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Sample records for termite reticulitermes flavipes

  1. Parallel metatranscriptome analyses of host and symbiont gene expression in the gut of the termite Reticulitermes flavipes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tartar, Aurélien; Wheeler, Marsha M; Zhou, Xuguo; Coy, Monique R; Boucias, Drion G; Scharf, Michael E

    2009-01-01

    .... In the present work, we took a combined host and symbiont metatranscriptomic approach for investigating the digestive contributions of host and symbiont in the lower termite Reticulitermes flavipes...

  2. Diversity of Hindgut Bacterial Population in Subterranean Termite, Reticulitermes flavipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olanrewaju Raji; Dragica Jeremic-Nikolic; Juliet D. Tang

    2017-01-01

    The termite hindgut contains a bacterial community that symbiotically aids in digestion of cellulosic materials. For this paper, a species survey of bacterial hindgut symbionts in termites collected from Saucier, Mississippi was examined. Two methods were tested for optimal genetic material isolation. Genomic DNA was isolated from the hindgut luminal contents of five...

  3. The Termite Reticulitermes flavipes (Rhinotermitidae: Isoptera) Can Acquire Micronutrients from Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzow, Micah P; Judd, Timothy M

    2015-06-01

    Micronutrients are important for metabolic processes and structures in insects. How termites obtain micronutrients from the environment is not fully understood. It has been suggested that lower subterranean termites of Rhinotermitidae only gain their nutrients from their food sources. However, for subterranean termites, soil offers a potential source of micronutrients. This study tested the hypothesis that subterranean termites acquire micronutrients from the soil. Laboratory colonies of Reticulitermes flavipes Kollar were reared in arenas in which the levels of micronutrients, food, and soil were varied. The results showed that the micronutrients Ca (Calcium), Fe (Iron), Mg (Magnesium), and Mn (Manganese) were obtained from the soil, Cu (copper) was obtained by the food source, and K (Potassium) and Zn (Zinc) showed no differences between treatments. The results of this experiment suggest that subterranean termites can acquire micronutrients from the soil as well as other food sources. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. EFFECTS OF FIVE DIVERSE LIGNOCELLULOSIC DIETS ON DIGESTIVE ENZYME BIOCHEMISTRY IN THE TERMITE Reticulitermes flavipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Zachary J; Scharf, Michael E

    2015-10-01

    Termites have recently drawn much attention as models for biomass processing, mainly due to their lignocellulose digestion capabilities and mutualisms with cellulolytic gut symbionts. This research used the lower termite Reticulitermes flavipes to investigate gut enzyme activity changes in response to feeding on five diverse lignocellulosic diets (cellulose filter paper [FP], pine wood [PW], beech wood xylan [X], corn stover [CS], and soybean residue [SB]). Our objectives were to compare whole-gut digestive enzyme activity and host versus symbiont contributions to enzyme activity after feeding on these diets. Our hypothesis was that enzyme activities would vary among diets as an adaptive mechanism enabling termites and symbiota to optimally utilize variable resources. Results support our "diet-adaptation" hypothesis and further indicate that, in most cases, host contributions are greater than those of symbionts with respect to the enzymes and activities studied. The results obtained thus provide indications as to which types of transcriptomic resources, termite or symbiont, are most relevant for developing recombinant enzyme cocktails tailored to specific feedstocks. With regard to the agricultural feedstocks tested (CS and SB), our results suggest endoglucanase and exoglucanase (cellobiohydrolase) activities are most relevant for CS breakdown; whereas endoglucanase and xylosidase activities are relevant for SB breakdown. However, other unexplored activities than those tested may also be important for breakdown of these two feedstocks. These findings provide new protein-level insights into diet adaptation by termites, and also complement host-symbiont metatranscriptomic studies that have been completed for R. flavipes after FP, PW, CS, and SB feeding. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Gene expression profiles among immature and adult reproductive castes of the termite Reticulitermes flavipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, M E; Wu-Scharf, D; Zhou, X; Pittendrigh, B R; Bennett, G W

    2005-01-01

    Array-based genomic studies were conducted with the goal of identifying immature (i.e. nymph) and adult reproductive caste-biased gene expression in the termite Reticulitermes flavipes. Using cDNA macro-arrays, we identified thirty-four nymph-biased genes falling into eight ontogenic categories. Based on gene expression profiles among diverse castes and developmental stages (determined by quantitative PCR), several important trends emerged. These findings highlight the importance of several developmental and survival-based factors among immature and adult termite reproductives, including: vitellogenesis, nutrient storage, juvenile hormone sequestration, ribosomal translational and filtering mechanisms, fatty acid biosynthesis, apoptosis inhibition, and both endogenous and symbiont cellulase-assisted nutrition. These findings are highly significant as they are the first to elucidate the molecular biology underlying termite reproductive caste differentiation and reproductive caste-specific biology. Other gene expression results are in agreement with previous findings that suggest roles for vitellogenin-like haemolymph proteins in soldier caste differentiation.

  6. Toxicity of Turmeric Extracts to the Termite Reticulitermes flavipes (Blattodea: Rhinotermitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raje, Kapil R; Hughes, Gabriel P; Gondhalekar, Ameya D; Ginzel, Matthew D; Scharf, Michael E

    2015-08-01

    Turmeric is an important spice crop with documented human health benefits associated with chemicals called curcuminoids. In this study, the termite Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) was exposed to different solvent extracts of turmeric to investigate potential termiticidal properties. Treating termites with hexane extracts of purified lab-grade curcuminoids had no effect on termites. However, in continuous exposure assays, the LC(50) for hexane extracts of crude turmeric powder was 9.6 mg, or 1.0 mg starting material per square centimeter of filter paper substrate. These active components were soluble in a range of polar and apolar solvents, but only hexane could selectively fractionate active components away from the inactive curcuminoids. The active constituents of turmeric separated by thin layer chromatography (TLC) fluoresced in short-wave UV light but were not visible in long-wave UV light. By re-extracting TLC-separated bands in hexane and performing bioassays and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, we demonstrated that termiticidal components of turmeric are extractable as a blend containing mainly ar-turmerone, turmerone, and curlone. This determination is consistent with findings of preceding work by other researchers that investigated insecticidal properties of turmeric in other pest insects. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Metatranscriptomic profiles of Eastern subterranean termites, Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) fed on second generation feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajarapu, Swapna Priya; Shreve, Jacob T; Bhide, Ketaki P; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Scharf, Michael E

    2015-04-22

    Second generation lignocellulosic feedstocks are being considered as an alternative to first generation biofuels that are derived from grain starches and sugars. However, the current pre-treatment methods for second generation biofuel production are inefficient and expensive due to the recalcitrant nature of lignocellulose. In this study, we used the lower termite Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar), as a model to identify potential pretreatment genes/enzymes specifically adapted for use against agricultural feedstocks. Metatranscriptomic profiling was performed on worker termite guts after feeding on corn stover (CS), soybean residue (SR), or 98% pure cellulose (paper) to identify (i) microbial community, (ii) pathway level and (iii) gene-level responses. Microbial community profiles after CS and SR feeding were different from the paper feeding profile, and protist symbiont abundance decreased significantly in termites feeding on SR and CS relative to paper. Functional profiles after CS feeding were similar to paper and SR; whereas paper and SR showed different profiles. Amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism pathways were downregulated in termites feeding on SR relative to paper and CS. Gene expression analyses showed more significant down regulation of genes after SR feeding relative to paper and CS. Stereotypical lignocellulase genes/enzymes were not differentially expressed, but rather were among the most abundant/constitutively-expressed genes. These results suggest that the effect of CS and SR feeding on termite gut lignocellulase composition is minimal and thus, the most abundantly expressed enzymes appear to encode the best candidate catalysts for use in saccharification of these and related second-generation feedstocks. Further, based on these findings we hypothesize that the most abundantly expressed lignocellulases, rather than those that are differentially expressed have the best potential as pretreatment enzymes for CS and SR feedstocks.

  8. Distribution of Neuropeptide F-Like Immunoreactivity in the Eastern Subterranean Termite, Reticulitermes flavipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuss, Andrew B.; Forschler, Brian T.; Crim, Joe W.; Brown, Mark R.

    2008-01-01

    The nervous system and gut of worker, soldier and alate castes of the eastern subterranean termite, Reticulitermes flavipes Kollar (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) were examined for immunoreactivity to an antiserum to Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Leipidoptera: Noctuidae) MP-I (QAARPRF-NH2), a truncated form of neuropeptide F. More than 145 immunostained axons and cell bodies were seen in the brain and all ganglia of the ventral nerve cord. Immunoreactive axons exiting the brain projected anteriorly to the frontal ganglion and posteriorly to the corpora cardiaca and corpora allata. In the stomatogastric nervous system, immunoreactive axons were observed over the surface of the foregut, salivary glands, midgut and rectum. These axons originated in the brain and from 15–25 neurosecretory cells on the foregut. Staining patterns were consistent between castes, with the exception of immunostaining observed in the optic lobes of alates. At least 600 immunoreactive endocrine cells were evenly distributed in the midguts of all castes with higher numbers present in the worker caste. Immunostaining of cells in the nervous system and midgut was blocked by preabsorption of the antiserum with Hez MP-I but not by a peptide having only the RF-NH2 in common. This distribution suggests NPF-like peptides coordinate feeding and digestion in all castes of this termite species. PMID:20302462

  9. A Geometric Analysis of the Regulation of Inorganic Nutrient Intake by the Subterranean Termite Reticulitermes flavipes Kollar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Timothy M; Landes, James R; Ohara, Haruna; Riley, Alex W

    2017-09-06

    Most studies on termite food selection have focused on a single nutrient per choice, however, termites, like all animals, must balance multiple nutrients in their diet. While most studies that use multi-nutrient approaches focus on macromolecules, the ability to balance the intake of inorganic nutrients is also vital to organisms. In this study, we used the geometric framework to test the effects of multiple inorganic nutrients on termite feeding. We presented the subsets of Reticulitermes flavipes colonies with food enriched with varying in levels of KCl, MgSO₄, and FePO₄. Each trial varied two of the three nutrients while the third nutrient was kept constant. The amount of food consumed was measured over two weeks. The termites' feeding patterns during the study suggested that they fed until they reached a limit for MgSO₄. This result suggests that the termites were using the rule of compromise such that the termites would over consume KCl or FePO₄ in order to avoid overeating MgSO₄. Thus, the termite colonies are able to regulate the intake of inorganic nutrients, and by doing so, adjust their intake from multiple resources in order to maintain an intake target.

  10. Parallel metatranscriptome analyses of host and symbiont gene expression in the gut of the termite Reticulitermes flavipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Xuguo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Termite lignocellulose digestion is achieved through a collaboration of host plus prokaryotic and eukaryotic symbionts. In the present work, we took a combined host and symbiont metatranscriptomic approach for investigating the digestive contributions of host and symbiont in the lower termite Reticulitermes flavipes. Our approach consisted of parallel high-throughput sequencing from (i a host gut cDNA library and (ii a hindgut symbiont cDNA library. Subsequently, we undertook functional analyses of newly identified phenoloxidases with potential importance as pretreatment enzymes in industrial lignocellulose processing. Results Over 10,000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs were sequenced from the 2 libraries that aligned into 6,555 putative transcripts, including 171 putative lignocellulase genes. Sequence analyses provided insights in two areas. First, a non-overlapping complement of host and symbiont (prokaryotic plus protist glycohydrolase gene families known to participate in cellulose, hemicellulose, alpha carbohydrate, and chitin degradation were identified. Of these, cellulases are contributed by host plus symbiont genomes, whereas hemicellulases are contributed exclusively by symbiont genomes. Second, a diverse complement of previously unknown genes that encode proteins with homology to lignase, antioxidant, and detoxification enzymes were identified exclusively from the host library (laccase, catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, carboxylesterase, cytochrome P450. Subsequently, functional analyses of phenoloxidase activity provided results that were strongly consistent with patterns of laccase gene expression. In particular, phenoloxidase activity and laccase gene expression are mostly restricted to symbiont-free foregut plus salivary gland tissues, and phenoloxidase activity is inducible by lignin feeding. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first time that a dual host-symbiont transcriptome sequencing effort

  11. Seasonal response of feeding, differentiation, and growth in the eastern subterranean termite Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) in Wisconsin

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    Rachel Ann Arango; Frederick Green; Glenn R. Esenther

    2007-01-01

    In termites, differentiation plasticity in undifferentiated Reticulitermes progresses with growth stages from larvae to workers, which may then differentiate into soldiers, winged nymphs, or neotenics. Although studies have been done on seasonality of the termite life cycle, data appears to vary from location to location. Reticulitermes populations in Wisconsin appear...

  12. Socio-environmental and endocrine influences on developmental and caste-regulatory gene expression in the eusocial termite Reticulitermes flavipes

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    Zhou Xuguo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Strict regulation of caste differentiation, at the molecular level, is thought to be important to maintain social structure in insect societies. Previously, a number of extrinsic and intrinsic factors have been shown to influence caste composition in termite colonies. One important factor is the influence of nestmates; in particular, soldier termites are known to inhibit hormone-dependent worker-to-soldier differentiation. However, soldier influences on nestmates at the molecular level are virtually unknown. Here, to test the hypothesis that soldiers can influence nestmate gene expression, we investigated the impact of four treatments on whole-body gene expression in totipotent Reticulitermes flavipes workers: (i juvenile hormone III (JHIII; a morphogenetic hormone, (ii soldier head extracts (SHE, (iii JHIII+SHE, and (iv live soldiers. Results Using quantitative-real-time PCR we determined the expression patterns of 49 previously identified candidate genes in response to the four treatments at assay days 1, 5, and 10. Thirty-eight total genes from three categories (chemical production/degradation, hemolymph protein, and developmental showed significant differential expression among treatments. Most importantly, SHE and live soldier treatments had a significant impact on a number of genes from families known to play roles in insect development, supporting previous findings and hypotheses that soldiers regulate nestmate caste differentiation via terpene primer pheromones contained in their heads. Conclusions This research provides new insights into the impacts that socio-environmental factors (JH, soldiers, primer pheromones can have on termite gene expression and caste differentiation, and reveals a number of socially-relevant genes for investigation in subsequent caste differentiation research.

  13. First Record of the Arid-Land Termite Reticulitermes tibialis Banks, in Wisconsin

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    Rachel A. Arango

    2015-01-01

    During a survey of termites in Wisconsin, one colony was found from a different habitat than the remaining populations. This observation led to further genetic testing which resulted in a determination of Reticulitermes tibialis Banks. This is the first record of a termite species other than Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) to be...

  14. Transfer of termiticidal dust compounds and their effects on symbiotic protozoa of Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick Green; Rachel A. Arango; Glenn R. Esenther

    2008-01-01

    Dusting of termites in situ has been used as a control measure for decades; however environmental awareness of the toxicity of certain compounds now limits their use (eg arsenical dusts). Our laboratory is in the process of suppressing an isolated colony of Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) from a small village of 250 homes in mid-central Wisconsin (Endeavor, WI)....

  15. Transfer of chlorfenapyr among workers of Reticulitermes flavipes (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) in the laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas G. Shelton; Joseph E. Mulroonery; Terence L. Wagner

    2006-01-01

    The potential for transfer of chlorfenapyr among subterranean termites was investigated using a donor-recipient (5:95 ratio) experiment. In one experiment, workers of Reticulitermes flavipeS(Kollar) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) were exposed to treated sand at 0,50,100,250, and 500 ppm chlorfenapyr (wt [AI] /wt sand). Exposed workers were allowed to...

  16. Influence of a mineral insecticide particle size on bait efficacy against Reticulitermes flavipes (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)

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    Thomas g. Shelton; Laurent Cartier; Terence L. Wagner; Christian Becker

    2007-01-01

    We examined the efficacy of termiticidal baits comprised of powdered acellulose and a mineral insecticide, cryolite crystals, in laboratory bioassays against pseudergates of Eastern subterranean termites [Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar)]. The influence of cryolite crystal size [0 (control), 0.2, and 20 pm diameter particles] on the overall mortality...

  17. NHA choice test : feeding dilemma for Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar)

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    Frederick Green; S. Nami Kartal; Patricia K. Lebow; Rachel A. Arango

    2011-01-01

    An AWPA laboratory choice test was performed with Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) to determine the role of feeding stimulation or aggregation by N’N napthaloylhydroxylamine (NHA). Pine blocks were vacuum treated with aqueous concentrations of NHA ranging from 250-10,000ppm and exposed to one gram R. flavipes workers in the dual block choice test which included one...

  18. Influence of Guidelines and Passageways on Tunneling Behavior of Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) and R, virginicus (Banks) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theresa L. Pitts-Singer; Brian T. Forschler

    2000-01-01

    Tunneling behavior of laboratory-maintained cultures of Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) and R. virginicus (Banks) was examined to determine (1) if the termites build tunnels along preexisting wires or tunnels, and (2) whether tunnels are arranged, to optimize search efficiency. Tunnel patterns were considered optimal if ,...

  19. High-quality draft genome sequence of the Opitutaceae bacterium strain TAV1, a symbiont of the wood-feeding termite Reticulitermes flavipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isanapong, Jantiya; Goodwin, Lynne; Bruce, David; Chen, Amy; Detter, Chris; Han, James; Han, Cliff S; Held, Brittany; Huntemann, Marcel; Ivanova, Natalia; Land, Miriam L; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Nolan, Matt; Pati, Amrita; Pennacchio, Len; Pitluck, Sam; Szeto, Ernest; Tapia, Roxanne; Woyke, Tanja; Rodrigues, Jorge L M

    2012-05-01

    Microbial communities in the termite hindgut are essential for degrading plant material. We present the high-quality draft genome sequence of the Opitutaceae bacterium strain TAV1, the first member of the phylum Verrucomicrobia to be isolated from wood-feeding termites. The genomic analysis reveals genes coding for lignocellulosic degradation and nitrogen fixation.

  20. Changes in bacterial gut community of Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) and Reticulitermes tibialis Banks after feeding on termiticidal bait material

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    Rachel A. Arango; Frederick Green III; Kenneth F. Raffa

    2014-01-01

    In this study, 454-pyrosequencing was used to evaluate the effect of two termiticidal baits, hexaflumuron and diflubenzuron, on the bacterial gut community in two Reticulitermes flavipes colonies and one Reticulitermes tibialis colony. Results showed two bacterial groups to be most abundant in the gut, the Bacteroidetes and...

  1. Repellent, antifeedant, and toxic activities of Lantana camara leaf extract against Reticulitermes flavipes (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhonglin; Hu, Xing Ping

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated biological activity of chloroform extract of dry Lantana camara 'Mozelle' leaves against the eastern subterranean termite, Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar), an important structural pest. Repellent activity was assessed using a paper-disc choice test and a sand arena choice test. Antifeedant and toxic properties were assessed using a no-choice paper test and a topical application method. In the choice tests, significantly fewer termites made contact with treated paper-discs at test concentrations > or = 0.016 mg/cm2 (equivalent to 0.0023 wt:wt) or tunneled into treated sand at test concentrations > or = 0.125 mg/g, compared with control. In the no-choice tests, termite feeding activity was significantly reduced and termite mortality was greatly increased in treatments than control. Exposure to filter paper treated at 0.212 and 0.106 mg/cm2 (equivalent to 0.03 and 0.015 wt:wt) resulted in > 90% mortality and 78% reduction in feeding, and approximately 52% mortality and 40% reduction in feeding, respectively. Top-dorsal application led to > 60% mortality at 4 microg/termite. This study showed that the chloroform leaf extract of L. camara had excellent repellent and moderate toxic and antifeedant activities.

  2. Identification of Eastern United States Reticulitermes Termite Species via PCR-RFLP, Assessed Using Training and Test Data

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan C Garrick; Collins, Benjamin D.; Yi, Rachel N.; Rodney J. Dyer; Chaz Hyseni

    2015-01-01

    Reticulitermes termites play key roles in dead wood decomposition and nutrient cycling in forests. They also damage man-made structures, resulting in considerable economic loss. In the eastern United States, five species (R. flavipes, R. virginicus, R. nelsonae, R. hageni and R. malletei) have overlapping ranges and are difficult to distinguish morphologically. Here we present a molecular tool for species identification. It is based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of a sectio...

  3. Synergy of Diflubenzuron Baiting and NHA Dusting on Mortality of Reticulitermes flavipes

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    F. III Green; R.A. Arango; G.R. Esenther; M.G. Rojas; J. Morales-Ramos

    2013-01-01

    The ability of N’N-naphthaloylhydroxylamine (NHA) to cause mortality in Reticulitermes flavipes workers pretreated with the chitin synthesis inhibitor diflubenzuron was tested by adding two NHA dusted workers to 100 (2:100) pretreated workers fed either pure microcrystalline alpha-cellulose or diflubenzuron (0.25%) treated microcrystalline cellulose...

  4. Size of Food Resource Determines Brood Placement in Reticulitermes flavipes (Isoptera: Rhimtermitidae)

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    Michael Lenzl; Bradford Kara; Joe K. Mauldin; Theodore A. Evans; Joel L. Etheridge; Hilda M. Abbey

    2000-01-01

    Most species of subterranean termite house and care for larvae in specialised chambers or complex nurseries. In addition to these chambers, the genus Reticulitermes also keeps larvae at sites where foragers are feeding, a trait more commonly found in damp wood and dry wood termites. This phenomenon of holding larvae at foraging sites is quite well...

  5. Comparative Analysis of Transcriptomes from Secondary Reproductives of Three Reticulitermes Termite Species

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    Dedeine, Franck; Weinert, Lucy A.; Bigot, Diane; Josse, Thibaut; Ballenghien, Marion; Cahais, Vincent; Galtier, Nicolas; Gayral, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Termites are eusocial insects related to cockroaches that feed on lignocellulose. These insects are key species in ecosystems since they recycle a large amount of nutrients but also are pests, exerting major economic impacts. Knowledge on the molecular pathways underlying reproduction, caste differentiation or lignocellulose digestion would largely benefit from additional transcriptomic data. This study focused on transcriptomes of secondary reproductive females (nymphoid neotenics). Thirteen transcriptomes were used: 10 of Reticulitermes flavipes and R. grassei sequenced from a previous study, and two transcriptomes of R. lucifugus sequenced for the present study. After transcriptome assembly and read mapping, we examined interspecific variations of genes expressed by termites or gut microorganisms. A total of 18,323 orthologous gene clusters were detected. Functional annotation and taxonomic assignment were performed on a total of 41,287 predicted contigs in the three termite species. Between the termite species studied, functional categories of genes were comparable. Gene ontology (GO) terms analysis allowed the discovery of 9 cellulases and a total of 79 contigs potentially involved in 11 enzymatic activities used in wood metabolism. Altogether, results of this study illustrate the strong potential for the use of comparative interspecific transcriptomes, representing a complete resource for future studies including differentially expressed genes between castes or SNP analysis for population genetics. PMID:26698123

  6. Fumigant toxicity of essential oils to Reticulitermes flavipes

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    Carol A. Clausen; Vina W. Yang

    2008-01-01

    Subterranean termite infestations occur in every state in the contiguous United States and are responsible for damage to wooden structures in excess of two billion dollars (U.S.) annually. Essential oils have historically been used to repel insects. They have relatively low toxicity and some of them are exempt from regulation by the Federal Insecticide Fungicide and...

  7. Identification of Eastern United States Reticulitermes Termite Species via PCR-RFLP, Assessed Using Training and Test Data

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    Ryan C. Garrick

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Reticulitermes termites play key roles in dead wood decomposition and nutrient cycling in forests. They also damage man-made structures, resulting in considerable economic loss. In the eastern United States, five species (R. flavipes, R. virginicus, R. nelsonae, R. hageni and R. malletei have overlapping ranges and are difficult to distinguish morphologically. Here we present a molecular tool for species identification. It is based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification of a section of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit II gene, followed by a three-enzyme restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP assay, with banding patterns resolved via agarose gel electrophoresis. The assay was designed using a large set of training data obtained from a public DNA sequence database, then evaluated using an independent test panel of Reticulitermes from the Southern Appalachian Mountains, for which species assignments were determined via phylogenetic comparison to reference sequences. After refining the interpretive framework, the PCR-RFLP assay was shown to provide accurate identification of four co-occurring species (the fifth species, R. hageni, was absent from the test panel, so accuracy cannot yet be extended to training data. The assay is cost- and time-efficient, and will help improve knowledge of Reticulitermes species distributions.

  8. Identification of Eastern United States Reticulitermes Termite Species via PCR-RFLP, Assessed Using Training and Test Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrick, Ryan C; Collins, Benjamin D; Yi, Rachel N; Dyer, Rodney J; Hyseni, Chaz

    2015-06-09

    Reticulitermes termites play key roles in dead wood decomposition and nutrient cycling in forests. They also damage man-made structures, resulting in considerable economic loss. In the eastern United States, five species (R. flavipes, R. virginicus, R. nelsonae, R. hageni and R. malletei) have overlapping ranges and are difficult to distinguish morphologically. Here we present a molecular tool for species identification. It is based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of a section of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit II gene, followed by a three-enzyme restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay, with banding patterns resolved via agarose gel electrophoresis. The assay was designed using a large set of training data obtained from a public DNA sequence database, then evaluated using an independent test panel of Reticulitermes from the Southern Appalachian Mountains, for which species assignments were determined via phylogenetic comparison to reference sequences. After refining the interpretive framework, the PCR-RFLP assay was shown to provide accurate identification of four co-occurring species (the fifth species, R. hageni, was absent from the test panel, so accuracy cannot yet be extended to training data). The assay is cost- and time-efficient, and will help improve knowledge of Reticulitermes species distributions.

  9. Antimicrobial activity of actinobacteria isolated from the guts of subterranean termites

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    Rachel Arango; C. M. Carlson; C. R. Currie; B. R. McDonald; A. J. Book; Frederick Green; K. F. Raffa; N.K. Lebow

    2016-01-01

    Subterranean termites need to minimize potentially pathogenic and competitive fungi in their environment in order to maintain colony health. We examined the ability of Actinobacteria isolated from termite guts in suppressing microorganisms commonly encountered in a subterranean environment. Guts from two subterranean termite species, Reticulitermes flavipes...

  10. Analysis of hindgut bacterial phyla frequency and diversity in subterranean termites exposed to chitosan-treated wood

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    Olanrewaju Raji; Juliet D. Tang; Telmah Telmadarrehei; Dragica Jeremic

    2017-01-01

    The termite hindgut contains a microbial community that symbiotically aids in digestion of lignocellulosic materials. For better understanding of the dynamics of the bacteria-termite relationship, a species survey of bacterial hindgut microbes in subterranean termites (Reticulitermes flavipes: Kollar) collected from Louisville, Mississippi was...

  11. Differential undertaking response of a lower termite to congeneric and conspecific corpses

    OpenAIRE

    Qian Sun; Haynes, Kenneth F.; Xuguo Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Undertaking behaviour is an essential activity in social insects. Corpses are often recognized by a postmortem change in a chemical signature. Reticulitermes flavipes responded to corpses within minutes of death. This undertaking behaviour did not change with longer postmortem time (24?h); however, R. flavipes exhibited distinctively different behaviours toward dead termites from various origins. Corpses of the congeneric species, Reticulitermes virginicus, were buried onsite by workers with ...

  12. Mildew fungi found in termites (Reticulitermes lucifugus and their nests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wójcik

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of observation of mould growth in laboratory colonies of termites. It also attempts to determine the species of mould fungi present in the research laboratory and the main colonies and their entomopathogenic for the termites. The following four species were found in test termite colonies: Trichoderme viride, Mucor himeralis, Rhizopus nigricans, Aspergillus sp., Aspergillus flavus, Alternaria sp., Penicylium verucosum and Fusarium sp. were recognisable in test colonies with domestic and exotic wood. Morphological observations of the fungi were carried out using a microscope with a 40x magnification. The growth of mould fungi in test containers caused death of whole termite colonies.

  13. Effects of Disturbance-induced trauma on foraging by subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. J. Woodrow; T. G. Shelton; R. J. Oshiro; J. K. Grace; T. L. Wagner

    2008-01-01

    Toxicant baiting systems are effective at population suppression against both the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, and the Eastern subterranean termite, Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar). However, trap shyness (i.e., station abandonment) is often quoted as a confounding factor affecting their success....

  14. Recommendations for treated-area choice assays with termites (Isoptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris J. Peterson; Patrick D. Gerard; Janice Ems-Wilson

    2005-01-01

    The repellency of catnip (Nepeta cataria) essential oil was evaluated in a treated-area choice assay with subterranean termites (Reticulitermes spp.). It appeared that fewer R. virginicus were found on the treated portion of a petri dish within a period of about 7d; R. flavipes was not...

  15. Gut bacteria recycle uric acid nitrogen in termites: A strategy for nutrient conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Potrikus, Catherine J.; Breznak, John A.

    1981-01-01

    Reticulitermes flavipes termites synthesize uric acid via purine-nucleoside phosphorylase (purine-nucleoside: orthophosphate ribosyltransferase, EC 2.4.2.1) and xanthine dehydrogenase (xanthine:NAD+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.2.1.37), but their tissues lack uricase (urate:oxygen oxidoreductase, EC 1.7.3.3) or any other enzyme that degrades uric acid. Nevertheless, uricolysis occurs in termites, but as an anaerobic process mediated by hindgut bacteria. 14C-Tracer experiments showed that termites tra...

  16. Impacts on Reticulitermes flavipes (Infraorder Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) by Chlorantraniliprole Applied to Soil Surrounding Established Tunnels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, B L; Breisch, N L; Scherer, C W

    2015-10-01

    Soil-applied liquid termiticides are the most common control measure for subterranean termites. Characteristics unique to insecticidal chemistries such as repellency, toxicity, and time between contact and mortality, influence the interaction of termites with treated soil and overall treatment success. Two different treated-tunnel bioassays were used to evaluate the behavioral impacts and mortality of termites from treatment with chlorantraniliprole (the active ingredient in Altriset® termiticide) to existing, mature tunnels. Termites that were provided constant access to a 10-cm-long mature tunnel within soil treated with 5 or 50 ppm chlorantraniliprole were not repelled by the treatment and began exhibiting slower, uncoordinated movement, and cessation of tunneling and feeding in as little as 1 h after access. Termites provided access for 7, 14, or 21 d to previously constructed tunnels recently treated with 50 ppm chlorantraniliprole exhibited complete or near complete mortality by 28 d. The second bioassay design resembled a more typical field situation with a 40-cm-long mature tunnel and termites allowed access for a maximum of 5 min. Termites collected after just 5 min of access to the previously constructed tunnels recently treated with 50 ppm chlorantraniliprole exhibited similar symptomology within an hour followed by complete mortality at 18 d after exposure. These test designs simulate what occurs in the soil around an infested structure at the time of treatment. Results from these evaluations suggest that termites readily crawl through chlorantraniliprole-treated mature tunnels, rapidly lose ability to feed, and acquire a lethal dose from brief exposures. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Draft genome sequence of Bacillus oleronius DSM 9356 isolated from the termite Reticulitermes santonensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney Owusu-Darko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus oleronius strain DSM 9356 isolated from the termite Reticulitermes santonensis was sequenced to gain insights in relation to its closest phylogenetic neighbor Bacillus sporothermodurans. The draft genome of strain DSM 9356 contains 5,083,966 bp with an estimated G + C content of 35%, 4899 protein-coding genes, 116 tRNAs and 18 rRNAs. The RAST annotation assigned these genes into 462 subsystems, with the maximum number of genes associated with amino acids and derivatives metabolism (14.84%, followed by carbohydrates (13.89% and protein metabolism subsystems (9.10%. The draft genome sequence and annotation has been deposited at NCBI under the accession number MTLA00000000.

  18. The influence of fipronil on Reticulitermes flavipes (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) feeding beyond treated plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Shelton

    2013-01-01

    A small-plot field trial was conducted to examine the area of influence of fipronil at incremental distances away from treated plots on the Harrison Experimental Forest near Saucier, MS. Small treated (water and fipronil) plots were surrounded by untreated wooden boards in an eight-point radial pattern, and examined for evidence of termite feeding every 60 d for 1 yr...

  19. Lack of transfer of permethrin among nestmates of Reticulitermes flavipes in laboratory trials (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas G. Shelton; Craig D. Bell; Terence L. Wagner

    2005-01-01

    The movement of some soil termiticides among subterranean termites from exposed to naive individuals has raised some interesting questions. Thus far, the only compounds specifically examined for transfer have been termiticides with delayed action, non-repellent active ingredients. We hypothesized that movement of pesticide is possible even for traditional fast-acting...

  20. E1-09 Termite Choice Testing: What is it good for?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick III Green; Patti Lebow; S. Nami Kartal

    2014-01-01

    The prime objective of this investigation was to compare mass loss from termite attack on NHA treated and untreated pine blocks simultaneously in a two-block choice test using Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar). Southern pine blocks were vacuum treated with aqueous solutions of NHA ranging from 250-10,000 ppm and exposed to one gram of R....

  1. Isolement d'une chrysophyte amylolytique, Poterioochromonas sp., de l'intestin du termite Reticulitermes santonensis

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    Tarayre, C.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolation of an amylolytic chrysophyte, Poterioochromonas sp., from the digestive tract of the termite Reticulitermes santonensis. The aim of this work was the isolation and cultivation of amylolytic protists living in the digestive tract of the termite Reticulitermes santonensis (Feytaud. A chrysophyte identified as Poterioochromonas sp. was isolated in a special medium containing rice grains as a source of carbon and nitrogen. Then, the protist was grown in a medium containing starch as a carbon source, tryptone, and a phosphate buffer at different pH values (5, 6 and 7. Yeast extract was added or not. Ciprofloxacin was used to avoid the bacterial development. Other antibiotics were also tested but showed an inhibitive effect on the growth of Poterioochromonas sp. Yeast extract allowed reaching 1.9 (pH 5, 2.3 (pH 6 and 2.2 (pH 7 times higher final cell concentrations, and 2.8 (pH 5, 2.8 (pH 6 and 2.2 (pH 7 times higher biomass yields. The starch concentration did not decrease in the medium until 3 and 4 days of culture, with and without yeast extract, respectively. Eight days of culture were necessary for hydrolyzing the starch completely, with and without yeast extract. Maltose and maltotriose were detected in the culture media and were hydrolyzed progressively. Maximal maltose concentrations were 0.68, 0.66 and 0.51 g·l-1 in the medium containing yeast extract. Maltotriose concentrations were only 0.17, 0.14 and 0.12 g·l-1. Other glucose oligomers were also detected but in lower quantities. It was determined that the protist developed a weak amylase activity, particularly at a weakly acidic pH (5-6. Such a pH also allowed a better growth of the protist. A maximal amylase activity of 112 nkat·l-1 was measured with yeast extract at pH 5. No other enzymatic activity (protease, cellulase or xylanase was detected except amylase. The degradation products of starch, which were obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis, allow the identification of

  2. Attraction of subterranean termites (Isoptera) to carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernklau, Elisa Jo; Fromm, Erich A; Judd, Timothy M; Bjostad, Louis B

    2005-04-01

    Subterranean termites, Reticulitermes spp., were attracted to carbon dioxide (CO2) in laboratory and field tests. In behavioral bioassays, Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar), Reticulitermes tibialis Banks, and Reticulitermes virginicus Banks were attracted to CO2 concentrations between 5 and 50 mmol/mol. In further bioassays, R. tibialis and R. virginicus were attracted to the headspace from polyisocyanurate construction foam that contained 10-12 mmol/mol CO2. In soil bioassays in the laboratory, more termites foraged in chambers containing CO2-generating formulations than in unbaited control chambers. In field tests, stations containing CO2-generating baits attracted R. tibialis away from wooden fence posts at rangeland sites in Colorado. For all of the CO2 formulations tested, termites foraged in significantly more bait stations at treatment fenceposts than in bait stations at the control fenceposts. By the end of the 8-wk study, the number of bait stations located by termites at treatment fenceposts ranged from 40 to 90%. At control fenceposts, termites foraged in only a single station and the one positive station was not located by termites until week 5 of the study. At treatment fenceposts, termites foraged equally in active stations (containing a CO2-generating bait) and passive stations (with no CO2-generating bait), indicating that bait stations may benefit passively from a proximal CO2 source in the soil. CO2 used as an attractant in current baiting systems could improve their effectiveness by allowing earlier exposure of termites to an insecticide.

  3. Natural durability of tropical and native woods against termite damage by Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachel A. Arango; Frederick Green; Kristina Hintz; Patricia K. Lebow; Regis B. Miller

    2006-01-01

    Environmental pressure has resulted in voluntary removal of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) from wood preservatives in residential applications in the United States. A new generation of copper organic preservatives was formulated as replacements, but these preservatives may not provide a permanent solution to all related problems. Some of these issues include concern...

  4. ÉTUDE DU COMPLEXE ENZYMATIQUE DES SYMBIONTES DU TERMITE RETICULITERMES FLAVIPES (EX. SANTONENSIS)

    OpenAIRE

    Tarayre, Cédric

    2014-01-01

    Au vu du contexte économique, environnemental et social dans lequel nous nous trouvons actuellement, il est devenu indéniable que l’usage des énergies fossiles n’est pas concevable à long terme. Des alternatives ont donc émergé ces dernières années. Les biocarburants de seconde génération constituent une de ces alternatives et sont basés sur l’exploitation de biomasse végétale, dite lignocellulosique. Cette matière, pour être utilisable, requiert une étape d’hydrolyse réalisable notamment par...

  5. From speciation to introgressive hybridization: the phylogeographic structure of an island subspecies of termite, Reticulitermes lucifugus corsicus

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    Dupont Simon

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although much research has been carried out into European Reticulitermes taxonomy in recent years, there is still much discussion about phylogenetic relationships. This study investigated the evolution from intra- to interspecific phylogeny in the island subspecies Reticulitermes lucifugus corsicus and threw new light on this phenomenon. An integrative approach based on microsatellites and mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences was used to analyze samples taken from a wide area around the Tyrrhenian sea and showed how the subspecies evolved from its origins to its most recent form on continental coasts. Results According to mitochondrial phylogeny and molecular clock calculations, island and continental taxa diverged significantly by vicariance in the Pleistocene glacial period. However, more recently, numerous migrations, certainly human-mediated, affected the structure of the populations. This study provided evidence of direct hybridization and multiple introgressions which occurred in several hybrid areas. Analysis using STRUCTURE based on microsatellite data identified a population in Provence (France which differed considerably (Fst = 0.477 from populations on the island of Corsica and in Tuscany in the Italian peninsula. This new population, principally distributed in urban areas, is highly heterogeneous especially within the ITS2 regions where homogenization by concerted evolution does not appear to have been completed. Conclusion This study provides an unusual picture of genetic interaction between termite populations in the Tyrrhenian area and suggests that more attention should be paid to the role of introgression and human impact on the recent evolution of European termites.

  6. Reticulitermes nelsonae, a New Species of Subterranean Termite (Rhinotermitidae) from the Southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Su Yee; Forschler, Brian T

    2012-01-06

    Reticulitermes nelsonae, a new species of Rhinotermitidae (Isoptera) is described based on specimens from Sapelo Island, GA, Thomasville, GA, Havelock, NC, and Branford, FL. Adult (alate) and soldier forms are described. Diagnostic characters are provided and incorporated into a supplemental couplet of a dichotomous key to the known species of Reticulitermes found in Georgia, USA.

  7. Reticulitermes nelsonae, a New Species of Subterranean Termite (Rhinotermitidae from the Southeastern United States

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    Su Yee Lim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reticulitermes nelsonae, a new species of Rhinotermitidae (Isoptera is described based on specimens from Sapelo Island, GA, Thomasville, GA, Havelock, NC, and Branford, FL. Adult (alate and soldier forms are described. Diagnostic characters are provided and incorporated into a supplemental couplet of a dichotomous key to the known species of Reticulitermes found in Georgia, USA.

  8. Effects of Sugar-Treated Foods on Preference and Nitrogen Fixation in Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) and Reticulitermes virginicus (Banks) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Deborah A. Waller; Anthony D. Curtis

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Information on feeding by subterranean termites is important because of their status as major pests in urban areas and their roles in forest nutrient cycles, in which they degrade wood litter and fix nitrogen...

  9. Susceptibility of hornbeam and Scots pine woods to destruction by the subterranean termite Reticulitermes lucifugus ROSSI, 1792 (Blattodea: Isoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krajewski Adam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of tests of the degree of damage to Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris and hornbeam (Carpinus betulus woods by the termite Reticulitermes lucifugus. Both wood species are classified as “susceptible to destruction by termites” in the EN 350-2:2000 standard. The procedures described in the ASTM D 3345-08 standard (2009 were applied in the experiments. During laboratory coercion tests, wood samples from these two species were damaged to a degree between light attack and moderate attack with penetration. Recent Scots pine sapwood was damaged to a heavy degree. The results can be associated with the much higher density of hornbeam wood as compared to Scots pine sapwood. The mortality rate of the termites in the test containers with both wood species was similar and low, no greater than 10%. In the light of the results, the classification of the susceptibility of native wood species to termite feeding, as stated in the EN 350-2:2000 standard, appears to be oversimplified.

  10. A novel gene from the takeout family involved in termite trail-following behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinghammer, Margaret A; Zhou, Xuguo; Kambhampati, Srinivas; Bennett, Gary W; Scharf, Michael E

    2011-03-15

    This study investigated physiological and behavioral functions of a novel gene identified from the termite Reticulitermes flavipes. The gene, named deviate, encodes an apparent ligand binding protein from the takeout-homologous family. Initial studies were conducted to investigate deviate mRNA expression among termite castes and body regions, and changes in response to light-dark conditions, starvation, temperature, and juvenile hormone (JH). Deviate has ubiquitous caste and tissue expression, including antennal expression. Consistent with characteristics of other takeout family members, deviate expression is responsive to photophase conditions (pinsects such as termites and ants. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Differential undertaking response of a lower termite to congeneric and conspecific corpses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qian; Haynes, Kenneth F; Zhou, Xuguo

    2013-01-01

    Undertaking behaviour is an essential activity in social insects. Corpses are often recognized by a postmortem change in a chemical signature. Reticulitermes flavipes responded to corpses within minutes of death. This undertaking behaviour did not change with longer postmortem time (24 h); however, R. flavipes exhibited distinctively different behaviours toward dead termites from various origins. Corpses of the congeneric species, Reticulitermes virginicus, were buried onsite by workers with a large group of soldiers guarding the burial site due to the risk of interspecific competition; while dead conspecifics, regardless of colony origin, were pulled back into the holding chamber for nutrient recycling and hygienic purposes. The burial task associated with congeneric corpses was coupled with colony defence and involved ten times more termites than retrieval of conspecific corpses. Our findings suggest elicitation of undertaking behaviour depends on the origin of corpses which is associated with different types of risk.

  12. Evaluating the role of Actinobacteria in the gut of wood-feeding termites (Reticulitermes spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachel A. Arango; Frederick Green III; Vina W. Yang; Joliene R. Lindholm; Nathaniel P. Chotlos; Kenneth F. Raffa

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen has been shown to be a limiting nutrient across a range of xylophagous insects. These insects often rely on symbiotic microorganisms in the gut for nitrogen acquisition, via fixation of atmospheric nitrogen or break down of other available nitrogenous substances. In phylogenetically lower, wood-feeding termites, the role of nitrogen fixing bacteria has been...

  13. Distribution of a juvenogen and its metabolites in a laboratory system during juvenogen-induced caste differentiation in a termite, Reticulitermes santonensis (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tykva, Richard; Cerný, Bohuslav; Wimmer, Zdenek; Hanus, Robert

    2008-06-01

    Juvenoids and juvenogens have been for many years considered promising candidates for control of pest insect species including termites. Their use as termite pest management agents requires the generation of knowledge concerning their degradation and distribution in time and space. Groups of 40 Reticulitermes santonensis de Feytaud workers were provided with wood impregnated with a juvenogen, ethyl cis-N-{2-[4-(2-butyryloxycyclohexylmethyl)phenoxy]ethyl}carbamate, labelled with tritium in the benzene ring (305 GBq mmol(-1)). After 14 days the radioactivity was determined in all elements of the experimental system. The majority of the input activity was detected in the wood, only about 1% in the bodies of surviving termites and 1% in the substrate. A considerable part of the input activity was probably lost as gaseous termite metabolites. The activity in workers was significantly higher than in presoldiers, which had differentiated under the influence of the labelled juvenogen. A stable value of radioactivity was detected on the body surfaces. The results suggest good stability of the compound in the wooden carrier and low contamination of the environment with non-gaseous residuals, together with the desired biological impact on termite caste differentiation. Copyright (c) 2008 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Efficacy of Chlorantraniliprole in Controlling Structural Infestations of the Eastern Subterranean Termite in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Susan C; Vargo, Edward L; Keefer, T Chris; Labadie, Paul; Scherer, Clay W; Gallagher, Nicola T; Gold, Roger E

    2017-08-31

    Subterranean termites are the most economically important structural pests in the USA, and the eastern subterranean termite, Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) (Dictyoptera: Rhinotermitidae) is the most widely distributed species. Soil treatment with a liquid termiticide is a widely used method for controlling subterranean termites in structures. We assessed the efficacy of a nonrepellent termiticide, Altriset ® (active ingredient: chlorantraniliprole), in controlling structural infestations of R. flavipes in Texas, North Carolina, and Ohio and determined the post-treatment fate of termite colonies in and around the structures. In all three states, microsatellite markers indicated that only one R. flavipes colony was infesting each structure. A single chlorantraniliprole treatment provided effective structural protection as there was no further evidence of termite activity in and on the majority of structures from approximately 1 month to 2 years post-treatment when the study concluded. Additionally, the treatment appeared to either severely reduce the infesting colony's footprint at monitors in the landscape or eliminate colony members from these monitors. A supplemental spot-treatment was conducted at one house each in Texas and North Carolina at 5 and 6 months post-treatment, respectively; no termites were observed thereafter in these structures and associated landscaping. The number of colonies found exclusively in the landscape (not attacking the structure) varied among the states, with the largest number of colonies in Texas (0-4) and North Carolina (0-5) as compared to 0-1 in Ohio, the most northern state.

  15. Fumigant toxicity of Oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis) and valerian (Valeriana wallichii) essential oils and their components, including their acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity, against Japanese termites (Reticulitermes speratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Il-Kwon

    2014-08-19

    This study investigated the fumigant toxicity of oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis) and valerian (Valeriana wallichii) essential oils and their components against the Japanese termite (Reticulitermes speratus). The fumigant toxicity of oriental sweetgum and valerian oil differed significantly according to exposure time. Oriental sweetgum showed toxicity at short exposure times (2 days), and the toxicity of valerian oil was high 7 days after treatment. The main constituents of oriental sweetgum and valerian oils were tested individually for their fumigant toxicity against Japanese termites. Among the test compounds, benzyl alcohol, acetophenone, 1-phenyl-1-ethanol, hydrocinnamyl alcohol, trans-cinnamyl aldehyde, trans-cinnamyl alcohol, cis-asarone, styrene, and cis-ocimene showed toxicity against Japanese termites 7 days after treatment. Hydrocinnamyl alcohol and trans-cinnamyl alcohol were found to be the major contributors to the fumigant antitermitic toxicity of oriental sweetgum oil. The acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition activity of two oils and their constituents was tested to determine their mode of action. Only cis-ocimene showed strong AChE inhibition activity with an IC50 value of 0.131 mg/mL. Further studies are warranted to determine the potential of these essential oils and their constituents as fumigants for termite control.

  16. Fumigant Toxicity of Oriental Sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis and Valerian (Valeriana wallichii Essential Oils and Their Components, Including Their Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activity, against Japanese Termites (Reticulitermes speratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il-Kwon Park

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the fumigant toxicity of oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis and valerian (Valeriana wallichii essential oils and their components against the Japanese termite (Reticulitermes speratus. The fumigant toxicity of oriental sweetgum and valerian oil differed significantly according to exposure time. Oriental sweetgum showed toxicity at short exposure times (2 days, and the toxicity of valerian oil was high 7 days after treatment. The main constituents of oriental sweetgum and valerian oils were tested individually for their fumigant toxicity against Japanese termites. Among the test compounds, benzyl alcohol, acetophenone, 1-phenyl-1-ethanol, hydrocinnamyl alcohol, trans-cinnamyl aldehyde, trans-cinnamyl alcohol, cis-asarone, styrene, and cis-ocimene showed toxicity against Japanese termites 7 days after treatment. Hydrocinnamyl alcohol and trans-cinnamyl alcohol were found to be the major contributors to the fumigant antitermitic toxicity of oriental sweetgum oil. The acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibition activity of two oils and their constituents was tested to determine their mode of action. Only cis-ocimene showed strong AChE inhibition activity with an IC50 value of 0.131 mg/mL. Further studies are warranted to determine the potential of these essential oils and their constituents as fumigants for termite control.

  17. Catnip essential oil as a barrier to subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, C J; Ems-Wilson, J

    2003-08-01

    The essential oil of catnip, Nepeta cataria (Lamiacae) was evaluated for behavioral effects on two populations of subterranean termite, Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) and R. virginicus (Banks) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). The catnip essential oil contained approximately 36:64 E,Z-nepetalactone and Z,E-nepetalactone, respectively. The time to 50% dissipation (DT50) of the isomers in sand was dependent on dose, and ranged from 5.7 to 12.6 d for the E,Z-isomer and 7.7-18.6 d for the Z,E-isomer. For R. flavipes, the 24-h topical LD50 value was approximately 8200 microg/g termite. The 24-h fumigation LC50 value for R. flavipes was between 36 and 73 microg/ml air, and the 7-d fumigation LC50 value was between 14 and 36 microg/ml air. Exposure of R. virginicus to treated sand resulted in a 24-h LC50 value (95% F.L.) of 84 (67.6, 112) microg/cm2 and a 7-d LC50 value of 21.1 (16.4, 26.8) microg/cm2; for R. flavipes these values were 63.2 (53.7, 73.9) and 44.4 (34.6, 58.1) microg/cm2, respectively. Vertical tunneling through treated sand was eliminated at 500 ppm for R. virginicus and at 250 ppm for R. flavipes. Horizontal tunneling was stopped at 250 ppm for R. virginicus and reduced at doses above 250 ppm for R. flavipes. Although tunneling ceased in these tests, mortality was not high, indicating that the termites avoided the treated sand. Efficacy of catnip oil was equivalent to other monoterpenoids reported in the literature.

  18. Transferof chlorfenapyr among workers of Reticulitermnes flavipes (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Thomas G; Mulrooney, Joseph E; Wagner, Terence L

    2006-06-01

    The potential for transfer of chlorfenapyr among subterranean termites was investigated using a donor-recipient (5:95 ratio) experiment. In one experiment, workers of Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) were exposed to treated sand at 0, 50, 100, 250, and 500 ppm chlorfenapyr (wt [AI]/wt sand). Exposed workers were allowed to interact with untreated nestmates for 14 d, after which mortality was assessed. The three colonies responded differently to the treatments in this experiment. For two colonies, donor exposure rates of 500 ppm (as well as 250 ppm for colony B) chlorfenapyr resulted in significantly greater recipient mortality than controls. For colony C, donor chlorfenapyr exposure did not significantly influence recipient mortality. In a second experiment examining donor mortality over time, donor termites exposed to all test concentrations of chlorfenapyr (except for 0 ppm) suffered 100% mortality within 5 d. Analysis of donor termite body washes using gas chromatography indicated a linear uptake of chlorfenapyr by termites over the concentration range studied. Thus, for this concentration range, no upper limit (saturation plateau) of termite uptake for chlorfenapyr was reached.

  19. Molecular signatures of nicotinoid-pathogen synergy in the termite gut.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchira Sen

    Full Text Available Previous studies in lower termites revealed unexpected synergies between nicotinoid insecticides and fungal entomopathogens. The present study investigated molecular mechanisms of nicotinoid-pathogen synergy in the lower termite Reticulitermes flavipes, using the nicotinoid, imidacloprid, in combination with fungal and bacterial entomopathogens. Particular focus was placed on metatranscriptome composition and microbial dynamics in the symbiont-rich termite gut, which houses diverse mixes of protists and bacteria. cDNA microarrays containing a mix of host and protist symbiont oligonucleotides were used to simultaneously assess termite and protist gene expression. Five treatments were compared that included single challenges with sublethal doses of fungi (Metharizium anisopliae, bacteria (Serratia marcescens or imidacloprid, and dual challenges with fungi + imidacloprid or bacteria + imidacloprid. Our findings point towards protist dysbiosis and compromised social behavior, rather than suppression of stereotypical immune defense mechanisms, as the dominant factors underlying nicotinoid-pathogen synergy in termites. Also, greater impacts observed for the fungal pathogen than for the bacterial pathogen suggest that the rich bacterial symbiont community in the R. flavipes gut (>5000 species-level phylotypes exists in an ecological balance that effectively excludes exogenous bacterial pathogens. These findings significantly advance our understanding of antimicrobial defenses in this important eusocial insect group, as well as provide novel insights into how nicotinoids can exert deleterious effects on social insect colonies.

  20. Phenol-oxidizing laccases from the termite gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, M R; Salem, T Z; Denton, J S; Kovaleva, E S; Liu, Z; Barber, D S; Campbell, J H; Davis, D C; Buchman, G W; Boucias, D G; Scharf, M E

    2010-10-01

    cDNAs encoding two gut laccase isoforms (RfLacA and RfLacB) were sequenced from the termite Reticulitermes flavipes. Phylogenetic analyses comparing translated R. flavipes laccases to 67 others from prokaryotes and eukaryotes indicate that the R. flavipes laccases are evolutionarily unique. Alignments with crystallography-verified laccases confirmed that peptide motifs involved in metal binding are 100% conserved in both isoforms. Laccase transcripts and phenoloxidase activity were most abundant in symbiont-free salivary gland and foregut tissue, verifying that the genes and activities are host-derived. Using a baculovirus-insect expression system, the two isoforms were functionally expressed with histidine tags and purified to near homogeneity. ICP-MS (inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry) analysis of RfLacA identified bound metals consisting mainly of copper (∼4 copper molecules per laccase protein molecule and ∼3 per histidine tag) with lesser amounts of calcium, manganese and zinc. Both recombinant enzyme preparations showed strong activity towards the lignin monomer sinapinic acid and four other phenolic substrates. By contrast, both isoforms displayed much lower or no activity against four melanin precursors, suggesting that neither isoform is involved in integument formation. Modification of lignin alkali by the recombinant RfLacA preparation was also observed. These findings provide evidence that R. flavipes gut laccases are evolutionarily distinct, host-derived, produced in the salivary gland, secreted into the foregut, bind copper, and play a role in lignocellulose digestion. These findings contribute to a better understanding of termite digestion and gut physiology, and will assist future translational studies that examine the contributions of individual termite enzymes in lignocellulose digestion. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Sex-specific inhibition and stimulation of worker-reproductive transition in a termite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qian; Haynes, Kenneth F.; Hampton, Jordan D.; Zhou, Xuguo

    2017-10-01

    In social insects, the postembryonic development of individuals exhibits strong phenotypic plasticity in response to the environment, thus generating the caste system. Different from eusocial Hymenoptera, in which queens dominate reproduction and inhibit worker fertility, the primary reproductive caste in termites (kings and queens) can be replaced by neotenic reproductives derived from functionally sterile individuals. Feedback regulation of nestmate differentiation into reproductives has been suggested, but the sex specificity remains inconclusive. In the eastern subterranean termite, Reticulitermes flavipes, we tested the hypothesis that neotenic reproductives regulate worker-reproductive transition in a sex-specific manner. With this R. flavipes system, we demonstrate a sex-specific regulatory mechanism with both inhibitory and stimulatory functions. Neotenics inhibit workers of the same sex from differentiating into additional reproductives but stimulate workers of the opposite sex to undergo this transition. Furthermore, this process is not affected by the presence of soldiers. Our results highlight the reproductive plasticity of termites in response to social cues and provide insights into the regulation of reproductive division of labor in a hemimetabolous social insect.

  2. Foraging Distance and Population Size of Juvenile Colonies of the Formosan Subterranean Termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) in Laboratory Extended Arenas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Nan-Yao; Osbrink, Weste; Kakkar, Garima; Mullins, Aaron; Chouvenc, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    The relationship between colony size and foraging distance was examined in extended foraging arenas with juvenile colonies of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki. Our results showed that as long as royal pairs are present, larger colonies foraged at longer distances, and the oldest workers distributed farther away from the central nest. The results agree with the scaling model that predicts a large foraging range for animals of larger body size. An analysis of published data from population survey studies and field trials of bait toxicants showed that field colonies of the eastern subterranean termite, Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar), follow the scaling model, while C. formosanus colonies were inconsistent with the model prediction. Reasons for the inconsistency with field data of C. formosanus are discussed. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Gut bacteria recycle uric acid nitrogen in termites: A strategy for nutrient conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potrikus, C J; Breznak, J A

    1981-07-01

    Reticulitermes flavipes termites synthesize uric acid via purine-nucleoside phosphorylase (purine-nucleoside: orthophosphate ribosyltransferase, EC 2.4.2.1) and xanthine dehydrogenase (xanthine:NAD(+) oxidoreductase, EC 1.2.1.37), but their tissues lack uricase (urate:oxygen oxidoreductase, EC 1.7.3.3) or any other enzyme that degrades uric acid. Nevertheless, uricolysis occurs in termites, but as an anaerobic process mediated by hindgut bacteria. (14)C-Tracer experiments showed that termites transport uric acid from the site of synthesis and storage (fat body tissue) to the site of degradation (hindgut microbiota) via Malpighian tubules. Moveover, [1,3-(15)N]uric acid dissimilated by gut bacteria in vivo leads to assimilation of (15)N into termite tissues. NH(3), a product of uricolysis, is a potential N source for termites, either directly via glutamine synthetase [L-glutamate:ammonia ligase (ADP-forming), EC 6.3.1.2] activity of fat body tissue or indirectly through microbe assimilation. Symbiotic recycling of uric acid N appears to be important to N conservation in these oligonitrotrophic insects.

  4. Effects of permethrin treated wood on the subterranean termite Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) and comparison of solvent extraction for HPLC analysis of permethrin in wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Mankowski; Blossie Boyd; Geoffrey Webb

    2016-01-01

    Permethrin is a common insecticide used in wood preservation. It is an effective synthetic pyrethroid that is considered to be less toxic to higher organisms than organochlorine insecticides. In wood preservation, it can be used in combination with fungicides such as 3-iodo-2-propynyl butyl carbamate (IPBC). Permethrin has a dual mode of action as it is a repellent and...

  5. An American termite in Paris: temporal colony dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudouin, Guillaume; Dedeine, Franck; Bech, Nicolas; Bankhead-Dronnet, Stéphanie; Dupont, Simon; Bagnères, Anne-Geneviève

    2017-12-01

    Termites of the genus Reticulitermes are widespread invaders, particularly in urban habitats. Their cryptic and subterranean lifestyle makes them difficult to detect, and we know little about their colony dynamics over time. In this study we examined the persistence of Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) colonies in the city of Paris over a period of 15 years. The aim was (1) to define the boundaries of colonies sampled within the same four areas over two sampling periods, (2) to determine whether the colonies identified during the first sampling period persisted to the second sampling period, and (3) to compare the results obtained when colonies were delineated using a standard population genetic approach versus a Bayesian clustering method that combined both spatial and genetic information. Herein, colony delineations were inferred from genetic differences at nine microsatellite loci and one mitochondrial locus. Four of the 18 identified colonies did not show significant differences in their genotype distributions between the two sampling periods. While allelic richness was low, making it hard to reliably distinguish colony family type, most colonies appeared to retain the same breeding structure over time. These large and expansive colonies showed an important ability to fuse (39% were mixed-family colonies), contained hundreds of reproductives and displayed evidence of isolation-by-distance, suggesting budding dispersal. These traits, which favor colony persistence over time, present a challenge for pest control efforts, which apply treatment locally. The other colonies showed significant differences, but we cannot exclude the possibility that their genotype distributions simply changed over time.

  6. Antitermitic Activities of Shisham (Dalbergia Sissoo Roxb.) Heartwood Extractives against two Termite Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbar Hassan; Mark Mankowski; Grant T. Kirker; Sohail Ahmed; Muhammad Misbah ul Haq

    2016-01-01

    Shisham (Dalbergia sissoo) heartwood extractives were investigated for antitermitic activities against Heterotermes indicola and Reticulitermes flavipes. Heartwood extractives were removed from wood shavings by soxhlet extraction using (2:1) ethanol: toluene as the solvent system. Filter paper bioassays...

