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Sample records for ternary alloy-based ferritic

  1. Fe-Cr-V ternary alloy-based ferritic steels for high- and low-temperature applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieth, M.; Materna-Morris, E.; Dudarev, S.L.; Boutard, J.-L.; Keppler, H.; Mayor, J.

    2009-01-01

    The phase stability of alloys and steels developed for application in nuclear fission and fusion technology is one of the decisive factors determining the potential range of operating temperatures and radiation conditions that the core elements of a power plant can tolerate. In the case of ferritic and ferritic-martensitic steels, the choice of the chemical composition is dictated by the phase diagram for binary FeCr alloys where in the 0-9% range of Cr composition the alloy remains in the solid solution phase at and below the room temperature. For Cr concentrations exceeding 9% the steels operating at relatively low temperatures are therefore expected to exhibit the formation of α' Cr-rich precipitates. These precipitates form obstacles for the propagation of dislocations, impeding plastic deformation and embrittling the material. This sets the low temperature limit for the use of of high (14% to 20%) Cr steels, which for the 20% Cr steels is at approximately 600 deg. C. On the other hand, steels containing 12% or less Cr cannot be used at temperatures exceeding ∼600 deg. C due to the occurrence of the α-γ transition (912 deg. C in pure iron and 830 deg. C in 7% Cr alloy), which weakens the steel in the high temperature limit. In this study, we investigate the physical properties of a concentrated ternary alloy system that attracted relatively little attention so far. The phase diagram of ternary Fe-Cr-V alloy shows no phase boundaries within a certain broad range of Cr and V concentrations. This makes the alloy sufficiently resistant to corrosion and suggests that steels and dispersion strengthened materials based on this alloy composition may have better strength and stability at high temperatures. Experimental heats were produced on a laboratory scale by arc melting the material components to pellets, then by melting the pellets in an induction furnace and casting the melt into copper moulds. The compositions in weight percent (iron base) are 10Cr5V, 10Cr

  2. Ternary manganese ferrite/graphene/polyaniline nanostructure with enhanced electrochemical capacitance performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Pan; Hu, Chenyao; Fan, Ye; Zhang, Wenyao; Zhu, Junwu; Wang, Xin

    2014-11-01

    A ternary manganese ferrite/graphene/polyaniline (MGP) nanostructure is designed and synthesized via a facile two-step approach. This nanostructure exhibits outstanding electrochemical performances, such as high specific capacitance (454.8 F g-1 at 0.2 A g-1), excellent rate capability (75.8% capacity retention at 5 A g-1), and good cycling stability (76.4% capacity retention after 5000 cycles at 2 A g-1), which are superior to those of its individual components (manganese ferrite, reduced-graphene oxide, polyaniline) and corresponding binary hybrids (manganese ferrite/graphene (MG), manganese ferrite/polyaniline (MP), and graphene/polyaniline (GP)). A symmetric supercapacitor device using the as-obtained hybrid has been fabricated and tested. The device exhibits a high specific capacitance of 307.2 F g-1 at 0.1 A g-1 with a maximum energy density of 13.5 W h kg-1. The high electrochemical performance of ternary MGP can be attributed to its well-designed nanostructure and the synergistic effect of the individual components.

  3. Study of mixed ternary transition metal ferrites as potential electrodes for supercapacitor applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhamini Bhujun

    Full Text Available Nanocrystallites of three mixed ternary transition metal ferrite (MTTMF were prepared by a facile sol–gel method and adopted as electrode material for supercapacitors. The phase development of the samples was determined using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR and thermal gravimetric analysis (TG. X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis revealed the formation of a single-phase spinel ferrite in CuCoFe2O4 (CuCoF, NiCoFe2O4 (NiCoF and NiCuFe2O4 (NiCuF. The surface characteristics and elemental composition of the nanocomposites have been studied by means of field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, as well as energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS. The electrochemical performance of the nanomaterials was evaluated using a two-electrode configuration by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and galvanostatic technique in 1 M KOH electrolyte and was found to be in the order of: CuCoF > NiCoF > NiCuF. A maximum specific capacitance of 221 Fg−1 was obtained with CuCoF at a scan rate of 5 mV s−1. In addition to an excellent cycling stability, an energy density of 7.9 kW kg−1 was obtained at a current density of 1 Ag−1. The high electrochemical performance of the MTTMF nanocomposites obtained indicates that these materials are promising electrodes for supercapacitors. Keywords: Mixed ternary transition metal ferrite (MTTMF, Nanocomposites, Sol–gel, Cyclic voltammetry, Asymmetric supercapacitor

  4. Study of mixed ternary transition metal ferrites as potential electrodes for supercapacitor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhujun, Bhamini; Tan, Michelle T. T.; Shanmugam, Anandan S.

    Nanocrystallites of three mixed ternary transition metal ferrite (MTTMF) were prepared by a facile sol-gel method and adopted as electrode material for supercapacitors. The phase development of the samples was determined using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TG). X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed the formation of a single-phase spinel ferrite in CuCoFe2O4 (CuCoF), NiCoFe2O4 (NiCoF) and NiCuFe2O4 (NiCuF). The surface characteristics and elemental composition of the nanocomposites have been studied by means of field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), as well as energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The electrochemical performance of the nanomaterials was evaluated using a two-electrode configuration by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and galvanostatic technique in 1 M KOH electrolyte and was found to be in the order of: CuCoF > NiCoF > NiCuF. A maximum specific capacitance of 221 Fg-1 was obtained with CuCoF at a scan rate of 5 mV s-1. In addition to an excellent cycling stability, an energy density of 7.9 kW kg-1 was obtained at a current density of 1 Ag-1. The high electrochemical performance of the MTTMF nanocomposites obtained indicates that these materials are promising electrodes for supercapacitors.

  5. Ternary nitrogen-doped graphene/nickel ferrite/polyaniline nanocomposites for high-performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenjuan; Hao, Qingli; Lei, Wu; Xia, Xifeng; Wang, Xin

    2014-12-01

    The electrochemical property of graphene can be significantly enhanced due to the incorporating of heteroatoms into graphene. In this article, the ternary nitrogen-doped graphene/nickel ferrite/polyaniline (NGNP) nanocomposite is synthesized by a facile two-step approach and its electrochemical properties as electrodes for supercapacitors are studied by various electrochemical measurements. The specific capacitance of NGNP is 645.0 F g-1 at 1 mV s-1 and 667.0 F g-1 at 0.1 A g-1 in a three- and two-electrode system, respectively, much higher than other binary electrodes. In a two-electrode symmetric system, the energy density of the NGNP electrode is 92.7 W h kg-1 at a power density of 110.8 W kg-1, moreover, that of the supercapacitor based on NGNP can also reach 23.2 W h kg-1 at a power density of 27.7 W kg-1. In addition, the capacitance loses only 5% after repeating test for 5000 cycles, and about 10% after 10,000 cycles at a high current density 5 A g-1. The results demonstrate the novel ternary NGNP electrode produced by the current economical method will gain promising applications in supercapacitors and other devices by virtue of its outstanding characteristics (high specific capacitance, high power and energy density, excellent cycle life).

  6. Design and synthesis of ternary cobalt ferrite/graphene/polyaniline hierarchical nanocomposites for high-performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Pan; Huang, Huajie; Wang, Xin

    2014-01-01

    A ternary cobalt ferrite/graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite (CGP) is designed and fabricated via a facile two-step approach: cobalt ferrite nanoparticles dispersed on graphene sheets are achieved by a hydrothermal method, followed by coating with polyaniline (PANI) through in situ polymerization process. Electrochemical measurements demonstrate that the specific capacitance of the resulting ternary hybrid (CGP) is up to 1133.3 F g-1 at a scan rate of 1 mV s-1 and 767.7 F g-1 at a current density of 0.1 A g-1 using a three-electrode system, while 716.4 F g-1 at a scan rate of 1 mV s-1 and 392.3 F g-1 at a current density of 0.1 A g-1 using a two-electrode system, which are significantly higher than those of pure CoFe2O4, graphene and PANI, or binary CoFe2O4/graphene, CoFe2O4/PANI and graphene/PANI hybrids. In addition, over 96% of the initial capacitance can be retained after repeating test for 5000 cycles, demonstrating a high cycling stability. The extraordinary electrochemical performance of the ternary CGP nanocomposite can be attributed to its well-designed nanostructure and the synergistic effects of the individual components.

  7. Synthesis and Mechanical Characterization of Binary and Ternary Intermetallic Alloys Based on Fe-Ti-Al by Resonant Ultrasound Vibrational Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanbi, Daoud; Ogam, Erick; Amara, Sif Eddine; Fellah, Z E A

    2018-05-07

    Precise but simple experimental and inverse methods allowing the recovery of mechanical material parameters are necessary for the exploration of materials with novel crystallographic structures and elastic properties, particularly for new materials and those existing only in theory. The alloys studied herein are of new atomic compositions. This paper reports an experimental study involving the synthesis and development of methods for the determination of the elastic properties of binary (Fe-Al, Fe-Ti and Ti-Al) and ternary (Fe-Ti-Al) intermetallic alloys with different concentrations of their individual constituents. The alloys studied were synthesized from high purity metals using an arc furnace with argon flow to ensure their uniformity and homogeneity. Precise but simple methods for the recovery of the elastic constants of the isotropic metals from resonant ultrasound vibration data were developed. These methods allowed the fine analysis of the relationships between the atomic concentration of a given constituent and the Young’s modulus or alloy density.

  8. Studies on structural and magnetic properties of ternary cobalt magnesium zinc (CMZ) Co{sub 0.6-x}Mg{sub x}Zn{sub 0.4} Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x = 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6) ferrite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Manpreet, E-mail: manpreetchem@pau.edu; Jain, Palak; Singh, Mandeep

    2015-07-15

    In this paper we report the variation in structural and magnetic properties of ternary ferrite nanoparticles (NPs) having stoichiometery Co{sub 0.6-x}Mg{sub x}Zn{sub 0.4} Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x = 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6) and pure spinel ferrites MFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (M = Mg, Co). NPs with average particle diameter of 25–45 nm were synthesized employing self-propagating oxalyl dihydrazide - metal nitrate combustion method. The products were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and FT-IR spectroscopy. FT-IR spectral analysis revealed two bands centered at 560 and 440 cm{sup −1} for tetrahedral and octahedral metal–oxygen bond stretching. Zinc doping caused red shift in the frequency band of tetrahedral M−O stretching. XRD powder diffraction patterns confirmed the formation of spinel ferrite nanoparticles, expansion of the lattice on zinc doping and enhancement of spinel phase purity in the doped ferrites. Cobalt ferrite displayed lowering of the magnetic parameters on zinc doping which further decreased in ternary ferrites Co{sub 0.6-x}Mg{sub x}Zn{sub 0.4}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} on replacing cobalt ions with non-magnetic magnesium ions up to x = 0.4. At x = 0.6 reverse trend was observed and Ms was enhanced. Magnesium zinc ferrite Mg{sub 0.6}Zn{sub 0.4} Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} with high value of Ms was obtained. Combustion process employed in the present studies serves as a low temperature facile route for the synthesis and structural analysis of ternary doped ferrite nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Ternary doped cobalt magnesium zinc ferrite nanoparticles are synthesized. • FT-IR displayed red shift in tetrahedral stretching band on Zinc doping. • Expansion of lattice and enhancement of spinel phase purity on zinc doping. • The variation in saturation magnetization (Ms) on doping is explained.

  9. Visible-light photochemical activity of heterostructured core-shell materials composed of selected ternary titanates and ferrites coated by tiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Liu, Xuan; Zhang, Yiling; Nuhfer, Noel T; Barmak, Katayun; Salvador, Paul A; Rohrer, Gregory S

    2013-06-12

    Heterostructured photocatalysts comprised of microcrystalline (mc-) cores and nanostructured (ns-) shells were prepared by the sol-gel method. The ability of titania-coated ATiO3 (A = Fe, Pb) and AFeO3 (A = Bi, La, Y) catalysts to degrade methylene blue in visible light (λ > 420 nm) was compared. The catalysts with the titanate cores had enhanced photocatalytic activities for methylene blue degradation compared to their components alone, whereas the catalysts with ferrite cores did not. The temperature at which the ns-titania shell is crystallized influences the photocatalytic dye degradation. mc-FeTiO3/ns-TiO2 annealed at 500 °C shows the highest reaction rate. Fe-doped TiO2, which absorbs visible light, did not show enhanced photocatalytic activity for methylene blue degradation. This result indicates that iron contamination is not a decisive factor in the reduced reactivity of the titania coated ferrite catalysts. The higher reactivity of materials with the titanate cores suggests that photogenerated charge carriers are more easily transported across the titanate-titanate interface than the ferrite-titanate interface and this provides guidance for materials selection in composite catalyst design.

  10. Ternary alloys based on II-VI semiconductor compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Tomashyk, Vasyl; Shcherbak, Larysa

    2013-01-01

    Phase Equilibria in the Systems Based on ZnSSystems Based on ZnSeSystems Based on ZnTeSystems Based on CdSSystem Based on CdSeSystem Based on CdTeSystems Based on HgSSystems Based on HgSeSystems Based on HgTeIndexReferences appear at the end of each chapter.

  11. Ternary superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giorgi, A.L.

    1987-01-01

    Ternary superconductors constitute a class of superconducting compounds with exceptional properties such as high transition temperatures (≅ 15.2 K), extremely high critical fields (H c2 >60 Tesla), and the coexistence of superconductivity and long-range magnetic order. This has generated great interest in the scientific community and resulted in a large number of experimental and theoretical investigations in which many new ternary compounds have been discovered. A review of some of the properties of these ternary compounds is presented with particular emphasis on the ternary molybdenum chalcogenides and the ternary rare earth transition metal tetraborides. The effect of partial substitution of a second metal atom to form pseudoternary compounds is examined as well as some of the proposed correlations between the superconducting transition temperature and the structural and electronic properties of the ternary superconductors

  12. Ternary fission

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the energy minimization of all possible ternary breakups of a heavy radioactive nucleus. Further, within the TCM we have analysed the competition between different geometries as well as different positioning of the fragments. Also, an attempt was made to calculate the mass distribution of ternary fission process within the ...

  13. Ternary fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagemans, C.

    1991-01-01

    Since its discovery in 1946, light (charged) particle accompanied fission (ternary fission) has been extensively studied, for spontaneous as well as for induced fission reactions. The reason for this interest was twofold: the ternary particles being emitted in space and time close to the scission point were expected to supply information on the scission point configuration and the ternary fission process was an important source of helium, tritium, and hydrogen production in nuclear reactors, for which data were requested by the nuclear industry. Significant experimental progress has been realized with the advent of high-resolution detectors, powerful multiparameter data acquisition systems, and intense neutron and photon beams. As far as theory is concerned, the trajectory calculations (in which scission point parameters are deduced from the experimental observations) have been very much improved. An attempt was made to explain ternary particle emission in terms of a Plateau-Rayleigh hydrodynamical instability of a relatively long cylindrical neck or cylindrical nucleus. New results have also been obtained on the so-called open-quotes trueclose quotes ternary fission (fission in three about-equal fragments). The spontaneous emission of charged particles has also clearly been demonstrated in recent years. This chapter discusses the main characteristics of ternary fission, theoretical models, light particle emission probabilities, the dependence of the emission probabilities on experimental variables, light particle energy distributions, light particle angular distributions, correlations between light particle accompanied fission observables, open-quotes trueclose quotes ternary fission, and spontaneous emission of heavy ions. 143 refs., 18 figs., 8 tabs

  14. Ternary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagan, D.N.; Hubberstey, P.; Barker, M.G.

    1985-01-01

    The paper reviews the experimental and theoretical studies carried out on multicomponent alkali metal systems. Solid-liquid phase equilibria studies are mainly concerned with the systems Na-K-Rb and Na-K-Cs, and data on the liquidus temperatures in these systems are presented. The thermodynamic properties of the ternary Na-K-Cs eutectic system have been determined experimentally, and the enthalpy, heat capacity and excess functions of the alloy are given. An analysis of calculational methods used in determining thermodynamic functions of ternary liquid metals systems is described. Finally, data are tabulated for the density, compressibility, saturated vapour pressure, viscosity and thermal conductivity of the ternary Na-K-Cs eutectic system. (UK)

  15. Ferrites and ceramic composites

    CERN Document Server

    Jotania, Rajshree B

    2013-01-01

    The Ferrite term is used to refer to all magnetic oxides containing iron as major metallic component. Ferrites are very attractive materials because they simultaneously show high resistivity and high saturation magnetization, and attract now considerable attention, because of the interesting physics involved. Typical ferrite material possesses excellent chemical stability, high corrosion resistivity, magneto-crystalline anisotropy, magneto-striction, and magneto-optical properties. Ferrites belong to the group of ferrimagnetic oxides, and include rare-earth garnets and ortho-ferrites. Several

  16. Binary and ternary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    Conditions for thermodynamical equilibrium in binary and ternary systems are considered. Main types of binary and ternary system phase diagrams are sequently constructed on the basis of general regularities on the character of transition from one equilibria to others. New statements on equilibrium line direction in the diagram triple points and their isothermal cross sections are developed. New represenations on equilibria in case of monovariant curve minimum and maximum on three-phase equilibrium formation in ternary system are introduced

  17. Ternary chalcopyrite semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Shay, J L; Pamplin, B R

    2013-01-01

    Ternary Chalcopyrite Semiconductors: Growth, Electronic Properties, and Applications covers the developments of work in the I-III-VI2 and II-IV-V2 ternary chalcopyrite compounds. This book is composed of eight chapters that focus on the crystal growth, characterization, and applications of these compounds to optical communications systems. After briefly dealing with the status of ternary chalcopyrite compounds, this book goes on describing the crystal growth of II-IV-V2 and I-III-VI2 single crystals. Chapters 3 and 4 examine the energy band structure of these semiconductor compounds, illustrat

  18. XXIst Century Ferrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazaleyrat, F; Zehani, K; Pasko, A; Loyau, V; LoBue, M

    2012-01-01

    Ferrites have always been a subject of great interest from point of view of magnetic application, since the fist compass to present date. In contrast, the scientific interest for iron based magnetic oxides decreased after Oersted discovery as they where replaced by coil as magnetizing sources. Neel discovery of ferrimagnetism boosted again interest and leads to strong developments during two decades before being of less interest. Recently, the evolution of power electronics toward higher frequency, the down sizing of ceramics microstructure to nanometer scale, the increasing price of rare-earth elements and the development of magnetocaloric materials put light again on ferrites. A review on three ferrite families is given herein: harder nanostructured Ba 2+ Fe 12 O 19 magnet processed by spark plasma sintering, magnetocaloric effect associated to the spin transition reorientation of W-ferrite and low temperature spark plasma sintered Ni-Zn-Cu ferrites for high frequency power applications.

  19. Ferrite materials for memory applications

    CERN Document Server

    Saravanan, R

    2017-01-01

    The book discusses the synthesis and characterization of various ferrite materials used for memory applications. The distinct feature of the book is the construction of charge density of ferrites by deploying the maximum entropy method (MEM). This charge density gives the distribution of charges in the ferrite unit cell, which is analyzed for charge related properties.

  20. High strength ferritic alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A high strength ferritic steel is specified in which the major alloying elements are chromium and molybdenum, with smaller quantities of niobium, vanadium, silicon, manganese and carbon. The maximum swelling is specified for various irradiation conditions. Rupture strength is also specified. (U.K.)

  1. Low activation ferritic alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelles, David S.; Ghoniem, Nasr M.; Powell, Roger W.

    1986-01-01

    Low activation ferritic alloys, specifically bainitic and martensitic stainless steels, are described for use in the production of structural components for nuclear fusion reactors. They are designed specifically to achieve low activation characteristics suitable for efficient waste disposal. The alloys essentially exclude molybdenum, nickel, nitrogen and niobium. Strength is achieved by substituting vanadium, tungsten, and/or tantalum in place of the usual molybdenum content in such alloys.

  2. Kinetics of niobium carbide precipitation in ferrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gendt, D.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a NbC precipitation modelling in ferrite. This theoretical study is motivated by the fact it considers a ternary system and focus on the concurrence of two different diffusion mechanisms. An experimental study with TEP, SANS and Vickers micro-hardening measurements allows a description of the NbC precipitation kinetics. The mean radius of the precipitates is characterized by TEM observations. To focus on the nucleation stage, we use the Tomographic Atom Probe that analyses, at an atomistic scale, the position of the solute atoms in the matrix. A first model based on the classical nucleation theory and the diffusion-limited growth describes the precipitation of spherical precipitates. To solve the set of equations, we use a numerical algorithm that furnishes an evaluation of the precipitated fraction, the mean radius and the whole size distribution of the particles. The parameters that are the interface energy, the solubility product and the diffusion coefficients are fitted with the data available in the literature and our experimental results. It allows a satisfactory agreement as regards to the simplicity of the model. Monte Carlo simulations are used to describe the evolution of a ternary alloy Fe-Nb-C on a cubic centred rigid lattice with vacancy and interstitial mechanisms. This is realized with an atomistic description of the atoms jumps and their related frequencies. The model parameters are fitted with phase diagrams and diffusion coefficients. For the sake of simplicity, we consider that the precipitation of NbC is totally coherent and we neglect any elastic strain effect. We can observe different kinetic paths: for low supersaturations, we find an expected precipitation of NbC but for higher supersaturations, the very fast diffusivity of carbon atoms conducts to the nucleation of iron carbide particles. We establish that the occurrence of this second phenomenon depends on the vacancy arrival kinetics and can be related

  3. New ternary superconducting germanides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschalkov, V. V.; Muttik, I. G.; Samarin, N. A.; Seropegin, Yu. D.; Rudometkina, M. V.

    1991-12-01

    We have studied the structure, electrical and magnetic properties of new ternary compounds with germanium and transition metals of IV and V groups (Ti 0.7V 0.3Ge 3, Hf 2V 3Ge, Zr 32-36V 32-36Ge 30-32, Hf 2Nb 3Ge 4, HfVGe, Zr 15-17V 39-40Ge 44-45, Hf 10.8-21.7V 36.0-42.8). The homogeneity fields for all new phases are determined. Resistivity (T) and magnetic susceptibility χ(T) are investigated at T=4.2…300 K. Two new superconductors have been found - Zr 32-36V 32-36Ge 30-32 and HfVGe with T c=4.7 K and 5.7 K, respectively.

  4. Ternary Weighted Function and Beurling Ternary Banach Algebra l1ω(S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Dehghanian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Let S be a ternary semigroup. In this paper, we introduce our notation and prove some elementary properties of a ternary weight function ω on S. Also, we make ternary weighted algebra l1ω(S and show that l1ω(S is a ternary Banach algebra.

  5. Ordering and site occupancy of ternary elements in Fe{sub 3}Al

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rademacher, Thomas; Al-Kassab, Talaat; Kirchheim, Reiner [Institut fuer Materialphysik, Universitaet Goettingen (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Ordered iron aluminides exhibit a number of advantageous properties, such as high-temperature strength, corrosion resistance and low cost. Therefore, iron aluminum based alloys are considered to replace in some cases high alloyed ferritic stainless steels, especially DO{sub 3} - ordered Fe{sub 3}Al. The mechanical properties and high-temperature stability can be optimized when ternary elements are added. In this study the site occupancy of ternary elements (4at.%V, 5at.%Cr, 5at.%Mn) has been investigated by means of Atom Probe Tomography (APT). A special analysis algorithm allows resolving the atom layers for different measurement directions which enables determining site preferences. Additionally, comparing the succession of layers with simulations the binding energies of the participating elements can be estimated.

  6. Crystallization of -type hexagonal ferrites from mechanically

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Crystallization of -type hexagonal ferrites from mechanically activated mixtures of barium carbonate and goethite ... Abstract. -type hexagonal ferrite precursor was prepared by a soft mechanochemical ... Bulletin of Materials Science | News.

  7. True ternary fission in 310126X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banupriya, B.; Vijayaraghavan, K.R.; Balasubramaniam, M.

    2015-01-01

    All possible combinations are minimized by the two dimensional minimization process and minimized with respect to neutron numbers and proton numbers of the fragments. Potential energy is low and Q - value is high at true ternary fission region. It shows that true ternary mode is the dominant mode in the ternary fission of superheavy nuclei. Also, the results show that the fragments with neutron magic numbers are the dominant one in the ternary fission of superheavy nuclei whereas the fragments with proton magic numbers are the dominant one in the ternary fission of heavy nuclei

  8. Microwave dielectric properties of nanostructured nickel ferrite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    Abstract. Nickel ferrite is one of the important ferrites used in microwave devices. In the present work, we have synthesized nanoparticles of nickel ferrite using chemical precipitation technique. The crystal structure and grain size of the particles are studied using XRD. The microwave dielectric properties of nanostructured.

  9. A Shape Memory Alloy Based Cryogenic Thermal Conduction Switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notardonato, W. U.; Krishnan, V. B.; Singh, J. D.; Woodruff, T. R.; Vaidyanathan, R.

    2005-01-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) can produce large strains when deformed (e.g., up to 8%). Heating results in a phase transformation and associated recovery of all the accumulated strain. This strain recovery can occur against large forces, resulting in their use as actuators. Thus an SMA element can integrate both sensory and actuation functions, by inherently sensing a change in temperature and actuating by undergoing a shape change as a result of a temperature-induced phase transformation. Two aspects of our work on cryogenic SMAs are addressed here. First - a shape memory alloy based cryogenic thermal conduction switch for operation between dewars of liquid methane and liquid oxygen in a common bulkhead arrangement is discussed. Such a switch integrates the sensor element and the actuator element and can be used to create a variable thermal sink to other cryogenic tanks for liquefaction, densification, and zero boil-off systems for advanced spaceport applications. Second - fabrication via arc-melting and subsequent materials testing of SMAs with cryogenic transformation temperatures for use in the aforementioned switch is discussed.

  10. A Shape Memory Alloy Based Cryogenic Thermal Conduction Switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, V.B.; Singh, J.D.; Woodruff, T.R.; Vaidyanathan, R.; Notardonato, W.U.

    2004-01-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) can produce large strains when deformed (e.g., up to 8%). Heating results in a phase transformation and associated recovery of all the accumulated strain. This strain recovery can occur against large forces, resulting in their use as actuators. Thus an SMA element can integrate both sensory and actuation functions, by inherently sensing a change in temperature and actuating by undergoing a shape change as a result of a temperature-induced phase transformation. Two aspects of our work on cryogenic SMAs are addressed here. First - a shape memory alloy based cryogenic thermal conduction switch for operation between dewars of liquid methane and liquid oxygen in a common bulkhead arrangement is discussed. Such a switch integrates the sensor element and the actuator element and can be used to create a variable thermal sink to other cryogenic tanks for liquefaction, densification, and zero boil-off systems for advanced spaceport applications. Second - fabrication via arc-melting and subsequent materials testing of SMAs with cryogenic transformation temperatures for use in the aforementioned switch is discussed

  11. Irradiation creep in ferritic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandermeulen, W.; Bremaecker, A. de; Burbure, S. de; Huet, J.J.; Asbroeck, P. van

    Pressurized and non-pressurized capsules of several ferritic steels have been irradiated in Rapsodie between 400 and 500 0 C up to 3.7 x 10 22 n/cm 2 (E>0.1 MeV). Results of the diameter measurements are presented and show that the total in-pile deformation is lower than for austenitic steels

  12. Electronic structure and phase equilibria in ternary substitutional alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traiber, A.J.S.; Allen, S.M.; Waterstrat, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    A reliable, consistent scheme to study phase equilibria in ternary substitutional alloys based on the tight-binding approximation is presented. With electronic parameters from linear muffin-tin orbital calculations, the computed density of states and band structures compare well with those from more accurate abinitio calculations. Disordered alloys are studied within the tight-binding coherent-potential approximation extended to alloys; energetics of ordered systems are obtained through effective pair interactions computed with the general perturbation method; and partially ordered alloys are studied with a novel simplification of the molecular coherent-potential approximation combined with the general perturbation method. The formalism is applied to bcc-based Zr-Ru-Pd alloys which are promising candidates for medical implant devices. Using energetics obtained from the above scheme, we apply the cluster- variation method to study phase equilibria for particular pseudo- binary alloys and show that results are consistent with observed behavior of electronic specific heat coefficient with composition for Zr 0.5 (Ru, Pd) 0.5

  13. Some new ternary linear codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumen Daskalov

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Let an $[n,k,d]_q$ code be a linear code of length $n$, dimension $k$ and minimum Hamming distance $d$ over $GF(q$. One of the most important problems in coding theory is to construct codes with optimal minimum distances. In this paper 22 new ternary linear codes are presented. Two of them are optimal. All new codes improve the respective lower bounds in [11].

  14. CuZn Alloy- Based Electrocatalyst for CO2 Reduction

    KAUST Repository

    Alazmi, Amira

    2014-06-01

    ABSTRACT CuZn Alloy- Based Electrocatalyst for CO2 Reduction Amira Alazmi Carbon dioxide (CO2) is one of the major greenhouse gases and its emission is a significant threat to global economy and sustainability. Efficient CO2 conversion leads to utilization of CO2 as a carbon feedstock, but activating the most stable carbon-based molecule, CO2, is a challenging task. Electrochemical conversion of CO2 is considered to be the beneficial approach to generate carbon-containing fuels directly from CO2, especially when the electronic energy is derived from renewable energies, such as solar, wind, geo-thermal and tidal. To achieve this goal, the development of an efficient electrocatalyst for CO2 reduction is essential. In this thesis, studies on CuZn alloys with heat treatments at different temperatures have been evaluated as electrocatalysts for CO2 reduction. It was found that the catalytic activity of these electrodes was strongly dependent on the thermal oxidation temperature before their use for electrochemical measurements. The polycrystalline CuZn electrode without thermal treatment shows the Faradaic efficiency for CO formation of only 30% at applied potential ~−1.0 V vs. RHE with current density of ~−2.55 mA cm−2. In contrast, the reduction of oxide-based CuZn alloy electrode exhibits 65% Faradaic efficiency for CO at lower applied potential about −1.0 V vs. RHE with current density of −2.55 mA cm−2. Furthermore, stable activity was achieved over several hours of the reduction reaction at the modified electrodes. Based on electrokinetic studies, this improvement could be attributed to further stabilization of the CO2•− on the oxide-based Cu-Zn alloy surface.

  15. Self-positioned thin Pb-alloy base electrode Josephson junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, K.; Sato, K.

    1986-01-01

    A self-positioned thin (SPOT) Pb-alloy base electrode Josephson junction is developed. In this junction, a 50-nm thick Pb-alloy base electrode is restricted within the junction region on an Nb underlayer using a self-alignment technique. The grain size reduction and the base electrode area restriction greatly improve thermal cycling stability, where the thermal cycling tests of 4000 proposed junctions (5 x 5 μm 2 ) showed no failures after 4000 cycles. In addition, the elimination of insulator layer stress on the Pb-alloy base electrode rectifies the problem of size effect on current density. The Nb underlayers also serve to isolate the Pb-alloy base electrodes from the resistors

  16. A Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramics Manufactured Power Inductor Based on A Ternary Hybrid Material System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yunsong; Chen, Ru

    Low temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) is one of the most important techniques to produce circuits with high working frequency, multi-functionality and high integration. We have developed a methodology to enable a ternary hybrid material system being implemented into the LTCC manufacturing process. The co-firing sintering process can be divided into a densification and cooling process. In this method, a successful ternary hybrid material densification process is achieved by tuning the sintering profile of each material to match each other. The system integrity is maintained in the cooling process is obtained by develop a strong bonding at the interfaces of each materials. As a demonstration, we have construct a power inductor device made of the ternary material system including Ag, NiCuZn ferrite and non-magnetic ceramic. The power inductors well maintains its physical integrity after sintering. The microscopic images show no obvious sign of cracks or structural deformation. More importantly, despite the bonding between the ferrite and ceramic is enhanced by non-magnetic element diffusion, the undesired magnetic elements diffusion is effectively suppressed. The electric performance shows that the power handling capability is comparable to the current state of art device.

  17. Ternary scandium and transition metals germanides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotur, B.Ya.

    1992-01-01

    Brief review of data on phase diagram of ternary Sc-Me-Ge systems (Me-d - , f-transition element) is given. Isothermal sections at 870 and 1070 K of 17 ternary systems are plotted. Compositions and their structural characteristics are presented. Variability of crystal structure is typical for ternary scandium germanides: 70 compounds with the studied structure belong to 23 structural types. Ternary germanides isostructural to types of Sm 4 Ge 4 , ZrCrSi 2 , ZrNiAl, ScCeSi, TiNiSi U 4 Re 7 Si 6 145 compounds from 70 under investigation are mostly formed in studied systems

  18. Ferrite measurements for SNS accelerating cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bendall, R.G.; Church, R.A.

    1979-03-01

    The RF system for the SNS has six double accelerating cavities each containing seventy ferrite toroids. Difficulties experienced in obtaining toroids to the required specifications are discussed and the two toroid test cavity built to test those supplied is described. Ferrite measurements are reported which were undertaken to measure; (a) μQf as a function of frequency and RF field level and (b) bias current as a function of frequency for different ranges of ferrite permeability μ. (U.K.)

  19. Epitaxial Garnets and Hexagonal Ferrites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-20

    guide growth of the epitaxial YIG films. Aluminum or gallium substitu- tions for iron were used in combination with lanthanum substitutions for yttrium... gallate spinel sub- strates. There was no difficulty with nucleation in the melt and film quality appeared to be similar to that observed previously...hexagonal ferrites. We succeeded in growing the M-type lead hexaferrite (magnetoplumbite) on gallate spinel substrates. We found that the PbO-based

  20. Ferrite-guided cyclotron-resonance maser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerby, Eli; Kesar, A.; Aharony, A.; Breitmeier, G.

    2002-01-01

    The concept of a cyclotron-resonance maser (CRM) with a ferrite loading incorporated in its waveguide is proposed. The CRM interaction occurs between the rotating electron beam and the em wave propagating along a longitudinally magnetized ferrite medium. The ferrite anisotropic permeability resembles the CRM susceptibility in many aspects, and particularly in their similar response to the axial magnetic field (the ferrite susceptibility can be regarded as a passive analog of the active CRM interaction). The ferrite loading slows down the phase velocity of the em wave and thus the axial (Weibel) mechanism of the CRM interaction dominates. The ferrite loading enables also a mechanism of spectral tunability for CRM's. The ferrite loading is proposed, therefore, as a useful ingredient for high-power CRM devices. A linear model of the combined ferrite-guided CRM interaction reveals its useful features. Future schemes may also incorporate ferrite sections functioning as isolators, gyrators, or phase shifters within the CRM device itself for selective suppression of backward waves and spurious oscillations, and for gain and efficiency enhancement

  1. High-Efficient Circuits for Ternary Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Faghih Mirzaee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available New ternary adders, which are fundamental components of ternary addition, are presented in this paper. They are on the basis of a logic style which mostly generates binary signals. Therefore, static power dissipation reaches its minimum extent. Extensive different analyses are carried out to examine how efficient the new designs are. For instance, the ternary ripple adder constructed by the proposed ternary half and full adders consumes 2.33 μW less power than the one implemented by the previous adder cells. It is almost twice faster as well. Due to their unique superior characteristics for ternary circuitry, carbon nanotube field-effect transistors are used to form the novel circuits, which are entirely suitable for practical applications.

  2. A low temperature co-fired ceramic power inductor manufactured using a glass-free ternary composite material system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanxun; Xie, Yunsong; Xie, Ru; Chen, Daming; Han, Likun; Su, Hua

    2018-03-01

    A glass-free ternary composite material system (CMS) manufactured employing the low temperature ( 890 ° C ) co-fired ceramic (LTCC) technique is reported. This ternary CMS consists of silver, NiCuZn ferrite, and Zn2SiO4 ceramic. The reported device fabricated from this ternary CMS is a power inductor with a nominal inductance of 1.0 μH. Three major highlights were achieved from the device and the material study. First, unlike most other LTCC methods, no glass is required to be added in either of the dielectric materials in order to co-fire the NiCuZn ferrite, Zn2SiO4 ceramic, and silver. Second, a successfully co-fired silver, NiCuZn, and Zn2SiO4 device can be achieved by optimizing the thermal shrinkage properties of both NiCuZn and Zn2SiO4, so that they have a very similar temperature shrinkage profile. We have also found that strong non-magnetic elemental diffusion occurs during the densification process, which further enhances the success rate of manufacturing co-fired devices. Last but not least, elemental mapping suggests that strong magnetic elemental diffusion between NiCuZn and Zn2SiO4 has been suppressed during the co-firing process. The investigation of electrical performance illustrates that while the ordinary binary CMS based power inductor can deal with 400 mA DC, the ternary CMS based power inductor is able to handle higher DC currents, 700 mA and 620 mA DC, according to both simulation and experiment demonstrations, respectively.

  3. Kinetics of niobium carbide precipitation in ferrite; Cinetiques de precipitation du carbure de niobium dans la ferrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gendt, D

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a NbC precipitation modelling in ferrite. This theoretical study is motivated by the fact it considers a ternary system and focus on the concurrence of two different diffusion mechanisms. An experimental study with TEP, SANS and Vickers micro-hardening measurements allows a description of the NbC precipitation kinetics. The mean radius of the precipitates is characterized by TEM observations. To focus on the nucleation stage, we use the Tomographic Atom Probe that analyses, at an atomistic scale, the position of the solute atoms in the matrix. A first model based on the classical nucleation theory and the diffusion-limited growth describes the precipitation of spherical precipitates. To solve the set of equations, we use a numerical algorithm that furnishes an evaluation of the precipitated fraction, the mean radius and the whole size distribution of the particles. The parameters that are the interface energy, the solubility product and the diffusion coefficients are fitted with the data available in the literature and our experimental results. It allows a satisfactory agreement as regards to the simplicity of the model. Monte Carlo simulations are used to describe the evolution of a ternary alloy Fe-Nb-C on a cubic centred rigid lattice with vacancy and interstitial mechanisms. This is realized with an atomistic description of the atoms jumps and their related frequencies. The model parameters are fitted with phase diagrams and diffusion coefficients. For the sake of simplicity, we consider that the precipitation of NbC is totally coherent and we neglect any elastic strain effect. We can observe different kinetic paths: for low supersaturations, we find an expected precipitation of NbC but for higher supersaturations, the very fast diffusivity of carbon atoms conducts to the nucleation of iron carbide particles. We establish that the occurrence of this second phenomenon depends on the vacancy arrival kinetics and can be related

  4. Microwave Measurements of Ferrite Polymer Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastislav Dosoudil

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the microwave measurements performed on the nickel-zinc sintered ferrite with the chemical formula Ni0.3Zn0.7Fe2O4 produced by the ceramic technique and composite materials based on this ferrite and a non-magnetic polymer (polyvinyl chloride matrix. The prepared composite samples had the same particle size distribution 0-250um but different ferrite particle concentrations between 23 vol% and 80 vol%. The apparatus for measurement of the signal proportional to the absolute value of scattering parameter S11 (reflexion coefficient is described and the dependence of measured reflected signal on a bias magnetic field has been studied. By means of experiments, the resonances to be connected with the geometry of microwave experimental set-up were distinguished from ferromagnetic resonance arising in ferrite particles of composite structure. The role of local interaction fields of ferrite particles in composite material has been discussed.

  5. Description of the ternary system Cu-Ge-Te

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogguy, M.; Carcaly, C.; Rivet, J.; Flahaut, J.

    1977-01-01

    The Cu-Ge-Te ternary system has been studied by DTA and by crystallographic and metallographic analysis. The existence of a ternary compound Cu 2 GeTe 3 is demonstrated; this compound has a ternary incongruent melting point at 500 0 C. This ternary compound has a superstructure of a zinc blende type. The study shows the existence of five ternary eutectics. Two liquid-liquid miscibility gaps exist: the first is situated entirely in the ternary system; the second gives a monotectic region within the ternary system. (Auth.)

  6. Composition design and mechanical properties of ternary Cu–Zr–Ti bulk metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Ye; Zeng, Yuqiao; Jing, Lijun; Zhang, Lu; Pi, Jinhong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Newly designed monolithic bulk metallic glasses are of good glass-forming ability. • Cu 50 Zr 44 Ti 6 exhibits excellent plastic deformation up to ∼7.4%. • Copious and intersected shear bans are observed in the fractography of Cu 50 Zr 44 Ti 6 . • Cu 50 Zr 44 Ti 6 has the best plasticity in the ternary Cu–Zr–Ti bulk metallic glasses. - Abstract: The new compositions of ternary Cu–Zr–Ti bulk metallic glasses are predicted by integrating calculation of vacancy formation energy, mixing enthalpy and configuration entropy of the alloys based on thermodynamics of glass formers. The monolithic amorphous rods of 3 mm diameter have been successfully fabricated, and characterized by X-ray diffractometry, differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electronic microscopy, transmission electronic microscopy and compression tests. The results show that the designed alloys possess good glass forming ability and excellent mechanical properties. The mechanical properties of the samples can be effectively improved by regulating their composition. The monolithic amorphous rod of Cu 50 Zr 44 Ti 6 exhibits a high fracture strength of 1855 MPa and excellent plastic deformation up to ∼7.4%. The formation and propagation of shear bands in samples are also investigated. The enhancement of plastic deformation is mainly contributed to multiplication and intersection of shear bands

  7. All-optical symmetric ternary logic gate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Tanay

    2010-09-01

    Symmetric ternary number (radix=3) has three logical states (1¯, 0, 1). It is very much useful in carry free arithmetical operation. Beside this, the logical operation using this type of number system is also effective in high speed computation and communication in multi-valued logic. In this literature all-optical circuits for three basic symmetrical ternary logical operations (inversion, MIN and MAX) are proposed and described. Numerical simulation verifies the theoretical model. In this present scheme the different ternary logical states are represented by different polarized state of light. Terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD) based interferometric switch has been used categorically in this manuscript.

  8. Performance Estimation for Lowpass Ternary Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenton Steele

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Ternary filters have tap values limited to −1, 0, or +1. This restriction in tap values greatly simplifies the multipliers required by the filter, making ternary filters very well suited to hardware implementations. Because they incorporate coarse quantisation, their performance is typically limited by tap quantisation error. This paper derives formulae for estimating the achievable performance of lowpass ternary filters, thereby allowing the number of computationally intensive design iterations to be reduced. Motivated by practical communications systems requirements, the performance measure which is used is the worst-case stopband attenuation.

  9. Delta ferrite in the weld metal of reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sam, Shiju, E-mail: shiju@ipr.res.in [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382 428 (India); Das, C.R.; Ramasubbu, V.; Albert, S.K.; Bhaduri, A.K.; Jayakumar, T. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Rajendra Kumar, E. [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382 428 (India)

    2014-12-15

    Formation of delta(δ)-ferrite in the weld metal, during autogenous bead-on-plate welding of Reduced Activation Ferritic Martensitic (RAFM) steel using Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) process, has been studied. Composition of the alloy is such that delta-ferrite is not expected in the alloy; but examination of the weld metal revealed presence of delta-ferrite in the weld metal. Volume fraction of delta-ferrite is found to be higher in the weld interface than in the rest of the fusion zone. Decrease in the volume fraction of delta-ferrite, with an increase in preheat temperature or with an increase in heat input, is observed. Results indicate that the cooling rate experienced during welding affects the volume fraction of delta-ferrite retained in the weld metal and variation in the delta-ferrite content with cooling rate is explained with variation in the time that the weld metal spends in various temperature regimes in which delta-ferrite is stable for the alloy during its cooling from the liquid metal to the ambient temperature. This manuscript will discuss the effect of welding parameters on formation of delta-ferrite and its retention in the weld metal of RAFM steel.

  10. Growth modes of individual ferrite grains in the austenite to ferrite transformation of low carbon steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, D.Z.; Xiao, N.M.; Lan, Y.J.; Zheng, C.W.; Li, Y.Y.

    2007-01-01

    The mesoscale deterministic cellular automaton (CA) method and probabilistic Q-state Potts-based Monte Carlo (MC) model have been adopted to investigate independently the individual growth behavior of ferrite grain during the austenite (γ)-ferrite (α) transformation. In these models, the γ-α phase transformation and ferrite grain coarsening induced by α/α grain boundary migration could be simulated simultaneously. The simulations demonstrated that both the hard impingement (ferrite grain coarsening) and the soft impingement (overlapping carbon concentration field) have a great influence on the individual ferrite growth behavior. Generally, ferrite grains displayed six modes of growth behavior: parabolic growth, delayed nucleation and growth, temporary shrinkage, partial shrinkage, complete shrinkage and accelerated growth in the transformation. Some modes have been observed before by the synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiment. The mesoscopic simulation provides an alternative tool for investigating both the individual grain growth behavior and the overall transformation behavior simultaneously during transformation

  11. Ternary networks reliability and Monte Carlo

    CERN Document Server

    Gertsbakh, Ilya; Vaisman, Radislav

    2014-01-01

    Ternary means “based on three”. This book deals with reliability investigations of  networks whose components subject to failures can be in three states –up, down and middle (mid), contrary to traditionally considered networks  having only binary (up/down) components. Extending binary case to ternary allows to consider more realistic and flexible models for communication, flow and supply networks.

  12. Ferrite HOM Absorber for the RHIC ERL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn,H.; Choi, E.M.; Hammons, L.

    2008-10-01

    A superconducting Energy Recovery Linac is under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory to serve as test bed for RHIC upgrades. The damping of higher-order modes in the superconducting five-cell cavity for the Energy-Recovery linac at RHIC is performed exclusively by two ferrite absorbers. The ferrite properties have been measured in ferrite-loaded pill box cavities resulting in the permeability values given by a first-order Debye model for the tiled absorber structure and an equivalent permeability value for computer simulations with solid ring dampers. Measured and simulated results for the higher-order modes in the prototype copper cavity are discussed. First room-temperature measurements of the finished niobium cavity are presented which confirm the effective damping of higher-order modes in the ERL. by the ferrite absorbers.

  13. Focused Application Software for Ferrite Patch Antennas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Trott, Keith

    1999-01-01

    ... (brick and tetrahedral elements) are combined by MRC via a graphical user interface (GUI) into a user friendly code capable of modeling conformal antennas with ferrite sub and superstrates recessed in planar surfaces.

  14. Oxide dispersion-strengthened ferritic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asbroeck, P. van.

    1976-10-01

    The publication gives the available data on the DTO2 dispersion-strengthened ferritic alloy developed at C.E.N./S.C.K. Mol, Belgium. DTO2 is a Fe-Cr-Mo ferritic alloy, strengthened by addition of titanium oxide and of titanium leading to the formation of Chi phase. It was developed for use as canning material for fast breeder reactors. (author)

  15. Micromagnetic simulations of spinel ferrite particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantas, Christine C.; Gama, Adriana M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of simulations of the magnetization field ac response (at 2-12 GHz) of various submicron ferrite particles (cylindrical dots). The ferrites in the present simulations have the spinel structure, expressed here by M 1 - n Zn n Fe 2 O 4 (where M stands for a divalent metal), and the parameters chosen were the following: (a) for n=0: M={Fe, Mn, Co, Ni, Mg, Cu }; (b) for n=0.1: M = {Fe, Mg} (mixed ferrites). These runs represent full 3D micromagnetic (one-particle) ferrite simulations. We find evidences of confined spin waves in all simulations, as well as a complex behavior nearby the main resonance peak in the case of the M = {Mg, Cu} ferrites. A comparison of the n=0 and n=0.1 cases for fixed M reveals a significant change in the spectra in M = Mg ferrites, but only a minor change in the M=Fe case. An additional larger scale simulation of a 3 by 3 particle array was performed using similar conditions of the Fe 3 O 4 (magnetite; n=0, M = Fe) one-particle simulation. We find that the main resonance peak of the Fe 3 O 4 one-particle simulation is disfigured in the corresponding 3 by 3 particle simulation, indicating the extent to which dipolar interactions are able to affect the main resonance peak in that magnetic compound.

  16. Synthesis, characterization and microwave characteristics of ternary nanocomposite of MWCNTs/doped Sr-hexaferrite/PANI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seyyed Afghahi, Seyyed Salman [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Imam Hossein University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Peymanfar, Reza; Javanshir, Shahrzad [Department of Chemistry, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Atassi, Yomen [Department of Applied Physics, Higher Institute for Applied Sciences and Technology, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Jafarian, Mojtaba, E-mail: m.jafarian@srbiau.ac.ir [Young Researchers and Elites Club, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-02-01

    Substituted strontium ferrite (sub-SF) nanoparticles are prepared by a sol-gel method and added to functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The ternary nanocomposite of MWCNTs/sub-SF/polyaniline (PANI) is prepared by in-situ polymerization of aniline on MWCNTs/sub-SF reaction mixture. The morphology, structure and magnetic properties of the nanocomposites are investigated by SEM, XRD, FTIR and VSM, respectively. The microwave characteristics are measured using a vector network analyzer. The XRD patterns exhibit representative diffraction peaks corresponding to hexagonal structure, and the structure of the MWCNTs is not distorted. SEM micrographs show that sub-SF nanoparticles and PANI chains are uniformly dispersed on the surface of MWCNTs. The MWCNTs/sub-SF/PANI exhibit a minimum reflection loss of −26 dB at 10 GHz with 3 GHz bandwidth and a matching thickness of 5 mm. This excellent microwave characteristic indicates the synergistic effect of the three components to enhance the impedance matching and improve the microwave absorption properties of the composite. - Highlights: • Novel ternary nanocomposite of MWCNTs/sub-SF/polyaniline (PANI) is prepared by in-situ polymerization. • The prepared single composite absorber are lightweight with 20 wt% filler content in parafin. • Composites with a combination of magnetic and dielectric fillers exhibit wider reflection loss peaks. • Composite absorber exhibit a minimum reflection loss of −26 dB at 10 GHz with 3 GHz bandwidth with a matching thickness of 5 mm.

  17. Crystallization features of ternary reversible reciprocal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomashik, V.N.; Shcherbak, L.P.; Fejchuk, P.I.; Grytsiv, V.I.

    2006-01-01

    Some features of the primary crystallization of phases in ternary reversible reciprocal system are considered and discussed. The diagonal join CdTe-GeSe of the CdTe + GeSe = CdSe + GeTe ternary reciprocal system is studied to show that the features in primary and secondary heating and cooling curves in such systems under fully equilibrium conditions are not reproduced upon consecutive heating and cooling sessions, because of the existence of different amounts of the reagents and the reaction products in the mixture; the temperatures of each transformation lie in a range. Those who experimentally investigate other ternary and more complex reversible reciprocal systems should take this fact into account [ru

  18. The ternary system nickel-boron-silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugscheider, E.; Reimann, H.; Knotek, O.

    1975-01-01

    The ternary system Nickel-Boron-Silicon was established at 850 0 C by means of X-ray diffraction, metallographic and micro-hardness examinations. The well known binary nickel borides and silicides resp. were confirmed. In the boron-silicon system two binary phases, SiBsub(4-x) with x approximately 0.7 and SiB 6 were found the latter in equilibrium with the β-rhombohedral boron. Confirming the two ternary silicon borides a greater homogeneity range was found for Ni 6 Si 2 B, the phase Nisub(4,6)Si 2 B published by Uraz and Rundqvist can better be described by the formula Nisub(4.29)Si 2 Bsub(1.43). In relation to further investigations we measured melting temperatures in ternary Ni-10 B-Si alloys by differential thermoanalysis. (author)

  19. Ternary fission induced by polarized neutrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gönnenwein Friedrich

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ternary fission of (e,e U- and Pu- isotopes induced by cold polarized neutrons discloses some new facets of the process. In the so-called ROT effect shifts in the angular distributions of ternary particles relative to the fission fragments show up. In the so-called TRI effect an asymmetry in the emission of ternary particles relative to a plane formed by the fragment momentum and the spin of the neutron appear. The two effects are shown to be linked to the components of angular momentum perpendicular and parallel to the fission axis at the saddle point of fission. Based on theoretical models the spectroscopic properties of the collective transitional states at the saddle point are inferred from experiment.

  20. Fabrication of polymer-alloy based on polytetrafluoroethylene by radiation-crosslinking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshima, A.; Asano, S.; Hyunga, T.; Ichizuri, S.; Washio, M.

    2003-01-01

    Perfluoropolymer such as polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), tetrafluoroethylene co-perfluoroalkylvinylether (PFA) and tetrafluoroethylene-co-hexafluoropropylene (FFP) have been classified to be a typical polymer of radiation-induced degradation. However, we confirmed that the crosslinking of PTFE, PFA and FEP proceed by irradiation under selective condition where oxygen-free and high temperature above the melting temperature of them. In this study, fabrication of polymer-alloy based on PTFE has been demonstrated by radiation-crosslinking techniques. The polymer alloy, which was PTFE fine powder contained with other polymeric materials, was obtained by electron beams irradiation under oxygen-free atmosphere. Characterization of polymer-alloy based on PTFE has been studied by various measurements such as solid state 19F- and 13C-NMR spectroscopy, thermal analysis (DSC, TGA)

  1. Characterization of Austempered Ferritic Ductile Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakre, Vinayak S.; Peshwe, D. R.; Pathak, S. U.; Likhite, A. A.

    2018-04-01

    The ductile iron (DI) has graphite nodules enclose in ferrite envelop in pearlitic matrix. The pearlitic matrix in DI was converted to ferritic matrix through heat treatment. This heat treatment includes austenitization of DI at 900°C for 1h, followed by furnace cooling to 750°C & hold for 1h, then again furnace cooling to 690°C hold for 2h, then samples were allowed to cool in furnace. The new heat treated DI has graphite nodules in ferritic matrix and called as ferritic ductile iron (FDI). Both DIs were austenitized at 900°C for 1h and then quenched into salt bath at 325°C. The samples were soaked in salt bath for 60, 120, 180, 240 and 300 min followed by air cooling. The austempered samples were characterized with help of optical microscopy, SEM and X-ray diffraction analysis. Austempering of ferritic ductile iron resulted in finer ausferrite matrix as compared to ADI. Area fraction of graphite, ferrite and austenite were determining using AXIOVISION-SE64 software. Area fraction of graphite was more in FDI than that of as cast DI. The area fraction of graphite remains unaffected due to austempering heat treatment. Ausferritic matrix coarsened (feathered) with increasing in austempering time for both DI and FDI. Bulk hardness test was carried on Rockwell Hardness Tester with load of 150 kgf and diamond indenter. Hardness obtained in as cast DI is 28 HRC which decreased to 6 HRC in FDI due conversion of pearlitic matrix to ferritic matrix. Hardness is improved by austempering process.

  2. True ternary fission of 252Cf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayaraghavan, K.R.; Balasubramaniam, M.; Oertzen, W. von

    2014-01-01

    Splitting of heavy radioactive nucleus into three fragments is known as ternary fission. If the size of the fragments are almost equal it is referred to as true ternary fission. Recently, Yu. V. Pyatkov et al observed/reported the experimental observation of true ternary fission in 252 Cf. In this work, the possibilities of different true ternary fission modes of 252 Cf through potential energy surface (PES) calculations based on three cluster model (TCM) are discussed. In TCM a condition on the mass numbers of the fission fragments is implied as A 1 ≥ A 2 ≥ A 3 in order to avoid repetition of combinations. Due to this condition, the values of Z 3 vary from 0 to 36 and Z 2 vary from 16 to 51. Of the different pairs having similar (Z 2 , Z 3 ) with different potential energy, a pair possessing minimum potential energy is chosen. Thus identified favourable combinations are plotted. For the PES calculations the arrangement of the fragments is considered in the order of A 1 +A 2 +A 3 . i.e. the heavy and the lightest fragments are kept at the ends. It is seen that the deepest minimum in the PES occurs for Z 3 =2 labelled as (Z 2 ; 2) indicating He accompanied breakup as the most favourable one. Of which, the breakup with Z 2 around 46 to 48 is the least (shown by dashed (Z 1 = 50) and dotted (Z 1 = 52) lines indicating a constant Z 1 value). The other notable minima in the PES are labelled and they correspond to the (Z 2 , Z 3 ) pairs viz., (20, 20), (28, 20), (28, 28) and (32, 32). Of these four minima, the first three are associated with the magic numbers 20 and 28. For Z 3 =20, there are two minimums at (20,20) and (28,20) among them (28,20) is the lowest minimum through which the minimum-path passes, and it is the ternary decay observed by Yu. V. Pyatkov et al. The fourth minima is the most interesting due to the fact that it corresponds to true ternary fission mode with Z 2 =32, Z 3 =32 and Z 1 =34. The minimum potential energy path also goes through this true

  3. A Josephson ternary associative memory cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morisue, M.; Suzuki, K.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a three-valued content addressable memory cell using a Josephson complementary ternary logic circuit named as JCTL. The memory cell proposed here can perform three operations of searching, writing and reading in ternary logic system. The principle of the memory circuit is illustrated in detail by using the threshold-characteristics of the JCTL. In order to investigate how a high performance operation can be achieved, computer simulations have been made. Simulation results show that the cycle time of memory operation is 120psec, power consumption is about 0.5 μW/cell and tolerances of writing and reading operation are +-15% and +-24%, respectively

  4. FEATURES OF SPHEROIDIZING MODIFICATION OF HIGH-STRENGTH CAST IRON WITH MASTER ALLOYS BASED ON COPPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kalinichenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase of efficiency of modification process for ductile iron is topically, thereby increasing its mechanical and operational properties. For these purposes, in practice, various magnesium containing alloys are used, including «heavy» ones on the basis of Copper and Nickel. The analysis has shown that the application of bulk inoculating alloys based on copper basis were not effectively due to long dissolution period. From this point of view, the interest is high-speed casting, allowing the production of inoculating alloys in the form of strips – chips that are characterized by a low dissolution time and low piroeffekt. The aim of this work is to study the features of structure formation in nodular cast iron using different spheroidizing alloys based on copper. Studies have shown that the transition from the use of briquetted form alloys based on copper and magnesium to the «chips-inoculating alloys» allowed increasing the efficiency of the spheroidizing process. Further improvement in the quality of ductile iron can be achieved by the use in «chip-inoculating alloys» additives of nanosized yttrium oxide powder. 

