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Sample records for terminally differentiated skeletal

  1. TGF-β receptors, in a Smad-independent manner, are required for terminal skeletal muscle differentiation

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    Droguett, Rebeca; Cabello-Verrugio, Claudio; Santander, Cristian; Brandan, Enrique

    2010-01-01

    Skeletal muscle differentiation is strongly inhibited by transforming growth factor type β (TGF-β), although muscle formation as well as regeneration normally occurs in an environment rich in this growth factor. In this study, we evaluated the role of intracellular regulatory Smads proteins as well as TGF-β-receptors (TGF-β-Rs) during skeletal muscle differentiation. We found a decrease of TGF-β signaling during differentiation. This phenomenon is explained by a decline in the levels of the regulatory proteins Smad-2, -3, and -4, a decrease in the phosphorylation of Smad-2 and lost of nuclear translocation of Smad-3 and -4 in response to TGF-β. No change in the levels and inhibitory function of Smad-7 was observed. In contrast, we found that TGF-β-R type I (TGF-β-RI) and type II (TGF-β-RII) increased on the cell surface during skeletal muscle differentiation. To analyze the direct role of the serine/threonine kinase activities of TGF-β-Rs, we used the specific inhibitor SB 431542 and the dominant-negative form of TGF-β-RII lacking the cytoplasmic domain. The TGF-β-Rs were important for successful muscle formation, determined by the induction of myogenin, creatine kinase activity, and myosin. Silencing of Smad-2/3 expression by specific siRNA treatments accelerated myogenin, myosin expression, and myotube formation; although when SB 431542 was present inhibition in myosin induction and myotube formation was observed, suggesting that these last steps of skeletal muscle differentiation require active TGF-β-Rs. These results suggest that both down-regulation of Smad regulatory proteins and cell signaling through the TGF-β receptors independent of Smad proteins are essential for skeletal muscle differentiation.

  2. TGF-{beta} receptors, in a Smad-independent manner, are required for terminal skeletal muscle differentiation

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    Droguett, Rebeca; Cabello-Verrugio, Claudio; Santander, Cristian [Centro de Regulacion Celular y Patologia, Centro de Regeneracion y Envejecimiento (CARE), Departamento de Biologia Celular y Molecular, MIFAB, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Brandan, Enrique, E-mail: ebrandan@bio.puc.cl [Centro de Regulacion Celular y Patologia, Centro de Regeneracion y Envejecimiento (CARE), Departamento de Biologia Celular y Molecular, MIFAB, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile)

    2010-09-10

    Skeletal muscle differentiation is strongly inhibited by transforming growth factor type {beta} (TGF-{beta}), although muscle formation as well as regeneration normally occurs in an environment rich in this growth factor. In this study, we evaluated the role of intracellular regulatory Smads proteins as well as TGF-{beta}-receptors (TGF-{beta}-Rs) during skeletal muscle differentiation. We found a decrease of TGF-{beta} signaling during differentiation. This phenomenon is explained by a decline in the levels of the regulatory proteins Smad-2, -3, and -4, a decrease in the phosphorylation of Smad-2 and lost of nuclear translocation of Smad-3 and -4 in response to TGF-{beta}. No change in the levels and inhibitory function of Smad-7 was observed. In contrast, we found that TGF-{beta}-R type I (TGF-{beta}-RI) and type II (TGF-{beta}-RII) increased on the cell surface during skeletal muscle differentiation. To analyze the direct role of the serine/threonine kinase activities of TGF-{beta}-Rs, we used the specific inhibitor SB 431542 and the dominant-negative form of TGF-{beta}-RII lacking the cytoplasmic domain. The TGF-{beta}-Rs were important for successful muscle formation, determined by the induction of myogenin, creatine kinase activity, and myosin. Silencing of Smad-2/3 expression by specific siRNA treatments accelerated myogenin, myosin expression, and myotube formation; although when SB 431542 was present inhibition in myosin induction and myotube formation was observed, suggesting that these last steps of skeletal muscle differentiation require active TGF-{beta}-Rs. These results suggest that both down-regulation of Smad regulatory proteins and cell signaling through the TGF-{beta} receptors independent of Smad proteins are essential for skeletal muscle differentiation.

  3. Genome-wide mapping of Sox6 binding sites in skeletal muscle reveals both direct and indirect regulation of muscle terminal differentiation by Sox6

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    An Chung-Il

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sox6 is a multi-faceted transcription factor involved in the terminal differentiation of many different cell types in vertebrates. It has been suggested that in mice as well as in zebrafish Sox6 plays a role in the terminal differentiation of skeletal muscle by suppressing transcription of slow fiber specific genes. In order to understand how Sox6 coordinately regulates the transcription of multiple fiber type specific genes during muscle development, we have performed ChIP-seq analyses to identify Sox6 target genes in mouse fetal myotubes and generated muscle-specific Sox6 knockout (KO mice to determine the Sox6 null muscle phenotype in adult mice. Results We have identified 1,066 Sox6 binding sites using mouse fetal myotubes. The Sox6 binding sites were found to be associated with slow fiber-specific, cardiac, and embryonic isoform genes that are expressed in the sarcomere as well as transcription factor genes known to play roles in muscle development. The concurrently performed RNA polymerase II (Pol II ChIP-seq analysis revealed that 84% of the Sox6 peak-associated genes exhibited little to no binding of Pol II, suggesting that the majority of the Sox6 target genes are transcriptionally inactive. These results indicate that Sox6 directly regulates terminal differentiation of muscle by affecting the expression of sarcomere protein genes as well as indirectly through influencing the expression of transcription factors relevant to muscle development. Gene expression profiling of Sox6 KO skeletal and cardiac muscle revealed a significant increase in the expression of the genes associated with Sox6 binding. In the absence of the Sox6 gene, there was dramatic upregulation of slow fiber-specific, cardiac, and embryonic isoform gene expression in Sox6 KO skeletal muscle and fetal isoform gene expression in Sox6 KO cardiac muscle, thus confirming the role Sox6 plays as a transcriptional suppressor in muscle development

  4. Dynamics of the Skeletal Muscle Secretome during Myoblast Differentiation

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    Henningsen, Jeanette; Rigbolt, Kristoffer T G; Blagoev, Blagoy

    2010-01-01

    During recent years, increased efforts have focused on elucidating the secretory function of skeletal muscle. Through secreted molecules, skeletal muscle affects local muscle biology in an auto/paracrine manner as well as having systemic effects on other tissues. Here we used a quantitative...... proteomics platform to investigate the factors secreted during the differentiation of murine C2C12 skeletal muscle cells. Using triple encoding stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture, we compared the secretomes at three different time points of muscle differentiation and followed the dynamics...... of the skeletal muscle as a prominent secretory organ. In addition to previously reported molecules, we identified many secreted proteins that have not previously been shown to be released from skeletal muscle cells nor shown to be differentially released during the process of myogenesis. We found 188...

  5. SHP2 regulates chondrocyte terminal differentiation, growth plate architecture and skeletal cell fates.

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    Margot E Bowen

    Full Text Available Loss of PTPN11/SHP2 in mice or in human metachondromatosis (MC patients causes benign cartilage tumors on the bone surface (exostoses and within bones (enchondromas. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying cartilage tumor formation, we investigated the role of SHP2 in the specification, maturation and organization of chondrocytes. Firstly, we studied chondrocyte maturation by performing RNA-seq on primary chondrocyte pellet cultures. We found that SHP2 depletion, or inhibition of the ERK1/2 pathway, delays the terminal differentiation of chondrocytes from the early-hypertrophic to the late-hypertrophic stage. Secondly, we studied chondrocyte maturation and organization in mice with a mosaic postnatal inactivation of Ptpn11 in chondrocytes. We found that the vertebral growth plates of these mice have expanded domains of early-hypertrophic chondrocytes that have not yet terminally differentiated, and their enchondroma-like lesions arise from chondrocytes displaced from the growth plate due to a disruption in the organization of maturation and ossification zones. Furthermore, we observed that lesions from human MC patients also display disorganized chondrocyte maturation zones. Next, we found that inactivation of Ptpn11 in Fsp1-Cre-expressing fibroblasts induces exostosis-like outgrowths, suggesting that loss of SHP2 in cells on the bone surface and at bone-ligament attachment sites induces ectopic chondrogenesis. Finally, we performed lineage tracing to show that exostoses and enchondromas in mice likely contain mixtures of wild-type and SHP2-deficient chondrocytes. Together, these data indicate that in patients with MC, who are heterozygous for inherited PTPN11 loss-of-function mutations, second-hit mutations in PTPN11 can induce enchondromas by disrupting the organization and delaying the terminal differentiation of growth plate chondrocytes, and can induce exostoses by causing ectopic chondrogenesis of cells on the bone surface. Furthermore, the

  6. Osteogenic differentiation capacity of human skeletal muscle-derived progenitor cells.

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    Teruyo Oishi

    Full Text Available Heterotopic ossification (HO is defined as the formation of ectopic bone in soft tissue outside the skeletal tissue. HO is thought to result from aberrant differentiation of osteogenic progenitors within skeletal muscle. However, the precise origin of HO is still unclear. Skeletal muscle contains two kinds of progenitor cells, myogenic progenitors and mesenchymal progenitors. Myogenic and mesenchymal progenitors in human skeletal muscle can be identified as CD56(+ and PDGFRα(+ cells, respectively. The purpose of this study was to investigate the osteogenic differentiation potential of human skeletal muscle-derived progenitors. Both CD56(+ cells and PDGFRα(+ cells showed comparable osteogenic differentiation potential in vitro. However, in an in vivo ectopic bone formation model, PDGFRα(+ cells formed bone-like tissue and showed successful engraftment, while CD56(+ cells did not form bone-like tissue and did not adapt to an osteogenic environment. Immunohistological analysis of human HO sample revealed that many PDGFRα(+ cells were localized in proximity to ectopic bone formed in skeletal muscle. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are known to regulate many biological processes including osteogenic differentiation. We investigated the participation of miRNAs in the osteogenic differentiation of PDGFRα(+ cells by using microarray. We identified miRNAs that had not been known to be involved in osteogenesis but showed dramatic changes during osteogenic differentiation of PDGFRα(+ cells. Upregulation of miR-146b-5p and -424 and downregulation of miR-7 during osteogenic differentiation of PDGFRα(+ cells were confirmed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Inhibition of upregulated miRNAs, miR-146b-5p and -424, resulted in the suppression of osteocyte maturation, suggesting that these two miRNAs have the positive role in the osteogenesis of PDGFRα(+ cells. Our results suggest that PDGFRα(+ cells may be the major source of HO and that the newly identified mi

  7. Unusual Features of Extraarticular Skeletal Tuberculosis: New Classification and Differential Diagnosis

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    Kim, Kun Sang; Park, Soo Soung

    1983-01-01

    Twenty two cases of extra articular skeletal tuberculosis which showed unusual radiological features are reported and classified into several categories with discussion on the differential diagnosis. Radiological patterns of skeletal tuberculosis is so variable that with any kind of skeletal changes the possibility of the skeletal tuberculosis should not be excluded between of lack of its classical patterns.

  8. Skeletal myogenic differentiation of human urine-derived cells as a potential source for skeletal muscle regeneration.

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    Chen, Wei; Xie, Minkai; Yang, Bin; Bharadwaj, Shantaram; Song, Lujie; Liu, Guihua; Yi, Shanhong; Ye, Gang; Atala, Anthony; Zhang, Yuanyuan

    2017-02-01

    Stem cells are regarded as possible cell therapy candidates for skeletal muscle regeneration. However, invasive harvesting of those cells can cause potential harvest-site morbidity. The goal of this study was to assess whether human urine-derived stem cells (USCs), obtained through non-invasive procedures, can differentiate into skeletal muscle linage cells (Sk-MCs) and potentially be used for skeletal muscle regeneration. In this study, USCs were harvested from six healthy individuals aged 25-55. Expression profiles of cell-surface markers were assessed by flow cytometry. To optimize the myogenic differentiation medium, we selected two from four different types of myogenic differentiation media to induce the USCs. Differentiated USCs were identified with myogenic markers by gene and protein expression. USCs were implanted into the tibialis anterior muscles of nude mice for 1 month. The results showed that USCs displayed surface markers with positive staining for CD24, CD29, CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105, CD117, CD133, CD146, SSEA-4 and STRO-1, and negative staining for CD14, CD31, CD34 and CD45. After myogenic differentiation, a change in morphology was observed from 'rice-grain'-like cells to spindle-shaped cells. The USCs expressed specific Sk-MC transcripts and protein markers (myf5, myoD, myosin, and desmin) after being induced with different myogenic culture media. Implanted cells expressed Sk-MC markers stably in vivo. Our findings suggest that USCs are able to differentiate into the Sk-MC lineage in vitro and after being implanted in vivo. Thus, they might be a potential source for cell injection therapy in the use of skeletal muscle regeneration. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. In vitro Differentiation of Functional Human Skeletal Myotubes in a Defined System.

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    Guo, Xiufang; Greene, Keshel; Akanda, Nesar; Smith, Alec; Stancescu, Maria; Lambert, Stephen; Vandenburgh, Herman; Hickman, James

    2014-01-01

    In vitro human skeletal muscle systems are valuable tools for the study of human muscular development, disease and treatment. However, published in vitro human muscle systems have so far only demonstrated limited differentiation capacities. Advanced differentiation features such as cross-striations and contractility have only been observed in co-cultures with motoneurons. Furthermore, it is commonly regarded that cultured human myotubes do not spontaneously contract, and any contraction has been considered to originate from innervation. This study developed a serum-free culture system in which human skeletal myotubes demonstrated advanced differentiation. Characterization by immunocytochemistry, electrophysiology and analysis of contractile function revealed these major features: A) well defined sarcomeric development, as demonstrated by the presence of cross-striations. B) finely developed excitation-contraction coupling apparatus characterized by the close apposition of dihydropyridine receptors on T-tubules and Ryanodine receptors on sarcoplasmic reticulum membranes. C) spontaneous and electrically controlled contractility. This report not only demonstrates an improved level of differentiation of cultured human skeletal myotubes, but also provides the first published evidence that such myotubes are capable of spontaneous contraction. Use of this functional in vitro human skeletal muscle system would advance studies concerning human skeletal muscle development and physiology, as well as muscle-related disease and therapy.

  10. Substrate stiffness affects skeletal myoblast differentiation in vitro

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    Sara Romanazzo, Giancarlo Forte, Mitsuhiro Ebara, Koichiro Uto, Stefania Pagliari, Takao Aoyagi, Enrico Traversa and Akiyoshi Taniguchi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To maximize the therapeutic efficacy of cardiac muscle constructs produced by stem cells and tissue engineering protocols, suitable scaffolds should be designed to recapitulate all the characteristics of native muscle and mimic the microenvironment encountered by cells in vivo. Moreover, so not to interfere with cardiac contractility, the scaffold should be deformable enough to withstand muscle contraction. Recently, it was suggested that the mechanical properties of scaffolds can interfere with stem/progenitor cell functions, and thus careful consideration is required when choosing polymers for targeted applications. In this study, cross-linked poly-ε-caprolactone membranes having similar chemical composition and controlled stiffness in a supra-physiological range were challenged with two sources of myoblasts to evaluate the suitability of substrates with different stiffness for cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. Furthermore, muscle-specific and non-related feeder layers were prepared on stiff surfaces to reveal the contribution of biological and mechanical cues to skeletal muscle progenitor differentiation. We demonstrated that substrate stiffness does affect myogenic differentiation, meaning that softer substrates can promote differentiation and that a muscle-specific feeder layer can improve the degree of maturation in skeletal muscle stem cells.

  11. Forkhead Box C1 Regulates Human Primary Keratinocyte Terminal Differentiation.

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    Lianghua Bin

    Full Text Available The epidermis serves as a critical protective barrier between the internal and external environment of the human body. Its remarkable barrier function is established through the keratinocyte (KC terminal differentiation program. The transcription factors specifically regulating terminal differentiation remain largely unknown. Using a RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq profiling approach, we found that forkhead box c 1 (FOXC1 was significantly up-regulated in human normal primary KC during the course of differentiation. This observation was validated in human normal primary KC from several different donors and human skin biopsies. Silencing FOXC1 in human normal primary KC undergoing differentiation led to significant down-regulation of late terminal differentiation genes markers including epidermal differentiation complex genes, keratinization genes, sphingolipid/ceramide metabolic process genes and epidermal specific cell-cell adhesion genes. We further demonstrated that FOXC1 works down-stream of ZNF750 and KLF4, and upstream of GRHL3. Thus, this study defines FOXC1 as a regulator specific for KC terminal differentiation and establishes its potential position in the genetic regulatory network.

  12. TGF-β's delay skeletal muscle progenitor cell differentiation in an isoform-independent manner

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    Schabort, Elske J.; Merwe, Mathilde van der; Loos, Benjamin; Moore, Frances P.; Niesler, Carola U.

    2009-01-01

    Satellite cells are a quiescent heterogenous population of mononuclear stem and progenitor cells which, once activated, differentiate into myotubes and facilitate skeletal muscle repair or growth. The Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily members are elevated post-injury and their importance in the regulation of myogenesis and wound healing has been demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo. Most studies suggest a negative role for TGF-β on satellite cell differentiation. However, none have compared the effect of these three isoforms on myogenesis in vitro. This is despite known isoform-specific effects of TGF-β1, -β2 and -β3 on wound repair in other tissues. In the current study we compared the effect of TGF-β1, -β2 and -β3 on proliferation and differentiation of the C2C12 myoblast cell-line. We found that, irrespective of the isoform, TGF-β increased proliferation of C2C12 cells by changing the cellular localisation of PCNA to promote cell division and prevent cell cycle exit. Concomitantly, TGF-β1, -β2 and -β3 delayed myogenic commitment by increasing MyoD degradation and decreasing myogenin expression. Terminal differentiation, as measured by a decrease in myosin heavy chain (MHC) expression, was also delayed. These results demonstrate that TGF-β promotes proliferation and delays differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts in an isoform-independent manner

  13. A hanging drop culture method to study terminal erythroid differentiation.

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    Gutiérrez, Laura; Lindeboom, Fokke; Ferreira, Rita; Drissen, Roy; Grosveld, Frank; Whyatt, David; Philipsen, Sjaak

    2005-10-01

    To design a culture method allowing the quantitative and qualitative analysis of terminal erythroid differentiation. Primary erythroid progenitors derived either from mouse tissues or from human umbilical cord blood were differentiated using hanging drop cultures and compared to methylcellulose cultures. Cultured cells were analyzed by FACS to assess differentiation. We describe a practical culture method by adapting the previously described hanging drop culture system to conditions allowing terminal differentiation of primary erythroid progenitors. Using minimal volumes of media and small numbers of cells, we obtained quantitative terminal erythroid differentiation within two days of culture in the case of murine cells and 4 days in the case of human cells. The established methods for ex vivo culture of primary erythroid progenitors, such as methylcellulose-based burst-forming unit-erythroid (BFU-E) and colony-forming unit-erythroid (CFU-E) assays, allow the detection of committed erythroid progenitors but are of limited value to study terminal erythroid differentiation. We show that the application of hanging drop cultures is a practical alternative that, in combination with clonogenic assays, enables a comprehensive assessment of the behavior of primary erythroid cells ex vivo in the context of genetic and drug-induced perturbations.

  14. Differentially activated macrophages orchestrate myogenic precursor cell fate during human skeletal muscle regeneration

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    Saclier, Marielle; Yacoub-Youssef, Houda; Mackey, Abigail

    2013-01-01

    , we explored both in vitro and in vivo, in human, the interactions of differentially activated MPs with myogenic precursor cells (MPCs) during adult myogenesis and skeletal muscle regeneration. We showed in vitro that through the differential secretion of cytokines and growth factors, proinflammatory...... anti-inflammatory markers. These data demonstrate for the first time in human that MPs sequentially orchestrate adult myogenesis during regeneration of damaged skeletal muscle. These results support the emerging concept that inflammation, through MP activation, controls stem cell fate and coordinates......Macrophages (MPs) exert either beneficial or deleterious effects on tissue repair, depending on their activation/polarization state. They are crucial for adult skeletal muscle repair, notably by acting on myogenic precursor cells. However, these interactions have not been fully characterized. Here...

  15. A Novel Protocol for Directed Differentiation of C9orf72-Associated Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Into Contractile Skeletal Myotubes.

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    Swartz, Elliot W; Baek, Jaeyun; Pribadi, Mochtar; Wojta, Kevin J; Almeida, Sandra; Karydas, Anna; Gao, Fen-Biao; Miller, Bruce L; Coppola, Giovanni

    2016-11-01

    : Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) offer an unlimited resource of cells to be used for the study of underlying molecular biology of disease, therapeutic drug screening, and transplant-based regenerative medicine. However, methods for the directed differentiation of skeletal muscle for these purposes remain scarce and incomplete. Here, we present a novel, small molecule-based protocol for the generation of multinucleated skeletal myotubes using eight independent iPSC lines. Through combinatorial inhibition of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) with addition of bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4) and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), we report up to 64% conversion of iPSCs into the myogenic program by day 36 as indicated by MYOG + cell populations. These cells began to exhibit spontaneous contractions as early as 34 days in vitro in the presence of a serum-free medium formulation. We used this protocol to obtain iPSC-derived muscle cells from frontotemporal dementia (FTD) patients harboring C9orf72 hexanucleotide repeat expansions (rGGGGCC), sporadic FTD, and unaffected controls. iPSCs derived from rGGGGCC carriers contained RNA foci but did not vary in differentiation efficiency when compared to unaffected controls nor display mislocalized TDP-43 after as many as 120 days in vitro. This study presents a rapid, efficient, and transgene-free method for generating multinucleated skeletal myotubes from iPSCs and a resource for further modeling the role of skeletal muscle in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and other motor neuron diseases. Protocols to produce skeletal myotubes for disease modeling or therapy are scarce and incomplete. The present study efficiently generates functional skeletal myotubes from human induced pluripotent stem cells using a small molecule-based approach. Using this strategy, terminal myogenic induction of up to 64% in 36 days and spontaneously contractile myotubes within 34 days were achieved

  16. A Noninvasive In Vitro Monitoring System Reporting Skeletal Muscle Differentiation.

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    Öztürk-Kaloglu, Deniz; Hercher, David; Heher, Philipp; Posa-Markaryan, Katja; Sperger, Simon; Zimmermann, Alice; Wolbank, Susanne; Redl, Heinz; Hacobian, Ara

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring of cell differentiation is a crucial aspect of cell-based therapeutic strategies depending on tissue maturation. In this study, we have developed a noninvasive reporter system to trace murine skeletal muscle differentiation. Either a secreted bioluminescent reporter (Metridia luciferase) or a fluorescent reporter (green fluorescent protein [GFP]) was placed under the control of the truncated muscle creatine kinase (MCK) basal promoter enhanced by variable numbers of upstream MCK E-boxes. The engineered pE3MCK vector, coding a triple tandem of E-Boxes and the truncated MCK promoter, showed twentyfold higher levels of luciferase activation compared with a Cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter. This newly developed reporter system allowed noninvasive monitoring of myogenic differentiation in a straining bioreactor. Additionally, binding sequences of endogenous microRNAs (miRNAs; seed sequences) that are known to be downregulated in myogenesis were ligated as complementary seed sequences into the reporter vector to reduce nonspecific signal background. The insertion of seed sequences improved the signal-to-noise ratio up to 25% compared with pE3MCK. Due to the highly specific, fast, and convenient expression analysis for cells undergoing myogenic differentiation, this reporter system provides a powerful tool for application in skeletal muscle tissue engineering.

  17. Effects of heat stimulation and l-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate supplementation on myogenic differentiation of artificial skeletal muscle tissue constructs.

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    Ikeda, Kazushi; Ito, Akira; Sato, Masanori; Kanno, Shota; Kawabe, Yoshinori; Kamihira, Masamichi

    2017-05-01

    Although skeletal muscle tissue engineering has been extensively studied, the physical forces produced by tissue-engineered skeletal muscles remain to be improved for potential clinical utility. In this study, we examined the effects of mild heat stimulation and supplementation of a l-ascorbic acid derivative, l-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate (AscP), on myoblast differentiation and physical force generation of tissue-engineered skeletal muscles. Compared with control cultures at 37°C, mouse C2C12 myoblast cells cultured at 39°C enhanced myotube diameter (skeletal muscle hypertrophy), whereas mild heat stimulation did not promote myotube formation (differentiation rate). Conversely, AscP supplementation resulted in an increased differentiation rate but did not induce skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Following combined treatment with mild heat stimulation and AscP supplementation, both skeletal muscle hypertrophy and differentiation rate were enhanced. Moreover, the active tension produced by the tissue-engineered skeletal muscles was improved following combined treatment. These findings indicate that tissue culture using mild heat stimulation and AscP supplementation is a promising approach to enhance the function of tissue-engineered skeletal muscles. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. The effect of dexamethasone and triiodothyronine on terminal differentiation of primary bovine chondrocytes and chondrogenically differentiated mesenchymal stem cells.

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    Randau, Thomas M; Schildberg, Frank A; Alini, Mauro; Wimmer, Matthias D; Haddouti, El-Mustapha; Gravius, Sascha; Ito, Keita; Stoddart, Martin J

    2013-01-01

    The newly evolved field of regenerative medicine is offering solutions in the treatment of bone or cartilage loss and deficiency. Mesenchymal stem cells, as well as articular chondrocytes, are potential cells for the generation of bone or cartilage. The natural mechanism of bone formation is that of endochondral ossification, regulated, among other factors, through the hormones dexamethasone and triiodothyronine. We investigated the effects of these hormones on articular chondrocytes and chondrogenically differentiated mesenchymal stem cells, hypothesizing that these hormones would induce terminal differentiation, with chondrocytes and differentiated stem cells being similar in their response. Using a 3D-alginate cell culture model, bovine chondrocytes and chondrogenically differentiated stem cells were cultured in presence of triiodothyronine or dexamethasone, and cell proliferation and extracellular matrix production were investigated. Collagen mRNA expression was measured by real-time PCR. Col X mRNA and alkaline phosphatase were monitored as markers of terminal differentiation, a prerequisite of endochondral ossification. The alginate culture system worked well, both for the culture of chondrocytes and for the chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. Dexamethasone led to an increase in glycosaminoglycan production. Triiodothyronine increased the total collagen production only in chondrocytes, where it also induced signs of terminal differentiation, increasing both collagen X mRNA and alkaline phosphatase activity. Dexamethasone induced terminal differentiation in the differentiated stem cells. The immature articular chondrocytes used in this study seem to be able to undergo terminal differentiation, pointing to their possible role in the onset of degenerative osteoarthritis, as well as their potential for a cell source in bone tissue engineering. When chondrocyte-like cells, after their differentiation, can indeed be moved on towards terminal

  19. Clone-derived human AF-amniotic fluid stem cells are capable of skeletal myogenic differentiation in vitro and in vivo.

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    Ma, Xiaorong; Zhang, Shengli; Zhou, Junmei; Chen, Baisong; Shang, Yafeng; Gao, Tongbing; Wang, Xue; Xie, Hua; Chen, Fang

    2012-08-01

    Stem cell-based therapy may be the most promising method to cure skeletal muscle degenerative diseases such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and trauma in the future. Human amniotic fluid is enriched with early-stage stem cells from developing fetuses and these cells have cardiomyogenic potential both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, we investigated the characteristics of human amniotic fluid-derived AF-type stem (HAF-AFS) cells by flow cytometry, immunofluorescence staining, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, and osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation analysis. After confirming the stemness of HAF-AFS cells, we tested whether HAF-AFS cells could differentiate into skeletal myogenic cells in vitro and incorporate into regenerating skeletal muscle in vivo. By temporary exposure to the DNA demethylation agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza dC) or co-cultured with C2C12 myoblasts, HAF-AFS cells differentiated into skeletal myogenic cells, expressing skeletal myogenic cell-specific markers such as Desmin, Troponin I (Tn I) and α-Actinin. Four weeks after transplantation into cardiotoxin-injured and X-ray-irradiated tibialis anterior (TA) muscles of NOD/SCID mice, HAF-AFS cells survived, differentiated into myogenic precursor cells and fused with host myofibres. The findings that HAF-AFS cells differentiate into myogenic cells in vitro and incorporate in skeletal muscle regeneration in vivo hold the promise of HAF-AFS cell-based therapy for skeletal muscle degenerative diseases. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. The role of diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) in the differentiation of benign from malignant skeletal lesions of the pelvis

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    Douis, Hassan, E-mail: douis.hassan@hotmail.co.uk [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, B15 2GW (United Kingdom); Department of Radiology, Royal Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, B31 2AP (United Kingdom); Davies, Mark A. [Department of Radiology, Royal Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, B31 2AP (United Kingdom); Sian, Parmjit [Department of Spinal Surgical Oncology, Royal Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, B31 2AP (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the utility of Diffusion-weighted MRI in the differentiation of benign from malignant skeletal lesions of the pelvis. Materials and methods: In this retrospective study 33 patients with indeterminate skeletal lesions of the pelvis were evaluated with DWI. Minimum, mean, maximum ADC-values of the skeletal lesions were measured followed by qualitative assessment of DWI. All patients underwent histological confirmation using CT-guided biopsy or surgical resection. The histology of the skeletal lesions was correlated with the findings on DWI. Results: There were 13 malignant lesions and 20 benign lesions. The mean, minimum and maximum ADC values (×10–6mm2/s) for benign skeletal lesions was higher than the mean ADC-values for malignant lesions (1422.2 vs 1263.7; 780.4 vs 771.8; 1969.6 vs 1676.8 respectively). These differences were however not statistically significant (P-values = 0.29; 0.94; 0.149 respectively). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for qualitative assessment of Diffusion-weighted MRI in the differentiation of benign from malignant skeletal lesions were: 53.9%, 85%, 70%, 73.9% respectively. Qualitative assessment of DWI (restricted diffusion versus non-restricted diffusion) allowed differentiation of benign from malignant skeletal lesions (P-value = 0.0259). Conclusions: Qualitative assessment of DWI may aid in the differentiation of benign skeletal lesions from malignant skeletal lesions of the pelvis. Although DWI has a low sensitivity in the distinction of the two disease entities, it may be a useful adjunct due to its relatively high specificity. This is of particular importance in lymphoma where biopsy may only show chronic inflammatory cells and hence may be false negative.

  1. The role of diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) in the differentiation of benign from malignant skeletal lesions of the pelvis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douis, Hassan; Davies, Mark A.; Sian, Parmjit

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the utility of Diffusion-weighted MRI in the differentiation of benign from malignant skeletal lesions of the pelvis. Materials and methods: In this retrospective study 33 patients with indeterminate skeletal lesions of the pelvis were evaluated with DWI. Minimum, mean, maximum ADC-values of the skeletal lesions were measured followed by qualitative assessment of DWI. All patients underwent histological confirmation using CT-guided biopsy or surgical resection. The histology of the skeletal lesions was correlated with the findings on DWI. Results: There were 13 malignant lesions and 20 benign lesions. The mean, minimum and maximum ADC values (×10–6mm2/s) for benign skeletal lesions was higher than the mean ADC-values for malignant lesions (1422.2 vs 1263.7; 780.4 vs 771.8; 1969.6 vs 1676.8 respectively). These differences were however not statistically significant (P-values = 0.29; 0.94; 0.149 respectively). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for qualitative assessment of Diffusion-weighted MRI in the differentiation of benign from malignant skeletal lesions were: 53.9%, 85%, 70%, 73.9% respectively. Qualitative assessment of DWI (restricted diffusion versus non-restricted diffusion) allowed differentiation of benign from malignant skeletal lesions (P-value = 0.0259). Conclusions: Qualitative assessment of DWI may aid in the differentiation of benign skeletal lesions from malignant skeletal lesions of the pelvis. Although DWI has a low sensitivity in the distinction of the two disease entities, it may be a useful adjunct due to its relatively high specificity. This is of particular importance in lymphoma where biopsy may only show chronic inflammatory cells and hence may be false negative.

  2. Skeletal muscle myoblasts possess a stretch-responsive local angiotensin signalling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Adam P W; Baker, Jeff; De Lisio, Michael; Parise, Gianni

    2011-06-01

    A paucity of information exists regarding the presence of local renin-angiotensin systems (RASs) in skeletal muscle and associated muscle stem cells. Skeletal muscle and muscle stem cells were isolated from C57BL/6 mice and examined for the presence of a local RAS using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), immunohistochemistry (IHC), Western blotting and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Furthermore, the effect of mechanical stimulation on RAS member gene expression was analysed. Whole skeletal muscle, primary myoblasts and C2C12 derived myoblasts and myotubes differentially expressed members of the RAS including angiotensinogen, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1 (AT(1)) and type 2 (AT(2)). Renin transcripts were never detected, however, mRNA for the 'renin-like' enzyme cathepsin D was observed and Ang I and Ang II were identified in cell culture supernatants from proliferating myoblasts. AT(1) appeared to co-localise with polymerised actin filaments in proliferating myoblasts and was primarily found in the nucleus of terminally differentiated myotubes. Furthermore, mechanical stretch of proliferating and differentiating C2C12 cells differentially induced mRNA expression of angiotensinogen, AT(1) and AT(2). Proliferating and differentiated muscle stem cells possess a local stress-responsive RAS in vitro. The precise function of a local RAS in myoblasts remains unknown. However, evidence presented here suggests that Ang II may be a regulator of skeletal muscle myoblasts.

  3. Nuclear translocation of the cytoskeleton-associated protein, smALP, upon induction of skeletal muscle differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambier, Linda; Pomies, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The cytoskeleton-associated protein, smALP, is expressed in differentiated skeletal muscle. → smALP is translocated from the cytoplasm to the nucleus of C2C12 myoblasts upon induction of myogenesis. → The differentiation-dependent nuclear translocation of smALP occurs in parallel with the nuclear accumulation of myogenin. → The LIM domain of smALP is essential for the nuclear accumulation of the protein. → smALP might act in the nucleus to control some critical aspect of the muscle differentiation process. -- Abstract: The skALP isoform has been shown to play a critical role in actin organization and anchorage within the Z-discs of skeletal muscles, but no data is available on the function of the smALP isoform in skeletal muscle cells. Here, we show that upon induction of differentiation a nuclear translocation of smALP from the cytoplasm to the nucleus of C2C12 myoblasts, concomitant to an up-regulation of the protein expression, occurs in parallel with the nuclear accumulation of myogenin. Moreover, we demonstrate that the LIM domain of smALP is essential for the nuclear translocation of the protein.

  4. Pseudoachondroplasia in a child: The role of anthropometric measurements and skeletal imaging in differential diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radwa Gamal, MSc

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Pseudoachondroplasia is a rare osteochondrodysplasia characterized by disproportionate short stature and limb deformity. Diagnostic accuracy is based on a detailed evaluation of the radioclinical features. We report a boy with pseudoachondroplasia. We aim to underscore why is accurate delineation of the pattern of radioclinical skeletal abnormalities in pseudoachondroplasia a weighty part of diagnosis. Furthermore, we aim to highlight the main clinical and skeletal imaging features of skeletal dysplasias that overlap with pseudoachondroplasia using clinical cases evaluated in our institution. The findings affirm that anthropometric measurements and skeletal radiography are important contributors to the differential diagnosis and classification of disproportionate growth.

  5. Osteogenic cell differentiation on H-terminated and O-terminated nanocrystalline diamond films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liskova J

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Jana Liskova,1 Oleg Babchenko,2 Marian Varga,2 Alexander Kromka,2 Daniel Hadraba,1 Zdenek Svindrych,1 Zuzana Burdikova,1 Lucie Bacakova1 1Institute of Physiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech Republic; 2Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech Republic Abstract: Nanocrystalline diamond (NCD films are promising materials for bone implant coatings because of their biocompatibility, chemical resistance, and mechanical hardness. Moreover, NCD wettability can be tailored by grafting specific atoms. The NCD films used in this study were grown on silicon substrates by microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition and grafted by hydrogen atoms (H-termination or oxygen atoms (O-termination. Human osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells were used for biological studies on H-terminated and O-terminated NCD films. The adhesion, growth, and subsequent differentiation of the osteoblasts on NCD films were examined, and the extracellular matrix production and composition were quantified. The osteoblasts that had been cultivated on the O-terminated NCD films exhibited a higher growth rate than those grown on the H-terminated NCD films. The mature collagen fibers were detected in Saos-2 cells on both the H-terminated and O-terminated NCD films; however, the quantity of total collagen in the extracellular matrix was higher on the O-terminated NCD films, as were the amounts of calcium deposition and alkaline phosphatase activity. Nevertheless, the expression of genes for osteogenic markers – type I collagen, alkaline phosphatase, and osteocalcin – was either comparable on the H-terminated and O-terminated films or even lower on the O-terminated films. In conclusion, the higher wettability of the O-terminated NCD films is promising for adhesion and growth of osteoblasts. In addition, the O-terminated surface also seems to support the deposition of extracellular matrix proteins and extracellular matrix

  6. Simplified data access on human skeletal muscle transcriptome responses to differentiated exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, Kristian; Schjerling, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have investigated exercise-induced global gene expression responses in human skeletal muscle and these have typically focused at one specific mode of exercise and not implemented non-exercise control models. However, interpretation on effects of differentiated exercise necessitate dir...

  7. Differentiation and sarcomere formation in skeletal myocytes directly prepared from human induced pluripotent stem cells using a sphere-based culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiwlawat, Saowanee; Lynch, Eileen; Glaser, Jennifer; Smit-Oistad, Ivy; Jeffrey, Jeremy; Van Dyke, Jonathan M; Suzuki, Masatoshi

    Human induced-pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are a promising resource for propagation of myogenic progenitors. Our group recently reported a unique protocol for the derivation of myogenic progenitors directly (without genetic modification) from human pluripotent cells using free-floating spherical culture. Here we expand our previous efforts and attempt to determine how differentiation duration, culture surface coatings, and nutrient supplements in the medium influence progenitor differentiation and formation of skeletal myotubes containing sarcomeric structures. A long differentiation period (over 6 weeks) promoted the differentiation of iPSC-derived myogenic progenitors and subsequent myotube formation. These iPSC-derived myotubes contained representative sarcomeric structures, consisting of organized myosin and actin filaments, and could spontaneously contract. We also found that a bioengineering approach using three-dimensional (3D) artificial muscle constructs could facilitate the formation of elongated myotubes. Lastly, we determined how culture surface coating matrices and different supplements would influence terminal differentiation. While both Matrigel and laminin coatings showed comparable effects on muscle differentiation, B27 serum-free supplement in the differentiation medium significantly enhanced myogenesis compared to horse serum. Our findings support the possibility to create an in vitro model of contractile sarcomeric myofibrils for disease modeling and drug screening to study neuromuscular diseases. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. * Tissue-Specific Extracellular Matrix Enhances Skeletal Muscle Precursor Cell Expansion and Differentiation for Potential Application in Cell Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Deying; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Yi, Hualin; Wang, Zhan; Wu, Rongpei; He, Dawei; Wei, Guanghui; Wei, Shicheng; Hu, Yun; Deng, Junhong; Criswell, Tracy; Yoo, James; Zhou, Yu; Atala, Anthony

    2017-08-01

    Skeletal muscle precursor cells (MPCs) are considered a key candidate for cell therapy in the treatment of skeletal muscle dysfunction due to injury, disease, or age. However, expansion of a sufficient number of functional skeletal muscle cells in vitro from a small tissue biopsy has been challenging due to changes in phenotypic expression of these cells under traditional culture conditions. Thus, the aim of the study was to develop a better culture system for the expansion and myo-differentiation of MPCs that could further be used for therapy. For this purpose, we developed an ideal method of tissue decellularization and compared the ability of different matrices to support MPC growth and differentiation. Porcine-derived skeletal muscle and liver and kidney extracellular matrix (ECM) were generated by decellularization methods consisting of distilled water, 0.2 mg/mL DNase, or 5% fetal bovine serum. Acellular matrices were further homogenized, dissolved, and combined with a hyaluronic acid-based hydrogel decorated with heparin (ECM-HA-HP). The cell proliferation and myogenic differentiation capacity of human MPCs were assessed when grown on gel alone, ECM, or each ECM-HA-HP substrate. Human MPC proliferation was significantly enhanced when cultured on the ECM-HA-HP substrates compared to the other substrates tested, with the greatest proliferation on the muscle ECM-HA-HP (mECM-HA-HP) substrate. The number of differentiated myotubes was significantly increased on the mECM-HA-HP substrate compared to the other gel-ECM substrates, as well as the numbers of MPCs expressing specific myogenic cell markers (i.e., myosin, desmin, myoD, and myf5). In conclusion, skeletal mECM-HA-HP as a culture substrate provided an optimal culture microenvironment potentially due to its similarity to the in vivo environment. These data suggest a potential use of skeletal muscle-derived ECM gel for the expansion and differentiation of human MPCs for cell-based therapy for skeletal muscle

  9. Uniaxial cyclic strain enhances adipose-derived stem cell fusion with skeletal myocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Jens Isak; Juhl, Morten; Nielsen, Thøger; Emmersen, Jeppe; Fink, Trine; Zachar, Vladimir; Pennisi, Cristian Pablo, E-mail: cpennisi@hst.aau.dk

    2014-07-25

    Highlights: • Uniaxial cyclic tensile strain (CTS) applied to ASCs alone or in coculture with myogenic precursors. • CTS promoted the formation of a highly ordered array of parallel ASCs. • Without biochemical supplements, CTS did not support advanced myogenic differentiation of ASCs. • Mechanical stimulation of cocultures boosted fusion of ASCs with skeletal myoblasts. - Abstract: Although adult muscle tissue possesses an exceptional capacity for regeneration, in the case of large defects, the restoration to original state is not possible. A well-known source for the de novo regeneration is the adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), which can be readily isolated and have been shown to have a broad differentiation and regenerative potential. In this work, we employed uniaxial cyclic tensile strain (CTS), to mechanically stimulate human ASCs to participate in the formation skeletal myotubes in an in vitro model of myogenesis. The application of CTS for 48 h resulted in the formation of a highly ordered array of parallel ASCs, but failed to support skeletal muscle terminal differentiation. When the same stimulation paradigm was applied to cocultures with mouse skeletal muscle myoblasts, the percentage of ASCs contributing to the formation of myotubes significantly exceeded the levels reported in the literature hitherto. In perspective, the mechanical strain may be used to increase the efficiency of incorporation of ASCs in the skeletal muscles, which could be found useful in diverse traumatic or pathologic scenarios.

  10. Skeletal muscle Kv7 (KCNQ) channels in myoblast differentiation and proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roura-Ferrer, Meritxell; Sole, Laura; Martinez-Marmol, Ramon; Villalonga, Nuria; Felipe, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Voltage-dependent K + channels (Kv) are involved in myocyte proliferation and differentiation by triggering changes in membrane potential and regulating cell volume. Since Kv7 channels may participate in these events, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether skeletal muscle Kv7.1 and Kv7.5 were involved during proliferation and myogenesis. Here we report that, while myotube formation did not regulate Kv7 channels, Kv7.5 was up-regulated during cell cycle progression. Although, Kv7.1 mRNA also increased during the G 1 -phase, pharmacological evidence mainly involves Kv7.5 in myoblast growth. Our results indicate that the cell cycle-dependent expression of Kv7.5 is involved in skeletal muscle cell proliferation

  11. FDG-PET/CT assessment of differential chemotherapy effects upon skeletal muscle metabolism in patients with melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, M.D.; Alavi, A.; Torigian, D.A.

    2014-01-01

    To quantify the differential effects of chemotherapy on the metabolic activity of skeletal muscle in vivo using molecular imaging with [18F]-fluorodeoxy-glucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). In this retrospective study, 21 subjects with stage IV melanoma who underwent pre- and post-chemotherapy whole-body FDG-PET/CT imaging were included. The mean standardized uptake value (SUV mean ) of 8 different skeletal muscles was measured per subject. Pre- and post-treatment measurements were then averaged across all subjects for each muscle and compared for statistically significant differences between the muscles and following different chemotherapy regimens including dacarbazine (DTIC) and temozolomide (TMZ). Analysis of FDG-PET/CT images reliably detected changes in skeletal muscle metabolic activity based on muscle location. The percent change in metabolic activity of each skeletal muscle in each subject following chemotherapy was observed to be related to the type of chemotherapy received. Subjects receiving DTIC generally had a decrease in metabolic activity of all muscle groups, whereas subjects receiving TMZ generally had an increase in muscle activity of all muscle groups. FDG-PET/CT can reveal baseline metabolic differences between different muscles of the body. Different chemotherapies are associated with differential changes in the metabolic activity of skeletal muscle, which can be detected and quantified with FDG-PET/CT. (author)

  12. The death effector domains of caspase-8 induce terminal differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainhoa Mielgo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The differentiation and senescence programs of metazoans play key roles in regulating normal development and preventing aberrant cell proliferation, such as cancer. These programs are intimately associated with both the mitotic and apoptotic pathways. Caspase-8 is an apical apoptotic initiator that has recently been appreciated to coordinate non-apoptotic roles in the cell. Most of these functions are attributed to the catalytic domain, however, the amino-terminal death effector domains (DEDs, which belong to the death domain superfamily of proteins, can also play key roles during development. Here we describe a novel role for caspase-8 DEDs in regulating cell differentiation and senescence. Caspase-8 DEDs accumulate during terminal differentiation and senescence of epithelial, endothelial and myeloid cells; genetic deletion or shRNA suppression of caspase-8 disrupts cell differentiation, while re-expression of DEDs rescues this phenotype. Among caspase-8 deficient neuroblastoma cells, DED expression attenuated tumor growth in vivo and proliferation in vitro via disruption of mitosis and cytokinesis, resulting in upregulation of p53 and induction of differentiation markers. These events occur independent of caspase-8 catalytic activity, but require a critical lysine (K156 in a microtubule-binding motif in the second DED domain. The results demonstrate a new function for the DEDs of caspase-8, and describe an unexpected mechanism that contributes to cell differentiation and senescence.

  13. Skeletal muscle tissue engineering: methods to form skeletal myotubes and their applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrovidov, Serge; Hosseini, Vahid; Ahadian, Samad; Fujie, Toshinori; Parthiban, Selvakumar Prakash; Ramalingam, Murugan; Bae, Hojae; Kaji, Hirokazu; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2014-10-01

    Skeletal muscle tissue engineering (SMTE) aims to repair or regenerate defective skeletal muscle tissue lost by traumatic injury, tumor ablation, or muscular disease. However, two decades after the introduction of SMTE, the engineering of functional skeletal muscle in the laboratory still remains a great challenge, and numerous techniques for growing functional muscle tissues are constantly being developed. This article reviews the recent findings regarding the methodology and various technical aspects of SMTE, including cell alignment and differentiation. We describe the structure and organization of muscle and discuss the methods for myoblast alignment cultured in vitro. To better understand muscle formation and to enhance the engineering of skeletal muscle, we also address the molecular basics of myogenesis and discuss different methods to induce myoblast differentiation into myotubes. We then provide an overview of different coculture systems involving skeletal muscle cells, and highlight major applications of engineered skeletal muscle tissues. Finally, potential challenges and future research directions for SMTE are outlined.

  14. MASTR directs MyoD-dependent satellite cell differentiation during skeletal muscle regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokalled, Mayssa H.; Johnson, Aaron N.; Creemers, Esther E.; Olson, Eric N.

    2012-01-01

    In response to skeletal muscle injury, satellite cells, which function as a myogenic stem cell population, become activated, expand through proliferation, and ultimately fuse with each other and with damaged myofibers to promote muscle regeneration. Here, we show that members of the Myocardin family of transcriptional coactivators, MASTR and MRTF-A, are up-regulated in satellite cells in response to skeletal muscle injury and muscular dystrophy. Global and satellite cell-specific deletion of MASTR in mice impairs skeletal muscle regeneration. This impairment is substantially greater when MRTF-A is also deleted and is due to aberrant differentiation and excessive proliferation of satellite cells. These abnormalities mimic those associated with genetic deletion of MyoD, a master regulator of myogenesis, which is down-regulated in the absence of MASTR and MRTF-A. Consistent with an essential role of MASTR in transcriptional regulation of MyoD expression, MASTR activates a muscle-specific postnatal MyoD enhancer through associations with MEF2 and members of the Myocardin family. Our results provide new insights into the genetic circuitry of muscle regeneration and identify MASTR as a central regulator of this process. PMID:22279050

  15. [Skeletal manifestations of primary and secondary hyperparathyroiditis. Differential radiological diagnostic problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melella, A; Basilico, L; Lupini, A; Renda, F

    1978-10-31

    Primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism are both marked by widespread skeletal demineralisation, subperiosteal erosion of the cortex, brown tumours, osteosclerosis, and extraosseous calcification. Differential diagnosis is guided by the different association of these findings. Brown tumours and more extensive erosion are marks of the primary form, whereas osteosclerosis and extra-osseous calcification are a prominent feature of secondary hyperparathyroidism. Radiologists, therefore, should direct their attention to features suggesting the presence of secondary forms in addition to looking for bone alterations associated with hyperparathyroidism.

  16. microRNA-320/RUNX2 axis regulates adipocytic differentiation of human mesenchymal (skeletal) stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamam, D; Ali, D; Vishnubalaji, R

    2014-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms promoting lineage-specific commitment of human mesenchymal (skeletal or stromal) stem cells (hMSCs) into adipocytes (ADs) are not fully understood. Thus, we performed global microRNA (miRNA) and gene expression profiling during adipocytic differentiation of h...... differentiation and accelerated formation of mature ADs in ex vivo cultures. Integrated analysis of bioinformatics and global gene expression profiling in miR-320c overexpressing cells and during adipocytic differentiation of hMSC identified several biologically relevant gene targets for miR-320c including RUNX2...

  17. Quantitative skeletal scintiscanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haushofer, R.

    1982-01-01

    330 patients were examined by skeletal scintiscanning with sup(99m)Tc pyrophosphate and sup(99m)methylene diphosphonate in the years between 1977 and 1979. Course control examinations were carried out in 12 patients. The collective of patients presented with primary skeletal tumours, metastases, inflammatory and degenerative skeletal diseases. Bone scintiscanning combined with the ''region of interest'' technique was found to be an objective and reproducible technique for quantitative measurement of skeletal radioactivity concentrations. The validity of nuclear skeletal examinations can thus be enhanced as far as diagnosis, course control, and differential diagnosis are concerned. Quantitative skeletal scintiscanning by means of the ''region of interest'' technique has opened up a new era in skeletal diagnosis by nuclear methods. (orig./MG) [de

  18. Adult Murine Skeletal Muscle Contains Cells That Can Differentiate into Beating Cardiomyocytes In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winitsky Steve O

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available It has long been held as scientific fact that soon after birth, cardiomyocytes cease dividing, thus explaining the limited restoration of cardiac function after a heart attack. Recent demonstrations of cardiac myocyte differentiation observed in vitro or after in vivo transplantation of adult stem cells from blood, fat, skeletal muscle, or heart have challenged this view. Analysis of these studies has been complicated by the large disparity in the magnitude of effects seen by different groups and obscured by the recently appreciated process of in vivo stem-cell fusion. We now show a novel population of nonsatellite cells in adult murine skeletal muscle that progress under standard primary cell-culture conditions to autonomously beating cardiomyocytes. Their differentiation into beating cardiomyocytes is characterized here by video microscopy, confocal-detected calcium transients, electron microscopy, immunofluorescent cardiac-specific markers, and single-cell patch recordings of cardiac action potentials. Within 2 d after tail-vein injection of these marked cells into a mouse model of acute infarction, the marked cells are visible in the heart. By 6 d they begin to differentiate without fusing to recipient cardiac cells. Three months later, the tagged cells are visible as striated heart muscle restricted to the region of the cardiac infarct.

  19. Adult murine skeletal muscle contains cells that can differentiate into beating cardiomyocytes in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve O Winitsky

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available It has long been held as scientific fact that soon after birth, cardiomyocytes cease dividing, thus explaining the limited restoration of cardiac function after a heart attack. Recent demonstrations of cardiac myocyte differentiation observed in vitro or after in vivo transplantation of adult stem cells from blood, fat, skeletal muscle, or heart have challenged this view. Analysis of these studies has been complicated by the large disparity in the magnitude of effects seen by different groups and obscured by the recently appreciated process of in vivo stem-cell fusion. We now show a novel population of nonsatellite cells in adult murine skeletal muscle that progress under standard primary cell-culture conditions to autonomously beating cardiomyocytes. Their differentiation into beating cardiomyocytes is characterized here by video microscopy, confocal-detected calcium transients, electron microscopy, immunofluorescent cardiac-specific markers, and single-cell patch recordings of cardiac action potentials. Within 2 d after tail-vein injection of these marked cells into a mouse model of acute infarction, the marked cells are visible in the heart. By 6 d they begin to differentiate without fusing to recipient cardiac cells. Three months later, the tagged cells are visible as striated heart muscle restricted to the region of the cardiac infarct.

  20. Regulation of human skeletal stem cells differentiation by Dlk1/Pref-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Basem M; Jensen, Charlotte H; Gutierrez, Gloria

    2004-01-01

    Dlk-1/Pref-1 was identified as a novel regulator of human skeletal stem cell differentiation. Dlk1/Pref-1 is expressed in bone and cultured osteoblasts, and its constitutive overexpression led to inhibition of osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation of human marrow stromal cells. INTRODUCTION......: Molecular control of human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) differentiation into osteoblasts and adipocytes is not known. In this study, we examined the role of delta-like 1/preadipocyte factor-1 (Dlk1/Pref-1) in regulating the differentiation of hMSCs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: As a model for hMSCs, we have...... was used to confirm the in vitro effect of Dlk/Pref-1 on bone formation. RESULTS: Dlk1/Pref-1 was found to be expressed in fetal and adult bone, hMSCs, and some osteoblastic cell lines. A retroviral vector containing the human Dlk1/Pref-1 cDNA was used to create a cell line (hMSC-dlk1) expressing high...