  7. The role of particle size of particulate nano-zinc oxide wood preservatives on termite mortality and leach resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Carol A.; Kartal, S. Nami; Arango, Rachel A.; Green, Frederick

    2011-06-01

    Historically most residential wood preservatives were aqueous soluble metal formulations, but recently metals ground to submicron size and dispersed in water to give particulate formulations have gained importance. In this study, the specific role nano-zinc oxide (ZnO) particle size and leach resistance plays in termite mortality resulting from exposure to particulate ZnO-treated wood was investigated. Southern yellow pine (SYP) sapwood impregnated with three concentrations of two particle sizes (30 and 70 nm) of ZnO were compared to wood treated with soluble zinc sulphate (ZnSO4) preservative for leach resistance and termite resistance. Less than four percent leached from the particulate nano-ZnO-treated specimens, while 13 to 25% of the zinc sulphate leached from the soluble treated wood. Nano-ZnO was essentially non-leachable from wood treated with 5% formulation for the 30-nm particle size. In a no-choice laboratory test, eastern subterranean termites ( Reticulitermes flavipes) consumed less than 10% of the leached nano-ZnO-treated wood with 93 to 100% mortality in all treatment concentrations. In contrast, termites consumed 10 to 12% of the leached ZnSO4-treated wood, but with lower mortality: 29% in the 1% treatment group and less than 10% (5 and 8%, respectively) in the group of wood blocks treated with 2.5 and 5.0% ZnSO4. We conclude that termites were repelled from consuming wood treated with nano-ZnO, but when consumed it was more toxic to eastern subterranean termites than wood treated with the soluble metal oxide formulation. There were no differences in leaching or termite mortality between the two particle sizes of nano-ZnO.

  8. The role of particle size of particulate nano-zinc oxide wood preservatives on termite mortality and leach resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartal S Nami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Historically most residential wood preservatives were aqueous soluble metal formulations, but recently metals ground to submicron size and dispersed in water to give particulate formulations have gained importance. In this study, the specific role nano-zinc oxide (ZnO particle size and leach resistance plays in termite mortality resulting from exposure to particulate ZnO-treated wood was investigated. Southern yellow pine (SYP sapwood impregnated with three concentrations of two particle sizes (30 and 70 nm of ZnO were compared to wood treated with soluble zinc sulphate (ZnSO4 preservative for leach resistance and termite resistance. Less than four percent leached from the particulate nano-ZnO-treated specimens, while 13 to 25% of the zinc sulphate leached from the soluble treated wood. Nano-ZnO was essentially non-leachable from wood treated with 5% formulation for the 30-nm particle size. In a no-choice laboratory test, eastern subterranean termites (Reticulitermes flavipes consumed less than 10% of the leached nano-ZnO-treated wood with 93 to 100% mortality in all treatment concentrations. In contrast, termites consumed 10 to 12% of the leached ZnSO4-treated wood, but with lower mortality: 29% in the 1% treatment group and less than 10% (5 and 8%, respectively in the group of wood blocks treated with 2.5 and 5.0% ZnSO4. We conclude that termites were repelled from consuming wood treated with nano-ZnO, but when consumed it was more toxic to eastern subterranean termites than wood treated with the soluble metal oxide formulation. There were no differences in leaching or termite mortality between the two particle sizes of nano-ZnO.

  9. Influence of soil compaction on tunnel network construction by the eastern subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Cynthia L; Koehler, Philip G; Oi, Faith M

    2004-02-01

    Eastern subterranean termites, Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar), workers were introduced into arenas containing low, moderate, and high compaction builder's sand (1.05 g/cm3, 1.18 g/cm3 or 1.35 g/cm3 bulk densities, respectively), and they immediately began tunneling. Termites built the tunnel network significantly fastest in soil of low compaction compared with moderately or highly compacted soil. In soil of low compaction, 221.67 +/- 4.73 cm of total tunnel distance was constructed in 1 d compared with only 96 cm of tunneling in highly compacted soil. At 14 d, total tunnel distance averaged 216.83 +/- 4.56 cm in soil of low compaction compared with 169.70 +/- 4.10 and 181.18 +/- 6.13 cm in moderately and highly compacted soil, respectively. Decreases in total tunnel distance between 1 and 14 d were caused by backfilling of seldom-used tunnels. Termites did the majority of tunneling during the first day of introduction into arenas. In soil of low and moderate compaction, termites essentially constructed the entire tunnel network within the first day, only modifying it by backfilling or maintaining tunnels. In highly compacted soil, 53% of the final tunnel network was constructed during the first day, 87% was constructed by the third day, and 97% was constructed by the seventh day. Soil compaction did not affect the number of primary tunnels or the number and diameter of secondary tunnels. The angle between the secondary tunnel and primary tunnel also was not significantly affected by soil compaction. However, the number of secondary tunnels in soil of low compaction (5.89 +/- 0.51) was significantly greater than in moderately (2.74 +/- 0.36) and highly (3.58 +/- 0.59) compacted soils.

  10. An Efficient Antioxidant System in a Long-Lived Termite Queen

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tasaki, Eisuke; Kobayashi, Kazuya; Matsuura, Kenji; Iuchi, Yoshihito

    2017-01-01

    .... Here, we show that queens of the termite Reticulitermes speratus incur significantly lower oxidative damage to DNA, protein and lipid and have higher activity of antioxidant enzymes than non-reproductive individuals...

  11. Simulation study of territory size distributions in subterranean termites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Wonju; Lee, Sang-Hee

    2011-06-21

    In this study, on the basis of empirical data, we have simulated the foraging tunnel patterns of two subterranean termites, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar), using a two-dimensional model. We have defined a territory as a convex polygon containing a tunnel pattern and explored the effects of competition among termite territory colonies on the territory size distribution in the steady state that was attained after a sufficient simulation time. In the model, territorial competition was characterized by a blocking probability P(block) that quantitatively describes the ease with which a tunnel stops its advancement when it meets another tunnel; higher P(block) values imply easier termination. In the beginning of the simulation run, N=10, 20,…,100 territory seeds, representing the founding pair, were randomly distributed on a square area. When the territory density was less (N=20), the differences in the territory size distributions for different P(block) values were small because the territories had sufficient space to grow without strong competitions. Further, when the territory density was higher (N>20), the territory sizes increased in accordance with the combinational effect of P(block) and N. In order to understand these effects better, we introduced an interference coefficient γ. We mathematically derived γ as a function of P(block) and N: γ(N,P(block))=a(N)P(block)/(P(block)+b(N)). a(N) and b(N) are functions of N/(N+c) and d/(N+c), respectively, and c and d are constants characterizing territorial competition. The γ function is applicable to characterize the territoriality of various species and increases with both the P(block) values and N; higher γ values imply higher limitations of the network growth. We used the γ function, fitted the simulation results, and determined the c and d values. In addition, we have briefly discussed the predictability of the present model by comparing it with our previous lattice model

  12. Perreyia flavipes larvae toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djeison L. Raymundo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Fresh or thawed Perreyia flavipes larvae were ground and mixed with water and orally ad ministered to sheep. At 5mg/kg, neither clinical nor enzymatic changes were observed. Unique do ses of 7.5 and 10mg/kg induced characteristic clinical signs of Perreyia sp. larvae poisoning, increased GGT and AST values, and decreased glycemic curves. However, doses of 5, 10, and 15mg/kg repeated at 30 or 15 days intervals caused no disease and mild disease followed by death, respectively. These fin dings indicate that these animals probably developed some degree of tolerance to the toxins in P. flavipes larvae. Ultrastru ctural examination of liver revealed proliferation of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum in the hepatocytes, which may be associated with an increased ability to metabolize toxins and could consequently lead to the tolerance observed in the present study. Further investigations may elucidate whether such tolerance effects could be applied as a control measure for P. flavipes poioning or other hepatotoxic diseases. In addition, clinicopathological findings were discussed.

  13. Termites and flooding affect microbial communities in decomposing wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Ulyshen; Susan V. Diehl; Dragica Jeremic

    2016-01-01

    Wood properties and microbial community characteristics were compared between loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) logs protected or unprotected from termites (Blattodea: Rhinotermitidae: Reticulitermes spp.) and other arthropods for two years in seasonally flooded and unflooded forests in the southeastern United States. Significant compositional differences were observed...

  14. Evaluating the natural durability of native and tropical wood species against Reticulitermes flavipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.A. Arango; F. Green; K. Hintz; R.B. Miller

    2004-01-01

    Environmental pressures to eliminate arsenate from wood preservatives has resulted in voluntary removal of CCA for residential applications in the United States. A new generation of copper organic preservatives has been formulated to replace CCA for decking and in-ground applications but there is no guarantee that these preservatives represent a permanent solution to...

  15. Molecular evidence of Cotesia flavipes (Cameron) (Hymenoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cotesia flavipes (Cameron) is an Asian origin endo-larval parasitoid of cereal stemborers in the genera of Chilo, Sesamia and others. It was introduced into Kenya mainly for the control of Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) from India, and North and South Pakistan. After introduction, the parasitoid was ...

  16. MOLECULAR EVIDENCE OF COTESIA FLAVIPES (CAMERON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADMIN

    conducive ecological factors existing in the country. (Emana Getu et al., 2001). At the moment C. flavipes exist in Ethiopia under natural condition, but it has to be considered in the future biological control program of cereal stem borers in the country. For operating biological control program, the taxonomy of the parasitoid.

  17. Do termites avoid carcasses? Behavioral responses depend on the nature of the carcasses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok-Boon Neoh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Undertaking behavior is a significant adaptation to social life in enclosed nests. Workers are known to remove dead colony members from the nest. Such behavior prevents the spread of pathogens that may be detrimental to a colony. To date, little is known about the ethological aspects of how termites deal with carcasses. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we tested the responses to carcasses of four species from different subterranean termite taxa: Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and Reticulitermes speratus (Kolbe (lower termites and Microcerotermes crassus Snyder and Globitermes sulphureus Haviland (higher termites. We also used different types of carcasses (freshly killed, 1-, 3-, and 7-day-old, and oven-killed carcasses and mutilated nestmates to investigate whether the termites exhibited any behavioral responses that were specific to carcasses in certain conditions. Some behavioral responses were performed specifically on certain types of carcasses or mutilated termites. C. formosanus and R. speratus exhibited the following behaviors: (1 the frequency and time spent in antennating, grooming, and carcass removal of freshly killed, 1-day-old, and oven-killed carcasses were high, but these behaviors decreased as the carcasses aged; (2 the termites repeatedly crawled under the aging carcass piles; and (3 only newly dead termites were consumed as a food source. In contrast, M. crassus and G. sulphureus workers performed relatively few behavioral acts. Our results cast a new light on the previous notion that termites are necrophobic in nature. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the behavioral response towards carcasses depends largely on the nature of the carcasses and termite species, and the response is more complex than was previously thought. Such behavioral responses likely are associated with the threat posed to the colony by the carcasses and the feeding habits and nesting ecology of a given species.

  18. Termites in the woodwork

    OpenAIRE

    Chaffron, S.; von Mering, C.

    2007-01-01

    Termites eat and digest wood, but how do they do it? Combining advanced genomics and proteomics techniques, researchers have now shown that microbes found in the termites' hindguts possess just the right tools. Most animals, from insects to mammals, carry complex communities of microbes in their digestive tracts. In the case of wood-eating termites, these gut microbes are particularly important: they are thought to provide most of the capabilities needed for efficient digestion of wood, wh...

  19. Uric acid, an important antioxidant contributing to survival in termites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasaki, Eisuke; Sakurai, Hiroki; Nitao, Masaru; Matsuura, Kenji; Iuchi, Yoshihito

    2017-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated spontaneously in all organisms and cause oxidative damage to biomolecules when present in excess. Accumulated oxidative damage accelerates aging; enhanced antioxidant capacity may be a positive factor for longevity. Recently, numerous studies of aging and longevity have been performed using short-lived animals, however, longevity mechanisms remain unknown. Here we show that a termite Reticulitermes speratus that is thought to be long-lived eusocial insect than other solitary insects uses large quantities of uric acid as an antioxidant against ROS. We demonstrated that the accumulation of uric acid considerably increases the free radical-scavenging activity and resistance against ultraviolet-induced oxidative stress in laboratory-maintained termites. In addition, we found that externally administered uric acid aided termite survival under highly oxidative conditions. The present data demonstrates that in addition to nutritional and metabolic roles, uric acid is an essential antioxidant for survival and contributes significantly to longevity. Uric acid also plays important roles in primates but causes gout when present in excess in humans. Further longevity studies of long-lived organisms may provide important breakthroughs with human health applications. PMID:28609463

  20. Evidence of cue synergism in termite corpse response behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulyshen, Michael D.; Shelton, Thomas G.

    2012-02-01

    Subterranean termites of the genus Reticulitermes are known to build walls and tubes and move considerable amounts of soil into wood but the causes of this behavior remain largely unexplored. In laboratory assays, we tested the hypothesis that Reticulitermes virginicus (Banks) would carry more sand into wooden blocks containing corpses compared to corpse-free controls. We further predicted that the corpses of predatory ants would elicit a stronger response than those of a benign beetle species or nestmates. As hypothesized, significantly more sand was carried into blocks containing corpses and this material was typically used to build partitions separating the dead from the rest of the colony. Contrary to expectations, however, this behavior did not vary among corpse types. We then tested the hypothesis that oleic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid released during arthropod decay and used by ants and other arthropod taxa in corpse recognition, would induce a similar building response in R. virginicus. To additionally determine the role of foreign objects in giving rise to this behavior, the experiment was carried out with and without imitation corpses (i.e., small glass beads). As predicted, oleic acid induced building (a tenfold increase) but only when applied to beads, suggesting strong synergism between tactile and chemical cues. Oleic acid also significantly reduced the amount of wood consumed by R. virginicus and may possess useful repellent properties.

  1. Evaluation of polyphenols-rich natural compounds as treatments to prevent attacks by subterranean and drywood termites: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Maistrello

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In the view to find sustainable methods to prevent termite attacks to wooden objects and structural timbers, this study represents a preliminary step in the evaluation of some natural substances considered as effective by some African popular traditions. Dark shea cake, obtained from the kernels of Vitellaria paradoxa (Sapotaceae, is the phase just before the extraction of shea (= karitè butter. In some West African regions, by-products from this extraction are traditionally believed to protect houses from termites. To verify if this practice has scientific basis, shea cake was used in experiments with both subterranean and drywood termites, respectively Reticulitermes lucifugus (Rossi (Rhinotermitidae and Kalotermes flavicollis (Fabricius (Kalotermitidae. As shea nuts are extremely rich in polyphenols, the trials included a comparison with tannins from chestnut (Castanea sativa. Short-term experiments to evaluate repellency and feeding deterrence of the two compounds were performed. Results showed differences in the behavior of the two termites species and that shea cake is significantly more repellent than chestnut tannins, especially for K. flavicollis. No feeding deterrence activity was detected for either substance for either termite species. Further investigation is currently being performed to better clarify how these compounds affect termite biology.

  2. Toxicity, repellency, and transfer of chlorfenapyr against western subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, Michael K; Saran, Raj K

    2006-06-01

    Chlorfenapyr is a slow-acting insecticide against western subterranean termite, Reticulitermes hesperus Banks, when applied to sand. The LD50 at day 7 for workers is 29.98 ng per termite and considerably higher than that of chlorpyrifos (14.01), cypermethrin (3.21), and fipronil (0.16). Brief exposures to sand treated with chlorfenapyr resulted in dose-dependent mortality over a broad range of concentrations. Brief 1-h exposures to > or =75 ppm provided >88% kill of termites at day 7. Chlorfenapyr deposits did not repel termites, even at 300 ppm. Termites tunneled from 0.1 to 1.8 cm into sand treated with 10- to 300-ppm chlorfenapyr deposits, resulting in > or =70% mortality. Within 1 h after being exposed to 50 ppm chlorfenapyr, approximately 17% of the termites exhibited impaired responses to synthetic trail pheromone. By 4 h, nearly 60% of the workers were not able to follow a 10 fg/cm pheromone trail. There was a direct linear relationship of the uptake of [14C]chlorfenapyr as concentration and duration of exposure increased. The percentage of chlorfenapyr transferred to recipients varied from 13.3 to 38.4%. Donors exposed for 1 h transferred a greater percentage of chlorfenapyr than did donors exposed for 4 h. A 1-h exposure on 100-ppm deposits provided sufficient uptake to kill 100% of the donors and sufficient transfer to kill 96% of the recipients. There was not enough transfer for recipients to serve as secondary donors and kill other termites. Horizontal transfer is limited to contact with the original donor and by the decreased mobility of workers within 4-8 h after exposure to treated sand. The effectiveness of chlorfenapyr barrier treatments is primarily due to its nonrepellency and delayed toxicity.

  3. Using hidden Markov models to characterize termite traveling behavior in tunnels with different curvatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, SeungWoo; Kang, Seung-Ho; Lee, Sang-Hee

    2015-02-01

    Subterranean termites live underground and build tunnel networks to obtain food and nesting space. After obtaining food, termites return to their nests to transfer it. The efficiency of termite movement through the tunnels is directly connected to their survival. Tunnels should therefore be optimized to ensure highly efficient returns. An optimization factor that strongly affects movement efficiency is tunnel curvature. In the present study, we investigated traveling behavior in tunnels with different curvatures. We then characterized traveling behavior at the level of the individual using hidden Markov models (HMMs) constructed from the experimental data. To observe traveling behavior, we designed 5-cm long artificial tunnels that had different curvatures. The tunnels had widths (W) of 2, 3, or 4mm, and the linear distances between the two ends of the tunnels were (D) 20, 30, 40, or 50mm. High values of D indicate low curvature. We systematically observed the traveling behavior of Coptotermes formosanus shiraki and Reticulitermes speratus kyushuensis and measured the time (τ) required for a termite to pass through the tunnel. Using HMM models, we calculated τ for different tunnels and compared the results with the τ of real termites. We characterized the traveling behavior in terms of transition probability matrices (TPM) and emission probability matrices (EPM) of HMMs. We briefly discussed the construction of a sinusoidal-like tunnels in relation to the energy required for termites to pass through tunnels and provided suggestions for the development of more sophisticated HMMs to better understand termite foraging behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. How Termite Mounds Breath?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Saurabh; Yaghoobian, Neda

    2017-11-01

    Fungus-cultivating termites of the subfamily Macrotermitinae that are extensively found throughout sub-Saharan Africa and south East Asia are one species of termites that collectively build massive, uninhabited, complex structures. These structures, which are much larger than the size of an individual termite, effectively use natural wind and solar energies and the energy embodied in colony's metabolic activity to maintain the necessary condition for termite survival. These mounds enclose a subterranean nest, where the termite live and cultivate fungus, as well as a complex network of tunnels consisting of a large, vertically oriented central chimney, surface conduits, and lateral connectives that connect the chimney and the surface conduits. In this study, we use computational modeling to explore the combined interaction of geometry, heterogeneous thermal mass, and porosity with the external turbulent wind and solar radiation to investigate the physical principles and fundamental aero-thermodynamics underlying the controlled and stable climate of termite mounds. Exploitation of natural resources of wind and solar energies in these natural systems for the purpose of ventilation will lead to new lessons for improving human habitats conditions.

  5. Termite enzymes and uses thereof for in vitro conversion of lignin-containing materials to fermentable products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Michael E; Boucias, Drion G; Tartar, Aurelien; Coy, Monique R; Zhou, Xuguo; Salem, Tamer Ibrahim Zaki; Jadhao, Sanjay B; Wheeler, Marsha M

    2013-05-21

    The disclosure provides isolated nucleic acid molecules derived from the gut of the termite R flavipes, recombinant nucleic acid molecules comprising a vector and an isolated heterologous nucleic acid molecule operably inserted therein, whereby, when transformed into an appropriate host cell system, the heterologous nucleic acid sequence is expressed as a polypeptide having an activity similar to that when expressed in the gut of the termite R. flavipes. The recombinant nucleic acid molecules can comprise more than one heterologous nucleic acid molecule such that more than one polypeptide may be expressed by the host system. The expressed polypeptides may be substantially purified, or used in a substantially unpurified form, to be admixed with a lignocellulose source to be converted to a fermentable product such as a sugar or a mixture of sugars. One aspect of the present disclosure, therefore, encompasses methods of converting a lignified plant material to a fermentable product, the method comprising obtaining a series of isolated polypeptides of a termite, wherein the series of polypeptides cooperate to convert a plant lignocellulose to a fermentable product; and incubating the series of polypeptides with a source of lignified plant material, under conditions allowing the polypeptides to cooperatively produce a fermentable product from the lignified plant material.

  6. Cellulolytic protist numbers rise and fall dramatically in termite queens and kings during colony foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Keisuke; Lo, Nathan; Kitade, Osamu; Wakui, Akane; Maekawa, Kiyoto

    2013-04-01

    Among the best-known examples of mutualistic symbioses is that between lower termites and the cellulolytic flagellate protists in their hindguts. Although the symbiosis in worker termites has attracted much attention, there have been only a few studies of protists in other castes. We have performed the first examination of protist population dynamics in queens and kings during termite colony foundation. Protist numbers, as well as measurements of hindgut and reproductive tissue sizes, were undertaken at five time points over 400 days in incipient colonies of Reticulitermes speratus, as well as in other castes of mature colonies of this species. We found that protist numbers increased dramatically in both queens and kings during the first 50 days of colony foundation but began to decrease by day 100, eventually disappearing by day 400. Hindgut width followed a pattern similar to that of protist numbers, while ovary and testis widths increased significantly only at day 400. Kings were found to contain higher numbers of protists than queens in incipient colonies, which may be linked to higher levels of nutrient transfer from kings to queens than vice versa, as is known in some other termite species. Protists were found to be abundant in soldiers from mature colonies but absent in neotenics. This probably reflects feeding of soldiers by workers via proctodeal trophallaxis and of reproductives via stomodeal trophallaxis. The results reveal the dynamic nature of protist numbers during colony foundation and highlight the trade-offs that exist between reproduction and parental care during this critical phase of the termite life cycle.

  7. Caste-Specific and Sex-Specific Expression of Chemoreceptor Genes in a Termite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Mitaka

    Full Text Available The sophisticated colony organization of eusocial insects is primarily maintained through the utilization of pheromones. The regulation of these complex social interactions requires intricate chemoreception systems. The recent publication of the genome of Zootermopsis nevadensis opened a new avenue to study molecular basis of termite caste systems. Although there has been a growing interest in the termite chemoreception system that regulates their sophisticated caste system, the relationship between division of labor and expression of chemoreceptor genes remains to be explored. Using high-throughput mRNA sequencing (RNA-seq, we found several chemoreceptors that are differentially expressed among castes and between sexes in a subterranean termite Reticulitermes speratus. In total, 53 chemoreception-related genes were annotated, including 22 odorant receptors, 7 gustatory receptors, 12 ionotropic receptors, 9 odorant-binding proteins, and 3 chemosensory proteins. Most of the chemoreception-related genes had caste-related and sex-related expression patterns; in particular, some chemoreception genes showed king-biased or queen-biased expression patterns. Moreover, more than half of the genes showed significant age-dependent differences in their expression in female and/or male reproductives. These results reveal a strong relationship between the evolution of the division of labor and the regulation of chemoreceptor gene expression, thereby demonstrating the chemical communication and underlining chemoreception mechanism in social insects.

  8. Caste-Specific and Sex-Specific Expression of Chemoreceptor Genes in a Termite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitaka, Yuki; Kobayashi, Kazuya; Mikheyev, Alexander; Tin, Mandy M Y; Watanabe, Yutaka; Matsuura, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    The sophisticated colony organization of eusocial insects is primarily maintained through the utilization of pheromones. The regulation of these complex social interactions requires intricate chemoreception systems. The recent publication of the genome of Zootermopsis nevadensis opened a new avenue to study molecular basis of termite caste systems. Although there has been a growing interest in the termite chemoreception system that regulates their sophisticated caste system, the relationship between division of labor and expression of chemoreceptor genes remains to be explored. Using high-throughput mRNA sequencing (RNA-seq), we found several chemoreceptors that are differentially expressed among castes and between sexes in a subterranean termite Reticulitermes speratus. In total, 53 chemoreception-related genes were annotated, including 22 odorant receptors, 7 gustatory receptors, 12 ionotropic receptors, 9 odorant-binding proteins, and 3 chemosensory proteins. Most of the chemoreception-related genes had caste-related and sex-related expression patterns; in particular, some chemoreception genes showed king-biased or queen-biased expression patterns. Moreover, more than half of the genes showed significant age-dependent differences in their expression in female and/or male reproductives. These results reveal a strong relationship between the evolution of the division of labor and the regulation of chemoreceptor gene expression, thereby demonstrating the chemical communication and underlining chemoreception mechanism in social insects.

  9. Green house gas emissions from termite ecosystem

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    of termites (flagellate protozoa in lower termites and bacteria in higher termites) produce methane (CH4). Methane has been considered to be an important greenhouse gas (GHG) contributing significantly to global warming (Thakur et al., 2003). Termites may emit large quantities of methane, carbon dioxide and molecular.

  10. TERMITES ENDANGERED TRADITIONAL MEDICAL PLANTS

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    Syaukani Syaukani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Surveys on traditional medical plants affected by termites have been conducted since June to August 2010 at Ketambe, northern Aceh. Traditional medical plants and their natural habitats were obtained through interviewing local people. Termites were collected by adopted a Standardized Sampling Protocol and final. taxonomic confirmation was done with the help of Termite Research Group (the Natural History Museum, London. About 20 species of medical plants were attacked by termites with various levels. Nine genera and 20 species were collected from various habitats throughout Ketambe, Simpur as well as Gunung Setan villages. Coffe (Coffea arabica, hazelnut (Aleurites moluccana , and areca (Area catechu were among the worse of traditional medical  plant that had been attached by the termites.

  11. Termites, hemimetabolous diploid white ants?

    OpenAIRE

    Korb Judith

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Ants and termites are the most abundant animals on earth. Their ecological success is attributed to their social life. They live in colonies consisting of few reproducing individuals, while the large majority of colony members (workers/soldiers) forego reproduction at least temporarilly. Despite their apparent resemblance in social organisation, both groups evolved social life independently. Termites are basically social cockroaches, while ants evolved from predatory wasps. In this r...

  12. Anaerobic carbon monoxide dehydrogenase diversity in the homoacetogenic hindgut microbial communities of lower termites and the wood roach.

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    Eric G Matson

    Full Text Available Anaerobic carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH is a key enzyme in the Wood-Ljungdahl (acetyl-CoA pathway for acetogenesis performed by homoacetogenic bacteria. Acetate generated by gut bacteria via the acetyl-CoA pathway provides considerable nutrition to wood-feeding dictyopteran insects making CODH important to the obligate mutualism occurring between termites and their hindgut microbiota. To investigate CODH diversity in insect gut communities, we developed the first degenerate primers designed to amplify cooS genes, which encode the catalytic (β subunit of anaerobic CODH enzyme complexes. These primers target over 68 million combinations of potential forward and reverse cooS primer-binding sequences. We used the primers to identify cooS genes in bacterial isolates from the hindgut of a phylogenetically lower termite and to sample cooS diversity present in a variety of insect hindgut microbial communities including those of three phylogenetically-lower termites, Zootermopsis nevadensis, Reticulitermes hesperus, and Incisitermes minor, a wood-feeding cockroach, Cryptocercus punctulatus, and an omnivorous cockroach, Periplaneta americana. In total, we sequenced and analyzed 151 different cooS genes. These genes encode proteins that group within one of three highly divergent CODH phylogenetic clades. Each insect gut community contained CODH variants from all three of these clades. The patterns of CODH diversity in these communities likely reflect differences in enzyme or physiological function, and suggest that a diversity of microbial species participate in homoacetogenesis in these communities.

  13. Termites as targets and models for biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Michael E

    2015-01-07

    Termites have many unique evolutionary adaptations associated with their eusocial lifestyles. Recent omics research has created a wealth of new information in numerous areas of termite biology (e.g., caste polyphenism, lignocellulose digestion, and microbial symbiosis) with wide-ranging applications in diverse biotechnological niches. Termite biotechnology falls into two categories: (a) termite-targeted biotechnology for pest management purposes, and (b) termite-modeled biotechnology for use in various industrial applications. The first category includes several candidate termiticidal modes of action such as RNA interference, digestive inhibition, pathogen enhancement, antimicrobials, endocrine disruption, and primer pheromone mimicry. In the second category, termite digestomes are deep resources for host and symbiont lignocellulases and other enzymes with applications in a variety of biomass, industrial, and processing applications. Moving forward, one of the most important approaches for accelerating advances in both termite-targeted and termite-modeled biotechnology will be to consider host and symbiont together as a single functional unit.

  14. Multi-functional roles of a soldier-specific volatile as a worker arrestant, primer pheromone and an antimicrobial agent in a termite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitaka, Yuki; Mori, Naoki; Matsuura, Kenji

    2017-07-26

    Division of labour in eusocial insects is characterized by efficient communication systems based on pheromones. Among such insects, termites have evolved specialized sterile defenders, called soldiers. Because they are incapable of feeding themselves, it has been suggested that soldiers are sustained by workers and emit the pheromone arresting workers. However, such a soldier pheromone has not been identified in any termite species, and the details of the soldier-worker interaction remain to be explored. Here, we identified a soldier-specific volatile sesquiterpene as a worker arrestant, which also acts as a primer pheromone regulating soldier differentiation and fungistatic agent in a termite Reticulitermes speratus Chemical analyses revealed that (-)-β-elemene is the major component of soldier extract, and its authentic standard exhibited arrestant activity to workers and inhibited the differentiation from workers to soldiers. This compound also showed fungistatic activity against entomopathogenic fungi. These suggest that (-)-β-elemene secreted by soldiers acts not only as a worker arrestant but also as one component of inhibitory primer pheromone and an anti-pathogenic agent. Our study provides novel evidence supporting the multi-functionality of termite soldier pheromone and provides new insights into the role of soldiers and the evolutionary mechanisms of pheromone compounds. © 2017 The Author(s).

  15. Wood impregnated with metal chelates dissolved in organic media tested for termite resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Maistrello

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Wood manufactured products are subjected to biological decay due to fungi and insects. The use of copper chelates as biocides was proposed, due to their high stability which minimizes copper leaching into the environment. Considering the remarkable effectiveness showed by copper chelates on brown rot fungi, zinc and copper salicylate complexes were prepared in order to have metal chelates soluble in organic media available. The present study aimed at evaluating these metal chelates complexes as preservative agents for wood treatment against termites. Trials were performed on Reticulitermes lucifugus (Rossi and Kalotermes flavicollis (Fabricius. Results showed that in both termite species wood consumption was significantly lower on Cu-chelates treated samples compared to untreated wood, whereas the wood slices impregnated with Zn-chelates and the organic media alone gave an intermediate response. Interestingly, in one case solvent-impregnated wood was significantly more attractive than untreated wood for both species and further investigations are being carried out to clarify this behaviour.

  16. Dicty_cDB: VSH576 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rabidopsis thaliana TDNA ins... 44 2e-04 2 ( FL642346 ) TS15-A4 Reticulitermes flavipes symbiont library ...... 40 0.001 2 ( FL641038 ) TS00-A11 Reticulitermes flavipes symbiont library... 40

  17. Termites, hemimetabolous diploid white ants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korb Judith

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ants and termites are the most abundant animals on earth. Their ecological success is attributed to their social life. They live in colonies consisting of few reproducing individuals, while the large majority of colony members (workers/soldiers forego reproduction at least temporarilly. Despite their apparent resemblance in social organisation, both groups evolved social life independently. Termites are basically social cockroaches, while ants evolved from predatory wasps. In this review, I will concentrate on termites with an ancestral life type, the wood-dwelling termites, to compare them with ants. Their different ancestries provided both groups with different life history pre-adaptations for social evolution. Like their closest relatives, the woodroaches, wood-dwelling termites live inside their food, a piece of wood. Thus, intensive costly food provisioning of their young is not necessary, especially as young instars are rather independent due to their hemimetabolous development. In contrast, ants are progressive food provisioners which have to care intensively for their helpless brood. Corresponding to the precocial – altricial analogy, helping by workers is selected in ants, while new evidence suggests that wood-dwelling termite workers are less engaged in brood care. Rather they seem to stay in the nest because there is generally low selection for dispersal. The nest presents a safe haven with no local resource competition as long as food is abundant (which is generally the case, while founding a new colony is very risky. Despite these differences between ants and termites, their common dwelling life style resulted in convergent evolution, especially winglessness, that probably accounts for the striking similarity between both groups. In ants, all workers are wingless and winglessness in sexuals evolved in several taxa as a derived trait. In wood-dwelling termites, workers are by default wingless as they are immatures. These

  18. Termites, hemimetabolous diploid white ants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korb, Judith

    2008-09-29

    Ants and termites are the most abundant animals on earth. Their ecological success is attributed to their social life. They live in colonies consisting of few reproducing individuals, while the large majority of colony members (workers/soldiers) forego reproduction at least temporarilly. Despite their apparent resemblance in social organisation, both groups evolved social life independently. Termites are basically social cockroaches, while ants evolved from predatory wasps. In this review, I will concentrate on termites with an ancestral life type, the wood-dwelling termites, to compare them with ants. Their different ancestries provided both groups with different life history pre-adaptations for social evolution. Like their closest relatives, the woodroaches, wood-dwelling termites live inside their food, a piece of wood. Thus, intensive costly food provisioning of their young is not necessary, especially as young instars are rather independent due to their hemimetabolous development. In contrast, ants are progressive food provisioners which have to care intensively for their helpless brood. Corresponding to the precocial - altricial analogy, helping by workers is selected in ants, while new evidence suggests that wood-dwelling termite workers are less engaged in brood care. Rather they seem to stay in the nest because there is generally low selection for dispersal. The nest presents a safe haven with no local resource competition as long as food is abundant (which is generally the case), while founding a new colony is very risky. Despite these differences between ants and termites, their common dwelling life style resulted in convergent evolution, especially winglessness, that probably accounts for the striking similarity between both groups. In ants, all workers are wingless and winglessness in sexuals evolved in several taxa as a derived trait. In wood-dwelling termites, workers are by default wingless as they are immatures. These immatures can develop into

  19. Relationship between wood-inhabiting fungi and Reticulitermes spp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant T. Kirker; Terence Wagner; Susan. Diehl

    2012-01-01

    Fungi from coarse woody debris samples containing or lacking termites were isolated, and identified from upland and bottomland hardwoods and pines in northeast Mississippi. Samples yielded 860 unique fungal isolates, with 59% identified to genus level. Four phyla, six classes, 10 orders, 14 families, and 50 genera were recovered. The fungal groups encountered by...

  20. Integrating Ethno-Ecological and Scientific Knowledge of Termites for Sustainable Termite Management and Human Welfare in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudeta W. Sileshi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite their well-known role as pests, termites also provide essential ecosystem services. In this paper, we undertook a comprehensive review of studies on human-termite interactions and farmers' indigenous knowledge across Sub-Saharan Africa in an effort to build coherent principles for termite management. The review revealed that local communities have comprehensive indigenous knowledge of termite ecology and taxonomy, and apply various indigenous control practices. Many communities also have elaborate knowledge of the nutritional and medicinal value of termites and mushrooms associated with termite nests. Children and women also widely consume termite mound soil for nutritional or other benefits encouraged by indigenous belief systems. In addition, subsistence farmers use termites as indicators of soil fertility, and use termite mound soil in low-risk farming strategies for crop production. In the past, chemical control of termites has been initiated without empirical data on the termite species, their damage threshold, and the social, ecological, or economic risks and trade-offs of the control. This review has provided new insights into the intimate nature of human-termite interactions in Africa and the risks of chemical control of termites to human welfare and the environment. We recommend that management of termites in future should be built on farmers' indigenous knowledge and adequate understanding of the ecology of the local termite species.

  1. Subterranean termite phylogeography reveals multiple postglacial colonization events in southwestern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Thomas; Vargo, Edward L; Zimmermann, Marie; Dupont, Simon; Kutnik, Magdalena; Bagnères, Anne-Geneviève

    2016-08-01

    A long-standing goal of evolutionary biology is to understand how paleoclimatic and geological events shape the geographical distribution and genetic structure within and among species. Using a diverse set of markers (cuticular hydrocarbons, mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences, microsatellite loci), we studied Reticulitermes grassei and R. banyulensis, two closely related termite species in southwestern Europe. We sought to clarify the current genetic structure of populations that formed following postglacial dispersal from refugia in southern Spain and characterize the gene flow between the two lineages over the last several million years. Each marker type separately provided a fragmented picture of the evolutionary history at different timescales. Chemical analyses of cuticular hydrocarbons and phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear genes showed clear separation between the species, suggesting they diverged following vicariance events in the Late Miocene. However, the presence of intermediate chemical profiles and mtDNA introgression in some Spanish colonies suggests ongoing gene flow. The current genetic structure of Iberian populations is consistent with alternating isolation and dispersal events during Quaternary glacial periods. Analyses of population genetic structure revealed postglacial colonization routes from southern Spain to France, where populations underwent strong genetic bottlenecks after traversing the Pyrenees resulting in parapatric speciation.

  2. Morphology as a basis for taxonomy of large spirochetes symbiotic in wood-eating cockroaches and termites: Pillotina gen. nov., nom. rev.; Pillotina calotermitidis sp. nov., nom. rev.; Diplocalyx gen. nov., nom. rev.; Diplocalyx calotermitidis sp. nov., nom. rev.; Hollandina gen. nov., nom.[TRUNCATED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudes, D.; Chase, D.; Margulis, L.

    1988-01-01

    The purposes of this paper are (i) to present a framework for the morphometric analysis of large uncultivable spirochetes that are symbiotic in wood-eating cockroaches and termites; (ii) to revive, in accordance with the rules of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria, the names of three genera (Pillotina, Diplocalyx, and Hollandina) and three species (Pillotina calotermitidis, Diplocalyx calotermitidis, and Hollandina pterotermitidis) for the same organisms to which the names were originally applied, because these names were not included on the 1980 Approved Lists of Bacterial Names; and (iii) to formally propose the name Clevelandina reticulitermitidis for a new genus and species of spirochetes from the termite Reticulitermes tibialis. None of these genera and species has been cultivated either axenically or in mixed culture; hence, all are based on type-descriptive material.

  3. Trace elements in termites by PIXE analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimura, T. E-mail: tsuyoshi@termite.kuwri.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Kagemori, N.; Kawai, S.; Sera, K.; Futatsugawa, S

    2002-04-01

    Trace elements in a Japanese subterranean xylophagous termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were analyzed by the PIXE method. The total amount of the 14 predominant elements out of 27 detected in an intact termite was higher in a soldier termite (23 000 {mu}g/g) than in a worker termite (10 000 {mu}g/g). A block of wood (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.) for termite feed had a much lower concentration (3600 {mu}g/g) compared with that in an intact termite. This probably relates the functional bio-condensation and/or bio-recycling of trace elements in C. formosanus. When a termite was separated into three anatomical parts, head, degutted body and gut, the worker gut contained the highest total amount of the 14 predominant measured elements (31 000 {mu}g/g). This might be correlated with the higher activity of food digestion and energy production in the worker gut. Moreover, the mandible of the soldier head, with an exoskeleton that is intensely hardened, showed a preferential distribution of Mn and Fe. These results suggest that the characteristic localization of elements will be closely related to the functional role of the individual anatomical part of C. formosanus.

  4. Transcriptional and Proteomic Profiling of Aspergillus flavipes in Response to Sulfur Starvation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf S A El-Sayed

    Full Text Available Aspergillus flavipes has received considerable interest due to its potential to produce therapeutic enzymes involved in sulfur amino acid metabolism. In natural habitats, A. flavipes survives under sulfur limitations by mobilizing endogenous and exogenous sulfur to operate diverse cellular processes. Sulfur limitation affects virulence and pathogenicity, and modulates proteome of sulfur assimilating enzymes of several fungi. However, there are no previous reports aimed at exploring effects of sulfur limitation on the regulation of A. flavipes sulfur metabolism enzymes at the transcriptional, post-transcriptional and proteomic levels. In this report, we show that sulfur limitation affects morphological and physiological responses of A. flavipes. Transcription and enzymatic activities of several key sulfur metabolism genes, ATP-sulfurylase, sulfite reductase, methionine permease, cysteine synthase, cystathionine β- and γ-lyase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase were increased under sulfur starvation conditions. A 50 kDa protein band was strongly induced by sulfur starvation, and the proteomic analyses of this protein band using LC-MS/MS revealed similarity to many proteins involved in the sulfur metabolism pathway.

  5. Assessment of donor/recipient ratios in permethrin transfer studies with Reticulitermes virginicus Banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. G. Shelton

    2012-01-01

    Crowding of termites may influence observed recipient mortality in donor-recipient toxicant transfer studies. It was hypothesized that if crowding were important, any termiticide (particularly repellent termiticides, which were not thought to transfer) could be transferred by contact among termites when the donor complement was sufficient. Termiticide transfer donor-...

  6. Cloning, expression and characterization of a cold-adapted endo-1, 4-β-glucanase from Citrobacter farmeri A1, a symbiotic bacterium of Reticulitermes labralis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Bai

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Many biotechnological and industrial applications can benefit from cold-adapted EglCs through increased efficiency of catalytic processes at low temperature. In our previous study, Citrobacter farmeri A1 which was isolated from a wood-inhabiting termite Reticulitermes labralis could secrete a cold-adapted EglC. However, its EglC was difficult to purify for enzymatic properties detection because of its low activity (0.8 U/ml. The objective of the present study was to clone and express the C. farmeri EglC gene in Escherichia coli to improve production level and determine the enzymatic properties of the recombinant enzyme. Methods The EglC gene was cloned from C. farmeri A1 by thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR. EglC was transformed into vector pET22b and functionally expressed in E. coli. The recombination protein EglC22b was purified for properties detection. Results SDS-PAGE revealed that the molecular mass of the recombinant endoglucanase was approximately 42 kDa. The activity of the E. coli pET22b-EglC crude extract was 9.5 U/ml. Additionally, it was active at pH 6.5–8.0 with an optimum pH of 7.0. The recombinant enzyme had an optimal temperature of 30–40 °C and exhibited >50% relative activity even at 5 °C, whereas it lost approximately 90% of its activity after incubation at 60 °C for 30 min. Its activity was enhanced by Co2+ and Fe3+, but inhibited by Cd2+, Zn2+, Li+, Triton X-100, DMSO, acetonitrile, Tween 80, SDS, and EDTA. Conclusion These biochemical properties indicate that the recombinant enzyme is a cold-adapted endoglucanase that can be used for various industrial applications.

  7. Cultural significance of termites in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    van Huis, Arnold

    2017-01-01

    Background: The number of termite species in the world is more than 2500, and Africa with more than 1000 species has the richest intercontinental diversity. The family Termitidae contains builders of great mounds up to 5 m high. Colonies are composed of casts: a queen, a king, soldiers and workers. Some species of termite cultivate specialised fungi to digest cellulose. Termites constitute 10% of all animal biomass in the tropics. The purpose of the study was to make an overview of how termit...

  8. Termite species richness, composition and diversity on five farms in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was conducted on five farms in former Damaraland, a communal farming area in arid northwestern Namibia. The aims of the survey were to establish termite inventories for each site and to investigate whether termite diversity is determined by land-use history and land-use intensity. Overall, termite diversity in ...

  9. Termite activity in relation to natural grassland soil attributes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaschuk, G.; Pires Santos, J.C.; Almeida, J.A.; Sinhorati, D.S.; Berton-Junior, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    Soil-feeding termites transport soil for mound building, and this process can affect soil characteristics. To verify the influence of soil termite activity on soil characteristics, samples were collected from top, bottom and center of termite mounds, and of the adjacent area, to assess chemical and

  10. Infections associated with edible termites and their public health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritional dependence on termites for proteins could predispose consumers to various infections. This study was carried out to determine the infections associated with winged-reproductive edible termites at Ahiazu Mbaise Area of Imo State, Nigeria. Four hundred and forty five (445) termites were randomly sampled from ...

  11. Lower Termite Associations with Microbes: Synergy, Protection, and Interplay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany Faye Peterson

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Lower-termites are one of the best studied symbiotic systems in insects. Their ability to feed on a nitrogen-poor, wood-based diet with help from symbiotic microbes has been under investigation for almost a century. A unique microbial consortium living in the guts of lower termites is essential for wood-feeding, host and symbiont cellulolytic enzymes synergize each other in the termite gut to increase digestive efficiency. Because of their critical role in digestion, gut microbiota are driving forces in all aspects termite biology. Social living also comes with risks for termites. The combination of group living and a microbe-rich habitat makes termites potentially vulnerable to pathogenic infections; however, the use of entomopathogens for termite control has been largely unsuccessful. One mechanism for this failure may be symbiotic collaboration; i.e., one of the very reasons termites have thrived in the first place. Symbiont contributions are thought to neutralize fungal spores as they pass through the termite gut. Also, when the symbiont community is disrupted pathogen susceptibility increases. These recent discoveries have shed light on novel interactions for symbiotic microbes both within the termite host and with pathogenic invaders. Lower-termite biology is therefore tightly linked to symbiotic associations and their resulting physiological collaborations.

  12. No evidence for an elephant-termite feedback loop in Sand Forest, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagendijk, D. D G; Davies, A. B.; Eggleton, P.; Slotow, R.

    2016-01-01

    Termites and mammalian herbivores might derive mutual benefit from each other through positive feedback loops, but empirical evidence is lacking. One suggested positive feedback loop is between termites and elephant, both ecosystem engineers. Termites, as decomposer organisms, contribute to nutrient

  13. Exploring the Potential for Actinobacteria as Defensive Symbionts in Fungus-Growing Termites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.A.; Mesquita Nobre, T.; Currie, C.R.; Aanen, D.K.; Poulsen, M.

    2012-01-01

    In fungus-growing termites, fungi of the subgenus Pseudoxylaria threaten colony health through substrate competition with the termite fungus (Termitomyces). The potential mechanisms with which termites suppress Pseudoxylaria have remained unknown. Here we explore if Actinobacteria potentially play a

  14. Genetic Analysis of Termite Colonies in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.A. Arango; D.A. Marschalek; F. Green III; K.F. Raffa; M.E. Berres

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to document current areas of subterranean termite activity in Wisconsin and to evaluate genetic characteristics of these northern, peripheral colonies. Here, amplified fragment-length polymorphism was used to characterize levels of inbreeding, expected heterozygosity, and percent polymorphism within colonies as well as genetic structure...

  15. Sexual difference in juvenile-hormone titer in workers leads to sex-biased soldier differentiation in termites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toga, Kouhei; Hanmoto, Shutaro; Suzuki, Ryutaro; Watanabe, Dai; Miura, Toru; Maekawa, Kiyoto

    2016-04-01

    In termites, the soldier caste, with its specialized defensive morphology, is one of the most important characteristics for sociality. Most of the basal termite species have both male and female soldiers, and the soldier sex ratio is almost equal or only slightly biased. However, in the apical lineages (especially family Termitidae), there are many species that have soldiers with strongly biased sex ratio. Generally in termites, since high juvenile hormone (JH) titer is required for soldier differentiation from a worker via a presoldier stage, it was hypothesized that the biased soldier-sex ratio was caused by differences in JH sensitivity and/or JH titer between male and female workers. Therefore, we focused on the presoldier differentiation and the worker JH titer in species with only male soldiers (Nasutitermes takasagoensis) and with both male and female soldiers (Reticulitermes speratus) in natural conditions. In the former species, there are four types of workers; male minor, male medium, female medium and female major workers, and presoldiers differentiate from male minor workers. First, we tried to artificially induce presoldiers from male and female workers. In N. takasagoensis, the presoldier differentiation rate and mortality was significantly higher in male minor workers. Morphological analyses showed that both male and female induced presoldiers possessed normal soldier-specific morphologies. It was suggested that female workers, from which soldiers do not differentiate under natural conditions, also maintained the physiological and developmental potential for soldier differentiation. In R. speratus, however, no differences were observed in solder differentiation rate and mortality between male and female workers. Second, the JH titers of each sex/type of workers were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in two different seasons (April and December). The results showed that, in N. takasagoensis, JH titer in male minor

  16. Spontaneous poisoning by larvae of Perreyia flavipes (Pergidae in sheep Intoxicação espontânea por larvas de Perreyia flavipes (Pergidae em ovinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djeison Lutier Raymundo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available From a flock of 175 Texel sheep 25 animals died after consumption of a sawfly larvae subsequently identified as Perreyia flavipes. The disease occurred in June-July 2006 on a farm located in the county of Encruzilhada do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Although there were 11 cattle in the same paddock, none of them was affected. High numbers of compact masses containing up to 150 larvae were scattered in the paddock where the animals were grazing. Most affected sheep showed severe apathy during 24-36 h before death, but weakness, muscular tremors and depression were also observed. Necropsy was performed on six sheep and the main macroscopic lesions were hemorrhages in the subcutaneous tissues, endocardium, gallbladder wall, and abomasal mucosa. In all animals was found hydrothorax, hydropericardium, ascites, and mild jaundice. Edema in the abomasal folds, mesentery, perirenal tissues, and gallbladder wall were also seen. The livers were yellowish with disseminated pinpoint hemorrhages in the parenchyma and had an enhanced lobular pattern. Perreyia flavipes larval body fragments and heads were found in the forestomach contents of the six sheep. Feces were scant, dry and formed balls coated by mucus and streaks of blood. Similar contents were also present at the end of the cecum. Prominent microscopic lesions included severe and diffuse periacinar or massive necrosis of hepatocytes associated with multifocal random hemorrhages. Diffuse necrosis of lymphoid follicles in lymph nodes and Peyer's patches, lymphoid depletion and necrosis in germinative centers of the spleen, and diffuse vacuolization in the renal tubular epithelia were also seen.Vinte e cinco ovinos Texel de um rebanho de 175 morreram após ingerirem larvas posteriormente identificadas como Perreyia flavipes. A doença ocorreu em Junho e Julho de 2006, em uma propriedade localizada em Encruzilhada do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul. Embora houvesse também 11 bovinos no mesmo potreiro, nenhum

  17. A genomic comparison of two termites with different social complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith eKorb

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The termites evolved eusociality and complex societies before the ants, but have been studied much less. The recent publication of the first two termite genomes provides a unique comparative opportunity, particularly because the sequenced termites represent opposite ends of the social complexity spectrum. Zootermopsis nevadensis has simple colonies with totipotent workers that can develop into all castes (dispersing reproductives, nest-inheriting replacement reproductives, and soldiers. In contrast, the fungus-growing termite Macrotermes natalensis belongs to the higher termites and has very large and complex societies with morphologically distinct castes that are life-time sterile. Here we compare key characteristics of genomic architecture, focusing on genes involved in communication, immune defenses, mating biology and symbiosis that were likely important in termite social evolution. We discuss these in relation to what is known about these genes in the ants and outline hypotheses for further testing.

  18. Oviposition sequence and offspring of mated and virgin females of Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae parasitizing Diatraea saccharalis larvae (Lepidoptera: Crambidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Scaglia

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Large scale mass rearing of natural enemies has been a mean of improving biological control in the sugarcane intensive agriculture. Among them, Cotesia flavipes, a gregarious koinobiont endoparasitoid, was imported by Brasil to control caterpillars of the sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis. The C. flavipes larval development depends on its association with polydnavirus, which blocks the host defense reaction. To verify if the oviposition sequence (1st, 2nd or 3rd and the female condition (mated or virgin interfere in the number of C. flavipes descendents, 4th instar caterpillars of D. saccharalis were parasitized. Analysis of the data showed that: a there is an inverse correlation between the parasitism efficiency and the host reaction (encapsulation; b the number of caterpillars parasitized by virgin females that released parasitoid larvae in the period from 12 to 15 days was higher than that of caterpillars parasitized by mated females; c a slight difference between mated and virgin females in relation to the parasitim success was observed; and d the number of encapsulated parasitoid larvae was higher than that of eggs, suggesting that eggs have a better capacity to overcome the host reaction. In this study, the viability of C. flavipes eggs and larvae in the non-specific host D. saccharalis could be correlated with the oviposition sequence and the female condition.

  19. Effects of entomopathogenic fungi on different developmental stages of Cotesia flavipes (Cam. a parasitoid of Diatraea flavipennella (Box (Lepidoptera: Crambidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthia Conceição Matias da Silva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Biological control using the parasitoid Cotesia flavipes (Cam. is one of the main components in the integrated management of the sugarcane moth borer Diatraea spp. Besides this parasitoid, the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. are used to control sugarcane pests, and they can be found naturally parasitizing caterpillars. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of M. anisopliae and B. bassiana on different developmental stages of the C. flavipes parasitoid on Diatraea flavipennella (Box. The experiments were carried at laboratory with isolates PL 43 of M. anisopliae and ESALQ 447 of B. bassiana were applied to the parasitoid at the immature and adult phases. No negative effects were observed on the larval development of C. flavipes, and it could complete its development on caterpillars of D. flavipennella treated with fungi. The fungi did not cause pupal mortality. However, B. bassiana caused high mortality in the adult parasitoid (76%. The fungi had negative effects on parasitoids when applied during certain developmental stages of C. flavipes.

  20. Aerodynamics of Ventilation in Termite Mounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailoor, Shantanu; Yaghoobian, Neda; Turner, Scott; Mittal, Rajat

    2017-11-01

    Fungus-cultivating termites collectively build massive, complex mounds which are much larger than the size of an individual termite and effectively use natural wind and solar energy, as well as the energy generated by the colony's own metabolic activity to maintain the necessary environmental condition for the colony's survival. We seek to understand the aerodynamics of ventilation and thermoregulation of termite mounds through computational modeling. A simplified model accounting for key mound features, such as soil porosity and internal conduit network, is subjected to external draft conditions. The role of surface flow conditions in the generation of internal flow patterns and the ability of the mound to transport gases and heat from the nursery are examined. The understanding gained from our study could be used to guide sustainable bio-inspired passive HVAC system design, which could help optimize energy utilization in commercial and residential buildings. This research is supported by a seed Grant from the Environment, Energy Sustainability and Health Institute of the Johns Hopkins University.

  1. Termite: Emulation Testbed for Encounter Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Bruno

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cutting-edge mobile devices like smartphones and tablets are equipped with various infrastructureless wireless interfaces, such as WiFi Direct and Bluetooth. Such technologies allow for novel mobile applications that take advantage of casual encounters between co-located users. However, the need to mimic the behavior of real-world encounter networks makes testing and debugging of such applications hard tasks. We present Termite, an emulation testbed for encounter networks. Our system allows developers to run their applications on a virtual encounter network emulated by software. Developers can model arbitrary encounter networks and specify user interactions on the emulated virtual devices. To facilitate testing and debugging, developers can place breakpoints, inspect the runtime state of virtual nodes, and run experiments in a stepwise fashion. Termite defines its own Petri Net variant to model the dynamically changing topology and synthesize user interactions with virtual devices. The system is designed to efficiently multiplex an underlying emulation hosting infrastructure across multiple developers, and to support heterogeneous mobile platforms. Our current system implementation supports virtual Android devices communicating over WiFi Direct networks and runs on top of a local cloud infrastructure. We evaluated our system using emulator network traces, and found that Termite is expressive and performs well.

  2. Anti-termite efficacy of Capparis decidua and its combinatorial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    ABSTRACT: Capparis deciduas and its combinatorial mixtures were evaluated to observe the anti-termite efficacy against Indian white termite Odontotermes obesus. These have shown very high termiticidal activity and wood protection in the soil. It is proved by very low LD50 values i.e. 0.0218mg/g and 0.021mg/g obtained ...

  3. Potential for nitrogen fixation in fungus-growing termite symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sapountzis, Panagiotis; de Verges, Jane; Rousk, Kathrin

    2016-01-01

    Termites host a gut microbiota of diverse and essential symbionts that enable specialization on dead plant material; an abundant, but nutritionally imbalanced food source. To supplement the severe shortage of dietary nitrogen (N), some termite species make use of diazotrophic bacteria to fix...

  4. Termite Population Dynamics in Arenic Kandiudults as Influenced by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Termites have been identified as one of the major pests of cassava in Nigeria especially on infested soils. Termite Population Dynamics in Arenic Kandiudults as Influenced by Tillage and Organic Manure Sources in a Cassava Farm in Owerri, Southeastern Nigeria, was investigated in this study. Three years of field trials ...

  5. Resource competition between two fungal parasites in subterranean termites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouvenc, Thomas; Efstathion, Caroline A.; Elliott, Monica L.; Su, Nan-Yao

    2012-11-01

    Subterranean termites live in large groups in underground nests where the pathogenic pressure of the soil environment has led to the evolution of a complex interaction among individual and social immune mechanisms in the colonies. However, groups of termites under stress can show increased susceptibility to opportunistic parasites. In this study, an isolate of Aspergillus nomius Kurtzman, Horn & Hessltine was obtained from a collapsed termite laboratory colony. We determined that it was primarily a saprophyte and, secondarily, a facultative parasite if the termite immunity is undergoing a form of stress. This was determined by stressing individuals of the Formosan subterranean termite Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki via a co-exposure to the virulent fungal parasite Metarhizium anisopliae (Metch.) Sorokin. We also examined the dynamics of a mixed infection of A. nomius and M. anisopliae in a single termite host. The virulent parasite M. anisopliae debilitated the termite immune system, but the facultative, fast growing parasite A. nomius dominated the mixed infection process. The resource utilization strategy of A. nomius during the infection resulted in successful conidia production, while the chance for M. anisopliae to complete its life cycle was reduced. Our results also suggest that the occurrence of opportunistic parasites such as A. nomius in collapsing termite laboratory colonies is the consequence of a previous stress, not the cause of the stress.

  6. Mesh may fit in as a termite barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford M. Kard

    1999-01-01

    Stainless steel mesh tests are currently being conducted in an effort to investigate alternatives or supplements to termiticides for control of subterranean termites. Some people are extra sensitive to insecticides or would prefer to use non-insecticidal means to control termites, and stainless steel mesh may provide one such alternative.

  7. The draft genome of a termite illuminates alternative social organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Termites have substantial economic and ecological impact worldwide. They are also the oldest organisms living in complex societies, having evolved a caste system independent of that of eusocial Hymenoptera (ants, bees and wasps). Here we provide the first genome sequence for a termite, Zootermopsis ...

  8. Cellulolytic activity of gut extract of subterranean termite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biological pretreatments offer an alternative for lignocellulosic biomass conversion using enzyme hydrolysis. Termites are well known for the ability to digest lignocelluloses, using it as a sole food source. To effectively digest ligonocellulose/wood, termites produce an array of enzymes along with the help of microbial and ...

  9. Control and prevention of biodeteriation caused by termites (Isoptera)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper reviewed the control measures against damage caused by termites. The objective was achieved using baseline published literature and data. This is particularly important because of the ever present destructive effect and presence of termites in every area of life worldwide. Multiple effective measures, ranging ...

  10. Assessment of Termite Re-worked Lateritic Soil as Highway ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The geotechnical properties of termite reworked lateritic soils and their suitability for road construction have been evaluated for selected sites in south western Nigeria. The evaluation reveals that termite reworked soils have higher plastic limits, specific gravities, Maximum Dry Densities (MDD) and California Bearing Ratios ...

  11. Termite resistance of MDF panels treated with various boron compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usta, Mustafa; Ustaomer, Derya; Kartal, Saip Nami; Ondaral, Sedat

    2009-06-19

    In this study, the effects of various boron compounds on the termite resistance of MDF panels were evaluated. Either borax (BX), boric acid (BA), zinc borate (ZB), or sodium perborate tetrahydrate (SPT) were added to urea-formaldehyde (UF) resin at target contents of 1%, 1.5%, 2% and 2.5% based on dry fiber weight. The panels were then manufactured using 12% urea-formaldehyde resin and 1% NH(4)Cl. MDF samples from the panels were tested against the subterranean termites, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki. Laboratory termite resistance tests showed that all samples containing boron compounds had greater resistance against termite attack compared to untreated MDF samples. At the second and third weeks of exposure, nearly 100% termite mortalities were recorded in all boron compound treated samples. The highest termite mortalities were determined in the samples with either BA or BX. Also, it was found that SPT showed notable performance on the termite mortality. As chemical loadings increased, termite mortalities increased, and at the same time the weight losses of the samples decreased.

  12. Termite Resistance of MDF Panels Treated with Various Boron Compounds

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    Sedat Ondaral

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of various boron compounds on the termite resistance of MDF panels were evaluated. Either borax (BX, boric acid (BA, zinc borate (ZB, or sodium perborate tetrahydrate (SPT were added to urea-formaldehyde (UF resin at target contents of 1%, 1.5%, 2% and 2.5% based on dry fiber weight. The panels were then manufactured using 12% urea-formaldehyde resin and 1% NH4Cl. MDF samples from the panels were tested against the subterranean termites, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki. Laboratory termite resistance tests showed that all samples containing boron compounds had greater resistance against termite attack compared to untreated MDF samples. At the second and third weeks of exposure, nearly 100% termite mortalities were recorded in all boron compound treated samples. The highest termite mortalities were determined in the samples with either BA or BX. Also, it was found that SPT showed notable performance on the termite mortality. As chemical loadings increased, termite mortalities increased, and at the same time the weight losses of the samples decreased.

  13. Cuticular Hydrocarbons: Species and Population-Level Discrimination in Termites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael I. Haverty; Marion Page; Barbara L. Thorne; Pierre Escoubas

    1991-01-01

    Hydrocarbons in the cuticle of insects are essential in protecting them from desiccation. The vast variety of hydrocarbons synthesized by insects and the apparent species-specificity of cuticular hydrocarbon mixtures make them excellent taxonomic characters for separating species within termite genera. Hydrocarbon phenotypes of dampwood termites, Zootermopsis...