  5. Dielectric properties of Al-substituted Co ferrite nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    The particle size, D, decreases with increase in Al-content. The lattice parameter, a ... a significant saving in time and energy consumption over the traditional methods. ... electrical, and magnetic properties of spinel ferrites. Cobalt ferrite based ...

  6. Ferritic steels for French LMFBR steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, M.; Mathieu, B.; Petrequin, P.

    1983-06-01

    Austenitic stainless steels have been widely used in many components of the French LMFBR. Up to now, ferritic steels have not been considered for these components, mainly due to their relatively low creep properties. Some ferritic steels are usable when the maximum temperatures in service do not exceed about 530 0 C. It is the case of the steam generators of the Phenix plant, where the exchange tubes of the evaporator are made of 2,25% Cr-1% Mo steel, stabilized or not by addition of niobium. These ferritic alloys have worked successfully since the first steam production in October 1973. For the SuperPhenix power plant, an ''all austenitic stainless alloy'' apparatus has been chosen. However, for the future, ferritic alloys offer potential for use as alternative materials in the evaporators: low alloys steels type 2,25% Cr-1% Mo (exchange tubes, tube-sheets, shells), or at higher chromium content type 9% Cr-2% Mo NbV (exchange tubes) or 12M Cr-1% Mo-V (tube-sheets). Most of these steels have already an industrial background, and are widely used in similar applications. The various potential applications of these steels are reviewed with regards to the French LMFBR steam generators, indicating that some points need an effort of clarification, for instance the properties of the heterogeneous ferritic/austenitic weldments

  7. Ternary-fragmentation-driving potential energies of 252Cf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikraj, C.; Ren, Zhongzhou

    2017-12-01

    Within the framework of a simple macroscopic model, the ternary-fragmentation-driving potential energies of 252Cf are studied. In this work, all possible ternary-fragment combinations of 252Cf are generated by the use of atomic mass evaluation-2016 (AME2016) data and these combinations are minimized by using a two-dimensional minimization approach. This minimization process can be done in two ways: (i) with respect to proton numbers (Z1, Z2, Z3) and (ii) with respect to neutron numbers (N1, N2, N3) of the ternary fragments. In this paper, the driving potential energies for the ternary breakup of 252Cf are presented for both the spherical and deformed as well as the proton-minimized and neutron-minimized ternary fragments. From the proton-minimized spherical ternary fragments, we have obtained different possible ternary configurations with a minimum driving potential, in particular, the experimental expectation of Sn + Ni + Ca ternary fragmentation. However, the neutron-minimized ternary fragments exhibit a driving potential minimum in the true-ternary-fission (TTF) region as well. Further, the Q -value energy systematics of the neutron-minimized ternary fragments show larger values for the TTF fragments. From this, we have concluded that the TTF region fragments with the least driving potential and high Q values have a strong possibility in the ternary fragmentation of 252Cf. Further, the role of ground-state deformations (β2, β3, β4, and β6) in the ternary breakup of 252Cf is also studied. The deformed ternary fragmentation, which involves Z3=12 -19 fragments, possesses the driving potential minimum due to the larger oblate deformations. We also found that the ground-state deformations, particularly β2, strongly influence the driving potential energies and play a major role in determining the most probable fragment combinations in the ternary breakup of 252Cf.

  8. A Fundamental Approach to Developing Aluminium based Bulk Amorphous Alloys based on Stable Liquid Metal Structures and Electronic Equilibrium - 154041

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-28

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2017-0027 A Fundamental Approach to Developing Aluminium -based Bulk Amorphous Alloys based on Stable Liquid-Metal Structures and...to 16 Dec 2016 4.  TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Fundamental Approach to Developing Aluminium -based Bulk Amorphous Alloys based on Stable Liquid-Metal...Air Force Research Laboratory for accurately predicting compositions of new amorphous alloys specifically based on aluminium with properties superior

  9. Indacenodithienothiophene-Based Ternary Organic Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasparini, Nicola, E-mail: nicola.gasparini@fau.de [Institute of Materials for Electronics and Energy Technology (I-MEET), Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen (Germany); García-Rodríguez, Amaranda [Macromolecular Chemistry Group (buwmakro), Institute for Polymer Technology, BergischeUniversität Wuppertal, Wuppertal (Germany); Prosa, Mario [Istituto per lo Studio dei Materiali Nanostrutturati (ISMN), Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Bologna (Italy); Bayseç, Şebnem; Palma-Cando, Alex [Macromolecular Chemistry Group (buwmakro), Institute for Polymer Technology, BergischeUniversität Wuppertal, Wuppertal (Germany); Katsouras, Athanasios; Avgeropoulos, Apostolos [Department of Materials Science Engineering, University of Ioannina, Ioannina (Greece); Pagona, Georgia; Gregoriou, Vasilis G. [Advent Technologies SA, Patras Science Park, Patra (Greece); National Hellenic Research Foundation (NHRF), Athens (Greece); Chochos, Christos L. [Department of Materials Science Engineering, University of Ioannina, Ioannina (Greece); Advent Technologies SA, Patras Science Park, Patra (Greece); Allard, Sybille; Scherf, Ulrich [Macromolecular Chemistry Group (buwmakro), Institute for Polymer Technology, BergischeUniversität Wuppertal, Wuppertal (Germany); Brabec, Christoph J. [Institute of Materials for Electronics and Energy Technology (I-MEET), Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen (Germany); Bavarian Center for Applied Energy Research (ZAE Bayern), Erlangen (Germany); Ameri, Tayebeh, E-mail: nicola.gasparini@fau.de [Institute of Materials for Electronics and Energy Technology (I-MEET), Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen (Germany)

    2017-01-13

    One of the key aspects to achieve high efficiency in ternary bulk-hetorojunction solar cells is the physical and chemical compatibility between the donor materials. Here, we report the synthesis of a novel conjugated polymer (P1) containing alternating pyridyl[2,1,3]thiadiazole between two different donor fragments, dithienosilole and indacenodithienothiophene (IDTT), used as a sensitizer in a host system of indacenodithieno[3,2-b]thiophene,2,3-bis(3-(octyloxy)phenyl)quinoxaline (PIDTTQ) and [6,6]-phenyl C{sub 70} butyric acid methyl ester (PC{sub 71}BM). We found that the use of the same IDTT unit in the host and guest materials does not lead to significant changes in the morphology of the ternary blend compared to the host binary. With the complementary use of optoelectronic characterizations, we found that the ternary cells suffer from a lower mobility-lifetime (μτ) product, adversely impacting the fill factor. However, the significant light harvesting in the near infrared region improvement, compensating the transport losses, results in an overall power conversion efficiency enhancement of ~7% for ternary blends as compared to the PIDTTQ:PC{sub 71}BM devices.

  10. Self-triggered coordination with ternary controllers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Persis, Claudio; Frasca, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    This paper regards coordination of networked systems with ternary controllers. We develop a hybrid coordination system which implements a self-triggered communication policy, based on polling the neighbors upon need. We prove that the proposed scheme ensures finite-time convergence to a neighborhood

  11. Ternary gradient metal-organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chong; Rosi, Nathaniel L

    2017-09-08

    Gradient MOFs contain directional gradients of either structure or functionality. We have successfully prepared two ternary gradient MOFs based on bMOF-100 analogues, namely bMOF-100/102/106 and bMOF-110/100/102, via cascade ligand exchange reactions. The cubic unit cell parameter discrepancy within an individual ternary gradient MOF crystal is as large as ∼1 nm, demonstrating the impressive compatibility and flexibility of the component MOF materials. Because of the presence of a continuum of unit cells, the pore diameters within individual crystals also change in a gradient fashion from ∼2.5 nm to ∼3.0 nm for bMOF-100/102/106, and from ∼2.2 nm to ∼2.7 nm for bMOF-110/100/102, indicating significant porosity gradients. Like previously reported binary gradient MOFs, the composition of the ternary gradient MOFs can be easily controlled by adjusting the reaction conditions. Finally, X-ray diffraction and microspectrophotometry were used to analyse fractured gradient MOF crystals by comparing unit cell parameters and absorbance spectra at different locations, thus revealing the profile of heterogeneity (i.e. gradient distribution of properties) and further confirming the formation of ternary gradient MOFs.

  12. TERNARY ALLOYS OF URANIUM, COLUMBIUM, AND ZIRCONIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, F.G.

    1960-08-01

    Ternary alloys of uranium are described which are useful as neutron- reflecting materials in a fast neutron reactor. They are especially resistant to corrosion caused by oxidative processes of gascous or aqueous origin and comprise uranium as the predominant metal with zirconiunn and niobium wherein the total content of the minor alloying elements is between 2 and 8% by weight.

  13. Does Science Also Prefer a Ternary Pattern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogliani, L.; Klein, D. J.; Balaban, A. T.

    2006-01-01

    Through the importance of the number three in our culture and the strange preference for a ternary pattern of our nature one can perceive how and why number theory degraded to numerology. The strong preference of our minds for simple patterns can be read as the key to understanding not only the development of numerology, but also why scientists…

  14. Angular distribution in ternary cold fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delion, D.S.; J.W. Goethe Univ., Frankfurt; Sandulescu, A.; J.W. Goethe Univ., Frankfurt; Greiner, W.

    2003-01-01

    We describe the spontaneous ternary cold fission of 252 Cf, accompanied by 4 He, 10 Be and 14 C. The light cluster decays from the first resonant eigenstate in the Coulomb potential plus a harmonic oscillator potential. We have shown that the angular distribution of the emitted light particle is strongly connected with its deformation and the equatorial distance. (author)

  15. Superconducting state parameters of ternary metallic glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    to binary metallic glasses. They are of interest since third element can modify the physical properties of binary metallic glasses and can also be used as a probe to study the host. ..... conducting nature in the present case. When we. Figure 6. Variation of transition temperature (TC) with valance (Z) of ternary metallic glasses.

  16. Ferritic/martensitic steels: Promises and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klueh, R.L.; Ehrlich, K.; Abe, F.

    1992-01-01

    Ferritic/martensitic steels are candidate structural materials for fusion reactors because of their higher swelling resistance, higher thermal conductivity, lower thermal expansion, and better liquid-metal compatibility than austenitic steels. Irradiation effects will ultimately determine the applicability of these steels, and the effects of irradiation on microstructure and swelling, and on the tensile, fatigue, and impact properties of the ferritic/martensitic steels are discussed. Most irradiation studies have been carried out in fast reactors, where little transmutation helium forms. Helium has been shown to enhance swelling and affect tensile and fracture behavior, making helium a critical issue, since high helium concentrations will be generated in conjunction with displacement damage in a fusion reactor. These issues are reviewed to evaluate the status of ferritic/martensitic steels and to assess the research required to insure that such steels are viable candidates for fusion applications

  17. Ferrite LTCC based phased array antennas

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffar, Farhan A.

    2016-11-02

    Two phased array antennas realized in multilayer ferrite LTCC technology are presented in this paper. The use of embedded bias windings in these designs allows the negation of external magnets which are conventionally employed with bulk ferrite medium. This reduces the required magnetostatic field strength by 90% as compared to the traditional designs. The phase shifters are implemented using the SIW technology. One of the designs is operated in the half mode waveguide topology while the other design is based on standard full mode waveguide operation. The two phase shifter designs are integrated with two element patch antenna array and slotted SIW array respectively. The array designs demonstrate a beam steering of 30° and ±19° respectively for a current excitation of 200 mA. The designs, due to their small factor can be easily integrated in modern communication systems which is not possible in the case of bulk ferrite based designs.

  18. Design of a novel quantum reversible ternary up-counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houshmand, Pouran; Haghparast, Majid

    2015-08-01

    Reversible logic has been recently considered as an interesting and important issue in designing combinational and sequential circuits. The combination of reversible logic and multi-valued logic can improve power dissipation, time and space utilization rate of designed circuits. Only few works have been reported about sequential reversible circuits and almost there are no paper exhibited about quantum ternary reversible counter. In this paper, first we designed 2-qutrit and 3-qutrit quantum reversible ternary up-counters using quantum ternary reversible T-flip-flop and quantum reversible ternary gates. Then we proposed generalized quantum reversible ternary n-qutrit up-counter. We also introduced a new approach for designing any type of n-qutrit ternary and reversible counter. According to the results, we can conclude that applying second approach quantum reversible ternary up-counter is better than the others.

  19. Recrystallization induced plasticity in austenite and ferrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Mingxin; Pineau, André; Bouaziz, Olivier; Vu, Trong-Dai

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Plasticity can be induced by recrystallization in austenite and ferrite. ► Strain rate is proportional to recrystallization kinetics. ► Overall atomic flux selects a preferential direction may be the origin. - Abstract: New experimental evidences are provided to demonstrate that plastic strain can be induced by recrystallization in austenite and ferrite under an applied stress much smaller than their yield stresses. Such Recrystallization Induced Plasticity (RIP) phenomenon occurs because the overall atomic flux during recrystallization follows a preferential direction imposed by the applied stress.

  20. Cation distributions on rapidly solidified cobalt ferrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Guire, Mark R.; Kalonji, Gretchen; O'Handley, Robert C.

    1990-01-01

    The cation distributions in two rapidly solidified cobalt ferrites have been determined using Moessbauer spectroscopy at 4.2 K in an 8-T magnetic field. The samples were obtained by gas atomization of a Co0-Fe2O3-P2O5 melt. The degree of cation disorder in both cases was greater than is obtainable by cooling unmelted cobalt ferrite. The more rapidly cooled sample exhibited a smaller departure from the equilibrium cation distribution than did the more slowly cooled sample. This result is explained on the basis of two competing effects of rapid solidification: high cooling rate of the solid, and large undercooling.

  1. Simulation of non-linear coaxial line using ferrite beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuya, S.; Matsumoto, H.; Tachi, K.; Takano, S.; Irisawa, J.

    2002-01-01

    A ferrite sharpener is a non-linear coaxial line using ferrite beads, which produces high-voltage, high-dV/dt pulses. We have been examining the characteristics of ferrite sharpeners experimentally, varying various parameters. Also we have made the simulation of the ferrite sharpener and compared the predictions with the experimental results in detail to analyze the characteristics of the sharpener. In this report, calculating the magnetization M of the ferrite bead, we divide the bead into n sections radially instead of adopting M at the average radius in the previous report. (author)

  2. Magnetic properties of nanostructured spinel ferrites and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    exchange interaction strength because of an increase in the magnetic ion concentration in the A-site on milling, ... By using a copper wheel, rotating with the ... Zn ferrite with a small applied field of 4 mT for two different grain sizes. The Néel ... By varying the concentration of the oxidant (KNO3) or ferric ions, we could achieve.

  3. Synthesis and Characterization of Cobalt Ferrite Nanoparticles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    prepared material. It was observed that surface modification such as with silica coating on the cobalt ferrite will have significant effect on the structural and magnetic properties. It is also observed that, silica coated nanoparticles could be used in biomedical applications (Hong et al., 2013). In this work we have chosen sol-gel ...

  4. Structural properties of Cd–Co ferrites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    36, No. 5, October 2013, pp. 919–922. c Indian Academy of Sciences. Structural properties of Cd–Co ferrites. S P DALAWAIa,∗. , T J SHINDEb, A B GADKARIc and P N VASAMBEKARa. aDepartment of Electronics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416 004, India. bDepartment of Physics, KRP Kanya Mahavidyalaya, Islampur ...

  5. Neutron diffraction in a frustrated ferrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirebeau, I.; Iancu, G.; Gavoille, G.; Hubsch, J.

    1994-01-01

    The competition between a long range ordered ferrimagnetic lattice and small fluctuating clusters have been probed by neutron diffraction in a titanium magnesium frustrated ferrite. The description of the system is then compared to the predictions of several theoretical models for frustrated systems. 3 figs., 8 refs

  6. Modeling of austenite to ferrite transformation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    395–398. c Indian Academy of Sciences. Modeling of austenite to ferrite transformation. MOHSEN KAZEMINEZHAD. ∗. Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Avenue, Tehran, Iran. MS received 17 January 2011; revised 9 July 2011. Abstract. In this research, an algorithm ...

  7. Synthesis of lithium ferrites from polymetallic carboxylates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STEFANIA STOLERIU

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Lithium ferrite was prepared by the thermal decomposition of three polynuclear complex compounds containing as ligands the anions of malic, tartaric and gluconic acid: (NH42[Fe2.5Li0.5(C4H4O53(OH4(H2O2]×4H2O (I, (NH46[Fe2.5Li0.5(C4H4O63(OH8]×2H2O (II and (NH42[Fe2.5Li0.5(C6H11O73(OH7] (III. The polynuclear complex precursors were characterized by chemical analysis, IR and UV–Vis spectra, magnetic measurements and thermal analysis. The obtained lithium ferrites were characterized by XRD, scanning electron microscopy, IR spectra and magnetic measurements. The single α-Li0.5Fe2.5O4 phase was obtained by thermal decomposition of the tartarate complex annealed at 700 °C for 1 h. The magnetization value ≈ 50 emu g-1 is lower than that obtained for the bulk lithium ferrite due to the nanostructural character of the ferrite. The particle size was smaller than 100 nm.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of nanocrystalline zinc ferrite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, J.S.; Yang, X.L.; Gao, L.

    1999-01-01

    Nanocrystalline zinc ferrite powders with a partially inverted spinel structure were synthesized by high-energy ball milling in a closed container at ambient temperature from a mixture of alpha-Fe2O3 and ZnO crystalline powders in equimolar ratio. From low-temperature and in-field Mossbauer...

  9. Glass forming ability: Miedema approach to (Zr, Ti, Hf)-(Cu, Ni) binary and ternary alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, Joysurya [Department of Chemical, Materials and Biomolecular Engineering, 191 Auditorium Road, University of Connecticut, Storrs 06269, CT (United States)], E-mail: jbasu@engr.uconn.edu; Murty, B.S. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Ranganathan, S. [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2008-10-06

    Miedema's approach has been useful in determining the glass forming composition range for a particular alloy system. The concept of mixing enthalpy and mismatch entropy can be used in order to quantify Inoue's criteria of bulk metallic glass formation. In the present study, glass forming composition range has been determined for different binary and ternary (Zr, Ti, Hf)-(Cu, Ni) alloys based on the mixing enthalpy and mismatch entropy calculations. Though copper and nickel appear next to each other in the periodic table, the glass forming ability of the copper and nickel bearing alloys is different. Thermodynamic analysis reveals that the glass forming behaviour of Zr and Hf is similar, whereas it is different from that of Ti. The smaller atomic size of Ti and the difference in the heat of mixing of Ti, Zr, Hf with Cu and Ni leads to the observed changes in the glass forming behaviour. Enthalpy contour plots can be used to distinguish the glass forming compositions on the basis of the increasing negative enthalpy of the composition. This method reveals the high glass forming ability of binary Zr-Cu, Hf-Cu, Hf-Ni systems over a narrow composition range.

  10. Multifunctional properties related to magnetostructural transitions in ternary and quaternary Heusler alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubenko, Igor, E-mail: igor_doubenko@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62901 (United States); Quetz, Abdiel; Pandey, Sudip; Aryal, Anil; Eubank, Michael [Department of Physics, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62901 (United States); Rodionov, Igor; Prudnikov, Valerii; Granovsky, Alexander [Faculty of Physics, Moscow State University, Vorob' evy Gory, 11999I Moscow (Russian Federation); Lahderanta, Erkki [Lappeenranta University of Technology, 53851 (Finland); Samanta, Tapas; Saleheen, Ahmad; Stadler, Shane [Department of Physics & Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Ali, Naushad [Department of Physics, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62901 (United States)

    2015-06-01

    In this report, the results of a study on the effects of compositional variations induced by the small changes in concentrations of the parent components and/or by the substitution of Ni, Mn, or In by an extra element Z, on the phase transitions, and phenomena related to the magnetostructural transitions in off-stoichiometric Ni–Mn–In based Heusler alloys are summarized. The crystal structures, phase transitions temperatures, and magnetic and magnetocaloric properties were analyzed for representative samples of the following systems (all near 15 at% indium concentration): Ni–Mn–In, Ni–Mn–In–Si, Ni–Mn–In–B, Ni–Mn–In–Cu, Ni–Mn–In–Cu–B, Ni–Mn–In–Fe, Ni–Mn–In–Ag, and Ni–Mn–In–Al. - Highlights: • The experimental results on phase transitions temperatures, adiabatic temperature changes, magnetoresistance and heat flow for the ternary and quaternary Heusler alloys based on Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 35}In{sub 15} demonstrate high sensitivity of magnetic properties to the small changes in concentrations of the parent components and/or by the substitution of Ni, Mn, or In by an additional element Z. • The phenomena related to the magnetostructural transitions strongly depend on the weighted average radius of constituent ions.

  11. The ternary system nickel-nobium-carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadelmaier, H.H.; Fiedler, M.L.

    1975-01-01

    The ternary system nickel-niobium-carbon was studied by metallographic and X-ray diffraction methods to produce a liquidus projection and an isothermal section at 1,100 0 C. The liquidus projection is dominated by a wide field of primary NbC that extends far into the nickel corner of the composition triangle. Only one ternary compound is observed in this system, an eta-carbide formed in a peritectoid reaction. It has a narrow homogeneity range at Ni 2 Nb 4 C, and its lattice constant in alloys quenched from 1,100 0 C varies between 11.659 and 11.667 A. No eta-carbide Ni 3 Nb 3 C or Ni 6 Nb 6 could be detected. (orig.) [de

  12. Equilibrium study for ternary mixtures of biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doungsri, S.; Sookkumnerd, T.; Wongkoblap, A.; Nuchitprasittichai, A.

    2017-11-01

    The liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) data for the ternary mixtures of methanol + fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) + palm oil and FAME + palm oil + glycerol at various temperatures from 35 to 55°C, the tie lines and binodial curves were also investigated and plotted in the equilibrium curve. The experimental results showed that the binodial curves of methanol + FAME + palm oil depended significantly with temperature while the binodial curves of FAME + palm oil + glycerol illustrated insignificant change with temperatures. The interaction parameters between liquid pair obtained for NRTL (Nonrandom Two-Liquid) and UNIQUAC (Universal Quasi-Chemical Theory) models from the experimental data were also investigated. It was found that the correlated parameters of UNIQUAC model for system of FAME + palm oil + glycerol, denoted as a13 and a31, were 580.42K and -123.69K, respectively, while those for system of methanol + FAME + palm oil, denoted as a42 and a24, were 71.48 K and 965.57K, respectively. The ternary LLE data reported here would be beneficial for engineers and scientists to use for prediction of yield and purity of biodiesel for the production. The UNIQUAC model agreed well with the experimental data of ternary mixtures of biodiesel.

  13. Design of ternary clocked adiabatic static random access memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Pengjun; Mei Fengna

    2011-01-01

    Based on multi-valued logic, adiabatic circuits and the structure of ternary static random access memory (SRAM), a design scheme of a novel ternary clocked adiabatic SRAM is presented. The scheme adopts bootstrapped NMOS transistors, and an address decoder, a storage cell and a sense amplifier are charged and discharged in the adiabatic way, so the charges stored in the large switch capacitance of word lines, bit lines and the address decoder can be effectively restored to achieve energy recovery during reading and writing of ternary signals. The PSPICE simulation results indicate that the ternary clocked adiabatic SRAM has a correct logic function and low power consumption. Compared with ternary conventional SRAM, the average power consumption of the ternary adiabatic SRAM saves up to 68% in the same conditions. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  14. Design of ternary clocked adiabatic static random access memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengjun, Wang; Fengna, Mei

    2011-10-01

    Based on multi-valued logic, adiabatic circuits and the structure of ternary static random access memory (SRAM), a design scheme of a novel ternary clocked adiabatic SRAM is presented. The scheme adopts bootstrapped NMOS transistors, and an address decoder, a storage cell and a sense amplifier are charged and discharged in the adiabatic way, so the charges stored in the large switch capacitance of word lines, bit lines and the address decoder can be effectively restored to achieve energy recovery during reading and writing of ternary signals. The PSPICE simulation results indicate that the ternary clocked adiabatic SRAM has a correct logic function and low power consumption. Compared with ternary conventional SRAM, the average power consumption of the ternary adiabatic SRAM saves up to 68% in the same conditions.

  15. Effect of alloying element partitioning on ferrite hardening in a low alloy ferrite-martensite dual phase steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebrahimian, A., E-mail: ebrahimiana@yahoo.com; Ghasemi Banadkouki, S.S.

    2016-11-20

    In this paper, the effect of carbon and other alloying elements partitioning on ferrite hardening behavior were studied in details using a low alloy AISI4340 ferrite-martensite dual phase (DP) steel. To do so, various re-austenitised samples at 860 °C for 60 min were isothermally heated at 650 °C from 3 to 60 min and then water–quenched to obtain the final ferrite-martensite DP microstructures containing different ferrite and martensite volume fractions. Light and electron microscopic observations were supplemented with electron dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and nanoindentation tests to explore the localized compositional and hardening variations within ferrite grains in DP samples. The experimental results showed that the ferrite hardness was varied with progress of austenite to ferrite phase transformation in DP samples. In the case of a particular ferrite grain in a particular DP sample, despite a homogeneous distribution of carbon concentration, the ferrite hardness was significantly increased by increasing distance from the central location toward the interfacial α/γ areas. Beside a considerable influence of martensitic phase transformation on adjacent ferrite hardness, these results were rationalized in part to the significant level of Cr and Mo pile-up at α/γ interfaces leading to higher solid solution hardening effect of these regions. The reduction of potential energy developed by attractive interaction between C-Cr and C-Mo couples toward the carbon enriched prior austenite areas were the dominating driving force for pile-up segregation.

  16. Ternary q-Virasoro-Witt Hom-Nambu-Lie algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammar, F; Makhlouf, A; Silvestrov, S

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we construct ternary q-Virasoro-Witt algebras which q-deform the ternary Virasoro-Witt algebras constructed by Curtright, Fairlie and Zachos using su(1, 1) enveloping algebra techniques. The ternary Virasoro-Witt algebras constructed by Curtright, Fairlie and Zachos depend on a parameter and are not Nambu-Lie algebras for all but finitely many values of this parameter. For the parameter values for which the ternary Virasoro-Witt algebras are Nambu-Lie, the corresponding ternary q-Virasoro-Witt algebras constructed in this paper are also Hom-Nambu-Lie because they are obtained from the ternary Nambu-Lie algebras using the composition method. For other parameter values this composition method does not yield a Hom-Nambu-Lie algebra structure for q-Virasoro-Witt algebras. We show however, using a different construction, that the ternary Virasoro-Witt algebras of Curtright, Fairlie and Zachos, as well as the general ternary q-Virasoro-Witt algebras we construct, carry a structure of the ternary Hom-Nambu-Lie algebra for all values of the involved parameters.

  17. Description of light charged particle emission in ternary fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, A. V.; Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Kuklin, S. N.; Scheid, W.

    2010-01-01

    We consider the motion of three fragments starting from the scission point of ternary system. In the alpha-accompanied ternary fission the initial conditions are not the free parameters and determined by minimization of potential energy at scission point. In the trajectory calculations the angular distribution and mean value of the kinetic energy of the alpha-particles are well described in the spontaneous ternary fission of 252 Cf. In the Be- and C-accompanied ternary fission we found that the emission of the third particle occurs from one of the heavy fragments after their separation. (authors)

  18. Role of ternary fission in synthesis of bypassed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramarovskij, Ya.M.; Chechev, V.P.

    1983-01-01

    A possible influence of ternary fission with escape of neutron-enriched light charged particles on the synthesis of bypassed nuclides is considered. It is shown that this concept cannot give explanation of bypassed isotope concentrations, but it can make some contribution, if the probability of ternary fission for superheavy nuclei grows sharply with Z 2 /A parameter. The account of β-delayed fission contributes to the shift of ternary fission fragments into the region of neutron-deficient isotopes. Consistent consideration of the ternary fission role in the nucleosynthesis is possible only with an important accumulation of experimental and theoretical data on this process, particularly for the nuclei with Z > 100

  19. Fusibility diagram of ternary system with incongruently melting double compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutsyk, V.I.; Vorob'eva, V.P.; Sumkina, O.G.

    1989-01-01

    Temperature calculation and properties of ternary eutectics and concentration coordinates of ternary peritectics accoriding to the linear model of initial crystallization surfaces as an element of the expert system for simulating fusibility diagrams of ternary systems is considered. It is shown that the calculated and experimental data on coordinates of ternary nonvariant points in the systems NaCl-PbCl 2 -CdCl 2 , PbCl 2 -CaCl 2 -UCl 4 , CaF 2 -NaF-CsF and UCl 3 -CaCl 2 -ThCl 4 are in good agreement

  20. High-Q perpendicular-biased ferrite-tuned cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlini, R.D.; Thiessen, H.A.; Potter, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    Rapid-cycling proton synchrotrons, such as the proposed LAMPF II accelerator, require approximately 10 MV per turn rf with 17% tuning range near 50 MHz. The traditional approach to ferrite-tuned cavities uses a ferrite which is longitudinally biased (rf magnetic field parallel to bias field). This method leads to unacceptably high losses in the ferrite. At Los Alamos, we are developing a cavity with transverse bias (rf magnetic field perpendicular to the bias field) that makes use of the tensor permeability of the ferrite. Modest power tests of a small (10-cm-dia) quarter-wave singly re-entrant cavity tuned by nickel-zinc ferrites and aluminum-doped garnets indicate that the losses in the ferrite can be made negligible compared with the losses due to the surface resistivity of the copper cavity at power levels from 2 to 200 watts

  1. Enhancement of electrical conductivity in gamma irradiated cobalt ferrite nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawpute, Asha A.; Raut, A.V.; Babrekar, M.K.; Kale, C.M.; Jadhav, K.M.; Shinde, A.B.

    2014-01-01

    The cobalt ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized by sol-gel auto- combustion method, in which L-ascorbic acid was used as a fuel. The effect of gamma irradiation on the electrical resistivity of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles has been studied. The ferrite powder annealed at 550℃ was irradiated by gamma source 137 Cs. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction and DC resistivity. (author)

  2. Plasma spot welding of ferritic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesnjak, A.; Tusek, J.

    2002-01-01

    Plasma spot wedding of ferritic stainless steels studied. The study was focused on welding parameters, plasma and shieldings and the optimum welding equipment. Plasma-spot welded overlap joints on a 0.8 mm thick ferritic stainless steel sheet were subjected to a visual examination and mechanical testing in terms of tension-shear strength. Several macro specimens were prepared Plasma spot welding is suitable to use the same gas as shielding gas and as plasma gas , i. e. a 98% Ar/2% H 2 gas mixture. Tension-shear strength of plasma-spot welded joint was compared to that of resistance sport welded joints. It was found that the resistance welded joints withstand a somewhat stronger load than the plasma welded joints due to a large weld sport diameter of the former. Strength of both types of welded joints is approximately the same. (Author) 32 refs

  3. Microwave firing of MnZn-ferrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsakaloudi, V.; Papazoglou, E.; Zaspalis, V.T.

    2004-01-01

    Microwave firing is evaluated in comparison to conventional firing for MnZn-ferrites. For otherwise identical conditions, microwave firing results to higher densities and coarser microstructures. Initial magnetic permeability values (25 kHz, 25 deg. C, <0.1 mT) after conventional firing are approximately 5000, but the corresponding values after microwave firing are approximately 6000. Unlike the conventional firing process, the final density after microwave firing is increased by increasing the prefiring temperature. As appears from the results of this study, microwave firing could be in principle a promising MnZn-ferrite firing technology for materials to be used in high magnetic permeability applications. No advantages of microwave firing are evident for materials intended to be used in high field power applications

  4. Cytotoxicity of ferrite particles by MTT and agar diffusion methods for hyperthermic application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong-Hyun; Lee, Se-Ho; Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Kim, Kwang-Mahn; Shim, In-Bo; Lee, Yong-Keun

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the cytotoxicity of the prepared various ferrites (Fe-, Li-, Ni/Zn/Cu-, Ba-, Sr-, Co-, Co/Ni-ferrites) using MTT assay as well as agar diffusion method. Their cytotoxicity was compared with that of alginate-encapsulated ferrites. In the MTT assay, Fe 3 O 4 and SrFe 12 O 19 ferrite showed the highest cell viability of 90%. Alginate-encapsulated Ba-ferrite was ranked mildly cytotoxic, whereas their ferrite particles were ranked cytotoxic

  5. Study of behaviour during a quench treatment of ferrite delta of binary and pseudo-binary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champin, B.

    1970-01-01

    Focusing of Fe-Cr and Fe-Mo alloys (and extending results to different binary alloys like Fe-W, Fe-Al and Fe-Si, and even to some ternary systems such as Fe-Cr-Ni and Fe-Mo-Ni), and after having recalled some previous results and presented experimental materials and processes, this research thesis describes the behaviour of the considered alloys, reports a detailed study of Fe-Mo alloys (influence of carbon content), a bibliographical study of the gamma-to-delta transformation, the study of hybrid alloys (behaviour, partial transformations, diffusion), the study of other types of alloys (hyper-quench of delta ferrite of Fe-Mo alloys, adsorption and diffusion). It discusses the case of two-phase structures, and the mechanism and kinetics of the delta-to-gamma transformation

  6. Titanium oxide dispersion-strengthened ferritic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrix, W.; Vandermeulen, W.

    1980-04-01

    The available data on the DT02 and DT3911 ferritic dispersion strengthened alloys, developed at SCK/CEN, Mol, Belgium, are presented. Both alloys consist of Fe - 13% Cr - 1.5% Mo to which 2% TiO 2 and about 3.5% Ti are added (wt.%). Their main use is for the fabrication of fast breeder reactor cladding tubes but their application as turbine blade material is also envisaged for cases where high damping is important. (auth.)

  7. Magnetocapacitance effects in MnZn ferrites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M. Xu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The magnetocapacitance effects of MnZn ferrites with different initial permeabilities have been studied systematically. Both intrinsic effect associated with magnetoelectric coupling and extrinsic effect, which means the combined contribution of magnetoresistance and the Maxwell-Wagner effect, have been observed simultaneously. Analysis shows that the relationship between the origins of both is in competitive equilibrium. Either of both mechanisms plays a dominant role in magnetocapacitance effects under different conditions, respectively, such as permeability and frequency of applied signals.

  8. CHARACTERIZING AND MODELING FERRITE-CORE PROBES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabbagh, Harold A.; Murphy, R. Kim; Sabbagh, Elias H.; Aldrin, John C.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we accurately and carefully characterize a ferrite-core probe that is widely used for aircraft inspections. The characterization starts with the development of a model that can be executed using the proprietary volume-integral code, VIC-3D(c), and then the model is fitted to measured multifrequency impedance data taken with the probe in freespace and over samples of a titanium alloy and aluminum. Excellent results are achieved, and will be discussed.

  9. Ferritic stainless steels: corrosion resistance + economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remus, A.L.

    1976-01-01

    Ferritic stainless steels provide corrosion resistance at lower cost. They include Type 409, Type 439, 18SR, 20-Mo (1.6 Mo), 18-2 (2 Mo), 26-1S, E-Brite 26-1, 29 Cr-4 Mo, and 29 Cr-4 Mo-2 Ni. Their corrosion and mechanical properties are examined. Resistance to stress-corrosion cracking is an advantage compared to austenitic types

  10. Removal of radioactive materials from waste solutions via magnetic ferrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, T.E.; Kochen, R.L.; Price, M.Y.

    1982-01-01

    Ferrite waste treatment was found to be effective in removing actinides from simulated Rocky Flats process waste solutions. With a one-stage ferrite treatment, plutonium concentrations were consistently reduced from 10 -4 g/l to less than 10 -8 g/l, and americium concentrations were lowered from 10 -7 g/l to below 10 -10 g/l. In addition, siginficantly less solid was produced as compared with the flocculant precipitation technique now employed at Rocky Flats. Aging of ferrite solids and elevated beryllium and phosphate concentrations were identified as interferences in the ferrite treatment of process waste, but neither appeeared serious enough to prevent implementation in plant operations

  11. Low-Loss Ferrite Components for NASA Missions, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ferrite based isolators and circulators have been successfully demonstrated at microwave, millimeter-wave and submillimeter-wave frequencies. These components are...

  12. Preparation of single-crystal copper ferrite nanorods and nanodisks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Jimin; Liu Zhimin; Wu Weize; Li Zhonghao; Han Buxing; Huang Ying

    2005-01-01

    This article, for the first time, reports the preparation of single-crystal copper ferrite nanorods and nanodisks. Using amorphous copper ferrite nanoparticles synthesized by reverse micelle as reaction precursor, single-crystal copper ferrite nanorods were synthesized via hydrothermal method in the presence of surfactant polyethylene glycol (PEG), however, copper ferrite nanodisks were prepared through the same procedures except the surfactant PEG. The resulting nanomaterials have been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), selected electron area diffraction (SEAD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The bulk composition of the samples was determined by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)

  13. Surface effects on the magnetic behavior of nanocrystalline nickel ferrites and nickel ferrite-polymer nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nathani, H.; Misra, R.D.K.

    2004-01-01

    The magnetization studies on nanocrystalline nickel ferrite as powder particles, and as diluted dispersion (10 wt.%) in polymer matrix (polymer nanocomposites) are presented. The two polymer-based nanocomposites were prepared via ball-milling and in situ polymerization, respectively. The magnetization measurements provide strong evidence of surface effects to magnetization, which explains the non-saturation of magnetization at high fields. The differences in the magnetization behavior of nickel ferrite as powder particles and in the ball-milled nanocomposite and the nanocomposite prepared via in situ polymerization are attributed to the different extent of interparticle interactions between the particles and the preparation route. The magnetization versus applied field behavior of the three ferrite systems show a similar jump in the initial part of the magnetization curve in all the cases which implies the existence of a core-shell like morphology of the particles over a large temperature range and its dominance over the interparticle interaction effects between the particles

  14. Deformation behavior of Mg-alloy-based composites at different temperatures studied by neutron diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, Gergely [Department of Metal Physics, Charles University, Ke Karlovu, 5, CZ-121 16 Prague (Czech Republic); Nuclear Physics Institute, v. v. i., 250 68 Řež (Czech Republic); Máthis, Kristian [Department of Metal Physics, Charles University, Ke Karlovu, 5, CZ-121 16 Prague (Czech Republic); Pilch, Ján [Nuclear Physics Institute, v. v. i., 250 68 Řež (Czech Republic); Minárik, Peter [Department of Metal Physics, Charles University, Ke Karlovu, 5, CZ-121 16 Prague (Czech Republic); Lukáš, Petr [Nuclear Physics Institute, v. v. i., 250 68 Řež (Czech Republic); Vinogradov, Alexei, E-mail: alexei.vinogradov@ntnu.no [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology - NTNU, Trondheim N-7491 (Norway); Institute of Advanced Technologies, Togliatti State University, 445020 (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-08

    The influence of the reinforcement short Saffil fibers on the deformation behavior of Mg-Al-Ca alloy-based composite with two different fiber plane orientations is investigated and clarified using in-situ neutron diffraction at room and elevated temperatures. The measured lattice strain evolution points to a more efficient reinforcing effect of fibers at parallel fiber plane orientation, which decreases at elevated temperature. A significant decrement of compressive lattice strain was incidentally observed in the matrix in the direction of load axis when deformation due to the elevated temperature occurred. Electron microscopy revealed the influence of the temperature and fiber orientation on fiber cracking. The EBSD observations corroborated neutron diffraction results highlighting significant twin growth at elevated testing temperatures.

  15. Creep resistance in a new alloy based on Fe3Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, D.G.

    1994-01-01

    Iron aluminide alloys based on the composition Fe 3 Al are receiving considerable attention as structural materials for applications at high temperatures in view of their excellent resistance to oxidation and corrosion as well as reasonable mechanical properties. Recently, problems associated with poor ductility at room temperature have been alleviated by small additions of Cr and by microstructure control, as well by as the realization that the low ductility is, in part, extrinsic behavior due to environmental attack. These materials suffer also from a loss of their good strength at temperatures above about 600 C, and recent attention has led also to the development of creep resistant alloys. The present report considers a new alloy developed for improved creep resistance which shows also good oxidation and erosion resistance. Effort has been devoted to an examination of the dislocation structures that characterize deformation, both cold and hot, during fast tensile straining as well as during creep testing

  16. Processing and properties of Titanium alloy based materials with tailored porosity and composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezas-Villa, Jose Luis; Olmos, Luis; Lemus-Ruiz, Jose; Bouvard, Didier; Chavez, Jorge; Jimenez, Omar; Manuel Solorio, Victor

    2017-06-01

    This paper deals with powder processing of Ti6Al4V titanium alloy based materials with tailored porosity and composition. Ti6Al4V powder was mixed either with salt particles acting as space holder, so as to provide two-scale porosity, or with hard TiN particles that significantly modified the microstructure of the material and increased its hardness. Finally an original three-layer component was produced. Sample microstructure was observed by SEM and micro-tomography with special interest in pore size and shape, inclusion distribution and connectivity. Compression tests provided elastic modulus and yield stress as functions of density. These materials are representative of bone implants subjected to complex biological and mechanical conditions. These results thus open avenues for processing personalized implants by powder metallurgy.

  17. Neutron Damage and MAX Phase Ternary Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barsoum, Michael [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Hoffman, Elizabeth [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Sindelar, Robert [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Garcua-Duaz, Brenda [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Kohse, Gordon [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2014-06-17

    The Demands of Gen IV nuclear power plants for long service life under neutron radiation at high temperature are severe. Advanced materials that would withstand high temperatures (up to 1000+ C) to high doses in a neutron field would be ideal for reactor internal structures and would add to the long service life and reliability of the reactors. The objective of this work is to investigate the response of a new class of machinable, conductive, layered, ternary transition metal carbides and nitrides - the so-called MAX phases - to low and moderate neutron dose levels.

  18. Neutron Damage and MAX Phase Ternary Compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barsoum, Michael; Hoffman, Elizabeth; Sindelar, Robert; Garcua-Diaz, Brenda; Kohse, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    The Demands of Gen IV nuclear power plants for long service life under neutron radiation at high temperature are severe. Advanced materials that would withstand high temperatures (up to 1000+ C) to high doses in a neutron field would be ideal for reactor internal structures and would add to the long service life and reliability of the reactors. The objective of this work is to investigate the response of a new class of machinable, conductive, layered, ternary transition metal carbides and nitrides - the so-called MAX phases - to low and moderate neutron dose levels.

  19. Contribution to the structural study of austeno-ferritic steels. Morphological and analytical definition of the ferritic phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bathily, Alassane.

    1977-07-01

    Conditions of fast and selective austenite dissolution were defined by means of current-voltage curves using AISI 316-type materials (welding beads). The ferritic phase was isolated and identified with X-rays. The percentages of ferrite were compared gravimetrically with those obtained by traditional methods. The ferrite isolated was chemically analysed by atomic absorption, the only doubtful value being carbon. It is shown by this method that a morphological study of the solidification of the ferritic lattice is possible, even for percentages around 1% [fr

  20. Embedding complete ternary tree in hypercubes using AVL trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.A. Choudum; I. Raman (Indhumathi)

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractA complete ternary tree is a tree in which every non-leaf vertex has exactly three children. We prove that a complete ternary tree of height h, TTh, is embeddable in a hypercube of dimension . This result coincides with the result of [2]. However, in this paper, the embedding utilizes

  1. Thermodynamic modeling of the Ti-Al-Cr ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Leyi; Qiu Aitao; Liu Lanjie; Jiang Ming; Lu Xionggang; Li Chonghe

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The full experimental results of the Ti-Al-Cr ternary system and its sub-binary systems are reviewed and analysed in detail. → Based on the latest thermodynamic assessments of the Ti-Al, Ti-Cr and Al-Cr systems and the ternary experimental data in literature, the thermodynamic parameters of the Ti-Al-Cr ternary system are fully assessed by the Calphad method. → The transformation of disorder to order (bcc a 2 to B2) and the new ternary compound L 12T i 25 Cr 8 Al 67 are considered in this work. - Abstract: The Ti-Al-Cr ternary system is one of the most important systems to studying the titanium alloys. Some experimental data of this ternary system are available and a few partial thermodynamic assessments are reported. However, no full thermodynamic descriptions were published. In this study, the previous work on the Ti-Al-Cr system and its related binary systems are reviewed. Based on the thermodynamic descriptions of the Ti-Al, Ti-Cr and Al-Cr systems and the ternary experimental data in literature, the Ti-Al-Cr ternary system is assessed by means of the Calphad method. Several isothermal sections from 1073 K to 1573 K and some invariant reactions are calculated, which are in good agreement with the most of the experimental results.

  2. Density-Driven segregation in Binary and Ternary Granular Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windows-Yule, Kit; Parker, David

    2015-01-01

    We present a first experimental study of density-induced segregation within a three-dimensional, vibrofluidised, ternary granular system. Using Positron Emission Particle Tracking (PEPT), we study the steady-state particle distributions achieved by binary and ternary granular beds under a variety of

  3. Calculation of ternary interdiffusion coefficients using a single diffusion couple

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čermák, Jiří; Rothová, Věra

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 5 (2016), s. 305-314 ISSN 0023-432X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : diffusion * interdiffusion * ternary alloys * ternary diffusion coefficients Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 0.366, year: 2016

  4. A high-speed interconnect network using ternary logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jens Kargaard; Long, S. I.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a high-speed interconnect network (ICN) for a multiprocessor system using ternary logic. By using ternary logic and a fast point-to-point communication technique called STARI (Self-Timed At Receiver's Input), the communication between...

  5. Estimation of Oxidation Kinetics and Oxide Scale Void Position of Ferritic-Martensitic Steels in Supercritical Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exfoliation of oxide scales from high-temperature heating surfaces of power boilers threatened the safety of supercritical power generating units. According to available space model, the oxidation kinetics of two ferritic-martensitic steels are developed to predict in supercritical water at 400°C, 500°C, and 600°C. The iron diffusion coefficients in magnetite and Fe-Cr spinel are extrapolated from studies of Backhaus and Töpfer. According to Fe-Cr-O ternary phase diagram, oxygen partial pressure at the steel/Fe-Cr spinel oxide interface is determined. The oxygen partial pressure at the magnetite/supercritical water interface meets the equivalent oxygen partial pressure when system equilibrium has been attained. The relative error between calculated values and experimental values is analyzed and the reasons of error are suggested. The research results show that the results of simulation at 600°C are approximately close to experimental results. The iron diffusion coefficient is discontinuous in the duplex scale of two ferritic-martensitic steels. The simulation results of thicknesses of the oxide scale on tubes (T91 of final superheater of a 600 MW supercritical boiler are compared with field measurement data and calculation results by Adrian’s method. The calculated void positions of oxide scales are in good agreement with a cross-sectional SEM image of the oxide layers.

  6. Symmetric weak ternary quantum homomorphic encryption schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuqi; She, Kun; Luo, Qingbin; Yang, Fan; Zhao, Chao

    2016-03-01

    Based on a ternary quantum logic circuit, four symmetric weak ternary quantum homomorphic encryption (QHE) schemes were proposed. First, for a one-qutrit rotation gate, a QHE scheme was constructed. Second, in view of the synthesis of a general 3 × 3 unitary transformation, another one-qutrit QHE scheme was proposed. Third, according to the one-qutrit scheme, the two-qutrit QHE scheme about generalized controlled X (GCX(m,n)) gate was constructed and further generalized to the n-qutrit unitary matrix case. Finally, the security of these schemes was analyzed in two respects. It can be concluded that the attacker can correctly guess the encryption key with a maximum probability pk = 1/33n, thus it can better protect the privacy of users’ data. Moreover, these schemes can be well integrated into the future quantum remote server architecture, and thus the computational security of the users’ private quantum information can be well protected in a distributed computing environment.

  7. Nanoscratching of nylon 66-based ternary nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasari, Aravind; Yu Zhongzhen; Mai Yiuwing

    2007-01-01

    The nanoscratch behavior of nylon 66/SEBS-g-MA/clay ternary nanocomposites produced by different blending protocols with contrasting microstructures is studied by using atomic force and transmission electron microscopy. A standard diamond Berkovich indenter is used for scratching and a low load of 1 mN, along with a low sliding velocity of 1 μm s -1 , are employed for this purpose. It is shown that in order to resist penetration it is more important to have exfoliated clay in the continuous nylon matrix during nanoscratching than to have the clay in the dispersed soft rubber domains. The results obtained also explain the preferred usage of ternary nanocomposites compared to binary nanocomposites, particularly nylon 66/exfoliated clay nanocomposites. This research extends current basic knowledge and provides new insights on the nature of nanoscale processes that occur during nanoscratching of polymer nanocomposites. Critical questions are raised on the relationships between the penetration depth and material deformation and damage left behind the moving indenter

  8. Irregular Homogeneity Domains in Ternary Intermetallic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marc Joubert

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ternary intermetallic A–B–C systems sometimes have unexpected behaviors. The present paper examines situations in which there is a tendency to simultaneously form the compounds ABx, ACx and BCx with the same crystal structure. This causes irregular shapes of the phase homogeneity domains and, from a structural point of view, a complete reversal of site occupancies for the B atom when crossing the homogeneity domain. This work reviews previous studies done in the systems Fe–Nb–Zr, Hf–Mo–Re, Hf–Re–W, Mo–Re–Zr, Re–W–Zr, Cr–Mn–Si, Cr–Mo–Re, and Mo–Ni–Re, and involving the topologically close-packed Laves, χ and σ phases. These systems have been studied using ternary isothermal section determination, DFT calculations, site occupancy measurement using joint X-ray, and neutron diffraction Rietveld refinement. Conclusions are drawn concerning this phenomenon. The paper also reports new experimental or calculated data on Co–Cr–Re and Fe–Nb–Zr systems.

  9. Plasmonic spectral tunability of conductive ternary nitrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassavetis, S.; Patsalas, P., E-mail: ppats@physics.auth.gr [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Bellas, D. V.; Lidorikis, E. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, GR-45110 Ioannina (Greece); Abadias, G. [Institut Pprime, Département Physique et Mécanique des Matériaux, Université de Poitiers-CNRS-ENSMA, 86962 Chasseneuil-Futuroscope (France)

    2016-06-27

    Conductive binary transition metal nitrides, such as TiN and ZrN, have emerged as a category of promising alternative plasmonic materials. In this work, we show that ternary transition metal nitrides such as Ti{sub x}Ta{sub 1−x}N, Ti{sub x}Zr{sub 1−x}N, Ti{sub x}Al{sub 1−x}N, and Zr{sub x}Ta{sub 1−x}N share the important plasmonic features with their binary counterparts, while having the additional asset of the exceptional spectral tunability in the entire visible (400–700 nm) and UVA (315–400 nm) spectral ranges depending on their net valence electrons. In particular, we demonstrate that such ternary nitrides can exhibit maximum field enhancement factors comparable with gold in the aforementioned broadband range. We also critically evaluate the structural features that affect the quality factor of the plasmon resonance and we provide rules of thumb for the selection and growth of materials for nitride plasmonics.

  10. Calcium ferrite formation from the thermolysis of calcium tris (maleato)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    microwave and satellite communication, bubble devices, audio-video, digital recording and as permanent magnets. (Viswanathan and Murthy 1990), ferrites have opened a new vista in the field of chemical physics of materials. Keeping in view these technological applications, ferrites have been regarded as an important ...

  11. on the magnetic properties of ultra-fine zinc ferrites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anantharaman, M.R.; Jagatheesan, S.; Malini, K.A.; Sindhu, S.; Narayanasamy, A.; Chinnasamy, C.N.; Jacobs, J.P.; Reijne, S.; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Smits, R.H.H.; Smits, R.H.H.; Brongersma, H.H.

    1998-01-01

    Zinc ferrite belongs to the class of normal spinels where it is assumed to have a cation distribution of Zn2+(Fe3+)2(O2−)4, and it is purported to be showing zero net magnetisation. However, there have been recent reports suggesting that zinc ferrite exhibits anomaly in its magnetisation. Zinc

  12. A seeded ambient temperature ferrite process for treatment of AMD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A seeded ambient temperature ferrite process for treatment of AMD waters: magnetite formation in the presence and absence of calcium ions under steady state operation. ... promising for AMD treatment. Keywords: Ferrite process, Magnetite seed, Calcium interference, Acid mine drainage (WaterSA: 2003 29(2): 117-124) ...

  13. Performance Variation of Ferrite Magnet PMBLDC Motor with Temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fasil, Muhammed; Mijatovic, Nenad; Jensen, Bogi Bech

    2015-01-01

    The price fluctuations of rare earth metals and the uncertainty in their availability has generated an increased interest in ferrite magnet machines. The influence of temperature on BH characteristics of the ferrite magnet differ considerably from that of the rare earth magnet and hence, requires...

  14. Recent advances in processing and applications of microwave ferrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Vincent G.; Geiler, Anton; Chen Yajie; Yoon, Soack Dae; Wu Mingzhong; Yang, Aria; Chen Zhaohui; He Peng; Parimi, Patanjali V.; Zuo Xu; Patton, Carl E.; Abe, Manasori; Acher, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    Next generation magnetic microwave devices will be planar, smaller, weigh less, and perform well beyond the present state-of-the-art. For this to become a reality advances in ferrite materials must first be realized. These advances include self-bias magnetization, tunability of the magnetic anisotropy, low microwave loss, and volumetric and weight reduction. To achieve these goals one must turn to novel materials processing methods. Here, we review recent advances in the processing of microwave ferrites. Attention is paid to the processing of ferrite films by pulsed laser deposition, liquid phase epitaxy, spin spray ferrite plating, screen printing, and compaction of quasi-single crystals. Conventional and novel applications of ferrite materials, including microwave non-reciprocal passive devices, microwave signal processing, negative index metamaterial-based electronics, and electromagnetic interference suppression are discussed.

  15. The effect of cooling rate and austenite grain size on the austenite to ferrite transformation temperature and different ferrite morphologies in microalloyed steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esmailian, M.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of different austenite grain size and different cooling rates on the austenite to ferrite transformation temperature and different ferrite morphologies in one Nb-microalloyed high strength low alloy steel has been investigated. Three different austenite grain sizes were selected and cooled at two different cooling rates for obtaining austenite to ferrite transformation temperature. Moreover, samples with specific austenite grain size have been quenched, partially, for investigation on the microstructural evolution. In order to assess the influence of austenite grain size on the ferrite transformation temperature, a temperature differences method is established and found to be a good way for detection of austenite to ferrite, pearlite and sometimes other ferrite morphologies transformation temperatures. The results obtained in this way show that increasing of austenite grain size and cooling rate has a significant influence on decreasing of the ferrite transformation temperature. Micrographs of different ferrite morphologies show that at high temperatures, where diffusion rates are higher, grain boundary ferrite nucleates. As the temperature is lowered and the driving force for ferrite formation increases, intragranular sites inside the austenite grains become operative as nucleation sites and suppress the grain boundary ferrite growth. The results indicate that increasing the austenite grain size increases the rate and volume fraction of intragranular ferrite in two different cooling rates. Moreover, by increasing of cooling rate, the austenite to ferrite transformation temperature decreases and volume fraction of intragranular ferrite increases.

  16. Cobalt ferrite nanoparticles under high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saccone, F. D.; Ferrari, S.; Grinblat, F.; Bilovol, V. [Instituto de Tecnologías y Ciencias de la Ingeniería, “Ing. H. Fernández Long,” Av. Paseo Colón 850 (1063), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Errandonea, D., E-mail: daniel.errandonea@uv.es [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Institut Universitari de Ciència dels Materials, Universitat de Valencia, c/ Doctor Moliner 50, E-46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Agouram, S. [Departamento de Física Aplicada y Electromagnetismo, Universitat de València, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)

    2015-08-21

    We report by the first time a high pressure X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy study of cobalt ferrite (CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles carried out at room temperature up to 17 GPa. In contrast with previous studies of nanoparticles, which proposed the transition pressure to be reduced from 20–27 GPa to 7.5–12.5 GPa (depending on particle size), we found that cobalt ferrite nanoparticles remain in the spinel structure up to the highest pressure covered by our experiments. In addition, we report the pressure dependence of the unit-cell parameter and Raman modes of the studied sample. We found that under quasi-hydrostatic conditions, the bulk modulus of the nanoparticles (B{sub 0} = 204 GPa) is considerably larger than the value previously reported for bulk CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (B{sub 0} = 172 GPa). In addition, when the pressure medium becomes non-hydrostatic and deviatoric stresses affect the experiments, there is a noticeable decrease of the compressibility of the studied sample (B{sub 0} = 284 GPa). After decompression, the cobalt ferrite lattice parameter does not revert to its initial value, evidencing a unit cell contraction after pressure was removed. Finally, Raman spectroscopy provides information on the pressure dependence of all Raman-active modes and evidences that cation inversion is enhanced by pressure under non-hydrostatic conditions, being this effect not fully reversible.

