12. High-Pressure Phase Behavior of Polycaprolactone, Carbon Dioxide, and Dichloromethane Ternary Mixture Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwon, JungMin; Kim, Hwayong [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Hun Yong [Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Soo Hyun [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The high-pressure phase behavior of a polycaprolactone (Mw=56,145 g/mol, polydispersity 1.2), dichloromethane, and carbon dioxide ternary system was measured using a variable-volume view cell. The experimental temperatures and pressures ranged from 313.15 K to 353.15 K and up to 300 bar as functions of the CO{sub 2}/dichloromethane mass ratio and temperature, at poly(D-lactic acid) weight fractions of 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0%. The correlation results were obtained from the hybrid equation of state (Peng-Robinson equation of state + SAFT equation of state) for the CO{sub 2}-polymer system using the van der Waals one-fluid mixing rule. The three binary interaction parameters were optimized by the simplex method algorithm.

  13. High Performing Ternary Solar Cells through Förster Resonance Energy Transfer between Nonfullerene Acceptors. (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Gu, Wenxing; Hong, Ling; Mi, Yang; Liu, Feng; Liu, Ming; Yang, Yufei; Sharma, Bigyan; Liu, Xinfeng; Huang, Hui


    Nonradiative Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) is an important mechanism of organic solar cells, which can improve the exciton migration over a long distance, resulting in improvement of efficiency of solar cells. However, the current observations of FRET are very limited, and the efficiencies are less than 9%. In this study, FRET effect was first observed between two nonfullerene acceptors in ternary solar cells, which improved both the absorption range and exciton harvesting, leading to the dramatic enhancement in the short circuit current and power conversion efficiency. Moreover, this strategy is proved to be a versatile platform for conjugated polymers with different bandgaps, resulting in a remarkable efficiency of 10.4%. These results demonstrated a novel method to enhance the efficiency of organic soar cells.

  14. Mass and Heat Diffusion in Ternary Polymer Solutions: A Classical Irreversible Thermodynamics Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Es-haghi, S Shams


    Governing equations for evolution of concentration and temperature in three-component systems were derived in the framework of classical irreversible thermodynamics using Onsager variational principle and were presented for solvent/solvent/polymer and solvent/polymer/polymer systems. The derivation was developed from the Gibbs equation of equilibrium thermodynamics using the local equilibrium hypothesis, Onsager reciprocal relations and Prigogine theorem for systems in mechanical equilibrium. It was shown that the details of mass and heat diffusion phenomena in a ternary system are completely expressed by a 3x3 matrix whose entries are mass diffusion coefficients (4 entries), thermal diffusion coefficients (2 entries) and three entries that describe the evolution of heat in the system. The entries of the diffusion matrix are related to the elements of Onsager matrix that are bounded by some constraints to satisfy the positive definiteness of entropy production in the system. All the elements of diffusion matr...

  15. Study on the oscillatory behaviour of the lattice parameter in ternary iron-nitrogen compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil Rebaza, A.V.; Desimoni, J. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, UNLP, CC No 67, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Peltzer y Blanca, E.L., E-mail: [Grupo de Estudio de Materiales y Dispositivos Electronicos (GEMyDE), Facultad de Ingenieria, UNLP, IFLYSIB-CONICET, CC No. 565, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)


    The structural properties of the XFe{sub 3}N (X=Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn) cubic ternary iron based nitrides as well as the preferential occupation site of X in the structure were studied using Full Potential Linearized Augmented Plane Wave method, within the Density Functional Theory formalism, Wien2k code, the exchange-correlation potential described with the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof expression, based in the Local Spin Density Approximation and Generalized Gradient Approximation. According the calculations, the Sc, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn, atoms preferred the corner sites of the cubes, while Ti, V, Cr and Mn occupy the centre of the faces of the equilibrium structures. The equilibrium structure lattice parameters have an oscillatory behaviour with the atomic number of X, with decreasing amplitude as the atomic number of X increases. This trend do not correlated with the atomic radii of X.

  16. Oxygen-induced Y surface segregation in a CuPdY ternary alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tafen, D N.; Miller, J B.; Dogan, O N.; Baltrus, J P.; Kondratyuk, P


    We present a comprehensive theoretical and experimental study of the segregation behavior of the ternary alloy CuPdY in vacuum (i.e., the clean surface) and in the presence of oxygen. Theoretical prediction shows that for clean surface, yttrium will substitute first for Cu and then for Pd at the subsurface lattice site before segregating to the surface where it substitutes for Cu. XRD characterization of the surface of CuPdY indicates the presence of two major phases, B2 CuPd and Pd{sub 3}Y. In the presence of adsorbed oxygen, theory predicts that Y preferentially occupies surface sites due to its stronger oxygen affinity compared to Cu and Pd. XPS experiments confirm the computational results in the adsorbed oxygen case, showing that surface segregation of yttrium is induced by the formation of Y-oxides at the top-surface of the alloy.

  17. Ternary Amides Containing Transition Metals for Hydrogen Storage: A Case Study with Alkali Metal Amidozincates. (United States)

    Cao, Hujun; Richter, Theresia M M; Pistidda, Claudio; Chaudhary, Anna-Lisa; Santoru, Antonio; Gizer, Gökhan; Niewa, Rainer; Chen, Ping; Klassen, Thomas; Dornheim, Martin


    The alkali metal amidozincates Li4 [Zn(NH2)4](NH2)2 and K2[Zn(NH2)4] were, to the best of our knowledge, studied for the first time as hydrogen storage media. Compared with the LiNH2-2 LiH system, both Li4 [Zn(NH2)4](NH2)2-12 LiH and K2[Zn(NH2)4]-8 LiH systems showed improved rehydrogenation performance, especially K2[Zn(NH2)4]-8 LiH, which can be fully hydrogenated within 30 s at approximately 230 °C. The absorption properties are stable upon cycling. This work shows that ternary amides containing transition metals have great potential as hydrogen storage materials. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Equilibria of ternary system acetic acid-water-CO2 under subcritical conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutierrez, Jose M. Jimenez; Mussatto, Solange I.; Tsou, Joana

    in a very wide range of applications. However, those conditions, especially the levels of high pressure required at larger scale, involve certain equipment limitations. An alternative to overcome those restrictions is to use subcritical carbon dioxide. In order to understand the different systems......) of the ternary system HAc—H2O—CO2 at different subcritical conditions. A proposed computer model could be validated with experimental data, leading to a certain degree of adjustment due to specific factors, such as the binary interaction parameter kij, used in the model based on the Peng-Robinson EoS coupled...... it will be returned to the atmosphere (as part of the carbon cycle), CO2 is an inexpensive and clean source with numerous industrial applications in diverse fields: from chemical processes to biotechnological purposes [1]. Many of these studies have been focused on supercritical CO2, due to its broad potential uses...

  19. Molecular dynamics investigation of the thermal conductivity of ternary silicon–germanium–tin alloys (United States)

    Lee, Yongjin; Hwang, Gyeong S.


    A further reduction of the thermal conductivity (κ) of silicon-germanium (SiGe) alloys is indispensable for their use as thermoelectric materials. Thus far, heteroatom-doped and nanostructured SiGe systems have been mainly synthesized and tested. This work presents a possibility of reducing the κ of SiGe by alloying with tin (Sn). Our molecular dynamics simulations predict that the κ of ternary SiGeSn alloys can be 40% lower than those of binary SiGe and GeSn alloys due mainly to increased mass disorder scattering of phonons. Our findings provide insight into the mechanism of κ suppression in multielement alloys and guidance on how to design them for thermoelectric applications.

  20. Interaction of the components in the Ce-Cu-Zn ternary system at 200deg. C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlyuk, V. [Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Kyryl and Mefodiy str. 6, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Jan Dlugosz University of Czestochowa, Institute of Chemistry and Environmental Protection, al. Armii Krajowej 13/15, 42200 Czestochowa (Poland); Prochwicz, W. [Jan Dlugosz University of Czestochowa, Institute of Chemistry and Environmental Protection, al. Armii Krajowej 13/15, 42200 Czestochowa (Poland); Solokha, P. [Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Kyryl and Mefodiy str. 6, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine)]. E-mail:; Zelinska, O. [Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Kyryl and Mefodiy str. 6, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Marciniak, B. [Jan Dlugosz University of Czestochowa, Institute of Chemistry and Environmental Protection, al. Armii Krajowej 13/15, 42200 Czestochowa (Poland); Rozycka-Sokolowska, E. [Jan Dlugosz University of Czestochowa, Institute of Chemistry and Environmental Protection, al. Armii Krajowej 13/15, 42200 Czestochowa (Poland)


    The isothermal section of the Ce-Cu-Zn phase diagram was constructed at 200 deg. C over the whole concentration range as a result of X-ray powder diffraction, wavelength dispersive spectrometry and electron probe microanalysis. The existence of one new ternary compound Ce{sub 2}Cu{sub 5-5.7}Zn{sub 2-1.3} was observed at this temperature and its crystal structure was refined from X-ray single crystal data (structure type Ce{sub 2}Ni{sub 5}Zn{sub 2}, space group R3-bar m, Pearson code hR18, a=0.4998(1)-0.5078(1)nm, c=3.6924(5)-3.6987(4)nm). The homogeneity regions were determined for a number of solid solutions on the basis of binary phases.

  1. Free-standing ternary NiWP film for efficient water oxidation reaction (United States)

    Yang, Yunpeng; Zhou, Kuo; Ma, Lili; Liang, Yanqin; Yang, Xianjin; Cui, Zhenduo; Zhu, Shengli; Li, Zhaoyang


    High-efficient catalysts for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is of great concern in improving energy efficiency for water splitting. Here we report a high-performance OER electrocatalyst of nickel-tungsten-phosphorus (NiWP) film prepared by template method. This free-standing ternary electrocatalyst exhibits a remarkable electrocatalytic activity of OER in alkaline medium due to the synergetic effect among these elements and the good electrical conductivity. The reported NiWP composite catalyst has an overpotential of as low as 0.4 V (vs. RHE) at 30 mA cm-2, better than that of the commercial RuO2 catalyst. Moreover, a small charge transfer resistance of 4.06 Ω and a Tafel slope of 68 mV dec-1 demonstrate the outstanding catalytic activity.

  2. Novel five-state latch using double-peak negative differential resistance and standard ternary inverter (United States)

    Shin, Sunhae; Rok Kim, Kyung


    We propose complement double-peak negative differential resistance (NDR) devices with ultrahigh peak-to-valley current ratio (PVCR) over 106 by combining tunnel diode with conventional CMOS and its compact five-state latch circuit by introducing standard ternary inverter (STI). At the “high”-state of STI, n-type NDR device (tunnel diode with nMOS) has 1st NDR characteristics with 1st peak and valley by band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) and trap-assisted tunneling (TAT), whereas p-type NDR device (tunnel diode with pMOS) has second NDR characteristics from the suppression of diode current by off-state MOSFET. The “intermediate”-state of STI permits double-peak NDR device to operate five-state latch with only four transistors, which has 33% area reduction compared with that of binary inverter and 57% bit-density reduction compared with binary latch.

  3. Corrosion Characteristics of Ti-29Nb-xHf Ternary Alloy for Biomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pak, Sun Young; Choi, Han Chul [Chosun Univ., Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)


    The Cp-Ti and Ti-6Al-4V alloys were widely used for dental materials due to their mechanical properties and good corrosion resistance. However, Cp-Ti was known as bio-inert materials, Ti-6Al-4V alloy has a problem such as high Young modulus, potential loss of the surrounding bone, and to the release of potentially toxic ions from the alloy. To overcome this problem, Ti alloys containing Nb and Hf elements have been used for biomaterials due to low toxicity and high corrosion resistance. Especially, alloying element of Nb was known as β phase stabilizer. The β phase alloy was widely used to replace currently used implant materials. The corrosion resistances of Ti-29Nb-xHf ternary alloys were dependent on Hf content in oral environment solution.

  4. Excess enthalpies of binary and ternary mixtures containing dibutyl ether (DBE), 1-butanol, and heptane at T = 298.15 K and 313.15 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar, Fernando; Alaoui, Fatima E.M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Electromecanica, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Universidad de Burgos, E-09006 Burgos (Spain); Segovia, Jose J.; Villamanan, Miguel A. [Grupo de Termodinamica y Calibracion TERMOCAL, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47071 Valladolid (Spain); Montero, Eduardo A., E-mail: emontero@ubu.e [Departamento de Ingenieria Electromecanica, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Universidad de Burgos, E-09006 Burgos (Spain)


    Experimental excess molar enthalpies of the ternary systems left bracedibutyl ether (DBE) + 1-butanol + heptaneright brace and the corresponding binary systems at T = 298.15 K and T = 313.15 K at atmospheric pressure are reported. A quasi-isothermal flow calorimeter has been used to make the measurements. All the binary and the ternary systems show endothermic character. The experimental data for the binary and ternary systems have been fitted using the Redlich-Kister equation, the NRTL and UNIQUAC models. The values of the standard deviation indicate good agreement between the experimental results and those calculated from the equations.

  5. Discovery of a ternary pseudobrookite phase in the earth-abundant Ti-Zn-O system. (United States)

    Perry, Nicola H; Stevanovic, Vladan; Lim, Linda Y; Mason, Thomas O


    We combine theory with experiment in searching for "missing", stable materials within the Zn-Ti-O chemical system, leading to the discovery of a new pseudobrookite phase, ZnxTi3-xO5-δ. This ternary system was chosen for (1) technological relevance, (2) earth abundance, and (3) the fact that many compounds in this system are predicted from enthalpies of formation to be borderline stable, suggesting an important role of entropic contributions in their stabilization and making this chemical system a perfect test bed for exploring the limits of theoretical predictions. The initial set of exploratory experimental syntheses, via sintering in evacuated ampoules and quenching, resulted in a single phase ZnxTi3-xO5-δ composition with x ≈ 0.6 and an almost stoichiometric oxygen content, as evaluated by X-ray fluorescence, energy dispersive spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The theoretically calculated lowest energy crystal structure for the closest stoichiometric ZnTi5O10 composition matched that measured experimentally by synchrotron X-ray diffraction (allowing for differences attributable to cation disorder). The measured broad optical absorption, n-type electrical conductivity, and stability in acidic media are comparable to those of other ternary pseudobrookites and Ti-O Magnéli phases, suggesting comparable applicability as a robust electrode or catalyst support in electrochemical devices or water remediation. However, the new phase decomposes upon heating in air as it oxidizes. The success of the present approach to identify a "missing material" in an earth-abundant and applications-rich system suggests that future efforts to experimentally realize and theoretically confirm missing materials in this and similar systems are warranted, both scientifically and technologically.