  1. Insights into skeletal muscle development and applications in regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, T; Andersen, R; Sherman, S P; Pyle, A D

    2013-01-01

    Embryonic and postnatal development of skeletal muscle entails highly regulated processes whose complexity continues to be deconstructed. One key stage of development is the satellite cell, whose niche is composed of multiple cell types that eventually contribute to terminally differentiated myotubes. Understanding these developmental processes will ultimately facilitate treatments of myopathies such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a disease characterized by compromised cell membrane structure, resulting in severe muscle wasting. One theoretical approach is to use pluripotent stem cells in a therapeutic setting to help replace degenerated muscle tissue. This chapter discusses key myogenic developmental stages and their regulatory pathways; artificial myogenic induction in pluripotent stem cells; advantages and disadvantages of DMD animal models; and therapeutic approaches targeting DMD. Furthermore, skeletal muscle serves as an excellent paradigm for understanding general cell fate decisions throughout development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Skeletal (stromal) stem cells: an update on intracellular signaling pathways controlling osteoblast differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Basem M; Jafari, Abbas; Zaher, Walid; Qiu, Weimin; Kassem, Moustapha

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal (marrow stromal) stem cells (BMSCs) are a group of multipotent cells that reside in the bone marrow stroma and can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes and adipocytes. Studying signaling pathways that regulate BMSC differentiation into osteoblastic cells is a strategy for identifying druggable targets for enhancing bone formation. This review will discuss the functions and the molecular mechanisms of action on osteoblast differentiation and bone formation; of a number of recently identified regulatory molecules: the non-canonical Notch signaling molecule Delta-like 1/preadipocyte factor 1 (Dlk1/Pref-1), the Wnt co-receptor Lrp5 and intracellular kinases. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Stem Cells and Bone. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Epigenetic Control of Skeletal Development by the Histone Methyltransferase Ezh2*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudakovic, Amel; Camilleri, Emily T.; Xu, Fuhua; Riester, Scott M.; McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E.; Bradley, Elizabeth W.; Paradise, Christopher R.; Lewallen, Eric A.; Thaler, Roman; Deyle, David R.; Larson, A. Noelle; Lewallen, David G.; Dietz, Allan B.; Stein, Gary S.; Montecino, Martin A.; Westendorf, Jennifer J.; van Wijnen, Andre J.

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic control of gene expression is critical for normal fetal development. However, chromatin-related mechanisms that activate bone-specific programs during osteogenesis have remained underexplored. Therefore, we investigated the expression profiles of a large cohort of epigenetic regulators (>300) during osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal cells derived from the stromal vascular fraction of adipose tissue (AMSCs). Molecular analyses establish that the polycomb group protein EZH2 (enhancer of zeste homolog 2) is down-regulated during osteoblastic differentiation of AMSCs. Chemical inhibitor and siRNA knockdown studies show that EZH2, a histone methyltransferase that catalyzes trimethylation of histone 3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3), suppresses osteogenic differentiation. Blocking EZH2 activity promotes osteoblast differentiation and suppresses adipogenic differentiation of AMSCs. High throughput RNA sequence (mRNASeq) analysis reveals that EZH2 inhibition stimulates cell cycle inhibitory proteins and enhances the production of extracellular matrix proteins. Conditional genetic loss of Ezh2 in uncommitted mesenchymal cells (Prrx1-Cre) results in multiple defects in skeletal patterning and bone formation, including shortened forelimbs, craniosynostosis, and clinodactyly. Histological analysis and mRNASeq profiling suggest that these effects are attributable to growth plate abnormalities and premature cranial suture closure because of precocious maturation of osteoblasts. We conclude that the epigenetic activity of EZH2 is required for skeletal patterning and development, but EZH2 expression declines during terminal osteoblast differentiation and matrix production. PMID:26424790

  4. PKR is a novel functional direct player that coordinates skeletal muscle differentiation via p38MAPK/AKT pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alisi, A; Spaziani, A; Anticoli, S; Ghidinelli, M; Balsano, C

    2008-03-01

    Myogenic differentiation is a highly orchestrated multistep process controlled by extracellular growth factors that modulate largely unknown signals into the cell affecting the muscle-transcription program. P38MAPK-dependent signalling, as well as PI3K/Akt pathway, has a key role in the control of muscle gene expression at different stages during the myogenic process. P38MAPK affects the activities of transcription factors, such as MyoD and myogenin, and contributes, together with PI3K/Akt pathway, to control the early and late steps of myogenic differentiation. The aim of our work was to better define the role of PKR, a dsRNA-activated protein kinase, as potential component in the differentiation program of C2C12 murine myogenic cells and to correlate its activity with p38MAPK and PI3K/Akt myogenic regulatory pathways. Here, we demonstrate that PKR is an essential component of the muscle development machinery and forms a functional complex with p38MAPK and/or Akt, contributing to muscle differentiation of committed myogenic cells in vitro. Inhibition of endogenous PKR activity by a specific (si)RNA and a PKR dominant-negative interferes with the myogenic program of C2C12 cells, causing a delay in activation of myogenic specific genes and inducing the formation of thinner myofibers. In addition, the construction of three PKR mutants allowed us to demonstrate that both N and C-terminal regions of PKR are critical for the interaction with p38MAPK and Akt. The novel discovered complex permits PKR to timely regulate the inhibition/activation of p38MAPK and Akt, controlling in this way the different steps characterizing skeletal muscle differentiation.

  5. Epigenetic heterochromatin markers distinguish terminally differentiated leukocytes from incompletely differentiated leukemia cells in human blood

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Popova, Evgenya Y.; Claxton, David F.; Lukášová, Emilie; Bird, Philip I.; Grigoryev, Sergei A.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 4 (2006), s. 453-462 ISSN 0301-472X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS500040508 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507 Keywords : terminal cell differentiation * chromatin structure * chronic myeloid leukemia Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.408, year: 2006

  6. Transcriptional profiling identifies differentially expressed genes in developing turkey skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velleman Sandra G

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Skeletal muscle growth and development from embryo to adult consists of a series of carefully regulated changes in gene expression. Understanding these developmental changes in agriculturally important species is essential to the production of high quality meat products. For example, consumer demand for lean, inexpensive meat products has driven the turkey industry to unprecedented production through intensive genetic selection. However, achievements of increased body weight and muscle mass have been countered by an increased incidence of myopathies and meat quality defects. In a previous study, we developed and validated a turkey skeletal muscle-specific microarray as a tool for functional genomics studies. The goals of the current study were to utilize this microarray to elucidate functional pathways of genes responsible for key events in turkey skeletal muscle development and to compare differences in gene expression between two genetic lines of turkeys. To achieve these goals, skeletal muscle samples were collected at three critical stages in muscle development: 18d embryo (hyperplasia, 1d post-hatch (shift from myoblast-mediated growth to satellite cell-modulated growth by hypertrophy, and 16wk (market age from two genetic lines: a randombred control line (RBC2 maintained without selection pressure, and a line (F selected from the RBC2 line for increased 16wk body weight. Array hybridizations were performed in two experiments: Experiment 1 directly compared the developmental stages within genetic line, while Experiment 2 directly compared the two lines within each developmental stage. Results A total of 3474 genes were differentially expressed (false discovery rate; FDR Conclusions The current study identified gene pathways and uncovered novel genes important in turkey muscle growth and development. Future experiments will focus further on several of these candidate genes and the expression and mechanism of action of

  7. Reduced Dnmt3a increases Gdf5 expression with suppressed satellite cell differentiation and impaired skeletal muscle regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatazawa, Yukino; Ono, Yusuke; Hirose, Yuma; Kanai, Sayaka; Fujii, Nobuharu L; Machida, Shuichi; Nishino, Ichizo; Shimizu, Takahiko; Okano, Masaki; Kamei, Yasutomi; Ogawa, Yoshihiro

    2018-03-01

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism regulating gene expression. In this study, we observed that DNA methyltransferase 3a (Dnmt3a) expression is decreased after muscle atrophy. We made skeletal muscle-specific Dnmt3a-knockout (Dnmt3a-KO) mice. The regeneration capacity after muscle injury was markedly decreased in Dnmt3a-KO mice. Diminished mRNA and protein expression of Dnmt3a were observed in skeletal muscles as well as in satellite cells, which are important for muscle regeneration, in Dnmt3a-KO mice. Dnmt3a-KO satellite cell showed smaller in size (length/area), suggesting suppressed myotube differentiation. Microarray analysis of satellite cells showed that expression of growth differentiation factor 5 (Gdf5) mRNA was markedly increased in Dnmt3a-KO mice. The DNA methylation level of the Gdf5 promoter was markedly decreased in Dnmt3a-KO satellite cells. In addition, DNA methylation inhibitor azacytidine treatment increased Gdf5 expression in wild-type satellite cells, suggesting Gdf5 expression is regulated by DNA methylation. Also, we observed increased inhibitor of differentiation (a target of Gdf5) mRNA expression in Dnmt3a-KO satellite cells. Thus, Dnmt3a appears to regulate satellite cell differentiation via DNA methylation. This mechanism may play a role in the decreased regeneration capacity during atrophy such as in aged sarcopenia.-Hatazawa, Y., Ono, Y., Hirose, Y., Kanai, S., Fujii, N. L., Machida, S., Nishino, I., Shimizu, T., Okano, M., Kamei, Y., Ogawa, Y. Reduced Dnmt3a increases Gdf5 expression with suppressed satellite cell differentiation and impaired skeletal muscle regeneration.

  8. Skeletal muscle-derived progenitors capable of differentiating into cardiomyocytes proliferate through myostatin-independent TGF-β family signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Tetsuya; Ueyama, Tomomi; Ashihara, Eishi; Tateishi, Kento; Asada, Satoshi; Nakajima, Norio; Isodono, Koji; Takahashi, Tomosaburo; Matsubara, Hiroaki; Oh, Hidemasa

    2008-01-01

    The existence of skeletal muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs) has been suggested in mammals; however, the signaling pathways controlling MDSC proliferation remain largely unknown. Here we report the isolation of myosphere-derived progenitor cells (MDPCs) that can give rise to beating cardiomyocytes from adult skeletal muscle. We identified that follistatin, an antagonist of TGF-β family members, was predominantly expressed in MDPCs, whereas myostatin was mainly expressed in myogenic cells and mature skeletal muscle. Although follistatin enhanced the replicative growth of MDPCs through Smad2/3 inactivation and cell cycle progression, disruption of myostatin did not increase the MDPC proliferation. By contrast, inhibition of activin A (ActA) or growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) signaling dramatically increased MDPC proliferation via down-regulation of p21 and increases in the levels of cdk2/4 and cyclin D1. Thus, follistatin may be an effective progenitor-enhancing agent neutralizing ActA and GDF11 signaling to regulate the growth of MDPCs in skeletal muscle

  9. Chemical Differentiation of Osseous, Dental, and Non-skeletal Materials in Forensic Anthropology using Elemental Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Heather A; Meizel-Lambert, Cayli J; Schultz, John J; Sigman, Michael E

    2015-03-01

    Forensic anthropologists are generally able to identify skeletal materials (bone and tooth) using gross anatomical features; however, highly fragmented or taphonomically altered materials may be problematic to identify. Several chemical analysis techniques have been shown to be reliable laboratory methods that can be used to determine if questionable fragments are osseous, dental, or non-skeletal in nature. The purpose of this review is to provide a detailed background of chemical analysis techniques focusing on elemental compositions that have been assessed for use in differentiating osseous, dental, and non-skeletal materials. More recently, chemical analysis studies have also focused on using the elemental composition of osseous/dental materials to evaluate species and provide individual discrimination, but have generally been successful only in small, closed groups, limiting their use forensically. Despite significant advances incorporating a variety of instruments, including handheld devices, further research is necessary to address issues in standardization, error rates, and sample size/diversity. Copyright © 2014 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Community effect triggers terminal differentiation of myogenic cells derived from muscle satellite cells by quenching Smad signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagisawa, Michiko [Department of Regenerative Medicine, National Institute for Longevity Sciences, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, 35 Gengo, Morioka, Oobu, Aichi 474-8522 (Japan); Aging Research, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 466-8550 (Japan); Mukai, Atsushi; Shiomi, Kosuke [Department of Regenerative Medicine, National Institute for Longevity Sciences, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, 35 Gengo, Morioka, Oobu, Aichi 474-8522 (Japan); Song, Si-Yong [Institute of Neuroscience, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences at Kagawa, Tokushima Bunri University, 1314-1 Shido, Sanuki-shi, Kagawa 769-2193 (Japan); Hashimoto, Naohiro, E-mail: nao@ncgg.go.jp [Department of Regenerative Medicine, National Institute for Longevity Sciences, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, 35 Gengo, Morioka, Oobu, Aichi 474-8522 (Japan)

    2011-01-15

    A high concentration of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) stimulates myogenic progenitor cells to undergo heterotopic osteogenic differentiation. However, the physiological role of the Smad signaling pathway during terminal muscle differentiation has not been resolved. We report here that Smad1/5/8 was phosphorylated and activated in undifferentiated growing mouse myogenic progenitor Ric10 cells without exposure to any exogenous BMPs. The amount of phosphorylated Smad1/5/8 was severely reduced during precocious myogenic differentiation under the high cell density culture condition even in growth medium supplemented with a high concentration of serum. Inhibition of the Smad signaling pathway by dorsomorphin, an inhibitor of Smad activation, or noggin, a specific antagonist of BMP, induced precocious terminal differentiation of myogenic progenitor cells in a cell density-dependent fashion even in growth medium. In addition, Smad1/5/8 was transiently activated in proliferating myogenic progenitor cells during muscle regeneration in rats. The present results indicate that the Smad signaling pathway is involved in a critical switch between growth and differentiation of myogenic progenitor cells both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, precocious cell density-dependent myogenic differentiation suggests that a community effect triggers the terminal muscle differentiation of myogenic cells by quenching the Smad signaling.

  11. Community effect triggers terminal differentiation of myogenic cells derived from muscle satellite cells by quenching Smad signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Michiko; Mukai, Atsushi; Shiomi, Kosuke; Song, Si-Yong; Hashimoto, Naohiro

    2011-01-01

    A high concentration of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) stimulates myogenic progenitor cells to undergo heterotopic osteogenic differentiation. However, the physiological role of the Smad signaling pathway during terminal muscle differentiation has not been resolved. We report here that Smad1/5/8 was phosphorylated and activated in undifferentiated growing mouse myogenic progenitor Ric10 cells without exposure to any exogenous BMPs. The amount of phosphorylated Smad1/5/8 was severely reduced during precocious myogenic differentiation under the high cell density culture condition even in growth medium supplemented with a high concentration of serum. Inhibition of the Smad signaling pathway by dorsomorphin, an inhibitor of Smad activation, or noggin, a specific antagonist of BMP, induced precocious terminal differentiation of myogenic progenitor cells in a cell density-dependent fashion even in growth medium. In addition, Smad1/5/8 was transiently activated in proliferating myogenic progenitor cells during muscle regeneration in rats. The present results indicate that the Smad signaling pathway is involved in a critical switch between growth and differentiation of myogenic progenitor cells both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, precocious cell density-dependent myogenic differentiation suggests that a community effect triggers the terminal muscle differentiation of myogenic cells by quenching the Smad signaling.

  12. Differential BPFs with Multiple Transmission Zeros Based on Terminated Coupled Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yiming; Yang, Guo; Wu, Wen

    2018-04-01

    Differential bandpass filters (BPFs) named Filter A and Filter B based on Terminated Coupled Lines (TCLs) are proposed in this letter. The TCLs contributes to not only three poles in differential-mode (DM) for wideband filtering response but also multiple zeros in both DM and common-mode (CM) offering wide DM out-of-band rejection and good CM suppression. Fabricated filters centred at 3.5 GHz with wide DM passband and wideband CM suppression have been designed and measured. The filters improved the noise suppression capability of the communication and radiometer systems. The simulated and measured results are in good agreement.

  13. Skeletal Muscle Cell Induction from Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusaku Kodaka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic stem cells (ESCs and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs have the potential to differentiate into various types of cells including skeletal muscle cells. The approach of converting ESCs/iPSCs into skeletal muscle cells offers hope for patients afflicted with the skeletal muscle diseases such as the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD. Patient-derived iPSCs are an especially ideal cell source to obtain an unlimited number of myogenic cells that escape immune rejection after engraftment. Currently, there are several approaches to induce differentiation of ESCs and iPSCs to skeletal muscle. A key to the generation of skeletal muscle cells from ESCs/iPSCs is the mimicking of embryonic mesodermal induction followed by myogenic induction. Thus, current approaches of skeletal muscle cell induction of ESCs/iPSCs utilize techniques including overexpression of myogenic transcription factors such as MyoD or Pax3, using small molecules to induce mesodermal cells followed by myogenic progenitor cells, and utilizing epigenetic myogenic memory existing in muscle cell-derived iPSCs. This review summarizes the current methods used in myogenic differentiation and highlights areas of recent improvement.

  14. PU.1 silencing leads to terminal differentiation of erythroleukemia cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atar, Orna; Levi, Ben-Zion

    2005-01-01

    The transcription factor PU.1 plays a central role in development and differentiation of hematopoietic cells. Evidence from PU.1 knockout mice indicates a pivotal role for PU.1 in myeloid lineage and B-lymphocyte development. In addition, PU.1 is a key player in the development of Friend erythroleukemia disease, which is characterized by proliferation and differentiation arrest of proerythrocytes. To study the role of PU.1 in erythroleukemia, we have used murine erythroleukemia cells, isolated from Friend virus-infected mice. Expression of PU.1 small interfering RNA in these cells led to significant inhibition of PU.1 levels. This was accompanied by inhibition of proliferation and restoration in the ability of the proerythroblastic cells to produce hemoglobin, i.e., reversion of the leukemic phenotype. The data suggest that overexpression of PU.1 gene is the immediate cause for maintaining the leukemic phenotype of the disease by retaining the self-renewal capacity of transformed erythroblastic cells and by blocking the terminal differentiation program towards erythrocytes

  15. Collagen and Stretch Modulate Autocrine Secretion of Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 and Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Proteins from Differentiated Skeletal Muscle Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Carmen E.; Fenwick-Smith, Daniela; Vandenburgh, Herman H.

    1995-01-01

    Stretch-induced skeletal muscle growth may involve increased autocrine secretion of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) since IGF-1 is a potent growth factor for skeletal muscle hypertrophy, and stretch elevates IGF-1 mRNA levels in vivo. In tissue cultures of differentiated avian pectoralis skeletal muscle cells, nanomolar concentrations of exogenous IGF-1 stimulated growth in mechanically stretched but not static cultures. These cultures released up to 100 pg of endogenously produced IGF-1/micro-g of protein/day, as well as three major IGF binding proteins of 31, 36, and 43 kilodaltons (kDa). IGF-1 was secreted from both myofibers and fibroblasts coexisting in the muscle cultures. Repetitive stretch/relaxation of the differentiated skeletal muscle cells stimulated the acute release of IGF-1 during the first 4 h after initiating mechanical activity, but caused no increase in the long-term secretion over 24-72 h of IGF-1, or its binding proteins. Varying the intensity and frequency of stretch had no effect on the long-term efflux of IGF-1. In contrast to stretch, embedding the differentiated muscle cells in a three-dimensional collagen (Type I) matrix resulted in a 2-5-fold increase in long-term IGF-1 efflux over 24-72 h. Collagen also caused a 2-5-fold increase in the release of the IGF binding proteins. Thus, both the extracellular matrix protein type I collagen and stretch stimulate the autocrine secretion of IGF-1, but with different time kinetics. This endogenously produced growth factor may be important for the growth response of skeletal myofibers to both types of external stimuli.

  16. Skeletal muscle tissue transcriptome differences in lean and obese female beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, R W; Vester Boler, B M; Ridge, T K; Graves, T K; Swanson, K S

    2013-08-01

    Skeletal muscle is a large and insulin-sensitive tissue that is an important contributor to metabolic homeostasis and energy expenditure. Many metabolic processes are altered with obesity, but the contribution of muscle tissue in this regard is unclear. A limited number of studies have compared skeletal muscle gene expression of lean and obese dogs. Using microarray technology, our objective was to identify genes and functional classes differentially expressed in skeletal muscle of obese (14.6 kg; 8.2 body condition score; 44.5% body fat) vs. lean (8.6 kg; 4.1 body condition score; 22.9% body fat) female beagle adult dogs. Alterations in 77 transcripts was observed in genes pertaining to the functional classes of signaling, transport, protein catabolism and proteolysis, protein modification, development, transcription and apoptosis, cell cycle and differentiation. Genes differentially expressed in obese vs. lean dog skeletal muscle indicate oxidative stress and altered skeletal muscle cell differentiation. Many genes traditionally associated with lipid, protein and carbohydrate metabolism were not altered in obese vs. lean dogs, but genes pertaining to endocannabinoid metabolism, insulin signaling, type II diabetes mellitus and carnitine transport were differentially expressed. The relatively small response of skeletal muscle could indicate that changes are occurring at a post-transcriptional level, that other tissues (e.g., adipose tissue) were buffering skeletal muscle from metabolic dysfunction or that obesity-induced changes in skeletal muscle require a longer period of time and that the length of our study was not sufficient to detect them. Although only a limited number of differentially expressed genes were detected, these results highlight genes and functional classes that may be important in determining the etiology of obesity-induced derangement of skeletal muscle function. © 2013 The Authors, Animal Genetics © 2013 Stichting International Foundation

  17. Different requirements of functional telomeres in neural stem cells and terminally differentiated neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobanova, Anastasia; She, Robert; Pieraut, Simon; Clapp, Charlie; Maximov, Anton; Denchi, Eros Lazzerini

    2017-04-01

    Telomeres have been studied extensively in peripheral tissues, but their relevance in the nervous system remains poorly understood. Here, we examine the roles of telomeres at distinct stages of murine brain development by using lineage-specific genetic ablation of TRF2, an essential component of the shelterin complex that protects chromosome ends from the DNA damage response machinery. We found that functional telomeres are required for embryonic and adult neurogenesis, but their uncapping has surprisingly no detectable consequences on terminally differentiated neurons. Conditional knockout of TRF2 in post-mitotic immature neurons had virtually no detectable effect on circuit assembly, neuronal gene expression, and the behavior of adult animals despite triggering massive end-to-end chromosome fusions across the brain. These results suggest that telomeres are dispensable in terminally differentiated neurons and provide mechanistic insight into cognitive abnormalities associated with aberrant telomere length in humans. © 2017 Lobanova et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  18. Development of a porcine skeletal muscle cDNA microarray: analysis of differential transcript expression in phenotypically distinct muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stear Michael

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray profiling has the potential to illuminate the molecular processes that govern the phenotypic characteristics of porcine skeletal muscles, such as hypertrophy or atrophy, and the expression of specific fibre types. This information is not only important for understanding basic muscle biology but also provides underpinning knowledge for enhancing the efficiency of livestock production. Results We report on the de novo development of a composite skeletal muscle cDNA microarray, comprising 5500 clones from two developmentally distinct cDNA libraries (longissimus dorsi of a 50-day porcine foetus and the gastrocnemius of a 3-day-old pig. Clones selected for the microarray assembly were of low to moderate abundance, as indicated by colony hybridisation. We profiled the differential expression of genes between the psoas (red muscle and the longissimus dorsi (white muscle, by co-hybridisation of Cy3 and Cy5 labelled cDNA derived from these two muscles. Results from seven microarray slides (replicates correctly identified genes that were expected to be differentially expressed, as well as a number of novel candidate regulatory genes. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR on selected genes was used to confirm the results from the microarray. Conclusion We have developed a porcine skeletal muscle cDNA microarray and have identified a number of candidate genes that could be involved in muscle phenotype determination, including several members of the casein kinase 2 signalling pathway.

  19. Biomimetic elastomeric, conductive and biodegradable polycitrate-based nanocomposites for guiding myogenic differentiation and skeletal muscle regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yuzhang; Ge, Juan; Li, Yannan; Ma, Peter X; Lei, Bo

    2018-03-01

    Artificial muscle-like biomaterials have gained tremendous interests owing to their broad applications in regenerative medicine, wearable devices, bioelectronics and artificial intelligence. Unfortunately, key challenges are still existed for current materials, including biomimetic viscoelasticity, biocompatibility and biodegradation, multifunctionality. Herein, for the first time, we develop highly elastomeric, conductive and biodegradable poly (citric acid-octanediol-polyethylene glycol)(PCE)-graphene (PCEG) nanocomposites, and demonstrate their applications in myogenic differentiation and guiding skeletal muscle tissue regeneration. In PCEG nanocomposites, PCE provides the biomimetic elastomeric behavior, and the addition of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) endows the enhanced mechanical strength and conductivity. The highly elastomeric behavior, significantly enhanced modulus (400%-800%), strength (200%-300%) of PCEG nanocomposites with controlled biodegradability and electrochemical conductivity were achieved. The myoblasts proliferation and myogenic differentiation were significantly improved by PCEG nanocomposite. Significantly high in vivo biocompatibility of PCEG nanocomposites was observed when implanted in the subcutaneous tissue for 4 weeks in rats. PCEG nanocomposites could significantly enhance the muscle fibers and blood vessels formation in vivo in a skeletal muscle lesion model of rat. This study may provide a novel strategy to develop multifunctional elastomeric nanocomposites with high biocompatibility for potential soft tissue regeneration and stretchable bioelectronic devices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Peripheral endocannabinoids regulate skeletal muscle development and maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongjiao Zhao

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available As a principal tissue responsible for insulin-mediated glucose uptake, skeletal muscle is important for whole-body health. The role of peripheral endocannabinoids as regulators of skeletal muscle metabolism has recently gained a lot of interest, as endocannabinoid system disorders could cause peripheral insulin resistance. We investigated the role of the peripheral endocannabinoid system in skeletal muscle development and maintenance. Cultures of C2C12 cells, primary satellite cells and mouse skeletal muscle single fibers were used as model systems for our studies. We found an increase in cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1 mRNA and endocannabinoid synthetic enzyme mRNA skeletal muscle cells during differentiation. We also found that activation of CB1 inhibited myoblast differentiation, expanded the number of satellite cells, and stimulated the fast-muscle oxidative phenotype. Our findings contribute to understanding of the role of the endocannabinoid system in skeletal muscle metabolism and muscle oxygen consumption, and also help to explain the effects of the peripheral endocannabinoid system on whole-body energy balance.

  1. NEU3 sialidase strictly modulates GM3 levels in skeletal myoblasts C2C12 thus favoring their differentiation and protecting them from apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasia, Luigi; Papini, Nadia; Colazzo, Francesca; Palazzolo, Giacomo; Tringali, Cristina; Dileo, Loredana; Piccoli, Marco; Conforti, Erika; Sitzia, Clementina; Monti, Eugenio; Sampaolesi, Maurilio; Tettamanti, Guido; Venerando, Bruno

    2008-12-26

    Membrane-bound sialidase NEU3, often referred to as the "ganglioside sialidase," has a critical regulatory function on the sialoglycosphingolipid pattern of the cell membrane, with an anti-apoptotic function, especially in cancer cells. Although other sialidases have been shown to be involved in skeletal muscle differentiation, the role of NEU3 had yet to be disclosed. Herein we report that NEU3 plays a key role in skeletal muscle differentiation by strictly modulating the ganglioside content of adjacent cells, with special regard to GM3. Induced down-regulation of NEU3 in murine C2C12 myoblasts, even when partial, totally inhibits their capability to differentiate by increasing the GM3 level above a critical point, which causes epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition (and ultimately its down-regulation) and an higher responsiveness of myoblasts to the apoptotic stimuli.

  2. Pelvic radiograph in skeletal dysplasias: An approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Jana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The bony pelvis is constituted by the ilium, ischium, pubis, and sacrum. The pelvic radiograph is an important component of the skeletal survey performed in suspected skeletal dysplasia. Most of the common skeletal dysplasias have either minor or major radiological abnormalities; hence, knowledge of the normal radiological appearance of bony pelvis is vital for recognizing the early signs of various skeletal dysplasias. This article discusses many common and some uncommon radiological findings on pelvic radiographs along with the specific dysplasia in which they are seen; common differential diagnostic considerations are also discussed.

  3. Skeletal Muscle Satellite Cells Are Committed to Myogenesis and Do Not Spontaneously Adopt Nonmyogenic Fates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkey, Jessica D.; Yamamoto, Masakazu; Yamamoto, Shoko; Goldhamer, David J.

    2011-01-01

    The developmental potential of skeletal muscle stem cells (satellite cells) remains controversial. The authors investigated satellite cell developmental potential in single fiber and clonal cultures derived from MyoDiCre/+;R26REYFP/+ muscle, in which essentially all satellite cells are permanently labeled. Approximately 60% of the clones derived from cells that co-purified with muscle fibers spontaneously underwent adipogenic differentiation. These adipocytes stained with Oil-Red-O and expressed the terminal differentiation markers, adipsin and fatty acid binding protein 4, but did not express EYFP and were therefore not of satellite cell origin. Satellite cells mutant for either MyoD or Myf-5 also maintained myogenic programming in culture and did not adopt an adipogenic fate. Incorporation of additional wash steps prior to muscle fiber plating virtually eliminated the non-myogenic cells but did not reduce the number of adherent Pax7+ satellite cells. More than half of the adipocytes observed in cultures from Tie2-Cre mice were recombined, further demonstrating a non-satellite cell origin. Under adipogenesis-inducing conditions, satellite cells accumulated cytoplasmic lipid but maintained myogenic protein expression and did not fully execute the adipogenic differentiation program, distinguishing them from adipocytes observed in muscle fiber cultures. The authors conclude that skeletal muscle satellite cells are committed to myogenesis and do not spontaneously adopt an adipogenic fate. PMID:21339173

  4. Epigenetic Library Screen Identifies Abexinostat as Novel Regulator of Adipocytic and Osteoblastic Differentiation of Human Skeletal (Mesenchymal) Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Dalia; Hamam, Rimi; Alfayez, Musaed; Kassem, Moustapha; Aldahmash, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    The epigenetic mechanisms promoting lineage-specific commitment of human skeletal (mesenchymal or stromal) stem cells (hMSCs) into adipocytes or osteoblasts are still not fully understood. Herein, we performed an epigenetic library functional screen and identified several novel compounds, including abexinostat, which promoted adipocytic and osteoblastic differentiation of hMSCs. Using gene expression microarrays, chromatin immunoprecipitation for H3K9Ac combined with high-throughput DNA sequencing (ChIP-seq), and bioinformatics, we identified several key genes involved in regulating stem cell proliferation and differentiation that were targeted by abexinostat. Concordantly, ChIP-quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed marked increase in H3K9Ac epigenetic mark on the promoter region of AdipoQ, FABP4, PPARγ, KLF15, CEBPA, SP7, and ALPL in abexinostat-treated hMSCs. Pharmacological inhibition of focal adhesion kinase (PF-573228) or insulin-like growth factor-1R/insulin receptor (NVP-AEW51) signaling exhibited significant inhibition of abexinostat-mediated adipocytic differentiation, whereas inhibition of WNT (XAV939) or transforming growth factor-β (SB505124) signaling abrogated abexinostat-mediated osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs. Our findings provide insight into the understanding of the relationship between the epigenetic effect of histone deacetylase inhibitors, transcription factors, and differentiation pathways governing adipocyte and osteoblast differentiation. Manipulating such pathways allows a novel use for epigenetic compounds in hMSC-based therapies and tissue engineering. Significance This unbiased epigenetic library functional screen identified several novel compounds, including abexinostat, that promoted adipocytic and osteoblastic differentiation of human skeletal (mesenchymal or stromal) stem cells (hMSCs). These data provide new insight into the understanding of the relationship between the epigenetic effect of histone deacetylase

  5. Increased skeletal muscle capillarization enhances insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Laub, Lasse; Vedel, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Increased skeletal muscle capillarization is associated with improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. However, a possible causal relationship has not previously been identified. We therefore investigated whether increased skeletal muscle capillarization increases insulin sensitivity....... Skeletal muscle specific angiogenesis was induced by adding the α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist Prazosin to the drinking water of Sprague Dawley rats (n=33) while 34 rats served as controls. Insulin sensitivity was measured ≥40 h after termination of the 3-week Prazosin treatment, which ensured...... that Prazosin was cleared from the blood stream. Whole-body insulin sensitivity was measured in conscious, unrestrained rats by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. Tissue specific insulin sensitivity was assessed by administration of 2-deoxy-[(3)H]-Glucose during the plateau phase of the clamp. Whole...

  6. Impaired terminal differentiation of hippocampal granule neurons and defective contextual memory in PC3/Tis21 knockout mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Farioli-Vecchioli

    Full Text Available Neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the adult hippocampus has been implicated in neural plasticity and memory, but the molecular mechanisms controlling the proliferation and differentiation of newborn neurons and their integration into the synaptic circuitry are still largely unknown. To investigate this issue, we have analyzed the adult hippocampal neurogenesis in a PC3/Tis21-null mouse model. PC3/Tis21 is a transcriptional co-factor endowed with antiproliferative and prodifferentiative properties; indeed, its upregulation in neural progenitors has been shown to induce exit from cell cycle and differentiation. We demonstrate here that the deletion of PC3/Tis21 causes an increased proliferation of progenitor cells in the adult dentate gyrus and an arrest of their terminal differentiation. In fact, in the PC3/Tis21-null hippocampus postmitotic undifferentiated neurons accumulated, while the number of terminally differentiated neurons decreased of 40%. As a result, PC3/Tis21-null mice displayed a deficit of contextual memory. Notably, we observed that PC3/Tis21 can associate to the promoter of Id3, an inhibitor of proneural gene activity, and negatively regulates its expression, indicating that PC3/Tis21 acts upstream of Id3. Our results identify PC3/Tis21 as a gene required in the control of proliferation and terminal differentiation of newborn neurons during adult hippocampal neurogenesis and suggest its involvement in the formation of contextual memories.

  7. FDG-PET/CT in Skeletal Muscle: Pitfalls and Pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parida, Girish Kumar; Roy, Shambo Guha; Kumar, Rakesh

    2017-07-01

    FDG-PET/CT is an integral part of modern-day practice of medicine. By detecting increased cellular metabolism, FDG-PET/CT can help us detect infection, inflammatory disorders, or tumors, and also help us in prognostication of patients. However, one of the most important challenges is to correctly differentiate the abnormal uptake that is potentially pathologic from the physiological uptake. So while interpreting a PET/CT, one must be aware of normal biodistribution and different physiological variants of FDG uptake. Skeletal muscles constitute a large part of our body mass and one of the major users of glucose. Naturally, they are often the site of increased FDG uptake in a PET study. We as a nuclear medicine physician must be aware of all the pitfalls of increased skeletal muscle uptake to differentiate between physiological and pathologic causes. In this review, we have discussed the different causes and patterns of physiological FDG uptake in skeletal muscles. This knowledge of normal physiological variants of FDG uptake in the skeletal muscles is essential for differentiating pathologic uptake from the physiological ones. Also, we reviewed the role of FDG-PET/CT in various benign and malignant diseases involving skeletal muscle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Chromatin condensation in terminally differentiating mouse erythroblasts does not involve special architectural proteins but depends on histone deacetylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popova, Evgenya Y.; Krauss, Sharon Wald; Short, Sarah A.; Lee, Gloria; Villalobos, Jonathan; Etzell, Joan; Koury, Mark J.; Ney, Paul A.; Chasis, Joel Anne; Grigoryev, Sergei A.

    2008-08-21

    Terminal erythroid differentiation in vertebrates is characterized by progressive heterochromatin formation, chromatin condensation and, in mammals, culminates in nuclear extrusion. To date, although mechanisms regulating avian erythroid chromatin condensation have been identified, little is known regarding this process during mammalian erythropoiesis. To elucidate the molecular basis for mammalian erythroblast chromatin condensation, we used Friend virus-infected murine spleen erythroblasts that undergo terminal differentiation in vitro. Chromatin isolated from early and late stage erythroblasts had similar levels of linker and core histones, only a slight difference in nucleosome repeats, and no significant accumulation of known developmentally-regulated architectural chromatin proteins. However, histone H3(K9) dimethylation markedly increased while histone H4(K12) acetylation dramatically decreased and became segregated from the histone methylation as chromatin condensed. One histone deacetylase, HDAC5, was significantly upregulated during the terminal stages of Friend virus-infected erythroblast differentiation. Treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitor, trichostatin A, blocked both chromatin condensation and nuclear extrusion. Based on our data, we propose a model for a unique mechanism in which extensive histone deacetylation at pericentromeric heterochromatin mediates heterochromatin condensation in vertebrate erythroblasts that would otherwise be mediated by developmentally-regulated architectural proteins in nucleated blood cells.

  9. The adipokine leptin increases skeletal muscle mass and significantly alters skeletal muscle miRNA expression profile in aged mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamrick, Mark W.; Herberg, Samuel; Arounleut, Phonepasong; He, Hong-Zhi; Shiver, Austin; Qi, Rui-Qun; Zhou, Li; Isales, Carlos M.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Aging is associated with muscle atrophy and loss of muscle mass, known as the sarcopenia of aging. → We demonstrate that age-related muscle atrophy is associated with marked changes in miRNA expression in muscle. → Treating aged mice with the adipokine leptin significantly increased muscle mass and the expression of miRNAs involved in muscle repair. → Recombinant leptin therapy may therefore be a novel approach for treating age-related muscle atrophy. -- Abstract: Age-associated loss of muscle mass, or sarcopenia, contributes directly to frailty and an increased risk of falls and fractures among the elderly. Aged mice and elderly adults both show decreased muscle mass as well as relatively low levels of the fat-derived hormone leptin. Here we demonstrate that loss of muscle mass and myofiber size with aging in mice is associated with significant changes in the expression of specific miRNAs. Aging altered the expression of 57 miRNAs in mouse skeletal muscle, and many of these miRNAs are now reported to be associated specifically with age-related muscle atrophy. These include miR-221, previously identified in studies of myogenesis and muscle development as playing a role in the proliferation and terminal differentiation of myogenic precursors. We also treated aged mice with recombinant leptin, to determine whether leptin therapy could improve muscle mass and alter the miRNA expression profile of aging skeletal muscle. Leptin treatment significantly increased hindlimb muscle mass and extensor digitorum longus fiber size in aged mice. Furthermore, the expression of 37 miRNAs was altered in muscles of leptin-treated mice. In particular, leptin treatment increased the expression of miR-31 and miR-223, miRNAs known to be elevated during muscle regeneration and repair. These findings suggest that aging in skeletal muscle is associated with marked changes in the expression of specific miRNAs, and that nutrient-related hormones such as leptin

  10. The adipokine leptin increases skeletal muscle mass and significantly alters skeletal muscle miRNA expression profile in aged mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamrick, Mark W., E-mail: mhamrick@mail.mcg.edu [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Herberg, Samuel; Arounleut, Phonepasong [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); He, Hong-Zhi [Henry Ford Immunology Program, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Dermatology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Shiver, Austin [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Qi, Rui-Qun [Henry Ford Immunology Program, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Dermatology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Zhou, Li [Henry Ford Immunology Program, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Dermatology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Internal Medicine, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Isales, Carlos M. [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); others, and

    2010-09-24

    Research highlights: {yields} Aging is associated with muscle atrophy and loss of muscle mass, known as the sarcopenia of aging. {yields} We demonstrate that age-related muscle atrophy is associated with marked changes in miRNA expression in muscle. {yields} Treating aged mice with the adipokine leptin significantly increased muscle mass and the expression of miRNAs involved in muscle repair. {yields} Recombinant leptin therapy may therefore be a novel approach for treating age-related muscle atrophy. -- Abstract: Age-associated loss of muscle mass, or sarcopenia, contributes directly to frailty and an increased risk of falls and fractures among the elderly. Aged mice and elderly adults both show decreased muscle mass as well as relatively low levels of the fat-derived hormone leptin. Here we demonstrate that loss of muscle mass and myofiber size with aging in mice is associated with significant changes in the expression of specific miRNAs. Aging altered the expression of 57 miRNAs in mouse skeletal muscle, and many of these miRNAs are now reported to be associated specifically with age-related muscle atrophy. These include miR-221, previously identified in studies of myogenesis and muscle development as playing a role in the proliferation and terminal differentiation of myogenic precursors. We also treated aged mice with recombinant leptin, to determine whether leptin therapy could improve muscle mass and alter the miRNA expression profile of aging skeletal muscle. Leptin treatment significantly increased hindlimb muscle mass and extensor digitorum longus fiber size in aged mice. Furthermore, the expression of 37 miRNAs was altered in muscles of leptin-treated mice. In particular, leptin treatment increased the expression of miR-31 and miR-223, miRNAs known to be elevated during muscle regeneration and repair. These findings suggest that aging in skeletal muscle is associated with marked changes in the expression of specific miRNAs, and that nutrient

  11. Adipogenic differentiation and EGFP gene transfection of amniotic fluid-derived stem cells from goat fetus at terminal gestational age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiao-Ying; Zheng, Yue-Mao; Qiu, Shuang; Qi, Ying-Pei; Zhang, Yong

    2011-08-01

    The aims of this study were to determine whether stem cells could be isolated from amniotic fluid of goat fetus at terminal gestational age and to determine if these stem cells could differentiate into adipogenic cells and be transfected with a reporter gene, EGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein). The stem cells were isolated from amniotic fluid of goat fetus at terminal gestational age, induced to differentiate into adipogenic cells in vitro and transfected with the EGFP gene using lipofection. Markers associated with undifferentiated AFS (amniotic fluid-derived stem) cells were tested by RT (reverse transcription)-PCR. The results demonstrated that AFS cells could be isolated from amniotic fluid of goat fetus at terminal gestational age and could differentiate into adipogenic cells. The EGFP gene was transfected into AFS cells successfully. EGFP gene transfection efficiency of the three groups of transgenic AFS cells were 26.0, 29.9 and 30.5%, respectively. Both transgenic and wild-type AFS cells could express Hes1 (hairy and enhancer of split 1), Oct4 (octamer-binding protein 4) and Nanog.

  12. Skeletal sarcoidosis; Skelettsarkoidose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freyschmidt, J. [Klinikum Bremen-Mitte, Beratungsstelle und Referenzzentrum fuer Osteoradiologie, Bremen (Germany); Freyschmidt, P. [Dermatologische Gemeinschaftspraxis, Schwalmstadt (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    Presentation of the etiology, pathology, clinical course, radiology and differential diagnostics of skeletal sarcoidosis. Noncaseating epithelioid cell granulomas can trigger solitary, multiple or disseminated osteolysis, reactive osteosclerosis and/or granulomatous synovitis. The incidence of sarcoidosis is 10-12 per 100,000 inhabitants per year. Skeletal involvement is approximately 14 %. Skeletal involvement occurs almost exclusively in the stage of lymph node and pulmonary manifestation. Most cases of skeletal involvement are clinically asymptomatic. In the case of synovial involvement, unspecific joint complaints (arthralgia) or less commonly arthritis can occur. Typical skin alterations can be diagnostically significant. Punch out lesions osteolysis, coarse destruction and osteosclerosis can occur, which are best visualized with projection radiography and/or computed tomography. Pure bone marrow foci without interaction with the bone can only be detected with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and more recently with positron emission tomography (PET), mostly as incidental findings. There is a predeliction for the hand and trunk skeleton. Skeletal tuberculosis, metastases, multiple myeloma, Langerhans cell histiocytosis and sarcoid-like reactions in solid tumors must be differentiated. The key factors for correct diagnosis are thorax radiography, thorax CT and dermatological manifestations. (orig.) [German] Darstellung von Aetiologie, Pathologie, Klinik, Radiologie und Differenzialdiagnose der Skelettsarkoidose. Nichtverkaesende Epitheloidzellgranulome koennen solitaere, multiple oder disseminierte Osteolysen, reaktive Osteosklerosen und/oder eine granulomatoese Synovialitis ausloesen. Inzidenz der Sarkoidose: 10-12/100.000 Einwohner/Jahr. Skelettbeteiligung ca. 14 %. Skelettbeteiligungen kommen fast ausschliesslich im Stadium einer Lymphknoten- und pulmonalen Manifestation vor. Die meisten Skelettbeteiligungen verlaufen klinisch stumm. Bei synovialer

  13. DNA Methylation in Skeletal Muscle Stem Cell Specification, Proliferation, and Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhianna C. Laker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An unresolved and critically important question in skeletal muscle biology is how muscle stem cells initiate and regulate the genetic program during muscle development. Epigenetic dynamics are essential for cellular development and organogenesis in early life and it is becoming increasingly clear that epigenetic remodeling may also be responsible for the cellular adaptations that occur in later life. DNA methylation of cytosine bases within CpG dinucleotide pairs is an important epigenetic modification that reduces gene expression when located within a promoter or enhancer region. Recent advances in the field suggest that epigenetic regulation is essential for skeletal muscle stem cell identity and subsequent cell development. This review summarizes what is currently known about how skeletal muscle stem cells regulate the myogenic program through DNA methylation, discusses a novel role for metabolism in this process, and addresses DNA methylation dynamics in adult skeletal muscle in response to physical activity.

  14. Skeletal (stromal) stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Basem M; Kermani, Abbas Jafari; Zaher, Walid

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal (marrow stromal) stem cells (BMSCs) are a group of multipotent cells that reside in the bone marrow stroma and can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes and adipocytes. Studying signaling pathways that regulate BMSC differentiation into osteoblastic cells is a strategy....../preadipocyte factor 1 (Dlk1/Pref-1), the Wnt co-receptor Lrp5 and intracellular kinases. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Stem Cells and Bone....

  15. Skeletal muscle as a gene regulatory endocrine organ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstoft, Kristian; Pedersen, Bente K.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Skeletal muscle is gaining increased attention as an endocrine organ. Recently, novel myokines and new effects of already established myokines have been identified. The objective of this review is to give an update on the recent advances in the field. Recent findings Several...... hundred putative myokines have been described, some of which are induced by contraction and differentially regulated between healthy and metabolically diseased individuals. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is the prototype myokine, which was identified as a muscle-derived cytokine 15 years ago. Recently, IL-6 has...... on training status. IL-15 has been established as a cytokine mediating cross-talk between skeletal muscle and skin tissue, and decorin has been characterized as a contraction-induced myokine which apparently is differentially regulated between healthy and dysglycemic individuals. Summary Skeletal muscle...

  16. Increased phosphorylation of skeletal muscle glycogen synthase at NH2-terminal sites during physiological hyperinsulinemia in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Kurt; Staehr, Peter; Hansen, Bo Falck

    2003-01-01

    In type 2 diabetes, insulin activation of muscle glycogen synthase (GS) is impaired. This defect plays a major role for the development of insulin resistance and hyperglycemia. In animal muscle, insulin activates GS by reducing phosphorylation at both NH(2)- and COOH-terminal sites......, but the mechanism involved in human muscle and the defect in type 2 diabetes remain unclear. We studied the effect of insulin at physiological concentrations on glucose metabolism, insulin signaling and phosphorylation of GS in skeletal muscle from type 2 diabetic and well-matched control subjects during euglycemic......-hyperinsulinemic clamps. Analysis using phospho-specific antibodies revealed that insulin decreases phosphorylation of sites 3a + 3b in human muscle, and this was accompanied by activation of Akt and inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3alpha. In type 2 diabetic subjects these effects of insulin were fully intact...

  17. Oesteosarcomagenic doses of radium (224Ra) and infectious endogenous retroviruses enhance proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of skeletal tissue dofferentiating in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, J.; Heermeier, K.; Linzner, U.; Luz, A.; Silbermann, M.; Livne, E.; Erfle, V.

    1994-01-01

    Cartilage tissue from embryonic mice which undergoes osteogenic differentiation during in vitro cultivation was used to study the effect of osteosarcomagenic doses of α-irradiation and bone-tumor-inducing retroviruses on proliferation and phenotypic differentiation of skeletal cells in a defined tissue culture model. Irradiated mandibular condyles showed dose-dependent enhancement of cell proliferation at day 7 of the culture and increased osteogenic differentiation at day 14. Maximal effects were found with 7.4 Bq/ml of 224 Ra-labeled medium. Doses of 740 and 7400 Bq/ml of 224 Ra-labeled medium induced increasing cell death. Retrovirus infection enhanced osteogenic differentiation and extended the viability of irradiated cells. After transplantation none of the treated tissues developed tumors in syngeneic mice. (orig.)

  18. Generation of skeletal muscle from transplanted embryonic stem cells in dystrophic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhagavati, Satyakam; Xu Weimin

    2005-01-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells have great therapeutic potential because of their capacity to proliferate extensively and to form any fully differentiated cell of the body, including skeletal muscle cells. Successful generation of skeletal muscle in vivo, however, requires selective induction of the skeletal muscle lineage in cultures of ES cells and following transplantation, integration of appropriately differentiated skeletal muscle cells with recipient muscle. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a severe progressive muscle wasting disease due to a mutation in the dystrophin gene and the mdx mouse, an animal model for DMD, are characterized by the absence of the muscle membrane associated protein, dystrophin. Here, we show that co-culturing mouse ES cells with a preparation from mouse muscle enriched for myogenic stem and precursor cells, followed by injection into mdx mice, results occasionally in the formation of normal, vascularized skeletal muscle derived from the transplanted ES cells. Study of this phenomenon should provide valuable insights into skeletal muscle development in vivo from transplanted ES cells

  19. Myeloblastic leukemia cells conditionally blocked by myc-estrogen receptor chimeric transgenes for terminal differentiation coupled to growth arrest and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvakumaran, M; Liebermann, D; Hoffman-Liebermann, B

    1993-05-01

    Conditional mutants of the myeloblastic leukemic M1 cell line, expressing the chimeric mycer transgene, have been established. It is shown that M1 mycer cells, like M1, undergo terminal differentiation coupled to growth arrest and programmed cell death (apoptosis) after treatment with the physiologic differentiation inducer interleukin-6. However, when beta-estradiol is included in the culture medium, M1 mycer cells respond to differentiation inducers like M1 myc cell lines, where the differentiation program is blocked at an intermediate stage. By manipulating the function of the mycer transgene product, it is shown that there is a 10-hour window during myeloid differentiation, from 30 to 40 hours after the addition of the differentiation inducer, when the terminal differentiation program switches from being dependent on c-myc suppression to becoming c-myc suppression independent, where activation of c-myc has no apparent effect on mature macrophages. M1 mycer cell lines provide a powerful tool to increase our understanding of the role of c-myc in normal myelopoiesis and in leukemogenesis, also providing a strategy to clone c-myc target genes.

  20. Sustained Low-Dose Treatment with the Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor LBH589 Induces Terminal Differentiation of Osteosarcoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason E. Cain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi were identified nearly four decades ago based on their ability to induce cellular differentiation. However, the clinical development of these compounds as cancer therapies has focused on their capacity to induce apoptosis in hematologic and lymphoid malignancies, often in combination with conventional cytotoxic agents. In many cases, HDACi doses necessary to induce these effects result in significant toxicity. Since osteosarcoma cells express markers of terminal osteoblast differentiation in response to DNA methyltransferase inhibitors, we reasoned that the epigenetic reprogramming capacity of HDACi might be exploited for therapeutic benefit. Here, we show that continuous exposure of osteosarcoma cells to low concentrations of HDACi LBH589 (Panobinostat over a three-week period induces terminal osteoblast differentiation and irreversible senescence without inducing cell death. Remarkably, transcriptional profiling revealed that HDACi therapy initiated gene signatures characteristic of chondrocyte and adipocyte lineages in addition to marked upregulation of mature osteoblast markers. In a mouse xenograft model, continuous low dose treatment with LBH589 induced a sustained cytostatic response accompanied by induction of mature osteoblast gene expression. These data suggest that the remarkable capacity of osteosarcoma cells to differentiate in response to HDACi therapy could be exploited for therapeutic benefit without inducing systemic toxicity.

  1. Terminal Differentiation of Adult Hippocampal Progenitor Cells Is a Step Functionally Dissociable from Proliferation and Is Controlled by Tis21, Id3 and NeuroD2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Micheli

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cell proliferation and differentiation are interdependent processes. Here, we have asked to what extent the two processes of neural progenitor cell amplification and differentiation are functionally separated. Thus, we analyzed whether it is possible to rescue a defect of terminal differentiation in progenitor cells of the dentate gyrus, where new neurons are generated throughout life, by inducing their proliferation and/or their differentiation with different stimuli appropriately timed. As a model we used the Tis21 knockout mouse, whose dentate gyrus neurons, as demonstrated by us and others, have an intrinsic defect of terminal differentiation. We first tested the effect of two proliferative as well as differentiative neurogenic stimuli, one pharmacological (fluoxetine, the other cognitive (the Morris water maze (MWM training. Both effectively enhanced the number of new dentate gyrus neurons produced, and fluoxetine also reduced the S-phase length of Tis21 knockout dentate gyrus progenitor cells and increased the rate of differentiation of control cells, but neither factor enhanced the defective rate of differentiation. In contrast, the defect of terminal differentiation was fully rescued by in vivo infection of proliferating dentate gyrus progenitor cells with retroviruses either silencing Id3, an inhibitor of neural differentiation, or expressing NeuroD2, a proneural gene expressed in terminally differentiated dentate gyrus neurons. This is the first demonstration that NeuroD2 or the silencing of Id3 can activate the differentiation of dentate gyrus neurons, complementing a defect of differentiation. It also highlights how the rate of differentiation of dentate gyrus neurons is regulated genetically at several levels and that a neurogenic stimulus for amplification of neural stem/progenitor cells may not be sufficient in itself to modify this rate.