  17. Magnetic behavior of nanocrystalline nickel ferrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nathani, H.; Gubbala, S.; Misra, R.D.K.

    2005-01-01

    In the previous papers [R.D.K. Misra, A. Kale, R.S. Srivatsava, O. Senkov, Mater. Sci. Technol. 19 (2003) 826; R.D.K. Misra, A. Kale, B. Hooi, J.Th. DeHosson, Mater. Sci. Technol. 19 (2003) 1617; A. Kale, S. Gubbala, R.D.K. Misra, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 277 (2004) 350; S. Gubbala, H. Nathani, K. Koizol, R.D.K. Misra, Phys. B 348 (2004) 317; R.D.K. Misra, S. Gubbala, A. Kale, W.F. Egelhoff, Mater. Sci. Eng. B. 111 (2004) 164], we reported the synthesis, structural characterization and magnetic behavior of nanocrystalline ferrites of inverse and mixed spinel structure made by reverse micelle technique that enabled a narrow particle size distribution to be obtained. In the present paper, the reverse micelle approach has been extended to synthesize nanocrystalline ferrites with varying surface roughness of 8-18 A (the surface roughness was measured by atomic force microscopy) and the magnetic behavior studied by SQUID magnetometer. Two different kinds of measurement were performed: (a) zero-field cooling (ZFC) and field cooling (FC) magnetization versus temperature measurements and (b) magnetization as a function of applied field. The analysis of magnetic measurement suggests significant influence of surface roughness of particles on the magnetic behavior. While the superparamagnetic behavior is retained by the nanocrystalline ferrites of different surface roughness at 300 K, the hysteresis loop at 2 K becomes non-squared and the coercivity increases with increase in surface roughness. This behavior is discussed in terms of broken bonds and degree of surface spin disorder

  18. Preferential spin canting in nanosize zinc ferrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, Brajesh, E-mail: bpandey@gmail.com [Department of Applied Science, Symbiosis Institute of Technology, SIU, Lavale, Pune 411112 (India); Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150, 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Litterst, F.J. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150, 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Institut für Physik der Kondensierten Materie,Technische Universität Braunschweig, Mendelssohnstr. 3, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Baggio-Saitovitch, E.M. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150, 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Zinc ferrite nanoparticles powder with average size of 10.0±0.5 nm was synthesized by the citrate precursor route. We studied the structural and magnetic properties using X-ray diffraction, vibrating sample magnetometry and Mössbauer spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction patterns show that the synthesized zinc ferrite possesses good spinel structure. Both Mössbauer and magnetization data indicate superparamagnetic ferrimagnetic particles at room temperature. The magnetic behavior is determined by a considerable degree of cation inversion with Fe{sup III} in tetrahedral A-sites. Mössbauer spectroscopy at low temperature and in high applied magnetic field reveals that A-site spins are aligned antiparallel to the applied field with some possible angular scatter whereas practically all octahedral B-site spins are canted contrasting some earlier reported partial B-site spin canting in nanosize zinc ferrite. Deviations from the antiferromagnetic arrangement of B-site spins are supposed to be caused by magnetic frustration effects. - Highlights: • Spinel structure ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles in the uniform size range of 10.0±0.5 nm have been synthesized using the citrate precursor route. • Canting of the spins of A- and B-sublattice sites has been studied by low temperature and high magnetic field Mössbauer spectroscopy. • A-site spins are aligned antiparallel to the applied field with only small angular scatter. • B-site spins are strongly canted in contrast to earlier quoted only partial canting. • B site spin structure deviates significantly from a collinear antiferromagnetic arrangement.

  19. Assessment of the integrity of ferritic-austenitic dissimilar weld joints of different grades of Cr-Mo ferritic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laha, K.; Chandravathi, K.S.; Parameswaran, P.; Goyal, Sunil; Mathew, M.D. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India). Metallurgy and Materials Group

    2010-07-01

    Integrity of the 2.25 Cr-1Mo / Alloy 800, 9Cr-1Mo / Alloy 800 and 9Cr-1Mo-VNb / Alloy 800 ferritic-austenitic dissimilar joints, fusion welded employing Inconel 182 electrode, has been assessed under creep conditions at 823 K. The dissimilar weld joints displayed lower creep rupture strength than their respective ferritic steel base metals. The strength reduction was more for 2.25Cr-1Mo steel joint and least for 9Cr-1Mo steel joint. The failure location in the joints was found to shift from the ferritic steel base metal to the intercritical region of heat-affected zone (HAZ) in ferritic steel (type IV cracking) with decrease in stress. At still lower stresses the failure occurred at the ferritic / austenitic weld interface. Localized creep deformation and cavitation in the soft intercritical HAZ induced type IV failure whereas creep cavitation at the weld interface particles induced ferritic / austenitic interface cracking due to high creep strength mismatch across it. Micromechanisms of type IV failure and interface cracking in the ferritic / austenitic joints and different susceptibility to failure for different grades of ferritic steels are discussed based on microstructural investigation, mechanical testing and finite element analysis. (Note from indexer: paper contains many typographical errors.)

  20. Effect of ferrite addition above the base ferrite on the coupling factor of wireless power transfer for vehicle applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batra, Tushar; Schaltz, Erik; Ahn, Seungyoung

    2015-01-01

    and reduce magnetic emissions to the surroundings. Effect of adding extra ferrite above the base ferrite at different physical locations on the self-inductance, mutual inductance and coupling factor is under investigation in this paper. The addition can increase or decrease the mutual inductance depending...

  1. CASS Ferrite and Grain Structure Relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruud, Clayton O. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ramuhalli, Pradeep [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Meyer, Ryan M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Diaz, Aaron A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Anderson, Michael T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-07-13

    This document summarizes the results of research conducted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine whether, based on experimental measurements, a correlation existed between grain structure in cast austenitic stainless steel (CASS) piping and ferrite content of the casting alloy. The motivation for this research lies in the fact that ultrasonic testing (UT) is strongly influenced by CASS grain structure; knowledge of this grain structure may help improve the ability to interpret UT responses, thereby improving the overall reliability of UT inspections of CASS components.

  2. Advances in ferrite microwave materials and devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schloemann, Ernst

    2000-01-01

    The application of ferrites in non-reciprocal components is discussed, with the emphasis on broadband isolators and circulators. The performance of such devices may be characterized by the ratio f max /f min of the frequencies that define the edges of the frequency band, within which satisfactory performance has been achieved. For the best currently available devices this ratio is approx. 3 : 1, but larger values appear feasible according to a detailed analysis of the 'low-field, low-frequency loss' that limits the performance

  3. Plasticity of oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakine, C.; Prioul, C.; Alamo, A.; Francois, D.

    1993-01-01

    Two 13%Cr oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic alloys, DT and DY, exhibiting different oxide particle size distribution and a χ phase precipitation were studied. Their tensile properties have been tested from 20 to 700 C. Experimental observations during room temperature tensile tests performed in a scanning electronic microscope have shown that the main damage mechanism consists in microcracking of the χ phase precipitates on grain boundaries. These alloys are high tensile and creep resistant between 500 and 700 C. Their strongly stress-sensitive creep behaviour can be described by usual creep laws and incorporating a threshold stress below which the creep rate is negligible. (orig.)

  4. Facile Synthesis of Ternary Boron Carbonitride Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Lijie

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, a novel and facile approach for the synthesis of ternary boron carbonitride (B–C–N nanotubes was reported. Growth occurred by heating simple starting materials of boron powder, zinc oxide powder, and ethanol absolute at 1150 °C under a mixture gas flow of nitrogen and hydrogen. As substrate, commercial stainless steel foil with a typical thickness of 0.05 mm played an additional role of catalyst during the growth of nanotubes. The nanotubes were characterized by SEM, TEM, EDX, and EELS. The results indicate that the synthesized B–C–N nanotubes exhibit a bamboo-like morphology and B, C, and N elements are homogeneously distributed in the nanotubes. A catalyzed vapor–liquid–solid (VLS mechanism was proposed for the growth of the nanotubes.

  5. Ternary particle yields in 249Cf(nth,f)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsekhanovich, I.; Büyükmumcu, Z.; Davi, M.; Denschlag, H. O.; Gönnenwein, F.; Boulyga, S. F.

    2003-03-01

    An experiment measuring ternary particle yields in 249Cf(nth,f) was carried out at the high flux reactor of the Institut Laue-Langevin using the Lohengrin recoil mass separator. Parameters of energy distributions were determined for 27 ternary particles up to 30Mg and their yields were calculated. The yields of 17 further ternary particles were estimated on the basis of the systematics developed. The heaviest particles observed in the experiment are 37Si and 37S; their possible origin is discussed.

  6. Ternary particle yields in 249Cf(nth,f)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsekhanovich, I.; Bueyuekmumcu, Z.; Davi, M.; Denschlag, H.O.; Goennenwein, F.; Boulyga, S.F.

    2003-01-01

    An experiment measuring ternary particle yields in 249 Cf(n th ,f) was carried out at the high flux reactor of the Institut Laue-Langevin using the Lohengrin recoil mass separator. Parameters of energy distributions were determined for 27 ternary particles up to 30 Mg and their yields were calculated. The yields of 17 further ternary particles were estimated on the basis of the systematics developed. The heaviest particles observed in the experiment are 37 Si and 37 S; their possible origin is discussed

  7. A Three-dimensional Topological Model of Ternary Phase Diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu, Yingxue; Bao, Hong

    2017-01-01

    In order to obtain a visualization of the complex internal structure of ternary phase diagram, the paper realized a three-dimensional topology model of ternary phase diagram with the designed data structure and improved algorithm, under the guidance of relevant theories of computer graphics. The purpose of the model is mainly to analyze the relationship between each phase region of a ternary phase diagram. The model not only obtain isothermal section graph at any temperature, but also extract a particular phase region in which users are interested. (paper)

  8. Beam impedance of ferrite kicker magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelker, F.; Lambertson, G.

    1989-03-01

    We have measured the longitudinal beam impedance of a typical pulsed magnet that will be used in the Advanced Light Source. The magnets are of a ferrite window-frame design with a single plate conductor on each side. Two separate power supplies are used to drive current in opposite directions in the two conductors. The continuity of the ferrite yoke is interrupted by two copper plates 1 mm thick in the center of the top and bottom of the window frame. This increases the reluctance of the magnetic path, and thus decreases the flux which couples the beam. The measurements were made by exciting a 1/8'' rod along the beam path through the magnet. This makes a 185 ohm transmission line, and it was terminated in a resistive divider at the exit end. A 3 GHz network analyzer was used to measure S 21 through the magnet, and longitudinal beam impedance was calculated from this data. The impedance is dominated by two low frequency resonances in the magnet winding and drive current. 8 figs

  9. Synergistic alloying effect on microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of Cu precipitation-strengthened ferritic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Y.R.; Li, Y.P.; Hirata, A.; Zhang, Y.; Fujita, T.; Furuhara, T.; Liu, C.T.; Chiba, A.; Chen, M.W.

    2013-01-01

    We report the influence of alloying elements (Ni, Al and Mn) on the microstructural evolution of Cu-rich nanoprecipitates and the mechanical properties of Fe–Cu-based ferritic alloys. It was found that individual additions of Ni and Al do not give rise to an obvious strengthening effect, compared with the binary Fe–Cu parent alloy, although Ni segregates at the precipitate/matrix interface and Al partitions into Cu-rich precipitates. In contrast, the co-addition of Ni and Al results in the formation of core–shell nanoprecipitates with a Cu-rich core and a B2 Ni–Al shell, leading to a dramatic improvement in strength. The coarsening rate of the core–shell precipitates is about two orders of magnitude lower than that of monolithic Cu-rich precipitates in the binary and ternary Fe–Cu alloys. Reinforcement of the B2 Ni–Al shells by Mn partitioning further improves the strength of the precipitation-strengthened alloys by forming ultrastable and high number density core–shell nanoprecipitates

  10. Tribological properties of Al 7075 alloy based composites strengthened with Al2O3 fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Naplocha

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Wear resistance of 7075 aluminium alloy based composite materials reinforced with Al2O3 Saffil fibres was investigated. The measurementsof wear were performed applying the pin-on-disc method at dry friction conditions with the gray iron counterpart. The effects ofpressure of composite samples on the counterpart made of gray iron and the orientation of fibers in relation to the friction surface on wear rate were determined. The materials were produced by squeeze casting method where 80-90% porous ceramic preform were infiltrated.After T6 heat treatment hardness increased about 50-60% both for unreinforced alloy and composites containing strengthening Saffilfibres. Wear resistance of composite materials in relation to the unreinforced 7075 alloy was slightly worse at lower pressure of 0.8 MPa. Under higher pressure of 1.2 MPa wear resistance of unreinforced 7075 alloy was even better whereas no effect of orientation of fibers on wear in composite materials was observed. Additionally, significant wear of counterface in the presence of debris with fragmented Al2O3 fibres as abrasives was observed. Wear resistance improvement of composite materials was obtained when with alumina Saffil fibres Carbon C fibres in the preforms were applied.

  11. Dissolution studies on Nickel ferrite in dilute chemical decontamination formulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranganathan, S. [New Brunswick Univ., Fredericton, NB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Srinivasan, M.P. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) (India). Water and Steam Chemistry Laboratory; Raghavan, P.S. [Madras Christian College, Chennai (India); Narasimhan, S.V. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India); Gopalan, R. [Madras Christian College, Chennai (India). Department of Chemistry

    2004-09-01

    Nickel ferrite is one of the important corrosion products in the pipeline surfaces of water-cooled nuclear reactors. The dissolution of the nickel ferrite by chelating agents is very sensitive to the nature of the chelant, the nature of the reductant used in the formulation and the temperature at which the dissolution studies are performed. The dissolution is mainly controlled by the reductive dissolution of the ferrite particles, but complexing agents also play a significant role in the dissolution process. This study deals with the leaching of iron and nickel from nickel ferrite prepared by the solid-state method. The dissolution studies are performed in pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (PDCA), nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) formulations containing organic reductants like ascorbic acid and low oxidation state transition metal ion reductants like Fe(II)-L (where L = PDCA, NTA, EDTA) at 85 C. The dissolution of nickel ferrite in PDCA, NTA and EDTA formulations is influenced by the presence of reductants in the formulations. The addition of Fe(II)-L in the formulation greatly enhances the dissolution of nickel ferrite. The preferential leaching of nickel over iron during the dissolution of nickel ferrite was observed in all the formulations. (orig.)

  12. Dissolution studies on Nickel ferrite in dilute chemical decontamination formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranganathan, S.; Narasimhan, S.V.; Gopalan, R.

    2004-01-01

    Nickel ferrite is one of the important corrosion products in the pipeline surfaces of water-cooled nuclear reactors. The dissolution of the nickel ferrite by chelating agents is very sensitive to the nature of the chelant, the nature of the reductant used in the formulation and the temperature at which the dissolution studies are performed. The dissolution is mainly controlled by the reductive dissolution of the ferrite particles, but complexing agents also play a significant role in the dissolution process. This study deals with the leaching of iron and nickel from nickel ferrite prepared by the solid-state method. The dissolution studies are performed in pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (PDCA), nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) formulations containing organic reductants like ascorbic acid and low oxidation state transition metal ion reductants like Fe(II)-L (where L = PDCA, NTA, EDTA) at 85 C. The dissolution of nickel ferrite in PDCA, NTA and EDTA formulations is influenced by the presence of reductants in the formulations. The addition of Fe(II)-L in the formulation greatly enhances the dissolution of nickel ferrite. The preferential leaching of nickel over iron during the dissolution of nickel ferrite was observed in all the formulations. (orig.)

  13. Manufacturing of Mn-Zn ferrite transformer cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waqas, H.; Qureshi, A.H.; Hussain, N.; Ahmed, N.

    2012-01-01

    The present work is related to the development of soft ferrite transformer cores, which are extensively used in electronic devices such as switch mode power supplies, electromagnetic devices, computers, amplifiers etc. Mn-Zn Ferrite (soft ferrite) powders were prepared by conventional mixed oxide and auto combustion routes. These powders were calcined and then pressed in toroid shapes. Sintering was done at different temperatures to develop desired magnetic phase. Impedance resistance of sintered toroid cores was measured at different frequencies. Results revealed that Mn-Zn Ferrite cores synthesized by auto combustion route worked more efficiently in a high frequency range i.e. > 2MHz than the cores developed by conventional mixed oxide method. It was noticed that compact size, light weight and high impedance resistance are the prime advantages of auto combustion process which supported the performance of core in MHz frequency range. Furthermore, these compact size cores were successfully tested in linear pulse amplifier circuit of Pakistan Atomic Research Reactor-I. The fabrication of soft ferrite (Mn-Zn Ferrite) cores by different processing routes is an encouraging step towards indigenization of ferrite technology. (Orig./A.B.)

  14. Ferrite Nanoparticles, Films, Single Crystals, and Metamaterials: High Frequency Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, V.

    2006-01-01

    Ferrite materials have long played an important role in power conditioning, conversion, and generation across a wide spectrum of frequencies (up to ten decades). They remain the preferred magnetic materials, having suitably low losses, for most applications above 1 MHz, and are the only viable materials for nonreciprocal magnetic microwave and millimeter-wave devices (including tunable filters, isolators, phase shifters, and circulators). Recently, novel processing techniques have led to a resurgence of research interest in the design and processing of ferrite materials as nanoparticles, films, single crystals, and metamaterials. These latest developments have set the stage for their use in emerging technologies that include cancer remediation therapies such as magnetohyperthermia, magnetic targeted drug delivery, and magneto-rheological fluids, as well as enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. With reduced dimensionality of nanoparticles and films, and the inherent nonequilibrium nature of many processing schemes, changes in local chemistry and structure have profound effects on the functional properties and performance of ferrites. In this lecture, we will explore these effects upon the fundamental magnetic and electronic properties of ferrites. Density functional theory will be applied to predict the properties of these ferrites, with synchrotron radiation techniques used to elucidate the chemical and structural short-range order. This approach will be extended to study the atomic design of ferrites by alternating target laser-ablation deposition. Recently, this approach has been shown to produce ferrites that offer attractive properties not found in conventionally grown ferrites. We will explore the latest research developments involving ferrites as related to microwave and millimeter-wave applications and the attempt to integrate these materials with semiconductor materials platforms

  15. Speeds of sound and isothermal compressibility of ternary liquid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thermo-acoustics Research Lab, Department of Chemistry, University of Allahabad,. Allahabad 211 002, India ... compressibility data of these industrially important organic compounds of ternary and higher liquid ... distillation. Densities and ...

  16. Kinetic study of lithium-cadmium ternary amalgam decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordova, M.H.; Andrade, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of metals, which form stable lithium phase in binary alloys, on the formation of intermetallic species in ternary amalgams and their effect on thermal decomposition in contact with water is analyzed. Cd is selected as ternary metal, based on general experimental selection criteria. Cd (Hg) binary amalgams are prepared by direct contact Cd-Hg, whereas Li is formed by electrolysis of Li OH aq using a liquid Cd (Hg) cathodic well. The decomposition kinetic of Li C(Hg) in contact with 0.6 M Li OH is studied in function of ageing and temperature, and these results are compared with the binary amalgam Li (Hg) decomposition. The decomposition rate is constant during one hour for binary and ternary systems. Ageing does not affect the binary systems but increases the decomposition activation energy of ternary systems. A reaction mechanism that considers an intermetallic specie participating in the activated complex is proposed and a kinetic law is suggested. (author)

  17. Ternary complex formation at mineral/solution interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leckie, J.O.

    1995-01-01

    Adsorption of trace concentrations of radionuclides and heavy metals from aqueous solution is dependent on pH, absorbent and adsorbate concentration, and speciation of the metal in solution. In particular, complexation of metal ions by organic and inorganic ligands can dramatically alter adsorption behavior compared to ligand-free systems. The presence of complexing ligands can cause the formation of ''metal like'' or ''ligand like'' ternary surface complexes depending on whether adsorption of the ternary complex increases or decreases with increasing pH, respectively. Examples of ternary surface complexes behaving ''metal like'' include uranyl-EDTA surface complexes on goethite, neptunyl-EDTA surface complexes on hematite and neptunyl-humic surface complexes on gibbsite. Examples of ''ligand like'' ternary surface complexes include uranyl-carbonato and neptunyl-carbonato surface complexes on iron oxides. The effects of complex solutions and multimineralic systems are discussed. (authors). 39 refs., 16 figs., 8 tabs

  18. Positron annihilation lifetime study of interfaces in ternary polymer blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meghala, D; Ramya, P; Pasang, T; Raj, J M; Ranganathaiah, C; Williams, J F

    2013-01-01

    A new method based on positron lifetime spectroscopy is developed to characterize individual interfaces in ternary polymer blends and hence determine the composition dependent miscibility level. The method owes its origin to the Kirkwood-Risemann-Zimm (KRZ) model for the evaluation of the hydrodynamic interaction parameters (α ij ) which was used successfully for a binary blend with a single interface. The model was revised for the present work for ternary polymer blends to account for three interfaces. The efficacy of this method is shown for two ternary blends namely poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile)/poly (ethylene-co-vinylacetate)/poly(vinyl chloride) (SAN/EVA/PVC) and polycaprolactone /poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile)/poly(vinyl chloride) (PCL/SAN/PVC) at different compositions. An effective hydrodynamic interaction parameter, α eff , was introduced to predict the overall miscibility of ternary blends.

  19. RF electromagnetic wave absorbing properties of ferrite polymer composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dosoudil, Rastislav; Usakova, Marianna; Franek, Jaroslav; Slama, Jozef; Olah, Vladimir

    2006-01-01

    The frequency dispersion of complex initial (relative) permeability (μ * =μ ' -jμ ' ') and the electromagnetic wave absorbing properties of composite materials based on NiZn sintered ferrite and a polyvinylchloride (PVC) polymer matrix have been studied in frequency range from 1MHz to 1GHz. The complex permeability of the composites was found to increase as the ferrite content increased, and was characterized by frequency dispersion localized above 50MHz. The variation of return loss (RL) of single-layer RF absorbers using the prepared composite materials has been investigated as a function of frequency, ferrite content and the thickness of the absorbers

  20. Fast ferrite tuner for the BNL synchrotron light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pivit, E.; Hanna, S.M.; Keane, J.

    1991-01-01

    A new type of ferrite tuner has been tested at the BNL. The ferrite tuner uses garnet slabs partially filling a stripline. One of the important features of the tuner is that the ferrite is perpendicularly biased for operation above FMR, thus reducing the magnetic losses. A unique design was adopted to achieve the efficient cooling. The principle of operation of the tuner as well as our preliminary results on tuning a 52 MHz cavity are reported. Optimized conditions under which we demonstrated linear tunability of 80 KHz are described. The tuner's losses and its effect on higher-order modes in the cavity are discussed. 2 refs., 8 figs

  1. The mechanism of nickel ferrite formation by glow discharge effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolova, L. A.

    2018-04-01

    The influence of various factors on the formation of nickel ferrite by the glow discharge effect has been studied. The ferritization process in the system FeSO4-NiSO4-NaOH-H2O has been studied by the methods of potentiometric titration, measurement of electrical conductivity, residual concentrations and apparent sediment volume. It has been established that the process proceeds in a multistage fashion at pH 11-12 with the formation of polyhydroxo complexes, an intermediate compound and the ferrite formation by its oxidation with active radicals.

  2. Tricolore. A flexible color scale for ternary compositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2018-01-01

    tricolore is an R library providing a flexible color scale for the visualization of three-part/ternary compositions. Its main functionality is to color-code any ternary composition as a mixture of three primary colours and to draw a suitable color-key. tricolore flexibly adapts to different...... visualisation challenges via - discrete and continuous color support - support for unbalanced compositional data via centering - support for data with very narrow range via scaling - hue, chroma and lightness options...

  3. Analytical determination of distillation boundaries for ternary azeotropic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Marcilla Gomis, Antonio; Reyes Labarta, Juan Antonio; Velasco, Raúl; Serrano Cayuelas, María Dolores; Olaya López, María del Mar

    2009-01-01

    A new straight forward algorithm to calculate distillation boundaries in ternary azeotropic systems has been developed. The proposed method allows, using cubic splines, the calculation of distillation trajectories and the calculation of that corresponding to the searched distillation boundaries. The algorithm is applied to 4 ternary liquid-vapour systems to test its validity. Vicepresidency of Research (University of Alicante) and Generalitat Valenciana (GV/2007/125)

  4. Moessbauer spectroscopic characterization of ferrite ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Music, S.; Ristic, M.

    1999-01-01

    The principle of Moessbauer effect and the nature of hyperfine interactions were presented. The discovery of the Moessbauer effect was the basis of a new spectroscopic technique, called Moessbauer spectroscopy, which has already made important contribution to research in physics, chemistry, metallurgy, mineralogy and biochemistry. In the present work the selected ferrites such as spinel ferrite, NiFe 2 O 4 , and some rare earth orthoferrites and garnets were investigated using Moessbauer spectroscopy. X-ray powder diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used as complementary techniques. The formation of NiFe 2 O 4 was monitored during the thermal decomposition of mixed salt (Ni(NO 3 ) 2 +2Fe(NO 3 ) 3 )nH 2 O. The ferritization of Ni 2+ ions was observed at 500 deg. C and after heating at 1300 deg. C the stoichiometric NiFe 2 O 4 was produced. The Moessbauer parameters obtained for NiFe 2 O 4 , d Fe = 0.36 mm s -1 and HMF = 528 kOe, can be ascribed to Fe 3+ ions in the octahedral sublattice, while parameters d Fe = 0.28 mm s -1 and HMF = 494 kOe can be ascribed to Fe 3+ ions in the tetrahedral lattice. The effect of ball-milling of NiFe 2 O 4 was monitored. The formation of oxide phases and their properties in the systems Nd 2 O 3 -Fe 2 O 3 , Sm 2 O 3 -Fe 2 O 3 , Gd 2 O 3 -Fe 2 O 3 , Eu 2 O 3 -Fe 2 O 3 and Er 2 O 3 -Fe 2 O 3 were also investigated. Quantitative distributions of oxide phases, a-Fe 2 O 3 , R 2 O 3 , R 3 Fe 5 O 12 and RFeO 3 , R = Gd or Eu, were determined for the systems xGd 2 O 3 +(1-x)Fe 2 O 3 and xEu 2 O 3 +(1-x)Fe 2 O 3 . The samples, prepared by chemical coprecipitation in the system xEu 2 O 3 +(1-x)Fe 2 O 3 , 0≤x≤1, were completely amorphous as observed by XRD, even at the relatively high temperature of the sample preparation (600 deg. C). Similar behavior was observed during the formation of Er 3 Fe 5 O 12 . Moessbauer spectroscopy indicated that this 'amorphous' phase is actually composed of very small and/or poor

  5. Charge distribution in the ternary fragmentation of {sup 252}Cf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senthil Kannan, M.T.; Balasubramaniam, M. [Bharathiar University, Department of Physics, Coimbatore (India)

    2017-08-15

    We present here, for the first time, a study on ternary fragmentation charge distribution of {sup 252}Cf using the convolution integral method and the statistical theory. The charge distribution for all possible charge combinations of a ternary breakup are grouped as a bin containing different mass partitions. Different bins corresponding to various third fragments with mass numbers from A{sub 3} = 16 to 84 are identified with the available experimental masses. The corresponding potential energy surfaces are calculated using the three cluster model for the two arrangements A{sub 1} + A{sub 2} + A{sub 3} and A{sub 1} + A{sub 3} + A{sub 2}. The ternary fragmentation yield values are calculated for the ternary combination from each bin possessing minimum potential energy. The yields of the resulting ternary combinations as a function of the charge numbers of the three fragments are analyzed for both the arrangements. The calculations are carried out at different excitation energies of the parent nucleus. For each excitation energy the temperature of the three fragments are iteratively computed conserving the total energy. The distribution of fragment temperatures corresponding to different excitation energies for some fixed third fragments are discussed. The presence of the closed shell nucleus Sn in the favourable ternary fragmentation is highlighted. (orig.)

  6. Impact of ternary blends of biodiesel on diesel engine performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Pongamia and waste cooking oils are the main non edible oils for biodiesel production in India. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the fuel properties and investigate the impact on engine performance using Pongamia and waste cooking biodiesel and their ternary blend with diesel. The investigation of the fuel properties shows that Pongamia biodiesel and waste cooking biodiesel have poor cold flow property. This will lead to starting problem in the engine operation. To overcome this problem the ternary blends of diesel, waste cooking biodiesel and Pongamia biodiesel are prepared. The cloud and pour point for ternary blend, (WCB20:PB20:D60 were found to be 7 °C and 6.5 °C which are comparable to cloud and pour point of diesel 6 °C and 5 °C, respectively. The result of the test showed that brake specific fuel consumption for Pongamia biodiesel and waste cooking biodiesel is higher than ternary blend, (WCB20:PB20:D60 due to their lower energy content. The brake thermal efficiency of ternary blend and diesel is comparable while the Pongamia and waste cooking biodiesel have low efficiency. The result of investigation showed that ternary blend can be developed as alternate fuel.

  7. Maxwell-Stefan diffusion coefficient estimation for ternary systems: an ideal ternary alcohol system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allie-Ebrahim, Tariq; Zhu, Qingyu; Bräuer, Pierre; Moggridge, Geoff D; D'Agostino, Carmine

    2017-06-21

    The Maxwell-Stefan model is a popular diffusion model originally developed to model diffusion of gases, which can be considered thermodynamically ideal mixtures, although its application has been extended to model diffusion in non-ideal liquid mixtures as well. A drawback of the model is that it requires the Maxwell-Stefan diffusion coefficients, which are not based on measurable quantities but they have to be estimated. As a result, numerous estimation methods, such as the Darken model, have been proposed to estimate these diffusion coefficients. However, the Darken model was derived, and is only well defined, for binary systems. This model has been extended to ternary systems according to two proposed forms, one by R. Krishna and J. M. van Baten, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 2005, 44, 6939-6947 and the other by X. Liu, T. J. H. Vlugt and A. Bardow, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 2011, 50, 10350-10358. In this paper, the two forms have been analysed against the ideal ternary system of methanol/butan-1-ol/propan-1-ol and using experimental values of self-diffusion coefficients. In particular, using pulsed gradient stimulated echo nuclear magnetic resonance (PGSTE-NMR) we have measured the self-diffusion coefficients in various methanol/butan-1-ol/propan-1-ol mixtures. The experimental values of self-diffusion coefficients were then used as the input data required for the Darken model. The predictions of the two proposed multicomponent forms of this model were then compared to experimental values of mutual diffusion coefficients for the ideal alcohol ternary system. This experimental-based approach showed that the Liu's model gives better predictions compared to that of Krishna and van Baten, although it was only accurate to within 26%. Nonetheless, the multicomponent Darken model in conjunction with self-diffusion measurements from PGSTE-NMR represents an attractive method for a rapid estimation of mutual diffusion in multicomponent systems, especially when compared to exhaustive

  8. Creep lifetime assessements of ferritic pipeline welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainsworth, R.A.; Goodall, I.W.; Miller, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    The low alloy ferritic steam pipework in Advanced Gas Cooled reactor (AGR) power stations operates at temperatures in the creep range. An inspection strategy for continued operation of the pipework has been developed based on estimation of the creep rupture life of pipework weldments and fracture mechanics for demonstrating acceptance of defects. This strategy is described in outline. The estimation of creep rupture life is described in more detail. Validation for the approach is illustrated by comparison with pressure vessel tests and with metallographic examination of components removed from service. The fracture mechanics methods are also described. It is shown that the amount of creep crack growth is dependent on the life fraction at which the assessment is made; crack growth being rapid as the creep rupture life is approached. (author). 3 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  9. New ferritic steels for advanced steam plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, K.H; Koenig, H. [GEC ALSTHOM Energie GmbH, Nuremberg (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    During the last 15-20 years ferritic-martensitic 9-12 % chromium steels have been developed under international research programmes which permit inlet steam temperatures up to approx. 625 deg C and pressures up to about 300 bars, thus leading to improvements in thermal efficiency of around 8 % and a CO{sub 2} reduction of about 20 % versus conventional steam parameters. These new steels are already being applied in 13 European and 34 Japanese power stations with inlet steam temperature up to 610 deg C. This presentation will give an account of the content, scope and results of the research programmes and of the experience gained during the production of components which have been manufactured from the new steels. (orig.) 13 refs.

  10. New ferritic steels for advanced steam plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, K H; Koenig, H [GEC ALSTHOM Energie GmbH, Nuremberg (Germany)

    1999-12-31

    During the last 15-20 years ferritic-martensitic 9-12 % chromium steels have been developed under international research programmes which permit inlet steam temperatures up to approx. 625 deg C and pressures up to about 300 bars, thus leading to improvements in thermal efficiency of around 8 % and a CO{sub 2} reduction of about 20 % versus conventional steam parameters. These new steels are already being applied in 13 European and 34 Japanese power stations with inlet steam temperature up to 610 deg C. This presentation will give an account of the content, scope and results of the research programmes and of the experience gained during the production of components which have been manufactured from the new steels. (orig.) 13 refs.

  11. Positron annihilation characterization of nanostructured ferritic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alinger, M.J.; Glade, S.C.; Wirth, B.D.; Odette, G.R.; Toyama, T.; Nagai, Y.; Hasegawa, M.

    2009-01-01

    Nanostructured ferritic alloys (NFAs) were produced by mechanically alloying Fe-14Cr-3W-0.4Ti and 0.25Y 2 O 3 (wt%) powders followed by hot isostatic pressing consolidation at 850, 1000 and 1150 deg. C. Positron annihilation lifetime and orbital momentum spectroscopy measurements are in qualitative agreement with small angle neutron scattering, transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography observations, indicating that up to 50% of the annihilations occur at high densities of Y-Ti-O enriched nm-scale features (NFs). Some annihilations may also occur in small cavities. In Y-free control alloys, that do not contain NFs, positrons primarily annihilate in the Fe-Cr matrix and at features such as dislocations, while a small fraction annihilate in large cavities or Ar bubbles.

  12. Tuning the magnetism of ferrite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viñas, S. Liébana [Faculty of Physics and CENIDE, University Duisburg-Essen, Duisburg 47048 (Germany); Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidade de Vigo, Vigo 36310 (Spain); Simeonidis, K. [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece); Li, Z.-A.; Ma, Z. [Faculty of Physics and CENIDE, University Duisburg-Essen, Duisburg 47048 (Germany); Myrovali, E.; Makridis, A.; Sakellari, D. [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece); Angelakeris, M., E-mail: agelaker@auth.gr [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece); Wiedwald, U.; Spasova, M. [Faculty of Physics and CENIDE, University Duisburg-Essen, Duisburg 47048 (Germany); Farle, M., E-mail: michael.farle@uni-due.de [Faculty of Physics and CENIDE, University Duisburg-Essen, Duisburg 47048 (Germany)

    2016-10-01

    The importance of magnetic interactions within an individual nanoparticle or between adjacent ones is crucial not only for the macroscopic collective magnetic behavior but for the AC magnetic heating efficiency as well. On this concept, single-(MFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} where M=Fe, Co, Mn) and core–shell ferrite nanoparticles consisting of a magnetically softer (MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) or magnetically harder (CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) core and a magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) shell with an overall size in the 10 nm range were synthesized and studied for their magnetic particle hyperthermia efficiency. Magnetic measurements indicate that the coating of the hard magnetic phase (CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) by Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} provides a significant enhancement of hysteresis losses over the corresponding single-phase counterpart response, and thus results in a multiplication of the magnetic hyperthermia efficiency opening a novel pathway for high-performance, magnetic hyperthermia agents. At the same time, the existence of a biocompatible Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} outer shell, toxicologically renders these systems similar to iron-oxide ones with significantly milder side-effects. - Highlights: • Magnetic hyperthermia is studied for 10 nm single and core/shell ferrite nanoparticles. • Maximum heating rate is observed for Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-coated CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. • The increase is attributed to the interaction of phases with different anisotropy. • The presence of biocompatible Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} shell potentially minimizes toxic side-effects.

  13. The role of cobalt ferrite magnetic nanoparticles in medical science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiri, S.; Shokrollahi, H.

    2013-01-01

    The nanotechnology industry is rapidly growing and promises that the substantial changes that will have significant economic and scientific impacts be applicable to a wide range of areas, such as aerospace engineering, nano-electronics, environmental remediation and medical healthcare. In this area, cobalt ferrite nanoparticles have been regarded as one of the competitive candidates because of their suitable physical, chemical and magnetic properties like the high anisotropy constant, high coercivity and high Curie temperature, moderate saturation magnetization and ease of synthesis. This paper introduces the magnetic properties, synthesis methods and some medical applications, including the hyperthermia, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic separation and drug delivery of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles. Highlights: ► Cobalt ferrite nanoparticles are one of the most important materials for nanomedicine. ► They have high coercivity and moderate saturation magnetization. ► Cobalt ferrite nanoparticles are synthesized easily. ► They are a good candidate for hyperthermia and magnetic resonance imaging.

  14. Behavior of ferritic steels irradiated by fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erler, Jean; Maillard, Arlette; Brun, Gilbert; Lehmann, Jeanne; Dupouy, J.-M.

    1979-01-01

    Ferritic steels were irradiated in Rapsodie and Phenix at varying doses. The swelling and irradiation creep characteristics are reported below as are the mechanical characteristics of these materials [fr

  15. The behaviour of ferritic steels under fast neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erler, J.; Maillard, A.; Brun, G.; Lehmann, J.; Dupouy, J.M.

    1979-07-01

    Ferritic steels have been irradiated in Rapsodie and Phenix to doses up to 150 dpa F. The swelling and irradiation creep characteristics and the mechanical properties of these materials are reported. (author)

  16. Antiresonance in (Ni,Zn) ferrite-carbon nanofibres nanocomposites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fernandez-Garcia, L.; Suarez, M.; Menéndez, J.L.; Pecharromán, C.; Torrecillas, R.; Peretyagin, P.Y.; Petzelt, Jan; Savinov, Maxim; Frait, Zdeněk

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 5 (2015), 055003 ISSN 2053-1591 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : ceramic composites * ferromagnetic resonance * ferrite devices Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.968, year: 2015

  17. Initial Ferritic Wall Mode studies on HBT-EP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Paul; Bialek, J.; Boozer, A.; Mauel, M. E.; Levesque, J. P.; Navratil, G. A.

    2013-10-01

    Low-activation ferritic steels are leading material candidates for use in next-generation fusion development experiments such as a prospective US component test facility and DEMO. Understanding the interaction of plasmas with a ferromagnetic wall will provide crucial physics for these experiments. Although the ferritic wall mode (FWM) was seen in a linear machine, the FWM was not observed in JFT-2M, probably due to eddy current stabilization. Using its high-resolution magnetic diagnostics and positionable walls, HBT-EP has begun exploring the dynamics and stability of plasma interacting with high-permeability ferritic materials tiled to reduce eddy currents. We summarize a simple model for plasma-wall interaction in the presence of ferromagnetic material, describe the design of a recently-installed set of ferritic shell segments, and report initial results. Supported by U.S. DOE Grant DE-FG02-86ER53222.

  18. Ferrite bead effect on Class-D amplifier audio quality

    OpenAIRE

    Haddad , Kevin El; Mrad , Roberto; Morel , Florent; Pillonnet , Gael; Vollaire , Christian; Nagari , Angelo

    2014-01-01

    International audience; This paper studies the effect of ferrite beads on the audio quality of Class-D audio amplifiers. This latter is a switch-ing circuit which creates high frequency harmonics. Generally, a filter is used at the amplifier output for the sake of electro-magnetic compatibility (EMC). So often, in integrated solutions, this filter contains ferrite beads which are magnetic components and present nonlinear behavior. Time domain measurements and their equivalence in frequency do...

  19. Chromium Enrichment on P11 Ferritic Steel by Pack Cementation

    OpenAIRE

    Fauzi F. A.; Kurniawan T.; Salwani M. S.; Bin Y. S.; Harun W. S. W.

    2016-01-01

    The future thermal power plant is expected to operate at higher temperature to improve its efficiency and to reduce greenhouse gas emission. This target requires better corrosion properties of ferritic steels, which commonly used as materials for superheater and reheater of boiler tubes. In this work, chromium enrichment on the surface of ferritic steel is studied. The deposited chromium is expected to become a reservoir for the formation of chromia protective layer. Chromium was deposited on...

  20. DARHT-II Injector Transients and the Ferrite Damper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldron, Will; Reginato, Lou; Chow, Ken; Houck, Tim; Henestroza, Enrique; Yu, Simon; Kang, Michael; Briggs, Richard

    2006-08-04

    This report summarizes the transient response of the DARHT-II Injector and the design of the ferrite damper. Initial commissioning of the injector revealed a rise time excited 7.8 MHz oscillation on the diode voltage and stalk current leading to a 7.8 MHz modulation of the beam current, position, and energy. Commissioning also revealed that the use of the crowbar to decrease the voltage fall time excited a spectrum of radio frequency modes which caused concern that there might be significant transient RF electric field stresses imposed on the high voltage column insulators. Based on the experience of damping the induction cell RF modes with ferrite, the concept of a ferrite damper was developed to address the crowbar-excited oscillations as well as the rise-time-excited 7.8 MHz oscillations. After the Project decided to discontinue the use of the crowbar, further development of the concept focused exclusively on damping the oscillations excited by the rise time. The design was completed and the ferrite damper was installed in the DARHT-II Injector in February 2006. The organization of this report is as follows. The suite of injector diagnostics are described in Section 2. The data and modeling of the injector transients excited on the rise-time and also by the crowbar are discussed in Section 3; the objective is a concise summary of the present state of understanding. The design of the ferrite damper, and the small scale circuit simulations used to evaluate the ferrite material options and select the key design parameters like the cross sectional area and the optimum gap width, are presented in Section 4. The details of the mechanical design and the installation of the ferrite damper are covered in Section 5. A brief summary of the performance of the ferrite damper following its installation in the injector is presented in Section 6.

  1. Spin canting phenomenon in cadmium doped cobalt ferrites ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Abstract. Synthesis of non-collinear (spin canted) ferrites having the formula, CoCdFe2−O4 ( = 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0), has been carried out using the sol–gel auto combustion method. The ferrite samples show an interesting magnetic transition from Neel to Yafet–Kittel configuration, as the Cd2+ ...

  2. MHD Effects of a Ferritic Wall on Tokamak Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Paul E.

    It has been recognized for some time that the very high fluence of fast (14.1MeV) neutrons produced by deuterium-tritium fusion will represent a major materials challenge for the development of next-generation fusion energy projects such as a fusion component test facility and demonstration fusion power reactor. The best-understood and most promising solutions presently available are a family of low-activation steels originally developed for use in fission reactors, but the ferromagnetic properties of these steels represent a danger to plasma confinement through enhancement of magnetohydrodynamic instabilities and increased susceptibility to error fields. At present, experimental research into the effects of ferromagnetic materials on MHD stability in toroidal geometry has been confined to demonstrating that it is still possible to operate an advanced tokamak in the presence of ferromagnetic components. In order to better quantify the effects of ferromagnetic materials on tokamak plasma stability, a new ferritic wall has been installated in the High Beta Tokamak---Extended Pulse (HBT-EP) device. The development, assembly, installation, and testing of this wall as a modular upgrade is described, and the effect of the wall on machine performance is characterized. Comparative studies of plasma dynamics with the ferritic wall close-fitting against similar plasmas with the ferritic wall retracted demonstrate substantial effects on plasma stability. Resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) are applied, demonstrating a 50% increase in n = 1 plasma response amplitude when the ferritic wall is near the plasma. Susceptibility of plasmas to disruption events increases by a factor of 2 or more with the ferritic wall inserted, as disruptions are observed earlier with greater frequency. Growth rates of external kink instabilities are observed to be twice as large in the presence of a close-fitting ferritic wall. Initial studies are made of the influence of mode rotation frequency

  3. Binary and ternary photofission of thorium 232

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titterton, E W; Brinkley, T A

    1950-05-01

    Work by Titterton and Goward (1949) has shown that uranium undergoes photofission into three charged fragments. Experiments have been conducted to determine whether a similar process takes place in the photofission of thorium. Some difficulties were encountered in loading plates with /sup 232/Th atoms, but this was finally accomplished by means of a technique described in detail. Plates loaded by this method were irradiated with a continuous spectrum of ..gamma.. rays of maximum energy 24 MeV from the (Atomic Energy Research Establishment) Synchrotron. Three irradiations, of 100, 150, and 180 r, were made and the resulting plates showed a fission density of 2.5 x 10/sup 4//cc at the 150 r level. In an examination involving 2500 binary photofissions, 5 cases of ternary fission involving the emission of a long range light fragment, probably an ..cap alpha..-particle, were observed. These events are described. A number-range curve was determined for the photofission tracks and is compared with a similar curve for tracks formed by the slow neutron fission of /sup 235/U in a D/sub 1/ emulsion under conditions of similar emulsion sensitivity. It appears that the energy release in the photofission of /sup 232/Th is smaller than that in the slow neutron fission of /sup 235/U. The data indicate that 124 MeV is the mean kinetic energy released in the photofission of /sup 232/Th.

  4. Anisotropy in the ternary cold fission

    CERN Document Server

    Delion, D S; Greiner, W

    2003-01-01

    We describe the spontaneous ternary cold fission of sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf, accompanied by sup 4 He, sup 1 sup 0 Be and sup 1 sup 4 C within a stationary scattering formalism. We show that the light cluster should be born in the neck region. It decays from the first resonant eigenstate in the Coulomb plus harmonic oscillator potential, centred in this region and eccentric with respect to the symmetry axis. This description gives a simple answer to the question why the averaged values in the energy spectra of emitted clusters are close to each other, in spite of different Coulomb barriers. We have shown that the angular distribution of the emitted light particle is strongly connected with its deformation and the equatorial distance. Experimental angular distributions can be explained by the spherical shapes of emitted clusters, except for a deformed sup 1 sup 0 Be. We also predicted some dependences of half-lives for such tri-nuclear systems upon potential parameters.

  5. Intragranular ferrite morphologies in medium carbon vanadium-microalloyed steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadel A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine TTT diagram of medium carbon V-N micro-alloyed steel with emphasis on the development of intragranular ferrite morphologies. The isothermal treatment was carried out at 350, 400, 450, 500, 550 and 600°C. These treatments were interrupted at different times in order to analyze the evolution of the microstructure. Metallographic evaluation was done using optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The results show that at high temperatures (≥ 500°C polygonal intragranulary nucleated ferrite idiomorphs, combined with grain boundary ferrite and pearlite were produced and followed by an incomplete transformation phenomenon. At intermediate temperatures (450, 500°C an interloced acicular ferrite (AF microstructure is produced, and at low temperatures (400, 350°C the sheave of parallel acicular ferrite plates, similar to bainitic sheaves but intragranularly nucleated were observed. In addition to sheaf type acicular ferrite, the grain boundary nucleated bainitic sheaves are observed. [Projekat Ministartsva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI174004

  6. Structural investigation of chemically synthesized ferrite magnetic nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyanga, E.; Sangaa, D.; Hirazawa, H.; Tsogbadrakh, N.; Jargalan, N.; Bobrikov, I. A.; Balagurov, A. M.

    2018-05-01

    In recent times, interest in ferrite magnetic nanomaterials has considerably grown, mainly due to their highly promising medical and biological applications. Spinel ferrite powder samples, with high heat generation abilities in AC magnetic fields, were studied for their application to the hyperthermia treatment of cancer tumors. These properties of ferrites strongly depend on their chemical composition, ion distribution between crystallographic positions, magnetic structure and method of preparation. In this study, crystal and magnetic structures of several magnetic spinels were investigated by neutron diffraction. The explanation of the mechanism triggering the heat generation ability in the magnetic materials, and the electronic and magnetic states of ferrite-spinel type structures, were theoretically defined by a first-principles method. Ferrites with the composition of CuxMg1-xFe2O4 have been investigated as a heat generating magnetic nanomaterial. Atomic fraction of copper in ferrite was varied between 0 and 100% (that is, x between 0 and 1.0 with 0.2 steps), with the copper dope limit corresponding to appear a tetragonal phase.

  7. Temperature dependent viscosity of cobalt ferrite / ethylene glycol ferrofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharat, Prashant B.; Somvanshi, Sandeep B.; Kounsalye, Jitendra S.; Deshmukh, Suraj S.; Khirade, Pankaj P.; Jadhav, K. M.

    2018-04-01

    In the present work, cobalt ferrite / ethylene glycol ferrofluid is prepared in 0 to 1 (in the step of 0.2) volume fraction of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles synthesized by co-precipitation method. The XRD results confirmed the formation of single phase spinel structure. The Raman spectra have been deconvoluted into individual Lorentzian peaks. Cobalt ferrite has cubic spinel structure with Fd3m space group. FT-IR spectra consist of two major absorption bands, first at about 586 cm-1 (υ1) and second at about 392 cm-1 (υ2). These absorption bands confirm the formation of spinel-structured cobalt ferrite. Brookfield DV-III viscometer and programmable temperature-controlled bath was used to study the relationship between viscosity and temperature. Viscosity behavior with respect to temperature has been studied and it is revealed that the viscosity of cobalt ferrite / ethylene glycol ferrofluids increases with an increase in volume fraction of cobalt ferrite. The viscosity of the present ferrofluid was found to decrease with increase in temperature.

  8. Specific heat of nano-ferrites modified composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muntenita Cristian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The specific heat of nano-ferrites modified composites was studied using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC method in the temperature range of 30 to 150°C. Initially, nano-ferrites were introduced in epoxy systems in order to improve the electromagnetic properties of formed materials. Together with the changes in electromagnetic properties some modifications occur regarding thermal and mechanical properties. The materials were formed by placing 5g or 10g of ferrite into 250g polymer matrix leading to a very low weight ratio of modifying agent. At so low ratios the effect of ferrite presence should be insignificant according to mixing rule. Anyway there is possible to appear some chelation reaction with effects on thermal properties of materials. Three types of epoxy resins had been used as matrix and barium ferrite and strontium ferrite as modifying agents. The thermal analysis was developed on two heatingcooling cycles and the specific heat was evaluated for each segment of the cycle analysis.

  9. Cytotoxicity of ferrite particles by MTT and agar diffusion methods for hyperthermic application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong-Hyun [Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Department and Research Institute of Dental Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Se-Ho [Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Department and Research Institute of Dental Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyoung-Nam [Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Department and Research Institute of Dental Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kwang-Mahn [Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Department and Research Institute of Dental Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Shim, In-Bo [Department of Electronic Physics, Kookmin University, Seoul 136-702 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yong-Keun [Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of) and Department and Research Institute of Dental Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: leeyk@yumc.yonsei.ac.kr

    2005-05-15

    We investigated the cytotoxicity of the prepared various ferrites (Fe-, Li-, Ni/Zn/Cu-, Ba-, Sr-, Co-, Co/Ni-ferrites) using MTT assay as well as agar diffusion method. Their cytotoxicity was compared with that of alginate-encapsulated ferrites. In the MTT assay, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} ferrite showed the highest cell viability of 90%. Alginate-encapsulated Ba-ferrite was ranked mildly cytotoxic, whereas their ferrite particles were ranked cytotoxic.

  10. Analytical modeling of demagnetizing effect in magnetoelectric ferrite/PZT/ferrite trilayers taking into account a mechanical coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyau, V.; Aubert, A.; LoBue, M.; Mazaleyrat, F.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate the demagnetizing effect in ferrite/PZT/ferrite magnetoelectric (ME) trilayer composites consisting of commercial PZT discs bonded by epoxy layers to Ni-Co-Zn ferrite discs made by a reactive Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) technique. ME voltage coefficients (transversal mode) were measured on ferrite/PZT/ferrite trilayer ME samples with different thicknesses or phase volume ratio in order to highlight the influence of the magnetic field penetration governed by these geometrical parameters. Experimental ME coefficients and voltages were compared to analytical calculations using a quasi-static model. Theoretical demagnetizing factors of two magnetic discs that interact together in parallel magnetic structures were derived from an analytical calculation based on a superposition method. These factors were introduced in ME voltage calculations which take account of the demagnetizing effect. To fit the experimental results, a mechanical coupling factor was also introduced in the theoretical formula. This reflects the differential strain that exists in the ferrite and PZT layers due to shear effects near the edge of the ME samples and within the bonding epoxy layers. From this study, an optimization in magnitude of the ME voltage is obtained. Lastly, an analytical calculation of demagnetizing effect was conducted for layered ME composites containing higher numbers of alternated layers (n ≥ 5). The advantage of such a structure is then discussed.

  11. Constitution of the ternary system Cr–Ni–Ti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krendelsberger, Natalja; Weitzer, Franz; Du, Yong; Schuster, Julius C.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Reaction scheme and liquidus surface for Cr-Ni-Ti are given. •In the ternary the C14-type Laves phase coexists with the liquid phase. •Two ternary eutectics are identified. -- Abstract: The nature of solid–liquid phase equilibria in the ternary system Cr–Ni–Ti was investigated using electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and differential thermal analysis. Literature data on solid state phase equilibria are confirmed. The Cr 2 Ti Laves phase modifications coexisting with Ni–Ti phases are clarified to be hexagonal C14-type and cubic C15-type. The C14-type Laves phase γCr 2 Ti is found to coexist with the liquid phase. It forms in the pseudobinary peritectic reaction p max1 from L + β(Cr,Ti) at 1389 °C. On further cooling γCr 2 Ti + NiTi solidify at 1202 °C in the pseudobinary eutectic e max2 . In the Cr-rich part of the system ternary eutectics occur at 1216 °C (E 1 : L = Ni 3 Ti + (Ni) + β(Cr,Ti)) and 1100 °C (E 2 : L = NiTi + Ni 3 Ti + β(Cr,Ti)), respectively. No ternary eutectic is found in the Ti-rich part. Rather the eutectic trough ends in the binary eutectic L = NiTi 2 + β(Ti)

  12. Ternary fission of spontaneously fissile uranium isomers excited by neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarenko, V.E.; Molchanov, Y.D.; Otroshchenko, G.A.; Yan'kov, G.B.

    1989-01-01

    Spontaneously fissile isomers (SFI) of uranium were excited in the reactions 236,238 U(n,n') at an average neutron energy 4.5 MeV. A pulsed electrostatic accelerator and time analysis of the fission events were used. Fission fragments were detected by the scintillation method, and long-range particles from fission were detected by an ionization method. The relative probability of fission of nuclei through a spontaneously fissile isomeric state was measured: (1.30±0.01)·10 -4 ( 236 U) and (1.48±0.02)·10 -4 ( 238 U). Half-lives of the isomers were determined: 121±2 nsec (the SFI 236 U) and 267±13 nsec (the SFI 238 U). In study of the ternary fission of spontaneously fissile isotopes of uranium it was established that the probability of the process amounts to one ternary fission per 163±44 binary fissions of the SFI 236 U and one ternary fission per 49±14 binary fissions of the SFI 238 U. The substantial increase of the probability of ternary fission of SFI of uranium in comparison with the case of ternary fission of nuclei which are not in an isomeric state may be related to a special nucleon configuration of the fissile isomers of uranium

  13. Plasma spot welding of ferritic stainless steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lešnjak, A.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Plasma spot welding of ferritic stainless steels is studied. The study was focused on welding parameters, plasma and shielding gases and the optimum welding equipment. Plasma-spot welded overlap joints on a 0.8 mm thick ferritic stainless steel sheet were subjected to a visual examination and mechanical testing in terms of tension-shear strength. Several macro specimens were prepared. Plasma spot welding is suitable to use the same gas as shielding gas and as plasma gas, i.e., a 98 % Ar/2 % H 2 gas mixture. Tension-shear strength of plasma-spot welded joints was compared to that of resistance-spot welded joints. It was found that the resistance welded joints withstand a somewhat stronger load than the plasma welded joints due to a larger weld spot diameter of the former. Strength of both types of welded joints is approximately the same.

    El artículo describe el proceso de soldeo de aceros inoxidables ferríticos por puntos con plasma. La investigación se centró en el establecimiento de los parámetros óptimos de la soldadura, la definición del gas de plasma y de protección más adecuado, así como del equipo óptimo para la realización de la soldadura. Las uniones de láminas de aceros inoxidables ferríticos de 0,8 mm de espesor, soldadas a solape por puntos con plasma, se inspeccionaron visualmente y se ensayaron mecánicamente mediante el ensayo de cizalladura por tracción. Se realizaron macro pulidos. Los resultados de la investigación demostraron que la solución más adecuada para el soldeo por puntos con plasma es elegir el mismo gas de plasma que de protección. Es decir, una mezcla de 98 % de argón y 2 % de hidrógeno. La resistencia a la cizalladura por tracción de las uniones soldadas por puntos con plasma fue comparada con la resistencia de las uniones soldadas por resistencia por puntos. Se llegó a la conclusión de que las uniones soldadas por resistencia soportan una carga algo mayor que la uniones

  14. Description of hypo eutectic Al-Si-Cu alloys based on their known chemical compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djurdjevic, M. B.; Vicario, I.