  6. Scalable Preparation of Ternary Hierarchical Silicon Oxide-Nickel-Graphite Composites for Lithium-Ion Batteries. (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Bao, Wurigumula; Ma, Lu; Tan, Guoqiang; Su, Yuefeng; Chen, Shi; Wu, Feng; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil


    Silicon monoxide is a promising anode candidate because of its high theoretical capacity and good cycle performance. To solve the problems associated with this material, including large volume changes during charge-discharge processes, we report a ternary hierarchical silicon oxide-nickel-graphite composite prepared by a facile two-step ball-milling method. The composite consists of nano-Si dispersed silicon oxides embedded in nano-Ni/graphite matrices (Si@SiOx /Ni/graphite). In the composite, crystalline nano-Si particles are generated by the mechanochemical reduction of SiO by ball milling with Ni. These nano-Si dispersed oxides have abundant electrochemical activity and can provide high Li-ion storage capacity. Furthermore, the milled nano-Ni/graphite matrices stick well to active materials and interconnect to form a crosslinked framework, which functions as an electrical highway and a mechanical backbone so that all silicon oxide particles become electrochemically active. Owing to these advanced structural and electrochemical characteristics, the composite enhances the utilization efficiency of SiO, accommodates its large volume expansion upon cycling, and has good ionic and electronic conductivity. The composite electrodes thus exhibit substantial improvements in electrochemical performance. This ternary hierarchical Si@SiOx /Ni/graphite composite is a promising candidate anode material for high-energy lithium-ion batteries. Additionally, the mechanochemical ball-milling method is low cost and easy to reproduce, indicating potential for the commercial production of the composite materials. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Tribological performance evidence on ternary and quaternary nitride coatings applied for industrial steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caicedo, J. C.; Aguilar, Y. [Universidad del Valle, School of Materials Engineering, Ciudad Universitaria Melendez, Calle 13 No. 100-00, Edif. 320, A. A. 25360 Cali (Colombia); Aperador, W., E-mail: [Universidad Militar Nueva Granada, Department of Engineering, Carrera 11 No. 101-80, 6343200 Bogota D. C. (Colombia)


    A diagnostic of mechanical and tribological behavior in ternary Ti-C-N and quaternary Ti-Nb-C-N films deposited onto Si (100) and 4140 steel substrates by r.f. magnetron sputtering process varying negative bias voltage from 0 to 100 V, was done in this work. Growth parameters as power density, Ar/N{sub 2} flow rate, and substrate temperature were kept constant at the moment of the deposition. Introduction of Nb in the ternary Ti-C-N film was evaluated by X-ray diffraction analysis. Quantitative elemental concentration depth profile by glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy and the morphology via scanning electron microscopy were observed for the layers before the tests. Mechanical and tribological properties for both coatings were obtained by mean of nano indentation measurements through load versus displacement method, and scratch test using the critical load criterion, respectively. The failure modes from scratch test were observed via optical microscopy. X-ray diffraction results show as the amount of Nb is increased into the quaternary phase, the preferred orientation change in the film dur to the modification in the strain and lattice parameter. Energy dispersive X-ray results from previous work show the Ti CN and TiNbCN layers were stoichiometric. Nano indentation results reaching the elastic-plastic behavior of the Ti CN and Ti CN films with inclusion of Nb (TiNbCN), indicate not only the hardness and elastic modulus but also the critical load for the adhesive failure increase when increasing r.f negative bias voltage. An improvement of hardness and critical load around 60% and 28% for Ti CN as well as 26% and 31% for TiNbCN, respectively, was associated to an increasing in the r.f negative bias voltage from 0 to - 100 V. (Author)

  8. Novel spectrophotometric methods for simultaneous determination of Amlodipine, Valsartan and Hydrochlorothiazide in their ternary mixture (United States)

    Lotfy, Hayam M.; Hegazy, Maha A.; Mowaka, Shereen; Mohamed, Ekram Hany


    This work represents a comparative study of two smart spectrophotometric techniques namely; successive resolution and progressive resolution for the simultaneous determination of ternary mixtures of Amlodipine (AML), Hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) and Valsartan (VAL) without prior separation steps. These techniques consist of several consecutive steps utilizing zero and/or ratio and/or derivative spectra. By applying successive spectrum subtraction coupled with constant multiplication method, the proposed drugs were obtained in their zero order absorption spectra and determined at their maxima 237.6 nm, 270.5 nm and 250 nm for AML, HCT and VAL, respectively; while by applying successive derivative subtraction they were obtained in their first derivative spectra and determined at P230.8-246, P261.4-278.2, P233.7-246.8 for AML, HCT and VAL respectively. While in the progressive resolution, the concentrations of the components were determined progressively from the same zero order absorption spectrum using absorbance subtraction coupled with absorptivity factor methods or from the same ratio spectrum using only one divisor via amplitude modulation method can be used for the determination of ternary mixtures using only one divisor where the concentrations of the components are determined progressively. The proposed methods were checked using laboratory-prepared mixtures and were successfully applied for the analysis of pharmaceutical formulation containing the cited drugs. Moreover comparative study between spectrum addition technique as a novel enrichment technique and a well established one namely spiking technique was adopted for the analysis of pharmaceutical formulations containing low concentration of AML. The methods were validated as per ICH guidelines where accuracy, precision and specificity were found to be within their acceptable limits. The results obtained from the proposed methods were statistically compared with the reported one where no significant

  9. 600 °C isothermal section of the Al–Cr–Zn ternary phase diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Zuxin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, 213164 Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Material Surface Science and Technology, Changzhou University, 213164 Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Photovolatic Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, 213164 Jiangsu (China); Su, Xuping, E-mail: [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, 213164 Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Material Surface Science and Technology, Changzhou University, 213164 Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Photovolatic Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, 213164 Jiangsu (China); Peng, Haoping; Liu, Ya; Wu, Changjun; Wang, Jianhua [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, 213164 Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Material Surface Science and Technology, Changzhou University, 213164 Jiangsu (China)


    600 °C isothermal section of the Al–Cr–Zn system has been determined by Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS), and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). Eleven three-phase regions have been identified experimentally at 600 °C. The τ{sub 3} and τ{sub 4} ternary compounds were identified in this isothermal section and the crystal structures of both phases are cubic. The lattice parameters of τ{sub 3} and τ{sub 4} are a = 2.1536 nm and a = 1.8323 nm, respectively. The formerly reported τ{sub 1} phase was not found. The formerly reported τ{sub 2} phase is an extension of Al{sub 7}Cr. The highest Zn content in γ{sub 2} and ν phases is 7.1 at at.% and 6.7 at.%, respectively. The Zn solubility in Al{sub 7}Cr phase can be up to 10.4 at.%, while that in Al{sub 4}Cr phase is less than 4 at.%. The clearly phase relation of the Al–Cr–Zn system can lead us to better understand the effect of Cr on the corrosion behavior of metals in the Zn–Al bath and the Hot-dip galvanizing process. - Highlights: • Isothermal section of the Al–Cr–Zn system at 600 °C was determined. • Eleven three-phase regions were identified experimentally at 600 °C. • Existence of the γ{sub 2} and ν phases was confirmed at 600 °C. • X-ray diffraction patterns of the ternary phases τ{sub 3} and τ{sub 4} were proposed for the first time.

  10. Neural correlates of intentional switching from ternary to binary meter in a musical hemiola pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takako eFujioka


    Full Text Available Musical rhythms are often perceived and interpreted within a metrical framework that integrates timing information hierarchically based on interval ratios. Endogenous timing processes facilitate this metrical integration and allow us using the sensory context for predicting when an expected sensory event will happen (‘predictive timing’. Previously, we showed that listening to metronomes and subjectively imagining the two different meters of march and waltz modulated the resulting auditory evoked responses in the temporal lobe and motor-related brain areas such as the motor cortex, basal ganglia, and cerebellum. Here we further explored the intentional transitions between the two metrical contexts, known as hemiola in the Western classical music dating back to the 16th century. We examined MEG from 12 musicians while they repeatedly listened to a sequence of 12 unaccented clicks with an interval of 390 ms, and tapped to them with the right hand according to a 3+3+2+2+2 hemiola accent pattern. While participants listened to the same metronome sequence and imagined the accents, their pattern of brain responses significantly changed just before the pivot point of metric transition from ternary to binary meter. Until 100 ms before the pivot point, brain activities were more similar to those in the simple ternary meter than those in the simple binary meter, but the pattern was reversed afterwards. A similar transition was also observed at the downbeat after the pivot. Brain areas related to the metric transition were identified from source reconstruction of the MEG using a beamformer and included auditory cortices, sensorimotor and premotor cortices, cerebellum, inferior/middle frontal gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, cingulate cortex, and precuneus. The results strongly support that predictive timing processes related to auditory-motor, fronto-parietal, and medial limbic systems underlie metrical representation and its

  11. Facile Fabrication of 100% Bio-based and Degradable Ternary Cellulose/PHBV/PLA Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Qiang


    Full Text Available Modifying bio-based degradable polymers such as polylactide (PLA and poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV with non-degradable agents will compromise the 100% degradability of their resultant composites. This work developed a facile and solvent-free route in order to fabricate 100% bio-based and degradable ternary cellulose/PHBV/PLA composite materials. The effects of ball milling on the physicochemical properties of pulp cellulose fibers, and the ball-milled cellulose particles on the morphology and mechanical properties of PHBV/PLA blends, were investigated experimentally and statistically. The results showed that more ball-milling time resulted in a smaller particle size and lower crystallinity by way of mechanical disintegration. Filling PHBV/PLA blends with the ball-milled celluloses dramatically increased the stiffness at all of the levels of particle size and filling content, and improved their elongation at the break and fracture work at certain levels of particle size and filling content. It was also found that the high filling content of the ball-milled cellulose particles was detrimental to the mechanical properties for the resultant composite materials. The ternary cellulose/PHBV/PLA composite materials have some potential applications, such as in packaging materials and automobile inner decoration parts. Furthermore, filling content contributes more to the variations of their mechanical properties than particle size does. Statistical analysis combined with experimental tests provide a new pathway to quantitatively evaluate the effects of multiple variables on a specific property, and figure out the dominant one for the resultant composite materials.

  12. Ternary blended cement concrete. Part I: early age properties and mechanical strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irassar, E. F.


    Full Text Available While there is ample information in the literature on the mechanical performance and durability of concrete made with either limestone or granulated blast furnace slag,very little is known about the effect of the combined action of these two additions on concrete properties. The present paper evaluates the early stage properties and mechanical strength of binary and ternary cement concrete containing up to 18% limestone and 20% granulated blast furnace slag. The results show that the use of ternary cements has no substantial effect on concrete setting time, although it does reduce bleeding and enhance mechanical strength with respect to unadditioned Portland and/or binary cement concrete.En la bibliografía existe abundante información acerca del comportamiento mecánico y durable de hormigones elaborados con la incorporación individual de caliza y de escoria granulada de alto horno. Sin embargo, la modificación de las propiedades por la acción conjunta de las mismas es prácticamente desconocida. En este trabajo se evalúan las propiedades en estado fresco y el comportamiento mecánico de hormigones elaborados con cementos compuestos binarios y ternarios conteniendo hasta 18% de caliza y 20% de escoria granulada de alto horno. Los resultados indican que la utilización de cementos ternarios en hormigones no modifican sustancialmente el tiempo de fraguado, disminuyen la exudación y presentan un mejor comportamiento mecánico que los hormigones elaborados con cemento Portland sin adición y/o binarios.

  13. Facile synthesis of two-dimensional graphene/SnO2/Pt ternary hybrid nanomaterials and their catalytic properties (United States)

    Zhu, Chengzhou; Wang, Ping; Wang, Li; Han, Lei; Dong, Shaojun


    In this paper, we reported a simple, aqueous-phase route to the synthesis of two-dimensional graphene/SnO2 composite nanosheets (GSCN) hybrid nanostructures consisting of 5 nm Pt nanoparticles supported on the both sides of GSCN. Functional two-dimensional GSCN were obtained through the reduction of graphene oxide (GO) using SnCl2 in the presence of polyelectrolyte poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA). The main advantages of this preparation are that the reduction of GO, the formation of SnO2 and the functionalization of GSCN were achieved simultaneously through one-pot reaction. GSCN/Pt ternary hybrid nanomaterials were generated by in situ reduction of negatively charged PtCl62- precursors adsorbed on the positively charged surface of GSCN through electrostatic attraction. The as-synthesized GSCN/Pt ternary hybrid nanomaterials exhibited high cycle stabilization during the catalytic reduction of p-nitrophenol into p-aminophenol by NaBH4. Additionally, our approach is expected to extend to other hybrid nanomaterials. We believe that the obtained GSCN/Pt ternary hybrid nanomaterials have great potential for applications in other field, such as electrochemical energy storage, sensors, and so on.In this paper, we reported a simple, aqueous-phase route to the synthesis of two-dimensional graphene/SnO2 composite nanosheets (GSCN) hybrid nanostructures consisting of 5 nm Pt nanoparticles supported on the both sides of GSCN. Functional two-dimensional GSCN were obtained through the reduction of graphene oxide (GO) using SnCl2 in the presence of polyelectrolyte poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA). The main advantages of this preparation are that the reduction of GO, the formation of SnO2 and the functionalization of GSCN were achieved simultaneously through one-pot reaction. GSCN/Pt ternary hybrid nanomaterials were generated by in situ reduction of negatively charged PtCl62- precursors adsorbed on the positively charged surface of GSCN through

  14. Elongation Factor Ts Directly Facilitates the Formation and Disassembly of the Escherichia coli Elongation Factor Tu·GTP·Aminoacyl-tRNA Ternary Complex* (United States)

    Burnett, Benjamin J.; Altman, Roger B.; Ferrao, Ryan; Alejo, Jose L.; Kaur, Navdep; Kanji, Joshua; Blanchard, Scott C.


    Aminoacyl-tRNA enters the translating ribosome in a ternary complex with elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) and GTP. Here, we describe bulk steady state and pre-steady state fluorescence methods that enabled us to quantitatively explore the kinetic features of Escherichia coli ternary complex formation and decay. The data obtained suggest that both processes are controlled by a nucleotide-dependent, rate-determining conformational change in EF-Tu. Unexpectedly, we found that this conformational change is accelerated by elongation factor Ts (EF-Ts), the guanosine nucleotide exchange factor for EF-Tu. Notably, EF-Ts attenuates the affinity of EF-Tu for GTP and destabilizes ternary complex in the presence of non-hydrolyzable GTP analogs. These results suggest that EF-Ts serves an unanticipated role in the cell of actively regulating the abundance and stability of ternary complex in a manner that contributes to rapid and faithful protein synthesis. PMID:23539628

  15. Surface properties and photocatalytic activity of KTaO3, CdS, MoS2 semiconductors and their binary and ternary semiconductor composites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bajorowicz, Beata; Cybula, Anna; Winiarski, Michał J; Klimczuk, Tomasz; Zaleska, Adriana


    Single semiconductors such as KTaO3, CdS MoS2 or their precursor solutions were combined to form novel binary and ternary semiconductor nanocomposites by the calcination or by the hydro/solvothermal...