  14. Anti termite activity of Jatropha curcas Linn. biochemicals | Singh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jatropha curcas oil and its toxic fraction were evaluated at different dilutions i.e., 1%,5%,10%,20% against Microcerotermes beesoni, the test termite. The maximum wood protection against termites of both the treatments were obtained at their highest concentration i.e. 20%. The weight loss ranged from 18.77% to 48.80% at ...

  15. Termite Species Distribution and Flight Periods on Oahu, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Reina L; Grace, J Kenneth; Mason, Makena; Krushelnycky, Paul D; Spafford, Helen; Aihara-Sasaki, Maria

    2017-06-05

    Termites are economically-important structural pests, costing residents of Hawaii over $100 million annually. On Oahu, the last published termite swarming survey occurred from 1969 to 1971, and the last termite hand-collection survey occurred from 1998 to 2000. To contribute data on termite occurrences on Oahu, a light-trap survey took place from February 2011 to September 2012, and a hand-collection survey occurred from September to November 2012. Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, swarming was compared over the duration of the study, finding peak swarming in May 2011. C. formosanus alate activity density was regressed with environmental factors, finding a negative correlation with average wind speed and a positive correlation with average rainfall. Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann) alates were observed in April, June, and July 2011 and in June 2012. Four species of termites were found in the hand-collection survey of 44 sites: Incisitermes immigrans (Snyder) ( n = 8/44), C. formosanus ( n = 2/44), Cryptotermes cynocephalus Light ( n = 1/44), and Neotermes sp. ( n = 1/44). This study contributes to distribution data for termite species on Oahu and records alate activity for two important termite pests.

  16. Cultural significance of termites in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Huis, Arnold

    2017-01-26

    The number of termite species in the world is more than 2500, and Africa with more than 1000 species has the richest intercontinental diversity. The family Termitidae contains builders of great mounds up to 5 m high. Colonies are composed of casts: a queen, a king, soldiers and workers. Some species of termite cultivate specialised fungi to digest cellulose. Termites constitute 10% of all animal biomass in the tropics. The purpose of the study was to make an overview of how termites are utilized, perceived and experienced in daily life across sub-Saharan Africa. Ethno-entomological information on termites (Isoptera) in sub-Saharan Africa was collected by: (1) interviews with more than 300 people from about 120 ethnic groups from 27 countries in the region; (2) library studies in Africa, London, Paris and Leiden. Vernacular names relate to mounds, insects as food, the swarming, and the behaviour of termites. Swarming reproductive, soldiers and queens are collected as food. There are many different ways to harvest them. Termites can also be used as feed for poultry or as bait to catch birds and fish. The mushrooms that grow each year from the fungus gardens on the termite mounds are eaten. The soldiers, the fungus gardens and the soil of termite mounds are used for multiple medicinal purposes. Mounds and soil of termites have numerous functions: for geochemical prospecting, making bricks, plastering houses, making pots, and for storage. Termite soil is often used as fertilizer. The act of eating soil (geophagy) among women, especially those that are pregnant, is practised all over Africa. The mounds can serve as burying places and are often associated with the spiritual world, especially containing the spirits of ancestors. Termites also play a role as oracle, in superstitious beliefs, in art and literature. The following characteristics make termites so appealing: the dominance in the landscape, the social organization, the destructive power, and the provision of

  17. Azacoccones A-E, five new aza-epicoccone derivatives from Aspergillus flavipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Shupeng; Wang, Zhongbo; Wang, Jing; Wei, Guangzheng; Wang, Wenjing; Zang, Yi; Zeng, Fanrong; Chen, Keliang; Liu, Junjun; Wang, Jianping; Luo, Zengwei; Xue, Yongbo; Zhu, Hucheng; Yin, Chunping; Chen, Chunmei; Zhang, Yonghui

    2018-01-01

    Azacoccones A-E (1-5), five new aza-epicoccone derivatives, were isolated from the culture of Aspergillus flavipes. Their structures were determined by extensive NMR spectroscopic analyses and the absolute configuration of 5 was determined by electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculation. Compounds 1-5 are proposed to be generated via a Pictet-Spengler reaction-based biosynthetic route starting from the precursor flavipin. Pictet-Spengler reaction is rarely found in the fungal kingdom, which indicated the distinctive nature of 1-5. Compounds 3 and 5 exhibit significant free radical scavenging activities with IC 50 values of 4.0 and 2.4μg/mL, respectively, which are better than the positive control trolox (4.55μg/mL). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Thermoregulation and ventilation of termite mounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korb, Judith

    2003-05-01

    Some of the most sophisticated of all animal-built structures are the mounds of African termites of the subfamily Macrotermitinae, the fungus-growing termites. They have long been studied as fascinating textbook examples of thermoregulation or ventilation of animal buildings. However, little research has been designed to provide critical tests of these paradigms, derived from a very small number of original papers. Here I review results from recent studies on Macrotermes bellicosus that considered the interdependence of ambient temperature, thermoregulation, ventilation and mound architecture, and that question some of the fundamental paradigms of termite mounds. M. bellicosus achieves thermal homeostasis within the mound, but ambient temperature has an influence too. In colonies in comparably cool habitats, mound architecture is adapted to reduce the loss of metabolically produced heat to the environment. While this has no negative consequences in small colonies, it produces a trade-off with gas exchange in large colonies, resulting in suboptimally low nest temperatures and increased CO2 concentrations. Along with the alteration in mound architecture, the gas exchange/ventilation mechanism also changes. While mounds in the thermally appropriate savannah have a very efficient circular ventilation during the day, the ventilation in the cooler forest is a less efficient upward movement of air, with gas exchange restricted by reduced surface exchange area. These results, together with other recent findings, question entrenched ideas such as the thermosiphon-ventilation mechanism or the assumption that mounds function to dissipate internally produced heat. Models trying to explain the proximate mechanisms of mound building, or building elements, are discussed.

  19. Perceptions of termites in urban areas of semiarid Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Avany Bezerra Gusmão

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2014v27n4p117 Perception of termites in urban areas of semiarid Brazil. Termites are present in the daily life of most people, although they usually evoke a sense of strong dislike, especially in populations of urban areas. This study sought to analyze the perception of these insects in human populations in urban areas in the towns of Fagundes (A1 and Pocinhos (A2, in Paraíba state, Brazil. Semi-structured questionnaires were answered by 100 residents in these two areas, following both synchronic and diachronic situations. In spite of the fact that most of the interviewees (64% in A1 and 72% in A2 were able to identify termites by morphology and had knowledge of use for treating eight types of human diseases, very few understood their ecological roles in nature. Attempts to eliminate termites from human environments were linked to the popular belief that these animals are sources of bad luck. Twenty-two percent of the interviewees in A1 and 8% in A2 believe that termites are capable of doing damage or harm, of having a foul smell, and/or of containing pus.In this sense, academic studies are important because they can inform people of the ecological roles of termites in natural and urban environments, while demystifying the termite as an agent of fear and destruction.

  20. Behaviour and Ecological Impacts of Termites: Fecundity Investigations in Mounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wako Sutuma Edessa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A radical study was conducted on the behaviour and ecological impacts of termites in Haru District of Western Oromia, Ethiopia. It was aimed at investigating the natural behaviour, fecundity in mounds, ecological impacts and recommending possible solutions to termite problems. Four mounds in different sites were vertically dug down to display the profile of the queen, soldiers, workers, number of laid eggs, nymphs and colonies of termites. On an average, termite queens of the study site may lay about 25 eggs per minute, 36, 000 eggs per day and 13, 140, 000 eggs annually. The fourth queen was unearthed to study the structure, size, number of ovaries and fecundity. It was examined that the death of a queen does not affect the colony, because four small queens are formed and one of them becomes the queen of queens and replaced the dead queen promptly. Accordingly, termites are found to be one of the most destructive agents of our ecosystems and their management requests careful and biological control methods. As a result, the negative effect of termites outweighs the positive effect of termites so that minimising the population size is important for human beings.

  1. Intoxicação espontânea pelas larvas de Perreyia flavipes em bovinos no Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil Spontaneous poisoning by larvae of Perreyia flavipes in cattle from the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djeison Lutier Raymundo

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, é descrito um surto de intoxicação por Perreyia flavipes ocorrido em agosto de 2006, em um rebanho bovino de 280 animais, no município de Sombrio, em Santa Catarina. Ocorreram 17 mortes em um lote de 77 bovinos de raça mista com idades entre um e dois anos mantidos em um piquete (P1 de aproximadamente 90 hectares por cerca de 30 dias. Após as primeiras duas mortes, os animais foram movidos para um segundo piquete (P2, onde ainda ocorreram 15 mortes nos cinco dias após a transferência. Seis bovinos foram necropsiados, e amostras de tecidos foram avaliadas para exame histológico. Os achados de necropsia incluíam hemorragias subcutâneas na mucosa do abomaso e superfície subepicárdica. Ascite e edema do abomaso, duodeno, pâncreas e vesícula biliar foram observados. O fígado apresentava-se amarelado com petéquias subcapsulares e acentuação do padrão lobular. No rúmen de três bovinos, foram encontrados fragmentos de corpos e cabeças de larvas de P. flavipes em meio ao conteúdo ruminal. Histologicamente o fígado apresentava tumefação hepatocelular e necrose centrolobular e mediozonal, difusa e acentuada, com hemorragia e congestão centrolobular. Havia depleção e necrose linfóide no baço, placas de Peyer e linfonodos mesentéricos. O diagnóstico de intoxicação pelas larvas da P. flavipes foi baseado nos dados epidemiológicos, nos achados de necropsia e nas alterações histopatológicas. As lesões hepáticas e em tecidos linfóides, além da grande quantidade de larvas de P. flavipes no primeiro piquete (P1 e no rúmen de animais necropsiados, foram dados importantes para o diagnóstico.This article describes an outbreak of Perreyia flavipes poisoning in August of 2006 in a cattle herd of 280 animals in Sombrio, Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Seventeen bovines between 1 and 2 years old from one herd of 77 mixed breed cattle died. The herd was kept in a paddock of 90 hectares (P1 for 30 days. After

  2. Adaptations in bacterial and fungal communities to termite fungiculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otani, Saria

    decomposition factory for the termites. This association ensured such a successful history since the origin of fungiculture that none of the two symbionts has abandoned the system. The adoption of the fungus by the eusocial termites has triggered changes in the colony, and here I focus on the responsive changes......-specific due to major contributions from gut deposits during comb formation, but the environment affects which gut bacteria dominate comb communities at a given point in time. We also find that gut bacterial communities are structured according to termite caste and species rather than colonies; thus...

  3. New Meroterpenoids from the Endophytic Fungus Aspergillus flavipes AIL8 Derived from the Mangrove Plant Acanthus ilicifolius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Qiang Bai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Four new meroterpenoids (2–5, along with three known analogues (1, 6, and 7 were isolated from mangrove plant Acanthus ilicifolius derived endophytic fungus Aspergillus flavipes. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by NMR and MS analysis, the configurations were assigned by CD data, and the stereochemistry of 1 was confirmed by X-ray crystallography analysis. A possible biogenetic pathway of compounds 1–7 was also proposed. All compounds were evaluated for antibacterial and cytotoxic activities.

  4. The complexities of hydrolytic enzymes from the termite digestive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadeddin, Anas

    2014-06-01

    The main challenge in second generation bioethanol production is the efficient breakdown of cellulose to sugar monomers (hydrolysis). Due to the recalcitrant character of cellulose, feedstock pretreatment and adapted hydrolysis steps are needed to obtain fermentable sugar monomers. The conventional industrial production process of second-generation bioethanol from biomass comprises several steps: thermochemical pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis and sugar fermentation. This process is undergoing continuous optimization in order to increase the bioethanol yield and reduce the economic cost. Therefore, the discovery of new enzymes with high lignocellulytic activity or new strategies is extremely important. In nature, wood-feeding termites have developed a sophisticated and efficient cellulose degrading system in terms of the rate and extent of cellulose hydrolysis and exploitation. This system, which represents a model for digestive symbiosis has attracted the attention of biofuel researchers. This review describes the termite digestive system, gut symbionts, termite enzyme resources, in vitro studies of isolated enzymes and lignin degradation in termites.

  5. A new termite (Isoptera, Termitidae, Syntermitinae, Macuxitermes) from Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postle, Anthony C; Scheffrahn, Rudolf H

    2016-01-01

    A new species of termite, Macuxitermes colombicus Postle & Scheffrahn is described from soldiers and workers collected from Departamento Magdalena, Colombia. The soldier of Macuxitermes colombicus differs from its lone congener in having no protuberances on the head capsule.

  6. Population Suppression of Subterranean Termites by Slow-Acting Toxicants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan-Yao Su; Rudolf H. Scheffrahn

    1991-01-01

    Historic background and the concept of slow-acting toxicants for population suppression of subterranean termites are reviewed. Information needed for development of bait-toxicants and studies needed to generate such information are summarized.

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-SARA-01-1811 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-SARA-01-1811 ref|YP_001256899.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 [Reticulitermes ...flavipes] gb|ABN10430.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 [Reticulitermes flavipes] YP_001256899.1 1.5 27% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DNOV-01-2359 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DNOV-01-2359 ref|YP_001256899.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 [Reticulitermes ...flavipes] gb|ABN10430.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 [Reticulitermes flavipes] YP_001256899.1 2.1 23% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-SARA-01-1811 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-SARA-01-1811 gb|ABN10456.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 [Reticulitermes flavi...pes] gb|ABN10469.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 [Reticulitermes flavipes] ABN10456.1 0.85 28% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DNOV-01-0578 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DNOV-01-0578 gb|ABN10456.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 [Reticulitermes flavi...pes] gb|ABN10469.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 [Reticulitermes flavipes] ABN10456.1 3.2 23% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DNOV-01-2359 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DNOV-01-2359 gb|ABN10456.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 [Reticulitermes flavi...pes] gb|ABN10469.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 [Reticulitermes flavipes] ABN10456.1 2.8 23% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DNOV-01-0578 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DNOV-01-0578 ref|YP_001256899.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 [Reticulitermes ...flavipes] gb|ABN10430.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 [Reticulitermes flavipes] YP_001256899.1 2.4 23% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-EEUR-01-0301 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-EEUR-01-0301 ref|YP_001256894.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 [Reticulitermes ...flavipes] gb|ABN10425.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 [Reticulitermes flavipes] YP_001256894.1 2.7 26% ...

  14. Olfactory detection of prey by the termite-raiding antPachycondyla analis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Abdullahi Ahmed; Crewe, Robin M; Pirk, Christian W W

    2014-04-19

    The African termiteraiding ant Pachycondyla analis Latreille (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) organizes group raids on termites of the subfamily Macrotermitinae. Termites and ants occupy and share similar habitats, resulting in a co-evolutionary arms race between termites as prey and ants as predators. The present study explored whether P. analis uses semio- chemical signaling cues to detect potential termite prey prior to and during raids. Ants' responses to odors emitted from termites alone, termite gallery soil, and termites inside their galleries were tested using Y-tube olfactometer assays. The results showed that P. analis detected odors of termites and those of their galleries, and odors from termites inside their galleries were more attractive to both minor and major ant workers than odors from termites alone. The composition of these odor sources was identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. While the odors from termite gallery soils were compositionally richer (containing 13 compounds rather than nine from termites alone), those from the termites alone were quantitatively richer, releasing about six times more odors than gallery soil. Most of the compounds in the odor profiles were identified as hydrocarbons. Naphthalene, previously identified as an insect repellent, was also identified as a component of the odors from the gallery soil. These results demonstrate that odors play an important role in prey detection by P. analis. This is an open access paper. We use the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license that permits unrestricted use, provided that the paper is properly attributed.

  15. Perceptions of termites in urban areas of semiarid Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Avany Bezerra-Gusmão

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Termites are present in the daily life of most people, although they usually evoke a sense of strong dislike, especially in populations of urban areas. This study sought to analyze the perception of these insects in human populations in urban areas in the towns of Fagundes (A1 and Pocinhos (A2, in Paraíba state, Brazil. Semi-structured questionnaires were answered by 100 residents in these two areas, following both synchronic and diachronic situations. In spite of the fact that most of the interviewees (64% in A1 and 72% in A2 were able to identify termites by morphology and had knowledge of use for treating eight types of human diseases, very few understood their ecological roles in nature. Attempts to eliminate termites from human environments were linked to the popular belief that these animals are sources of bad luck. Twenty-two percent of the interviewees in A1 and 8% in A2 believe that termites are capable of doing damage or harm, of having a foul smell, and/or of containing pus. In this sense, academic studies are important because they can inform people of the ecological roles of termites in natural and urban environments, while demystifying the termite as an agent of fear and destruction.

  16. Workers of a drywood termite do not work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korb, Judith

    2007-02-22

    Social insects (ants, bees, wasps and termites) are considered as prime examples of altruism in which individuals (workers) forego their own reproduction to help other individuals reproduce. Such a behaviour is favoured by natural selection because the workers rear close kin and in doing so enhance their inclusive fitness. Here I show, however, that this does not generally apply to termite workers which are scarcely investigated. In the basal drywood termite Cryptotermes secundus the 'workers', which form the large majority of a colony, did not stay to raise relatives. There is no brood caring behaviour and they do not engage in costly help. They are large immature offspring that develop into either winged (dispersing) or unwinged (replacement) reproductives and the probability that they did so was unaffected by the number of brood in the nest as a brood addition experiment showed. Thus, in contrast to general perception where termite workers are considered equivalent to workers in Hymenoptera, the 'large immatures' of C. secundus did not behave as workers that help in raising younger siblings. This apparently is not necessary as the colony lives inside its food. These results, which are likely to be typical for wood-dwelling termites, open the possibility that large complex group living can evolve without altruistic helping and that costly altruistic helping by workers in termites evolved only as a second step.

  17. Workers of a drywood termite do not work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korb Judith

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social insects (ants, bees, wasps and termites are considered as prime examples of altruism in which individuals (workers forego their own reproduction to help other individuals reproduce. Such a behaviour is favoured by natural selection because the workers rear close kin and in doing so enhance their inclusive fitness. Results Here I show, however, that this does not generally apply to termite workers which are scarcely investigated. In the basal drywood termite Cryptotermes secundus the 'workers', which form the large majority of a colony, did not stay to raise relatives. There is no brood caring behaviour and they do not engage in costly help. They are large immature offspring that develop into either winged (dispersing or unwinged (replacement reproductives and the probability that they did so was unaffected by the number of brood in the nest as a brood addition experiment showed. Conclusion Thus, in contrast to general perception where termite workers are considered equivalent to workers in Hymenoptera, the 'large immatures' of C. secundus did not behave as workers that help in raising younger siblings. This apparently is not necessary as the colony lives inside its food. These results, which are likely to be typical for wood-dwelling termites, open the possibility that large complex group living can evolve without altruistic helping and that costly altruistic helping by workers in termites evolved only as a second step.

  18. Molecular diagnosis of a previously unreported predator-prey association in coffee: Karnyothrips flavipes Jones (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) predation on the coffee berry borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Juliana; Chapman, Eric G.; Vega, Fernando E.; Harwood, James D.

    2010-03-01

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most important pest of coffee throughout the world, causing losses estimated at US 500 million/year. The thrips Karnyothrips flavipes was observed for the first time feeding on immature stages of H. hampei in April 2008 from samples collected in the Kisii area of Western Kenya. Since the trophic interactions between H. hampei and K. flavipes are carried out entirely within the coffee berry, and because thrips feed by liquid ingestion, we used molecular gut-content analysis to confirm the potential role of K. flavipes as a predator of H. hampei in an organic coffee production system. Species-specific COI primers designed for H. hampei were shown to have a high degree of specificity for H. hampei DNA and did not produce any PCR product from DNA templates of the other insects associated with the coffee agroecosystems. In total, 3,327 K. flavipes emerged from 17,792 H. hampei-infested berries collected from the field between April and September 2008. Throughout the season, 8.3% of K. flavipes tested positive for H. hampei DNA, although at times this figure approached 50%. Prey availability was significantly correlated with prey consumption, thus indicating the potential impact on H. hampei populations.

  19. Tropical wood resistance to the West Indian drywood termite Cryptotermes brevis: If termites can't chew….

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosme, Lírio; Haro, Marcelo M; Guedes, Nelsa Maria P; Della Lucia, Terezinha Maria C; Guedes, Raul Narciso C

    2018-04-01

    The importance and impact of invasive species are usually considered based on their economic implications, particularly the direct damage that they cause. The West Indian drywood termite Cryptotermes brevis (Walker) is an example and is a concern in structural lumber, furniture, and other wood products. Despite its importance, its tropical wood preferences and the wood physical characteristics contributing to resistance have not been investigated to date. Here, we developed wood testing units to allow the X-ray recording of termite colonization and then subsequently tested tropical wood resistance to the termite through free-choice and no-choice bioassays using these wood testing units. The relevance of wood density and hardness as determinants of such resistance was also tested, as was termite mandible wear. The wood testing units used allowed the assessment of the termite infestation and wood area loss, enabling subsequent choice bioassays to be performed. While pine (Pinus sp.), jequitiba (Cariniana sp.) and angelim (Hymenolobium petraenum) exhibited the heaviest losses and highest infestations; cumaru (Dipteryx odorata), guariuba (Clarisia racemosa), and purpleheart (Peltogyne sp.) showed the lowest losses and infestations; courbaril (Hymenaea courbaril), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus sp.), and tatajuba (Bagassa guianensis) exhibited intermediary results. Wood hardness and in particular wood density were key determinants of wood resistance to the termites, which exhibited lower infestations associated with greater mandible wear when infesting harder high-density wood. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Farming termites determine the genetic population structure of Termitomyces fungal symbionts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nobre, T.; Fernandes, C.; Korb, J.; Boomsma, J.; Aanen, D.K.

    2011-01-01

    Symbiotic interactions between macrotermitine termites and their fungal symbionts have a moderate degree of specificity. Consistent with horizontal symbiont transmission, host switching has been frequent over evolutionary time so that single termite species can often be associated with several

  1. Lignases and aldo-keto reductases for conversion of lignin-containing materials to fermentable products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharf, Michael; Sethi, Amit

    2016-09-13

    Termites have specialized digestive systems that overcome the lignin barrier in wood to release fermentable simple sugars. Using the termite Reticulitermes flavipes and its gut symbionts, high-throughput titanium pyrosequencing and proteomics approaches experimentally compared the effects of lignin-containing diets on host-symbiont digestome composition. Proteomic investigations and functional digestive studies with recombinant lignocellulases conducted in parallel provided strong evidence of congruence at the transcription and translational levels and provide enzymatic strategies for overcoming recalcitrant lignin barriers in biofuel feedstocks. Briefly described, therefore, the disclosure provides a system for generating a fermentable product from a lignified plant material, the system comprising a cooperating series of at least two catalytically active polypeptides, where said catalytically active polypeptides are selected from the group consisting of: cellulase Cell-1, .beta.-glu cellulase, an aldo-keto-reductase, a catalase, a laccase, and an endo-xylanase.

  2. [Status of termite-mushroom artificial domestication cultivation--a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yujin; Guo, Huachun; Li, Rongchun

    2010-10-01

    Two models of domestication and cultivation of termite-mushroom were discussed: the cultivation of termitomyces model, which method of woodrotting fungi cultivation was emphasized and the original ecological model, which multiplication of symbiotic termites was focused. The problems and possible solutions during termite-mushroom cultivation were also discussed.

  3. Mitochondrial DNA genetic diversity of the drywood termites Incisitermes minor and I. snyderi

    Science.gov (United States)

    The western drywood termite, Incisitermes minor (Hagen) and the light southern drywood termite I. snyderi (Light) are common drywood termites in southwestern and southern United States, respectively. Despite the economic importance of these two species, no information exists on the mitochondrial gen...

  4. The Potential of Using Acoustical Emission to Detect Termites Within Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernard R. Lewis; Richard L. Lemaster

    1991-01-01

    Acoustical emission (AE) equipment was used to detect drywood termites Incisitermes minor in ponderosa pine Pinus ponderosa blocks under laboratory conditions. Using a 60 kHz transducer, AE levels were recorded for 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 termites per block. The association of AE and varying numbers of drywood termites best fit an...

  5. Levels of specificity of Xylaria species associated with fungus-growing termites: a phylogenetic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, Andre; Ros, V I D; De Beer, Z. W.

    2009-01-01

    Fungus-growing termites live in obligate mutualistic symbiosis with species of the basidiomycete genus Termitomyces, which are cultivated on a substrate of dead plant material. When the termite colony dies, or when nest material is incubated without termites in the laboratory, fruiting bodies...

  6. Comparison of termite assemblages along a landuse gradient on peat areas in Sarawak, Malaysia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaessen, T.; Verwer, C.; Demies, M.; Kaliang, H.; Meer, van der P.J.

    2011-01-01

    VAESSEN T, VERWER C, DEMIES M, KALIANG H & VAN DER MEER PJ. 2011. Comparison of termite assemblages along a landuse gradient on peat areas in Sarawak, Malaysia. In this study we assessed the species density and relative abundance of termites in peat land in Sarawak, Malaysia. Termites were

  7. Subterranean termites in urban forestry: tree preference and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzenon, F J; Campos, A E C

    2015-04-01

    Urban tree deterioration is a common problem all over the world. Inappropriate plant species choice and inadequate planting may lead to micro and macro organism attacks, such as pests and diseases. Subterranean termite damage is common and may promote tree falls. In order to help urban forestry planning, this work was carried out for 9 years on 1477 street trees in a neighborhood in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Plants were identified to species, grouped as native, exotic plants, and palm trees, and their measures of circumference at breast height (CBH) were taken, in order to evaluate if subterranean termite damages are related to tree size and plant group. Four subterranean termite species were identified infesting up to 27% of the plants, with Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann) being the most common. Palm trees were not damaged by subterranean termites, while native plants are the most susceptible, especially Caesalpinia pluviosa var. peltophoroides (Fabaceae). Among the native plants monitored C. pluviosa var. peltophoroides, Caesalpinia ferrea var. leiostachya, Erythrina speciosa, Piptadenia gonoacantha (Fabaceae), Gochnatia polymorpha (Asteraceae), Tibouchina granulosa (Melastomataceae), and Handroanthus spp. (Bignoniaceae), the latter was the least damaged. Exotic plants were also susceptible with the exception of Lagerstroemia indica (Lythraceae) and Platanus acerifolia (Platanaceae). Correlation analysis showed that the higher the CBH value, the higher the percentage of internal damage by C. gestroi. Infested trees were treated with imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, and subterranean termites were effectively controlled during the 9-year study.

  8. Diet Segregation between Cohabiting Builder and Inquiline Termite Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Faria Florencio

    Full Text Available How do termite inquilines manage to cohabit termitaria along with the termite builder species? With this in mind, we analysed one of the several strategies that inquilines could use to circumvent conflicts with their hosts, namely, the use of distinct diets. We inspected overlapping patterns for the diets of several cohabiting Neotropical termite species, as inferred from carbon and nitrogen isotopic signatures for termite individuals. Cohabitant communities from distinct termitaria presented overlapping diet spaces, indicating that they exploited similar diets at the regional scale. When such communities were split into their components, full diet segregation could be observed between builders and inquilines, at regional (environment-wide and local (termitarium scales. Additionally, diet segregation among inquilines themselves was also observed in the vast majority of inspected termitaria. Inquiline species distribution among termitaria was not random. Environmental-wide diet similarity, coupled with local diet segregation and deterministic inquiline distribution, could denounce interactions for feeding resources. However, inquilines and builders not sharing the same termitarium, and thus not subject to potential conflicts, still exhibited distinct diets. Moreover, the areas of the builder's diet space and that of its inquilines did not correlate negatively. Accordingly, the diet areas of builders which hosted inquilines were in average as large as the areas of builders hosting no inquilines. Such results indicate the possibility that dietary partitioning by these cohabiting termites was not majorly driven by current interactive constraints. Rather, it seems to be a result of traits previously fixed in the evolutionary past of cohabitants.

  9. On the identity of Chauliognathus flavipes (Coleoptera: Cantharidae: revision of type specimens, new synonyms and new status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Biffi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The identity, taxonomic history, type series and synonyms of Chauliognathus flavipes (Fabricius, 1781, C. fallax (Germar, 1823, C. axillaris (Fischer von Waldheim, 1823 and C. basalis Lacordaire, 1857 are herein discussed. Twenty-five new synonyms are proposed for C. flavipes , with designation of lectotypes: C. fallax var. atrofasciata Pic, 1925 syn. nov., C. fallax var. basireducta Pic, 1925 syn. nov., C. fallax var. concolor Pic, 1927 syn. nov., C. fallax var. medioreducta Pic, 1928 syn. nov., C. fallax var. edmondi Pic, 1948 syn. nov., C. fallax var. petri Pic, 1948 syn. nov., C. fallax var. henrici Pic, 1948 syn. nov., C. fallax var. reductemaculata Pic, 1949 syn. nov., C. plagiatus Blanchard, 1844 syn. nov., C. plagiatus var. latejuncta Pic, 1925 syn. nov., C. plagiatus var. orbygnyi Pic, 1948 syn. nov., C. plagiatus var. alcidei Pic, 1948 syn. nov., C. inbasalis Pic, 1925 syn. nov., C. bimaculatus Pic, 1925 syn. nov., C. mendesensis Pic, 1933 syn. nov., C. opacicollis Pic, 1946 syn. nov., C. opacicollis var. freiburgana Pic, 1946 syn. nov., C. bireductipennis Pic, 1947 syn. nov., C. quadripunctatus var. lebisi Pic, 1947 syn. nov., C. diversesignatus Pic, 1949 syn. nov., C. neopici Wittmer, 1951 syn. nov., C. rufipes Pic, 1924 syn. nov., C. rufipes var. quadrinotata Pic, 1928 syn. nov., C. rufipes var. haasi Pic, 1928 syn. nov., C. ensellatus var. innotatithorax Pic, 1944 syn. nov. The name Chauliognathus neopici var. schneideri Pic, 1934 syn. nov. is also proposed as a junior synonym of Chauliognathus plicatus Pic, 1915. Chauliognathus plagiatus var. latebasalis Pic, 1925 is elevated to species rank (= C . latebasalis Pic, 1925 stat. nov. and the homonymy of C. basalis Lacordaire, 1857 and C. basalis LeConte, 1859 is discussed. Finally, a redescription and a distribution map of C. flavipes are given.

  10. Cuticular hydrocarbons and soldier defense secretions of Reticulitermes in southern California: a critical analysis of the taxonomy of the genus in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lori J. Nelson; Laurence G. Cool; Christopher W. Solek; Michael I. Haverty

    2008-01-01

    Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC) and soldier defense secretions (SDS) were characterized for collections of Reticulitermes from six counties (Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, and Santa Barbara) in southern California. Collection sites included the type locality for R. hesperus, Lake Arrowhead (formerly known as Little Bear Lake) in the San...

  11. Indigenous methods of controlling termites in agroforestry systems in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    The practices included use of wood ash, cow urine, red pepper, intercropping with repellant plants such as Tephrosia vogelli, physical removal of queen, pouring hot crude waragi distillate into anthills, and directing water run off into ant hills. Key words: Agroforestry, Indigenous Knowledge, and termites. Introduction.

  12. A genomic comparison of two termites with different social complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korb, Judith; Thomas-Poulsen, Michael; Hu, Haofu

    2015-01-01

    large and complex societies with morphologically distinct castes that are life-time sterile. Here we compare key characteristics of genomic architecture, focusing on genes involved in communication, immune defenses, mating biology and symbiosis that were likely important in termite social evolution. We...

  13. Digestive enzymes from workers and soldiers of termite Nasutitermes corniger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Thâmarah de Albuquerque; Pontual, Emmanuel Viana; Dornelles, Leonardo Prezzi; Amorim, Poliana Karla; Sá, Roberto Araújo; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso; Napoleão, Thiago Henrique; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes

    2014-10-01

    The digestive apparatus of termites may have several biotechnological applications, as well as being a target for pest control. This report discusses the detection of cellulases (endoglucanase, exoglucanase, and β-glucosidase), hemicellulases (β-xylosidase, α-l-arabinofuranosidase, and β-d-xylanase), α-amylase, and proteases (trypsin-like, chymotrypsin-like, and keratinase-type) in gut extracts from Nasutitermes corniger workers and soldiers. Additionally, the effects of pH (3.0-11.0) and temperature (30-100°C) on enzyme activities were evaluated. All enzymes investigated were detected in the gut extracts of worker and soldier termites. Endoglucanase and β-xylanase were the main cellulase and hemicellulase, respectively. Zymography for proteases of worker extracts revealed polypeptides of 22, 30, and 43kDa that hydrolyzed casein, and assays using protease inhibitors showed that serine proteases were the main proteases in worker and soldier guts. The determined enzyme activities and their response to different pH and temperature values revealed that workers and soldiers contained a distinct digestive apparatus. The ability of these termites to efficiently digest the main components of lignocellulosic materials stimulates the purification of gut enzymes. Further investigation into their biotechnological potential as well as whether the enzymes detected are produced by the termites or by their symbionts is needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. TERMITES AS POS IBLE A IMAL PROTEIN SUPPLEMENT FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    Yusuf,. Haruna .. Kars111. and Ah (2004) :"1g. J l3101echn. 15 (I) 48 -51. 48. TERMITES AS POS IBLE A IMAL PROTEIN SUPPLEMENT FOR. JAPANESE QUAIL (Cotumix Cotumixjaponica) CHICKS FEED. Musa, U1 ., Yusur, J1 ., Haruna, E.51 ., Karsin, P.0 .1and Ali, U.D.2. I. 'ational Veterinary Research Institute, Yorn. 2.

  15. Tyraminergic and Octopaminergic Modulation of Defensive Behavior in Termite Soldier.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Ishikawa

    Full Text Available In termites, i.e. a major group of eusocial insects, the soldier caste exhibits specific morphological characteristics and extremely high aggression against predators. Although the genomic background is identical to the other non-aggressive castes, they acquire the soldier-specific behavioral character during the course of caste differentiation. The high aggressiveness and defensive behavior is essential for colony survival, but the neurophysiological bases are completely unknown. In the present study, using the damp-wood termite Hodotermopsis sjostedti, we focused on two biogenic amines, octopamine (OA and tyramine (TA, as candidate neuromodulators for the defensive behavior in soldiers. High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis revealed that TA levels in the brain and suboesophageal ganglion (SOG and the OA level in brain were increased in soldiers than in pseudergates (worker caste. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that TA/OA neurons that innervate specific areas, including the mandibular muscles, antennal nerve, central complex, suboesophageal ganglion, and thoracic and/or abdominal ganglia, were enlarged in a soldier-specific manner. Together with the results that pharmacological application of TA promoted the defensive behavior in pseudergates, these findings suggest that the increased TA/OA levels induce the higher aggressiveness and defensive behavior in termite soldiers. The projection targets of these soldier-specific enlarged TA/OA neurons may have important roles in the higher aggressiveness and defensive behavior of the termite soldiers, inducing the neuronal transition that accompanies external morphological changes.

  16. Appraisal of the Economic Activities of Termites: A Review | Ibrahim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Their feeding habit includes decomposition of dead trees, and incorporation into the soil, mineral nutrients of these trees. Man in response to the destructive activities of termites, developed various controlled methods towards them, which include the use of pesticides such as DDT ( Dichloro Diphenyl Trichloroethane), BHC ...

  17. Phylogeny of not-yet-cultured spirochetes from termite guts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paster, B.J.; Dewhirst, F.E.; Cooke, S.M.

    1996-01-01

    Comparisons of 16S rDNA sequences were used to determine the phylogeny of not-yet-cultured spirochetes from hindguts of the African higher termite, Nasutitermes lujae (Wasmann). The 16S rRNA genes were amplified directly from spirochete-rich hindguts by using universal primers, and the amplified ...... spirochetal biodiversity....

  18. Determining termite diversity in arid Namibian rangelands – a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All meth ods, therefore, were required to maximize a species inventory. More termite taxa were found on the commercially managed than on the two communally managed farms. More taxa were found at the perceived high intensity land use site than at the low intensity land use site on the commercially managed farm, the ...

  19. Cultural significance of termites in sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis, van Arnold

    2017-01-01

    Background: The number of termite species in the world is more than 2500, and Africa with more than 1000 species has the richest intercontinental diversity. The family Termitidae contains builders of great mounds up to 5 m high. Colonies are composed of casts: a queen, a king, soldiers and workers.

  20. Management of Termite ( Microtermes adschaggae ) on Hot Pepper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to evaluate the field efficacy of eleven pesticidal plants against termites on hot pepper at Bako, western Ethiopia during the 2001, 2003 and 2004 cropping seasons. The powdered leaves and seeds of the pesticidal plant species were applied at the rate of 50 g per 12.6 m2 plot size. In all years, plants ...

  1. appraisal of the economic activities of termites: a review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR.AMIN

    high voltage electricity or electrocution and wood replacement. The control of ... agricultural crops such as cash crops and food crops. (Harris ..... Wood replacement. The effectiveness of wood replacement as a control method for termites is highly dependent on detection accuracy, the extent and location of the infestation.

  2. Fungus-Growing Termites Originated in African Rain Forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanen, Duur Kornelis; Eggleton, Paul

    2005-01-01

    extant savanna species are found in most genera, this moreover suggests that the savanna has repeatedly been colonized by fungus-growing termites. Furthermore, at least four independent "out-of-Africa" migrations into Asia, and at least one independent migration to Madagascar, have occurred. Although...

  3. Resistance of treated rubber wood ( Hevea brasiliensis ) to termite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spent rubber trees from a 25 year old plantation were cut, sawn and treated with Copper Chromium Arsenate (CCA) and Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL). Two sets of wood samples were treated with CCA and CNSL respectively while the third set was not treated to serve as control. The three sets were exposed to termite ...

  4. Green house gas emissions from termite ecosystem | Gomati ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recent estimates of the total annual source strength of CH4 vary from 400 to 1200 Tg. Activities such as rice cultivation, cattle production, mining, use of fossil fuels and biomass burning is believed to be the cause of increasing methane levels in the atmosphere. To add to this list is the source from termites, which contributes ...

  5. Termite fishing by wild chimpanzees: new data from Ugalla, western Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Fiona A; Piel, Alex K

    2014-01-01

    Chimpanzees manufacture flexible fishing probes to fish for termites in Issa, Ugalla, western Tanzania. These termite-fishing tools are similar in size and material to those used by long-studied communities of chimpanzees in western Tanzania (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) and in West Africa (P. t. verus), but not central African populations (P. t. troglodytes). This report adds to the patchwork of evidence of termite-fishing tool use behaviour by chimpanzees across Africa.

  6. Cellulolytic Protist Numbers Rise and Fall Dramatically in Termite Queens and Kings during Colony Foundation

    OpenAIRE

    Shimada, Keisuke; Lo, Nathan; Kitade, Osamu; Wakui, Akane; Maekawa, Kiyoto

    2013-01-01

    Among the best-known examples of mutualistic symbioses is that between lower termites and the cellulolytic flagellate protists in their hindguts. Although the symbiosis in worker termites has attracted much attention, there have been only a few studies of protists in other castes. We have performed the first examination of protist population dynamics in queens and kings during termite colony foundation. Protist numbers, as well as measurements of hindgut and reproductive tissue sizes, were un...

  7. Chemical Recruitment for Foraging in Ants (Formicidae) and Termites (Isoptera): A Revealing Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Klaus Jaffe; Solange Issa; Cristina Sainz-Borgo

    2012-01-01

    All termites secrete trail pheromones from their sternal gland, whereas ants use a variety of glands for this purpose. This and the diversity of chemical compounds that serve as trail pheromones among ants, and the uniformity of chemicals among termite trails, suggest a different evolutionary historical dynamics for the development of chemical mass recruitment in both taxa. Termites in addition show pheromonal parsimony. This suggest a single evolutionary origin of pheromone trails in Isopter...

  8. Morphologically Specialized Termite Castes and Advanced Sociality in the Early Cretaceous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Michael S; Barden, Phillip; Riccio, Mark L; Grimaldi, David A

    2016-02-22

    A hallmark of animals that are eusocial, or those with advanced sociality, is reproductive specialization into worker and queen castes. In the most derived societies, these divisions are essentially fixed and in some arthropods, include further specialization--a tripartite system with a soldier caste that defends the colony. Eusociality has originated numerous times among insects but is believed to have appeared first in the termites (Isoptera), in the Early Cretaceous. However, all termites known from the Cretaceous have, until now, only been winged reproductives (alates and dealates); the earliest soldiers and definitive workers were known from just the Miocene (ca. 17-20 million years ago [mya]). Here, we report six termite species preserved in Early Cretaceous (ca. 100 mya) amber from Myanmar, one described as Krishnatermes yoddha gen. et sp. nov., comprising the worker/pseudergate, winged reproductive, and soldier, and a second species, Gigantotermes rex gen. et sp. nov., based on one of the largest soldier termites yet known. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that Krishnatermes are in the basal "Meiatermes-grade" of Cretaceous termites. Workers/pseudergates of another four species are briefly described, but not named. One of these workers/pseudergates reveals that ants--the most serious enemies of modern termites--lived in close proximity to termites in the Burmese paleofauna. These discoveries demonstrate the Mesozoic antiquity of specialized termite caste systems and corroborate that among all social species, termites probably had the original societies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessment of contamination based on trace element concentrations in Gomphus flavipes (Odonata: Insect) larvae of the Upper Tisza Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, E; Kis, O; Jakab, T; Kolozsvári, I; Málnás, K; Harangi, S; Baranyai, E; Miskolczi, M; Tóthmérész, B; Dévai, Gy

    2017-02-01

    Odonata larvae are frequently used to assess the contamination of aquatic systems, because they tolerate a wide range of chemical and biological conditions in freshwater systems. In early 2000, the sediments of the Hungarian section of the River Tisza and the River Szamos were strongly enriched with heavy metals by an accidental mining spill. Earlier studies demonstrated higher contamination levels in the Szamos than in the Tisza, based on sediment analysis. The aim of our study was to assess the contamination in the Upper Tisza Region, along the upper reach of the Tisza, and the lower reach of the Szamos, based on the trace element concentrations of the Gomphus flavipes larvae. We collected 269 dragonfly specimens for the analyses. The Al, Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Sr and Zn element contents were analysed in the dragonfly larvae by microwave plasma atomic emission spectrometry (MP-AES). Significantly higher Ba and Cu concentrations were found in the dragonfly larvae of the Tisza than the Szamos. In spite of this, the Cr, Mn, Pb, Sr and Zn concentration was significantly lower in the dragonfly larvae of the Tisza than the Szamos. For all trace elements significant differences were found along the Tisza. Significant differences were also found in all trace element concentrations of dragonfly larvae among studied localities in the Szamos, except in the cases of Al and Ba. Our results demonstrated that the Szamos was more contaminated with Cr, Mn, Pb, Sr and Zn than the Tisza, but that the Tisza was more contaminated with Ba and Cu than the Szamos, based on the trace element concentrations in Gomphus flavipes larvae, which was likely to have been caused by the tributaries of the Tisza. In summary, our results indicated a continuous pollution of the Tisza and the Szamos and their tributaries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Inorganic elements in the fat bodies of Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) larvae parasitized by Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, D O; Zucchi, T D; Zucchi, O L A D; Nascimento Filho, V F; Almeida, E; Cônsoli, F L

    2010-08-01

    Koinobiont parasitoids use several strategies to regulate the host's physiological processes during parasitism. Although many aspects of host-parasitoid interactions have been explored, studies that attempted to assess the effects of parasitism on the availability of inorganic elements in the host are virtually nonexistent. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effects of parasitism on the concentrations of inorganic elements in the fat bodies of larvae of Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) during the development of the parasitoid Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), by using total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF). TXRF analysis allowed comparisons of the changes in the availability of the elements P, S, K, Ca, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Zn in the fat body tissues of D. saccharalis larvae parasitized by C. flavipes. Overall, the concentration of inorganic elements was higher early in parasitoid development (1 and 3days after parasitism) compared to non-parasitized larvae, but much lower towards the end of parasitoid development (7 and 9days after parasitism). Ca, K, and S were reduced after the fifth day of parasitism, which affected the total abundance of inorganic elements observed in the fat bodies of the parasitized hosts. The regulatory mechanisms or pathological effects related to the observed variation of the host inorganic elements induced by the parasitoid remain unknown, but there might be a strategy to make these elements available to the parasitoid larvae at the end of their development, when higher metabolic activity of the host fat body is required to sustain parasitoid growth. The observed variation of the host's inorganic elements could also be related to the known effects of parasitism on the host's immune response. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Quality of the Exotic Parasitoid Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) Does Not Show Deleterious Effects after Inbreeding for 10 Generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Maíra; De Bortoli, Sergio A; Vacari, Alessandra M; Laurentis, Valéria L; Ramalho, Dagmara G

    2016-01-01

    Although the parasitoid Cotesia flavipes (Cameron) has proven effective in controlling sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius) for many years, concern has arisen over the quality of individuals produced at large scales. The parasitoid has been reared in laboratories in Brazil for more than 40 years, with no new introductions of new populations during that period. Since the quality of the parasitoids was not verified at the time of the species' introduction in Brazil, we do not know if there has been any reduction in quality so far. However, it is possible to determine whether the parasitoid could reduce in quality in future generations. Thus, the objective of this research was to assess the quality of these insects over 10 generations and look for evidence of any loss in quality. We used two populations: one from a biofactory that has been maintained in the laboratory for over 40 years, and an inbred laboratory population. Both were bred, and compared for 10 generations. We wanted to determine what happened to the quality of the parasitoid after 10 generations in an extreme inbreeding situation. To assure inbreeding, newly emerged females were forced to mate with a sibling. Individual females were then allowed to parasitize larvae of D. saccharalis. We performed evaluations for each generation until the tenth generation, and recorded the sex ratio, percentage emergence, number of offspring/females, and longevity of both males and females. Results of the measurements of biological characteristics demonstrated random significant differences between populations; best results were obtained intermittently for both the biofactory population and the inbred population. No significant differences across generations for the same population were observed. Thus, rearing of a C. flavipes population subjected to inbreeding for 10 generations was not sufficient to reveal any deleterious effects of inbreeding.

  12. Termites: a Retinex implementation based on a colony of agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone, Gabriele; Audino, Giuseppe; Farup, Ivar; Rizzi, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a novel implementation of the Retinex algorithm with the exploration of the image done by an ant swarm. In this case the purpose of the ant colony is not the optimization of some constraints but is an alternative way to explore the image content as diffused as possible, with the possibility of tuning the exploration parameters to the image content trying to better approach the Human Visual System behavior. For this reason, we used "termites", instead of ants, to underline the idea of the eager exploration of the image. The paper presents the spatial characteristics of locality and discusses differences in path exploration with other Retinex implementations. Furthermore a psychophysical experiment has been carried out on eight images with 20 observers and results indicate that a termite swarm should investigate a particular region of an image to find the local reference white.

  13. Ants and termites increase crop yield in a dry climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Theodore A; Dawes, Tracy Z; Ward, Philip R; Lo, Nathan

    2011-03-29

    Agricultural intensification has increased crop yields, but at high economic and environmental cost. Harnessing ecosystem services of naturally occurring organisms is a cheaper but under-appreciated approach, because the functional roles of organisms are not linked to crop yields, especially outside the northern temperate zone. Ecosystem services in soil come from earthworms in these cooler and wetter latitudes; what may fulfill their functional role in agriculture in warmer and drier habitats, where they are absent, is unproven. Here we show in a field experiment that ants and termites increase wheat yield by 36% from increased soil water infiltration due to their tunnels and improved soil nitrogen. Our results suggest that ants and termites have similar functional roles to earthworms, and that they may provide valuable ecosystem services in dryland agriculture, which may become increasingly important for agricultural sustainability in arid climates.

  14. Magnetic material arrangement in oriented termites: a magnetic resonance study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, O. C.; Wajnberg, E.; de Oliveira, J. F.; Esquivel, D. M. S.

    2004-06-01

    Temperature dependence of the magnetic resonance is used to study the magnetic material in oriented Neocapritermes opacus (N.o.) termite, the only prey of the migratory ant Pachycondyla marginata (P.m.). A broad line in the g=2 region, associated to isolated nanoparticles shows that at least 97% of the magnetic material is in the termite's body (abdomen + thorax). From the temperature dependence of the resonant field and from the spectral linewidths, we estimate the existence of magnetic nanoparticles 18.5 ± 0.3 nm in diameter and an effective magnetic anisotropy constant, Keff between 2.1 and 3.2 × 10 4 erg/cm 3. A sudden change in the double integrated spectra at about 100 K for N.o. with the long body axis oriented perpendicular to the magnetic field can be attributed to the Verwey transition, and suggests an organized film-like particle system.

  15. Evidence for cascades of perturbation and adaptation in the metabolic genes of higher termite gut symbionts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinning; Leadbetter, Jared R

    2012-01-01

    Termites and their gut microbes engage in fascinating dietary mutualisms. Less is known about how these complex symbioses have evolved after first emerging in an insect ancestor over 120 million years ago. Here we examined a bacterial gene, formate dehydrogenase (fdhF), that is key to the mutualism in 8 species of "higher" termite (members of the Termitidae, the youngest and most biomass-abundant and species-rich termite family). Patterns of fdhF diversity in the gut communities of higher termites contrasted strongly with patterns in less-derived (more-primitive) insect relatives (wood-feeding "lower" termites and roaches). We observed phylogenetic evidence for (i) the sweeping loss of several clades of fdhF that may reflect extinctions of symbiotic protozoa and, importantly, bacteria dependent on them in the last common ancestor of all higher termites and (ii) a radiation of genes from the (possibly) single allele that survived. Sweeping gene loss also resulted in (iii) the elimination of an entire clade of genes encoding selenium (Se)-independent enzymes from higher termite gut communities, perhaps reflecting behavioral or morphological innovations in higher termites that relaxed preexisting environmental limitations of Se, a dietary trace element. Curiously, several higher termite gut communities may have subsequently reencountered Se limitation, reinventing genes for Se-independent proteins via convergent evolution. Lastly, the presence of a novel fdhF lineage within litter-feeding and subterranean higher (but not other) termites may indicate recent gene "invasion" events. These results imply that cascades of perturbation and adaptation by distinct evolutionary mechanisms have impacted the evolution of complex microbial communities in a highly successful lineage of insects. Since patterns of relatedness between termite hosts are broadly mirrored by the relatedness of their symbiotic gut microbiota, coevolution between hosts and gut symbionts is rightly

  16. Interactions between large herbivores and litter removal by termites across a rainfall gradient in a South African savanna

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Buitenwerf, R

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available : litter removal by termites was greater in the presence of large herbivores at the drier sites but lower in the presence of large herbivores at the wetter sites. The effect of herbivores on termite foraging intensity may indicate a switch between termites...

  17. Termites promote resistance of decomposition to spatiotemporal variability in rainfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuis, Michiel P; Laso, Francisco J; Olff, Han; Berg, Matty P

    2017-02-01

    The ecological impact of rapid environmental change will depend on the resistance of key ecosystems processes, which may be promoted by species that exert strong control over local environmental conditions. Recent theoretical work suggests that macrodetritivores increase the resistance of African savanna ecosystems to changing climatic conditions, but experimental evidence is lacking. We examined the effect of large fungus-growing termites and other non-fungus-growing macrodetritivores on decomposition rates empirically with strong spatiotemporal variability in rainfall and temperature. Non-fungus-growing larger macrodetritivores (earthworms, woodlice, millipedes) promoted decomposition rates relative to microbes and small soil fauna (+34%) but both groups reduced their activities with decreasing rainfall. However, fungus-growing termites increased decomposition rates strongest (+123%) under the most water-limited conditions, making overall decomposition rates mostly independent from rainfall. We conclude that fungus-growing termites are of special importance in decoupling decomposition rates from spatiotemporal variability in rainfall due to the buffered environment they create within their extended phenotype (mounds), that allows decomposition to continue when abiotic conditions outside are less favorable. This points at a wider class of possibly important ecological processes, where soil-plant-animal interactions decouple ecosystem processes from large-scale climatic gradients. This may strongly alter predictions from current climate change models. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  18. Resistance of borax–copper treated wood in aboveground exposure to attack by Formosan subterranean termites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan Lebow; Bessie Woodward; Douglas Crawford; William Abbott

    2005-01-01

    The spread of Formosan subterranean termites (FSTs) in the southern United States has increased public interest in finding a preservative treatment to protect framing lumber from termite attack. This study evaluated the use of a borax-based preservative to protect wood from FST attack. Southern Pine and Douglas-fir specimens were pressure-treated with three...

  19. What's inside a Termite's Gut?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Asia Liza; Rowton, Edgar; Anderson, Margery; Yourick, Debra

    2017-01-01

    During the Jurassic period (201 million to 145 million years ago), termites up to 15 mm long consumed and recycled vegetation and feces. Since then, termites have evolved into some 3,000 identified species, have colonized every continent except Antarctica, and are major contributors to nutrient cycling and vertebrate food webs (Shaw 2014).…

  20. Studies on termite hill and lime as partial replacement for cement in plastering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olusola, K.O.; Olanipekun, E.A.; Ata, O.; Olateju, O.T. [Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State (Nigeria). Department of Building

    2006-03-15

    This study investigated the compressive strength and water absorption capacity of 50x50x50mm mortar cubes made from mixes containing lime, termite hill and cement and sand. Two mix ratios (1:4 and 1:6) and varying binder replacements of cement with lime or termite hill amounting to 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% were used. Test results showed that the compressive strength of the mortar cubes increases with age and decreases with increasing percentage replacement of cement with lime and termite hill. However, for mix ratio 1:6, up to 20% replacement of cement with either lime or termite hill, all the mortar cubes had the same strength; subsequently, the termite hill exhibited a higher compressive strength. For mix ratio 1:4, mortar cubes made from lime/cement and termite hill/cement mixtures had the same strength at 50% replacement. Generally, water absorption is higher in mixtures containing lime (18.10% and 14.20% for mix ratios 1:6 and 1:4, respectively, both at 50% replacement level) than those containing termite hill (16.10% and 13.02% for mix ratios 1:6 and 1:4, respectively, both at 50% replacement level). Termite hills seem to be promising as a suitable, locally available housing material for plastering. (author)

  1. Termitomyces sp. associated with the termite Macrotermes natalensis has a heterothallic mating system and multinucleate cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Fine Licht, Henrik H; Andersen, Anders; Aanen, Duur Kornelis

    2005-01-01

    associated with the South African termite Macrotermes natalensis. Termite nests were excavated and a Termitomyces sp. was isolated into pure culture from the asexual fruit bodies (nodules) growing in the fungus gardens. For one strain, single basidiospore cultures were obtained from basidiomes growing from...

  2. Parametric City Scale Energy Modeling Perspectives on using Termite in city scaled models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Negendahl, Kristoffer; Nielsen, Toke Rammer

    Termite is a parametric tool using the Danish building performance simulation engine Be10 written for the Grasshopper3D/Rhino3D environment. The tool Be10 is originally intended for building energy frame calculations and is required by Danish law when constructing new buildings. Termite opens up...

  3. Control Of Book Termites Using Solid Attractants At The Central Library Of Universitas Sumatera Utara USU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameilia Zuliyanti Siregar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been identified the extent of damage due to the activity of Captotermes sp Microtermis sp Formica sp Araneus sp and Stegonium sp on books in the USU Library. Furthermore prevention of dominant pest attack on the book containing cellulose as the main food of termites termites control action term control by Action Research method action research Kurt Lewin adoption is done intensively from July to September 2017. used are of neem leaf Azadirachta indica tobacco leaf Nicotiana tabacum rubber cassava leaf Manihot glaziovii and betel nut Areca catechu which can be used as Termite Baiting System TBS. This method includes three stages in the form of planning planning activity and reflection actuating and reflexion and evaluation evaluation. The results show the higher number of termites in F1799.3 0.328 with zero days after application. Based on the research recorded in sampling for 3 months with 4 treatments had a significant effect on the percentage of the number of termites that died and collected with the value of F is 86.27 p amp706 0000 and the percentage of death is F 59.13 p amp706 0000. Pearson correlation value recorded percentage of termite mortality r 0.349 and percentage of book affected r -0597 showed a very significant relationship. Pinet pellet is the best attractant in controlling termite pests followed by tobacco plants poisonous yams and neem. Optimal FFB techniques in its use can control termite colonies in an environmentally friendly manner.

  4. Termite Incidence on an Araucaria Plantation Forest in Teluk Bahang, Penang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Hassan Ahmad

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to evaluate the incidence of termite attack on an Araucaria cunninghamii plantation at Teluk Bahang Forest Park (TBFP, Penang. The hilly plantation area was surveyed to determine the diversity of termite species present. Termite specimens were collected from standin Araucaria trees, underground monitoring (aggregation stations, fallen logs, forest litter and mounds (nests. Seven species of termites were identified from 6 genera; Coptotermes curvignathus, Schedorhinotermes medioobscurus, Schedorhinotermes malaccensis, Odontotermes sarawakensis Parrhinotermes aequalis, Macrotermes malaccensis and Hospitalitermes hospitalis. A total of 289 Araucaria trees were inspected for signs of termite attack. Termite infestation of trees was determined mainly by the presence of mud on the trunk, but particularly around their butts at ground line. The most dominant termite species discovered infesting the Araucaria trees was Coptotermes curvignathus; accountable for 74% of all infestations. Schedorhinotermes medioobscurus and Odontotermes sarawakensis were commonly found infesting dead trees and/or tree stumps. Approximately 21.5% of all Araucaria trees in the plantation forest at Teluk Bahang were infested by termites.

  5. Patterns of interaction specificity of fungus-growing termites and Termitomyces symbionts in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanen, Duur K; Ros, Vera I D; de Fine Licht, Henrik H

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Termites of the subfamily Macrotermitinae live in a mutualistic symbiosis with basidiomycete fungi of the genus Termitomyces. Here, we explored interaction specificity in fungus-growing termites using samples from 101 colonies in South-Africa and Senegal, belonging to eight species di...

  6. Prevalence of termites and level of damage on major field crops and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (L.)) and rangelands was studied in five Kebele administrations (study sites) and on three farmers' fields in every Kebele, in Manasibu District, Wellega Zone of Oromiya Regional State. Termite samples were collected from infested crop fields and rangelands, identified to the genus level with keys to the Ethiopian termites, ...

  7. Heavy metals in some termite species and their nests in Ojo, Lagos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Termites feed on decaying organic matter including plant parts and wood, concentrating heavy metals in the process. The main campus of Lagos State University was surveyed for termite species and their heavy metal contents. Nests including mounds, wooden structures and discarded wood products were observed for ...

  8. Termites and agricultural production in the Sahel: from enemy to friend?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mando, A.; Rheenen, van T.

    1998-01-01

    Termites are an important component of agroecosystems, particularly in developing countries where they are an alternative to high priced inputs. Given the major problems in the Sahel of soil crusting and nutrient depletion, this paper shows that termites associated with proper management techniques

  9. Vertical transmission as the key to the colonization of Madagascar by fungus-growing termites?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nobre, T.; Eggleton, P.; Aanen, D.K.

    2010-01-01

    The mutualism between fungus-growing termites (Macrotermitinae) and their mutualistic fungi (Termitomyces) began in Africa. The fungus-growing termites have secondarily colonized Madagascar and only a subset of the genera found in Africa is found on this isolated island. Successful long-distance

  10. Associations of Two Ecologically Significant Social Insect Taxa in the Litter of an Amazonian Rainforest: Is There a Relationship between Ant and Termite Species Richness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L. Mertl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the ecological dominance of Neotropical ants and termites, little is understood about how their interactions influence their species richness and distribution. We surveyed ground-dwelling termite and ant species in a primary rainforest in Ecuador and analyzed ecological correlates of diversity. Termite richness was positively correlated with ant richness and abundance of twig-nesting ants. We found no evidence of competition for twigs between termites and ants. No ecological factors were correlated with termite diversity although elevation and twig and log abundance influenced ant diversity. When ant richness was compared to the richness of termites employing different predator defenses, a positive correlation was found with soldierless termites, but not genera employing chemical or mechanical defense. Our results suggest that multiple ecological factors influence ant and termite diversity, and that ant predation on termites may have a greater effect than competition between ant and termites for nest sites and food sources.

  11. Comparative magnetic measurements of migratory ant and its only termite prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel, D. M. S.; Wajnberg, E.; Cernicchiaro, G. R.; Alves, O. C.

    2004-07-01

    Termites and ants are social insects living organized in nests in castes. Behavioral studies with the migratory ant Pachycondyla marginata have shown that it conducts well-organized predatory raids toward nests of its only prey, the termite Neocapritermes opacus. The magnetic materials in these two insects were studied using a SQUID magnetometer for two orientations. The Jr/ Js and Jr/ χ0, ratios were calculated from the two insects hysteresis curves. These ratios are in the range of magnetite pseudo-single or multi-domain particle values. The magnetic material are distinguishable by Hc values (30 Oe for ants and 100 Oe for termites) and by the magnetization magnitude, which is about two magnitude orders higher in the termite than in migratory ant. The Pachycondyla marginata SQUID results show an anisotropy in the magnetic material arrangement while for Neocapritermes opacus termite it is revealed by FMR spectra.