    2013-01-01

    The modeling of casting processes has remained a topic of active interest for several decades, and the availability of numerous software packages on the market is a good indication of the interest that the casting industry has in this field. Most of the data used in these software packages are directly read or estimated from the binary or multi-component phase diagrams. Unfortunately, except for binary diagrams, many of ternary or higher order phase diagrams are still not accurate enough. Having in mind that most of the aluminum binary systems are very well established, it has been tried to transfer multi-component system into one well known Al-Xi pseudo binary system (in this case the Al-Si phase diagram was chosen as a reference system). The new Silicon Equivalency (SiEQ) algorithm expresses the amounts of major and minor alloying elements in the aluminum melts through an equivalent amount of silicon. Such a system could be used to calculate several thermo-physical and solidification characteristics of multi component as cast aluminum alloys. This provides to the model the capacity to predict the solidification characteristics of cast parts, where cooling rates are slow and the solidification process has to be known in great detail in order to avoid quality problems in the casting. This work demonstrates how the SiEQ algorithm can be used to calculate the characteristic solidification temperatures of the multicomponent Al-Si alloys as well as their latent heats and growth restriction factor. Statistical analysis of the results obtained for a wide range of alloy chemical compositions shows a very good correlation with the experimental data and the SiEQ calculations. The same mathematical approach might be applied for other metallic systems such as iron and magnesium, using carbon equivalency for ferrous systems and aluminum equivalency for magnesium multi-component alloys. (Author)

  15. Water corrosion resistance of ODS ferritic-martensitic steel tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narita, Takeshi; Ukai, Shigeharu; Kaito, Takeji; Ohtsuka, Satoshi; Matsuda, Yasuji

    2008-01-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic-martensitic steels have superior radiation resistance; it is possible to achieve a service temperature of up to around 973 K because of their superior creep strength. These advantages of ODS steels facilities their application to long-life cladding tubes in advanced fast reactor fuel elements. In addition to neutron radiation resistance, sufficient general corrosion resistance to maintain the strength of the cladding, and the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) resistance for spent-fuel-pool cooling systems and high-temperature oxidation for the fuel-clad chemical interaction (FCCI) of ODS ferritic steel are required. Although the addition of Cr to ODS is effective in preventing water corrosion and high-temperature oxidation, an excessively high amount of Cr leads to embrittlement due to the formation of a Cr-rich α' precipitate. The Cr content in 9Cr-ODS martensite and 12Cr-ODS ferrite, the ODS steels developed by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), is controlled. In a previous paper, it has been demonstrated that the resistances of 9Cr- and 12Cr-ODS ferritic-martensitic steels for high-temperature oxidation are superior to those of conventional 12Cr ferritic steel. However, the water corrosion data of ODS ferritic-martensitic steels are very limited. In this study, a water corrosion test was conducted on ODS steels in consideration of the spent-fuel-pool cooling condition, and the results were compared with those of conventional austenitic stainless steel and ferritic-martensitic stainless steel. (author)

  16. Ternary systems Sr-{Ni,Cu}-Si: Phase equilibria and crystal structure of ternary phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasir, Navida; Melnychenko-Koblyuk, Nataliya; Grytsiv, Andriy; Rogl, Peter; Giester, Gerald; Wosik, Jaroslaw; Nauer, Gerhard E.

    2010-01-01

    Phase relations were established in the Sr-poor part of the ternary systems Sr-Ni-Si (900 deg. C) and Sr-Cu-Si (800 deg. C) by light optical microscopy, electron probe microanalysis and X-ray diffraction on as cast and annealed alloys. Two new ternary compounds SrNiSi 3 (BaNiSn 3 -type) and SrNi 9-x Si 4+x (own-type) were found in the Sr-Ni-Si system along with previously reported Sr(Ni x Si 1-x ) 2 (AlB 2 -type). The crystal structure of SrNi 9-x Si 4+x (own-type, x=2.7, a=0.78998(3), c=1.1337(2) nm; space group P4/nbm) was determined from X-ray single crystal counter to be a low symmetry derivative of the cubic, parent NaZn 13 -type. At higher Si-content X-ray Rietveld refinements reveal the formation of a vacant site (□) corresponding to a formula SrNi 5.5 Si 6.5 □ 1.0 . Phase equilibria in the Sr-Cu-Si system are characterized by the compounds SrCu 2-x Si 2+x (ThCr 2 Si 2 -type), Sr(Cu x Si 1-x ) 2 (AlB 2 -type), SrCu 9-x Si 4+x (0≤x≤1.0; CeNi 8.5 Si 4.5 -type) and SrCu 13-x Si x (4≤x≤1.8; NaZn 13 -type). The latter two structure types appear within a continuous solid solution. Neither a type-I nor a type-IX clathrate compound was encountered in the Sr-{Cu,Ni}-Si systems. Structural details are furthermore given for about 14 new ternary compounds from related alloy systems with Ba. - Graphical abstract: The crystal structure of SrNi 9-x Si 4+x (own-type, x=2.7, a=0.78998(3), c=1.1337(2) nm; space group P4/nbm) was determined from X-ray single crystal counter to be a low symmetry derivative of the cubic, parent NaZn 13 -type and is related to CeNi 8.5 Si 4.5 -type.

  17. Model for competitive binary and ternary ion-molecule reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, E.

    1985-01-01

    A mechanism by which competitive binary and ternary ion-molecule reactions can occur is proposed. Calculations are undertaken for the specific system CH3(+) + NH3 + He which has been studied in the laboratory by Smith and Adams (1978), and the potential surface of which has been studied theoretically by Nobes and Radom (1983). It is shown that a potential-energy barrier in the exit channel prevents the rapid dissociation of collision complexes with large amounts of angular momentum and thereby allows collisional stabilization of the complexes. The calculated ternary-reaction rate coefficient is in good agreement with the experimental value, but a plot of the effective two-body rate coefficient of the ternary channel vs helium density does not quite show the observed saturation. 21 references

  18. Collective and tracer diffusion kinetics in the ternary random alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belova, I.V.; Murch, G.E.; Allnatt, A.R.

    2002-01-01

    In this study, collective and tracer diffusion kinetics is addressed for the ternary random alloy. A formal solution from the self-consistent theory of Moleko et al (Moleko L K, Allnatt A R and Allnatt E L 1989 Phil. Mag. A 59 141) is derived for collective diffusion and compared with the corresponding solution for the binary random alloy. Tracer diffusion in the ternary alloy is treated from the perspective of a special case of the quaternary random alloy. Results from Monte Carlo calculations for tracer and collective correlation factors (for the bcc ternary random alloy) are found to be in excellent agreement with this self-consistent theory but in only semi-quantitative agreement with the earlier theory of Manning (Manning J R 1971 Phys. Rev. B 4 1111). (author)

  19. Constitutional studies of the molybdenum-ruthenium-palladium ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornish, L.A.; Pratt, J.N.

    1997-01-01

    An experimental and computational study has been made of phase equilibria in the Mo-Ru-Pd ternary system. The constitution of annealed binary and ternary alloys was investigated using optical and electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and SEM phase analysis techniques. Limited thermodynamic measurements were made using the ZrO 2 solid electrolyte e.m.f. method. The data obtained from the various techniques were used to construct a ternary isothermal section at 1473 K. The experimentally determined section is compared with a calculated section for the same temperature, computed using thermodynamic coefficients derived solely from binary system information. Lattice parameters are reported for the b.c.c., f.c.c. and c.p.h. solid solutions and for the σ phase. (orig.)

  20. Thermal decomposition of cesium-ethylene-ternary graphite intercalation compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, R.; Oishi, Y.; Arii, T.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the thermal decomposition of air-stable Cs-ethylene-ternary graphite intercalation compounds (GICs) is discussed. The air stability of Cs-GICs is improved remarkably after the absorption of ethylene into their interlayer nanospace, because the ethylene molecules oligomerize and block the movement of Cs atoms. In addition, the evaporation of Cs atoms from the Cs-ethylene-ternary GICs is observed above 400 o C under a N 2 atmosphere of 100 Pa by ion attachment mass spectrometry. Although the results indicate that Cs-ethylene-ternary GICs remain stable up to approximately 400 o C, their thermal stability is not very high as compared to that of Cs-GICs.

  1. α-ternary decay of Cf isotopes, statistical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, Jayesh George; Santhosh, K.P.

    2017-01-01

    The process of splitting a heavier nucleus to three simultaneous fragments is termed as ternary fission and compared to usual binary fission, it is a rare process. Depending on the nature of third particle either it is called light charged particle (LCP) accompanying fission if it is light or true ternary fission if all three fragments have nearly same mass distributions. After experimental observations in early seventies, initially with a slow pace, now theoretical studies in ternary fission has turned to a hot topic in nuclear decay studies especially in past one decade. Mean while various models have been developed, existing being modified and seeking for new with a hope that it can beam a little more light to the profound nature of nuclear interaction. In this study a statistical method, level density formulation, has been employed

  2. Completed Local Ternary Pattern for Rotation Invariant Texture Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha H. Rassem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that the two texture descriptors, the completed modeling of Local Binary Pattern (CLBP and the Completed Local Binary Count (CLBC, have achieved a remarkable accuracy for invariant rotation texture classification, they inherit some Local Binary Pattern (LBP drawbacks. The LBP is sensitive to noise, and different patterns of LBP may be classified into the same class that reduces its discriminating property. Although, the Local Ternary Pattern (LTP is proposed to be more robust to noise than LBP, however, the latter’s weakness may appear with the LTP as well as with LBP. In this paper, a novel completed modeling of the Local Ternary Pattern (LTP operator is proposed to overcome both LBP drawbacks, and an associated completed Local Ternary Pattern (CLTP scheme is developed for rotation invariant texture classification. The experimental results using four different texture databases show that the proposed CLTP achieved an impressive classification accuracy as compared to the CLBP and CLBC descriptors.

  3. The partially alternating ternary sum in an associative dialgebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremner, Murray R; Sanchez-Ortega, Juana

    2010-01-01

    The alternating ternary sum in an associative algebra, abc - acb - bac + bca + cab - cba, gives rise to the partially alternating ternary sum in an associative dialgebra with products dashv and vdash by making the argument a the center of each term. We use computer algebra to determine the polynomial identities in degree ≤9 satisfied by this new trilinear operation. In degrees 3 and 5, these identities define a new variety of partially alternating ternary algebras. We show that there is a 49-dimensional space of multilinear identities in degree 7, and we find equivalent nonlinear identities. We use the representation theory of the symmetric group to show that there are no new identities in degree 9.

  4. New ternary hydride formation in U-Ti-H system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Takuya; Kayano, Hideo; Yamawaki, Michio.

    1991-01-01

    Hydrogen absorption properties of two titanium-rich uranium alloys, UTi 2 and UTi 4 , were studied in order to prepare and identify the recently found ternary hydride. They slowly reacted with hydrogen of the initial pressure of 10 5 Pa at 873K to form the ternary hydride. The hydrogenated specimen mainly consisted of the pursued ternary hydride but contained also U(or UO 2 ), TiH x , and some transient phases. X-ray powder diffraction and Electron Probe Micro Analysis proved that it was the UTi 2 H x with the expected MgCu 2 structure, though all the X-ray peaks were broad probably because of inhomogeneity. This compound had extremely high resistance to powdering on its formation, which showed high potential utilities for a non-powdering tritium storage system or for other purposes. (author)

  5. Equilibrium phase diagram of the Ag-Au-Pb ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassam, S.; Bahari, Z.

    2005-01-01

    The phase diagram of the ternary system Ag-Au-Pb has been established using differential thermal analysis and X-ray powder diffraction analysis. Four vertical sections were studied: X Pb = 0.40, X Au /X Pb = 1/3, X Ag /X Au = 4/1 and X Ag /X Au = 1/1. Two ternary transitory peritectics and one ternary eutectic were characterized. A schematic representation of the ternary equilibria is given

  6. Theory and design of a half-mode SIW Ferrite LTCC phase shifter

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffar, Farhan A.; Shamim, Atif

    2015-01-01

    A half mode SIW based Ferrite LTCC phase shifter is presented in this work. A theoretical model to predict the phase shift in the partially magnetized state has been derived. Contrary to the bulky external magnets employed by conventional ferrite

  7. Bismuth ferrite as low-loss switchable material for plasmonic waveguide modulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Zhukovsky, Sergei; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2014-01-01

    We propose new designs of plasmonic modulators, which can beused for dynamic signal switching in photonic integrated circuits. We studyperformance of a plasmonic waveguide modulator with bismuth ferrite as atunable material. The bismuth ferrite core is sandwiched between metalplates (metal...

  8. Effect of Ferrite Morphology on Sensitization of 316L Austenitic Stainless Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Hun; Lee, Jun Ho; Jang, Changheui [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The sensitization behaviors of L-grade SSs having predominant austenitic structure with small amount of ferrite have not been well understood. In this regard, the effect of ferrite morphology on sensitization was investigated in this study. The sensitization behaviors of three heats of 316L and 316LN SSs were investigated, Stringer type of ferrite (316L - heat A and B) showed the early sensitization by chromium depletion at ferrite. austenite interface. And, later sensitization is due to GB sensitization. On the other hand, blocky type of ferrite (316L - heat C) showed lower DOS and higher resistance to GB sensitization. It could be due to sufficient supply of chromium from relatively large ferrite phase. As a consequence, the sensitization of 316L SSs could be affected by their ferrite morphology rather than ferrite content. The sensitized region was distinguishable from results of DL-EPR tests. It can be used as an effective method for evaluation of type of sensitization.

  9. Adiabatic pipelining: a key to ternary computing with quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pečar, P.; Ramšak, A.; Zimic, N.; Mraz, M.; Lebar Bajec, I.

    2008-12-01

    The quantum-dot cellular automaton (QCA), a processing platform based on interacting quantum dots, was introduced by Lent in the mid-1990s. What followed was an exhilarating period with the development of the line, the functionally complete set of logic functions, as well as more complex processing structures, however all in the realm of binary logic. Regardless of these achievements, it has to be acknowledged that the use of binary logic is in computing systems mainly the end result of the technological limitations, which the designers had to cope with in the early days of their design. The first advancement of QCAs to multi-valued (ternary) processing was performed by Lebar Bajec et al, with the argument that processing platforms of the future should not disregard the clear advantages of multi-valued logic. Some of the elementary ternary QCAs, necessary for the construction of more complex processing entities, however, lead to a remarkable increase in size when compared to their binary counterparts. This somewhat negates the advantages gained by entering the ternary computing domain. As it turned out, even the binary QCA had its initial hiccups, which have been solved by the introduction of adiabatic switching and the application of adiabatic pipeline approaches. We present here a study that introduces adiabatic switching into the ternary QCA and employs the adiabatic pipeline approach to successfully solve the issues of elementary ternary QCAs. What is more, the ternary QCAs presented here are sizewise comparable to binary QCAs. This in our view might serve towards their faster adoption.

  10. Adiabatic pipelining: a key to ternary computing with quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecar, P; Zimic, N; Mraz, M; Lebar Bajec, I; Ramsak, A

    2008-01-01

    The quantum-dot cellular automaton (QCA), a processing platform based on interacting quantum dots, was introduced by Lent in the mid-1990s. What followed was an exhilarating period with the development of the line, the functionally complete set of logic functions, as well as more complex processing structures, however all in the realm of binary logic. Regardless of these achievements, it has to be acknowledged that the use of binary logic is in computing systems mainly the end result of the technological limitations, which the designers had to cope with in the early days of their design. The first advancement of QCAs to multi-valued (ternary) processing was performed by Lebar Bajec et al, with the argument that processing platforms of the future should not disregard the clear advantages of multi-valued logic. Some of the elementary ternary QCAs, necessary for the construction of more complex processing entities, however, lead to a remarkable increase in size when compared to their binary counterparts. This somewhat negates the advantages gained by entering the ternary computing domain. As it turned out, even the binary QCA had its initial hiccups, which have been solved by the introduction of adiabatic switching and the application of adiabatic pipeline approaches. We present here a study that introduces adiabatic switching into the ternary QCA and employs the adiabatic pipeline approach to successfully solve the issues of elementary ternary QCAs. What is more, the ternary QCAs presented here are sizewise comparable to binary QCAs. This in our view might serve towards their faster adoption.

  11. Adiabatic pipelining: a key to ternary computing with quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pečar, P; Ramšak, A; Zimic, N; Mraz, M; Lebar Bajec, I

    2008-12-10

    The quantum-dot cellular automaton (QCA), a processing platform based on interacting quantum dots, was introduced by Lent in the mid-1990s. What followed was an exhilarating period with the development of the line, the functionally complete set of logic functions, as well as more complex processing structures, however all in the realm of binary logic. Regardless of these achievements, it has to be acknowledged that the use of binary logic is in computing systems mainly the end result of the technological limitations, which the designers had to cope with in the early days of their design. The first advancement of QCAs to multi-valued (ternary) processing was performed by Lebar Bajec et al, with the argument that processing platforms of the future should not disregard the clear advantages of multi-valued logic. Some of the elementary ternary QCAs, necessary for the construction of more complex processing entities, however, lead to a remarkable increase in size when compared to their binary counterparts. This somewhat negates the advantages gained by entering the ternary computing domain. As it turned out, even the binary QCA had its initial hiccups, which have been solved by the introduction of adiabatic switching and the application of adiabatic pipeline approaches. We present here a study that introduces adiabatic switching into the ternary QCA and employs the adiabatic pipeline approach to successfully solve the issues of elementary ternary QCAs. What is more, the ternary QCAs presented here are sizewise comparable to binary QCAs. This in our view might serve towards their faster adoption.

  12. A biosensor system using nickel ferrite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Prachi, E-mail: prachi.singh@st.niituniversity.in; Rathore, Deepshikha, E-mail: deep.nano@gmail.com [NIIT University, Neemrana, NH-8, Alwar, Rajasthan, India, 301705 (India)

    2016-05-06

    NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical co-precipitation method and the structural characteristics were investigated using X-ray diffraction technique, where single cubic phase formation of nanoparticles was confirmed. The average particle size of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} was found to be 4.9 nm. Nanoscale magnetic materials are an important source of labels for biosensing due to their strong magnetic properties which are not found in biological systems. This property of the material was exploited and the fabrication of the NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticle based biosensor was done in the form of a capacitor system, with NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} as the dielectric material. The biosensor system was tested towards different biological materials with the help of electrochemical workstation and the same was analysed through Cole-Cole plot of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. The performance of the sensor was determined based on its sensitivity, response time and recovery time.

  13. Magnetostatic excitations in thin ferrite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zil'berman, P.E.; Lugovskoi, A.V.

    1987-01-01

    The authors discuss the influence of the exchange interaction and dissipative processes in thin ferrite films on the eigenfrequency spectrum of magnetostatic standing waves and on the dispersion relation and attenuation of magnetostatic traveling waves. For the first time they obtain explicitly the dispersion relation for magnetostatic waves (MSWs) in a tangential saturating magnetic field H 0 to second order (inclusive) in the exchange interaction parameter λ. The authors obtain computer solutions for this equation in the complex frequency (ω) plane (for standing waves) or wave-number (q) plane (for traveling waves). The authors show that the dispersion relation constructed from the standing-wave spectrum is different from that of the traveling waves if λ≠0, even if dissipation is neglected. The traveling waves have auxiliary branches of the dispersion relation with weak damping near the spin-wave-resonance (SWR) frequencies. Dissipation has only a relatively weak effect on the frequency spectrum of the standing waves, shifting it upward. For the traveling waves, however, dissipation leads to qualitative changes in the structure of the dispersion relation, giving rise to new branches, forbidden bands, reentrant and anomalous-dispersion regions

  14. Neutron depolarization in compressed ferrite powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rekveldt, M.Th.; Kraan, W.H.

    1976-01-01

    The polarization change of a polarized neutron beam after transmission through a partly magnetized ferromagnetic material can be described by a (3x3) depolarization matrix. This matrix can be expressed in terms of domain quantities such as the reduced mean magnetization M, the mean domain size delta and the mean square direction cosinus γsub(y) of the inner magnetization within the domain, and can be used for measuring magnetic properties of ferromagnetic materials. In the underlying depolarization theory it is assumed that no correlations exist between the direction of the spontaneous magnetization Bs in neighbouring domains, and between the direction of Bs and the individual domain sizes. In order to extend the measuring method for ferromagnetic materials, measurements have been made with different compressed ferrite powders assuming that the mean domain size is equal to the mean particle size. The neutron depolarization matrix is measured as a function of an alternative external magnetic field and interpreted in terms of m, γsub(y), and delta. The possibilities and limitations of the measuring method are discussed

  15. A novel ternary logic circuit using Josephson junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morisue, M.; Oochi, K.; Nishizawa, M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a novel Josephson complementary ternary logic circuit named as JCTL. This fundamental circuit is constructed by combination of two SQUIDs, one of which is switched in the positive direction and the other in the negative direction. The JCTL can perform the fundamental operations of AND, OR, NOT and Double NOT in ternary form. The principle of the operation and design criteria are described in detail. The results of the simulation show that the reliable operations of these circuits can be achieved with a high performance

  16. PM1 steganographic algorithm using ternary Hamming Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Kaczyński

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available PM1 algorithm is a modification of well-known LSB steganographic algorithm. It has increased resistance to selected steganalytic attacks and increased embedding efficiency. Due to its uniqueness, PM1 algorithm allows us to use of larger alphabet of symbols, making it possible to further increase steganographic capacity. In this paper, we present the modified PM1 algorithm which utilizies so-called syndrome coding and ternary Hamming code. The modified algorithm has increased embedding efficiency, which means fewer changes introduced to carrier and increased capacity.[b]Keywords[/b]: steganography, linear codes, PM1, LSB, ternary Hamming code

  17. Composition Optimization of Lithium-Based Ternary Alloy Blankets for Fusion Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolodosky, Alejandra

    The goal of this dissertation is to examine the neutronic properties of a novel type of fusion reactor blanket material in the form of lithium-based ternary alloys. Pure liquid lithium, first proposed as a blanket for fusion reactors, is utilized as both a tritium breeder and a coolant. It has many attractive features such as high heat transfer and low corrosion properties, but most importantly, it has a very high tritium solubility and results in very low levels of tritium permeation throughout the facility infrastructure. However, lithium metal vigorously reacts with air and water and presents plant safety concerns including degradation of the concrete containment structure. The work of this thesis began as a collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in an effort to develop a lithium-based ternary alloy that can maintain the beneficial properties of lithium while reducing the reactivity concerns. The first studies down-selected alloys based on the analysis and performance of both neutronic and activation characteristics. First, 3-D Monte Carlo calculations were performed to evaluate two main neutronics performance parameters for the blanket: tritium breeding ratio (TBR), and energy multiplication factor (EMF). Alloys with adequate results based on TBR and EMF calculations were considered for activation analysis. Activation simulations were executed with 50 years of irradiation and 300 years of cooling. It was discovered that bismuth is a poor choice due to achieving the highest decay heat, contact dose rates, and accident doses. In addition, it does not meet the waste disposal ratings (WDR). The straightforward approach to obtain Monte Carlo TBR and EMF results required 231 simulations per alloy and became computationally expensive, time consuming, and inefficient. Consequently, alternate methods were pursued. A collision history-based methodology recently developed for the Monte Carlo code Serpent, calculates perturbation effects on practically

  18. Binary and ternary carbides and nitrides of the transition metals and their phase relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holleck, H.

    1981-01-01

    The occurrance and the structure of the binary and ternary transition metal carbides and nitrides are described. Phase diagrams are assessed for most of the binary and ternary systems. Many ternary phase diagrams are published in this report for the first time. (orig.) [de

  19. Microwave left-handed composite material made of slim ferrite rods and metallic wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Xu; Yang, Bai; Li-Jie, Qiao; Hong-Jie, Zhao; Ji, Zhou

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on experimental study of the microwave properties of a composite material consisting of ferrite and copper wires. It finds that the slim ferrite rods can modify the magnetic field distribution through their anisotropy, so that the ferrite's negative influence on the copper wires' plasma will be reduced. Left-handed properties are observed even in the specimen with close stuck ferrite rods and copper wires. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  20. Plasma discharge in ferritic first wall vacuum vessel of the Hitachi Tokamak HT-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Mitsushi; Nakayama, Takeshi; Asano, Katsuhiko; Otsuka, Michio

    1997-01-01

    A tokamak discharge with ferritic material first wall was tried successfully. The Hitachi Tokamak HT-2 had a stainless steel SUS304 vacuum vessel and modified to have a ferritic plate first wall for experiments to investigate the possibility of ferritic material usage in magnetic fusion devices. The achieved vacuum pressure and times used for discharge cleaning was roughly identical with the stainless steel first wall or the original HT-2. We concluded that ferritic material vacuum vessel is possible for tokamaks. (author)

  1. Heating temperature effect on ferritic grain size of rotor steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheremnykh, V.G.; Derevyankin, E.V.; Sakulin, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    The heating temperature effect on ferritic grain size of two steels 13Kh1M1FA and 25Kh1M1FA is evaluated. It is shown that exposure time increase at heating temperatures below 1000 deg C up to 10h changes but slightly the size of the Cr-Mo-V ferritic grain of rotor steel cooled with 25 deg C/h rate. Heating up to 1000 deg C and above leads to substantial ferritic grain growth. The kinetics of ferritic grain growth is determined by the behaviour of phases controlling the austenitic grain growth, such as carbonitrides VCsub(0.14)Nsub(0.78) in 13Kh1M1FA steel and VCsub(0.18)Nsub(0.72) in 25Kh1M1FA steel. Reduction of carbon and alloying elements content in steel composition observed at the liquation over rotor length leads to a certain decrease of ferritic grain resistance to super heating

  2. Magnesium ferrite nanoparticles: a rapid gas sensor for alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbole, Rhushikesh; Rao, Pratibha; Bhagwat, Sunita

    2017-02-01

    Highly porous spinel MgFe2O4 nanoparticles with a high specific surface area have been successfully synthesized by a sintering free auto-combustion technique and characterized for their structural and surface morphological properties using XRD, BET, TEM and SEM techniques. Their sensing properties to alcohol vapors viz. ethanol and methanol were investigated. The site occupation of metal ions was investigated by VSM. The as-synthesized sample shows the formation of sponge-like porous material which is necessary for gas adsorption. The gas sensing characteristics were obtained by measuring the gas response as a function of operating temperature, concentration of the gas, and the response-recovery time. The response of magnesium ferrite to ethanol and methanol vapors was compared and it was revealed that magnesium ferrite is more sensitive and selective to ethanol vapor. The sensor operates at a substantially low vapor concentration of about 1 ppm of alcohol vapors, exhibits fantastic response reproducibility, long term reliability and a very fast response and recovery property. Thus the present study explored the possibility of making rapidly responding alcohol vapor sensor based on magnesium ferrite. The sensing mechanism has been discussed in co-relation with magnetic and morphological properties. The role of occupancy of Mg2+ ions in magnesium ferrite on its gas sensing properties has also been studied and is found to influence the response of magnesium ferrite ethanol sensor.

  3. Effect of rare earth substitution in cobalt ferrite bulk materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulai, G.; Diamandescu, L.; Dumitru, I.; Gurlui, S.; Feder, M.; Caltun, O.F.

    2015-01-01

    The study was focused on the influence of small amounts of rare earth (RE=La, Ce, Sm, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb) addition on the microstructure, phase content and magnetic properties of cobalt ferrite bulk materials. The X-Ray diffraction measurements confirmed the formation of the spinel structure but also the presence of secondary phases of RE oxides or orthoferrite in small percentages (up to 3%). Density measurements obtained by Archimedes method revealed a ~1 g cm −3 decrease for the RE doped cobalt ferrite samples compared with stoichiometric one. Both the Mössbauer and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrocopy analysis results confirmed the formation of the spinel phase. The saturation magnetization and coercive field values of the doped samples obtained by Vibrating Sample Magnetometry were close to those of the pure cobalt ferrite. For magnetostrictive property studies the samples were analyzed using the strain gauge method. Higher maximum magnetostriction coefficients were found for the Ho, Ce, Sm and Yb doped cobalt ferrite bulk materials as related to the stoichiometric CoFe 2 O 4 sample. Moreover, improved strain derivative was observed for these samples but at higher magnetic fields due to the low increase of the coercive field values for doped samples. - Highlights: • Substitution by a large number of rare earth elements was investigated. • First reported results on magnetostriction measurements of RE doped cobalt ferrite. • The doped samples presented an increased porosity and a decreased grain size. • Increased magnetostrctive response was observed for several doped samples

  4. Ferritic Alloys with Extreme Creep Resistance via Coherent Hierarchical Precipitates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Gian; Sun, Zhiqian; Li, Lin; Xu, Xiandong; Rawlings, Michael; Liebscher, Christian H; Clausen, Bjørn; Poplawsky, Jonathan; Leonard, Donovan N; Huang, Shenyan; Teng, Zhenke; Liu, Chain T; Asta, Mark D; Gao, Yanfei; Dunand, David C; Ghosh, Gautam; Chen, Mingwei; Fine, Morris E; Liaw, Peter K

    2015-11-09

    There have been numerous efforts to develop creep-resistant materials strengthened by incoherent particles at high temperatures and stresses in response to future energy needs for steam turbines in thermal-power plants. However, the microstructural instability of the incoherent-particle-strengthened ferritic steels limits their application to temperatures below 900 K. Here, we report a novel ferritic alloy with the excellent creep resistance enhanced by coherent hierarchical precipitates, using the integrated experimental (transmission-electron microscopy/scanning-transmission-electron microscopy, in-situ neutron diffraction, and atom-probe tomography) and theoretical (crystal-plasticity finite-element modeling) approaches. This alloy is strengthened by nano-scaled L21-Ni2TiAl (Heusler phase)-based precipitates, which themselves contain coherent nano-scaled B2 zones. These coherent hierarchical precipitates are uniformly distributed within the Fe matrix. Our hierarchical structure material exhibits the superior creep resistance at 973 K in terms of the minimal creep rate, which is four orders of magnitude lower than that of conventional ferritic steels. These results provide a new alloy-design strategy using the novel concept of hierarchical precipitates and the fundamental science for developing creep-resistant ferritic alloys. The present research will broaden the applications of ferritic alloys to higher temperatures.

  5. 78 FR 63517 - Control of Ferrite Content in Stainless Steel Weld Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2012-0231] Control of Ferrite Content in Stainless Steel Weld... Ferrite Content in Stainless Steel Weld Metal.'' This guide (Revision 4) describes a method that the NRC staff considers acceptable for controlling ferrite content in stainless steel weld metal. It updates the...

  6. 77 FR 60478 - Control of Ferrite Content in Stainless Steel Weld Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [[NRC-2012-0231] Control of Ferrite Content in Stainless Steel Weld... draft regulatory guide (DG), DG-1279, ``Control of Ferrite Content in Stainless Steel Weld Metal.'' This guide describes a method that the NRC staff considers acceptable for controlling ferrite content in...

  7. Previsions of the microstructural evolution of ferritic alloys under irradiation by numerical atomic scale simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngayam Happy, R.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we have improved a diffusion model for point defects (vacancies and self-interstitials) by introducing hetero-interstitials. The model has been used to simulate by Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) the formation of solute rich clusters that are observed experimentally in irradiated ferritic model alloys of type Fe - CuMnNiSiP - C.Electronic structure calculations have been used to characterize the interactions between self-interstitials and all solute atoms, and also carbon. P interacts with vacancies and strongly with self-interstitials. Mn also interacts with self-interstitials to form mixed dumbbells. C, with occupies octahedral sites, interacts strongly with vacancies and less with self-interstitials. Binding and migration energies, as well as others atomic scale properties, obtained by ab initio calculations, have been used as parameters for the KMC code. Firstly, these parameters have been optimized over isochronal annealing experiments, in the literature, of binary alloys that have been electron-irradiated. Isochronal annealing simulations, by reproducing experimental results, have allowed us to link each mechanism to a single evolution of the resistivity during annealing. Moreover, solubility limits of all the elements have been determined by Metropolis Monte Carlo. Secondly, we have simulated the evolution at 300 C of the microstructure under irradiation of different alloys of increasing complexity: pure Fe, binary alloys, ternaries, quaternaries, and finally complex alloys which compositions are close to those of pressure vessel steels. The results show that the model globally reproduces all the experimental tendencies, what has led us to propose mechanisms to explain the behaviours observed. (author)

  8. Radiation induced phosphorus segregation in austenitic and ferritic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brimhall, J.L.; Baer, D.R.; Jones, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    The radiation induced surface segregation (RIS) of phosphorus in stainless steel attained a maximum at a dose of 0.8 dpa then decreased continually with dose. This decrease in the surface segregation of phosphorus at high dose levels has been attributed to removal of the phosphorus layer by ion sputtering. Phosphorus is not replenished since essentially all of the phosphorus within the irradiation zone has been segregated to the surface. Sputter removal can explain the previously reported absence of phosphorus segregation in ferritic alloys irradiated at high dosessup(1,2) (>1 dpa) since irradiation of ferritic alloys to low doses has shown measurable RIS. This sputtering phenomenon places an inherent limitation to the heavy ion irradiation technique for the study of surface segregation of impurity elements. The magnitude of the segregation in ferritics is still much less than in stainless steel which can be related to the low damage accumulation in these alloys. (orig.)

  9. Tube manufacturing and characterization of oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukai, Shigeharu; Mizuta, Shunji; Yoshitake, Tunemitsu; Okuda, Takanari; Fujiwara, Masayuki; Hagi, Shigeki; Kobayashi, Toshimi

    2000-01-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steels have an advantage in radiation resistance and superior creep rupture strength at elevated temperature due to finely distributed Y 2 O 3 particles in the ferritic matrix. Using a basic composition of low activation ferritic steel (Fe-12Cr-2W-0.05C), cladding tube manufacturing by means of pilger mill rolling and subsequent recrystallization heat-treatment was conducted while varying titanium and yttria contents. The recrystallization heat-treatment, to soften the tubes hardened due to cold-rolling and to subsequently improve the degraded mechanical properties, was demonstrated to be effective in the course of tube manufacturing. For a titanium content of 0.3 wt% and yttria of 0.25 wt%, improvement of the creep rupture strength can be attained for the manufactured cladding tubes. The ductility is also adequately maintained

  10. Future directions for ferritic/martensitic steels for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klueh, R.L.; Swindeman, R.W.

    2000-01-01

    High-chromium (7-12% Cr) ferritic/martensitic steels are being considered for nuclear applications for both fission and fusion reactors. Conventional 9-12Cr Cr-Mo steels were the first candidates for these applications. For fusion reactors, reduced-activation steels were developed that were patterned on the conventional steels but with molybdenum replaced by tungsten and niobium replaced by tantalum. Both the conventional and reduced-activation steels are considered to have an upper operating temperature limit of about 550degC. For improved reactor efficiency, higher operating temperatures are required. For ferritic/martensitic steels that could meet such requirements, oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) steels are being considered. In this paper, the ferritic/martensitic steels that are candidate steels for nuclear applications will be reviewed, the prospect for ODS steel development and the development of steels produced by conventional processes will be discussed. (author)

  11. Antimicrobial Lemongrass Essential Oil-Copper Ferrite Cellulose Acetate Nanocapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liakos, Ioannis L; Abdellatif, Mohamed H; Innocenti, Claudia; Scarpellini, Alice; Carzino, Riccardo; Brunetti, Virgilio; Marras, Sergio; Brescia, Rosaria; Drago, Filippo; Pompa, Pier Paolo

    2016-04-20

    Cellulose acetate (CA) nanoparticles were combined with two antimicrobial agents, namely lemongrass (LG) essential oil and Cu-ferrite nanoparticles. The preparation method of CA nanocapsules (NCs), with the two antimicrobial agents, was based on the nanoprecipitation method using the solvent/anti-solvent technique. Several physical and chemical analyses were performed to characterize the resulting NCs and to study their formation mechanism. The size of the combined antimicrobial NCs was found to be ca. 220 nm. The presence of Cu-ferrites enhanced the attachment of LG essential oil into the CA matrix. The magnetic properties of the combined construct were weak, due to the shielding of Cu-ferrites from the polymeric matrix, making them available for drug delivery applications where spontaneous magnetization effects should be avoided. The antimicrobial properties of the NCs were significantly enhanced with respect to CA/LG only. This work opens novel routes for the development of organic/inorganic nanoparticles with exceptional antimicrobial activities.

  12. Impedimetric detection of alcohol vapours using nanostructured zinc ferrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Padmanathan Karthick; Saraswathi, Ramiah

    2014-11-01

    A comparative study on the sensing characteristics of nanostructured zinc ferrite to three primary alcohols viz. methanol, ethanol and propanol has been carried out. The zinc ferrite has been prepared by a combustion method and characterized by XRD, FTIR, AFM and SEM. Impedance studies in the alcohol concentration range varying from 100 to 1000 ppm show definite variations in response to both the nature of the alcohol and its concentration. The nanostructured zinc ferrite shows the highest sensor response to methanol and least to propanol. Equivalent circuit modelling and calibration have been made for all the three alcohol sensors. The material shows a better selectivity to the alcohols compared to formaldehyde, ammonia and acetone vapours. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Multifunctional metal ferrite nanoparticles for MR imaging applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Hrushikesh M.

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a very powerful non-invasive tool for in vivo imaging and clinical diagnosis. With rapid advancement in nanoscience and nanotechnology, there is rapid growth in nanoparticles-based contrast agents. Progress in synthetic protocols enable synthesis of multifunctional nanoparticles which facilitated efforts toward the development of multimodal contrast agents. In this review, recent developments in metal ferrite-based MR contrast agents have been described. Specifically, effect of size, shape, composition, assembly and surface modification of metal ferrite nanoparticles on their T 2 contrast have been discussed. The review further outlines the effect of leaching on MRI contrast and other various factors which affect the multimodal ability of the (T 1 –T 2 and T 2 -thermal activation) metal ferrite nanoparticles.

  14. The nature of temper brittleness of high-chromium ferrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarrak, V.I.; Suvorova, S.O.; Golovin, I.S.; Mishin, V.M.; Kislyuk, I.V. [Central Scientific-Research Institute for Ferrous Metallurgy, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-03-01

    The reasons for development of {open_quotes}475{degrees}C brittleness{close_quotes} of high-chromium ferritic steels are considered from the standpoint of fracture mechanics. It is shown that the general rise in the curve of temperature-dependent local flow stress has the decisive influence on the position of the ductile-to-brittle transformation temperature and the increase in it as the result of a hold at temperatures of development of brittleness. The established effect is related to the change in the parameters determining dislocation mobility, that is, the activation energy of dislocation movement in high-chromium ferrite and the resistance to microplastic deformation, both caused by processes of separation into layers of high-chromium ferrite and decomposition of the interstitial solid solution.

  15. Tri-metallic ferrite oxygen carriers for chemical looping combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.; Fan, Yueying

    2017-10-25

    The disclosure provides a tri-metallic ferrite oxygen carrier for the chemical looping combustion of carbonaceous fuels. The tri-metallic ferrite oxygen carrier comprises Cu.sub.xFe.sub.yMn.sub.zO.sub.4-.delta., where Cu.sub.xFe.sub.yMn.sub.zO.sub.4-.delta. is a chemical composition. Generally, 0.5.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.2.0, 0.2.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.2.5, and 0.2.ltoreq.z.ltoreq.2.5, and in some embodiments, 0.8.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1.2, y.ltoreq.1.2, and z.gtoreq.0.8. The tri-metallic ferrite oxygen carrier may be used in various applications for the combustion of carbonaceous fuels, including as an oxygen carrier for chemical looping combustion.

  16. Superparamagnetic response of zinc ferrite incrusted nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Maldonado, K.L., E-mail: liliana.lopez.maldonado@gmail.com [Instituto de Ingeniería y Tecnología, Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, Av. Del Charro 450 norte, 32310 Ciudad Juárez (Mexico); Presa, P. de la, E-mail: pmpresa@ucm.es [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado (UCM-ADIF-CSIC), PO Box 155, 28230 Las Rozas (Spain); Dpto. Física de Materiales, Univ. Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Betancourt, I., E-mail: israelb@unam.mx [Departamento de Materiales Metálicos y Cerámicos, Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Farias Mancilla, J.R., E-mail: rurik.farias@uacj.mx [Instituto de Ingeniería y Tecnología, Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, Av. Del Charro 450 norte, 32310 Ciudad Juárez (Mexico); Matutes Aquino, J.A., E-mail: jose.matutes@cimav.edu.mx [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados, Miguel de Cervantes 120, 31109 Chihuahua (Mexico); Hernando, A., E-mail: antonio.hernando@externos.adif.es [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado (UCM-ADIF-CSIC), PO Box 155, 28230 Las Rozas (Spain); Dpto. Física de Materiales, Univ. Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); and others

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Incrusted nanoparticles are found at the surface of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} microparticles. • Magnetic contribution of nano and microparticles are analyzed by different models. • Langevin model is used to calculate the nanoparticles-superparamagnetic diameter. • Susceptibility and Langevin analysis and calculations agree with experimental data. - Abstract: Zinc ferrite is synthesized via mechano-activation, followed by thermal treatment. Spinel ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} single phase is confirmed by X-ray diffraction. SEM micrographs show large particles with average particle size 〈D{sub part}〉 = 1 μm, with particles in intimate contact. However, TEM micrographs show incrusted nanocrystallites at the particles surface, with average nanocrystallite size calculated as 〈D{sub inc}〉 ≈ 5 nm. The blocking temperature at 118 K in the ZFC–FC curves indicates the presence of a superparamagnetic response which is attributable to the incrusted nanocrystallites. Moreover, the hysteresis loops show the coexistence of superpara- and paramagnetic responses. The former is observable at the low field region; meanwhile, the second one is responsible of the lack of saturation at high field region. This last behavior is related to a paramagnetic contribution coming from well-ordered crystalline microdomains. The hysteresis loops are analyzed by means of two different models. The first one is the susceptibility model used to examine separately the para- and superparamagnetic contributions. The fittings with the theoretical model confirm the presence of the above mentioned magnetic contributions. Finally, using the Langevin-based model, the average superparamagnetic diameter 〈D{sub SPM}〉 is calculated. The obtained value 〈D{sub SPM}〉 = 4.7 nm (∼5 nm) is consistent with the average nanocrystallite size observed by TEM.

  17. Oxidation rate in ferritic superheater materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, I.

    1992-05-01

    On the steam side of superheater tubes, compact oxide layers are formed which have a tendency to crack and flake off (exfoliate). Oxide particles then travel with the steam and can give rise to erosion damage in valves and on turbine blades. In an evaluation of conditions in superheater tubes from Swedish power boilers, it was found that the exfoliation frequency for one material quality (SS 2218) was greater than for other qualities. Against this background, a literature study has been carried out in order to determine which mechanisms govern the build-up of oxide and the exfoliation phenomenon. The study reveals that the oxide morphology is similar on all ferritic steels with Cr contents up to 5%. and that the oxide properties can therefore be expected to be similar. The reason why the exfoliation frequency is greater for tubes of SS 2218 is probably that the tubes have been exposed to higher temperatures. SS 2218 (2.25 Cr) is normally used in a higher temperature range which is accompanied by improved strength data as compared with SS 2216 (1 Cr). The principal cause of the exfoliation is said to be stresses which arise in the oxide during the cooling-down process associated with shutdowns. The stresses give rise to longitudinal cracks in the oxide, and are formed as a result of differences in thermal expansion between the oxide and the tube material. In addition, accounts are presented of oxidation constants and growth velocities, and thickness and running time. These data constitute a valuable basis for practical estimates of the operating temperature in routine checks and investigations into damage in superheater tubes. (au)

  18. Sc-W-Si and Sc-W-Ge ternary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotur, B.Ya.; Voznyak, O.M.; Bodak, O.I.

    1989-01-01

    Phase equilibria in Sc-W-Si and Sc-W-Ge ternary systems are investigated at 1070 K. Sc 2+x W 3-x Si 4 ternary compound (0≤x≤1) is determined, its crystal structure (Ce 2 Sc 3 Si 4 structural type), as well as, change of elementary cell parameters and microhardness within homogeneity range are determined. Regularities of component interaction within Sc-M-Si(Ge) (M-Cr, Mo, W) ternary system are determined. Ternary systems with Mo and W are more closer to each other according to the phase equilibria character, than to ternary systems with Cr

  19. Ternary mixtures of alkyltriphenylphosphonium bromides (C12 TPB ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Critical Micellar Concentrations (CMCs) by conductometry, but their ternary mixtures produce single ... efficiently quenched pyrene fluorescence; the performances of the homologues in this respect were assessed. Keywords ..... The shape of the amphiphile aggregates ..... Haque M E, Das A R and Moulik S P 1999 J. Colloid.

  20. Mechanochemically prepared ternary hybrid cathode material for lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posudievsky, Oleg Yu; Kozarenko, Olga A.; Dyadyun, Vyacheslav S.; Jorgensen, Scott W.; Spearot, James A.; Koshechko, Vyacheslav G.; Pokhodenko, Vitaly D.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The presence of macromolecules of an ion-conducting polymer in the composition of the ternary nanocomposite PPy–PEO/V 2 O 5 promotes interfacial transfer of lithium ions and also facilitates faster transport inside the particles of the nanocomposite. -- Highlights: • Two- and three component nanocomposites are prepared via a solvent-free mechanochemical synthesis. • The nanocomposites retain their capacity above 200 mA h g −1 for at least one hundred cycles. • The presence of PEO promotes interfacial transfer of lithium ions and facilitates faster transport inside the nanocomposite. -- Abstract: Ternary host–guest nanocomposite based on vanadium oxide and two polymers with different types of conductivity (ionic and electronic) – polypyrrole (PPy) and polyethylene oxide (PEO) – is prepared by solventless mechanochemical synthesis. The nanocomposite can be reversibly cycled with a specific capacity of ∼200 mA h g −1 for at least one hundred cycles of full charge–discharge as the active component of the positive electrode of lithium batteries. Electrochemical performance of ternary PPy 0.1 PEO 0.15 V 2 O 5 is compared with two-component analog PPy 0.1 V 2 O 5 . The presence of macromolecules of an ion-conducting polymer in the composition of the ternary nanocomposite PPy 0.1 PEO 0.15 V 2 O 5 promotes interfacial transfer of lithium ions and also facilitates faster transport inside the particles of the nanocomposite

  1. Robust Self-Triggered Coordination With Ternary Controllers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Persis, Claudio; Frasca, Paolo; Nair, G.N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper regards the coordination of networked systems, studied in the framework of hybrid dynamical systems. We design a coordination scheme which combines the use of ternary controllers with a self-triggered communication policy. The communication policy requires the agents to measure, at each

  2. Excess isentropic compressibility and speed of sound of the ternary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These excess properties of the binary mixtures were fitted to Redlich-Kister equation, while the Cibulka's equation was used to fit the values related to the values to the ternary system. These excess properties have been used to discuss the presence of significant interactions between the component molecules in the binary ...

  3. Robust self-triggered coordination with ternary controllers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Persis, Claudio; Frasca, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    This paper regards the coordination of networked systems, studied in the framework of hybrid dynamical systems. We design a coordination scheme which combines the use of ternary controllers with a self-triggered communication policy. The communication policy requires the agents to measure, at each

  4. Calculation of Fe–B–V ternary phase diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homolová, Viera; Kroupa, Aleš; Výrostková, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Phase diagram of Fe–B–V system was modelled by CALPHAD method. ► Database for thermodynamic calculations for Fe–B–V system was created. ► The new ternary phase was found in 67Fe–18B–15V [in at.%] alloy. - Abstract: The phase equilibria of the Fe–B–V ternary system are studied experimentally and theoretically in this paper. Phase diagram of the system was modelled by CALPHAD method. Boron was modelled as an interstitial element in the FCC and BCC solid solutions. The calculations of isothermal sections of phase diagram are compared with our experimental results at 903 and 1353 K and with available literature experimental data. New ternary phase (with chemical composition 28Fe32V40B in at.%) was found in 67Fe–18B–15V alloy [in at.%]. Further experimental studies for the determination of exact nature of the ternary phase including crystallographic information are necessary.

  5. Effect of Limestone Powder on Microstructure of Ternary Cementitious System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.; Ye, G.

    2012-01-01

    The pressure to reach sustainability favours the development of ternary composite cement. The synergistic effect on mechanical behaviour at 28 days between limestone powder (LP) and pozzolanic additives, i.e. fly ash (FA) and blast furnace slag (BFS), has been documented. In order to better

  6. Studies on Molecular Interaction in Ternary Liquid Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Uvarani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic velocity, density and viscosity for the ternary liquid mixtures of cyclohexanone with 1-propanol and 1-butanol in carbon tetrachloride were measured at 303 K. The acoustical parameters and their excess values were calculated. The trends in the variation of these excess parameters were used to discuss the nature and strength of the interactions present between the component molecules.

  7. A Simple Refraction Experiment for Probing Diffusion in Ternary Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Cecil A.; Mankidy, Bijith D.; Gupta, Vinay K.

    2010-01-01

    Diffusion is a fundamental phenomenon that is vital in many chemical processes such as mass transport in living cells, corrosion, and separations. We describe a simple undergraduate-level experiment based on Weiner's Method to probe diffusion in a ternary aqueous mixture of small molecular-weight molecules. As an illustration, the experiment…

  8. Segregation in ternary alloys: an interplay of driving forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luyten, J.; Helfensteyn, S.; Creemers, C.

    2003-01-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulations combined with the constant bond energy (CBE) model are set up to explore and understand the general segregation behaviour in ternary alloys as a function of composition and more in particular the segregation to Cu-Ni-Al (1 0 0) surfaces. Besides its simplicity, allowing swift simulations, which are necessary for a first general survey over all possible compositions, one of the advantages of the CBE model lies in the possibility to clearly identify the different driving forces for segregation. All simulations are performed in the Grand Canonical Ensemble, using a new algorithm to determine the chemical potential of the components. Notwithstanding the simplicity of the CBE model, one extra feature is evidenced: depending on the values of the interatomic interaction parameters, in some regions of the ternary diagram, a single solid solution becomes thermodynamically unstable, leading to demixing into two conjugate phases. The simulations are first done for three hypothetical systems that are however representative for real alloy systems. The three systems are characterised by different sets of interatomic interaction parameters. These extensive simulations over the entire composition range of the ternary alloy yield a 'topographical' segregation map, showing distinct regions where different species segregate. These distinct domains originate from a variable interplay between the driving forces for segregation and attractive/repulsive interactions in the bulk of the alloy. The results on these hypothetical systems are very helpful for a better understanding of the segregation behaviour in Cu-Ni-Al and other ternary alloys

  9. Univolatility curves in ternary mixtures: geometry and numerical computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shcherbakova, Nataliya; Rodriguez-Donis, Ivonne; Abildskov, Jens

    2017-01-01

    We propose a new non-iterative numerical algorithm allowing computation of all univolatility curves in homogeneous ternary mixtures independently of the presence of the azeotropes. The key point is the concept of generalized univolatility curves in the 3D state space, which allows the main comput...

  10. Phase coexistence and line tension in ternary lipid systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Idema, T.; Leeuwen, van J.M.J.; Storm, C.

    2009-01-01

    The ternary system consisting of cholesterol, a saturated lipid, and an unsaturated one exhibits a rich phase behavior with multiple phase coexistence regimes. Remarkably, phase separation even occurs when each of the three binary systems consisting of two of these components is a uniform mixture.

  11. Thermodynamic evaluation of the Ti-Al-O ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B.-J.

    1997-01-01

    A thermodynamic evaluation of the Ti-Al-O ternary system has been made by using thermodynamic models for the Gibbs energy of individual phases. A consistent model parameter set was determined so that the calculation of isothermal sections and other thermodynamic quantities becomes possible. The agreement between calculation and corresponding experimental data was generally good along large temperature and composition range. (orig.)

  12. Permanent magnetic ferrite based power-tunable metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guanqiao; Lan, Chuwen; Gao, Rui; Zhou, Ji

    2017-08-01

    Power-tunable metamaterials based on barium permanent magnetic ferrite have been proposed and fabricated in this research. Scattering parameter measurements confirm a shift in resonant frequency in correlation to changes in incident electromagnetic power within microwave frequency band. The tunable phenomenon represented by a blue-shift in transmission spectra in the metamaterials array can be attributed to a decrease in saturation magnetization resulting from FMR-induced temperature elevation upon resonant conditions. This power-dependent behavior offers a simple and practical route towards dynamically fine-tunable ferrite metamaterials.

  13. Modeling ferrite electromagnetic response in the time domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.; DeFord, J.F.; Craig, G.D.

    1989-01-01

    The behavior of ferrite loads commonly found in induction accelertors has important consequences for the performance of these accelerators. Previous work by the authors on modeling the electromagnetic fields in induction cavities has focussed upon use of a simple, phenomenological model for the process of magnetization reversal in these ferrite loads. In this paper we consider a model for magnetization reversal which is more deeply rooted in theory, and present a simulation of the reversal process based upon this model for an idealized set of boundary conditions. 7 refs., 3 figs

  14. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

    1989-05-02

    AMAX Research Development Center (AMAX R D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  15. Microstructural examination of commercial ferritic alloys at 299 DPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelles, D.S.

    1995-11-01

    Microstructures and density change measurements are reported for Martensitic commercial steels HT-9 and Modified 9Cr-lMo (T9) and oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic alloys MA956 and NU957 following irradiation in the FFTF/MOTA at 420 degrees C to 200 DPA. Swelling as determined by density change remains below 2% for all conditions. Microstructures are found to be stable except in recrystallized grains of MA957, which are fabrication artifacts, with only minor swelling in the Martensitic steels and α' precipitation in alloys with 12% or more chromium. These results further demonstrate the high swelling resistance and microstructural stability of the ferritic alloy class

  16. Cobalt Ferrite Nanocrystallites for Sustainable Hydrogen Production Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra S. Gaikwad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cobalt ferrite, CoFe2O4, nanocrystalline films were deposited using electrostatic spray method and explored in sustainable hydrogen production application. Reflection planes in X-ray diffraction pattern confirm CoFe2O4 phase. The surface scanning microscopy photoimages reveal an agglomeration of closely-packed CoFe2O4 nanoflakes. Concentrated solar-panel, a two-step water splitting process, measurement technique was preferred for measuring the hydrogen generation rate. For about 5 hr sustainable, 440 mL/hr, hydrogen production activity was achieved, confirming the efficient use of cobalt ferrite nanocrystallites film in hydrogen production application.

  17. Evaluation of cost reduction method for manufacturing ODS ferritic claddings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Masayuki; Mizuta, Shunji; Ukai, Shigeharu

    2000-04-01

    For evaluating the fast reactor system technology, it is important to evaluate the practical feasibility of ODS ferritic claddings, which is the most promising materials to attain the goal of high coolant temperature and more than 150 GWd/t. Based on the results of their technology development, mass production process with highly economically benefit as well as manufacturing cost estimation of ODS ferritic claddings were preliminarily conducted. From the view point of future utility scale, the cost for manufacturing mother tubes has a dominant factor in the total manufacturing cost. The method to reduce the cost of mother tube manufacturing was also preliminarily investigated. (author)

  18. The filler powders laser welding of ODS ferritic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Shenyong, E-mail: s_y_liang@126.com; Lei, Yucheng; Zhu, Qiang

    2015-01-15

    Laser welding was performed on Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel with the self-designed filler powders. The filler powders were added to weld metal to produce nano-particles (Y–M–O and TiC), submicron particles (Y–M–O) and dislocation rings. The generated particles were evenly distributed in the weld metal and their forming mechanism and behavior were analyzed. The results of the tests showed that the nano-particles, submicron particles and dislocation rings were able to improve the micro-hardness and tensile strength of welded joint, and the filler powders laser welding was an effective welding method of ODS ferritic steel.

  19. Fabrication of oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic clad fuel pins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zirker, L.R.; Bottcher, J.H.; Shikakura, S.; Tsai, C.L.

    1991-01-01

    A resistance butt welding procedure was developed and qualified for joining ferritic fuel pin cladding to end caps. The cladding are INCO MA957 and PNC ODS lots 63DSA and 1DK1, ferritic stainless steels strengthened by oxide dispersion, while the end caps are HT9 a martensitic stainless steel. With adequate parameter control the weld is formed without a residual melt phase and its strength approaches that of the cladding. This welding process required a new design for fuel pin end cap and weld joint. Summaries of the development, characterization, and fabrication processes are given for these fuel pins. 13 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  20. Evaluation of welds on a ferritic-austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleva, J.; Johansson, B.

    1984-01-01

    Five different welding methods for the ferritic-austenitic steel 22Cr6Ni3MoN have been evaluated on mill welded heavy wall pipes. The corrosion resistance of the weld joints has been tested both in standard tests and in special environments, related to certain oil and gas wells. The tests were conclusive in that a welding procedure with the addition of sufficient amounts of filler metal should be employed. TIG welds without or with marginal filler addition showed poor resistance to pitting, and to boiling nitric acid. Contents of main alloying elements in ferrite and austenite phases have been measured and causes of corrosion attack in welds are discussed

  1. Some design considerations for perpendicular biased ferrite tuners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enchevich, I.B.; Poirier, R.L.