  16. Composition Optimization of Lithium-Based Ternary Alloy Blankets for Fusion Reactors (United States)

    Jolodosky, Alejandra

    The goal of this dissertation is to examine the neutronic properties of a novel type of fusion reactor blanket material in the form of lithium-based ternary alloys. Pure liquid lithium, first proposed as a blanket for fusion reactors, is utilized as both a tritium breeder and a coolant. It has many attractive features such as high heat transfer and low corrosion properties, but most importantly, it has a very high tritium solubility and results in very low levels of tritium permeation throughout the facility infrastructure. However, lithium metal vigorously reacts with air and water and presents plant safety concerns including degradation of the concrete containment structure. The work of this thesis began as a collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in an effort to develop a lithium-based ternary alloy that can maintain the beneficial properties of lithium while reducing the reactivity concerns. The first studies down-selected alloys based on the analysis and performance of both neutronic and activation characteristics. First, 3-D Monte Carlo calculations were performed to evaluate two main neutronics performance parameters for the blanket: tritium breeding ratio (TBR), and energy multiplication factor (EMF). Alloys with adequate results based on TBR and EMF calculations were considered for activation analysis. Activation simulations were executed with 50 years of irradiation and 300 years of cooling. It was discovered that bismuth is a poor choice due to achieving the highest decay heat, contact dose rates, and accident doses. In addition, it does not meet the waste disposal ratings (WDR). The straightforward approach to obtain Monte Carlo TBR and EMF results required 231 simulations per alloy and became computationally expensive, time consuming, and inefficient. Consequently, alternate methods were pursued. A collision history-based methodology recently developed for the Monte Carlo code Serpent, calculates perturbation effects on practically

  17. Solubilization properties of nonionic surfactants. Part 1. Evolution of the ternary phase diagrams with temperature, salinity, HLB (hydrophile-lipophile balance), and ACN (alkane carbon number)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buzier, M.; Ravey, J.C.


    From investigations of ternary systems with nonionic polyoxyethylene glycol alkyl ethers, brine, and alkanes, a classification of the oil-water solubilization properties of these surfactants can be made in terms of the evolution of the whole of the ternary diagrams. A simple relation between the different parameters characterizing the systems is proposed which uses the concepts of the equivalence between temperature and other parameters (HLB, alcane carbon number, salinity). 30 references.

  18. Preparation and evaluation of pH-responsive charge-convertible ternary complex FA-PEI-CCA/PEI/DNA with low cytotoxicity and efficient gene delivery. (United States)

    Guo, Aijie; Wang, Yun; Xu, Shaohui; Zhang, Xiao; Li, Min; Liu, Qing; Shen, Yuanyuan; Cui, Derong; Guo, Shengrong


    Because the surface of the cationic polymer gene complex is positively charged, it can result in problems such as poor blood stability and cytotoxicity. Therefore, reducing the positive charge of the cationic gene complex without affecting its transfection efficiency is crucial. To achieve this objective, a pH-responsive charge-convertible ternary complex was developed in this study. Modified plyethylenimine (PEI) with two different degrees of substitution of NH2 (plyethylenimine-1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic anhydride, PEI-CCA, and folic acid-plyethylenimine-1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic anhydride, FA-PEI-CCA) were first obtained by a chemical graft reaction. PEI-CCA and FA-PEI-CCA have significantly lower cytotoxicities and much better blood compatibilities than PEI does, and the former have an undifferentiated compression capability of DNA. The zeta potential values of the as-prepared ternary complexes (PEI-CCA/PEI/DNA and FA-PEI-CCA/PEI/DNA) were negative at pH 7.4 and positive at pH 6.5, with particle sizes of approximately 150nm. MTT assays demonstrated the significantly lower cytotoxicities of the ternary complexes compared to that of PEI/DNA. Moreover, the cytotoxicities of the ternary complexes were lower at pH 7.4 than pH 6.5. Transfection experiments in vitro revealed that the mean fluorescence intensities and transfection efficiencies of the ternary complexes were lower than for PEI/DNA at pH 7.4 but were almost the same at pH 6.5. The ternary complex with a FA group had significantly higher mean fluorescence intensity and transfection efficiency than did the ternary complex without it. In addition, the transfection experiment in 293T cells preliminarily validated the targeting function of the FA group of the ternary complex. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Ternary complex of plasmid DNA with NLS-Mu-Mu protein and cationic niosome for biocompatible and efficient gene delivery: a comparative study with protamine and lipofectamine. (United States)

    Nematollahi, Mohammad Hadi; Torkzadeh-Mahanai, Masoud; Pardakhty, Abbas; Ebrahimi Meimand, Hossein Ali; Asadikaram, Gholamreza


    Non-viral gene delivery methods are considered due to safety and simplicity in human gene therapy. Since the use of cationic peptide and niosome represent a promising approach for gene delivery purposes we used recombinant fusion protein and cationic niosome as a gene carrier. A multi-domain fusion protein including nuclear localization motif (NLS) and two DNA-binding (Mu) domains, namely NLS-Mu-Mu (NMM) has been designed, cloned and expressed in E. coli DE3 strain. Afterward, the interested protein was purified by affinity chromatography. Binary vectors based on protein/DNA and ternary vectors based on protein/DNA/niosome were prepared. Protamine was used as a control. DNA condensing properties of NMM and protamine were evaluated by various experiments. Furthermore, we examined cytotoxicity, hemolysis and transfection potential of the binary and ternary complexes in HEK293T and MCF-7 cell lines. Protamine and Lipofectamine™2000 were used as positive controls, correspondingly. The recombinant NMM was expressed and purified successfully and DNA was condensed efficiently at charge ratios that were not harmful to cells. Peptidoplexes showed transfection efficiency (TE) but ternary complexes had higher TE. Additionally, NMM ternary complex was more efficient compared to protamine ternary vectors. Our results showed that niosomal ternary vector of NMM is a promising non-viral gene carrier to achieve an effective and safe carrier system for gene therapy.

  20. Effect of guest drug character encapsulated in the cavity and intermolecular spaces of γ-cyclodextrins on the dissolution property of ternary γ-cyclodextrin complex. (United States)

    Liu, Nan; Higashi, Kenjirou; Ueda, Keisuke; Moribe, Kunikazu


    Various ternary Guest 2/(Guest 1/γ-cyclodextrin (CD)) complexes were prepared using a cogrinding and subsequent heating method, wherein Guest 1 was incorporated in the cavity of γ-CD and Guest 2 was incorporated into the intermolecular spaces between γ-CD columns. Dissolution fluxes of Guest 1 and Guest 2 from all ternary complexes were almost identical. The dissolution flux of flurbiprofen (Guest 1) from the ternary complexes depended on the solubility of Guest 2 drugs (naproxendissolution medium of pH 1.2. It is noteworthy that the dissolution flux of flurbiprofen from the ternary complexes with ketoprofen and ethenzamide as Guest 2 drugs was further enhanced compared with that from the flurbiprofen/γ-CD inclusion complex. The ternary complex of the acidic drug ketoprofen as Guest 1 and the neutral drug hydrocortisone as Guest 2 showed an increased dissolution flux, which was dependent on the increase in pH of the dissolution medium. The pH-dependent dissolution should reflect the solubility of ketoprofen/γ-CD inclusion complex in each dissolution medium. These results indicated that the dissolution flux of the ternary γ-CD complexes could be controlled by selecting the appropriate Guest 1 and Guest 2 species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Potentiometric studies on ternary complexes involving some divalent transition metal ions, gallic acid and biologically abundant aliphatic dicarboxylic acids in aqueous solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelatty Mohamed Radalla


    Full Text Available Formation of binary and ternary complexes of the divalent transition metal ions, Cu2+, Ni2+, Co2+ and Zn2+ with gallic acid and the biologically important aliphatic dicarboxylic acids (adipic, succinic, malic, malonic, maleic, tartaric and oxalic acids were investigated by means of the potentiometric technique at 25 °C and I = 0.10 mol dm−3 NaNO3. The acid-base properties of the ligands were investigated and discussed. The acidity constants of gallic acid and aliphatic dicarboxylic acids were determined and used for determining the stability constants of the binary and ternary complexes formed in the aqueous medium under the above experimental conditions. The formation of the different 1:1 and 1:2 binary complexes and 1:1:1 ternary complexes are inferred from the corresponding potentiometric pH-metric titration curves. The ternary complex formation was found to occur in a stepwise manner. The stability constants of these binary and ternary systems were calculated. The values of Δ log K, percentage of relative stabilization (%R.S. and log X were evaluated and discussed. The concentration distribution of the various complex species formed in solution was evaluated and discussed. The mode of chelation of ternary complexes formed was ascertained by conductivity measurements.

  2. The gRNA-miRNA-gRNA Ternary Cassette Combining CRISPR/Cas9 with RNAi Approach Strongly Inhibits Hepatitis B Virus Replication (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Chen, Ran; Zhang, Ruiyang; Ding, Shanlong; Zhang, Tianying; Yuan, Quan; Guan, Guiwen; Chen, Xiangmei; Zhang, Ting; Zhuang, Hui; Nunes, Frederick; Block, Timothy; Liu, Shuang; Duan, Zhongping; Xia, Ningshao; Xu, Zhongwei; Lu, Fengmin


    The CRISPR/Cas9 system is a novel genome editing technology which has been successfully used to inhibit HBV replication. Here, we described a novel gRNA-microRNA (miRNA)-gRNA ternary cassette driven by a single U6 promoter. With an anti-HBV pri-miR31 mimic integrated between two HBV-specific gRNAs, both gRNAs could be separated from the long transcript of gRNA-miR-HBV-gRNA ternary cassette through Drosha/DGCR8 processing. The results showed that the gRNA-miR-HBV-gRNA ternary cassette could efficiently express two gRNAs and miR-HBV. The optimal length of pri-miRNA flanking sequence in our ternary cassette was determined to be 38 base pairs (bp). Besides, HBV-specific gRNAs and miR-HBV in gRNA-miR-HBV-gRNA ternary cassette could exert a synergistic effect in inhibiting HBV replication and destroying HBV genome in vitro and in vivo. Most importantly, together with RNA interference (RNAi) approach, the HBV-specific gRNAs showed the potent activity on the destruction of HBV covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA). Since HBV cccDNA is an obstacle for the elimination of chronic HBV infection, the gRNA-miR-HBV-gRNA ternary cassette may be a potential tool for the clearance of HBV cccDNA. PMID:28839466

  3. Inclusion complex formation of ternary system: Fluoroscein-p-sulfonato calix[4]arene-Cu(2+) by cooperative binding. (United States)

    Gawhale, Sharadchandra; Jadhav, Ankita; Rathod, Nilesh; Malkhede, Dipalee; Chaudhari, Gajanan


    The aqueous solution of fluorescein-para sulfonato calix[4]arene-metal ion complex has been studied based on absorption, fluorescence, (1)H NMR and FTIR spectroscopic results. It was found that the fluorescence intensity quenched regularly upon addition of pSCX4 and metal ion. The quenching constants and binding constants were determined for pSCX4-FL and pSCX4-FL-Cu(2+) systems. 1:1 stoichiometry is obtained for pSCX4-Cu(2+) system by continuous variation method. The NMR and IR results indicates the interaction among FL, pSCX4 and Cu(2+). The combined results demonstrate the cooperative binding to design the complex for ternary system. The life time for binary and ternary system has been studied. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Thermochemical stability of Li-Cu-O ternary compounds stable at room temperature analyzed by experimental and theoretical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepple, Maren [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Inst. for Applied Materials - Applied Materials Physics; Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Eduard-Zintl-Inst. of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry; Rohrer, Jochen; Albe, Karsten [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Fachgebiet Materialmodellierung; Adam, Robert; Rafaja, David [Technical Univ. Freiberg (Germany). Inst. of Materials Science; Cupid, Damian M. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Inst. for Applied Materials - Applied Materials Physics; Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Vienna (Austria). Center for Low-Emission Transport TECHbase; Seifert, Hans J. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Inst. for Applied Materials - Applied Materials Physics


    Compounds in the Li-Cu-O system are of technological interest due to their electrochemical properties which make them attractive as electrode materials, i.e., in future lithium ion batteries. In order to select promising compositions for such applications reliable thermochemical data are a prerequisite. Although various groups have investigated individual ternary phases using different experimental setups, up to now, no systematic study of all relevant phases is available in the literature. In this study, we combine drop solution calorimetry with density function theory calculations to systematically investigate the thermodynamic properties of ternary Li-Cu-O phases. In particular, we present a consistently determined set of enthalpies of formation, Gibbs energies and heat capacities for LiCuO, Li{sub 2}CuO{sub 2} and LiCu{sub 2}O{sub 2} and compare our results with existing literature.

  5. A Multifunctional Sensor for Concentrations of Ternary Solution with NaCl and Sucrose Employed in Osmotic Dehydration Process (United States)

    Wei, Guo; Shida, Katsunori


    Ternary solution with NaCl and sucrose is widely employed in the osmotic dehydration process of food. In this paper we present a multifunctional sensor capable of directly sensing temperature and two physical parameters of solutions, namely ultrasonic velocity and electrical conductivity. By combination measurement of these three measurable parameters, the concentrations of various components in ternary solution with NaCl and sucrose can be simultaneously determined. A regression algorithm based on natural cubic spline interpolation and the least squares method is developed to estimate the concentrations of NaCl and sucrose, which considers the temperature influence on the multifunctional sensor and then enables decoupling of the reconstruction of concentrations in 4D space into 3D space. This sensor could prove valuable as a process control sensor in food industry.