  2. Mechanisms of dealing with DNA damage in terminally differentiated cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortini, P. [Department of Environment and Primary Prevention, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Dogliotti, E., E-mail: eugenia.dogliotti@iss.it [Department of Environment and Primary Prevention, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy)

    2010-03-01

    To protect genomic integrity living cells that are continuously exposed to DNA-damaging insults are equipped with an efficient defence mechanism termed the DNA damage response. Its function is to eliminate DNA damage through DNA repair and to remove damaged cells by apoptosis. The DNA damage response has been investigated mainly in proliferating cells, in which the cell cycle machinery is integrated with the DNA damage signalling. The current knowledge of the mechanisms of DNA repair, DNA damage signalling and cell death of post-mitotic cells that have undergone irreversible cell cycle withdrawal will be reviewed. Evidence will be provided that the protection of the genome integrity in terminally differentiated cells is achieved by different strategies than in proliferating cells.

  3. Mechanisms of dealing with DNA damage in terminally differentiated cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortini, P.; Dogliotti, E.

    2010-01-01

    To protect genomic integrity living cells that are continuously exposed to DNA-damaging insults are equipped with an efficient defence mechanism termed the DNA damage response. Its function is to eliminate DNA damage through DNA repair and to remove damaged cells by apoptosis. The DNA damage response has been investigated mainly in proliferating cells, in which the cell cycle machinery is integrated with the DNA damage signalling. The current knowledge of the mechanisms of DNA repair, DNA damage signalling and cell death of post-mitotic cells that have undergone irreversible cell cycle withdrawal will be reviewed. Evidence will be provided that the protection of the genome integrity in terminally differentiated cells is achieved by different strategies than in proliferating cells.

  4. MURC, a muscle-restricted coiled-coil protein, is involved in the regulation of skeletal myogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagawa, Masashi; Ueyama, Tomomi; Ogata, Takehiro; Takehara, Naofumi; Nakajima, Norio; Isodono, Koji; Asada, Satoshi; Takahashi, Tomosaburo; Matsubara, Hiroaki; Oh, Hidemasa

    2008-08-01

    Skeletal myogenesis is a multistep process by which multinucleated mature muscle fibers are formed from undifferentiated, mononucleated myoblasts. However, the molecular mechanisms of skeletal myogenesis have not been fully elucidated. Here, we identified muscle-restricted coiled-coil (MURC) protein as a positive regulator of myogenesis. In skeletal muscle, MURC was localized to the cytoplasm with accumulation in the Z-disc of the sarcomere. In C2C12 myoblasts, MURC expression occurred coincidentally with myogenin expression and preceded sarcomeric myosin expression during differentiation into myotubes. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of MURC impaired differentiation in C2C12 myoblasts, which was accompanied by impaired myogenin expression and ERK activation. Overexpression of MURC in C2C12 myoblasts resulted in the promotion of differentiation with enhanced myogenin expression and ERK activation during differentiation. During injury-induced muscle regeneration, MURC expression increased, and a higher abundance of MURC was observed in immature myofibers compared with mature myofibers. In addition, ERK was activated in regenerating tissue, and ERK activation was detected in MURC-expressing immature myofibers. These findings suggest that MURC is involved in the skeletal myogenesis that results from modulation of myogenin expression and ERK activation. MURC may play pivotal roles in the molecular mechanisms of skeletal myogenic differentiation.

  5. Autophagy: a new player in skeletal maintenance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Lynne J; Whitehouse, Caroline; Helfrich, Miep H

    2012-07-01

    Imbalances between bone resorption and formation lie at the root of disorders such as osteoporosis, Paget's disease of bone (PDB), and osteopetrosis. Recently, genetic and functional studies have implicated proteins involved in autophagic protein degradation as important mediators of bone cell function in normal physiology and in pathology. Autophagy is the conserved process whereby aggregated proteins, intracellular pathogens, and damaged organelles are degraded and recycled. This process is important both for normal cellular quality control and in response to environmental or internal stressors, particularly in terminally-differentiated cells. Autophagic structures can also act as hubs for the spatial organization of recycling and synthetic process in secretory cells. Alterations to autophagy (reduction, hyperactivation, or impairment) are associated with a number of disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases and cancers, and are now being implicated in maintenance of skeletal homoeostasis. Here, we introduce the topic of autophagy, describe the new findings that are starting to emerge from the bone field, and consider the therapeutic potential of modifying this pathway for the treatment of age-related bone disorders. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  6. Using Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells to Model Skeletal Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barruet, Emilie; Hsiao, Edward C

    2016-01-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders affecting the bones and joints are major health problems among children and adults. Major challenges such as the genetic origins or poor diagnostics of severe skeletal disease hinder our understanding of human skeletal diseases. The recent advent of human induced pluripotent stem cells (human iPS cells) provides an unparalleled opportunity to create human-specific models of human skeletal diseases. iPS cells have the ability to self-renew, allowing us to obtain large amounts of starting material, and have the potential to differentiate into any cell types in the body. In addition, they can carry one or more mutations responsible for the disease of interest or be genetically corrected to create isogenic controls. Our work has focused on modeling rare musculoskeletal disorders including fibrodysplasia ossificans progressive (FOP), a congenital disease of increased heterotopic ossification. In this review, we will discuss our experiences and protocols differentiating human iPS cells toward the osteogenic lineage and their application to model skeletal diseases. A number of critical challenges and exciting new approaches are also discussed, which will allow the skeletal biology field to harness the potential of human iPS cells as a critical model system for understanding diseases of abnormal skeletal formation and bone regeneration.

  7. Constitutive β-catenin activation in osteoblasts impairs terminal osteoblast differentiation and bone quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Quanwei; Chen, Sixu; Qin, Hao [State Key Laboratory of Trauma, Burn and Combined injury, Department of Trauma Surgery, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, ChongQing 400042 (China); Feng, Jianquan [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Baylor College of Dentistry, Texas A& M Health Science Center, Dallas, TX 75246 (United States); Liu, Huayu; Liu, Daocheng; Li, Ang; Shen, Yue; Zhong, Xiaozheng; Li, Junfeng [State Key Laboratory of Trauma, Burn and Combined injury, Department of Trauma Surgery, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, ChongQing 400042 (China); Zong, Zhaowen, E-mail: zongzhaowen@sina.cn [State Key Laboratory of Trauma, Burn and Combined injury, Department of Trauma Surgery, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, ChongQing 400042 (China)

    2017-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays a central role in controlling bone mass. We previously reported that constitutive activation of β-catenin (CA-β-catenin) in osteoblasts potentially has side effects on the bone growth and bone remodeling process, although it could increase bone mass. The present study aimed to observe the effects of osteoblastic CA-β-catenin on bone quality and to investigate possible mechanisms of these effects. It was found that CA-β-catenin mice exhibited lower mineralization levels and disorganized collagen in long bones as confirmed by von Kossa staining and sirius red staining, respectively. Also, bone strength decreased significantly in CA-β-catenin mice. Then the effect of CA-β-catenin on biological functions of osteoblasts were investigated and it was found that the expression levels of osteocalcin, a marker for the late differentiation of osteoblasts, decreased in CA-β-catenin mice, while the expression levels of osterix and alkaline phosphatase, two markers for the early differentiation of osteoblasts, increased in CA-β-catenin mice. Furthermore, higher proliferation rate were revealed in osteoblasts that were isolated from CA-β-catenin mice. The Real-time PCR and western blot examination found that the expression level of c-myc and cyclin D1, two G1 progression-related molecules, increased in osteoblasts that were isolated from the CA-β-catenin mice, and the expression levels of CDK14 and cyclin Y, two mitotic-related molecules that can accelerate cells entering into S and G2/M phases, increased in osteoblasts that were isolated from the CA-β-catenin mice. In summary, osteoblastic CA-β-catenin kept osteoblasts in high proliferative state and impaired the terminal osteoblast differentiation, and this led to changed bone structure and decreased bone strength. - Highlights: • Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays a central role in controlling bone mass. • CA-β-catenin has side effects on the bone

  8. Skeletal Stem Cells: Origins, Functions and Uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Fatma F; Franceschi, Renny T

    2017-12-01

    The development and maintenance of the skeleton requires a steady source of skeletal progenitors to provide the osteoblasts and chondrocytes necessary for bone and cartilage growth and development. The current model for skeletal stem cells (SSCs) posits that SSC/progenitor cells are present in bone marrow (BM) and other osteogenic sites such as cranial sutures where they undergo self-renewal and differentiation to give rise to the main skeletal tissues. SSCs hold great promise for understanding skeletal biology and genetic diseases of bone as well as for the advancement of bone tissue engineering and regenerative medicine strategies. In the past few years, a considerable effort has been devoted to identifying and purifying skeletal stem cells and determining their contribution to bone formation and homeostasis. Here, we review recent progress in this area with particular emphasis on the discovery of specific SSC markers, their use in tracking the progression of cell populations along specific lineages and the regulation of SSCs in both the appendicular and cranial skeleton.

  9. miR-24-mediated down-regulation of H2AX suppresses DNA repair in terminally differentiated blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Ashish; Pan, Yunfeng; Navarro, Francisco; Dykxhoorn, Derek M.; Moreau, Lisa; Meire, Eti; Bentwich, Zvi; Lieberman, Judy; Chowdhury, Dipanjan

    2010-01-01

    Terminally differentiated cells have reduced capacity to repair double strand breaks (DSB), but the molecular mechanism behind this down-regulation is unclear. Here we find that miR-24 is consistently up-regulated during post-mitotic differentiation of hematopoietic cell lines and regulates the histone variant H2AX, a key DSB repair protein that activates cell cycle checkpoint proteins and retains DSB repair factors at DSB foci. The H2AX 3’UTR contains conserved miR-24 binding sites regulated by miR-24. Both H2AX mRNA and protein are substantially reduced during hematopoietic cell terminal differentiation by miR-24 up-regulation both in in vitro differentiated cells and primary human blood cells. miR-24 suppression of H2AX renders cells hypersensitive to γ-irradiation and genotoxic drugs. Antagonizing miR-24 in differentiating cells protects them from DNA damage-induced cell death, while transfecting miR-24 mimics in dividing cells increases chromosomal breaks and unrepaired DNA damage and reduces viability in response to DNA damage. This DNA repair phenotype can be fully rescued by over-expressing miR-24-insensitive H2AX. Therefore, miR-24 up-regulation in post-replicative cells reduces H2AX and thereby renders them highly vulnerable to DNA damage. PMID:19377482

  10. The Role Of Semaphorin 3A In The Skeletal System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Peifu; Yin, Pengbin; Lv, Houchen; Zhang, Licheng; Zhang, Lihai

    2015-01-01

    Semaphorin 3A (Sema3A), characterized by a conserved N-terminal "Sema" domain, was originally described as an axon guidance molecule. Recent research indicates that it performs a critical function in the skeletal system. This review highlights recent advances in understanding of the role of Sema3A in the skeletal system as a regulator of bone metabolism and as a potential drug target for bone disease therapy. We summarize Sema3A functions in osteoblastogenesis and osteoclastogenesis, as well as in innervation, and we discuss its multifunctional role in various bone diseases such as osteoporosis and low back pain. Despite limited research in this field, our aim is to promote further understanding of the function of Sema3A in the skeletal system.

  11. Correlation of initiating potency of skin carcinogens with potency to induce resistance to terminal differentiation in cultured mouse keratinocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilkenny, A.E.; Morgan, D.; Spangler, E.F.; Yuspa, S.H.

    1985-01-01

    The induction by chemical carcinogens of resistance to terminal differentiation in cultured mouse keratinocytes has been proposed to represent a cellular change associated with the initiation phase of skin carcinogenesis. Previous results with this culture model indicated that the number of differentiation-resistant foci was correlated with the dose and known potency for several chemical carcinogens. Assay conditions were optimized to provide quantitative results for screening a variety of carcinogens for their potency as inducers of foci resistant to terminal differentiation. Eight skin initiators of varying potency and from different chemical classes and ultraviolet light were studied for their activity to induce this alteration in cultured epidermal cells from newborn BALB/c mice. There was an excellent positive correlation for the potency of these agents as initiators in vivo and as inducers of altered differentiation in vitro. The induction of resistant foci was independent of the relative cytotoxic effects of each agent except where cytotoxicity was extensive and reduced the number of foci. The results support the hypothesis that initiation of carcinogenesis in skin results in an alteration in the program of epidermal cell differentiation. The results also suggest that the assay is useful for identifying relative potency classes (strong, moderate, weak) of initiating agents

  12. Expression of Pannexin 1 and Pannexin 3 during skeletal muscle development, regeneration, and Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Tammy L; St-Pierre, Marie-Eve; Ravel-Chapuis, Aymeric; Parks, Tara E C; Langlois, Stéphanie; Penuela, Silvia; Jasmin, Bernard J; Cowan, Kyle N

    2018-05-10

    Pannexin 1 (Panx1) and Pannexin 3 (Panx3) are single membrane channels recently implicated in myogenic commitment, as well as myoblast proliferation and differentiation in vitro. However, their expression patterns during skeletal muscle development and regeneration had yet to be investigated. Here, we show that Panx1 levels increase during skeletal muscle development becoming highly expressed together with Panx3 in adult skeletal muscle. In adult mice, Panx1 and Panx3 were differentially expressed in fast- and slow-twitch muscles. We also report that Panx1/PANX1 and Panx3/PANX3 are co-expressed in mouse and human satellite cells, which play crucial roles in skeletal muscle regeneration. Interestingly, Panx1 and Panx3 levels were modulated in muscle degeneration/regeneration, similar to the pattern seen during skeletal muscle development. As Duchenne muscular dystrophy is characterized by skeletal muscle degeneration and impaired regeneration, we next used mild and severe mouse models of this disease and found a significant dysregulation of Panx1 and Panx3 levels in dystrophic skeletal muscles. Together, our results are the first demonstration that Panx1 and Panx3 are differentially expressed amongst skeletal muscle types with their levels being highly modulated during skeletal muscle development, regeneration, and dystrophy. These findings suggest that Panx1 and Panx3 channels may play important and distinct roles in healthy and diseased skeletal muscles. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Radiological contribution to skeletal changes in systemic mastocytosis - urticaria pigmentosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schratter, M.; Canigiani, G.; Schoenbauer, C.; Mach, K.

    1983-11-01

    Three patients are demonstrated suffering from systemic mastocytosis with skin and skeletal involvement. History, clinical and radiological results are reported. After a brief analysis of the pathogenetic mechanism, the radiological findings on the skeletal system in systemic mastocytosis are discussed. Finally, roentgenological differential diagnosis of the osseous lesions is explained.

  14. Cardiac injury of the newborn mammalian heart accelerates cardiomyocyte terminal differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zebrowski, David C.; Jensen, Charlotte H.; Becker, Robert

    2017-01-01

    exhibited midbody formation consistent with successful abscission, whereas those from 3 day-old cardiomyocytes after apical resection exhibited midbody formation consistent with abscission failure. Lastly, injured hearts failed to fully regenerate as evidenced by persistent scarring and reduced wall motion......After birth cardiomyocytes undergo terminal differentiation, characterized by binucleation and centrosome disassembly, rendering the heart unable to regenerate. Yet, it has been suggested that newborn mammals regenerate their hearts after apical resection by cardiomyocyte proliferation. Thus, we...... increased rate of binucleation there was a nearly 2-fold increase in the number of cardiomyocytes in mitosis indicating that the majority of injury-induced cardiomyocyte cell cycle activity results in binucleation, not proliferation. Concurrently, cardiomyocytes undergoing cytokinesis from embryonic hearts...

  15. Glioblastoma Stem Cells Respond to Differentiation Cues but Fail to Undergo Commitment and Terminal Cell-Cycle Arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Carén

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma (GBM is an aggressive brain tumor whose growth is driven by stem cell-like cells. BMP signaling triggers cell-cycle exit and differentiation of GBM stem cells (GSCs and, therefore, might have therapeutic value. However, the epigenetic mechanisms that accompany differentiation remain poorly defined. It is also unclear whether cell-cycle arrest is terminal. Here we find only a subset of GSC cultures exhibit astrocyte differentiation in response to BMP. Although overtly differentiated non-cycling astrocytes are generated, they remain vulnerable to cell-cycle re-entry and fail to appropriately reconfigure DNA methylation patterns. Chromatin accessibility mapping identified loci that failed to alter in response to BMP and these were enriched in SOX transcription factor-binding motifs. SOX transcription factors, therefore, may limit differentiation commitment. A similar propensity for cell-cycle re-entry and de-differentiation was observed in GSC-derived oligodendrocyte-like cells. These findings highlight significant obstacles to BMP-induced differentiation as therapy for GBM.

  16. The Use of Platelet-Rich and Platelet-Poor Plasma to Enhance Differentiation of Skeletal Myoblasts: Implications for the Use of Autologous Blood Products for Muscle Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroshnychenko, Olga; Chang, Wen-Teh; Dragoo, Jason L

    2017-03-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been used to augment tissue repair and regeneration after musculoskeletal injury. However, there is increasing clinical evidence that PRP does not show a consistent clinical effect. Purpose/Hypothesis: This study aimed to compare the effects of the following non-neutrophil-containing (leukocyte-poor) plasma fractions on human skeletal muscle myoblast (HSMM) differentiation: (1) PRP, (2) modified PRP (Mod-PRP), in which transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and myostatin (MSTN) were depleted, and (3) platelet-poor plasma (PPP). The hypothesis was that leukocyte-poor PRP would lead to myoblast proliferation (not differentiation), whereas certain modifications of PRP preparations would increase myoblast differentiation, which is necessary for skeletal muscle regeneration. Controlled laboratory study. Blood from 7 human donors was individually processed to simultaneously create leukocyte-poor fractions: PRP, Mod-PRP, PPP, and secondarily spun PRP and Mod-PRP (PRP ss and Mod-PRP ss , respectively). Mod-PRP was produced by removing TGF-β1 and MSTN from PRP using antibodies attached to sterile beads, while a second-stage centrifugal spin of PRP was performed to remove platelets. The biologics were individually added to cell culture groups. Analysis for induction into myoblast differentiation pathways included Western blot analysis, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry, as well as confocal microscopy to assess polynucleated myotubule formation. HSMMs cultured with PRP showed an increase in proliferation but no evidence of differentiation. Western blot analysis confirmed that MSTN and TGF-β1 could be decreased in Mod-PRP using antibody-coated beads, but this modification mildly improved myoblast differentiation. However, cell culture with PPP, PRP ss , and Mod-PRP ss led to a decreased proliferation rate but a significant induction of myoblast differentiation verified by increased multinucleated

  17. Roles of Notch1 Signaling in Regulating Satellite Cell Fates Choices and Postnatal Skeletal Myogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Tizhong; Xu, Ziye; Wu, Weiche; Liu, Jiaqi; Wang, Yizhen

    2017-11-01

    Adult skeletal muscle stem cells, also called satellite cells, are indispensable for the growth, maintenance, and regeneration of the postnatal skeletal muscle. Satellite cells, predominantly quiescent in mature resting muscles, are activated after skeletal muscle injury or degeneration. Notch1 signaling is an evolutionarily conserved pathway that plays crucial roles in satellite cells homeostasis and postnatal skeletal myogenesis and regeneration. Activation of Notch1 signaling promotes the muscle satellite cells quiescence and proliferation, but inhibits differentiation of muscle satellite cells. Notably, the new roles of Notch1 signaling during late-stage of skeletal myogenesis including in post-differentiation myocytes and post-fusion myotubes have been recently reported. Here, we mainly review and discuss the regulatory roles of Notch1 in regulating satellite cell fates choices and skeletal myogenesis. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 2964-2967, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Obscurin Depletion Impairs Organization of Skeletal Muscle in Developing Zebrafish Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maide Ö. Raeker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During development, skeletal myoblasts differentiate into myocytes and skeletal myotubes with mature contractile structures that are precisely oriented with respect to surrounding cells and tissues. Establishment of this highly ordered structure requires reciprocal interactions between the differentiating myocytes and the surrounding extracellular matrix to form correctly positioned and well-organized attachments from the skeletal muscle to the bony skeleton. Using the developing zebrafish embryo as a model, we examined the relationship between new myofibril assembly and the organization of the membrane domains involved in cell-extracellular matrix interactions. We determined that depletion of obscurin, a giant muscle protein, resulted in irregular cell morphology and disturbed extracellular matrix organization during skeletal muscle development. The resulting impairment of myocyte organization was associated with disturbance of the internal architecture of the myocyte suggesting that obscurin participates in organizing the internal structure of the myocyte and translating those structural cues to surrounding cells and tissues.

  19. Obscurin Depletion Impairs Organization of Skeletal Muscle in Developing Zebrafish Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeker, Maide Ö.; Russell, Mark W.

    2011-01-01

    During development, skeletal myoblasts differentiate into myocytes and skeletal myotubes with mature contractile structures that are precisely oriented with respect to surrounding cells and tissues. Establishment of this highly ordered structure requires reciprocal interactions between the differentiating myocytes and the surrounding extracellular matrix to form correctly positioned and well-organized attachments from the skeletal muscle to the bony skeleton. Using the developing zebrafish embryo as a model, we examined the relationship between new myofibril assembly and the organization of the membrane domains involved in cell-extracellular matrix interactions. We determined that depletion of obscurin, a giant muscle protein, resulted in irregular cell morphology and disturbed extracellular matrix organization during skeletal muscle development. The resulting impairment of myocyte organization was associated with disturbance of the internal architecture of the myocyte suggesting that obscurin participates in organizing the internal structure of the myocyte and translating those structural cues to surrounding cells and tissues. PMID:22190853

  20. Evaluation of microRNAs − 208 and 133a/b as differential biomarkers of acute cardiac and skeletal muscle toxicity in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvano, Jacqueline, E-mail: Jacqueline.Calvano@bms.com [Drug Safety Evaluation, Bristol-Myers Squibb, 1 Squibb Drive, New Brunswick, NJ 08903 (United States); Achanzar, William; Murphy, Bethanne [Drug Safety Evaluation, Bristol-Myers Squibb, 1 Squibb Drive, New Brunswick, NJ 08903 (United States); DiPiero, Janet [Discovery Toxicology, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Route 206 and Province Line Road, Lawrenceville, NJ 08540 (United States); Hixson, Clifford; Parrula, Cecilia; Burr, Holly; Mangipudy, Raja; Tirmenstein, Mark [Drug Safety Evaluation, Bristol-Myers Squibb, 1 Squibb Drive, New Brunswick, NJ 08903 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Conventional circulating biomarkers of cardiac and skeletal muscle (SKM) toxicity lack specificity and/or have a short half-life. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are currently being assessed as biomarkers of tissue injury based on their long half-life in blood and selective expression in certain tissues. To assess the utility of miRNAs as biomarkers of cardiac and SKM injury, male Sprague–Dawley rats received a single dose of isoproterenol (ISO); metaproterenol (MET); allylamine (AAM); mitoxantrone (MIT); acetaminophen (APAP) or vehicle. Blood and tissues were collected from rats in each group at 4, 24 and 48 h. ISO, MET, and AAM induced cardiac and SKM lesions and APAP induced liver specific lesions. There was no evidence of tissue injury with MIT by histopathology. Serum levels of candidate miRNAs were compared to conventional serum biomarkers of SKM/cardiac toxicity. Increases in heart specific miR-208 only occurred in rats with cardiac lesions alone and were increased for a longer duration than cardiac troponin and FABP3 (cardiac biomarkers). ISO, MET and AAM induced increases in MyL3 and skeletal muscle troponin (sTnl) (SKM biomarkers). MIT induced large increases in sTnl indicative of SKM toxicity, but sTnl levels were also increased in APAP-treated rats that lacked SKM toxicity. Serum levels of miR-133a/b (enriched in cardiac and SKM) increased following ISO, MET, AAM and MIT treatments but were absent in APAP-treated rats. Our results suggest that miR-133a/b are sensitive and specific markers of SKM and cardiac toxicity and that miR-208 used in combination with miR-133a/b can be used to differentiate cardiac from SKM toxicity. - Highlights: • MiR-208 is specifically expressed in rat hearts. • MiR-133a/b are enriched in rat cardiac/skeletal muscle. • MiR-133a/b are sensitive and specific markers of muscle/cardiac toxicity. • MiR-208 can be used to differentiate cardiac toxicity from skeletal muscle toxicity.

  1. Robust generation and expansion of skeletal muscle progenitors and myocytes from human pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Michael; Kocharyan, Avetik; Liu, Jun; Skerjanc, Ilona S; Stanford, William L

    2016-05-15

    Human pluripotent stem cells provide a developmental model to study early embryonic and tissue development, tease apart human disease processes, perform drug screens to identify potential molecular effectors of in situ regeneration, and provide a source for cell and tissue based transplantation. Highly efficient differentiation protocols have been established for many cell types and tissues; however, until very recently robust differentiation into skeletal muscle cells had not been possible unless driven by transgenic expression of master regulators of myogenesis. Nevertheless, several breakthrough protocols have been published in the past two years that efficiently generate cells of the skeletal muscle lineage from pluripotent stem cells. Here, we present an updated version of our recently described 50-day protocol in detail, whereby chemically defined media are used to drive and support muscle lineage development from initial CHIR99021-induced mesoderm through to PAX7-expressing skeletal muscle progenitors and mature skeletal myocytes. Furthermore, we report an optional method to passage and expand differentiating skeletal muscle progenitors approximately 3-fold every 2weeks using Collagenase IV and continued FGF2 supplementation. Both protocols have been optimized using a variety of human pluripotent stem cell lines including patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells. Taken together, our differentiation and expansion protocols provide sufficient quantities of skeletal muscle progenitors and myocytes that could be used for a variety of studies. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Radioiodine therapy in skeletal metastases from well-differentiated thyroid cancer: a Johannesburg experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini Sindy Perumal

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim.The purpose of this study was to examine the outcome of patients with skeletal metastases from well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma and analyse the effect of variables that influence the prognosis of this disease. Method. We retrospectively reviewed 352 patients treated and followed-up at the Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital’s thyroid cancer clinic from 1982 - 1999. Findings. Skeletal metastases were diagnosed in 24 (6.8%, 17 at presentation to the thyroid clinic, and 7 at follow-up. Patients’ ages ranged from 30 - 77 years (mean 53.9 years and the female:male ratio was 3.8:1. Based on the original pathology reports from resected tumours, 9 were papillary and 15 were follicular cancers. Twenty-three of the 24 patients underwent thyroid surgery as the initial management – total thyroidectomy in 18, subtotal thyroidectomy in 3, and lobectomy plus neck dissection in one. The diagnosis of thyroid cancer was based on lobectomy in a single subject. Radioactive iodine (RAI was used as part of the original treatment; external radiation therapy (XRT was mainly used to alleviate severe symptoms. Twenty-one patients (87.5% were treated with RAI; 11 (45.8% received radiotherapy. Seven patients died – 4 from neurological disease directly associated with bone metastases. Of the 17 surviving patients, 2 appeared to be disease-free, 8 were asymptomatic despite overt bony disease, and 7 had persistent symptoms which much improved in 5. Bone metastases were uncommon, and follicular cancer predominated in this survey. Conclusion. RAI therapy improves quality of life in most patients. There is a place for XRT.

  3. Differentiation of mammalian skeletal muscle cells cultured on microcarrier beads in a rotating cell culture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgan, C. E.; Burge, S. S.; Collinsworth, A. M.; Truskey, G. A.; Kraus, W. E.

    2000-01-01

    The growth and repair of adult skeletal muscle are due in part to activation of muscle precursor cells, commonly known as satellite cells or myoblasts. These cells are responsive to a variety of environmental cues, including mechanical stimuli. The overall goal of the research is to examine the role of mechanical signalling mechanisms in muscle growth and plasticity through utilisation of cell culture systems where other potential signalling pathways (i.e. chemical and electrical stimuli) are controlled. To explore the effects of decreased mechanical loading on muscle differentiation, mammalian myoblasts are cultured in a bioreactor (rotating cell culture system), a model that has been utilised to simulate microgravity. C2C12 murine myoblasts are cultured on microcarrier beads in a bioreactor and followed throughout differentiation as they form a network of multinucleated myotubes. In comparison with three-dimensional control cultures that consist of myoblasts cultured on microcarrier beads in teflon bags, myoblasts cultured in the bioreactor exhibit an attenuation in differentiation. This is demonstrated by reduced immunohistochemical staining for myogenin and alpha-actinin. Western analysis shows a decrease, in bioreactor cultures compared with control cultures, in levels of the contractile proteins myosin (47% decrease, p < 0.01) and tropomyosin (63% decrease, p < 0.01). Hydrodynamic measurements indicate that the decrease in differentiation may be due, at least in part, to fluid stresses acting on the myotubes. In addition, constraints on aggregate size imposed by the action of fluid forces in the bioreactor affect differentiation. These results may have implications for muscle growth and repair during spaceflight.

  4. YB1/p32, a nuclear Y-box binding protein 1, is a novel regulator of myoblast differentiation that interacts with Msx1 homeoprotein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Young Joon [Department of Biological Sciences, College of Natural Science, Inha University, 253 Yonghyun-dong, Nam-Gu, Incheon, Korea, 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hansol, E-mail: hlee@inha.ac.kr [Department of Biological Sciences, College of Natural Science, Inha University, 253 Yonghyun-dong, Nam-Gu, Incheon, Korea, 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    Precisely controlled cellular differentiation is essential for the proper development of vertebrate embryo and deregulated differentiation is a major cause of many human congenital diseases as well as cancer. Msx1 is a member of the homeoprotein family implicated in these processes, which inhibits the differentiation of skeletal muscle and other cell types, presumably by regulating transcription of target genes through interaction with other cellular factors. We presently show that YB1/p32, a nuclear Y-box binding protein 1, interacts with Msx1 homeoprotein and functions as a regulator of C2C12 myoblast differentiation. We demonstrate that YB1/p32 functionally interacts with Msx1 through its N-terminal region and colocalizes with Msx1 at the nuclear periphery. Moreover, we find that YB1/p32 is competent for inhibition of C2C12 myoblast differentiation, which is correlated with its activity as a negative regulator of MyoD gene expression and binding to the MyoD core enhancer region (CER). Furthermore, YB1/p32 cooperates with Msx1 in transcriptional repression and knocking down the expression of endogenous YB1 attenuates the effects of Msx1. Taken together, our study has uncovered a new function of YB1/p32, a regulator of skeletal muscle differentiation.

  5. YB1/p32, a nuclear Y-box binding protein 1, is a novel regulator of myoblast differentiation that interacts with Msx1 homeoprotein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Young Joon; Lee, Hansol

    2010-01-01

    Precisely controlled cellular differentiation is essential for the proper development of vertebrate embryo and deregulated differentiation is a major cause of many human congenital diseases as well as cancer. Msx1 is a member of the homeoprotein family implicated in these processes, which inhibits the differentiation of skeletal muscle and other cell types, presumably by regulating transcription of target genes through interaction with other cellular factors. We presently show that YB1/p32, a nuclear Y-box binding protein 1, interacts with Msx1 homeoprotein and functions as a regulator of C2C12 myoblast differentiation. We demonstrate that YB1/p32 functionally interacts with Msx1 through its N-terminal region and colocalizes with Msx1 at the nuclear periphery. Moreover, we find that YB1/p32 is competent for inhibition of C2C12 myoblast differentiation, which is correlated with its activity as a negative regulator of MyoD gene expression and binding to the MyoD core enhancer region (CER). Furthermore, YB1/p32 cooperates with Msx1 in transcriptional repression and knocking down the expression of endogenous YB1 attenuates the effects of Msx1. Taken together, our study has uncovered a new function of YB1/p32, a regulator of skeletal muscle differentiation.

  6. Differential response of skeletal muscles to mTORC1 signaling during atrophy and hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Skeletal muscle mass is determined by the balance between protein synthesis and degradation. Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a master regulator of protein translation and has been implicated in the control of muscle mass. Inactivation of mTORC1 by skeletal muscle-specific deletion of its obligatory component raptor results in smaller muscles and a lethal dystrophy. Moreover, raptor-deficient muscles are less oxidative through changes in the expression PGC-1α, a critical determinant of mitochondrial biogenesis. These results suggest that activation of mTORC1 might be beneficial to skeletal muscle by providing resistance to muscle atrophy and increasing oxidative function. Here, we tested this hypothesis by deletion of the mTORC1 inhibitor tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) in muscle fibers. Method Skeletal muscles of mice with an acute or a permanent deletion of raptor or TSC1 were examined using histological, biochemical and molecular biological methods. Response of the muscles to changes in mechanical load and nerve input was investigated by ablation of synergistic muscles or by denervation . Results Genetic deletion or knockdown of raptor, causing inactivation of mTORC1, was sufficient to prevent muscle growth and enhance muscle atrophy. Conversely, short-term activation of mTORC1 by knockdown of TSC induced muscle fiber hypertrophy and atrophy-resistance upon denervation, in both fast tibialis anterior (TA) and slow soleus muscles. Surprisingly, however, sustained activation of mTORC1 by genetic deletion of Tsc1 caused muscle atrophy in all but soleus muscles. In contrast, oxidative capacity was increased in all muscles examined. Consistently, TSC1-deficient soleus muscle was atrophy-resistant whereas TA underwent normal atrophy upon denervation. Moreover, upon overloading, plantaris muscle did not display enhanced hypertrophy compared to controls. Biochemical analysis indicated that the atrophy response of muscles was based on the

  7. Differential expression of myogenic regulatory factor MyoD in pacu skeletal muscle (Piaractus mesopotamicus Holmberg 1887: Serrasalminae, Characidae, Teleostei) during juvenile and adult growth phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Fernanda Losi Alves; Carvalho, Robson Francisco; Pinhal, Danillo; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Martins, Cesar; Dal Pai-Silva, Maeli

    2008-12-01

    Skeletal muscle is the edible part of the fish. It grows by hypertrophy and hyperplasia, events regulated by differential expression of myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs). The study of muscle growth mechanisms in fish is very important in fish farming development. Pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus) is one of the most important food species farmed in Brazil and has been extensively used in Brazilian aquaculture programs. The aim of this study was to analyze hyperplasia and hypertrophy and the MRF MyoD expression pattern in skeletal muscle of pacu (P. mesopotamicus) during juvenile and adult growth stages. Juvenile (n=5) and adult (n=5) fish were anaesthetized, sacrificed, and weight (g) and total length (cm) determined. White dorsal region muscle samples were collected and immersed in liquid nitrogen. Transverse sections (10 microm thick) were stained with Haematoxilin-Eosin (HE) for morphological and morphometric analysis. Smallest fiber diameter from 100 muscle fibers per animal was calculated in each growth phase. These fibers were grouped into three classes (50 microm) to evaluate hypertrophy and hyperplasia in white skeletal muscle. MyoD gene expression was determined by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. PCR products were cloned and sequenced. Juvenile and adult pacu skeletal muscle had similar morphology. The large number of fish confirms active hyperplasia. In adult fish, most fibers were over 50 microm diameter and denote more intense muscle fiber hypertrophy. The MyoD mRNA level in juveniles was higher than in adults. A consensus partial sequence for MyoD gene (338 base pairs) was obtained. The Pacu MyoD nucleotide sequence displayed high similarity among several vertebrates, including teleosts. The differential MyoD gene expression observed in pacu white muscle is possibly related to differences in growth patterns during the phases analyzed, with hyperplasia predominant in juveniles and hypertrophy in adult fish. These results should provide a foundation for

  8. A function for Rac1 in the terminal differentiation and pigmentation of hair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendt, Kristina; Klatte, Jennifer; Pofahl, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    in the regulation of terminal hair follicle differentiation. To address this, we have expressed a constitutively active mutant of Rac1, L61Rac1, only in the basal epidermal layer and outer root sheath of mice possessing an epidermis-specific deletion of endogenous Rac1, which experience severe hair loss......The small GTPase Rac1 is ubiquitously expressed in proliferating and differentiating layers of the epidermis and hair follicles. Previously, Rac1 was shown to regulate stem cell behaviour in these compartments. We have asked whether Rac1 has, in addition, a specific, stem-cell-independent function....... The resulting 'rescue' mice exhibited a hair coat throughout their lives. Therefore, expression of Rac1 activity in the keratin-14-positive compartment of the skin is sufficient for the formation of hair follicles and hair in normal quantities. The quality of hair formed in rescue mice was, however, not normal...

  9. Radiation treatment of painful degenerative skeletal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, U.; Micke, O.; Willich, N.

    1996-01-01

    The study reported was intended to present own experience with irradiation for treatment of painful degenerative skeletal conditions and examine the long-term effects of this treatment. A retrospective study was performed covering the period from 1985 until 1991, examining 157 patients suffering from painful degenerative skeletal conditions who entered information on the success of their radiation treatment in a questionnaire. 94 of the questionnaires could be used for evaluation. Pain anamnesis revealed periods of more than one year in 45% of the cases. 74% of the patients had been treated without success with drug or orthopedic therapy. Immediately after termination of the radiotherapy, 38% of the patients said to be free of pain or to feel essentially relieved, while at the time the questionnaire was distributed, the percentage was 76%. Thus in our patient material, radiotherapy for treatment of painful degenerative skeletal lesions was successful in 76% of the cases and for long post-treatment periods, including those cases whith long pain anamnesis and unsuccessful conventional pre-treatment. (orig./MG) [de

  10. MASTR directs MyoD-dependent satellite cell differentiation during skeletal muscle regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Mokalled, Mayssa H.; Johnson, Aaron N.; Creemers, Esther E.; Olson, Eric N.

    2012-01-01

    Muscle repair is regulated by satellite cells, adult skeletal muscle stem cells that control muscle regeneration by proliferating and fusing with injured myofibers. MyoD is required for muscle regeneration; however, the mechanisms regulating MyoD expression in satellite cells are unclear. In this study, Olson and colleagues have demonstrated that deletion of MASTR and MRTF-A, two members of the Myocardin family of transcription factors, leads to skeletal muscle regeneration defects and down-r...

  11. IL-27 Receptor Signalling Restricts the Formation of Pathogenic, Terminally Differentiated Th1 Cells during Malaria Infection by Repressing IL-12 Dependent Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas-Mendez, Ana; de Souza, J. Brian; Lavelle, Seen-Wai; Gwyer Findlay, Emily; Shaw, Tovah N.; van Rooijen, Nico; Saris, Christiaan J.; Hunter, Christopher A.; Riley, Eleanor M.; Couper, Kevin N.

    2013-01-01

    The IL-27R, WSX-1, is required to limit IFN-γ production by effector CD4+ T cells in a number of different inflammatory conditions but the molecular basis of WSX-1-mediated regulation of Th1 responses in vivo during infection has not been investigated in detail. In this study we demonstrate that WSX-1 signalling suppresses the development of pathogenic, terminally differentiated (KLRG-1+) Th1 cells during malaria infection and establishes a restrictive threshold to constrain the emergent Th1 response. Importantly, we show that WSX-1 regulates cell-intrinsic responsiveness to IL-12 and IL-2, but the fate of the effector CD4+ T cell pool during malaria infection is controlled primarily through IL-12 dependent signals. Finally, we show that WSX-1 regulates Th1 cell terminal differentiation during malaria infection through IL-10 and Foxp3 independent mechanisms; the kinetics and magnitude of the Th1 response, and the degree of Th1 cell terminal differentiation, were comparable in WT, IL-10R1−/− and IL-10−/− mice and the numbers and phenotype of Foxp3+ cells were largely unaltered in WSX-1−/− mice during infection. As expected, depletion of Foxp3+ cells did not enhance Th1 cell polarisation or terminal differentiation during malaria infection. Our results significantly expand our understanding of how IL-27 regulates Th1 responses in vivo during inflammatory conditions and establishes WSX-1 as a critical and non-redundant regulator of the emergent Th1 effector response during malaria infection. PMID:23593003

  12. SPARC is up-regulated during skeletal muscle regeneration and inhibits myoblast differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Stine Juhl; Jørgensen, Louise Helskov; Andersen, Ditte C.

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal muscle repair is mediated primarily by the muscle stem cell, the satellite cell. Several factors, including extracellular matrix, are known to regulate satellite cell function and regeneration. One factor, the matricellular Secreted Protein Acidic and Rich in Cysteine (SPARC) is highly up......-regulated during skeletal muscle disease, but its function remains elusive. In the present study, we demonstrate a prominent yet transient increase in SPARC mRNA and protein content during skeletal muscle regeneration that correlates with the expression profile of specific muscle factors like MyoD, Myf5, Myf6......, Myogenin, NCAM, CD34, and M-Cadherin, all known to be implicated in satellite cell activation/proliferation following muscle damage. This up regulation was detected in more cell types. Ectopic expression of SPARC in the muscle progenitor cell line C2C12 was performed to mimic the high levels of SPARC seen...

  13. [Stimulation of maturing and terminal differentiation by concanavalin A in rabbit permanent chondrocyte cultures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, W Q; Yang, T S; Hou, L Z; Susuki, F; Kato, Y

    1994-12-01

    The effect of concanavalin A (Con A) on maturing and terminal differentiation in permanent chondrocyte cultures were examined. Chondrocytes isolated from permanent cartilage were seeded at low density and grown in MEM medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum, 50 micrograms/ml of ascorbic acid and antibiotics, at 37 degrees C under 50% CO2 in air. At 0.3% of low serum concentration, addition of Con A to the culture medium increased by 3- to 4-fold the incorporation of [35S] sulfate into large chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan that characteristically found in cartilage. Chemical analysis showed a 4-fold increase in the accumulation of macromolecular containing hexuronic acid in Con A-maintained cultures. The effect of Con A on [35S]sulfate incorporation into proteoglycan was greater than that of various growth factor or hormones. Brief exposure of the permanent chondrocytes to Con A (5 micrograms/ml) for 24 hours and subsequent incubation in its absence for 5-10 days resulted in 10- to 100-fold increase in alkaline phosphatase and binding of 1.25 (OH)2 vitamin D3 to cells. Treatment with Con A also resulted in 10- to 20-fold increase in calcium content and 45Ca incorporation into insoluble material. Methyl-D-mannopyranoside reversed the effect of Con A on [35S]sulfate incorporation into proteoglycan and alkaline phosphatase activity. Since other lectins, such as wheat germ agglutinin, lentil lectin, phytohemagglutinin, Ulex europeasu agglutinin and garden pea lectin had been tested to have little effect on [35S]sulfate incorporation into proteoglycans and induction of alkaline phosphatase activity, the Con A action on chondrocytes seems specific. These results indicate that Con A is a potent modulator of differentiation of chondrocytes, which induces the onset on a maturing and a terminal differentiation in chondrocytes, leading to extensive calcification of the extracellular matrix.

  14. Upon the triple phase skeletal scintigraphy in traumatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitz, W.

    1988-01-01

    A broadly established indication catalogue for skeletal scintigraphy in traumatology is resulting from about 1500 skeletal scans. Aside from the exclusion of any osseous lesion, from the differentiation of uncertain X-ray findings, from the determination of the extent of osseous lesions in polytraumatic conditions and from the assessment of the relative fracture age, the follow-up after trauma and therapeutical intervention, the demonstration of battered child syndromes and of soft tissue lesions are of special importance with regard to these topics. For all that, the high sensitivity of the 3-phase skeletal scintigraphy for every enhancement of osseous turnover represents the elementary prerequisite for the employment of this non-invasive technique as an ideal screening method in traumatological diagnostics. The experiences from the past years have resulted in an increased frequency of skeletal scintigraphic studies to a similarly high level, as it is already established in the majority of institutions with respect to oncological problems, In the development of efficient and cost favourable diagnostic strategies with only little burden to the patient, skeletal scintigraphy will in future play an important role within the palette of modern skeletal diagnostics in traumatology. (orig.) [de

  15. Development of an in vitro potency assay for human skeletal muscle derived cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurner, Marco; Asim, Faheem; Garczarczyk-Asim, Dorota; Janke, Katrin; Deutsch, Martin; Margreiter, Eva; Troppmair, Jakob; Marksteiner, Rainer

    2018-01-01

    Potency is a quantitative measure of the desired biological function of an advanced therapy medicinal product (ATMP) and is a prerequisite for market approval application (MAA). To assess the potency of human skeletal muscle-derived cells (SMDCs), which are currently investigated in clinical trials for the regeneration of skeletal muscle defects, we evaluated acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which is expressed in skeletal muscle and nervous tissue of all mammals. CD56+ SMDCs were separated from CD56- SMDCs by magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS) and both differentiated in skeletal muscle differentiation medium. AChE activity of in vitro differentiated SMDCs was correlated with CD56 expression, fusion index, cell number, cell doubling numbers, differentiation markers and compared to the clinical efficacy in patients treated with SMDCs against fecal incontinence. CD56- SMDCs did not form multinucleated myotubes and remained low in AChE activity during differentiation. CD56+ SMDCs generated myotubes and increased in AChE activity during differentiation. AChE activity was found to accurately reflect the number of CD56+ SMDCs in culture, their fusion competence, and cell doubling number. In patients with fecal incontinence responding to SMDCs treatment, the improvement of clinical symptoms was positively linked with the AChE activity of the SMDCs injected. AChE activity was found to truly reflect the in vitro differentiation status of SMDCs and to be superior to the mere use of surface markers as it reflects not only the number of myogenic SMDCs in culture but also their fusion competence and population doubling number, thus combining cell quality and quantification of the expected mode of action (MoA) of SMDCs. Moreover, the successful in vitro validation of the assay proves its suitability for routine use. Most convincingly, our results demonstrate a link between clinical efficacy and the AChE activity of the SMDCs preparations used for the treatment of fecal

  16. Changes in skeletal muscle gene expression following clenbuterol administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McIntyre Lauren M

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Beta-adrenergic receptor agonists (BA induce skeletal muscle hypertrophy, yet specific mechanisms that lead to this effect are not well understood. The objective of this research was to identify novel genes and physiological pathways that potentially facilitate BA induced skeletal muscle growth. The Affymetrix platform was utilized to identify gene expression changes in mouse skeletal muscle 24 hours and 10 days after administration of the BA clenbuterol. Results Administration of clenbuterol stimulated anabolic activity, as indicated by decreased blood urea nitrogen (BUN; P P Conclusion Global evaluation of gene expression after administration of clenbuterol identified changes in gene expression and overrepresented functional categories of genes that may regulate BA-induced muscle hypertrophy. Changes in mRNA abundance of multiple genes associated with myogenic differentiation may indicate an important effect of BA on proliferation, differentiation, and/or recruitment of satellite cells into muscle fibers to promote muscle hypertrophy. Increased mRNA abundance of genes involved in the initiation of translation suggests that increased levels of protein synthesis often associated with BA administration may result from a general up-regulation of translational initiators. Additionally, numerous other genes and physiological pathways were identified that will be important targets for further investigations of the hypertrophic effect of BA on skeletal muscle.

  17. Peroxisomes in Different Skeletal Cell Types during Intramembranous and Endochondral Ossification and Their Regulation during Osteoblast Differentiation by Distinct Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guofeng Qian

    Full Text Available Ossification defects leading to craniofacial dysmorphism or rhizomelia are typical phenotypes in patients and corresponding knockout mouse models with distinct peroxisomal disorders. Despite these obvious skeletal pathologies, to date no careful analysis exists on the distribution and function of peroxisomes in skeletal tissues and their alterations during ossification. Therefore, we analyzed the peroxisomal compartment in different cell types of mouse cartilage and bone as well as in primary cultures of calvarial osteoblasts. The peroxisome number and metabolism strongly increased in chondrocytes during endochondral ossification from the reserve to the hypertrophic zone, whereas in bone, metabolically active osteoblasts contained a higher numerical abundance of this organelle than osteocytes. The high abundance of peroxisomes in these skeletal cell types is reflected by high levels of Pex11β gene expression. During culture, calvarial pre-osteoblasts differentiated into secretory osteoblasts accompanied by peroxisome proliferation and increased levels of peroxisomal genes and proteins. Since many peroxisomal genes contain a PPAR-responsive element, we analyzed the gene expression of PPARɑ/ß/ɣ in calvarial osteoblasts and MC3T3-E1 cells, revealing higher levels for PPARß than for PPARɑ and PPARɣ. Treatment with different PPAR agonists and antagonists not only changed the peroxisomal compartment and associated gene expression, but also induced complex alterations of the gene expression patterns of the other PPAR family members. Studies in M3CT3-E1 cells showed that the PPARß agonist GW0742 activated the PPRE-mediated luciferase expression and up-regulated peroxisomal gene transcription (Pex11, Pex13, Pex14, Acox1 and Cat, whereas the PPARß antagonist GSK0660 led to repression of the PPRE and a decrease of the corresponding mRNA levels. In the same way, treatment of calvarial osteoblasts with GW0742 increased in peroxisome number and

  18. Transgelin is a TGFβ-inducible gene that regulates osteoblastic and adipogenic differentiation of human skeletal stem cells through actin cytoskeleston organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsafadi, E; Manikandan, M; Dawud, R. A.

    2016-01-01

    Regenerative medicine is a novel approach for treating conditions in which enhanced bone regeneration is required. We identified transgelin (TAGLN), a transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ)-inducible gene, as an upregulated gene during in vitro osteoblastic and adipocytic differentiation of human......MSC by regulating cytoskeleton organization. Targeting TAGLN is a plausible approach to enrich for committed hMSC cells needed for regenerative medicine application....... bone marrow-derived stromal (skeletal) stem cells (hMSC). siRNA-mediated gene silencing of TAGLN impaired lineage differentiation into osteoblasts and adipocytes but enhanced cell proliferation. Additional functional studies revealed that TAGLN deficiency impaired hMSC cell motility and in vitro...... transwell cell migration. On the other hand, TAGLN overexpression reduced hMSC cell proliferation, but enhanced cell migration, osteoblastic and adipocytic differentiation, and in vivo bone formation. In addition, deficiency or overexpression of TAGLN in hMSC was associated with significant changes...

  19. The omega-3 fatty acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, prevents the damaging effects of tumour necrosis factor (TNF-alpha during murine skeletal muscle cell differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pearson Stephen

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA is a ώ-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid with anti-inflammatory and anti-cachetic properties that may have potential benefits with regards to skeletal muscle atrophy conditions where inflammation is present. It is also reported that pathologic levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α are associated with muscle wasting, exerted through inhibition of myogenic differentiation and enhanced apoptosis. These findings led us to hypothesize that EPA may have a protective effect against skeletal muscle damage induced by the actions of TNF-α. Results The deleterious effects of TNF-α on C2C12 myogenesis were completely inhibited by co-treatment with EPA. Thus, EPA prevented the TNF-mediated loss of MyHC expression and significantly increased myogenic fusion (p p p p p p Conclusion In conclusion, EPA has a protective action against the damaging effects of TNF-α on C2C12 myogenesis. These findings support further investigations of EPA as a potential therapeutic agent during skeletal muscle regeneration following injury.

  20. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression by skeletal muscle cells augments myogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goh, Qingnian; Dearth, Christopher L.; Corbett, Jacob T.; Pierre, Philippe; Chadee, Deborah N.; Pizza, Francis X.

    2015-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) by skeletal muscle cells after muscle overload contributes to ensuing regenerative and hypertrophic processes in skeletal muscle. The objective of the present study is to reveal mechanisms through which skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 augments regenerative and hypertrophic processes of myogenesis. This was accomplished by genetically engineering C2C12 myoblasts to stably express ICAM-1, and by inhibiting the adhesive and signaling functions of ICAM-1 through the use of a neutralizing antibody or cell penetrating peptide, respectively. Expression of ICAM-1 by cultured skeletal muscle cells augmented myoblast–myoblast adhesion, myotube formation, myonuclear number, myotube alignment, myotube–myotube fusion, and myotube size without influencing the ability of myoblasts to proliferate or differentiate. ICAM-1 augmented myotube formation, myonuclear accretion, and myotube alignment through a mechanism involving adhesion-induced activation of ICAM-1 signaling, as these dependent measures were reduced via antibody and peptide inhibition of ICAM-1. The adhesive and signaling functions of ICAM-1 also facilitated myotube hypertrophy through a mechanism involving myotube–myotube fusion, protein synthesis, and Akt/p70s6k signaling. Our findings demonstrate that ICAM-1 expression by skeletal muscle cells augments myogenesis, and establish a novel mechanism through which the inflammatory response facilitates growth processes in skeletal muscle. - Highlights: • We examined mechanisms through which skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 facilitates events of in vitro myogenesis. • Expression of ICAM-1 by cultured myoblasts did not influence their ability to proliferate or differentiate. • Skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 augmented myoblast fusion, myotube alignment, myotube–myotube fusion, and myotube size. • ICAM-1 augmented myogenic processes through

  1. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression by skeletal muscle cells augments myogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goh, Qingnian; Dearth, Christopher L.; Corbett, Jacob T. [Department of Kinesiology, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Pierre, Philippe [Centre d’Immunologie de Marseille-Luminy U2M, Aix-Marseille Université, Marseille (France); INSERM U631, Institut National de la Santé et Recherche Médicale, Marseille (France); CNRS UMR6102, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Marseille (France); Chadee, Deborah N. [Department of Biological Sciences, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Pizza, Francis X., E-mail: Francis.Pizza@utoledo.edu [Department of Kinesiology, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States)

    2015-02-15

    We previously demonstrated that the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) by skeletal muscle cells after muscle overload contributes to ensuing regenerative and hypertrophic processes in skeletal muscle. The objective of the present study is to reveal mechanisms through which skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 augments regenerative and hypertrophic processes of myogenesis. This was accomplished by genetically engineering C2C12 myoblasts to stably express ICAM-1, and by inhibiting the adhesive and signaling functions of ICAM-1 through the use of a neutralizing antibody or cell penetrating peptide, respectively. Expression of ICAM-1 by cultured skeletal muscle cells augmented myoblast–myoblast adhesion, myotube formation, myonuclear number, myotube alignment, myotube–myotube fusion, and myotube size without influencing the ability of myoblasts to proliferate or differentiate. ICAM-1 augmented myotube formation, myonuclear accretion, and myotube alignment through a mechanism involving adhesion-induced activation of ICAM-1 signaling, as these dependent measures were reduced via antibody and peptide inhibition of ICAM-1. The adhesive and signaling functions of ICAM-1 also facilitated myotube hypertrophy through a mechanism involving myotube–myotube fusion, protein synthesis, and Akt/p70s6k signaling. Our findings demonstrate that ICAM-1 expression by skeletal muscle cells augments myogenesis, and establish a novel mechanism through which the inflammatory response facilitates growth processes in skeletal muscle. - Highlights: • We examined mechanisms through which skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 facilitates events of in vitro myogenesis. • Expression of ICAM-1 by cultured myoblasts did not influence their ability to proliferate or differentiate. • Skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 augmented myoblast fusion, myotube alignment, myotube–myotube fusion, and myotube size. • ICAM-1 augmented myogenic processes through

  2. RNase L controls terminal adipocyte differentiation, lipids storage and insulin sensitivity via CHOP10 mRNA regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabre, Odile Martine Julie; Salehzada, T; Lambert, K

    2012-01-01

    Adipose tissue structure is altered during obesity, leading to deregulation of whole-body metabolism. Its function depends on its structure, in particular adipocytes number and differentiation stage. To better understand the mechanisms regulating adipogenesis, we have investigated the role...... is associated with CHOP10 mRNA and regulates its stability. CHOP10 expression is conserved in RNase L(-/-)-MEFs, maintaining preadipocyte state while impairing their terminal differentiation. RNase L(-/-)-MEFs have decreased lipids storage capacity, insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake. Expression of ectopic...... RNase L in RNase L(-/-)-MEFs triggers CHOP10 mRNA instability, allowing increased lipids storage, insulin response and glucose uptake. Similarly, downregulation of CHOP10 mRNA with CHOP10 siRNA in RNase L(-/-)-MEFs improves their differentiation in adipocyte. In vivo, aged RNase L(-)/(-) mice present...