  12. Comparative magnetic measurements of migratory ant and its only termite prey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esquivel, D.M.S. E-mail: darci@cbpf.br; Wajnberg, E.; Cernicchiaro, G.R.; Alves, O.C

    2004-07-01

    Termites and ants are social insects living organized in nests in castes. Behavioral studies with the migratory ant Pachycondyla marginata have shown that it conducts well-organized predatory raids toward nests of its only prey, the termite Neocapritermes opacus. The magnetic materials in these two insects were studied using a SQUID magnetometer for two orientations. The J{sub r}/J{sub s} and J{sub r}/{chi}{sub 0}, ratios were calculated from the two insects hysteresis curves. These ratios are in the range of magnetite pseudo-single or multi-domain particle values. The magnetic material are distinguishable by H{sub c} values (30 Oe for ants and 100 Oe for termites) and by the magnetization magnitude, which is about two magnitude orders higher in the termite than in migratory ant. The Pachycondyla marginata SQUID results show an anisotropy in the magnetic material arrangement while for Neocapritermes opacus termite it is revealed by FMR spectra.

  13. Laboratory Evaluations of Durability of Southern Pine Pressure Treated With Extractives From Durable Wood Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirker, G T; Bishell, A B; Lebow, P K

    2016-02-01

    Extracts from sawdust of four naturally durable wood species [Alaskan yellow cedar, AYC, Cupressus nootkanansis D. Don 1824; eastern red cedar, ERC, Juniperus virginiana L.; honey mesquite, HM, Prosopis glandulosa Torr.; and black locust, BL, Robinia pseudoacacia L.] were used to treat southern pine, Pt, Pinus taeda L. sapwood blocks. Extractive treated blocks were evaluated for decay resistance in standard soil bottle fungal assays challenged with brown and white rot decay fungi. Results showed that extractives did impart some improvement to decay resistance of Pt blocks. BL- and HM-treated Pt blocks were also used in choice and no-choice assays to determine feeding preference and damage by eastern subterranean termites (Reticulitermes flavipes) Kollar. Minimal feeding on treated blocks was seen in both choice and no-choice assays. In choice assays, there was similar mortality between HM and BL arenas; however, in no-choice assays, complete mortality was recorded for HM-treated Pt and high mortality was seen with BL-treated Pt. Subsequent dose mortality termite assays showed HM to be effective in killing R. flavipes at low concentrations. Both HM and BL show promise as deterrents or termiticidal protectants and will be further evaluated in field studies. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  14. SURVEY AND IDENTIFICATION OF TERMITES (INSECTA: ISOPTERA IN A URBAN AREA OF PIRACICABA, STATE OF SÃO PAULO, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Santos da Rocha Eleotério

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the occurrence of termites in a urban area of Piracicaba City, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Samples of home and commercial buildings were surveyed and the termites collected were identified. The most frequent species were the drywood termite, Cryptotermes brevis, and the subterranean termite, Coptotermes havilandi. It was observed that the risk of termite attacks, as well as the number of attacks per building showed a tendency to increase with the age of the buildings.

  15. The antibacterial protein lysozyme identified as the termite egg recognition pheromone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Matsuura

    Full Text Available Social insects rely heavily on pheromone communication to maintain their sociality. Egg protection is one of the most fundamental social behaviours in social insects. The recent discovery of the termite-egg mimicking fungus 'termite-ball' and subsequent studies on termite egg protection behaviour have shown that termites can be manipulated by using the termite egg recognition pheromone (TERP, which strongly evokes the egg-carrying and -grooming behaviours of workers. Despite the great scientific and economic importance, TERP has not been identified because of practical difficulties. Herein we identified the antibacterial protein lysozyme as the TERP. We isolated the target protein using ion-exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography, and the MALDI-TOF MS analysis showed a molecular size of 14.5 kDa. We found that the TERP provided antibacterial activity against a gram-positive bacterium. Among the currently known antimicrobial proteins, the molecular size of 14.5 kDa limits the target to lysozyme. Termite lysozymes obtained from eggs and salivary glands, and even hen egg lysozyme, showed a strong termite egg recognition activity. Besides eggs themselves, workers also supply lysozyme to eggs through frequent egg-grooming, by which egg surfaces are coated with saliva containing lysozyme. Reverse transcript PCR analysis showed that mRNA of termite lysozyme was expressed in both salivary glands and eggs. Western blot analysis confirmed that lysozyme production begins in immature eggs in queen ovaries. This is the first identification of proteinaceous pheromone in social insects. Researchers have focused almost exclusively on hydrocarbons when searching for recognition pheromones in social insects. The present finding of a proteinaceous pheromone represents a major step forward in, and result in the broadening of, the search for recognition pheromones. This novel function of lysozyme as a termite pheromone illuminates the profound influence

  16. Termites community as environmental bioindicators in highlands: a case study in eastern slopes of Mount Slamet, Central Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IDHAM SAKTI HARAHAP

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Pribadi T,Raffiudin R,HarahapIS (2011Termites community as environmental bioindicators in highlands: a case study in eastern slopes of Mount Slamet, Central Java. Biodiversitas 12: 235-240. Termites ecological behaviour is much affected by land use change and disturbance level. Their variation in diversity can be used as bioindicator of environmental quality. However, termite community response to land use changes and habitat disturbance in highland ecosystems remains poorly understood. This study was conducted to investigate the response of termite community to land use intensification and to explore their role as environmental bioindicator in Mount Slamet. A standard survey protocol was used to collect termites in five land use typesof various disturbance levels,i.e. protected forest, recreation forest, production forest,agroforestry, and urban area. It was found two termite families i.e. Rhinotermitidae and Termitidae with seven species, i.e Schedorhinotermes javanicus, Procapritermes sp, Pericapritermes semarangi, Macrotermes gilvus, Microtermes insperatus, Nasutitermes javanicus, and N. matanganensis. Termite species’ richness and evenness, Shannon-Wiener index, relative abundance, and biomass of termite were declined along with the land use types and disturbance level from protected forest to urban area. Habitat disturbance was the main declining factor of termite diversity. Termite composition changed along with the land use disturbance level. Soil feeding termites were sensitive to the disturbance – they were not found in urban area. Hence, their presence or absence can be used as environmental bioindicator to detect habitat disturbance.

  17. IDENTIFICATION, PRODUCTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NOVEL LIGNASE PROTEINS FROM TERMITES FOR DEPOLYMERIZATION OF LIGNOCELLULOSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SLACK, JEFFREY, M.

    2012-12-06

    Wood is a potential source for biofuels such as ethanol if it can be digested into sugars and fermented by yeast. Biomass derived from wood is a challenging substrate for ethanol production since it is made of lignin and cellulose which cannot be broken down easily into fermentable sugars. Some insects, and termites in particular, are specialized at using enzymes in their guts to digest wood into sugars. If termite gut enzymes could be made abundantly by a recombinant protein expression vector system, they could be applied to an industrial process to make biofuels from wood. In this study, a large cDNA library of relevant termite genes was made using termites fed a normal diet, or a diet with added lignin. A subtracted library yielded genes that were overexpressed in the presence of lignin. Termite gut enzyme genes were identified and cloned into recombinant insect viruses called baculoviruses. Using our PERLXpress system for protein expression, these termite gene recombinant baculoviruses were prepared and used to infect insect larvae, which then expressed abundant recombinant termite enzymes. Many of these expressed enzymes were prepared to very high purity, and the activities were studied in conjunction with collaborators at Purdue University. Recombinant termite enzymes expressed in caterpillars were shown to be able to release sugars from wood. Mixing different combinations of these enzymes increased the amount of sugars released from a model woody biomass substrate. The most economical, fastest and energy conserving way to prepare termite enzymes expressed by recombinant baculoviruses in caterpillars was by making crude liquid homogenates. Making enzymes stable in homogenates therefore was a priority. During the course of these studies, improvements were made to the recombinant baculovirus expression platform so that caterpillar-derived homogenates containing expressed termite enzymes would be more stable. These improvements in the baculoviruses included

  18. Phylogeny of not-yet-cultured spirochetes from termite guts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paster, B J; Dewhirst, F E; Cooke, S M; Fussing, V; Poulsen, L K; Breznak, J A

    1996-02-01

    Comparisons of 16S rDNA sequences were used to determine the phylogeny of not-yet-cultured spirochetes from hindguts of the African higher termite, Nasutitermes lujae (Wasmann). The 16S rRNA genes were amplified directly from spirochete-rich hindguts by using universal primers, and the amplified products were cloned into Escherichia coli. Clones were screened with a spirochete-specific DNA probe. Analysis of 1,410 base positions of the 16S rDNA insert from one spirochete clone, designated NL1, supported its assignment to the genus Treponema, with average interspecies similarities of ca. 85%. The sequence of NL1 was most closely related (ca. 87 to 88% similarity) to sequences of Spirochaeta stenostrepta and Spirochaeta caldaria and to a previously published sequence (ca. 87% similarity) of spirochetal clone MDS1 from the Australian lower termite, Mastotermes darwiniensis (Froggatt). On the basis of 16S rRNA sequence comparisons and individual base signatures, clones NL1 and MDS1 clearly represent two novel species of Treponema, although specific epithets have not yet been proposed. The gross morphology of NL1 was determined from in situ hybridization experiments with an NL1-specific, fluorescently labeled oligonucleotide probe. Cells were approximately 0.3 to 0.4 by 30 microns in size, with a wavelength and amplitude of about 10 microns and 0.8 to 1.6 micron, respectively. Moreover, electron microscopy of various undulate cells present in gut contents confirmed that they possessed ultrastructural features typical of spirochetes, i.e., a wavy protoplasmic cylinder, periplasmic flagella, and an outer sheath. The sequence data suggest that termite gut spirochetes may represent a separate line of descent from other treponemes and that they constitute a significant reservoir of previously unrecognized spirochetal biodiversity.

  19. Termites utilise clay to build structural supports and so increase foraging resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberst, Sebastian; Lai, Joseph C S; Evans, Theodore A

    2016-02-08

    Many termite species use clay to build foraging galleries and mound-nests. In some cases clay is placed within excavations of their wooden food, such as living trees or timber in buildings; however the purpose for this clay is unclear. We tested the hypotheses that termites can identify load bearing wood, and that they use clay to provide mechanical support of the load and thus allow them to eat the wood. In field and laboratory experiments, we show that the lower termite Coptotermes acinaciformis, the most basal species to build a mound-nest, can distinguish unloaded from loaded wood, and use clay differently when eating each type. The termites target unloaded wood preferentially, and use thin clay sheeting to camouflage themselves while eating the unloaded wood. The termites attack loaded wood secondarily, and build thick, load-bearing clay walls when they do. The termites add clay and build thicker walls as the load-bearing wood is consumed. The use of clay to support wood under load unlocks otherwise unavailable food resources. This behaviour may represent an evolutionary step from foraging behaviour to nest building in lower termites.

  20. Efficient capture of natural history data reveals prey conservatism of cryptic termite predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Eric R L; Weirauch, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    Stenophagy, specialization of a clade on a narrow range of taxa, has not been well studied in speciose clades of predators, principally due to the difficulty of obtaining adequate natural history data. The pantropical Salyavatinae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae; 17 genera, 107 species) contains members with enigmatic morphology and specialized behavior for feeding on termites. All Salyavatinae are suspected specialist termite predators; however, existing observations are limited to seven species. Prior analyses indicate that Salyavatinae may be paraphyletic with respect to another subfamily, Sphaeridopinae, also hypothesized to feed on termites. A molecular phylogeny of these putative termite assassins is here constructed using seven loci from 28 species in nine genera and is used in a dating analysis to shed light on the timing of Neotropical colonization by this primarily Old World clade. DNA extracted from gut contents of 50 individuals was assayed using PCR with prey-specific primers.Molecular assays, along with recent photographs and observations, provide substantial evidence that this clade feeds specifically upon termites, documenting 28 new individual associations. Our phylogeny supports a sister group relationship of the Neotropical genus Salyavata with Sphaeridopinae. Termite association data combined with our phylogeny provide evidence of previously unknown prey conservatism among clades of one of the most diverse groups of specialist termite predators. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Termite assemblages (Blattodea: Isoptera in a habitat humidity gradient in the semiarid region of northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alane A.V.O. Couto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We compared the termite assemblages of different ecosystems in a humidity gradient. Three areas were sampled: (i a humid montane forest; (ii a hillside forest where shaded coffee (Coffea arabica Linnaeus, 1753 is cultivated; (iii a seasonally dry forest (Caatinga. Active collection protocols were employed in each area during the dry and rainy seasons. The species were grouped according to their habitats and feeding habits. A total of 45 termite species belonging to 20 genera and three families were encountered. The termite fauna of the Caatinga was as rich and abundant as that of the humid forest areas, but it was distinct from it in species composition. Most termite species encountered in the montane forest were also found in the agro-ecological site, but some species were only found in the latter. The termite fauna of the Caatinga varied seasonally the most, with significantly reduced abundance during the dry period. When species richness, abundance, and species composition were considered together the climatic seasons were not found to significantly affect the termite faunas in any of the study areas. The numbers of encounters per feeding group and per habitat exploited did not differ among the different areas, or during the different seasons. Even in adjacent areas, the humidity gradient, as well as the vegetational characteristics, are reflected in differences in the termite fauna. Agro-ecological regimes can be considered viable alternatives to traditional methods of cultivation as they largely conserve the biodiversity found in non-modified environments.

  2. Taxonomy Icon Data: Formosan subterranean termite [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Formosan subterranean termite Coptotermes formosanus Arthropoda Coptotermes_formosan...us_L.png Coptotermes_formosanus_NL.png Coptotermes_formosanus_S.png Coptotermes_formosanus_NS.png http://bi...osciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Coptotermes+formosanus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ico...n.cgi?i=Coptotermes+formosanus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Coptotermes+formosan...us&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Coptotermes+formosanus&t=NS ...

  3. Batch and Pulsed Fed-Batch Cultures of Aspergillus flavipes FP-500 Growing on Lemon Peel at Stirred Tank Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf-Márquez, V E; García-García, E; García-Rivero, M; Aguilar-Osorio, G; Martínez Trujillo, M A

    2015-11-01

    Aspergillus flavipes FP-500 grew up on submerged cultures using lemon peel as the only carbon source, developing several batch and pulsed fed-batch trials on a stirred tank reactor. The effect of carbon source concentration, reducing sugar presence and initial pH on exopectinase and endopectinase production, was analyzed on batch cultures. From this, we observed that the highest substrate concentration favored biomass (X max) but had not influence on the corresponding specific production (q p) of both pectinases; the most acid condition provoked higher endopectinase-specific productions but had not a significant effect on those corresponding to exopectinases; and reducing sugar concentrations higher than 1.5 g/L retarded pectinase production. On the other hand, by employing the pulsed fed-batch operation mode, we observed a prolonged growth phase, and an increase of about twofold on endopectinase production without a significant raise on biomass concentration. So, pulsed fed-batch seems to be a good alternative for obtaining higher endopectinase titers by using high lemon peel quantities without having mixing and repression problems to the system. The usefulness of unstructured kinetic models for explaining, under a theoretic level, the behavior of the fungus along the batch culture with regard to pectinase production was evident.

  4. Termites Are Resistant to the Effects of Fire at Multiple Spatial Scales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah C Avitabile

    Full Text Available Termites play an important ecological role in many ecosystems, particularly in nutrient-poor arid and semi-arid environments. We examined the distribution and occurrence of termites in the fire-prone, semi-arid mallee region of south-eastern Australia. In addition to periodic large wildfires, land managers use fire as a tool to achieve both asset protection and ecological outcomes in this region. Twelve taxa of termites were detected by using systematic searches and grids of cellulose baits at 560 sites, clustered in 28 landscapes selected to represent different fire mosaic patterns. There was no evidence of a significant relationship between the occurrence of termite species and time-since-fire at the site scale. Rather, the occurrence of species was related to habitat features such as the density of mallee trees and large logs (>10 cm diameter. Species richness was greater in chenopod mallee vegetation on heavier soils in swales, rather than Triodia mallee vegetation of the sandy dune slopes. At the landscape scale, there was little evidence that the frequency of occurrence of termite species was related to fire, and no evidence that habitat heterogeneity generated by fire influenced termite species richness. The most influential factor at the landscape scale was the environmental gradient represented by average annual rainfall. Although termites may be associated with flammable habitat components (e.g. dead wood, they appear to be buffered from the effects of fire by behavioural traits, including nesting underground, and the continued availability of dead wood after fire. There is no evidence to support the hypothesis that a fine-scale, diverse mosaic of post-fire age-classes will enhance the diversity of termites. Rather, termites appear to be resistant to the effects of fire at multiple spatial scales.

  5. Termites Are Resistant to the Effects of Fire at Multiple Spatial Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avitabile, Sarah C; Nimmo, Dale G; Bennett, Andrew F; Clarke, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    Termites play an important ecological role in many ecosystems, particularly in nutrient-poor arid and semi-arid environments. We examined the distribution and occurrence of termites in the fire-prone, semi-arid mallee region of south-eastern Australia. In addition to periodic large wildfires, land managers use fire as a tool to achieve both asset protection and ecological outcomes in this region. Twelve taxa of termites were detected by using systematic searches and grids of cellulose baits at 560 sites, clustered in 28 landscapes selected to represent different fire mosaic patterns. There was no evidence of a significant relationship between the occurrence of termite species and time-since-fire at the site scale. Rather, the occurrence of species was related to habitat features such as the density of mallee trees and large logs (>10 cm diameter). Species richness was greater in chenopod mallee vegetation on heavier soils in swales, rather than Triodia mallee vegetation of the sandy dune slopes. At the landscape scale, there was little evidence that the frequency of occurrence of termite species was related to fire, and no evidence that habitat heterogeneity generated by fire influenced termite species richness. The most influential factor at the landscape scale was the environmental gradient represented by average annual rainfall. Although termites may be associated with flammable habitat components (e.g. dead wood), they appear to be buffered from the effects of fire by behavioural traits, including nesting underground, and the continued availability of dead wood after fire. There is no evidence to support the hypothesis that a fine-scale, diverse mosaic of post-fire age-classes will enhance the diversity of termites. Rather, termites appear to be resistant to the effects of fire at multiple spatial scales.

  6. Exploring the potential for actinobacteria as defensive symbionts in fungus-growing termites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, Anna A.; Nobre, Tânia; Currie, Cameron R.

    2012-01-01

    isolated. If so, the antibiotics must be used in a targeted fashion, being applied to specific areas by the termites. We describe the first discovery of an assembly of antibiotic-producing Actinobacteria occurring in fungus-growing termite nests. However, due to the diversity found, and the lack of both......-growing termites, indicating lack of specificity. Antibiotic-activity screening of 288 isolates against the fungal cultivar and competitor revealed that most of the Actinobacteria-produced molecules with antifungal activity. A more detailed bioassay on 53 isolates, to test the specificity of antibiotics, showed...

  7. Digging the termite way: crowding simple robots to excavate ramification structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardunias, Paul

    The complex ramification network that termites excavate in soil in search of resources has been shown to emerge from interactions between individuals during periodic crowding at the tips of tunnels. Excavation in these social insects is carried out by a rotation of termites removing soil from the tip of an expanding tunnel and depositing it back along the tunnel walls. Bristle bots, modified to either rock or turn on contact with soil in an artificial tunnel, were used to replicate this process. As in termites, congestion at tunnel tips leads to the widening and branching of tunnels.

  8. Efeito de Extratos Aquosos de Azadirachta indica na Sobrevivência de Diatraea saccharalis e do Parasitóide Cotesia flavipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Mazzonetto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de extratos aquosos de Azadirachta indica na sobrevivência de Diatraea saccharalis e do parasitóide Cotesia flavipes. Para a obtenção do extrato vegetal de A. indica, as folhas secas em estufa de circulação forçada de ar (40oC durante 48h, posteriormente trituradas em moinho de facas até obtenção do pó. Os extratos foram obtidos a partir da adição de 0,5; 1,0; 2,0; 3,0 e 5,0g do pó vegetal em 100ml de água destilada formando respectivamente as concentrações. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com seis tratamentos (testemunha, 0,5%, 1%, 2%, 3% e 5% de extrato aquoso de A. indica e 40 repetições. Para a análise estatística utilizou-se o método de Kaplan-Meier e o teste de Log-Rank na obtenção e comparação das curvas de sobrevivência. Já para a análise dos dados de emergência de adultos do parasitóide C. flavipes foi utilizado o teste de Scott-Knott ao nível de 5% de probabilidade.  As lagartas D. saccharalis apresentaram um menor tempo de sobrevivência quando expostas as dietas artificiais contendo as diferentes concentrações do extrato aquoso de A. indica.  A utilização de extrato aquoso de A. indica afetou negativamente a emergência de adultos de C. flavipes, importante parasitóide de D. saccharalis, quando submetidos ao parasitismo de lagartas tratadas com extrato aquoso de folhas deste vegetal.

  9. Intoxicação por larvas de Perreyia flavipes em bovinos na região sul do Rio Grande do Sul Perreyia flavipes larvae poisoning in cattle in southern Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro P. Soares

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Descrevem-se três surtos de intoxicação por larvas de Perreyia flavipes Konow, 1899 (Hymenoptera: Pergidae ocorridos em bovinos durante os meses de julho e agosto de 2006. A morbidade foi de 0,8%, 6,2% e 33% nos três estabelecimentos, respectivamente. A letalidade foi de 100%. Os sinais clínicos nos três surtos caracterizaram-se por depressão, icterícia, decúbito com movimentos de pedalagem e morte em 24-48 horas. Macroscopicamente o fígado dos animais necropsiados estava aumentado de tamanho e com marcada acentuação do padrão lobular, os linfonodos hepáticos e mesentéricos estavam edemaciados e as placas de Peyer na mucosa do intestino delgado estavam deprimidas. Petequias e equimoses foram observadas no mesentério e abomaso. Histologicamente observou-se degeneração e necrose hemorrágica hepática que variou de centrolobular, se estendendo a região a mediozonal, ou massiva. Havia, ainda, marcada hemossiderose e necrose dos centros germinativos dos linfonodos, da polpa branca do baço e das placas de Peyer no intestino. A intoxicação ocorreu provavelmente em conseqüência da intensa seca observada na região nos meses de outubro a dezembro de 2005, período em que o inseto se encontra na forma de casulo enterrado no solo. A seca proporcionou maior emergência de adultos e conseqüentemente maior quantidade de posturas. A grande quantidade de matéria vegetal em decomposição devido às precipitações próximas do normal no verão proporcionou ambiente ideal para o desenvolvimento das larvas no período de inverno o que provavelmente levou à intoxicação.Three outbreaks of poisoning by Perreyia flavipes Konow, 1899 (Hymenoptera: Pergidae in cattle during July and August 2006 in southern Brazil are reported. The morbidity rate was 0.8%, 6.2% and 33% on the 3 farms, respectively. Fatality rate was 100%. Clinical signs were depression, jaundice, recumbence, pedaling movements and death in 24-48 hours. The liver was

  10. Termite assemblages from oil palm agroecosystems across Riau Province, Sumatra, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputra, Andi; Jalaludin, Nur-Atiqah; Hazmi, Izfa Riza; Rahim, Faszly

    2016-11-01

    Termite survey was conducted at six oil palm agroecosystem sites in Riau Province, Sumatra, Indonesia to document species richness across the sites. Six sites were surveyed by using continuous transect representing gradients of oil palm landuse across Indragiri Hulu to Bengkalis District since February 5th, 2015 until May 21st, 2015. Termites were sampled by modified transect protocols (100 m × 4 m × 10 cm). A total of 23 species belonging to two families and five subfamilies were collected. The termite assemblage was dominated by wood-feeding termites. The major family collected was Rhinotermitidae which included some pest species, such as Coptotermes curvignathus, C. sepangensis, C. kalshoveni, Schedorhinotermes malaccensis, S. medioobscurus, S. brevialatus, and S. javanicus.

  11. The Gut Microbiota of Termites: Digesting the Diversity in the Light of Ecology and Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brune, Andreas; Dietrich, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Termite guts harbor a dense and diverse microbiota that is essential for symbiotic digestion. The major players in lower termites are unique lineages of cellulolytic flagellates, whereas higher termites harbor only bacteria and archaea. The functions of the mostly uncultivated lineages and their distribution in different diet groups are slowly emerging. Patterns in community structure match changes in the biology of different host groups and reflect the availability of microbial habitats provided by flagellates, wood fibers, and the increasing differentiation of the intestinal tract, which also creates new niches for microbial symbionts. Whereas the intestinal communities in the closely related cockroaches seem to be shaped primarily by the selective forces of microhabitat and functional niche, the social behavior of termites reduces the stochastic element of community assembly, which facilitates coevolution and may ultimately result in cospeciation.

  12. The first ant-termite syninclusion in amber with CT-scan analysis of taphonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coty, David; Aria, Cédric; Garrouste, Romain; Wils, Patricia; Legendre, Frédéric; Nel, André

    2014-01-01

    We describe here a co-occurrence (i.e. a syninclusion) of ants and termites in a piece of Mexican amber (Totolapa deposit, Chiapas), whose importance is two-fold. First, this finding suggests at least a middle Miocene antiquity for the modern, though poorly documented, relationship between Azteca ants and Nasutitermes termites. Second, the presence of a Neivamyrmex army ant documents an in situ raiding behaviour of the same age and within the same community, confirmed by the fact that the army ant is holding one of the termite worker between its mandibles and by the presence of a termite with bitten abdomen. In addition, we present how CT-scan imaging can be an efficient tool to describe the topology of resin flows within amber pieces, and to point out the different states of preservation of the embedded insects. This can help achieving a better understanding of taphonomical processes, and tests ethological and ecological hypotheses in such complex syninclusions.

  13. Characterization of magnetic material in the mound-building termite Macrotermes gilvus in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esa, Mohammad Faris Mohammad; Rahim, Faszly; Hassan, Ibrahim Haji; Hanifah, Sharina Abu

    2015-09-01

    Magnetic material such as magnetite are known as particles that respond to external magnetic field with their ferromagnetic properties as they are believed contribute to in responding to the geomagnetic field. These particles are used by terrestrial animals such as termites for navigation and orientation. Since our earth react as giant magnetic bar, the magnitude of this magnetic field present by intensity and direction (inclination and direction). The magnetic properties and presence of magnetite in termites Macrotermes gilvus, common mound-building termite were tested. M. gilvus termites was tested with a Vibrating Sample Magnetometer VSM to determine the magnetic properties of specimen. The crushed body sample was characterized with X-Ray Diffraction XRD to show the existent of magnetic material (magnetite) in the specimens. Results from VSM indicate that M. gilvus has diamagnetism properties. The characterization by XRD shows the existent of magnetic material in our specimen in low concentration.

  14. Presence of Nitrogen Fixing Klebsiella pneumoniae in the gut of the Formosan Subterranean Termite (Coptotermes formosanus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A gram-negative facultative anaerobic enteric bacterium, Klebsiella pneumoniae was isolated from the hindgut of the Formosan subterranean termite (FST). It was characterized using, Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis, BIOLOG assay, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-...

  15. LBA-ECO ND-04 Termite Mound and Soil Characterization, Amazonas, Brazil: 1999-2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set reports the results of a comprehensive study of mound building termites at the Embrapa research station in the Distrito Agropecuario da SUFRAMA,...

  16. LBA-ECO ND-04 Termite Mound and Soil Characterization, Amazonas, Brazil: 1999-2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set reports the results of a comprehensive study of mound building termites at the Embrapa research station in the Distrito Agropecuario da...

  17. Identifying the core microbial community in the gut of fungus-growing termites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otan, Saria; Mikaelyan, Aram; Nobre, Tânia

    2014-01-01

    biomass-degrading fungus (Termitomyces), and how this symbiont acquisition has affected the fungus-growing termite gut microbiota has remained unclear. The objective of our study was to compare the intestinal bacterial communities of five genera (nine species) of fungus-growing termites to establish...... whether or not an ancestral core microbiota has been maintained and characterizes extant lineages. Using 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, we show that gut communities have representatives of 26 bacterial phyla and are dominated by Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Spirochaetes, Proteobacteria......, and Synergistetes. A set of 42 genus-level taxa was present in all termite species and accounted for 56-68% of the species-specific reads. Gut communities of termites from the same genus were more similar than distantly related species, suggesting that phylogenetic ancestry matters, possibly in connection...

  18. Differential Ecological Specificity of Protist and Bacterial Microbiomes across a Set of Termite Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Waidele

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The gut microbiome of lower termites comprises protists and bacteria that help these insects to digest cellulose and to thrive on wood. The composition of the termite gut microbiome correlates with phylogenetic distance of the animal host and host ecology (diet in termites collected from their natural environment. However, carryover of transient microbes from host collection sites are an experimental concern and might contribute to the ecological imprints on the termite gut microbiome. Here, we set out to test whether an ecological imprint on the termite gut microbiome remains, when focusing on the persistent microbiome. Therefore, we kept five termite species under strictly controlled dietary conditions and subsequently profiled their protist and bacterial gut microbial communities using 18S and 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. The species differed in their ecology; while three of the investigated species were wood-dwellers that feed on the piece of wood they live in and never leave except for the mating flight, the other two species were foragers that regularly leave their nests to forage for food. Despite these prominent ecological differences, protist microbiome structure aligned with phylogenetic relatedness of termite host species. Conversely, bacterial communities seemed more flexible, suggesting that microbiome structure aligned more strongly with the foraging and wood-dwelling ecologies. Interestingly, protist and bacterial community alpha-diversity correlated, suggesting either putative interactions between protists and bacteria, or that both types of microbes in the termite gut follow shared structuring principles. Taken together, our results add to the notion that bacterial communities are more variable over evolutionary time than protist communities and might react more flexibly to changes in host ecology.

  19. Differential Ecological Specificity of Protist and Bacterial Microbiomes across a Set of Termite Species

    KAUST Repository

    Waidele, Lena

    2017-12-19

    The gut microbiome of lower termites comprises protists and bacteria that help these insects to digest cellulose and to thrive on wood. The composition of the termite gut microbiome correlates with phylogenetic distance of the animal host and host ecology (diet) in termites collected from their natural environment. However, carryover of transient microbes from host collection sites are an experimental concern and might contribute to the ecological imprints on the termite gut microbiome. Here, we set out to test whether an ecological imprint on the termite gut microbiome remains, when focusing on the persistent microbiome. Therefore, we kept five termite species under strictly controlled dietary conditions and subsequently profiled their protist and bacterial gut microbial communities using 18S and 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. The species differed in their ecology; while three of the investigated species were wood-dwellers that feed on the piece of wood they live in and never leave except for the mating flight, the other two species were foragers that regularly leave their nests to forage for food. Despite these prominent ecological differences, protist microbiome structure aligned with phylogenetic relatedness of termite host species. Conversely, bacterial communities seemed more flexible, suggesting that microbiome structure aligned more strongly with the foraging and wood-dwelling ecologies. Interestingly, protist and bacterial community alpha-diversity correlated, suggesting either putative interactions between protists and bacteria, or that both types of microbes in the termite gut follow shared structuring principles. Taken together, our results add to the notion that bacterial communities are more variable over evolutionary time than protist communities and might react more flexibly to changes in host ecology.

  20. Caste-specific and sex-specific expression of chemoreceptor genes in a termite

    OpenAIRE

    Mitaka, Yuki; Kobayashi, Kazuya; Mikheyev, Alexander; Tin, Mandy M. Y.; Watanabe, Yutaka; Matsuura, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    The sophisticated colony organization of eusocial insects is primarily maintained through the utilization of pheromones. The regulation of these complex social interactions requires intricate chemoreception systems. The recent publication of the genome of Zootermopsis nevadensis opened a new avenue to study molecular basis of termite caste systems. Although there has been a growing interest in the termite chemoreception system that regulates their sophisticated caste system, the relationship ...

  1. Influence de l'activité des termites sur les propriétés du sol dans la ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 sept. 2016 ... 2016 Impact des termites sur les propriétés du sol. 10209 caste des ouvriers très active dans la recherche de nourriture pour la colonie. Les termites récoltés sont conservés dans des piluliers contenant de l'alcool à 70 % en attendant leur identification. Identification des termites récoltés : La plupart des.

  2. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U00527-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 9e-16 AL773560_7( AL773560 |pid:none) Pig DNA sequence from clone PigI-5... 74 9e-16 FJ792774_1( FJ792774 |pid:none) Reticulitermes...792773_1( FJ792773 |pid:none) Reticulitermes flavipes cytochrome... 66 2e-14 T320

  3. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U01222-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ro... 89 8e-35 DQ014513_1( DQ014513 |pid:none) Reticulitermes flavipes gut symbio... 100 1e-34 AB274623_1( A... 6e-16 ( P46237 ) RecName: Full=Endoglucanase type C; EC=3.2.1.4... 57 6e-16 DQ014512_1( DQ014512 |pid:none) Reticulitermes

  4. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15055-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e-39 FJ792774_1( FJ792774 |pid:none) Reticulitermes flavipes cytochrome... 166 2e-39 FJ664151_1( FJ664151 |p...30_1( M22330 |pid:none) Rat cytochrome P450 isozyme CMF2 mRNA,... 141 5e-32 FJ792773_1( FJ792773 |pid:none) Reticulitermes

  5. Saving the injured: Rescue behavior in the termite-hunting ant Megaponera analis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Erik Thomas; Schmitt, Thomas; Hovestadt, Thomas; Mitesser, Oliver; Stiegler, Jonas; Linsenmair, Karl Eduard

    2017-01-01

    Predators of highly defensive prey likely develop cost-reducing adaptations. The ant Megaponera analis is a specialized termite predator, solely raiding termites of the subfamily Macrotermitinae (in this study, mostly colonies of Pseudocanthotermes sp.) at their foraging sites. The evolutionary arms race between termites and ants led to various defensive mechanisms in termites (for example, a caste specialized in fighting predators). Because M. analis incurs high injury/mortality risks when preying on termites, some risk-mitigating adaptations seem likely to have evolved. We show that a unique rescue behavior in M. analis, consisting of injured nestmates being carried back to the nest, reduces combat mortality. After a fight, injured ants are carried back by their nestmates; these ants have usually lost an extremity or have termites clinging to them and are able to recover within the nest. Injured ants that are forced experimentally to return without help, die in 32% of the cases. Behavioral experiments show that two compounds, dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide, present in the mandibular gland reservoirs, trigger the rescue behavior. A model accounting for this rescue behavior identifies the drivers favoring its evolution and estimates that rescuing enables maintenance of a 28.7% larger colony size. Our results are the first to explore experimentally the adaptive value of this form of rescue behavior focused on injured nestmates in social insects and help us to identify evolutionary drivers responsible for this type of behavior to evolve in animals. PMID:28439543

  6. Farming termites determine the genetic population structure of Termitomyces fungal symbionts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Tânia; Fernandes, Cecília; Boomsma, Jacobus J; Korb, Judith; Aanen, Duur K

    2011-05-01

    Symbiotic interactions between macrotermitine termites and their fungal symbionts have a moderate degree of specificity. Consistent with horizontal symbiont transmission, host switching has been frequent over evolutionary time so that single termite species can often be associated with several fungal symbionts. However, even in the few termite lineages that secondarily adopted vertical symbiont transmission, the fungal symbionts are not monophyletic. We addressed this paradox by studying differential transmission of fungal symbionts by alate male and female reproductives, and the genetic population structure of Termitomyces fungus gardens across 74 colonies of Macrotermes bellicosus in four west and central African countries. We confirm earlier, more limited, studies showing that the Termitomyces symbionts of M. bellicosus are normally transmitted vertically and clonally by dispersing males. We also document that the symbionts associated with this termite species belong to three main lineages that do not constitute a monophyletic group. The most common lineage occurs over the entire geographical region that we studied, including west, central and southern Africa, where it is also associated with the alternative termite hosts Macrotermes subhyalinus and Macrotermes natalensis. While Termitomyces associated with these alternative hosts are horizontally transmitted and recombine freely, the genetic population structure of the same Termitomyces associated with M. bellicosus is consistent with predominantly clonal reproduction and only occasional recombination. This implies that the genetic population structure of Termitomyces is controlled by the termite host and not by the Termitomyces symbiont. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. The impact of edge effect on termite community (Blattodea: Isoptera in fragments of Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Almeida

    Full Text Available Abstract Habitat fragmentation is considered to be one of the biggest threats to tropical ecosystem functioning. In this region, termites perform an important ecological role as decomposers and ecosystem engineers. In the present study, we tested whether termite community is negatively affected by edge effects on three fragments of Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest. Termite abundance and vegetation structure were sampled in 10 transects (15 × 2 m, while termite richness, activity, and soil litter biomass were measured in 16 quadrants (5 × 2 m at forest edge and interior of each fragment. Habitat structure (i.e. number of tree, diameter at breast height and soil litter biomass did not differ between forest edge and interior of fragments. Termite richness, abundance and activity were not affected by edge effect. However, differences were observed in the β diversity between forest edge and interior as well as in the fragments sampled. The β diversity partitioning indicates that species turnover is the determinant process of termite community composition under edge effect. Our results suggest that conservation strategies should be based on the selection of several distinct sites instead of few rich sites (e.g. nesting.

  8. In situ lignocellulosic unlocking mechanism for carbohydrate hydrolysis in termites: crucial lignin modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Deepak

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Termites are highly effective at degrading lignocelluloses, and thus can be used as a model for studying plant cell-wall degradation in biological systems. However, the process of lignin deconstruction and/or degradation in termites is still not well understood. Methods We investigated the associated structural modification caused by termites in the lignin biomolecular assembly in softwood tissues crucial for cell-wall degradation. We conducted comparative studies on the termite-digested (i.e. termite feces and native (control softwood tissues with the aid of advanced analytical techniques: 13C crosspolarization magic angle spinning and nuclear magnetic resonance (CP-MAS-NMR spectroscopy, flash pyrolysis with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS, and Py-GC-MS in the presence of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (Py-TMAH-GC/MS. Results The 13C CP/MAS NMR spectroscopic analysis revealed an increased level of guaiacyl-derived (G unit polymeric framework in the termite-digested softwood (feces, while providing specific evidence of cellulose degradation. The Py-GC/MS data were in agreement with the 13C CP/MAS NMR spectroscopic studies, thus indicating dehydroxylation and modification of selective intermonomer side-chain linkages in the lignin in the termite feces. Moreover, Py-TMAH-GC/MS analysis showed significant differences in the product distribution between control and termite feces. This strongly suggests that the structural modification in lignin could be associated with the formation of additional condensed interunit linkages. Conclusion Collectively, these data further establish: 1 that the major β-O-4' (β-aryl ether was conserved, albeit with substructure degeneracy, and 2 that the nature of the resulting polymer in termite feces retained most of its original aromatic moieties (G unit-derived. Overall, these results provide insight into lignin-unlocking mechanisms for understanding plant cell-wall deconstruction

  9. Nitrous Oxide (N2O Emissions by Termites: Does the Feeding Guild Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Brauman

    Full Text Available In the tropics, termites are major players in the mineralization of organic matter leading to the production of greenhouse gases including nitrous oxide (N2O. Termites have a wide trophic diversity and their N-metabolism depends on the feeding guild. This study assessed the extent to which N2O emission levels were determined by termite feeding guild and tested the hypothesis that termite species feeding on a diet rich in N emit higher levels of N2O than those feeding on a diet low in N. An in-vitro incubation approach was used to determine the levels of N2O production in 14 termite species belonging to different feeding guilds, collected from a wide range of biomes. Fungus-growing and soil-feeding termites emit N2O. The N2O production levels varied considerably, ranging from 13.14 to 117.62 ng N2O-N d(-1 (g dry wt.(-1 for soil-feeding species, with Cubitermes spp. having the highest production levels, and from 39.61 to 65.61 ng N2O-N d(-1 (g dry wt.(-1 for fungus-growing species. Wood-feeding termites were net N2O consumers rather than N2O producers with a consumption ranging from 16.09 to 45.22 ng N2O-N d(-1 (g dry wt.(-1. Incubating live termites together with their mound increased the levels of N2O production by between 6 and 13 fold for soil-feeders, with the highest increase in Capritermes capricornis, and between 14 and 34 fold for fungus-growers, with the highest increase in Macrotermes muelleri. Ammonia-oxidizing (amoA-AOB and amoA-AOA and denitrifying (nirK, nirS, nosZ gene markers were detected in the guts of all termite species studied. No correlation was found between the abundance of these marker genes and the levels of N2O production from different feeding guilds. Overall, these results support the hypothesis that N2O production rates were higher in termites feeding on substrates with higher N content, such as soil and fungi, compared to those feeding on N-poor wood.

  10. Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Emissions by Termites: Does the Feeding Guild Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauman, Alain; Majeed, Muhammad Zeeshan; Buatois, Bruno; Robert, Alain; Pablo, Anne-Laure; Miambi, Edouard

    2015-01-01

    In the tropics, termites are major players in the mineralization of organic matter leading to the production of greenhouse gases including nitrous oxide (N2O). Termites have a wide trophic diversity and their N-metabolism depends on the feeding guild. This study assessed the extent to which N2O emission levels were determined by termite feeding guild and tested the hypothesis that termite species feeding on a diet rich in N emit higher levels of N2O than those feeding on a diet low in N. An in-vitro incubation approach was used to determine the levels of N2O production in 14 termite species belonging to different feeding guilds, collected from a wide range of biomes. Fungus-growing and soil-feeding termites emit N2O. The N2O production levels varied considerably, ranging from 13.14 to 117.62 ng N2O-N d(-1) (g dry wt.)(-1) for soil-feeding species, with Cubitermes spp. having the highest production levels, and from 39.61 to 65.61 ng N2O-N d(-1) (g dry wt.)(-1) for fungus-growing species. Wood-feeding termites were net N2O consumers rather than N2O producers with a consumption ranging from 16.09 to 45.22 ng N2O-N d(-1) (g dry wt.)(-1). Incubating live termites together with their mound increased the levels of N2O production by between 6 and 13 fold for soil-feeders, with the highest increase in Capritermes capricornis, and between 14 and 34 fold for fungus-growers, with the highest increase in Macrotermes muelleri. Ammonia-oxidizing (amoA-AOB and amoA-AOA) and denitrifying (nirK, nirS, nosZ) gene markers were detected in the guts of all termite species studied. No correlation was found between the abundance of these marker genes and the levels of N2O production from different feeding guilds. Overall, these results support the hypothesis that N2O production rates were higher in termites feeding on substrates with higher N content, such as soil and fungi, compared to those feeding on N-poor wood.

  11. Metagenomic Characterization and Biochemical Analysis of Cellulose-Degrading Bacterial Communities from Sheep Rumen, Termite Hindgut, Decaying Plant Materials, and Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-04

    and termite gut samples containing the highest diversity while the partially decaying plant meterials the lowest diversity . Interestingly, the two...of ten other samples 37 11 Alpha Diversity measures from the selective cultures of ten other samples 38 12 Termite hindgut microbiome ...the sheep rumen and termite gut samples containing the highest diversity while the partially decaying plant meterials the lowest diversity

  12. Soldier-specific modification of the mandibular motor neurons in termites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Ishikawa

    Full Text Available Social insects exhibit a variety of caste-specific behavioral tendencies that constitute the basis of division of labor within the colony. In termites, the soldier caste display distinctive defense behaviors, such as aggressively attacking enemies with well-developed mandibles, while the other castes retreat into the colony without exhibiting any aggressive response. It is thus likely that some form of soldier-specific neuronal modification exists in termites. In this study, the authors compared the brain (cerebral ganglion and the suboesophageal ganglion (SOG of soldiers and pseudergates (workers in the damp-wood termite, Hodotermopsis sjostedti. The size of the SOG was significantly larger in soldiers than in pseudergates, but no difference in brain size was apparent between castes. Furthermore, mandibular nerves were thicker in soldiers than in pseudergates. Retrograde staining revealed that the somata sizes of the mandibular motor neurons (MdMNs in soldiers were more than twice as large as those of pseudergates. The enlargement of MdMNs was also observed in individuals treated with a juvenile hormone analogue (JHA, indicating that MdMNs become enlarged in response to juvenile hormone (JH action during soldier differentiation. This enlargement is likely to have two functions: a behavioral function in which soldier termites will be able to defend more effectively through relatively faster and stronger mandibular movements, and a developmental function that associates with the development of soldier-specific mandibular muscle morphogenesis in termite head. The soldier-specific enlargement of mandibular motor neurons was observed in all examined species in five termite families that have different mechanisms of defense, suggesting that such neuronal modification was already present in the common ancestor of termites and is significant for soldier function.

  13. Effects of erosion from mounds of different termite genera on distinct functional grassland types in an African savannah

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosling, Cleo M.; Cromsigt, Joris P. G. M.; Mpanza, Nokukhanya; Olff, Han

    A key aspect of savannah vegetation heterogeneity is mosaics formed by two functional grassland types, bunch grasslands, and grazing lawns. We investigated the role of termites, important ecosystem engineers, in creating high-nutrient patches in the form of grazing lawns. Some of the ways termites

  14. A Preliminary Study on Termite Mound Soil as Agricultural Soil for Crop Production in South West, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Omofunmi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available It is a popular belief of the people in the Southern region of Nigeria that a land infested with termite usually brings prosperity to the land owner regardless of the type of its usage. Therefore, the present study assessed termite mounds soil properties which are important to crop production. Two soil samples were collected and their physical and chemical properties determined in accordance with American Public Health Association (APHA, 2005. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The textural classes showed that the termite mound soil was sand clay loam while the surrounding soil was clay loam. This results revealed that: Termites’ activity induced significant chemical changes in the soil possible due to the materials used in building their nests. There was increase the concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus, Potassium, calcium and magnesium higher in the termite’s mounds, while the micro-nutrients (zinc, iron and copper except sulphur and manganese lower in the soil infested by termites. There were significant differences (p ≥ 0.05 between termite mound soil and surrounding soil. It showed highly positive correlation between termite mound and surrounding soil (r= 0.92. The concentration of the soil properties around the termite mound are within the range of soil nutrients suitable for arable crop production. Termite mound soil is recommended to be used as an alternative to local farmers who cannot afford to buy expensive inorganic fertilizers.

  15. Clay preference and particle transport behavior of Formosan subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae): a laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cai; Henderson, Gregg

    2014-12-01

    Although preference and utilization of clay have been studied in many higher termites, little attention has been paid to lower termites, especially subterranean termites. The Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, can modify its habitat by using clay to fill tree cavities. Here, the biological significance of clay on C. formosanus was investigated. Choice tests showed that significantly more termites aggregated in chambers where clay blocks were provided, regardless of colony group, observation period, or nutritional condition (fed or starved). No-choice tests showed that clay had no observable effect on survivorship, live or dry biomass, water content, and tunneling activity after 33-35 d. However, clay appeared to significantly decrease filter paper consumption (dry weight loss). Active particle (sand, paper, and clay) transport behavior was observed in both choice and no-choice tests. When present, clay was preferentially spread on the substrate, attached to the smooth surfaces of the containers, and used to line sand tunnels. Mechanisms and potential application of clay attraction are discussed. © 2013 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  16. Termite assemblages in five semideciduous Atlantic Forest fragments in the northern coastland limit of the biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heitor Bruno de Araújo Souza

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Termites are abundant organisms in tropical ecosystems and strongly influence the litter decomposition and soil formation. Despite their importance, few studies about their assemblage structures have been made in Brazilian Atlantic Forest fragments, especially in the area located north of the São Francisco River. This study aims to analyze the assemblage composition of five Atlantic Forest fragments located in the northern biome limit along the Brazilian coast. A standardized sampling protocol of termites was applied in each fragment. Thirty-three termite species belonging to twenty genera and three families were found in the forest fragments. The wood-feeder group was dominant both concerning to species richness and number of encounters in all areas. In sites northern to 7°S, there is an evident simplification of the termite assemblage composition regarding species richness and number of encounters by feeding group. This fact is apparently due to a higher sandy level in soils and to semideciduous character of the vegetation in the northern fragments. Thus, even on the north of São Francisco River, termite biodiversity is heterogeneously spread with highest density of species in the portion between 07°S and São Francisco River mouth (10°29'S.

  17. First forensic records of termite activity on non-fossilized human bones in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Queiroz

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to describe the first records of termite activity on non-fossilized human bones in Brazil. The cases reported in this study resulted from forensic analysis of six human skeletons found in northeastern Brazil between 2012 and 2014. Traces of tunnels and nests commonly produced by termites were found on several human bone surfaces as well as the specimens and characteristic signs of osteophagic activity. In four cases, the species were identified: Amitermes amifer Silvestri, 1901, Nasutitermes corniger (Motschulsky, 1855 (on two skeletons, and Microcerotermes indistinctus Mathews, 1977. In two other cases, the activity of termites on bone surfaces was evidenced by remains of nests and tunnels produced by these insects. At least in the samples of human remains available for this report, the number of termites collected was greater on bones found during autumn, the rainy season in the Northeast of Brazil. The human bones examined showed termites like insects with lots of strength at bone degradation, capable of continuing the process of decomposition of human remains even in completely skeletonized bodies.

  18. Measurement of the time required for termites to pass each other in tunnels of different curvatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Seungwoo; Lee, Sang-Hee

    2013-08-01

    Subterranean termites construct complex tunnel networks for foraging. During travel in the tunnels, termites often encounter one another when passing in opposite directions. Such encounters are likely to affect the "movement efficiency," which is the time required for a termite to travel a certain distance in a tunnel. In this study, we explored how individual-individual encounters affect movement efficiency in tunnels by measuring the time (τ) taken by two termites to pass one another in tunnels of different curvatures. Artificial tunnels of 5 cm in length and variable widths (W) of 2, 3, or 4 mm were made. Tunnel distance (D) was 2, 3, 4, or 5 cm. When D had a higher value, curvature was lower. When W = 2, τ was significantly shorter in the tunnel with D = 5 than in tunnels of D = 2, 3, or 4, whereas τ was statistically the same for D = 2, 3 and 4. When W = 3, τ was shorter in the tunnel with D = 5 than for D = 3 and 4, while τ was longer in the tunnel with D = 2 than for D = 3 and 4. When W = 4, τ was longer in the tunnels with D = 2 and 3 than for D = 4 and 5. Based on these observations, 3 types of termite behavior were identified: biased walking, backward walking, and zigzag walking. We considered these results in relation to foraging efficiency. © 2012 The Authors Insect Science © 2012 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  19. Spirochete and protist symbionts of a termite (Mastotermes electrodominicus) in Miocene amber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wier, Andrew; Dolan, Michael; Grimaldi, David; Guerrero, Ricardo; Wagensberg, Jorge; Margulis, Lynn

    2002-01-01

    Extraordinary preservation in amber of the Miocene termite Mastotermes electrodominicus has led to the discovery of fossil symbiotic microbes. Spirochete bacteria and wood-digesting protists were identified in the intestinal tissue of the insect. Fossil wood (xylem: developing vessel-element cells, fibers, pit connections), protists (most likely xylophagic amitochondriates), an endospore (probably of the filamentous intestinal bacterium Arthromitus = Bacillus), and large spirochetes were seen in thin section by light and transmission electron microscopy. The intestinal microbiota of the living termite Mastotermes darwiniensis, a genus now restricted to northern Australia, markedly resembles that preserved in amber. This is a direct observation of a 20-million-year-old xylophagus termite fossil microbial community. PMID:11818534

  20. Impact des termites dans les champs paysans de riz et de mais en ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les termites appartiennent au groupe des arthropodes et jouent un rôle prépondérant dans les régions tropicales et sub-tropicales. L\\'objectif de la présente étude est d\\'évaluer les dégâts causés par les termites dans les cultures paysannes de riz (Oryza sativa L.) et de maïs (Zea mays L.). Pour se faire, un échantillonnage ...

  1. Farming termites determine the genetic population structure of Termitomyces fungal symbionts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nobre, Tânia; Fernandes, Cecília; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2011-01-01

    population structure of Termitomyces fungus gardens across 74 colonies of Macrotermes bellicosus in four west and central African countries. We confirm earlier, more limited, studies showing that the Termitomyces symbionts of M. bellicosus are normally transmitted vertically and clonally by dispersing males...... associated with the alternative termite hosts Macrotermes subhyalinus and Macrotermes natalensis. While Termitomyces associated with these alternative hosts are horizontally transmitted and recombine freely, the genetic population structure of the same Termitomyces associated with M. bellicosus is consistent...... with predominantly clonal reproduction and only occasional recombination. This implies that the genetic population structure of Termitomyces is controlled by the termite host and not by the Termitomyces symbiont....

  2. Indigenous utilization of termite mounds and their sustainability in a rice growing village of the central plain of Laos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivilay Sengdeaune

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to investigate the indigenous utilization of termite mounds and termites in a rain-fed rice growing village in the central plain of Laos, where rice production is low and varies year-to-year, and to assess the possibility of sustainable termite mound utilization in the future. This research was carried out from 2007 to 2009. Methods The termites were collected from their mounds and surrounding areas and identified. Twenty villagers were interviewed on their use of termites and their mounds in the village. Sixty-three mounds were measured to determine their dimensions in early March, early July and middle to late November, 2009. Results Eleven species of Termitidae were recorded during the survey period. It was found that the villagers use termite mounds as fertilizer for growing rice, vegetable beds and charcoal kilns. The villagers collected termites for food and as feed for breeding fish. Over the survey period, 81% of the mounds surveyed increased in volume; however, the volume was estimated to decrease by 0.114 m3 mound-1 year-1 on average due to several mounds being completely cut out. Conclusion It was concluded that current mound utilization by villagers is not sustainable. To ensure sustainable termite utilization in the future, studies should be conducted to enhance factors that promote mound restoration by termites. Furthermore, it will be necessary to improve mound conservation methods used by the villagers after changes in the soil mass of mounds in paddy fields and forests has been measured accurately. The socio-economic factors that affect mound utilization should also be studied.

  3. Towards an integrated understanding of the consequences of fungus domestication on the fungus-growing termite gut microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas-Poulsen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 30 million years ago (MYA), the subfamily of higher termites Macrotermitinae domesticated a fungus, Termitomyces, as the main plant decomposer and food source for the termite host. The origin of fungiculture shifted the composition of the termite gut microbiota, and some...... of the functional implications of this shift have recently been established. I review reports on the composition of the Macrotermitinae gut microbiota, evidence for a subfamily core gut microbiota, and the first insight into functional complementarity between fungal and gut symbionts. In addition, I argue that we...

  4. I. Structural studies of termite defense secretions. II. Structural studies of natural products of marine nudibranchs. [Kempene, tridachione

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solheim, B.A.

    1977-12-01

    Three families of termites have the ability to produce a sticky secretion that envelopes and immobilizes the enemy. In the family Termitidae the secretion contains the diterpenoid hydrocarbons, kempene I and kempene II. The molecular structure of kempene II from the termite, Nasutitermes kempae, is described in detail. Another species of termite, Cubitermes umbratus, contained the diterpenoid hydrocarbon biflora-4,10-19,15-triene in the secretion and this compound is described. Studies were also conducted on the mucous secretion of the pedal gland of the marine nudibranch, Tidachiella diomedea. Tridachione, a substituted ..gamma..-pyrone, was isolated in the pure state and its molecular structure is described in detail. (HLW)

  5. Physical and mechanical properties and fire, decay, and termite resistance of treated oriented strandboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadir Ayrilmis; S Nami Kartal; Theodore L. Laufenberg; Jerrold E. Winandy; Robert H. White

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a number of chemicals on the physical and mechanical properties and fire, decay, and termite resistance of oriented strandboard (OSB) panels. Disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT), boric acid (BA), melamine phosphate (MP), and a BA/DOT mixture were sprayed onto the furnish at varying concentrations. The panels were tested for...

  6. Multilamina teevani gen. et sp. nov., a microsporidian pathogen of the neotropical termite Uncitermes teevani

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new genus and species of microsporidia is described from adults of the termite Uncitermes teevani (Emerson) (n. comb., formerly Armitermes teevani), collected in Ecuador. Masses of elongate, ovoid, uninucleate spores were localized to the coelomic cavity of adult workers and measured 6.29 x 3.33 ...

  7. Physical and Chemical Properties of Some Imported Woods and their Degradation by Termites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanbhag, Rashmi R.; Sundararaj, R.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of physical and chemical properties of 20 species of imported wood on degradation of the wood by termites under field conditions was studied. The wood species studied were: Sycamore maple, Acer pseudoplatanus L. (Sapindales: Sapindaceae) (from two countries), Camphor, Dryobalanops aromatic C.F.Gaertner (Malvales: Dipterocarpaceae), Beech, Fagus grandifolia Ehrhart (Fagales: Fagaceae), F. sylvatica L. (from two countries), Oak, Quercus robur L., Ash, Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl (Lamiales: Oleaceae), F. excelsior L., Padauk, Pterocarpus soyauxii Taubert (Fabales: Fabaceae), (from two countries), Jamba, Xylia dolabrifiormis Roxburgh, Shorea laevis Ridley (Malvales: Dipterocarpaceae), S. macoptera Dyer, S. robusta Roth, Teak, Tectona grandis L.f. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) (from five countries), and rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis Müller Argoviensis (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae) from India. The termites present were: Odontotermes horni (Wasmann) (Isoptera: Termitidae), O. feae, O. wallonensis, and O. obeus (Rambur). A significant conelation was found between density, cellulose, lignin, and total phenolic contents of the wood and degradation by termites. The higher the density of the wood, the lower the degradation. Similarly, higher amount of lignin and total phenolic contents ensured higher resistance, whereas cellulose drives the termites towards the wood. PMID:23906349

  8. Facultative asexual reproduction and genetic diversity of populations in the humivorous termite Cavitermes tuberosus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fournier, D.; Hellemans, S.; Hanus, Robert; Roisin, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 283, č. 1832 (2016), č. článku 20160196. ISSN 0962-8452 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12774S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : thelytokous parthenogenesis * breeding systems * termites * reproductive strategies * Isoptera * Termitidae Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.940, year: 2016

  9. Asexual queen succession mediates an accelerated colony life cycle in the termite Silvestritermes minutus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fougeyrollas, R.; Křivánek, Jan; Roy, V.; Dolejšová, Klára; Frechault, S.; Roisin, Y.; Hanus, Robert; Sillam-Dusses, D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 12 (2017), s. 3295-3308 ISSN 0962-1083 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12774S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : asexual queen succession * breeding system * life history * parthenogenesis * Silvestritermes minutus * termites Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 6.086, year: 2016

  10. Secondary queens in the parthenogenetic termite Cavitermes tuberosus develop through a transitional helper stage

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hellemans, S.; Fournier, D.; Hanus, Robert; Roisin, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 6 (2017), s. 253-262 ISSN 1520-541X Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : facultative parthenogenesis * replacement queens * termites * asexual queen succession * ontogeny * Cavitermes Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.243, year: 2016

  11. Uncovering the Potential of Termite Gut Microbiome for Lignocellulose Bioconversion in Anaerobic Batch Bioreactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Auer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Termites are xylophages, being able to digest a wide variety of lignocellulosic biomass including wood with high lignin content. This ability to feed on recalcitrant plant material is the result of complex symbiotic relationships, which involve termite-specific gut microbiomes. Therefore, these represent a potential source of microorganisms for the bioconversion of lignocellulose in bioprocesses targeting the production of carboxylates. In this study, gut microbiomes of four termite species were studied for their capacity to degrade wheat straw and produce carboxylates in controlled bioreactors. All of the gut microbiomes successfully degraded lignocellulose and up to 45% w/w of wheat straw degradation was observed, with the Nasutitermes ephratae gut-microbiome displaying the highest levels of wheat straw degradation, carboxylate production and enzymatic activity. Comparing the 16S rRNA gene diversity of the initial gut inocula to the bacterial communities in lignocellulose degradation bioreactors revealed important changes in community diversity. In particular, taxa such as Spirochaetes and Fibrobacteres that were highly abundant in the initial gut inocula were replaced by Firmicutes and Proteobacteria at the end of incubation in wheat straw bioreactors. Overall, this study demonstrates that termite-gut microbiomes constitute a reservoir of lignocellulose-degrading bacteria that can be harnessed in artificial conditions for biomass conversion processes that lead to the production of useful molecules.

  12. Complementary symbiont contributions to plant decomposition in a fungus-farming termite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Michael; Hu, Haofu; Li, Cai; Chen, Zhensheng; Xu, Luohao; Otani, Saria; Nygaard, Sanne; Nobre, Tania; Klaubauf, Sylvia; Schindler, Philipp M; Hauser, Frank; Pan, Hailin; Yang, Zhikai; Sonnenberg, Anton S M; de Beer, Z Wilhelm; Zhang, Yong; Wingfield, Michael J; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P; de Vries, Ronald P; Korb, Judith; Aanen, Duur K; Wang, Jun; Boomsma, Jacobus J; Zhang, Guojie

    2014-10-07

    Termites normally rely on gut symbionts to decompose organic matter but the Macrotermitinae domesticated Termitomyces fungi to produce their own food. This transition was accompanied by a shift in the composition of the gut microbiota, but the complementary roles of these bacteria in the symbiosis have remained enigmatic. We obtained high-quality annotated draft genomes of the termite Macrotermes natalensis, its Termitomyces symbiont, and gut metagenomes from workers, soldiers, and a queen. We show that members from 111 of the 128 known glycoside hydrolase families are represented in the symbiosis, that Termitomyces has the genomic capacity to handle complex carbohydrates, and that worker gut microbes primarily contribute enzymes for final digestion of oligosaccharides. This apparent division of labor is consistent with the Macrotermes gut microbes being most important during the second passage of comb material through the termite gut, after a first gut passage where the crude plant substrate is inoculated with Termitomyces asexual spores so that initial fungal growth and polysaccharide decomposition can proceed with high efficiency. Complex conversion of biomass in termite mounds thus appears to be mainly accomplished by complementary cooperation between a domesticated fungal monoculture and a specialized bacterial community. In sharp contrast, the gut microbiota of the queen had highly reduced plant decomposition potential, suggesting that mature reproductives digest fungal material provided by workers rather than plant substrate.