  6. Discovery of the Ternary Nanolaminated Compound Nb2GeC by a Systematic Theoretical-Experimental Approach (United States)

    Eklund, Per; Dahlqvist, Martin; Tengstrand, Olof; Hultman, Lars; Lu, Jun; Nedfors, Nils; Jansson, Ulf; Rosén, Johanna


    Since the advent of theoretical materials science some 60 years ago, there has been a drive to predict and design new materials in silicio. Mathematical optimization procedures to determine phase stability can be generally applicable to complex ternary or higher-order materials systems where the phase diagrams of the binary constituents are sufficiently known. Here, we employ a simplex-optimization procedure to predict new compounds in the ternary Nb-Ge-C system. Our theoretical results show that the hypothetical Nb2GeC is stable, and excludes all reasonably conceivable competing hypothetical phases. We verify the existence of the Nb2GeC phase by thin film synthesis using magnetron sputtering. This hexagonal nanolaminated phase has a and c lattice parameters of ˜3.24Å and 12.82 Å.

  7. (Liquid + liquid) equilibria in ternary aqueous mixtures of phosphoric acid with organic solvents at T = 298.2 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghanadzadeh, H., E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Guilan, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Guilan, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghanadzadeh, A., E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Guilan, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aghajani, Z.; Abbasnejad, S.; Shekarsaraee, S. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Guilan, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) data for the ternary mixtures of left bracewater (1) + phosphoric acid (2) + organic solvents (3)right brace were determined at T = 298.2 K and atmospheric pressure. The organic solvents were cyclohexane, 2-methyl-2-butanol (tert-amyl alcohol), and isobutyl acetate. All the investigated systems exhibit Type-1 behaviour of LLE. The immiscibility region was found to be larger for the (water + phosphoric acid + cyclohexane) ternary system. The experimental LLE results were correlated with the NRTL model, and the binary interaction parameters were obtained. The reliability of the experimental tie-line results was tested through the Othmer-Tobias and Bachman correlation equations. Distribution coefficients and separation factors were evaluated over the immiscibility regions and a comparison of the extracting capabilities of the solvents was made with respect to these factors. The experimental results indicate the superiority of cyclohexane as the preferred solvent for the extraction of phosphoric acid from its aqueous solutions.

  8. The Computerised Calculus in the Prognosis of the Phase Equilibrium Diagram of the Ternary System Al-Cu-Si

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina A. Cziple


    Full Text Available The paper presents a model for establishing the mathematical functions of the liquidus and solidus curves, from the binary diagrams Al-Si, Si-Cu, Cu-Al and their use in the prognosis of the phase equilibrium diagram from the ternary system Al-Cu-Si. We have studied the model of the non-ideal liquid solution of the regular type. The calculus and graphic plotting of the equations for the binary systems has been performed on the computer with the software programmes MathCad 2000 Professional, Statistica 5, Curve Expert, and for the ternary system Al-Cu-Si, with the 3D StudioMax software

  9. Calculation of ternary Si-Fe-Al phase equilibrium in vacuum distillation by molecular interaction volume model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu K.


    Full Text Available The vacuum distillation of aluminum from Si-Fe-Al ternary alloy with high content of Al is studied by a molecular interaction volume model (MIVM in this paper. The vapor-liquid phase equilibrium of the Si-Fe-Al system in vacuum distillation has been calculated using only the properties of pure components and the activity coefficients. A significant advantage of the model lies in its ability to predict the thermodynamic properties of liquid alloys using only binary infinite dilution activity coefficients. The thermodynamic activities and activity coefficients of components of the related Si-Fe, Si- Al and Fe-Al binary and the Si-Fe-Al ternary alloy systems are calculated based on the MIVM. The computational activity values are presented graphically, and evaluated with the reported experiment data in the literature, which shows that the prediction effect of the proposed model is of stability and reliability.

  10. Structural characterization of the ternary complex that mediates termination of NF-κB signaling by IκBα. (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sulakshana P; Quintas, Pedro O; McNulty, Reginald; Komives, Elizabeth A; Dyson, H Jane


    The transcription factor NF-κB is used in many systems for the transduction of extracellular signals into the expression of signal-responsive genes. Published structural data explain the activation of NF-κB through degradation of its dedicated inhibitor IκBα, but the mechanism by which NF-κB-mediated signaling is turned off by its removal from the DNA in the presence of newly synthesized IκBα (termed stripping) is unknown. Previous kinetic studies showed that IκBα accelerates NF-κB dissociation from DNA, and a transient ternary complex between NF-κB, its cognate DNA sequence, and IκBα was observed. Here we structurally characterize the >100-kDa ternary complex by NMR and negative stain EM and show a modeled structure that is consistent with the measurements. These data provide a structural basis for previously unidentified insights into the molecular mechanism of stripping.

  11. Understanding the vapor-liquid-solid growth and composition of ternary III-V nanowires and nanowire heterostructures (United States)

    Dubrovskii, V. G.


    Based on the recent achievements in vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) synthesis, characterization and modeling of ternary III-V nanowires and axial heterostructures within such nanowires, we try to understand the major trends in their compositional evolution from a general theoretical perspective. Clearly, the VLS growth of ternary materials is much more complex than in standard vapor-solid epitaxy techniques, and even maintaining the necessary control over the composition of steady-state ternary nanowires is far from straightforward. On the other hand, VLS nanowires offer otherwise unattainable material combinations without introducing structural defects and hence are very promising for next-generation optoelectronic devices, in particular those integrated with a silicon electronic platform. In this review, we consider two main problems. First, we show how and by means of which parameters the steady-state composition of Au-catalyzed or self-catalyzed ternary III-V nanowires can be tuned to a desired value and why it is generally different from the vapor composition. Second, we present some experimental data and modeling results for the interfacial abruptness across axial nanowire heterostructures, both in Au-catalyzed and self-catalyzed VLS growth methods. Refined modeling allows us to formulate some general growth recipes for suppressing the unwanted reservoir effect in the droplet and sharpening the nanowire heterojunctions. We consider and refine two approaches developed to date, namely the regular crystallization model for a liquid alloy with a critical size of only one III-V pair at high supersaturations or classical binary nucleation theory with a macroscopic critical nucleus at modest supersaturations.

  12. Solid–liquid equilibria for binary and ternary systems with the Cubic-Plus-Association (CPA) equation of state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fettouhi, André; Thomsen, Kaj


    A systematic investigation of the CPA model's performance within solid-liquid equilibria (SLE) in binary mixtures (methane + ethane, methane + heptane, methane + benzene, methane + CO2, ethane + heptane, ethane + CO2, 1-propanol + 1,4-dioxane, ethanol + water, 2-propanol + water) is presented. Th....... The results from the binary mixtures are used to predict SLE behaviour in ternary mixtures (methane + ethane + heptane, methane + ethane + CO2). Our results are compared with experimental data found in the literature....

  13. High Strength Lightweight Concrete Made with Ternary Mixtures of Cement-Fly Ash-Silica Fume and Scoria as Aggregate


    Yaşar, Ergül; ATIŞ, Cengiz Duran; KILIÇ, Alaettin


    This paper presents part of the results of an ongoing laboratory study carried out to design a structural lightweight high strength concrete (SLWHSC) made with and without ternary mixtures of cement-fly ash-silica fume. In the mixtures, lightweight basaltic-pumice (scoria) aggregate was used. A concrete mixture made with lightweight scoria, and another lightweight scoria concrete mixture incorporating 20% fly ash and 10% silica fume as a cement replacement, were prepared. Two normal...

  14. Effect of Molarity of Sodium Hydroxide and Curing Method on the Compressive Strength of Ternary Blend Geopolymer Concrete (United States)

    Sathish Kumar, V.; Ganesan, N.; Indira, P. V.


    Concrete plays a vital role in the development of infrastructure and buildings all over the world. Geopolymer based cement-less concrete is one of the current findings in the construction industry which leads to a green environment. This research paper deals with the results of the use of Fly ash (FA), Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS) and Metakaolin (MK) as a ternary blend source material in Geopolymer concrete (GPC). The aspects that govern the compressive strength of GPC like the proportion of source material, Molarity of Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) and Curing methods were investigated. The purpose of this research is to optimise the local waste material and use them effectively as a ternary blend in GPC. Seven combinations of binder were made in this study with replacement of FA with GGBS and MK by 35%, 30%, 25%, 20%, 15%, 10%, 5% and 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 35% respectively. The molarity of NaOH solution was varied by 12M, 14M and 16M and two types of curing method were adopted, viz. Hot air oven curing and closed steam curing for 24 hours at 60°C (140°F). The samples were kept at ambient temperature till testing. The compressive strength was obtained after 7 days and 28 days for the GPC cubes. The test data reveals that the ternary blend GPC with molarity 14M cured by hot air oven produces the maximum compressive strength. It was also observed that the compressive strength of the oven cured GPC is approximately 10% higher than the steam cured GPC using the ternary blend.

  15. A first-principles model for anomalous segregation in dilute ternary tungsten-rhenium-vacancy alloys (United States)

    Wróbel, J. S.; Nguyen-Manh, D.; Kurzydłowski, K. J.; Dudarev, S. L.


    The occurrence of segregation in dilute alloys under irradiation is a highly unusual phenomenon that has recently attracted attention, stimulated by the interest in the fundamental properties of alloys as well as by their applications. The fact that solute atoms segregate in alloys that, according to equilibrium thermodynamics, should exhibit full solubility, has significant practical implications, as the formation of precipitates strongly affects physical and mechanical properties of alloys. A lattice Hamiltonian, generalizing the so-called ‘ABV’ Ising model and including collective many-body inter-atomic interactions, has been developed to treat rhenium solute atoms and vacancies in tungsten as components of a ternary alloy. The phase stability of W-Re-vacancy alloys is assessed using a combination of density functional theory (DFT) calculations and cluster expansion (CE) simulations. The accuracy of CE parametrization is evaluated against the DFT data, and the cross-validation error is found to be less than 4.2 meV/atom. The free energy of W-Re-vacancy ternary alloys is computed as a function of temperature using quasi-canonical Monte Carlo simulations, using effective two, three and four-body interactions. In the low rhenium concentration range (<5 at. % Re), solute segregation is found to occur in the form of voids decorated by Re atoms. These vacancy-rhenium clusters remain stable over a broad temperature range from 800 K to 1600 K. At lower temperatures, simulations predict the formation of Re-rich rhenium-vacancy clusters taking the form of sponge-like configurations that contain from 30 to 50 at. % Re. The anomalous vacancy-mediated segregation of Re atoms in W can be rationalized by analyzing binding energy dependence as a function of Re to vacancy ratio as well as chemical Re-W and Re-vacancy interactions and short-range order parameters. DFT calculations show that rhenium-vacancy binding energies can be as high as 1.5 eV if the rhenium

  16. The atomic structure of ternary amorphous TixSi1-xO2 hybrid oxides. (United States)

    Landmann, M; Köhler, T; Rauls, E; Frauenheim, T; Schmidt, W G


    Atomic length-scale order characteristics of binary and ternary amorphous oxides are presented within the framework of ab initio theory. A combined numerically efficient density functional based tight-binding molecular dynamics and density functional theory approach is applied to model the amorphous (a) phases of SiO2 and TiO2 as well as the amorphous phase of atomically mixed TixSi1-xO2 hybrid-oxide alloys over the entire composition range. Short and mid-range order in the disordered material phases are characterized by bond length and bond-angle statistics, pair distribution function analysis, coordination number and coordination polyhedra statistics, as well as ring statistics. The present study provides fundamental insights into the order characteristics of the amorphous hybrid-oxide frameworks formed by versatile types of TiOn and SiOm coordination polyhedra. In a-SiO2 the fourfold crystal coordination of Si ions is almost completely preserved and the atomic structure is widely dominated by ring-like mid-range order characteristics. In contrast, the structural disorder of a-TiO2 arises from short-range disorder in the local coordination environment of the Ti ion. The coordination number analysis indicates a large amount of over and under-coordinated Ti ions (coordination defects) in a-TiO2. Aside from the ubiquitous distortions of the crystal-like coordinated polyhedra, even the basic coordination-polyhedra geometry type changes for a significant fraction of TiO6 units (geometry defects). The combined effects of topological and chemical disorder in a-TixSi1-xO2 alloys lead to a continuos increase in both the Si as well as the Ti coordination number with the chemical composition x. The important roles of intermediate fivefold coordination states of Ti and Si cations are highlighted for ternary a-TixSi1-xO2 as well as for binary a-TiO2. The continuous decrease in ring size with increasing Ti content reflects the progressive loss of mid-range order structure

  17. Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cells Based on Ternary Metal Oxide Nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wenyong [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Tang, Jinke [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Dahnovsky, Yuri [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Pikal, Jon M [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Chien, TeYu [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)


    In Phase I of this project we investigate quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) based on ternary metal oxide nanowires and study the physical and chemical mechanisms that govern device operation. Our research has the following five objectives: (1) synthesis of ternary metal oxide nanowires, (2) synthesis of QDs and exploration of non-solution based QD deposition methods, (3) physical and electro-optical characterizations of fabricated solar devices, (4) device modeling and first-principle theoretical study of transport physics, and (5) investigation of long-term stability issues of QD sensitized solar cells. In Phase II of this project our first major research goal is to investigate magnetically doped quantum dots and related spin polarization effect, which could improve light absorption and suppress electron relaxation in the QDs. We will utilize both physical and chemical methods to synthesize these doped QDs. We will also study magnetically modified nanowires and introduce spin-polarized transport into QDSSCs, and inspect its impact on forward electron injection and back electron transfer processes. Our second goal is to study novel solid-state electrolytes for QDSSCs. Specifically, we will inspect a new type of polymer electrolytes based on a modified polysulfide redox couple, and examine the effect of their electrical properties on QDSSC performance. These solid-state electrolytes could also be used as filler materials for in situ sample fracturing in STM and enable cross-sectional interface examination of QD/nanowire structures. Our third research goal is to examine the interfacial properties such as energy level alignment at QD/nanowire interfaces using the newly developed Cross-sectional Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Spectroscopy technique for non-cleavable materials. This technique allows a direct probing of band structures and alignment at device interfaces, which could generate important insight into the mechanisms that govern QDSSC operation

  18. Polar intermetallic compounds of the silicon and arsenic family elements and their ternary hydrides and fluorides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon-Escamilla, E.A.