  3. N-terminal pro-C-type natriuretic peptide in serum associated with bone destruction in patients with multiple myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mylin, Anne K; Goetze, Jens P; Heickendorff, Lene

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To examine whether N-terminal proCNP concentrations in serum is associated with bone destruction in patients with multiple myeloma. MATERIALS & METHODS: N-terminal proCNP and biochemical bone markers were measured in 153 patients. Radiographic bone disease and skeletal-related events were...

  4. Extrarenal potassium adaptation: role of skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blachley, J.D.; Crider, B.P.; Johnson, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    Following the ingestion of a high-potassium-content diet for only a few days, the plasma potassium of rats rises only modestly in response to a previously lethal dose of potassium salts. This acquired tolerance, termed potassium adaptation, is principally the result of increased capacity to excrete potassium into the urine. However, a substantial portion of the acute potassium dose is not immediately excreted and is apparently translocated into cells. Previous studies have failed to show an increase in the content of potassium of a variety of tissues from such animals. Using 86 Rb as a potassium analogue, we have shown that the skeletal muscle of potassium-adapted rats takes up significantly greater amounts of potassium in vivo in response to an acute challenge than does that of control animals. Furthermore, the same animals exhibit greater efflux of 86 Rb following the termination of the acute infusion. We have also shown that the Na+-K+-ATPase activity and ouabain-binding capacity of skeletal muscle microsomes are increased by the process of potassium adaptation. We conclude that skeletal muscle is an important participant in potassium adaptation and acts to temporarily buffer acute increases in the extracellular concentration of potassium

  5. Paleopathological Study of Dwarfism-Related Skeletal Dysplasia in a Late Joseon Dynasty (South Korean) Population

    OpenAIRE

    Woo, Eun Jin; Lee, Won-Joon; Hu, Kyung-Seok; Hwang, Jae Joon

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal dysplasias related to genetic etiologies have rarely been reported for past populations. This report presents the skeletal characteristics of an individual with dwarfism-related skeletal dysplasia from South Korea. To assess abnormal deformities, morphological features, metric data, and computed tomography scans are analyzed. Differential diagnoses include achondroplasia or hypochondroplasia, chondrodysplasia, multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, thalassemia-related hemolytic anemia, and l...

  6. Genetic engineering for skeletal regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersbach, Charles A; Phillips, Jennifer E; García, Andrés J

    2007-01-01

    The clinical challenges of skeletal regenerative medicine have motivated significant advances in cellular and tissue engineering in recent years. In particular, advances in molecular biology have provided the tools necessary for the design of gene-based strategies for skeletal tissue repair. Consequently, genetic engineering has emerged as a promising method to address the need for sustained and robust cellular differentiation and extracellular matrix production. As a result, gene therapy has been established as a conventional approach to enhance cellular activities for skeletal tissue repair. Recent literature clearly demonstrates that genetic engineering is a principal factor in constructing effective methods for tissue engineering approaches to bone, cartilage, and connective tissue regeneration. This review highlights this literature, including advances in the development of efficacious gene carriers, novel cell sources, successful delivery strategies, and optimal target genes. The current status of the field and the challenges impeding the clinical realization of these approaches are also discussed.

  7. Pbx and Prdm1a transcription factors differentially regulate subsets of the fast skeletal muscle program in zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zizhen Yao

    2013-04-01

    The basic helix–loop–helix factor Myod initiates skeletal muscle differentiation by directly and sequentially activating sets of muscle differentiation genes, including those encoding muscle contractile proteins. We hypothesize that Pbx homeodomain proteins direct Myod to a subset of its transcriptional targets, in particular fast-twitch muscle differentiation genes, thereby regulating the competence of muscle precursor cells to differentiate. We have previously shown that Pbx proteins bind with Myod on the promoter of the zebrafish fast muscle gene mylpfa and that Pbx proteins are required for Myod to activate mylpfa expression and the fast-twitch muscle-specific differentiation program in zebrafish embryos. Here we have investigated the interactions of Pbx with another muscle fiber-type regulator, Prdm1a, a SET-domain DNA-binding factor that directly represses mylpfa expression and fast muscle differentiation. The prdm1a mutant phenotype, early and increased fast muscle differentiation, is the opposite of the Pbx-null phenotype, delayed and reduced fast muscle differentiation. To determine whether Pbx and Prdm1a have opposing activities on a common set of genes, we used RNA-seq analysis to globally assess gene expression in zebrafish embryos with single- and double-losses-of-function for Pbx and Prdm1a. We find that the levels of expression of certain fast muscle genes are increased or approximately wild type in pbx2/4-MO;prdm1a−/− embryos, suggesting that Pbx activity normally counters the repressive action of Prdm1a for a subset of the fast muscle program. However, other fast muscle genes require Pbx but are not regulated by Prdm1a. Thus, our findings reveal that subsets of the fast muscle program are differentially regulated by Pbx and Prdm1a. Our findings provide an example of how Pbx homeodomain proteins act in a balance with other transcription factors to regulate subsets of a cellular differentiation program.

  8. Osteopoikilosis: A Sign Mimicking Skeletal Metastases in a Cancer Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Nasrolahi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteopoikilosis is a rare benign osteosclerotic bone disorder that may be misdiagnosed as skeletal metastases. Here we describe a case of coincidental breast cancer and osteopoikilosis mimicking skeletal metastases. A 41-year-old woman underwent right modified radical mastectomy in April 2007. Twenty-eight months after initial treatment,the patient complained of bilateral knee and foot pain. Plain X-rays of the feet and knees showed multiple well-defined osteosclerotic lesions. According to the radiographic appearance, the most likely differential diagnoses included skeletal metastases from breast cancer and osteopoikilosis. A whole-body bone scintigraphy showed no increase in uptake by the sclerotic lesions, and serum lactic dehydrogenase, carcinoembryonic antigen, alkaline phosphatase and cancer antigen 15-3 were not elevated. We therefore diagnosed the patient’s skeletal lesions as osteopoikilosis. This case and ourliterature review suggest that the radiographic appearance of osteopoikilosis may mimic or mask skeletal metastases, potentially leading to misdiagnosis in patients with cancer.

  9. Visualization of living terminal hypertrophic chondrocytes of growth plate cartilage in situ by differential interference contrast microscopy and time-lapse cinematography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnum, C E; Turgai, J; Wilsman, N J

    1990-09-01

    The functional unit within the growth plate consists of a column of chondrocytes that passes through a sequence of phases including proliferation, hypertrophy, and death. It is important to our understanding of the biology of the growth plate to determine if distal hypertrophic cells are viable, highly differentiated cells with the potential of actively controlling terminal events of endochondral ossification prior to their death at the chondro-osseous junction. This study for the first time reports on the visualization of living hypertrophic chondrocytes in situ, including the terminal hypertrophic chondrocyte. Chondrocytes in growth plate explants are visualized using rectified differential interference contrast microscopy. We record and measure, using time-lapse cinematography, the rate of movement of subcellular organelles at the limit of resolution of this light microscopy system. Control experiments to assess viability of hypertrophic chondrocytes include coincubating organ cultures with the intravital dye fluorescein diacetate to assess the integrity of the plasma membrane and cytoplasmic esterases. In this system, all hypertrophic chondrocytes, including the very terminal chondrocyte, exist as rounded, fully hydrated cells. By the criteria of intravital dye staining and organelle movement, distal hypertrophic chondrocytes are identical to chondrocytes in the proliferative and early hypertrophic cell zones.

  10. N-Terminal Pro-B-Type Natriuretic Peptide and Phonocardiography in Differentiating Innocent Cardiac Murmurs from Congenital Cardiac Anomalies in Asymptomatic Puppies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marinus, S M; Engelen, H.G.H.; Szatmári, V.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Differentiating innocent cardiac murmurs from murmurs caused by congenital cardiac anomalies can be challenging with auscultation alone in asymptomatic puppies. Hypothesis: Plasma N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) concentrations and phonocardiograms recorded by an

  11. Skeletal metastases of carcinomas of prostate in dependence on tumor size and tumor differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, U.

    1981-01-01

    153 patients with carcinoma of the prostate underwent holebody skeletal scintiscanning. It resulted that the tendency to the development of skeletal metastases increases with increasing dedifferentiation of the tumor. Also the tumor size correlated with the metastase identification. The tumor dedifferentiation also increased with the tumor size. The findings proved that the early diagnosis of a carcinoma of the prostate is a necessary prerequisite, because a radical total removal can only be curative when any metastases are absent. The comparative evaluation of the diagnostic methods proved the superiority of the nuclear medical examination. In 68% of the cases the roentgenologic examination led to correctly positive results. This investigation showed with 98% a high diagnostic specificity and therefore it should be applied in addition to scintiscanning in order to obtain supplementary information. The alkaline and the acid phosphatase offering an almost identical informative value resulted to be not useful for establishing an early diagnosis of skeletal metastases. It was found that the determination of the blood sedimentation rate and of the lactate dehydrogenase do also not render possible the early diagnosis of skeletal metastases. (orig./MG) [de

  12. Three-Dimensional Human iPSC-Derived Artificial Skeletal Muscles Model Muscular Dystrophies and Enable Multilineage Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Martina Maffioletti

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Generating human skeletal muscle models is instrumental for investigating muscle pathology and therapy. Here, we report the generation of three-dimensional (3D artificial skeletal muscle tissue from human pluripotent stem cells, including induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs from patients with Duchenne, limb-girdle, and congenital muscular dystrophies. 3D skeletal myogenic differentiation of pluripotent cells was induced within hydrogels under tension to provide myofiber alignment. Artificial muscles recapitulated characteristics of human skeletal muscle tissue and could be implanted into immunodeficient mice. Pathological cellular hallmarks of incurable forms of severe muscular dystrophy could be modeled with high fidelity using this 3D platform. Finally, we show generation of fully human iPSC-derived, complex, multilineage muscle models containing key isogenic cellular constituents of skeletal muscle, including vascular endothelial cells, pericytes, and motor neurons. These results lay the foundation for a human skeletal muscle organoid-like platform for disease modeling, regenerative medicine, and therapy development. : Maffioletti et al. generate human 3D artificial skeletal muscles from healthy donors and patient-specific pluripotent stem cells. These human artificial muscles accurately model severe genetic muscle diseases. They can be engineered to include other cell types present in skeletal muscle, such as vascular cells and motor neurons. Keywords: skeletal muscle, pluripotent stem cells, iPS cells, myogenic differentiation, tissue engineering, disease modeling, muscular dystrophy, organoids

  13. Primary skeletal muscle cells cultured on gelatin bead microcarriers develop structural and biochemical features characteristic of adult skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubis, Hans-Peter; Scheibe, Renate J; Decker, Brigitte; Hufendiek, Karsten; Hanke, Nina; Gros, Gerolf; Meissner, Joachim D

    2016-04-01

    A primary skeletal muscle cell culture, in which myoblasts derived from newborn rabbit hindlimb muscles grow on gelatin bead microcarriers in suspension and differentiate into myotubes, has been established previously. In the course of differentiation and beginning spontaneous contractions, these multinucleated myotubes do not detach from their support. Here, we describe the development of the primary myotubes with respect to their ultrastructural differentiation. Scanning electron microscopy reveals that myotubes not only grow around the surface of one carrier bead but also attach themselves to neighboring carriers, forming bridges between carriers. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrates highly ordered myofibrils, T-tubules, and sarcoplasmic reticulum. The functionality of the contractile apparatus is evidenced by contractile activity that occurs spontaneously or can be elicited by electrostimulation. Creatine kinase activity increases steadily until day 20 of culture. Regarding the expression of isoforms of myosin heavy chains (MHC), we could demonstrate that from day 16 on, no non-adult MHC isoform mRNAs are present. Instead, on day 28 the myotubes express predominantly adult fast MHCIId/x mRNA and protein. This MHC pattern resembles that of fast muscles of adult rabbits. In contrast, primary myotubes grown on matrigel-covered culture dishes express substantial amounts of non-adult MHC protein even on day 21. To conclude, primary myotubes grown on microcarriers in their later stages exhibit many features of adult skeletal muscle and characteristics of fast type II fibers. Thus, the culture represents an excellent model of adult fast skeletal muscle, for example, when investigating molecular mechanisms of fast-to-slow fiber-type transformation. © 2015 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  14. Cloning and functional analysis of human mTERFL encoding a novel mitochondrial transcription termination factor-like protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yao; Zhou Guangjin; Yu Min; He Yungang; Tang Wei; Lai Jianhua; He Jie; Liu Wanguo; Tan Deyong

    2005-01-01

    Serum plays an important role in the regulation of cell cycle and cell growth. To identify novel serum-inhibitory factors and study their roles in cell cycle regulation, we performed mRNA differential display analysis of U251 cells in the presence or absence of serum and cloned a novel gene encoding the human mitochondrial transcription termination factor-like protein (mTERFL). The full-length mTERFL cDNA has been isolated and the genomic structure determined. The mTERFL gene consists of three exons and encodes 385 amino acids with 52% sequence similarity to the human mitochondrial transcription termination factor (mTERF). However, mTERFL and mTERF have an opposite expression pattern in response to serum. The expression of mTERFL is dramatically inhibited by the addition of serum in serum-starved cells while the mTERF is rather induced. Northern blot analysis detected three mTERFL transcripts of 1.7, 3.2, and 3.5 kb. Besides the 3.2 kb transcript that is unique to skeletal muscle, other two transcripts express predominant in heart, liver, pancreas, and skeletal muscle. Expression of the GFP-mTERFL fusion protein in HeLa cells localized it to the mitochondria. Furthermore, ectopic expression of mTERFL suppresses cell growth and arrests cells in the G1 stage demonstrated by MTT and flow cytometry analysis. Collectively, our data suggest that mTERFL is a novel mTERF family member and a serum-inhibitory factor probably participating in the regulation of cell growth through the modulation of mitochondrial transcription

  15. DNA methyltransferase inhibitor CDA-II inhibits myogenic differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zirong; Jin, Guorong; Lin, Shuibin; Lin, Xiumei; Gu, Yumei; Zhu, Yujuan; Hu, Chengbin; Zhang, Qingjiong; Wu, Lizi; Shen, Huangxuan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► CDA-II inhibits myogenic differentiation in a dose-dependent manner. ► CDA-II repressed expression of muscle transcription factors and structural proteins. ► CDA-II inhibited proliferation and migration of C2C12 myoblasts. -- Abstract: CDA-II (cell differentiation agent II), isolated from healthy human urine, is a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor. Previous studies indicated that CDA-II played important roles in the regulation of cell growth and certain differentiation processes. However, it has not been determined whether CDA-II affects skeletal myogenesis. In this study, we investigated effects of CDA-II treatment on skeletal muscle progenitor cell differentiation, migration and proliferation. We found that CDA-II blocked differentiation of murine myoblasts C2C12 in a dose-dependent manner. CDA-II repressed expression of muscle transcription factors, such as Myogenin and Mef2c, and structural proteins, such as myosin heavy chain (Myh3), light chain (Mylpf) and MCK. Moreover, CDA-II inhibited C1C12 cell migration and proliferation. Thus, our data provide the first evidence that CDA-II inhibits growth and differentiation of muscle progenitor cells, suggesting that the use of CDA-II might affect skeletal muscle functions.

  16. Radiological diagnosis of skeletal metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soederlund, V.

    1996-01-01

    The clinical management of patients with skeletal metastases puts new demands on imaging. The radiological imaging in screening for skeletal metastases entails detection, metastatic site description and radiologically guided biopsy for morphological typing and diagnosis. Regarding sensitivity and the ease in performing surveys of the whole skeleton, radionuclide bone scintigraphy still is the first choice in routine follow-up of asymptomatic patients with metastatic disease of the skeleton. A negative scan has to be re-evaluated with other findings, with emphasis on the possibility of a false-negative result. Screening for metastases in patients with local symptoms or pain is best accomplished by a combination of radiography and MRI. Water-weighted sequences are superior in sensitivity and in detection of metastases. Standard spin-echo sequences on the other hand are superior in metastatic site description and in detection of intraspinal metastases. MRI is helpful in differentiating between malignant disease, infection, benign vertebral collapse, insufficiency fracture after radiation therapy, degenerative vertebral disease and benign skeletal lesions. About 30% of patients with known cancer have benign causes of radiographic abnormalities. Most of these are related to degenerative diseases and are often easily diagnosed. However, due to overlap in MRI characteristics, bone biopsy sometimes is essential for differentiating between malignant and nonmalignant lesions. Performing bone biopsy and aspiration cytology by radiologist and cytologist in co-operation has proven highly accurate in diagnosing bone lesions. The procedure involves low risk to the patient and provides a morphological diagnosis. Once a suspected metastatic lesion is detected, irrespective of modality, the morphological diagnosis determines the appropriate work-up imaging with respect to the therapy alternatives. (orig./VHE)

  17. Skeletal remodelling suggests the turtle's shell is not an evolutionary straitjacket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, Gerardo Antonio; Quinteros, Kevin

    2015-04-01

    Recent efforts to decipher the enigma of the turtle's shell revealed that distantly related turtle species deploy diverse processes during shell development. Even so, extant species share in common a shoulder blade (scapula) that is encapsulated within the shell. Thus, evolutionary change in the correlated development of the shell and scapula probably underpins the evolution of highly derived shell morphologies. To address this expectation, we conducted one of the most phylogenetically comprehensive surveys of turtle development, focusing on scapula growth and differentiation in embryos, hatchlings and adults of 13 species. We report, to our knowledge, the first description of secondary differentiation owing to skeletal remodelling of the tetrapod scapula in turtles with the most structurally derived shell phenotypes. Remodelling and secondary differentiation late in embryogenesis of box turtles (Emys and Terrapene) yielded a novel skeletal segment (i.e. the suprascapula) of high functional value to their complex shell-closing system. Remarkably, our analyses suggest that, in soft-shelled turtles (Trionychidae) with extremely flattened shells, a similar transformation is linked to truncated scapula growth. Skeletal remodelling, as a form of developmental plasticity, might enable the seemingly constrained turtle body plan to diversify, suggesting the shell is not an evolutionary straitjacket. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  18. Terminal Differentiation of Adult Hippocampal Progenitor Cells Is a Step Functionally Dissociable from Proliferation and Is Controlled by Tis21, Id3 and NeuroD2

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Micheli; Manuela Ceccarelli; Roberta Gioia; Giorgio D’Andrea; Stefano Farioli-Vecchioli; Marco Costanzi; Daniele Saraulli; Daniele Saraulli; Vincenzo Cestari; Felice Tirone

    2017-01-01

    Cell proliferation and differentiation are interdependent processes. Here, we have asked to what extent the two processes of neural progenitor cell amplification and differentiation are functionally separated. Thus, we analyzed whether it is possible to rescue a defect of terminal differentiation in progenitor cells of the dentate gyrus, where new neurons are generated throughout life, by inducing their proliferation and/or their differentiation with different stimuli appropriately timed. As ...

  19. CT findings in skeletal cystic echinococcosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuezuen, M.; Hekimoglu, B. [Social Security Hospital, Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Radiology

    2002-09-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the CT findings of skeletal cystic echinococcosis. Material and Methods: CT findings of 7 patients with pathologically confirmed skeletal cystic echinococcosis were evaluated. Results: There were 4 men and 3 women, aged 36-75 years. Hydatid cysts were located in the spine (n=2), a rib (n=3), the pelvis and a vertebra (n=1), the pelvis and the left femur (n=1). The size of the lesions varied from 1 cm to 15 cm. CT showed well defined, single or multiple cystic lesions with no contrast enhancement, no calcification, no daughter cysts, and no germinal membrane detachment. The cystic lesion had a honeycomb appearance in 2 cases, there was pathologic fracture in 2 cases, bone expansion in 5 cases, cortical thinning in 6 cases, cortical destruction in 6 cases, bone sclerosis in 1 case, and soft tissue extension in 6 cases. Conclusion: Preoperative differential diagnosis of skeletal cystic lesions should include cystic echinococcosis, especially in endemic areas, since this diagnosis may easily be missed unless kept in mind.

  20. Quantitatively differentiating microstructural variations of skeletal muscle tissues by multispectral Mueller matrix imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yang; He, Honghui; He, Chao; Ma, Hui

    2016-10-01

    Polarized light is sensitive to the microstructures of biological tissues and can be used to detect physiological changes. Meanwhile, spectral features of the scattered light can also provide abundant microstructural information of tissues. In this paper, we take the backscattering polarization Mueller matrix images of bovine skeletal muscle tissues during the 24-hour experimental time, and analyze their multispectral behavior using quantitative Mueller matrix parameters. In the processes of rigor mortis and proteolysis of muscle samples, multispectral frequency distribution histograms (FDHs) of the Mueller matrix elements can reveal rich qualitative structural information. In addition, we analyze the temporal variations of the sample using the multispectral Mueller matrix transformation (MMT) parameters. The experimental results indicate that the different stages of rigor mortis and proteolysis for bovine skeletal muscle samples can be judged by these MMT parameters. The results presented in this work show that combining with the multispectral technique, the FDHs and MMT parameters can characterize the microstructural variation features of skeletal muscle tissues. The techniques have the potential to be used as tools for quantitative assessment of meat qualities in food industry.

  1. Recessive mutations in PTHR1 cause contrasting skeletal dysplasias in Eiken and Blomstrand syndromes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duchatelet, Sabine; Ostergaard, Elsebet; Cortes, Dina

    2005-01-01

    Eiken syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive skeletal dysplasia. We identified a truncation mutation in the C-terminal cytoplasmic tail of the parathyroid hormone (PTH)/PTH-related peptide (PTHrP) type 1 receptor (PTHR1) gene as the cause of this syndrome. Eiken syndrome differs from Jansen...

  2. Tfe3 expression is closely associated to macrophage terminal differentiation of human hematopoietic myeloid precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanocco-Marani, Tommaso; Vignudelli, Tatiana; Gemelli, Claudia; Pirondi, Sara; Testa, Anna; Montanari, Monica; Parenti, Sandra; Tenedini, Elena; Grande, Alexis; Ferrari, Sergio

    2006-01-01

    The MItf-Tfe family of basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper (bHLH-Zip) transcription factors encodes four family members: MItf, Tfe3, TfeB and TfeC. In vitro, each protein of the family binds DNA in a homo- or heterodimeric form with other family members. Tfe3 is involved in chromosomal translocations recurrent in different tumors and it has been demonstrated, by in vivo studies, that it plays, redundantly with MItf, an important role in the process of osteoclast formation, in particular during the transition from mono-nucleated to multi-nucleated osteoclasts. Since mono-nucleated osteoclasts derive from macrophages we investigated whether Tfe3 might play a role upstream during hematopoietic differentiation. Here we show that Tfe3 is able to induce mono-macrophagic differentiation of U937 cells, in association with a decrease of cell proliferation and an increase of apoptosis. We also show that Tfe3 does not act physiologically during commitment of CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), since it is not able to direct HSCs toward a specific lineage as observed by clonogenic assay, but is a strong actor of terminal differentiation since it allows human primary myeloblasts' maturation toward the macrophage lineage

  3. Regulation of gene expression in vertebrate skeletal muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvajal, Jaime J., E-mail: jaime.carvajal@icr.ac.uk; Rigby, Peter W.J., E-mail: peter.rigby@icr.ac.uk

    2010-11-01

    During embryonic development the integration of numerous synergistic signalling pathways turns a single cell into a multicellular organism with specialized cell types and highly structured, organized tissues. To achieve this, cells must grow, proliferate, differentiate and die according to their spatiotemporal position. Unravelling the mechanisms by which a cell adopts the correct fate in response to its local environment remains one of the fundamental goals of biological research. In vertebrates skeletal myogenesis is coordinated by the activation of the myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) in response to signals that are interpreted by their associated regulatory elements in different precursor cells during development. The MRFs trigger a cascade of transcription factors and downstream structural genes, ultimately resulting in the generation of one of the fundamental histotypes. In this review we discuss the regulation of the different MRFs in relation to their position in the myogenic cascade, the changes in the general transcriptional machinery during muscle differentiation and the emerging importance of miRNA regulation in skeletal myogenesis.

  4. Human skeletal muscle-derived stem cells retain stem cell properties after expansion in myosphere culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Yan; Li, Yuan; Chen, Chao; Stoelzel, Katharina; Kaufmann, Andreas M.; Albers, Andreas E.

    2011-01-01

    Human skeletal muscle contains an accessible adult stem-cell compartment in which differentiated myofibers are maintained and replaced by a self-renewing stem cell pool. Previously, studies using mouse models have established a critical role for resident stem cells in skeletal muscle, but little is known about this paradigm in human muscle. Here, we report the reproducible isolation of a population of cells from human skeletal muscle that is able to proliferate for extended periods of time as floating clusters of rounded cells, termed 'myospheres' or myosphere-derived progenitor cells (MDPCs). The phenotypic characteristics and functional properties of these cells were determined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry. Our results showed that these cells are clonogenic, express skeletal progenitor cell markers Pax7, ALDH1, Myod, and Desmin and the stem cell markers Nanog, Sox2, and Oct3/4 significantly elevated over controls. They could be maintained proliferatively active in vitro for more than 20 weeks and passaged at least 18 times, despite an average donor-age of 63 years. Individual clones (4.2%) derived from single cells were successfully expanded showing clonogenic potential and sustained proliferation of a subpopulation in the myospheres. Myosphere-derived cells were capable of spontaneous differentiation into myotubes in differentiation media and into other mesodermal cell lineages in induction media. We demonstrate here that direct culture and expansion of stem cells from human skeletal muscle is straightforward and reproducible with the appropriate technique. These cells may provide a viable resource of adult stem cells for future therapies of disease affecting skeletal muscle or mesenchymal lineage derived cell types.

  5. Skeletal diseases. Diagnostic clinical radiology and differential diagnostics. 2. rev. and enl. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freyschmidt, J.

    1997-01-01

    The book focuses on the diagnostic evaluation of idiopathic diseases of the skeleton and bone joints, also including the fundamental healing processes of bone fractures, particularly of stress-induced and pathologic fractures. Ample space has been given to the description and imaging of the course of diseases under treatment by up-to-date therapies, as e.g. for ostitis deformans Paget's disease, or skeletal metastases. This second edition of the book incorporates the progress achieved over the last five years in skeletal diagnostics. The advances in this field have been resulting from basic research work, for instance in molecular biology, or from a variety of completed studies relating to clinical medicine, laboratory chemistry, histopathology and radiology of skeletal diseases, and from experience obtained with the diagnostic radiology methods and techniques, with the potentials and constraints of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) today being more critically assessed than five years ago. MRI is a modality currently meeting with interest in the context of search for additional diagnostic information, new definition of complete pictures of diseases, or false or overinterpretation of diagnostic findings. (orig./MG). 431 figs [de

  6. Rapid-Onset Diffuse Skeletal Fluorosis from Inhalant Abuse: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Eric; Hsu, Raymond Y; Evangelista, Peter; Aaron, Roy; Rubin, Lee E

    A thirty-year-old man presented with severely debilitating left hip pain and stiffness. Radiographs demonstrated diffuse osteosclerosis and heterotopic bone formation with near ankylosis of the left hip. The patient underwent successful joint-preserving surgery to restore hip range of motion. After disclosing a history of inhalant abuse, which was confirmed by elevated serum fluoride levels, he was diagnosed with diffuse skeletal fluorosis. To the best of our knowledge, we present the first reported case of diffuse skeletal fluorosis caused by inhalant abuse of 1,1-difluoroethane. Skeletal fluorosis is uncommon in the United States but is important to consider in the differential diagnosis when a patient presents with otherwise unexplained joint pain and osteosclerosis.

  7. Rotator cuff tear state modulates self-renewal and differentiation capacity of human skeletal muscle progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kelsey A; Gibbons, Michael C; Lane, John G; Singh, Anshuman; Ward, Samuel R; Engler, Adam J

    2017-08-01

    Full thickness rotator cuff tendon (RCT) tears have long-term effects on RC muscle atrophy and fatty infiltration, with lasting damage even after surgical tendon repair. Skeletal muscle progenitor cells (SMPs) are critical for muscle repair in response to injury, but the inability of RC muscles to recover from chronic RCT tear indicates possible deficits in repair mechanisms. Here we investigated if muscle injury state was a crucial factor during human SMP expansion and differentiation ex vivo. SMPs were isolated from muscles in patients with no, partial-thickness (PT), or full-thickness (FT) RCT tears. Despite using growth factors, physiological niche stiffness, and muscle-mimetic extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, we found that SMPs isolated from human RC muscle with RCT tears proliferated slower but fused into myosin heavy chain (MHC)-positive myotubes at higher rates than SMPs from untorn RCTs. Proteomic analysis of RC muscle tissue revealed shifts in muscle composition with pathology, as muscle from massive RCT tears had increased ECM deposition compared with no tear RC muscle. Together these data imply that the remodeled niche in a torn RCT primes SMPs not for expansion but for differentiation, thus limiting longer-term self-renewal necessary for regeneration after surgical repair. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:1816-1823, 2017. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Increased expression of Myosin binding protein H in the skeletal muscle of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients

    KAUST Repository

    Conti, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a severe and fatal neurodegenerative disease of still unknown pathogenesis. Recent findings suggest that the skeletal muscle may play an active pathogenetic role. To investigate ALS\\'s pathogenesis and to seek diagnostic markers, we analyzed skeletal muscle biopsies with the differential expression proteomic approach. We studied skeletal muscle biopsies from healthy controls (CN), sporadic ALS (sALS), motor neuropathies (MN) and myopathies (M). Pre-eminently among several differentially expressed proteins, Myosin binding protein H (MyBP-H) expression in ALS samples was anomalously high. MyBP-H is a component of the thick filaments of the skeletal muscle and has strong affinity for myosin, but its function is still unclear. High MyBP-H expression level was associated with abnormal expression of Rho kinase 2 (ROCK2), LIM domain kinase 1 (LIMK1) and cofilin2, that might affect the actin-myosin interaction. We propose that MyBP-H expression level serves, as a putative biomarker in the skeletal muscle, to discriminate ALS from motor neuropathies, and that it signals the onset of dysregulation in actin-myosin interaction; this in turn might contribute to the pathogenesis of ALS. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  9. Concerning the etiology of bony bridges along the sides of the terminal phalanx of the great toe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, E.

    1987-06-01

    Besides in acromegaly bony bridges at the terminal phalanx of the great toe occur in one third of cases with peripheral signs of diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis, systemic diseases as rheumatoid arthritis or psoriatic arthritis with chronic inflammation of the interphalangeal joint of the great toe respectively extraarticular osseous changes in the terminal phalanx of the great toe do not influence the development of such bridges.

  10. Paleopathological Study of Dwarfism-Related Skeletal Dysplasia in a Late Joseon Dynasty (South Korean) Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Eun Jin; Lee, Won-Joon; Hu, Kyung-Seok; Hwang, Jae Joon

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal dysplasias related to genetic etiologies have rarely been reported for past populations. This report presents the skeletal characteristics of an individual with dwarfism-related skeletal dysplasia from South Korea. To assess abnormal deformities, morphological features, metric data, and computed tomography scans are analyzed. Differential diagnoses include achondroplasia or hypochondroplasia, chondrodysplasia, multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, thalassemia-related hemolytic anemia, and lysosomal storage disease. The diffused deformities in the upper-limb bones and several coarsened features of the craniofacial bones indicate the most likely diagnosis to have been a certain type of lysosomal storage disease. The skeletal remains of EP-III-4-No.107 from the Eunpyeong site, although incomplete and fragmented, provide important clues to the paleopathological diagnosis of skeletal dysplasias.

  11. Paleopathological Study of Dwarfism-Related Skeletal Dysplasia in a Late Joseon Dynasty (South Korean Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Jin Woo

    Full Text Available Skeletal dysplasias related to genetic etiologies have rarely been reported for past populations. This report presents the skeletal characteristics of an individual with dwarfism-related skeletal dysplasia from South Korea. To assess abnormal deformities, morphological features, metric data, and computed tomography scans are analyzed. Differential diagnoses include achondroplasia or hypochondroplasia, chondrodysplasia, multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, thalassemia-related hemolytic anemia, and lysosomal storage disease. The diffused deformities in the upper-limb bones and several coarsened features of the craniofacial bones indicate the most likely diagnosis to have been a certain type of lysosomal storage disease. The skeletal remains of EP-III-4-No.107 from the Eunpyeong site, although incomplete and fragmented, provide important clues to the paleopathological diagnosis of skeletal dysplasias.

  12. MicroRNAs promote skeletal muscle differentiation of mesodermal iPSC-derived progenitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giacomazzi, G. (Giorgia); Holvoet, B. (Bryan); Trenson, S. (Sander); Caluwé, E. (Ellen); Kravic, B. (Bojana); Grosemans, H. (Hanne); Cortés-Calabuig, Á. (Álvaro); Deroose, C.M. (Christophe M.); D. Huylebroeck (Danny); Hashemolhosseini, S. (Said); S. Janssens (Stefan); McNally, E. (Elizabeth); Quattrocelli, M. (Mattia); Sampaolesi, M. (Maurilio)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractMuscular dystrophies (MDs) are often characterized by impairment of both skeletal and cardiac muscle. Regenerative strategies for both compartments therefore constitute a therapeutic avenue. Mesodermal iPSC-derived progenitors (MiPs) can regenerate both striated muscle types

  13. Synthesis of novel vitamin K derivatives with alkylated phenyl groups introduced at the ω-terminal side chain and evaluation of their neural differentiation activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakane, Rie; Kimura, Kimito; Hirota, Yoshihisa; Ishizawa, Michiyasu; Takagi, Yuta; Wada, Akimori; Kuwahara, Shigefumi; Makishima, Makoto; Suhara, Yoshitomo

    2017-11-01

    Vitamin K is an essential cofactor of γ-glutamylcarboxylase as related to blood coagulation and bone formation. Menaquinone-4, one of the vitamin K homologues, is biosynthesized in the body and has various biological activities such as being a ligand for steroid and xenobiotic receptors, protection of neuronal cells from oxidative stress, and so on. From this background, we focused on the role of menaquinone in the differentiation activity of progenitor cells into neuronal cells and we synthesized novel vitamin K derivatives with modification of the ω-terminal side chain. We report here new vitamin K analogues, which introduced an alkylated phenyl group at the ω-terminal side chain. These compounds exhibited potent differentiation activity as compared to control. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Skeletal recurrences and metastases of extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehara, Shigeru; Nishida, Jun; Shiraishi, Hideo; Yoshioka, Hiroshi; Okada, Kyoji; Sumiya, Hisashi; Takano, Hideyuki

    2007-01-01

    The objective was to elucidate clinical and imaging features of skeletal involvement, recurrences, and metastases of extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma. Included in this series are 4 patients, aged 44 to 65 years, 3 of whom were men and 1 a woman. The primary lesions were in the thigh (n 3) and the upper arm (n = 1). Three patients with multiple metastases died of the disease, 2 were considered to have local recurrence in the adjacent bone. Skeletal metastases occurred after lung metastases in 2 cases, and before lung metastases in 1 case. Typical imaging findings are well-defined lesions with no sclerotic margin or matrix mineralization. A slow, but persistent growth is noted on the imaging features. Although skeletal metastases of chondrosarcoma of bone and soft tissue are rare, myxoid chondrosarcomas, currently classified tumors of uncertain differentiation, rarely metastasize and/or recur in the bones. The imaging features are typically of a localized lesion with cortical disruption or expansion. (orig.)

  15. Skeletal recurrences and metastases of extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehara, Shigeru [Iwate Medical University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Morioka (Japan); Nishida, Jun; Shiraishi, Hideo [Iwate Medical University School of Medicine, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Iwate (Japan); Yoshioka, Hiroshi [University of Tsukuba School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Tsukuba (Japan); Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Okada, Kyoji [Akita University School of Medicine, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Akita (Japan); Sumiya, Hisashi [Kanazawa University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kanazawa (Japan); Yawata Medical Center, Komatsu (Japan); Takano, Hideyuki [Chiba Cancer Center, Division of Diagnostic Imaging, Chiba (Japan)

    2007-09-15

    The objective was to elucidate clinical and imaging features of skeletal involvement, recurrences, and metastases of extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma. Included in this series are 4 patients, aged 44 to 65 years, 3 of whom were men and 1 a woman. The primary lesions were in the thigh (n = 3) and the upper arm (n = 1). Three patients with multiple metastases died of the disease, 2 were considered to have local recurrence in the adjacent bone. Skeletal metastases occurred after lung metastases in 2 cases, and before lung metastases in 1 case. Typical imaging findings are well-defined lesions with no sclerotic margin or matrix mineralization. A slow, but persistent growth is noted on the imaging features. Although skeletal metastases of chondrosarcoma of bone and soft tissue are rare, myxoid chondrosarcomas, currently classified tumors of uncertain differentiation, rarely metastasize and/or recur in the bones. The imaging features are typically of a localized lesion with cortical disruption or expansion. (orig.)

  16. Terminal-Dependent Statistical Inference for the FBSDEs Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunquan Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The original stochastic differential equations (OSDEs and forward-backward stochastic differential equations (FBSDEs are often used to model complex dynamic process that arise in financial, ecological, and many other areas. The main difference between OSDEs and FBSDEs is that the latter is designed to depend on a terminal condition, which is a key factor in some financial and ecological circumstances. It is interesting but challenging to estimate FBSDE parameters from noisy data and the terminal condition. However, to the best of our knowledge, the terminal-dependent statistical inference for such a model has not been explored in the existing literature. We proposed a nonparametric terminal control variables estimation method to address this problem. The reason why we use the terminal control variables is that the newly proposed inference procedures inherit the terminal-dependent characteristic. Through this new proposed method, the estimators of the functional coefficients of the FBSDEs model are obtained. The asymptotic properties of the estimators are also discussed. Simulation studies show that the proposed method gives satisfying estimates for the FBSDE parameters from noisy data and the terminal condition. A simulation is performed to test the feasibility of our method.

  17. SAM pointed domain ETS factor (SPDEF) regulates terminal differentiation and maturation of intestinal goblet cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noah, Taeko K.; Kazanjian, Avedis [Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center and University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Whitsett, Jeffrey [Developmental Biology, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center and University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Neonatology and Pulmonary Biology, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center and University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Shroyer, Noah F., E-mail: noah.shroyer@cchmc.org [Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center and University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Developmental Biology, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center and University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2010-02-01

    Background and Aims: SPDEF (also termed PDEF or PSE) is an ETS family transcription factor that regulates gene expression in the prostate and goblet cell hyperplasia in the lung. Spdef has been reported to be expressed in the intestine. In this paper, we identify an important role for Spdef in regulating intestinal epithelial cell homeostasis and differentiation. Methods: SPDEF expression was inhibited in colon cancer cells to determine its ability to control goblet cell gene activation. The effects of transgenic expression of Spdef on intestinal differentiation and homeostasis were determined. Results: In LS174T colon cancer cells treated with Notch/{gamma}-secretase inhibitor to activate goblet cell gene expression, shRNAs that inhibited SPDEF also repressed expression of goblet cell genes AGR2, MUC2, RETLNB, and SPINK4. Transgenic expression of Spdef caused the expansion of intestinal goblet cells and corresponding reduction in Paneth, enteroendocrine, and absorptive enterocytes. Spdef inhibited proliferation of intestinal crypt cells without induction of apoptosis. Prolonged expression of the Spdef transgene caused a progressive reduction in the number of crypts that expressed Spdef, consistent with its inhibitory effects on cell proliferation. Conclusions: Spdef was sufficient to inhibit proliferation of intestinal progenitors and induce differentiation into goblet cells; SPDEF was required for activation of goblet cell associated genes in vitro. These data support a model in which Spdef promotes terminal differentiation into goblet cells of a common goblet/Paneth progenitor.

  18. Solitary extra-skeletal sinonasal metastasis from a primary skeletal Ewing's sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, S M; Jani, T N; Rahman, S M; Jogai, S; Harries, P G; Salib, R J

    2011-08-01

    Ewing's sarcoma is a rare, malignant tumour predominantly affecting young adolescent males. We describe a unique case of an isolated extra-skeletal metastasis from a skeletal Ewing's sarcoma primary, arising in the right sinonasal cavity of a young man who presented with severe epistaxis and periorbital cellulitis. Histologically, the lesion comprised closely packed, slightly diffuse, atypical cells with round, hyperchromatic nuclei, scant cytoplasm and occasional mitotic figures, arranged in a sheet-like pattern. Immunohistochemical analysis showed positive staining only for cluster of differentiation 99 glycoprotein. Fluorescent in situ hybridisation identified the Ewing's sarcoma gene, confirming the diagnosis. Complete surgical resection was achieved via a minimally invasive endoscopic transnasal approach; post-operative radiotherapy. Ten months post-operatively, there were no endoscopic or radiological signs of disease. Metastatic Ewing's sarcoma within the head and neck is incredibly rare and can pose significant diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. An awareness of different clinical presentations and distinct histopathological features is important to enable early diagnosis. This case illustrates one potential management strategy, and reinforces the evolving role of endoscopic transnasal approaches in managing sinonasal cavity and anterior skull base tumours.

  19. Enhancement of contractile force generation of artificial skeletal muscle tissues by mild and transient heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Masanori; Ikeda, Kazushi; Kanno, Shota; Ito, Akira; Kawabe, Yoshinori; Kamihira, Masamichi

    2014-01-01

    Artificial skeletal muscle tissues composed of cells are expected to be used for applications of regenerative medicine and drug screening. Generally, however, the physical forces generated by tissue-engineered skeletal muscle are lower than those of skeletal muscle tissues found in the body. Local hyperthermia is used for many diseases including muscle injuries. It was recently reported that mild heat treatment improved skeletal muscle functions. In this study, we investigated the effects of mild heat treatment on the tissue-engineered skeletal muscle tissues in vitro. We used magnetite cationic liposomes to label C2C12 myoblast cells magnetically, and constructed densely packed artificial skeletal muscle tissues by using magnetic force. Cell culture at 39°C promoted the differentiation of myoblast cells into myotubes. Moreover, the mild and transient heat treatment improved the contractile properties of artificial skeletal muscle tissue constructs. These findings indicate that the culture method using heat treatment is a useful approach to enhance functions of artificial skeletal muscle tissue.

  20. MicroRNA-128 targets myostatin at coding domain sequence to regulate myoblasts in skeletal muscle development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Zhou, Bo; Li, Pinghua; Schinckel, Allan P; Liang, Tingting; Wang, Han; Li, Huizhi; Fu, Lingling; Chu, Qingpo; Huang, Ruihua

    2015-09-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) play a critical role in skeletal muscle development. In a previous study we observed that miR-128 was highly expressed in skeletal muscle. However, its function in regulating skeletal muscle development is not clear. Our hypothesis was that miR-128 is involved in the regulation of the proliferation and differentiation of skeletal myoblasts. In this study, through bioinformatics analyses, we demonstrate that miR-128 specifically targeted mRNA of myostatin (MSTN), a critical inhibitor of skeletal myogenesis, at coding domain sequence (CDS) region, resulting in down-regulating of myostatin post-transcription. Overexpression of miR-128 inhibited proliferation of mouse C2C12 myoblast cells but promoted myotube formation; whereas knockdown of miR-128 had completely opposite effects. In addition, ectopic miR-128 regulated the expression of myogenic factor 5 (Myf5), myogenin (MyoG), paired box (Pax) 3 and 7. Furthermore, an inverse relationship was found between the expression of miR-128 and MSTN protein expression in vivo and in vitro. Taken together, these results reveal that there is a novel pathway in skeletal muscle development in which miR-128 regulates myostatin at CDS region to inhibit proliferation but promote differentiation of myoblast cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Role of skeletal muscle in lung development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baguma-Nibasheka, Mark; Gugic, Dijana; Saraga-Babic, Mirna; Kablar, Boris

    2012-07-01

    Skeletal (striated) muscle is one of the four basic tissue types, together with the epithelium, connective and nervous tissues. Lungs, on the other hand, develop from the foregut and among various cell types contain smooth, but not skeletal muscle. Therefore, during earlier stages of development, it is unlikely that skeletal muscle and lung depend on each other. However, during the later stages of development, respiratory muscle, primarily the diaphragm and the intercostal muscles, execute so called fetal breathing-like movements (FBMs), that are essential for lung growth and cell differentiation. In fact, the absence of FBMs results in pulmonary hypoplasia, the most common cause of death in the first week of human neonatal life. Most knowledge on this topic arises from in vivo experiments on larger animals and from various in vitro experiments. In the current era of mouse mutagenesis and functional genomics, it was our goal to develop a mouse model for pulmonary hypoplasia. We employed various genetically engineered mice lacking different groups of respiratory muscles or lacking all the skeletal muscle and established the criteria for pulmonary hypoplasia in mice, and therefore established a mouse model for this disease. We followed up this discovery with systematic subtractive microarray analysis approach and revealed novel functions in lung development and disease for several molecules. We believe that our approach combines elements of both in vivo and in vitro approaches and allows us to study the function of a series of molecules in the context of lung development and disease and, simultaneously, in the context of lung's dependence on skeletal muscle-executed FBMs.

  2. Expression Profiling of Differentiating Emerin-Null Myogenic Progenitor Identifies Molecular Pathways Implicated in Their Impaired Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashvin Iyer

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the gene encoding emerin cause Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD, a disorder causing progressive skeletal muscle wasting, irregular heart rhythms and contractures of major tendons. RNA sequencing was performed on differentiating wildtype and emerin-null myogenic progenitors to identify molecular pathways implicated in EDMD, 340 genes were uniquely differentially expressed during the transition from day 0 to day 1 in wildtype cells. 1605 genes were uniquely expressed in emerin-null cells; 1706 genes were shared among both wildtype and emerin-null cells. One thousand and forty-seven transcripts showed differential expression during the transition from day 1 to day 2. Four hundred and thirty-one transcripts showed altered expression in both wildtype and emerin-null cells. Two hundred and ninety-five transcripts were differentially expressed only in emerin-null cells and 321 transcripts were differentially expressed only in wildtype cells. DAVID, STRING and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis identified pathways implicated in impaired emerin-null differentiation, including cell signaling, cell cycle checkpoints, integrin signaling, YAP/TAZ signaling, stem cell differentiation, and multiple muscle development and myogenic differentiation pathways. Functional enrichment analysis showed biological functions associated with the growth of muscle tissue and myogenesis of skeletal muscle were inhibited. The large number of differentially expressed transcripts upon differentiation induction suggests emerin functions during transcriptional reprograming of progenitors to committed myoblasts.

  3. MASTR directs MyoD-dependent satellite cell differentiation during skeletal muscle regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mokalled, Mayssa H.; Johnson, Aaron N.; Creemers, Esther E.; Olson, Eric N.

    2012-01-01

    In response to skeletal muscle injury, satellite cells, which function as a myogenic stem cell population, become activated, expand through proliferation, and ultimately fuse with each other and with damaged myofibers to promote muscle regeneration. Here, we show that members of the Myocardin family

  4. Increased expression of Myosin binding protein H in the skeletal muscle of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Antonio; Riva, Nilo; Pesca, Mariasabina; Iannaccone, Sandro; Cannistraci, Carlo V; Corbo, Massimo; Previtali, Stefano C; Quattrini, Angelo; Alessio, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a severe and fatal neurodegenerative disease of still unknown pathogenesis. Recent findings suggest that the skeletal muscle may play an active pathogenetic role. To investigate ALS's pathogenesis and to seek diagnostic markers, we analyzed skeletal muscle biopsies with the differential expression proteomic approach. We studied skeletal muscle biopsies from healthy controls (CN), sporadic ALS (sALS), motor neuropathies (MN) and myopathies (M). Pre-eminently among several differentially expressed proteins, Myosin binding protein H (MyBP-H) expression in ALS samples was anomalously high. MyBP-H is a component of the thick filaments of the skeletal muscle and has strong affinity for myosin, but its function is still unclear. High MyBP-H expression level was associated with abnormal expression of Rho kinase 2 (ROCK2), LIM domain kinase 1 (LIMK1) and cofilin2, that might affect the actin-myosin interaction. We propose that MyBP-H expression level serves, as a putative biomarker in the skeletal muscle, to discriminate ALS from motor neuropathies, and that it signals the onset of dysregulation in actin-myosin interaction; this in turn might contribute to the pathogenesis of ALS. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Lysophospholipid Receptors Are Differentially Expressed in Rat Terminal Schwann Cells, As Revealed by a Single Cell RT-PCR and In Situ Hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobashi, Hiroaki; Yaoi, Takeshi; Oda, Ryo; Okajima, Seiichiro; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Kubo, Toshikazu; Fushiki, Shinji

    2006-01-01

    Terminal Schwann cells (TSCs) that cover motor neuron terminals, are known to play an important role in maintaining neuromuscular junctions, as well as in the repair process after nerve injury. However, the molecular characteristics of TSCs remain unknown, because of the difficulties in analyzing them due to their paucity. By using our previously reported method of selectively and efficiently collecting TSCs, we have analyzed the difference in expression patterns of lysophospholipid (LPL) receptor genes (LPA 1 , LPA 2 , LPA 3 , S1P 1 , S1P 2 , S1P 3 , S1P 4 , and S1P 5 ) between TSCs and myelinating Schwann cells (MSCs). LPL, which includes lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), is the bioactive lipid that induces a myriad of cellular responses through specific members of G-protein coupled receptors for LPA. It turned out that LPA 3 was expressed only in TSCs, whereas S1P 1 was expressed in TSCs and skeletal muscle, but not in MSCs. Other types of LPL receptor genes, including LPA 1 , S1P 2 , S1P 3 , S1P 4 , were expressed in both types of Schwann cells. None of the LPL receptor gene family showed MSCs-specific expression

  6. Regulator of differentiation 1 (ROD1) binds to the amphipathic C-terminal peptide of thrombospondin-4 and is involved in its mitogenic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadvakassova, Gulzhakhan; Dobocan, Monica C; Difalco, Marcos R; Congote, Luis F

    2009-09-01

    The matrix protein thrombospondin-4 has an acidic amphipathic C-terminal peptide (C21) which stimulates erythroid cell proliferation. Here we show that C21 stimulates red cell formation in anemic mice in vivo. In vitro experiments indicated that the peptide-mediated increase of erythroid colony formation in cultures of human CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells was possible only under continuous presence of erythropoietin. In the absence of this cytokine, C21 stimulated exclusively myeloid colony formation. Therefore, the peptide is not a specific erythroid differentiation factor. In fact, it is mitogenic in non-erythroid cells, such as skin fibroblasts and kidney epithelial cells. In erythroleukemic TF-1 cells, it actually decreased the production of the erythroid differentiation marker glycophorin A. C21-affinity chromatography revealed regulator of differentiation 1 (ROD1) as a major C21-binding protein. ROD1 is the hematopoietic cell paralog of polypyrimidine tract binding proteins (PTBs), RNA splice regulators which regulate differentiation by repressing tissue-specific exons. ROD1 binding to C21 was strongly inhibited by synthetic RNAs in the order poly A > poly U > poly G = poly C and was weakly inhibited by a synthetic phosphorylated peptide mimicking the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II. Cellular overexpression or knockdown experiments of ROD1 suggest a role for this protein in the mitogenic activity of C21. Since the nuclear proteins ROD1 and PTBs regulate differentiation at a posttranscriptional level and there is a fast nuclear uptake of C21, we put forward the idea that the peptide is internalized, goes to the nucleus and maintains cells in a proliferative state by supporting ROD1-mediated inhibition of differentiation.