  13. Complementary symbiont contributions to plant decomposition in a fungus-farming termite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poulsen, Michael; Hu, Haofu; Li, Cai; Chen, Zhensheng; Xu, Luohao; Otani, Saria; Nygaard, Sanne; Nobre, Tania; Klaubauf, S.; Schindler, Philipp M; Hauser, Frank; Pan, Hailin; Yang, Zhikai; Sonnenberg, Anton S M; de Beer, Z Wilhelm; Zhang, Yong; Wingfield, Michael J; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P; de Vries, Ronald P; Korb, Judith; Aanen, Duur K; Wang, Jun; Boomsma, Jacobus J; Zhang, Guojie; van den Brink, J.

    2014-01-01

    Termites normally rely on gut symbionts to decompose organic matter but the Macrotermitinae domesticated Termitomyces fungi to produce their own food. This transition was accompanied by a shift in the composition of the gut microbiota, but the complementary roles of these bacteria in the symbiosis

  14. Termite Control: Results of Testing at the U.S. Forest Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford M. Kard

    1998-01-01

    Liquid termiticide treatments to soil continue as the most widely used method to protect wooden structures from attack by both native and Formosan subterranean termites, and have been the mainstay of the pest control industry for decades. The Wood Products Insect Research Project was located at Gulfport, MS, until 1995, and is now headquartered on the Mississippi State...

  15. The impact of subterranean termite activity on water infiltration and topsoil properties in Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mettrop, I.S.; Cammeraat, L.H.; Verbeeten, E.

    2013-01-01

    Few quantitative experimental studies have been carried out on the influence of subterranean termite activity on the water infiltration capacity of crusted soils in the semi-arid Sahelian region. These studies found increased infiltration rates on soils that were affected by foraging galleries of

  16. The effect of maize stover used as mulch on termite damage to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated the effect of different quantities of stover applied as mulch on damage to maize plants by termites (principally species of Microtermes, Macrotermes and Pseudacanthotermes) and on the incidence of predatory ant species (Lepisiota sp. and Myrmicaria sp.) over two cropping seasons at Namulonge, Uganda.

  17. Nutrient composition of four species of winged termites consumed in western Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinyuru, J N; Konyole, S O; Roos, Nanna

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to gain knowledge on the nutrient composition of Macrotermes subhylanus, Pseudacanthotermes militaris, Macrotermes bellicosus and P. spiniger termite species, which are consumed in western Kenya. Proximate, iron, zinc, calcium and fatty acid composition were analyz...... deficiencies as well as poor supply of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid sources....

  18. Preliminary evaluation of storax and its constituents: Fungal decay mold and termite resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Nami Kartal; Evren Terzi; Tsuyoshi Yoshimura; Rachel Arango; Carol A. Clausen; Frederick Green III

    2012-01-01

    Essential oils and their derivatives might be one of the promising preserving agents to prevent funga ldecay and termite/insect attack in wood since such compounds have a long history of safe usage as antimicrobial agents in various industries. Considerable research has focused on utilizing bioactive essential oils and wood extractives based on green technologies to...

  19. Presumptive horizontal symbiont transmission in the fungus-growing termite Macrotermes natalensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fine Licht, de H.H.; Boomsma, J.J.; Aanen, D.K.

    2006-01-01

    All colonies of the fungus-growing termite Macrotermes natalensis studied so far are associated with a single genetically variable lineage of Termitomyces symbionts. Such limited genetic variation of symbionts and the absence of sexual fruiting bodies (mushrooms) on M. natalensis mounds would be

  20. The first ant-termite syninclusion in amber with CT-scan analysis of taphonomy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Coty

    Full Text Available We describe here a co-occurrence (i.e. a syninclusion of ants and termites in a piece of Mexican amber (Totolapa deposit, Chiapas, whose importance is two-fold. First, this finding suggests at least a middle Miocene antiquity for the modern, though poorly documented, relationship between Azteca ants and Nasutitermes termites. Second, the presence of a Neivamyrmex army ant documents an in situ raiding behaviour of the same age and within the same community, confirmed by the fact that the army ant is holding one of the termite worker between its mandibles and by the presence of a termite with bitten abdomen. In addition, we present how CT-scan imaging can be an efficient tool to describe the topology of resin flows within amber pieces, and to point out the different states of preservation of the embedded insects. This can help achieving a better understanding of taphonomical processes, and tests ethological and ecological hypotheses in such complex syninclusions.

  1. Laboratory and field evaluation of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae for controlling subterranean termites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, A. [South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou (China). College of Natural Resources and Environment; Ahmed, S. [South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou (China). Dept. of Agricultural Entomology; Shahid, M., E-mail: solvia_aah@yahoo.co [University of Agriculture, Faisalabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry

    2011-03-15

    The efficacy of the Metarhizium anisopliae strain ARSEF 6911 was determined in the laboratory and field against two sugarcane pests, Microtermes obesi Holmgren and Odontotermes obesus Rambur (Termitidae: Isoptera). The susceptibility of both termite species to different conidial suspensions (1 x 10{sup 10}, 1 x 10{sup 8}, 1 x 10{sup 6} and 1 x 10{sup 4} conidia/ml) was determined in laboratory. All conidial suspensions were able to induce mortality. Termite mortality caused by the fungal suspensions was dose dependent. There were no significant differences in the LT{sub 50} values between species. Field evaluation of M. anisopliae alone or in combination with diesel oil and thyamethoxam was carried out in two growing seasons (autumn 2005 and spring 2006) at two sites located in Punjab, Pakistan. Dipping the sugarcane setts in these suspensions was tried to determine their effects on germination and percentage of bud damage to sugarcane setts. All treatments significantly reduced termite infestation compared to the untreated control. The combined treatment of M. anisopliae and diesel oil significantly reduced insect damage by attaining higher germination > 55% and lower bud damage < 5.50% at both sites in both seasons. The results suggest that the application of M. anisopliae and diesel oil in combination might be a useful treatment option for the management of termites in sugarcane. (author)

  2. EFFECTS OF EXTRACTIVES AND DENSITY ON NATURAL RESISTANCE OF WOODS TO TERMITE Nasutitermes corniger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez Benigno Paes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of the natural resistance of wood to wood-destroying organisms is of fundamental importance in the choice of species to be used in buildings and furniture industry. Thus, the effects of extractives and wood density on biological resistance of Acacia mangium, Casuarina equisetifolia, Corymbia torelliana, Eucalyptus cloeziana, Tectona grandis and Caesalpinia echinata woods to the xylophagous termite Nasutitermes corniger was evaluated under laboratory conditions. Test samples, with dimensions of 2.00 x 2.54 x 0.64 cm (radial x tangential x longitudinal in four positions in pith-bark direction (internal heart, intermediate heart, outer heart and sapwood were taken. The woods were exposed to termite action for 28 days in no-choice feeding test. The samples not selected for the termite test were turned into sawdust and the extractive contents were obtained using the shavings that passed through the sieve of 40 and were retained in the sieve of 60 mesh. The wood natural resistance, within the pith-bark positions, for the studied species, is not correlated with the density and extractive content. However, among the woods, those with higher density and extractive content are more resistant. The woods with greater biological resistance to the termite Nasutitermes corniger (smaller mass loss, waste and survival time of insects are Corymbia torelliana and Caesalpinia echinata and of less resistance is Casuarina equisetifolia.

  3. The role of termites and mulch in the rehabilitation of crusted Sahelian soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mando, A.

    1997-01-01

    During recent decades Sahelian soils have gone through various forms of degradation, the most spectacular one being the extension of bare and crusted soils. Mulch, when placed on a crusted and bare soil, triggers termite activity within a few months. Many burrows are opened through the

  4. Soil formation by termites : a study in the Kisii area, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielemaker, W.G.

    1984-01-01

    Mineralogical and chemical characteristics of samples from a number of soils were used to demonstrate that soil materials from volcanic ash and local rock are thoroughly mixed.

    The mineralogy, micromorphology and grain-size distribution were studied to estimate the role of termites in

  5. Pseudoxylaria as stowaway of the fungus-growing termite nest:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, Anna A.; Kooij, Pepijn Wilhelmus; Debets, Alfons J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Though inconspicuous in healthy nests, Pseudoxylaria species are almost always present and overgrow deteriorating fungus-growing termite gardens. Whether these fungi are detrimental to the fungus-garden, benign, or even beneficial is unclear. We hypothesize that Pseudoxylaria is a stowaway that p...

  6. Decay and termite resistance, water absorption and swelling of thermally compressed wood panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oner Unsal; S. Nami Kartal; Zeki Candan; Rachel A. Arango; Carol A. Clausen; Frederick Green

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated decay and termite resistance of thermally compressed pine wood panels under pressure at either 5 or 7 MPa and either 120 or 150 °C for 1 h. Wood specimens from the panels were exposed to laboratory decay resistance by using the wood degrading fungi, Gloeophyllum trabeum and Trametes versicolor. The thermal compression process caused increases in...

  7. Functional analyses of the digestive ß-Glucosidase of Formosan Subterranean Termites (Coptotermes formosanus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The research was to elucidate the function of the ß-glucosidase of Formosan subterranean termites in vitro and in vivo. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses indicated that the gene transcript was relatively more abundant in the foraging worker caste than in other castes and salivary glands were the major ex...

  8. Termite diversity across an anthropogenic disturbance gradient in the humid forest zone of West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggleton, P.; Bignell, D.E.; Hauser, S.; Dibog, L.; Norgrove, L.; Madong, B.

    2002-01-01

    Data are presented for termite assemblages across an anthropogenic disturbance gradient in the humid forest zone of West and Central Africa. Sampling was by standardised 100 mx2 m transects in: primary forest, several ages of regenerating forest, agroforestry plots, short fallows, mixed food crop

  9. Termite and fungal resistance of in situ polymerized tributyltin acrylate and acetylated Indonesian and USA wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach; Yusuf Sudo. Hadi; Dodi. Nandika; Sulaeman. Yusuf; Yuliati. Indrayani

    2000-01-01

    Wood [Indonesian pine (IP), Indonesian Jabon (IJ) and USA southern yellow pine (USP)] was either in situ polymerized with tributyltin acrylate (TBTA) or acetylated and then exposed to termite and fungal degradation both in laboratory tests and field exposure. The TBTA woods had an average weight percent gain (WPG) of 11% for IP, 12% for IJ, and 10% for USP. The...

  10. Effects of extractives and ash on natural resistance of four woods to xylophogous termites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez Benigno Paes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study tested the natural resistance of wood of four tree species to Nasutitermes corniger Motsch. xylophogous termite attack and correlate the resistance with the amount of extract and ash in the chemical composition of the tested species. The species evaluated were Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell. Brenan. var. cebil (Gris. Alts., Tabebuia aurea (Mart. Bureau., Amburana cearensis (Allem. A.C.Sm. and Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. Test samples with dimensions of 2.00 x 10.16 x 0.64 cm (radial x longitudinal x tangential were obtained at two positions (external heartwood and sapwood of each species. The samples were exposed to action of termites for 45 days in food preference assay. The content of wood extractives was obtained through the sawdust that went through sieve of 40 mesh and were retained in the 60 mesh. The natural resistance was not associated with wood extractive contents. The wood more resistant to termite attack was the Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil in the two positions (external heartwood and sapwood and Eucalyptus camaldulensis wood presented the greatest wear. The biological resistance of wood was correlated with ash content, i.e., the species with the highest levels was the most resistant to termite attack.

  11. Chemical Recruitment for Foraging in Ants (Formicidae and Termites (Isoptera: A Revealing Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Jaffe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available All termites secrete trail pheromones from their sternal gland, whereas ants use a variety of glands for this purpose. This and the diversity of chemical compounds that serve as trail pheromones among ants, and the uniformity of chemicals among termite trails, suggest a different evolutionary historical dynamics for the development of chemical mass recruitment in both taxa. Termites in addition show pheromonal parsimony. This suggest a single evolutionary origin of pheromone trails in Isoptera, whereas chemical mass recruitment among Formicidae seems to have evolved many times and in different ways. Despite these very different evolutionary histories, both taxa evolved chemical recruitment systems involving attractants and orientation signals, and at least two divergent decision making system for recruitment. This evolutionary analogy suggests that chemical mass recruitment is constraint by fundamental physical dynamic laws. Artificial intelligence including “mass intelligence” and “ant intelligence”, emulates mass recruitment in interacting virtual agents in search of optimal solutions. This approach, however, has copied only the “Democratic” recruitment dynamics with a single compound pheromone. Ant and termite evolution shows more sophisticated recruitment dynamics which, if understood properly, will improve our understanding of nature and applications of artificial “swarm intelligence”.

  12. Scent of a queen—cuticular hydrocarbons specific for female reproductives in lower termites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, Tobias; Hoffmann, Katharina; Kroiss, Johannes; Strohm, Erhard; Korb, Judith

    2009-02-01

    In social insects, it is assumed that signals of the queen inform nestmates about her reproductive status. Thus, workers forego their own reproduction if the queen signals high fertility. In hemimetabolous termites, little is known about reproductive inhibition, but evidence exists for a royal-pair control. Workers of lower termites exhibit a high developmental flexibility and are potentially able to become reproductives, but the presence of a fertile reproductive restrains them from reaching sexual maturity. The nature of this control, however, remains unknown. Here, we report on qualitative differences in cuticular hydrocarbon profiles between queens and workers of the basal drywood termite Cryptotermes secundus. Queens were characterized by a shift to long-chained and branched hydrocarbons. Most remarkably, similar chemical patterns are regarded as fertility cues of reproductives in social Hymenoptera. This might suggest that both groups of social insects convergently evolved similar chemical signatures. The present study provides deeper insights into how termites might have socially exploited these signatures from sexual communication in their cockroach-like ancestor.

  13. Formosan subterranean termite resistance to heat treatment of Scots pine and Norway spruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Ramsay Smith; Andreas O. Rapp; Christian Welzbacher; Jerrold E. Winandy

    2003-01-01

    New challenges to the durability of wood building materials have arisen in the U.S. The Formosan subterranean termite (Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki) now infests sizable portions of the U.S. south (Figure 1) and their range is extending. Heat treatments offer a unique opportunity for wood-based composites because many of the process techniques already employ various...

  14. Spatial and temporal hotspots of termite-driven decomposition in the Serengeti

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freymann, Bernd P.; de Visser, Sara N.; Olff, Han; Spence, John R.

    Ecosystem engineers are organisms that directly or indirectly control the availability of resources to other organisms by causing physical state changes in biotic or abiotic materials. Termites (Insecta, Isoptera) are among the most important ecosystem engineers in tropical ecosystems. We used a

  15. Termites amplify effects of wood traits on decomposition rates among multiple bamboo and dicot woody species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Guofang; Cornwell, W.K.; Cao, Kunfang; Hu, Yukun; van Logtestijn, R.S.P; Yang, Shijian; Xie, Xiufang; Zhang, Yalin; Ye, Duo; Pan, Xu; Ye, Xuehua; Huang, Zhenying; Dong, Ming; Cornelissen, J.H.C.

    2015-01-01

    Wood decomposition is a key process in the terrestrial carbon cycle, controlling carbon storage with feedback to climate. In (sub) tropical forest, termites are major players in wood decomposition, but their role relative to that of microbial decomposers and wood traits of different tree species is

  16. SPATIAL VARIABILITY AND VITALITY OF EPIGEOUS TERMITE MOUNDS IN PASTURES OF MATO GROSSO DO SUL, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Santana Lima

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Epigeous termite mounds are frequently observed in pasture areas, but the processes regulating their population dynamics are poorly known. This study evaluated epigeous termite mounds in cultivated grasslands used as pastures, assessing their spatial distribution by means of geostatistics and evaluating their vitality. The study was conducted in the Cerrado biome in the municipality of Rio Brilhante, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. In two pasture areas (Pasture 1 and Pasture 2, epigeous mounds (nests were georeferenced and analyzed for height, circumference and vitality (inhabited or not. The area occupied by the mounds was calculated and termite specimens were collected for taxonomic identification. The spatial distribution pattern of the mounds was analyzed with geostatistical procedures. In both pasture areas, all epigeous mounds were built by the same species, Cornitermes cumulans. The mean number of mounds per hectare was 68 in Pasture 1 and 127 in Pasture 2, representing 0.4 and 1 % of the entire area, respectively. A large majority of the mounds were active (vitality, 91 % in Pasture 1 and 84 % in Pasture 2. A “pure nugget effect” was observed in the semivariograms of height and nest circumference in both pastures reflecting randomized spatial distribution and confirming that the distribution of termite mounds in pastures had a non-standard distribution.

  17. Ingested and biomineralized magnetic material in the prey Neocapritermes opacus termite: FMR characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, J. F.; Alves, O. C.; Esquivel, D. M. S.; Wajnberg, E.

    2008-03-01

    The temperature dependence of Ferromagnetic Resonance spectra, from 5 K to 280 K, was used to study the magnetic material present in Neocapritermes opacus termite, the only prey of the Pachycondyla marginata ant. The analysis of the resonant field and peak-to-peak linewidth allowed estimating the particle diameters and the effective anisotropy energy density, KEFF, as a sum of the bulk and surface contributions. It allowed to magnetically distinguish the particles of termites as collected in field from those of termites after 3 days under a cellulose diet, introduced to eliminate ingested/digested material. The data also, suggest the presence of oriented magnetite nanoparticles with diameters of 11.6 ± 0.3 nm in termites as collected in field and (14.0 ± 0.4 nm) in that under a cellulose diet. Differences between their KEFF and its components are also observed. Two transitions are revealed in the resonant field temperature dependence, one at about 50 K that was associated to surface effects and the other at about 100 K attributed to the Verwey transition.

  18. TERMITES (INSECTA: BLATTODEA BUILDINGS IN URBAN LOCATED IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF SEROPÉDICA, RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. M. Soares

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Termites (Blattodea are insects found between latitudes 52° N e 45° S in temperate climate places, such as in tropical areas. In Brazil, about 300 species were recorded belonging to four families: Kalotermitidae, Rhinotermitidae, Serritermitidae and Termitidae. Considered eusocial, they form colonies of individuals with overlapping generations, cooperative care of offspring and labor division. They develop by paurometabolism and are classified in caste with specific tasks within the colony. The staple food of termites is cellulose, but its source varies according to the species. In natural vegetation areas, termites have got an important ecological role, participating actively in recycling and decomposition of nutrients in ecosystems they inhabit. Besides of the positive contribution in changing soil porosity and aeration. In urban areas, 10% of the species are taken as plagues, causing enormous losses, explicit in cost with prevention, control and repair. Damage caused by termites in urban areas are mainly attributed to the species: Cryptotermes brevis (Walker, 1853, Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann, 1896 and Nasutitermes corniger (Motschulsky, 1896. Therefore, identifying termites species that colonize urban households in the municipality of Seropédica, RJ, has been the objective of this study. Three urban neighbourhoods: Fazenda Caxias, Boa Esperança and Ecologia, were sampled. Building were inspectied and owners interviewed, totalling twelve residents per block in fifteen blocks per neighbourhood. Proportion of infested buildings with each species was made suing the χ2 test and the probability level, from which a comparison was considered significant, was equal to the risk probability at 5% divided by the number of comparisons. Of the total 540 inspections, 30% of the households had occurrence of termites of which 50% C. brevis, 42% C. gestroi and 8% N. corniger. Coexistence of species within a residence was found in only 3% of the

  19. Excavation and aggregation as organizing factors in de novo construction by mound-building termites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Ben; Bardunias, Paul; Turner, J Scott; Nagpal, Radhika; Werfel, Justin

    2017-06-14

    Termites construct complex mounds that are orders of magnitude larger than any individual and fulfil a variety of functional roles. Yet the processes through which these mounds are built, and by which the insects organize their efforts, remain poorly understood. The traditional understanding focuses on stigmergy, a form of indirect communication in which actions that change the environment provide cues that influence future work. Termite construction has long been thought to be organized via a putative 'cement pheromone': a chemical added to deposited soil that stimulates further deposition in the same area, thus creating a positive feedback loop whereby coherent structures are built up. To investigate the detailed mechanisms and behaviours through which termites self-organize the early stages of mound construction, we tracked the motion and behaviour of major workers from two Macrotermes species in experimental arenas. Rather than a construction process focused on accumulation of depositions, as models based on cement pheromone would suggest, our results indicated that the primary organizing mechanisms were based on excavation. Digging activity was focused on a small number of excavation sites, which in turn provided templates for soil deposition. This behaviour was mediated by a mechanism of aggregation, with termites being more likely to join in the work at an excavation site as the number of termites presently working at that site increased. Statistical analyses showed that this aggregation mechanism was a response to active digging, distinct from and unrelated to putative chemical cues that stimulate deposition. Agent-based simulations quantitatively supported the interpretation that the early stage of de novo construction is primarily organized by excavation and aggregation activity rather than by stigmergic deposition. © 2017 The Author(s).

  20. Effects of climate change on subterranean termite territory size: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Hee; Chon, Tae-Soo

    2011-01-01

    In order to study how climate change affects the territory size of subterranean termites, a lattice model was used to simulate the foraging territory of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae), and the minimized local rules that are based on empirical data from the development of termites' foraging territory was applied. A landscape was generated by randomly assigning values ranging from 0.0 to 1.0 to each lattice site, which represented the spatially distributed property of the landscape. At the beginning of the simulation run, N territory seeds - one for each founding pair, were randomly distributed on the lattice space. The territories grew during the summer and shrank during the winter. In the model, the effects of climate change were demonstrated by changes in two variables: the period of the summer season, T, and the percentage of the remaining termite cells, σ, after the shrinkage. The territory size distribution was investigated in the size descending order for the values of T (= 10, 15, ... , 50) and σ (= 10, 15, ... , 50) at a steady state after a sufficiently long time period. The distribution was separated into two regions: the larger-sized territories and the smaller-sized territories. The slope, m, of the distribution of territory size on a semi-log scale for the larger-sized territories was maximal with T (45 ≤ T ≤ 50) in the maximal range and with σ in the optimal range (30 ≤ σ ≤ 40), regardless of the value of N. The results suggest that the climate change can influence the termite territory size distribution under the proper balance of T and σ in combination.

  1. Subterranean Termites Feeding on CSI Baits for a Short Duration Still Results in Colony Elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouvenc, Thomas; Su, Nan-Yao

    2017-11-01

    Termite baits using chitin synthesis inhibitors can protect structures from subterranean termite damage by eliminating colonies. One of the potential shortcomings of baits is that termites may have to feed extensively on a bait station for the colony to be eliminated. If disturbances occur during this critical feeding time, termites may abandon the site, which could prevent colony elimination. We exposed whole laboratory colonies of Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann) containing an average of 59,000 termites to 0.5% noviflumuron baits, from 1 to 10 d, to simulate a temporary access to the bait as a result of disturbances. Our results show that colonies which fed for a single day and consumed as little as 1.1 g of bait matrix (=5.5 mg noviflumuron) were eliminated within 90 d. This study indicates that only a fraction of the bait matrix is necessary for elimination of large laboratory colonies, and that hypothetical disturbance reducing the access to a bait station would likely have little impact on the effect of the bait. Within 1 d, colonies had already acquired a lethal dose, which is shared by trophallaxis to all individuals of the colony, and colonies inevitably died despite short exposure to noviflumuron. It is estimated that if a field mature colony of 1 million individuals consumes more than 18.6 g of bait (=93 mg noviflumuron) in a relatively short period, it would already have acquired a colony-wide lethal dose and reached a point of no-return for colony elimination. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Patterns of interaction specificity of fungus-growing termites and Termitomyces symbionts in South Africa

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    de Beer Z Wilhelm

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Termites of the subfamily Macrotermitinae live in a mutualistic symbiosis with basidiomycete fungi of the genus Termitomyces. Here, we explored interaction specificity in fungus-growing termites using samples from 101 colonies in South-Africa and Senegal, belonging to eight species divided over three genera. Knowledge of interaction specificity is important to test the hypothesis that inhabitants (symbionts are taxonomically less diverse than 'exhabitants' (hosts and to test the hypothesis that transmission mode is an important determinant for interaction specificity. Results Analysis of Molecular Variance among symbiont ITS sequences across termite hosts at three hierarchical levels showed that 47 % of the variation occurred between genera, 18 % between species, and the remaining 35 % between colonies within species. Different patterns of specificity were evident. High mutual specificity was found for the single Macrotermes species studied, as M. natalensis was associated with a single unique fungal haplotype. The three species of the genus Odontotermes showed low symbiont specificity: they were all associated with a genetically diverse set of fungal symbionts, but their fungal symbionts showed some host specificity, as none of the fungal haplotypes were shared between the studied Odontotermes species. Finally, bilaterally low specificity was found for the four tentatively recognized species of the genus Microtermes, which shared and apparently freely exchanged a common pool of divergent fungal symbionts. Conclusion Interaction specificity was high at the genus level and generally much lower at the species level. A comparison of the observed diversity among fungal symbionts with the diversity among termite hosts, indicated that the fungal symbiont does not follow the general pattern of an endosymbiont, as we found either similar diversity at both sides or higher diversity in the symbiont. Our results further challenge the

  3. DGGE detection and screening of lignocellulolytic bacteria from the termite gut of Coptotermes formosanus

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    Mathew, G.M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Termites thrive in terrestrial ecosystems and play an important role in the bio-recycling of lignocellulose. The objective of this study is to isolate and detect bacteria from the termite gut of Coptotermes formosanus and to screen their various enzyme activities by qualitative methods. In addition, this study was aimed to isolate lignin and furfural tolerant strains for various industrial bioprocesses.Methodology and Results: In this study, 50 worker termites of Coptotermes formosanus were collected from dead trees, from a forest in Taichung, Taiwan in June 2008 and the composition of the microbial flora from the termite guts was analyzed by DGGE analysis. The results proved that anaerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria consisting of Acinetobacter, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Escherichia coli, and Caulobacter readily existed in the guts of termites. Although the majority of these gut symbionts have not yet been cultivated or identified, some related bacteria were isolated. Two isolates 1-8 and 2-2 of Genus Bacillus, exhibited endocellulase, protease, lipase, amylase, peroxidase and lignin peroxidase activity. Under aerobic conditions, the growth density of isolate 1-8 cultured in 1000 ppm lignin containing MSM medium was two-folds higher than cultured in MSM medium without lignin. Furthermore, the isolate 1-8 was tolerant to 20 mM furfural supplemented in the MSM medium. HPLC analysis confirmed Bacillus isolate 1-8 could degrade up to 15 mM furfural.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: Hind gut bacteria from C. formosanus were detected by culture independent DGGE method. Also, Bacillus isolates 1-8 and 2-2 obtained by culture dependent methods could withstand higher concentration of furfural and as well as lignin. These isolates may be co-cultured with ethanologenic bacteria and be used as an industrial biocatalyst for biofuel production.

  4. Pycnoscelus surinamensis cockroach gut microbiota respond consistently to a fungal diet without mirroring those of fungus-farming termites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richards, Callum; Otani, Saria; Mikaelyan, Aram

    2017-01-01

    microbiotas from 49 gut samples showed a step-wise gradient pattern in community similarity that correlated with an increase in the proportion of fungal material provided to the cockroaches. Comparison of the taxonomic composition of manipulated communities to that of gut communities of a fungus......The gut microbiotas of cockroaches and termites play important roles in the symbiotic digestion of dietary components, such as lignocellulose. Diet has been proposed as a primary determinant of community structure within the gut, acting as a selection force to shape the diversity observed within...... this “bioreactor”, and as a key factor for the divergence of the termite gut microbiota from the omnivorous cockroach ancestor. The gut microbiota in most termites supports primarily the breakdown of lignocellulose, but the fungus-farming subfamily of higher termites has become similar in gut microbiota...

  5. Enzyme activities at different stages of plant biomass decomposition in three species of fungus-growing termites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Costa, Rafael R.; Hu, Haofu; Pilgaard, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Fungus-growing termites rely on the mutualistic fungus Termitomyces and gut microbes for plant biomass degradation. Due to a certain degree of symbiont complementarity, this tripartite symbiosis has evolved as a complex bioreactor, enabling decomposition of nearly any plant polymer, likely contri...... assays, transcriptomics and plant content measurements to shed light on how this decomposition of plant substrate is effectively accomplished.......Fungus-growing termites rely on the mutualistic fungus Termitomyces and gut microbes for plant biomass degradation. Due to a certain degree of symbiont complementarity, this tripartite symbiosis has evolved as a complex bioreactor, enabling decomposition of nearly any plant polymer, likely...... contributing to the success of the termites as the main plant decomposers in the Old World. Here we evaluate which plant polymers are decomposed and which enzymes are active during the decomposition process in two major genera of fungus-growing termites. We find a diversity of active enzymes at different...

  6. Filogenia, biogeografia e ecologia das térmitas dos Açores

    OpenAIRE

    Myles, Timothy G.; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Ferreira, Maria T.; Guerreiro, Orlando; Borges, Annabella; Rodrigues, Cristina

    2007-01-01

    Three species of termites are currently known in the archipelago (the European dampwood termite, Kalotermes flavicollis, the West Indies drywood termite, Cryptotermes brevis, and the Iberian subterranean termite Reticulitermes grassei). All these three species are "lower termites", that is, primitive species having simple galleries but not well formed nests, tending to be less socially advanced and to occur in more temperate latitudes, generally eating only wood but not other types of cellulo...

  7. Pycnoscelus surinamensis cockroach gut microbiota respond consistently to a fungal diet without mirroring those of fungus-farming termites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callum Richards

    Full Text Available The gut microbiotas of cockroaches and termites play important roles in the symbiotic digestion of dietary components, such as lignocellulose. Diet has been proposed as a primary determinant of community structure within the gut, acting as a selection force to shape the diversity observed within this "bioreactor", and as a key factor for the divergence of the termite gut microbiota from the omnivorous cockroach ancestor. The gut microbiota in most termites supports primarily the breakdown of lignocellulose, but the fungus-farming sub-family of higher termites has become similar in gut microbiota to the ancestral omnivorous cockroaches. To assess the importance of a fungus diet as a driver of community structure, we compare community compositions in the guts of experimentally manipulated Pycnoscelus surinamensis cockroaches fed on fungus cultivated by fungus-farming termites. MiSeq amplicon analysis of gut microbiotas from 49 gut samples showed a step-wise gradient pattern in community similarity that correlated with an increase in the proportion of fungal material provided to the cockroaches. Comparison of the taxonomic composition of manipulated communities to that of gut communities of a fungus-feeding termite species showed that although some bacteria OTUs shared by P. surinamensis and the farming termites increased in the guts of cockroaches on a fungal diet, cockroach communities remained distinct from those of termites. These results demonstrate that a fungal diet can play a role in structuring gut community composition, but at the same time exemplifies how original community compositions constrain the magnitude of such change.

  8. 454 Pyrosequencing-based assessment of bacterial diversity and community structure in termite guts, mounds and surrounding soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makonde, Huxley M; Mwirichia, Romano; Osiemo, Zipporah; Boga, Hamadi I; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2015-01-01

    Termites constitute part of diverse and economically important termite fauna in Africa, but information on gut microbiota and their associated soil microbiome is still inadequate. In this study, we assessed and compared the bacterial diversity and community structure between termites' gut, their mounds and surrounding soil using the 454 pyrosequencing-based analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences. A wood-feeder termite (Microcerotermes sp.), three fungus-cultivating termites (Macrotermes michaelseni, Odontotermes sp. and Microtermes sp.), their associated mounds and corresponding savannah soil samples were analyzed. The pH of the gut homogenates and soil physico-chemical properties were determined. The results indicated significant difference in bacterial community composition and structure between the gut and corresponding soil samples. Soil samples (Chao1 index ranged from 1359 to 2619) had higher species richness than gut samples (Chao1 index ranged from 461 to 1527). The bacterial composition and community structure in the gut of Macrotermes michaelseni and Odontotermes sp. were almost identical but different from that of Microtermes and Microcerotermes species, which had unique community structures. The most predominant bacterial phyla in the gut were Bacteroidetes (40-58 %), Spirochaetes (10-70 %), Firmicutes (17-27 %) and Fibrobacteres (13 %) while in the soil samples were Acidobacteria (28-45 %), Actinobacteria (20-40 %) and Proteobacteria (18-24 %). Some termite gut-specific bacterial lineages belonging to the genera Dysgonomonas, Parabacteroides, Paludibacter, Tannerella, Alistipes, BCf9-17 termite group and Termite Treponema cluster were observed. The results not only demonstrated a high level of bacterial diversity in the gut and surrounding soil environments, but also presence of distinct bacterial communities that are yet to be cultivated. Therefore, combined efforts using both culture and culture-independent methods are suggested to

  9. Isolation and assessment of gut bacteria from the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae), for paratransgenesis research and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhe, Chinmay V; Sethi, Amit; Delatte, Jennifer; Husseneder, Claudia

    2017-02-01

    Paratransgenesis targeting the gut protozoa is being developed as an alternative method for the control of the Formosan subterranean termite (FST). This method involves killing the cellulose-digesting gut protozoa using a previously developed antiprotozoal peptide consisting of a target specific ligand coupled to an antimicrobial peptide (Hecate). In the future, we intend to genetically engineer termite gut bacteria as "Trojan Horses" to express and spread ligand-Hecate in the termite colony. The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of bacteria strains isolated from the gut of FST as "Trojan Horses." We isolated 135 bacteria from the guts of workers from 3 termite colonies. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene identified 20 species. We tested 5 bacteria species that were previously described as part of the termite gut community for their tolerance against Hecate and ligand-Hecate. Results showed that the minimum concentration required to inhibit bacteria growth was always higher than the concentration required to kill the gut protozoa. Out of the 5 bacteria tested, we engineered Trabulsiella odontotermitis, a termite specific bacterium, to express green fluorescent protein as a proof of concept that the bacteria can be engineered to express foreign proteins. Engineered T. odontotermitis was fed to FST to study if the bacteria are ingested. This feeding experiment confirmed that engineered T. odontotermitis is ingested by termites and can survive in the gut for at least 48 h. Here we report that T. odontotermitis is a suitable delivery and expression system for paratransgenesis in a termite species. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  10. Application of ground penetrating radar in detecting the hazards and risks of termites and ants in soil levees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiuhao; Henderson, Gregg; Mao, Lixin; Evans, Ahmad

    2009-08-01

    A ground penetrating radar (GPR) technique was used to detect Formosan subterranean termite (Coptotermes formosanus) and red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta) hazards and risks (targets) in a soil levee at the London Avenue Canal in New Orleans, LA. To make this assessment, GPR signal scans were examined for features produced by termite or ant activities and potential sources of food and shelter such as nests, tree roots, and voids (tunnels). The total scanned length of the soil levee was 4,125 m. The average velocity and effective depth of the radar penetration was 0.080 m/ns and 0.61 m, respectively. Four hundred twenty-seven targets were identified. Tree roots (38), voids (31), fire ant nests (209), and metal objects (149) were detected, but no Formosan termite carton nests were identified. The lack of identified termite nests may be related to drowning events at the time to the flood. Based on the target density (TD), the two new floodwall and levee sections that were rebuilt or reinforced after they were destroyed by Hurricane Katrina in 2005 were determined to be at low potential risk from termites and ants. A merging target density (MTD) method indicated a high potential risk near one of the breached sections still remains. Foraging and nesting activity of Formosan subterranean termites and red imported fire ants may be a contributory factor to the levee failure at the London Avenue Canal.

  11. THERMAL MODIFICATION OF RUBBERWOOD TO INCREASE ITS RESISTANCE AGAINST ASIAN SUBTERRANEAN TERMITES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasin, M

    2014-01-01

    The potential of thermal modification to improve the resistance of rubberwood to Asian subterranean termites Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) was studied. The rubberwood samples were dried at 185, 200 or 215 °C until constant weight before termite tests. The choice experiment in the field had three months duration. The results indicated that drying at 215 °C gave rubberwood the best resistance to C. gestroi infestation among these samples, with the lowest relative loss of mass, followed in rank order by 200, 185 °C and control treatments. However, the relative loss of mass did not differ significantly between the 200 and the 185 °C treatments. The control samples were distinctly infested by C. gestroi. The thermal treatments affected meachanical properties, and bending strength and density decreased while compressive strength parallel to grain increased with the treatment temperature.

  12. RESISTANCE TO THE ATTACK OF DRY-WOOD TERMITES (Cryptotermes brevis OF SIX WOOD SPECIES

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    Fabrício Gomes Gonçalves

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The dry wood termites are one of the largest causes of damages in wood used in Brazil. This work analyzed the attackof the Cryptotermes brevis in six commercials wood species in the north of the Rio de Janeiro and south of the Espírito Santo. The testobserved the number of holes, the percentage of died individuals and the damage of the pieces. When compared to the Pinus sp(reference, the species with less susceptibility to the attack were Cedrela fissilis, Cariocar brasiliense and Goupia glabra, that alsopresented the largest percentages of mortality of termites. The Schizolobium parahyba, Toona ciliata and the Tachigalia myrmecophyllawere the species with the highest level of damage.

  13. Death of an order: a comprehensive molecular phylogenetic study confirms that termites are eusocial cockroaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inward, Daegan; Beccaloni, George; Eggleton, Paul

    2007-06-22

    Termites are instantly recognizable mound-builders and house-eaters: their complex social lifestyles have made them incredibly successful throughout the tropics. Although known as 'white ants', they are not ants and their relationships with other insects remain unclear. Our molecular phylogenetic analyses, the most comprehensive yet attempted, show that termites are social cockroaches, no longer meriting being classified as a separate order (Isoptera) from the cockroaches (Blattodea). Instead, we propose that they should be treated as a family (Termitidae) of cockroaches. It is surprising to find that a group of wood-feeding cockroaches has evolved full sociality, as other ecologically dominant fully social insects (e.g. ants, social bees and social wasps) have evolved from solitary predatory wasps.

  14. Hospitalitermes krishnai, a new nasute termite (Nasutitermitinae, Termitidae, Isoptera, from southern Sumatra, Indonesia

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    Syaukani Syaukani

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A new species of nasute termite, Hospitalitermes krishnai sp. n., is described from soldiers and workers discovered in Lampung Province, Sumatra. This species can be distinguished from other related Hospitalitermes species from Southeast Asia by the anterior part of head capsule that is much smaller than the posterior part, head capsule that is moderately constricted behind the antennal sockets, and relatively deep depression between the head and nasus and, finally, the short and robust nasus measuring less than half as long as head capsule. Moreover, in profile the nasus is slightly up-curved but slightly decurved at the apical tip. We name this new species after Professor Kumar Krishna in recognition of his life-long contributions to termite taxonomy, systematics and biology.

  15. Phylogeography of the termite Macrotermes gilvus and insight into ancient dispersal corridors in Pleistocene Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veera Singham, G; Othman, Ahmad Sofiman; Lee, Chow-Yang

    2017-01-01

    Dispersal of soil-dwelling organisms via the repeatedly exposed Sunda shelf through much of the Pleistocene in Southeast Asia has not been studied extensively, especially for invertebrates. Here we investigated the phylogeography of an endemic termite species, Macrotermes gilvus (Hagen), to elucidate the spatiotemporal dynamics of dispersal routes of terrestrial fauna in Pleistocene Southeast Asia. We sampled 213 termite colonies from 66 localities throughout the region. Independently inherited microsatellites and mtDNA markers were used to infer the phylogeographic framework of M. gilvus. Discrete phylogeographic analysis and molecular dating based on fossil calibration were used to infer the dynamics of M. gilvus dispersal in time and space across Southeast Asia. We found that the termite dispersal events were consistently dated within the Pleistocene time frame. The dispersal pattern was multidirectional, radiating eastwards and southwards out of Indochina, which was identified as the origin for dispersal events. We found no direct dispersal events between Sumatra and Borneo despite the presence of a terrestrial connection between them during the Pleistocene. Instead, central Java served as an important link allowing termite colonies to be established in Borneo and Sumatra. Our findings support the hypothesis of a north-south dispersal corridor in Southeast Asia and suggest the presence of alternative dispersal routes across Sundaland during the Pleistocene. For the first time, we also propose that a west-east dispersal through over-water rafting likely occurred across the Pleistocene South China Sea. We found at least two independent entry routes for terrestrial species to infiltrate Sumatra and Borneo at different times.

  16. High throughput screening of hydrolytic enzymes from termites using a natural substrate derived from sugarcane bagasse

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    Lucena Severino A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The description of new hydrolytic enzymes is an important step in the development of techniques which use lignocellulosic materials as a starting point for fuel production. Sugarcane bagasse, which is subjected to pre-treatment, hydrolysis and fermentation for the production of ethanol in several test refineries, is the most promising source of raw material for the production of second generation renewable fuels in Brazil. One problem when screening hydrolytic activities is that the activity against commercial substrates, such as carboxymethylcellulose, does not always correspond to the activity against the natural lignocellulosic material. Besides that, the macroscopic characteristics of the raw material, such as insolubility and heterogeneity, hinder its use for high throughput screenings. Results In this paper, we present the preparation of a colloidal suspension of particles obtained from sugarcane bagasse, with minimal chemical change in the lignocellulosic material, and demonstrate its use for high throughput assays of hydrolases using Brazilian termites as the screened organisms. Conclusions Important differences between the use of the natural substrate and commercial cellulase substrates, such as carboxymethylcellulose or crystalline cellulose, were observed. This suggests that wood feeding termites, in contrast to litter feeding termites, might not be the best source for enzymes that degrade sugarcane biomass.

  17. How micro/nanoarchitecture facilitates anti-wetting: an elegant hierarchical design on the termite wing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Gregory S; Cribb, Bronwen W; Watson, Jolanta A

    2010-01-26

    The termite is an insect which is a weak flier, has a large wing area in relation to its body mass, and many species typically fly during rain or storm periods. Water droplets placed on these insects' wings will spontaneously roll off the surface. Here we show how the intricate hierarchical array design of these insect wings achieves anti-wetting properties with water bodies of various sizes by reducing contact area and thus adhesion. To repel large droplets, the termite uses an array of hairs with a specially designed nanoarchitecture, which we demonstrate is critical for this function. By coating single hairs with a polymer of varying thicknesses (with a similar hydrophobicity to insect cuticle), we demonstrate that hairs of the same chemistry and with the complete nanoarchitecture show the greatest resistance to penetrating water bodies. The wings also consist of an underlying non-wetting membrane substructure comprising an array of star-shaped microstructures which minimize interaction with micro-sized droplets of water. The sophisticated micro/nanostructured hierarchy on the termite wing membrane not only results in non-wetting at different length scales but also demonstrates a design for weight and material minimization while achieving this state. Elucidating the function of such structures has implications for understanding insect biology and the evolution of wings.

  18. The caste- and sex-specific DNA methylome of the termite Zootermopsis nevadensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glastad, Karl M; Gokhale, Kaustubh; Liebig, Jürgen; Goodisman, Michael A D

    2016-11-16

    Epigenetic inheritance plays an important role in mediating alternative phenotype in highly social species. In order to gain a greater understanding of epigenetic effects in societies, we investigated DNA methylation in the termite Zootermopsis nevadensis. Termites are the most ancient social insects, and developmentally distinct from highly-studied, hymenopteran social insects. We used replicated bisulfite-sequencing to investigate patterns of DNA methylation in both sexes and among castes of Z. nevadensis. We discovered that Z. nevadensis displayed some of the highest levels of DNA methylation found in insects. We also found strong differences in methylation between castes. Methylated genes tended to be uniformly and highly expressed demonstrating the antiquity of associations between intragenic methylation and gene expression. Differentially methylated genes were more likely to be alternatively spliced than not differentially methylated genes, and possessed considerable enrichment for development-associated functions. We further observed strong overrepresentation of multiple transcription factor binding sites and miRNA profiles associated with differential methylation, providing new insights into the possible function of DNA methylation. Overall, our results show that DNA methylation is widespread and associated with caste differences in termites. More generally, this study provides insights into the function of DNA methylation and the success of insect societies.

  19. On edge-aware path-based color spatial sampling for Retinex: from Termite Retinex to Light Energy-driven Termite Retinex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone, Gabriele; Cordone, Roberto; Serapioni, Raul Paolo; Lecca, Michela

    2017-05-01

    Retinex theory estimates the human color sensation at any observed point by correcting its color based on the spatial arrangement of the colors in proximate regions. We revise two recent path-based, edge-aware Retinex implementations: Termite Retinex (TR) and Energy-driven Termite Retinex (ETR). As the original Retinex implementation, TR and ETR scan the neighborhood of any image pixel by paths and rescale their chromatic intensities by intensity levels computed by reworking the colors of the pixels on the paths. Our interest in TR and ETR is due to their unique, content-based scanning scheme, which uses the image edges to define the paths and exploits a swarm intelligence model for guiding the spatial exploration of the image. The exploration scheme of ETR has been showed to be particularly effective: its paths are local minima of an energy functional, designed to favor the sampling of image pixels highly relevant to color sensation. Nevertheless, since its computational complexity makes ETR poorly practicable, here we present a light version of it, named Light Energy-driven TR, and obtained from ETR by implementing a modified, optimized minimization procedure and by exploiting parallel computing.

  20. BIBLIOMETRICS ON ONE OF THE LARGEST TERMITE INVENTORIES IN THE CERRADO: "STUDIES ON TERMITES FROM THE MATO GROSSO STATE, BRAZIL BY AGA MATHEWS 1977"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HÉLIDA FERREIRA DA CUNHA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper consists on a bibliometric analysis of the international influences of the book "Studies on termites from the Mato Grosso State, Brazil", by AGA Mathews (1977. The number of citations has increased over the years after the first citation. Mathews book was cited in articles, reviews, theses, dissertations, books, book chapters, abstracts in conference proceedings, comments and scientific notes. Most these studies are empirical and descriptive. The studies were conducted in 35 countries of the Neotropical, Palearctic, Afrotropical, Nearctic, Australasia and Indomalaya regions. 55% of the studies were carried out in Brazil. The journals Sociobiology and Insectes Sociaux, have social insect studies within its scope, and the highest number of articles citing Mathews. Most of the 71 authors that cited Mathews more than twice are Brazilian. Constrictotermes cyphergaster was the most studied in over 80% of the studies addressing Isoptera. The most frequent keywords were termite, Isoptera and taxonomy, generalist terms indexed in most publications carried out in different countries. Most of the research studies were carried out in laboratories and native vegetation areas. Studies in agroecosystems were implemented predominantly in Brazil. This study shows the diversity of application (citations of Mathews' book, and that the number of citations will continue to increase due to the large amount of information presented by the author.

  1. Comparative Study of the Resistance of Six Hawaii-Grown Bamboo Species to Attack by the Subterranean Termites Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann) (Blattodea: Rhinotermitidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapukotuwa, Nirmala K.; Grace, J. Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Bamboo is widely grown and utilized as a construction material around the world, particularly in the tropics. At present, there are about 70 bamboo species and varieties recorded from Hawaii. The objective of our study was to determine the relative resistance of six Hawaii-grown bamboo species to attack by Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann). Four-week laboratory feeding trials were performed as described in standard E1-09 of the American Wood Protection Association (AWPA 2009). Samples of each of the six bamboo species were individually exposed to 200 termites (with 10% soldiers); and termite mortality, wood mass loss, and visual appearance of the samples (on a scale of 0–10) were recorded at the conclusion of the trail. Mean mass losses of the six species as a result of termite feeding ranged from 13–29%; with the two most resistant bamboo species, Gigantocholoa pseudoarundinacea and Bambusa oldhamii, demonstrating significantly greater resistance to termite attack than the most susceptible bamboo species, Guadua anguistifolia, with both termite species. Dendrocalamus brandisii, Dendrocalamus latiflorus, and Bambusa hirose were intermediate in their termite resistance. Overall, we observed very little difference in wood preference between C. formosanus and C. gestroi. Although bamboo is a very promising construction material, and species clearly differ in their susceptibility to termite attack, all six species evaluated in the present study would require additional protection for use under conditions of high termite pressure. PMID:26467827

  2. CHANGES IN THE DISTRIBUTION OF SUBTERRANEAN TERMITE COLONIES (ISOPTERA: RHINOTERMITIDAE) IN CITY PARK, NEW ORLEANS, LOUISIANA IN THE AFTERMATH OF HURRICANE KATRINA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Termite activity had been continuously monitored in four sections of City Park since 2002. Between 2002 and 2005, 12 distinct Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, colonies had been delineated using mark-release-recapture techniques. This study examines how the distribution ...

  3. Comparative Study of the Resistance of Six Hawaii-Grown Bamboo Species to Attack by the Subterranean Termites Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann (Blattodea: Rhinotermitidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kenneth Grace

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo is widely grown and utilized as a construction material around the world, particularly in the tropics. At present, there are about 70 bamboo species and varieties recorded from Hawaii. The objective of our study was to determine the relative resistance of six Hawaii-grown bamboo species to attack by Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann. Four-week laboratory feeding trials were performed as described in standard E1-09 of the American Wood Protection Association (AWPA 2009. Samples of each of the six bamboo species were individually exposed to 200 termites (with 10% soldiers; and termite mortality, wood mass loss, and visual appearance of the samples (on a scale of 0–10 were recorded at the conclusion of the trail. Mean mass losses of the six species as a result of termite feeding ranged from 13–29%; with the two most resistant bamboo species, Gigantocholoa pseudoarundinacea and Bambusa oldhamii, demonstrating significantly greater resistance to termite attack than the most susceptible bamboo species, Guadua anguistifolia, with both termite species. Dendrocalamus brandisii, Dendrocalamus latiflorus, and Bambusa hirose were intermediate in their termite resistance. Overall, we observed very little difference in wood preference between C. formosanus and C. gestroi. Although bamboo is a very promising construction material, and species clearly differ in their susceptibility to termite attack, all six species evaluated in the present study would require additional protection for use under conditions of high termite pressure.

  4. Metagenomic analysis of the microbiota in the highly compartmented hindguts of six wood- or soil-feeding higher termites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossmassler, Karen; Dietrich, Carsten; Thompson, Claire; Mikaelyan, Aram; Nonoh, James O; Scheffrahn, Rudolf H; Sillam-Dussès, David; Brune, Andreas

    2015-11-26

    Termites are important contributors to carbon and nitrogen cycling in tropical ecosystems. Higher termites digest lignocellulose in various stages of humification with the help of an entirely prokaryotic microbiota housed in their compartmented intestinal tract. Previous studies revealed fundamental differences in community structure between compartments, but the functional roles of individual lineages in symbiotic digestion are mostly unknown. Here, we conducted a highly resolved analysis of the gut microbiota in six species of higher termites that feed on plant material at different levels of humification. Combining amplicon sequencing and metagenomics, we assessed similarities in community structure and functional potential between the major hindgut compartments (P1, P3, and P4). Cluster analysis of the relative abundances of orthologous gene clusters (COGs) revealed high similarities among wood- and litter-feeding termites and strong differences to humivorous species. However, abundance estimates of bacterial phyla based on 16S rRNA genes greatly differed from those based on protein-coding genes. Community structure and functional potential of the microbiota in individual gut compartments are clearly driven by the digestive strategy of the host. The metagenomics libraries obtained in this study provide the basis for future studies that elucidate the fundamental differences in the symbiont-mediated breakdown of lignocellulose and humus by termites of different feeding groups. The high proportion of uncultured bacterial lineages in all samples calls for a reference-independent approach for the correct taxonomic assignment of protein-coding genes.

  5. Microenvironmental heterogeneity of gut compartments drives bacterial community structure in wood- and humus-feeding higher termites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikaelyan, Aram; Meuser, Katja; Brune, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Symbiotic digestion of lignocellulose in higher termites (family Termitidae) is accomplished by an exclusively prokaryotic gut microbiota. By deep sequencing of amplified 16S rRNA genes, we had identified diet as the primary determinant of bacterial community structure in a broad selection of termites specialized on lignocellulose in different stages of humification. Here, we increased the resolution of our approach to account for the pronounced heterogeneity in microenvironmental conditions and microbial activities in the major hindgut compartments. The community structure of consecutive gut compartments in each species strongly differed, but that of homologous compartments clearly converged, even among unrelated termites. While the alkaline P1 compartments of all termites investigated contained specific lineages of Clostridiales, the posterior hindgut compartments (P3, P4) differed between feeding groups and were predominantly colonized by putatively fiber-associated lineages of Spirochaetes, Fibrobacteres and the TG3 phylum (wood and grass feeders) or diverse assemblages of Clostridiales and Bacteroidetes (humus and soil feeders). The results underscore that bacterial community structure in termite guts is driven by microenvironmental factors, such as pH, available substrates and gradients of O2 and H2, and inspire investigations on the functional roles of specific bacterial taxa in lignocellulose and humus digestion. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Termite (Insecta, Isoptera assemblage of a gallery forest relic from the Chaco province (Argentina: taxonomic and functional groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godoy, M. C.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Termite fauna of the gallery forest in the Colonia Benitez Reserve (Chaco province, Argentina were analyzed using the rapid diversity assessment protocol (100 x 2 m transects. Twelve species, 10 genera and two families (Kalotermitidae and Termitidae, were detected, comprising the four feeding groups recognized for termites. True soil–feeders (IV showed the highest species richness, and dead wood and grasses feeders (II had the highest relative abundance. The most frequently occupied microhabitats were dead wood pieces lying on the ground. These results indicate that the Reserve harbors a diverse termite community similar to the ‘monte fuerte’ isopteran fauna (91.6% shared species. Our findings also support the Reserve´s value as a well–preserved fragment of the original gallery forest and emphasize the need to promote its conservation.

  7. Microtermolides A and B from termite-associated Streptomyces sp. and structural revision of vinylamycin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carr, Gavin; Poulsen, Michael; Klassen, Jonathan L.

    2012-01-01

    Microtermolides A (1) and B (2) were isolated from a Streptomyces sp. strain associated with fungus-growing termites. The structures of 1 and 2 were determined by 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy and high-resolution mass spectrometry. Structural elucidation of 1 led to the re-examination of the struct......Microtermolides A (1) and B (2) were isolated from a Streptomyces sp. strain associated with fungus-growing termites. The structures of 1 and 2 were determined by 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy and high-resolution mass spectrometry. Structural elucidation of 1 led to the re...

  8. THE RESISTANCE OF WOOD PLASTIC COMPOSITE TO THE DRY-WOOD TERMITE Cryptotermes cynocephalus Light. AND THE SUBTERRANEAN TERMITE Coptotermes curvignathus Holmgren INFESTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasni Jasni

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Wood  plastic  composites   (WPC were made  by impregnating  monomer   and  vinyl acetate monomer  with addition  of  terbutyl peroxide  catalyst. This laboratory  scale experiment  aimed at looking into  the durability of  WPC polymerized  at varying mixture  ratios between  styrene and vinyl acetate monomers,  compared  to the natural   durability of  the corresponding   wood  treated with impralit CKB.  In this  regard,  wood  samples were dried until 10 % moisture  content,   and then  they were put in the tank under  20 mm Hg vacuum was being released.   Styrene  monomer with vinyl acetate  addition was flown to the tank, and the wood  samples were immersed  in the monomer   for  24 hours.   Furthermore,   the wood  samples  were taken  out,  and  wrapped  with aluminum  foil, and then were   put in the oven for 24 hours at 60° C. The  wraps were opened, and the samples were  conditioned.   The  samples were tested  to dry wood  termite  (Cryptotermes cynocephalus Light.,  and the Subterranean  termite (Coptotermes curvignathus Holmgren..  Investigated factors were (i wood species consisting of sengon, pine, and rubber wood, and (ii ratio of styrene to vinyl acetate. i.e.  90/10;  80/20;  70/30;  and 60/40.   For comparison,  each wood samples  treated with  Impralit  CKB  3% and untreated   (unpolymerized    wood  samples  (a control  were  also prepared.  The  results showed  that polymer  loadings  in the  sengon, pine and rubber  wood were 118 %, 72 % and  44%  respectively. Increasing  of  vinyl acetate  to styrene  tended  to decrease polymer loading,  the addition  of  10% gave 96% polymer  loading,  20% gave 108%,  30% gave 71 %, and 30% gave 38 % respectively.  It appeared that treatment  of styrene with low vinyl acetate additions  (60:40 had resulted  in consecutively  95.67%  and 97.75 % mortality  of  the dry

  9. Morphophysiological study of digestive system litter-feeding termite Cornitermes cumulans (Kollar, 1832).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Géssica; Dos Santos, Vânia Cristina; de Figueiredo Gontijo, Nelder; Constantino, Reginaldo; de Oliveira Paiva E Silva, Gabriela; Bahia, Ana Cristina; Gomes, Fabio Mendonça; de Alcantara Machado, Ednildo

    2017-06-01

    Termites are the major decomposers of lignocellulosic biomass on Earth and are commonly considered as biological reactor models for lignocellulose degradation. Despite their biotechnological potential, few studies have focused on the morphophysiological aspects of the termite digestive system. We therefore analyze the morphology, ultrastructure and gut luminal pH of the digestive system in workers of the litter-feeding termite Cornitermes cumulans (Blattodea: Termitidae). Their digestive system is composed of salivary glands and an alimentary canal with a pH ranging from neutral to alkaline. The salivary glands have an acinar structure and present cells with secretory characteristics. The alimentary canal is differentiated into the foregut, midgut, mixed segment and hindgut, which comprises the ileum (p1), enteric valve (p2), paunch (p3), colon (p4) and rectum (p5) segments. The foregut has a well-developed chewing system. The midgut possesses a tubular peritrophic membrane and two cell types: digestive cells with secretory and absorptive features and several regenerative cells in mitosis, both cell types being organized into regenerative crypts. The mixed segment exhibits cells rich in glycogen granules. Hindgut p1, p4 and p5 segments have flattened cells with a few apical invaginations related to mitochondria and a thick cuticular lining. Conversely, the hindgut p3 segment contains large cuboid cells with extensive apical invaginations associated with numerous mitochondria. These new insights into the morphophysiology of the digestive system of C. cumulans reveal that it mobilizes lignocellulose components as a nutritional source by means of a highly compartmentalized organization with specialized segments and complex microenvironments.

  10. Diversité, nuisances et modes de gestion des termites (Isoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ce travail présente la première liste des espèces de termites recensées, une revue de la littérature de leurs dégâts sur les essences botaniques et leurs modes de gestion dans les agrosystèmes au Sénégal entre 1966 et 2015. Elle a été faite sur la base d'une revue bibliographique existante et complétée par un récent ...

  11. Presumptive horizontal symbiont transmission in the fungus-growing termite Macrotermes natalensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan; Aanen, Duur Kornelis

    2006-01-01

    All colonies of the fungus-growing termite Macrotermes natalensis studied so far are associated with a single genetically variable lineage of Termitomyces symbionts. Such limited genetic variation of symbionts and the absence of sexual fruiting bodies (mushrooms) on M. natalensis mounds would...... transmission mode among Macrotermes species implies that vertical symbiont transmission can evolve rapidly. The unexpected finding of horizontal transmission makes the apparent absence of Termitomyces mushrooms on M. natalensis mounds puzzling. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed study of the genetic...

  12. Toxicity, tunneling and feeding behavior of the termite, Coptotermes vastator, in sand treated with oil of the physic nut, Jatropha curcas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acda, Menandro N

    2009-01-01

    Oil of the physic nut, Jatropha curcas L. (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae), was evaluated in the laboratory for its barrier and repellent activity against the Philippine milk termite Coptotermes vastator Light (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). The study showed that J. curcas oil had anti-feeding effect, induced reduction in tunneling activity and increased mortality in C. vastator. Behavior of termites exposed to sand treated with J. curcas oil indicated that it is toxic or repellent to C. vastator. Toxicity and repellent thresholds, were higher than those reported for other naturally occurring compounds tested against the Formosan subterranean termite.

  13. Toxicity, Tunneling and Feeding Behavior of the Termite, Coptotermes vastator, in Sand Treated with Oil of the Physic Nut, Jatropha curcas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acda, Menandro N.

    2009-01-01

    Oil of the physic nut, Jatropha curcas L. (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae), was evaluated in the laboratory for its barrier and repellent activity against the Philippine milk termite Coptotermes vastator Light (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). The study showed that J. curcas oil had anti-feeding effect, induced reduction in tunneling activity and increased mortality in C. vastator. Behavior of termites exposed to sand treated with J. curcas oil indicated that it is toxic or repellent to C. vastator. Toxicity and repellent thresholds, were higher than those reported for other naturally occurring compounds tested against the Formosan subterranean termite. PMID:20053119

  14. Seasonal Population Dynamics of a Specialized Termite-Eating Spider (Araneae: Ammoxenidae) and its Prey (Isoptera: Hodotermitidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haddad, C. R.; Brabec, Marek; Pekár, S.; Fourie, R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 3 (2016), s. 105-110 ISSN 0031-4056 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA15-14762S Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : activity * phenology * predator-prey dynamics * specialist * termite Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 2.000, year: 2016

  15. Foraging distance and population size of juvenile colonies of the Formosan Subterranean Termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) in laboratory extended arenas

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationship between colony size and foraging distance was examined in extended foraging arenas with incipient colonies of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki. Our results showed that as long as the royal pairs are present, larger colonies foraged at longer distance...