    An investigation has been made on the effects of hydrogen and fluoride in the solid state chemistry of alkaline-earth and divalent rare-earth metal pnictide (Pn) and tetrelide (Tt) phases A{sub 5}(Pn,Tt,){sub 3}Z{sub x}, where A = Ca, Sr, Ba, Sm, Eu, Yb; Pn = As, Sb, Bi; Tt = Si, Ge, Sn, Pb and Z = H, F. Several trivalent rare-earth-metal pnictides, RE{sub 5}Pn{sub 3} (RE = Y, La, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm) and alkaline-earth-metal trielides, A{sub 5}Tr{sub 3}Z{sub x} (Tr = Ga, In, Tl) have been included in an effort to complete observed structural trends. Two main experimental techniques were followed throughout this work, (a) reactions in absence of hydrogen or under continuous high vacuum, and (b) reactions with binary metal hydrides, AH{sub x}, in closed containers. The results demonstrate that all the phases reported with the {beta}-Yb{sub 5}Sb{sub 3}-type structure in the A{sub 5}Pn{sub 3} systems are hydrogen-stabilized compounds. Reactions in absence of hydrogen lead to compounds with the Mn{sub 5}Si{sub 3}-type structure. The structure type {beta}-Yb{sub 5}Sb{sub 3} (= Ca{sub 5}SB{sub 3}F) was found to be characteristic of ternary systems and inaccurately associated with phases that form in the Y{sub 5}Bi{sub 3}-type. A new series of isomorphous Zintl compounds with the Ca{sub 16}Sb{sub 11}-type structure were prepared and studied as well. All the alkaline-earth-metal tetrelides, A{sub 5}Tt{sub 3}, that crystallize in the Cr{sub 5}B{sub 3}-type structure can be interstitially derivatized by hydrogen or fluoride. Binary and ternary compounds were characterized by Guinier powder patterns, single crystal X-ray and powder neutron diffraction techniques. In an effort to establish property-structure relationships, electrical resistivity and magnetic measurements were performed on selected systems, and the results were explained in terms of the Zintl concepts, aided by extended Hueckel band calculations.

  19. Formation, Characteristics and Electrocatalytic Properties of Nanoporous Metals Formed by Dealloying of Ternary-Noble Alloys (United States)

    Vega Zuniga, Adrian A.

    Nanoporous metals formed by electrochemical dealloying of silver from Ag-Au-Pt alloys, with 77 at.% silver and platinum contents of 1, 2 and 3 at.%, have been studied. The presence of platinum, which is immobile relative to gold, refine the ligament size and stabilized the nanostructure against coarsening, even under experimental conditions that would be expected to promote coarsening (e.g., exposure to high temperature, longer dealloying times). By adding only 1 at.% Pt to the alloy precursor, the ligament/pore size was reduced by 50% with respect to that in nanoporous gold (NPG), which was formed on a Ag-Au alloy with the same silver content as ternary alloys. A further decrease in the ligament size was observed by increasing the platinum content of the precursor; however, most of the improvement occurred with 1 at.% Pt. The adsorbate-induced surface segregation of platinum was also investigated for these nanoporous metals. By exposing freshly-dealloyed nanostructures to moderate temperatures in the presence of air, platinum segregated to the ligament surface; in contrast, in an inert atmosphere (Ar-H 2), platinum mostly reverted to the bulk of the ligaments. This thermally activated process was thermodynamically driven by the interaction between platinum and oxygen; however, at the desorption temperature of oxygen, platinum de-segregated from the surface. Moreover, the co-segregation of platinum and oxygen hindered the thermal coarsening of the ligaments. Finally, the electrocatalytic abilities of these nanostructures were studied towards methanol and ethanol electro-oxidation, in alkaline and acidic media, showing significantly improved response in comparison to that observed in NPG. The synergistic effect between gold and platinum atoms and the smaller feature size of the nanostructures were directly associated with this behaviour. In alkaline electrolyte, the nanostructure formed on the alloy with 1 at.% Pt showed higher catalytic response than the other two

  20. Preparation of Binary and Ternary Oxides by Molten Salt Method and its Electrochemical Properties (United States)

    Reddy, M. V.; Theng, L. Pei; Soh, Hulbert; Beichen, Z.; Jiahuan, F.; Yu, C.; Ling, A. Yen; Andreea, L. Y.; Ng, C. H. Justin; Liang, T. J. L. Galen; Ian, M. F.; An, H. V. T.; Ramanathan, K.; Kevin, C. W. J.; Daryl, T. Y. W.; Hao, T. Yi; Loh, K. P.; Chowdari, B. V. R.


    We report simple binary oxides namely SnO2, TiO2, CuO, MnO2, Fe2O3, Co3O4 and ternary oxides like MnCo2O4 by molten salt method at a temperature range of 280°C to 950°C in air and discuss the effect of morphology, crystal structure and electrochemical properties of binary and ternary oxides. Materials were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area methods. XRD patterns showed all MSM prepared materials exhibited characteristic lattice parameter values. BET surface area varies depending on the nature of the material, molten salt and preparation temperature and the obtained values are in the range, 1 to 160 m2/g. Electrochemical properties were studied using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical performance studies were carried in the voltage range, 0.005-1.0V for SnO2, 1.0-2.8V for TiO2 and Fe2O3, MCo2O4 (M = Co, Mn), MnO2 and CuO were cycled in the range, 0.005-3.0V. At a current rates of 30-100 mA/g and a scan rate of 0.058 mV/sec was used for galvanostatic cycling and cyclic voltammetry. SnO2 showed that an alloying-de-alloying reaction occurs at ˜0.2 and ˜0.5 V vs. Li. TiO2 main intercalation and de-interaction reactions at ˜1.7 and ˜1.8 V vs. Li. Co3O4, MnCo2O4, and MnO2 main discharge potentials at ˜1.2, 0.9V and 0.4V, resp. and charge potentials peak ˜2.0V and 1.5V vs. Li. CuO prepared at 750°C exhibited main anodic peak at ˜2.45V and cathodic peaks at ˜0.85V and ˜1.25V. We discussed the possible reaction mechanisms and Li-storage performance values in detail.

  1. Facet-Specific Ligand Interactions on Ternary AgSbS 2 Colloidal Quantum Dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hyekyoung [Nano-Convergence Systems Research Division, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon 34103 Republic of Korea; Kim, Sungwoo [Nano-Convergence Systems Research Division, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon 34103 Republic of Korea; Luther, Joseph M. [Chemical and Materials Sciences Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO 80401 USA; Kim, Sang-Wook [Department of Molecular Science and Technology, Ajou University, Suwon 16499 Republic of Korea; Shin, Dongwoon [Nano-Convergence Systems Research Division, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon 34103 Republic of Korea; Department of Nanomechatronics, Korea University of Science and Technology (UST), Daejeon 34113 Republic of Korea; Beard, Matthew C. [Chemical and Materials Sciences Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO 80401 USA; Jeong, Sohee [Nano-Convergence Systems Research Division, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon 34103 Republic of Korea; Department of Nanomechatronics, Korea University of Science and Technology (UST), Daejeon 34113 Republic of Korea


    Silver dimetal chalcogenide (Ag-V-VI2) ternary quantum dots (QDs) are emerging lead-free materials for optoelectronic devices due to their NIR band gaps, large absorption coefficients, and superior electronic properties. However, thin film-based devices of the ternary QDs still lag behind due to the lack of understanding of the surface chemistry, compared to that of lead chalcogenide QDs even with the same crystal structure. Herein the surface ligand interactions of AgSbS2 QDs, synthesized with 1-dodecanethiol used as a stabilizer, are studied. For nonpolar (1 0 0) surfaces, it is suggested that the thiolate ligands are associated with the crystal lattices, thus preventing surface oxidation by protecting sulfur after air-exposure, as confirmed through optical and surface chemical analysis. Otherwise, silver rich (1 1 1) surfaces are passivated by thiolate ligands, allowing ligand exchange processes for the conductive films. This in-depth investigation of the surface chemistry of ternary QDs will prompt the performance enhancement of their optoelectronic devices.

  2. Quantitative Comparison of Ternary Eutectic Phase-Field Simulations with Analytical 3D Jackson-Hunt Approaches (United States)

    Steinmetz, Philipp; Kellner, Michael; Hötzer, Johannes; Nestler, Britta


    For the analytical description of the relationship between undercoolings, lamellar spacings and growth velocities during the directional solidification of ternary eutectics in 2D and 3D, different extensions based on the theory of Jackson and Hunt are reported in the literature. Besides analytical approaches, the phase-field method has been established to study the spatially complex microstructure evolution during the solidification of eutectic alloys. The understanding of the fundamental mechanisms controlling the morphology development in multiphase, multicomponent systems is of high interest. For this purpose, a comparison is made between the analytical extensions and three-dimensional phase-field simulations of directional solidification in an ideal ternary eutectic system. Based on the observed accordance in two-dimensional validation cases, the experimentally reported, inherently three-dimensional chain-like pattern is investigated in extensive simulation studies. The results are quantitatively compared with the analytical results reported in the literature, and with a newly derived approach which uses equal undercoolings. A good accordance of the undercooling-spacing characteristics between simulations and the analytical Jackson-Hunt apporaches are found. The results show that the applied phase-field model, which is based on the Grand potential approach, is able to describe the analytically predicted relationship between the undercooling and the lamellar arrangements during the directional solidification of a ternary eutectic system in 3D.

  3. Mapping of Diffusion and Nanohardness Properties of Fcc Co-Al-V Alloys Using Ternary Diffusion Couples (United States)

    Wang, Chuanyun; Xu, Guanglong; Cui, Yuwen


    Ternary diffusion behavior in Co-Al-V ternary alloys was investigated at 1373 K and 1473 K (1100 °C and 1200 °C) by the solid-state diffusion-couple technique. The extraction and interpolation of diffusion data allows the diffusion properties of Fcc Co-Al-V alloys to be mapped in the composition arrays of Al and V. A full picture of the diffusion properties was then constructed by interpolating all accessible interdiffusivities and impurity diffusivities of Co-Al binary and Co-Al-V ternary with a Redlich-Kister polynomial, in a graphic manner depicting a rapid increase of Al diffusion with increasing Al and a weak decrease with the V addition alone. Further incorporation of a nanoindentation technique enables the nanohardness property of the Co-Al-V fcc alloys to be screened in the Al and V arrays. The hardenability in the Co-Al-V alloy system has been evidenced; specifically, the alloy arrays containing higher contents of V, being solution-and-quenching processed, exhibit more effective strengthening than those with the addition of Al. The discovery of Co-Al-V alloys with comparable nanohardness but differing alloy compositions could facilitate the strengthening design of next generation Co-based alloys.

  4. Optimization of Contrast-to-Tissue Ratio by Adaptation of Transmitted Ternary Signal in Ultrasound Pulse Inversion Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Ménigot


    Full Text Available Ultrasound contrast imaging has provided more accurate medical diagnoses thanks to the development of innovating modalities like the pulse inversion imaging. However, this latter modality that improves the contrast-to-tissue ratio (CTR is not optimal, since the frequency is manually chosen jointly with the probe. However, an optimal choice of this command is possible, but it requires precise information about the transducer and the medium which can be experimentally difficult to obtain, even inaccessible. It turns out that the optimization can become more complex by taking into account the kind of generators, since the generators of electrical signals in a conventional ultrasound scanner can be unipolar, bipolar, or tripolar. Our aim was to seek the ternary command which maximized the CTR. By combining a genetic algorithm and a closed loop, the system automatically proposed the optimal ternary command. In simulation, the gain compared with the usual ternary signal could reach about 3.9 dB. Another interesting finding was that, in contrast to what is generally accepted, the optimal command was not a fixed-frequency signal but had harmonic components.

  5. Simulation analysis and ternary diagram of municipal solid waste pyrolysis and gasification based on the equilibrium model. (United States)

    Deng, Na; Zhang, Awen; Zhang, Qiang; He, Guansong; Cui, Wenqian; Chen, Guanyi; Song, Chengcai


    A self-sustained municipal solid waste (MSW) pyrolysis-gasification process with self-produced syngas as heat source was proposed and an equilibrium model was established to predict the syngas reuse rate considering variable MSW components. Simulation results indicated that for constant moisture (ash) content, with the increase of ash (moisture) content, syngas reuse rate gradually increased, and reached the maximum 100% when ash (moisture) content was 73.9% (60.4%). Novel ternary diagrams with moisture, ash and combustible as axes were proposed to predict the adaptability of the self-sustained process and syngas reuse rate for waste. For wastes of given components, its position in the ternary diagram can be determined and the syngas reuse rate can be obtained, which will provide guidance for system design. Assuming that the MSW was composed of 100% combustible content, ternary diagram shows that there was a minimum limiting value of 43.8% for the syngas reuse rate in the process. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. The ternary MnFe2O4/graphene/polyaniline hybrid composite as negative electrode for supercapacitors (United States)

    Sankar, Kalimuthu Vijaya; Selvan, Ramakrishnan Kalai


    The ternary MnFe2O4/graphene/polyaniline (PANI) composite was successfully prepared for the negative electrode in hybrid supercapacitors. The MnFe2O4 particles are synthesized by polymer assisted solution combustion method without any high temperature calcinations. Similarly, the flexible graphene and PANI are prepared by eco-friendly hydrothermal and in situ polymerization method, respectively. The presence of possible functional groups and the existence of individual constituents in the composite were identified through Fourier transform infra-red spectra (FT-IR) and Raman spectra. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) image reveals that the MnFe2O4 particles are dispersed on the flexible graphene sheet and are wrapped by PANI. The ternary composite electrode delivered a specific capacitance of 241 F g-1 at 0.5 mA cm-2, which was 7.5 times higher than MnFe2O4. The calculated b-value elucidates that the charge storage mechanism in the ternary system is based on the capacitive behavior rather than intercalation. The increase in ratio between capacitive and intercalation current with respect to scan rate corroborates that the pseudocapacitive charge storage mechanism is dominant. Further, the fabricated hybrid supercapacitor provides the maximum specific capacitance and energy density of 48.5 F g-1 at 0.5 mA cm-2 and 17 Wh kg-1, respectively. In addition, the hybrid supercapacitor exhibits excellent cyclic stability of up to 5000 successive cycles.

  7. Sound Speeds and Excess Isentropic Compressibilities of Ternary Mixtures of Tetrahydropyran and Aromatic Hydrocarbons at 308.15 K (United States)

    Siwach, Rajesh K.; Dimple; Sharma, V. K.


    Speeds of sound, u ijk , of tetrahydropyran (THP) ( i) + benzene ( j) + toluene or o- or p-xylene ( k), and tetrahydropyran ( i)+toluene ( j) + o- or p-xylene ( k) ternary mixtures have been measured over the entire mole fraction range at 308.15 K and atmospheric pressure. The speed-of-sound data have been used to calculate isentropic compressibilities, {(kappa_S)_{ijk}} , and excess isentropic compressibilities, {(kappa_S^E)_{ijk}} . The {(kappa_S^E)_{ijk}} values for the investigated mixtures are correlated with the Redlich-Kister equation to estimate ternary adjustable parameters and standard deviations. The Moelwyn-Huggins concept (Huggins, Polymer 12:357, 1971) of interaction between the surfaces of components of binary mixtures has been extended to predict excess isentropic compressibilities of ternary mixtures by employing the concept of connectivity parameters of the third degree of a molecule (which in turn depends on its topology). It has been observed that {(kappa_S)_{ijk}} values predicted by the Moelwyn-Huggins concept compare well with corresponding experimental values.