  7. Muscle-derived stem cells isolated as non-adherent population give rise to cardiac, skeletal muscle and neural lineages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsic, Nikola; Mamaeva, Daria; Lamb, Ned J.; Fernandez, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Stem cells with the ability to differentiate in specialized cell types can be extracted from a wide array of adult tissues including skeletal muscle. Here we have analyzed a population of cells isolated from skeletal muscle on the basis of their poor adherence on uncoated or collagen-coated dishes that show multi-lineage differentiation in vitro. When analysed under proliferative conditions, these cells express stem cell surface markers Sca-1 (65%) and Bcrp-1 (80%) but also MyoD (15%), Neuronal β III-tubulin (25%), GFAP (30%) or Nkx2.5 (1%). Although capable of growing as non-attached spheres for months, when given an appropriate matrix, these cells adhere giving rise to skeletal muscle, neuronal and cardiac muscle cell lineages. A similar cell population could not be isolated from either bone marrow or cardiac tissue suggesting their specificity to skeletal muscle. When injected into damaged muscle, these non-adherent muscle-derived cells are retrieved expressing Pax7, in a sublaminar position characterizing satellite cells and participate in forming new myofibers. These data show that a non-adherent stem cell population can be specifically isolated and expanded from skeletal muscle and upon attachment to a matrix spontaneously differentiate into muscle, cardiac and neuronal lineages in vitro. Although competing with resident satellite cells, these cells are shown to significantly contribute to repair of injured muscle in vivo supporting that a similar muscle-derived non-adherent cell population from human muscle may be useful in treatment of neuromuscular disorders

  8. Muscle-derived stem cells isolated as non-adherent population give rise to cardiac, skeletal muscle and neural lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsic, Nikola; Mamaeva, Daria; Lamb, Ned J; Fernandez, Anne

    2008-04-01

    Stem cells with the ability to differentiate in specialized cell types can be extracted from a wide array of adult tissues including skeletal muscle. Here we have analyzed a population of cells isolated from skeletal muscle on the basis of their poor adherence on uncoated or collagen-coated dishes that show multi-lineage differentiation in vitro. When analysed under proliferative conditions, these cells express stem cell surface markers Sca-1 (65%) and Bcrp-1 (80%) but also MyoD (15%), Neuronal beta III-tubulin (25%), GFAP (30%) or Nkx2.5 (1%). Although capable of growing as non-attached spheres for months, when given an appropriate matrix, these cells adhere giving rise to skeletal muscle, neuronal and cardiac muscle cell lineages. A similar cell population could not be isolated from either bone marrow or cardiac tissue suggesting their specificity to skeletal muscle. When injected into damaged muscle, these non-adherent muscle-derived cells are retrieved expressing Pax7, in a sublaminar position characterizing satellite cells and participate in forming new myofibers. These data show that a non-adherent stem cell population can be specifically isolated and expanded from skeletal muscle and upon attachment to a matrix spontaneously differentiate into muscle, cardiac and neuronal lineages in vitro. Although competing with resident satellite cells, these cells are shown to significantly contribute to repair of injured muscle in vivo supporting that a similar muscle-derived non-adherent cell population from human muscle may be useful in treatment of neuromuscular disorders.

  9. Induced skeletal mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selby, P.B.

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes a large-scale experiment that, by means of breeding tests, confirmed that many dominant skeletal mutations are induced by large-dose radiation exposure. The author also discusses: (1) the major advantages and disadvantages of the skeletal method in improving estimates of genetic hazard to man; (2) future uses of the skeletal method; (3) direct estimation of risk beyond the first generation using the skeletal method; and (4) the possibility of using the skeletal method as a quick and easy screen for chemical mutagens

  10. Potential of laryngeal muscle regeneration using induced pluripotent stem cell-derived skeletal muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirja, Bayu Tirta; Yoshie, Susumu; Ikeda, Masakazu; Imaizumi, Mitsuyoshi; Nakamura, Ryosuke; Otsuki, Koshi; Nomoto, Yukio; Wada, Ikuo; Hazama, Akihiro; Omori, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells may be a new potential cell source for laryngeal muscle regeneration in the treatment of vocal fold atrophy after recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis. Objectives Unilateral vocal fold paralysis can lead to degeneration, atrophy, and loss of force of the thyroarytenoid muscle. At present, there are some treatments such as thyroplasty, arytenoid adduction, and vocal fold injection. However, such treatments cannot restore reduced mass of the thyroarytenoid muscle. iPS cells have been recognized as supplying a potential resource for cell transplantation. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the use of iPS cells for the regeneration of laryngeal muscle through the evaluation of both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Methods Skeletal muscle cells were generated from tdTomato-labeled iPS cells using embryoid body formation. Differentiation into skeletal muscle cells was analyzed by gene expression and immunocytochemistry. The tdTomato-labeled iPS cell-derived skeletal muscle cells were transplanted into the left atrophied thyroarytenoid muscle. To evaluate the engraftment of these cells after transplantation, immunohistochemistry was performed. Results The tdTomato-labeled iPS cells were successfully differentiated into skeletal muscle cells through an in vitro experiment. These cells survived in the atrophied thyroarytenoid muscle after transplantation.

  11. Ulk1-mediated autophagy plays an essential role in mitochondrial remodeling and functional regeneration of skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Call, Jarrod A; Wilson, Rebecca J; Laker, Rhianna C; Zhang, Mei; Kundu, Mondira; Yan, Zhen

    2017-06-01

    Autophagy is a conserved cellular process for degrading aggregate proteins and dysfunctional organelle. It is still debatable if autophagy and mitophagy (a specific process of autophagy of mitochondria) play important roles in myogenic differentiation and functional regeneration of skeletal muscle. We tested the hypothesis that autophagy is critical for functional regeneration of skeletal muscle. We first observed time-dependent increases (3- to 6-fold) of autophagy-related proteins (Atgs), including Ulk1, Beclin1, and LC3, along with reduced p62 expression during C2C12 differentiation, suggesting increased autophagy capacity and flux during myogenic differentiation. We then used cardiotoxin (Ctx) or ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) to induce muscle injury and regeneration and observed increases in Atgs between days 2 and 7 in adult skeletal muscle followed by increased autophagy flux after day 7 Since Ulk1 has been shown to be essential for mitophagy, we asked if Ulk1 is critical for functional regeneration in skeletal muscle. We subjected skeletal muscle-specific Ulk1 knockout mice (MKO) to Ctx or I/R. MKO mice had significantly impaired recovery of muscle strength and mitochondrial protein content post-Ctx or I/R. Imaging analysis showed that MKO mice have significantly attenuated recovery of mitochondrial network at 7 and 14 days post-Ctx. These findings suggest that increased autophagy protein and flux occur during muscle regeneration and Ulk1-mediated mitophagy is critical for recovery for the mitochondrial network and hence functional regeneration. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Insulin-like growth factor-1 suppresses the Myostatin signaling pathway during myogenic differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retamales, A.; Zuloaga, R.; Valenzuela, C.A.; Gallardo-Escarate, C.; Molina, A.; Valdés, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Myogenic differentiation is a complex and well-coordinated process for generating mature skeletal muscle fibers. This event is autocrine/paracrine regulated by growth factors, principally Myostatin (MSTN) and Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1). Myostatin, a member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily, is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth in vertebrates that exerts its inhibitory function by activating Smad transcription factors. In contrast, IGF-1 promotes the differentiation of skeletal myoblasts by activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. This study reports on a novel functional crosstalk between the IGF-1 and MSTN signaling pathways, as mediated through interaction between PI3K/Akt and Smad3. Stimulation of skeletal myoblasts with MSTN resulted in a transient increase in the pSmad3:Smad3 ratio and Smad-dependent transcription. Moreover, MSTN inhibited myod gene expression and myoblast fusion in an Activin receptor-like kinase/Smad3-dependent manner. Preincubation of skeletal myoblasts with IGF-1 blocked MSTN-induced Smad3 activation, promoting myod expression and myoblast differentiation. This inhibitory effect of IGF-1 on the MSTN signaling pathway was dependent on IGF-1 receptor, PI3K, and Akt activities. Finally, immunoprecipitation assay analysis determined that IGF-1 pretreatment increased Akt and Smad3 interaction. These results demonstrate that the IGF-1/PI3K/Akt pathway may inhibit MSTN signaling during myoblast differentiation, providing new insight to existing knowledge on the complex crosstalk between both growth factors. - Highlights: • IGF-1 inhibits Myostatin canonical signaling pathway through IGF-1R/PI3K/Akt pathway. • IGF-1 promotes myoblast differentiation through a direct blocking of Myostatin signaling pathway. • IGF-1 induces the interaction of Akt with Smad3 in skeletal myoblast

  13. Insulin-like growth factor-1 suppresses the Myostatin signaling pathway during myogenic differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Retamales, A.; Zuloaga, R.; Valenzuela, C.A. [Laboratorio de Biotecnología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Andrés Bello, Santiago (Chile); Gallardo-Escarate, C. [Laboratory of Biotechnology and Aquatic Genomics, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción (Chile); Interdisciplinary Center for Aquaculture Research (INCAR), P.O. Box 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Molina, A. [Laboratorio de Biotecnología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Andrés Bello, Santiago (Chile); Interdisciplinary Center for Aquaculture Research (INCAR), P.O. Box 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Valdés, J.A., E-mail: jvaldes@unab.cl [Laboratorio de Biotecnología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Andrés Bello, Santiago (Chile); Interdisciplinary Center for Aquaculture Research (INCAR), P.O. Box 160-C, Concepción (Chile)

    2015-08-21

    Myogenic differentiation is a complex and well-coordinated process for generating mature skeletal muscle fibers. This event is autocrine/paracrine regulated by growth factors, principally Myostatin (MSTN) and Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1). Myostatin, a member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily, is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth in vertebrates that exerts its inhibitory function by activating Smad transcription factors. In contrast, IGF-1 promotes the differentiation of skeletal myoblasts by activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. This study reports on a novel functional crosstalk between the IGF-1 and MSTN signaling pathways, as mediated through interaction between PI3K/Akt and Smad3. Stimulation of skeletal myoblasts with MSTN resulted in a transient increase in the pSmad3:Smad3 ratio and Smad-dependent transcription. Moreover, MSTN inhibited myod gene expression and myoblast fusion in an Activin receptor-like kinase/Smad3-dependent manner. Preincubation of skeletal myoblasts with IGF-1 blocked MSTN-induced Smad3 activation, promoting myod expression and myoblast differentiation. This inhibitory effect of IGF-1 on the MSTN signaling pathway was dependent on IGF-1 receptor, PI3K, and Akt activities. Finally, immunoprecipitation assay analysis determined that IGF-1 pretreatment increased Akt and Smad3 interaction. These results demonstrate that the IGF-1/PI3K/Akt pathway may inhibit MSTN signaling during myoblast differentiation, providing new insight to existing knowledge on the complex crosstalk between both growth factors. - Highlights: • IGF-1 inhibits Myostatin canonical signaling pathway through IGF-1R/PI3K/Akt pathway. • IGF-1 promotes myoblast differentiation through a direct blocking of Myostatin signaling pathway. • IGF-1 induces the interaction of Akt with Smad3 in skeletal myoblast.

  14. Corallite skeletal morphological variation in Hawaiian Porites lobata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisthammer, Kaho H.; Richmond, Robert H.

    2018-06-01

    Due to their high morphological plasticity and complex evolutionary history, the species boundaries of many reef-building corals are poorly understood. The skeletal structures of corals have traditionally been used for species identification, but these structures can be highly variable, and currently we lack knowledge regarding the extent of morphological variation within species. Porites species are notorious for their taxonomic difficulties, both morphologically and genetically, and currently there are several unresolved species complexes in the Pacific. Despite its ubiquitous presence and broad use in coral research, Porites lobata belongs to one such unresolved species complex. To understand the degree of intraspecific variation in skeletal morphology, 120 corallites from the Hawaiian P. lobata were examined. A subset of samples from two genetically differentiated populations from contrasting high- and low-stress environments in Maunalua Bay, Hawaii, were then quantitatively analyzed using multivariate morphometrics. Our observations revealed high intraspecific variation in corallite morphology, as well as significant morphological differences between the two populations of P. lobata. Additionally, significant correlation was found between the morphological and genetic distances calculated from approximately 18,000 loci generated from restriction site-associated DNA sequencing. The unique morphological characters observed from the genetically differentiated population under environmental stress suggest that these characters may have adaptive values, but how such traits relate to fitness and how much plasticity they can exhibit remain to be determined by future studies. Relatively simple morphometric analyses used in our study can be useful in clarifying the existing ambiguity in skeletal architecture, thus contributing to resolving species issues in corals.

  15. Quantification of the Na,K-pumps in mammalian skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noergaard, A.

    1986-01-01

    The Na,K-ATPase or Na,K-pump in skeletal muscle is essential for the specific properties of this tissue. Furthermore, it is of importance for Na-K-homeostasis and digitalis tolerance of the organism. Thus, a number of different procedures have been developed for the determination of the concentration of Na,K-pumps in skeletal muscle. The purpose of the present review is to describe and evaluate the methods and results available in the literature as well as in our own studies. Due to the high concentration of unspecific ATP-ases present in crude homogenates purification is usually performed, in general by differential centrifugation. However, as the recovery of the Na,K-ATPase in microsomal fractions is subject to variation and is typically less than a few per cent such preparations are not suitable for quantification of the Na,K-pump. Thus a number of variable or even contradictory results have been obtained. Likewise, the quantification of the Na,K-pump by measurement of 3 H-ouabain binding to purified enzyme preparations has been unreliable. Comparative determinations using our different methods showed close agreement under a variety of conditions such as differentiation, K-depletion and hypo- and hyperthyroidism. These conditions were all associated with wide variations in the concentration of Na,K-pumps in skeletal muscles of both laboratory animals and patients. It is concluded that our methods, whether based upon intact muscle cells in vitro or in vivo, muscle biopsies or crude muscle homogenates, offer adequate recovery and reproducibility for the quantitative analysis of the concentration of Na,K-pumps and changes herof in skeletal muscle. (eg)

  16. NF-kappaB signaling: a tale of two pathways in skeletal myogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakkar, Nadine; Guttridge, Denis C

    2010-04-01

    NF-kappaB is a ubiquitiously expressed transcription factor that plays vital roles in innate immunity and other processes involving cellular survival, proliferation, and differentiation. Activation of NF-kappaB is controlled by an IkappaB kinase (IKK) complex that can direct either canonical (classical) NF-kappaB signaling by degrading the IkappaB inhibitor and releasing p65/p50 dimers to the nucleus, or causes p100 processing and nuclear translocation of RelB/p52 via a noncanonical (alternative) pathway. Under physiological conditions, NF-kappaB activity is transiently regulated, whereas constitutive activation of this transcription factor typically in the classical pathway is associated with a multitude of disease conditions, including those related to skeletal muscle. How NF-kappaB functions in muscle diseases is currently under intense investigation. Insight into this role of NF-kappaB may be gained by understanding at a more basic level how this transcription factor contributes to skeletal muscle cell differentiation. Recent data from knockout mice support that the classical NF-kappaB pathway functions as an inhibitor of skeletal myogenesis and muscle regeneration acting through multiple mechanisms. In contrast, alternative NF-kappaB signaling does not appear to be required for myofiber conversion, but instead functions in myotube homeostasis by regulating mitochondrial biogenesis. Additional knowledge of these signaling pathways in skeletal myogenesis should aid in the development of specific inhibitors that may be useful in treatments of muscle disorders.

  17. Expression of androgen receptor target genes in skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesha Rana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to determine the mechanisms of the anabolic actions of androgens in skeletal muscle by investigating potential androgen receptor (AR-regulated genes in in vitro and in vivo models. The expression of the myogenic regulatory factor myogenin was significantly decreased in skeletal muscle from testosterone-treated orchidectomized male mice compared to control orchidectomized males, and was increased in muscle from male AR knockout mice that lacked DNA binding activity (ARΔZF2 versus wildtype mice, demonstrating that myogenin is repressed by the androgen/AR pathway. The ubiquitin ligase Fbxo32 was repressed by 12 h dihydrotestosterone treatment in human skeletal muscle cell myoblasts, and c-Myc expression was decreased in testosterone-treated orchidectomized male muscle compared to control orchidectomized male muscle, and increased in AR∆ZF2 muscle. The expression of a group of genes that regulate the transition from myoblast proliferation to differentiation, Tceal7 , p57 Kip2, Igf2 and calcineurin Aa, was increased in AR∆ZF2 muscle, and the expression of all but p57 Kip2 was also decreased in testosterone-treated orchidectomized male muscle compared to control orchidectomized male muscle. We conclude that in males, androgens act via the AR in part to promote peak muscle mass by maintaining myoblasts in the proliferative state and delaying the transition to differentiation during muscle growth and development, and by suppressing ubiquitin ligase-mediated atrophy pathways to preserve muscle mass in adult muscle.

  18. Low intensity exercise training improves skeletal muscle regeneration potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana ePietrangelo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine whether 12 days of low-to-moderate exercise training at low altitude (598 m a.s.l. improves skeletal muscle regeneration in sedentary adult women.Methods: Satellite cells were obtained from the vastus lateralis skeletal muscle of seven women before and after this exercise training at low altitude. They were investigated for differentiation aspects, superoxide anion production, antioxidant enzymes, mitochondrial potential variation after a depolarizing insult, intracellular Ca2+ concentrations, and micro (miRNA expression (miR-1, miR-133, miR-206.Results: In these myogenic populations of adult stem cells, those obtained after exercise training, showed increased Fusion Index and intracellular Ca2+ concentrations. This exercise training also generally reduced superoxide anion production in cells (by 12% to 67%, although not in two women, where there was an increase of ~15% along with a reduced superoxide dismutase activity. miRNA expression showed an exercise-induced epigenetic transcription profile that was specific according to the reduced or increased superoxide anion production of the cells. Conclusions: The present study shows that low-to-moderate exercise training at low altitude improves the regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle in adult women. The differentiation of cells was favored by increased intracellular calcium concentration and increased the fusion index. This low-to-moderate training at low altitude also depicted the epigenetic signature of cells.

  19. Skeletal development in Acropora palmata (Lamarck 1816): a scanning electron microscope (SEM) comparison demonstrating similar mechanisms of skeletal extension in axial versus encrusting growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladfelter, E. H.

    2007-12-01

    Many Acropora palmata colonies consist of an encrusting basal portion and erect branches. Linear growth of the skeleton results in extension along the substrate (encrusting growth), lengthening of branches (axial growth) and thickening of branches and crust (radial growth). Scanning Electron Microscopy is used to compare the mechanisms of skeletal extension between encrusting growth and axial growth. In encrusting growth, the distal margin of the skeleton lacks corallites (which develop about 1 mm from the edge); in contrast, in axial growth, axial corallites along the branch tip form the distal portion of the skeleton. In both locations, the distal margin of the skeleton consists of a lattice-like structure composed of rods that extend from the body of the skeleton and bars that connect these rods. An actively extending skeleton is characterized by sharply pointed rods and partially developed bars. Distal growth of rods (and formation of bars) is effected by the formation of new sclerodermites. Each sclerodermite begins with the deposition of fusiform crystals (that range in length from 1 to 5 μm). These provide a surface for nucleation and growth of spherulitic tufts, clusters of short (<1 μm long) aragonite needles. The needles that are oriented perpendicular to the axis of the skeletal element (rod or bar), and perpendicular to the overlying calicoblastic epithelium, continue extension to appear on the surface of the skeleton as 10-15 μm wide bundles (of needle tips) called fasciculi. However, some crusts that abut competitors for space have a different morphology of skeletal elements (rods and bars). The distal edge of these crusts terminates in blunt coalescing rods, and bars that are fully formed. Absence of fusiform crystals, lack of sharply pointed rods and bars, and full development of sclerodermites characterize a skeletal region that has ceased, perhaps only temporarily, skeletal extension.

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging of the skeletal musculature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Marc-Andre (ed.) [Univ. Hospital Heidelberg (Germany). Diagnostic and Intverventional Radiology

    2014-07-01

    Comprehensive overview of the value of cutting-edge MRI for the assessment of normal and diseased skeletal muscle. Presents research findings in respect of the role of modern morphological and functional MRI techniques. Provides examples of the added value provided by these techniques when evaluating muscular diseases. Although muscular diseases are a huge and heterogeneous group, in most cases of progressive disease the result is focal or general muscular weakness that presents as an unspecific symptom. Imaging techniques that offer differential diagnostic clues are therefore urgently needed. Despite this, MRI has to date often been assigned a subsidiary role in the diagnostic work-up of these diseases owing to the frequent inability of routine MRI protocols to detect pathognomonic findings. This situation is changing with the advent of modern MRI techniques that offer deeper insights into surrogate pathophysiologic parameters, such as muscular microcirculation, sodium homeostasis, energy and lipid metabolism, and muscle fiber architecture. Much higher levels of acceptance and demand by clinicians can be anticipated for these new techniques in the near future, and radiologists will have to face up to the increasing value of MRI of the skeletal musculature. In this book, recognized experts from around the world provide a comprehensive overview of the value of cutting-edge MRI for the assessment of normal and diseased skeletal muscle. A range of aspects are covered, from the general role of MRI in imaging the skeletal musculature, including in comparison with ultrasonography, through to the current value of MRI in the diagnostic work-up of different diseases. In addition, several chapters present research findings in respect of modern morphological and functional MRI techniques for assessment of the skeletal musculature and provide examples of the added value provided by these techniques when evaluating muscular diseases.

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging of the skeletal musculature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Marc-Andre

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive overview of the value of cutting-edge MRI for the assessment of normal and diseased skeletal muscle. Presents research findings in respect of the role of modern morphological and functional MRI techniques. Provides examples of the added value provided by these techniques when evaluating muscular diseases. Although muscular diseases are a huge and heterogeneous group, in most cases of progressive disease the result is focal or general muscular weakness that presents as an unspecific symptom. Imaging techniques that offer differential diagnostic clues are therefore urgently needed. Despite this, MRI has to date often been assigned a subsidiary role in the diagnostic work-up of these diseases owing to the frequent inability of routine MRI protocols to detect pathognomonic findings. This situation is changing with the advent of modern MRI techniques that offer deeper insights into surrogate pathophysiologic parameters, such as muscular microcirculation, sodium homeostasis, energy and lipid metabolism, and muscle fiber architecture. Much higher levels of acceptance and demand by clinicians can be anticipated for these new techniques in the near future, and radiologists will have to face up to the increasing value of MRI of the skeletal musculature. In this book, recognized experts from around the world provide a comprehensive overview of the value of cutting-edge MRI for the assessment of normal and diseased skeletal muscle. A range of aspects are covered, from the general role of MRI in imaging the skeletal musculature, including in comparison with ultrasonography, through to the current value of MRI in the diagnostic work-up of different diseases. In addition, several chapters present research findings in respect of modern morphological and functional MRI techniques for assessment of the skeletal musculature and provide examples of the added value provided by these techniques when evaluating muscular diseases.

  2. [Molecular mechanism for ET-1-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horinouchi, Takahiro; Mazaki, Yuichi; Terada, Koji; Miwa, Soichi

    2018-01-01

    Insulin resistance is a condition where the sensitivity to insulin of the tissues expressing insulin receptor (InsR) is decreased due to a functional disturbance of InsR-mediated intracellular signaling. Insulin promotes the entry of glucose into the tissues and skeletal muscle is the most important tissue responsible for the insulin's action of decreasing blood glucose levels. Endothelin-1 (ET-1), a potent vasoconstrictor and pro-inflammatory peptide, induces insulin resistance through a direct action on skeletal muscle. However, the signaling pathways of ET-1-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle remain unclear. Here we show molecular mechanism underlying the inhibitory effect of ET-1 on insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation and glucose uptake in myotubes of rat L6 skeletal muscle cell line. mRNA expression levels of differentiation marker genes, MyoD and myogenin, were increased during L6 myoblasts differentiation into myotubes. Some of myotubes possessed the ability to spontaneously contract. In myotubes, insulin promoted Akt phosphorylation at Thr 308 and Ser 473 , and [ 3 H]-labelled 2-deoxy-D-glucose ([ 3 H]2-DG) uptake. The insulin-facilitated Akt phosphorylation and [ 3 H]2-DG uptake were inhibited by ET-1. The inhibitory effect of ET-1 was counteracted by blockade of ET type A receptor (ET A R), inhibition of G q/11 protein, and siRNA knockdown of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2). The exogenously overexpressed GRK2 directly bound to endogenous Akt and their association was facilitated by ET-1. In summary, activation of ET A R with ET-1 inhibits insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation and [ 3 H]2-DG uptake in a G q/11 protein- and GRK2-dependent manner in skeletal muscle. These findings indicate that ET A R and GRK2 are potential targets for insulin resistance.

  3. Differential nitric oxide levels in the blood and skeletal muscle of type 2 diabetic subjects may be consequence of adiposity: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Mauricio; Rodrigues-Krause, Josianne; O'Hagan, Ciara; De Vito, Giuseppe; Boreham, Colin; Susta, Davide; Newsholme, Philip; Murphy, Colin

    2012-11-01

    Nitric oxide (NO·) exerts key regulatory functions including vasodilation and glucose uptake. Thus reduced NO· levels are associated with insulin resistance and hypertension. In this preliminary work we aimed to measure the levels of NO· metabolites in serum and skeletal muscle of obese and non-obese subjects, with or without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Fifteen sedentary male participants [7 obese controls (C) vs 5 obese and 3 non-obese T2DM; age 54±9 years] were selected according to their BMI (>30 kg/m(2) for obese and 23-27 kg/m(2) for non-obese participants) and evaluated for fasted values of blood glucose, HbA1c, lipid profile, serum CRP (C-reactive protein), erythrocyte glutathione (GSH) metabolism, plasma adiponectin, leptin and cytokines (TNF-α and INFγ), serum and skeletal muscle nitric oxide metabolites (nitrite and nitrates; tNOx) and skeletal muscle nNOS and iNOS expression. Body composition was measured by whole body DEXA and muscle microbiopsy was performed in the vastus lateralis. We found that serum tNOx (total nitrite/nitrate; μmol/L) was lower in obese T2DM group (12.7±3.5) when compared with their controls (21.1±2.4), although the non-obese group presented higher concentration of tNOx (33.8±7.2). Skeletal muscle nNOS was higher in obese controls, lower in non-obese T2DM and undetected in obese T2DM. On the other hand, expression of iNOS had an inverse relationship with nNOS, showing higher expression in obese T2DM, decrease in non-obese T2DM and absence in obese control group. tNOx levels (μmol/mg protein) were decreased in the non-obese T2DM group (12.07±0.59) when compared with the obese control (21.68±6.2) and the obese T2DM group (26.3±7.26). We conclude that the decreased serum NO∙ production in obese T2DM patients seems to be associated with adipose mass as lower adiposity was associated with normal NO∙ which was reduced in the skeletal muscle of the non-obese T2DM patients. We suggest that the lower adiposity (and

  4. Selenium regulates gene expression of selenoprotein W in chicken skeletal muscle system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Hongfeng; Zhang, Ziwei; Wu, Qiong; Yao, Haidong; Li, Jinlong; Li, Shu; Xu, Shiwen

    2012-01-01

    Selenoprotein W (SelW) is abundantly expressed in skeletal muscles of mammals and necessary for the metabolism of skeletal muscles. However, its expression pattern in skeletal muscle system of birds is still uncovered. Herein, to investigate the distribution of SelW mRNA in chicken skeletal muscle system and its response to different selenium (Se) status, 1-day-old chickens were exposed to various concentrations of Se as sodium selenite in the feed for 35 days. In addition, myoblasts were treated with different concentrations of Se in the medium for 72 h. Then the levels of SelW mRNA in skeletal muscles (wing muscle, pectoral muscle, thigh muscle) and myoblasts were determined on days 1, 15, 25, and 35 and at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. The results showed that SelW was detected in all these muscle components and it increased both along with the growth of organism and the differentiation process of myoblasts. The thigh muscle is more responsive to Se intake than the other two skeletal muscle tissues while the optimal Se supplementation for SelW mRNA expression in chicken myoblasts was 10(-7) M. In summary, Se plays important roles in the development of chicken skeletal muscles. To effect optimal SelW gene expression, Se must be provided in the diet and the media in adequate amounts and neither at excessive nor deficient levels.

  5. Bex1 knock out mice show altered skeletal muscle regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Jae Hyung; Smiley, Mark A.; Lovering, Richard M.; Margolis, Frank L.

    2007-01-01

    Bex1 and Calmodulin (CaM) are upregulated during skeletal muscle regeneration. We confirm this finding and demonstrate the novel finding that they interact in a calcium-dependent manner. To study the role of Bex1 and its interaction with CaM in skeletal muscle regeneration, we generated Bex1 knock out (Bex1-KO) mice. These mice appeared to develop normally and are fertile, but displayed a functional deficit in exercise performance compared to wild type (WT) mice. After intramuscular injection of cardiotoxin, which causes extensive and reproducible myotrauma followed by recovery, regenerating muscles of Bex1-KO mice exhibited elevated and prolonged cell proliferation, as well as delayed cell differentiation, compared to WT mice. Thus, our results provide the first evidence that Bex1-KO mice show altered muscle regeneration, and allow us to propose that the interaction of Bex1 with Ca 2+ /CaM may be involved in skeletal muscle regeneration

  6. Inhibition of muscle-specific gene expression by Id3: requirement of the C-terminal region of the protein for stable expression and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, B; Han, B H; Sun, X H; Lim, R W

    1997-01-15

    We have examined the role of an Id-like protein, Id3 (also known as HLH462), in the regulation of muscle-specific gene expression. Id proteins are believed to block expression of muscle-specific genes by preventing the dimerization between ubiquitous bHLH proteins (E proteins) and myogenic bHLH proteins such as MyoD. Consistent with its putative role as an inhibitor of differentiation, Id3 mRNA was detected in proliferating skeletal muscle cells, was further induced by basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and was down-regulated in differentiated muscle cultures. Overexpression of Id3 efficiently inhibited the MyoD-mediated activation of the muscle-specific creatine kinase (MCK) reporter gene. Deletion analysis indicated that the C-terminal 15 amino acids of Id3 are critical for the full inhibitory activity while deleting up to 42 residues from the C-terminus of the related protein, Id2, did not affect its ability to inhibit the MCK reporter gene. Chimeric protein containing the N-terminal region of Id3 and the C-terminus of Id2 was also non-functional in transfected cells. In contrast, wild-type Id3, the C-terminal mutants, and the Id3/Id2 chimera could all interact with the E-protein E47in vitro. Additional studies indicated that truncation of the Id3 C-terminus might have adversely affected the expression level of the mutant proteins but the Id3/Id2 chimera was stably expressed. Taken together, our results revealed a more complex requirement for the expression and proper function of the Id family proteins than was hitherto expected.

  7. Expanding the clinical spectrum of chromosome 15q26 terminal deletions associated with IGF-1 resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Riordan, Aisling M; McGrath, Niamh; Sharif, Farhana; Murphy, Nuala P; Franklin, Orla; Lynch, Sally Ann; O'Grady, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    Haploinsufficiency of the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R) gene on chromosome 15q26.3 is associated with impaired prenatal and postnatal growth, developmental delay, dysmorphic features and skeletal abnormalities. Terminal deletions of chromosome 15q26 arising more proximally may also be associated with congenital heart disease, epilepsy, diaphragmatic hernia and renal anomalies. We report three additional cases of 15q26 terminal deletions with novel features which may further expand the spectrum of this rarely reported contiguous gene syndrome. Phenotypic features including neonatal lymphedema, aplasia cutis congenita and aortic root dilatation have not been reported previously. Similarly, laboratory features of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) resistance are described, including markedly elevated IGF-1 of up to +4.7 SDS. In one patient, the elevated IGF-1 declined over time and this coincided with a period of spontaneous growth acceleration. Deletions of 15q26 are a potential risk factor for aortic root dilatation, neonatal lymphedema and aplasia cutis in addition to causing growth restriction. What is Known: • Terminal deletions of chromosome 15q26 are associated with impaired prenatal and postnatal growth, developmental delay, dysmorphic features and skeletal abnormalities. What is New: • Neonatal lymphedema, aplasia cutis congenita and aortic root dilatation have not been previously described in 15q26 terminal deletions and may represent novel features. • IGF-1 levels may be increased up to 4.7 SDS.

  8. Improved Cell Culture Method for Growing Contracting Skeletal Muscle Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquette, Michele L.; Sognier, Marguerite A.

    2013-01-01

    An improved method for culturing immature muscle cells (myoblasts) into a mature skeletal muscle overcomes some of the notable limitations of prior culture methods. The development of the method is a major advance in tissue engineering in that, for the first time, a cell-based model spontaneously fuses and differentiates into masses of highly aligned, contracting myotubes. This method enables (1) the construction of improved two-dimensional (monolayer) skeletal muscle test beds; (2) development of contracting three-dimensional tissue models; and (3) improved transplantable tissues for biomedical and regenerative medicine applications. With adaptation, this method also offers potential application for production of other tissue types (i.e., bone and cardiac) from corresponding precursor cells.

  9. Reduction in DNA repair capacity following differentiation of murine proadipocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tofilon, P.J.; Meyn, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    It has been suggested that terminally differentiated mammalian cells have a decreased DNA repair capacity, compared with proliferating stem cells. To investigate this hypothesis, we have examined γ-ray-induced DNA strand breaks and their repair in the murine proadipocyte stem cell line 3T3-T. By exposure to human plasma, 3T3-T cells can be induced to undergo nonterminal and then terminal differentiation. DNA strand breaks were evaluated using the technique of alkaline elution. No difference was detected among stem, nonterminally differentiated, and terminally differentiated cells in the initial levels of radiation-induced DNA strand breaks. Each of the strand break dose responses increased as a linear function of γ-ray dose. The strand breaks induced by 4 Gy rejoined following biphasic kinetics for each cell type. At each time point examined after irradiation, however, the percentage of strand breaks that had not rejoined in terminally differentiated cells was three to six times greater than in stem cells. The rate of strand break rejoining in nonterminally differentiated cells was of an intermediate value between that of the stem and of the terminally differentiated cells. These results indicate that, at least for 3T3-T cells, differentiated cells have a reduced capacity for DNA repair

  10. Epiblast cells that express MyoD recruit pluripotent cells to the skeletal muscle lineage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhart, Jacquelyn; Neely, Christine; Stewart, Benjamin; Perlman, Jordanna; Beckmann, David; Wallon, Margaretha; Knudsen, Karen; George-Weinstein, Mindy

    2004-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells are derived from the epiblast. A subpopulation of epiblast cells expresses MyoD mRNA and the G8 antigen in vivo. G8 positive (G8pos) and G8 negative (G8neg) populations were isolated by magnetic cell sorting. Nearly all G8pos cells switched from E- to N-cadherin and differentiated into skeletal muscle in culture. G8neg cells were impaired in their ability to switch cadherins and few formed skeletal muscle. Medium conditioned by G8pos cells stimulated skeletal myogenesis and N-cadherin synthesis in G8neg cultures. The effect of conditioned medium from G8pos cultures was inhibited by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 4. Treatment of G8neg cells with a soluble form of the BMP receptor-IA or Noggin promoted N-cadherin synthesis and skeletal myogenesis. These results demonstrate that MyoD-positive epiblast cells recruit pluripotent cells to the skeletal muscle lineage. The mechanism of recruitment involves blocking the BMP signaling pathway. PMID:14981095

  11. Expression profiling of skeletal muscle following acute and chronic β2-adrenergic stimulation: implications for hypertrophy, metabolism and circadian rhythm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynch Gordon S

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systemic administration of β-adrenoceptor (β-AR agonists has been found to induce skeletal muscle hypertrophy and significant metabolic changes. In the context of energy homeostasis, the importance of β-AR signaling has been highlighted by the inability of β1-3-AR-deficient mice to regulate energy expenditure and susceptibility to diet induced obesity. However, the molecular pathways and gene expression changes that initiate and maintain these phenotypic modulations are poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify differential changes in gene expression in murine skeletal muscle associated with systemic (acute and chronic administration of the β2-AR agonist formoterol. Results Skeletal muscle gene expression (from murine tibialis anterior was profiled at both 1 and 4 hours following systemic administration of the β2-AR agonist formoterol, using Illumina 46K mouse BeadArrays. Illumina expression profiling revealed significant expression changes in genes associated with skeletal muscle hypertrophy, myoblast differentiation, metabolism, circadian rhythm, transcription, histones, and oxidative stress. Differentially expressed genes relevant to the regulation of muscle mass and metabolism (in the context of the hypertrophic phenotype were further validated by quantitative RT-PCR to examine gene expression in response to both acute (1-24 h and chronic administration (1-28 days of formoterol at multiple timepoints. In terms of skeletal muscle hypertrophy, attenuation of myostatin signaling (including differential expression of myostatin, activin receptor IIB, phospho-Smad3 etc was observed following acute and chronic administration of formoterol. Acute (but not chronic administration of formoterol also significantly induced the expression of genes involved in oxidative metabolism, including hexokinase 2, sorbin and SH3 domain containing 1, and uncoupling protein 3. Interestingly, formoterol

  12. Bone turnover markers and bone scintigraphy in the evaluation of skeletal metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrapko, B.; Nocun, A.; Golebiewska, R.; Jankowska, H.; Zaorska-Rajca, J.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was evaluation of the clinical usefulness of bone scintigraphy and of serum bone turnover marker levels in the assessment of skeletal metastases. We investigated 60 patients with suspected skeletal metastases. Serum level of bone-formation marker: amino- terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PINP) and a bone-degradation marker: carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) were assessed with radioimmunoassays. Bone MDP- 99m- Tc scans were performed as well. Hot spots were showed in 72% of patients. According to bone scintigraphy the patients were divided in to 3 groups: Group I - without hot spots (n = 16; 26%), Group II up to 10 hot spots (n = 25; 42%) and Group III more that 10 hot spots (n = 19; 32%). Mean serum level of ICTP was significantly higher in Group II than in Group I (p < 0.05), as well as in Group III compared to Group II (p < 0.001) and in Group III compared to Group I (p < 0.001). There is only one significant relationship in PINP levels - between Groups II and III. The levels of bone pathological degradation (ICTP) and bone formation reflect the metastatic disease extent in bone. Serum ICTP level is more useful in staging metastasis. Significantly higher PINP reflects only a much disseminated process. (author)

  13. Neonatal epicardial-derived progenitors aquire myogenic traits in skeletal muscle, but not cardiac muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ditte C; Jensen, Charlotte H; Skovrind, Ida

    2016-01-01

    heart missing regenerative signals essential for directed differentiation of EPDCs. Herein, we aimed to evaluate the myogenic potential of neonatal EPDCs in adult and neonatal mouse myocardium, as well as in skeletal muscle. The two latter tissues have an intrinsic capability to develop and regenerate......, in contrast to the adult heart. METHODS: Highly purified mouse EPDCs were transplanted into damaged neonatal and adult myocardium as well as regenerating skeletal muscle. Co-cultures with skeletal myoblasts were used to distinguish fusion independent myogenic conversion. RESULTS: No donor EPDC...... that EPDCs may be more myogenic than previously anticipated. But, the heart may lack factors for induction of myogenesis of EPDCs, a scenario that should be taken into consideration when aiming for repair of damaged myocardium by stem cell transplantation....

  14. Comparison of the calcium release channel of cardiac and skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum by target inactivation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrew, S.G.; Inui, Makoto; Chadwick, C.C.; Boucek, R.J. Jr.; Jung, C.Y.; Fleischer, S.

    1989-01-01

    The calcium release channel of sarcoplasmic reticulum which triggers muscle contraction in excitation-contraction coupling has recently been isolated. The channel has been found to be morphologically identical with the feet structures of the junctional face membrane of terminal cisternae and consists of an oligomer of a unique high molecular weight polypeptide. In this study, the authors compare the target size of the calcium release channel from heart and skeletal muscle using target inactivation analysis. The target molecular weights of the calcium release channel estimated by measuring ryanodine binding after irradiation are similar for heart (139,000) and skeletal muscle (143,000) and are smaller than the monomeric unit (estimated to be about 360,000). The target size, estimated by measuring polypeptide remaining after irradiation, was essentially the same for heart and skeletal muscle, 1,061,000 and 1,070,000, respectively, indicating an oligomeric association of protomers. Thus, the calcium release channel of both cardiac and skeletal muscle reacts uniquely with regard to target inactivation analysis in that (1) the size by ryanodine binding is smaller than the monomeric unit and (2) a single hit leads to destruction of more than one polypeptide, by measuring polypeptide remaining. The target inactivation analysis studies indicate that heart and skeletal muscle receptors are structurally very similar

  15. The Recent Understanding of the Neurotrophin's Role in Skeletal Muscle Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunihiro Sakuma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the various effects of neurotrophins in skeletal muscle and how these proteins act as potential regulators of the maintenance, function, and regeneration of skeletal muscle fibers. Increasing evidence suggests that this family of neurotrophic factors influence not only the survival and function of innervating motoneurons but also the development and differentiation of myoblasts and muscle fibers. Muscle contractions (e.g., exercise produce BDNF mRNA and protein in skeletal muscle, and the BDNF seems to play a role in enhancing glucose metabolism and may act for myokine to improve various brain disorders (e.g., Alzheimer's disease and major depression. In adults with neuromuscular disorders, variations in neurotrophin expression are found, and the role of neurotrophins under such conditions is beginning to be elucidated. This paper provides a basis for a better understanding of the role of these factors under such pathological conditions and for treatment of human neuromuscular disease.

  16. Adapted physical exercise enhances activation and differentiation potential of satellite cells in the skeletal muscle of old mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisterna, Barbara; Giagnacovo, Marzia; Costanzo, Manuela; Fattoretti, Patrizia; Zancanaro, Carlo; Pellicciari, Carlo; Malatesta, Manuela

    2016-05-01

    During ageing, a progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and a decrease in muscle strength and endurance take place, in the condition termed sarcopenia. The mechanisms of sarcopenia are complex and still unclear; however, it is known that muscle atrophy is associated with a decline in the number and/or efficiency of satellite cells, the main contributors to muscle regeneration. Physical exercise proved beneficial in sarcopenia; however, knowledge of the effect of adapted physical exercise on the myogenic properties of satellite cells in aged muscles is limited. In this study the amount and activation state of satellite cells as well as their proliferation and differentiation potential were assessed in situ by morphology, morphometry and immunocytochemistry at light and transmission electron microscopy on 28-month-old mice submitted to adapted aerobic physical exercise on a treadmill. Sedentary age-matched mice served as controls, and sedentary adult mice were used as a reference for an unperturbed control at an age when the capability of muscle regeneration is still high. The effect of physical exercise in aged muscles was further analysed by comparing the myogenic potential of satellite cells isolated from old running and old sedentary mice using an in vitro system that allows observation of the differentiation process under controlled experimental conditions. The results of this ex vivo and in vitro study demonstrated that adapted physical exercise increases the number and activation of satellite cells as well as their capability to differentiate into structurally and functionally correct myotubes (even though the age-related impairment in myotube formation is not fully reversed): this evidence further supports adapted physical exercise as a powerful, non-pharmacological approach to counteract sarcopenia and the age-related deterioration of satellite cell capabilities even at very advanced age. © 2016 Anatomical Society.

  17. The muscle contraction mode determines lymphangiogenesis differentially in rat skeletal and cardiac muscles by modifying local lymphatic extracellular matrix microenvironments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiwe, L; Vinck, M; Suhr, F

    2016-05-01

    Lymphatic vessels are of special importance for tissue homeostasis, and increases of their density may foster tissue regeneration. Exercise could be a relevant tool to increase lymphatic vessel density (LVD); however, a significant lack of knowledge remains to understand lymphangiogenesis in skeletal muscles upon training. Interestingly, training-induced lymphangiogenesis has never been studied in the heart. We studied lymphangiogenesis and LVD upon chronic concentric and chronic eccentric muscle contractions in both rat skeletal (Mm. Edl and Sol) and cardiac muscles. We found that LVD decreased in both skeletal muscles specifically upon eccentric training, while this contraction increased LVD in cardiac tissue. These observations were supported by opposing local remodelling of lymphatic vessel-specific extracellular matrix components in skeletal and cardiac muscles and protein levels of lymphatic markers (Lyve-1, Pdpn, Vegf-C/D). Confocal microscopy further revealed transformations of lymphatic vessels into vessels expressing both blood (Cav-1) and lymphatic (Vegfr-3) markers upon eccentric training specifically in skeletal muscles. In addition and phenotype supportive, we found increased inflammation (NF-κB/p65, Il-1β, Ifn-γ, Tnf-α and MPO(+) cells) in eccentrically stressed skeletal, but decreased levels in cardiac muscles. Our data provide novel mechanistic insights into lymphangiogenic processes in skeletal and cardiac muscles upon chronic muscle contraction modes and demonstrate that both tissues adapt in opposing manners specifically to eccentric training. These data are highly relevant for clinical applications, because eccentric training serves as a sufficient strategy to increase LVD and to decrease inflammation in cardiac tissue, for example in order to reduce tissue abortion in transplantation settings. © 2015 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Derivation of Skeletal Myogenic Precursors from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells Using Conditional Expression of PAX7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darabi, Radbod; Perlingeiro, Rita C R

    2016-01-01

    Cell-based therapies are considered as one of the most promising approaches for the treatment of degenerating pathologies including muscle disorders and dystrophies. Advances in the approach of reprogramming somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells allow for the possibility of using the patient's own pluripotent cells to generate specific tissues for autologous transplantation. In addition, patient-specific tissue derivatives have been shown to represent valuable material for disease modeling and drug discovery. Nevertheless, directed differentiation of pluripotent stem cells into a specific lineage is not a trivial task especially in the case of skeletal myogenesis, which is generally poorly recapitulated during the in vitro differentiation of pluripotent stem cells.Here, we describe a practical and efficient method for the derivation of skeletal myogenic precursors from differentiating human pluripotent stem cells using controlled expression of PAX7. Flow cytometry (FACS) purified myogenic precursors can be expanded exponentially and differentiated in vitro into myotubes, enabling researchers to use these cells for disease modeling as well as therapeutic purposes.

  19. Skeletal myocyte hypertrophy requires mTOR kinase activity and S6K1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, In-Hyun; Erbay, Ebru; Nuzzi, Paul; Chen Jie

    2005-01-01

    The protein kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a central regulator of cell proliferation and growth, with the ribosomal subunit S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) as one of the key downstream signaling effectors. A critical role of mTOR signaling in skeletal muscle differentiation has been identified recently, and an unusual regulatory mechanism independent of mTOR kinase activity and S6K1 is revealed. An mTOR pathway has also been reported to regulate skeletal muscle hypertrophy, but the regulatory mechanism is not completely understood. Here, we report the investigation of mTOR's function in insulin growth factor I (IGF-I)-induced C2C12 myotube hypertrophy. Added at a later stage when rapamycin no longer had any effect on normal myocyte differentiation, rapamycin completely blocked myocyte hypertrophy as measured by myotube diameter. Importantly, a concerted increase of average myonuclei per myotube was observed in IGF-I-stimulated myotubes, which was also inhibited by rapamycin added at a time when it no longer affected normal differentiation. The mTOR protein level, its catalytic activity, its phosphorylation on Ser2448, and the activity of S6K1 were all found increased in IGF-I-stimulated myotubes compared to unstimulated myotubes. Using C2C12 cells stably expressing rapamycin-resistant forms of mTOR and S6K1, we provide genetic evidence for the requirement of mTOR and its downstream effector S6K1 in the regulation of myotube hypertrophy. Our results suggest distinct mTOR signaling mechanisms in different stages of skeletal muscle development: While mTOR regulates the initial myoblast differentiation in a kinase-independent and S6K1-independent manner, the hypertrophic function of mTOR requires its kinase activity and employs S6K1 as a downstream effector

  20. Study of muscle cell dedifferentiation after skeletal muscle injury of mice with a Cre-Lox system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Xiaodong; Peng, Hairong; Pan, Haiying; Huard, Johnny; Li, Yong

    2011-02-03

    Dedifferentiation of muscle cells in the tissue of mammals has yet to be observed. One of the challenges facing the study of skeletal muscle cell dedifferentiation is the availability of a reliable model that can confidentially distinguish differentiated cell populations of myotubes and non-fused mononuclear cells, including stem cells that can coexist within the population of cells being studied. In the current study, we created a Cre/Lox-β-galactosidase system, which can specifically tag differentiated multinuclear myotubes and myotube-generated mononuclear cells based on the activation of the marker gene, β-galactosidase. By using this system in an adult mouse model, we found that β-galactosidase positive mononuclear cells were generated from β-galactosidase positive multinuclear myofibers upon muscle injury. We also demonstrated that these mononuclear cells can develop into a variety of different muscle cell lineages, i.e., myoblasts, satellite cells, and muscle derived stem cells. These novel findings demonstrated, for the first time, that cellular dedifferentiation of skeletal muscle cells actually occurs in mammalian skeletal muscle following traumatic injury in vivo.

  1. Glucose-ABL1-TOR Signaling Modulates Cell Cycle Tuning to Control Terminal Appressorial Cell Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marroquin-Guzman, Margarita; Sun, Guangchao; Wilson, Richard A

    2017-01-01

    The conserved target of rapamycin (TOR) pathway integrates growth and development with available nutrients, but how cellular glucose controls TOR function and signaling is poorly understood. Here, we provide functional evidence from the devastating rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae that glucose can mediate TOR activity via the product of a novel carbon-responsive gene, ABL1, in order to tune cell cycle progression during infection-related development. Under nutrient-free conditions, wild type (WT) M. oryzae strains form terminal plant-infecting cells (appressoria) at the tips of germ tubes emerging from three-celled spores (conidia). WT appressorial development is accompanied by one round of mitosis followed by autophagic cell death of the conidium. In contrast, Δabl1 mutant strains undergo multiple rounds of accelerated mitosis in elongated germ tubes, produce few appressoria, and are abolished for autophagy. Treating WT spores with glucose or 2-deoxyglucose phenocopied Δabl1. Inactivating TOR in Δabl1 mutants or glucose-treated WT strains restored appressorium formation by promoting mitotic arrest at G1/G0 via an appressorium- and autophagy-inducing cell cycle delay at G2/M. Collectively, this work uncovers a novel glucose-ABL1-TOR signaling axis and shows it engages two metabolic checkpoints in order to modulate cell cycle tuning and mediate terminal appressorial cell differentiation. We thus provide new molecular insights into TOR regulation and cell development in response to glucose.

  2. Clear cell chondrosarcoma mimicking chondroblastoma in a skeletally immature patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, Christopher P.; Nelson, Scott D.; Seeger, Leanne L.; Eckardt, Jeffrey J.

    2002-01-01

    We report the case of a clear cell chondrosarcoma (CCCS) occurring in the femoral head of a 14-year-old skeletally immature boy. Radiographic examination revealed a well-defined, osteolytic lesion in the epiphysis of the femoral head. Given the patient's age and the radiographic appearance of the lesion, chondroblastoma was high on the differential diagnosis. A frozen section was performed at the time of open biopsy was felt to be consistent with either chondroblastoma or CCCS. CCCS in a skeletally immature patient was felt to be unlikely, so curettage and bone grafting was performed. Final pathology review, however, confirmed the diagnosis of CCCS. The patient was taken back to surgery 4 weeks later for a wide resection and hemiarthroplasty. (orig.)

  3. Clear cell chondrosarcoma mimicking chondroblastoma in a skeletally immature patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannon, Christopher P. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Madigan Army Medical Center, Ft. Lewis, WA (United States); Nelson, Scott D. [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles School of Medicine, CA (United States); Seeger, Leanne L. [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, CA (United States); Eckardt, Jeffrey J. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of California, Los Angeles School of Medicine, CA (United States)

    2002-06-01

    We report the case of a clear cell chondrosarcoma (CCCS) occurring in the femoral head of a 14-year-old skeletally immature boy. Radiographic examination revealed a well-defined, osteolytic lesion in the epiphysis of the femoral head. Given the patient's age and the radiographic appearance of the lesion, chondroblastoma was high on the differential diagnosis. A frozen section was performed at the time of open biopsy was felt to be consistent with either chondroblastoma or CCCS. CCCS in a skeletally immature patient was felt to be unlikely, so curettage and bone grafting was performed. Final pathology review, however, confirmed the diagnosis of CCCS. The patient was taken back to surgery 4 weeks later for a wide resection and hemiarthroplasty. (orig.)

  4. A Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Model of Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy-Affected Skeletal Muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Leslie; Kher, Devaki; Lee, Kian Leong; McKernan, Robert; Dumevska, Biljana; Hidalgo, Alejandro; Li, Jia; Yang, Henry; Main, Heather; Ferri, Giulia; Petek, Lisa M; Poellinger, Lorenz; Miller, Daniel G; Gabellini, Davide; Schmidt, Uli

    2016-09-01

    : Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) represents a major unmet clinical need arising from the progressive weakness and atrophy of skeletal muscles. The dearth of adequate experimental models has severely hampered our understanding of the disease. To date, no treatment is available for FSHD. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) potentially represent a renewable source of skeletal muscle cells (SkMCs) and provide an alternative to invasive patient biopsies. We developed a scalable monolayer system to differentiate hESCs into mature SkMCs within 26 days, without cell sorting or genetic manipulation. Here we show that SkMCs derived from FSHD1-affected hESC lines exclusively express the FSHD pathogenic marker double homeobox 4 and exhibit some of the defects reported in FSHD. FSHD1 myotubes are thinner when compared with unaffected and Becker muscular dystrophy myotubes, and differentially regulate genes involved in cell cycle control, oxidative stress response, and cell adhesion. This cellular model will be a powerful tool for studying FSHD and will ultimately assist in the development of effective treatments for muscular dystrophies. This work describes an efficient and highly scalable monolayer system to differentiate human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) into skeletal muscle cells (SkMCs) and demonstrates disease-specific phenotypes in SkMCs derived from both embryonic and induced hPSCs affected with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy. This study represents the first human stem cell-based cellular model for a muscular dystrophy that is suitable for high-throughput screening and drug development. ©AlphaMed Press.