    1994-10-01

    Recently remarkable progress has been achieved in the development of perpendicular biased ferrite tuned rf resonators for fast cycled synchrotrons. Compared with the broadly used parallel biased rf cavities they provide higher resonator quality factor Q. However when designing perpendicular biased cavities, special attention should be paid to the methods to provide eddy current suppression in the resonator walls, the ferrite nonlinearity influence, the generated heat removal, the fast self resonant frequency control. The prospective of a faster additional biasing system are discussed and conclusions are drawn. (author). 8 refs., 6 figs

  2. Study of some Mg-based ferrites as humidity sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezlescu, N; Rezlescu, E; Doroftei, C; Popa, P D

    2005-01-01

    The micostructure and humidity sensitivity of MgFe 2 O 4 + CaO, Mg 0.5 Cu 0.5 Fe 1.8 Ga 0.2 O 4 , Mg 0.5 Zn 0.5 Fe 2 O 4 + KCl and MgMn 0.2 Fe 1.8 O 4 ferrites were investigated. We have found that the humidity sensitivity largely depends on composition, crystallite size, surface area and porosity. The best results concerning humidity sensitivity were obtained for MgMn 0.2 Fe 1.8 O 4 ferrite

  3. Temperature change of various ferrite particles with alternating magnetic field for hyperthermic application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong-Hyun; Lee, Se-Ho; Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Kim, Kwang-Mahn; Shim, In-Bo; Lee, Yong-Keun

    2005-01-01

    Various ferrites (Fe-, Li-, Ni/Zn/Cu-, Co-, Co/Ni, Ba- and Sr-ferrites) were investigated with respect to their application for hyperthermia. Temperature changes under an alternating magnetic field were observed. The area of hysteresis loop was much larger in the Ba- and Sr-ferrites than for that of the Fe-, Ni/Zn/Cu-, Li-, Co- and Co/Ni-ferrites. Co-ferrite exhibited the most applicable temperature change ΔT=19.25K (29.62W/gs), in distilled water when the field was 110A/m

  4. MnZn-ferrites: Targeted Material Design for New Emerging Application Products

    OpenAIRE

    Zaspalis V. T.; Tsakaloudi V.; Kogias G.

    2014-01-01

    In this article the main characteristics for emerging MnZn-ferrite applications are described on the basis of the new demands they possess on the ferrite material development. A number of recently developed MnZn-ferrite materials is presented together with the main scientific principles lying behind their development. These include: (i) high saturation flux density MnZn-ferrites (i.e. Bsat=550 mT at 10 kHz, 1200 A/m, 100°C), (ii) low power losses MnZn-ferrites (i.e. Pv~210 mW cm-3 at 100 kHz,...

  5. Design of ternary low-power Domino JKL flip—flop and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Pengjun; Yang Qiankun; Zheng Xuesong

    2012-01-01

    By researching the ternary flip—flop and the adiabatic Domino circuit, a novel design of low-power ternary Domino JKL flip—flop on the switch level is proposed. First, the switch-level structure of the ternary adiabatic Domino JKL flip—flop is derived according to the switch-signal theory and its truth table. Then the ternary loop operation circuit and ternary reverse loop operation circuit are achieved by employing the ternary JKL flip—flop. Finally, the circuit is simulated by using the Spice tool and the results show that the logic function is correct. The energy consumption of the ternary adiabatic Domino JKL flip—flop is 69% less than its conventional Domino counterpart. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  6. Magnetic Field Emissions for Ferrite and Non-Ferrite Geometries for Wireless Power Transfer to Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batra, Tushar; Schaltz, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Minimizing magnetic field emissions to surroundings is one of the most challenging design criteria for wireless power transfer to vehicles. In this paper, concept of division of the emissions into three zones (primary, secondary, and combined zone) in the vertical direction is introduced. For geo......Minimizing magnetic field emissions to surroundings is one of the most challenging design criteria for wireless power transfer to vehicles. In this paper, concept of division of the emissions into three zones (primary, secondary, and combined zone) in the vertical direction is introduced...... for vertical separation between the coils in range of 100-180 mm. It is observed that lower vertical separation results in higher overlapping of the zones and the coils behave as they are effectively placed close to center of air gap. The analysis in this work provides a better understanding of the space...... profile of magnetic field emissions (with and without ferrite) for wireless power transfer to vehicles....

  7. Resistance to pitting corrosion in ferritic and austenitic/ferritic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Bouvier, O.

    1995-01-01

    Stainless steel tubes carrying raw water are potentially vulnerable to pitting corrosion. With a view to minimizing the corrosion risk in the river-water-cooled condensers at PWR power plant, a study was conducted to determine initiation conditions and incubation durations for pitting corrosion in stagnant water. As a result, condenser tubes in Z2 CI 18 (439) or Z2 CT 18-10 (304L) steels were phased out in favour of Z2 CND 16-32 (316L) stainless steel. The same question can be yield for other applications and especially for all types of exchangers for use in electrical applications. This study sought to assess alternative methods for estimating pitting corrosion, and to check the results of these methods against the actual behaviour of studied steels. The study covered ferritic steels (439, 444, 290Mo), austenitic steel (316L) and austenitic/ferritic steels (Uranus 35N, 45N, 47N, 52N). Two approaches were adopted: laboratory tests to compare pitting corrosion risks on different materials, and tests for characterizing the behaviour of steels exposed to river water. The study begins with a laboratory tests that yield an arbitrary parameter for quantifying pitting corrosion resistance. One method involves measuring the pitting temperature in an aggressive ferric chloride solution. Other methods measure the pitting potential, either statistically (Multipit method) or deterministically (polarization curve). We then go on to discuss tests under simulated life-like conditions, involving repeated immersions in water from the Seine. (author). 9 refs., 13 figs, 9 tabs

  8. Experimental investigation of the Ag–Bi–I ternary system and thermodynamic properties of the ternary phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashadieva, Leyla F.; Aliev, Ziya S.; Shevelkov, Andrei V.; Babanly, Mahammad B.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The self-consistent phase diagram of the Ag–Bi–I system is constructed. ► Ag 2 BiI 5 and AgBi 2 I 7 are the only ternary phases of the system. ► Standard thermodynamic functions of formation and the standard entropies of Ag 2 BiI 5 and AgBi 2 I 7 are calculated. - Abstract: The phase equilibriums in the Ag–Bi–I ternary system and thermodynamic properties of the ternary phases were experimentally determined by using DTA and XRD techniques and EMF measurements with the Ag 4 RbI 5 solid electrolyte. According to the obtained experimental results, the polythermal sections of the ternary phase diagram, its isothermal section at 300 K as well as the projection of the liquids surface have been revised. The fields of the primary crystallization and types and coordinates of nonvariant and monovariant equilibriums were determined. The partial molar functions of silver iodide and silver in the alloys as well as the standard thermodynamic functions of formation and the standard entropies of Ag 2 BiI 5 and AgBi 2 I 7 were calculated based on EMF measurements.

  9. A study of NiZnCu-ferrite/SiO2 nanocomposites with different ferrite contents synthesized by sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Shifeng; Geng Jianxin; Chen Jianfeng; Yin Li; Zhou Yunchun; Liu Leijing; Zhou Enle

    2005-01-01

    Ni 0.65 Zn 0.35 Cu 0.1 Fe 1.9 O 4 /SiO 2 nanocomposites with different weight percentages of NiZnCu-ferrite dispersed in silica matrix were successfully fabricated by the sol-gel method using tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) as a precursor of silica, and metal nitrates as precursors of NiZnCu ferrite. The thermal decomposition process of the dried gel was studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The obtained Ni 0.65 Zn 0.35 Cu 0.1 Fe 1.9 O 4 /SiO 2 nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Mossbauer spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). The formation of stoichiometric NiZnCu-ferrite dispersed in silica matrix is confirmed when the weight percentage of ferrite is not more than 30%. Samples with higher ferrite content have small amount of α-Fe 2 O 3 . The transition from the paramagnetic to the ferromagnetic state is observed as the ferrite content increases from 20 to 90wt%. The magnetic properties of the nanocomposites are closely related to the ferrite content. The saturation magnetization increases with the ferrite content, while the coercivity reaches a maximum when the ferrite is 80wt% in the silica matrix

  10. Lithium ferrite: The study on magnetic and complex permittivity characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavaprasad Dasari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Lithium ferrite (Li0.5Fe2.5O4 powder was prepared by solid state reaction method, which was finally pressed and sintered at 1150 °C. The spinel structure of the lithium ferrite was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and grain size estimation was obtained from scanning electron microscope (SEM. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR confirmed the presence of primary and secondary absorption bands characteristic for spinel structure. The force constants were estimated using absorption bands for the lithium ferrite. Magnetization and dielectric studies were carried out for the sintered sample. Saturation magnetization (Ms of 59.6 emu/g was achieved and variation of magnetization with temperature was used to identify the Curie temperature. The complex permittivity (ε∗ for the lithium ferrite sample was obtained for wide frequency range up to 3 GHz and discussed based on available models. The Curie temperature was estimated around 480 °C and verified from both magnetization versus temperature and dielectric constant versus temperature measurements.

  11. Analyse des structures planaires multicouches à ferrite par la ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Finite element analysis of multi-layer planar structures with Ferrite. Electromagnetic Analysis of microwave integrated circuits is an attractive subject do to the recent development and use of new materials such as magnetic anisotropic materials (hexaferrite, ...). These materials are used in many microwave components ...

  12. Determination of delta ferrite volumetric fraction in austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida Macedo, W.A. de.

    1983-01-01

    Measurements of delta ferrite volumetric fraction in AISI 304 austenitic stainless steels were done by X-ray diffraction, quantitative metallography (point count) and by means of one specific commercial apparatus whose operational principle is magnetic-inductive: The Ferrite Content Meter 1053 / Institut Dr. Foerster. The results obtained were comparated with point count, the reference method. It was also investigated in these measurements the influence of the martensite induced by mechanical deformation. Determinations by X-ray diffraction, by the ratio between integrated intensities of the ferrite (211) and austenite (311) lines, are in excelent agreement with those taken by point count. One correction curve for the lectures of the commercial equipment in focus was obtained, for the range between zero and 20% of delta ferrite in 18/8 stainless steels. It is demonstrated that, depending on the employed measurement method and surface finishing of the material to be analysed, the presence of martensite produced by mechanical deformation of the austenitic matrix is one problem to be considered. (Author) [pt

  13. The role of cobalt ferrite magnetic nanoparticles in medical science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amiri, S.; Shokrollahi, H., E-mail: Shokrollahi@sutech.ac.ir

    2013-01-01

    The nanotechnology industry is rapidly growing and promises that the substantial changes that will have significant economic and scientific impacts be applicable to a wide range of areas, such as aerospace engineering, nano-electronics, environmental remediation and medical healthcare. In this area, cobalt ferrite nanoparticles have been regarded as one of the competitive candidates because of their suitable physical, chemical and magnetic properties like the high anisotropy constant, high coercivity and high Curie temperature, moderate saturation magnetization and ease of synthesis. This paper introduces the magnetic properties, synthesis methods and some medical applications, including the hyperthermia, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic separation and drug delivery of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cobalt ferrite nanoparticles are one of the most important materials for nanomedicine. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer They have high coercivity and moderate saturation magnetization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cobalt ferrite nanoparticles are synthesized easily. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer They are a good candidate for hyperthermia and magnetic resonance imaging.

  14. Magnetoabsorption and magnetic hysteresis in Ni ferrite nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres C.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nickel ferrite nanoparticles were prepared by a modified sol-gel technique employing coconut oil, and then annealed at different temperatures in 400-1200 °C range. This route of preparation has revealed to be one efficient and cheap technique to obtain high quality nickel ferrite nanosized powder. Sample particles sizes obtained with XRD data and Scherrer’s formula lie in 13 nm to 138 nm, with increased size with annealing temperature. Hysteresis loops have been obtained at room temperature with an inductive method. Magnetic field induced microwave absorption in nanoscale ferrites is a recent an active area of research, in order to characterize and explore potential novel applications. In the present work microwave magnetoabsorption data of the annealed nickel ferrite nanoparticles are presented. These data have been obtained with a system based on a network analyzer that operates in the frequency range 0 - 8.5 GHz. At fields up to 400 mT we can observe a peak according to ferromagnetic resonance theory. Sample annealed at higher temperature exhibits different absorption, coercivity and saturation magnetization figures, revealing its multidomain character.

  15. Calcium ferrite formation from the thermolysis of calcium tris (maleato)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    For preparing calcium ferrite, calcium tris (maleato) ferrate(III) precursor was prepared by mixing aqueous solutions of iron(III) maleate, calcium maleate and maleic acid. Various physico-chemical techniques i.e. TG, DTG, DTA, Mössbauer, XRD, IR etc have been used to study the decomposition behaviour from ambient to ...

  16. Determination of delta ferrite volumetric fraction in austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida Macedo, W.A. de.

    1983-01-01

    Measurements of delta ferrite volumetric fraction in AISI 304 austenitic stainless steels were done by X-ray difraction, quantitative metallography (point count) and by means of one specific commercial apparatus whose operational principle is magnetic-inductive: The Ferrite Content Meter 1053 / Institut Dr. Forster. The results obtained were comparated with point count, the reference method. It was also investigated in these measurements the influence of the martensite induced by mechanical deformation. Determinations by X-ray diffraction, by the ratio between integrated intensities of the ferrite (211) and austenite (311) lines, are in excelent agreement with those taken by point count. One correction curve for the lectures of the commercial equipment in focus was obtained, for the range between zero and 20% of delta ferrite in 18/8 stainless steels. It is demonstrated that, depending on the employed measurement method and surface finishing of the material to be analysed, the presence of martensite produced by mechanical deformation of the austenitic matrix is one problem to be considered. (Author) [pt

  17. The evolution of ferrite grain size in structural steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgson, P.D.

    1999-01-01

    The refinement of the ferrite grain size is the main aim of modern thermomechanical processes for hot rolled steels. The ferrite grain size is determined by the composition, the state of the austenite at the point of transformation and the cooling rate through transformation. By adding microalloying additions of Ti for grain refinement and Nb to retard recrystallisation, it is possible to reduce the ferrite grain size to less than 5μm at moderate to high cooling rates. However, it is not possible under even the most extreme traditional controlled rolling and accelerated cooling conditions to produce an equiaxed ferrite grain size of less than 3μm. More recent work, though, involving rolling with high undercooling and friction conditions that lead to high shear, suggests that it is possible to produce microstructures in a single rolling pass with an average grain size less than 1μm. This appears to involve a dynamic (ie strain induced) transformation process. The current understanding of static and dynamic transformation and the resultant grain size is reviewed and areas requiring further research are highlighted

  18. Tailoring the magnetic properties of cobalt-ferrite nanoclusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega, A. Estrada de la; Garza-Navarro, M. A., E-mail: marco.garzanr@uanl.edu.mx; Durán-Guerrero, J. G.; Moreno Cortez, I. E.; Lucio-Porto, R.; González-González, V. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica (Mexico)

    2016-01-15

    In this contribution, we report on the tuning of magnetic properties of cobalt-ferrite nanoclusters. The cobalt-ferrite nanoclusters were synthesized from a two-step approach that consists of the synthesis of cobalt-ferrite nanoparticles in organic media, followed by their dispersion into aqueous dissolution to form an oil-in-water emulsion. These emulsions were prepared at three different concentrations of the cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), in order to control the size and clustering density of the nanoparticles in the nanoclusters. The synthesized samples were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and their related techniques, such as bright-field and Z-contrast imaging, electron diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry; as well as static magnetic measures. The experimental evidence indicates that the size, morphology, and nanoparticles clustering density in the nanoclusters is highly dependent of the cobalt-ferrite:CTAB molar ratio that is used in their synthesis. In addition, due to the clustering of the nanoparticles into the nanoclusters, their magnetic moments are blocked to relax cooperatively. Hence, the magnetic response of the nanoclusters can be tailored by controlling the size and nanoparticles clustering density.

  19. Mössbauer and magnetization studies of nanosize chromium ferrite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nanosize chromium ferrite (CrF) powder samples were synthesized by citrate precursor route in the size range of 6 to 35 nm. The structural and magnetic behaviour of these samples were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and Mössbauer spectroscopic techniques. Synthesized ...

  20. Irradiation proposition of ferritic steels in a russian reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seran, J.L.; Decours, J.; Levy, L.

    1987-04-01

    Using the low temperatures of russian reactors, a sample irradiation is proposed to study mechanical properties and swelling of martensitic steels (EM10, T91, 1.4914, HT9), ferrito-martensitic (EM12) and ferritic (F17), at temperatures lower than 400 0 C [fr

  1. Domain structure in soft ferrites by the longitudinal Kerr effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaczmarek, R.; Dautain, M.; Barradi-Ismail, T.

    1992-01-01

    For the first time, the longitudinal Kerr effect has been used in order to observe magnetic domains and their development in power ferrites. Image subtraction and processing leads to a magnetic contrast being a quasi derivative of the domains. A kind of integration procedure applied to them permits a reconstruction of a local hysteresis which parameters closely approach the global hysteresis data. (orig.)

  2. Nanocrystalline spinel ferrites by solid state reaction route

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    Nanocrystalline spinel ferrites by solid state reaction route. T K KUNDU* and S MISHRA. Department of Physics, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan 731 235, India. Abstract. Nanostructured NiFe2O4, MnFe2O4 and (NiZn)Fe2O4 were synthesized by aliovalent ion doping using conventional solid-state reaction route. With the ...

  3. Bismuth Ferrite for Active Control of Surface Plasmon Polariton Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Zhukovsky, Sergei; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2014-01-01

    We propose and investigate several layouts of m etal-insulator-metal waveguide with active core which can be utilized for dynamic switching in photonic integrated circuits. The active material, bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3), is sandwiched between metal plates and changes i ts refractive index through...

  4. Modified ferrite core-shell nanoparticles magneto-structural characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klekotka, Urszula; Piotrowska, Beata; Satuła, Dariusz; Kalska-Szostko, Beata

    2018-06-01

    In this study, ferrite nanoparticles with core-shell structures and different chemical compositions of both the core and shell were prepared with success. Proposed nanoparticles have in the first and second series magnetite core, and the shell is composed of a mixture of ferrites with Fe3+, Fe2+ and M ions (where M = Co2+, Mn2+ or Ni2+) with a general composition of M0.5Fe2.5O4. In the third series, the composition is inverted, the core is composed of a mixture of ferrites and as a shell magnetite is placed. Morphology and structural characterization of nanoparticles were done using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Infrared spectroscopy (IR). While room temperature magnetic properties were measured using Mössbauer spectroscopy (MS). It is seen from Mössbauer measurements that Co always increases hyperfine magnetic field on Fe atoms at RT, while Ni and Mn have opposite influences in comparison to pure Fe ferrite, regardless of the nanoparticles structure.

  5. Carbon diffusion in carbon-supersaturated ferrite and austenite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čermák, Jiří; Král, Lubomír

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 586, FEB (2014), s. 129-135 ISSN 0925-8388 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/0148; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : carbon diffusion * Carbon supersaturation * Carbon supersaturation * Ferrite * Austenite Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 2.999, year: 2014

  6. Permanent magnetic ferrite based power-tunable metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Guanqiao; Lan, Chuwen [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Gao, Rui [High Temperature Thermochemistry Laboratory, Department of Mining and Materials Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 0C5 (Canada); Zhou, Ji, E-mail: zhouji@tsinghua.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2017-08-15

    Highlights: • Power-tunable metamaterials based on barium permanent magnetic ferrite have been proposed and fabricated. • It is observed that resonant frequency of the array shifts upon altering the output power. • This kind of power-tunable behavior is due to the temperature rise as a result of FMR-induced heat buildup. • This work offers a practical idea to tune ferrite metamaterials besides magneto-tunability and thermal-tunability. - Abstract: Power-tunable metamaterials based on barium permanent magnetic ferrite have been proposed and fabricated in this research. Scattering parameter measurements confirm a shift in resonant frequency in correlation to changes in incident electromagnetic power within microwave frequency band. The tunable phenomenon represented by a blue-shift in transmission spectra in the metamaterials array can be attributed to a decrease in saturation magnetization resulting from FMR-induced temperature elevation upon resonant conditions. This power-dependent behavior offers a simple and practical route towards dynamically fine-tunable ferrite metamaterials.

  7. Microwave assisted scalable synthesis of titanium ferrite nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Abhishek; Bhardwaj, Abhishek K.; Singh, S. C.; Uttam, K. N.; Gautam, Nisha; Himanshu, A. K.; Shah, Jyoti; Kotnala, R. K.; Gopal, R.

    2018-04-01

    Titanium ferrite magnetic nanomaterials are synthesized by one-step, one pot, and scalable method assisted by microwave radiation. Effects of titanium content and microwave exposure time on size, shape, morphology, yield, bonding nature, crystalline structure, and magnetic properties of titanium ferrite nanomaterials are studied. As-synthesized nanomaterials are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-Vis), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and vibrating sample magnetometer measurements. XRD measurements depict the presence of two phases of titanium ferrite into the same sample, where crystallite size increases from ˜33 nm to 37 nm with the increase in titanium concentration. UV-Vis measurement showed broad spectrum in the spectral range of 250-600 nm which reveals that its characteristic peaks lie between ultraviolet and visible region; ATR-FTIR and Raman measurements predict iron-titanium oxide structures that are consistent with XRD results. The micrographs of TEM and selected area electron diffraction patterns show formation of hexagonal shaped particles with a high degree of crystallinity and presence of multi-phase. Energy dispersive spectroscopy measurements confirm that Ti:Fe compositional mass ratio can be controlled by tuning synthesis conditions. Increase of Ti defects into titanium ferrite lattice, either by increasing titanium precursor or by increasing exposure time, enhances its magnetic properties.

  8. Spin canting phenomenon in cadmium doped cobalt ferrites ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    O4 ( = 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0), has been carried out using the sol–gel auto combustion method. The ferrite samples show an interesting magnetic transition from Neel to Yafet–Kittel configuration, as the Cd2+ concentration is increased ...

  9. Ternary Fission of U235 by Resonance Neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvitek, I.; Popov, Ju.P.; Rjabov, Ju.V.

    1965-01-01

    Recently a number of papers have appeared indicating considerable variations in the ratio of the ternary-fission cross-section to the binary-fission cross-section of U 235 on transition from one neutron resonance to another. However, such variations have not been discovered in U 233 and Pu 239 . The paper reports investigations of the ternary fission of U 235 by neutrons with an energy of 0.1 to 30 eV. Unlike other investigators of the ternary fission of U 235 , we identified the ternary-fission event by the coincidence of one of the fission fragments with a light long-range particle. This made it passible to separate ternary fissions from the possible contribution of the (n, α)reaction. The measurements were performed at the fast pulsed reactor of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research by the time-of-flight method. A flight length of 100 m was used, giving a resolution of 0.6 μs/m. Gas scintillation counters filled with xenon at a pressure of 2 atm were used to record the fission fragments and the light long-range particle. A layer of enriched U 235 ∼2 mg/cm 2 thick and ∼300 cm 2 in area was applied to an aluminium foil 20-fim thick. The scintillations from the fission fragments were recorded in the gas volume on one side of the foil and those from the light long-range particles in that on the other. In order to assess the background (e.g . coincidences of the pulse from a fragment with that from a fission gamma quantum or a proton from the (n, p) reaction in the aluminium foil), a measurement was carried out in which the volume recording the long-range particle was shielded with a supplementary aluminium filter 1-mm thick. The results obtained indicate the absence of the considerable variations in the ratio between the ternary-and binary- fission cross-sections for U 235 that have been noted by other authors. Measurements showed no irregularity in the ratio of the cross-sections in the energy range 0.1 to 0.2 eV. The paper discusses the possible effect of

  10. Description of hypoeutectic Al-Si-Cu alloys based on their known chemical compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djurdjevic, M. B.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The modeling of casting processes has remained a topic of active interest for several decades, and the availability of numerous software packages on the market is a good indication of the interest that the casting industry has in this field. Most of the data used in these software packages are directly read or estimated from the binary or multi-component phase diagrams. Unfortunately, except for binary diagrams, many of ternary or higher order phase diagrams are still not accurate enough. Having in mind that most of the aluminum binary systems are very well established, it has been tried to transfer multi-component system into one well known Al-Xi pseudo binary system (in this case the Al-Si phase diagram was chosen as a reference system. The new Silicon Equivalency (SiEQ algorithm expresses the amounts of major and minor alloying elements in the aluminum melts through an “equivalent” amount of silicon. Such a system could be used to calculate several thermo-physical and solidification characteristics of multi component as cast aluminum alloys. This provides to the model the capacity to predict the solidification characteristics of cast parts, where cooling rates are slow and the solidification process has to be known in great detail in order to avoid quality problems in the casting. This work demonstrates how the SiEQ algorithm can be used to calculate the characteristic solidification temperatures of the multicomponent Al-Si alloys as well as their latent heats and growth restriction factor. Statistical analysis of the results obtained for a wide range of alloy chemical compositions shows a very good correlation with the experimental data and the SiEQ calculations. The same mathematical approach might be applied for other metallic systems such as iron and magnesium, using carbon equivalency for ferrous systems and aluminum equivalency for magnesium multi-component alloys.La modelización de los procesos de fundición ha sido un tópico de

  11. Development of a Ferrite-Based Electromagnetic Wave Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hanish Zakariah

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Direct detection of hydrocarbon by an active source using electromagnetic (EM wave termed Sea Bed Logging (SBL has shown very promising results. However, currently available electromagnetic wave technology has a number of challenges including sensitivity and lapsed time. Our initial response to this issue is to develop a ferrite-based EM wave detector for Sea Bed Logging (SBL. Ferrite bar and copper rings in various diameters were used as detector 1 (D1. For Detector 2 (D2, toroid added with copper wires in different lengths at the centre of it were used. The first experiment is to determine the inductance and resistance for both detectors by using LCR meter. We obtained the highest inductance value of 0.02530 mH at the ferrite bar when it was paired with a 15 cm diameter copper ring and 0.00526 mH for D2 using a 100 cm copper wire placed at the centre of the toroid. The highest resistivity for D1 was measured at ferrite bar paired with a 15 cm diameter  copper ring and 1.099 Ω when using 20 cm length of copper wire. The second interest deals with voltage peak-to-peak (Vp-p value for both detectors by using oscilloscope. The highest voltage value at the ferrite bar of D1 was 25.30 mV. While at D2, the highest voltage measured was 27.70 mV when using a 100 cm copper wire. The third premise is the comparison of sensitivity and lapsed time for both detectors. It was found that D1 was 61% more sensitive than D2 but had higher lapsed time than D2.

  12. Substrate integrated ferrite phase shifters and active frequency selective surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahill, B.M.

    2002-01-01

    There are two distinct parts to this thesis; the first investigates the use of ferrite tiles in the construction of printed phase shifting transmission lines, culminating in the design of two compact electromagnetic controlled beam steered patch and slot antenna arrays. The second part investigates the use of active frequency selective surfaces (AFSS), which are later used to cover a uPVC constructed enclosure. Field intensity measurements are taken from within the enclosure to determine the dynamic screening effectiveness. Trans Tech G-350 Ferrite is investigated to determine its application in printed microstrip and stripline phase shifting transmission lines. 50-Ohm transmission lines are constructed using the ferrite tile and interfaced to Rogers RT Duroid 5870 substrate. Scattering parameter measurements are made under the application of variable magnetic fields to the ferrite. Later, two types of planar microwave beam steering antennas are constructed. The first uses the ferrites integrated into the Duroid as microstrip lines with 3 patch antennas as the radiating elements. The second uses stripline transmission lines, with slot antennas as the radiating sources etched into the ground plane of the triplate. Beam steering is achieved by the application of an external electromagnet. An AFSS is constructed by the interposition of PIN diodes into a dipole FSS array. Transmission response measurements are then made for various angles of electromagnetic wave incidence. Two states of operation exist: when a current is passed through the diodes and when the diodes are switched off. These two states form a high pass and band stop space filter respectively. An enclosure covered with the AFSS is constructed and externally illuminated in the range 2.0 - 2.8GHz. A probe antenna inside the enclosure positioned at various locations through out the volume is used to establish the effective screening action of the AFSS in 3 dimensional space. (author)

  13. Microstructural characterization of ODS ferritic steels at different processing stages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, E., E-mail: egil@ceit.es; Ordás, N.; García-Rosales, C.; Iturriza, I., E-mail: iiturriza@ceit.es

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • ODS ferritic stainless steel produced by new route without mechanical alloying. • Fully dense ferritic stainless steels containing Y and Ti were obtained by HIPping. • Y and Ti-rich precipitates prevent grain growth during heat treatment up to 1320 °C. • HIPping at 1220 °C dissolves the metastable oxides on PPBs. - Abstract: Nanostructured Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Reduced Activation Ferritic Stainless Steels (ODS RAF) are promising structural materials for fusion reactors, due to their ultrafine microstructure and the presence of a dispersion of Y–Ti–O nanoclusters that provide excellent creep strength at high temperatures (up to 750 °C). The traditional powder metallurgical route to produce these steels is based on Gas Atomization (GA) + Mechanical Alloying (MA) + HIP + ThermoMechanical Treatments (TMTs). Recently, alternative methods have arisen to avoid the MA step. In line with this new approach, ferritic stainless steel powders were produced by gas atomization and HIPped, after adjusting their oxygen, Y and Ti contents to form Y–Ti–O nanoclusters during subsequent heat treatments. The microstructure of as-HIPped steels mainly consists of ferrite grains, Y–Ti precipitates, carbides and oxides on Prior Particle Boundaries (PPBs). Post-HIP heat treatments performed at high temperatures (1270 and 1300 °C) evaluated the feasibility of achieving a complete dissolution of the oxides on PPBs and a precipitation of ultrafine Ti- and Y-rich oxides in the Fe14Cr2W matrix. FEG-SEM with extensive EDS analysis was used to characterize the microstructure of the atomized powders and the ODS-RAF specimens after HIP consolidation and post-HIP heat treatments. A deeper characterization of atomized powder was carried out by TEM.

  14. Band gap determination of Ni–Zn ferrites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Nanocomposites of Ni–Zn with copolymer matrix of aniline and formaldehyde in presence of varying concentrations of zinc ions have been ... spectrophotometer at room temperature. From the analysis of reflection spectra, nanocomposites of .... the nanocomposites of. Ni1–xZnxFe2O4. In some of the ternary semiconductors.

  15. Vacuum brazing of TiAl48Cr2Nb2 casting alloys based on TiAl (γ intermetallic compound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Mirski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A growing interest in modern engineering materials characterised by increasingly better operational parameters combined with a necessity to obtain joints of such materials representing good operation properties create important research and technological problems of today. These issues include also titanium joints or joints of titanium alloys based on intermetallic compounds. Brazing is one of the basic and sometimes even the only available welding method used for joining the aforesaid materials in production of various systems, heat exchangers and, in case of titanium alloys based on intermetallic compounds, turbine elements and space shuttle plating etc. This article presents the basic physical and chemical properties as well as the brazability of alloys based on intermetallic compounds. The work also describes the principle and mechanisms of diffusion-brazed joint formation as well as reveals the results of metallographic and strength tests involving diffusion-welded joints of TiAl48Cr3Nb2 casting alloy based on TiAl (γ phase with the use of sandwich-type layers of silver-based parent metal (grade B- Ag72Cu-780 (AG 401 and copper (grade CF032A. Structural examination was performed by means of light microscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM and energy dispersion spectrometer (EDS. Furthermore, the article reveals the results of shear strength tests involving the aforementioned joints.

  16. Thermodynamic calculations in ternary titanium–aluminium–manganese system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA I. KOSTOV

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Thermodynamic calculations in the ternary Ti–Al–Mn system are shown in this paper. The thermodynamic calculations were performed using the FactSage thermochemical software and database, with the aim of determining thermodynamic properties, such as activities, coefficient of activities, partial and integral values of the enthalpies and Gibbs energies of mixing and excess energies at two different temperatures: 2000 and 2100 K. Bearing in mind that no experimental data for the Ti–Al–Mn ternary system have been obtained or reported. The obtained results represent a good base for further thermodynamic analysis and may be useful as a comparison with some future critical experimental results and thermodynamic optimization of this system.

  17. Ternary carbide uranium fuels for advanced reactor design applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, Travis; Anghaie, Samim

    1999-01-01

    Solid-solution mixed uranium/refractory metal carbides such as the pseudo-ternary carbide, (U, Zr, Nb)C, hold significant promise for advanced reactor design applications because of their high thermal conductivity and high melting point (typically greater than 3200 K). Additionally, because of their thermochemical stability in a hot-hydrogen environment, pseudo-ternary carbides have been investigated for potential space nuclear power and propulsion applications. However, their stability with regard to sodium and improved resistance to attack by water over uranium carbide portends their usefulness as a fuel for advanced terrestrial reactors. An investigation into processing techniques was conducted in order to produce a series of (U, Zr, Nb)C samples for characterization and testing. Samples with densities ranging from 91% to 95% of theoretical density were produced by cold pressing and sintering the mixed constituent carbides at temperatures as high as 2650 K. (author)

  18. Experimental Investigation of Ternary Alloys for Fusion Breeding Blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, B. William [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chiu, Ing L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-26

    Future fusion power plants based on the deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel cycle will be required to breed the T fuel via neutron reactions with lithium, which will be incorporated in a breeding blanket that surrounds the fusion source. Recent work by LLNL proposed the used of liquid Li as the breeder in an inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant. Subsequently, an LDRD was initiated to develop alternatives ternary alloy liquid metal breeders that have reduced chemical reactivity with water and air compared to pure Li. Part of the work plan was to experimentally investigate the phase diagrams of ternary alloys. Of particular interest was measurement of the melt temperature, which must be low enough to be compatible with the temperature limits of the steel used in the construction of the chamber and heat transfer system.

  19. Reconstructing Unrooted Phylogenetic Trees from Symbolic Ternary Metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünewald, Stefan; Long, Yangjing; Wu, Yaokun

    2018-03-09

    Böcker and Dress (Adv Math 138:105-125, 1998) presented a 1-to-1 correspondence between symbolically dated rooted trees and symbolic ultrametrics. We consider the corresponding problem for unrooted trees. More precisely, given a tree T with leaf set X and a proper vertex coloring of its interior vertices, we can map every triple of three different leaves to the color of its median vertex. We characterize all ternary maps that can be obtained in this way in terms of 4- and 5-point conditions, and we show that the corresponding tree and its coloring can be reconstructed from a ternary map that satisfies those conditions. Further, we give an additional condition that characterizes whether the tree is binary, and we describe an algorithm that reconstructs general trees in a bottom-up fashion.

  20. Ternary fission in an effective liquid drop model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, Sergio B.; Tavares, Odilon A.P.; Dimarco, A.; Goncalves, Marcello; Guzman, Fernando; Trallero-Herrera, Carlos; Rodriguez, Oscar; Garcia, Fermin

    2001-01-01

    Full text follows: The nuclear partition in three fragments has been observed in recent experiments for fission process of 252 Cf and 24 '0 Pu. We apply the Effective Liquid Drop Model (ELDM), successfully used for discussing binary cold fission and cluster emissions for a three center geometric shape parametrization, describing the quasi-molecular deformation which can lead to ternary fragmentation. A preliminary calculation for rates of these processes are performed and the results are compared to the rate of the dominant binary fission process. A large range of parent nuclei (spherical and deformed) is covered in the calculation. The purpose is to point out others possible ternary fission process experimentally measurable. (author)

  1. Susceptibility of ternary aluminum alloys to cracking during solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jiangwei; Kou, Sindo

    2017-01-01

    The crack susceptibility map of a ternary Al alloy system provides useful information about which alloy compositions are most susceptible to cracking and thus should be avoided by using a filler metal with a significantly different composition. In the present study the crack susceptibility maps of ternary Al alloy systems were calculated based on the maximum |dT/d(f S ) 1/2 | as an index for the crack susceptibility, where T is temperature and f S fraction solid. Due to the complexity associated with ternary alloy solidification, commercial thermodynamic software Pandat and Al database PanAluminum, instead of analytical equations, were used to calculate f S as a function of T and hence the maximum |dT/d(f S ) 1/2 | for ternary Al-Mg-Si, Al-Cu-Mg and Al-Cu-Si alloy systems. A crack susceptibility map covering 121 alloy compositions was constructed for each of the three ternary alloy systems at each of the following three levels of back diffusion: no back diffusion, back diffusion under a 100 °C/s cooling rate, and back diffusion under 20° C/s. The location of the region of high crack susceptibility, which is the most important part of the map, was shown in each of the nine calculated maps. These locations were compared with those observed in crack susceptibility tests by previous investigators. With back diffusion considered, either under 20 or 100 °C/s, the agreement between the calculated and observed maps was good especially for Al-Mg-Si and Al-Cu-Mg. Thus, the maximum |dT/d(f S ) 1/2 | can be used as a crack susceptibility index to construct crack susceptibility maps for ternary Al alloys and to evaluate the effect of back diffusion on their crack susceptibility. - Graphical abstract: The crack susceptibility map of a ternary alloy system indicates the composition range most susceptible to cracking, which should be avoided in welding or casting. The crack susceptibility maps of ternary Al alloy systems Al-Mg-Si, Al-Cu-Mg and Al-Cu-Si were calculated based

  2. Dynamical theory of subconstituents based on ternary algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bars, I.; Guenaydin, M.

    1980-01-01

    We propose a dynamical theory of possible fundamental constituents of matter. Our scheme is based on (super) ternary algebras which are building blocks of Lie (super) algebras. Elementary fields, called ''ternons,'' are associated with the elements of a (super) ternary algebra. Effective gauge bosons, ''quarks,'' and ''leptons'' are constructed as composite fields from ternons. We propose two- and four-dimensional (super) ternon theories whose structures are closely related to CP/sub N/ and Yang-Mills theories and their supersymmetric extensions. We conjecture that at large distances (low energies) the ternon theories dynamically produce effective gauge theories and thus may be capable of explaining the present particle-physics phenomenology. Such a scenario is valid in two dimensions

  3. Cohesion energy calculations for ternary ionic novel crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez P, G.; Cabrera, E.; Mijangos, R.R.; Valdez, E.; Duarte, C.

    2001-01-01

    The present work calculates the value of the link energy of a crystalline ternary structure newly formed by alkali halides. The ternary structure prepared with different concentrations of KCl x KBrRbCl 2 maintains a very good miscibility and stability. The calculation is based on the use of a generalization of the Vegard law (which generally is valid for binary compounds) for calculating the values of the lattice constant and the repulsive m exponent. The value of the lattice parameter given by X-ray diffractometry agrees with the close approximation of the calculated value of the method used. It also compares the value of energy cohesion obtained by the Born expression with more complex approximations. (Author)

  4. Preparation and microwave-infrared absorption of reduced graphene oxide/Cu-Ni ferrite/Al2O3 composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-yue, Ma; Xiao-xia, Li; Yu-xiang, Guo; Yu-run, Zeng

    2018-01-01

    Reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/Cu-Ni ferrite/Al2O3 composite was prepared by solvothermal method, and its properties were characterized by SEM, x-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and FTIR. The electromagnetic parameters in 2-18 GHz and mid-infrared (IR) spectral transmittance of the composite were measured, respectively. The results show that Cu0.7Ni0.3Fe2O4 nanoparticles with an average size of tens nanometers adsorb on surface of RGO, and meanwhile, Al2O3 nanoparticles adhere to the surface of Cu0.7Ni0.3Fe2O4 nanoparticles and RGO. The composite has both dielectric and magnetic loss mechanism. Its reflection loss is lower than -19 dB in 2-18 GHz, and the maximum of -23.2 dB occurs at 15.6 GHz. With the increasing of Al2O3 amount, its reflection loss becomes lower and the maximum moves towards low frequency slightly. Compared with RGO/Cu-Ni ferrite composites, its magnetic loss and reflection loss slightly reduce with the increasing of Al2O3 amount, and the maximum of reflection loss shifts from a low frequency to a high one. However, its broadband IR absorption is significantly enhanced owing to nano-Al2O3. Therefore, RGO/Cu-Ni ferrite/Al2O3 composites can be used as excellent broadband microwave and IR absorbing materials, and maybe have broad application prospect in electromagnetic shielding, IR absorbing and coating materials.

  5. Chemical looping coal gasification with calcium ferrite and barium ferrite via solid–solid reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani; Riley, Jarrett; Tian, Hanjing; Richards, George

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • BaFe 2 O 4 and CaFe 2 O 4 are excellent for chemical looping coal gasification. • BaFe 2 O 4 and CaFe 2 O 4 have minimal reactivity with synthesis gas. • Steam enhances the gasification process with these oxygen carriers. • Reaction rates of steam gasification of coal with CaFe 2 O 4 was better than with gaseous oxygen. • Coal gasification appears to be via solid–solid interaction with the oxygen carrier. - Abstract: Coal gasification to produce synthesis gas by chemical looping was investigated with two oxygen carriers, barium ferrite (BaFe 2 O 4 ) and calcium ferrite (CaFe 2 O 4 ). Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and fixed-bed flow reactor data indicated that a solid–solid interaction occurred between oxygen carriers and coal to produce synthesis gas. Both thermodynamic analysis and experimental data indicated that BaFe 2 O 4 and CaFe 2 O 4 have high reactivity with coal but have a low reactivity with synthesis gas, which makes them very attractive for the coal gasification process. Adding steam increased the production of hydrogen (H 2 ) and carbon monoxide (CO), but carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) remained low because these oxygen carriers have minimal reactivity with H 2 and CO. Therefore, the combined steam–oxygen carrier produced the highest quantity of synthesis gas. It appeared that neither the water–gas shift reaction nor the water splitting reaction promoted additional H 2 formation with the oxygen carriers when steam was present. Wyodak coal, which is a sub-bituminous coal, had the best gasification yield with oxygen carrier–steam while Illinois #6 coal had the lowest. The rate of gasification and selectivity for synthesis gas production was significantly higher when these oxygen carriers were present during steam gasification of coal. The rates and synthesis gas yields during the temperature ramps of coal–steam with oxygen carriers were better than with gaseous oxygen.

  6. Developing Low-Clinker Ternary Blends for Indian Cement Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Aritra

    2018-05-01

    In today's scenario cement-concrete has become the backbone of infrastructure development. The use of concrete is increasing day by day and so does cement. One of the major concerns is that the cement manufacturing contributes 7% of total man-made CO2 emission in the environment. At the same time India being a developing country secured the second position in cement production. On the other hand solid waste management is one of the growing problems in India. As we are one of the major contributors in this situation so, the time has come to think about the sustainable alternatives. From various researches it has been observed that the low clinker cement can be suitable option. In the present paper we have tried to develop a low clinker ternary blend for Indian cement industry using the concept of synergetic behavior of fly ash-limestone reaction and formation of more stable monocarboaluminate hydrate and hemicarboaluminate hydrate. 30% fly ash and 15% limestone and 5% gypsum have been used as supplementary cementing material for replacing 50% clinker. The mechanical properties like, compressive strength, have been studied for the fly ash limestone ternary blends cements and the results have been compared with the other controlled blends and ternary blends. The effect of intergrinding of constituent materials has shown a comparable properties which can be used for various structural application. The effect of dolomitic limestone has also been studied in fly ash limestone ternary blends and the result shows the relation between compressive strength and dolomite content is inversely proportional.

  7. Tetragonal ternary borides: superconductivity, ferromagnetism and the role of scandium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthias, B.T.; Patel, C.K.N.; Barz, H.; Corenzwit, E.; Vandenberg, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    The authors report and discuss two discoveries made while studying the condensation phenomena of ternary rhodium borides, MRh 4 B 4 . M is generally a trivalent transition metal, usually a rare earth element RE. An exception is scandium which by itself does not form an isomorphous boride, but in combination with many other elements will do just that. A suprising correlation between ferromagnetic and superconducting transition temperatures has been found. (Auth.)

  8. Electronic structure of ternary hydrides based on light elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orgaz, E. [Departamento de Fisica y Quimica Teorica, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, CP 04510 Coyoacan, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: orgaz@eros.pquim.unam.mx; Membrillo, A. [Departamento de Fisica y Quimica Teorica, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, CP 04510 Coyoacan, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Castaneda, R. [Departamento de Fisica y Quimica Teorica, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, CP 04510 Coyoacan, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Aburto, A. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, CP 04510 Coyoacan, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-12-08

    Ternary hydrides based on light elements are interesting owing to the high available energy density. In this work we focused into the electronic structure of a series of known systems having the general formula AMH{sub 4}(A=Li,Na,M=B,Al). We computed the energy bands and the total and partial density of states using the linear-augmented plane waves method. In this report, we discuss the chemical bonding in this series of complex hydrides.

  9. New ternary oxides with rhenium(4) of the perovskite structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jezowska-Trzebiatowska, B; Nowakowski, T; Mrozinski, J [Wroclaw Univ. (Poland)

    1978-01-01

    A series of ternary oxides described by general formula CaIrsub(x)Resub(1-x)O/sub 3/, where x 0.25; 0.33; 0.66; 0.75, has been obtained. The X-ray investigations have shown, that these compounds have a distorted perovskite structure. The proximal coordination sphere of Re/sup 4 +/ and Ir/sup 4 +/ ions constituted by an octahedron of oxide ions was confirmed by the IR spectra.

  10. Thermoelectric properties of RuSb2Te ternary skutterudites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navrátil, Jiří; Plecháček, T.; Drašar, Č.; Laufek, F.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 7 (2013), s. 1864-1869 ISSN 0361-5235 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/10/1315 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : RuSb2Te * ternary skutterudite * doping Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.675, year: 2013 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11664-012-2451-5

  11. Some new quasi-twisted ternary linear codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumen Daskalov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Let [n, k, d]_q code be a linear code of length n, dimension k and minimum Hamming distance d over GF(q. One of the basic and most important problems in coding theory is to construct codes with best possible minimum distances. In this paper seven quasi-twisted ternary linear codes are constructed. These codes are new and improve the best known lower bounds on the minimum distance in [6].

  12. Synthesis of Ternary Quantum Logic Circuits by Decomposition

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Faisal Shah; Perkowski, Marek

    2005-01-01

    Recent research in multi-valued logic for quantum computing has shown practical advantages for scaling up a quantum computer. Multivalued quantum systems have also been used in the framework of quantum cryptography, and the concept of a qudit cluster state has been proposed by generalizing the qubit cluster state. An evolutionary algorithm based synthesizer for ternary quantum circuits has recently been presented, as well as a synthesis method based on matrix factorization.In this paper, a re...

  13. Neutronics Evaluation of Lithium-Based Ternary Alloys in IFE Blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolodosky, A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Fratoni, M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-09-22

    Lithium is often the preferred choice as breeder and coolant in fusion blankets as it offers excellent heat transfer and corrosion properties, and most importantly, it has a very high tritium solubility and results in very low levels of tritium permeation throughout the facility infrastructure. However, lithium metal vigorously reacts with air and water and exacerbates plant safety concerns. For this reason, over the years numerous blanket concepts have been proposed with the scope of reducing concerns associated with lithium. The European helium cooled pebble bed breeding blanket (HCPB) physically confines lithium within ceramic pebbles. The pebbles reside within a low activation martensitic ferritic steel structure and are cooled by helium. The blanket is composed of the tritium breeding lithium ceramic pebbles and neutron multiplying beryllium pebbles. Other blanket designs utilize lead to lower chemical reactivity; LiPb alone can serve as a breeder, coolant, neutron multiplier, and tritium carrier. Blankets employing LiPb coolants alongside silicon carbide structural components can achieve high plant efficiency, low afterheat, and low operation pressures. This alloy can also be used alongside of helium such as in the dual-coolant lead-lithium concept (DCLL); helium is utilized to cool the first wall and structural components made up of low-activation ferritic steel, whereas lithium-lead (LiPb) acts as a self-cooled breeder in the inner channels of the blanket. The helium-cooled steel and lead-lithium alloy are separated by flow channel inserts (usually made out of silicon carbide) which thermally insulate the self-cooled breeder region from the helium cooled steel walls. This creates a LiPb breeder with a much higher exit temperature than the steel which increases the power cycle efficiency and also lowers the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) pressure drop [6]. Molten salt blankets with a mixture of lithium, beryllium, and fluorides (FLiBe) offer good tritium breeding

  14. Development and application of high strength ternary boride base cermets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Ken-ichi

    2006-01-01

    Reaction boronizing sintering is a novel strategy to form a ternary boride coexisting with a metal matrix in a cermet during liquid phase sintering. This new sintering technique has successfully developed world first ternary boride base cermets with excellent mechanical properties such as Mo 2 FeB 2 , Mo 2 NiB 2 and WCoB base ones. In these cermets Mo 2 FeB 2 and Mo 2 NiB 2 base ones consist of a tetragonal M 3 B 2 (M: metal)-type complex boride as a hard phase and a transition metal base matrix. The cermets have already been applied to wear resistant applications such as injection molding machine parts, can making tools, and hot copper extruding dies, etc. This paper focuses on the characteristics, effects of the additional elements on the mechanical properties and structure, and practical applications of the ternary boride base cermets. - Graphical abstract: TRS and hardness of Ni-5B-51Mo-17.5Cr and Ni-5B-51Mo-12.5Cr-5V-xMn mass% cermets as functions of Mn content (Fig. 17)

  15. Phase Equilibria of Sn-Co-Cu Ternary System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Kai; Hsu, Chia-Ming; Chen, Sinn-Wen; Chen, Chih-Ming; Huang, Yu-Chih

    2012-10-01

    Sn-Co-Cu ternary alloys are promising lead-free solders, and isothermal sections of Sn-Co-Cu phase equilibria are fundamentally important for the alloys' development and applications. Sn-Co-Cu ternary alloys were prepared and equilibrated at 523 K, 1073 K, and 1273 K (250 °C, 800 °C, and 1000 °C), and the equilibrium phases were experimentally determined. In addition to the terminal solid solutions and binary intermetallic compounds, a new ternary compound, Sn3Co2Cu8, was found. The solubilities of Cu in the α-CoSn3 and CoSn2 phases at 523 K (250 °C) are 4.2 and 1.6 at. pct, respectively, while the Cu solubility in the α-Co3Sn2 phase is as high as 20.0 at. pct. The Cu solubility increases with temperature and is around 30.0 at. pct in the β-Co3Sn2 at 1073 K (800 °C). The Co solubility in the η-Cu6Sn5 phase is also significant and is 15.5 at. pct at 523 K (250 °C).

  16. Phase equilibria of the Mo-Al-Ho ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yitai; Chen, Xiaoxian; Liu, Hao [Guangxi Univ., Nanning (China). College of Materials Science and Engineering; Guangxi Univ., Nanning (China). Guangxi Key Laboratory of Processing for Non-ferrous Metal and Featured Materials; Zhan, Yongzhong [Guangxi Univ., Nanning (China). College of Materials Science and Engineering; Guangxi Univ., Nanning (China). Guangxi Key Laboratory of Processing for Non-ferrous Metal and Featured Materials; Guangxi Univ., Nanning (China). Center of Ecological Collaborative Innovation for Aluminum Industry

    2017-08-15

    Investigation into the reactions and phase equilibria of transition metal elements (i.e. Mo, Zr, Cr, V and Ti), Al and rare earths is academically and industrially important for the development of both refractory alloys and lightweight high-temperature materials. In this work, the equilibria of the Mo-Al-Ho ternary system at 773 K have been determined by using X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray analysis. A new ternary phase Al{sub 4}Mo{sub 2}Ho has been found and the other ternary phase Al{sub 43}Mo{sub 4}Ho{sub 6} is observed. Ten binary phases in the Al-Mo and Al-Ho systems, including Al{sub 17}Mo{sub 4} rather than Al{sub 4}Mo, have been determined to exist at 773 K. The homogeneity ranges of AlMo{sub 3} and Al{sub 8}Mo{sub 3} phase are 7.5 at.% and 1 at.%, respectively. According to the phase-disappearing method, the maximum solubility of Al in Mo is about 16 at.%.

  17. Valence band electronic structure of Pd based ternary chalcogenide superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohani, H. [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400085 (India); Mishra, P. [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Goyal, R.; Awana, V.P.S. [National Physical Laboratory(CSIR), Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Sekhar, B.R., E-mail: sekhar@iopb.res.in [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • VB Photoemission study and DFT calculations on Pd based ternary superconductors are presented. • Nb{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.95}S{sub 5} shows a temperature dependent pseudogap. • VB spectral features of ternary superconductors are correlated to their structural geometry. - Abstract: We present a comparative study of the valence band electronic structure of Pd based ternary chalcogenide superconductors Nb{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.95}S{sub 5}, Ta{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.97}S{sub 6} and Ta{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.97}Te{sub 6} using experimental photoemission spectroscopy and density functional based theoretical calculations. We observe a qualitatively similarity between valence band (VB) spectra of Nb{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.95}S{sub 5} and Ta{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.97}S{sub 6}. Further, we find a pseudogap feature in Nb{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.95}S{sub 5} at low temperature, unlike other two compounds. We have correlated the structural geometry with the differences in VB spectra of these compounds. The different atomic packing in these compounds could vary the strength of inter-orbital hybridization among various atoms which leads to difference in their electronic structure as clearly observed in our DOS calculations.

  18. Superconductivity of ternary metal compounds prepared at high pressures

    CERN Document Server

    Shirotani, I

    2003-01-01

    Various ternary metal phosphides, arsenides, antimonides, silicides and germanides have been prepared at high temperatures and high pressures. These ternary metal compounds can be classified into four groups: [1] metal-rich compounds MM' sub 4 X sub 2 and [2] MM'X, [3] non-metal-rich compounds MXX' and [4] MM' sub 4 X sub 1 sub 2 (M and M' = metal element; X and X' = non-metal element). We have studied the electrical and magnetic properties of these materials at low temperatures, and found many new superconductors with the superconducting transition temperature (T sub c) of above 10 K. The metal-rich compound ZrRu sub 4 P sub 2 with a tetragonal structure showed the superconducting transition at around 11 K, and had an upper critical field (H sub c sub 2) of 12.2 tesla (T) at 0 K. Ternary equiatomic compounds ZrRuP and ZrRuSi crystallize in two modifications, a hexagonal Fe sub 2 P-type structure [h-ZrRuP(Si)] and an orthorhombic Co sub 2 P-type structure [o-ZrRuP(Si)]. Both h-ZrRuP and h-ZrRuSi have rather h...

  19. Study on the solid state chemistry of ternary uranium oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Toshiyuki

    1988-03-01

    With the increase of burnup of uranium oxide fuels, various kinds of fission products are formed, and the oxygen atoms combined with the consumed heavy atoms are freed. The solid state chemical and/or thermodynamic properties of these elements at high temperatures are complex, and have not been well clarified. In the present report, an approach was taken that the chemical interactions between UO 2 and these fission products can be regarded as causing overlapped effects of composing ternary uranium oxides, and formation reactions and phase behavior were studied for several ternary uranium oxides with typical fission product elements such as alkaline earth metals and rare earth elements. Precise determination methods for the composition of ternary uranium oxides were developed. The estimated accuracies for x and y values in M y U 1-y O 2+x were ± 0.006 and ± 0.004, respectively. The thermodynamic properties and the lattice parameters of the phases in the Ca-U-O and Pr-U-O systems were discussed in relation to the composition determined by the methods. Crystal structure analyses of cadmium monouranates were made with X-ray diffraction method. (author) 197 refs

  20. Realizing Ternary Logic in FPGAs for SWL DSP Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayeb Din

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently SWL (Short Word Length DSP (Digital Signal Processing applications has been proposed to overcome multiplier complexity that is evident in most of the digital applications. These SWL applications have been processed through sigma-delta modulation as a key element. For such applications, adder design plays vital role and can impact upon the chip area and its performance. In this paper, a ternary approach for adder tree has been proposed instead of binary that can accommodate more data with less chip-area at the cost of extra pin. The proposed ternary adder tree has been designed and developed in Quartus-II using three different design strategies namely T-gate (Ternary gate, LUT (Look Up Table and algebraic equations. Through rigorous simulation it was found that T-gate technique results in superior performance, an average of 23.5 and 33% improvement compared to the same adder structure based on Boolean Algebraic Equation and LUT, respectively. The proposed adder design would benefit the efficient implementation of SWL applications.

  1. Ternary fission of 184466,476X formed in U + U collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karthikraj, C.; Subramanian, S.; Selvaraj, S.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the very rare process of nuclear ternary fission has been of great interest in nuclear dynamics. Based on the statistical theory of fission, we discuss here the ternary-fission mass distribution of 184 466,476 X formed in low-energy U + U collisions for different heavy third fragments at T = 1 and 2 MeV. The expected ternary configurations 208 Pb + 208 Pb + 50 Ca and 204 Hg + 204 Hg + 58 Cr are obtained from the ternary fission of 184 466 X at T = 2 MeV. In addition, for both the systems, various possible ternary modes are listed for different heavy third fragments. Our results clearly indicate that the favored ternary configurations have either proton and/or neutron shell closure nucleus as one of their partners. (orig.)