  8. An engineered genetic selection for ternary protein complexes inspired by a natural three-component hitchhiker mechanism. (United States)

    Lee, Hyeon-Cheol; Portnoff, Alyse D; Rocco, Mark A; DeLisa, Matthew P


    The bacterial twin-arginine translocation (Tat) pathway is well known to translocate correctly folded monomeric and dimeric proteins across the tightly sealed cytoplasmic membrane. We identified a naturally occurring heterotrimer, the Escherichia coli aldehyde oxidoreductase PaoABC, that is co-translocated by the Tat translocase according to a ternary "hitchhiker" mechanism. Specifically, the PaoB and PaoC subunits, each devoid of export signals, are escorted to the periplasm in a piggyback fashion by the Tat signal peptide-containing subunit PaoA. Moreover, export of PaoA was blocked when either PaoB or PaoC was absent, revealing a surprising interdependence for export that is not seen for classical secretory proteins. Inspired by this observation, we created a bacterial three-hybrid selection system that links the formation of ternary protein complexes with antibiotic resistance. As proof-of-concept, a bispecific antibody was employed as an adaptor that physically crosslinked one antigen fused to a Tat export signal with a second antigen fused to TEM-1 β-lactamase (Bla). The resulting non-covalent heterotrimer was exported in a Tat-dependent manner, delivering Bla to the periplasm where it hydrolyzed β-lactam antibiotics. Collectively, these results highlight the remarkable flexibility of the Tat system and its potential for studying and engineering ternary protein interactions in living bacteria.

  9. Feature learning and change feature classification based on deep learning for ternary change detection in SAR images (United States)

    Gong, Maoguo; Yang, Hailun; Zhang, Puzhao


    Ternary change detection aims to detect changes and group the changes into positive change and negative change. It is of great significance in the joint interpretation of spatial-temporal synthetic aperture radar images. In this study, sparse autoencoder, convolutional neural networks (CNN) and unsupervised clustering are combined to solve ternary change detection problem without any supervison. Firstly, sparse autoencoder is used to transform log-ratio difference image into a suitable feature space for extracting key changes and suppressing outliers and noise. And then the learned features are clustered into three classes, which are taken as the pseudo labels for training a CNN model as change feature classifier. The reliable training samples for CNN are selected from the feature maps learned by sparse autoencoder with certain selection rules. Having training samples and the corresponding pseudo labels, the CNN model can be trained by using back propagation with stochastic gradient descent. During its training procedure, CNN is driven to learn the concept of change, and more powerful model is established to distinguish different types of changes. Unlike the traditional methods, the proposed framework integrates the merits of sparse autoencoder and CNN to learn more robust difference representations and the concept of change for ternary change detection. Experimental results on real datasets validate the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed framework.

  10. Modelling of volumetric properties of binary and ternary mixtures by CEOS, CEOS/GE and empirical models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Although many cubic equations of state coupled with van der Waals-one fluid mixing rules including temperature dependent interaction parameters are sufficient for representing phase equilibria and excess properties (excess molar enthalpy HE, excess molar volume VE, etc., difficulties appear in the correlation and prediction of thermodynamic properties of complex mixtures at various temperature and pressure ranges. Great progress has been made by a new approach based on CEOS/GE models. This paper reviews the last six-year of progress achieved in modelling of the volumetric properties for complex binary and ternary systems of non-electrolytes by the CEOS and CEOS/GE approaches. In addition, the vdW1 and TCBT models were used to estimate the excess molar volume VE of ternary systems methanol + chloroform + benzene and 1-propanol + chloroform + benzene, as well as the corresponding binaries methanol + chloroform, chloroform + benzene, 1-propanol + chloroform and 1-propanol + benzene at 288.15–313.15 K and atmospheric pressure. Also, prediction of VE for both ternaries by empirical models (Radojković, Kohler, Jackob–Fitzner, Colinet, Tsao–Smith, Toop, Scatchard, Rastogi was performed.

  11. Critical size dependence of domain formation observed in coarse-grained simulations of bilayers composed of ternary lipid mixtures (United States)

    Pantelopulos, George A.; Nagai, Tetsuro; Bandara, Asanga; Panahi, Afra; Straub, John E.


    Model cellular membranes are known to form micro- and macroscale lipid domains dependent on molecular composition. The formation of macroscopic lipid domains by lipid mixtures has been the subject of many simulation investigations. We present a critical study of system size impact on lipid domain phase separation into liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered macroscale domains in ternary lipid mixtures. In the popular di-C16:0 PC:di-C18:2 PC:cholesterol at 35:35:30 ratio mixture, we find systems with a minimum of 1480 lipids to be necessary for the formation of macroscopic phase separated domains and systems of 10 000 lipids to achieve structurally converged conformations similar to the thermodynamic limit. To understand these results and predict the behavior of any mixture forming two phases, we develop and investigate an analytical Flory-Huggins model which is recursively validated using simulation and experimental data. We find that micro- and macroscale domains can coexist in ternary mixtures. Additionally, we analyze the distributions of specific lipid-lipid interactions in each phase, characterizing domain structures proposed based on past experimental studies. These findings offer guidance in selecting appropriate system sizes for the study of phase separations and provide new insights into the nature of domain structure for a popular ternary lipid mixture.

  12. Phase structure and tensile creep of recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate/short glass fibers/impact modifier ternary composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Binary and ternary composites of recycled poly(ethylene terephtalate (rPET, short glass fibres (SGF and/or impact modifier (IM were prepared by melt compounding and injection moulding. SEM images of rPET/IM fracture surfaces indicated that IM particles of about 1–2 µm in diameter were uniformly distributed in the rPET matrix, but with a poor adhesion level. Microphotographs of PET/SGF composites evidenced brittle fracture proceeding through the matrix and strong adhesion between components. In ternary composites SGF were evenly distributed, while IM particles were no longer detectable. Tensile creep of rPET and prepared composites was investigated under short and long term testing conditions at various stress levels. Main part of the tensile creep corresponded to the elastic time-independent component, while the timedependent component was rather limited even at relatively high stresses. While SGF accounted for a significant decrease in the overall creep compliance, the incorporation of IM induced a small decrease in the compliance and a non-linear viscoelastic behavior. In ternary composites, the reinforcing effects of SGF was dominating. Under a constant stress, the logarithm of compliance grew linearly with the logarithm of time. The creep rate, which resulted to be generally very small for all tested materials, was slightly reduced by SGF and increased by IM.

  13. Biodegradable Polymer-Coated, Gelatin Hydrogel/Bioceramics Ternary Composites for Antitubercular Drug Delivery and Tissue Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mintao Xue


    Full Text Available A simple and effective strategy for the treatment of osteoarticular tuberculosis is proposed through combining tissue engineering approach with anti-tuberculosis drug therapy. A series of tricalcium phosphate bioceramics (TPB composites, coated by degradable polymer outside and loaded with rifampicin (RFP-containing gelatin hydrogel inside, were thus fabricated and successfully applied to deliver antitubercular drug RFP into osseous lesion and concomitantly to induce tissue regeneration. RFP-loaded gelatin hydrogel/TPB composites could be readily prepared by filling RFP-containing gelatin solution into TPB and then in situ crosslinking of gelatin with calcium ions. Depending on the concentrations of RFP, the loading efficiency of RFP in the composites varied in the range from approximately 2% to 5%. Moreover, the surface of these binary composites could be further coated by a biodegradable polymer, yielding biodegradable polymer-coated, RFP-containing gelatin hydrogel/TPB ternary composites. It was shown that in vitro release of RFP from the ternary composites could be effectively sustained for a long period of time. Besides, these composites revealed good biocompatibility towards the survival of MC-3T3 cells in vitro and could be used for tissue regeneration in vivo in a rabbit model. The results indicate that TPB ternary composites have great potential for the treatment of osteoarticular tuberculosis.

  14. Preparation and photoluminescence enhancement in terbium(III ternary complexes with β-diketone and monodentate auxiliary ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devender Singh


    Full Text Available A series of new solid ternary complexes of terbium(III ion based on β-diketone ligand acetylacetone (acac and monodentate auxiliary ligands (aqua/urea/triphenylphosphineoxide/pyridine-N-oxide had been prepared. The structural characterizations of synthesized ternary compounds were studied by means of elemental analysis, infrared (IR, and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectral techniques. The optical characteristics were investigated with absorption as well as photoluminescence spectroscopy. Thermal behavior of compounds was examined by TGA/DTA analysis and all metal complexes were found to have good thermal stability. The luminescence decay time of complexes were also calculated by monitoring at emission wavelength corresponding to 5D4 → 7F5 transition. A comparative inspection of the luminescent behavior of prepared ternary compounds was performed in order to determine the function of auxiliary ligands in the enhancement of luminescence intensity produced by central terbium(III ion. The color coordinates values suggested that compounds showed bright green emission in visible region in electromagnetic spectrum. Complexes producing green light could play a significant role in the fabrication of efficient light conversion molecular devices for display purposes and lightning systems.

  15. An investigation into the dispersion mechanisms of ternary dry powder inhaler formulations by the quantification of interparticulate forces. (United States)

    Jones, Matthew D; Hooton, Jennifer C; Dawson, Michelle L; Ferrie, Alan R; Price, Robert


    To investigate the dispersion mechanism(s) of ternary dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulations by comparison of the interparticulate adhesions and in vitro performance of a number of carrier-drug-fines combinations. The relative levels of adhesion and cohesion between a lactose carrier and a number of drugs and fine excipients were quantified using the cohesion-adhesion balance (CAB) approach to atomic force microscopy. The in vitro performance of formulations produced using these materials was quantified and the particle size distribution of the aerosol clouds produced from these formulations determined by laser diffraction. Comparison between CAB ratios and formulation performance suggested that the improvement in performance brought about by the addition of fines to which the drug was more adhesive than cohesive might have been due to the formation of agglomerates of drug and fines particles. This was supported by aerosol cloud particle size data. The mechanism(s) underlying the improved performance of ternary formulations where the drug was more cohesive than adhesive to the fines was unclear. The performance of ternary DPI formulations might be increased by the preferential formation of drug-fines agglomerates, which might be subject to greater deagglomeration forces during aerosolisation than smaller agglomerates, thus producing better formulation performance.

  16. Experimental consideration of capillary chromatography based on tube radial distribution of ternary mixture carrier solvents under laminar flow conditions. (United States)

    Jinno, Naoya; Hashimoto, Masahiko; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhiko


    A capillary chromatography system has been developed based on the tube radial distribution of the carrier solvents using an open capillary tube and a water-acetonitrile-ethyl acetate mixture carrier solution. This tube radial distribution chromatography (TRDC) system works under laminar flow conditions. In this study, a phase diagram for the ternary mixture carrier solvents of water, acetonitrile, and ethyl acetate was constructed. The phase diagram that included a boundary curve between homogeneous and heterogeneous solutions was considered together with the component ratios of the solvents in the homogeneous carrier solutions required for the TRDC system. It was found that the TRDC system performed well with homogeneous solutions having component ratios of the solvents that were positioned near the homogeneous-heterogeneous solution boundary of the phase diagram. For preparing the carrier solutions of water-hydrophilic/hydrophobic organic solvents for the TRDC system, we used for the first time methanol, ethanol, 1,4-dioxane, and 1-propanol, instead of acetonitrile (hydrophilic organic solvent), as well as chloroform and 1-butanol, instead of ethyl acetate (hydrophobic organic solvent). The homogeneous ternary mixture carrier solutions were prepared near the homogeneous-heterogeneous solution boundary. Analyte mixtures of 2,6-naphthalenedisulfonic acid and 1-naphthol were separated with the TRDC system using these homogeneous ternary mixture carrier solutions. The pressure change in the capillary tube under laminar flow conditions might alter the carrier solution from homogeneous in the batch vessel to heterogeneous, thus affecting the tube radial distribution of the solvents in the capillary tube.

  17. Interaction of Zn(II) with hematite nanoparticles and microparticles: Part 2. ATR-FTIR and EXAFS study of the aqueous Zn(II)/oxalate/hematite ternary system. (United States)

    Ha, Juyoung; Trainor, Thomas P; Farges, François; Brown, Gordon E


    Sorption of Zn(II) to hematite nanoparticles (HN) (av diam=10.5 nm) and microparticles (HM) (av diam=550 nm) was studied in the presence of oxalate anions (Ox2-(aq)) in aqueous solutions as a function of total Zn(II)(aq) to total Ox2-(aq) concentration ratio (R=[Zn(II)(aq)]tot/[Ox2-(aq)]tot) at pH 5.5. Zn(II) uptake is similar in extent for both the Zn(II)/Ox/HN and Zn(II)/Ox/HM ternary systems and the Zn(II)/HN binary system at [Zn(II)(aq)](tot)system than for the Zn(II)/Ox/HM ternary and the Zn(II)/HN and Zn(II)/HM binary systems at [Zn(II)(aq)]tot>4 mM. In contrast, Zn(II) uptake for the Zn(II)/HM binary system is a factor of 2 greater than that for the Zn(II)/Ox/HM and Zn(II)/Ox/HN ternary systems and the Zn(II)/HN binary system at [Zn(II)(aq)]totternary system at both R values examined (0.16 and 0.68), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) results are consistent with the presence of inner-sphere oxalate complexes and outer-sphere ZnOx(aq) complexes, and/or type A ternary complexes. In addition, extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopic results suggest that type A ternary surface complexes (i.e., >O2-Zn-Ox) are present. In the Zn(II)/Ox/HN ternary system at R=0.15, ATR-FTIR results indicate the presence of inner-sphere oxalate and outer-sphere ZnOx(aq) complexes; the EXAFS results provide no evidence for inner-sphere Zn(II) complexes or type A ternary complexes. In contrast, ATR-FTIR results for the Zn/Ox/HN sample with R = 0.68 are consistent with a ZnOx(s)-like surface precipitate and possibly type B ternary surface complexes (i.e., >O2-Ox-Zn). EXAFS results are also consistent with the presence of ZnOx(s)-like precipitates. We ascribe the observed increase of Zn(II)(aq) uptake in the Zn(II)/Ox/HN ternary system at [Zn(II)(aq)]tot>or=4 mM relative to the Zn(II)/Ox/HM ternary system to formation of a ZnOx(s)-like precipitate at the hematite nanoparticle/water interface.