  5. Structural and Molecular Properties of Insect Type II Motor Axon Terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Stocker

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A comparison between the axon terminals of octopaminergic efferent dorsal or ventral unpaired median neurons in either desert locusts (Schistocerca gregaria or fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster across skeletal muscles reveals many similarities. In both species the octopaminergic axon forms beaded fibers where the boutons or varicosities form type II terminals in contrast to the neuromuscular junction (NMJ or type I terminals. These type II terminals are immunopositive for both tyramine and octopamine and, in contrast to the type I terminals, which possess clear synaptic vesicles, only contain dense core vesicles. These dense core vesicles contain octopamine as shown by immunogold methods. With respect to the cytomatrix and active zone peptides the type II terminals exhibit active zone-like accumulations of the scaffold protein Bruchpilot (BRP only sparsely in contrast to the many accumulations of BRP identifying active zones of NMJ type I terminals. In the fruit fly larva marked dynamic changes of octopaminergic fibers have been reported after short starvation which not only affects the formation of new branches (“synaptopods” but also affects the type I terminals or NMJs via octopamine-signaling (Koon et al., 2011. Our starvation experiments of Drosophila-larvae revealed a time-dependency of the formation of additional branches. Whereas after 2 h of starvation we find a decrease in “synaptopods”, the increase is significant after 6 h of starvation. In addition, we provide evidence that the release of octopamine from dendritic and/or axonal type II terminals uses a similar synaptic machinery to glutamate release from type I terminals of excitatory motor neurons. Indeed, blocking this canonical synaptic release machinery via RNAi induced downregulation of BRP in neurons with type II terminals leads to flight performance deficits similar to those observed for octopamine mutants or flies lacking this class of neurons (Brembs et al., 2007.

  6. Embryoid body attachment to reconstituted basement membrane induces a genetic program of epithelial differentiation via jun N-terminal kinase signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hoang-Yen; Moffat, Ryan C; Patel, Rupal V; Awah, Franklin N; Baloue, Kaitrin; Crowe, David L

    2010-09-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells are derived from early stage mammalian embryos and have broad developmental potential. These cells can be manipulated experimentally to generate cells of multiple tissue types which could be important in treating human diseases. The ability to produce relevant amounts of these differentiated cell populations creates the basis for clinical interventions in tissue regeneration and repair. Understanding how embryonic stem cells differentiate also can reveal important insights into cell biology. A previously reported mouse embryonic stem cell model demonstrated that differentiated epithelial cells migrated out of embryoid bodies attached to reconstituted basement membrane. We used genomic technology to profile ES cell populations in order to understand the molecular mechanisms leading to epithelial differentiation. Cells with characteristics of cultured epithelium migrated from embryoid bodies attached to reconstituted basement membrane. However, cells that comprised embryoid bodies also rapidly lost ES cell-specific gene expression and expressed proteins characteristic of stratified epithelia within hours of attachment to basement membrane. Gene expression profiling of sorted cell populations revealed upregulation of the BMP/TGFbeta signaling pathway, which was not sufficient for epithelial differentiation in the absence of basement membrane attachment. Activation of c-jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) and increased expression of Jun family transcription factors was observed during epithelial differentiation of ES cells. Inhibition of JNK signaling completely blocked epithelial differentiation in this model, revealing a key mechanism by which ES cells adopt epithelial characteristics via basement membrane attachment. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Three-Dimensional Human iPSC-Derived Artificial Skeletal Muscles Model Muscular Dystrophies and Enable Multilineage Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffioletti, Sara Martina; Sarcar, Shilpita; Henderson, Alexander B H; Mannhardt, Ingra; Pinton, Luca; Moyle, Louise Anne; Steele-Stallard, Heather; Cappellari, Ornella; Wells, Kim E; Ferrari, Giulia; Mitchell, Jamie S; Tyzack, Giulia E; Kotiadis, Vassilios N; Khedr, Moustafa; Ragazzi, Martina; Wang, Weixin; Duchen, Michael R; Patani, Rickie; Zammit, Peter S; Wells, Dominic J; Eschenhagen, Thomas; Tedesco, Francesco Saverio

    2018-04-17

    Generating human skeletal muscle models is instrumental for investigating muscle pathology and therapy. Here, we report the generation of three-dimensional (3D) artificial skeletal muscle tissue from human pluripotent stem cells, including induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from patients with Duchenne, limb-girdle, and congenital muscular dystrophies. 3D skeletal myogenic differentiation of pluripotent cells was induced within hydrogels under tension to provide myofiber alignment. Artificial muscles recapitulated characteristics of human skeletal muscle tissue and could be implanted into immunodeficient mice. Pathological cellular hallmarks of incurable forms of severe muscular dystrophy could be modeled with high fidelity using this 3D platform. Finally, we show generation of fully human iPSC-derived, complex, multilineage muscle models containing key isogenic cellular constituents of skeletal muscle, including vascular endothelial cells, pericytes, and motor neurons. These results lay the foundation for a human skeletal muscle organoid-like platform for disease modeling, regenerative medicine, and therapy development. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Spop promotes skeletal development and homeostasis by positively regulating Ihh signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hongchen; Liu, Aimin

    2016-12-20

    Indian Hedgehog (Ihh) regulates chondrocyte and osteoblast differentiation through the Glioma-associated oncogene homolog (Gli) transcription factors. Previous in vitro studies suggested that Speckle-type POZ protein (Spop), part of the Cullin-3 (Cul3) ubiquitin ligase complex, targets Gli2 and Gli3 for degradation and negatively regulates Hedgehog (Hh) signaling. In this study, we found defects in chondrocyte and osteoblast differentiation in Spop-null mutant mice. Strikingly, both the full-length and repressor forms of Gli3, but not Gli2, were up-regulated in Spop mutants, and Ihh target genes Patched 1 (Ptch1) and parathyroid hormone-like peptide (Pthlh) were down-regulated, indicating compromised Hh signaling. Consistent with this finding, reducing Gli3 dosage greatly rescued the Spop mutant skeletal defects. We further show that Spop directly targets the Gli3 repressor for ubiquitination and degradation. Finally, we demonstrate in a conditional mutant that loss of Spop results in brachydactyly and osteopenia, which can be rescued by reducing the dosage of Gli3. In summary, Spop is an important positive regulator of Ihh signaling and skeletal development.

  9. Contraction-induced interleukin-6 gene transcription in skeletal muscle is regulated by c-Jun terminal kinase/activator protein-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitham, Martin; Chan, M H Stanley; Pal, Martin; Matthews, Vance B; Prelovsek, Oja; Lunke, Sebastian; El-Osta, Assam; Broenneke, Hella; Alber, Jens; Brüning, Jens C; Wunderlich, F Thomas; Lancaster, Graeme I; Febbraio, Mark A

    2012-03-30

    Exercise increases the expression of the prototypical myokine IL-6, but the precise mechanism by which this occurs has yet to be identified. To mimic exercise conditions, C2C12 myotubes were mechanically stimulated via electrical pulse stimulation (EPS). We compared the responses of EPS with the pharmacological Ca(2+) carrier calcimycin (A23187) because contraction induces marked increases in cytosolic Ca(2+) levels or the classical IκB kinase/NFκB inflammatory response elicited by H(2)O(2). We demonstrate that, unlike H(2)O(2)-stimulated increases in IL-6 mRNA, neither calcimycin- nor EPS-induced IL-6 mRNA expression is under the transcriptional control of NFκB. Rather, we show that EPS increased the phosphorylation of JNK and the reporter activity of the downstream transcription factor AP-1. Furthermore, JNK inhibition abolished the EPS-induced increase in IL-6 mRNA and protein expression. Finally, we observed an exercise-induced increase in both JNK phosphorylation and IL-6 mRNA expression in the skeletal muscles of mice after 30 min of treadmill running. Importantly, exercise did not increase IL-6 mRNA expression in skeletal muscle-specific JNK-deficient mice. These data identify a novel contraction-mediated transcriptional regulatory pathway for IL-6 in skeletal muscle.

  10. Protein Availability and Satellite Cell Dynamics in Skeletal Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Baubak; Hawley, John A; Camera, Donny M

    2018-06-01

    Human skeletal muscle satellite cells are activated in response to both resistance and endurance exercise. It was initially proposed that satellite cell proliferation and differentiation were only required to support resistance exercise-induced hypertrophy. However, satellite cells may also play a role in muscle fibre remodelling after endurance-based exercise and extracellular matrix regulation. Given the importance of dietary protein, particularly branched chain amino acids, in supporting myofibrillar and mitochondrial adaptations to both resistance and endurance-based training, a greater understanding of how protein intake impacts satellite cell activity would provide further insight into the mechanisms governing skeletal muscle remodelling with exercise. While many studies have investigated the capacity for protein ingestion to increase post-exercise rates of muscle protein synthesis, few investigations have examined the role for protein ingestion to modulate satellite cell activity. Here we review the molecular mechanisms controlling the activation of satellite cells in response to mechanical stress and protein intake in both in vitro and in vivo models. We provide a mechanistic framework that describes how protein ingestion may enhance satellite activity and promote exercise adaptations in human skeletal muscle.

  11. Transcription factor ZNF25 is associated with osteoblast differentiation of human skeletal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twine, Natalie A.; Harkness, Linda; Kassem, Moustapha

    2016-01-01

    containing G protein-coupled receptor 5 and RAN-binding protein 3-like. We also observed enrichment in extracellular matrix organization, skeletal system development and regulation of ossification in the entire upregulated set of genes. Consistent with its function as a transcription factor during osteoblast...

  12. Skeletal changes in growing spine following radiotherapy of tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spissak, L.; Horniakova, M.

    1987-01-01

    An analysis is given of a group of 20 children after nephrectomy and radiotherapy of Wilms' tumor and of one child following ovariectomy and radiotherapy of a dysgermanoma more than 5 years after the termination of the therapy. Morphological and structural changes were evaluated in the vertebrae as well as axial alterations of the spine. Interrelationships were found between the radiation dose, the patient's age and the degree of the skeletal changes in the spine. The most pronounced morphological, structural and axial changes occurred in children below 4 years treated with radiation doses above 20.0 Gy. (author). 1 tab., 5 figs., 3 refs

  13. An Antibody Blocking Activin Type II Receptors Induces Strong Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy and Protects from Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minetti, Giulia C.; Sheppard, KellyAnn; Ibebunjo, Chikwendu; Feige, Jerome N.; Hartmann, Steffen; Brachat, Sophie; Rivet, Helene; Koelbing, Claudia; Morvan, Frederic; Hatakeyama, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    The myostatin/activin type II receptor (ActRII) pathway has been identified to be critical in regulating skeletal muscle size. Several other ligands, including GDF11 and the activins, signal through this pathway, suggesting that the ActRII receptors are major regulatory nodes in the regulation of muscle mass. We have developed a novel, human anti-ActRII antibody (bimagrumab, or BYM338) to prevent binding of ligands to the receptors and thus inhibit downstream signaling. BYM338 enhances differentiation of primary human skeletal myoblasts and counteracts the inhibition of differentiation induced by myostatin or activin A. BYM338 prevents myostatin- or activin A-induced atrophy through inhibition of Smad2/3 phosphorylation, thus sparing the myosin heavy chain from degradation. BYM338 dramatically increases skeletal muscle mass in mice, beyond sole inhibition of myostatin, detected by comparing the antibody with a myostatin inhibitor. A mouse version of the antibody induces enhanced muscle hypertrophy in myostatin mutant mice, further confirming a beneficial effect on muscle growth beyond myostatin inhibition alone through blockade of ActRII ligands. BYM338 protects muscles from glucocorticoid-induced atrophy and weakness via prevention of muscle and tetanic force losses. These data highlight the compelling therapeutic potential of BYM338 for the treatment of skeletal muscle atrophy and weakness in multiple settings. PMID:24298022

  14. Radiographic manifestations of diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Minoru; Kudo, Sho; Russell, W.J.

    1984-09-01

    A relatively high frequency of hyperostosis in various body sites was found in 240 subjects with ''diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis'' (DISH) in the thoracic spine over an average observation period of 11 years. The onset and initial appearance of DISH in the thoracic spine were identified in 69 cases. The age at onset ranged from 40 to 65 years, and the initial sites involved were usually T9-10 and T10-11. As criteria in differentiating DISH from spondylosis deformans the hyperostoses anterior to the vertebral body itself appeared to be more important than the ''bridges'' anterior to the intervertebral spaces. Although it was difficult to differentiate the early appearance of DISH from spondylosis deformans in some cases, these long-term observations suggest that they are different entities. (author)

  15. Comparative X-ray morphometry of prenatal osteogenesis imperfecta type 2 and thanatophoric dysplasia: a contribution to prenatal differential diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondioni, Maria Pia; Pazzaglia, Ugo Ernesto; Izzi, Claudia; Di Gaetano, Giuseppe; Laffranchi, Francesco; Baldi, Maurizia; Prefumo, Federico

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of the paper was to assess the morphometric parameters to improve the specificity of the ultrasound (US) signs for the early differential diagnosis between two lethal dysplasias, as thanatophoric dysplasia (TD) and osteogenesis imperfecta type 2 (OI-2). The diaphyseal length and the bowed shape of long bones associated with vertebral body dimension assessment were investigated in a group of 14 pregnancy terminations carried out in the time period 2007-2013. The definitive diagnosis was established after pregnancy termination by means of skeletal standardized X-rays, histopathology and gene analysis. TD and OI-2 long bones were significantly shorter than controls. No significant differences were observed between the two dysplasias. The bowing angle was higher in OI-2; a true angulation or eventually axial displacement was present only in the latter. Furthermore, they did not show any evidence of vertebral collapse. The thanatophoric dysplasia presented less bowed long bones, and never true angulation. The spine was steadily characterized by flattened anterior vertebral bodies. Long bone shortening is not a sufficient and accurate sign for early sonographic differential diagnosis between TD and OI-2. Angled diaphysis, axial diaphyseal displacement and a conserved vertebral body height in the prenatal period support the diagnosis of osteogenesis imperfecta type 2, while moderately regular bowed diaphysis associated with platyspondyly that of thanatophoric dysplasia.

  16. Insulin-like growth factors in embryonic and fetal growth and skeletal development (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrogiannis, Georgios D; Sifakis, Stavros; Patsouris, Efstratios S; Konstantinidou, Anastasia E

    2014-08-01

    The insulin-like growth factors (IGF)-I and -II have a predominant role in fetal growth and development. IGFs are involved in the proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of fetal cells in vitro and the IGF serum concentration has been shown to be closely correlated with fetal growth and length. IGF transcripts and peptides have been detected in almost every fetal tissue from as early in development as pre‑implantation to the final maturation stage. Furthermore, IGFs have been demonstrated to be involved in limb morphogenesis. However, although ablation of Igf genes in mice resulted in growth retardation and delay in skeletal maturation, no impact on outgrowth and patterning of embryonic limbs was observed. Additionally, various molecular defects in the Igf1 and Igf1r genes in humans have been associated with severe intrauterine growth retardation and impaired skeletal maturation, but not with truncated limbs or severe skeletal dysplasia. The conflicting data between in vitro and in vivo observations with regard to bone morphogenesis suggests that IGFs may not be the sole trophic factors involved in fetal skeletal growth and that redundant mechanisms may exist in chondro- and osteogenesis. Further investigation is required in order to elucidate the functions of IGFs in skeletal development.

  17. Differential functions of C- and N-terminal hepatitis B x protein in liver cells treated with doxorubicin in normoxic or hypoxic condition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davor Kin-Fan Chau

    Full Text Available Hepatitis viral B x protein (HBx, a hepatocarcinogen, is frequently mutated. Hypoxia influences the growth of HCC and also the sensitivity of tumor cells to treatments. We aimed to test the role of HBx and acute hypoxia in the efficacy of chemotherapy. In this study, we established 4 Chang liver cell lines with the full-length HBx (HBx, the first 50 amino acids of N-terminal HBx (HBx/50, the last 104 amino acids of C-terminal HBx (HBx/51 and empty vector (CL, respectively. MTT and TNUEL assays were used to assess cell viability and apoptosis respectively. Western blot was used to determine the expression of relevant proteins. Results showed that among 4 cell lines, doxorubicin was most effective in decreasing the viability and enhancing apoptosis in HBx/51 cells, while HBx/50 cells were most resistant to the treatment. Cells in hypoxia were more susceptible to doxorubicin than cells in normoxia. Hypoxia facilitated the Bid cleavage especially in HBx/51 cells via phosphorylating p38 MAPK. p38 MAPK inhibitor significantly reduced the tBid level and increased cell viability. In conclusion, N-terminal HBx and C-terminal HBx function differentially in their ability to regulate cell growth, with the former being promotive but the latter being inhibitory. The acute hypoxia may overcome the HBx-induced resistance and facilitate the chemotherapy.

  18. Hydrogen terminal solubility in Zircaloy-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vizcaino, Pablo; Banchik, Abrahan D.

    1999-01-01

    Terminal solubility temperature of hydrogen in zirconium and its alloys is an important parameter because hydrides precipitation embrittled these materials making them susceptible to the phenomenon known as retarded hydrogen cracking. This work continues the study presented in the 25 AATN Meeting. Within this framework, a study focused on determining these curves in recrystallized Zircaloy-4, using scanning differential calorimetric technique. Terminal solubility curves for Zircaloy-4 were constructed within a concentration range from 40 to 640 ppm in hydrogen weight and comparisons with results obtained by other authors were made. (author)

  19. Inhibiting c-Jun N-terminal kinase partially attenuates caffeine-dependent cell death without alleviating the caffeine-induced reduction in mitochondrial respiration in C2C12 skeletal myotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downs, R.M.; Hughes, M.A.; Kinsey, S.T.; Johnson, M.C.; Baumgarner, B.L.

    2016-01-01

    Caffeine is a widely consumed stimulant that has previously been shown to promote cytotoxic stress and even cell death in numerous mammalian cell lines. Thus far there is little information available regarding the toxicity of caffeine in skeletal muscle cells. Our preliminary data revealed that treating C2C12 myotubes with 5 mM caffeine for 6 h increased nuclear fragmentation and reduced basal and maximal oxygen consumption rate (OCR) in skeletal myotubes. The purpose of this study was to further elucidate the pathways by which caffeine increased cell death and reduced mitochondrial respiration. We specifically examined the role of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), which has previously been shown to simultaneously increase caspase-dependent cell death and reduce mitochondrial respiration in other mammalian cell lines. We found that caffeine promoted a dose-dependent increase in cell death in multinucleated myotubes but did not in mononucleated myoblasts. The addition of 10 μM Z-DEVD-FMK, a specific inhibitor of executioner caspases, completely inhibited caffeine-dependent cell death. Further, the addition of 400 μM dantrolene, a specific ryanodine receptor (RYR) inhibitor, prevented the caffeine-dependent increase in cell death and the reduction in basal and maximal OCR. We also discovered that caffeine treatment significantly increased the phosphorylation of JNK and that the addition of 30 μM SP600125 (JNKi), a specific JNK inhibitor, partially attenuated caffeine-induced cell death without preventing the caffeine-dependent reduction in basal and maximal OCR. Our results suggest that JNK partially mediates the increase in caspase-dependent cell death but does not contribute to reduced mitochondrial respiration in caffeine-treated skeletal muscle cells. We conclude that caffeine increased cell death and reduced mitochondrial respiration in a calcium-dependent manner by activating the RYR and promoting reticular calcium release. - Highlights: • Caffeine

  20. Loss of MyoD and Myf5 in Skeletal Muscle Stem Cells Results in Altered Myogenic Programming and Failed Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masakazu Yamamoto

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: MyoD and Myf5 are fundamental regulators of skeletal muscle lineage determination in the embryo, and their expression is induced in satellite cells following muscle injury. MyoD and Myf5 are also expressed by satellite cell precursors developmentally, although the relative contribution of historical and injury-induced expression to satellite cell function is unknown. We show that satellite cells lacking both MyoD and Myf5 (double knockout [dKO] are maintained with aging in uninjured muscle. However, injured muscle fails to regenerate and dKO satellite cell progeny accumulate in damaged muscle but do not undergo muscle differentiation. dKO satellite cell progeny continue to express markers of myoblast identity, although their myogenic programming is labile, as demonstrated by dramatic morphological changes and increased propensity for non-myogenic differentiation. These data demonstrate an absolute requirement for either MyoD or Myf5 in muscle regeneration and indicate that their expression after injury stabilizes myogenic identity and confers the capacity for muscle differentiation. : In this article, Goldhamer and colleagues show that loss of both MyoD and Myf5 in skeletal muscle satellite cells results in regenerative failure following injury. Satellite cell progeny accumulate in injured muscle and continue to express markers of myoblast identity, but do not undergo muscle differentiation, and exhibit a propensity for non-myogenic differentiation. Keywords: skeletal muscle regeneration, muscle stem cell programming, muscle differentiation, satellite cell, MyoD, Myf5, adipogenesis, fibrosis, conditional knockout, Cre/loxP

  1. Gender-Dimorphic Regulation of Skeletal Muscle Proteins in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minji Choi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the fact that sexual differences increase diabetic risk and contribute to the need for gender-specific care, there remain contradictory results as to whether or not sexual dimorphism increases susceptibility to the development of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Methods: To examine gender-dimorphic regulation of skeletal muscle proteins between healthy control and STZ-induced diabetic rats of both genders, we performed differential proteome analysis using two-dimensional electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometry. Results: Animal experiments revealed that STZ treatment rendered female rats more susceptible to induction of diabetes than their male littermates with significantly lower plasma insulin levels due to hormonal regulation. Proteomic analysis of skeletal muscle identified a total of 21 proteins showing gender-dimorphic differential expression patterns between healthy controls and diabetic rats. Most interestingly, gender-specific proteome comparison showed that male and female rats displayed differential regulation of proteins involved in muscle contraction, carbohydrate, and lipid metabolism, as well as oxidative phosphorylation and cellular stress. Conclusion: The current proteomic study revealed that impaired protein regulation was more prominent in the muscle tissue of female diabetic rats, which were more susceptible to STZ-induced diabetes. We expect that the present proteomic data can provide valuable information for evidence-based gender-specific treatment of diabetes.

  2. Human skeletal muscle drug transporters determine local exposure and toxicity of statins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knauer, Michael J; Urquhart, Bradley L; Meyer zu Schwabedissen, Henriette E; Schwarz, Ute I; Lemke, Christopher J; Leake, Brenda F; Kim, Richard B; Tirona, Rommel G

    2010-02-05

    The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, or statins, are important drugs used in the treatment and prevention of cardiovascular disease. Although statins are well tolerated, many patients develop myopathy manifesting as muscle aches and pain. Rhabdomyolysis is a rare but severe toxicity of statins. Interindividual differences in the activities of hepatic membrane drug transporters and metabolic enzymes are known to influence statin plasma pharmacokinetics and risk for myopathy. Interestingly, little is known regarding the molecular determinants of statin distribution into skeletal muscle and its relevance to toxicity. We sought to identify statin transporters in human skeletal muscle and determine their impact on statin toxicity in vitro. We demonstrate that the uptake transporter OATP2B1 (human organic anion transporting polypeptide 2B1) and the efflux transporters, multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP)1, MRP4, and MRP5 are expressed on the sarcolemmal membrane of human skeletal muscle fibers and that atorvastatin and rosuvastatin are substrates of these transporters when assessed using a heterologous expression system. In an in vitro model of differentiated, primary human skeletal muscle myoblast cells, we demonstrate basal membrane expression and drug efflux activity of MRP1, which contributes to reducing intracellular statin accumulation. Furthermore, we show that expression of human OATP2B1 in human skeletal muscle myoblast cells by adenoviral vectors increases intracellular accumulation and toxicity of statins and such effects were abrogated when cells overexpressed MRP1. These results identify key membrane transporters as modulators of skeletal muscle statin exposure and toxicity.

  3. Assessment of three types of spaceflight hardware for tissue culture studies: Comparison of skeletal tissue growth and differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klement, B.J. [Space Medicine and Life Sciences Research Center Department of Anatomy Morehouse School of Medicine 720 Westview Dr. SW Atlanta, Georgia30310-1495 (United States); Spooner, B.S. [NASA Specialized Center of Research and Training Division of Biology Ackert Hall Kansas State University Manhattan, Kansas66506 (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Three different types of spaceflight hardware, the BioProcessing Module (BPM), the Materials Dispersion Apparatus (MDA), and the Fluid Processing Apparatus (FPA), were assessed for their ability to support pre-metatarsal growth and differentiation in experiments conducted on five space shuttle flights. BPM-cultured pre-metatarsal tissue showed no difference in flight and ground control lengths. Flight and ground controls cultured in the MDA grew 135 {mu}m and 141 {mu}m, respectively, in an 11 day experiment. Only five control rods and three flight rods mineralized. In another MDA experiment, pre-metatarsals were cultured at 4{degree}C (277K) or 20{degree}C (293K) for the 16 day mission, then cultured an additional 16 days in laboratory dishes at 37{degree}C (310K). The 20{degree}C (293K) cultures died post-flight. The 4{degree}C (277K) flight pre-metatarsals grew 417 {mu}m more than the 4{degree}C (277K) ground controls post-flight. In 5 and 6 day experiments done in FPAs, flight rods grew longer than ground control rods. In a 14 day experiment, ground control and flight rods also expanded in length, but there was no difference between them. The pre-metatarsals cultured in the FPAs did not mineralize, or terminally differentiate. These experiments demonstrate, that while supporting pre-metatarsal growth in length, the three types of hardware are not suitable to support routine differentiation. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  4. The Skeletal Muscle Satellite Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The skeletal muscle satellite cell was first described and named based on its anatomic location between the myofiber plasma and basement membranes. In 1961, two independent studies by Alexander Mauro and Bernard Katz provided the first electron microscopic descriptions of satellite cells in frog and rat muscles. These cells were soon detected in other vertebrates and acquired candidacy as the source of myogenic cells needed for myofiber growth and repair throughout life. Cultures of isolated myofibers and, subsequently, transplantation of single myofibers demonstrated that satellite cells were myogenic progenitors. More recently, satellite cells were redefined as myogenic stem cells given their ability to self-renew in addition to producing differentiated progeny. Identification of distinctively expressed molecular markers, in particular Pax7, has facilitated detection of satellite cells using light microscopy. Notwithstanding the remarkable progress made since the discovery of satellite cells, researchers have looked for alternative cells with myogenic capacity that can potentially be used for whole body cell-based therapy of skeletal muscle. Yet, new studies show that inducible ablation of satellite cells in adult muscle impairs myofiber regeneration. Thus, on the 50th anniversary since its discovery, the satellite cell’s indispensable role in muscle repair has been reaffirmed. PMID:22147605

  5. The Functional Role of Calcineurin in Hypertrophy, Regeneration, and Disorders of Skeletal Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunihiro Sakuma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle uses calcium as a second messenger to respond and adapt to environmental stimuli. Elevations in intracellular calcium levels activate calcineurin, a serine/threonine phosphatase, resulting in the expression of a set of genes involved in the maintenance, growth, and remodeling of skeletal muscle. In this review, we discuss the effects of calcineurin activity on hypertrophy, regeneration, and disorders of skeletal muscle. Calcineurin is a potent regulator of muscle remodeling, enhancing the differentiation through upregulation of myogenin or MEF2A and downregulation of the Id1 family and myostatin. Foxo may also be a downstream candidate for a calcineurin signaling molecule during muscle regeneration. The strategy of controlling the amount of calcineurin may be effective for the treatment of muscular disorders such as DMD, UCMD, and LGMD. Activation of calcineurin produces muscular hypertrophy of the slow-twitch soleus muscle but not fast-twitch muscles.

  6. Comparative Analyses between Skeletal Muscle miRNAomes from Large White and Min Pigs Revealed MicroRNAs Associated with Postnatal Muscle Hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Xihui; Wang, Ligang; Ni, Hemin; Wang, Lixian; Qi, Xiaolong; Xing, Shuhan; Guo, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The molecular mechanism regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs) that underlies postnatal hypertrophy of skeletal muscle is complex and remains unclear. Here, the miRNAomes of longissimus dorsi muscle collected at five postnatal stages (60, 120, 150, 180, and 210 days after birth) from Large White (commercial breed) and Min pigs (indigenous breed of China) were analyzed by Illumina sequencing. We identified 734 miRNAs comprising 308 annotated miRNAs and 426 novel miRNAs, of which 307 could be considered pig-specific. Comparative analysis between two breeds suggested that 60 and 120 days after birth were important stages for skeletal muscle hypertrophy and intramuscular fat accumulation. A total of 263 miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed between two breeds at one or more developmental stages. In addition, the differentially expressed miRNAs between every two adjacent developmental stages in each breed were determined. Notably, ssc-miR-204 was significantly more highly expressed in Min pig skeletal muscle at all postnatal stages compared with its expression in Large White pig skeletal muscle. Based on gene ontology and KEGG pathway analyses of its predicted target genes, we concluded that ssc-miR-204 may exert an impact on postnatal hypertrophy of skeletal muscle by regulating myoblast proliferation. The results of this study will help in elucidating the mechanism underlying postnatal hypertrophy of skeletal muscle modulated by miRNAs, which could provide valuable information for improvement of pork quality and human myopathy.

  7. Gene trapping in differentiating cell lines: regulation of the lysosomal protease cathepsin B in skeletal myoblast growth and fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogos, J A; Thompson, R; Lowry, W; Sloane, B F; Weintraub, H; Horwitz, M

    1996-08-01

    To identify genes regulated during skeletal muscle differentiation, we have infected mouse C2C12 myoblasts with retroviral gene trap vectors, containing a promoterless marker gene with a 5' splice acceptor signal. Integration of the vector adjacent to an actively transcribed gene places the marker under the transcriptional control of the endogenous gene, while the adjacent vector sequences facilitate cloning. The vector insertionally mutates the trapped locus and may also form fusion proteins with the endogenous gene product. We have screened several hundred clones, each containing a trapping vector integrated into a different endogenous gene. In agreement with previous estimates based on hybridization kinetics, we find that a large proportion of all genes expressed in myoblasts are regulated during differentiation. Many of these genes undergo unique temporal patterns of activation or repression during cell growth and myotube formation, and some show specific patterns of subcellular localization. The first gene we have identified with this strategy is the lysosomal cysteine protease cathepsin B. Expression from the trapped allele is upregulated during early myoblast fusion and downregulated in myotubes. A direct role for cathepsin B in myoblast growth and fusion is suggested by the observation that the trapped cells deficient in cathepsin B activity have an unusual morphology and reduced survival in low-serum media and undergo differentiation with impaired cellular fusion. The phenotype is reproduced by antisense cathepsin B expression in parental C2C12 myoblasts. The cellular phenotype is similar to that observed in cultured myoblasts from patients with I cell disease, in which there is diminished accumulation of lysosomal enzymes. This suggests that a specific deficiency of cathepsin B could contribute to the myopathic component of this illness.

  8. Isolation, culture and biological characteristics of multipotent porcine skeletal muscle satellite cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinjuan; Liu, Hao; Wang, Kunfu; Li, Lu; Yuan, Hongyi; Liu, Xueting; Liu, Yingjie; Guan, Weijun

    2017-12-01

    Skeletal muscle has a huge regenerative potential for postnatal muscle growth and repair, which mainly depends on a kind of muscle progenitor cell population, called satellite cell. Nowadays, the majority of satellite cells were obtained from human, mouse, rat and other animals but rarely from pig. In this article, the porcine skeletal muscle satellite cells were isolated and cultured in vitro. The expression of surface markers of satellite cells was detected by immunofluorescence and RT-PCR assays. The differentiation capacity was assessed by inducing satellite cells into adipocytes, myoblasts and osteoblasts. The results showed that satellite cells isolated from porcine tibialis anterior were subcultured up to 12 passages and were positive for Pax7, Myod, c-Met, desmin, PCNA and NANOG but were negative for Myogenin. Satellite cells were also induced to differentiate into adipocytes, osteoblasts and myoblasts, respectively. These findings indicated that porcine satellite cells possess similar biological characteristics of stem cells, which may provide theoretical basis and experimental evidence for potential therapeutic application in the treatment of dystrophic muscle and other muscle injuries.

  9. Cytoskeletal Tropomyosin Tm5NM1 Is Required for Normal Excitation–Contraction Coupling in Skeletal Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahovich, Nicole; Kee, Anthony J.; Van der Poel, Chris; Kettle, Emma; Hernandez-Deviez, Delia; Lucas, Christine; Lynch, Gordon S.; Parton, Robert G.; Gunning, Peter W.

    2009-01-01

    The functional diversity of the actin microfilaments relies in part on the actin binding protein tropomyosin (Tm). The muscle-specific Tms regulate actin-myosin interactions and hence contraction. However, there is less known about the roles of the numerous cytoskeletal isoforms. We have shown previously that a cytoskeletal Tm, Tm5NM1, defines a Z-line adjacent cytoskeleton in skeletal muscle. Recently, we identified a second cytoskeletal Tm in this region, Tm4. Here we show that Tm4 and Tm5NM1 define separate actin filaments; the former associated with the terminal sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and other tubulovesicular structures. In skeletal muscles of Tm5NM1 knockout (KO) mice, Tm4 localization was unchanged, demonstrating the specificity of the membrane association. Tm5NM1 KO muscles exhibit potentiation of T-system depolarization and decreased force rundown with repeated T-tubule depolarizations consistent with altered T-tubule function. These results indicate that a Tm5NM1-defined actin cytoskeleton is required for the normal excitation–contraction coupling in skeletal muscle. PMID:19005216

  10. Cytoskeletal tropomyosin Tm5NM1 is required for normal excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahovich, Nicole; Kee, Anthony J; Van der Poel, Chris; Kettle, Emma; Hernandez-Deviez, Delia; Lucas, Christine; Lynch, Gordon S; Parton, Robert G; Gunning, Peter W; Hardeman, Edna C

    2009-01-01

    The functional diversity of the actin microfilaments relies in part on the actin binding protein tropomyosin (Tm). The muscle-specific Tms regulate actin-myosin interactions and hence contraction. However, there is less known about the roles of the numerous cytoskeletal isoforms. We have shown previously that a cytoskeletal Tm, Tm5NM1, defines a Z-line adjacent cytoskeleton in skeletal muscle. Recently, we identified a second cytoskeletal Tm in this region, Tm4. Here we show that Tm4 and Tm5NM1 define separate actin filaments; the former associated with the terminal sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and other tubulovesicular structures. In skeletal muscles of Tm5NM1 knockout (KO) mice, Tm4 localization was unchanged, demonstrating the specificity of the membrane association. Tm5NM1 KO muscles exhibit potentiation of T-system depolarization and decreased force rundown with repeated T-tubule depolarizations consistent with altered T-tubule function. These results indicate that a Tm5NM1-defined actin cytoskeleton is required for the normal excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal muscle.

  11. Proteomics of Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deshmukh, Atul

    2016-01-01

    , of altered protein expressions profiles and/or their posttranslational modifications (PTMs). Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics offer enormous promise for investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying skeletal muscle insulin resistance and exercise-induced adaptation; however, skeletal muscle......Skeletal muscle is the largest tissue in the human body and plays an important role in locomotion and whole body metabolism. It accounts for ~80% of insulin stimulated glucose disposal. Skeletal muscle insulin resistance, a primary feature of Type 2 diabetes, is caused by a decreased ability...... of muscle to respond to circulating insulin. Physical exercise improves insulin sensitivity and whole body metabolism and remains one of the most promising interventions for the prevention of Type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance and exercise adaptations in skeletal muscle might be a cause, or consequence...

  12. Skeletal surveys in multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebes, J.I.; Niell, H.B.; Palmieri, G.M.A.; Reidy, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    Thirty-three patients with multiple myeloma were studied with serial skeletal surveys, serum immunoglobulin levels, and postabsorptive urinary hydroxyproline (Spot-HYPRO) determinations. Twenty receiving chemotherapy were also followed with skeletal surveys in order to evaluate bone response to treatment. A close association was found between skeletal findings and changes in immunoglubulin levels with positive correlation in 71% of the patients. A similar association was found between skeletal disease and Spot-HYPRO level changes in 65%. Five of 12 patients (42%) with partial or complete clinical response to chemotherapy, demonstrated improvement in the appearance of skeletal lesions. Positive correlation between the roentgenographic changes and clinical markers of myeloma as well as therapeutic response, indicates that skeletal surveys are useful and effective in monitoring patients with multiple myeloma. (orig.)

  13. Characterisation of cell cycle arrest and terminal differentiation in a maximally proliferative human epithelial tissue: Lessons from the human hair follicle matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purba, Talveen S; Brunken, Lars; Peake, Michael; Shahmalak, Asim; Chaves, Asuncion; Poblet, Enrique; Ceballos, Laura; Gandarillas, Alberto; Paus, Ralf

    2017-09-01

    Human hair follicle (HF) growth and hair shaft formation require terminal differentiation-associated cell cycle arrest of highly proliferative matrix keratinocytes. However, the regulation of this complex event remains unknown. CIP/KIP family member proteins (p21 CIP1 , p27 KIP1 and p57 KIP2 ) regulate cell cycle progression/arrest, endoreplication, differentiation and apoptosis. Since they have not yet been adequately characterized in the human HF, we asked whether and where CIP/KIP proteins localise in the human hair matrix and pre-cortex in relation to cell cycle activity and HF-specific epithelial cell differentiation that is marked by keratin 85 (K85) protein expression. K85 expression coincided with loss or reduction in cell cycle activity markers, including in situ DNA synthesis (EdU incorporation), Ki-67, phospho-histone H3 and cyclins A and B1, affirming a post-mitotic state of pre-cortical HF keratinocytes. Expression of CIP/KIP proteins was found abundantly within the proliferative hair matrix, concomitant with a role in cell cycle checkpoint control. p21 CIP1 , p27 KIP1 and cyclin E persisted within post-mitotic keratinocytes of the pre-cortex, whereas p57 KIP2 protein decreased but became nuclear. These data imply a supportive role for CIP/KIP proteins in maintaining proliferative arrest, differentiation and anti-apoptotic pathways, promoting continuous hair bulb growth and hair shaft formation in anagen VI. Moreover, post-mitotic hair matrix regions contained cells with enlarged nuclei, and DNA in situ hybridisation showed cells that were >2N in the pre-cortex. This suggests that CIP/KIP proteins might counterbalance cyclin E to control further rounds of DNA replication in a cell population that has a propensity to become tetraploid. These data shed new light on the in situ-biography of human hair matrix keratinocytes on their path of active cell cycling, arrest and terminal differentiation, and showcase the human HF as an excellent, clinically

  14. Engineered skeletal muscle tissue for soft robotics: fabrication strategies, current applications, and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Rebecca M; Feinberg, Adam W

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is a scalable actuator system used throughout nature from the millimeter to meter length scales and over a wide range of frequencies and force regimes. This adaptability has spurred interest in using engineered skeletal muscle to power soft robotics devices and in biotechnology and medical applications. However, the challenges to doing this are similar to those facing the tissue engineering and regenerative medicine fields; specifically, how do we translate our understanding of myogenesis in vivo to the engineering of muscle constructs in vitro to achieve functional integration with devices. To do this researchers are developing a number of ways to engineer the cellular microenvironment to guide skeletal muscle tissue formation. This includes understanding the role of substrate stiffness and the mechanical environment, engineering the spatial organization of biochemical and physical cues to guide muscle alignment, and developing bioreactors for mechanical and electrical conditioning. Examples of engineered skeletal muscle that can potentially be used in soft robotics include 2D cantilever-based skeletal muscle actuators and 3D skeletal muscle tissues engineered using scaffolds or directed self-organization. Integration into devices has led to basic muscle-powered devices such as grippers and pumps as well as more sophisticated muscle-powered soft robots that walk and swim. Looking forward, current, and future challenges include identifying the best source of muscle precursor cells to expand and differentiate into myotubes, replacing cardiomyocytes with skeletal muscle tissue as the bio-actuator of choice for soft robots, and vascularization and innervation to enable control and nourishment of larger muscle tissue constructs. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Dicarbonyl stress and glyoxalase enzyme system regulation in human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mey, Jacob T; Blackburn, Brian K; Miranda, Edwin R; Chaves, Alec B; Briller, Joan; Bonini, Marcelo G; Haus, Jacob M

    2018-02-01

    Skeletal muscle insulin resistance is a hallmark of Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and may be exacerbated by protein modifications by methylglyoxal (MG), known as dicarbonyl stress. The glyoxalase enzyme system composed of glyoxalase 1/2 (GLO1/GLO2) is the natural defense against dicarbonyl stress, yet its protein expression, activity, and regulation remain largely unexplored in skeletal muscle. Therefore, this study investigated dicarbonyl stress and the glyoxalase enzyme system in the skeletal muscle of subjects with T2DM (age: 56 ± 5 yr.; BMI: 32 ± 2 kg/m 2 ) compared with lean healthy control subjects (LHC; age: 27 ± 1 yr.; BMI: 22 ± 1 kg/m 2 ). Skeletal muscle biopsies obtained from the vastus lateralis at basal and insulin-stimulated states of the hyperinsulinemic (40 mU·m -2 ·min -1 )-euglycemic (5 mM) clamp were analyzed for proteins related to dicarbonyl stress and glyoxalase biology. At baseline, T2DM had increased carbonyl stress and lower GLO1 protein expression (-78.8%), which inversely correlated with BMI, percent body fat, and HOMA-IR, while positively correlating with clamp-derived glucose disposal rates. T2DM also had lower NRF2 protein expression (-31.6%), which is a positive regulator of GLO1, while Keap1 protein expression, a negative regulator of GLO1, was elevated (207%). Additionally, insulin stimulation during the clamp had a differential effect on NRF2, Keap1, and MG-modified protein expression. These data suggest that dicarbonyl stress and the glyoxalase enzyme system are dysregulated in T2DM skeletal muscle and may underlie skeletal muscle insulin resistance. Whether these phenotypic differences contribute to the development of T2DM warrants further investigation.

  16. Whole-body MRI in comparison to skeletal scintigraphy for detection of skeletal metastases in patients with solid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanem, N.; Altehoefer, C.; Winterer, J.; Schaefer, O.; Bley, T.A.; Langer, M.; Kelly, T.; Moser, E.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic efficacy of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) as a new and rapid examination technique with skeletal scintigraphy for detection of skeletal metastases from solid tumors. In 129 patients with solid malignant tumors, WB-MRI was performed for individual comparison with skeletal scintigraphy. Examinations were performed with the innovative AngioSURF trademark rolling table with integrated phased array surface coil and coronary TIRM sequences for different body regions. The results for WB-MRI and skeletal scintigraphy were concordant in 81% of the cases, whereby both procedures excluded skeletal metastases in 43%. WB-MRI and skeletal scintigraphy demonstrated skeletal metastases in 38% of the cases, whereby WB-MRI provided more comprehensive findings in 45%. In 12% of the cases, skeletal scintigraphy was superior to WB-MRI and in 19% the findings were discordant, whereby WB-MRI detected skeletal metastases in 15 cases which had not been found on skeletal scintigraphy. In nine cases, skeletal scintigraphy was positive when the WB-MRI was negative. In 60% of the cases, WB-MRI evidenced tumor-associated findings. WB-MRI represents a promising new staging technique for detection of skeletal metastases, which is more sensitive in many cases than skeletal scintigraphy in detecting and assessing the extent of skeletal metastases - and tumor-associated findings that are relevant for treatment strategy. (orig.) [de

  17. Membrane-stabilizing copolymers confer marked protection to dystrophic skeletal muscle in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyne M Houang

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is a fatal disease of striated muscle deterioration. A unique therapeutic approach for DMD is the use of synthetic membrane stabilizers to protect the fragile dystrophic sarcolemma against contraction-induced mechanical stress. Block copolymer-based membrane stabilizer poloxamer 188 (P188 has been shown to protect the dystrophic myocardium. In comparison, the ability of synthetic membrane stabilizers to protect fragile DMD skeletal muscles has been less clear. Because cardiac and skeletal muscles have distinct structural and functional features, including differences in the mechanism of activation, variance in sarcolemma phospholipid composition, and differences in the magnitude and types of forces generated, we speculated that optimized membrane stabilization could be inherently different. Our objective here is to use principles of pharmacodynamics to evaluate membrane stabilization therapy for DMD skeletal muscles. Results show a dramatic differential effect of membrane stabilization by optimization of pharmacodynamic-guided route of poloxamer delivery. Data show that subcutaneous P188 delivery, but not intravascular or intraperitoneal routes, conferred significant protection to dystrophic limb skeletal muscles undergoing mechanical stress in vivo. In addition, structure-function examination of synthetic membrane stabilizers further underscores the importance of copolymer composition, molecular weight, and dosage in optimization of poloxamer pharmacodynamics in vivo.

  18. Gene expression deregulation in postnatal skeletal muscle of TK2 deficient mice reveals a lower pool of proliferating myogenic progenitor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João A Paredes

    Full Text Available Loss of thymidine kinase 2 (TK2 causes a heterogeneous myopathic form of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA depletion syndrome (MDS in humans that predominantly affects skeletal muscle tissue. In mice, TK2 deficiency also affects several tissues in addition to skeletal muscle, including brain, heart, adipose tissue, kidneys and causes death about 3 weeks after birth. We analysed skeletal muscle and heart muscle tissues of Tk2 knockout mice at postnatal development phase and observed that TK2 deficient pups grew slower and their skeletal muscles appeared significantly underdeveloped, whereas heart was close to normal in size. Both tissues showed mtDNA depletion and mitochondria with altered ultrastructure, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy. Gene expression microarray analysis showed a strong down-regulation of genes involved in cell cycle and cell proliferation in both tissues, suggesting a lower pool of undifferentiated proliferating cells. Analysis of isolated primary myoblasts from Tk2 knockout mice showed slow proliferation, less ability to differentiate and signs of premature senescence, even in absence of mtDNA depletion. Our data demonstrate that TK2 deficiency disturbs myogenic progenitor cells function in postnatal skeletal muscle and we propose this as one of the causes of underdeveloped phenotype and myopathic characteristic of the TK2 deficient mice, in addition to the progressive mtDNA depletion, mitochondrial damage and respiratory chain deficiency in post-mitotic differentiated tissue.

  19. Gene expression deregulation in postnatal skeletal muscle of TK2 deficient mice reveals a lower pool of proliferating myogenic progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, João A; Zhou, Xiaoshan; Höglund, Stefan; Karlsson, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Loss of thymidine kinase 2 (TK2) causes a heterogeneous myopathic form of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion syndrome (MDS) in humans that predominantly affects skeletal muscle tissue. In mice, TK2 deficiency also affects several tissues in addition to skeletal muscle, including brain, heart, adipose tissue, kidneys and causes death about 3 weeks after birth. We analysed skeletal muscle and heart muscle tissues of Tk2 knockout mice at postnatal development phase and observed that TK2 deficient pups grew slower and their skeletal muscles appeared significantly underdeveloped, whereas heart was close to normal in size. Both tissues showed mtDNA depletion and mitochondria with altered ultrastructure, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy. Gene expression microarray analysis showed a strong down-regulation of genes involved in cell cycle and cell proliferation in both tissues, suggesting a lower pool of undifferentiated proliferating cells. Analysis of isolated primary myoblasts from Tk2 knockout mice showed slow proliferation, less ability to differentiate and signs of premature senescence, even in absence of mtDNA depletion. Our data demonstrate that TK2 deficiency disturbs myogenic progenitor cells function in postnatal skeletal muscle and we propose this as one of the causes of underdeveloped phenotype and myopathic characteristic of the TK2 deficient mice, in addition to the progressive mtDNA depletion, mitochondrial damage and respiratory chain deficiency in post-mitotic differentiated tissue.

  20. Type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase in skeletal muscle: effects of hypothyroidism and fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heemstra, Karen A; Soeters, Maarten R; Fliers, Eric; Serlie, Mireille J; Burggraaf, Jacobus; van Doorn, Martijn B; van der Klaauw, Agatha A; Romijn, Johannes A; Smit, Johannes W; Corssmit, Eleonora P; Visser, Theo J

    2009-06-01

    The iodothyronine deiodinases D1, D2, and D3 enable tissue-specific adaptation of thyroid hormone levels in response to various conditions, such as hypothyroidism or fasting. The possible expression of D2 mRNA in skeletal muscle is intriguing because this enzyme could play a role in systemic as well as local T3 production. We determined D2 activity and D2 mRNA expression in human skeletal muscle biopsies under control conditions and during hypothyroidism, fasting, and hyperinsulinemia. This was a prospective study. The study was conducted at a university hospital. We studied 11 thyroidectomized patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) on and after 4 wk off T4( replacement and six healthy lean subjects in the fasting state and during hyperinsulinemia after both 14 and 62 h of fasting. D2 activity and D2 mRNA levels were measured in skeletal muscle samples. No differences were observed in muscle D2 mRNA levels in DTC patients on and off T4 replacement therapy. In healthy subjects, muscle D2 mRNA levels were lower after 62 h compared to 14 h of fasting. Insulin increased mRNA expression after 62 h, but not after 14 h of fasting. Skeletal muscle D2 activities were very low and not influenced by hypothyroidism and fasting. Human skeletal muscle D2 mRNA expression is modulated by fasting and insulin, but not by hypothyroidism. The lack of a clear effect of D2 mRNA modulation on the observed low D2 activities questions the physiological relevance of D2 activity in human skeletal muscle.

  1. Scapular bone destruction: A case report of skeletal tuberculosis with a series of dynamic radiologic features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Lan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is an extremely common opportunistic infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive patients. Pulmonary TB is the most common manifestation while skeletal TB, especially with an involvement of flat bone like scapula, is quite rare. We report the first case scapular TB in an advanced AIDS individual who was initially considered as lymphoma because of the faulty interpretation of the positivity of PET/CT scan. In this article, we present a series of dynamic radiologic data and emphasize the differential diagnostic of skeletal TB.

  2. Type II iodothyronine deiodinase provides intracellular 3,5,3′-triiodothyronine to normal and regenerating mouse skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsili, Alessandro; Tang, Dan; Harney, John W.; Singh, Prabhat; Zavacki, Ann Marie; Dentice, Monica; Salvatore, Domenico

    2011-01-01

    The FoxO3-dependent increase in type II deiodinase (D2), which converts the prohormone thyroxine (T4) to 3,5,3′-triiodothyronine (T3), is required for normal mouse skeletal muscle differentiation and regeneration. This implies a requirement for an increase in D2-generated intracellular T3 under these conditions, which has not been directly demonstrated despite the presence of D2 activity in skeletal muscle. We directly show that D2-mediated T4-to-T3 conversion increases during differentiation in C2C12 myoblast and primary cultures of mouse neonatal skeletal muscle precursor cells, and that blockade of D2 eliminates this. In adult mice given 125I-T4 and 131I-T3, the intracellular 125I-T3/131I-T3 ratio is significantly higher than in serum in both the D2-expressing cerebral cortex and the skeletal muscle of wild-type, but not D2KO, mice. In D1-expressing liver and kidney, the 125I-T3/131I-T3 ratio does not differ from that in serum. Hypothyroidism increases D2 activity, and in agreement with this, the difference in 125I-T3/131I-T3 ratio is increased further in hypothyroid wild-type mice but not altered in the D2KO. Notably, in wild-type but not in D2KO mice, the muscle production of 125I-T3 is doubled after skeletal muscle injury. Thus, D2-mediated T4-to-T3 conversion generates significant intracellular T3 in normal mouse skeletal muscle, with the increased T3 required for muscle regeneration being provided by increased D2 synthesis, not by T3 from the circulation. PMID:21771965

  3. Differentiation and fiber type-specific activity of a muscle creatine kinase intronic enhancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai Phillip WL

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hundreds of genes, including muscle creatine kinase (MCK, are differentially expressed in fast- and slow-twitch muscle fibers, but the fiber type-specific regulatory mechanisms are not well understood. Results Modulatory region 1 (MR1 is a 1-kb regulatory region within MCK intron 1 that is highly active in terminally differentiating skeletal myocytes in vitro. A MCK small intronic enhancer (MCK-SIE containing a paired E-box/myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2 regulatory motif resides within MR1. The SIE's transcriptional activity equals that of the extensively characterized 206-bp MCK 5'-enhancer, but the MCK-SIE is flanked by regions that can repress its activity via the individual and combined effects of about 15 different but highly conserved 9- to 24-bp sequences. ChIP and ChIP-Seq analyses indicate that the SIE and the MCK 5'-enhancer are occupied by MyoD, myogenin and MEF2. Many other E-boxes located within or immediately adjacent to intron 1 are not occupied by MyoD or myogenin. Transgenic analysis of a 6.5-kb MCK genomic fragment containing the 5'-enhancer and proximal promoter plus the 3.2-kb intron 1, with and without MR1, indicates that MR1 is critical for MCK expression in slow- and intermediate-twitch muscle fibers (types I and IIa, respectively, but is not required for expression in fast-twitch muscle fibers (types IIb and IId. Conclusions In this study, we discovered that MR1 is critical for MCK expression in slow- and intermediate-twitch muscle fibers and that MR1's positive transcriptional activity depends on a paired E-box MEF2 site motif within a SIE. This is the first study to delineate the DNA controls for MCK expression in different skeletal muscle fiber types.

  4. Identification of a conserved set of upregulated genes in mouse skeletal muscle hypertrophy and regrowth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaillou, Thomas; Jackson, Janna R; England, Jonathan H; Kirby, Tyler J; Richards-White, Jena; Esser, Karyn A; Dupont-Versteegden, Esther E; McCarthy, John J

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the gene expression profile of mouse skeletal muscle undergoing two forms of growth (hypertrophy and regrowth) with the goal of identifying a conserved set of differentially expressed genes. Expression profiling by microarray was performed on the plantaris muscle subjected to 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14 days of hypertrophy or regrowth following 2 wk of hind-limb suspension. We identified 97 differentially expressed genes (≥2-fold increase or ≥50% decrease compared with control muscle) that were conserved during the two forms of muscle growth. The vast majority (∼90%) of the differentially expressed genes was upregulated and occurred at a single time point (64 out of 86 genes), which most often was on the first day of the time course. Microarray analysis from the conserved upregulated genes showed a set of genes related to contractile apparatus and stress response at day 1, including three genes involved in mechanotransduction and four genes encoding heat shock proteins. Our analysis further identified three cell cycle-related genes at day and several genes associated with extracellular matrix (ECM) at both days 3 and 10. In conclusion, we have identified a core set of genes commonly upregulated in two forms of muscle growth that could play a role in the maintenance of sarcomere stability, ECM remodeling, cell proliferation, fast-to-slow fiber type transition, and the regulation of skeletal muscle growth. These findings suggest conserved regulatory mechanisms involved in the adaptation of skeletal muscle to increased mechanical loading. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Lyophilized skeletal imaging composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanduzee, B.F.