  16. Interactions between large herbivores and litter removal by termites across a rainfall gradient in a South African savanna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitenwerf, Robert; Stevens, Nicola; Gosling, Cleo M.; Anderson, T. Michael; Olff, Han

    Litter-feeding termites influence key aspects of the structure and functioning of semi-arid ecosystems around the world by altering nutrient and material fluxes, affecting primary production, foodweb dynamics and modifying vegetation composition. Understanding these complex effects depends on

  17. Bacterial communities in termite fungus combs are comprised of consistent gut deposits and contributions from the environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otani, Saria; Hansen, Lars Hestbjerg; Sørensen, Søren J

    2016-01-01

    -throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, we explored the bacterial community compositions of 33 fungus comb samples from four termite species (three genera) collected at four South African geographic locations in 2011 and 2013. We identified 33 bacterial phyla, with Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria...

  18. Molecular characterization and phylogeny of four new species of the genus trichonympha (Parabasalia, trichonymphea) from lower termite hindguts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boscaro, V.; James, E. R.; Fiorito, R.; Hehenberger, E.; Karnkowska, A.; del Campo, J.; Kolísko, Martin; Irwin, N. A.T.; Mathur, V.; Scheffrahn, R. H.; Keeling, P. J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 9 (2017), s. 3570-3575, č. článku 002169. ISSN 1466-5026 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : parabasalids * SSU rRNA phylogeny * termite symbionts * trichonympha Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.134, year: 2016

  19. Influence de l'activité des termites sur les propriétés du sol dans la ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence de l'activité des termites sur les propriétés du sol dans la région de Lamto (Côte d'Ivoire): mesure de la vitesse d'infiltration de l'eau et de la quantité de matière organique en conditions expérimentales.

  20. Pelodera termitis sp. n. and two other rhabditid nematode species associated with the Turkestan termite Anacanthotermes turkestanicus from Uzbekistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological, ecological and faunistic studies were made on two nematodes associated with mortality of the Turkestan termite, Anacanthotermes turkestanicus, in Uzbekistan. One of these is Caenorhabditis anacanthotermiae n. sp., morphologically similar in some regards to beetle-associated C. plicata an...

  1. Co-option of the sphingolipid metabolism for the production of nitroalkene defensive chemicals in termite soldiers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirošová, Anna; Jančařík, Andrej; Menezes, R. C.; Bazalová, Olga; Dolejšová, Klára; Vogel, H.; Jedlička, Pavel; Buček, Aleš; Brabcová, Jana; Majer, Pavel; Hanus, Robert; Svatoš, Aleš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 82, Mar (2017), s. 52-61 ISSN 0965-1748 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-25137P Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : biosynthesis * nitro compounds * chemical defence * termites * metabolomics * transcriptomics Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.756, year: 2016

  2. Hexadecyl ammonium chloride amylose inclusion complex to emulsify cedarwood oil and treat wood against termites and wood-decay fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedarwood oil (CWO) has a wide range of bioactivities, including insect repellency and toxicity as well as conferring resistance against termites and wood-rot fungi. In previous pressure treatment work, ethanol was used as the diluent/carrier for CWO. However, it is preferable to use a water-based ...

  3. Termite-Susceptible Species of Wood for Inclusion as a Reference in Indonesian Standardized Laboratory Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arinana; Tsunoda, Kunio; Herliyana, Elis N; Hadi, Yusuf S

    2012-03-28

    Standardized laboratory testing of wood and wood-based products against subterranean termites in Indonesia (SNI 01.7207-2006) (SNI) has no requirement for the inclusion of a comparative reference species of wood (reference control). This is considered a weakness of the Indonesian standard. Consequently, a study was undertaken to identify a suitable Indonesian species of community wood that could be used as a reference control. Four candidate species of community woods: Acacia mangium, Hevea brasiliensis, Paraserianthes falcataria and Pinus merkusii were selected for testing their susceptibility to feeding by Coptotermes formosanus. Two testing methods (SNI and the Japanese standard method JIS K 1571-2004) were used to compare the susceptibility of each species of wood. Included in the study was Cryptomeria japonica, the reference control specified in the Japanese standard. The results of the study indicated that P. merkusii is a suitable reference species of wood for inclusion in laboratory tests against subterranean termites, conducted in accordance with the Indonesian standard (SNI 01.7207-2006).

  4. Natalamycin A, an ansamycin from a termite-associated Streptomyces sp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Ki Hyun; Ramadhar, Timothy R.; Beemelmanns, Christine

    2014-01-01

    We report a preliminary functional and complete structural characterization of a highly unusual geldanamycin analog, natalamycin A, that was isolated from Streptomyces strain M56 recovered from a South African nest of Macrotermes natalensis termites. Bioassay-guided fractionation based on antifun......We report a preliminary functional and complete structural characterization of a highly unusual geldanamycin analog, natalamycin A, that was isolated from Streptomyces strain M56 recovered from a South African nest of Macrotermes natalensis termites. Bioassay-guided fractionation based...... on antifungal activity led to the isolation of natalamycin A, and a combination of NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallographic analysis, including highly-accurate quantum-chemical NMR calculations on the largest and most conformationally-flexible system to date, revealed natalamycin A's three-dimensional solid......- and solution-state structure. This structure along with the structures of related compounds isolated from the same source suggest a geldanamycin-like biosynthetic pathway with unusual post-PKS modifications....

  5. Sodium fertilization increases termites and enhances decomposition in an Amazonian forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspari, Michael; Clay, Natalie A; Donoso, David A; Yanoviak, Steven P

    2014-04-01

    Added Na was used to determine whether litter decomposition and associated fungal biomass and termites are limited by Na availability in a lowland tropical rainforest at Yasuni, Ecuador. This is a partial test of the "sodium ecosystem respiration" (SER) hypothesis that posits Na is critical for consumers but not plants, that Na shortfall is more likely on highly weathered soils inland from oceanic aerosols, and that this shortfall results in decreased decomposer activity. We fertilized 4 x 4 m plots twice a month for a year with quantities of Na comparable to those falling on a coastal tropical rainforest. Decomposition rates of four substrates were consistently higher on +NaCl plots by up to 70% for cellulose, and 78%, 68%, and 29% for three woods of increasing percentage lignin. The density of termite workers averaged 17-fold higher on +NaCl plots; fungal biomass failed to differ. After controlling for temperature and precipitation, which co-limit gross primay productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER), these results suggest that Na shortfall is an agent enhancing the storage of coarse woody debris in inland tropical forests.

  6. Effect of eucalyptus wood vinegar on rubberwood infestation by Asian subterranean termite, Coptotermes gestroi Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasin, M

    2013-01-01

    Wood degradation caused by fungi, termites, and insects, is a major problem for the rubberwood industry. The potential of wood vinegar as rubberwood preservative was studied. The infestation rates of Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) on rubberwood samples treated with 25%, 50% and 100% eucalyptus wood vinegar for 24 hours were observed in laboratory conditions. Both non-choice and choice experiments were included. The effects of eucalyptus wood vinegar treatment depended on its concentration. In the non-choice experiments, rubberwood samples treated with 100% eucalyptus wood vinegar had the highest resistance to C. gestroi infestation, with the lowest relative loss of mass, followed in rank order by 50% and 25% treatments. However, in the choice experiments the relative loss of mass did not differ significantly between the treatments with varied wood vinegar concentration. Untreated control samples were distinctly infested by C. gestroi in both non-choice and choice experiments, but their relative loss of mass in the non-choice experiments was not significantly different from samples treated with 25% eucalyptus wood vinegar. Hence, 25% eucalyptus wood vinegar was not effective as rubberwood preservative against C. gestroi attack. The results suggest that eucalyptus wood vinegar acts as a rubberwood preservative against termites, provided the treatment is done without dilution. About 50% dilution still has some efficacy, while lower concentrations are not effective.

  7. Resistance of Particleboards Made from Fast-Growing Wood Species to Subterranean Termite Attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermawan, Dede; Hadi, Yusuf S; Fajriani, Esi; Massijaya, Muhamad Y; Hadjib, Nurwati

    2012-05-29

    Laboratory-made particleboards were tested for their resistance to subterranean termite, Coptotermes curvignathus Holmgren (Order Isoptera, Family Termitidae) by Indonesian standard SNI 01.7207-2006, during four weeks and at the end of the test their mass loss percentage and feeding rate were determined. Particleboards consisted of: jabon (Anthocephalus cadamba, Family Rubiacea) with a density of 0.41 g/cm³; sungkai (Peronema canescens, Family Verbenaceae) with a density of 0.46 g/cm³; mangium (Acacia mangium, Family Rhamnaceae) with a density of 0.60 g/cm³ separately and the three species mixture at a rate of 1:1:1. Densities of the boards were targetted at 0.60 g/cm³ and 0.80 g/cm³ by using 12% urea formaldehyde as binder with 2% paraffin as additive based on oven dry wood particle weight. The hand-formed mats and hot-pressing at 130 °C and 2.45 MPa for 10 min were applied. The results showed that particleboards density did not affect mass loss and feeding rate, but the particleboards made from higher density wood resulted in higher resistance to subterranean termite attack. The most resistant particleboards were made of magium, followed by sungkai, mixed species, and jabon.

  8. Subterranean Termite Resistance of Polystyrene-Treated Wood from Three Tropical Wood Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Yusuf Sudo; Massijaya, Muh Yusram; Arinana, A

    2016-07-21

    The objective of this work was to investigate the resistance of three Indonesian wood species to termite attack. Samples from sengon (Falcataria moluccana), mangium (Acacia mangium), and pine (Pinus merkusii) were treated with polystyrene at loading levels of 26.0%, 8.6%, and 7.7%, respectively. Treated and untreated samples were exposed to environmental conditions in the field for 3 months. Untreated specimens of sengon, mangium, and pine had resistance ratings of 3.0, 4.6, and 2.4, respectively, based on a 10-point scale from 0 (no resistance) to 10 (complete or near-complete resistance). Corresponding resistance values of 7.8, 7.2, and 8.2 were determined for specimens treated with polystyrene. Overall weight loss values of 50.3%, 23.3%, and 66.4% were found for untreated sengon, mangium, and pine samples, respectively; for treated samples, the values were 7.6%, 14.4%, and 5.1%, respectively. Based on the findings in this study, overall resistance to termite attack was higher for treated samples compared to untreated samples.

  9. Resistance of Particleboards Made from Fast-Growing Wood Species to Subterranean Termite Attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurwati Hadjib

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory-made particleboards were tested for their resistance to subterranean termite, Coptotermes curvignathus Holmgren (Order Isoptera, Family Termitidae by Indonesian standard SNI 01.7207–2006, during four weeks and at the end of the test their mass loss percentage and feeding rate were determined. Particleboards consisted of: jabon (Anthocephalus cadamba, Family Rubiacea with a density of 0.41 g/cm3; sungkai (Peronema canescens, Family Verbenaceae with a density of 0.46 g/cm3; mangium (Acacia mangium, Family Rhamnaceae with a density of 0.60 g/cm3 separately and the three species mixture at a rate of 1:1:1. Densities of the boards were targetted at 0.60 g/cm3 and 0.80 g/cm3 by using 12% urea formaldehyde as binder with 2% paraffin as additive based on oven dry wood particle weight. The hand-formed mats and hot-pressing at 130 °C and 2.45 MPa for 10 min were applied. The results showed that particleboards density did not affect mass loss and feeding rate, but the particleboards made from higher density wood resulted in higher resistance to subterranean termite attack. The most resistant particleboards were made of magium, followed by sungkai, mixed species, and jabon.

  10. Molecular basis for the reproductive division of labour in a lower termite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehli Michael

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polyphenism, the expression of different phenotypes with the same genetic background, is well known for social insects. The substantial physiological and morphological differences among the castes generally are the result of differential gene expression. In lower termites, workers are developmentally flexible to become neotenic replacement reproductives via a single moult after the death of the founding reproductives. Thus, both castes (neotenics and workers are expected to differ mainly in the expression of genes linked to reproductive division of labour, which constitutes the fundamental basis of insect societies. Results Representational difference analysis of cDNAs was used to study differential gene expression between neotenics and workers in the drywood termite Cryptotermes secundus (Kalotermitidae. We identified and, at least partially cloned five novel genes that were highly expressed in female neotenics. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of all five genes in different castes (neotenics, founding reproductives, winged sexuals and workers of both sexes confirmed the differential expression patterns. In addition, the relative expression of these genes was determined in three body parts of female neotenics (head, thorax, and abdomen using quantitative real-time PCR. Conclusion The identified genes could be involved in the control and regulation of reproductive division of labour. Interestingly, this study revealed an expression pattern partly similar to social Hymenoptera indicating both common and species-specific regulatory mechanisms in hemimetabolous and holometabolous social insects.

  11. Metagenomic and functional analysis of hindgut microbiota of a wood-feeding higher termite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warnecke, Falk; Warnecke, Falk; Luginbuhl, Peter; Ivanova, Natalia; Ghassemian, Majid; Richardson, Toby H.; Stege, Justin T.; Cayouette, Michelle; McHardy, Alice C.; Djordjevic, Gordana; Aboushadi, Nahla; Sorek, Rotem; Tringe, Susannah G.; Podar, Mircea; Martin, Hector Garcia; Kunin, Victor; Dalevi, Daniel; Madejska, Julita; Kirton, Edward; Platt, Darren; Szeto, Ernest; Salamov, Asaf; Barry, Kerrie; Mikhailova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Matson, Eric G.; Ottesen, Elizabeth A.; Zhang, Xinning; Hernandez, Myriam; Murillo, Catalina; Acosta, Luis G.; Rigoutsos, Isidore; Tamayo, Giselle; Green, Brian D.; Chang, Cathy; Rubin, Edward M.; Mathur, Eric J.; Robertson, Dan E.; Hugenholtz, Philip; Leadbetter, Jared R.

    2007-10-01

    From the standpoints of both basic research and biotechnology, there is considerable interest in reaching a clearer understanding of the diversity of biological mechanisms employed during lignocellulose degradation. Globally, termites are an extremely successful group of wood-degrading organisms and are therefore important both for their roles in carbon turnover in the environment and as potential sources of biochemical catalysts for efforts aimed at converting wood into biofuels. Only recently have data supported any direct role for the symbiotic bacteria in the gut of the termite in cellulose and xylan hydrolysis. Here we use a metagenomic analysis of the bacterial community resident in the hindgut paunch of a wood-feeding Nasutitermes species to show the presence of a large, diverse set of bacterial genes for cellulose and xylan hydrolysis. Many of these genes were expressed in vivo or had cellulase activity in vitro, and further analyses implicate spirochete and fibrobacter species in gut lignocellulose degradation. New insights into other important symbiotic functions including H{sub 2} metabolism, CO{sub 2}-reductive acetogenesis and N{sub 2} fixation are also provided by this first system-wide gene analysis of a microbial community specialized towards plant lignocellulose degradation. Our results underscore how complex even a 1-{micro}l environment can be.

  12. Prospects of Coir Fibre as Reinforcement in Termite Mound Clay Bricks

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    Akinyemi Banjo A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The study is to develop an appropriate environmental friendly building material that would be sourced, obtained locally and used for construction of structures at a low cost by using termite mound soil, reinforced with 0%, 1%, 2%, 3%. and 4% coir fibres. Physical and mechanical tests were conducted on the different composition samples after curing. The particle size distribution showed that clay had the largest percentage with a moisture content of 3.53%, specific gravity of 2.0, liquid limit of 30.5% and plastic limit value of 25.4. The compressive strength test showed a decrease with increase in fibre content from 1% upward, modulus of rupture test showed that increase in fibre content leads to a corresponding increase in rupture while the modulus of elasticity test showed that from 3% to 4% fibre content, a decrease in the elasticity occurred. It can be concluded that low fibre inclusion into compressed termite mound brick is feasible if fibre content do not exceed 2% and thus can be used for both load and non-loading bearing structures.

  13. Draft genome of the fungus-growing termite pathogenic fungus Ophiocordyceps bispora (Ophiocordycipitaceae, Hypocreales, Ascomycota

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    Benjamin H. Conlon

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article documents the public availability of genome sequence data and assembled contigs representing the partial draft genome of Ophiocordyceps bispora. As one of the few known pathogens of fungus-farming termites, a draft genome of O. bispora represents the opportunity to further the understanding of disease and resistance in these complex termite societies. With the ongoing attempts to resolve the taxonomy of the Hypocralaean family, more genetic data will also help to shed light on the phylogenetic relationship between sexual and asexual life stages. Next generation sequence data is available from the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA under accession PRJEB13655; run numbers: ERR1368522, ERR1368523, and ERR1368524. Genome assembly available from ENA under accession numbers: FKNF01000001–FKNF01000302. Gene prediction available as protein fasta, nucleotide fasta and GFF file from Mendeley Data with accession doi:10.17632/r99fd6g3s4.2 (http://dx.doi.org/10.17632/r99fd6g3s4.2.

  14. Levy flights and self-similar exploratory behaviour of termite workers: beyond model fitting.

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    Octavio Miramontes

    Full Text Available Animal movements have been related to optimal foraging strategies where self-similar trajectories are central. Most of the experimental studies done so far have focused mainly on fitting statistical models to data in order to test for movement patterns described by power-laws. Here we show by analyzing over half a million movement displacements that isolated termite workers actually exhibit a range of very interesting dynamical properties--including Lévy flights--in their exploratory behaviour. Going beyond the current trend of statistical model fitting alone, our study analyses anomalous diffusion and structure functions to estimate values of the scaling exponents describing displacement statistics. We evince the fractal nature of the movement patterns and show how the scaling exponents describing termite space exploration intriguingly comply with mathematical relations found in the physics of transport phenomena. By doing this, we rescue a rich variety of physical and biological phenomenology that can be potentially important and meaningful for the study of complex animal behavior and, in particular, for the study of how patterns of exploratory behaviour of individual social insects may impact not only their feeding demands but also nestmate encounter patterns and, hence, their dynamics at the social scale.

  15. Subterranean Termite Resistance of Polystyrene-Treated Wood from Three Tropical Wood Species

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    Yusuf Sudo Hadi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the resistance of three Indonesian wood species to termite attack. Samples from sengon (Falcataria moluccana, mangium (Acacia mangium, and pine (Pinus merkusii were treated with polystyrene at loading levels of 26.0%, 8.6%, and 7.7%, respectively. Treated and untreated samples were exposed to environmental conditions in the field for 3 months. Untreated specimens of sengon, mangium, and pine had resistance ratings of 3.0, 4.6, and 2.4, respectively, based on a 10-point scale from 0 (no resistance to 10 (complete or near-complete resistance. Corresponding resistance values of 7.8, 7.2, and 8.2 were determined for specimens treated with polystyrene. Overall weight loss values of 50.3%, 23.3%, and 66.4% were found for untreated sengon, mangium, and pine samples, respectively; for treated samples, the values were 7.6%, 14.4%, and 5.1%, respectively. Based on the findings in this study, overall resistance to termite attack was higher for treated samples compared to untreated samples.

  16. Chlorpyrifos causes decreased organic matter decomposition by suppressing earthworm and termite communities in tropical soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Silva, P. Mangala C.S., E-mail: msilva@falw.vu.n [Department of Animal Ecology, VU University, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Ruhuna, Matara (Sri Lanka); Pathiratne, Asoka [Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Kelaniya, Kelaniya (Sri Lanka); Straalen, Nico M. van; Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van [Department of Animal Ecology, VU University, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-10-15

    Effects of pesticides on structural and functional properties of ecosystems are rarely studied under tropical conditions. In this study litterbag and earthworm field tests were performed simultaneously at the same tropical field site sprayed with chlorpyrifos (CPF). The recommended dose of CPF (0.6 kg a.i. ha{sup -1}) and two higher doses (4.4-8.8 kg a.i. ha{sup -1}) significantly decreased litter decomposition during the first 3 months after application, which could be explained from lower earthworm and termite abundances during this period. Species-specific effects of CPF on organism abundance and biomass were observed, with termites being mostly affected followed by the earthworm Perionyx excavatus; the earthworm Megascolex sp. was least affected. Recovery was completed within 6 months. Decomposition in the controls and lowest two treatments was completed within 4 months, which suggests the need for modification of standard test guidelines to comply with faster litter degradation under tropical conditions. - Effects of chlorpyrifos on functional and structural endpoints in soil.

  17. The first report of gynandromorphy in termites (Isoptera; Kalotermitidae; Neotermes koshunensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaguni, Yasushi; Nozaki, Tomonari; Yashiro, Toshihisa

    2017-08-01

    This is the first report of gynandromorphy in Isoptera. An Asian dry-wood termite, Neotermes koshunensis (Shiraki) [Kalotermitidae], possessing both male and female phenotypic characteristics, was found on Okinawa Island, Japan. This deformed individual showed morphological and anatomical hermaphroditism in the abdomen. The right side of the seventh sternite was the female form and contained an ovary, while the left side was the male form and contained a testis. Genotypic analysis revealed that this individual was a genotypic bilateral chimera. These results suggested that the termite was a bilateral gynandromorph with a male left side and a female right side. As reported previously in other insects, double fertilization (by two sperms, one with an X and one with a Y chromosome) of a binucleate egg is the most likely mechanism that generated this genotypic bilateral chimera. N. koshunensis has the ability to reproduce through parthenogenesis, in which the secondary polar body is likely to be used for nuclear phase recovery. If the second polar body in this mechanism has high fertility and healthy embryogenic potential, like an egg nucleus, some of gynandromorphs might be produced by a side effect of parthenogenetic ability.

  18. Raw material procurement for termite fishing tools by wild chimpanzees in the Issa valley, Western Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida-Warren, Katarina; Sommer, Volker; Piel, Alex K; Pascual-Garrido, Alejandra

    2017-10-01

    Chimpanzee termite fishing has been studied for decades, yet the selective processes preceding the manufacture of fishing tools remain largely unexplored. We investigate raw material selection and potential evidence of forward planning in the chimpanzees of Issa valley, western Tanzania. Using traditional archaeological methods, we surveyed the location of plants from where chimpanzees sourced raw material to manufacture termite fishing tools, relative to targeted mounds. We measured raw material abundance to test for availability and selection. Statistics included Chi-Squared, two-tailed Wilcoxon, and Kruskall-Wallace tests. Issa chimpanzees manufactured extraction tools only from bark, despite availability of other suitable materials (e.g., twigs), and selected particular plant species as raw material sources, which they often also exploit for food. Most plants were sourced 1-16 m away from the mound, with a maximum of 33 m. The line of sight from the targeted mound was obscured for a quarter of these plants. The exclusive use of bark tools despite availability of other suitable materials indicates a possible cultural preference. The fact that Issa chimpanzees select specific plant species and travel some distance to source them suggests some degree of selectivity and, potentially, forward planning. Our results have implications for the reconstruction of early hominin behaviors, particularly with regard to the use of perishable tools, which remain archaeologically invisible. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Transcriptome response to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration in the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenjing; Li, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Shijun; Ke, Yunling; Hou, Yahui

    2016-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a pervasive chemical stimulus that plays a critical role in insect life, eliciting behavioral and physiological responses across different species. High CO2 concentration is a major feature of termite nests, which may be used as a cue for locating their nests. Termites also survive under an elevated CO2 concentration. However, the mechanism by which elevated CO2 concentration influences gene expression in termites is poorly understood. To gain a better understanding of the molecular basis involved in the adaptation to CO2 concentration, a transcriptome of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki was constructed to assemble the reference genes, followed by comparative transcriptomic analyses across different CO2 concentration (0.04%, 0.4%, 4% and 40%) treatments. (1) Based on a high throughput sequencing platform, we obtained approximately 20 GB of clean data and revealed 189,421 unigenes, with a mean length and an N50 length of 629 bp and 974 bp, respectively. (2) The transcriptomic response of C. formosanus to elevated CO2 levels presented discontinuous changes. Comparative analysis of the transcriptomes revealed 2,936 genes regulated among 0.04%, 0.4%, 4% and 40% CO2 concentration treatments, 909 genes derived from termites and 2,027 from gut symbionts. Genes derived from termites appears selectively activated under 4% CO2 level. In 40% CO2 level, most of the down-regulated genes were derived from symbionts. (3) Through similarity searches to data from other species, a number of protein sequences putatively involved in chemosensory reception were identified and characterized in C. formosanus, including odorant receptors, gustatory receptors, ionotropic receptors, odorant binding proteins, and chemosensory proteins. We found that most genes associated with carbohydrate metabolism, energy metabolism, and genetic information processing were regulated under different CO2 concentrations. Results suggested that termites adapt to ∼4% CO2 level and their

  20. Gene expression changes during caste-specific neuronal development in the damp-wood termite Hodotermopsis sjostedti

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    Miyakawa Hitoshi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the key characters of social insects is the division of labor, in which different tasks are allocated to various castes. In termites, one of the representative groups of social insects, morphological differences as well as behavioral differences can be recognized among castes. However, very little is known about the neuronal and molecular bases of caste differentiation and caste-specific behavior. In almost all termite species, soldiers play defensive roles in their colonies, and their morphology and behavior are largely different from workers (or pseudergates. Therefore, we predicted that some genes linked to defensive behavior and/or those required for neuronal changes are differentially expressed between workers and soldiers, or during the soldier differentiation, respectively. Results Using the brain and suboesophageal ganglion (SOG of the damp-wood termite Hodotermopsis sjostedti, we first screened genes specifically expressed in soldiers or during soldier differentiation by the differential display method, followed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. No distinctive differences in expression patterns were detected between pseudergates and soldiers. In the course of soldier differentiation, however, five genes were found to be up-regulated in brain and/or SOG: 14-3-3epsilon, fibrillin2, beta-tubulin, ciboulot, and a hypothetical protein containing a SAP motif. Some of these genes are thought to be associated with cytoskeletal structure or motor-associated proteins in neuronal tissues. Conclusion The identified five genes could be involved in soldier-specific neuronal modifications, resulting in defensive behaviors in termite soldiers. The temporal expression patterns of these genes were consistent with the neuronal changes during soldier differentiation, suggesting that molecular machineries, in which the identified factors would participate, play important roles in behavioral differentiation of

  1. Expanding the knowledge on lignocellulolytic and redox enzymes of worker and soldier castes from the lower termite Coptotermes gestroi

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    João Paulo Lourenço Franco Cairo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Termites are considered one of the most efficient decomposers of lignocelluloses on Earth due to their ability to produce, along with its microbial symbionts, a repertoire of carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes. Recently, a set of Pro-oxidant, Antioxidant, and Detoxification enzymes (PAD were also correlated with the metabolism of carbohydrates and lignin in termites. The lower termite Coptotermes gestroi is considered the main urban pest in Brazil, causing damage to wood constructions. Recently, analysis of the enzymatic repertoire of C. gestroi unveiled the presence of different CAZymes. Because the gene profile of CAZy/PAD enzymes endogenously synthesized by C. gestroi and also by their symbiotic protists remains unclear, the aim of this study was to explore the eukaryotic repertoire of these enzymes in worker and soldier castes of C. gestroi. Our findings showed that worker and soldier castes present similar repertoires of CAZy/PAD enzymes, and also confirmed that endo-glucanases (GH9 and beta-glucosidases (GH1 were the most important glycoside hydrolase families related to lignocellulose degradation in both castes. Classical cellulases such as exo-glucanases (GH7 and endo-glucanases (GH5 and GH45, as well as classical xylanases (GH10 and GH11, were found in both castes only taxonomically related to protists, highlighting the importance of symbiosis in C. gestroi. Moreover, our analysis revealed the presence of Auxiliary Activity enzyme families (AAs, which could be related to lignin modifications in termite digestomes. In conclusion, this report expanded the knowledge on genes and proteins related to CAZy/PAD enzymes from worker and soldier castes of lower termites, revealing new potential enzyme candidates for second-generation biofuel processes.

  2. Diversity and resilience of the wood-feeding higher termiteMironasutitermes shangchengensisgut microbiota in response to temporal and diet variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Su, Lijuan; Huang, Shi; Bo, Cunpei; Yang, Sen; Li, Yan; Wang, Fengqin; Xie, Hui; Xu, Jian; Song, Andong

    2016-11-01

    Termites are considered among the most efficient bioreactors, with high capacities for lignocellulose degradation and utilization. Recently, several studies have characterized the gut microbiota of diverse termites. However, the temporal dynamics of the gut microbiota within a given termite with dietary diversity are poorly understood. Here, we employed 16S rDNA barcoded pyrosequencing analysis to investigate temporal changes in bacterial diversity and richness of the gut microbiota of wood-feeding higher termite Mironasutitermes shangchengensis under three lignocellulose content-based diets that feature wood, corn stalks, and filter paper. Compositions of the predominant termite gut residents were largely constant among the gut microbiomes under different diets, but each diet caused specific changes in the bacterial composition over time. Notably, microbial communities exhibited an unexpectedly strong resilience during continuous feeding on both corn stalks and filter paper. Members of five bacterial phyla, that is, Spirochaetes, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Tenericutes, and Acidobacteria, were strongly associated with the resilience. These findings provide insights into the stability of the gut microbiota in higher termites and have important implications for the future design of robust bioreactors for lignocellulose degradation and utilization.

  3. Determination of the major compounds in the extract of the subterranean termite Macrotermes gilvus Hagen digestive tract by GC-MS method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Subekti

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Degradation of woody components by termites is associated with symbionts inside their digestive tract. In this study, the major compounds were determined in the extract of the termite guts by GC-MS method. Macrotermes gilvus Hagen (worker caste termites were collected and their dissected guts underwent methanol extraction. It was found that the gut of the termites has an alkaline environment (pH 8.83 ± 0.31 that supports the digestion of lignocellulose biomass and also helps to solubilize phenolic and recalcitrant compounds resul­ting from the depolymerization of woody components. The GC-MS analysis showed that termite guts contained hydrophobic organosilicon components including dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane, tetradecamethylcyclohexa­siloxane, hexadecamethylcyclooctasiloxane, and octasiloxane, 1,1,3,3,5,5,7,7,9,9,11,11,13,13,15,15-hexa­decamethyl. The guts also contained a phytosterol, which was identified as β-sitosterol. Further analysis of these water-insoluble compounds is needed to reveal their importance in termite digestion.

  4. Mensuração dos custos de laboratório para produção da vespa Cotesia flavipes - inimigo natural da broca da cana-de-açúcar na Usina Naviraí S.A.: uma análise comparativa = Laboratory costs for production of the wasp Cotesia flavipes - natural enemy of the sugar cane borer at the Navirai S.A. factory: A comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adélia Megumi Suguiyama

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available O controle biológico usando parasitoides larvais e parasitóides de ovos específicos ou entomopatógenos (fungos, bactérias ou vírus, manipulados em criatórios artificiais e liberados massivamente para o controle da broca é o mais difundido. Dentre estes, no entanto, o que tem sido comumente utilizado em escala comercial é o controle biológico com parasitóides larvais. Neste contexto, a espécie Cotesia flavipes, é uma vespa parasitóide que combate a broca da cana-de-açúcar Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidóptera, uma praga que causa grandes perdas na produção da cana-de-açúcar. Em função da importância desse tipo de controle biológico, este trabalho tem como objetivo mensurar os custos do sistema de produção de Cotesia flavipes na Usina Naviraí S.A. – Açúcar e Álcool (USINAVI, localizada em Naviraí, Mato Grosso do Sul. Ressalta-se que devido aos danos causados pela broca, os prejuízos no campo chegam a 25% de perda da produtividade da cultura Neste sentido, como principais resultados do presente estudo, sugere-se: 1. Investir em treinamento e qualificação de pessoal de laboratório e de campo; 2. Pesquisas no sentido de ajustar à técnica de controle biológico às condições ecofisiológicas da região de plantio; 3. Controle rigoroso do processo em termos de assepsia e higienização. = The biological control using parasitoids and larval parasitoid eggs or specific entomopathogens (fungi, bacteria or viruses, manipulated in artificial breeding sites and released massively to control drill, is the most widespread. Among these, however, has commonly been used on a commercial scale is biological control using larval parasitoids. In this context, the Cotesia flavipes species is a parasitoid wasp that fighting drill cane sugar Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera, a pest that causes major losses in the production of cane sugar. Because of the importance of this kind of biological control, this paper aims to measure the

  5. Trail communication regulated by two trail pheromone components in the fungus-growing termite Odontotermes formosanus (Shiraki.

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    Ping Wen

    Full Text Available The eusocial termites are well accomplished in chemical communication, but how they achieve the communication using trace amount of no more than two pheromone components is mostly unknown. In this study, the foraging process and trail pheromones of the fungus-growing termite Odontotermes formosanus (Shiraki were systematically studied and monitored in real-time using a combination of techniques, including video analysis, solid-phase microextraction, gas chromatography coupled with either mass spectrometry or an electroantennographic detector, and bioassays. The trail pheromone components in foraging workers were (3Z-dodec-3-en-1-ol and (3Z,6Z-dodeca-3,6-dien-1-ol secreted by their sternal glands. Interestingly, ratio of the two components changed according to the behaviors that the termites were displaying. This situation only occurs in termites whereas ratios of pheromone components are fixed and species-specific for other insect cuticular glands. Moreover, in bioassays, the active thresholds of the two components ranged from 1 fg/cm to 10 pg/cm according to the behavioral contexts or the pheromonal exposure of tested workers. The two components did not act in synergy. (3Z-Dodec-3-en-1-ol induced orientation behavior of termites that explore their environment, whereas (3Z,6Z-dodeca-3,6-dien-1-ol had both an orientation effect and a recruitment effect when food was discovered. The trail pheromone of O. formosanus was regulated both quantitatively by the increasing number of workers involved in the early phases of foraging process, and qualitatively by the change in ratio of the two pheromone components on sternal glandular cuticle in the food-collecting workers. In bioassays, the responses of workers to the pheromone were also affected by the variation in pheromone concentration and component ratio in the microenvironment. Thus, this termite could exchange more information with nestmates using the traces of the two trail pheromone components

  6. Detection of termites and other insects consumed by African great apes using molecular fecal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, Ibrahim; Delaporte, Eric; Raoult, Didier; Bittar, Fadi

    2014-03-27

    The consumption of insects by apes has previously been reported based on direct observations and/or trail signs in feces. However, DNA-based diet analyses may have the potential to reveal trophic links for these wild species. Herein, we analyzed the insect-diet diversity of 9 feces obtained from three species of African great apes, gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and bonobo (Pan paniscus), using two mitochondrial amplifications for arthropods. A total of 1056 clones were sequenced for Cyt-b and COI gene libraries, which contained 50 and 56 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), respectively. BLAST research revealed that the OTUs belonged to 32 families from 5 orders (Diptera, Isoptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, and Orthoptera). While ants were not detected by this method, the consumption of flies, beetles, moths, mosquitoes and termites was evident in these samples. Our findings indicate that molecular techniques can be used to analyze insect food items in wild animals.

  7. Dynamics of Foraging and Recruitment Behavior in the Asian Subterranean Termite Coptotermes gestroi (Rhinotermitidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Arab

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the trail-following behavior of the subterranean termite Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann Rhinotermitidae under laboratory conditions. The results showed that workers were the first to initiate the exploration to the food source. When food was discovered they returned to the nest laying a trail for recruiting nestmates to the food source. In this situation, workers always traveled significantly faster when returning from the arenas. Both workers and soldiers were recruited to the food source; however, the soldier/worker proportion was higher during the first phase of the recruitment. When no food was available, the number of recruited nestmates and the speed on their way back to the nest were significantly lower. The results also showed that scout foragers always laid trail pheromones when entering into unknown territories, and that chemical signals found in the food could induce workers of C. gestroi to increase their travel speed.

  8. Designing collective behavior in a termite-inspired robot construction team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werfel, Justin; Petersen, Kirstin; Nagpal, Radhika

    2014-02-14

    Complex systems are characterized by many independent components whose low-level actions produce collective high-level results. Predicting high-level results given low-level rules is a key open challenge; the inverse problem, finding low-level rules that give specific outcomes, is in general still less understood. We present a multi-agent construction system inspired by mound-building termites, solving such an inverse problem. A user specifies a desired structure, and the system automatically generates low-level rules for independent climbing robots that guarantee production of that structure. Robots use only local sensing and coordinate their activity via the shared environment. We demonstrate the approach via a physical realization with three autonomous climbing robots limited to onboard sensing. This work advances the aim of engineering complex systems that achieve specific human-designed goals.

  9. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U10274-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 86 isolate EhV86. 46 1.8 1 ( AC193267 ) Cavia porcellus clone CH234-253D11, WORKING DRAFT... 46 1.8 1 ( FL643819 ) TS32-E12 Reticulit...ermes flavipes symbiont library... 46 1.8 1 ( AE001437 ) Clostridium acetobutylicum

  10. Colony differences in termiticide transfer studies, a role for behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Shelton

    2010-01-01

    Donor-recipient termiticide transfer laboratory tests were performed by using destructive sampling with two delayed-action non-repellent (DANR) termiticides against each of three colonies of Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar). Two of the three colonies showed no response to indoxacarb, but all three showed a response to chlorantraniliprole. These results indicate that...

  11. EVALUATION OF ESSENTIAL OILS OF Eucalyptus spp. FOR THE CONTROL OF THE SUBTERRANEAN TERMITE Coptotermes gestroi (WASMAN1

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    Talita Vieira Zampieri Mikola

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The subterranean termite Coptotermes gestroi (Wasman (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae is considered one of the main pest species in urban areas in the Southeast Region of Brazil. For the control of this pest, the use of chemical insecticides is recommended, but this method is problematic in urban areas because of the risks of intoxication in the population and environmental contamination along with difficulties in isolating the treated areas. Therefore, it is necessary to find alternative methods aimed at minimizing the undesirable effects on the human population and the environment caused by termite control measures. The objective of this research was to evaluate the toxicity of several essential oils of Eucalyptus (E. camaldulensis, E. citriodora, E. tereticornis, E. pseudoglobulus, and E. maidenii to the termite C. gestroi, under laboratory conditions. The oils were applied on filter papers that were infested with C. gestroi immediately after the treatment. The most toxic oil to the termite was E. citriodora, with the lowest lethal concentration (LC50: 0.63% and the shortest lethal time (LT50: <1 h at 10%, LT50: 42.4 h at 1.25%. The least toxic oil was E. pseudoglobulus, with the highest lethal concentration (LC50: 3.66% and the longest lethal time (LT50: 11.1 h at 10%; LT50: 473 h at 1.25%. These results indicate the potential for use of eucalyptus essential oils, especially for E. citriodora, for the control of C. gestroi. This article also provides information on the yield from essential oil extraction for different eucalyptus species.

  12. Effects of termite activities on coarse woody debris decomposition in an intact lowland mixed dipterocarp forest of Brunei Darussalam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Kim, S.; Roh, Y.; Son, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Tropical forests play a critical role in mitigating climate change, because they sequester carbon more than any other terrestrial ecosystems. In addition, coarse woody debris is one of the main carbon storages, accounting for 10 - 40% of the tropical forest carbon. Carbon in coarse woody debris is released by various activities of organisms, and particularly termite's feeding activities are known to be a main process in tropical forests. Therefore, investigating the effects of termite activities on coarse woody debris decomposition is important to understanding carbon cycles of tropical forests. This study was conducted in an intact lowland mixed dipterocarp forest (MDF) of Brunei Darussalam, and three main MDF tree species (Dillenia beccariana, Macaranga bancana, and Elateriospermum tapos) were selected. Coarse woody debris samples of both 10 cm diameter and length were prepared, and half of samples were covered twice with nylon net (mesh size 1.5 mm × 1.5 mm) to prevent termite's approach. Three permanent plots were installed in January, 2015 and 36 samples per plot (3 species × 2 treatments × 6 replicates) were placed at the soil surface. Weights of each sample were recorded at initial time, and weighed again at an interval of 6 months until July, 2016. On average, uncovered and covered samples lost 32.4 % and 20.0 % of their initial weights, respectively. Weight loss percentage was highest in uncovered samples of M. bancana (43.8 %), and lowest in covered samples of E. tapos (14.7 %). Two-way ANOVA showed that the effects of the tree species and the termite exclusion treatment on coarse woody debris decomposition were statistically significant (P research grants from the National Research Foundation of Korea (R1D1A1A01) * Supported by BK21Plus Eco-Leader Education Center.

  13. Origin and alteration of organic matter in termite mounds from different feeding guilds of the Amazon rainforests.

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    Nina Siebers

    Full Text Available The impact of termites on nutrient cycling and tropical soil formation depends on their feeding habits and related material transformation. The identification of food sources, however, is difficult, because they are variable and changed by termite activity and nest construction. Here, we related the sources and alteration of organic matter in nests from seven different termite genera and feeding habits in the Terra Firme rainforests to the properties of potential food sources soil, wood, and microepiphytes. Chemical analyses comprised isotopic composition of C and N, cellulosic (CPS, non-cellulosic (NCPS, and N-containing saccharides, and molecular composition screening using pyrolysis-field ionization mass spectrometry (Py-FIMS. The isotopic analysis revealed higher soil δ13C (-27.4‰ and δ15N (6.6‰ values in nests of wood feeding Nasutitermes and Cornitermes than in wood samples (δ13C = -29.1‰, δ15N = 3.4‰, reflecting stable-isotope enrichment with organic matter alterations during or after nest construction. This result was confirmed by elevated NCPS:CPS ratios, indicating a preferential cellulose decomposition in the nests. High portions of muramic acid (MurAc pointed to the participation of bacteria in the transformation processes. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (MDS revealed increasing geophagy in the sequence Termes < Embiratermes < Anoplotermes and increasing xylophagy for Cornitermes < Nasutitermes., and that the nest material of Constrictotermes was similar to the microepiphytes sample, confirming the report that Constrictotermes belongs to the microepiphyte-feeders. We therewith document that nest chemistry of rainforest termites shows variations and evidence of modification by microbial processes, but nevertheless it primarily reflects the trophic niches of the constructors.

  14. Diversity of Termitomyces Associated with Fungus-Farming Termites Assessed by Cultural and Culture-Independent Methods

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    Makonde, Huxley M.; Boga, Hamadi I.; Osiemo, Zipporah; Mwirichia, Romano; Stielow, J. Benjamin; Göker, Markus; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background Fungus-cultivating termites make use of an obligate mutualism with fungi from the genus Termitomyces, which are acquired through either vertical transmission via reproductive alates or horizontally transmitted during the formation of new mounds. Termitomyces taxonomy, and thus estimating diversity and host specificity of these fungi, is challenging because fruiting bodies are rarely found. Molecular techniques can be applied but need not necessarily yield the same outcome than morphological identification. Methodology Culture-dependent and culture-independent methods were used to comprehensively assess host specificity and gut fungal diversity. Termites were identified using mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase II (COII) genes. Twenty-three Termitomyces cultures were isolated from fungal combs. Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) clone libraries were constructed from termite guts. Presence of Termitomyces was confirmed using specific and universal primers. Termitomyces species boundaries were estimated by cross-comparison of macromorphological and sequence features, and ITS clustering parameters accordingly optimized. The overall trends in coverage of Termitomyces diversity and host associations were estimated using Genbank data. Results and Conclusion Results indicate a monoculture of Termitomyces in the guts as well as the isolation sources (fungal combs). However, cases of more than one Termitomyces strains per mound were observed since mounds can contain different termite colonies. The newly found cultures, as well as the clustering analysis of GenBank data indicate that there are on average between one and two host genera per Termitomyces species. Saturation does not appear to have been reached, neither for the total number of known Termitomyces species nor for the number of Termitomyces species per host taxon, nor for the number of known hosts per Termitomyces species. Considering the rarity of Termitomyces fruiting bodies, it is suggested to base the

  15. Localizing transcripts to single cells suggests an important role of uncultured deltaproteobacteria in the termite gut hydrogen economy.

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    Rosenthal, Adam Z; Zhang, Xinning; Lucey, Kaitlyn S; Ottesen, Elizabeth A; Trivedi, Vikas; Choi, Harry M T; Pierce, Niles A; Leadbetter, Jared R

    2013-10-01

    Identifying microbes responsible for particular environmental functions is challenging, given that most environments contain an uncultivated microbial diversity. Here we combined approaches to identify bacteria expressing genes relevant to catabolite flow and to locate these genes within their environment, in this case the gut of a "lower," wood-feeding termite. First, environmental transcriptomics revealed that 2 of the 23 formate dehydrogenase (FDH) genes known in the system accounted for slightly more than one-half of environmental transcripts. FDH is an essential enzyme of H2 metabolism that is ultimately important for the assimilation of lignocellulose-derived energy by the insect. Second, single-cell PCR analysis revealed that two different bacterial types expressed these two transcripts. The most commonly transcribed FDH in situ is encoded by a previously unappreciated deltaproteobacterium, whereas the other FDH is spirochetal. Third, PCR analysis of fractionated gut contents demonstrated that these bacteria reside in different spatial niches; the spirochete is free-swimming, whereas the deltaproteobacterium associates with particulates. Fourth, the deltaproteobacteria expressing FDH were localized to protozoa via hybridization chain reaction-FISH, an approach for multiplexed, spatial mapping of mRNA and rRNA targets. These results underscore the importance of making direct vs. inference-based gene-species associations, and have implications in higher termites, the most successful termite lineage, in which protozoa have been lost from the gut community. Contrary to expectations, in higher termites, FDH genes related to those from the protozoan symbiont dominate, whereas most others were absent, suggesting that a successful gene variant can persist and flourish after a gut perturbation alters a major environmental niche.

  16. The inadequacy of morphology for species and genus delineation in microbial eukaryotes: an example from the parabasalian termite symbiont coronympha.

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    James T Harper

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: For the majority of microbial eukaryotes (protists, algae, there is no clearly superior species concept that is consistently applied. In the absence of a practical biological species concept, most species and genus level delineations have historically been based on morphology, which may lead to an underestimate of the diversity of microbial eukaryotes. Indeed, a growing body of molecular evidence, such as barcoding surveys, is beginning to support the conclusion that significant cryptic species diversity exists. This underestimate of diversity appears to be due to a combination of using morphology as the sole basis for assessing diversity and our inability to culture the vast majority of microbial life. Here we have used molecular markers to assess the species delineations in two related but morphologically distinct genera of uncultivated symbionts found in the hindgut of termites. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using single-cell isolation and environmental PCR, we have used a barcoding approach to characterize the diversity of Coronympha and Metacoronympha symbionts in four species of Incisitermes termites, which were also examined using scanning electron microscopy and light microcopy. Despite the fact that these genera are significantly different in morphological complexity and structural organisation, we find they are two life history stages of the same species. At the same time, we show that the symbionts from different termite hosts show an equal or greater level of sequence diversity than do the hosts, despite the fact that the symbionts are all classified as one species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The morphological information used to describe the diversity of these microbial symbionts is misleading at both the genus and species levels, and led to an underestimate of species level diversity as well as an overestimate of genus level diversity. The genus 'Metacoronympha' is invalid and appears to be a life history stage of

  17. Diversity of Termitomyces associated with fungus-farming termites assessed by cultural and culture-independent methods.

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    Huxley M Makonde

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fungus-cultivating termites make use of an obligate mutualism with fungi from the genus Termitomyces, which are acquired through either vertical transmission via reproductive alates or horizontally transmitted during the formation of new mounds. Termitomyces taxonomy, and thus estimating diversity and host specificity of these fungi, is challenging because fruiting bodies are rarely found. Molecular techniques can be applied but need not necessarily yield the same outcome than morphological identification. METHODOLOGY: Culture-dependent and culture-independent methods were used to comprehensively assess host specificity and gut fungal diversity. Termites were identified using mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase II (COII genes. Twenty-three Termitomyces cultures were isolated from fungal combs. Internal transcribed spacer (ITS clone libraries were constructed from termite guts. Presence of Termitomyces was confirmed using specific and universal primers. Termitomyces species boundaries were estimated by cross-comparison of macromorphological and sequence features, and ITS clustering parameters accordingly optimized. The overall trends in coverage of Termitomyces diversity and host associations were estimated using Genbank data. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Results indicate a monoculture of Termitomyces in the guts as well as the isolation sources (fungal combs. However, cases of more than one Termitomyces strains per mound were observed since mounds can contain different termite colonies. The newly found cultures, as well as the clustering analysis of GenBank data indicate that there are on average between one and two host genera per Termitomyces species. Saturation does not appear to have been reached, neither for the total number of known Termitomyces species nor for the number of Termitomyces species per host taxon, nor for the number of known hosts per Termitomyces species. Considering the rarity of Termitomyces fruiting bodies, it is

  18. Genes for selenium dependent and independent formate dehydrogenase in the gut microbial communities of three lower, wood-feeding termites and a wood-feeding roach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinning; Matson, Eric G; Leadbetter, Jared R

    2011-02-01

    The bacterial Wood-Ljungdahl pathway for CO(2)-reductive acetogenesis is important for the nutritional mutualism occurring between wood-feeding insects and their hindgut microbiota. A key step in this pathway is the reduction of CO(2) to formate, catalysed by the enzyme formate dehydrogenase (FDH). Putative selenocysteine- (Sec) and cysteine- (Cys) containing paralogues of hydrogenase-linked FDH (FDH(H)) have been identified in the termite gut acetogenic spirochete, Treponema primitia, but knowledge of their relevance in the termite gut environment remains limited. In this study, we designed degenerate PCR primers for FDH(H) genes (fdhF) and assessed fdhF diversity in insect gut bacterial isolates and the gut microbial communities of termites and cockroaches. The insects examined herein represent three wood-feeding termite families, Termopsidae, Kalotermitidae and Rhinotermitidae (phylogenetically 'lower' termite taxa); the wood-feeding roach family Cryptocercidae (the sister taxon to termites); and the omnivorous roach family Blattidae. Sec and Cys FDH(H) variants were identified in every wood-feeding insect but not the omnivorous roach. Of 68 novel alleles obtained from inventories, 66 affiliated phylogenetically with enzymes from T. primitia. These formed two subclades (37 and 29 phylotypes) almost completely comprised of Sec-containing and Cys-containing enzymes respectively. A gut cDNA inventory showed transcription of both variants in the termite Zootermopsis nevadensis (family Termopsidae). The gene patterns suggest that FDH(H) enzymes are important for the CO(2)-reductive metabolism of uncultured acetogenic treponemes and imply that the availability of selenium, a trace element, shaped microbial gene content in the last common ancestor of dictyopteran, wood-feeding insects, and continues to shape it to this day.

  19. Screening and identification of newly isolated cellulose-degrading bacteria from the gut of xylophagous termite Microcerotermes diversus (Silvestri).

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    Pourramezan, Z; Ghezelbash, G R; Romani, B; Ziaei, S; Hedayatkhah, A

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to isolate and characterize the cellulose-degrading bacteria from the gut of the local termite, Microcerotermes diversus (Silvestri), inhabiting the Khuzestan province of Iran. The microorganisms capable of growing in the liquid medium containing cellulose as the only source of carbon were isolated and their cellulolytic activity on CMC-containing media was confirmed by the congo red clearing zone assay. The isolates were identified based on biochemical characteristics and the phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene fragments. The results of the present study show that three cellulose-degrading bacteria isolated from local termite guts belonged to the genera Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas and Staphylococcus and four cellulose-degrading bacteria belonged to Enterobacteriaceae and Bacillaceae families. Several isolates recovered from separate termite Microcerotermes diversus samples closely clustered in phylogenetic trees indicating high similarity and the abundance of particular cellulolytic strains. Bacillus B5B and Acinetobacter L9B hydrolyzed cellulose faster than the other isolates (with CMCase activity of 1.47 U/mL and 1.22 U/mL, respectively). The stability of CMCase produced by Bacillus B5B over a broad range of pH and high temperature indicated that the enzyme may be of great commercial value.

  20. Impact of Ground-Applied Termiticides on the Above-Ground Foraging Behavior of the Formosan Subterranean Termite

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    Gregg Henderson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a laboratory study to determine the impact of ground-applied termiticides on the above-ground foraging behavior of Coptotermes formosanus. Two concentrations (1 and 10 ppm each of three termiticides, viz. fipronil, imidacloprid and chlorantraniliprole, were tested. After one month post-treatment (fipronil 10 ppm was run for 12 days only and all other treatments were run for one month, fipronil had the lowest percentage of survival (3%–4% at both concentrations. Termite survival ranged from 31% to 40% in the case of imidacloprid treatments and 10 ppm chlorantraniliprole. However, 1 ppm chlorantraniliprole did not cause significant mortality compared to the controls. Foraging on the bottom substrate was evident in all replicates for all chemicals initially. However, a portion of the foraging population avoided the ground treatment toxicants after several days of bottom foraging. Only the slower-acting non-repellents created this repellent barrier, causing avoidance behavior that was most likely due to dead termites and fungus buildup on the treated bottom substrate. Fipronil appeared more toxic and faster acting at the concentrations tested, thus limiting this repellent effect. Suggestions by the pest control industry in Louisiana that some non-repellents can create a repellent barrier stranding live termites above ground are supported by this laboratory study.

  1. Potential Hybridization between Two Invasive Termite Species, Coptotermes formosanus and C. gestroi (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae, and Its Biological and Economic Implications

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    Nan-Yao Su

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Asian subterranean termite, Coptotermes gestroi, is a tropical species but has increasingly been collected from the subtropics in recent years, making it sympatric to the Formosan subterranean termite, C. formosanus in at least three areas, Taiwan, Hawaii, and Florida. Simultaneous flights by these two species were observed since 2013 in South Florida, during which interspecies tandems were observed. Laboratory mating of C. formosanus and C. gestroi alates produced hybrid incipient colonies of larger population size. Studies are underway to examine the presence in the field of hybrid colonies in sympatric areas of Taiwan and Florida. Other biological characteristics of C. formosanus × C. gestroi hybrids being studied include temperature tolerance and preference, colony growth rate, wood-consumption rate, and reproductive fertility. This current research aims to determine the potential establishment of a hybrid termite population in south Florida and Taiwan. It investigates the risk of introgressive hybridization in field populations, with an emphasis on its potential ecological, evolutionary, and economic consequences.

  2. Phylogenetic analyses of Podaxis specimens from Southern Africa reveal hidden diversity and new insights into associations with termites.

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    Conlon, Benjamin H; de Beer, Z Wilhelm; De Fine Licht, Henrik H; Aanen, Duur K; Poulsen, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Although frequently found on mounds of the grass-cutting termite genus Trinervitermes, virtually nothing is known about the natural history of the fungal genus Podaxis (Agaricaceae) nor why it associates with termite mounds. More than 40 species of this secotioid genus have been described since Linnaeus characterised the first species in 1771. However, taxonomic confusion arose when most of these species were reduced to synonymy with Podaxis pistillaris in 1933. Although a few more species have since been described, the vast majority of specimens worldwide are still treated as P. pistillaris. Using 45 fresh and herbarium specimens from Southern Africa, four from North America and one each from Ethiopia, and Kenya, we constructed the first comprehensive phylogeny of the genus. Four of the genotyped specimens were more than 100 y old. With the exception of the type specimen of Podaxis rugospora, all herbarium specimens were labelled as P. pistillaris or Podaxis sp. However, our data shows that the genus contains at least five well-supported clades with significant inter-clade differences in spore length, width and wall thickness, and fruiting body length, supporting that clades likely represent distinct Podaxis species. Certain clades consistently associate with termites while others appear entirely free-living. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Termite Communities in Sugarcane Plantations in Southeastern Brazil: an Ecological Approach

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    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Termites are key components of soil fauna, playing an essential role in organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling. However, they can cause significant economic losses in commercial plantations, such as sugar cane. Therefore, the correct identification of termite species is critical for pest control. Here, we evaluated the species richness, abundance and functional groups of termites in sugarcane plantations in 53 cities throughout the state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. We also analyzed the influence of macroclimatic variables on termite species distribution and functional groups. We found 22 taxa of two families, of which the most frequent species were Termitidae (96.51%. Within this family, Apicotermitinae had the highest frequency of occurrence (37.12%, followed by Termitinae (30.57%, Syntermitinae (27.95%, and Nasutitermitinae (0.8 %. The other family, Rhinotermitidae, had the lowest frequency (3.5%, being represented only by Heterotermes sulcatus Mathews. We classified Neocapritermes opacus Hagen (29.26%, Apicotermitinae sp.2 (24.89%, Cornitermes cumulans Kollar (13.10%, and Apicotermitinae sp.1 (6.99% as common taxa. The remaining 18 species were classified as rare. The most common functional group was humus-feeders (37%, followed by wood-feeders (34%, grass-litter feeders (25%, and intermediate feeders (4%. Climate influenced the distribution of common species, humus-feeders and grass-litter feeders. Regarding the pest status of termites in sugar cane plantations, we suggest that the exasperated use of pesticide in the last decades has reduced the abundance of species considered pests (e.g. Heterotermes and reinforce the importance of ecological approaches for determining the best pest control methods. Comunidades de Cupins em Cultivos de Cana-de-Açúcar no Estado de São Paulo: Uma Abordagem Ecológica Resumo. Os cupins são importantes componentes da fauna de solo, atuando na decomposição da mat

  4. Ação dos térmitas no solo Termites action on the soil

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    Eric Victor de Oliveira Ferreira

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A ordem Isoptera é bastante conhecida pelo seu potencial como praga, apesar dos cupins-praga constituírem a minoria dentro do grupo. Os cupins (térmitas são invertebrados dominantes em ambientes terrestres tropicais e estão espalhados desde as florestas úmidas até as savanas, sendo encontrados até mesmo em regiões áridas, nos mais variados habitats. Esses insetos têm um papel destacado e ainda pouco estudado nos ecossistemas tropicais. Ciclagem de nutrientes, aeração, infiltração de água do solo, bioturbação, formação de agregados e decomposição de material orgânico, são processos influenciados pela ação dos térmitas, que vão, direta ou indiretamente, influenciar a formação dos solos e da paisagem onde se encontram. Sugerimos que uma maior abordagem deva ser dirigida em futuras pesquisas para a influência desses insetos no solo sob condições específicas de uso e manejo, na produção sustentável de alimentos e nas mudanças climáticas.The order Isoptera is well known by its potential as a plague, although the number of species that are plagues is small within the group. Termites are the dominant invertebrates in tropical terrestrial environments and are spread from tropical rainforests to the savannahs, being found even in arid regions, in various habitats. These insects have a major role and are still little studied in tropical ecosystems. Nutrient cycling, aeration, water infiltration of soil, bioturbation, aggregates formation and organic material decomposition, are processes influenced by the action of termites, which , directly or indirectly, affect soil and landscape formation wherever they are. We suggest that a better approach must be addressed in future researches about these insects influence in the soil under specified conditions of use and management, in sustainable food production and climate changes.

  5. Respiratory concerts revealed by scanning microrespirography in a termite Prorhinotermes simplex (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

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    Sláma, K; Sobotník, J; Hanus, R

    2007-04-01

    Respiratory metabolism of different developmental stages (larvae, pseudergates, nymphs, soldiers, neotenic reproductives; 0.6-4.5 mg body mass) of Prorhinotermes simplex was individually monitored by scanning respirographic method sensitive to subnanoliter amounts of O(2) consumption or CO(2) output per minute. Specimens exposed to dry air after removal from the colony performed enormously large, discontinuous bursts of CO(2) lasting usually 2 min. The volume of CO(2) produced during the burst often surpassed the volume of the whole body and it was 10- to 20-fold in excess of the air-filled endogenous tracheal volume. The initial velocity of CO(2) production during the burst was more than 90-fold faster in comparison to O(2) consumption. In the presence of enough moisture within the respiratory vessel, the termites breathed continuously without any larger outburst of CO(2). This fact fully corroborates validity of the so-called water retention theory in discontinuous CO(2) release. The highest rates of O(2) consumption were found in the second instar larvae (0.9 mg, 1000-2000 microl O(2)/g/h), the soldier caste was intermediate (700 microl O(2)/g/h) while pseudergates and neotenic reproductives consumed between 300 and 600 microl O(2)/g/h, at 25 degrees C. All developmental stages feeding on a cellulose diet had CO(2)/O(2) values (RQ) over 1 (1.2-1.4, i.e. carbohydrate metabolism), pigmented soldiers fed by the workers had RQ around 0.75 (predominating lipid or protein metabolism). The unusually large, sudden eruptions of CO(2) in specimens exposed to dry air allow us to make the following conclusions: (1) the bursts were due to special chemical processes, such as by enzymatic hydration of carbonic acid by carbonic anhydrase and; (2) the bulk of chemically evolved gaseous CO(2) escaped from the body by a mass flow supported by active ventilation, not by a passive diffusion. These results demonstrated that the periodic emissions of CO(2) and the associated

  6. Delayed and time-cumulative toxicity of imidacloprid in bees, ants and termites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondeau, Gary; Sánchez-Bayo, Francisco; Tennekes, Henk A.; Decourtye, Axel; Ramírez-Romero, Ricardo; Desneux, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Imidacloprid, one of the most commonly used insecticides, is highly toxic to bees and other beneficial insects. The regulatory challenge to determine safe levels of residual pesticides can benefit from information about the time-dependent toxicity of this chemical. Using published toxicity data for imidacloprid for several insect species, we construct time-to-lethal-effect toxicity plots and fit temporal power-law scaling curves to the data. The level of toxic exposure that results in 50% mortality after time t is found to scale as t1.7 for ants, from t1.6 to t5 for honeybees, and from t1.46 to t2.9 for termites. We present a simple toxicological model that can explain t2 scaling. Extrapolating the toxicity scaling for honeybees to the lifespan of winter bees suggests that imidacloprid in honey at 0.25 μg/kg would be lethal to a large proportion of bees nearing the end of their life. PMID:24993452

  7. Delayed and time-cumulative toxicity of imidacloprid in bees, ants and termites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondeau, Gary; Sánchez-Bayo, Francisco; Tennekes, Henk A; Decourtye, Axel; Ramírez-Romero, Ricardo; Desneux, Nicolas

    2014-07-04

    Imidacloprid, one of the most commonly used insecticides, is highly toxic to bees and other beneficial insects. The regulatory challenge to determine safe levels of residual pesticides can benefit from information about the time-dependent toxicity of this chemical. Using published toxicity data for imidacloprid for several insect species, we construct time-to-lethal-effect toxicity plots and fit temporal power-law scaling curves to the data. The level of toxic exposure that results in 50% mortality after time t is found to scale as t(1.7) for ants, from t(1.6) to t(5) for honeybees, and from t(1.46) to t(2.9) for termites. We present a simple toxicological model that can explain t(2) scaling. Extrapolating the toxicity scaling for honeybees to the lifespan of winter bees suggests that imidacloprid in honey at 0.25 μg/kg would be lethal to a large proportion of bees nearing the end of their life.