  18. Spectral characterization, crystal structures and biological activities of iminodiacetate ternary complexes (United States)

    Shahid, M.; Anjuli; Tasneem, Sana; Mantasha, I.; Ahamad, M. Naqi; Sama, Farasha; Fatma, Kehkeshan; Siddiqi, Zafar A.


    The ternary complexes with stoichiometry [M(imda)(bipy)]·6H2O (M = Cu) and [M(imda)(bipy)(H2O)]·4H2O (M = Ni, Co and Mn) where H2imda = iminodiacetic acid and bipy = 2,2‧-bipyridine, are prepared and characterized to exploit as novel antimicrobial agents and SOD mimics. The chemical structures were elucidated by IR, FAB-Mass, 1H, 13C NMR, EPR and spectral techniques. Single crystal X-ray and spectral studies of the complexes (1) and (2) have confirmed a square pyramidal geometry around Cu(II) ion while a saturated six coordinate (distorted octahedral) geometry around the Ni(II), Co(II) and Mn(II) ions due to the additional coordination from water. A supramolecular network is formed by extensive H-bonding in complex (1). The supramolecular assembly in complex (1) is additionally consolidated via the existence of unusual cyclic hexameric water clusters. The antimicrobial activities for the present complexes have been examined against Escherichia coli (K-12), Bacillus subtilis (MTC-121), Staphylococcus aureus (IOASA-22), Salmonella typhymurium (MTCC-98), Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus and Penicillium marneffei. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of the Cu(II) complex (1) is also assessed employing nitrobluetetrazolium (NBT) assay.

  19. Thermal Annealing Effect on Poly(3-hexylthiophene): Fullerene:Copper-Phthalocyanine Ternary Photoactive Layer (United States)

    Derouiche, H.; Mohamed, A. B.


    We have fabricated poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)/copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)/fullerene (C60) ternary blend films. This photoactive layer is sandwiched between an indium tin oxide (ITO)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT/PSS) photoanode and a bathocuproine (BCP)/aluminium photocathode. The thin films have been characterized by atomic force microscope (AFM) and ultraviolet/visible spectroscopy in order to study the influence of P3HT doping on the morphological and optical properties of the photoactive layer. We have also compared the I-V characteristics of three different organic solar cells: ITO/PEDOT:PSS/CuPc0.5:C600.5/BCP/Al and ITO/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT0.3:CuPc0.3:C600.4/BCP/Al with and without annealing. Both structures show good photovoltaic behaviour. Indeed, the incorporation of P3HT into CuPc:C60 thin film improves all the photovoltaic characteristics. We have also seen that thermal annealing significantly improves the optical absorption ability and stabilizes the organic solar cells making it more robust to chemical degradation. PMID:23766722

  20. Determination of thermodynamic properties of aluminum based binary and ternary alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altıntas, Yemliha [Abdullah Gül University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, 38039, Kayseri (Turkey); Aksöz, Sezen [Nevşehir Hacı Bektaş Veli University, Faculty of Arts and Science, Department of Physics, 50300, Nevşehir (Turkey); Keşlioğlu, Kâzım, E-mail: [Erciyes University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, 38039, Kayseri (Turkey); Maraşlı, Necmettin [Yıldız Technical University, Faculty of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, 34210, Davutpaşa, İstanbul (Turkey)


    In the present work, the Gibbs–Thomson coefficient, solid–liquid and solid–solid interfacial energies and grain boundary energy of a solid Al solution in the Al–Cu–Si eutectic system were determined from the observed grain boundary groove shapes by measuring the thermal conductivity of the solid and liquid phases and temperature gradient. Some thermodynamic properties such as the enthalpy of fusion, entropy of fusion, the change of specific heat from liquid to solid and the electrical conductivity of solid phases at their melting temperature were also evaluated by using the measured values of relevant data for Al–Cu, Al–Si, Al–Mg, Al–Ni, Al–Ti, Al–Cu–Ag, Al–Cu–Si binary and ternary alloys. - Highlights: • The microstructure of the Al–Cu–Si eutectic alloy was observed through SEM. • The three eutectic phases (α-Al, Si, CuAl{sub 2}) have been determined by EDX analysis. • Solid–liquid and solid–solid interfacial energies of α-Al solution were determined. • ΔS{sub f},ΔH{sub M}, ΔC{sub P}, electrical conductivity of solid phases for solid Al solutions were determined. • G–T coefficient and grain boundary energy of solid Al solution were determined.

  1. Synthesis, crystal structure, and photoluminescent properties of ternary Cd(II)/triazolate/chloride system. (United States)

    Wei, Gang; Shen, Yu-Feng; Li, Yong-Ru; Huang, Xiao-Chun


    Solvothermal reactions of cadmium chloride and 1,2,4-triazole (Htrz) in different solvent mediums have successfully synthesized five ternary Cd(II)/trz/Cl(-) complexes, [Cd(trz)Cl]·H(2)O (1·H(2)O), [Cd(4)(trz)(5)Cl(3)(H(2)O)]·(THF)(1.25)·(H(2)O)(2.5) (2·1.25THF·2.5H(2)O), [Cd(3)(trz)(2)Cl(MeCN)] (3), [Cd(3)(trz)(4)Cl(2)]·(H(2)O)(0.5) (4·0.5H(2)O), and [Cd(4)(trz)(6)Cl(2)(H(2)O)(0.5)]·(H(2)O)(3.5) (5·3.5H(2)O). All of these five coordination polymers have three-dimensional (3-D) structural features, which are constructed by distinct substructures including clusters, chains, rings, and even 3-D frameworks. In all cases, 1,2,4-triazolate adopts a μ(1,2,4) bridging mode, and chloride ions display a μ(2), μ(3), μ(4) bridging mode, respectively, which makes the structural diversity in the assembling system, for example, μ(4)-Cl and cadmium triazolate, build up an unprecedented tetranuclear cluster [Cd(4)(trz)(8)Cl](-) in 2. All of the materials exhibit intense blue fluorescent emission and high thermal stability, wherein 1 presents an interesting guest-responsive photoluminescent property.

  2. Ternary alkali metal transition metal acetylides A2MC2 (A = Na, K; M = Pd, Pt). (United States)

    Hemmersbach, S; Zibrowius, B; Kockelmann, W; Ruschewitz, U


    Ternary transition metal acetylides A2MC2 (A = Na, K; M = Pd, Pt) can be synthesised by reaction of the respective alkali metal acetylide A2C2 with palladium or platinum in an inert atmosphere at about 350 degrees C. The crystal structures are characterised by (infinity)1[M(C2)(2/2)2-] chains, which are separated by the alkali metals (P3m1, Z = 1). The refinement of neutron powder diffraction data gave C-C = 1.263(3) A for Na2PdC2 (Na2PtC2: 1.289(4) A), which is distinctively longer than the expected value for a C-C triple bond (1.20 A). On the basis of band-structure calculations this can be attributed to a strong back-bonding from the metal into the anti-bonding orbitals of the C2 unit. This was further confirmed by Raman spectroscopic investigations, which showed that the wavenumbers of the C-C stretching vibrations in Na2PdC2 and Na2PtC2 are about 100 cm(-1) smaller than in acetylene. 13C MAS-NMR spectra demonstrated that the acetylenic C2 units in the title compounds are very different from those in acetylene. Electrical conductivity measurements and band-structure calculations showed that the black title compounds are semiconductors with a small indirect band gap (approximately 0.2 eV).

  3. Efficient hydrogen evolution by ternary molybdenum sulfoselenide particles on self-standing porous nickel diselenide foam (United States)

    Zhou, Haiqing; Yu, Fang; Huang, Yufeng; Sun, Jingying; Zhu, Zhuan; Nielsen, Robert J.; He, Ran; Bao, Jiming; Goddard, William A., III; Chen, Shuo; Ren, Zhifeng


    With the massive consumption of fossil fuels and its detrimental impact on the environment, methods of generating clean power are urgent. Hydrogen is an ideal carrier for renewable energy; however, hydrogen generation is inefficient because of the lack of robust catalysts that are substantially cheaper than platinum. Therefore, robust and durable earth-abundant and cost-effective catalysts are desirable for hydrogen generation from water splitting via hydrogen evolution reaction. Here we report an active and durable earth-abundant transition metal dichalcogenide-based hybrid catalyst that exhibits high hydrogen evolution activity approaching the state-of-the-art platinum catalysts, and superior to those of most transition metal dichalcogenides (molybdenum sulfide, cobalt diselenide and so on). Our material is fabricated by growing ternary molybdenum sulfoselenide particles on self-standing porous nickel diselenide foam. This advance provides a different pathway to design cheap, efficient and sizable hydrogen-evolving electrode by simultaneously tuning the number of catalytic edge sites, porosity, heteroatom doping and electrical conductivity.

  4. Computer simulation of electronic and magnetic properties of ternary chalcopyrites doped with transition metals (United States)

    Krivosheeva, Anna V.; Shaposhnikov, Victor L.; Borisenko, Victor E.; Arnaud d'Avitaya, François; Lazzari, J.-L.


    Electronic and magnetic properties of BeSiAs2 and BeGeAs2 ternary compounds with chalcopyrite structure doped with transition metals (Mn, Cr) have been theoretically studied from the first principles. The influence of the substitutional positions of impurity atoms and their type on the appearance of a ferromagnetic (FM) or antiferromagnetic (AFM) state has been analyzed. It was found that magnetic moment of the systems does not depend strongly on the concentration and distance between impurity atoms, while the most important factors observed are the impurity type and substitution sites. Configurations with Mn atoms in the II-group sites are energetically stable in the AFM state, whereas Cr-doped ones seem to be in the FM state. Substitution of IV-group positions by both metals results preferably in the FM state, however these positions are not energetically favorable in comparison with II-group ones. The spin polarization of doped materials is evaluated and their possible application in spintronics is analyzed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladipupo Olaosebikan Ogunleye


    Full Text Available Preparation of Polypropylene ternary nanocomposites (PPTN was accomplished by blending multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT in polypropylene/clay binary system using a melt intercalation method. The effects of MWCNT loadings (A, melting temperature (B and mixing speed (C were investigated and optimized using central composite design. The analysis of the fitted cubic model clearly indicated that A and B were the main factors influencing the tensile properties at a fixed value of C. However, the analysis of variance showed that the interactions between the process parameters, such as; AB, AC, AB2, A2B and ABC, were highly significant on both tensile strength and Young’s modulus enhancement, while no interaction is significant in all models considered for elongation. The established optimal conditions gave 0.17%, 165 °C, and 120 rpm for A, B and C, respectively. These conditions yielded a percentage increase of 57 and 63% for tensile strength and Young’s modulus respectively compared to the virgin Polypropylene used.

  6. Direct solid surface fluorescence spectroscopy of standard chemicals and humic acid in ternary system. (United States)

    Mounier, S; Nicolodelli, G; Redon, R; Milori, D M B P


    The front face fluorescence spectroscopy is often used to quantify chemicals in well-known matrices as it is a rapid and powerful technique, with no sample preparation. However it was not used to investigate extracted organic matter like humic substances. This work aims to fully investigate for the first time front face fluorescence spectroscopy response of a ternary system including boric acid, tryptophan and humic substances, and two binaries system containing quinine sulfate or humic substance in boric acid. Pure chemicals, boric acid, tryptophan, quinine sulfate and humic acid were mixed together in solid pellet at different contents from 0 to 100% in mass. The measurement of excitation emission matrix of fluorescence (3D fluorescence) and laser induced fluorescence were then done in the front face mode. Fluorescence matrices were decomposed using the CP/PARAFAC tools after scattering treatments. Results show that for 3D fluorescence there is no specific component for tryptophan and quinine sulfate, and that humic substances lead to a strong extinction effect for mixture containing quinine sulfate. Laser induced fluorescence gives a very good but non-specific related response for both quinine sulfate and tryptophan. No humic substances fluorescence response was found, but extinction effect is observed as for 3D fluorescence. This effect is stronger for quinine sulfate than for tryptophan. These responses were modeled using a simple absorbance versus emission model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. About the nanostructure of the ternary system water - [BMIm]PF6- TX-100. (United States)

    Bilgili, Harun; Bürger, Matthias; Stubenrauch, Cosima; Porada, Jan H


    Many efforts have been made to formulate water-IL microemulsions. One of the most intensely studied systems is H 2 O - 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([BMIm]PF 6 ) - 4-octylphenol polyethoxylate (TX-100) and it is not questioned that this system forms microemulsions. The nanostructures observed for traditional microemulsions are postulated with the surfactant being adsorbed at the interface such that the hydrophilic EO sides intrude into the water domains, while the hydrophobic hydrocarbon chains are immersed into [BMIm]PF 6 . However, the high polarity of [BMIm]PF 6 and the observation that [BMIm]PF 6 mixes well with oligoethylene oxides but hardly with non-polar solvents like toluene or alkanes are not in line with this picture. We re-studied the ternary system H 2 O - [BMIm]PF 6 - TX-100 by measuring phase diagrams, determining tie-lines, and carrying out ROESY NMR and PFG NMR measurements. We found that the hydrophobic part of the surfactant interacts neither with water nor with [BMIm]PF 6 , while both solvents interact with the hydrophilic part of the surfactant. We suggest that the surfactant is not adsorbed at the interface between water and the IL, but forms normal spherical or elongated micelles or even continuous aggregates with the hydrocarbon chains forming the interior of the aggregates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Structural, microrheological and kinetic properties of a ternary silica-Pluronic F127-starch thermosensitive system. (United States)

    Petkova-Olsson, Yana; Oelschlaeger, Claude; Ullsten, Henrik; Järnström, Lars


    The sol-gel transition in aqueous suspensions consisting of silica particles and thermosensitive polymer is controlled by inter-particle forces and solution properties of the polymer. Addition of a second non-thermosensitive polymer may affect the transition. The purpose of this work was to characterize the kinetics of the sol-gel transition and to understand the effects of a second non-thermosensitive polymer on the microstructure, using a combination of classical rheology and microrheology. Classical rotational rheology as well as two microrheology methods, Multiple Particle Tracking (MPT) and Diffusing Wave Spectroscopy (DWS), were used to investigate the sol-gel transition of a ternary silica-Pluronic F127-starch thermosensitive system. Classical rheometry and DWS indicated sol-gel transition temperature ∼25 °C at 1 wt% Pluronic, independently of the concentration of the other components. DWS showed a fast gelation process, less than two minutes for all samples, beside a second slow kinetic process. In the gel state, MPT indicated micro-structural and micro-viscoelastic differences compared to rotational rheology. This was explained by formation of an elastic matrix of silica and polymers in combination with assembly of silica particles in large macroporous agglomerates. Presence of starch led to breakdown of the macroporous network, leaving the homogeneous elastic network left. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Synthesis and Characterization of the Ternary Thiobismuthates A9Bi13S24 (A = K, Rb)

    KAUST Repository

    Davaasuren, Bambar


    Ternary alkali metal thiobismuthates ABiS (A = K, Rb) were synthesized by direct combination reactions at 650 °C. The compounds crystallize in the monoclinic space group C2/m (no. 12) with cell parameters a = 30.919(1) Å, b = 4.1008(2) Å, c = 20.9072(9) Å, β = 105.826(3)° for KBiS (1) and a = 31.823(6) Å, b = 4.1177(8) Å, c = 21.086(4) Å, β = 105.62(3)° for RbBiS (2). The crystal structure of 1 contains a 3D [KBiS] polyanionic framework, whereas 2 consists of 2D [RbBiS] polyanionic slabs stacked along [201]. Both 1 and 2 are semiconductors with a band gap of 1.4 and 1.3 eV, respectively, which is supported by an electronic structure calculation. 1 melts congruently at 580 °C, while 2 melts incongruently at 575 °C. 1 and 2 are airstable and insoluble in water and organic solvents.