  2. Influence of ferrite phase in alite-calcium sulfoaluminate cements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvallet, Tristana Yvonne Francoise

    Since the energy crisis in 1970's, research on low energy cements with low CO2- emissions has been increasing. Numerous solutions have been investigated, and the goal of this original research is to create a viable hybrid cement with the components of both Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and calcium sulfoaluminate cement (CSAC), by forming a material that contains both alite and calcium sulfoaluminate clinker phases. Furthermore, this research focuses on keeping the cost of this material reasonable by reducing aluminum requirements through its substitution with iron. The aim of this work would produce a cement that can use large amounts of red mud, which is a plentiful waste material, in place of bauxite known as an expensive raw material. Modified Bogue equations were established and tested to formulate this novel cement with different amounts of ferrite, from 5% to 45% by weight. This was followed by the production of cement from reagent chemicals, and from industrial by-products as feedstocks (fly ash, red mud and slag). Hydration processes, as well as the mechanical properties, of these clinker compositions were studied, along with the addition of gypsum and the impact of a ferric iron complexing additive triisopropanolamine (TIPA). To summarize this research, the influence of the addition of 5-45% by weight of ferrite phase, was examined with the goal of introducing as much red mud as possible in the process without negatively attenuate the cement properties. Based on this PhD dissertation, the production of high-iron alite-calcium sulfoaluminateferrite cements was proven possible from the two sources of raw materials. The hydration processes and the mechanical properties seemed negatively affected by the addition of ferrite, as this phase was not hydrated entirely, even after 6 months of curing. The usage of TIPA counteracted this decline in strength by improving the ferrite hydration and increasing the optimum amount of gypsum required in each composition

  3. Optimization of multiroute synthesis for polyaniline-barium ferrite composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Ghzaiel, Tayssir, E-mail: tayssir.ben-ghzaiel@satie.ens-cachan.fr [Université de Tunis El Manar Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, UR11ES18 Unité de Recherche de Chimie Minérale Appliquée, 2092, Tunis (Tunisia); SATIE, ENS Cachan, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, 61 av du Président Wilson, F-94230, Cachan (France); Dhaoui, Wadia [Université de Tunis El Manar Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, UR11ES18 Unité de Recherche de Chimie Minérale Appliquée, 2092, Tunis (Tunisia); Pasko, Alexander; Mazaleyrat, Frédéric [SATIE, ENS Cachan, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, 61 av du Président Wilson, F-94230, Cachan (France)

    2016-08-15

    A comparative study of physicochemical and magnetic properties of Polyaniline-BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} composites prepared by Solid-Based Polymerization (SBP) and by Aqueous-Based Polymerization (ABP) is carried out. The composites obtained by the latter method underwent a grinding to study the influence of shear stress. Thus, in a systematic approach, an investigation of stirring effect was done by synthesizing these composites using aqueous-based polymerization but without mechanical stirring. Different mass ratio of BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} was used to explore their impact on composites properties. X-ray diffraction, FTIR, SEM, TGA, conductivity and vibrating sample magnetometer measurements were performed. Structural and morphological investigations confirmed the presence of polyaniline and barium hexaferrite phase, which were in interaction in the composites regardless the polymerization route. The powder obtained by solid-based pathway revealed distinct particles with uniform distribution for various compositions (wt. %) of BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} in Pani, while the composites obtained by aqueous-based polymerization presented agglomerated nanostructures. Thermogravimetric analysis exhibited an improved thermal stability for Pani-BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} obtained by solid-based route. The electric conductivity has displayed decreasing trend of DC conductivity with the increase of BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} particles in the polymer matrix. Magnetic studies showed a ferromagnetic behaviour for all composites. The saturation magnetization monotonously increased with the increasing of BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} amount. The magnetic properties of the powders were mainly related to the hexaferrite loading which was determined using measured magnetic data. These results revealed that magnetization saturation was dependant of volume fraction of ferrite in the composites which was significantly affected by the reaction medium and mechanical stirring. The powders obtained by solid

  4. High-field superconductivity in the Nb-Ti-Zr ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ralls, K.M.; Rose, R.M.; Wulff, J.

    1980-01-01

    Resistive critical current densities, critical fields, and normal-state electrical resistivities were obtained at 4.2 0 K for 55 alloys in the Nb-Ti-Zr ternary alloy system, excepting Ti-Zr binary compositions. The resistive critical field as a function of ternary composition has a saddle point between the Nb-Ti and Nb-Zr binaries, so that ternary alloying in this system is not expected to result in higher critical fields than the binary alloys

  5. High-field superconductivity in the Nb-Ti-Zr ternary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralls, K. M.; Rose, R. M.; Wulff, J.

    1980-06-01

    Resistive critical current densities, critical fields, and normal-state electrical resistivities were obtained at 4.2 °K for 55 alloys in the Nb-Ti-Zr ternary alloy system, excepting Ti-Zr binary compositions. The resistive critical field as a function of ternary composition has a saddle point between the Nb-Ti and Nb-Zr binaries, so that ternary alloying in this system is not expected to result in higher critical fields than the binary alloys.

  6. Zr-Fe-Sn Ternary System Phase Diagrams- New Experimental Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieva, N; Gomez, A; Arias, D

    2004-01-01

    New experimental results for the Zr-Fe-Sn ternary system are presented in this paper. The phases present and equilibrium relations for the 900 o C isothermal on the central zone of the Gibbs triangle are analysed. A set of ternary alloys was designed and obtained, and they were analysed by semi quantitative SEM- EDS, XRD, and metallographic samples. The resulting ternary phase diagrams are presented here (JCH)

  7. Experimental study of the ternary Ag-Cu-In phase diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahari, Zahra; Elgadi, Mohamed; Rivet, Jacques; Dugue, Jerome

    2009-01-01

    The phase diagram of the Ag-Cu-In system was investigated using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). Two isothermal sections (at 510 and 607 deg. C) and 15 isopletic sections were studied. The results showed seven ternary peritectics, one ternary eutectic and one ternary metatectic. A complete reaction scheme was constructed, the valleys were drawn and the liquidus surfaces were derived from DSC data in the entire composition range.

  8. Experimental study of the ternary Ag-Cu-In phase diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahari, Zahra [Laboratoire de chimie physique et minerale, Faculte des sciences pharmaceutiques et biologiques, Universite Paris Descartes, avenue de l' Observatoire, 75006 Paris (France); Laboratoire de chimie du solide mineral (LCSM), Faculte des sciences, Universite Mohamed 1er, Route Sidi Maafa, B.P. 524, Oujda, Maroc (Morocco); Elgadi, Mohamed [Laboratoire de chimie du solide mineral (LCSM), Faculte des sciences, Universite Mohamed 1er, Route Sidi Maafa, B.P. 524, Oujda, Maroc (Morocco); Rivet, Jacques [Laboratoire de chimie physique et minerale, Faculte des sciences pharmaceutiques et biologiques, Universite Paris Descartes, avenue de l' Observatoire, 75006 Paris (France); Dugue, Jerome [Laboratoire de chimie physique et minerale, Faculte des sciences pharmaceutiques et biologiques, Universite Paris Descartes, avenue de l' Observatoire, 75006 Paris (France)], E-mail: jerome.dugue@univ-paris5.fr

    2009-05-27

    The phase diagram of the Ag-Cu-In system was investigated using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). Two isothermal sections (at 510 and 607 deg. C) and 15 isopletic sections were studied. The results showed seven ternary peritectics, one ternary eutectic and one ternary metatectic. A complete reaction scheme was constructed, the valleys were drawn and the liquidus surfaces were derived from DSC data in the entire composition range.

  9. Small-scale mechanical property characterization of ferrite formed during deformation of super-cooled austenite by nanoindentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Tae-Hong; Um, Kyung-Keun; Choi, Jong-Kyo; Kim, Do Hyun; Oh, Kyu Hwan; Kim, Miyoung; Han, Heung Nam

    2009-01-01

    The mechanical properties of dynamically and statically transformed ferrites were analyzed using a nanoindentater-EBSD (Electron BackScattered Diffraction) correlation technique, which can distinguish indenting positions according to the grains in the specimen. The dilatometry and the band slope and contrast maps by EBSD were used to evaluate the volume fractions of two kinds of ferrite and pearlite. Fine ferrites induced by a dynamic transformation had higher nano-hardness than the statically transformed coarse ferrites. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed the dynamic ferrites to have a higher dislocation density than the statically transformed ferrites.

  10. The influence of the heat treatment on delta ferrite transformation in austenitic stainless steel welds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Mateša

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Shielded metal arc (SMAW welded specimens using austenitic consumable materials with different amount of delta-ferrite are annealed in range 650-750 °C through 2-10 hours. Factorial plan 33 with influenced factors regression analyze of measured delta-ferrite values is used. The transformation i.e. decomposition of delta ferrite during annealing was analyzed regarding on weld cracking resistance using metallographic examination and WRC-1992 diagram.

  11. Manganese substituted cobalt ferrite magnetostrictive materials for magnetic stress sensor applications

    OpenAIRE

    Paulsen, J. A.; Ring, A. P.; Lo, C. C. H.; Snyder, John Evan; Jiles, David

    2005-01-01

    Metal bonded cobalt ferrite composites have been shown to be promising candidate materials for use in magnetoelastic stress sensors, due to their large magnetostriction and high sensitivity of magnetization to stress. However previous results have shown that below 60 °C the cobalt ferrite material exhibits substantial magnetomechanical hysteresis. In the current study, measurements indicate that substituting Mn for some of the Fe in the cobalt ferrite can lower the Curie temperature of the ma...

  12. New design concepts for ferrite-tuned low-energy-booster cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffer, G.

    1991-05-01

    The design concepts for ferrite-tuned accelerating cavities discussed in this paper differ from conventional solutions using thick ferrite toroids for frequency tuning. Instead, tuners consisting of an array of ferrite-loaded striplines are investigated. These promise more efficient cooling and higher operational reliability. Layout examples for the SSC-LEB rf system are presented (tuning range 47.5 to 59.8 MHz, repetition frequency 10 Hz). 15 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  13. Electromagnetic absorption behaviour of ferrite loaded three phase carbon fabric composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagatheesan, Krishnasamy; Ramasamy, Alagirusamy; Das, Apurba; Basu, Ananjan

    2018-02-01

    This article investigates the electromagnetic absorption behaviours of carbon helical yarn fabric reinforced composites and manganese-zinc (Mn-Zn) ferrite particles loaded 3 phase fabric composites. A carbon helical yarn having stainless steel core was prepared and made into single jersey knitted fabric. The composite was prepared by sandwiching a fabric with polypropylene films and thermal pressed. The absorption values of helical yarn fabric composite was observed to be less in the C band region (4-8 GHz). For improving the absorption coefficients of composite, Mn-Zn ferrite particles were dispersed in the polypropylene (PP) composite. The ferrite loaded PP composites exhibited better permittivity and permeability values, hence the absorption loss of the composite was improved. The helical yarn fabric reinforced with Mn-Zn ferrite/PP composite showed larger absorption coefficients than virgin PP/fabric composite. The change in thermal stability and particle size distribution in the Mn-Zn ferrite/PP composite was also analyzed. At higher ferrite concentration, bimodal particle distribution was observed which increased the conductivity and shielding effectiveness (SE) of the composite. In addition, complex permittivity value was also increased for higher incident frequency (4-8 GHz). As the ferrite content increases, the dielectric loss and magnetic permeability of PP/ferrite increases due to increased magnetic loss. Hence, ferrite loaded PP composite showed the total SE of -14.2 dB with the absorption coefficients of 0.717. The S1C7 fabric composite having ferrite dispersion showed the better absorption loss and lower reflection coefficient of 14.2 dB and 0.345 respectively compared to virgin PP/helical yarn fabric composite. The increasing ferrite content (45 wt%) improved the absorption loss and total SE. Though, ferrite based fabric composite exhibits moderate absorptive shielding, it can be used as shielding panels in the electronic industries.

  14. Diffusion Couple Alloying of Refractory Metals in Austenitic and Ferritic/Martensitic Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    stainless steel and ferritic/ martensitic steel can vary from structural and support components in the reactor core to reactor fuel...of ferritic/ martensitic steels compared to type 316 stainless steel after irradiation in Experimental Breeder Reactor-II at 420 ºC to ~80dpa (From...ferritic martensitic steel at Sandia National Laboratories. The 316 stainless steel had a certified composition of:

  15. Friction Stir Welding of HT9 Ferritic-Martensitic Steel: An Assessment of Microstructure and Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    report of FSW on a ferritic- martensitic stainless steel is the work of Chung, which applied this approach to a dissimilar weld between F82H (ferritic... martensitic ) and SUS304 (austenitic stainless ) [43]. 7 D. CORROSION OF FERRITIC/ MARTENSITIC STEELS IN HIGH TEMPERATURE MOLTEN SALT COOLANTS In...Philadelphia, PA, 1992, pp. 1267–1286, March 1990. [15] S. Rosenwasser, ―The application of martensitic stainless steels in a lifelong fusion first wall

  16. Design and screening of nanoprecipitates-strengthened advanced ferritic alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Lizhen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Yang, Ying [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Chen, Tianyi [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sridharan, K. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); He, Li [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-12-30

    Advanced nuclear reactors as well as the life extension of light water reactors require advanced alloys capable of satisfactory operation up to neutron damage levels approaching 200 displacements per atom (dpa). Extensive studies, including fundamental theories, have demonstrated the superior resistance to radiation-induced swelling in ferritic steels, primarily inherited from their body-centered cubic (bcc) structure. This study aims at developing nanoprecipitates strengthened advanced ferritic alloys for advanced nuclear reactor applications. To be more specific, this study aims at enhancing the amorphization ability of some precipitates, such as Laves phase and other types of intermetallic phases, through smart alloying strategy, and thereby promote the crystalline®amorphous transformation of these precipitates under irradiation.

  17. Synthesis, characterization and antistructure modeling of Ni nano ferrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, S. N.; Raghuvanshi, S.; Satalkar, M.; Reddy, V. R.; Deshpande, U. P.; Tatarchuk, T. R.; Mazaleyrat, F.

    2018-05-01

    We report the role played by cation distribution in determining magnetic properties by comparing dry gel, thermally annealed Ni ferrite prepared by sol-gel auto-combustion technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Mössbauer spectroscopy were used to characterize the samples. Both XRD and Mössbauer measurements validate the formation of spinel phase with grain diameter 39.13-45.53 nm. First time antistructural modeling for Ni ferrite is reported to get information on active surface centers. Decrease of Debye temperature θD in annealed sample shows enhancement of lattice vibrations. With thermal annealing experimental and Néel magnetic moment (nBe, nBN) increases, suggesting migration of Ni2+ from B to A site with concurrent migration of Fe3+ from A to B site (non-equilibrium cationic distribution), affecting magnetic properties.

  18. The nucleation of austenite in ferritic ductile cast iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, J.M.; Hon, M.H.; Lee, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    Austempered ductile cast iron has recently been receiving increasing attention because of its excellent combination of strength and ductility. Since the austenitization process has a significant influence on the mechanical properties of austempered ductile cast iron, several investigations on the nucleation sites of austenite and diffusion paths of carbon from spheroidal graphite have been reported in ferritic ductile cast iron. However, agreement on this subject has not ben reached. The purpose of this paper is to study the preferential nucleation sites of austenite during austenitization at two austenitizing temperatures in ferritic ductile cast iron. An attempt was made to understand the reasons which give rise to preferential austenite nucleation sites. The carbon diffusion paths from spheroidal graphite were also investigated

  19. Chromium Enrichment on P11 Ferritic Steel by Pack Cementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fauzi F. A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The future thermal power plant is expected to operate at higher temperature to improve its efficiency and to reduce greenhouse gas emission. This target requires better corrosion properties of ferritic steels, which commonly used as materials for superheater and reheater of boiler tubes. In this work, chromium enrichment on the surface of ferritic steel is studied. The deposited chromium is expected to become a reservoir for the formation of chromia protective layer. Chromium was deposited on the substrate of steel by pack cementation process for two hours at the temperature of 850ºC, 950ºC and 1050ºC, respectively. XRD analysis indicated that chromium was successfully deposited at all temperatures. Somehow, SEM cross sectional image showed that continuous layer of chromium was not continuously formed at 850oC. Therefore, this research clarify that chromium enrichment by pack cementation may be conducted at the temperature above 950°C.

  20. Magnetodielectric effect of Mn–Zn ferrite at resonant frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pengfei, Pan; Ning, Zhang

    2016-01-01

    The dielectric properties and the magnetodielectric effect in Mn–Zn ferrite at resonant frequency have been studied in this paper. Dimensional-resonance-induced abnormal dielectric spectrum was observed at f≈1 MHz. The relatively large magnetodielectric ratio of 4500% in a magnetic field of 3.5 kOe was achieved from the Mn–Zn ferrite sample with the initial permeability of 15 K at resonant frequency at room temperature. Theoretical analysis suggests that the large MD effect at resonant frequency is attributed to the enhanced magnetostriction effect. - Highlights: • Dimensional resonance was measured in dielectric spectrum at f≈1 MHz. • The MD ratio of 4500% was induced by H = 3.5 kOe at resonant frequency. • The magnetostriction effect leads to the large MD effect at resonant frequency.

  1. Studies on structural properties of clay magnesium ferrite nano composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Manpreet, E-mail: manpreetchem@pau.edu; Singh, Mandeep [Department of Chemistry, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004 (India); Jeet, Kiran, E-mail: kiranjeet@pau.edu; Kaur, Rajdeep [Electron Microscopy and Nanoscience Laboratory, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004 (India)

    2015-08-28

    Magnesium ferrite-bentonite clay composite was prepared by sol-gel combustion method employing citric acid as complexing agent and fuel. The effect of clay on the structural properties was studied with X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), SEM- Energy dispersive Spectroscope (EDS) and BET surface area analyzer. Decrease in particle size and density was observed on addition of bentonite clay. The BET surface area of nano composite containing just 5 percent clay was 74.86 m{sup 2}/g. Whereas porosity increased from 40.5 per cent for the pure magnesium ferrite to 81.0 percent in the composite showing that nano-composite has potential application as an adsorbent.

  2. Influence of metallic additives on manganese ferrites sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevelev, S. A.; Luchnikov, P. A.; Yarullina, A. R.

    2018-01-01

    Influence of cuprum nanopowder additive received by electric explosion on the process of manganese ferrites MgFe2O4 consolidating at thermal sintering was researched by dilatometry method. Cuprum nanopowder at a rate of 5 mass % was added into the original commercial-grade powder of manganese ferrite MgFe2O4. Powder mixture was numerously blended with screening for better blending before pressing. Powder compacts were formed by cold one-axle static pressing. It was proved that introduction of cuprum additive caused shrinkage increase at final heating stage. There was abnormal compact enlarging at sintering in the air at isothermal stage; the specified process was not observed in vacuum. This difference can be explained by changes in conditions of gaseous discharge from volume of pores.

  3. Preparation of lanthanum ferrite powder at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andoulsi, R.; Horchani-Naifer, K.; Ferid, M., E-mail: karima_horchani@yahoo.com [Physical Chemistry Laboratory of Mineral Materials and their Applications, Hammam-Lif (Tunisia)

    2012-01-15

    Single lanthanum ferrite phase was successfully prepared at low processing temperature using the polymerizable complex method. To implement this work, several techniques such as differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and BET surface area measurements were used. Throw the obtained results, it was shown that steps of preparing the powder precursor and temperature of its calcination are critical parameters for avoiding phase segregation and obtaining pure lanthanum ferrite compound. Thus, a single perovskite phase was obtained at 600 deg C. At this temperature, the powder was found to be fine and homogeneous with an average crystallite size of 13 nm and a specific surface area of 12.5 m{sup 2}.g{sup -1}. (author)

  4. Beam test of ferrite absorber in TRISTAN MR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, T.; Asano, K.; Furuya, T.; Ishi, Y.; Kijima, Y.; Mitsunobu, S.; Sennyu, K.; Takahashi, T.

    1996-06-01

    A study on the effect of beams on the ferrite absorber was performed using TRISTAN MR. The tested absorber consists of a 300 mm-diam. copper pipe with 4 mm-thick ferrite inner layer, which was fabricated with Hot Isostatic Press (HIP) technique. No spark, damage, or degradation were observed up to the highest available single bunch current of 4.4 mA, i.e. 2.8x10 11 electrons per bunch, which is 8.5 times higher than that of KEKB low energy ring. The loss factor showed significant increase with bunch shortening, e.g. 2.6 V/pC at 4 mm was about 40% higher than the value predicted by the calculation assuming Gaussian bunch and no incoming power from outside of the chamber. (author)

  5. Ferrite nanoparticles: Synthesis, characterisation and applications in electronic device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kefeni, Kebede K., E-mail: kkefeni@gmail.com; Msagati, Titus A.M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Available synthesis methods of ferrite nanoparticles (FNPs) are briefly reviewed. • Summary of the advantage and limitation of FNPs synthesis techniques are presented. • The existing most common FNPs characterisation techniques are briefly reviewed. • Major application areas of FNPs in electronic materials are reviewed. - Abstract: Ferrite nanoparticles (FNPs) have attracted a great interest due to their wide applications in several areas such as biomedical, wastewater treatment, catalyst and electronic device. This review focuses on the synthesis, characterisation and application of FNPs in electronic device with more emphasis on the recently published works. The most commonly used synthesis techniques along with their advantages and limitations are discussed. The available characterisation techniques and their application in electronic materials such as sensors and biosensors, energy storage, microwave device, electromagnetic interference shielding and high-density recording media are briefly reviewed.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of nano silver ferrite composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, Y.L.N.; Kondala Rao, T.; Kasi viswanath, I.V.; Singh, Rajendra

    2010-01-01

    We report the synthesis of nano sized silver ferrite composite having the empirical formula AgFeO 2 by a co-precipitation method. The resulting powders are thin platelets, transparent and a rich ruby red in color in transmission. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) powder data consisted of only nine reflections, and the analysis showed the unit cell to be rhombohedral. The powders showed extensive XRD line broadening and the sizes of the crystals are calculated to be in the range 4-36.5 nm. The morphology of the silver ferrite composite studied using scanning electron microscope showed nano sized particles. The particle size is found to increase with increase in annealing temperature. The magnetic behavior, measured using a vibrating sample magnetometer, indicated a change from paramagnetic to ferromagnetic with increase in particle size.

  7. Development of ferritic steels for reduced activation: the US program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klueh, R.L.; Gelles, D.S.; Lechtenberg, T.A.

    1986-01-01

    The Cr-Mo ferritic (martensitic) steels are candidates for the structural components of fusion reactors. Irradiation of such steels in a fusion environment produces long-lived radioactive isotopes, which lead to difficult radioactive waste disposal problems once the structure is removed from service. Such problems could be reduced by using steels that contain only elements that produce radioactive isotopes that decay to low levels in a reasonable time (tens of years instead of hundreds or thousands of years). The US Department of Energy has a program to develop steels to meet the criteria for shallow land burial as opposed to deep geologic storage. A review of the alloy development programs indicates that ferritic steels that meet these criteria can be developed

  8. On the corrosion resistance of 01Kh25 ferritic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eremeeva, R.A.; Koval', E.K.

    1989-01-01

    Effect of non-ferrous metal ions on corrosion behaviour of 01Kh25 specific low carbon steel as compared to austenitic 12Kh18N10T and 06KhN28MDT steels in boiling solutions of sulfuric and nitric acids and their mixture is studied. Compositions initating commercial ones are chosen the media. It is shown that trough corrosion resistance of 01Kh25 steel in 10% H 2 SO 4 is two order below 06KhN28MDT austenitic steel in presence of Cu 2+ ions as a result of the surface passivation corrosion resistance of ferritic steel is an order higher the austenitic ones. Ferrite steel resistance in the nitric acid and its mixture with sulfuric acid is five timesas much as in 12Kh18N10T austenitic steel

  9. Solubility of nickel-cadmium ferrite in acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vol'ski, V.; Vol'ska, Eh.; Politan'ska, U.

    1977-01-01

    The solubility of a solid solution of nickel-cadmium ferrite containing an excess of ferric oxide, (CdO)sub(0.5), (NiO)sub(0.5) and (Fe 2 O 3 )sub(1.5), in hydrochloric and nitric acids at 20, 40 and 60 deg C, was determined colorimetrically and chelatometrically, as well as by studying the x-ray diffraction patterns of the preparations prior to dissolution and their residues after dissolution. It is shown that cadmium passes into the solution faster than iron and nickel; after 800 hours, the solution contains 40% of iron ions and more than 80% of cadmium ions. The kinetics of ferrite dissolution is studied

  10. Nonlinear surface waves at ferrite-metamaterial waveguide structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hissi, Nour El Houda; Mokhtari, Bouchra; Eddeqaqi, Noureddine Cherkaoui; Shabat, Mohammed Musa; Atangana, Jacques

    2016-09-01

    A new ferrite slab made of a metamaterial (MTM), surrounded by a nonlinear cover cladding and a ferrite substrate, was shown to support unusual types of electromagnetic surface waves. We impose the boundary conditions to derive the dispersion relation and others necessary to formulate the proposed structure. We analyse the dispersion properties of the nonlinear surface waves and we calculate the associated propagation index and the film-cover interface nonlinearity. In the calculation, several sets of the permeability of the MTM are considered. Results show that the waves behaviour depends on the values of the permeability of the MTM, the thickness of the waveguide and the film-cover interface nonlinearity. It is also shown that the use of the singular solutions to the electric field equation allows to identify several new properties of surface waves which do not exist in conventional waveguide.

  11. Electromagnetic properties of photodefinable barium ferrite polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholiyi, Olusegun; Lee, Jaejin; Williams, John D.

    2014-07-01

    This article reports the magnetic and microwave properties of a Barium ferrite powder suspended in a polymer matrix. The sizes for Barium hexaferrite powder are 3-6 μm for coarse and 0.8-1.0 μm for the fine powder. Ratios 1:1 and 3:1 (by mass) of ferrite to SU8 samples were characterized and analyzed for predicting the necessary combinations of these powders with SU8 2000 Negative photoresist. The magnetization properties of these materials were equally determined and were analyzed using Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM). The Thru, Reflect, Line (TRL) calibration technique was employed in determining complex relative permittivity and permeability of the powders and composites with SU8 between 26.5 and 40 GHz.

  12. Electromagnetic properties of photodefinable barium ferrite polymer composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusegun Sholiyi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the magnetic and microwave properties of a Barium ferrite powder suspended in a polymer matrix. The sizes for Barium hexaferrite powder are 3–6 μm for coarse and 0.8–1.0 μm for the fine powder. Ratios 1:1 and 3:1 (by mass of ferrite to SU8 samples were characterized and analyzed for predicting the necessary combinations of these powders with SU8 2000 Negative photoresist. The magnetization properties of these materials were equally determined and were analyzed using Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM. The Thru, Reflect, Line (TRL calibration technique was employed in determining complex relative permittivity and permeability of the powders and composites with SU8 between 26.5 and 40 GHz.

  13. Microstructure characterization and cation distribution of nanocrystalline cobalt ferrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, Y.M., E-mail: ymabbas@live.com [Suez Canal University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Ismailia (Egypt); Mansour, S.A.; Ibrahim, M.H. [Suez Canal University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Ismailia (Egypt); Ali, Shehab E., E-mail: shehab_physics@yahoo.com [Suez Canal University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Ismailia (Egypt)

    2011-11-15

    Nanocrystalline cobalt ferrite has been synthesized using two different methods: ceramic and co-precipitation techniques. The nanocrystalline ferrite phase has been formed after 3 h of sintering at 1000 deg. C. The structural and microstructural evolutions of the nanophase have been studied using X-ray powder diffraction and the Rietveld method. The refinement result showed that the type of the cationic distribution over the tetrahedral and octahedral sites in the nanocrystalline lattice is partially an inverse spinel. The transmission electronic microscope analysis confirmed the X-ray results. The magnetic properties of the samples were characterized using a vibrating sample magnetometer. - Highlights: > The refinement result showed that the cationic distribution over the sites in the lattice is partially an inverse spinel. > The transmission electronic microscope analysis confirmed the X-ray results. > The magnetic properties of the samples were characterized using a vibrating sample magnetometer.

  14. Microstructure characterization and cation distribution of nanocrystalline cobalt ferrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, Y.M.; Mansour, S.A.; Ibrahim, M.H.; Ali, Shehab E.

    2011-01-01

    Nanocrystalline cobalt ferrite has been synthesized using two different methods: ceramic and co-precipitation techniques. The nanocrystalline ferrite phase has been formed after 3 h of sintering at 1000 deg. C. The structural and microstructural evolutions of the nanophase have been studied using X-ray powder diffraction and the Rietveld method. The refinement result showed that the type of the cationic distribution over the tetrahedral and octahedral sites in the nanocrystalline lattice is partially an inverse spinel. The transmission electronic microscope analysis confirmed the X-ray results. The magnetic properties of the samples were characterized using a vibrating sample magnetometer. - Highlights: → The refinement result showed that the cationic distribution over the sites in the lattice is partially an inverse spinel. → The transmission electronic microscope analysis confirmed the X-ray results. → The magnetic properties of the samples were characterized using a vibrating sample magnetometer.

  15. Microstructure development of welding joints in high Cr ferritic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubushiro, Keiji; Takahashi, Satoshi; Morishima, Keiko [IHI Corporation (Japan). Research Lab.

    2010-07-01

    Creep failure in high Cr ferritic steels welding joints are Type IV failure. Type IV-failure was ruptured in fine grained region of heat affected zone, microstructure and phase transformation process at welding in fine grained region were very important to clarify. Microstructure difference of heat affected zone was investigated in Gr.91, Gr.92, Gr.122 welding joint. The fraction of 60 degree block boundary, packet boundary, random boundary (including prior gamma boundary) length was compared in three ferritic steels by EBSP(Electron Backscatter Diffraction Pattern) analysis. HAZ was almost fully martensite phase in Gr.122 weld joint. On the other hand, HAZ in Gr.91 welding joint were some equiaxial grain and martensite structure. (orig.)

  16. Optimization of the behavior of CTAB coated cobalt ferrite nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Mukesh; Bhatnagar, Mukesh Chander

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we have synthesized cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) mixed cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles (NPs) using sol-gel auto-combustion method taking a different weight percent ratio of CTAB i.e., 0%, 1%, 2%, 3% and 4% with respect to metal nitrates. The morphological, structural and magnetic properties of these NPs are characterized by high resolution transmitted electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectrometer and physical property measurement system (PPMS). It has been found that saturation magnetization of cobalt ferrite increases with increase in crystalline size of the NPs. Saturation magnetization and crystallite size both were found to be lowest in the case of sample containing 2% CTAB.

  17. Structural and magnetic study of dysprosium substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Hemaunt, E-mail: hvatsal@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agr. & Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand 263145 (India); Srivastava, R.C. [Department of Physics, Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agr. & Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand 263145 (India); Pal Singh, Jitendra [Advanced Analysis Centre, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 02792 (Korea, Republic of); Negi, P. [Department of Physics, Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agr. & Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand 263145 (India); Agrawal, H.M. [Advanced Analysis Centre, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 02792 (Korea, Republic of); Das, D. [UGC-DAE CSR Kolkata Centre, Kolkata 700098 (India); Hwa Chae, Keun [Advanced Analysis Centre, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 02792 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-01

    The present work investigates the magnetic behavior of Dy{sup 3+} substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction studies reveal presence of cubic spinel phases in these nanoparticles. Raman spectra of these nanoparticles show change in intensity of Raman bands, which reflects cation redistribution in cubic spinel lattice. Saturation magnetization and coercivity decrease with increase of Dy{sup 3+}concentration in these nanoparticles. Room temperature Mössbauer measurements show the cation redistribution in these nanoparticles and corroborates the results obtained from Raman Spectroscopic measurements. Decrease in magnetization of Dy{sup 3+} substituted cobalt ferrite is attributed to the reduction in the magnetic interaction and cation redistribution. - Highlights: • Slight decrease in crystallite size after Dy{sup 3+} doping. • Saturation magnetization and coercivity decrease after Dy{sup 3+} doping. • Mössbauer measurements show the cation redistribution in the samples.

  18. Residual stress studies of austenitic and ferritic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrenko, R.M.

    1978-01-01

    Residual studies have been made on austenitic and ferritic steels of the types used as structural materials. The residual stress results presented here will include residual stress measurements in the heat-affected zone on butt welded Type 304 stainless steel pipes, and the stresses induced in Type 304 austenitic stainless steel and Type A508 ferritic steel by several surface preparations. Such surface preparation procedures as machining and grinding can induce large directionality effects in the residual stresses determined by X-ray techniques and some typical data will be presented. A brief description is given of the mobile X-ray residual stress apparatus used to obtain most of the data in these studies. (author)

  19. Dielectric behaviour of erbium substituted Mn–Zn ferrites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. Dielectric properties such as dielectric constant (ε′) and dielectric loss tangent (tan δ) of mixed. Mn–Zn–Er ferrites having the compositional formula Mn0⋅58Zn0⋅37Fe2⋅05–xErxO4 (where x = 0⋅2, 0⋅4, 0⋅6, 0⋅8 and. 1⋅0) were measured at room temperature in the frequency range 1–13 MHz using a HP ...

  20. The magnetic properties of aligned M hexa-ferrite fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pullar, R.C.; Bhattacharya, A.K.

    2006-01-01

    Aligned and random fibres of strontium hexa ferrite (SrM, SrFe 12 O 19 ) and barium hexaferrite (BaM, BaFe 12 O 19 ) were manufactured by blow spinning from an aqueous inorganic sol-gel precursor, which was then fired to give the hexagonal ferrite fibre. Their magnetic properties were studied by VSM, investigating the evolution of these properties with firing and measurement temperature, and in particular the effects of fibre alignment. It has been predicted that aligned ferrite fibres will demonstrate an enhanced magnetisation along the axis of alignment with respect to perpendicular to the axis, and this has been demonstrated here for the first time. The optimum firing temperature was 1000 deg. C, at which point they still had submicron grains. In BaM random fibres M s =63.8 emu g -1 and H c =428.1 kA m -1 , and in SrM random fibres M s =63.3 emu g -1 and H c =452.8 kA m -1 , high values for polycrystalline materials. Fibres aligned parallel to the applied field had saturation magnetisation (M s ) values equal to those of the random fibres, whilst fibres aligned perpendicular to the field had M s values 62% and 75% lower, for BaM and SrM, respectively. There was no change in coercivity (H c ) between random or aligned fibres of any orientation, and fibres aligned 45 deg. and parallel to H appeared identical. Therefore, properties along the axis of alignment were superior when compared to measurements perpendicular to the axis of alignment, giving a directionality to the magnetisation in an otherwise randomly oriented ferrite material

  1. Temperature dependence of sound velocity in yttrium ferrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'vov, V.A.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of the phonon-magnon and phonon-phonon interoctions on the temperature dependence of the longitudinal sound velocity in yttrium ferrite is considered. It has been shown that at low temperatures four-particle phonon-magnon processes produce the basic contribution to renormalization of the sound velocity. At higher temperatures the temperature dependence of the sound velocity is mainly defined by phonon-phonon processes

  2. Effect of particle size on degree of inversion in ferrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddique, M.; Butt, N.M.

    2012-01-01

    Ferrites with the spinel structure are important materials because of their structural, magnetic and electrical properties. The suitability of these materials depends on both the intrinsic behavior of the material and the effects of the grain size. Moessbauer spectroscopy was employed to investigate the cation distribution and degree of inversion in bulk and nano sized particles of CuFe/sub 2/O/sub 4/, MnFe/sub 2/O/sub 4/ and NiFe/sub 2/O/sub 4/ ferrites. The Moessbauer spectra of all bulk ferrites showed complete magnetic behavior, whereas nanoparticle ferrites showed combination of ferromagnetic and superparamagnetic components. Moreover, the cation distribution in nanoparticle materials was also found to be different to that of their bulk counterparts indicating the particle size dependency. The inversion of Cu and Ni ions in bulk sample was greater than that of nanoparticles; whereas the inversion of Mn ions was less in bulk material as compared to the nanoparticles. Hence the degree of inversion decreased in CuFe/sub 2/O/sub 4/ and NiFe/sub 2/O/sub 4/ samples whereas, it increased in MnFe/sub 2/O/sub 4/ as the particle size decreased and thus showed the anomalous behavior in this case. The nanoparticle samples also showed paramagnetic behaviour due to superparamagnetism and this effect is more prominent in MnFe/sub 2/O/sub 4/. Moessbauer spectra of bulk and nanoparticles CuFe/sub 2/O/sub 4/ is shown. (Orig./A.B.)

  3. Oriented Y-typehexagonal ferrite thin films prepared by chemical

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buršík, Josef; Kužel, R.; Knížek, Karel; Drbohlav, Ivo

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 203, JULY (2013), s. 100-105 ISSN 0022-4596 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-03708S Institutional support: RVO:61388980 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : Y-type hexagonal ferrites * chemical solution deposition * thin films * epitaxial growth Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry; BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism (FZU-D) Impact factor: 2.200, year: 2013

  4. Investigation of some characteristics for nickel ferrite prepared by aerosolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Masry, M.A.A.; Khater, E.M.H.; Gaber, A.

    1997-01-01

    In this report some characteristics of nickel ferrite powder prepared through the aerosolization technique by atomization were investigated. It was found that both concentration of the solution and temperature affect the powder characteristics. The increase of the pyrolysis temperature increases both the degree of crystallinity and particle size but decreases the specific surface area. Lowering the concentration of the solution. raises the decomposition efficiency and produces lower yield with smaller particle size. 9 figs., 1 tab

  5. Internal stresses in an austeno-ferritic duplex stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhaeghe, B.; Brechet, Y.; Louchet, F.; Massoud, J.P.; Touzeau, D.

    1996-04-01

    Austeno-ferritic duplex steels possess microstructures containing comparable volume fractions of hard and soft phases which are bi-percolated. They are therefore liable to develop large internal stresses during straining. The evolution and the relaxation of these stresses and the occurrence of damage are characterized using Bauschinger tests. Thermally aged and non-aged material behaviour are compared. Plastic flow in the hard phase is shown to be significantly efficient in releasing these internal stresses. (authors). 15 refs., 8 figs

  6. Radiation induced microstructural evolution in ferritic/martensitic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohno, Y.; Kohyama, A.; Asakura, K.; Gelles, D.S.

    1993-01-01

    R and D of ferritic/martensitic steels as structural materials for fusion reactor is one of the most important issues of fusion technology. The efforts to characterize microstructural evolution under irradiation in the conventional Fe-Cr-Mo steels as well as newly developed Fe-Cr-Mn or Fe-Cr-W low activation ferritic/ martensitic steels have been continued. This paper provides some of the recent results of heavy irradiation effects on the microstructural evolution of ferritic/martensitic steels neutron irradiated in the FFTF/MOTA (Fast Flux Test Facility/Materials Open Test Assembly). Materials examined are Fe-10Cr-2Mo dual phase steel (JFMS: Japanese Ferritic/Martensitic Steel), Fe-12Cr-XMn-1Mo manganese stabilized martensitic steels and Fe-8Cr-2W Tungsten stabilized low activation martensitic steel (F82H). JFMS showed excellent void swelling resistance similar to 12Cr martensitic steel such as HT-9, while the manganese stabilized steels and F82H showed less void swelling resistance with small amount of void swelling at 640-700 K (F82H: 0.14% at 678 K). As for irradiation response of precipitate behavior, significant formation of intermetallic χ phase was observed in the manganese stabilized steels along grain boundaries which is though to cause mechanical property degradation. On the other hand, precipitates identified were the same type as those in unirradiated condition in F82H with no recognition of irradiation induced precipitates, which suggested satisfactory mechanical properties of F82H after the irradiation. (author)

  7. The superspin glass transition in zinc ferrite nanoparticles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaman, Ondřej; Kořínková, T.; Jirák, T.; Maryško, Miroslav; Veverka, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 117, č. 17 (2015), "17C706-1"-"17C706-4" ISSN 0021-8979 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/0807; GA ČR GAP204/10/0035 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : superspin glass * zinc ferrite * doped magnetite * magnetic nanoparticles * thermal decomposition Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.101, year: 2015

  8. Path E alloys: ferritic material development for magnetic fusion energy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, J.J.

    1980-09-01

    The application of ferritic materials in irradiation environments has received greatly expanded attention in the last few years, both internationally and in the United States. Ferritic materials are found to be resistant to irradiation damage and have in many cases superior properties to those of AISI 316. It has been shown that for magnetic fusion energy applications the low thermal expansion behavior of the ferritic alloy class will result in lower thermal stresses during reactor operation, leading to significantly longer ETF operating lifetimes. The Magnetic Fusion Energy Program therefore now includes a ferritic alloy option for alloy selection and this option has been designated Path E

  9. Level Set-Based Topology Optimization for the Design of an Electromagnetic Cloak With Ferrite Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otomori, Masaki; Yamada, Takayuki; Andkjær, Jacob Anders

    2013-01-01

    . A level set-based topology optimization method incorporating a fictitious interface energy is used to find optimized configurations of the ferrite material. The numerical results demonstrate that the optimization successfully found an appropriate ferrite configuration that functions as an electromagnetic......This paper presents a structural optimization method for the design of an electromagnetic cloak made of ferrite material. Ferrite materials exhibit a frequency-dependent degree of permeability, due to a magnetic resonance phenomenon that can be altered by changing the magnitude of an externally...

  10. Fabrication and electromagnetic properties of flake ferrite particles based on diatomite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Deyuan; Zhang Wenqiang; Cai Jun

    2011-01-01

    Hexagonal ferrite BaZn 1.1 Co 0.9 Fe 16 O 27 coated surfaces of diatomite flakes of low density were synthesized by a sol-gel method. The phase structures, morphologies, particle size and chemical compositions of the composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The results show that hexagonal ferrite coated diatomite flakes can be achieved, and that the coating consisted of BaZn 1.1 Co 0.9 Fe 16 O 27 nanoparticles. The vibranting sample magnetometer results reveal that the flake ferrite particles have static magnetic properties. The complex permeability and permittivity of the composites were measured in the frequency range of 1-18 GHz. The microwave absorption properties of these ferrite particles are discussed. The results indicate that the flake ferrites have the potential to be used as a lightweight broad band microwave absorber. - Highlights: → We synthesize the flake ferrite particles using diatomite as a template. → Flake ferrite particles' coating layers are constituted by BaZn 1.1 Co 0.9 Fe 16 O 27 nanoparticles. → Flake ferrite particles have good static magnetic properties.→ Flake ferrites are a kind lightweight broad band microwave absorber.

  11. Fabrication and electromagnetic properties of flake ferrite particles based on diatomite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Deyuan [Bionic and Micro/Nano/Bio Manufacturing Technology Research Center, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhang Wenqiang, E-mail: zwqzwqzwqzwq@126.com [Bionic and Micro/Nano/Bio Manufacturing Technology Research Center, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Cai Jun, E-mail: jun_cai@buaa.edu.cn [Bionic and Micro/Nano/Bio Manufacturing Technology Research Center, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2011-09-15

    Hexagonal ferrite BaZn{sub 1.1}Co{sub 0.9}Fe{sub 16}O{sub 27} coated surfaces of diatomite flakes of low density were synthesized by a sol-gel method. The phase structures, morphologies, particle size and chemical compositions of the composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The results show that hexagonal ferrite coated diatomite flakes can be achieved, and that the coating consisted of BaZn{sub 1.1}Co{sub 0.9}Fe{sub 16}O{sub 27} nanoparticles. The vibranting sample magnetometer results reveal that the flake ferrite particles have static magnetic properties. The complex permeability and permittivity of the composites were measured in the frequency range of 1-18 GHz. The microwave absorption properties of these ferrite particles are discussed. The results indicate that the flake ferrites have the potential to be used as a lightweight broad band microwave absorber. - Highlights: > We synthesize the flake ferrite particles using diatomite as a template. > Flake ferrite particles' coating layers are constituted by BaZn{sub 1.1}Co{sub 0.9}Fe{sub 16}O{sub 27} nanoparticles. > Flake ferrite particles have good static magnetic properties. > Flake ferrites are a kind lightweight broad band microwave absorber.

  12. Transversely-biased ferrite-tuned cavity for the SSC booster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlini, R.D.; Friedrichs, C. Jr.; Thiessen, H.A.

    1985-01-01

    Ferrite tuning of rf cavities is used to provide the change in frequency necessary as the velocity of particles in synchrotrons increases. A new technique in which the ferrite bias field is applied in a direction perpendicular to the rf field offers the possibility of greatly reducing the rf power dissipation in the ferrite. A possible 60 MHz design is discussed for the SSC booster. The cavity design is based on a simple coaxial quarter-wave resonator. A brief discussion is given fo the theory of perpendicular biasing. The measured electric Q's of five different microwave-type ferrite samples are reported and compared with the manufacturer's specifications. 9 fig

  13. Methods of acicular ferrite forming in the weld bead metal (Brief analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Володимир Олександрович Лебедєв

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A brief analysis of the methods of acicular ferrite formation as the most preferable structural component in the weld metal has been presented. The term «acicular ferrite» is meant as a structure that forms during pearlite and martensite transformation and austenite decomposition. Acicular ferrite is a packet structure consisting of battens of bainitic ferrite, there being no cementite particles inside these battens at all. The chemical elements most effectively influencing on the formation of acicular ferrite have been considered and their combined effect as well. It has been shown in particular, that the most effective chemical element in terms of impact toughness and cost relation is manganese. Besides, the results of multipass surfacing with impulse and constant feed of low-alloy steel wire electrode have been considered. According to these results acicular ferrite forms in both cases. However, at impulse feed of the electrode wire high mechanical properties of surfacing layer were got in the first passes, the form of the acicular ferrite crystallite has been improved and volume shares of polygonal and lamellar ferrite have been reduced. An assumption has been made, according to which acicular ferrite in the surfacing layer may be obtained through superposition of mechanical low-frequency oscillation on the welding torch or on the welding pool instead of periodic thermal effect due to electrode wire periodic feed

  14. Nanophotonic Modulator with Bismuth Ferrite as Low-loss Switchable Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Zhukovsky, Sergei; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    We propose a nanophotonic waveguide modulator with bismuth ferrite as a tunable material. Due to near-zero losses in bismuth ferrite, modulation with up to 20 dB/μm extinction ratio and 12 μm propagation length is achieved.......We propose a nanophotonic waveguide modulator with bismuth ferrite as a tunable material. Due to near-zero losses in bismuth ferrite, modulation with up to 20 dB/μm extinction ratio and 12 μm propagation length is achieved....

  15. Magnetic and Structural Investigations of Nanocrystalline Cobalt-Ferrite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Sharifi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Cobalt ferrite is an important magnetic material due to their large magneto-crystalline anisotropy, high cohercivity, moderate saturation magnetization and chemical stability.In this study, cobalt ferrites Nanoparticles have been synthesized by the co-precipitation method and a new microemulsion route. We examined the cation occupancy in the spinel structure based on the “Rietveld with energies” method. The Xray measurements revealed the production of a broad single ferrite cubic phase with the average particle sizes of about 12 nm and 7nm, for co-precipitation and micro-emulsion methods, respectively. The FTIR measurements between 400 and 4000 cm-1 confirmed the intrinsic cation vibrations of the spinelstructure for the two methods. Furthermore, the Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM was carried out at room temperature to study the structural and magnetic properties. The results revealed that by changing the method from co-precipitation to the reverse micelle the material exhibits a softer magnetic behavior in such a way that both saturation magnetization and coercivity decrease from 58 to 29 emu/g and from 286 to 25 Oe, respectively.

  16. Antimicrobial Lemongrass Essential Oil—Copper Ferrite Cellulose Acetate Nanocapsules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis L. Liakos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose acetate (CA nanoparticles were combined with two antimicrobial agents, namely lemongrass (LG essential oil and Cu-ferrite nanoparticles. The preparation method of CA nanocapsules (NCs, with the two antimicrobial agents, was based on the nanoprecipitation method using the solvent/anti-solvent technique. Several physical and chemical analyses were performed to characterize the resulting NCs and to study their formation mechanism. The size of the combined antimicrobial NCs was found to be ca. 220 nm. The presence of Cu-ferrites enhanced the attachment of LG essential oil into the CA matrix. The magnetic properties of the combined construct were weak, due to the shielding of Cu-ferrites from the polymeric matrix, making them available for drug delivery applications where spontaneous magnetization effects should be avoided. The antimicrobial properties of the NCs were significantly enhanced with respect to CA/LG only. This work opens novel routes for the development of organic/inorganic nanoparticles with exceptional antimicrobial activities.

  17. Corrosion of an austenite and ferrite stainless steel weld

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRANIMIR N. GRGUR

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Dissimilar metal connections are prone to frequent failures. These failures are attributed to the difference in the mechanical properties across the weld, the coefficients of thermal expansion of the two types of steels and the resulting creep at the interface. For the weld analyzed in this research, it was shown that corrosion measurements can be used for a proper evaluation of the quality of weld material and for the prediction of whether or not the material, after the applied welding process, can be in service without failures. It was found that the corrosion of the weld analyzed in this research resulted from the simultaneous activity of different types of corrosion. In this study, electrochemical techniques including polarization and metallographic analysis were used to analyze the corrosion of a weld material of ferrite and austenitic stainless steels. Based on surface, chemical and electrochemical analyses, it was concluded that corrosion occurrence was the result of the simultaneous activity of contact corrosion (ferrite and austenitic material conjuction, stress corrosion (originating from deformed ferrite structure and inter-granular corrosion (due to chromium carbide precipitation. The value of corrosion potential of –0.53 V shows that this weld, after the thermal treatment, is not able to repassivate a protective oxide film.

  18. Structural and electrical properties of nickel substituted cadmium ferrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chethan, B.; Raj Prakash, H. G.; Vijayakumari, S. C.; Ravikiran, Y. T.

    2018-05-01

    Spinal nano-sized Cadmium ferrite (CD) and Nickel substituted cadmium ferrite (NSCF) were fabricated by sol-gel auto combustion method. The formation of spinal structure of ferrite materials was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The crystallites size of CF and NSCF as determined by Scherrer's formula were found to be 24.73 nm and 17.70 nm respectively. comparative study of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of CF and NSCF revealed tetrahedral absorption bands shifted slightly towards higher frequency where as octahedral bands shifted towards lower frequency side confirming interfacial interaction between Ni and CF. The AC conductivity (σ), loss tangent (tan δ) and complex plane impedance plots for both CF and NSCF are determined at various frequencies ranging from 50 kHz to 5 MHz and comparatively analyzed. The increase in AC conductivity of the NSCF nano particles as compared to CF was explained in the light of hopping model. The impedance measurement of NSCF show presence of a semi-circle corresponding to the grain boundary resistance and hence shows that the conductivity takes place largely through grain boundaries.

  19. Evidence for polaron conduction in nanostructured manganese ferrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopalan, E Veena; Anantharaman, M R; Malini, K A; Saravanan, S; Kumar, D Sakthi; Yoshida, Yasuhiko

    2008-01-01

    Nanoparticles of manganese ferrite were prepared by the chemical co-precipitation technique. The dielectric parameters, namely, real and imaginary dielectric permittivity (ε' and ε-prime), ac conductivity (σ ac ) and dielectric loss tangent (tanδ), were measured in the frequency range of 100 kHz-8 MHz at different temperatures. The variations of dielectric dispersion (ε') and dielectric absorption (ε-prime) with frequency and temperature were also investigated. The variation of dielectric permittivity with frequency and temperature followed the Maxwell-Wagner model based on interfacial polarization in consonance with Koops phenomenological theory. The dielectric loss tangent and hence ε-prime exhibited a relaxation at certain frequencies and at relatively higher temperatures. The dispersion of dielectric permittivity and broadening of the dielectric absorption suggest the possibility of a distribution of relaxation time and the existence of multiple equilibrium states in manganese ferrite. The activation energy estimated from the dielectric relaxation is found to be high and is characteristic of polaron conduction in the nanosized manganese ferrite. The ac conductivity followed a power law dependence σ ac = Bω n typical of charge transport assisted by a hopping or tunnelling process. The observed minimum in the temperature dependence of the frequency exponent n strongly suggests that tunnelling of the large polarons is the dominant transport process

  20. Precipitation of Epsilon Copper in Ferrite Antibacterial Stainless Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhixia ZHANG; Gang LIN; Zhou XU

    2008-01-01

    The precipitation of epsilon copper at 1023 K ageing in ferrite antibacterial stainless steel was investigated by a combination of electron microscopy and micro-Vickers hardness measurement. The results show that epsilon copper precipitation occurs within 90 s. Complex rnultilayer structure confirmed as twins and stacking faults on {111}ε-Cu planes was observed in the precipitates. The precipitates grow by the lengthwise enlargement of a set of parallel layers, having [111]ε-Cu and [112]ε-Cu preferred growth orientations. The volume fraction of precipitates f formed within 120 min can be predicted by a modified Avrami equation (In 1/1-f= kt+b).Simultaneously, substituent atom clusters with a size of 5-10 nm was found to occur in the solution and cause matrix strain. The precipitate morphology and distribution on the surface of ferrite antibacterial stainlesss teel are associated with surface crystallographic orientation of the matrix. The precipitates are predominantly located within the ferrite grains of orientation. The precipitates located on {111}α-Fe surface planes have sphere or ellipse shape.

  1. A Ferrite LTCC-Based Monolithic SIW Phased Antenna Array

    KAUST Repository

    Nafe, Ahmed

    2016-11-17

    In this work, we present a novel configuration for realizing monolithic SIW-based phased antenna arrays using Ferrite LTCC technology. Unlike the current common schemes for realizing SIW phased arrays that rely on surface-mount component (p-i-n diodes, etc) for controlling the phase of the individual antenna elements, here the phase is tuned by biasing of the ferrite filling of the SIW. This approach eliminates the need for mounting of any additional RF components and enables seamless monolithic integration of phase shifters and antennas in SIW technology. As a proof of concept, a two-element slotted SIW-based phased array is designed, fabricated and measured. The prototype exhibits a gain of 4.9 dBi at 13.2 GHz and a maximum E-plane beam-scanning of 28 degrees using external windings for biasing the phase shifters. Moreover, the array can achieve a maximum beam-scanning of 19 degrees when biased with small windings that are embedded in the package. This demonstration marks the first time a fully monolithic SIW-based phased array is realized in Ferrite LTCC technology and paves the way for future larger-size implementations.

  2. A Ferrite LTCC-Based Monolithic SIW Phased Antenna Array

    KAUST Repository

    Nafe, Ahmed A.; Ghaffar, Farhan A.; Farooqui, Muhammad Fahad; Shamim, Atif

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we present a novel configuration for realizing monolithic SIW-based phased antenna arrays using Ferrite LTCC technology. Unlike the current common schemes for realizing SIW phased arrays that rely on surface-mount component (p-i-n diodes, etc) for controlling the phase of the individual antenna elements, here the phase is tuned by biasing of the ferrite filling of the SIW. This approach eliminates the need for mounting of any additional RF components and enables seamless monolithic integration of phase shifters and antennas in SIW technology. As a proof of concept, a two-element slotted SIW-based phased array is designed, fabricated and measured. The prototype exhibits a gain of 4.9 dBi at 13.2 GHz and a maximum E-plane beam-scanning of 28 degrees using external windings for biasing the phase shifters. Moreover, the array can achieve a maximum beam-scanning of 19 degrees when biased with small windings that are embedded in the package. This demonstration marks the first time a fully monolithic SIW-based phased array is realized in Ferrite LTCC technology and paves the way for future larger-size implementations.

  3. On peculiarities of using cathodes on tungsten-rhenium alloy base in vacuum luminescent low-voltage indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fel'dman, F.S.; Gorfinkel', B.I.; Ustinova, V.G.; Gutkina, G.I.

    1975-01-01

    A comparative study of cathodes prepared from W wire (VAI-AP) and from a W-Re alloy (VAR5) with a cathodoluminophor of ZnO-Zn and carbonate coatings indicates that the initial values of the anode current and the luminophor brightness are almost the same for both cathodes. The stability of the anode current and of the luminescent properties of the luminophor, however, were much better for the VAR5 cathode with a coating of ternary, fine-grained carbonate. This is attributed to the difference in the amount of active material sputtered on the cathode luminophor. The temperature of the alloy cathode is 30-40deg lower than that of the W cathode, which creates favorable conditions for decreasing the sputtering from the cathode. The operational lifetime of the cathode is also increased for this alloy

  4. Age-hardening susceptibility of high-Cr ODS ferritic steels and SUS430 ferritic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Dongsheng, E-mail: chen.dongsheng85@gmail.com [Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Kimura, Akihiko; Han, Wentuo; Je, Hwanil [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The role of oxide particles in α/α′ phase decomposition behavior; microstructure of phase decomposition observed by TEM. • The characteristics of ductility loss caused by age-hardening. • Correlation of phase decomposition and age-hardening explained by dispersion strengthened models. • Age-hardening susceptibility of ODS steels and SUS430 steel. - Abstract: The effect of aging on high-Cr ferritic steels was investigated with focusing on the role of oxide particles in α/α′ phase decomposition behavior. 12Cr-oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel, 15Cr-ODS steel and commercial SUS430 steel were isothermally aged at 475 °C for up to 10,000 h. Thermal aging caused a larger hardening in SUS430 than 15Cr-ODS, while 12Cr-ODS showed almost no hardening. A characteristic of the ODS steels is that the hardening was not accompanied by the significant loss of ductility that was observed in SUS430 steel. After aging for 2000 h, SUS430 steel shows a larger ductile–brittle transition temperature (DBTT) shift than 15Cr-ODS steel, which suggests that the age-hardening susceptibility is lower in 15Cr-ODS steel than in conventional SUS430 steel. Thermal aging leaded to a large number of Cr-rich α′ precipitates, which were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Correlation of age-hardening and phase decomposition was interpreted by Orowan type strengthening model. Results indicate that oxide particles cannot only suppress ductility loss, but also may influence α/α′ phase decomposition kinetics.