  8. Molting Site Fidelity in Workers of Formosan Subterranean Termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakkar, G; Osbrink, W; Mullins, A; Su, N-Y

    2017-09-25

    Spatial assessment of molting in workers of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki was conducted in laboratory-reared colonies using extended foraging arenas. Workers at a premolt stage were found concentrated in the nest or in a planar arena near the nest. However, molting individuals were found exclusively in the central nest and they stayed inside or near the central nest for at least 36 h postmolting. The absence of premolt workers at foraging sites suggests that the workers have an affinity to the nest for molting and the second study on nest-fidelity evaluation suggested that the workers molt in the proximity of eggs. The molting site fidelity by workers in a colony ensures that speeding up the time for mortality induced by chitin synthesis inhibitor (CSI) baits will not result in an inhibitory cascade of dead termites around the bait stations. Thus, speeding up the elimination of a C. formosanus colony using CSI baits with the addition of molt-accelerating compounds will not lead to secondary repellency. Reasons for the molting-site fidelity amongst workers in a colony are discussed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. ALIMENTARY CANAL ANATOMY AND HISTOLOGY OF THE WORKER TERMITE NEOTERMES BOSEI

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    LEKSONO EKOPURANTO HARIPRABOWO

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available As social insects, termites live in a colony that consist of reproductive (drone and queen, and non-reproductive (soldiers and workers castes. Workers obtain their food directly from wood, humus, and other substances that contain cellulose. The objective of this study was to examine the alimentary canal of the Neotermes bosei workers. Observations of gut transverse section were carried out through the length, perimeter, and area of each alimentary canal region. The results showed that total length of N. bosei alimentary canal was 13.71+1.28 mm. The canal was divided into fore-, mid-, and hindgut which were 24, 28, and 48%, respectively of the gut total length. Two types of alimentary canal epithelial cells were found, i.e. the squamous and transitional cells. Areas covered with thick muscular tissues were crop, proventriculus, and rectum. Proventriculus was characterized with six large dentitions. There was no gastric caeca in N. bosei midgut, which commonly occurred in chewing insect. Secretory cells .wer e observed at proventriculus and ventriculus regions. Cardiac valve was found at the anterior end of ventriculus. Area with the largest outer perimeter was the rectum pouch. Enteric valve had three internal folds.

  10. Nestmate recognition and the role of cuticular hydrocarbons in the African termite raiding ant Pachycondyla analis.

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    Yusuf, Abdullahi A; Pirk, Christian W W; Crewe, Robin M; Njagi, Peter G N; Gordon, Ian; Torto, Baldwyn

    2010-04-01

    Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) are used for chemical communication among nestmates in many ant species, and they may play a role in the discrimination of nestmates and non-nestmates. Using the mandible opening response (MOR) bioassay, we tested the response of the African termite raiding ant, Pachycondyla analis, to CHC extracts of nestmates and non-nestmates. The ants were able to distinguish control chemical cues, from nestmate CHCs, and from non-nestmate CHCs, and, based on a CHC recognition threshold, aggression was demonstrated toward non-nestmates. Gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometric analyses showed that CHC components of different ant colonies had chain lengths ranging from C(8) to C(31), comprising mainly n-alkanes, alkenes, and methyl branched alkanes, with the n-alkanes occurring in the same proportions among all colonies. The ants were grouped successfully according to their colonies of origin by using discriminant analysis of CHCs. We demonstrate that nestmate recognition occurs in P. analis, and that some of the cues involved are evidently alkenes and methyl-branched alkanes.

  11. Transcriptome analysis of the digestive system of a wood-feeding termite (Coptotermes formosanus) revealed a unique mechanism for effective biomass degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Alei; Cheng, Yanbing; Wang, Yongli; Zhu, Daochen; Le, Yilin; Wu, Jian; Xie, Rongrong; Yuan, Joshua S; Sun, Jianzhong

    2018-01-01

    Wood-feeding termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, represents a highly efficient system for biomass deconstruction and utilization. However, the detailed mechanisms of lignin modification and carbohydrate degradation in this system are still largely elusive. In order to reveal the inherent mechanisms for efficient biomass degradation, four different organs (salivary glands, foregut, midgut, and hindgut) within a complete digestive system of a lower termite, C. formosanus , were dissected and collected. Comparative transcriptomics was carried out to analyze these organs using high-throughput RNA sequencing. A total of 71,117 unigenes were successfully assembled, and the comparative transcriptome analyses revealed significant differential distributions of GH (glycosyl hydrolase) genes and auxiliary redox enzyme genes in different digestive organs. Among the GH genes in the salivary glands, the most abundant were GH9, GH22, and GH1 genes. The corresponding enzymes may have secreted into the foregut and midgut to initiate the hydrolysis of biomass and to achieve a lignin-carbohydrate co-deconstruction system. As the most diverse GH families, GH7 and GH5 were primarily identified from the symbiotic protists in the hindgut. These enzymes could play a synergistic role with the endogenous enzymes from the host termite for biomass degradation. Moreover, twelve out of fourteen genes coding auxiliary redox enzymes from the host termite origin were induced by the feeding of lignin-rich diets. This indicated that these genes may be involved in lignin component deconstruction with its redox network during biomass pretreatment. These findings demonstrate that the termite digestive system synergized the hydrolysis and redox reactions in a programmatic process, through different parts of its gut system, to achieve a maximized utilization of carbohydrates. The detailed unique mechanisms identified from the termite digestive system may provide new insights for advanced design of

  12. TERMITE: An R script for fast reduction of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry data and its application to trace element measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischel, Simon A; Mertz-Kraus, Regina; Jochum, Klaus Peter; Scholz, Denis

    2017-07-15

    High spatial resolution Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) determination of trace element concentrations is of great interest for geological and environmental studies. Data reduction is a very important aspect of LA-ICP-MS, and several commercial programs for handling LA-ICPMS trace element data are available. Each of these software packages has its specific advantages and disadvantages. Here we present TERMITE, an R script for the reduction of LA-ICPMS data, which can reduce both spot and line scan measurements. Several parameters can be adjusted by the user, who does not necessarily need prior knowledge in R. Currently, ten reference materials with different matrices for calibration of LA-ICPMS data are implemented, and additional reference materials can be added by the user. TERMITE also provides an optional outlier test, and the results are provided graphically (as a pdf file) as well as numerically (as a csv file). As an example, we apply TERMITE to a speleothem sample and compare the results with those obtained using the commercial software GLITTER. The two programs give similar results. TERMITE is particularly useful for samples that are homogeneous with respect to their major element composition (in particular for the element used as an internal standard) and when many measurements are performed using the same analytical parameters. In this case, data evaluation using TERMITE is much faster than with all other available software, and the concentrations of more than 100 single spot measurements can be calculated in less than a minute. TERMITE is an open-source software for the reduction of LA-ICPMS data, which is particularly useful for the fast, reproducible evaluation of large datasets of samples that are homogeneous with respect to their major element composition. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. The contribution of the genomes of a termite and a locust to our understanding of insect neuropeptides and neurohormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Adrianus Veenstra

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The genomes of the migratory locust Locusta migratoria and the termite Zootermopsis nevadensis were mined for genes encoding neuropeptides, neurohormones and their G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs. Both species have retained a larger number of neuropeptide and neuropeptide GPCRs than the better known holometabolous insect species, while other genes that in holometabolous species appear to have a single transcript produce two different precursors in the locust, the termite or both. Thus the recently discovered CNMa neuropeptide gene has two transcripts predicted to produce two structurally different CNMa peptides in the termite, while the locust produces two different myosuppressin peptides in the same fashion. Both these species also have a calcitonin gene, which is different from the gene encoding the calcitonin-like insect diuretic hormone. This gene produces two types of calcitonins, calcitonins A and B. It is also present in Lepidoptera and Coleoptera and some Diptera, but absent from mosquitoes and Drosophila. However, in holometabolous insect species, only the B transcript is produced. Their putative receptors were also identified. In contrast, Locusta has a highly unusual gene that codes for a salivation stimulatory peptide. The Locusta genes for neuroparsin and vasopressin are particularly interesting. The neuroparsin gene produces five different transcripts, of which only one codes for the neurohormone identified from the corpora cardiaca. The other four transcripts code for neuroparsin-like proteins, which lack four amino acid residues, and that for that reason we called neoneuroparsins. The number of transcripts for the neoneuroparsins is about two hundred times larger than the number of neuroparsin transcripts. The first exon and the putative promoter of the vasopressin genes, of which there are about seven copies in the genome, is very well conserved, but the remainder of these genes is not. The relevance of these findings is

  14. The contribution of the genomes of a termite and a locust to our understanding of insect neuropeptides and neurohormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenstra, Jan A.

    2014-01-01

    The genomes of the migratory locust Locusta migratoria and the termite Zootermopsis nevadensis were mined for the presence of genes encoding neuropeptides, neurohormones, and their G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). Both species have retained a larger number of neuropeptide and neuropeptide GPCRs than the better known holometabolous insect species, while other genes that in holometabolous species appear to have a single transcript produce two different precursors in the locust, the termite or both. Thus, the recently discovered CNMa neuropeptide gene has two transcripts predicted to produce two structurally different CNMa peptides in the termite, while the locust produces two different myosuppressin peptides in the same fashion. Both these species also have a calcitonin gene, which is different from the gene encoding the calcitonin-like insect diuretic hormone. This gene produces two types of calcitonins, calcitonins A and B. It is also present in Lepidoptera and Coleoptera and some Diptera, but absent from mosquitoes and Drosophila. However, in holometabolous insect species, only the B transcript is produced. Their putative receptors were also identified. In contrast, Locusta has a highly unusual gene that codes for a salivation stimulatory peptide. The Locusta genes for neuroparsin and vasopressin are particularly interesting. The neuroparsin gene produces five different transcripts, of which only one codes for the neurohormone identified from the corpora cardiaca. The other four transcripts code for neuroparsin-like proteins, which lack four amino acid residues, and that for that reason we called neoneuroparsins. The number of transcripts for the neoneuroparsins is about 200 times larger than the number of neuroparsin transcripts. The first exon and the putative promoter of the vasopressin genes, of which there are about seven copies in the genome, is very well-conserved, but the remainder of these genes is not. The relevance of these findings is discussed

  15. ISOLATION AND LIGNOCELLULOLYTIC ACTIVITIES OF FIBER-DIGESTING BACTERIA FROM DIGESTIVE TRACT OF TERMITE (Cryptothermes sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.I.M. Tampoebolon

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to obtain the fiber-digesting bacteria isolates from termitedigestive tract and to determine the optimum conditions of growth and production of cellulase, xylanaseand ligninase enzyme of isolate. The first study was conducted to isolate and select the fiber-digestingbacteria from the digestive tract of termites based on the highest activity of cellulolytic (S, xylanolytic(X and lignolytic (L. The second study was optimation of the growth conditions of bacteria and theenzyme production due to effect of rice straw substrate and nitrogen. The material used were dry woodtermites, rice straw, and culture medium. The design used was a completely randomized factorial design,in which the first factor was rice straw substrate (1, 2, and 3% W/V, while the second factor wasnitrogen (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3% W/V. Variables measured were cellulase, xylanase and ligninase activities.Results of the first sudy showed that the isolates obtained consisted of 3 types, those were cellulolyticbacteria (S1, S2, and S3, 3 types of bacteria xylanolytic (X1, X2, and X3 and 3 types of bacteria lignolytic(L1, L2, and L3. Meanwhile, results of the second study showed that isolates of S2, X3, and L1 had thehighest activity, those were 1.894 U/mL, 1.722 U/mL and 0.314 U/mL, respectively. In conclusion, the addition of 1% level of rice straw substrate and 0.3% of nitrogen showed the highest enzyme activity oncellulase, xylanase and ligninase.

  16. Natural products from the termite Nasutitermes corniger lowers aminoglycoside minimum inhibitory concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Henrique D M; Vasconcellos, Alexandre; Freire-Pessôa, Hilzeth L; Gadelha, Carlos A; Gadelha, Tatiane S; Almeida-Filho, Geraldo G

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial infectious agents present a risk to populations, as they are responsible for high morbidity and mortality. For combating these pathogens, our main line of defense is the use of antibiotics. However, indiscriminate use of these drugs develops resistant strains to these same drugs. The present study has tested the antibacterial and modifying antibiotic activity of natural products from Nasutitermes corniger (Termitidae) (Motschulsky), a termite used in folk medicine in Northeast Brazil, by the microdilution and checkerboard methods, respectively. In this study, the aqueous extract from the nest of N. corniger (ANCE) was prepared and tested with chlorpromazine (CPZ) for its antimicrobial activity, using the microdilution method. CPZ and ANCE were used independently and also in combination with aminoglycosides, against a strain of Escherichia coli resistant to these antibiotics, to determine the participation of efflux systems in resistance mechanisms. The fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) index was calculated and evaluated for the occurrence of synergism, using the checkerboard method. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) values were >/= 2048 mug/mL for both strains of E. coli assayed, indicating low antibacterial activity. However, synergism was observed with kanamycin when the decoction was used, but when chlorpromazine was used, synergism was observed with kanamycin, amikacin, and neomycin. This synergism with CPZ indicated the involvement of an efflux system in the resistance to these aminoglycosides. Therefore, it was suggested that the natural products from N. corniger could be used as a source of zoo-derived natural products with kanamycin-modifying activity, resulting in a new approach against bacterial resistance to antibiotics.

  17. Maize Storage in Termite Mound Clay, Concrete, and Steel Silos in the Humid Tropics: Comparison and Effect on Bacterial and Fungal Counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the functional suitability of using the readily-available termite mound clay (TMC) for grain silo construction in comparison to conventional reinforced concrete (RC) and galvanized steel (GS) silos for maize storage in the humid tropics. The extent to which temperature and r...

  18. Oligocene termite nests with in situ fungus gardens from the rukwa rift basin, Tanzania, support a paleogene african origin for insect agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roberts, Eric M.; Todd, Christopher N.; Aanen, Duur K.; Nobre, Tania; Hilbert-Wolf, Hannah L.; O'Connor, Patrick M.; Tapanila, Leif; Mtelela, Cassy; Stevens, Nancy J.

    2016-01-01

    Based on molecular dating, the origin of insect agriculture is hypothesized to have taken place independently in three clades of fungus-farming insects: the termites, ants or ambrosia beetles during the Paleogene (66-24 Ma). Yet, definitive fossil evidence of fungus-growing behavior has been

  19. The role of the glucose-sensing transcription factor carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein pathway in termite queen fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillam-Dussès, David; Hanus, Robert; Thomas-Poulsen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    novo lipogenesis. Here, we identify a termite orthologue of ChREBP and its downstream lipogenic targets, including acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase. We show that all of these genes, including ChREBP, are upregulated in mature queens compared with kings, sterile workers and soldiers...

  20. Sub-lethal effects of essential oil of Lippia sidoides on drywood termite Cryptotermes brevis (Blattodea: Termitoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Abraão Almeida; de Oliveira, Bruna Maria Santos; Melo, Carlisson Ramos; Lima, Ana Paula Santana; Santana, Emile Dayara Rabelo; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Picanço, Marcelo Coutinho; Araújo, Ana Paula Albano; Cristaldo, Paulo Fellipe; Bacci, Leandro

    2017-11-01

    The drywood termite Cryptotermes brevis (Walker, 1853) (Kalotermitidae) is one of the most important wood structural pest in the world. Substances from the secondary metabolism of plants (e.g., essential oils) have been considered an environmentally safer form of control for urban pests, such as termites. In the present study, we analyzed the lethal and sub-lethal effects of essential oil of Lippia sidoides and its major components on C. brevis pseudergates in two routes of exposure (contact and fumigation). The essential oil of L. sidoides and thymol were more toxic to C. brevis pseudergates when applied by contact (LD50 = 9.33 and 8.20µgmg(-1), respectively) and by fumigation (LC50 = 9.10 and 23.6µLL(-1), respectively). In general, treatments changed the individual and collective behaviors of C. brevis pseudergates, as well as the displacement and walking speed. The essential oil of L. sidoides and its major components showed a high potential to control C. brevis pseudergates, due to the bioactivity in the two routes of exposure and the sub-lethal effects on the behavior and walking, important activities for the cohesion of C. brevis colonies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Molting drives mortality in foraging populations of Formosan subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) baited with a chitin synthesis inhibitor, noviflumuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakkar, Garima; Su, Nan-Yao

    2018-01-01

    The lethal time of a chitin synthesis inhibitor (CSI)-baited colony of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki largely depends on the time taken for workers to molt after consuming a lethal dose. Given that termite molting biology can regulate the time to elimination of a baited termite colony, the objective of this study was to determine how the fasting period (an important element of the worker molting cycle) and acquisition of the lethal dose can impact the total elimination period for a colony. Noviflumuron eliminated the foraging population over a 30 m-long foraging arena within 9 weeks. However, mortality in treatment groups did not begin until day 11. The 10-day lag post treatment corresponds to the fasting period during which workers to prepare for ecdysis on the 11th day, at which time mortality occurs due to the effect of CSI. This study shows that, with the exception of successful molting events during the first 10 days after baiting, mortality among workers is inevitable in the next molt with lethal doses of noviflumuron. The 10-day fasting period can comprise at least 22% of a molt cycle (45 days for a fourth worker instar or lower), and can provide a window during which a worker escapes the effect of CSI bait, thereby extending the total time needed for elimination of a colony. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Termite usage associated with antibiotic therapy: enhancement of aminoglycoside antibiotic activity by natural products of Nasutitermes corniger (Motschulsky 1855

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida-Filho Geraldo G

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several species from Insecta are used as remedies. Among these species, the termite Nasutitermes corniger is commonly used in traditional medicine in Northeast Brazil. The present work tests the modifying antibiotic activity of Nasutitermes corniger, a termite used in folk medicine in Northeastern region of Brazil. Methods Chlorpromazine and decocts of N. corniger were collected from two different plant species used in the traditional medicine were tested for their antimicrobial activity against strains of Escherichia coli resistant to aminoglycosides. The growth of two bacterial strains of E. coli was tested using decocts and chlorpromazine alone or associeted with aminogycosides. Results The MIC and MBC values were ≥1024 μg/ml for both strains of E. coli assayed. A significant synergism was observed between both decocts and chlorpromazine when assyed with neomycin. This synergism with neomycin indicates the involvement of an efflux system in the resistance to this aminoglycoside. Conclusion Therefore it is suggested that natural products from N. corniger could be used as a source of zoo-derived natural products with modifying antibiotic activity to aminoglycosides, being a new weapon against the bacterial resistance to antibiotics.

  3. Laboratory Study of the Influence of Substrate Type and Temperature on the Exploratory Tunneling by Formosan Subterranean Termite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bal K. Gautam

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Using two-dimensional foraging arenas, laboratory tests were conducted to investigate the effect of soil type, soil moisture level and ambient temperature on the exploratory tunneling by Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki. In choice arenas consisting of two substrate types having two moisture levels each, and conducted at a constant temperature of 22 °C, a significantly greater proportion of termites aggregated in sand than in sandy loam. Similarly, the length of excavated tunnels was also increased in sand. In a given substrate, termite aggregation or tunnel length did not differ between 5% and 15% moisture levels. In no-choice tests, where three different substrates (sand, sandy loam and silt loam were tested at two temperatures (22 °C and 28 °C, excavations were significantly greater in sand than either sandy loam or silt loam at 22 °C. Fewer primary tunnels were constructed in sandy loam than in sand and fewer branched tunnels than either in sand or silt loam. No significant difference in either tunnel length or number of primary or branched tunnels was found between these two temperatures.

  4. Metabolomic profiling of 13C-labelled cellulose digestion in a lower termite: insights into gut symbiont function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuda, Gaku; Tsuboi, Yuuri; Kihara, Kumiko; Saitou, Seikou; Moriya, Sigeharu; Lo, Nathan; Kikuchi, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Termites consume an estimated 3–7 billion tonnes of lignocellulose annually, a role in nature which is unique for a single order of invertebrates. Their food is digested with the help of microbial symbionts, a relationship that has been recognized for 200 years and actively researched for at least a century. Although DNA- and RNA-based approaches have greatly refined the details of the process and the identities of the participants, the allocation of roles in space and time remains unclear. To resolve this issue, a pioneer study is reported using metabolomics to chart the in situ catabolism of 13C-cellulose fed to the dampwood species Hodotermopsis sjostedti. The results confirm that the secretion of endogenous cellulases by the host may be significant to the digestive process and indicate that a major contribution by hindgut bacteria is phosphorolysis of cellodextrins or cellobiose. This study provides evidence that essential amino acid acquisition by termites occurs following the lysis of microbial tissue obtained via proctodaeal trophallaxis. PMID:25009054

  5. Genome analysis of Elusimicrobium minutum, the first cultivated representative of the Elusimicrobia phylum (formerly Termite Group 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herlemann, D. P. R.; Geissinger, O.; Ikeda-Ohtsubo, W.; Kunin, V.; Sun, H.; Lapidus, A.; Hugenholtz, P.; Brune, A.

    2009-02-01

    The candidate phylum Termite group 1 (TG1), is regularly 1 encountered in termite hindguts but is present also in many other habitats. Here we report the complete genome sequence (1.64 Mbp) of Elusimicrobium minutum strain Pei191{sup T}, the first cultured representative of the TG1 phylum. We reconstructed the metabolism of this strictly anaerobic bacterium isolated from a beetle larva gut and discuss the findings in light of physiological data. E. minutum has all genes required for uptake and fermentation of sugars via the Embden-Meyerhof pathway, including several hydrogenases, and an unusual peptide degradation pathway comprising transamination reactions and leading to the formation of alanine, which is excreted in substantial amounts. The presence of genes encoding lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis and the presence of a pathway for peptidoglycan formation are consistent with ultrastructural evidence of a Gram-negative cell envelope. Even though electron micrographs showed no cell appendages, the genome encodes many genes putatively involved in pilus assembly. We assigned some to a type II secretion system, but the function of 60 pilE-like genes remains unknown. Numerous genes with hypothetical functions, e.g., polyketide synthesis, non-ribosomal peptide synthesis, antibiotic transport, and oxygen stress protection, indicate the presence of hitherto undiscovered physiological traits. Comparative analysis of 22 concatenated single-copy marker genes corroborated the status of Elusimicrobia (formerly TG1) as a separate phylum in the bacterial domain, which was so far based only on 16S rRNA sequence analysis.

  6. The TUNEL assay suggests mandibular regression by programmed cell death during presoldier differentiation in the nasute termite Nasutitermes takasagoensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toga, Kouhei; Yoda, Shinichi; Maekawa, Kiyoto

    2011-09-01

    Termite soldiers are the most specialized caste of social insects in terms of their morphology and function. Soldier development requires increased juvenile hormone (JH) titer and the two molts via a presoldier stage. These molts are accompanied by dramatic morphological changes, including the exaggeration and regression of certain organs. Soldiers of the most apical termitid subfamily Nasutitermitinae possess not only a horn-like frontal tube, called the nasus, for the projection of defensive chemicals from the frontal gland reservoir but also regressed mandibles. Although candidate genes regulating soldier mandibular growth were reported in a relatively basal termite species, the regulatory mechanisms of mandibular regression remain unknown. To clarify these mechanisms, we performed morphological and histological examinations of the mandibles during soldier differentiation in Nasutitermes takasagoensis. Mandibular size reduced dramatically during soldier differentiation, and mandibular regression occurred just prior to the presoldier molt. Spotted TUNEL signals were observed in regressing mandibles of presoldiers, suggesting that the regression involved programmed cell death. Because soldiers of N. takasagoensis possess exaggerated organs (nasus and frontal gland), the present results suggest that JH-dependent regressive mechanisms exist in the mandibles without interfering with the formation of the exaggerated organs.

  7. Nitrate reduction, nitrous oxide formation, and anaerobic ammonia oxidation to nitrite in the gut of soil-feeding termites (Cubitermes and Ophiotermes spp.)

    KAUST Repository

    Ngugi, David

    2011-11-28

    Soil-feeding termites play important roles in the dynamics of carbon and nitrogen in tropical soils. Through the mineralization of nitrogenous humus components, their intestinal tracts accumulate enormous amounts of ammonia, and nitrate and nitrite concentrations are several orders of magnitude above those in the ingested soil. Here, we studied the metabolism of nitrate in the different gut compartments of two Cubitermes and one Ophiotermes species using 15N isotope tracer analysis. Living termites emitted N 2 at rates ranging from 3.8 to 6.8nmolh -1 (g fresh wt.) -1. However, in homogenates of individual gut sections, denitrification was restricted to the posterior hindgut, whereas nitrate ammonification occurred in all gut compartments and was the prevailing process in the anterior gut. Potential rates of nitrate ammonification for the entire intestinal tract were tenfold higher than those of denitrification, implying that ammonification is the major sink for ingested nitrate in the intestinal tract of soil-feeding termites. Because nitrate is efficiently reduced already in the anterior gut, reductive processes in the posterior gut compartments must be fuelled by an endogenous source of oxidized nitrogen species. Quite unexpectedly, we observed an anaerobic oxidation of 15N-labelled ammonia to nitrite, especially in the P4 section, which is presumably driven by ferric iron; nitrification and anammox activities were not detected. Two of the termite species also emitted substantial amounts of N 2O, ranging from 0.4 to 3.9nmolh -1 (g fresh wt.) -1, providing direct evidence that soil-feeding termites are a hitherto unrecognized source of this greenhouse gas in tropical soils. © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION OF FIBER HYDROLYTIC ENZYMES IN THE EXTRACT OF TERMITES (Glyptotermes montanus FOR POULTRY FEED APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tresnawati Purwadari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Foot rot disease of black pepper caused by Phytophthora capsici had been reported in Batangas and Laguna, Philippines. The plant was recovered following the application of crop residue (organic substrate and intercropping with other crops. This study was aimed to isolate, identify, and determine the soil mycoflora from the rhizosphere of black pepper grown on various cropping patterns in Batangas and Laguna. Antagonistic activity of mycoflora isolates was tested against P. capsici using dual culture technique. The result showed that 149 colonies of soil mycoflora isolated were belonging to 14 genera; three of them, i.e. Penicillium, Paecilomyces and Aspergillus, were the most dominant. All of the mycoflora isolates were able to inhibit the growth of the pathogen. Eighteen of them were the most promising antagonists, based on their inhibition growth of more than 60%. It is suggested that antagonistic mechanism of Mucor isolate (1001, Trichoderma (125, 170, 171, 179, 180, 181, Gliocladium (109, Cunninghamella (165, 168, Mortierella (177, and Aspergillus (106 was space competitor (competition for nutrient since they rapidly overgrew the pathogen. Aspergillus (67, 79, 81, 83, 108, and 202 isolates inhibited the pathogen apparently by producing antibiotic, whereas Trichoderma (125, 170, 171, 179, 180, and 181 isolates were able to penetrate the hyphae of the pathogen. The organic matter percentage in the soil was significantly correlated with the number of antagonistic mycoflora in rhizosphere (R2 = 0.1094, but the cropping pattern wPoultry are not able to digest fiber in the diet. Hydrolytic enzymes including cellulases and hemicellulases have been used as poultry feed supplement. Termites (Glyptotermes montanus have the ability to digest wood that contains high fiber. The purpose of this experiment was to identify the cellulase and hemicellulase of termite extract. The hydrolytic (saccharification activity of the termite extract on feedstuffs was

  9. A novel metagenome-derived gene cluster from termite hindgut: Encoding phosphotransferase system components and high glucose tolerant glucosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Gang; Wang, An; Gong, Bo-Liang; Li, Qing-Qing; Liu, Yu-Huan; He, Zhu-Mei; Li, Gang

    2016-03-01

    Functional screening of a metagenomic library of termite hindgut identified an overlapping gene cluster encoding the phosphotransferase system (PTS) components, which consisted of a glucoside specific PTS enzyme II gene (glu1923) and a glycoside hydrolase gene (glu1392). Hydrolytic experiments revealed that the combined effect of Glu1923 and Glu1392 was responsible for the utilization of glucosidic substrates in recombinant Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains. Yeast two hybrid analysis suggested that there was an interaction between Glu1923 and Glu1392, and the domain EIIA of Glu1923 played an important role for the interaction. In addition, the hydrolase Glu1392 displayed hydrolysis ability toward cellobiose and maltose, and had a very high tolerance to glucose with a Ki value of 2.25M. These properties make Glu1392 an interesting candidate in biotechnology applications after further study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Hox Gene Deformed is likely involved in mandibular regression during presoldier differentiation in the nasute termite Nasutitermes takasagoensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toga, Kouhei; Saiki, Ryota; Maekawa, Kiyoto

    2013-09-01

    Division of labor is a distinguishing characteristic of eusocial insects. To understand the proximate factors underlying caste determination, it is essential to clarify the developmental mechanisms during the differentiation of each caste. Termite soldiers have species-specific and diverse morphologies that are specialized for colony defense. Soldiers of the subfamily Nasutitermitinae (Termitidae), one of the most derived termite groups, possess a long, horn-like frontal projection (nasus), an invaginated glandular structure in the head (frontal gland), and regressed mandibles. These morphological changes occur prior to the molt into presoldiers (the preceding stage of soldiers). In Drosophila and other insects, Hox genes determine segment identities; thus they might be involved in such body-part-specific modifications during soldier differentiation. Deformed (Dfd) functions not only in the formation of the mandible and maxilla but also in other head parts (e.g., eye-antennal disc) in other insects. In this study, we examined Dfd functions in nasus/frontal gland formation and mandibular regression in Nasutitermes takasagoensis. Relative expression analyses showed that Dfd expression levels in the mouthparts were significantly higher than those in any other body parts of workers before presoldier molt. Dfd RNA interference resulted in the inhibition of mandibular regression during presoldier differentiation, but nasus and frontal gland formation were not affected. These results suggest that Dfd is involved in the determination of mandibular positional information and specific modification during presoldier differentiation in N. takasagoensis. This is the first work to show the effects of Hox genes on caste-specific morphogenesis in social insects. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Functional transformation series and the evolutionary origin of novel forms: evidence from a remarkable termite defensive organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaji, Tomonari; Keiler, Jonas; Bourguignon, Thomas; Miura, Toru

    2016-01-01

    The origins of evolutionary novelties are often deeply puzzling. They are generally associated with new functions that were absent in ancestors. The new functional configuration should arise via intermediate stages without any loss of function or impediment to the whole organism during the transitions. Therefore, understanding of the functional configurations of transitional states can shed light on how novel forms arise. Here we infer the evolutionary origin of a highly specialized termite defensive organ "nasus" where different functions overlap in different structural configurations at intermediate evolutionary stages to ensure that each phase is functional. Soldiers of a nasutitermitine termite use reconfigured mandibular muscles to squirt a viscous secretion from a nozzle-like head projection (the nasus). This contrasts sharply with the primitive defensive strategy where mandibles are used to bite. MicroCT observations of soldiers of Nasutitermes takasagoensis and of species with the ancestral state (Hodotermopsis sjostedti, Embiratermes neotenicus) revealed three different yet fully functional configurations in the transition from ancestral to novel state: (i) elevated hydrostatic pressure induced by contraction of mandibular muscles when biting gently oozes secretion from a gland; (ii) direct pressure on an enlarged gland arises from expansion of the mandibular muscles when biting; (iii) squirting in a piston-like manner by an inflated gland enveloped by highly modified mandibular muscles. Even a structure as exotic as the nasus therefore appears to have evolved with no loss of function at any stage. Such a functional approach, holds much promise for understanding the evolutionary origin of seemingly preposterous novel forms. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Genes for selenium dependent and independent formate dehydrogenase in the gut microbial communities of three lower, wood-feeding termites and a wood-feeding roach

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xinning; Matson, Eric G.; Leadbetter, Jared R.

    2011-01-01

    The bacterial Wood-Ljungdahl pathway for CO_2-reductive acetogenesis is important for the nutritional mutualism occurring between wood-feeding insects and their hindgut microbiota. A key step in this pathway is the reduction of CO_2 to formate, catalysed by the enzyme formate dehydrogenase (FDH). Putative selenocysteine- (Sec) and cysteine- (Cys) containing paralogues of hydrogenase-linked FDH (FDH_H) have been identified in the termite gut acetogenic spirochet...

  13. Chemical composition, antifeedant, repellent, and toxicity activities of the rhizomes of galangal, Alpinia galanga against Asian subterranean termites, Coptotermes gestroi and Coptotermes curvignathus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Fauziah; Subramanian, Partiban; Ibrahim, Halijah; Abdul Malek, Sri Nurestri; Lee, Guan Serm; Hong, Sok Lai

    2015-01-01

    Dual choice bioassays were used to evaluate the antifeedant property of essential oil and methanolic extract of Alpinia galanga (L.) (locally known as lengkuas) against two species of termites, Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann) and Coptotermes curvignathus (Holmgren) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). A 4-cm-diameter paper disc treated with A. galanga essential oil and another treated with either methanol or hexane as control were placed in a petri dish with 10 termites. Mean consumption of paper discs (miligram) treated with 2,000 ppm of essential oil by C. gestroi was 3.30 ± 0.24 mg and by C. curvignathus was 3.32 ± 0.24 mg. A. galanga essential oil showed significant difference in antifeedant effect, 2,000 ppm of A. galanga essential oil was considered to be the optimum concentration that gave maximum antifeedant effect. The essential oil composition was determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major component of the essential oil was 1,8-cineol (61.9%). Antifeedant bioassay using 500 ppm of 1,8-cineol showed significant reduction in paper consumption by both termite species. Thus, the bioactive agent in A. galangal essential oil causing antifeeding activity was identified as 1,8-cineol. Repellent activity shows that 250 ppm of 1,8-cineol caused 50.00 ± 4.47% repellency for C. gestroi, whereas for C. curvignathus 750 ppm of 1,8-cineol was needed to cause similar repellent activity (56.67 ± 3.33%). C. curvignathus is more susceptible compare to C. gestroi in Contact Toxicity study, the lethal dose (LD50) of C. curvignathus was 945 mg/kg, whereas LD50 value for C. gestroi was 1,102 mg/kg. Hence 1,8-cineol may be developed as an alternative control against termite in sustainable agriculture practices. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  14. Chemical composition of essential oils of Drimys angustifolia Miers and Drimys brasiliensis Miers and their repellency to drywood termite Cryptotermes brevis (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madson Ralide Fonseca Gomes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils extracted from leaves of the Southern Brazilian native species Drimys angustifolia Miers (DA and Drimys brasiliensis Miers (DB by Clevenger distillation were analyzed by gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The oils of DA and DB consisted predominantly of monoterpenoids and sesquiterpenoids. The largest components of DA oil were bicyclogermacrene (19.6%, sabinene (9.7% and myrcene (5.2%, while DB oil was characterized by cyclocolorenone (18.2%, followed by terpinen-4- ol (8.7% and alpha-gurjunene (6.9%. Laboratory tests were carried out to determine the repellency of the essential oils to the drywood termite Cryptotermes brevis (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae. It was observed that the oil showed repellency at the concentrations 25, 12.5, and 6.25 μg/mL. The oils of both species exhibited a negative repellency index, which represents repellent activity, except for DA oil at the highest concentration, which was attractive. Five deaths (11% of the termite sample were observed at 25 μg/mL DA, in the fourhour repellency test, while four deaths occurred at 12.5 μg/mL (approximately 9%. The essential oil of DB did not cause any termite deaths.

  15. Evaluation of cellulose substrates treated with Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff Sorokin as a biological control agent against the termite Microcerotermes diversus Silvestri (Isoptera: Termitidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Habibpour

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This article is the first report on the promising effect of an entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff Sorokin to control populations of Microcerotermes diversus Silvestri. Biological control is an alternative to the long-term usage of chemical pesticides. M. anisopliae, the causal agent of green muscardine disease of insects, is an important fungus in biological control of insect pests. Bait systems can eliminate entire colonies of subterranean termites. Baiting reduces adverse environmental impacts caused by organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides in the control of termites and creates sustainable protection of buildings against their invasion. Treated-sawdust bait was applied by two methods: a combination of treated sawdust and untreated filter paper, and b combination of treated sawdust and untreated sawdust. When combinations of treated sawdust and untreated sawdust were used, LC50 and LC90 were 8.4×106 and 3.9×107 (spore/ml, respectively. With the use of improved bait formula and more virulent strains, we hope to achieve better control of termite colonies and enable pathogens to become a useful element in the Integrated Pest Management system.

  16. Utilization of mixed cellulolytic microbes from termite extract, elephant faecal solution and buffalo ruminal fluid to increase in vitro digestibility of King Grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Prabowo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose is a compound of plant cell walls which is difficult to be degraded because it composed of glucose monomers linked by β-(1.4-bound. It will be hydrolysed by cellulase enzyme secreted by cellulolytic microbes. The effective digestion of cellulose needs high activity of cellulase enzyme. This research aims to increase in vitro king grass digestibility utilizing mixed cellulolytic microbes of termite extract, elephant faecal solution, and buffalo ruminal fluid. Twelve syringes contained gas test media were randomly divided into four treatments based on sources of microbe (SM, namely: S (SM: cattle ruminal fluid [S], RGK (SM: mixed cellulolytic microbes of termite extract, elephant faecal solution, and buffalo ruminal fluid [RGK], with composition 1 : 1 : 1, S-RGK (SM: S + RGK, with composition 1:1, and TM (without given treatment microbe. Digestibility was measured using gas test method. Average of gas production treatment of S-RGK (70.2 + 0.6 ml was higher and significantly different (P<0.01 compared to treatment of S (60.3 + 0.8 ml, RGK (40.8 + 2.3 ml, and TM (13.3 + 2.0 ml. Utilization of mixed cellulolytic microbes of termite extract, elephant faecal solution, and buffalo ruminal fluid (RGK that combined with microbes of cattle ruminal fluid (S could increase in vitro digestibility of king grass.

  17. Production of wood vinegars from coconut shells and additional materials for control of termite workers, Odontotermes sp. and striped mealy bugs, Ferrisia virgata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunan Wititsiri

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Coconut shells and coir are considered as wastes of coconut based products that have not been utilized efficiently.By using these abundant bioresources, which are widely available in Thailand, as raw materials, we were able to producewood vinegars that may be alternatives to termiticides and pesticides. The wood vinegars were obtained from carbonizationprocess using a 200-liter fuel tank as charcoal brazier under temperatures of 300-400°C. In this study, termiticidal and pesticidalactivities of wood vinegars were evaluated against termite workers, Odontotermes sp., and striped mealy bugs, Ferrisiavirgata, using direct contact application. Percent mortalities in the experiments were recorded after 24 hours and correctedfor control mortality with Abbott’s formula. Wood vinegars of 850, 696, and 898 milliliters were produced from coconut shell(wood vinegar A and the mixture of coconut shell and coir (wood vinegar B and the mixture of coconut shell, coir and holybasil (wood vinegar C, respectively. Wood vinegar A exhibited high termiticidal activity against termite workers at a dilutionof 1:50, wood vinegar: sterile water (v/v. By this way, 85% (81.71% corrected mortality of termite workers were killed afterthe 24 hours of test. At a dilution of 1:10, both wood vinegar A and B had exhibited high pesticidal activities against mealybugs, 96% (95.12% corrected mortality of striped mealy bugs were killed by those wood vinegars. In the weakest termiticidaland pesticidal activities, wood vinegar C was able to kill 60% (51.22% corrected mortality of termite workers at a dilution of1:50 within 24 hours. Also it killed 93% (91.89% corrected mortality of striped mealy bugs with a dilution of 1:10 (v/v withinthe same amount of time. Post-hoc comparisons (Tukey test revealed that wood vinegar A possessed the most effectivetermiticidal activity against termite workers. However, a similarity in high pesticidal activity was found among three woodvinegars

  18. Termite activity in relation to natural grassland soil attributes Atividade de térmitas em relação a atributos de solos sob campo nativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaciela Kaschuk

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil-feeding termites transport soil for mound building, and this process can affect soil characteristics. To verify the influence of soil termite activity on soil characteristics, samples were collected from top, bottom and center of termite mounds, and of the adjacent area, to assess chemical and physical properties and mineralogical composition. Four replicates of termite mounds and respective adjacent areas were randomly sampled in Lages, Capão Alto, Painel, São José do Cerrito and Coxilha Rica (State of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Results of chemical analyses showed a greater content of K, P, Ca, Mg and organic C in the inner part of termite mounds, accompanied by lower pH in relation to soil of the adjacent area. There were no differences regarding clay mineral composition between termite mounds and adjacent soil, however the proportion of sand and clay differed between them. It is concluded that termites modify soil characteristics due to great volume of soil transported per ascensum for mound construction (varying from 20.9 m³ ha-1 to 136.6 m³ ha-1, in this study which promotes a strong pedo-bio-perturbation and affects nutrient cycling and soil physical properties.Os térmitas (cupins do solo carregam partículas de solo para construção de seus ninhos e desta forma, podem afetar algumas características pedológicas. Este estudo teve como objetivo verificar a influência da atividade de térmitas nas características do solo através de análises das propriedades químicas e físicas e da composição mineralógica de amostras coletadas na base, topo e centro dos ninhos e área de solo adjacente. Quatro cupinzeiros e suas respectivas áreas adjacentes foram aleatoriamente amostrados em Lages, Capão Alto, Painel, São José do Cerrito e Coxilha Rica (Santa Catarina. Os resutados das análises químicas mostraram que o conteúdo de K, P, Ca, Mg e C orgânico no centro dos ninhos foi maior e o pH menor em relação à área de

  19. Cupins de duas florestas de restinga do nordeste brasileiro Termites from two restinga forests of Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Vasconcellos

    Full Text Available A estrutura da comunidade de cupins foi avaliada em duas florestas de restinga localizadas nos municípios de Mataraca e Cabedelo, Estado da Paraíba. Um protocolo padronizado de amostragem foi aplicado em cada área. Vinte e cinco espécies foram encontradas, sendo 19 em Mataraca e 15 em Cabedelo, com 9 espécies comuns às duas localidades. As espécies de Nasutitermitinae e as do grupo dos comedores de madeira foram dominantes em ambas as áreas. A baixa riqueza de espécies, em comparação com outros ecossistemas do Nordeste, e a baixa freqüência de encontros de humívoros e da subfamília Apicotermitinae podem estar relacionadas com as propriedades do solo das restingas. As espécies construtoras de ninhos conspícuos (todos arborícolas foram Armitermes holmgreni Snyder, 1926, Microcerotermes exiguus (Hagen, 1858, M. strunckii (Sörensen, 1884, Nasutitermes corniger (Motschulsky, 1855, N. ephratae (Holmgren, 1910, e N. macrocephalus (Silvestri, 1903. A fauna mostrou-se composta por espécies características de outras formações vegetais, principalmente Mata Atlântica e Cerrado, neste caso estando de acordo com o padrão geral de distribuição estabelecido pelas comunidades vegetais e pela fauna de vertebrados estudados em outras restingas brasileiras.The structure of termite communities was evaluated at two restinga forests (a characteristic type of vegetation occurring on nutrient-poor sandy soils along the Brazilian coastline, located in the municipalities of Mataraca and Cabedelo, State of Paraíba. A standardised sampling protocol was used in both sites. Twenty-five species were found, 19 of them at Mataraca and 15 at Cabedelo, with just 9 species in common to both sites. Species of Nasutitermitinae and wood-feeding groups were dominant at both study sites. The low species richness and frequency of humus-feeders species, and species of the subfamily Apicotermitinae as well, seem to be related to the restinga soil properties. The

  20. Application of Microarrays and qPCR to Identify Phylogenetic and Functional Biomarkers Diagnostic of Microbial Communities that Biodegrade Chlorinated Solvents to Ethene

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    human distal gut microbiota . ISME J 3:179- 189. 43. von Wintzingerode, F., U. B. Gobel,E. Stackebrandt. 1997. Determination of microbial diversity...M. Ohkuma,T. Kudo. 2003. Molecular analysis of bacterial microbiota in the gut of the termite Reticulitermes speratus (Isoptera; Rhinotermitidae...was first isolated from termite gut (7), to the genus Pelosinus as Pelosinus propionicus comb. nov. based on phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic, and

  1. Determination of Trace Silver in Water Samples by Online Column Preconcentration Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Using Termite Digestion Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchin, Joyce Nunes; Martendal, Edmar; Carasek, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    A new method for Ag determination in water samples using solid phase extraction (SPE) coupled to a flow injection system and flame atomic absorption spectrometry was developed. The sorbent used for Ag preconcentration and extraction was the termite digestion product. Flow and chemical variables of the system were optimized through a multivariate procedure. The factors selected were adsorbent mass, buffer type and concentration, sample pH, and sample flow rate. The detection limit and precision were 3.4 μg L−1 and 3.8% (n = 6, 15 μg L−1), respectively. The enrichment factor and the linear working range were, respectively, 21 and 10–50 μg L−1. Results for recovery tests using different water samples were between 96 and 107%. The proposed methodology was applied with success for the determination of Ag in water used to wash clothes impregnated with silver nanoparticles, supplied by a factory located in Santa Catarina, Brazil. PMID:21804766

  2. Diversity and functional significance of cellulolytic microbes living in termite, pill-bug and stem-borer guts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Zeenat; Kondapalli, Vamsi Krishna; Adlakha, Nidhi; Sharma, Anil; Bhatnagar, Raj K; Chandel, Girish; Yazdani, Syed Shams

    2013-01-01

    Arthropods living on plants are able to digest plant biomass with the help of microbial flora in their guts. This study considered three arthropods from different niches - termites, pill-bugs and yellow stem-borers - and screened their guts for cellulase producing microbes. Among 42 unique cellulase-producing strains, 50% belonged to Bacillaceae, 26% belonged to Enterobacteriaceae, 17% belonged to Microbacteriaceae, 5% belonged to Paenibacillaceae and 2% belonged to Promicromonosporaceae. The distribution of microbial families in the three arthropod guts reflected differences in their food consumption habits. Most of the carboxymethylcellulase positive strains also hydrolysed other amorphous substrates such as xylan, locust bean gum and β-D-glucan. Two strains, A11 and A21, demonstrated significant activity towards Avicel and p-nitrophenyl-β-D-cellobiose, indicating that they express cellobiohydrolase. These results provide insight into the co-existence of symbionts in the guts of arthropods and their possible exploitation for the production of fuels and chemicals derived from plant biomass.

  3. Purification and characterization of β-glucosidase from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    β-Glucosidase plays a very important role in the carbohydrate metabolism and it is the key enzyme that releases glucose for use as an energy and carbon source for termite. The β-glucosidase from the salivary glands of Reticulitermes flaviceps was purified in this study. The molecular mass of the purified enzyme was ...

  4. Cellulomonas macrotermitis sp. nov., a chitinolytic and cellulolytic bacterium isolated from the hindgut of a fungus-growing termite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xinxin; Li, Jingjing; Du, Jiao; Xiao, Hesheng; Ni, Jinfeng

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the symbiotic roles of the gut microbiota in the fungus-growing termite Macrotermes barneyi, a novel strain with chitinolytic and cellulolytic activity, designated strain an-chi-1 T , was isolated from the hindgut of M. barneyi. Strain an-chi-1 T grows optimally at 28-30 °C, pH 8.0 in PYG medium. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, this isolate belongs to the genus Cellulomonas with high sequence similarity to Cellulomonas iranensis (99.4%), followed by Cellulomonas flavigena (98.4%), Cellulomonas phragmiteti (97.4%), Cellulomonas oligotrophica (97.2%) and Cellulomonas terrae (97.0%). The DNA-DNA relatedness between an-chi-1 T and the type strains of C. iranensis and C. flavigena DSM20109 T are 35.4% and 23.7%, respectively. The major cellular fatty acids are anteiso-C 15:0 and C 14:0 . The polar lipid profile consists of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol mannosides, phosphatidylinositol dimannosides and one unidentified phospholipid. The cell-wall sugar is ribose. The peptidoglycan contains glutamic acid, aspartic acid and alanine. The DNA G+C content is 67.3 mol%. Based on its distinctive phenotypic, phylogenetic, and chemotaxonomic characteristics, an-chi-1 T represents a novel species of the genus Cellulomonas, for which the name Cellulomonas macrotermitis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is an-chi-1 T (= JCM 31923 T  = CICC 24195 T ).

  5. Elimination of the Mound-Building Termite, Nasutitermes exitiosus (Isoptera: Termitidae) in South-Eastern Australia Using Bistrifluron Bait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Garry A; Mcclintock, Charles

    2015-12-01

    Bistrifluron, a benzoylphenylurea compound, was evaluated for efficacy against Nasutitermes exitiosus (Hill), a mound-building species in southern Australia. Bistrifluron bait (trade name Xterm) was delivered as containerized pellets inserted into plastic feeding stations implanted in the sides of mounds-60 g for bistrifluron bait-treated mounds and 120 g of blank bait for untreated mounds. Termites actively tunneled in the gaps between pellets and removed bait from the canisters. All five treated mounds were eventually eliminated, and all five untreated mounds remained active at the end of the trial. Four of the five treated mounds were considered dead and excavated after 26 wk, but there were earlier signs of mound distress-reduced repair of experimental casement damage and reduced activity in bait canisters by 22 wk and reduced internal mound temperature after 11 wk. One treated mound showed activity in the bait station right through until almost the end of the trial (47 wk), but excavation at 49 wk showed no further activity in the mound. The five untreated colonies removed on average 97% of blank bait offered, while the five treated colonies removed on average 39.1% of bait offered. There was a wide variation in temperature profiles of mounds (up to 15°C for both minimum and maximum internal temperatures), from the beginning of the trial and even before the effects of baiting were evident. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Acceptability of amaranth grain-based nutritious complementary foods with dagaa fish (Rastrineobola argentea) and edible termites (Macrotermes subhylanus) compared to ‘Corn-Soy-Blend Plus’ among young children/mothers dyads in Western Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konyole, Silvenius O.; Kinyuru, John N.; Owuor, Bethwell O.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed acceptability of two flours and porridges of complementary foods based on germinated grain amaranth and maize with or without edible termites and dagaa small fish named "Winfood Classic" (WFC) and "Winfood Lite" (WFL), respectively, compared to Corn Soy Blend Plus (CSB+) among mothers...

  7. Toxic effects of palpoluck Polygonum hydropepper L. and Bhang Cannabis sativa L. plants extracts against termites Heterotermes indicola (Wasmann and Coptotermes heimi (Wasmann (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam Zeb

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available A research project was carried out aimed at to study the toxic effects of Palpoluck Polygonum hydropipper L. and Bhang Cannabis sativa L. crude extracts against two species of termites i.e. Heterotermes indicola (Wasmann and Coptotermes heimi (Wasmann at Nuclear institute for Food and Agriculture (NIFA Peshawar, Pakistan in April 2002. Results revealed that after ten days of feeding maximum percent mortality in case of Polygonum hydropipper L. leaf and flower extracts was 28.0, 52.0, 28 and 74.7 for H. indicola and Coptotermes heimi respectively, while in control only 10.7 and 12.0% mortality were recorded. Similarly, for the same species of termites the percent mortality in Cannabis sativa L. extracts was 54.7, 64.0, 58.7 and 70.7 for leaf and seed extracts respectively, while in control only 12.0 and 10.7% mortality were observed. In each extract mortality was significantly different from that of control. Toxic effects of both extracts (leaf and flower were more profound against Coptotermes heimi than Heterotermes indicola during these ten days of feeding. Also the seed extracts caused more mortality than the leaves for both species, suggesting the availability of high contents of toxic materials in seed.

  8. Description of Treponema azotonutricium sp. nov. and Treponema primitia sp. nov., the first spirochetes isolated from termite guts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graber, Joseph R; Leadbetter, Jared R; Breznak, John A

    2004-03-01

    Long after their original discovery, termite gut spirochetes were recently isolated in pure culture for the first time. They revealed metabolic capabilities hitherto unknown in the Spirochaetes division of the Bacteria, i.e., H(2) plus CO(2) acetogenesis (J. R. Leadbetter, T. M. Schmidt, J. R. Graber, and J. A. Breznak, Science 283:686-689, 1999) and dinitrogen fixation (T. G. Lilburn, K. S. Kim, N. E. Ostrom, K. R. Byzek, J. R. Leadbetter, and J. A. Breznak, Science 292:2495-2498, 2001). However, application of specific epithets to the strains isolated (Treponema strains ZAS-1, ZAS-2, and ZAS-9) was postponed pending a more complete characterization of their phenotypic properties. Here we describe the major properties of strain ZAS-9, which is readily distinguished from strains ZAS-1 and ZAS-2 by its shorter mean cell wavelength or body pitch (1.1 versus 2.3 micro m), by its nonhomoacetogenic fermentation of carbohydrates to acetate, ethanol, H(2), and CO(2), and by 7 to 8% dissimilarity between its 16S rRNA sequence and those of ZAS-1 and ZAS-2. Strain ZAS-9 is proposed as the type strain of the new species, Treponema azotonutricium. Strains ZAS-1 and ZAS-2, which are H(2)-consuming, CO(2)-reducing homoacetogens, are proposed here to be two strains of the new species Treponema primitia. Apart from the salient differences mentioned above, the genomes of all three strains were similar in size (3,461 to 3,901 kb), in G+C content (50.0 to 51.0 mol%), and in possession of 2 copies of the gene encoding 16S rRNA (rrs). For comparison, the genome of the free-living spirochete Spirochaeta aurantia strain J1 was analyzed by the same methods and found to have a size of 3,719 kb, to contain 65.6 mol% G+C, and also to possess 2 copies of the rrs gene.

  9. Complete genome sequence of the termite hindgut bacterium Spirochaeta coccoides type strain (SPN1T), reclassification in the genus Sphaerochaeta as Sphaerochaeta coccoides comb. nov. and emendations of the family Spirochaetaceae and the genus Sphaerochaeta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abt, Birte; Han, Cliff; Scheuner, Carmen; Lu, Megan; Lapidus, Alla; Nolan, Matt; Lucas, Susan; Hammon, Nancy; Deshpande, Shweta; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Tapia, Roxane; Goodwin, Lynne; Pitluck, Sam; Liolios, Konstantinos; Pagani, Ioanna; Ivanova, Natalia; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Mikhailova, Natalia; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Land, Miriam; Hauser, Loren; Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie; Rohde, Manfred; Spring, Stefan; Gronow, Sabine; Goker, Markus; Woyke, Tanja; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Detter, John C.

    2012-05-25

    Spirochaeta coccoides Dröge et al. 2006 is a member of the genus Spirochaeta Ehrenberg 1835, one of the oldest named genera within the Bacteria. S. coccoides is an obligately anaerobic, Gram-negative, non-motile, spherical bacterium that was isolated from the hindgut contents of the termite Neotermes castaneus. The species is of interest because it may play an important role in the digestion of breakdown products from cellulose and hemicellulose in the termite gut. Here we provide a taxonomic re-evaluation for strain SPN1T, and based on physiological and genomic characteristics, we propose its reclassification as a novel species in the genus Sphaerochaeta, a recently published sister group of the Spirochaeta. The 2,227,296 bp long genome of strain SPN1T with its 1,866 protein-coding and 58 RNA genes is a part of the GenomicEncyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  10. Complete genome sequence of the termite hindgut bacterium Spirochaeta coccoides type strain (SPN1 T ), reclassification in the genus Sphaerochaeta as Sphaerochaeta coccoides comb. nov. and emendations of the family Spirochaetaceae and the genus Sphaerochaeta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abt, Birte [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Scheuner, Carmen [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Lu, Megan [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hammon, Nancy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Deshpande, Shweta [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Liolios, Konstantinos [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pagani, Ioanna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Huntemann, Marcel [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Palaniappan, Krishna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Rohde, Manfred [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Spring, Stefan [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Gronow, Sabine [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bristow, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Eisen, Jonathan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hugenholtz, Philip [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute

    2012-01-01

    Spirochaeta coccoides Droege et al. 2006 is a member of the genus Spirochaeta Ehrenberg 1835, one of the oldest named genera within the Bacteria. S. coccoides is an obligately anaerobic, Gram-negative, non-motile, spherical bacterium that was isolated from the hindgut contents of the termite Neotermes castaneus. The species is of interest because it may play an important role in the digestion of breakdown products from cellulose and hemicellulose in the termite gut. Here we provide a taxonomic re-evaluation for strain SPN1{sup T}, and based on physiological and genomic characteristics, we propose its reclassification as a novel species in the genus Sphaerochaeta, a recently published sister group of the Spirochaeta. The 2,227,296 bp long genome of strain SPN1{sup T} with its 1,866 protein-coding and 58 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  11. Complete genome sequence of the termite hindgut bacterium Spirochaeta coccoides type strain (SPN1(T)), reclassification in the genus Sphaerochaeta as Sphaerochaeta coccoides comb. nov. and emendations of the family Spirochaetaceae and the genus Sphaerochaeta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abt, Birte; Han, Cliff; Scheuner, Carmen; Lu, Megan; Lapidus, Alla; Nolan, Matt; Lucas, Susan; Hammon, Nancy; Deshpande, Shweta; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Tapia, Roxanne; Goodwin, Lynne A; Pitluck, Sam; Liolios, Konstantinos; Pagani, Ioanna; Ivanova, Natalia; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Mikhailova, Natalia; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Land, Miriam; Hauser, Loren; Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie; Rohde, Manfred; Spring, Stefan; Gronow, Sabine; Göker, Markus; Woyke, Tanja; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan A; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Detter, John C

    2012-05-25

    Spirochaeta coccoides Dröge et al. 2006 is a member of the genus Spirochaeta Ehrenberg 1835, one of the oldest named genera within the Bacteria. S. coccoides is an obligately anaerobic, Gram-negative, non-motile, spherical bacterium that was isolated from the hindgut contents of the termite Neotermes castaneus. The species is of interest because it may play an important role in the digestion of breakdown products from cellulose and hemicellulose in the termite gut. Here we provide a taxonomic re-evaluation for strain SPN1(T), and based on physiological and genomic characteristics, we propose its reclassification as a novel species in the genus Sphaerochaeta, a recently published sister group of the Spirochaeta. The 2,227,296 bp long genome of strain SPN1(T) with its 1,866 protein-coding and 58 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  12. Occurrence and comparison of Jerdon’s Gecko Hemidactylus subtriedrus Jerdon 1853 with Termite Hill Gecko Hemidactylus triedrus (Daudin 1802) from Ananthagiri Hills, northern Eastern Ghats, India

    OpenAIRE

    S.M.M. Javed; Saravanan, S.; F. Tampal; C. Srinivasulu

    2009-01-01

    Recent herpetological surveys in northern Eastern Ghats of Andhra Pradesh yielded sightings of Jerdon’s Gecko Hemidactylus subtriedrus Jerdon 1853. Little is known about its distribution and taxonomic status. This species closely resembles the Termite Hill Gecko Hemidactylus triedrus (Daudin 1802) and it has often been taxonomically confused with it. Therefore, through this communication we provide information on the occurrence of Jerdon’s Gecko along with details showing the level of rese...

  13. Utilisation des blattes et des termites comme substituts potentiels de la farine de viande dans l'alimentation des poulets de chair au Sud-Kivu, République démocratique du Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munyuli Bin Mushambanyi, T.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of Cockroach and Termites as Potential Substitutes of Meal Meat in Broilers Feeding, in South-Kivu, Democratic Republic of the Congo. The objective of this study is to compare some economic and zootechnical parameters obtained by broilers fed with locally prepared rations, with commercial ration or with a local ration with 20% meal meat. The meal meat is very expensive on the local market. The locally prepared and used rations contain 4.8 and 12% of incorpored cockroach meal or 4.8 and 12% of termites meal. The use of 8 and 12% containing cockroach meal rations and those containing 12% of termites meal give satisfactory result in terms of return on investment (ranging between 60 and 100% and mean gain weight, both significant with respect to commercial rations from Tanzania and local rations containing 20% of incorpored meal meat. These rations are profitable, cheaper than commercial rations; they can be adopted by chickens breeders in order to improve profitability in the farming of birds in South-Kivu.