    1983-01-01

    This invention encompasses a process for producing a dry-powder skeletal imaging kit. An aqueous solution of a diphosphonate, a stannous reductant, and, optionally, a stabilizer is prepared. The solution is adjusted to a pH within the range 4.2 to 4.8 and the pH-adjusted solution is then lyophilized. The adjustment of pH, within a particular range, during the process of manufacturing lyophilized diphosphonate containing skeletal imaging kits yields a kit which produces a technetium skeletal imaging agent with superior imaging properties. This improved performance is manifested through faster blood clearance and higher skeletal uptake of the technetium imaging agent

  6. Defining the role of mesenchymal stromal cells on the regulation of matrix metalloproteinases in skeletal muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sassoli, Chiara; Nosi, Daniele; Tani, Alessia; Chellini, Flaminia; Mazzanti, Benedetta; Quercioli, Franco; Zecchi-Orlandini, Sandra; Formigli, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) transplantation improves healing of injured and diseased skeletal muscle, although the mechanisms of benefit are poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated whether MSCs and/or their trophic factors were able to regulate matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression and activity in different cells of the muscle tissue. MSCs in co-culture with C2C12 cells or their conditioned medium (MSC-CM) up-regulated MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression and function in the myoblastic cells; these effects were concomitant with the down-regulation of the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-1 and -2 and with increased cell motility. In the single muscle fiber experiments, MSC-CM administration increased MMP-2/9 expression in Pax-7 + satellite cells and stimulated their mobilization, differentiation and fusion. The anti-fibrotic properties of MSC-CM involved also the regulation of MMPs by skeletal fibroblasts and the inhibition of their differentiation into myofibroblasts. The treatment with SB-3CT, a potent MMP inhibitor, prevented in these cells, the decrease of α-smooth actin and type-I collagen expression induced by MSC-CM, suggesting that MSC-CM could attenuate the fibrogenic response through mechanisms mediated by MMPs. Our results indicate that growth factors and cytokines released by these cells may modulate the fibrotic response and improve the endogenous mechanisms of muscle repair/regeneration. - Highlights: • MSC-CM contains paracrine factors that up-regulate MMP expression and function in different skeletal muscle cells. • MSC-CM promotes myoblast and satellite cell migration, proliferation and differentiation. • MSC-CM negatively interferes with fibroblast-myoblast transition in primary skeletal fibroblasts. • Paracrine factors from MSCs modulate the fibrotic response and improve the endogenous mechanisms of muscle regeneration

  7. Defining the role of mesenchymal stromal cells on the regulation of matrix metalloproteinases in skeletal muscle cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sassoli, Chiara; Nosi, Daniele; Tani, Alessia; Chellini, Flaminia [Dept. of Experimental and Clinical Medicine—Section of Anatomy and Histology, University of Florence, Largo Brambilla, 3, 50134, Florence (Italy); Mazzanti, Benedetta [Dept. of Experimental and Clinical Medicine—Section of Haematology, University of Florence, Largo Brambilla, 3, 50134, Florence (Italy); Quercioli, Franco [CNR-National Institute of Optics (INO), Largo Enrico Fermi 6, 50125 Arcetri-Florence (Italy); Zecchi-Orlandini, Sandra [Dept. of Experimental and Clinical Medicine—Section of Anatomy and Histology, University of Florence, Largo Brambilla, 3, 50134, Florence (Italy); Formigli, Lucia, E-mail: formigli@unifi.it [Dept. of Experimental and Clinical Medicine—Section of Anatomy and Histology, University of Florence, Largo Brambilla, 3, 50134, Florence (Italy)

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies indicate that mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) transplantation improves healing of injured and diseased skeletal muscle, although the mechanisms of benefit are poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated whether MSCs and/or their trophic factors were able to regulate matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression and activity in different cells of the muscle tissue. MSCs in co-culture with C2C12 cells or their conditioned medium (MSC-CM) up-regulated MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression and function in the myoblastic cells; these effects were concomitant with the down-regulation of the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-1 and -2 and with increased cell motility. In the single muscle fiber experiments, MSC-CM administration increased MMP-2/9 expression in Pax-7{sup +} satellite cells and stimulated their mobilization, differentiation and fusion. The anti-fibrotic properties of MSC-CM involved also the regulation of MMPs by skeletal fibroblasts and the inhibition of their differentiation into myofibroblasts. The treatment with SB-3CT, a potent MMP inhibitor, prevented in these cells, the decrease of α-smooth actin and type-I collagen expression induced by MSC-CM, suggesting that MSC-CM could attenuate the fibrogenic response through mechanisms mediated by MMPs. Our results indicate that growth factors and cytokines released by these cells may modulate the fibrotic response and improve the endogenous mechanisms of muscle repair/regeneration. - Highlights: • MSC-CM contains paracrine factors that up-regulate MMP expression and function in different skeletal muscle cells. • MSC-CM promotes myoblast and satellite cell migration, proliferation and differentiation. • MSC-CM negatively interferes with fibroblast-myoblast transition in primary skeletal fibroblasts. • Paracrine factors from MSCs modulate the fibrotic response and improve the endogenous mechanisms of muscle regeneration.

  8. Increased numbers of preexisting memory CD8 T cells and decreased T-bet expression can restrain terminal differentiation of secondary effector and memory CD8 T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Nikhil S; Cui, Weiguo; Dominguez, Claudia X; Chen, Jonathan H; Hand, Timothy W; Kaech, Susan M

    2011-10-15

    Memory CD8 T cells acquire effector memory cell properties after reinfection and may reach terminally differentiated, senescent states ("Hayflick limit") after multiple infections. The signals controlling this process are not well understood, but we found that the degree of secondary effector and memory CD8 T cell differentiation was intimately linked to the amount of T-bet expressed upon reactivation and preexisting memory CD8 T cell number (i.e., primary memory CD8 T cell precursor frequency) present during secondary infection. Compared with naive cells, memory CD8 T cells were predisposed toward terminal effector (TE) cell differentiation because they could immediately respond to IL-12 and induce T-bet, even in the absence of Ag. TE cell formation after secondary (2°) or tertiary infections was dependent on increased T-bet expression because T-bet(+/-) cells were resistant to these phenotypic changes. Larger numbers of preexisting memory CD8 T cells limited the duration of 2° infection and the amount of IL-12 produced, and consequently, this reduced T-bet expression and the proportion of 2° TE CD8 T cells that formed. Together, these data show that over repeated infections, memory CD8 T cell quality and proliferative fitness is not strictly determined by the number of serial encounters with Ag or cell divisions, but is a function of the CD8 T cell differentiation state, which is genetically controlled in a T-bet-dependent manner. This differentiation state can be modulated by preexisting memory CD8 T cell number and the intensity of inflammation during reinfection. These results have important implications for vaccinations involving prime-boost strategies.

  9. Skeletal imaging composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanduzee, B.F.; Degenhardt, C.R.

    1983-01-01

    This invention is based on the discovery that the adjustment of pH, within a particular range, during the process of manufacturing lyophilized diphosphonate-containing skeletal imaging kits yields a kit which produces a technetium skeletal imaging agent with superior imaging properties. This increased performance is manifested through faster blood clearance and higher skeletal uptake of the technetium imaging agent. The process for producing a dry-powder imaging kit comprises the steps of: preparing a solution of a diphosphonate carrier, stannous reductant, and a stabilizer in water; adjusting the pH to between 5.5 and 6.5; and lyophilizing the solution

  10. New perspectives in the treatment of damaged myocardium using autologous skeletal myoblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigatelli, Gianluca; Rossini, Katia; Vindigni, Vincenzo; Mazzoleni, Francesco; Rigatelli, Giorgio; Carraro, Ugo

    2004-01-01

    Autologous skeletal myoblast transplantation may be used to ameliorate the healing process following myocardium infarct and, hopefully, cardiomyopathies. Despite successful animal experimentation, several issues need to be addressed in clinical settings, i.e., the impact of the delivery route, the extent of short- and long-term survival, and differentiation of the injected skeletal myoblasts. The authors offer some new hypotheses resulting from basic research, i.e., where and when to inject the myogenic cells, whatever their source, how to decrease new myofiber atrophy and improve their regeneration. Although these new hypotheses still need to be tested in humans, they may be decisive for future experimental studies and will lead to making endovascular cell implantation a more effective way to treat ischemic heart disease and failure

  11. Muscle specific microRNAs are regulated by endurance exercise in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren; Scheele, Camilla; Yfanti, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Muscle specific miRNAs, myomiRs, have been shown to control muscle development in vitro and are differentially expressed at rest in diabetic skeletal muscle. Therefore, we investigated the expression of these myomiRs, including miR-1, miR-133a, miR-133b and miR-206 in muscle biopsies from vastus...... lateralis of healthy young males (n = 10) in relation to a hyperinsulinaemic–euglycaemic clamp as well as acute endurance exercise before and after 12 weeks of endurance training. The subjects increased their endurance capacity, VO2max (l min-1) by 17.4% (P improved insulin sensitivity by 19......, but their role in regulating human skeletal muscle adaptation remains unknown....

  12. Global skeletal uptake of technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate in female patients receiving suppressive doses of L-thyroxine for differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frusciante, V.; Dicembrino, F.; Carnevale, V.; Scillitani, A.; Zingrillo, M.; Ghiggi, M.R.; Giannatempo, G.M.; Minisola, S.

    1998-01-01

    This study was carried out in order to investigate the possible detrimental effects on bone of levothyroxine (l-T 4 ) suppressive therapy in female patients who had undergone surgery for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Twenty female (14 premenopausal and 6 postmenopausal) patients receiving l-T 4 suppressive therapy for DTC were studied. The sample was selected in such a way as to avoid factors influencing bone metabolism other than l-T 4 . All patients were monitored by sensitive thyroid-stimulating hormone, free triiodothyronine and free thyroxine assays throughout the follow-up. Nineteen healthy (12 premenopausal and 7 postmenopausal) matched women served as controls. In all subjects bone turnover was evaluated by the measurement of global skeletal uptake of technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (GSU); bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by quantitative computed tomography at the lumbar spine (LS) and by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry both at the LS and at three femoral sites: the femoral neck, Ward's triangle and the greater trochanter. No significant difference was found in either GSU or BMD between patients (treated for an average period of 68 months) and controls in the whole sample or in any subgroup. Furthermore, no correlations were found between either GSU or BMD and the duration of therapy, daily doses of l-T 4 or results of thyroid function tests. Our data show that carefully monitored l-T 4 therapy does not influence skeletal turnover (directly reflected by GSU) or the bone density of the spine and femur. (orig.)

  13. Global skeletal uptake of technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate in female patients receiving suppressive doses of L-thyroxine for differentiated thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frusciante, V.; Dicembrino, F. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ospedale ``Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza``, IRCCS di San Giovanni Rotondo (Italy); Carnevale, V. [Division of Internal Medicine, Ospedale ``Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza``, IRCCS di San Giovanni Rotondo (Italy); Scillitani, A.; Zingrillo, M.; Ghiggi, M.R. [Division of Endocrinology, Ospedale ``Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza``, IRCCS di San Giovanni Rotondo (Italy); Giannatempo, G.M. [Department of Radiology, Ospedale ``Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza``, IRCCS di San Giovanni Rotondo (Italy); Minisola, S. [Istituto di II Clinica Medica, Universita degli Studi di Roma ``La Sapienza``, Rome (Italy)

    1998-02-01

    This study was carried out in order to investigate the possible detrimental effects on bone of levothyroxine (l-T{sub 4}) suppressive therapy in female patients who had undergone surgery for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Twenty female (14 premenopausal and 6 postmenopausal) patients receiving l-T{sub 4} suppressive therapy for DTC were studied. The sample was selected in such a way as to avoid factors influencing bone metabolism other than l-T{sub 4}. All patients were monitored by sensitive thyroid-stimulating hormone, free triiodothyronine and free thyroxine assays throughout the follow-up. Nineteen healthy (12 premenopausal and 7 postmenopausal) matched women served as controls. In all subjects bone turnover was evaluated by the measurement of global skeletal uptake of technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (GSU); bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by quantitative computed tomography at the lumbar spine (LS) and by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry both at the LS and at three femoral sites: the femoral neck, Ward`s triangle and the greater trochanter. No significant difference was found in either GSU or BMD between patients (treated for an average period of 68 months) and controls in the whole sample or in any subgroup. Furthermore, no correlations were found between either GSU or BMD and the duration of therapy, daily doses of l-T{sub 4} or results of thyroid function tests. Our data show that carefully monitored l-T{sub 4} therapy does not influence skeletal turnover (directly reflected by GSU) or the bone density of the spine and femur. (orig.) With 1 fig., 2 tabs., 36 refs.

  14. Proteomic Analysis of Chicken Skeletal Muscle during Embryonic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjia Ouyang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic growth and development of skeletal muscle is a major determinant of muscle mass, and has a significant effect on meat production in chicken. To assess the protein expression profiles during embryonic skeletal muscle development, we performed a proteomics analysis using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ in leg muscle tissues of female Xinghua chicken at embryonic age (E 11, E16, and 1-day post hatch (D1. We identified 3,240 proteins in chicken embryonic muscle and 491 of them were differentially expressed (fold change ≥ 1.5 or ≤ 0.666 and p < 0.05. There were 19 up- and 32 down-regulated proteins in E11 vs. E16 group, 238 up- and 227 down-regulated proteins in E11 vs. D1 group, and 13 up- and 5 down-regulated proteins in E16 vs. D1 group. Protein interaction network analyses indicated that these differentially expressed proteins were mainly involved in the pathway of protein synthesis, muscle contraction, and oxidative phosphorylation. Integrative analysis of proteome and our previous transcriptome data found 189 differentially expressed proteins that correlated with their mRNA level. The interactions between these proteins were also involved in muscle contraction and oxidative phosphorylation pathways. The lncRNA-protein interaction network found four proteins DMD, MYL3, TNNI2, and TNNT3 that are all involved in muscle contraction and may be lncRNA regulated. These results provide several candidate genes for further investigation into the molecular mechanisms of chicken embryonic muscle development, and enable us to better understanding their regulation networks and biochemical pathways.

  15. PEDF-derived peptide promotes skeletal muscle regeneration through its mitogenic effect on muscle progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Tsung-Chuan; Chiang, Yi-Pin; Chuang, Chih-Kuang; Chen, Show-Li; Hsieh, Jui-Wen; Lan, Yu-Wen; Tsao, Yeou-Ping

    2015-08-01

    In response injury, intrinsic repair mechanisms are activated in skeletal muscle to replace the damaged muscle fibers with new muscle fibers. The regeneration process starts with the proliferation of satellite cells to give rise to myoblasts, which subsequently differentiate terminally into myofibers. Here, we investigated the promotion effect of pigment epithelial-derived factor (PEDF) on muscle regeneration. We report that PEDF and a synthetic PEDF-derived short peptide (PSP; residues Ser(93)-Leu(112)) induce satellite cell proliferation in vitro and promote muscle regeneration in vivo. Extensively, soleus muscle necrosis was induced in rats by bupivacaine, and an injectable alginate gel was used to release the PSP in the injured muscle. PSP delivery was found to stimulate satellite cell proliferation in damaged muscle and enhance the growth of regenerating myofibers, with complete regeneration of normal muscle mass by 2 wk. In cell culture, PEDF/PSP stimulated C2C12 myoblast proliferation, together with a rise in cyclin D1 expression. PEDF induced the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, Akt, and STAT3 in C2C12 myoblasts. Blocking the activity of ERK, Akt, or STAT3 with pharmacological inhibitors attenuated the effects of PEDF/PSP on the induction of C2C12 cell proliferation and cyclin D1 expression. Moreover, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine pulse-labeling demonstrated that PEDF/PSP stimulated primary rat satellite cell proliferation in myofibers in vitro. In summary, we report for the first time that PSP is capable of promoting the regeneration of skeletal muscle. The signaling mechanism involves the ERK, AKT, and STAT3 pathways. These results show the potential utility of this PEDF peptide for muscle regeneration. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Emerging new tools to study and treat muscle pathologies: genetics and molecular mechanisms underlying skeletal muscle development, regeneration, and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crist, Colin

    2017-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is the most abundant tissue in our body, is responsible for generating the force required for movement, and is also an important thermogenic organ. Skeletal muscle is an enigmatic tissue because while on the one hand, skeletal muscle regeneration after injury is arguably one of the best-studied stem cell-dependent regenerative processes, on the other hand, skeletal muscle is still subject to many degenerative disorders with few therapeutic options in the clinic. It is important to develop new regenerative medicine-based therapies for skeletal muscle. Future therapeutic strategies should take advantage of rapidly developing technologies enabling the differentiation of skeletal muscle from human pluripotent stem cells, along with precise genome editing, which will go hand in hand with a steady and focused approach to understanding underlying mechanisms of skeletal muscle development, regeneration, and disease. In this review, I focus on highlighting the recent advances that particularly have relied on developmental and molecular biology approaches to understanding muscle development and stem cell function. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Spondyloarthritis, diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) and chondrocalcinosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Jácome Brugues; Couto, Ana Rita; Bettencourt, Bruno Filipe

    2009-01-01

    The authors describe the main clinical and radiological findings of common enthesopathic disorders-spondylarthritis (SpA), chondrocalcinosis/calcium pyrophosphate dehydrate crystal deposition disease (CPPD CDD) and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH), stressing similarities and differences which may help in the differential diagnosis. They emphasize the clinical presentation of the "pseudoankylosing spondylitis" forms of CPPD CDD. They also review the most relevant genes and molecular mechanisms associated with these conditions and with another enthesopathic disorder with high prevalence in the Japanese population-ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL).

  18. Multiple skeletal muscle metastases revealing a cardiac intimal sarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crombe, Amandine [Institut Bergonie, Department of Radiology, Bordeaux (France); Lintingre, Pierre-Francois; Dallaudiere, Benjamin [Clinique du Sport de Bordeaux-Merignac, Department of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Merignac (France); Le Loarer, Francois [Institut Bergonie, Department of Pathology, Bordeaux (France); Lachatre, Denis [Dupuytren University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Limoges (France)

    2018-01-15

    We report the case of a 59-year-old female with progressive bilateral painful swelling of the thighs. MRI revealed multiple intramuscular necrotic masses with similar morphologic patterns. Whole-body CT and 18-FDG PET-CT scans demonstrated additional hypermetabolic muscular masses and a lobulated lesion within the left atrial cavity. As biopsy of a muscular mass was compatible with a poorly differentiated sarcoma with MDM2 oncogene amplification, two diagnoses were discussed: a dedifferentiated liposarcoma with muscle and heart metastases or a primary cardiac sarcoma, mainly a cardiac intimal sarcoma, with muscular metastases, which was finally confirmed by array-comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) in a sarcoma reference center. This case emphasizes the potential for intimal sarcoma to disseminate in skeletal muscle prior to any other organ and the need for a genomic approach in addition to classical radiopathologic analyses to distinguish primary from secondary locations facing simultaneous tumors of the heart and skeletal muscles with MDM2 amplification. (orig.)

  19. Functional heterogeneity of side population cells in skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uezumi, Akiyoshi; Ojima, Koichi; Fukada, So-ichiro; Ikemoto, Madoka; Masuda, Satoru; Miyagoe-Suzuki, Yuko; Takeda, Shin'ichi

    2006-01-01

    Skeletal muscle regeneration has been exclusively attributed to myogenic precursors, satellite cells. A stem cell-rich fraction referred to as side population (SP) cells also resides in skeletal muscle, but its roles in muscle regeneration remain unclear. We found that muscle SP cells could be subdivided into three sub-fractions using CD31 and CD45 markers. The majority of SP cells in normal non-regenerating muscle expressed CD31 and had endothelial characteristics. However, CD31 - CD45 - SP cells, which are a minor subpopulation in normal muscle, actively proliferated upon muscle injury and expressed not only several regulatory genes for muscle regeneration but also some mesenchymal lineage markers. CD31 - CD45 - SP cells showed the greatest myogenic potential among three SP sub-fractions, but indeed revealed mesenchymal potentials in vitro. These SP cells preferentially differentiated into myofibers after intramuscular transplantation in vivo. Our results revealed the heterogeneity of muscle SP cells and suggest that CD31 - CD45 - SP cells participate in muscle regeneration

  20. VDR haploinsufficiency impacts body composition and skeletal acquisition in a gender-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, Francisco J A; Dick-de-Paula, Ingrid; Bornstein, Sheila; Rostama, Bahman; Le, Phuong; Lotinun, Sutada; Baron, Roland; Rosen, Clifford J

    2011-09-01

    The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is crucial for virtually all of vitamin D's actions and is thought to be ubiquitously expressed. We hypothesized that disruption of one allele of the VDR gene would impact bone development and would have metabolic consequences. Body composition and bone mass (BMD) in VDR heterozygous (VDR HET) mice were compared to those obtained in male and female VDR KO and WT mice at 8 weeks of age. Male mice were also evaluated at 16 weeks, and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation was evaluated in VDR female mice. Additionally, female VDR HET and WT mice received intermittent PTH treatment or vehicle (VH) for 4 weeks. BMD was determined at baseline and after treatment. MRI was done in vivo at the end of treatment; μCT and bone histomorphometry were performed after killing the animals. VDR HET male mice had normal skeletal development until 16 weeks of age but showed significantly less gain in fat mass than WT mice. In contrast, female VDR HET mice showed decreased total-body BMD at age 8 weeks but had a normal skeletal response to PTH. MSC differentiation was also impaired in VDR HET female mice. Thus, female VDR HET mice show early impairment in bone acquisition, while male VDR HET mice exhibit a lean phenotype. Our results indicate that the VDR HET mouse is a useful model for studying the metabolic and skeletal impact of decreased vitamin D sensitivity.

  1. Proteomic profiling of non-obese type 2 diabetic skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Edel; Ohlendieck, Kay

    2010-03-01

    Abnormal glucose handling has emerged as a major clinical problem in millions of diabetic patients worldwide. Insulin resistance affects especially one of the main target organs of this hormone, the skeletal musculature, making impaired glucose metabolism in contractile fibres a major feature of type 2 diabetes. High levels of circulating free fatty acids, an increased intramyocellular lipid content, impaired insulin-mediated glucose uptake, diminished mitochondrial functioning and an overall weakened metabolic flexibility are pathobiochemical hallmarks of diabetic skeletal muscles. In order to increase our cellular understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie this complex diabetes-associated skeletal muscle pathology, we initiated herein a mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis of skeletal muscle preparations from the non-obese Goto-Kakizaki rat model of type 2 diabetes. Following staining of high-resolution two-dimensional gels with colloidal Coomassie Blue, 929 protein spots were detected, whereby 21 proteins showed a moderate differential expression pattern. Decreased proteins included carbonic anhydrase, 3-hydroxyisobutyrate dehydrogenase and enolase. Increased proteins were identified as monoglyceride lipase, adenylate kinase, Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, phosphoglucomutase, aldolase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, cytochrome c oxidase, small heat shock Hsp27/B1, actin and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase. These proteomic findings suggest that the diabetic phenotype is associated with a generally perturbed protein expression pattern, affecting especially glucose, fatty acid, nucleotide and amino acid metabolism, as well as the contractile apparatus, the cellular stress response, the anti-oxidant defense system and detoxification mechanisms. The altered expression levels of distinct skeletal muscle proteins, as documented in this study, might be helpful for the future establishment of a comprehensive biomarker signature of type 2 diabetes

  2. Functional evaluation of artificial skeletal muscle tissue constructs fabricated by a magnetic force-based tissue engineering technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yasunori; Ito, Akira; Fujita, Hideaki; Nagamori, Eiji; Kawabe, Yoshinori; Kamihira, Masamichi

    2011-01-01

    Skeletal muscle tissue engineering is currently applied in a variety of research fields, including regenerative medicine, drug screening, and bioactuator development, all of which require the fabrication of biomimic and functional skeletal muscle tissues. In the present study, magnetite cationic liposomes were used to magnetically label C2C12 myoblast cells for the construction of three-dimensional artificial skeletal muscle tissues by an applied magnetic force. Skeletal muscle functions, such as biochemical and contractile properties, were evaluated for the artificial tissue constructs. Histological studies revealed that elongated and multinucleated myotubes were observed within the tissue. Expression of muscle-specific markers, such as myogenin, myosin heavy chain and tropomyosin, were detected in the tissue constructs by western blot analysis. Further, creatine kinase activity increased during differentiation. In response to electric pulses, the artificial tissue constructs contracted to generate a physical force (the maximum twitch force, 33.2 μN [1.06 mN/mm2]). Rheobase and chronaxie of the tissue were determined as 4.45 V and 0.72 ms, respectively. These results indicate that the artificial skeletal muscle tissue constructs fabricated in this study were physiologically functional and the data obtained for the evaluation of their functional properties may provide useful information for future skeletal muscle tissue engineering studies.

  3. The creation of a measurable contusion injury in skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret N. Deane

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect that compressed air massage (CAM has on skeletal muscle has been ascertained by the morphological and morphometric evaluation of healthy vervet monkey and rabbit skeletal muscle. How CAM may influence the process of healing following a contusion injury is not known. To determine how CAM or other physiotherapeutic modalities may influence healing, it is necessary to create a minor injury that is both reproducible and quantifiable at the termination of a pre-determined healing period. An earlier study described changes in the morphology of skeletal muscle following a reproducible contusion injury. This study extended that work in that it attempted to quantify the ‘severity’ of such an injury. A 201 g, elongated oval-shaped weight was dropped seven times through a 1 m tube onto the left vastus lateralis muscle of four New Zealand white rabbits. Biopsies were obtained 6 days after injury from the left healing juxta-bone and sub-dermal muscle and uninjured (control right vastus lateralis of each animal. The tissue was fixed in formal saline, embedded in wax, cut and stained with haematoxylin and phosphotungstic haematoxylin. The muscle was examined by light microscopy and quantification of the severity of injury made using a modified, ‘in-house’ morphological index and by the comparative morphometric measurement of the cross-sectioned epimysium and myofibres in injured and control muscle. The results showed that a single contusion causes multiple, quantifiable degrees of injury from skin to bone – observations of particular importance to others wishing to investigate contusion injury in human or animal models.

  4. p38 MAPK activation upregulates proinflammatory pathways in skeletal muscle cells from insulin-resistant type 2 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Audrey E; Palsgaard, Jane; Borup, Rehannah

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is the key site of peripheral insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake is decreased in differentiated diabetic cultured myotubes, which is in keeping with a retained genetic/epigenetic defect of insulin action. We investigated differences in gene...... expression during differentiation between diabetic and control muscle cell cultures. Microarray analysis was performed using skeletal muscle cell cultures established from type 2 diabetic patients with a family history of type 2 diabetes and clinical evidence of marked insulin resistance and nondiabetic...... significantly, it did not improve insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Increased cytokine expression driven by increased p38 MAPK activation is a key feature of cultured myotubes derived from insulin-resistant type 2 diabetic patients. p38 MAPK inhibition decreased cytokine expression but did not affect...

  5. Myosin Light Chain Kinase and the Role of Myosin Light Chain Phosphorylation in Skeletal Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stull, James T.; Kamm, Kristine E.; Vandenboom, Rene

    2011-01-01

    Skeletal muscle myosin light chain kinase (skMLCK) is a dedicated Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent serine-threonine protein kinase that phosphorylates the regulatory light chain (RLC) of sarcomeric myosin. It is expressed from the MYLK2 gene specifically in skeletal muscle fibers with most abundance in fast contracting muscles. Biochemically, activation occurs with Ca2+ binding to calmodulin forming a (Ca2+)4•calmodulin complex sufficient for activation with a diffusion limited, stoichiometic binding and displacement of a regulatory segment from skMLCK catalytic core. The N-terminal sequence of RLC then extends through the exposed catalytic cleft for Ser15 phosphorylation. Removal of Ca2+ results in the slow dissociation of calmodulin and inactivation of skMLCK. Combined biochemical properties provide unique features for the physiological responsiveness of RLC phosphorylation, including (1) rapid activation of MLCK by Ca2+/calmodulin, (2) limiting kinase activity so phosphorylation is slower than contraction, (3) slow MLCK inactivation after relaxation and (4) much greater kinase activity relative to myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP). SkMLCK phosphorylation of myosin RLC modulates mechanical aspects of vertebrate skeletal muscle function. In permeabilized skeletal muscle fibers, phosphorylation-mediated alterations in myosin structure increase the rate of force-generation by myosin cross bridges to increase Ca2+-sensitivity of the contractile apparatus. Stimulation-induced increases in RLC phosphorylation in intact muscle produces isometric and concentric force potentiation to enhance dynamic aspects of muscle work and power in unfatigued or fatigued muscle. Moreover, RLC phosphorylation-mediated enhancements may interact with neural strategies for human skeletal muscle activation to ameliorate either central or peripheral aspects of fatigue. PMID:21284933

  6. Mechanical stimulation improves tissue-engineered human skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Courtney A.; Smiley, Beth L.; Mills, John; Vandenburgh, Herman H.

    2002-01-01

    Human bioartificial muscles (HBAMs) are tissue engineered by suspending muscle cells in collagen/MATRIGEL, casting in a silicone mold containing end attachment sites, and allowing the cells to differentiate for 8 to 16 days. The resulting HBAMs are representative of skeletal muscle in that they contain parallel arrays of postmitotic myofibers; however, they differ in many other morphological characteristics. To engineer improved HBAMs, i.e., more in vivo-like, we developed Mechanical Cell Stimulator (MCS) hardware to apply in vivo-like forces directly to the engineered tissue. A sensitive force transducer attached to the HBAM measured real-time, internally generated, as well as externally applied, forces. The muscle cells generated increasing internal forces during formation which were inhibitable with a cytoskeleton depolymerizer. Repetitive stretch/relaxation for 8 days increased the HBAM elasticity two- to threefold, mean myofiber diameter 12%, and myofiber area percent 40%. This system allows engineering of improved skeletal muscle analogs as well as a nondestructive method to determine passive force and viscoelastic properties of the resulting tissue.

  7. Growth of Limb Muscle is Dependent on Skeletal-Derived Indian Hedgehog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bren-Mattison, Yvette; Hausburg, Melissa; Olwin, Bradley B.

    2011-01-01

    During embryogenesis, muscle and bone develop in close temporal and spatial proximity. We show that Indian Hedgehog, a bone-derived signaling molecule, participates in growth of skeletal muscle. In Ihh−/− embryos, skeletal muscle development appears abnormal at embryonic day 14.5 and at later ages through embryonic day 20.5, dramatic losses of hindlimb muscle occur. To further examine the role of Ihh in myogenesis, we manipulated Ihh expression in the developing chick hindlimb. Reduction of Ihh in chicken embryo hindlimbs reduced skeletal muscle mass similar to that seen in Ihh−/− mouse embryos. The reduction in muscle mass appears to be a direct effect of Ihh since ectopic expression of Ihh by RCAS retroviral infection of chicken embryo hindlimbs restores muscle mass. These effects are independent of bone length, and occur when Shh is not expressed, suggesting Ihh acts directly on fetal myoblasts to regulate secondary myogenesis. Loss of muscle mass in Ihh null mouse embryos is accompanied by a dramatic increase in myoblast apoptosis accompanied by a loss of p21 protein. Our data suggest that Ihh promotes fetal myoblast survival during their differentiation into secondary myofibers by maintaining p21 protein levels. PMID:21683695

  8. Automated analysis of whole skeletal muscle for muscular atrophy detection of ALS in whole-body CT images: preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Naoki; Ieda, Kosuke; Zhou, Xiangrong; Yamada, Megumi; Kato, Hiroki; Muramatsu, Chisako; Hara, Takeshi; Miyoshi, Toshiharu; Inuzuka, Takashi; Matsuo, Masayuki; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2017-03-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) causes functional disorders such as difficulty in breathing and swallowing through the atrophy of voluntary muscles. ALS in its early stages is difficult to diagnose because of the difficulty in differentiating it from other muscular diseases. In addition, image inspection methods for aggressive diagnosis for ALS have not yet been established. The purpose of this study is to develop an automatic analysis system of the whole skeletal muscle to support the early differential diagnosis of ALS using whole-body CT images. In this study, the muscular atrophy parts including ALS patients are automatically identified by recognizing and segmenting whole skeletal muscle in the preliminary steps. First, the skeleton is identified by its gray value information. Second, the initial area of the body cavity is recognized by the deformation of the thoracic cavity based on the anatomical segmented skeleton. Third, the abdominal cavity boundary is recognized using ABM for precisely recognizing the body cavity. The body cavity is precisely recognized by non-rigid registration method based on the reference points of the abdominal cavity boundary. Fourth, the whole skeletal muscle is recognized by excluding the skeleton, the body cavity, and the subcutaneous fat. Additionally, the areas of muscular atrophy including ALS patients are automatically identified by comparison of the muscle mass. The experiments were carried out for ten cases with abnormality in the skeletal muscle. Global recognition and segmentation of the whole skeletal muscle were well realized in eight cases. Moreover, the areas of muscular atrophy including ALS patients were well identified in the lower limbs. As a result, this study indicated the basic technology to detect the muscle atrophy including ALS. In the future, it will be necessary to consider methods to differentiate other kinds of muscular atrophy as well as the clinical application of this detection method for early ALS

  9. Comparative Study of Skeletal Stability between Postoperative Skeletal Intermaxillary Fixation and No Skeletal Fixation after Bilateral Sagittal Split Ramus Osteotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartlev, Jens; Godtfredsen, Erik; Andersen, Niels Trolle

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate skeletal stability after mandibular advancement with bilateral sagittal split osteotomy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-six patients underwent single-jaw bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) to correct skeletal Class II malocclusion....

  10. Growth Factors and Tension-Induced Skeletal Muscle Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenburgh, Herman H.

    1994-01-01

    The project investigated biochemical mechanisms to enhance skeletal muscle growth, and developed a computer based mechanical cell stimulator system. The biochemicals investigated in this study were insulin/(Insulin like Growth Factor) IGF-1 and Steroids. In order to analyze which growth factors are essential for stretch-induced muscle growth in vitro, we developed a defined, serum-free medium in which the differentiated, cultured avian muscle fibers could be maintained for extended periods of time. The defined medium (muscle maintenance medium, MM medium) maintains the nitrogen balance of the myofibers for 3 to 7 days, based on myofiber diameter measurements and myosin heavy chain content. Insulin and IGF-1, but not IGF-2, induced pronounced myofiber hypertrophy when added to this medium. In 5 to 7 days, muscle fiber diameters increase by 71 % to 98% compared to untreated controls. Mechanical stimulation of the avian muscle fibers in MM medium increased the sensitivity of the cells to insulin and IGF-1, based on a leftward shift of the insulin dose/response curve for protein synthesis rates. (54). We developed a ligand binding assay for IGF-1 binding proteins and found that the avian skeletal muscle cultures produced three major species of 31, 36 and 43 kD molecular weight (54) Stretch of the myofibers was found to have no significant effect on the efflux of IGF-1 binding proteins, but addition of exogenous collagen stimulated IGF-1 binding protein production 1.5 to 5 fold. Steroid hormones have a profound effect on muscle protein turnover rates in vivo, with the stress-related glucocorticoids inducing rapid skeletal muscle atrophy while androgenic steroids induce skeletal muscle growth. Exercise in humans and animals reduces the catabolic effects of glucocorticoids and may enhance the anabolic effects of androgenic steroids on skeletal muscle. In our continuing work on the involvement of exogenrus growth factors in stretch-induced avian skeletal muscle growth, we

  11. Myo/Nog cells: targets for preventing the accumulation of skeletal muscle-like cells in the human lens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquelyn Gerhart

    Full Text Available Posterior capsule opacification (PCO is a vision impairing condition that arises in some patients following cataract surgery. The fibrotic form of PCO is caused by myofibroblasts that may emerge in the lens years after surgery. In the chick embryo lens, myofibroblasts are derived from Myo/Nog cells that are identified by their expression of the skeletal muscle specific transcription factor MyoD, the bone morphogenetic protein inhibitor Noggin, and the epitope recognized by the G8 monoclonal antibody. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that depletion of Myo/Nog cells will prevent the accumulation of myofibroblasts in human lens tissue. Myo/Nog cells were present in anterior, equatorial and bow regions of the human lens, cornea and ciliary processes. In anterior lens tissue removed by capsulorhexis, Myo/Nog cells had synthesized myofibroblast and skeletal muscle proteins, including vimentin, MyoD and sarcomeric myosin. Alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA was detected in a subpopulation of Myo/Nog cells. Areas of the capsule denuded of epithelial cells were surrounded by Myo/Nog cells. Some of these cell free areas contained a wrinkle in the capsule. Depletion of Myo/Nog cells eliminated cells expressing skeletal muscle proteins in 5-day cultures but did not affect cells immunoreactive for beaded filament proteins that accumulate in differentiating lens epithelial cells. Transforming growth factor-betas 1 and 2 that mediate an epithelial-mesenchymal transition, did not induce the expression of skeletal muscle proteins in lens cells following Myo/Nog cell depletion. This study demonstrates that Myo/Nog cells in anterior lens tissue removed from cataract patients have undergone a partial differentiation to skeletal muscle. Myo/Nog cells appear to be the source of skeletal muscle-like cells in explants of human lens tissue. Targeting Myo/Nog cells with the G8 antibody during cataract surgery may reduce the incidence of PCO.

  12. Treatment of skeletal Class III malocclusions: orthognathic surgery or orthodontic camouflage? How to decide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyahia, Hicham; Azaroual, Mohamed Faouzi; Garcia, Claude; Hamou, Edith; Abouqal, Redouane; Zaoui, Fatima

    2011-06-01

    The choice of treatment in adult skeletal Class III occlusions often poses a particularly tricky problem for the orthodontist. Faced with the option of either orthodontic camouflage or orthognathic surgery, the clinician's clinical experience is of paramount importance, especially in borderline cases. The aim of our study was to uncover a guide model enabling the practitioner to distinguish between skeletal Class III cases which can be suitably treated with orthodontics and those requiring orthognathic surgery. The lateral headfilms of 47 adult patients exhibiting skeletal Class III occlusions were analyzed. The orthodontic group comprised 22 patients and the surgical group 25. Twenty-seven linear, proportional and angular measurements were scrutinized. Stepwise discriminant analysis was used to identify the dentoskeletal and esthetic variables which most distinguished the two groups. The Holdaway angle was chosen to differentiate between patients prior to treatment. This model enables us to classify 87.2% of patients correctly. Copyright © 2011 CEO. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Human skeletal muscle fibroblasts stimulate in vitro myogenesis and in vivo muscle regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Abigail L; Magnan, Mélanie; Chazaud, Bénédicte; Kjaer, Michael

    2017-08-01

    Accumulation of skeletal muscle extracellular matrix is an unfavourable characteristic of many muscle diseases, muscle injury and sarcopenia. The extent of cross-talk between fibroblasts, as the source of matrix protein, and satellite cells in humans is unknown. We studied this in human muscle biopsies and cell-culture studies. We observed a strong stimulation of myogenesis by human fibroblasts in cell culture. In biopsies collected 30 days after a muscle injury protocol, fibroblast number increased to four times control levels, where fibroblasts were found to be preferentially located immediately surrounding regenerating muscle fibres. These novel findings indicate an important role for fibroblasts in supporting the regeneration of muscle fibres, potentially through direct stimulation of satellite cell differentiation and fusion, and contribute to understanding of cell-cell cross-talk during physiological and pathological muscle remodelling. Accumulation of skeletal muscle extracellular matrix is an unfavourable characteristic of many muscle diseases, muscle injury and sarcopenia. In addition to the indispensable role satellite cells play in muscle regeneration, there is emerging evidence in rodents for a regulatory influence on fibroblast activity. However, the influence of fibroblasts on satellite cells and muscle regeneration in humans is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate this in vitro and during in vivo regeneration in humans. Following a muscle injury protocol in young healthy men (n = 7), the number of fibroblasts (TCF7L2+), satellite cells (Pax7+), differentiating myogenic cells (myogenin+) and regenerating fibres (neonatal/embryonic myosin+) was determined from biopsy cross-sections. Fibroblasts and myogenic precursor cells (MPCs) were also isolated from human skeletal muscle (n = 4) and co-cultured using different cell ratios, with the two cell populations either in direct contact with each other or separated by a permeable

  14. Skeletal muscle atrophy in bioengineered skeletal muscle: a new model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Peter H U; Vandenburgh, Herman H

    2013-10-01

    Skeletal muscle atrophy has been well characterized in various animal models, and while certain pathways that lead to disuse atrophy and its associated functional deficits have been well studied, available drugs to counteract these deficiencies are limited. An ex vivo tissue-engineered skeletal muscle offers a unique opportunity to study skeletal muscle physiology in a controlled in vitro setting. Primary mouse myoblasts isolated from adult muscle were tissue engineered into bioartificial muscles (BAMs) containing hundreds of aligned postmitotic muscle fibers expressing sarcomeric proteins. When electrically stimulated, BAMs generated measureable active forces within 2-3 days of formation. The maximum isometric tetanic force (Po) increased for ∼3 weeks to 2587±502 μN/BAM and was maintained at this level for greater than 80 days. When BAMs were reduced in length by 25% to 50%, muscle atrophy occurred in as little as 6 days. Length reduction resulted in significant decreases in Po (50.4%), mean myofiber cross-sectional area (21.7%), total protein synthesis rate (22.0%), and noncollagenous protein content (6.9%). No significant changes occurred in either the total metabolic activity or protein degradation rates. This study is the first in vitro demonstration that length reduction alone can induce skeletal muscle atrophy, and establishes a novel in vitro model for the study of skeletal muscle atrophy.

  15. The effect of caffeine on skeletal muscle anabolic signaling and hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Timothy M; Mortensen, Xavier M; Ashby, Conrad K; Harris, Alexander M; Kump, Karson J; Laird, David W; Adams, Aaron J; Bray, Jeremy K; Chen, Ting; Thomson, David M

    2017-06-01

    Caffeine is a widely consumed stimulant with the potential to enhance physical performance through multiple mechanisms. However, recent in vitro findings have suggested that caffeine may block skeletal muscle anabolic signaling through AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-mediated inhibition of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. This could negatively affect protein synthesis and the capacity for muscle growth. The primary purpose of this study was to assess the effect of caffeine on in vivo AMPK and mTOR pathway signaling, protein synthesis, and muscle growth. In cultured C2C12 muscle cells, physiological levels of caffeine failed to impact mTOR activation or myoblast proliferation or differentiation. We found that caffeine administration to mice did not significantly enhance the phosphorylation of AMPK or inhibit signaling proteins downstream of mTOR (p70S6k, S6, or 4EBP1) or protein synthesis after a bout of electrically stimulated contractions. Skeletal muscle-specific knockout of LKB1, the primary AMPK activator in skeletal muscle, on the other hand, eliminated AMPK activation by contractions and enhanced S6k, S6, and 4EBP1 activation before and after contractions. In rats, the addition of caffeine did not affect plantaris hypertrophy induced by the tenotomy of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. In conclusion, caffeine administration does not impair skeletal muscle load-induced mTOR signaling, protein synthesis, or muscle hypertrophy.

  16. An atlas of normal skeletal scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanagan, J.J.; Maisey, M.N.

    1985-01-01

    This atlas was compiled to provide the neophyte as well as the experienced radiologist and the nuclear medicine physician with a reference on normal skeletal scintigraphy as an aid in distinguishing normal variations in skeletal uptake from abnormal findings. Each skeletal scintigraph is labeled, and utilizing an identical scale, a relevant skeletal photograph and radiograph are placed adjacent to the scintigraph

  17. The exercised skeletal muscle: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Marini

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The skeletal muscle is the second more plastic tissue of the body - second to the nervous tissue only. In fact, both physical activity and inactivity contribute to modify the skeletal muscle, by continuous signaling through nerve impulses, mechanical stimuli and humoral clues. In turn, the skeletal muscle sends signals to the body, thus contributing to its homeostasis. We'll review here the contribute of physical exercise to the shaping of skeletal muscle, to the adaptation of its mass and function to the different needs imposed by different physical activities and to the attainment of the health benefits associated with active skeletal muscles. Focus will primarily be on the molecular pathways and on gene regulation that result in skeletal muscle adaptation to exercise.

  18. FXIIIA and TGF-beta over-expression produces normal musculo-skeletal phenotype in TG2-/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantino, U; Oliva, F; Taurisano, G; Orlandi, A; Pietroni, V; Candi, E; Melino, G; Maffulli, N

    2009-04-01

    Transglutaminase (TGs) enzymes and proteins crosslinking have for long time been implicated in the formation of hard tissue development, matrix maturation and mineralization. Among the TGs family members, in the context of connective tissue formation, TG2 and Factor XIII are expressed in cartilage by hypertrophic chondrocytes. Here, we analyse the morphological consequences of TG2 deficiency, during the development of skeletal elements. When TG2 is absent, there are not gross abnormalities in the development of the skeletal system, probably from compensatory mechanisms resulting in increased expression of FXIIIA and TGF-beta 1. In vivo other TGs may be involved in promoting chondrocytes and osteoblast differentiation and matrix mineralisation.

  19. in Skeletal Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espen E. Spangenburg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Triglyceride storage is altered across various chronic health conditions necessitating various techniques to visualize and quantify lipid droplets (LDs. Here, we describe the utilization of the BODIPY (493/503 dye in skeletal muscle as a means to analyze LDs. We found that the dye was a convenient and simple approach to visualize LDs in both sectioned skeletal muscle and cultured adult single fibers. Furthermore, the dye was effective in both fixed and nonfixed cells, and the staining seemed unaffected by permeabilization. We believe that the use of the BODIPY (493/503 dye is an acceptable alternative and, under certain conditions, a simpler method for visualizing LDs stored within skeletal muscle.

  20. Differential response of early and late phases of skeletal muscle regeneration to exogenous supply of testosterone and insulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qazi, I.; Riaz, S.

    2005-01-01

    Effect of insulin and testosterone, separately and in combination on the regeneration of skeletal fibres within intact extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle grafts was studied in mice. It was found that intraperitoneal supply of 2 mg/100 g body weight/day of testosterone accelerated skeletal muscle regeneration within ten days of grafting. The regenerated muscle fibres in such grafts attained significantly higher % recovery of average cross-sectional area (ACSA) than in the controls grafts. Later on, provision of the hormone did not further promote growth of the regenerated muscle fibres. In the insulin-supplemented animals (2 units/100 g body weight/day) the grafts showed hyperplasia and atrophy of the regenerating muscle fibres during the first and the last study periods, respectively. Histological and morphometric analysis of 20-day old EDL muscle regenerates that were supplied with either insulin or testosterone during the first 10-days of transplantation followed by hormone administration in reverse sequence revealed valuable differences. Supply of testosterone and then insulin escalated the process of regeneration and growth so that the ACSA of the regenerated muscle fibres in such grafts turned out to be significantly higher that in the corresponding stages of control, or when only insulin and only testosterone were administered. Reverse sequence of the administration of the hormones exerted negative effects and the regenerated muscle fibres showed various levels of atrophy. These results indicate the importance of identification of particular phases of the process of skeletal muscle regeneration that may be more responsive to anabolic agents. Proper sequence of administration of the hormones to promote the regeneration of skeletal muscle fibres in whole EDL muscle autotransplants is also explained. (author)

  1. An anti-NH2-terminal antibody localizes NBCn1 to heart endothelia and skeletal and vascular smooth muscle cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkier, Helle Hasager; Nielsen, Søren; Prætorius, Jeppe

    2006-01-01

    The electroneutral sodium bicarbonate cotransporter NBCn1 or NBC3 was originally cloned from rat aorta and from human skeletal muscle. NBCn1 (or NBC3) has been localized to the basolateral membrane of various epithelia, but thus far it has been impossible to detect the protein in these tissues...

  2. p38 MAPK activation and H3K4 trimethylation is decreased by lactate in vitro and high intensity resistance training in human skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Willkomm

    Full Text Available Exercise induces adaptation of skeletal muscle by acutely modulating intracellular signaling, gene expression, protein turnover and myogenic activation of skeletal muscle stem cells (Satellite cells, SCs. Lactate (La-induced metabolic stimulation alone has been shown to modify SC proliferation and differentiation. Although the mechanistic basis remains elusive, it was demonstrated that La affects signaling via p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK which might contribute to trimethylation of histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4me3 known to regulate satellite cell proliferation and differentiation. We investigated the effects of La on p38 MAPK and H3K4me3 in a model of activated SCs. Differentiating C2C12 myoblasts were treated with La (20 mM and samples analysed using qRT-PCR, immunofluorescence, and western blotting. We determined a reduction of p38 MAPK phosphorylation, decreased H3K4me3 and reduced expression of Myf5, myogenin, and myosin heavy chain (MHC leading to decreased differentiation of La-treated C2C12 cells after 5 days of repeated La treatment. We further investigated whether this regulatory pathway would be affected in human skeletal muscle by the application of two different resistance exercise regimes (RE associated with distinct metabolic demands and blood La accumulation. Muscle biopsies were obtained 15, 30 min, 1, 4, and 24 h post exercise after moderate intensity RE (STD vs. high intensity RE (HIT. Consistent with in vitro results, reduced p38 phosphorylation and blunted H3K4me3 were also observed upon metabolically demanding HIT RE in human skeletal muscle. Our data provide evidence that La-accumulation acutely affects p38 MAPK signaling, gene expression and thereby cell differentiation and adaptation in vitro, and likely in vivo.

  3. p38 MAPK activation and H3K4 trimethylation is decreased by lactate in vitro and high intensity resistance training in human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willkomm, Lena; Gehlert, Sebastian; Jacko, Daniel; Schiffer, Thorsten; Bloch, Wilhelm

    2017-01-01

    Exercise induces adaptation of skeletal muscle by acutely modulating intracellular signaling, gene expression, protein turnover and myogenic activation of skeletal muscle stem cells (Satellite cells, SCs). Lactate (La)-induced metabolic stimulation alone has been shown to modify SC proliferation and differentiation. Although the mechanistic basis remains elusive, it was demonstrated that La affects signaling via p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) which might contribute to trimethylation of histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4me3) known to regulate satellite cell proliferation and differentiation. We investigated the effects of La on p38 MAPK and H3K4me3 in a model of activated SCs. Differentiating C2C12 myoblasts were treated with La (20 mM) and samples analysed using qRT-PCR, immunofluorescence, and western blotting. We determined a reduction of p38 MAPK phosphorylation, decreased H3K4me3 and reduced expression of Myf5, myogenin, and myosin heavy chain (MHC) leading to decreased differentiation of La-treated C2C12 cells after 5 days of repeated La treatment. We further investigated whether this regulatory pathway would be affected in human skeletal muscle by the application of two different resistance exercise regimes (RE) associated with distinct metabolic demands and blood La accumulation. Muscle biopsies were obtained 15, 30 min, 1, 4, and 24 h post exercise after moderate intensity RE (STD) vs. high intensity RE (HIT). Consistent with in vitro results, reduced p38 phosphorylation and blunted H3K4me3 were also observed upon metabolically demanding HIT RE in human skeletal muscle. Our data provide evidence that La-accumulation acutely affects p38 MAPK signaling, gene expression and thereby cell differentiation and adaptation in vitro, and likely in vivo.

  4. Identification of an osteoclast transcription factor that binds to the human T cell leukemia virus type I-long terminal repeat enhancer element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, D; Santiago, P; Horne, W C; Baron, R

    1997-10-03

    Transgenic mice expressing human T cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I)-tax under the control of HTLV-I-long terminal repeat (LTR) promoter develop skeletal abnormalities with high bone turnover and myelofibrosis. In these animals, Tax is highly expressed in bone with a pattern of expression restricted to osteoclasts and spindle-shaped cells within the endosteal myelofibrosis. To test the hypothesis that lineage-specific transcription factors promote transgene expression from the HTLV-I-LTR in osteoclasts, we first examined tax expression in transgenic bone marrow cultures. Expression was dependent on 1alpha,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol and coincided with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) expression, a marker of osteoclast differentiation. Furthermore, Tax was expressed in vitronectin receptor-positive mononuclear precursors as well as in mature osteoclast-like cells (OCLs). Consistent with our hypothesis, electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed the presence of an OCL nuclear factor (NFOC-1) that binds to the LTR 21-base pair direct repeat, a region critical for the promoter activity. This binding is further enhanced by Tax. Since NFOC-1 is absent in macrophages and conserved in osteoclasts among species including human, such a factor may play a role in lineage determination and/or in expression of the differentiated osteoclast phenotype.

  5. Skeletal and dental changes induced by bionator in early treatment of class II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirceu Barnabé Raveli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose was to investigate the amount of skeletal and dentoalveolar changes after early treatment of Class II, Division 1 malocclusion with bionator appliance in prepubertal growing patients. Forty Class II patients were divided in two groups. Treated group consisted of 20 subjects treated consecutively with bionator. Mean age at the start of treatment (T0 was 9.1 years, while it was 10.6 years at the end of treatment (T1. Mean treatment time was 17.7 months. Pretreatment and post-treatment cephalometric records of treated group were evaluated and compared with a control group consisted of 20 patients with untreated Class II malocclusion. Intergroup comparisons were performed using Student’s t-tests and chi-square test with Yates’ correction at a significance level of 5 per cent. Bionator appliance was effective in generating differential growth between the jaws. Cephalometric skeletal measurements ANB, WITS, Lafh, Co-A and dental L6-Mp, U1.Pp, IsIi, OB, OJ showed statistically significantly different from the control. Bionator induced more dentoalveolar changes than skeletal during treatment in prepubertal stage.

  6. Reversible differentiation of myofibroblasts by MyoD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecker, Louise; Jagirdar, Rajesh; Jin, Toni; Thannickal, Victor J.