  10. Ternary Phase-Separation Investigation of Sol-Gel Derived Silica from Ethyl Silicate 40 (United States)

    Wang, Shengnan; Wang, David K.; Smart, Simon; Diniz da Costa, João C.


    A ternary phase-separation investigation of the ethyl silicate 40 (ES40) sol-gel process was conducted using ethanol and water as the solvent and hydrolysing agent, respectively. This oligomeric silica precursor underwent various degrees of phase separation behaviour in solution during the sol-gel reactions as a function of temperature and H2O/Si ratios. The solution composition within the immiscible region of the ES40 phase-separated system shows that the hydrolysis and condensation reactions decreased with decreasing reaction temperature. A mesoporous structure was obtained at low temperature due to weak drying forces from slow solvent evaporation on one hand and formation of unreacted ES40 cages in the other, which reduced network shrinkage and produced larger pores. This was attributed to the concentration of the reactive sites around the phase-separated interface, which enhanced the condensation and crosslinking. Contrary to dense silica structures obtained from sol-gel reactions in the miscible region, higher microporosity was produced via a phase-separated sol-gel system by using high H2O/Si ratios. This tailoring process facilitated further condensation reactions and crosslinking of silica chains, which coupled with stiffening of the network, made it more resistant to compression and densification.

  11. Mechanically activated synthesis of nanocrystalline ternary carbide Fe{sub 3}Mo{sub 3}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakeri, M. [Materials Science Department, Islamic Azad University (Saveh branch), Saveh (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail:; Rahimipour, M.R. [Ceramic Department, Materials and Energy Research Center, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khanmohammadian, A. [Materials Science Department, Islamic Azad University (Saveh branch), Saveh (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    In this investigation, Fe{sub 3}Mo{sub 3}C ternary carbide was synthesized from the elemental powders of 3Mo/3Fe/C by mechanical milling and subsequent heat treatment. Structural and morphological evolutions of powders were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results showed that no phase transformation occurs during milling. A nanostructure Mo (Fe) solid solution obtained after 30 h of milling. With increasing milling time to 70 h no change takes place except grain size reduction to 9 nm and strain enhancement to 0.86%. Milled powders have spheroid shape and very narrow size distribution about 2 {mu}m at the end of milling. Fe{sub 3}Mo{sub 3}C was synthesized during annealing of 70 h milled sample at 700 deg. C. Undesired phases of MoOC and Fe{sub 2}C form at 1100 deg. C. No transformation takes place during annealing of 10 h milled sample at 700 deg. C. Mean grain size and strain get to 69 nm and 0.23% respectively with annealing of 70 h milled sample at 1100 deg. C.

  12. Improved Local Ternary Patterns for Automatic Target Recognition in Infrared Imagery (United States)

    Wu, Xiaosheng; Sun, Junding; Fan, Guoliang; Wang, Zhiheng


    This paper presents an improved local ternary pattern (LTP) for automatic target recognition (ATR) in infrared imagery. Firstly, a robust LTP (RLTP) scheme is proposed to overcome the limitation of the original LTP for achieving the invariance with respect to the illumination transformation. Then, a soft concave-convex partition (SCCP) is introduced to add some flexibility to the original concave-convex partition (CCP) scheme. Referring to the orthogonal combination of local binary patterns (OC_LBP), the orthogonal combination of LTP (OC_LTP) is adopted to reduce the dimensionality of the LTP histogram. Further, a novel operator, called the soft concave-convex orthogonal combination of robust LTP (SCC_OC_RLTP), is proposed by combing RLTP, SCCP and OC_LTP Finally, the new operator is used for ATR along with a blocking schedule to improve its discriminability and a feature selection technique to enhance its efficiency Experimental results on infrared imagery show that the proposed features can achieve competitive ATR results compared with the state-of-the-art methods. PMID:25785311

  13. An analytical solubility model for nitrogen-methane-ethane ternary mixtures (United States)

    Hartwig, Jason; Meyerhofer, Peter; Lorenz, Ralph; Lemmon, Eric


    Saturn's moon Titan has surface liquids of liquid hydrocarbons and a thick, cold, nitrogen atmosphere, and is a target for future exploration. Critical to the design and operation of vehicles for this environment is knowledge of the amount of dissolved nitrogen gas within the cryogenic liquid methane and ethane seas. This paper rigorously reviews experimental data on the vapor-liquid equilibrium of nitrogen/methane/ethane mixtures, noting the possibility for split liquid phases, and presents simple analytical models for conveniently predicting solubility of nitrogen in pure liquid ethane, pure liquid methane, and a mixture of liquid ethane and methane. Model coefficients are fit to three temperature ranges near the critical point, intermediate range, and near the freezing point to permit accurate predictions across the full range of thermodynamic conditions. The models are validated against the consolidated database of 2356 experimental data points, with mean absolute error between data and model less than 8% for both binary nitrogen/methane and nitrogen/ethane systems, and less than 17% for the ternary nitrogen/methane/ethane system. The model can be used to predict the mole fractions of ethane, methane, and nitrogen as a function of location within the Titan seas.

  14. Emissions from Petrol Engine Fueled Gasoline–Ethanol–Methanol (GEM Ternary mixture as Alternative Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thangavelu Saravana Kannan


    Full Text Available The increasing demands of petroleum fuels due to the rapid development automotive society coupled with the environmental pollution issues have inspired the efforts on exploring alternative fuels for internal combustion engines. Bioethanol obtained from biomass and bioenergy crops has been proclaimed as one of the feasible alternative to gasoline. In this study, the effect of gasoline–ethanol–methanol (GEM ternary blend on the emission characteristics of petrol engine was studied. Three different fuel blends, namely, E0 (gasoline, G75E21M4 (75% gasoline, 21% hydrous ethanol and 4% methanol and E25 (25% anhydrous ethanol and 75% gasoline were tested in a 1.3-l K3-VE spark-ignition engine. The results indicate that, when G75E21M4 fuel blend was used, a significant drop in CO, CO2, NOx and HC emissions by about 42%, 15%, 7% and 5.2% compared to E0, respectively. Moreover, the emission results for G75E21M4 are marginally lower than E25 whereas; HC emission was slightly higher than E25.

  15. Thin films in ternary Bi-Mn-O system obtained by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langenberg, E. [Departament de Fisica Aplicada i Optica, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona, Catalunya (Spain)], E-mail:; Varela, M.; Garcia-Cuenca, M.V.; Ferrater, C. [Departament de Fisica Aplicada i Optica, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona, Catalunya (Spain); Sanchez, F.; Fontcuberta, J. [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona, CSIC, Campus de la UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalunya (Spain)


    We have explored the influence of deposition temperature and the deposition rate on the growth of the ternary Bi-Mn-O system onto (0 0 1) SrTiO{sub 3} substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The studies were performed with a fixed oxygen pressure of 10 Pa (0.1 mbar) and substrate temperatures between 600 and 680 deg. C. The films were obtained from non-stoichiometric targets with 10 and 15% Bi excess in order to compensate for Bi volatility. The fact that the compound is metastable together with the high volatility of Bi induces different Bi and Mn oxides apart from BiMnO{sub 3}. Stabilisation of epitaxial BiMnO{sub 3} is therefore very elusive and only in a narrow temperature window around 630 deg. C the presence of spurious phases is reduced to traces. X-ray diffraction results reveal a correlation between the Bi-Mn-O compounds and the deposition temperature. Reciprocal space maps show that the BiMnO{sub 3} grows completely strained on SrTiO{sub 3} substrates. The unit cell has a reduced volume, which could be due to the presence of Bi vacancies. The surface of the films is rough, but they flatten when the films are obtained at lower deposition rates.

  16. Ternary Pt/Rh/SnO2 electrocatalysts for oxidizing ethanol to CO2 (United States)

    Kowal, A.; Li, M.; Shao, M.; Sasaki, K.; Vukmirovic, M. B.; Zhang, J.; Marinkovic, N. S.; Liu, P.; Frenkel, A. I.; Adzic, R. R.


    Ethanol, with its high energy density, likely production from renewable sources and ease of storage and transportation, is almost the ideal combustible for fuel cells wherein its chemical energy can be converted directly into electrical energy. However, commercialization of direct ethanol fuel cells has been impeded by ethanol's slow, inefficient oxidation even at the best electrocatalysts. We synthesized a ternary PtRhSnO2/C electrocatalyst by depositing platinum and rhodium atoms on carbon-supported tin dioxide nanoparticles that is capable of oxidizing ethanol with high efficiency and holds great promise for resolving the impediments to developing practical direct ethanol fuel cells. This electrocatalyst effectively splits the C-C bond in ethanol at room temperature in acid solutions, facilitating its oxidation at low potentials to CO2, which has not been achieved with existing catalysts. Our experiments and density functional theory calculations indicate that the electrocatalyst's activity is due to the specific property of each of its constituents, induced by their interactions. These findings help explain the high activity of Pt-Ru for methanol oxidation and the lack of it for ethanol oxidation, and point to the way to accomplishing the C-C bond splitting in other catalytic processes.

  17. Synthesis of Mn-doped ZnS architectures in ternary solution and their optical properties

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    Wang Xinjuan, E-mail: [State Key lab of CBSC, Micronano Research Center, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Zhang Qinglin [State Key lab of CBSC, Micronano Research Center, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Zou Bingsuo, E-mail: [State Key lab of CBSC, Micronano Research Center, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Micro-nano Technology Center and School of MSE, BIT, Beijing 100081 (China); Lei Aihua; Ren Pinyun [State Key lab of CBSC, Micronano Research Center, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)


    Mn-doped ZnS sea urchin-like architectures were fabricated by a one-pot solvothermal route in a ternary solution made of ethylenediamine, ethanolamine and distilled water. The as-prepared products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and photoluminescence spectra (PL). It was demonstrated that the as-prepared sea urchin-like architectures with diameter of 0.5-1.5 {mu}m were composed of nanorods, possessing a wurtzite structures. The preferred growth orientation of nanorods was found to be the [0 0 2] direction. The PL spectra of the Mn-doped ZnS sea urchin-like architectures show a strong orange emission at 587 nm, indicating the successful doping of Mn{sup 2+} ions into ZnS host. Ethanolamine played the role of oriented-assembly agent in the formation of sea urchin-like architectures. A possible growth mechanism was proposed to explain the formation of sea urchin-like architectures.

  18. Relief of the internal stress in ternary boron carbonitride thin films (United States)

    He, Deyan; Cheng, Wenjuan; Qin, Juan; Yue, Jinshun; Xie, Erqing; Chen, Guanghua


    Ternary boron carbonitride (BCN) thin films were deposited by radio frequency reactive sputtering. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) absorption measurements suggested that the films are atomic-level hybrids composed of B, C and N atoms. The structure of the samples is graphitic BC 2N. High compressive stresses were observed in the films deposited on silicon and fused silica substrates. When the films were peeled off the substrates, the absorption bands in the FT-IR spectra shift to lower wavenumbers due to the stress relief. The compressive stresses caused buckling of the films, and the buckling patterns were related to the used substrates. For the samples deposited on Si wafer, a branching type buckling pattern was observed, while a telephone-cord morphology was noted for the samples deposited on fused silica plate. The telephone-cord morphology can be explained based on the buckling-driven delamination theory proposed by Oritiz and Gioia [J. Mech. Phys. Solids 42 (1994) 531].

  19. Ternary liquid mixtures control the multiplicity, shape and internal structure of emulsion droplets (United States)

    Haase, Martin F.; Brujic, Jasna


    It is important to control the shape, internal structure and stability of emulsion droplets for drug delivery, biochemical assays, and the design of materials with novel physical properties. Successful methods involve the mechanical manipulation of the flow of oil in water using complex microfluidic devices to make multiple emulsions with a sequential introduction of specific reactants. Instead, here we show how the thermodynamics of immiscible liquid mixtures tailor emulsions using a single dripping instability. For example, the initial composition and choice of surfactant govern the multiplicity of concentric alternating oil and water layers inside the droplets. Stabilizing ternary droplets using nanoparticles gives rise to a plethora of shapes whose geometry is defined by the deformability of the shell and the flow rate. Another option is to incorporate lipids to the multiple emulsion droplet, which form vesicles upon expulsion of the inner water droplets. Depending on the number of initial water droplets, these vesicles eventually form complex hollow topologies, which can be used as junctions or scaffolds for the self-assembly of colloidal particles in the future.

  20. Thermal Annealing Effect on Poly(3-hexylthiophene: Fullerene:Copper-Phthalocyanine Ternary Photoactive Layer

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    H. Derouiche


    Full Text Available We have fabricated poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT/copper phthalocyanine (CuPc/fullerene (C60 ternary blend films. This photoactive layer is sandwiched between an indium tin oxide (ITO/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:poly(styrene sulfonate (PEDOT/PSS photoanode and a bathocuproine (BCP/aluminium photocathode. The thin films have been characterized by atomic force microscope (AFM and ultraviolet/visible spectroscopy in order to study the influence of P3HT doping on the morphological and optical properties of the photoactive layer. We have also compared the characteristics of three different organic solar cells: ITO/PEDOT:PSS/CuPc0.5:C600.5/BCP/Al and ITO/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT0.3:CuPc0.3:C600.4/BCP/Al with and without annealing. Both structures show good photovoltaic behaviour. Indeed, the incorporation of P3HT into CuPc:C60 thin film improves all the photovoltaic characteristics. We have also seen that thermal annealing significantly improves the optical absorption ability and stabilizes the organic solar cells making it more robust to chemical degradation.