  5. Microstructure of bonding zones in laser-clad Ni-alloy-based composite coatings reinforced with various ceramic powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, Y.T.; Ouyang, J.H.; Lei, T.C.

    1996-01-01

    Microstructure of the bonding zones (BZs) between laser-clad Ni-alloy-based composite coatings and steel substrates was studied by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) techniques. Observations indicate that for pure Ni-alloy coating the laser parameters selected for good interface fusion have no effect on the microstructure of the BZ except for its thickness. However, the addition of ceramic particles (TiN, SiC, or ZrO 2 ) to the Ni alloy varies the compositional or constitutional undercooling of the melt near the solid/liquid interface and consequently leads to the observed changes of microstructure of the BZs. For TiN/Ni-alloy coating the morphology of γ-Ni solid solution in the BZ changes from dendritic to planar form with increasing scanning speed. A colony structure of eutectic is found in the BZ of SiC/Ni-alloy coating in which complete dissolution of SiC particles takes place during laser cladding. The immiscible melting of ZrO 2 and Ni-alloy powders induces the stratification of ZrO 2 /Ni-alloy coating which consists of a pure ZrO 2 layer fin the upper region and a BZ composed mainly of γ-Ni dendrites adjacent to the substrate. All the BZs studied in this investigation have good metallurgical characteristics between the coatings and the substrates

  6. Modeling of mechanical properties of as-cast Mg-Li-Al alloys based on PSO-BP algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ming

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Artificial neural networks have been widely used to predict the mechanical properties of alloys in material research. This study aims to investigate the implicit relationship between the compositions and mechanical properties of as-cast Mg-Li-Al alloys. Based on the experimental collection of the tensile strength and the elongation of representative Mg-Li-Al alloys, a momentum back-propagation (BP neural network with a single hidden layer was established. Particle swarm optimization (PSO was applied to optimize the BP model. In the neural network, the input variables were the contents of Mg, Li and Al, and the output variables were the tensile strength and the elongation. The results show that the proposed PSO-BP model can describe the quantitative relationship between the Mg-Li-Al alloy’s composition and its mechanical properties. It is possible that the mechanical properties to be predicted without experiment by inputting the alloy composition into the trained network model. The prediction of the influence of Al addition on the mechanical properties of as-cast Mg-Li-Al alloys is consistent with the related research results.

  7. Irradiation Performance of U-Mo Alloy Based ‘Monolithic’ Plate-Type Fuel – Design Selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. B. Robinson; G. S. Chang; D. D. Keiser, Jr.; D. M. Wachs; D. L. Porter

    2009-08-01

    A down-selection process has been applied to the U-Mo fuel alloy based monolithic plate fuel design, supported by irradiation testing of small fuel plates containing various design parameters. The irradiation testing provided data on fuel performance issues such as swelling, fuel-cladding interaction (interdiffusion), blister formation at elevated temperatures, and fuel/cladding bond quality and effectiveness. U-10Mo (wt%) was selected as the fuel alloy of choice, accepting a somewhat lower uranium density for the benefits of phase stability. U-7Mo could be used, with a barrier, where the trade-off for uranium density is critical to nuclear performance. A zirconium foil barrier between fuel and cladding was chosen to provide a predictable, well-bonded, fuel-cladding interface, allowing little or no fuel-cladding interaction. The fuel plate testing conducted to inform this selection was based on the use of U-10Mo foils fabricated by hot co-rolling with a Zr foil. The foils were subsequently bonded to Al-6061 cladding by hot isostatic pressing or friction stir bonding.

  8. Use of magnetoplumbite and spinel ferrite seed layers for the growth of oriented Y ferrite thin films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Uhrecký, Róbert; Buršík, Josef; Soroka, Miroslav; Kužel, R.; Prokleška, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 622, JAN (2017), s. 104-110 ISSN 0040-6090 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-18392S; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015073 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Hexagonal ferrites * Seed layer * Thin film s * Chemical solution deposition Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Inorganic and nuclear chemistry Impact factor: 1.879, year: 2016

  9. Crystal Growth of Ternary Compound Semiconductors in Low Gravity Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ching-Hua

    2014-01-01

    A low gravity material experiment will be performed in the Material Science Research Rack (MSRR) on International Space Station (ISS). There are two sections of the flight experiment: (I) crystal growth of ZnSe and related ternary compounds, such as ZnSeS and ZnSeTe, by physical vapor transport (PVT) and (II) melt growth of CdZnTe by directional solidification. The main objective of the project is to determine the relative contributions of gravity-driven fluid flows to the compositional distribution, incorporation of impurities and defects, and deviation from stoichiometry observed in the grown crystals as results of buoyancy-driven convection and growth interface fluctuations caused by irregular fluid-flows on Earth. The investigation consists of extensive ground-based experimental and theoretical research efforts and concurrent flight experimentation. This talk will focus on the ground-based studies on the PVT crystal growth of ZnSe and related ternary compounds. The objectives of the ground-based studies are (1) obtain the experimental data and conduct the analyses required to define the optimum growth parameters for the flight experiments, (2) perfect various characterization techniques to establish the standard procedure for material characterization, (3) quantitatively establish the characteristics of the crystals grown on Earth as a basis for subsequent comparative evaluations of the crystals grown in a low-gravity environment and (4) develop theoretical and analytical methods required for such evaluations. ZnSe and related ternary compounds have been grown by vapor transport technique with real time in-situ non-invasive monitoring techniques. The grown crystals have been characterized extensively by various techniques to correlate the grown crystal properties with the growth conditions.

  10. Ternary equilibria in bismuth--indium--lead alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, K.C.; Johnson, D.L.; Nelson, R.C.

    1975-01-01

    The liquidus surface is characterized by three binary equilibria. One binary extends from the Pb--Bi peritectic to the Pb--In peritectic. The other two extend from In--Bi eutectics, merge at 50 at. percent Bi and 30 at. percent Pb, and end at the Bi--Pb eutectic. Based on analysis of ternary liquidus contours and vertical sections, it is suggested that solidification for high lead and very high indium alloys occurs from two-phase equilibria. Solidification from all other alloys occurs from three-phase equilibria. Four-phase solidification does not occur in this system

  11. Paramagnetic centers in ternary coordinated oxygen in beryllium aluminosilicate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaginina, L.A.; Zatsepin, A.F.; Dmitriev, I.A.

    1988-01-01

    Glasses of the composition 3BeO-Al 2 O 3 -6SiO 2 containing a homogenizing additive of MgF 2 were synthesized. The ESR spectra of x-ray and gamma irradiated specimens were determined. A complex ESR spectrum arose in the original glass. The ESR spectrum of the gamma-irradiated polycrystalline Be 2 SiO 4 glass was almost identical to the crystallized glass. It was shown that the presence of beryllium atoms in the composition of silicate glasses created the conditions for the formation of structural fragments with ternary coordinated oxygen

  12. Implementation of DFT application on ternary optical computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junjie, Peng; Youyi, Fu; Xiaofeng, Zhang; Shuai, Kong; Xinyu, Wei

    2018-03-01

    As its characteristics of huge number of data bits and low energy consumption, optical computing may be used in the applications such as DFT etc. which needs a lot of computation and can be implemented in parallel. According to this, DFT implementation methods in full parallel as well as in partial parallel are presented. Based on resources ternary optical computer (TOC), extensive experiments were carried out. Experimental results show that the proposed schemes are correct and feasible. They provide a foundation for further exploration of the applications on TOC that needs a large amount calculation and can be processed in parallel.

  13. Plutonium microstructures. Part 2. Binary and ternary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, E.M.; Bergin, J.B.

    1983-12-01

    This report is the second of three parts that exhibit illustrations of inclusions in plutonium metal from inherent and tramp impurities, of intermetallic and nonmetallic constituents from alloy additions, and of the effects of thermal and mechanical treatments. This part includes illustrations of the microstructures in binary cast alloys and a few selected ternary alloys that result from measured additions of diluent elements, and of the microconstituents that are characteristic of phase fields in extended alloy systems. Microhardness data are given and the etchant used in the preparation of each sample is described

  14. Infrared target recognition based on improved joint local ternary pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Junding; Wu, Xiaosheng

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a simple, efficient, yet robust approach, named joint orthogonal combination of local ternary pattern, for automatic forward-looking infrared target recognition. It gives more advantages to describe the macroscopic textures and microscopic textures by fusing variety of scales than the traditional LBP-based methods. In addition, it can effectively reduce the feature dimensionality. Further, the rotation invariant and uniform scheme, the robust LTP, and soft concave-convex partition are introduced to enhance its discriminative power. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve competitive results compared with the state-of-the-art methods.

  15. Quantifying the energetics of cooperativity in a ternary protein complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter S; Schuck, Peter; Sundberg, Eric J

    2002-01-01

    and mathematical modeling to describe the energetics of cooperativity in a trimolecular protein complex. As a model system for quantifying cooperativity, we studied the ternary complex formed by the simultaneous interaction of a superantigen with major histocompatibility complex and T cell receptor, for which...... a structural model is available. This system exhibits positive and negative cooperativity, as well as augmentation of the temperature dependence of binding kinetics upon the cooperative interaction of individual protein components in the complex. Our experimental and theoretical analysis may be applicable...... to other systems involving cooperativity....

  16. Ternary system of cesium, rubidium and lead iodides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volchanskaya, V.V.; Dunaeva, T.I.; Il'yasov, I.I.

    1990-01-01

    Meltability diagram of ternary system (CsI) 2 -(RbI) 2 -PbI 2 has been studied. The liquidus of the given system consists of crystallization fields of solid solutions (CsI-RbI) and (CsI·PbI 2 -RbI-PbI 2 ), fields of incongruently melting compounds 9RbI·PbI 2 , 4CsI·PbI 2 and field of PbI 2 component. In the system two nonvariant points at 410 and 380 deg C are detected

  17. First principle study of cubic ScGaN ternaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adli, W.; Mecheref, R.; Sekkal, N.; Tair, F.; Amrani, B.

    2008-08-01

    The electronic properties of the Sc x Ga1- x N ternary alloy are investigated. The transition from rocksalt (B1) to zinc blende (B3) structure is found to occur rapidly after incorporating just a small fraction (less than 1%) of Ga. In the present paper, the first principles method the full potential linear muffin-tin orbitals method (FPLMTO) in its atomic sphere approximation (ASA) coupled to the technique of the empty spheres is employed. Our results concerning the electronic properties are different from those reported in literature. (author)

  18. Phase diagram of the ternary Zr-Ti-Sn system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias, D.; Gonzalez Camus, M.

    1987-01-01

    It is well known that Ti stabilizes the high temperature cubic phase of Zr and that Sn stabilizes the low temperature hexagonal phase of Zr. The effect of Sn on the Zr-Ti diagram has been studied in the present paper. Using high purity metals, nine different alloys have been prepared, with 4-32 at % Ti, 0.7-2.2 at % Sn and Zr till 100%. Resistivity and optical and SEM metallography techniques have been employed. Effect of some impurities have been analyzed. The results are discussed and different isothermic sections of the ternary Zr-Ti-Sn diagram are presented. (Author) [es

  19. Effects of corrosion and precipitates on mechanical properties in the ferritic/martensitic steel cladding under ultra-long cycle fast reactor environment at 650 .deg. C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Yong; Lee, Jeong Hyeon; Kim, Ji Hyun [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Sang Hun [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    This changes chemical compositions of inter-surface and effects on behavior of precipitations. NaCrO{sub 2} which is ternary sodium compound occurs intergranular corrosion resulting in thickness reduction. This change can cause a degradation of mechanical strength of structure material of UCFR. Therefore, we should consider longterm compatibility with sodium and study about life prediction. The research about ferritic/martensitic steel on effects of long term exposure in liquid sodium at 650 .deg. C, 20ppm oxygen includes weight loss of test material (Gr. 92) by corrosion and mechanism about nucleation and growth of precipitates like Laves-phase in bulk. There are many changes such as segregation of component to nucleate precipitates, affecting into microstructural evolution of the steel. Therefore, the thermochemical reaction research to predict behavior about precipitates should be performed. In a specific procedure, the micro-structure and the surface phenomenon of ferritic/martensitic steels (Gr. 92) that are exposed to liquid sodium at 650 .deg. C, 20 ppm oxygen and aged in high pure Argon gas environment to express bulk have been investigated by using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). At 10 ppm oxygen designed oxygen value for UCFR, there is 107μm thickness reduction for 30 years. Thus, if there is no degradation of mechanical strength caused by aging effect, the tolerance of load of initial cladding should be higher than real load at least 23.6 %. Compared to specimens exposed to Ar-gas environment, Specimen which solutions are leaded into sodium has degradation of strength by reduction of solution hardening.

  20. Asymmetric supercapacitors with metal-like ternary selenides and porous graphene electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Chuan; Jiang, Qiu; Zhao, Chao; Beaujuge, Pierre; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2016-01-01

    nanostructured ternary nickel cobalt selenides result in a much higher areal capacitance (2.33 F cm−2 at 4 mA cm−2), better rate performance and cycling stability than their binary selenide equivalents, and other ternary oxides and chalcogenides. Those hybrid

  1. Using a Ternary Diagram to Display a System's Evolving Energy Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazzle, Bob; Tapp, Anne

    2016-01-01

    A ternary diagram is a graphical representation used for systems with three components. They are familiar to mineralogists (who typically use them to categorize varieties of solid solution minerals such as feldspar) but are not yet widely used in the physics community. Last year the lead author began using ternary diagrams in his introductory…

  2. Detection of the ternary alpha particles from 252Cr spontaneous source with timepix pixeleted detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadov, G.S.; Telezhnikov, S.A.; Ahmadov, F.I.; Garibov, A.A.; Ahmadov, G.S.; Ahmadov, F.I.; Granja, C.; Pospisil, S.

    2013-01-01

    A third charged particle is emitted besides the two main fission fragments in ternary fission. Because of the ternary fission is a unique tool to explore the dynamics and structure of atomic nuclei by probing the fissioning system near the scission point and observing fissioning reaction and decay mechanisms main tool to study nuclear fission processes

  3. Ternary System with Controlled Structure: A New Strategy toward Efficient Organic Photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Pei; Wang, Rui; Zhu, Jingshuai; Huang, Wenchao; Chang, Sheng-Yung; Meng, Lei; Sun, Pengyu; Cheng, Hao-Wen; Qin, Meng; Zhu, Chenhui; Zhan, Xiaowei; Yang, Yang

    2018-02-01

    Recently, a new type of active layer with a ternary system has been developed to further enhance the performance of binary system organic photovoltaics (OPV). In the ternary OPV, almost all active layers are formed by simple ternary blend in solution, which eventually leads to the disordered bulk heterojunction (BHJ) structure after a spin-coating process. There are two main restrictions in this disordered BHJ structure to obtain higher performance OPV. One is the isolated second donor or acceptor domains. The other is the invalid metal-semiconductor contact. Herein, the concept and design of donor/acceptor/acceptor ternary OPV with more controlled structure (C-ternary) is reported. The C-ternary OPV is fabricated by a sequential solution process, in which the second acceptor and donor/acceptor binary blend are sequentially spin-coated. After the device optimization, the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of all OPV with C-ternary are enhanced by 14-21% relative to those with the simple ternary blend; the best PCEs are 10.7 and 11.0% for fullerene-based and fullerene-free solar cells, respectively. Moreover, the averaged PCE value of 10.4% for fullerene-free solar cell measured in this study is in great agreement with the certified one of 10.32% obtained from Newport Corporation. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Experimental investigation of phase equilibria in the Co-W-V ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xingjun; Zhu Yihong; Yu Yan; Wang Cuiping

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Three isothermal sections of the Co-W-V ternary system at 1100 deg. C, 1200 deg. C and 1300 deg. C were determined. → No ternary compound was found in the Co-W-V ternary system. → A stable liquid miscibility gap is newly discovered in the Co-W-V ternary system. → This work is of great essence to establish the thermodynamic database for the Co-based alloys. - Abstract: The phase equilibria in the Co-W-V ternary system were experimentally investigated by optical microscopy (OM), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) on the equilibrated alloys. Three isothermal sections of the Co-W-V ternary system at 1100 deg. C, 1200 deg. C and 1300 deg. C were determined, and no ternary compound was found in this system. In addition, a novel phenomena induced by the liquid phase separation in the Co-W-V alloys was firstly discovered, suggesting that a stable liquid miscibility gap exists in the Co-W-V ternary system. The newly determined phase equilibria and firstly discovered phase separation phenomena in the Co-W-V system will provide important information for the development of Co-W based alloys.

  5. Multicomponent ternary cocrystals of the sulfonamide group with pyridine-amides and lactams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolla, Geetha; Nangia, Ashwini

    2015-11-04

    SMBA was selected as a bifunctional sulfa drug to design ternary cocrystals with pyridine amides and lactam coformers. Supramolecular assembly of five ternary cocrystals of p-sulfonamide benzoic acid with nicotinamide and 2-pyridone is demonstrated and reproducible heterosynthons are identified for crystal engineering.

  6. Asymmetry in ternary fission induced by polarized neutrons and fission mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunakov, V.E.; Gennenvajn, F.; Dzhessinger, P.; Mutterer, M.; Petrov, G.A.

    2003-01-01

    The results of measuring the P-odd, P-even (right-left) and T-odd asymmetries of the charged particles emission in the double and ternary fission, induced by the polarized neutrons, are considered. It is shown, what kind of information on the mechanism of the ternary nuclear fission may be obtained from the theoretical analysis of these data [ru

  7. Measurement of p-odd asymmetry of fragment escape in ternary fission of plutonium 239

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belozerov, A.V.; Vodennikov, B.D.; Danilyan, G.V.; Korobkina, E.I.; Pavlov, V.S.; Pevchev, Yu.F.; Sadchikov, A.G.

    1988-01-01

    Values of effects of parity nonconservation in binary and ternary fission of plutonium 239 by polarized thermal neutrons were measured simultaneously. The ratio of asymmetry coefficient (AC) of ternary fission to the AC of binary fission was equal to 0.67+-0.20. The obtained result testifies to insignificant disagreement of AC of fragment escape in studied fission types

  8. INTERVAL-VALUED INTUITIONISTIC FUZZY BI-IDEALS IN TERNARY SEMIRINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. KRISHNASWAMY

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce the notions of interval-valued fuzzy bi-ideal, interval-valued anti fuzzy bi-ideal and interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy bi-ideal in ternary semirings and some of the basic properties of these ideals are investigated. We also introduce normal interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy ideals in ternary semirings.

  9. Energy dissipation in the process of ternary fission in heavy nuclear reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xian; Wang Chengqian; Yan Shiwei

    2015-01-01

    We studied the evolution of the collective motion, interaction potential, the total kinetic and excitation energies in ternary fissions of 197 Au + 197 Au system at 15 MeV/u, and discussed energy dissipation of this reaction. Through the comparison with energy-angle correlation data in binary fissions, we preliminarily concluded that the rst fission of ternary fission was an extreme deep-inelastic process. We further analyzed the correlation of the total kinetic energy with impact parameters in both binary and ternary reactions, and found that the total energy of binary reactions systems was lost about 150 MeV more than ternary fission with small impact parameters, and with larger impact parameters the total energy of ternary reactions were lost 300 MeV more than binary reactions. (authors)

  10. First-principles study of ternary fcc solution phases from special quasirandom structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin Dongwon; Wang Yi; Liu Zikui; Walle, Axel van de

    2007-01-01

    In the present work, ternary special quasirandom structures (SQSs) for a fcc solid solution phase are generated at different compositions, x A =x B =x C =(1/3) and x A =(1/2), x B =x C =(1/4), whose correlation functions are satisfactorily close to those of a random fcc solution. The generated SQSs are used to calculate the mixing enthalpy of the fcc phase in the Ca-Sr-Yb system. It is observed that first-principles calculations of all the binary and ternary SQSs in the Ca-Sr-Yb system exhibit very small local relaxation. It is concluded that the fcc ternary SQSs can provide valuable information about the mixing behavior of the fcc ternary solid solution phase. The SQSs presented in this work can be widely used to study the behavior of ternary fcc solid solutions

  11. High-performance ternary blend polymer solar cells involving both energy transfer and hole relay processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Luyao; Chen, Wei; Xu, Tao; Yu, Luping

    2015-06-04

    The integration of multiple materials with complementary absorptions into a single junction device is regarded as an efficient way to enhance the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of organic solar cells (OSCs). However, because of increased complexity with one more component, only limited high-performance ternary systems have been demonstrated previously. Here we report an efficient ternary blend OSC with a PCE of 9.2%. We show that the third component can reduce surface trap densities in the ternary blend. Detailed studies unravel that the improved performance results from synergistic effects of enlarged open circuit voltage, suppressed trap-assisted recombination, enhanced light absorption, increased hole extraction, efficient energy transfer and better morphology. The working mechanism and high device performance demonstrate new insights and design guidelines for high-performance ternary blend solar cells and suggest that ternary structure is a promising platform to boost the efficiency of OSCs.

  12. Synthesis and dissolution studies of nickel ferrite in PDCA based formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranganathan, S.; Raghavan, P.S.; Gopalan, R.; Srinivasan, M.P.; Narasimhan, S.V.

    2000-01-01

    Nickel ferrite is one of the important corrosion product in the pipeline surfaces of water cooled nuclear reactors. The dissolution of the nickel ferrite by chelating agents is very sensitive to nature of the chelant, nature of the reductant used in the formulation and the temperature at which the dissolution studies have been performed. The dissolution is dominated by the adsorption of the complexing agent at the oxide surface, but mainly controlled by the reductive dissolution of the ferrite particles. This is due to the in situ release of Fe 2+ ions or the generation of Fe 2+ ions by the reduction of Fe 3+ ions by the reductants in the solution. This study deals with the leaching of iron and nickel from nickel ferrite prepared by the solid state method. The prepared nickel ferrite samples are characterised by XRD to confirm the ferrite formation. The dissolution studies are performed in PDCA formulations containing organic reductants like ascorbic acid and LOMI reductants like Fe(II)-PDCA. The dissolution rate of nickel ferrite at 85degC increased with the increase of Fe 2+ ion content in the crystal lattice. Fe(II)-PDCA was found to be better reductants in dissolving the nickel ferrite in comparison with ascorbic acid. (author)

  13. Influence of fuel ratios on auto combustion synthesis of barium ferrite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Influence of fuel ratios on auto combustion synthesis of barium ferrite nano particles. D BAHADUR*, S RAJAKUMAR and ANKIT KUMAR. Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology,. Mumbai 400 076 e-mail: dhirenb@iitb.ac.in. Abstract. Single-domain barium ferrite nano ...

  14. Layer-by-Layer Self-Assembled Ferrite Multilayer Nanofilms for Microwave Absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiwoong Heo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate a simple method for fabricating multilayer thin films containing ferrite (Co0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticles, using layer-by-layer (LbL self-assembly. These films have microwave absorbing properties for possible radar absorbing and stealth applications. To demonstrate incorporation of inorganic ferrite nanoparticles into an electrostatic-interaction-based LbL self-assembly, we fabricated two types of films: (1 a blended three-component LbL film consisting of a sequential poly(acrylic acid/oleic acid-ferrite blend layer and a poly(allylamine hydrochloride layer and (2 a tetralayer LbL film consisting of sequential poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride, poly(sodium-4-sulfonate, bPEI-ferrite, and poly(sodium-4-sulfonate layers. We compared surface morphologies, thicknesses, and packing density of the two types of ferrite multilayer film. Ferrite nanoparticles (Co0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 were prepared via a coprecipitation method from an aqueous precursor solution. The structure and composition of the ferrite nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction patterns of ferrite nanoparticles indicated a cubic spinel structure, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy revealed their composition. Thickness growth and surface morphology were measured using a profilometer, atomic force microscope, and scanning electron microscope.

  15. Investigation of local fields in different barium ferrite sublattices by means of nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utrecht, R.; Hankiewicz, J.

    1995-01-01

    The local fields on 57 Fe nuclei in ferrite (BaFe 12 O 19 ) polycrystals have been investigated by means of spin echo amplitudes measurements at 4.2 and 77 K. The magnetic moment orientation and local field intensity have been determined for five different ferrite sublattices

  16. A Partially Magnetized Ferrite LTCC-Based SIW Phase Shifter for Phased Array Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffar, Farhan A.; Shamim, Atif

    2015-01-01

    The theory and design of a half-mode substrate-integrated waveguide ferrite low-temperature cofired ceramic-based phase shifter are presented in this paper. Unlike typical ferrite-based designs, the biasing is done through embedded windings in a

  17. Investigation on the effects of milling atmosphere on synthesis of barium ferrite/magnetite nanocomposite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molaei, M.J.; Ataie, A.; Raygan, S.; Picken, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    In this research, barium ferrite /magnetite nanocomposites synthesized via a mechano-chemical route. Graphite was used in order to reduce hematite content of barium ferrite to magnetite to produce a magnetic nanocomposite. The effects of processing conditions on the powder characteristics were

  18. Nanostructures in a ferritic and an oxide dispersion strengthened steel induced by dynamic plastic deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhenbo

    fission and fusion reactors. In this study, two candidate steels for nuclear reactors, namely a ferritic/martensitic steel (modified 9Cr-1Mo steel) and an oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel (PM2000), were nanostructured by dynamic plastic deformation (DPD). The resulting microstructure...

  19. Synthesis of Highly Uniform and Compact Lithium Zinc Ferrite Ceramics via an Efficient Low Temperature Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fang; Liao, Yulong; Zhang, Dainan; Zhou, Tingchuan; Li, Jie; Gan, Gongwen; Zhang, Huaiwu

    2017-04-17

    LiZn ferrite ceramics with high saturation magnetization (4πM s ) and low ferromagnetic resonance line widths (ΔH) represent a very critical class of material for microwave ferrite devices. Many existing approaches emphasize promotion of the grain growth (average size is 10-50 μm) of ferrite ceramics to improve the gyromagnetic properties at relatively low sintering temperatures. This paper describes a new strategy for obtaining uniform and compact LiZn ferrite ceramics (average grains size is ∼2 μm) with enhanced magnetic performance by suppressing grain growth in great detail. The LiZn ferrites with a formula of Li 0.415 Zn 0.27 Mn 0.06 Ti 0.1 Fe 2.155 O 4 were prepared by solid reaction routes with two new sintering strategies. Interestingly, results show that uniform, compact, and pure spinel ferrite ceramics were synthesized at a low temperature (∼850 °C) without obvious grain growth. We also find that a fast second sintering treatment (FSST) can further improve their gyromagnetic properties, such as higher 4πM s and lower ΔH. The two new strategies are facile and efficient for densification of LiZn ferrite ceramics via suppressing grain growth at low temperatures. The sintering strategy reported in this study also provides a referential experience for other ceramics, such as soft magnetism ferrite ceramics or dielectric ceramics.

  20. Effect of powder compaction on radiation-thermal synthesis of lithium-titanium ferrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surzhikov, A. P.; Lysenko, E. N.; Vlasov, V. A.; Malyshev, A. V.; Korobeynikov, M. V.; Mikhailenko, M. A.

    2017-01-01

    Effect of powder compaction on the efficiency of thermal and radiation-thermal synthesis of lithium-substituted ferrites was investigated by X-Ray diffraction and specific magnetization analysis. It was shown that the radiation-thermal heating of compacted powder reagents mixture leads to an increase in efficiency of lithium-titanium ferrites synthesis.

  1. X-ray and magnetic studies of Zn substituted Ni–Pb ferrites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    nic applications such as transformers, choke coils, noise filters, recording heads etc. Nickel ferrites and Zn2+ sub- stituted nickel-ferrites are widely used in electronics and electrical industries as they exhibit interesting variations in the electrical and magnetic properties. Electrical and magnetic properties are influenced by ...

  2. Magnetic properties of cobalt ferrite-silica nanocomposites prepared by a sol-gel autocombustion technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannas, C.; Musinu, A.; Piccaluga, G.

    2006-01-01

    The magnetic properties of cobalt ferrite-silica nanocomposites with different concentrations (15, 30, and 50 wt %) and sizes (7, 16, and 28 nm) of ferrite particles have been studied by static magnetization measurements and Mossbauer spectroscopy. The results indicate a superparamagnetic behavio...

  3. A new application and experimental validation of moulding technology for ferrite magnet assisted synchronous reluctance machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qian; Lu, Kaiyuan; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a new application of moulding technology to the installation of ferrite magnet material into the rotor flux barriers of Ferrite Magnet Assisted Synchronous Reluctance Machine (FASynRM). The feasibility of this application with respect to manufacturing process and motor...

  4. Low temperature synthesis of nanosized Mn1–xZnxFe2O4 ferrites ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    spectrum analysis were carried out to confirm the spinel phase formation as well as to ascertain the cation distri- bution in the ferrite ... structured materials technology opening up in the last few ... recent years, the design and synthesis of nano-magnetic particles ..... complex system like the ferrites where many cations are.

  5. Genetic Synthesis of New Reversible/Quantum Ternary Comparator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEIBUK, V.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Methods of quantum/reversible logic synthesis are based on the use of the binary nature of quantum computing. However, multiple-valued logic is a promising choice for future quantum computer technology due to a number of advantages over binary circuits. In this paper we have developed a synthesis of ternary reversible circuits based on Muthukrishnan-Stroud gates using a genetic algorithm. The method of coding chromosome is presented, and well-grounded choice of algorithm parameters allowed obtaining better circuit schemes of one- and n-qutrit ternary comparators compared with other methods. These parameters are quantum cost of received reversible devices, delay time and number of constant input (ancilla lines. Proposed implementation of the genetic algorithm has led to reducing of the device delay time and the number of ancilla qutrits to 1 and 2n-1 for one- and n-qutrits full comparators, respectively. For designing of n-qutrit comparator we have introduced a complementary device which compares output functions of 1-qutrit comparators.

  6. Halo Formation During Solidification of Refractory Metal Aluminide Ternary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, N.; Feitosa, L. M.; West, G. D.; Dong, H. B.

    2018-02-01

    The evolution of eutectic morphologies following primary solidification has been studied in the refractory metal aluminide (Ta-Al-Fe, Nb-Al-Co, and Nb-Al-Fe) ternary systems. The undercooling accompanying solid growth, as related to the extended solute solubility in the primary and secondary phases can be used to account for the evolution of phase morphologies during ternary eutectic solidification. For small undercooling, the conditions of interfacial equilibrium remain valid, while in the case of significant undercooling when nucleation constraints occur, there is a departure from equilibrium leading to unexpected phases. In Ta-Al-Fe, an extended solubility of Fe in σ was observed, which was consistent with the formation of a halo of μ phase on primary σ. In Nb-Al-Co, a halo of C14 is formed on primary CoAl, but very limited vice versa. However, in the absence of a solidus projection it was not possible to definitively determine the extended solute solubility in the primary phase. In Nb-Al-Fe when nucleation constraints arise, the inability to initiate coupled growth of NbAl3 + C14 leads to the occurrence of a two-phase halo of C14 + Nb2Al, indicating a large undercooling and departure from equilibrium.

  7. Face Liveness Detection Using Dynamic Local Ternary Pattern (DLTP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajida Parveen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Face spoofing is considered to be one of the prominent threats to face recognition systems. However, in order to improve the security measures of such biometric systems against deliberate spoof attacks, liveness detection has received significant recent attention from researchers. For this purpose, analysis of facial skin texture properties becomes more popular because of its limited resource requirement and lower processing cost. The traditional method of skin analysis for liveness detection was to use Local Binary Pattern (LBP and its variants. LBP descriptors are effective, but they may exhibit certain limitations in near uniform patterns. Thus, in this paper, we demonstrate the effectiveness of Local Ternary Pattern (LTP as an alternative to LBP. In addition, we adopted Dynamic Local Ternary Pattern (DLTP, which eliminates the manual threshold setting in LTP by using Weber’s law. The proposed method was tested rigorously on four facial spoof databases: three are public domain databases and the other is the Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM face spoof database, which was compiled through this study. The results obtained from the proposed DLTP texture descriptor attained optimum accuracy and clearly outperformed the reported LBP and LTP texture descriptors.

  8. Enhanced Light Absorption in Fluorinated Ternary Small-Molecule Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eastham, Nicholas D. [Department; Dudnik, Alexander S. [Department; Harutyunyan, Boris [Department; Aldrich, Thomas J. [Department; Leonardi, Matthew J. [Department; Manley, Eric F. [Department; Chemical; Butler, Melanie R. [Department; Harschneck, Tobias [Department; Ratner, Mark A. [Department; Chen, Lin X. [Department; Chemical; Bedzyk, Michael J. [Department; Department; Melkonyan, Ferdinand S. [Department; Facchetti, Antonio [Department; Chang, Robert P. H. [Department; Marks, Tobin J. [Department; Department

    2017-06-14

    Using small-molecule donor (SMD) semiconductors in organic photovoltaics (OPVs) has historically afforded lower power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) than their polymeric counterparts. The PCE difference is attributed to shorter conjugated backbones, resulting in reduced intermolecular interactions. Here, a new pair of SMDs is synthesized based on the diketopyrrolopyrrole-benzodithiophene-diketopyrrolopyrrole (BDT-DPP2) skeleton but having fluorinated and fluorinefree aromatic side-chain substituents. Ternary OPVs having varied ratios of the two SMDs with PC61BM as the acceptor exhibit tunable open-circuit voltages (Vocs) between 0.833 and 0.944 V due to a fluorination-induced shift in energy levels and the electronic “alloy” formed from the miscibility of the two SMDs. A 15% increase in PCE is observed at the optimal ternary SMD ratio, with the short-circuit current density (Jsc) significantly increased to 9.18 mA/cm2. The origin of Jsc enhancement is analyzed via charge generation, transport, and diffuse reflectance measurements, and is attributed to increased optical absorption arising from a maximum in film crystallinity at this SMD ratio, observed by grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering.

  9. A ternary logic model for recurrent neuromime networks with delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hangartner, R D; Cull, P

    1995-07-01

    In contrast to popular recurrent artificial neural network (RANN) models, biological neural networks have unsymmetric structures and incorporate significant delays as a result of axonal propagation. Consequently, biologically inspired neural network models are more accurately described by nonlinear differential-delay equations rather than nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs), and the standard techniques for studying the dynamics of RANNs are wholly inadequate for these models. This paper develops a ternary-logic based method for analyzing these networks. Key to the technique is the realization that a nonzero delay produces a bounded stability region. This result significantly simplifies the construction of sufficient conditions for characterizing the network equilibria. If the network gain is large enough, each equilibrium can be classified as either asymptotically stable or unstable. To illustrate the analysis technique, the swim central pattern generator (CPG) of the sea slug Tritonia diomedea is examined. For wide range of reasonable parameter values, the ternary analysis shows that none of the network equilibria are stable, and thus the network must oscillate. The results show that complex synaptic dynamics are not necessary for pattern generation.

  10. Kinetics of radiation-induced segregation in ternary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, N.O.; Kumar, A.; Wiedersich, H.

    1982-01-01

    Model calculations of radiation-induced segregation in ternary alloys have been performed, using a simple theory. The theoretical model describes the coupling between the fluxes of radiation-induced defects and alloying elements in an alloy A-B-C by partitioning the defect fluxes into those occurring via A-, B-, and C-atoms, and the atom fluxes into those taking place via vacancies and interstitials. The defect and atom fluxes can be expressed in terms of concentrations and concentration gradients of all the species present. With reasonable simplifications, the radiation-induced segregation problem can be cast into a system of four coupled partial-differential equations, which can be solved numerically for appropriate initial and boundary conditions. Model calculations have been performed for ternary solid solutions intended to be representative of Fe-Cr-Ni and Ni-Al-Si alloys under various irradiation conditions. The dependence of segregation on both the alloy properties and the irradiation variables, e.g., temperature and displacement rate, was calculated. The sample calculations are in good qualitative agreement with the general trends of radiation-induced segregation observed experimentally

  11. Investigation of transient photoresponse of WSSe ternary alloy crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Payal; Solanki, G. K.; Tannarana, Mohit; Pataniya, Pratik; Patel, K. D.; Pathak, V. M.

    2018-05-01

    Transition metal chalcogenides have been studied intensively in recent time due to their tunability of electronic properties by compositional change, alloying and by transforming bulk material into crystalline 2D structure. These changes lead to the development of verities of next generation opto-electronic device applications such as solar cells, FETs and flexible detectors etc. In present work, we report growth and characterization of crystalline ternary alloy WSSe by direct vapour transport technique. A photodetector is constructed using grown crystals to study its transient photoresponse under polychromatic radiation. The WSSe crystals are mechanically exfoliated to thickness of 3 µm and the lateral dimension of prepared sample is 2.25 mm2. The time-resolved photoresponse is studied under polychromatic illumination of power density ranging from 10 to 40 mW/cm2. The photo response is also studied under different bias voltages ranging from 0.1 V to 0.5 V. The typical photodetector parameters i.e. photocurrent, rise and fall time, responsivity and sensitivity are evaluated and discussed in light of the ternary alloy composition.

  12. Plotting and Analyzing Data Trends in Ternary Diagrams Made Easy

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Cédric M.

    2004-04-01

    Ternary plots are used in many fields of science to characterize a system based on three components. Triangular plotting is thus useful to a broad audience in the Earth sciences and beyond. Unfortunately, it is typically the most expensive commercial software packages that offer the option to plot data in ternary diagrams, and they lack features that are paramount to the geosciences, such as the ability to plot data directly into a standardized diagram and the possibility to analyze temporal and stratigraphic trends within this diagram. To address these issues, δPlot was developed with a strong emphasis on ease of use, community orientation, and availability free of charges. This ``freeware'' supports a fully graphical user interface where data can be imported as text files, or by copying and pasting. A plot is automatically generated, and any standard diagram can be selected for plotting in the background using a simple pull-down menu. Standard diagrams are stored in an external database of PDF files that currently holds some 30 diagrams that deal with different fields of the Earth sciences. Using any drawing software supporting PDF, one can easily produce new standard diagrams to be used with δPlot by simply adding them to the library folder. An independent column of values, commonly stratigraphic depths or ages, can be used to sort the data sets.

  13. Synthesis and hyperthermia property of hydroxyapatite-ferrite hybrid particles by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inukai, Akihiro; Sakamoto, Naonori; Aono, Hiromichi; Sakurai, Osamu; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Suzuki, Hisao; Wakiya, Naoki

    2011-01-01

    Biocompatible hybrid particles composed of hydroxyapatite (Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 , HAp) and ferrite (γ-Fe 2 O 3 and Fe 3 O 4 ) were synthesized using a two-step procedure. First, the ferrite particles were synthesized by co-precipitation. Second, the suspension, which was composed of ferrite particles by a co-precipitation method, Ca(NO 3 ) 2 , and H 3 PO 4 aqueous solution with surfactant, was nebulized into mist ultrasonically. Then the mist was pyrolyzed at 1000 o C to synthesize HAp-ferrite hybrid particles. The molar ratio of Fe ion and HAp was (Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ )/HAp=6. The synthesized hybrid particle was round and dimpled, and the average diameter of a secondary particle was 740 nm. The cross section of the synthesized hybrid particles revealed two phases: HAp and ferrite. The ferrite was coated with HAp. The synthesized hybrid particles show a saturation magnetization of 11.8 emu/g. The net saturation magnetization of the ferrite component was calculated as 32.5 emu/g. The temperature increase in the AC-magnetic field (370 kHz, 1.77 kA/m) was 9 o C with 3.4 g (the ferrite component was 1.0 g). These results show that synthesized hybrid particles are biocompatible and might be useful for magnetic transport and hyperthermia studies. - Research Highlights: → Biocompatible hybrid particles composed of hydroxyapatite (Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 , HAp) and ferrite (γ-Fe 2 O 3 and Fe 3 O 4 ) were synthesized using a two-step synthesis, which is comprised of co-precipitation and ultrasonic spray pyrolysis. → Cross sectional TEM observation and X-ray diffraction revealed that synthesized hybrid particles showed two phases (HAp and ferrite), and the ferrite was coated with HAp. → The saturation magnetization of ferrite in the HAp-ferrite hybrid was 32.49 emu/g. → The increased temperature in the AC-magnetic field (370 kHz, 1.77 kA/m) was 9 o C with 3.4 g (the ferrite component was 1.0 g).

  14. Studies of fracture processes in Cr-Mo-V ferritic steel with various types of microstructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzioba, I., E-mail: pkmid@tu.kielce.p [Fundamentals of Machine Design Chair, Kielce University of Technology, Al.1000-lecia PP 7, 25-314 Kielce (Poland); Gajewski, M., E-mail: gajem@tu.kielce.p [Fundamentals of Machine Design Chair, Kielce University of Technology, Al.1000-lecia PP 7, 25-314 Kielce (Poland); Neimitz, A., E-mail: neimitz@tu.kielce.p [Fundamentals of Machine Design Chair, Kielce University of Technology, Al.1000-lecia PP 7, 25-314 Kielce (Poland)

    2010-10-15

    In this paper, the authors report on analysis of the influence of microstructure on ductile and cleavage fracture mechanisms. The question investigated was whether microstructure observations alone can provide sufficient information to predict the possible fracture mechanism or change in fracture mechanism. Four different microstructures of ferritic steel were tested after four different heat treatments. The microstructures examined were ferritic, ferritic-pearlitic, ferritic-bainitic, and tempered martensitic types. It was concluded that the ratio (S{sub C}/S{sub 0}) of the area covered by carbides to the total area of a ferritic grain (measured by taking into account large carbides) is the only possible quantitative measure that can be used to predict cleavage fracture.

  15. Microstructural evaluation and magnetic Ni-Zn ferrite sintered by microwave energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diniz, Veronica Cristhina S.; Vieira, Debora A.; Costa, Ana Cristina F.M.; Kiminami, R.H.G.A.; Cornejo, Daniel Reinaldo

    2011-01-01

    The present Ni-Zn ferrite magnetic properties sensitive to microstructure and obtain a ferrite with a uniform microstructure is the biggest challenge in the advancement of new technologies. This study proposes to evaluate the microstructure and magnetic properties of Ni-Zn ferrite sintered by microwave energy. The samples were previously synthesized by combustion reaction using urea and glycine, with 1200 deg C/2h sintered at a heating rate of 5 deg C/min, and characterized by density, XRD, SEM and magnetic measurements. The results show that the sample synthesized with glycine showed the formation of ferrite phase and traces of secondary phase hematite, grains with undefined format, and a high porosity and inter intragranular. The sample synthesized with urea gave only the ferrite phase, with hexagonal grains, and low intergranular porosity. The sample synthesized with urea showed better magnetic characteristics when compared with the samples synthesized with glycine. (author)

  16. hermo-Physical and Mechanical Properties of Unsaturated Polyester /Cobalt Ferrite Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamees Salam Faiq

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Unsaturated polyester was used as a matrix which was filled with different percentages of cobalt ferrite using hand lay-up method. Cobalt ferrite was synthesized using solid state ceramic method with reagent of CoO and Fe2O3. Mechanical properties such tensile strength, Young's modulus and shore D hardness of the composite have been studied. All these properties have increased by 10% with increasing cobalt ferrite contents. Also the thermal properties such thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity are highly increased as the ferrite content increased, while the thermal diffusivity increased by 22 %. On the other hand dielectric strength of composite has been measured which increased by 50% by increasing the cobalt ferrite content.

  17. Nano-scale study of phase separation in ferrite of long term thermally aged Mo-bearing duplex stainless steels - Atom probe tomography and Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pareige, C.; Emo, J.; Pareige, P.; Saillet, S.; Domain, C.

    2015-01-01

    Duplex stainless steels (DSS), used in primary circuit of Pressurised Water Reactor (PWR), are prone to thermal ageing at service temperature, typically between 286 and 323 C. degrees. This ageing is due to the ferrite decomposition via two kinds of phase transformations: spinodal decomposition into Fe rich α zones and Cr rich α' zones and precipitation of G-phase enriched in Ni, Si, Mn and Mo. It has been shown by atom probe tomography (APT) that the G-phase particles form at the interface between α and α' regions thereby demonstrating that α-α' decomposition and G-phase precipitation are highly dependent. The synergy between the two decomposition processes should be related to both the thermodynamics of the system and the diffusion mechanisms active during ageing. This can be studied by atomistic kinetic Monte Carlo (AKMC) with a model that can reproduce the phase transformations which take place in ferrite of duplex stainless steels. This paper presents the first simulations of the kinetics of spinodal decomposition and G-phase precipitation occurring in ferrite of duplex stainless steels. The kinetics was simulated using a simple but effective atomic kinetic Monte Carlo model in a ternary alloy. The simulations reproduced the α/α' spinodal structure with precipitates at the α/α' interface. The comparison of simulated results with experiments shows that the simulations quantitatively reproduce the kinetics of phase transformation and the synergy observed experimentally between the spinodal decomposition and G-phase precipitation: the time evolution of the wavelength of the spinodal decomposition and the radius of G-phase precipitates were quantitatively reproduced. The simulations endorse the assumption that G-phase precipitation mainly results from the rejection of G-formers from α and α' domains. By following the vacancy pathway during simulation, we show that coarsening of the G-phase precipitates must proceed via

  18. Development of ferritic steels for fusion reactor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klueh, R.L.; Maziasz, P.J.; Corwin, W.R.

    1988-08-01

    Chromium-molybdenum ferritic (martensitic) steels are leading candidates for the structural components for future fusion reactors. However, irradiation of such steels in a fusion environment will produce long-lived radioactive isotopes that will lead to difficult waste-disposal problems. Such problems could be reduced by replacing the elements in the steels (i.e., Mo, Nb, Ni, N, and Cu) that lead to long-lived radioactive isotopes. We have proposed the development of ferritic steels analogous to conventional Cr-Mo steels, which contain molybdenum and niobium. It is proposed that molybdenum be replaced by tungsten and niobium be replaced by tantalum. Eight experimental steels were produced. Chromium concentrations of 2.25, 5, 9, and 12% were used (all concentrations are in wt %). Steels with these chromium compositions, each containing 2% W and 0.25% V, were produced. To determine the effect of tungsten and vanadium, 2.25 Cr steels were produced with 2% W and no vanadium and with 0.25% V and O and 1% W. A 9Cr steel containing 2% W, 0.25 V, and 0.07% Ta was also studied. For all alloys, carbon was maintained at 0.1%. Tempering studies on the normalized steels indicated that the tempering behavior of the new Cr-W steels was similar to that of the analogous Cr-Mo steels. Microscopy studies indicated that 2% tungsten was required in the 2.25 Cr steels to produce 100% bainite in 15.9-mm-thick plate during normalization. The 5Cr and 9Cr steels were 100% martensite, but the 12 Cr steel contained about 75% martensite with the balance delta-ferrite. 33 refs., 35 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Optimization and testing results of Zr-bearing ferritic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Lizhen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Yang, Ying [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tyburska-Puschel, Beata [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Sridharan, K. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The mission of the Nuclear Energy Enabling Technologies (NEET) program is to develop crosscutting technologies for nuclear energy applications. Advanced structural materials with superior performance at elevated temperatures are always desired for nuclear reactors, which can improve reactor economics, safety margins, and design flexibility. They benefit not only new reactors, including advanced light water reactors (LWRs) and fast reactors such as sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) that is primarily designed for management of high-level wastes, but also life extension of the existing fleet when component exchange is needed. Developing and utilizing the modern materials science tools (experimental, theoretical, and computational tools) is an important path to more efficient alloy development and process optimization. Ferritic-martensitic (FM) steels are important structural materials for nuclear reactors due to their advantages over other applicable materials like austenitic stainless steels, notably their resistance to void swelling, low thermal expansion coefficients, and higher thermal conductivity. However, traditional FM steels exhibit a noticeable yield strength reduction at elevated temperatures above ~500°C, which limits their applications in advanced nuclear reactors which target operating temperatures at 650°C or higher. Although oxide-dispersion-strengthened (ODS) ferritic steels have shown excellent high-temperature performance, their extremely high cost, limited size and fabricability of products, as well as the great difficulty with welding and joining, have limited or precluded their commercial applications. Zirconium has shown many benefits to Fe-base alloys such as grain refinement, improved phase stability, and reduced radiation-induced segregation. The ultimate goal of this project is, with the aid of computational modeling tools, to accelerate the development of a new generation of Zr-bearing ferritic alloys to be fabricated using conventional

  20. Development of ferritic steels for fusion reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klueh, R.L.; Maziasz, P.J.; Corwin, W.R.

    1988-08-01

    Chromium-molybdenum ferritic (martensitic) steels are leading candidates for the structural components for future fusion reactors. However, irradiation of such steels in a fusion environment will produce long-lived radioactive isotopes that will lead to difficult waste-disposal problems. Such problems could be reduced by replacing the elements in the steels (i.e., Mo, Nb, Ni, N, and Cu) that lead to long-lived radioactive isotopes. We have proposed the development of ferritic steels analogous to conventional Cr-Mo steels, which contain molybdenum and niobium. It is proposed that molybdenum be replaced by tungsten and niobium be replaced by tantalum. Eight experimental steels were produced. Chromium concentrations of 2.25, 5, 9, and 12% were used (all concentrations are in wt %). Steels with these chromium compositions, each containing 2% W and 0.25% V, were produced. To determine the effect of tungsten and vanadium, 2.25 Cr steels were produced with 2% W and no vanadium and with 0.25% V and O and 1% W. A 9Cr steel containing 2% W, 0.25 V, and 0.07% Ta was also studied. For all alloys, carbon was maintained at 0.1%. Tempering studies on the normalized steels indicated that the tempering behavior of the new Cr-W steels was similar to that of the analogous Cr-Mo steels. Microscopy studies indicated that 2% tungsten was required in the 2.25 Cr steels to produce 100% bainite in 15.9-mm-thick plate during normalization. The 5Cr and 9Cr steels were 100% martensite, but the 12 Cr steel contained about 75% martensite with the balance delta-ferrite. 33 refs., 35 figs., 5 tabs

  1. Evaluation of ternary blended cements for use in transportation concrete structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, Amanda Louise

    This thesis investigates the use of ternary blended cement concrete mixtures for transportation structures. The study documents technical properties of three concrete mixtures used in federally funded transportation projects in Utah, Kansas, and Michigan that used ternary blended cement concrete mixtures. Data were also collected from laboratory trial batches of ternary blended cement concrete mixtures with mixture designs similar to those of the field projects. The study presents the technical, economic, and environmental advantages of ternary blended cement mixtures. Different barriers of implementation for using ternary blended cement concrete mixtures in transportation projects are addressed. It was concluded that there are no technical, economic, or environmental barriers that exist when using most ternary blended cement concrete mixtures. The technical performance of the ternary blended concrete mixtures that were studied was always better than ordinary portland cement concrete mixtures. The ternary blended cements showed increased durability against chloride ion penetration, alkali silica reaction, and reaction to sulfates. These blends also had less linear shrinkage than ordinary portland cement concrete and met all strength requirements. The increased durability would likely reduce life cycle costs associated with concrete pavement and concrete bridge decks. The initial cost of ternary mixtures can be higher or lower than ordinary portland cement, depending on the supplementary cementitious materials used. Ternary blended cement concrete mixtures produce less carbon dioxide emissions than ordinary portland cement mixtures. This reduces the carbon footprint of construction projects. The barriers associated with implementing ternary blended cement concrete for transportation projects are not significant. Supplying fly ash returns any investment costs for the ready mix plant, including silos and other associated equipment. State specifications can make

  2. In situ fabrication and characterization of cobalt ferrite nanorods/graphene composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Min; Jiao, Qingze; Zhao, Yun

    2013-01-01

    Cobalt ferrite nanorods/graphene composites were prepared by a one-step hydrothermal process using NaHSO 3 as the reducing agent and 1-propyl-3-hexadecylimidazolium bromide as the structure growth-directing template. The reduction of graphene oxide and the in situ formation of cobalt ferrite nanorods were accomplished in a one-step reaction. The structure and morphology of as-obtained composites were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscope, X-ray diffractometer, Fourier transform infrared spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Uniform rod-like cobalt ferrites with diameters of about 100 nm and length of about 800 nm were homogeneously distributed on the graphene sheets. The hybrid materials showed a saturation magnetization of 42.5 emu/g and coercivity of 495.1 Oe at room temperature. The electromagnetic parameters were measured using a vector network analyzer. A minimum reflection loss (RL) of − 25.8 dB was observed at 16.1 GHz for the cobalt ferrite nanorods/graphene composites with a thickness of 2 mm, and the effective absorption frequency (RL < − 10 dB) ranged from 13.5 to 18.0 GHz. The composites exhibited better absorbing properties than the cobalt ferrite nanorods and the mixture of cobalt ferrite nanorods and graphene. - Highlights: • Reduction of GO and formation of ferrites were accomplished in a one-step reaction. • Ionic liquid was used to control 1D growth of ferrite nanorods for the first time. • Cobalt ferrite nanorods/graphene composites showed dielectric and magnetic loss. • Cobalt ferrite nanorods/graphene composites exhibited better absorbing properties

  3. Foucault current testing of ferritic steel fuel cans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stossel, A.

    1984-10-01

    The analysis of impedance involved by a Foucault current test of ferritic steel tubes, is quite different from the classical analysis which refers to non-magnetic tubes; more particularly, volume defects are considered as magnetic anomalies. Contrarily to current instructions which recommend to test the product in a satured magnetic state, it is very interesting to work with a continuous energizing field, comparatively low, corresponding to a sequenced magnetization, of which value is obtained according to the magnetic structure of the product. This analysis is useful when testing fast reactor fuel cans [fr

  4. Remanence properties of Co-precipitated cobalt ferrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueno-Baques, D.; Medina-Boudri, Angela; Matutes-Aquino, J.

    2001-01-01

    Isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) and DC demagnetization (DCD) curves of a co-precipitated cobalt ferrite sample were obtained. From the IRM and DCD data, the Henkel plot was obtained and analyzed in the Preisach model framework. The Henkel plot data are below the Wohlfarth line that indicates a dominant local disorder (demagnetizing-like effect). Forward and reverse switching field distribution curves were obtained from differentiation of the IRM and DCD curves. The peak values of these switching field distributions differ by a factor of about 2.7

  5. Inversion degree and saturation magnetization of different nanocrystalline cobalt ferrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concas, G.; Spano, G.; Cannas, C.; Musinu, A.; Peddis, D.; Piccaluga, G.

    2009-01-01

    The inversion degree of a series of nanocrystalline samples of CoFe 2 O 4 ferrites has been evaluated by a combined study, which exploits the saturation magnetization at 4.2 K and 57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy. The samples, prepared by sol-gel autocombustion, have different thermal history and particle size. The differences observed in the saturation magnetization of these samples are explained in terms of different inversion degrees, as confirmed by the analysis of the components in the Moessbauer spectra. It is notable that the inversion degrees of the samples investigated are set among the highest values reported in the literature.

  6. Design of a Microwave Duplexer without Ferrite and without Magnet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mejri

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the design, realization and characterization of a microwave duplexer, compact, easy to realize and integrate into systems such as ground penetrating radars. It is made without the use of ferrite or magnet. This device is designed in the S band and made in micro-ribbon technology. It consists of a power divider and two RF amplifiers, low gain, using a BFR91 bipolar transistor. The latter is frequently available and inexpensive. Measurements made on a vector network analyzer have shown a low insertion loss with insulation considered satisfactory – for low power applications - between the transmitter (Tx and the receiver (Rx circuits.