  14. Incidence of epigeal nest-building termites in Brachiaria pastures in the Cerrado = Incidência de térmitas de ninhos epígeos em pastagens de Brachiaria no Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Inês Lopes de Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the number of termite epigeal nests and estimate the soil turning capacity of termites in cultivated pasture environments and in a native vegetation area. Surveys were conducted in four areas: three pasture areas and a Cerrado area, measuring 5 ha each. For each nest, the height, the perimeter and diameter at the base were measured. The volume of each mound was calculated. Turned soil was determined by randomly sampling 30 termite mounds in a pasture area for bulk density determinations. The mean number oftermite mounds per ha was 408; the highest number of termite nests (672 per ha was found in the 10-year-old pasture. In terms of termite mound density, there was no difference between the Cerrado, 3-year-old pasture, and 3-year-old intercropped pasture treatments. The total area occupied by termite nests ranged from 0.4 to 1.0%. The mean bulk density of the nest materials was 1.05 g cm-3. The total nests volume ranged from 4 to 11 m3 ha-1. The total mass of the soilturned by the termites ranged from 3.4 to 13.4 ton. ha-1.O presente trabalho teve como objetivo determinar o número de ninhos epígeos e estimar a capacidade de revolvimento do solo pelos térmitas em ambientes de pastagens cultivadas e uma área nativa de Cerrado. Foram feitos levantamentos em quatro áreas, sendo três de pastagem e uma de Cerrado com 5 ha cada. Para cada ninho, foram mensurados a altura, o perímetro basal e diâmetro na base. Foi calculado o volume de cada montículo. Para determinar a densidade do solo mobilizado foi feita amostragem ao acaso em ninhos epígeos numa área de pastagem. O número médio de ninhos epígeos por ha foi de 408, o maior número de cupinzeiros está na pastagem dez anos (672 ninhos. Em termos de densidade média de ninhos epígeos não houve diferença entre os tratamentos: Cerrado, pastagem três anos e pastagem consorciada trêsanos. A área total ocupada pelos ninhos epígeos variou de 0,4 a 1 %. A

  15. Draft genome sequences of Pantoea agglomerans and Pantoea vagans isolates associated with termites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Marike; de Maayer, Pieter; Thomas-Poulsen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The genus Pantoea incorporates many economically and clinically important species. The plant-associated species, Pantoea agglomerans and Pantoea vagans, are closely related and are often isolated from similar environments. Plasmids conferring certain metabolic capabilities are also shared amongst....... vagans MP7 (4,598,703 bp) can largely be attributed to the differences in plasmid content. The genome sequences of these isolates may shed light on the common traits that enable P. agglomerans and P. vagans to co-occur in plant- and insect-associated niches.......The genus Pantoea incorporates many economically and clinically important species. The plant-associated species, Pantoea agglomerans and Pantoea vagans, are closely related and are often isolated from similar environments. Plasmids conferring certain metabolic capabilities are also shared amongst...... these two species. The genomes of two isolates obtained from fungus-growing termites in South Africa were sequenced, assembled and annotated. A high number of orthologous genes are conserved within and between these species. The difference in genome size between P. agglomerans MP2 (4,733,829 bp) and P...

  16. Axial differences in community structure of Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota in the highly compartmentalized gut of the soil-feeding termite Cubitermes orthognathus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, M W; Schmitt-Wagner, D; Lueders, T; Brune, A

    2001-10-01

    Methanogenesis represents an important electron sink reaction in the hindgut of soil-feeding termites. This is the first comprehensive analysis of the archaeal community structure within the highly compartmentalized intestinal tract of a humivorous insect, combining clonal analysis and terminal restriction fragment (T-RF) length polymorphism (T-RFLP) fingerprinting of the archaeal communities in the different gut compartments of Cubitermes orthognathus. We found that the morphological and physicochemical heterogeneity of the gut is reflected in a large phylogenetic diversity and pronounced axial differences in the composition of the archaeal gut microbiota, notably among those clones or ribotypes that could be assigned to methanogenic taxa. Comparative analysis of the relative frequencies of different archaeal lineages among the small-subunit rRNA gene (SSU rDNA) clones and their corresponding T-RF indicated that the archaeal community in the anterior, extremely alkaline hindgut compartment (P1) consists mainly of members of the Methanosarcinaceae, whereas Methanobacteriaceae and Methanomicrobiales predominate in the subsequent, more posterior compartments (P3/4a and P4b). The relative abundance of Thermoplasmales increased towards the rectum (P5). SSU rDNA sequences representing Crenarchaeota, which have not yet been reported to occur in the intestinal tracts of arthropods, were detected in all gut sections. We discuss how the spatial distribution of methanogenic populations may be linked to axial heterogeneity in the physicochemical gut conditions and to functional adaptations to their respective ecological niches.

  17. Termite (Insecta, Isoptera fauna from natural parks of the northeast region of Argentina Fauna de cupins (Insecta, Isoptera de parques nacionais da região noroeste da Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Rafael Laffont

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of insect biodiversity in natural areas of Argentina is limited, and termites are among the understudied taxa. In order to assess the diversity of Isoptera in some protected areas of the country, termite sampling within three National Parks of the Northeast region of Argentina was developed during 1995-1999. The results presented in this paper correspond to the Chaco National Park (Province of Chaco, Iguassu National Park (Province of Misiones and Mburucuya National Park (Province of Corrientes. Among the four termite families recorded from Argentina, the family Termitidae was the best represented at the three sampled areas. The recorded genera (15 were: Rugitermes Holmgren and Tauritermes Krishna (Kalotermitidae, Heterotermes Frogatt (Rhinotermitidae, Cornitermes Wasmann, Cortaritermes Mathews, Diversitermes Holmgren, Nasutitermes Dudley, Velocitermes Holmgren (Nasutitermitinae, Amitermes Silvestri, Microcerotermes Silvestri, Neocapritermes Holmgren, Termes Linné (Termitinae, Anoplotermes Müller, Aparatermes Fontes and Ruptitermes Mathews (Apicotermitinae (Termitidae. None of the collected termite species was common to the three National Parks, and only four of them were detected at two of the reserves. Due to the particular assemblage of termites found at each park, these three natural protected areas could be considered important reserves for the conservation of the termite fauna from the Northeast region of Argentina.O conhecimento da biodiversidade de insetos em áreas naturais da Argentina é limitado e os cupins estão entre os menos estudados. Para conhecer a diversidade dos Isóptera em algumas áreas protegidas do país, foi feita uma amostragem de cupins em três parques nacionais da região noroeste da Argentina, durante 1995-1999. Os resultados aqui apresentados correspondem ao Chaco National Park (Província de Chaco, Iguassu National Park (Província de Misiones e Mburucuya National Park (Província de Corrientes

  18. Comportamento intra-específico do cupim Heterotermes tenuis (Hagen (Isoptera, Rhinotermitidae em condições de laboratório Intraspecific behavior of the termite Heterotermes tenuis (Hagen (Isoptera, Rhinotermitidae in laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia R.R. de Camargo-Dietrich

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Groups of Heterotemies tenuis (Hagen, 1858 from five infestation points were paired in bioassays to investigate the intercolony aggression. The combinations of arena sizes (Petri dishes of 6.0 and 9.0 cm and temperatures (25 and 28 ºC were assessed for effects on intraspecific agonism. Agonistic behavior was scored positive in arena if more than half of the starting number of termites was dead and injured after 17 hours. After the intraspecific encounters it was possible to delimitate three colonies from the five infestation points. No significant differential survival was seen in two different arena sizes and two different temperatures. These assays indicate that the factors governing the agonistic behavior in H. tenuis are complex and seems to be dependent on environmental conditions and individual characteristies (age, size and caste.

  19. LCMS-QTOF Determination of Lentinan-Like β-D-Glucan Content Isolated by Hot Water and Alkaline Solution from Tiger’s Milk Mushroom, Termite Mushroom, and Selected Local Market Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Azreen Mohd Jamil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lentinan, 1152 Dalton β-D-glucan found in Shiitake Mushroom (Lentinus edodes, has been claimed to have anticancer and immunomodulatory activity. Several extraction methods have been used by researchers to isolate Lentinan including hot water and alkaline solution (1.25 M NaOH. In this study, hot water and alkaline solution (1.25 M NaOH were used to extract the Lentinan-like β-D-glucan (1151 Dalton from Tiger’s Milk Mushroom, Termite Mushroom, and selected local market mushrooms. The isolated Lentinan-like β-D-glucan from both hot water and alkaline solution was analyzed by LCMS-QTOF. Commercial Lentinan standard from Lentinus edodes was used as a reference. The results showed significant differences on chromatogram patterns of Lentinan-like β-D-glucan between both extracts. The peak of Lentinan-like β-D-glucan was only found in isolated polysaccharide glucan of hot water extracts. The isolated polysaccharide glucans from Tiger’s Milk Mushroom and Termite Mushroom were found to have 0.74±0.12 μg/mg and 0.53±0.07 μg/mg Lentinan-like β-D-glucan. Button Mushroom, Shiitake Mushroom, and Oyster Mushroom showed the presence of Lentinan-like β-D-glucan at 16.16±4.15 μg/mg, 0.22±0.04, and 0.10±0.01 μg/mg, respectively.

  20. KAJIAN KOMUNITAS RAYAP AKIBAT ALIH GUNA HUTAN MENJADI AGROFORESTRI DI TAMAN NASIONAL LORE LINDU, SULAWESI TENGAH (Termites Community Impact of Forest Conversion to Agroforestry in Lore Lindu National Park, Central Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkaidhah Zulkaidhah

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji komunitas rayap akibat alih guna hutan dan hubungannya dengan faktor lingkungan. Penelitian dilaksanakan dari bulan Desember 2011 sampai Juni 2013. Dilaksanakan di wilayah Taman Nasional Lore Lindu di sekitar Desa Rahmat, Kecamatan Palolo, Kabupaten Sigi. Pengamatan rayap dilakukan dengan menggunakan metode transek. Parameter yang diamati adalah parameter lingkungan, iklim mikro, sifat fisik dan kimia tanah. Total diversitas rayap yang ditemukan adalah 20 spesies, yang terdiri dari 15 spesies pada hutan primer, 15 spesies pada hutan sekunder dan 8 spesies pada agroforestri. Biomassa pohon tertinggi pada hutan primer (620,91 Mg/ha, nekromas dan jumlah seresah tertinggi pada hutan sekunder yaitu masing-masing 8,22 Mg/ha dan 19 Mg/ha. Hasil penelitian ini membuktikan bahwa alih guna hutan menjadi agroforestri diikuti oleh perubahan komunitas rayap. Suhu tanah dan suhu udara meningkat setelah alih guna hutan.   ABSTRACT This study was conducted to evaluate the termines community impact forest conversion  and its relation with the environmental factors.  It was conducted from December 2011 to June 2013 and implemented in Lore Lindu National Park located in around of Rahmat village, subdistrict of Palolo, district of Sigi.  The observation of termites community was performed using method of transect.  The measured parameters were environmental parameters, microclimate, and physic and chemical characteristics of the soil.  There were 20 species found totally, consisted of 15 species in primary forest, 15 species in secondary forest, and 8 species in agroforestry.  The highest biomass of tree in primary forest was 620.90 Mg/ha, whereas the necromass and highest amount of litter in secondary forest were respectively 8.22 Mg/ha and 19 Mg/ha.  Land use change in TN.Lore Lindu was alearly followed by the change of termites diversity. The soil and water temperatures were increased.

  1. Degradation of mangrove tissues by arboreal termites (Nasutitermes acajutlae) and their role in the mangrove C cycle (Puerto Rico): Chemical characterization and organic matter provenance using bulk δ13C, C/N, alkaline CuO oxidation-GC/MS, and solid-state 13C NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vane, Christopher H.; Kim, Alexander W.; Moss-Hayes, Vicky; Snape, Colin E.; Diaz, Miguel Castro; Khan, Nicole S.; Engelhart, Simon E.; Horton, Benjamin P.

    2013-08-01

    Arboreal termites are wood decaying organisms that play an important role in the first stages of C cycling in mangrove systems. The chemical composition of Rhizophora mangle, Avicennia germinans, and Laguncularia racemosa leaf, stem, and pneumatophore tissues as well as associated sediments was compared to that of nests of the termite Nasutitermes acajutlae. Nests gave δ13C values of -26.1 to -27.2‰ (±0.1) and C/N of 43.3 (±2.0) to 98.6 (±16.2) which were similar to all stem and pneumatophores but distinct from mangrove leaves or sediments. Organic matter processed by termites yielded lignin phenol concentrations (Λ, lambda) that were 2-4 times higher than stem or pneumatophores and 10-20 times higher than that of leaves or sediments, suggesting that the nests were more resistant to biodegradation than the mangrove vegetation source. 13C NMR revealed that polysaccharide content of mangrove tissues (50-69% C) was higher than that of the nests (46-51% C). Conversely, lignin accounted for 16.2-19.6% C of nest material, a threefold increase relative to living mangrove tissues; a similar increase in aromatic methoxyl content was also observed in the nests. Lipids (aliphatic and paraffinic moieties) were also important but rather variable chemical components of all three mangrove species, representing between 13.5 and 28.3% of the C content. Termite nests contained 3.14 Mg C ha-1 which represents approximately 2% of above ground C storage in mangroves, a value that is likely to increase upon burial due to their refractory chemical composition.

  2. GROWTH OF PASSION FRUIT SEEDLINGS ACCORDING TO BORON AND TERMITES MOUND NEST MATERIAL FERTILIZING CRESCIMENTO DE MUDAS DE MARACUJAZEIRO EM FUNÇÃO DE ADUBAÇÃO À BASE DE BORO E MATERIAL DE CUPINZEIRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Estevão Marchetti

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available For producing passion fruit seedlings, it is necessary to pay attention to the plant nutritional status, whose information about fertilizing with micronutrients such as boron are still scarce for tropical regions where fruit growing is increasing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of boron (B rates and termites mound nest material on growth components and concentration of B on yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Deg. shoots, in a Red Distrophic Latosol. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a 5x4 factorial scheme, with five B doses (0 mg dm-3, 0.25 mg dm-3, 0.50 mg dm-3, 0.75 mg dm-3, and 1.00 mg dm-3 and four termites mound nest material rates (0 g dm-3, 25 g dm-3, 50 g dm-3, and 75 g dm-3, with four replications, totaling 80 experimental units. The experimental unit was composed of pots with up to 700 cm3 samples. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, in Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. The highest values for shoot dry matter yield, plant height, leaf area, stem diameter, and SPAD reading are obtained by a joint application of the maximum termites mound nest material dose and between the two highest B rates. The termites mound nest material was little effective as a B source to influence upon the growth components of passion fruit plants. The B concentrations on the yellow passion fruit shoots, for all termites mound nest material rates, decreased with the increases in the B rates applied.

    KEY-WORDS: Passiflora edulis; borate fertilizing; organic fertilizing.

    Na produção de mudas de maracujazeiro, deve-se atentar para o estado nutricional das plantas, cujas informações, quanto à adubação com micronutrientes como o boro, ainda são escassas para as regiões tropicais onde a fruticultura está se expandindo. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos de doses de boro (B e de material do cartão de cupinzeiro

  3. FATORES INFLUENCIANDO O ATAQUE DE CUPIM RIZÓFAGO EM PLANTIO DIRETO DE ARROZ DE TERRAS ALTAS FACTORS INFLUENCING THE ATTACK OF A RHIZOPHAGUS TERMITE IN UPLAND RICE UNDER NO-TILLAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Stone

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available

    O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o ataque do cupim rizófago (Procornitermes triacifer sobre a cultivar de arroz Aimoré, em sistema de plantio direto. Foram instalados três experimentos em blocos ao acaso com três repetições. A parcela consistiu de quatro fileiras de plantas, de 5,0 m, espaçadas de 0,4 m. Os tratamentos foram: três sulcadores e três compactadores de sulco, no primeiro experimento; três sulcadores e dois limitadores de profundidade, no segundo experimento; e, no terceiro experimento, cinco sulcadores, testados sobre resíduos culturais de soja, andropogon e braquiária. Os sulcadores foram testados com ou sem facão subsolador. Os dois primeiros experimentos foram repetidos três anos (2002/2003 a 2004/2005, sendo a semeadura do primeiro ano realizada com a aplicação do inseticida thiamethoxam 10 G (20 kg ha-1 em mistura com o adubo, aplicados na base do sulco de plantio. O terceiro experimento foi realizado em um só ano (2003/2004. O dano de cupim foi quantificado separadamente nas fileiras externas das parcelas e naquelas situadas nos níveis mais alto e mais baixo do terreno. O inseticida testado e os sulcadores de disco duplo usados em associação com o facão subsolador foram restritivos ao ataque de cupins, enquanto os resíduos culturais de soja foram favoráveis ao ataque do inseto.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Inseticida; fitófago subterrâneo.

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the damage of the root feeder termite (Procornitermes triacifer on upland rice cultivar Aimoré under no-tillage system. Three experiments in randomized complete block design with three replications were carried out. The plot was made up by four 15 m plant rows spaced by 0.4 m. Treatments were: three furrow openers and three seed firming devices in the first

  4. Resistência natural da madeira de Corymbia maculata (Hook. K.D.Hill & L.A.S. Johnson a fungos e cupins xilófagos, em condições de laboratório Wood natural resistance of Corymbia maculata (Hook. K.D.Hill & L.A.S Johnson to wood destroying fungi and termites, under laboratory tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez Benigno Paes

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa teve o objetivo de avaliar a resistência natural da madeira de Corymbia maculata a fungos e a cupins xilófagos, em condições de laboratório. De peças radiais (tábuas que continham o cerne e o alburno intactos foram retirados corpos-de-prova de 2,00 x 2,00 x 1,00 cm, com a menor dimensão na direção tangencial (ensaio com fungos, e de 2,54 x 2,00 x 0,64 cm, com a maior dimensão na direção das fibras (ensaio com cupins, em quatro posições na direção medula-casca. As amostras foram submetidas à ação dos fungos Postia placenta, Neolentinus lepideus e Polyporus fumosus por 12 semanas, ou à ação de cupins do gênero Nasutitermes por 30 dias. Constatou-se que a resistência da madeira ao apodrecimento foi dependente da posição na direção medula-casca e dos fungos utilizados. As amostras retiradas nas posições mais externas do tronco foram mais deterioradas que as internas. Dentro de cada posição, os fungos causaram deterioração semelhante à madeira, exceto para a posição mais externa (alburno, em que o fungo P. fumosus causou menos deterioração que os demais. De modo geral, a madeira de C. maculata foi altamente resistente (posições internas ou resistente (posições externas aos fungos ensaiados. Somente para o fungo N. lepideus a posição mais externa foi moderadamente resistente. Quanto aos cupins, a resistência da madeira não foi afetada pela posição na direção medula-casca e apresentou uma baixa perda de massa para as posições analisadas. Além disto, os cupins causaram somente desgaste superficial à madeira, e morreram durante o ensaio, o que permitiu classificar a madeira de C.maculata como resistente aos cupins ensaiados.This research evaluated the natural resistance of Corymbia maculata wood to wood-destroying fungi and termites, under laboratory tests. Radial pieces (boards, containing intact heartwood and sapwood were transformed into test samples measuring 2.00 x 2.00 x 1.00 cm

  5. External development of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae in the subterranean termite Heterotermes tenuis Desenvolvimento dos fungos entomopatogênicos Beauveria bassiana E Metarhizium anisopliae no cupim subterrâneo Heterotermes tenuis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcides Moino Jr.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The subterranean termite Heterotermes tenuis is one of the main pests of sugarcane and eucalyptus in Brazil, and the use of entomopathogenic fungi, alone or associated to chemicals, is an efficient and environmentally favorable method for its control. Studies related to the fungal development on these insects are important due to the effect of insect behavior on entomopathogens. The objective of this work was to describe the external development of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae on H. tenuis using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, determining the duration of the different phases of fungal infection. Two fixation techniques for preparing SEM samples were also evaluated. Worker specimens of H. tenuis were inoculated with a 1 x 10(9 conidia mL-1 suspension of the fungi and maintained at 25±1ºC and 70±10% relative humidity. Insects were collected from 0 to 144 hours after inoculation and prepared on SEM stubs for each of the two fixation techniques. The results obtained with the two techniques were compared and duration of the different phases of the infection process were estimated from SEM observations and compared for three fungal isolates. B. bassiana and M. anisopliae have similar development cycles on the termite, but some important differences exist. The penetration, colonization and conidiogenesis phases are relatively faster for M. anisopliae than for B. bassiana, which results in a faster rate of insect mortality. The fixation technique with OsO4 vapor is suitable for preparation of insects to be used in SEM observation of the developmental stages of entomopathogenic fungi.O cupim subterrâneo Heterotermes tenuis , uma das principais pragas da cana-de-açúcar e eucalipto no Brasil, e o uso de fungos entomopatogênicos, isoladamente ou associados a produtos químicos, é um método eficiente e ambientalmente seguro para seu controle. Estudos relacionados ao desenvolvimento fúngico nestes insetos são importantes devido

  6. Mitochondrial and nuclear markers highlight the biodiversity of Kalotermes flavicollis (Fabricius, 1793) (Insecta, Isoptera, Kalotermitidae) in the Mediterranean area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velonà, A; Luchetti, A; Ghesini, S; Marini, M; Mantovani, B

    2011-06-01

    The biodiversity of the European termite Kalotermes flavicollis is here studied through the analysis of mitochondrial (303 bp of control region and 912 bp of COI/tRNA(Leu)/COII) and nuclear (five microsatellite and 20 Inter-SINE loci) markers on 18 colonies collected in Southern France, Corsica, Sardinia, peninsular Italy, the Balkans and Greece. Different statistical analyses (Bayesian phylogenetic analysis,parsimony network, F-statistics, PCA) were performed. Mitochondrial sequences produced an unresolved polytomy including samples from peninsular Italy, Balkans and Greece, and three main clades: southern France, Corsica-Sardinia and Portoscuso(SW Sardinia). Nuclear markers confirm these data, further highlighting a more significant divergence at the regional scale. The results obtained for the peri-Tyrrhenian area agree with major paleogeographic and paleoclimatic events that shaped the biodiversity of the local fauna. K. flavicollis biodiversity and its phylogeographic pattern are also evaluated in the light of the data available for the other native European termite taxon (genus Reticulitermes), in order to produce a more complete scenario of the Mediterranean. In the area comprised between southern France and Italy, the degree of diversity is similar; however, in the eastern area, while K. flavicollis is differentiated only at the population level, the genus Reticulitermes comprises at least six entities of specific and/or subspecific level. This discrepancy may be explained by taking into account the different evolutionary histories of the two taxa.

  7. Ensaios de combate ao cupim de monte Cornitermes cumulans (Kollar, 1832 (Isoptera, Termitidae Field tests for control of the mound-building termite Cornitermes cumulans (Kollar, 1832 (Isoptera, Termitidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A.M. Mariconi

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Com a finalidade de combater o cupim de monte Cornitermes cumulans, importante espécie invasora, foram instalados dois campos experimentais. Experimento I: 60 ninhos foram escolhidos e medidos externamente. O ensaio constou de 6 tratamentos com 10 repetições: A abamectina (50 cm³ CE 1,8%; B silafluofem (200 cm³ CE 80%; C silafluofem (400 cm³ CE 80%; D fipronil (15g G 2%; E fipronil (20g G 2%; F clorpirifós (30g G 0,125%. Nos tratamentos A, B, C, as quantidades entre parênteses são da formulação comercial em 100 litros de água. Em D, E, F, são do granulado para cada ninho. Dos líquidos, usou-se um litro de calda por monte. A demolição dos montes deu-se após 103 dias da aplicação. Os melhores resultados foram obtidos com a abamectina e fipronil. Experimento II: Também neste ensaio os cupinzeiros foram 60, abrangendo 6 tratamentos com 10 repetições: A fipronil (l0g G 2%; B fipronil (15g G 2%; C bendiocarbe (20g G 0,1%; D bendiocarbe (20g G 0,5%; E imidaclopride (0,15g G 70%; F imidaclopride (0,30g G 70%. Em A, B, C, D, as quantidades de granulados são por ninho. Em E, F são de granulado dispersível em um litro de água, por ninho. A destruição dos cupinzeiros foi feita 148 e 149 dias após a aplicação. Os melhores resultados foram o fipronil e imidaclopride.Two field tests were carried out to evaluate the performance of several pesticides for the control of the mound termite pest in pastures. Experiment I: 60 mounds were selected and measured outside. There were 6 treatments with 10 replicátions: A abamectin (50 cm³ 1.8% EC; B silafluofen (200 cm³ 80% EC; C silafluofen (400 cm³ 80% EC; D fipronil (15g 2% G; E fipronil (20g 2% G; F chlorpirifos (30g 0.125% G. In A,B,C, the quantities between parenthesis are of the commercial formulation in 100 liters of water. In D,E,F, are of granular insecticides per mound. One liter of the liquids was used per nest. Demolition of the mounds were made 103 days after the application

  8. Green house gas emissions from termite ecosystem

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    3Torrey Pines Institute for Molecular Studies, Port St Lucie, Florida, 34987, USA. Accepted 9 August 2010. Methanogenic archaea ... making a contribution of less than 5% to global CH4 emissions. Furthermore, the review addresses questions ..... gas (GHG) contributing significantly to global warming (Thakur et al., 2003).

  9. Using termite nests as a source of organic matter in agrosilvicultural production systems in Amazonia Uso de ninhos de cupin como fonte de matéria orgânica em sistemas de produção agrosilviculturais na Amazônia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Batalha

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available The growth of two annual crops, okra (Abelmoschus escutentus and egg-plant (Solatium melongena and one perennial crop, andiroba (Carapa guianensis, a native forest tree of Amazonia under different treatments with organic manure derived from termite nest material of wood-feeding Nasutitermes species was tested (randomized block design. The use of 25-100 g of nest material gave no significant increase in okra productivity, and 25-200 g gave no significant response in andiroba. The combined use of NPK with 200 g of nest material gave a significant higher production in egg-plant (total number and total fresh weight of fruits when compared to the control (without fertilizer and to the treatment with NPK only.The results suggest the possibility to use termite nest material to enhance crop production in Amazonia, particularly in combination with low amounts of mineral fertilizer. Research lines for further investigations are outlined.Foi avaliado crescimento de duas espécies agriculturais anuais, quiabo (Abelmoschus esculentus e berinjela (Solatium melongena, e de uma espécie perene, andiroba (Carapa guianensis, uma árvore nativa da Amazônia sob diferentes tratamentos com matéria orgânica derivada de material de cupinzeiro de espécies xilófagas de Nasutitermes (desenho de bloco randomizado. O uso de 25-100 g de material de termiteiro não levou a um incremento significativo da produtividade em quiabo, e 25-200 g não resultou numa resposta significativa em andiroba. O uso combinado de NPK com 200 g de ninho de cupim resultou numa produção significantemente maior em S. melongena (número total e peso fresco total de frutos se comparado com o controle (sem fertilizante nenhum e com o tratamento de NPK apenas. Os resultados sugerem a possibilidade de usar material de cupinzeiro para melhorara produção agrossilvicultural na Amazônia, especialmente em combinação com pequenas quantidades de fertilizante mineral Linhas de pesquisa para futuras

  10. Hunting for hiding hosts : the behavioral ecology of the stemborer parasitoid Cotesia flavipes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potting, R.P.J.

    1996-01-01


    Classical biological control involves the introduction of an exotic natural enemy to control an introduced pest species. In 1991 the department of Entomology of the Wageningen Agricultural University started a collaborative project with the International Centre for Insect Physiology and

  11. Distribuição espacial de cupinzeiros de Cornitermes snyderi (Isoptera: Termitidae e sua associação com teca Spatial distribution of termite-nests of Cornitermes Snyderi (Isoptera: Termitidae and its association with teak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio Peres Filho

    2012-06-01

    encontrados foram identificados como Cornitermes snyderi, cujos ninhos não afetaram o crescimento em relação à circunferência à altura do peito (CAP das árvores. A distribuição espacial dos termiteiros no plantio é agregada, binomial negativa. Não foi constatada a presença de danos nas árvores circundadas pelos ninhos.

    doi: 10.4336/2012.pfb.32.70.59

    The objectives of this study was identify the termite species, assess the relationship of the occurrence of nests with Tectona grandis (teak and its possible damage caused by this association, being determined the type of spatial distribution of nests in the studying area. This work was conducted in the municipality of Porto Esperidião, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil, in the teak plantation with 581,27 ha. The nests were placed with a GPS (Global Positioning System, for further assessment of population distribution, according to the Morisita index. The nests were quantified in different altitudes classes. It was also evaluated the number of nests found in trees and regrowth in and out of trees, as well as the influence of these nests in tree growth. The termites found were identify as Cornitermes snyderi. The nests do not affect the growth in relation to the circumference at breast height of tree. The spatial distribution of termites in the planting is pooled, binomial negative. I was not observed damage in trees surrounded by nests.

    doi: 10.4336/2012.pfb.32.70.59

  12. A ocorrência do mutualismo facultativo entre Dyckia maritima Backer (Bromeliaceae e o cupim Cortaritermes silvestrii (Holmgren, Nasutitermitinae, em afloramentos rochosos no Parque Estadual de Itapuã, Viamão, RS The occurrence of facultative mutualism between Dyckia maritima Backer (Bromeliaceae and the termite Cortaritermes silvestrii (Holmgren, Nasutitermitinae, on rock outcrops in Itapuã State Park, Viamão, RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Copstein Waldemar

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A presença de colônias de C. silvestrii é comum nos lajeados existentes em Itapuã. Na estação Morro da Grota1, 92,0 % dos termiteiros situados na rocha exposta e em ilhas de vegetação estão associados a D. maritima. Esta convivência ocorre em 31,2 % das ilhas na qual esta bromélia se faz presente. Nas ilhas, a comparação entre os substratos aonde D. maritima vegeta, o solo litólico húmico existente sob o manto do musgo Campylopus spp. e o substrato constituído pelo cupinzeiro indica que este último possui os teores mais elevados dos nutrientes P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn e Mn, maior CTC e maiores teores de partículas finas, principalmente o silte. O estabelecimento de D. maritima sobre os termiteiros de grande porte aumenta o seu valor de cobertura em ilhas de vegetação quando comparado com ilhas sem termiteiros ou com termiteiros de pequeno porte em áreas entre 2,7 a 8,0 m². Este fato é atribuído à melhoria físico-química do substrato e ao aumento de superfície e volume aptos a serem colonizados pela bromélia e proporciona maior competitividade em relação a outras espécies vegetais. As características apresentadas pela interação entre este cupim e D. maritima, pela primeira vez descrita na literatura, permitem indicar esta relação ecológica como mutualismo facultativo. Inferimos que o conjunto de observações apresentado constitui um modelo temporal de crescimento deste mutualismo, cujas fases inicial e tardia estão descritas neste trabalho.The presence of colonies of C. silvestrii is common, both on the rock surface and at islands of vegetation. At Morro da Grota1 station, 92,0 % of the termite nests on rocky outcrops and at island of vegetation are associated with this bromeliad. These nests are associated with D. maritima, in 31,2 % of the islands where this bromeliad occurs. At these island communities, the comparison between the substrata where D. maritima occurs, the litolic Waldemar & Irgang: Mutualismo

  13. Resistência a compressão de tijolos de solo-cimento fabricados com o montículo do cupim Cornitermes cumulans (Kollar, 1832 Resistance the compression of manufactured cement bricks ground with the wooded hill of termite Cornitermes cumulans (Kollar, 1832

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Queiroz Corrêa de Albuquerque

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho, comparar a resistência à compressão de tijolos de solo-cimento fabricados com o montículo do cupim Cornitermes cumulans (Kollar, 1832, com tijolos que utilizaram como matéria prima um NEOSSOLO QUARTZARÊNICO (EMBRAPA, 1999, ambos submetidos a duas idades de cura (07 ou 28 dias. O experimento foi montado em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2x2, sendo analisados dois cofatores: a matéria prima base e a idade de cura. Os ensaios físicos e mecânicos obedeceram às prescrições das normas da Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas NBR-8492 (ABNT, 1982 e NBR-8491 (ABNT, 1984. Concluiu-se que a resistência à compressão dos tijolos foi maior com o aumento das idades de cura. O tratamento T4 apresentou maior valor de resistência à compressão, não diferindo estatisticamente dos tratamentos T2 e T1. Os tijolos fabricados com o montículo do cupim C. cumulans (Kollar, 1832 apresentaram diminuição da absorção de água com o aumento das idades de cura, o que normalmente corresponde a um maior aumento da resistência à compressão, ao contrário dos que utilizaram o NEOSSOLO QUARTZARÊNICO (EMBRAPA, 1999.The aim of this research was to compare the compressive strength of ground-cement bricks manufactured with the wooded hill of termite Cornitermes cumulans (Kollar, 1832, to bricks that they were used as quartzaremico raw material one NEOSSOLO QUARTZARÊNICO (EMBRAPA, 1999, both submitted to two ages of cure (07 or 28 days. The experiment was performed in entirely randomized delineation, in factorial project 2x2, being analyzed two cofactors: the raw material base and age of cure. The physical and mechanical assays obeyed the lapsing of the norm of the Brazilian Association of Technical Rules NBR-8492 (ABNT, 1982 and NBR-8491 (ABNT, 1984. One concluded that the compressive strength of the bricks was bigger with the increase of the ages of cure. The T4 treatment presented bigger

  14. Influência da idade na resistência natural da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex. Maiden ao ataque de cupim de madeira seca (Cryptotermes brevis Tree age influence on Eucalyptus grandis wood natural resistance to deterioration by dry-wood termites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José de Castro Silva

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou testar a resistência natural da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis de quatro diferentes idades (10, 14, 20 e 25 anos ao ataque de cupins de madeira seca. As amostras foram retiradas da prancha diametral, na região próxima ao cerne mais externo, em número de seis unidades por tora, de cada uma das 16 árvores (quatro de cada idade. Cada par de amostras foi colocado em contato com 40 indivíduos, da espécie Cryptotermes brevis (cupim de madeira seca, avaliando-se cada par comparativamente com corpos-de-prova de madeira altamente suscetível ao ataque de cupins, no caso a madeira de Pinus elliottii, sob idênticas condições laboratoriais, mediante observações em intervalos periódicos. Ao término do ensaio foram registrados a porcentagem de cupins mortos e o número de furos, além do desgaste produzido por esses insetos. Verificou-se que a madeira de 10 anos foi a mais severamente atacada, com desgaste semelhante ao da testemunha. As madeiras de 14, 20 e 25 anos não diferiram estatisticamente entre si, quanto à resistência natural ao ataque de cupim de madeira seca, todas classificadas como de desgaste acentuado. A madeira de todas as idades mostrou-se altamente suscetível ao ataque de cupins, revelando a baixa resistência natural da espécie.The objective of this work was to evaluate the variability in the resistance to dry-wood termites of Eucalyptus grandis wood from commercial stands of four different ages (10, 14, 20 and 25 years old. Two logs were cut from sixteen different trees, four of each age. Six pairs of samples were taken from the most recent heartwood of a central board of a log. Each pair of samples was put in contact with 40 dry-wood termite individuals, Cryptotermes brevis. Samples of Pinus elliottii, a highly susceptible species, were also offered to the insects at the same time and under the same laboratory conditions in order to compare the results. The assay lasted for 45 days. After this

  15. Lignocellulose pretreatment in a fungus-cultivating termite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongjie Li; Daniel J. Yelle; Chang Li; Mengyi Yang; Jing Ke; Ruijuan Zhang; Yu Liu; Na Zhu; Shiyou Liang; Xiaochang Mo; John Ralph; Cameron R. Currie; Jianchu Mo

    2017-01-01

    Depolymerizing lignin, the complex phenolic polymer fortifying plant cell walls, is an essential but challenging starting point for the lignocellulosics industries. The variety of ether– and carbon–carbon interunit linkages produced via radical coupling during lignification limit chemical and biological depolymerization efficiency. In an ancient fungus-cultivating...

  16. Molecular traces of alternative social organization in a termite genome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Terrapon, Nicolas; Li, Cai; Robertson, Hugh M; Ji, Lu; Meng, Xuehong; Booth, Warren; Chen, Zhensheng; Childers, Christopher P; Glastad, Karl M; Gokhale, Kaustubh; Gowin, Johannes; Gronenberg, Wulfila; Hermansen, Russell A; Hu, Haofu; Hunt, Brendan G; Huylmans, Ann Kathrin; Khalil, Sayed M S; Mitchell, Robert D; Munoz-Torres, Monica C; Mustard, Julie A; Pan, Hailin; Reese, Justin T; Scharf, Michael E; Sun, Fengming; Vogel, Heiko; Xiao, Jin; Yang, Wei; Yang, Zhikai; Yang, Zuoquan; Zhou, Jiajian; Zhu, Jiwei; Brent, Colin S; Elsik, Christine G; Goodisman, Michael A D; Liberles, David A; Roe, R Michael; Vargo, Edward L; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Wang, Jun; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich; Korb, Judith; Zhang, Guojie; Liebig, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Although eusociality evolved independently within several orders of insects, research into the molecular underpinnings of the transition towards social complexity has been confined primarily to Hymenoptera...

  17. Termites of the Savanna ecosystem project study area, Nylsvley

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ferrar, P

    1982-09-01

    Full Text Available on their biology are given. Most of the species occur in the flatter areas of Burkea savanna; three are restricted to open land near the turfvlei" Tfie broad-leaved woodland of Maroelakop lacks two species but has two others restricted. Acacia patches (including...

  18. Fipronil: Toxicity to subterranean termites and dissipation in soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. E. Mulrooney; T. L. Wagner; P. D. Gerard

    2009-01-01

    Fipronil (Termidor 80 WG) was applied to covered and exposed plots at one secondary and four primary USDA Forest Service termiticide test sites in the U.S. Residue analyses and bioassays of soil samples were conducted over 5 y.

  19. Les attaques des Termites (Isoptera) dans les parcelles de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    est une zone semi-aride avec une savane sahélienne. Cette partie Sénégalais est présentée comme étant la plus aride du pays (Ndiaye & Samb,. 2012). Dans cette région règne un climat régional sahélien intermédiaire entre ...

  20. Metagenomic mining of feruloyl esterases from termite enteric flora

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rashamuse, K

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available cut-off spin column (Zymo Research, USA). 7 Library construction and screening The purified high molecular weight DNA (>30 kb) was subjected to metagenome library creation using the EpiFOS™ Fosmid Library Production Kit (Epicentre... for at least 1 h at 4 oC and precipitated proteins were removed by 9 centrifugation (20 000 x g, 30 min, 4 oC). The supernatant was loaded onto a HiLoadTM 16/10 Phenyl Sepharose high performance hydrophobic interaction column (GE healthcare) pre...

  1. Processed products of termites and lake flies: improving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among the factors contributing to food shortage in Africa are lack of appropriate preservation and storage facilities, tropical heat and poor road network for marketing produce. High food spoilage caused by high temperatures of the tropical areas necessitates storage for all householders. Marginal areas of Lake Victoria often ...

  2. Termites promote resistance of decomposition to spatiotemporal variability in rainfall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, Michiel P.; Laso, Francisco J.; Olff, Han; Berg, Matty P.

    The ecological impact of rapid environmental change will depend on the resistance of key ecosystems processes, which may be promoted by species that exert strong control over local environmental conditions. Recent theoretical work suggests that macrodetritivores increase the resistance of African

  3. Interacting effects of insects and flooding on wood decomposition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D Ulyshen

    Full Text Available Saproxylic arthropods are thought to play an important role in wood decomposition but very few efforts have been made to quantify their contributions to the process and the factors controlling their activities are not well understood. In the current study, mesh exclusion bags were used to quantify how arthropods affect loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L. decomposition rates in both seasonally flooded and unflooded forests over a 31-month period in the southeastern United States. Wood specific gravity (based on initial wood volume was significantly lower in bolts placed in unflooded forests and for those unprotected from insects. Approximately 20.5% and 13.7% of specific gravity loss after 31 months was attributable to insect activity in flooded and unflooded forests, respectively. Importantly, minimal between-treatment differences in water content and the results from a novel test carried out separately suggest the mesh bags had no significant impact on wood mass loss beyond the exclusion of insects. Subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae: Reticulitermes spp. were 5-6 times more active below-ground in unflooded forests compared to flooded forests based on wooden monitoring stakes. They were also slightly more active above-ground in unflooded forests but these differences were not statistically significant. Similarly, seasonal flooding had no detectable effect on above-ground beetle (Coleoptera richness or abundance. Although seasonal flooding strongly reduced Reticulitermes activity below-ground, it can be concluded from an insignificant interaction between forest type and exclusion treatment that reduced above-ground decomposition rates in seasonally flooded forests were due largely to suppressed microbial activity at those locations. The findings from this study indicate that southeastern U.S. arthropod communities accelerate above-ground wood decomposition significantly and to a similar extent in both flooded and unflooded forests

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-08-0184 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-08-0184 ref|YP_001256925.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 [Reticulitermes virgin...icus] gb|ABN10482.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 [Reticulitermes virginicus] gb|ABN10495.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 [Reticulitermes virginicus] YP_001256925.1 0.31 24% ...

  5. Regulação da microbiota intestinal de hospedeiros permissivo e não- permissivo por Cotesia flavipes (Cameron) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Nathalia Cavichiolli de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Parasitoides interferem no sistema imunológico de seus hospedeiros, influenciando a expressão de genes relacionados à resposta celular e humoral, podendo interferir na relação hospedeiro - microbiota intestinal. Além disso, parasitoides induzem alterações fisiológicas no hospedeiro que alteram o consumo e a utilização de alimento, e que podem influenciar a microbiata intestinal do mesmo. Alterações nessa microbiota poderiam afetar as relações e contribuições ao hospedeiro e, consequentemente,...

  6. Endomicrobium proavitum, the first isolate of Endomicrobia class. nov. (phylum Elusimicrobia)--an ultramicrobacterium with an unusual cell cycle that fixes nitrogen with a Group IV nitrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hao; Dietrich, Carsten; Radek, Renate; Brune, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial tree contains many deep-rooting clades without any cultured representatives. One such clade is 'Endomicrobia', a class-level lineage in the phylum Elusimicrobia represented so far only by intracellular symbionts of termite gut flagellates. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of the first free-living member of this clade from sterile-filtered gut homogenate of defaunated (starch-fed) Reticulitermes santonensis. Strain Rsa215 is a strictly anaerobic ultramicrobacterium that grows exclusively on glucose, which is fermented to lactate, acetate, hydrogen and CO2. Ultrastructural analysis revealed a Gram-negative cell envelope and a peculiar cell cycle. The genome contains a single set of nif genes that encode homologues of Group IV nitrogenases, which were so far considered to have functions other than nitrogen fixation. We documented nitrogenase activity and diazotrophic growth by measuring acetylene reduction activity and (15)N2 incorporation into cell mass, and demonstrated that transcription of nifH and nitrogenase activity occur only in the absence of ammonium. Based on the ancestral relationship to 'Candidatus Endomicrobium trichonymphae' and other obligate endosymbionts, we propose the name 'Endomicrobium proavitum' gen. nov., sp. nov. for the first isolate of this lineage and the name 'Endomicrobia' class. nov. for the entire clade. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Antitermitic activities of abietane-type diterpenes from Taxodium distichum cones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumoto, Norihisa; Ashitani, Tatsuya; Hayasaka, Yuichi; Murayama, Tetsuya; Ogiyama, Koichi; Takahashi, Koetsu

    2009-06-01

    Eight known abietane-type diterpenes were isolated from the weak acidic fraction of the n-hexane extract from cones of Taxodium distichum, one of the extant, living fossil conifers. They were identified as 6,7-dehydroroyleanone (1), taxodal (2), taxodione (3), salvinolone (4), 14-deoxycoleon U (5), 5,6-dehydrosugiol (6), sandaracopimaric acid (7), and xanthoperol (8). The structures of these compounds were determined by comparison of NMR spectral data with published data. The antitermitic (termicidal and antifeedant) activities of the compounds 1-8 against the subterranean termite, Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe, were evaluated. Compounds 1 and 3 showed potent termicidal activity, and 5 and 8 showed potent antifeedant activity. Compound 1 was found to be one of the representative bioactive compounds in the n-hexane extract of T. distichum cones. Compounds 1-8, with the exception of 7, were oxides of ferruginol (9). Therefore, the presence of various oxidation forms of the abietane-type structure reflects their various bioactivities.

  8. Durabilidad natural de madera de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden de plantaciones de rápido crecimiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Böthig

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Una de las especies forestales de rápido crecimiento cultivadas en Uruguay de mayor importancia económica es el Eucalyptus grandis. Trabajos anteriores reportan propiedades físicas y mecánicas de la madera juvenil y adulta proveniente de plantaciones de esta especie en diferentes regiones del país. Sin embargo, dado que no se dispone de datos científicos nacionales sobre su durabilidad natural, en este trabajo fue evaluada madera de E. grandis obtenida de dos plantaciones de 16 años de edad con semilla del mismo origen, de dos sitios, Rivera y Río Negro. Se estudió la durabilidad natural del duramen externo e interno siguiendo los métodos de la norma EN 350-1, tomando Populus deltoides x euroamericana cv I-214 como especie de referencia. Se realizaron ensayos de laboratorio para determinar la resistencia a la descomposición fúngica (Gloeophyllum trabeum, Trametes versicolor y Serpula lacrymans y a las termites (Reticulitermes spp. siguiendo las normas EN 113 y EN 118, respectivamente. Se realizaron ensayos de campo de estacas, de doble capa y cámara fúngica, los cuales aún están en curso, por lo que en el presente trabajo se presentan resultados parciales. Los perfiles radiales de densidad básica revelaron que la madera del duramen externo no era adulta, sino madera de transición. En general, el duramen de E. grandis mostró una mayor durabilidad que el híbrido Populus.El E. grandis se clasificó como moderadamente o seriamente atacado por Reticulitermes spp. Según EN 350-1, la madera juvenil de E. grandis puede considerarse como “moderadamente durable” ante la pudrición parda provocada por G. trabeum, mientras que la madera de transición puede describirse como “durable”. La madera de transición mostró en relación a la madera juvenil una mayor resistencia al G. trabeum, una susceptibilidad levemente menor a las termites y mejor desempeño en el campo luego de 17 meses de exposición. El sitio de la plantación no

  9. Bacillus species in the intestine of termites and other soil invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, H

    2006-09-01

    Soil invertebrates harbour a complex microbial community in their intestinal system. The total number of microbes in the hindgut of soil invertebrates can reach a titre of 10(11) ml(-1). The gut microbes play an indispensable role in the digestion of food and are of ecological importance in the global carbon cycle. The gut microbiota can include a variety of micro-organisms from the three domains Bacteria, Archaea and Eucarya. The bacterial groups from the intestinal systems are mainly affiliated to the proteobacteria, the gram-positive groups Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, the Bacteroides/Flavobacterium branch and the spirochetes. The Archaea are represented by methanogens. The eukaryotic groups consist of protozoa, yeasts and fungi. Intestinal bacteria are involved in the degradation of cellulose, hemicellulose and aromatic compounds as well as nitrogen fixation. They also contribute to the redox status of the gut. Bacilli form a significant portion of the intestinal microbial community of soil invertebrates, especially among cellulose degraders. The diversity and function of bacilli in soil invertebrates will be discussed in this paper.

  10. Effects of rice husk ash and termite hill types on the physical and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clay bricks remain the most widely used materials in the building and construction industries, due to their good qualities, low cost and versatility compared to other materials for building purposes. More so, the large quantities of agricultural waste produced, such as rice husk resulting from high consumption of rice worldwide ...

  11. Antifungal agents from Pseudallescheria boydii SNB-CN73 isolated from a Nasutitermes sp. termite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirma, Charlotte; Eparvier, Véronique; Stien, Didier

    2013-05-24

    Defense mutualisms between social insects and microorganisms have been described in the literature. The present article describes the discovery of a Pseudallescheria boydii strain isolated from Nasutitermes sp. The microbial symbiont produces two antifungal metabolites: tyroscherin and N-methyltyroscherin, a compound not previously described in the literature. Methylation of tyroscherin has confirmed the structure of N-methyltyroscherin. Both compounds are effective antifungal agents with favorable selectivity indices for Candida albicans and Trichophyton rubrum.

  12. Impact des termites dans les champs paysans de riz et de mais en ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sci-Nat

    Imidacloprid- Novo insecticida para o controle do cupium (Syntermes molestus) na cultura do arroz. (Oryza sativa L). In: XVII Congresso Brasieiro de. Entomologia Resumos. pp. 206 -222. Diomandé T., 1983. Le peuplement en fourmis terricoles de deux forêts ombrophiles de Côte- d'Ivoire. Ann. Univ. Abidjan, E. 16 : 39-56.

  13. Termite Infestation Associated with Type of Soil in Pulau Pinang, Malaysia (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Majid, Abdul Hafiz Ab; Ahmad, Abu Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Nine soil samples from nine buildings infested with Coptotermes gestroi in Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, were tested for the type of soil texture. The soil texture analysis procedures used the hydrometer method. Four of nine buildings (44%) yielded loamy sand-type soil, whereas five of nine buildings (56%) contained sandy loam-type soil.

  14. Complementary symbiont contributions to plant decomposition in a fungus-farming termite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas-Poulsen, Michael; Hu, Haofu; Li, Cai

    2014-01-01

    in the symbiosis, that Termitomyces has the genomic capacity to handle complex carbohydrates, and that worker gut microbes primarily contribute enzymes for final digestion of oligosaccharides. This apparent division of labor is consistent with the Macrotermes gut microbes being most important during the second...

  15. Bulb Mites Rhizoglyphus echinopus (Fumouze and Robin Associated with Subterranean Termite (Isoptera in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademar Silva

    2016-04-01

    Resumo. Quatro deutoninfas de ácaros do bulbo (hipopus da espécie Rhizoglyphus echinopus (Fumouze & Robin (Acari: Acaridae foram encontradas fixadas na cabeça do cupim subterraneo pertencente ao gênero Coptotermes no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Estas espécies de ácaros estão comumente associadas a plantas ornamentais e plantas com bulbos e turbéculos. As quatros hipopus foram encontradas fixadas na superfície da cabeça do cupim. Os resultados desse estudo fornecem uma visão sobre a relação forética de ácaros e cupins, indicando o papel deste último na dispersão do primeiro.

  16. Below- and above-ground effects of deadwood and termites in plantation forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Ulyshen; Richard Shefferson; Scott Horn; Melanie K. Taylor; Bryana Bush; Cavell Brownie; Sebastian Seibold; Michael S. Strickland

    2017-01-01

    Deadwood is an important legacy structure in managed forests, providing continuity in shelter and resource availability for many organisms and acting as a vehicle by which nutrients can be passed from one stand to the next following a harvest. Despite existing at the interface between below- and above-ground systems, however, much remains unknown about the role woody...

  17. An Assessment of the Health Risks of Seven Pesticides Used for Termite Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    indicate that, with long-term exposure, trans-chlordane would contribute more to the body burden of the exposed animals than would cis-chlordane. Polen ...detected in the adipose tissue of the general population in a variety of countries (Curley et al., 1973; Abbott et al., 1972; Durham , 1969). EXISTING...ranged from 0.02 to 1.43 ppm in adipose tissue and from 0.0031 to 0.0042 ppm in blood ( Durham , 1969). - 31 - • ....~~~ ~~ -i-- - ..- , , -: -i.i

  18. A Novel Approach to Managing Invasive Termite Species Using Genetically Engineered Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    proteases have been cut out of SDS-PAGE gels (Figure 7.) and sent to University of Florida for Liquid Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) sequence...however no transformants were obtained. Chemical methods of genetic manipulation of bacteria were reviewed and protoplast formation had been...L.J., and Chassy B. M. (1984). Production and regeneration of Lactobacillus casei protoplasts . Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 48 pp. 994

  19. An analysis of building behaviour of the termite Macrotermes subhyalinus (Rambur)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinsma, O.H.

    1979-01-01

    Although the work presented in this study is little more than a first survey of the causal factors involved in construction behaviour of Macrotermessubhyalinus , it clearly indicates a fertile field of research which has scarcely been explored. Past studies have

  20. 76 FR 66947 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; New Construction Subterranean Termite...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ... information to: (1) Evaluate whether the proposed collection is necessary for the proper performance of the functions of the agency, including whether the information will have practical utility; (2) Evaluate the... by an authorized pest control company and further that the builder guarantees the treated area...

  1. Vibrational long-distance communication in the termites Macrotermes natalensis and Odontotermes sp

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hager, Felix A; Kirchner, Wolfgang H

    2013-01-01

    .... The signals consist of trains of pulses with a pulse repetition rate of 10-20 Hz. The galleries have physical features that promote vibrational communication and are used as channels for long-distance communication...

  2. Multicomponent biocide systems protect wood from decay fungi, mold fungi, and termites for interior applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol A. Clausen; Vina W. Yang

    2004-01-01

    Concerns about indoor air quality due to mold growth have increased dramatically in the United States. In the absence of proper moisture management, fungicides need to be developed for indoor use to control mold establishment. An ideal fungicide for prevention of indoor mold growth on wood-based materials needs to specifically prevent spore germination and provide long...

  3. On the ecology and evolution of microorganisms associated with fungus-growing termites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.A.

    2011-01-01


    Organisms living in symbiosis fascinate us with their adaptations to live in extreme proximity to, or even inside, a partner that may be from a completely different Class, Phylum or Kingdom. Combinations of organisms that live in mutualistic symbiosis seem very exceptional, but when studying

  4. High Symbiont Relatedness Stabilizes Mutualistic Cooperation in Fungus-Growing Termites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanen, Duur K; de Fine Licht, Henrik H; Debets, Alfons J M

    2009-01-01

    It is unclear how mutualistic relationships can be stable when partners disperse freely and have the possibility of forming associations with many alternative genotypes. Theory predicts that high symbiont relatedness should resolve this problem, but the mechanisms to enforce this have rarely been...

  5. Anti-termite activity of essential oil and its components from Myristica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    materials ranging from paper fabrics to even non cellulosic materials such as asbestos, asphalt bitumen, lead, and ... applied to 1 g filter paper samples (What man #3, 8.5 cm in diam). A piece of filter paper treated with ... each filter paper impregnated with the test materials in a Petri dish (9 cm diam × 1.5 cm height). The test.

  6. Quantification of termite bioturbation in a savannah ecosystem: Application of OSL dating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jeppe Ågård; Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov; Murray, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    transport soil from depth to the surface to construct termitaria. Over time, erosion levels these mounds and returns the sediment to the soil surface. These two processes of construction and erosion together represent an upward “conveyor belt” sediment transport process. We find that the sediment...

  7. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15568-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available iculitermes lucifugus 16S ribosomal RNA gene, ... 50 0.32 1 ( AY101840 ) Reticuli...termes lucifugus 16S ribosomal RNA gene, ... 50 0.32 1 ( AY101838 ) Reticulitermes ...speratus 16S ribosomal RNA gene, p... 50 0.32 1 ( AY101837 ) Reticulitermes balkanensis 16S ribosomal RNA ge...US 6476208. 46 5.1 1 ( AY101839 ) Reticulitermes clypeatus 16S ribosomal RNA gene... from clone DKEY-166C18 in ... 44 0.11 2 ( AC133099 ) Mus musculus BAC clone RP23-90K8 from chromosome ... 50 0.32 1 ( AY101841 ) Ret

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DNOV-01-2359 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DNOV-01-2359 ref|YP_001256912.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 [Reticulitermes ...santonensis] gb|ABN10443.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 [Reticulitermes santonensis] YP_001256912.1 2.1 23% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-0617 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-0617 ref|YP_001256921.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 [Reticulitermes ...virginicus] gb|ABN10478.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 [Reticulitermes virginicus] YP_001256921.1 0.31 25% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DNOV-01-0578 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DNOV-01-0578 ref|YP_001256912.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 [Reticulitermes ...santonensis] gb|ABN10443.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 [Reticulitermes santonensis] YP_001256912.1 2.4 23% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-EEUR-01-0301 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-EEUR-01-0301 ref|YP_001256933.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 [Reticulitermes ...hageni] gb|ABN10503.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 [Reticulitermes hageni] YP_001256933.1 2.7 26% ...

  12. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U03207-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ) H.numata DNA sequence from clone AEHN-31F4. 44 0.99 1 ( AY553180 ) Reticulitermes...mastigote normalized cDNA Li... 44 0.99 1 ( BJ978632 ) Reticulitermes speratus gut symbiotic protist cDN...

  13. Survey of termite-inhabited soil and mosquito breeding sites in Lucknow, India for potential mycopathogens of Anopheles stephensi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sur, B; Bihari, V; Sharma, A; Basu, S K

    During a short survey of soil and mosquito breeding sites in Lucknow, India for potential mycopathogen from a period of August-October 1996, 11 species of fungi in 5 genera were isolated using live mosquito larvae as host, Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus and Fusarium semitectum were the most frequently isolated species. Other fungi recorded were A. niger, A. ochraceus, A. terreus, A. versicolor, Geotrichum candidum, Penicillium verrucosum, Paecilomyces sp. and Fusarium sp. (Liseola/Elegans complex). Insect cell walls are known to contain chitin, so fungal isolates were tested for their chitinase activity on semi synthetic medium containing colloidal chitin. High chitinolytic activities were observed with A. flavus and A. ochraceus. Chitinase producers can be considered as potential pathogens. However, the higher incidence of F. semitectum could not be explained by inability to utilize chitin.

  14. Evaluating the effects of post dip-treatment laser marking on resistance to feeding by subterranean termites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachel A. Arango; Bessie Woodward; Stan Lebow

    2016-01-01

    Dip-treatment of wood packing materials is often used instead of pressure treatment mainly because of issues relating to simplicity and cost. Packaging boxes fabricated for the United States Army are required to be dip-treated for at least one minute in an approved preservative solution prior to use. These boxes are expected to have a service life of up to 20 years in...

  15. Critical fluid extraction of Juniperus virginiana L. and bioactivity of extracts against subterranean termites and wood-rot fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. J. Eller; Carol A. Clausen; Frederick Green; S.L. Taylor

    2010-01-01

    Eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) is an abundant renewable resource and represents a vast potential source of valuable natural products that may serve as natural biocides. Both the wood and needles from J. virginiana were extracted using liquid carbon dioxide (L-CO2) as well as ethanol (EtOH) and the yields determined.Woodblocks were...

  16. As you reap, so shall you sow: coupling of harvesting and inoculating stabilizes the mutualism between termites and fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanen, Duur Kornelis

    2006-01-01

    by consuming modified unripe mushrooms (nodules) for food. However, these nodules provide asexual gut-resistant spores that form the inoculum of new substrate. This within-nest propagation has two important consequences: (i) the mutualistic fungi undergo severe, recurrent bottlenecks, so that the fungus...

  17. MRT letter: A novel tegumental gland in female imagoes of the neotropical termite Cornitermes cumulans (Isoptera, termitidae, syntermitinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Leonardo, Ana Maria; Haifig, Ives

    2010-10-01

    In general, the exocrine glands of social insects are structures involved in the chemical communication associated with social life. Here, we report the discovery of an unknown tegumental gland that is present in the female imagoes of Cornitermes cumulans and occurs next to the well-developed tergal glands that have previously been described. The tegumental glands release their secretion in the intersegmental membrane and are composed of bicellular units, a secretory cell and a canal cell, that are closely located to the epidermal cells in the inferior part of the eighth and ninth tergites. The ultrastructure of the glandular cells showed abundant smooth endoplasmic reticulum, suggesting that the secretion may be pheromonal, although its function is still unknown. These exocrine structures are facing the tergal glands, and we hypothesized that they act synergistically with the tergal glands to generate short-range attraction during tandem behavior. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Characterization and Identification of Cellulolytic Bacteria from gut of Worker Macrotermes gilvus

    OpenAIRE

    Andri Ferbiyanto; Iman Rusmana; Rika Raffiudin

    2015-01-01

    As a social insect, termite colony consists of three castes, i.e. reproductive, soldier, and worker castes. In their role of cellulose digestion, the worker termites use two sources of cellulolytic enzyme that include cellulases produced by the termite and the gut symbions. Macrotermes gilvus classified in mound builder termite, mostly depend on cellulolytic bacteria for cellulose digestion. This study aims to characterize cellulolytic bacteria of termite gut symbionts of worker M. gilvus and...

  19. Morphological and molecular characterization of L-methioninase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... isolated from Egyptian soil, were selected for comprehensive morphotypic and molecular characterization. Based on morphological and physiological features, these isolates were identified as Aspergillus flavipes, Aspergillus carneus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus tamari, Aspergillus oryzae, and Aspergillus parasiticus.

  20. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2000 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2000 award winner, Dow AgroSciences, developed Sentricon to eliminate termites with bait applied only where termites are active; it replaces widespread applications of pesticide to soil.