  7. Fracture toughness of ferritic alloys irradiated at FFTF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, F.H.

    1986-05-01

    Ferritic compact tension specimens loaded in the Material Open Test Assembly (MOTA) for irradiation during FFTF Cycle 4 were tested at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 428/degree/C. The electrical potential single specimen method was used to measure the fracture toughness of the specimens. Results showed that the fracture toughness of both HT-9 and 9Cr-1Mo decreases with increasing test temperature and that the toughness of HT-9 was about 30% higher than that of 9Cr-1Mo. In addition, increasing irradiation temperature resulted in an increase in tearing modulus for both alloys. 4 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  8. Antiresonance in (Ni,Zn) ferrite-carbon nanofibres nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández-García, Lucía; Suárez, Marta; Luis Menéndez, Jose; Torrecillas, Ramón; Pecharromán, Carlos; Peretyagin, Pavel Y; Petzelt, Jan; Savinov, Maxim; Frait, Zdenek

    2015-01-01

    (NiZn)Fe 2 O 4 carbon nanofiber (CNF) nanocomposites with concentrations up to 5% in volume of CNFs were prepared by traditional ceramic processing and a subsequent spark plasma sintering at 860 °C with a holding time of 1 min. Low-frequency conductivity and magnetic properties were studied, revealing the appearance of a ferromagnetic antiresonance when a certain value of conductivity is reached due to the introduction of a conductive second-phase CNF in the ferromagnetic matrix (ferrite), thereby opening a route to induce magnetically tunable transparency in these composites. (paper)

  9. Embrittlement of a 17Cr ferritic steel irradiated in Phenix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allegraud, G.; Boutard, J.L.; Boyer, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Charpy V and tensile tests have been performed with samples made of 17Cr ferritic steel irradiated in Phenix at temperatures between 390 and 540C up to a maximum dose of 83.3 dpaF. All over the temperature and dose ranges, irradiation leads to an increase of the ductile brittle transition temperature (DBTT). The DBTT and hardening are decreasing functions of the irradiation temperature. Fast neutron flux at 390C hardens the material more than a sole thermal ageing does

  10. Characterization of a system for measurements on soft ferrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamo, F; Attivissimo, F; Marracci, M; Tellini, B

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the characterization of a system for measurements on soft ferrites through a volt-amperometric method. The accurate control of the driving input field is discussed as a critical aspect for the definition of the correct operating conditions on the magnetic sample. A custom-built transimpedance amplifier is characterized in terms of total harmonic distortion and signal-to-noise and distortion ratio of the primary current and shown as a valid configuration for the required purposes. As a main contribution, the uncertainty analyses of the major loop measurement and of the magnetic accommodation measurement of minor asymmetric loops are provided. (paper)

  11. Modeling of ferrite-based materials for shielding enclosures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koledintseva, Marina; Drewniak, James; Zhang Yaojiang; Lenn, James; Thoms, Melanie

    2009-01-01

    An analytical model for a magneto-dielectric composite material is presented based on the Maxwell Garnett rule for a dielectric mixture, and on Bruggeman's effective medium theory for permeability of a ferrite powder embedded in a dielectric. In order to simultaneously treat frequency-dispersive permittivity and permeability of a composite in a full-wave FDTD code, a new algorithm based on discretized auxiliary differential equations has been implemented. In this paper, numerical examples of modeling structures containing different magneto-dielectric mixtures are presented

  12. Assessment of delta ferrite in multipass TIG welds of 40 mm thick SS 316L: A comparative study of ferrite number (FN) prediction and measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddu, Ramesh Kumar; Raole, P. M.; Sarkar, B.

    2017-04-01

    Austenitic stainless steels are widely used in the fabrication of fusion reactor major systems like vacuum vessel, divertor, cryostat and other structural components development. Multipass welding is used for the development of thick plates for the structural components fabrication. Due to the repeated weld thermal cycles, the microstructure adversely alters owing to the presence of complex phases like austenite, ferrite and delta ferrite and subsequently influences the mechanical properties like tensile and impact toughness of joints. The present paper reports the detail analysis of delta ferrite phase in welded region of 40 mm thick SS316L plates welded by special design multipass narrow groove TIG welding process under three different heat input conditions. The correlation of delta ferrite microstructure of different type structures acicular and vermicular is observed. The chemical composition of weld samples was used to predict the Ferrite Number (FN), which is representative form of delta ferrite in welds, with Schaeffler’s, WRC-1992 diagram and DeLong techniques by calculating the Creq and Nieq ratios and compared with experimental data of FN from Feritescope measurements. The low heat input conditions (1.67 kJ/mm) have produced higher FN (7.28), medium heat input (1.72 kJ/mm) shown FN (7.04) where as high heat input (1.87 kJ/mm) conditions has shown FN (6.68) decreasing trend and FN data is compared with the prediction methods.

  13. Sequential character of low-energy ternary and quaternary nuclear fission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadmensky, S. G., E-mail: kadmensky@phys.vsu.ru; Bulychev, A. O. [Voronezh State University (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    An analysis of low-energy true ternary (quaternary) nuclear fission leads to the conclusion that these fission modes have a sequential two-step (three-step) character such that the emission of a third particle (third and fourth particles) and the separation of fission fragments occur at distinctly different instants, in contrast to the simultaneous emergence of all fission products in the case of onestep ternary (quaternary) fission. This conclusion relies on the following arguments. First, the emission of a third particle (third and fourth particles) from a fissile nucleus is due to a nonevaporative mechanism associated with a nonadiabatic character of the collective deformation motion of this nucleus at the stages preceding its scission. Second, the axial symmetry of the deformed fissile compound nucleus and the direction of its symmetry axis both remain unchanged at all stages of ternary (quaternary) fission. This circumstancemakes it possible to explain themechanism of the appearance of observed anisotropies and T — odd asymmeries in the angular distributions of products of ternary (quaternary) nuclear fission. Third, the T —odd asymmetry discovered experimentally in ternary nuclear fission induced by cold polarized neutrons obeys the T —invariance condition only in the case of a sequential two-step (three-step) character of true ternary (quaternary) nuclear fission. At the same time, this asymmetry is not a T —invariant quantity in the case of the simultaneous emission of products of true ternary (quaternary) nuclear fission from the fissile compound nucleus.

  14. Sequential character of low-energy ternary and quaternary nuclear fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadmensky, S. G.; Bulychev, A. O.

    2016-01-01

    An analysis of low-energy true ternary (quaternary) nuclear fission leads to the conclusion that these fission modes have a sequential two-step (three-step) character such that the emission of a third particle (third and fourth particles) and the separation of fission fragments occur at distinctly different instants, in contrast to the simultaneous emergence of all fission products in the case of onestep ternary (quaternary) fission. This conclusion relies on the following arguments. First, the emission of a third particle (third and fourth particles) from a fissile nucleus is due to a nonevaporative mechanism associated with a nonadiabatic character of the collective deformation motion of this nucleus at the stages preceding its scission. Second, the axial symmetry of the deformed fissile compound nucleus and the direction of its symmetry axis both remain unchanged at all stages of ternary (quaternary) fission. This circumstancemakes it possible to explain themechanism of the appearance of observed anisotropies and T — odd asymmeries in the angular distributions of products of ternary (quaternary) nuclear fission. Third, the T —odd asymmetry discovered experimentally in ternary nuclear fission induced by cold polarized neutrons obeys the T —invariance condition only in the case of a sequential two-step (three-step) character of true ternary (quaternary) nuclear fission. At the same time, this asymmetry is not a T —invariant quantity in the case of the simultaneous emission of products of true ternary (quaternary) nuclear fission from the fissile compound nucleus.

  15. He and Be ternary spontaneous fission of sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, J K; Ramayya, A V; Hamilton, J H

    2002-01-01

    Ternary and binary fission studies of sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf have been carried out by using the Gammasphere detector array with light charged particle (LCD) detectors. The relative sup 4 He and sup 5 He ternary fission yields were determined. The kinetic energies of the sup 5 He and sup 4 He ternary particles were found to be approximately 11 and 16 MeV, respectively. The sup 5 He particles contribute 10-20 % to the total observed alpha ternary yield. The data indicate that in nuclei with octupole deformations the population for the negative parity bands might be enhanced in the alpha ternary fission. >From LCP-gamma double gated spectra, neutron multiplicity distributions for alpha ternary fission pairs were measured. The average neutron multiplicity decreases about 0.7 AMU in going from the binary to alpha ternary fission in the approximately same mass splittings (104-146). From the analysis of the gamma-gamma matrix gated on the sup 1 sup 0 Be particles, the two fragment pairs of sup 1 sup 3 sup 8 Xe - sup 1...

  16. Assessment of delta ferrite in multipass TIG welds of 40 mm thick SS 316L plates: a comparative study of ferrite number (FN) prediction and experimental measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buddu, Ramesh Kumar; Shaikh, Shamsuddin; Raole, Prakash M.; Sarkar, Biswanath

    2015-01-01

    Austenitic stainless steels are widely used in the fabrication of fusion reactor major systems like vacuum vessel, divertor, cryostat and other major structural components development. AISI SS316L materials of different thicknesses are utilized due to the superior mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, fatigue and stability at high temperature operation. The components are developed by using welding techniques like TIG welding with suitable filler material. Like in case of vacuum vessel, the multipass welding is unavoidable due to the use of high thickness plates (like in case of ITER and DEMO reactors). In general austenitic welds contains fraction of delta ferrite phase in multipass welds. The quantification depends on the weld thermal cycles like heat input and cooling rates associated with process conditions and chemical composition of the welds. Due to the repeated weld thermal passes, the microstructure adversely alters due to the presence of complex phases like austenite, ferrite and delta ferrite and subsequently influence the mechanical properties like tensile and impact toughness of joints. Control of the delta ferrite is necessary to hold the compatible final properties of the joints and hence its evaluation vital before the fabrication process. The present paper reports the detail analysis of delta ferrite phase in welded region and heat affected zones of 40 mm thick SS316L plates welded by special design multipass narrow groove TIG welding process under three different heat input conditions (1.67 kJ/mm, 1.78 kJ/mm, 1.87 kJ/mm). The correlation of delta ferrite microstructure with optical microscope and high resolution SEM has been carried out and different type of acicular and vermicular delta ferrite structures is observed. This is further correlated with the non destructive magnetic measurement using Ferrite scope. The measured ferrite number (FN) is correlated with the formed delta ferrite phase. The chemical composition of weld samples is

  17. Thin slab processing of acicular ferrite steels with high toughness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reip, Carl-Peter; Hennig, Wolfgang; Hagmann, Rolf [SMS Demag Aktiengesellschaft, Duesseldorf (Germany); Sabrudin, Bin Mohamad Suren; Susanta, Ghosh; Lee, Weng Lan [Megasteel Sdn Bhd, Banting (Malaysia)

    2005-07-01

    Near-net-shape casting processes today represent an important option in steelmaking. High productivity and low production cost as well as the variety of steel grades that can be produced plus an excellent product quality are key factors for the acceptance of such processes in markets all over the world. Today's research focuses on the production of pipe steel with special requirements in terms of toughness at low temperatures. The subject article describes the production of hot strip made from acicular ferritic / bainitic steel grades using the CSP thin-slab technology. In addition, the resulting strength and toughness levels as a function of the alloying concepts are discussed. Optimal control of the CSP process allows the production of higher-strength hot-rolled steel grades with a fine-grain acicular-ferritic/bainitic microstructure. Hot strip produced in this way is characterized by a high toughness at low temperatures. In a drop weight tear test, transition temperatures of up to -50 deg C can be achieved with a shear-fracture share of 85%. (author)

  18. Self-biased cobalt ferrite nanocomposites for microwave applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannour, Abdelkrim, E-mail: abdelkrim.hannour@hotmail.com [LT2C Laboratory, Jean-Monnet University, 25 rue Dr. Rémy Annino, F-42000, Saint-Etienne (France); Vincent, Didier; Kahlouche, Faouzi; Tchangoulian, Ardaches [LT2C Laboratory, Jean-Monnet University, 25 rue Dr. Rémy Annino, F-42000, Saint-Etienne (France); Neveu, Sophie; Dupuis, Vincent [UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7195, PECSA, F-75005, Paris (France)

    2014-03-15

    Oriented CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles, dispersed in polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) matrix, were fabricated by magnetophoretic deposition of functionalized nanocolloidal cobalt ferrite particles into porous alumina membrane. Their magnetic behavior exhibits an out-of-plane easy axis with a large remanent magnetization and coercitivity. This orientation allows high effective internal magnetic anisotropy that contributes to the permanent bias along the wire axis. The microwave studies reveal a ferromagnetic resonance at 46.5 and 49.5 GHz, depending on the filling ratio of the membrane. Ansoft High Frequency Structure Simulator (Ansoft HFSS) simulations are in good agreement with experimental results. Such nanocomposite is presented as one of the promising candidates for microwave devices (circulators, isolators, noise suppressors etc.). - Highlights: • Oriented magnetic CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were fabricated by magnetophoretic deposition of functionalized cobalt ferrite particles into porous alumina membrane. • The nanocomposite obtained presents an out-of-plane easy axis with a large remanent magnetization and coercitivity. • The high effective internal magnetic anisotropy contributes to the permanent bias along the wire axis. • The frequency ferromagnetic resonance ranges from 46.5 to 49.5 GHz, depending on the filling ratio of the membrane. • We have obtained a good agreement between Ansoft High Frequency Structure Simulator simulations and experimental results.

  19. Self-biased cobalt ferrite nanocomposites for microwave applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannour, Abdelkrim; Vincent, Didier; Kahlouche, Faouzi; Tchangoulian, Ardaches; Neveu, Sophie; Dupuis, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Oriented CoFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles, dispersed in polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) matrix, were fabricated by magnetophoretic deposition of functionalized nanocolloidal cobalt ferrite particles into porous alumina membrane. Their magnetic behavior exhibits an out-of-plane easy axis with a large remanent magnetization and coercitivity. This orientation allows high effective internal magnetic anisotropy that contributes to the permanent bias along the wire axis. The microwave studies reveal a ferromagnetic resonance at 46.5 and 49.5 GHz, depending on the filling ratio of the membrane. Ansoft High Frequency Structure Simulator (Ansoft HFSS) simulations are in good agreement with experimental results. Such nanocomposite is presented as one of the promising candidates for microwave devices (circulators, isolators, noise suppressors etc.). - Highlights: • Oriented magnetic CoFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles were fabricated by magnetophoretic deposition of functionalized cobalt ferrite particles into porous alumina membrane. • The nanocomposite obtained presents an out-of-plane easy axis with a large remanent magnetization and coercitivity. • The high effective internal magnetic anisotropy contributes to the permanent bias along the wire axis. • The frequency ferromagnetic resonance ranges from 46.5 to 49.5 GHz, depending on the filling ratio of the membrane. • We have obtained a good agreement between Ansoft High Frequency Structure Simulator simulations and experimental results

  20. Paraequilibrium Carburization of Duplex and Ferritic Stainless Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michal, G. M.; Gu, X.; Jennings, W. D.; Kahn, H.; Ernst, F.; Heuer, A. H.

    2009-08-01

    AISI 301 and E-BRITE stainless steels were subjected to low-temperature (743 K) carburization experiments using a commercial technology developed for carburization of 316 austenitic stainless steels. The AISI 301 steel contained ~40 vol pct ferrite before carburization but had a fully austenitic hardened case, ~20- μm thick, and a surface carbon concentration of ~8 at. pct after treatment; this “colossal” paraequilibrium carbon supersaturation caused an increase in lattice parameter of ~3 pct. The E-BRITE also developed a hardened case, 12- to 18- μm thick, but underwent a more modest (~0.3 pct) increase in lattice parameter; the surface carbon concentration was ~10 at. pct. While the hardened case on the AISI 301 stainless steel appeared to be single-phase austenite, evidence for carbide formation was apparent in X-ray diffractometer (XRD) scans of the E-BRITE. Paraequilibrium phase diagrams were calculated for both AISI 301 and E-BRITE stainless steels using a CALPHAD compound energy-based interstitial solid solution model. In the low-temperature regime of interest, and based upon measured paraequilibrium carbon solubilities, more negative Cr-carbon interaction parameters for austenite than those in the current CALPHAD data base may be appropriate. A sensitivity analysis involving Cr-carbon interaction parameters for ferrite found a strong dependence of carbon solubility on relatively small changes in the magnitude of these parameters.

  1. Postirradiation thermocyclic loading of ferritic-martensitic structural materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaeva, L.; Orychtchenko, A.; Petersen, C.; Rybin, V.

    Thermonuclear fusion reactors of the Tokamak-type will be unique power engineering plants to operate in thermocyclic mode only. Ferritic-martensitic stainless steels are prime candidate structural materials for test blankets of the ITER fusion reactor. Beyond the radiation damage, thermomechanical cyclic loading is considered as the most detrimental lifetime limiting phenomenon for the above structure. With a Russian and a German facility for thermal fatigue testing of neutron irradiated materials a cooperation has been undertaken. Ampule devices to irradiate specimens for postirradiation thermal fatigue tests have been developed by the Russian partner. The irradiation of these ampule devices loaded with specimens of ferritic-martensitic steels, like the European MANET-II, the Russian 05K12N2M and the Japanese Low Activation Material F82H-mod, in a WWR-M-type reactor just started. A description of the irradiation facility, the qualification of the ampule device and the modification of the German thermal fatigue facility will be presented.

  2. Improvement of solvents for chemical decontamination: nickel ferrites removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueroa, Carlos A.; Morando, Pedro J.; Blesa, Miguel A.

    1999-01-01

    Carboxylic acids are usually included in commercial solvents for the chemical cleaning and decontamination of metal surfaces from the oxide layers grown and/or deposited from high temperature water by corrosive process. In particular oxalic acid is included in second path of AP-Citrox method. However, in some cases, their use shows low efficiency. This fact is attributed to the special passivity of the mixed oxides as nickel ferrites. This work reports a kinetic study of dissolution of a synthetic nickel ferrite (NiFe 2 O 4 ) confronted with simple oxides (NiO and Fe 2 O 3 ) in mineral acids and oxalic acid. The dissolution factor and reaction rate were determined in several conditions (reactive concentrations, pH and added ferrous ions). Experimental data of dissolution (with and without Fe(II) added) show a congruent kinetic regime. Pure nickel oxide (NiO) is rather resistant to the attack by oxalic acid solutions, and ferrous ions do not accelerate dissolution. In fact, nickel oxide dissolves better by oxidative attack that takes advantage of the higher lability of Ni 3+ . It may be concluded that oxalic acid operates to dissolve iron, and the ensuing disruption of the solid framework accelerates the release of nickel. Our results point to use more reactive solvents in iron from mixed oxides and to the possibility of using one stage decontamination method. (author)

  3. Microstructure and mechanical properties of unirradiated low activation ferritic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, C.Y.; Lechtenberg, T.A.

    1986-01-01

    Transmission electron micrographs of normalized and tempered 9Cr-2.5W-0.3V-0.15C low activation ferritic steel showed tempered lath-type martensite with precipitation of rod and plate-like carbides at lath and grain boundaries. X-ray diffraction analysis of the extracted replicas revealed nearly 100% M 23 C 6 carbides (a=1.064 nm), with no indication of Fe 2 W-type Laves phase even after thermal aging at 600 0 C/1000 h. Thermal aging increased the number density of rod-like M 23 C 6 along prior austenite grain boundaries and martensite lath boundaries. The elevated-temperature tensile strengths of this steel are about 10% higher than the average strengths of commercial heats of 9Cr-1Mo and modified 9Cr-1Mo steels up to 650 0 C, with equivalent uniform elongation and ∝50% decrease in total elongation. The DBTT was determined to be -25 0 C which is similar to other 9Cr-1Mo steels. Fractographic examination of tensile tested specimens shows a mixed mode of equiaxed and elongated dimples at test temperatures above 400 0 C. Modification of the Ga3X alloy composition for opimization of materials properties is discussed. However, the proposed low activation ferritic steel shows the promise of improved mechanical properties over 9Cr-1Mo steels. (orig.)

  4. Magnetic and electrical properties of Cr substituted Ni nano ferrites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrapally Vijaya Kumar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nano-ferrites with composition NiCrxFe2-xO4 (where x = 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9, 1.0 were synthesized through citrate-gel auto combustion technique at moderately low temperature. X-ray analysis shows cubic spinel structure single phase without any impurity peak and average crystallite size in the range 8.5–10.5 nm. Magnetic properties were measured using a vibrating sample magnetometer at room temperature in the applied field of ±6 KOe. The obtained M-H loop area is very narrow, hence the synthesized nano ferrites are soft magnetic materials with small coercivity. Magnetic parameters such as saturation magnetization (Ms, coercivity (Hc, remanent magnetization (Mr and residual magnetization were measured and discussed with regard to Cr3+ ion concentration. Electrical properties were measured using two probe method from room temperature to well beyond transition temperature. The DC resistivity variation with temperature shows the semiconductor nature. Resistivity, drift mobility and activation energy values are measured and discussed with regard to composition. The Curie temperature was determined using DC resistivity data and Loria-Sinha method. The observed results can be explained in detail on the basis of composition.

  5. Synthesis and super-paramagnetic properties of neodymium ferrites nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El moussaoui, H. [Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies, MAScIR, Rabat (Morocco); Laboratoire of Magnetism and the Physics of the High Energies, URAC 12, Departement of Physique, Faculty of Science, Mohammed V- Agdal University, BP 1014, Rabat (Morocco); Mounkachi, O., E-mail: o.mounkachi@mascir.com [Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies, MAScIR, Rabat (Morocco); Masrour, R. [Laboratory of Materials, Processes, Environment and Quality, Cady Ayyed University, National School of Applied Sciences, Route Sidi Bouzid, BP 63, 46000 Safi (Morocco); Hamedoun, M., E-mail: hamedoun@hotmail.com [Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies, MAScIR, Rabat (Morocco); Hlil, E.K. [Institut Néel, CNRS-UJF, B.P. 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex (France); Benyoussef, A. [Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies, MAScIR, Rabat (Morocco); Laboratoire of Magnetism and the Physics of the High Energies, URAC 12, Departement of Physique, Faculty of Science, Mohammed V- Agdal University, BP 1014, Rabat (Morocco); Hassan II Academy of Science and Technology, Rabat (Morocco)

    2013-12-25

    Highlights: •Magnetic properties of Neodymium nanorods depend on calcination temperature. •The as-synthesized Nd ferrite nanorods are superparamagnetic at room temperature. •The blocking temperature is higher than room temperature. -- Abstract: In this work we report the microstructural characterization and the magnetic properties of neodymium ferrites (NdFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) nanorods prepared by well controlled co-precipitation method. The effect of annealing temperature on the structure, morphology and magnetic properties of NdFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} has been investigated. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations revealed that the as-prepared nanoparticles have rods-like shape with the average diameter ranging from 5 to 14 nm and uniform length. The magnetic measurements show that the as-synthesized nanorods have a superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature, with a blocking temperature of 360 K and magnetic anisotropy constant of 2.8 × 10{sup 5} ergs/cm{sup 3}. The magnetization and coercitivity at room temperature are increased from 26 to 34 emu/g and from 151 to 171 Oe with increasing annealing temperature from 400 to 600 °C, respectively.

  6. A half mode inkjet printed tunable ferrite isolator

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffar, Farhan A.

    2017-10-24

    A novel half mode waveguide based ferrite isolator design is presented in this work. For the first time, tunability of the isolation band is demonstrated for a ferrite isolator. Instead of using the conventional antisymmetric bias the isolator requires a single direction of the magnetic bias field due to the half mode operation. Yttrium Iron Garnet (YIG) is used as the substrate for the device. The metallic walls of the waveguide are realized using inkjet printing. The magnetic biasing applied to the waveguide causes the RF waves to experience negative permeability in one direction of propagation hence providing isolation for this direction. For an applied bias of 3000 Oe, the device provides a maximum isolation figure of merit of 76.7 dB at 7.5 GHz. The isolation band can be controlled by changing the applied magnetostatic bias. As the bias is varied from 1500 Oe to 3500 Oe the center frequency of the isolation band varies from 4.45 GHz to 9 GHz. The measured response of the isolator shows that it can be integrated in any RF system requiring lower cost and good isolation.

  7. Magnetic losses versus sintering treatment in Mn-Zn ferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beatrice, Cinzia, E-mail: c.beatrice@inrim.it [Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica, Nanoscience and Materials Division, Torino (Italy); Tsakaloudi, Vasiliki [Laboratory of Inorganic Materials, CERTH, Thermi-Thessaloniki (Greece); Dobák, Samuel [Institute of Physics, P.J. Šafárik University, Košice (Slovakia); Zaspalis, Vassilios [Department of Chemical Engineering Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki (Greece); Fiorillo, Fausto [Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica, Nanoscience and Materials Division, Torino (Italy)

    2017-05-01

    Mn-Zn ferrites prepared by different sintering schedules at 1325 °C, 1340 °C, and 1360 °C, have been characterized from the structural, electrical, and magnetic viewpoint. Magnetic losses and complex permeability have been, in particular, measured and analyzed from quasi-static excitation up to 1 GHz. It is observed that lower sintering temperatures and shorter treatment times lead to more homogeneous grain structure and better soft magnetic response at all frequencies. It is shown, however, that, once the contribution by eddy currents is singled out, the energy losses tend to coincide beyond a few MHz in the differently treated samples. The interpretative approach consists in separating the contributions by the domain wall displacements and the magnetization rotations to complex permeability and losses as a function of frequency. This can be accomplished in a relatively simple way in the low induction region described by the Rayleigh law, where these quantities can be quantitatively related and the linear Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation applies, account being taken of the distribution in amplitude and orientation of the local anisotropy fields. - Highlights: • DC-1 GHz magnetic losses and complex permeability of Mn-Zn ferrites are analyzed. • Contributions by domain wall displacements and rotations are separately obtained. • Energy losses caused by eddy currents and spin damping are separately identified. • Microstructure is shown to chiefly affect the domain wall processes. • Rotational permeability and loss are predicted through Landau-Lifshitz equation.

  8. A study on low temperature transformation ferrite in ultra low carbon IF steels (I) - effects of manganese and annealing conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Woo Chang; Lee, Jae Yeon; Jin, Young Sool

    2001-01-01

    An investigation was made to determine the effects of Mn content and annealing conditions on the formation of the low temperature transformation products in ultra low carbon interstitial free steels. With increasing the Mn content, yield and tensile strengths increased, but yield ratio decreased. The Mn was found to be effective to decrease the yield point elongation, causing continuous yielding in 3% Mn steel. Low temperature transformation ferrites such as quasi-polygonal ferrite, granular bainitic ferrite, and bainitic ferrite more easily formed with higher Mn content, higher annealing temperature, longer annealing time, and faster cooling rate. Polygonal ferrite grain was readily identified in the light microscope and was characterized by the polyhedral and equiaxed shape while quasi-polygonal ferrite showed the irregular changeful grain boundaries. It was found that both granular bainitic and bainitic ferrites revealed some etching evidence of substructures in the light microscope

  9. Quantum error-correcting code for ternary logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Ritajit; Basu, Saikat; Ghosh, Shibashis; Sur-Kolay, Susmita

    2018-05-01

    Ternary quantum systems are being studied because they provide more computational state space per unit of information, known as qutrit. A qutrit has three basis states, thus a qubit may be considered as a special case of a qutrit where the coefficient of one of the basis states is zero. Hence both (2 ×2 ) -dimensional and (3 ×3 ) -dimensional Pauli errors can occur on qutrits. In this paper, we (i) explore the possible (2 ×2 ) -dimensional as well as (3 ×3 ) -dimensional Pauli errors in qutrits and show that any pairwise bit swap error can be expressed as a linear combination of shift errors and phase errors, (ii) propose a special type of error called a quantum superposition error and show its equivalence to arbitrary rotation, (iii) formulate a nine-qutrit code which can correct a single error in a qutrit, and (iv) provide its stabilizer and circuit realization.

  10. Ternary ceramic alloys of Zr-Ce-Hf oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becher, P.F.; Funkenbusch, E.F.

    1990-11-20

    A ternary ceramic alloy is described which produces toughening of zirconia and zirconia composites through the stress transformation from tetragonal phase to monoclinic phase. This alloy, having the general formula Ce[sub x]Hf[sub y]Zr[sub 1[minus]x[minus]y]O[sub 2], is produced through the addition of appropriate amounts of ceria and hafnia to the zirconia. Typically, improved toughness is achieved with about 5 to about 15 mol % ceria and up to about 40 mol % hafnia. The preparation of alloys of these compositions are given together with data as to the densities, tetragonal phase content, hardness and fracture toughness. The alloys are useful in preparing zirconia bodies as well as reinforcing ceramic composites. 1 fig.

  11. Hardware emulation of Memristor based Ternary Content Addressable Memory

    KAUST Repository

    Bahloul, Mohamed A.

    2017-12-13

    MTCAM (Memristor Ternary Content Addressable Memory) is a special purpose storage medium in which data could be retrieved based on the stored content. Using Memristors as the main storage element provides the potential of achieving higher density and more efficient solutions than conventional methods. A key missing item in the validation of such approaches is the wide spread availability of hardware emulation platforms that can provide reliable and repeatable performance statistics. In this paper, we present a hardware MTCAM emulation based on 2-Transistors-2Memristors (2T2M) bit-cell. It builds on a bipolar memristor model with storing and fetching capabilities based on the actual current-voltage behaviour. The proposed design offers a flexible verification environment with quick design revisions, high execution speeds and powerful debugging techniques. The proposed design is modeled using VHDL and prototyped on Xilinx Virtex® FPGA.

  12. Normal freezing of ideal ternary systems of the pseudobinary type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C. H.

    1972-01-01

    Perfect liquid mixing but no solid diffusion is assumed in normal freezing. In addition, the molar compositions of the freezing solid and remaining liquid, respectively, follow the solidus and liquidus curves of the constitutional diagram. For the linear case, in which both the liquidus and solidus are perfectly straight lines, the normal freezing equation giving the fraction solidified at each melt temperature and the solute concentration profile in the frozen solid was determined as early as 1902, and has since been repeatedly published. Corresponding equations for quadratic, cubic or higher-degree liquidus and solidus lines have also been obtained. The equation of normal freezing for ideal ternary liquid solutions solidified into ideal solid solutions of the pseudobinary type is given. Sample computations with the use of this new equation were made and are given for the Ga-Al-As system.

  13. Ternary oxide nanostructures and methods of making same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Stanislaus S [Stony Brook, NY; Park, Tae-Jin [Port Jefferson, NY

    2009-09-08

    A single crystalline ternary nanostructure having the formula A.sub.xB.sub.yO.sub.z, wherein x ranges from 0.25 to 24, and y ranges from 1.5 to 40, and wherein A and B are independently selected from the group consisting of Ag, Al, As, Au, B, Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, Cl, Cm, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Dy, Er, Eu, F, Fe, Ga, Gd, Ge, Hf, Ho, I, In, Ir, K, La, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nb, Nd, Ni, Os, P, Pb, Pd, Pr, Pt, Rb, Re, Rh, Ru, S, Sb, Sc, Se, Si, Sm, Sn, Sr, Ta, Tb, Tc, Te, Ti, Tl, Tm, U, V, W, Y, Yb, and Zn, wherein the nanostructure is at least 95% free of defects and/or dislocations.

  14. Structural study of the continuous medium of spontaneous ternary emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desforge, Christine

    1993-01-01

    This research thesis addresses the study of the structure of a continuous medium of spontaneous ternary emulsions of oil-in-water type, composed of water and octane, and stabilised by means of a cationic surfactant (DDAB, didodecyldimethyl ammonium bromide). It shows that the kinetic stability is due to electrostatic repulsions between octane drops, and that these repulsions are due to the presence of positive charges on the DDAB mono-layer located at the interface between water and oil. Various aspects are highlighted by neutron and X ray scattering. In this study, the DDAB is replaced by a non-ionic surfactant. Its use results in very steady oil/water emulsions [fr

  15. Hardness and Microstructure of Binary and Ternary Nitinol Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Malcolm K.

    2016-01-01

    The hardness and microstructure of twenty-six binary and ternary Nitinol (nickel titanium, nickel titanium hafnium, nickel titanium zirconium and nickel titanium tantalum) compounds were studied. A small (50g) ingot of each compound was produced by vacuum arc remelting. Each ingot was homogenized in vacuum for 48 hr followed by furnace cooling. Specimens from the ingots were then heat treated at 800, 900, 1000 or 1100 degree C for 2 hr followed by water quenching. The hardness and microstructure of each specimen was compared to the baseline material (55-Nitinol, 55 at.% nickel - 45 at.% titanium, after heat treatment at 900 degC). The results show that eleven of the studied compounds had higher hardness values than the baseline material. Moreover, twelve of the studied compounds had measured hardness values greater 600HV at heat treatments from 800 to 900 degree C.

  16. Modeling adsorption of binary and ternary mixtures on microporous media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monsalvo, Matias Alfonso; Shapiro, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    it possible using the same equation of state to describe the thermodynamic properties of the segregated and the bulk phases. For comparison, we also used the ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST) to describe adsorption equilibria. The main advantage of these two models is their capabilities to predict......The goal of this work is to analyze the adsorption of binary and ternary mixtures on the basis of the multicomponent potential theory of adsorption (MPTA). In the MPTA, the adsorbate is considered as a segregated mixture in the external potential field emitted by the solid adsorbent. This makes...... multicomponent adsorption equilibria on the basis of single-component adsorption data. We compare the MPTA and IAST models to a large set of experimental data, obtaining reasonable good agreement with experimental data and high degree of predictability. Some limitations of both models are also discussed....

  17. Site occupancies in ternary C15 ordered Laves phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotula, P.G.; Chu, F.; Thoma, D.J.; Mitchell, T.E.; Anderson, I.M.; Bentley, J.

    1996-01-01

    Site occupancies in three C15-structured AB 2 (X) Laves phases have been determined by Atom Location by CHanneling Enhanced MIcroanalysis (ALCHEMI). In NbCr 2 (V), the results were consistent with exclusive site occupancies of Nb for the A sublattice and Cr and V for the B sublattice. The B-site occupancy of V is not expected from atom size effects alone. In NbCr 2 (Ti), the results were consistent with Ti partitioning mostly to the A sites with some anti-site defects likely. In HfV 2 (Nb), the results were consistent with Nb partitioning between the A and B sites. The results of the ALCHEMI analyses of these ternary C15 Laves phase materials will be discussed with respect to previously determined phase diagrams and first-principles total energy and electronic structure calculations

  18. Quadrupole interaction in ternary chalcopyrite semiconductors experiments and theory

    CERN Document Server

    Dietrich, M; Degering, D; Deicher, M; Kortus, J; Magerle, R; Möller, A; Samokhvalov, V; Unterricker, S; Vianden, R

    2000-01-01

    Electric field gradients have been measured at substitutional lattice sites in ternary semiconductors using perturbed gamma - gamma angular correlation spectroscopy. The experimental results for A/sup I/B/sup III/C/sub 2//sup VI/ chalcopyrite structure compounds and Square Operator A/sup II/B/sub 2//sup III/C/sub 4//sup VI/ defect chalcopyrites are compared with ab-initio calculations. The latter were carried out with the WIEN code that uses the full potential linearized augmented plane wave method within a density functional theory. The agreement between experiment and theory is in most cases very good. Furthermore, the anion displacements in AgGaX/sub 2/- compounds (X: S, Se, Te) have been determined theoretically by determining the minimum of the total energy of the electrons in an elementary cell. (20 refs).

  19. Superconducting properties of a copper-ternary alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.G.; Aleksivskii, N.E.

    1975-01-01

    The superconducting properties of a copper-ternary alloy of the type Cu 93 Nb 5 Sn 2 , subjected to a variety of mechanical and heat treatments, are discussed. The as-cast alloy does not turn superconducting down to 4.5K; but the cold-work and subsequent prescribed heat treatments are found to raise the transition temperature Tsub(c) to values as high as 18.1K and the critical current density Jsub(c) (of the Nb 3 Sn formed during annealing) to a value of 3.6x10 5 Acm -2 (at 4.2K and 30kOe). Various possibilities to improve Jsub(c) of this alloy to still higher values are discussed. The as-cast alloy is ductile, easy to draw, and economical from a technical point of view, and the annealed wires and strips are flexible enough for winding. (author)

  20. Secondary ordering in ternary alloy CuMnPt6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Miwako; Das, Ananda Kumar; Nakamura, Reo; Ohshima, Ken-ichi; Iwasaki, Hiroshi; Shishido, Toetsu

    2006-01-01

    Using the pulsed-neutron diffraction technique, we performed in situ measurements of structural ordering in the ternary alloy CuMnPt 6 . The diffraction patterns at various temperatures give a direct observation of a double-step ordering: disorder to Cu 3 Au type order as an ordering within the fundamental face-centered cubic lattice to subdivide the lattice into two sublattices formed by face-centered sites (first sublattice) and corner sites (second sublattice) at 968degC; and Cu 3 Au type order to ABC 6 type order as an ordering within the second to subdivide the lattice further into two sublattices formed by alternating (111) planes at 746degC. The order parameters for the ABC 6 type structure experimentally estimated by the method of static concentration waves indicate that the primary ordering developed almost completely, but the secondary ordering remained incomplete. (author)

  1. Bond charges and electronic charge transfer in ternary semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietsch, U.

    1986-01-01

    By means of a simple molecule-theoretic model of 'linear superposition of two-electron molecules' the bond charges between nearest neighbours and the effective charges of ions are calculated for ternary zinc-blende structure alloys as well as chalcopyrite semiconductors. Taking into account both, the charge transfer among the ions caused by the differences of electronegativities of atoms used and between the bonds created by the internal stress of the lattice a nearly unvaried averaged bond charge amount of the alloy is found, but rather dramatically changed local bond charge parameters in comparison with the respective values of binary compounds used. This fact should influence the noncentral force interaction in such semiconductors. (author)

  2. Hardware emulation of Memristor based Ternary Content Addressable Memory

    KAUST Repository

    Bahloul, Mohamed A.; Naous, Rawan; Masmoudi, M.

    2017-01-01

    MTCAM (Memristor Ternary Content Addressable Memory) is a special purpose storage medium in which data could be retrieved based on the stored content. Using Memristors as the main storage element provides the potential of achieving higher density and more efficient solutions than conventional methods. A key missing item in the validation of such approaches is the wide spread availability of hardware emulation platforms that can provide reliable and repeatable performance statistics. In this paper, we present a hardware MTCAM emulation based on 2-Transistors-2Memristors (2T2M) bit-cell. It builds on a bipolar memristor model with storing and fetching capabilities based on the actual current-voltage behaviour. The proposed design offers a flexible verification environment with quick design revisions, high execution speeds and powerful debugging techniques. The proposed design is modeled using VHDL and prototyped on Xilinx Virtex® FPGA.

  3. A high-throughput search for new ternary superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyshadham, Chandramouli; Hansen, Jacob; Oses, Corey; Curtarolo, Stefano; Hart, Gus

    In 2006 an unexpected new superalloy, Co3[Al,W], was discovered. This new alloy is cobalt-based, in contrast to conventional superalloys, which are nickel-based. Inspired by this new discovery, we performed first-principles calculations, searching through 2224 ternary metallic systems of the form A3[B0.5C0.5], where A = Ni/Co/Fe and [B, C] = all binary combinations of 40 different elements chosen from the periodic table. We found 175 new systems that are better than the Co3[Al, W] superalloy. 75 of these systems are brand new--they have never been reported in experimental literature. These 75 new potential superalloys are good candidates for further experiments. Our calculations are consistent with current experimental literature where data exists. Work supported under: ONR (MURI N00014-13-1-0635).

  4. Enhancement of phononic band gaps in ternary/binary structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, Arafa H.; Mehaney, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Based on the transfer matrix method (TMM) and Bloch theory, the interaction of elastic waves (normal incidence) with 1D phononic crystal had been studied. The transfer matrix method was obtained for both longitudinal and transverse waves by applying the continuity conditions between the consecutive unit cells. Dispersion relations are calculated and plotted for both binary and ternary structures. Also we have investigated the corresponding effects on the band gaps values for the two types of phononic crystals. Furthermore, it can be observed that the complete band gaps are located in the common frequency stop-band regions. Numerical simulations are performed to investigate the effect of different thickness ratios inside each unit cell on the band gap values, as well as unit cells thickness on the central band gap frequency. These phononic band gap materials can be used as a filter for elastic waves at different frequencies values.

  5. Ternary semitransparent organic solar cells with a laminated top electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makha, Mohammed; Testa, Paolo; Anantharaman, Surendra Babu; Heier, Jakob; Jenatsch, Sandra; Leclaire, Nicolas; Tisserant, Jean-Nicolas; Véron, Anna C; Wang, Lei; Nüesch, Frank; Hany, Roland

    2017-01-01

    Tinted and colour-neutral semitransparent organic photovoltaic elements are of interest for building-integrated applications in windows, on glass roofs or on facades. We demonstrate a semitransparent organic photovoltaic cell with a dry-laminated top electrode that achieves a uniform average visible transmittance of 51% and a power conversion efficiency of 3%. The photo-active material is based on a majority blend composed of a visibly absorbing donor polymer and a fullerene acceptor, to which a selective near-infrared absorbing cyanine dye is added as a minority component. Our results show that organic ternary blends are attractive for the fabrication of semitransparent solar cells in general, because a guest component with a complementary absorption can compensate for the inevitably reduced current generation capability of a high-performing binary blend when applied as a thin, semitransparent film.

  6. New method for the simultaneous condensation of complete ternary alloy systems under ultrahigh vacuum conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrtens, A.; Moske, M.; Samwer, K.

    1988-01-01

    An ultrahigh vacuum apparatus is described for the simultaneous condensation of complete ternary alloy systems. Three singly controlled electron beam evaporation sources provide a constant evaporation rate of the different elements. A specially designed rotating mask guarantees a concentration gradient on the substrate according to a ternary phase diagram. The conversion of the actual concentration profile into a standard ternary phase diagram is done by simple computer calculations. They involve corrections for the beam characteristics of the evaporation sources and for the rotating mask. As an example, measurements for the Zr--Cu--Co system are given. The concentration range for the amorphous phase is compared with thermodynamic predictions using Miedema's parameter

  7. Ternary particles with extreme N/Z ratios from neutron-induced fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koster, U.; Faust, H.; Friedrichs, T.; Oberstedt, S.; Fioni, G.; Grob, M.; Ahmad, I. J.; Devlin, M.; Heinz, A.; Kondev, F. G.; Lauritsen, T.; Sarantites, D. G.; Siem, S.; Sobotka, L. G.; Sonzogni, A.

    2000-01-01

    The existing ternary fission models can well reproduce the yields of the most abundant light charged particles. However, these models tend to significantly overestimate the yields of ternary particles with an extreme N/Z ratio: 3 He, 11 Li, 14 Be, etc. The experimental yields of these isotopes were investigated with the recoil separator LOHENGRIN down to a level of 10 -10 per fission. Results from the fissioning systems 233 U (n th , f), 235 U(n th ,f), 239 Pu(n th ,f) 241 Pu(n th ,f) and 245 Cm(n th ,f) are presented and the implications for the ternary fission models are discussed

  8. Ternary cobalt-molybdenum-zirconium coatings for alternative energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yar-Mukhamedova, Gulmira; Ved', Maryna; Sakhnenko, Nikolay; Koziar, Maryna

    2017-11-01

    Consistent patterns for electrodeposition of Co-Mo-Zr coatings from polyligand citrate-pyrophosphate bath were investigated. The effect of both current density amplitude and pulse on/off time on the quality, composition and surface morphology of the galvanic alloys were determined. It was established the coating Co-Mo-Zr enrichment by molybdenum with current density increasing up to 8 A dm-2 as well as the rising of pulse time and pause duration promotes the content of molybdenum because of subsequent chemical reduction of its intermediate oxides by hydrogen ad-atoms. It was found that the content of the alloying metals in the coating Co-Mo-Zr depends on the current density and on/off times extremely and maximum Mo and Zr content corresponds to the current density interval 4-6 A dm-2, on-/off-time 2-10 ms. Chemical resistance of binary and ternary coatings based on cobalt is caused by the increased tendency to passivity and high resistance to pitting corrosion in the presence of molybdenum and zirconium, as well as the acid nature of their oxides. Binary coating with molybdenum content not less than 20 at.% and ternary ones with zirconium content in terms of corrosion deep index are in a group ;very proof;. It was shown that Co-Mo-Zr alloys exhibits the greatest level of catalytic properties as cathode material for hydrogen electrolytic production from acidic media which is not inferior a platinum electrode. The deposits Co-Mo-Zr with zirconium content 2-4 at.% demonstrate high catalytic properties in the carbon(II) oxide conversion. This confirms the efficiency of materials as catalysts for the gaseous wastes purification and gives the reason to recommend them as catalysts for red-ox processes activating by oxygen as well as electrode materials for red-ox batteries.

  9. Crystal chemistry and magnetic properties of ternary rare earth sulfides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plug, C.M.; Rijksuniversiteit Leiden

    1977-01-01

    The results of magnetic measurements on two groups of ternary rare earth sulphides are described, the MLnS 2 (M=Li, Na, K) type of compounds and the series Ln 2 ZrS 5 , where Ln denotes one of the rare earths. None of these compounds is metallic, excluding the possibility of RKKY-interaction. In chapter II a survey of the relevant theory on magnetic properties and crystal field splitting is given. In spite of the similarity in chemical properties of the rare earths, the crystal chemistry of their compounds is rather complex. This is due to the lanthanide contraction. The third chapter deals with the description and classification of the numerous crystal structures of both ternary and binary rare earth sulphides that have been observed. Rather simple relations between various structures are presented using a new method of structure classification. The magnetic interactions expected to be based on superexchange via the anions, which is usually very structure dependent. Experiments to study the crystallographic ordering, applying both X-ray and electron diffraction methods and the results of the magnetic measurements on the compounds MLnS 2 are reported in chapter IV. The compounds Ln 2 ZrS 5 are candidates for a systematic study of the variation of the magnetic properties along the rare earth series. The results of magnetic measurements on these compounds are presented in chapter V, combined with the results of specific heat measurements. Also the magnetic structure of two representatives, Tb 2 ZrS 5 and Dy 2 ZrS 5 , determined by neutron diffraction experiments below the ordering temperature, is reported

  10. Boron-Based Hydrogen Storage: Ternary Borides and Beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vajo, John J. [HRL Laboratories, LLC, Malibu, CA (United States)

    2016-04-28

    DOE continues to seek reversible solid-state hydrogen materials with hydrogen densities of ≥11 wt% and ≥80 g/L that can deliver hydrogen and be recharged at moderate temperatures (≤100 °C) and pressures (≤100 bar) enabling incorporation into hydrogen storage systems suitable for transportation applications. Boron-based hydrogen storage materials have the potential to meet the density requirements given boron’s low atomic weight, high chemical valance, and versatile chemistry. However, the rates of hydrogen exchange in boron-based compounds are thus far much too slow for practical applications. Although contributing to the high hydrogen densities, the high valance of boron also leads to slow rates of hydrogen exchange due to extensive boron-boron atom rearrangements during hydrogen cycling. This rearrangement often leads to multiple solid phases occurring over hydrogen release and recharge cycles. These phases must nucleate and react with each other across solid-solid phase boundaries leading to energy barriers that slow the rates of hydrogen exchange. This project sought to overcome the slow rates of hydrogen exchange in boron-based hydrogen storage materials by minimizing the number of solid phases and the boron atom rearrangement over a hydrogen release and recharge cycle. Two novel approaches were explored: 1) developing matched pairs of ternary borides and mixed-metal borohydrides that could exchange hydrogen with only one hydrogenated phase (the mixed-metal borohydride) and only one dehydrogenated phase (the ternary boride); and 2) developing boranes that could release hydrogen by being lithiated using lithium hydride with no boron-boron atom rearrangement.

  11. Development of FEMAG. Calculation code of magnetic field generated by ferritic plates in the tokamak devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urata, Kazuhiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    2003-03-01

    In design of the future fusion devises in which low activation ferritic steel is planned to use as the plasma facing material and/or the inserts for ripple reduction, the appreciation of the error field effect against the plasma as well as the optimization of ferritic plate arrangement to reduce the toroidal field ripple require calculation of magnetic field generated by ferritic steel. However iterative calculations concerning the non-linearity in B-H curve of ferritic steel disturbs high-speed calculation required as the design tool. In the strong toroidal magnetic field that is characteristic in the tokamak fusion devices, fully magnetic saturation of ferritic steel occurs. Hence a distribution of magnetic charges as magnetic field source is determined straightforward and any iteration calculation are unnecessary. Additionally objective ferritic steel geometry is limited to the thin plate and ferritic plates are installed along the toroidal magnetic field. Taking these special conditions into account, high-speed calculation code ''FEMAG'' has been developed. In this report, the formalization of 'FEMAG' code, how to use 'FEMAG', and the validity check of 'FEMAG' in comparison with a 3D FEM code, with the measurements of the magnetic field in JFT-2M are described. The presented examples are numerical results of design studies for JT-60 modification. (author)

  12. Studies on magnetic properties of chemically synthesized crystalline calcium ferrite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debnath, A., E-mail: debnathanimesh@gmail.com [Department of Civil Engineering, National Institute of Technology Agartala, Jirania, West Tripura, 799046 India (India); Bera, A.; Saha, B. [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Agartala, Jirania, West Tripura 799046 (India); Chattopadhyay, K. K. [Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Spinel-type ferrites have taken a very important role for modern electronic industry. Most of these ferrites exhibit low-loss dielectric properties, high resistivity, low eddy current and also high temperature ferromagnetism. Calcium ferrite is one such important metal oxide which is environmentally safe, chemically stable, low cost and greatly abundant. This outstanding material of calcium ferrite is synthesized by a simple chemical precipitation method using NaOH as the precipitating agent. Ferric chloride anhydrous (FeCl{sub 3}) and Calcium chloride dihydrate (CaCl{sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O) were used as iron and calcium sources respectively. The samples were heated at 200°C for 8h to obtain homogeneous powder of Calcium ferrite. The powders were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), Transmission electrical microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (FTIR) measurements. The polycrystalline nature of the sample was confirmed by X-ray diffraction study. The magnetic properties of the sample were investigated by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) measurements. Magnetization curve of the prepared sample depicts that as synthesized calcium ferrite nanoparticles have saturation magnetic moment of 1.74 emu/g and the coercivity of 35.08 Oe with superparamagnetic behavior. The synthesized calcium ferrite nanoparticles with such magnetic properties will be a candidate material for different applications in electronics and exploring its functionality in the field of recently developing semiconductor device physics and spintronics.

  13. Studies on magnetic properties of chemically synthesized crystalline calcium ferrite nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debnath, A.; Bera, A.; Saha, B.; Chattopadhyay, K. K.

    2016-01-01

    Spinel-type ferrites have taken a very important role for modern electronic industry. Most of these ferrites exhibit low-loss dielectric properties, high resistivity, low eddy current and also high temperature ferromagnetism. Calcium ferrite is one such important metal oxide which is environmentally safe, chemically stable, low cost and greatly abundant. This outstanding material of calcium ferrite is synthesized by a simple chemical precipitation method using NaOH as the precipitating agent. Ferric chloride anhydrous (FeCl_3) and Calcium chloride dihydrate (CaCl_2.2H_2O) were used as iron and calcium sources respectively. The samples were heated at 200°C for 8h to obtain homogeneous powder of Calcium ferrite. The powders were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), Transmission electrical microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (FTIR) measurements. The polycrystalline nature of the sample was confirmed by X-ray diffraction study. The magnetic properties of the sample were investigated by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) measurements. Magnetization curve of the prepared sample depicts that as synthesized calcium ferrite nanoparticles have saturation magnetic moment of 1.74 emu/g and the coercivity of 35.08 Oe with superparamagnetic behavior. The synthesized calcium ferrite nanoparticles with such magnetic properties will be a candidate material for different applications in electronics and exploring its functionality in the field of recently developing semiconductor device physics and spintronics.

  14. Complex impedance spectra of chip inductor using Li-Zn-Cu-Mn ferrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Tatsuya; Naoe, Masayuki; Yamada, Yoshihiro

    2006-01-01

    A multi-layer chip inductor (MCI) was fabricated using polycrystalline Li-Zn-Cu-Mn ferrite and the green-sheet technique, and its complex impedance spectrum was evaluated with the help of numerical calculations. The complex impedance spectra of the MCI component using Ni-Zn-Cu ferrite, which have been widely used for this application, were very sensitive to the residual stress and deviated much from the calculated values; however, it was found that the complex impedance spectrum of the MCI component using Li-Zn-Cu-Mn ferrite is quite well reproduced by calculation, where the complex permittivity and permeability of the polycrystalline ferrite as well as the MCI dimensions, were used. It implied that the magneto-striction effect was negligible in case of MCI using Li-Zn-Cu-Mn ferrite, and that the difference was related to magneto-strictive coefficient of the polycrystalline ferrite. Consequently, utilization of Li-Zn-Cu-Mn ferrite enabled us to easily design the complex impedance of MCI component

  15. First-principles study on ferrite/TiC heterogeneous nucleation interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jian; Zhang, Pengfei; Zhou, Yefei; Guo, Jing; Ren, Xuejun; Yang, Yulin; Yang, Qingxiang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Interface stability of ferrite (1 0 0)/TiC (1 0 0) was studied. ► The effectiveness of TiC as the heterogeneous nuclei of ferrite was analyzed. ► Ti-termination and C-termination are the two binding modes for ferrite/TiC interface. ► Interfacial energy of the Ti-termination is larger than that of the C-termination. ► On C-termination, ability of TiC promotes ferrite heterogeneous nucleation is strong. -- Abstract: Interface atomic structure, bonding character, cohesive energy and interfacial energy of ferrite (1 0 0)/TiC (1 0 0) were studied using a first-principles density functional plane-wave ultrasoft pseudopotential method. Meanwhile, the effectiveness of TiC as the heterogeneous nuclei of ferrite was analyzed. The results indicated that, TiC bonding is dominated by the C-2p, C-2s and Ti-3d electrons, which exhibits high covalency. With increase of the atomic layers, the interfacial energies of ferrite and TiC are both declined rapidly and stabilized gradually. There are two binding modes for TiC as the heterogeneous nuclei of ferrite, which are Fe atoms above the Ti atoms (Ti-termination) and Fe atoms above the C atoms (C-termination). Interfacial energy of the Ti-termination is larger than that of the C-termination, which means that for Fe atoms above the C atoms, the ability of TiC promotes ferrite heterogeneous nucleation on its surface is larger than that for Fe atoms above the Ti atoms

  16. Material physical properties of 11Cr-ferritic/martensitic steel (PNC-FMS) wrapper tube materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yano, Yasuhide; Kaito, Takeji; Ohtsuka, Satoshi; Tanno, Takashi; Uwaba, Tomoyuki; Koyama, Shinichi

    2012-09-01

    It is necessary to develop core materials for fast reactors in order to achieve high-burnup. Ferritic steels are expected to be good candidate core materials to achieve this objective because of their excellent void swelling resistance. Therefore, oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel and 11Cr-ferritic/martensitic steel (PNC-FMS) have been respectively developed for cladding and wrapper tube materials in Japan Atomic Energy Agency. In this study, various physical properties of PNC-FMS wrapper materials were measured and equations and future standard measurement technique of physical properties for the design and evaluation were conducted. (author)

  17. Modeling of Ni Diffusion Induced Austenite Formation in Ferritic Stainless Steel Interconnects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ming; Alimadadi, Hossein; Molin, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Ferritic stainless steel interconnect plates are widely used in planar solid oxide fuel cell and electrolysis cell stacks. During stack production and operation, nickel from the Ni/yttria stabilized zirconia fuel electrode or from the Ni contact component layer diffuses into the interconnect plate......, causing transformation of the ferritic phase into an austenitic phase in the interface region. This is accompanied with changes in volume, and in mechanical and corrosion properties of the interconnect plates. In this work, kinetic modeling of the inter-diffusion between Ni and FeCr based ferritic...

  18. Modeling of Ni Diffusion Induced Austenite Formation in Ferritic Stainless Steel Interconnects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ming; Molin, Sebastian; Zhang, L.

    2015-01-01

    Ferritic stainless steel interconnect plates are widely used in planar solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) or electrolysis cell (SOEC) stacks. During stack production and operation, nickel from the Ni/YSZ fuel electrode or from the Ni contact component diffuses into the IC plate, causing transformation...... of the ferritic phase into an austenitic phase in the interface region. This is accompanied with changes in volume and in mechanical and corrosion properties of the IC plates. In this work, kinetic modeling of the inter-diffusion between Ni and FeCr based ferritic stainless steel was conducted, using the CALPHAD...

  19. Development of ODS (oxide dispersion strengthened) ferritic-martensitic steels for fast reactor fuel cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukai, Shigeharu

    2000-01-01

    In order to attain higher burnup and higher coolant outlet temperature in fast reactor, oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic-martensitic steels were developed as a long life fuel cladding. The improvement in formability and ductility, which are indispensable in the cold-rolling method for manufacturing cladding tube, were achieved by controlling the microstructure using techniques such as recrystallization heat-treatment and α to γ phase transformation. The ODS ferritic-martensitic cladding tubes manufactured using these techniques have the highest internal creep rupture strength in the world as ferritic stainless steels. Strength level approaches adequate value at 700degC, which meets the requirement for commercial fast reactors. (author)

  20. Influence of reagents mixture density on the radiation-thermal synthesis of lithium-zinc ferrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surzhikov, A. P.; Lysenko, E. N.; Vlasov, V. A.; Malyshev, A. V.; Korobeynikov, M. V.; Mikhailenko, M. A.

    2017-01-01

    Influence of Li2CO3-ZnO-Fe2O3 powder reagents mixture density on the synthesis efficiency of lithium-zinc ferrites in the conditions of thermal heating or pulsed electron beam heating was studied by X-Ray diffraction and magnetization analysis. The results showed that the including a compaction of powder reagents mixture in ferrite synthesis leads to an increase in concentration of the spinel phase and decrease in initial components content in lithium-substituted ferrites synthesized by thermal or radiation-thermal heating.