    2011-01-01

    Myofibroblasts participate in tissue repair processes in diverse mammalian organ systems. The deactivation of myofibroblasts is critical for termination of the reparative response and restoration of tissue structure and function. The current paradigm on normal tissue repair is the apoptotic clearance of terminally differentiated myofibroblasts; while, the accumulation of activated myofibroblasts is associated with progressive human fibrotic disorders. The capacity of myofibroblasts to undergo de-differentiation as a potential mechanism for myofibroblast deactivation has not been examined. In this report, we have uncovered a role for MyoD in the induction of myofibroblast differentiation by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). Myofibroblasts demonstrate the capacity for de-differentiation and proliferation by modulation of endogenous levels of MyoD. We propose a model of reciprocal signaling between TGF-β1/ALK5/MyoD and mitogen(s)/ERK-MAPK/CDKs that regulate myofibroblast differentiation and de-differentiation, respectively. Our studies provide the first evidence for MyoD in controlling myofibroblast activation and deactivation. Restricted capacity for de-differentiation of myofibroblasts may underlie the progressive nature of recalcitrant human fibrotic disorders.

  7. Congenital anomalies and normal skeletal variants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guebert, G.M.; Yochum, T.R.; Rowe, L.J.

    1987-01-01

    Congenital anomalies and normal skeletal variants are a common occurrence in clinical practice. In this chapter a large number of skeletal anomalies of the spine and pelvis are reviewed. Some of the more common skeletal anomalies of the extremities are also presented. The second section of this chapter deals with normal skeletal variants. Some of these variants may simulate certain disease processes. In some instances there are no clear-cut distinctions between skeletal variants and anomalies; therefore, there may be some overlap of material. The congenital anomalies are presented initially with accompanying text, photos, and references, beginning with the skull and proceeding caudally through the spine to then include the pelvis and extremities. The normal skeletal variants section is presented in an anatomical atlas format without text or references

  8. Interactions between Skeletal Muscle Myoblasts and their Extracellular Matrix Revealed by a Serum Free Culture System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Vishal; Dye, Danielle E; Kinnear, Beverley F; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Grounds, Miranda D; Coombe, Deirdre R

    2015-01-01

    Decellularisation of skeletal muscle provides a system to study the interactions of myoblasts with muscle extracellular matrix (ECM). This study describes the efficient decellularisation of quadriceps muscle with the retention of matrix components and the use of this matrix for myoblast proliferation and differentiation under serum free culture conditions. Three decellularisation approaches were examined; the most effective was phospholipase A2 treatment, which removed cellular material while maximizing the retention of ECM components. Decellularised muscle matrices were then solubilized and used as substrates for C2C12 mouse myoblast serum free cultures. The muscle matrix supported myoblast proliferation and differentiation equally as well as collagen and fibronectin. Immunofluorescence analyses revealed that myoblasts seeded on muscle matrix and fibronectin differentiated to form long, well-aligned myotubes, while myoblasts seeded on collagen were less organized. qPCR analyses showed a time dependent increase in genes involved in skeletal muscle differentiation and suggested that muscle-derived matrix may stimulate an increased rate of differentiation compared to collagen and fibronectin. Decellularized whole muscle three-dimensional scaffolds also supported cell adhesion and spreading, with myoblasts aligning along specific tracts of matrix proteins within the scaffolds. Thus, under serum free conditions, intact acellular muscle matrices provided cues to direct myoblast adhesion and migration. In addition, myoblasts were shown to rapidly secrete and organise their own matrix glycoproteins to create a localized ECM microenvironment. This serum free culture system has revealed that the correct muscle ECM facilitates more rapid cell organisation and differentiation than single matrix glycoprotein substrates.

  9. Schisandrae fructus enhances myogenic differentiation and inhibits atrophy through protein synthesis in human myotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim CH

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cy Hyun Kim,1,2,* Jin-Hong Shin,1,3,* Sung Jun Hwang,1,2 Yung Hyun Choi,4 Dae-Seong Kim,1,3 Cheol Min Kim2,51Research Institute of Convergence of Biomedical Science and Technology, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Yangsan, 2Center for Anti-Aging Industry, Pusan National University, Busan, 3Department of Neurology, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Yangsan, 4Department of Biochemistry, Dong-eui University College of Korean Medicine, Busan, 5Department of Biomedical Informatics, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Yangsan, Republic of Korea*These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Schisandrae fructus (SF has recently been reported to increase skeletal muscle mass and inhibit atrophy in mice. We investigated the effect of SF extract on human myotube differentiation and its acting pathway. Various concentrations (0.1–10 µg/mL of SF extract were applied on human skeletal muscle cells in vitro. Myotube area and fusion index were measured to quantify myotube differentiation. The maximum effect was observed at 0.5 µg/mL of SF extract, enhancing differentiation up to 1.4-fold in fusion index and 1.6-fold in myotube area at 8 days after induction of differentiation compared to control. Phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 and 70 kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase, which initiate translation as downstream of mammalian target of rapamycin pathway, was upregulated in early phases of differentiation after SF treatment. SF also attenuated dexamethasone-induced atrophy. In conclusion, we show that SF augments myogenic differentiation and attenuates atrophy by increasing protein synthesis through mammalian target of rapamycin/70 kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 signaling pathway in human myotubes. SF can be a useful natural dietary supplement in increasing skeletal muscle mass, especially in the aged

  10. The chondrocytic journey in endochondral bone growth and skeletal dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung Tsang, Kwok; Wa Tsang, Shun; Chan, Danny; Cheah, Kathryn S E

    2014-03-01

    The endochondral bones of the skeleton develop from a cartilage template and grow via a process involving a cascade of chondrocyte differentiation steps culminating in formation of a growth plate and the replacement of cartilage by bone. This process of endochondral ossification, driven by the generation of chondrocytes and their subsequent proliferation, differentiation, and production of extracellular matrix constitute a journey, deviation from which inevitably disrupts bone growth and development, and is the basis of human skeletal dysplasias with a wide range of phenotypic severity, from perinatal lethality to progressively deforming. This highly coordinated journey of chondrocyte specification and fate determination is controlled by a myriad of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. SOX9 is the master transcription factor that, in concert with varying partners along the way, directs the different phases of the journey from mesenchymal condensation, chondrogenesis, differentiation, proliferation, and maturation. Extracellular signals, including bone morphogenetic proteins, wingless-related MMTV integration site (WNT), fibroblast growth factor, Indian hedgehog, and parathyroid hormone-related peptide, are all indispensable for growth plate chondrocytes to align and organize into the appropriate columnar architecture and controls their maturation and transition to hypertrophy. Chondrocyte hypertrophy, marked by dramatic volume increase in phases, is controlled by transcription factors SOX9, Runt-related transcription factor, and FOXA2. Hypertrophic chondrocytes mediate the cartilage to bone transition and concomitantly face a live-or-die situation, a subject of much debate. We review recent insights into the coordination of the phases of the chondrocyte journey, and highlight the need for a systems level understanding of the regulatory networks that will facilitate the development of therapeutic approaches for skeletal dysplasia. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals

  11. Dual roles of palladin protein in in vitro myogenesis: inhibition of early induction but promotion of myotube maturation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngoc-Uyen-Nhi Nguyen

    Full Text Available Palladin is a microfilament-associated phosphoprotein whose function in skeletal muscle has rarely been studied. Therefore, we investigate whether myogenesis is influenced by the depletion of palladin expression known to interfere with the actin cytoskeleton dynamic required for skeletal muscle differentiation. The inhibition of palladin in C2C12 myoblasts leads to precocious myogenic differentiation with a concomitant reduction in cell apoptosis. This premature myogenesis is caused, in part, by an accelerated induction of p21, myogenin, and myosin heavy chain, suggesting that palladin acts as a negative regulator in early differentiation phases. Paradoxically, palladin-knockdown myoblasts are unable to differentiate terminally, despite their ability to perform some initial steps of differentiation. Cells with attenuated palladin expression form thinner myotubes with fewer myonuclei compared to those of the control. It is noteworthy that a negative regulator of myogenesis, myostatin, is activated in palladin-deficient myotubes, suggesting the palladin-mediated impairment of late-stage myogenesis. Additionally, overexpression of 140-kDa palladin inhibits myoblast differentiation while 200-kDa and 90-kDa palladin-overexpressed cells display an enhanced differentiation rate. Together, our data suggest that palladin might have both positive and negative roles in maintaining the proper skeletal myogenic differentiation in vitro.

  12. Skeletal Stability after Large Mandibular Advancement (> 10 mm) with Bilateral Sagittal Split Osteotomy and Skeletal Elastic Intermaxillary Fixation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartz, Kristoffer; Rodrigo, Maria; Jensen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to assess the skeletal stability after large mandibular advancement (> 10 mm) with bilateral sagittal split osteotomy and skeletal elastic intermaxillary fixation and to correlate the skeletal stability with the vertical facial type. MATERIAL AND METHODS......: A total of 33 consecutive patients underwent bimaxillary surgery to correct skeletal Class II malocclusion with a mandibular advancement (> 10 mm) measured at B-point and postoperative skeletal elastic intermaxillary fixation for 16 weeks. Skeletal stability was evaluated using lateral cephalometric...... radiographs obtained preoperative (T1), 8 weeks postoperatively (T2), and 18 month postoperatively (T3). B-point and pogonion (Pog) was used to measure the skeletal relapse and the mandibular plane angle (MP-angle) was used to determine the vertical facial type. RESULTS: The mean advancement from T1 to T2...

  13. Maintenance of DNA repair capacity in differentiating rat muscle cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koval, T.M.; Kaufman, S.J.

    1981-01-01

    Unscheduled DNA synthesis was measured at several times during the differentiation of cultured rat skeletal muscle cells in response to exposures to 254 nm UV light. There was no change in the amount of repair DNA synthesis as the cells fuse and differentiate from postmitotic prefusion myoblasts to multinucleated contracting myotubes. (author)

  14. Increased Stiffness in Aged Skeletal Muscle Impairs Muscle Progenitor Cell Proliferative Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grégory Lacraz

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle aging is associated with a decreased regenerative potential due to the loss of function of endogenous stem cells or myogenic progenitor cells (MPCs. Aged skeletal muscle is characterized by the deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM, which in turn influences the biomechanical properties of myofibers by increasing their stiffness. Since the stiffness of the MPC microenvironment directly impacts MPC function, we hypothesized that the increase in muscle stiffness that occurs with aging impairs the behavior of MPCs, ultimately leading to a decrease in regenerative potential.We showed that freshly isolated individual myofibers from aged mouse muscles contain fewer MPCs overall than myofibers from adult muscles, with fewer quiescent MPCs and more proliferative and differentiating MPCs. We observed alterations in cultured MPC behavior in aged animals, where the proliferation and differentiation of MPCs were lower and higher, respectively. These alterations were not linked to the intrinsic properties of aged myofibers, as shown by the similar values for the cumulative population-doubling values and fusion indexes. However, atomic force microscopy (AFM indentation experiments revealed a nearly 4-fold increase in the stiffness of the MPC microenvironment. We further showed that the increase in stiffness is associated with alterations to muscle ECM, including the accumulation of collagen, which was correlated with higher hydroxyproline and advanced glycation end-product content. Lastly, we recapitulated the impaired MPC behavior observed in aging using a hydrogel substrate that mimics the stiffness of myofibers.These findings provide novel evidence that the low regenerative potential of aged skeletal muscle is independent of intrinsic MPC properties but is related to the increase in the stiffness of the MPC microenvironment.

  15. Skeletal manifestations of juvenile hypothyroidism and the impact of treatment on skeletal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutch, Manish; Philip, Rajeev; Philip, Renjit; Toms, Ajit; Saran, Sanjay; Gupta, K K

    2013-10-01

    Thyroid hormone mediates growth and development of the skeleton through its direct effects and through its permissive effects on growth hormone. The effect of hypothyroidism on bone is well described in congenital hypothyroidism, but the impact of thyroid hormone deficiency on a growing skeleton, as it happens with juvenile hypothyroidism, is less defined. In addition, the extent to which the skeletal defects of juvenile hypothyroidism revert on the replacement of thyroid hormone is not known. A study was undertaken in 29 juvenile autoimmune hypothyroid patients to study the skeletal manifestations of juvenile hypothyroidism and the impact of treatment of hypothyroidism on the skeletal system of juvenile patients. Hypothyroidism has a profound impact on the skeletal system and delayed bone age, dwarfism, and thickened bands at the metaphyseal ends being the most common findings. Post treatment, skeletal findings like delayed bone age and dwarfism improved significantly, but there were no significant changes in enlargement of sella, presence of wormian bones, epihyseal dysgenesis, vertebral changes and thickened band at the metaphyseal ends. With the treatment of hypothyroidism, there is an exuberant advancement of bone age, the catch up of bone age being approximately double of the chronological age advancement.

  16. Treatment with N- and C-Terminal Peptides of Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein Partly Compensate the Skeletal Abnormalities in IGF-I Deficient Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portal-Núñez, Sergio; Murillo-Cuesta, Silvia; Lozano, Daniel; Cediel, Rafael; Esbrit, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) deficiency causes growth delay, and IGF-I has been shown to partially mediate bone anabolism by parathyroid hormone (PTH). PTH-related protein (PTHrP) is abundant in bone, and has osteogenic features by poorly defined mechanisms. We here examined the capacity of PTHrP (1–36) and PTHrP (107–111) (osteostatin) to reverse the skeletal alterations associated with IGF-I deficiency. Igf1-null mice and their wild type littermates were treated with each PTHrP peptide (80 µg/Kg/every other day/2 weeks; 2 males and 4 females for each genotype) or saline vehicle (3 males and 3 females for each genotype). We found that treatment with either PTHrP peptide ameliorated trabecular structure in the femur in both genotypes. However, these peptides were ineffective in normalizing the altered cortical structure at this bone site in Igf1-null mice. An aberrant gene expression of factors associated with osteoblast differentiation and function, namely runx2, osteoprotegerin/receptor activator of NF-κB ligand ratio, Wnt3a , cyclin D1, connexin 43, catalase and Gadd45, as well as in osteocyte sclerostin, was found in the long bones of Igf1-null mice. These mice also displayed a lower amount of trabecular osteoblasts and osteoclasts in the tibial metaphysis than those in wild type mice. These alterations in Igf1-null mice were only partially corrected by each PTHrP peptide treatment. The skeletal expression of Igf2, Igf1 receptor and Irs2 was increased in Igf1-null mice, and this compensatory profile was further improved by treatment with each PTHrP peptide related to ERK1/2 and FoxM1 activation. In vitro, PTHrP (1–36) and osteostatin were effective in promoting bone marrow stromal cell mineralization in normal mice but not in IGF-I-deficient mice. Collectively, these findings indicate that PTHrP (1–36) and osteostatin can exert several osteogenic actions even in the absence of IGF-I in the mouse bone. PMID:24503961

  17. The use of mesenchymal (skeletal) stem cells for treatment of degenerative diseases: current status and future perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Basem; Kassem, Moustapha

    2009-01-01

    Human bone marrow derived-mesenchymal (skeletal) stem (MSC) cells are a group of non-hematopoietic stem cells residing in the perivascular niches in bone marrow. These cells have the capacity to differentiate mainly into mesoderm-type cells such as osteoblasts, chondrocytes and adipocytes and pos...

  18. Applications of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Neural Crest Cells in Craniofacial Skeletal Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Morikawa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Craniofacial skeletal tissues are composed of tooth and bone, together with nerves and blood vessels. This composite material is mainly derived from neural crest cells (NCCs. The neural crest is transient embryonic tissue present during neural tube formation whose cells have high potential for migration and differentiation. Thus, NCCs are promising candidates for craniofacial tissue regeneration; however, the clinical application of NCCs is hindered by their limited accessibility. In contrast, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are easily accessible in adults, have similar potential for self-renewal, and can differentiate into skeletal tissues, including bones and cartilage. Therefore, MSCs may represent good sources of stem cells for clinical use. MSCs are classically identified under adherent culture conditions, leading to contamination with other cell lineages. Previous studies have identified mouse- and human-specific MSC subsets using cell surface markers. Additionally, some studies have shown that a subset of MSCs is closely related to neural crest derivatives and endothelial cells. These MSCs may be promising candidates for regeneration of craniofacial tissues from the perspective of developmental fate. Here, we review the fundamental biology of MSCs in craniofacial research.

  19. Expression of Gla proteins during fish skeletal development

    OpenAIRE

    Gavaia, Paulo J.

    2006-01-01

    Senegal sole skeletal development; Skeletal malformations; Skeletal malformation in mediterranean species; Senegal sole skeletal deformities; Zebra fish as model system: skeletal development; Identification of bone cells / skeletal development; Spatial - temporal pattern of bgp expression; Single cell resolution: localization of bgp mRNA; Single cell resolution: Immunolocalization of Bgp; Single cell resolution: localization of mgp mRNA; Single cell resolution: Immunolocalization of Mgp; An i...

  20. Identification of telocytes in skeletal muscle interstitium: implication for muscle regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, L M; Manole, Emilia; Serboiu, Crenguţa S; Manole, C G; Suciu, Laura C; Gherghiceanu, Mihaela; Popescu, B O

    2011-06-01

    Skeletal muscle interstitium is crucial for regulation of blood flow, passage of substances from capillaries to myocytes and muscle regeneration. We show here, probably, for the first time, the presence of telocytes (TCs), a peculiar type of interstitial (stromal) cells, in rat, mouse and human skeletal muscle. TC features include (as already described in other tissues) a small cell body and very long and thin cell prolongations-telopodes (Tps) with moniliform appearance, dichotomous branching and 3D-network distribution. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed close vicinity of Tps with nerve endings, capillaries, satellite cells and myocytes, suggesting a TC role in intercellular signalling (via shed vesicles or exosomes). In situ immunolabelling showed that skeletal muscle TCs express c-kit, caveolin-1 and secrete VEGF. The same phenotypic profile was demonstrated in cell cultures. These markers and TEM data differentiate TCs from both satellite cells (e.g. TCs are Pax7 negative) and fibroblasts (which are c-kit negative). We also described non-satellite (resident) progenitor cell niche. In culture, TCs (but not satellite cells) emerge from muscle explants and form networks suggesting a key role in muscle regeneration and repair, at least after trauma. © 2011 The Authors Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine © 2011 Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Skeletal muscle performance and ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieland, Michael; Trouwborst, Inez; Clark, Brian C

    2018-02-01

    The world population is ageing rapidly. As society ages, the incidence of physical limitations is dramatically increasing, which reduces the quality of life and increases healthcare expenditures. In western society, ~30% of the population over 55 years is confronted with moderate or severe physical limitations. These physical limitations increase the risk of falls, institutionalization, co-morbidity, and premature death. An important cause of physical limitations is the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass, also referred to as sarcopenia. Emerging evidence, however, clearly shows that the decline in skeletal muscle mass is not the sole contributor to the decline in physical performance. For instance, the loss of muscle strength is also a strong contributor to reduced physical performance in the elderly. In addition, there is ample data to suggest that motor coordination, excitation-contraction coupling, skeletal integrity, and other factors related to the nervous, muscular, and skeletal systems are critically important for physical performance in the elderly. To better understand the loss of skeletal muscle performance with ageing, we aim to provide a broad overview on the underlying mechanisms associated with elderly skeletal muscle performance. We start with a system level discussion and continue with a discussion on the influence of lifestyle, biological, and psychosocial factors on elderly skeletal muscle performance. Developing a broad understanding of the many factors affecting elderly skeletal muscle performance has major implications for scientists, clinicians, and health professionals who are developing therapeutic interventions aiming to enhance muscle function and/or prevent mobility and physical limitations and, as such, support healthy ageing. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the Society on Sarcopenia, Cachexia and Wasting Disorders.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of phenylethynylcarbonyl terminated novel thermosetting imide compound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kimura

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Phenylethynyl terminated novel imide compound based on 1,3-bis(3-aminophenoxybenzene (APB and phenylethynyl trimellitic anhydride (PETA were prepared. The curing behavior of phenylethynyl terminated imide compound was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. The curing reaction of phenylethynylcarbonyl end group completed at 220°C, and proceeded much faster than that of phenylethynyl end group. Glass transition temperature of the thermosetting resin from phenylethynylcarbonyl terminated novel imide compound determined by dynamic mechanical analysis was almost the same as that of o-cresolnovolac type epoxy resin. In addition, the thermosetting resin from phenylethynylcarbonyl terminated novel imide compound exhibited excellent thermal and dimensional stabilities. These excellent properties of these phenylethynyl terminated imide compound might be due to the incorporation of alkene group or aromatic ring substitutes in the backbones, which might enhance the chain interaction (molecular packing and reduce the molecular chain mobility.

  3. Predominant alpha2/beta2/gamma3 AMPK activation during exercise in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Jesper Bratz; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    -Thr-172 AMPK phosphorylation (r2 = 0.84, P important actor in exercise-regulated AMPK signalling in human skeletal muscle, probably mediating phosphorylation of ACCß.......5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key regulator of cellular metabolism and is regulated in muscle during exercise. We have previously established that only three of 12 possible AMPK a/ß/¿-heterotrimers are present in human skeletal muscle. Previous studies describe discrepancies between...... total AMPK activity and regulation of its target acetyl-CoA-carboxylase (ACC)ß. Also, exercise training decreases expression of the regulatory ¿3 AMPK subunit and attenuates a2 AMPK activity during exercise. We hypothesize that these observations reflect a differential regulation of the AMPK...

  4. Diffusion-weighted imaging and the skeletal system: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, K; Troupis, J M

    2016-11-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequence that has a well-established role in neuroimaging, and is increasingly being utilised in other clinical contexts, including the assessment of various skeletal disorders. It utilises the variability of Brownian motion of water molecules; the differing patterns of water molecular diffusion in various biological tissues help determine the contrast obtained in DWI. Although early research on the clinical role of DWI focused mainly on the field of neuroimaging, there are now more studies demonstrating the promising role DWI has in the diagnosis and monitoring of various osseous diseases. DWI has been shown to be useful in assessing a patient's skeletal tumour burden, monitoring the post-chemotherapy response of various bony malignancies, detecting hip ischaemia in patients with Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease, as well as determining the quality of repaired articular cartilage. Despite its relative successes, DWI has several limitations, including its limited clinical value in differentiating chondrosarcomas from benign bone lesions, as well as osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures from compression fractures due to malignancy. This literature review aims to provide an overview of the recent developments in the use of DWI in imaging the skeletal system, and to clarify the role of DWI in assessing various osseous diseases. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Oncological outcomes of patients with Ewing's sarcoma: is there a difference between skeletal and extra-skeletal Ewing's sarcoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, A; Grimer, R J; Spooner, D; Peake, D; Carter, S R; Tillman, R M; Abudu, A; Jeys, L

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to identify whether there was any difference in patient, tumour, treatment or outcome characteristics between patients with skeletal or extra-skeletal Ewing's sarcoma. We identified 300 patients with new primary Ewing's sarcoma diagnosed between 1980 and 2005 from the centres' local database. There were 253 (84%) with skeletal and 47 (16%) with extra-skeletal Ewing's sarcomas. Although patients with skeletal Ewing's were younger (mean age 16.8 years) than those with extra-skeletal Ewing's sarcoma (mean age 27.5 years), there was little difference between the groups in terms of tumour stage or treatment. Nearly all the patients were treated with chemotherapy and most had surgery. There was no difference in the overall survival of patients with skeletal (64%) and extra-skeletal Ewing's sarcoma (61%) (p = 0.85), and this was also the case when both groups were split by whether they had metastases or not. This large series has shown that the oncological outcomes of Ewing's sarcoma are related to tumour characteristics and patient age, and not determined by whether they arise in bone or soft tissue.

  6. Nucleotide excision repair in differentiated cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wees, Caroline van der [Department of Toxicogenetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Department of Cardiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Jansen, Jacob [Department of Toxicogenetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Vrieling, Harry [Department of Toxicogenetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Laarse, Arnoud van der [Department of Cardiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Zeeland, Albert van [Department of Toxicogenetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Mullenders, Leon [Department of Toxicogenetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands)]. E-mail: l.mullenders@lumc.nl

    2007-01-03

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is the principal pathway for the removal of a wide range of DNA helix-distorting lesions and operates via two NER subpathways, i.e. global genome repair (GGR) and transcription-coupled repair (TCR). Although detailed information is available on expression and efficiency of NER in established mammalian cell lines, little is known about the expression of NER pathways in (terminally) differentiated cells. The majority of studies in differentiated cells have focused on repair of UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) and 6-4-photoproducts (6-4PP) because of the high frequency of photolesions at low level of toxicity and availability of sensitive technologies to determine photolesions in defined regions of the genome. The picture that emerges from these studies is blurred and rather complex. Fibroblasts and terminally differentiated myocytes of the rat heart display equally efficient GGR of 6-4PP but poor repair of CPD due to the absence of p48 expression. This repair phenotype is clearly different from human terminal differentiated neurons. Furthermore, both cell types were found to carry out TCR of CPD, thus mimicking the repair phenotype of established rodent cell lines. In contrast, in intact rat spermatogenic cells repair was very inefficient at the genome overall level and in transcriptionally active genes indicating that GGR and TCR are non-functional. Also, non-differentiated mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells exhibit low levels of NER after UV irradiation. However, the mechanisms that lead to low NER activity are clearly different: in differentiated spermatogenic cells differences in chromatin compaction and sequestering of NER proteins may underlie the lack of NER activity in pre-meiotic cells, whereas in non-differentiated ES cells NER is impaired by a strong apoptotic response.

  7. Transcriptomic profiling of TK2 deficient human skeletal muscle suggests a role for the p53 signalling pathway and identifies growth and differentiation factor-15 as a potential novel biomarker for mitochondrial myopathies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Mutations in the gene encoding thymidine kinase 2 (TK2) result in the myopathic form of mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome which is a mitochondrial encephalomyopathy presenting in children. In order to unveil some of the mechanisms involved in this pathology and to identify potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets we have investigated the gene expression profile of human skeletal muscle deficient for TK2 using cDNA microarrays. Results We have analysed the whole transcriptome of skeletal muscle from patients with TK2 mutations and compared it to normal muscle and to muscle from patients with other mitochondrial myopathies. We have identified a set of over 700 genes which are differentially expressed in TK2 deficient muscle. Bioinformatics analysis reveals important changes in muscle metabolism, in particular, in glucose and glycogen utilisation, and activation of the starvation response which affects aminoacid and lipid metabolism. We have identified those transcriptional regulators which are likely to be responsible for the observed changes in gene expression. Conclusion Our data point towards the tumor suppressor p53 as the regulator at the centre of a network of genes which are responsible for a coordinated response to TK2 mutations which involves inflammation, activation of muscle cell death by apoptosis and induction of growth and differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) in muscle and serum. We propose that GDF-15 may represent a potential novel biomarker for mitochondrial dysfunction although further studies are required. PMID:24484525

  8. Skeletal manifestations of juvenile hypothyroidism and the impact of treatment on skeletal system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Gutch

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone mediates growth and development of the skeleton through its direct effects and through its permissive effects on growth hormone. The effect of hypothyroidism on bone is well described in congenital hypothyroidism, but the impact of thyroid hormone deficiency on a growing skeleton, as it happens with juvenile hypothyroidism, is less defined. In addition, the extent to which the skeletal defects of juvenile hypothyroidism revert on the replacement of thyroid hormone is not known. A study was undertaken in 29 juvenile autoimmune hypothyroid patients to study the skeletal manifestations of juvenile hypothyroidism and the impact of treatment of hypothyroidism on the skeletal system of juvenile patients. Hypothyroidism has a profound impact on the skeletal system and delayed bone age, dwarfism, and thickened bands at the metaphyseal ends being the most common findings. Post treatment, skeletal findings like delayed bone age and dwarfism improved significantly, but there were no significant changes in enlargement of sella, presence of wormian bones, epihyseal dysgenesis, vertebral changes and thickened band at the metaphyseal ends. With the treatment of hypothyroidism, there is an exuberant advancement of bone age, the catch up of bone age being approximately double of the chronological age advancement.

  9. Enhanced electrochemical response in oxidative differential pulse voltammetry of dopamine in the presence of ascorbic acid at carboxyl-terminated boron-doped diamond electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, Takeshi [Department of Industrial Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo University of Science, 1-3 Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan)], E-mail: t.kondo@ci.kagu.tus.ac.jp; Niwano, Yu; Tamura, Akira; Imai, Junichi [Department of Industrial Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo University of Science, 1-3 Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan); Honda, Kensuke [Department of Chemistry and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science, Yamaguchi University, 1677-1 Yoshida, Yamaguchi-shi, Yamaguchi 753-8521 (Japan); Einaga, Yasuaki [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Yokohama 223-0012 (Japan); Tryk, Donald A. [Fuel Cell Nanomaterials Center, University of Yamanashi, Takeda 4-3-11, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-8511 (Japan); Fujishima, Akira [Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology (KAST), 3-2-1 Sakado, Takatsu-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 213-0012 (Japan); Kawai, Takeshi [Department of Industrial Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo University of Science, 1-3 Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan)

    2009-03-01

    The differential pulse voltammetric (DPV) peak for dopamine (DA) oxidation was found to be highly amplified by the addition of ascorbic acid (AA) when carboxyl-terminated boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes were used as the working electrode. The DP voltammogram for a solution containing DA and AA obtained using a 4-pentenoic acid-modified BDD (4PA-BDD) electrode showed well-separated oxidation peaks for DA and AA at 0.4 and 0.6 V vs. Ag/AgCl, respectively. In addition, as the DA concentration increased at constant AA concentration, a simultaneous increase in the DA peak current density and decrease in the AA peak current density were observed. The slope of the calibration curve for the [DA] range of 1-10 {mu}M in the presence of AA (500 {mu}M) was seven times larger than that obtained in the absence of AA. Such an enhancement was found to be more efficient at 4PA-BDD than at oxidized-BDD, partly due to simple electrostatic effects and partly due to suppression of the polymerization of DA oxidation products by the terminal carboxyl groups. The enhanced detection method using a carboxyl-terminated BDD electrode should be an effective analytical tool, especially for determining low concentrations of DA in the presence of high concentrations of AA.

  10. Enhanced electrochemical response in oxidative differential pulse voltammetry of dopamine in the presence of ascorbic acid at carboxyl-terminated boron-doped diamond electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Takeshi; Niwano, Yu; Tamura, Akira; Imai, Junichi; Honda, Kensuke; Einaga, Yasuaki; Tryk, Donald A.; Fujishima, Akira; Kawai, Takeshi

    2009-01-01

    The differential pulse voltammetric (DPV) peak for dopamine (DA) oxidation was found to be highly amplified by the addition of ascorbic acid (AA) when carboxyl-terminated boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes were used as the working electrode. The DP voltammogram for a solution containing DA and AA obtained using a 4-pentenoic acid-modified BDD (4PA-BDD) electrode showed well-separated oxidation peaks for DA and AA at 0.4 and 0.6 V vs. Ag/AgCl, respectively. In addition, as the DA concentration increased at constant AA concentration, a simultaneous increase in the DA peak current density and decrease in the AA peak current density were observed. The slope of the calibration curve for the [DA] range of 1-10 μM in the presence of AA (500 μM) was seven times larger than that obtained in the absence of AA. Such an enhancement was found to be more efficient at 4PA-BDD than at oxidized-BDD, partly due to simple electrostatic effects and partly due to suppression of the polymerization of DA oxidation products by the terminal carboxyl groups. The enhanced detection method using a carboxyl-terminated BDD electrode should be an effective analytical tool, especially for determining low concentrations of DA in the presence of high concentrations of AA

  11. Skeletal muscle and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrie, Semone B; Pinder, Mark A

    2018-04-01

    Skeletal muscle is critical for mobility and many metabolic functions integral to survival and long-term health. Alcohol can affect skeletal muscle physiology and metabolism, which will have immediate and long-term consequences on health. While skeletal muscle abnormalities, including morphological, biochemical, and functional impairments, are well-documented in adults that excessively consume alcohol, there is a scarcity of information about the skeletal muscle in the offspring prenatally exposed to alcohol ("prenatal alcohol exposure"; PAE). This minireview examines the available studies addressing skeletal muscle abnormalities due to PAE. Growth restriction, fetal alcohol myopathy, and abnormalities in the neuromuscular system, which contribute to deficits in locomotion, are some direct, immediate consequences of PAE on skeletal muscle morphology and function. Long-term health consequences of PAE-related skeletal abnormalities include impaired glucose metabolism in the skeletal muscle, resulting in glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, leading to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. In general, there is limited information on the morphological, biochemical, and functional features of skeletal abnormalities in PAE offspring. There is a need to understand how PAE affects muscle growth and function at the cellular level during early development to improve the immediate and long-term health of offspring suffering from PAE.

  12. Apc bridges Wnt/{beta}-catenin and BMP signaling during osteoblast differentiation of KS483 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miclea, Razvan L., E-mail: R.L.Miclea@lumc.nl [Department of Pediatrics, Leiden University Medical Centre (LUMC), Leiden (Netherlands); Horst, Geertje van der, E-mail: G.van_der_Horst@lumc.nl [Department of Urology, LUMC, Leiden (Netherlands); Robanus-Maandag, Els C., E-mail: E.C.Robanus@lumc.nl [Department of Human Genetics, LUMC, Leiden (Netherlands); Loewik, Clemens W.G.M., E-mail: C.W.G.M.Lowik@lumc.nl [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, LUMC, Leiden (Netherlands); Oostdijk, Wilma, E-mail: W.Oostdijk@lumc.nl [Department of Pediatrics, Leiden University Medical Centre (LUMC), Leiden (Netherlands); Wit, Jan M., E-mail: J.M.Wit@lumc.nl [Department of Pediatrics, Leiden University Medical Centre (LUMC), Leiden (Netherlands); Karperien, Marcel, E-mail: H.B.J.Karperien@tnw.utwente.nl [MIRA Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, Department of Tissue Regeneration, University of Twente, Zuidhorst Room ZH 144, Drienerlolaan 5, 7522 NB Enschede (Netherlands)

    2011-06-10

    The canonical Wnt signaling pathway influences the differentiation of mesenchymal cell lineages in a quantitative and qualitative fashion depending on the dose of {beta}-catenin signaling. Adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) is the critical intracellular regulator of {beta}-catenin turnover. To better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the role of Apc in regulating the differentiation capacity of skeletal progenitor cells, we have knocked down Apc in the murine mesenchymal stem cell-like KS483 cells by stable expression of Apc-specific small interfering RNA. In routine culture, KSFrt-Apc{sub si} cells displayed a mesenchymal-like spindle shape morphology, exhibited markedly decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis. Apc knockdown resulted in upregulation of the Wnt/{beta}-catenin and the BMP/Smad signaling pathways, but osteogenic differentiation was completely inhibited. This effect could be rescued by adding high concentrations of BMP-7 to the differentiation medium. Furthermore, KSFrt-Apc{sub si} cells showed no potential to differentiate into chondrocytes or adipocytes. These results demonstrate that Apc is essential for the proliferation, survival and differentiation of KS483 cells. Apc knockdown blocks the osteogenic differentiation of skeletal progenitor cells, a process that can be overruled by high BMP signaling.

  13. Increased numbers of pre-existing memory CD8 T cells and decreased T-bet expression can restrain terminal differentiation of secondary effector and memory CD8 T cells1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Nikhil S.; Cui, Weiguo; Dominguez, Claudia; Chen, Jonathan H.; Hand, Timothy W.; Kaech, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    Memory CD8 T cells acquire TEM properties following reinfection, and may reach terminally differentiated, senescent states (“Hayflick limit”) after multiple infections. The signals controlling this process are not well understood, but we found that the degree of 2o effector and memory CD8 T cell differentiation was intimately linked to the amount of T-bet expressed upon reactivation and pre-existing memory CD8 T cell number (i.e., 1o memory CD8 T cell precursor frequency) present during secondary infection. Compared to naïve cells, memory CD8 T cells were predisposed towards terminal effector (TE) cell differentiation because they could immediately respond to IL-12 and induce T-bet, even in the absence of antigen. TE cell formation following 2o or 3o infections was dependent on increased T-bet expression because T-bet+/− cells were resistant to these phenotypic changes. Larger numbers of pre-existing memory CD8 T cells limited the duration of 2o infection and the amount of IL-12 produced, and consequently, this reduced T-bet expression and the proportion of 2o TE CD8 T cells that formed. Together, these data show that, over repeated infections, memory CD8 T cell quality and proliferative fitness is not strictly determined by the number of serial encounters with antigen or cell divisions, but is a function of the CD8 T cell differentiation state, which is genetically controlled in a T-bet-dependent manner. This differentiation state can be modulated by pre-existing memory CD8 T cell number and the intensity of inflammation during reinfection. These results have important implications for vaccinations involving prime-boost strategies. PMID:21930973

  14. Differential Equations as Actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronkko, Mauno; Ravn, Anders P.

    1997-01-01

    We extend a conventional action system with a primitive action consisting of a differential equation and an evolution invariant. The semantics is given by a predicate transformer. The weakest liberal precondition is chosen, because it is not always desirable that steps corresponding to differential...... actions shall terminate. It is shown that the proposed differential action has a semantics which corresponds to a discrete approximation when the discrete step size goes to zero. The extension gives action systems the power to model real-time clocks and continuous evolutions within hybrid systems....

  15. Fbxw7-associated drug resistance is reversed by induction of terminal differentiation in murine intestinal organoid culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Lorenzi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is one of the top three cancer-related causes of death worldwide. FBXW7 is a known tumor-suppressor gene, commonly mutated in CRC and in a variety of other epithelial tumors. Low expression of FBXW7 is also associated with poor prognosis. Loss of FBXW7 sensitizes cancer cells to certain drugs, while making them more resistant to other types of chemotherapies. However, is not fully understood how epithelial cells within normal gut and primary tumors respond to potential cancer therapeutics. We have studied genetically engineered mice in which the fbxw7 gene is conditionally knocked-out in the intestine (fbxw7ΔG. To further investigate the mechanism of Fbxw7-action, we grew intestinal crypts from floxed-fbxw7 (fbxw7fl/fl and fbxw7ΔG mice, in a Matrigel-based organoid (mini-gut culture. The fbxw7ΔG organoids exhibited rapid budding events in the crypt region. Furthermore, to test organoids for drug response, we exposed day 3 intestinal organoids from fbxw7fl/fl and fbxw7ΔG mice, to various concentrations of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU for 72 hours. 5-FU triggers phenotypic differences in organoids including changing shape, survival, resistance, and death. 5-FU however, rescues the drug-resistance phenotype of fbxw7ΔG through the induction of terminal differentiation. Our results support the hypothesis that a differentiating therapy successfully targets FBXW7-mutated CRC cells.

  16. The Stigma of Dying: Attitudes Toward the Terminally Ill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epley, Rita J.; McCaghy, Charles H.

    1978-01-01

    Using a range of semantic differential adjectives, 233 college students indicated attitudes toward young and old people who were healthy, ill, or terminally ill. Attitudes toward each state of health category separate into three factors: attitudes toward healthy, ill, and dying persons. (Author)

  17. mTOR is necessary for proper satellite cell activity and skeletal muscle regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Pengpeng [Key Laboratory of Swine Genetics and Breeding of Agricultural Ministry & Key Laboratory of Agricultural Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of Ministry of Education, College of Animal Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Department of Animal Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Liang, Xinrong; Shan, Tizhong [Department of Animal Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Jiang, Qinyang [Department of Animal Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); College of Animal Science and Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Deng, Changyan [Key Laboratory of Swine Genetics and Breeding of Agricultural Ministry & Key Laboratory of Agricultural Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of Ministry of Education, College of Animal Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Zheng, Rong, E-mail: zhengrong@mail.hzau.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Swine Genetics and Breeding of Agricultural Ministry & Key Laboratory of Agricultural Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of Ministry of Education, College of Animal Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Kuang, Shihuan, E-mail: skuang@purdue.edu [Department of Animal Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2015-07-17

    The serine/threonine kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a key regulator of protein synthesis, cell proliferation and energy metabolism. As constitutive deletion of Mtor gene results in embryonic lethality, the function of mTOR in muscle stem cells (satellite cells) and skeletal muscle regeneration remains to be determined. In this study, we established a satellite cell specific Mtor conditional knockout (cKO) mouse model by crossing Pax7{sup CreER} and Mtor{sup flox/flox} mice. Skeletal muscle regeneration after injury was severely compromised in the absence of Mtor, indicated by increased number of necrotic myofibers infiltrated by Evans blue dye, and reduced number and size of regenerated myofibers in the Mtor cKO mice compared to wild type (WT) littermates. To dissect the cellular mechanism, we analyzed satellite cell-derived primary myoblasts grown on single myofibers or adhered to culture plates. The Mtor cKO myoblasts exhibited defective proliferation and differentiation kinetics when compared to myoblasts derived from WT littermates. At the mRNA and protein levels, the Mtor cKO myoblasts expressed lower levels of key myogenic determinant genes Pax7, Myf5, Myod, Myog than did the WT myoblasts. These results suggest that mTOR is essential for satellite cell function and skeletal muscle regeneration through controlling the expression of myogenic genes. - Highlights: • Pax7{sup CreER} was used to delete Mtor gene in satellite cells. • Satellite cell specific deletion of Mtor impairs muscle regeneration. • mTOR is necessary for satellite cell proliferation and differentiation. • Deletion of Mtor leads to reduced expression of key myogenic genes.

  18. mTOR is necessary for proper satellite cell activity and skeletal muscle regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Pengpeng; Liang, Xinrong; Shan, Tizhong; Jiang, Qinyang; Deng, Changyan; Zheng, Rong; Kuang, Shihuan

    2015-01-01

    The serine/threonine kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a key regulator of protein synthesis, cell proliferation and energy metabolism. As constitutive deletion of Mtor gene results in embryonic lethality, the function of mTOR in muscle stem cells (satellite cells) and skeletal muscle regeneration remains to be determined. In this study, we established a satellite cell specific Mtor conditional knockout (cKO) mouse model by crossing Pax7 CreER and Mtor flox/flox mice. Skeletal muscle regeneration after injury was severely compromised in the absence of Mtor, indicated by increased number of necrotic myofibers infiltrated by Evans blue dye, and reduced number and size of regenerated myofibers in the Mtor cKO mice compared to wild type (WT) littermates. To dissect the cellular mechanism, we analyzed satellite cell-derived primary myoblasts grown on single myofibers or adhered to culture plates. The Mtor cKO myoblasts exhibited defective proliferation and differentiation kinetics when compared to myoblasts derived from WT littermates. At the mRNA and protein levels, the Mtor cKO myoblasts expressed lower levels of key myogenic determinant genes Pax7, Myf5, Myod, Myog than did the WT myoblasts. These results suggest that mTOR is essential for satellite cell function and skeletal muscle regeneration through controlling the expression of myogenic genes. - Highlights: • Pax7 CreER was used to delete Mtor gene in satellite cells. • Satellite cell specific deletion of Mtor impairs muscle regeneration. • mTOR is necessary for satellite cell proliferation and differentiation. • Deletion of Mtor leads to reduced expression of key myogenic genes

  19. Skeletal muscle injury induced by a pneumatic tourniquet: an enzyme- and immunohistochemical study in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedowitz, R A; Fridén, J; Thornell, L E

    1992-03-01

    The pathophysiology of skeletal muscle injury induced by compression beneath pneumatic tourniquets is poorly understood. Tourniquet hemostasis was induced in rabbit hindlimbs for 2 hr with a cuff inflation pressure of either 125 mm Hg (n = 5) or 350 mm Hg (n = 5). Skeletal muscle biopsies, taken 2 days later from tissue beneath and distal to the tourniquet, were frozen and analyzed using enzyme- and immunohistochemical techniques. In the 350 mm Hg tourniquet group, four of 10 thigh muscle samples demonstrated significant regional necrosis (mean 37.3% of the total cross-sectional area). Regional necrosis was not observed in thigh muscles of the 125 mm Hg tourniquet group or in any of the ischemic leg muscles. A topographic pattern of necrosis consistent with the arterial distribution of skeletal muscle suggested pathogenic events during the reperfusion period, such as granulocyte-mediated superoxide radical formation. Extremely large and rounded fibers (histochemically identified as Type IIB fibers) were observed in compressed thigh muscles, indicating differential fiber sensitivity to tourniquet compression and ischemia. The present study demonstrated significant skeletal muscle necrosis after a 2 hr tourniquet applied at a clinically relevant cuff inflation pressure. Recent studies of systemic changes associated with limb "ischemia" should be reassessed in consideration of the confounding effects of tissue compression induced beneath pneumatic tourniquets.

  20. Developmental Programming in Response to Intrauterine Growth Restriction Impairs Myoblast Function and Skeletal Muscle Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, D. T.; Macko, A. R.; Nearing, M.; Chen, X.; Rhoads, R. P.; Limesand, S. W.

    2012-01-01

    Fetal adaptations to placental insufficiency alter postnatal metabolic homeostasis in skeletal muscle by reducing glucose oxidation rates, impairing insulin action, and lowering the proportion of oxidative fibers. In animal models of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), skeletal muscle fibers have less myonuclei at birth. This means that myoblasts, the sole source for myonuclei accumulation in fibers, are compromised. Fetal hypoglycemia and hypoxemia are complications that result from placental insufficiency. Hypoxemia elevates circulating catecholamines, and chronic hypercatecholaminemia has been shown to reduce fetal muscle development and growth. We have found evidence for adaptations in adrenergic receptor expression profiles in myoblasts and skeletal muscle of IUGR sheep fetuses with placental insufficiency. The relationship of β-adrenergic receptors shifts in IUGR fetuses because Adrβ2 expression levels decline and Adrβ1 expression levels are unaffected in myofibers and increased in myoblasts. This adaptive response would suppress insulin signaling, myoblast incorporation, fiber hypertrophy, and glucose oxidation. Furthermore, this β-adrenergic receptor expression profile persists for at least the first month in IUGR lambs and lowers their fatty acid mobilization. Developmental programming of skeletal muscle adrenergic receptors partially explains metabolic and endocrine differences in IUGR offspring, and the impact on metabolism may result in differential nutrient utilization. PMID:22900186

  1. Developmental Programming in Response to Intrauterine Growth Restriction Impairs Myoblast Function and Skeletal Muscle Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Yates

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fetal adaptations to placental insufficiency alter postnatal metabolic homeostasis in skeletal muscle by reducing glucose oxidation rates, impairing insulin action, and lowering the proportion of oxidative fibers. In animal models of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR, skeletal muscle fibers have less myonuclei at birth. This means that myoblasts, the sole source for myonuclei accumulation in fibers, are compromised. Fetal hypoglycemia and hypoxemia are complications that result from placental insufficiency. Hypoxemia elevates circulating catecholamines, and chronic hypercatecholaminemia has been shown to reduce fetal muscle development and growth. We have found evidence for adaptations in adrenergic receptor expression profiles in myoblasts and skeletal muscle of IUGR sheep fetuses with placental insufficiency. The relationship of β-adrenergic receptors shifts in IUGR fetuses because Adrβ2 expression levels decline and Adrβ1 expression levels are unaffected in myofibers and increased in myoblasts. This adaptive response would suppress insulin signaling, myoblast incorporation, fiber hypertrophy, and glucose oxidation. Furthermore, this β-adrenergic receptor expression profile persists for at least the first month in IUGR lambs and lowers their fatty acid mobilization. Developmental programming of skeletal muscle adrenergic receptors partially explains metabolic and endocrine differences in IUGR offspring, and the impact on metabolism may result in differential nutrient utilization.

  2. Enhanced glucose metabolism in cultured human skeletal muscle after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Emmani B M; Riedl, Isabelle; Jiang, Lake Qunfeng; Kulkarni, Sameer S; Näslund, Erik; Krook, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery rapidly increases whole body insulin sensitivity, with changes in several organs including skeletal muscle. Objectives were to determine whether improvements in insulin action in skeletal muscle may occur directly at the level of the myocyte or secondarily from changes in systemic factors associated with weight loss. Myotubes were derived before and after RYGB surgery. The setting was Karolinska University Hospital and Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Eight patients (body mass index (BMI) 41.8 kg/m(2); age 41 yr) underwent RYGB surgery. Before and 6 months after RYGB surgery, skeletal muscle biopsies were collected from vastus lateralis muscle. Satellite cells derived from skeletal muscle biopsies were propagated in vitro as myoblasts and differentiated into myotubes. Expression of myogenic markers is increased in myoblasts derived from biopsies taken 6 months after bypass surgery, compared with their respective presurgery condition. Furthermore, glycogen synthesis, tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor (IRS)-1-Tyr612 and Interleukin (IL)-8 secretion were increased, while fatty acid oxidation and circulating IL8 levels remain unaltered. Myotubes derived from muscle biopsies obtained after RYGB surgery displayed increased insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of protein kinase B (PKB)-Thr308 and proline-rich Akt substrate of 40 kDa (PRAS40)-Thr246. RYGB surgery is accompanied by enhanced glucose metabolism and insulin signaling, altered IL8 secretion and changes in mRNA levels and myogenic markers in cultured skeletal muscle cells. Thus, RYGB surgery involves intrinsic reprogramming of skeletal muscle to increase peripheral insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Regulation of Silk Genes by Hox and Homeodomain Proteins in the Terminal Differentiated Silk Gland of the Silkworm Bombyx mori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takiya, Shigeharu; Tsubota, Takuya; Kimoto, Mai

    2016-01-01

    The silk gland of the silkworm Bombyx mori is a long tubular organ that is divided into several subparts along its anteroposterior (AP) axis. As a trait of terminal differentiation of the silk gland, several silk protein genes are expressed with unique regional specificities. Most of the Hox and some of the homeobox genes are also expressed in the differentiated silk gland with regional specificities. The expression patterns of Hox genes in the silk gland roughly correspond to those in embryogenesis showing “colinearity”. The central Hox class protein Antennapedia (Antp) directly regulates the expression of several middle silk gland–specific silk genes, whereas the Lin-1/Isl-1/Mec3 (LIM)-homeodomain transcriptional factor Arrowhead (Awh) regulates the expression of posterior silk gland–specific genes for silk fiber proteins. We summarize our results and discuss the usefulness of the silk gland of Bombyx mori for analyzing the function of Hox genes. Further analyses of the regulatory mechanisms underlying the region-specific expression of silk genes will provide novel insights into the molecular bases for target-gene selection and regulation by Hox and homeodomain proteins. PMID:29615585

  4. Regulation of Silk Genes by Hox and Homeodomain Proteins in the Terminal Differentiated Silk Gland of the Silkworm Bombyx mori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeharu Takiya

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The silk gland of the silkworm Bombyx mori is a long tubular organ that is divided into several subparts along its anteroposterior (AP axis. As a trait of terminal differentiation of the silk gland, several silk protein genes are expressed with unique regional specificities. Most of the Hox and some of the homeobox genes are also expressed in the differentiated silk gland with regional specificities. The expression patterns of Hox genes in the silk gland roughly correspond to those in embryogenesis showing “colinearity”. The central Hox class protein Antennapedia (Antp directly regulates the expression of several middle silk gland–specific silk genes, whereas the Lin-1/Isl-1/Mec3 (LIM-homeodomain transcriptional factor Arrowhead (Awh regulates the expression of posterior silk gland–specific genes for silk fiber proteins. We summarize our results and discuss the usefulness of the silk gland of Bombyx mori for analyzing the function of Hox genes. Further analyses of the regulatory mechanisms underlying the region-specific expression of silk genes will provide novel insights into the molecular bases for target-gene selection and regulation by Hox and homeodomain proteins.

  5. Smyd3 is required for the development of cardiac and skeletal muscle in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoaki Fujii

    Full Text Available Modifications of histone tails are involved in the regulation of a wide range of biological processes including cell cycle, cell survival, cell division, and cell differentiation. Among the modifications, histone methylation plays a critical role in cardiac and skeletal muscle differentiation. In our earlier studies, we found that SMYD3 has methyltransferase activity to histone H3 lysine 4, and that its up-regulation is involved in the tumorigenesis of human colon, liver, and breast. To clarify the role of Smyd3 in development, we have studied its expression patterns in zebrafish embryos and the effect of its suppression on development using Smyd3-specific antisense morpholino-oligonucleotides. We here show that transcripts of smyd3 were expressed in zebrafish embryos at all developmental stages examined and that knockdown of smyd3 in embryos resulted in pericardial edema and defects in the trunk structure. In addition, these phenotypes were associated with abnormal expression of three heart-chamber markers including cmlc2, amhc and vmhc, and abnormal expression of myogenic regulatory factors including myod and myog. These data suggest that Smyd3 plays an important role in the development of heart and skeletal muscle.

  6. Evaluation of Functional Marrow Irradiation Based on Skeletal Marrow Composition Obtained Using Dual-Energy Computed Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magome, Taiki [Department of Radiological Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Komazawa University, Tokyo (Japan); Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Department of Radiology, The University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Froelich, Jerry [Department of Radiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Takahashi, Yutaka [Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan); Arentsen, Luke [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Holtan, Shernan; Verneris, Michael R. [Blood and Marrow Transplant Program, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Brown, Keenan [Mindways Software Inc, Austin, Texas (United States); Haga, Akihiro; Nakagawa, Keiichi [Department of Radiology, The University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Holter Chakrabarty, Jennifer L. [College of Medicine, Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma (United States); Giebel, Sebastian [Department of Bone Marrow Transplantation, Comprehensive Cancer Center M. Curie-Sklodowska Memorial Institute, Gliwice (Poland); Wong, Jeffrey [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beckman Research Institute, City of Hope, Duarte, California (United States); Dusenbery, Kathryn [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Storme, Guy [Department of Radiotherapy, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Hui, Susanta K., E-mail: shui@coh.org [Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Department of Therapeutic Radiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Beckman Research Institute, City of Hope, Duarte, California (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Purpose: To develop an imaging method to characterize and map marrow composition in the entire skeletal system, and to simulate differential targeted marrow irradiation based on marrow composition. Methods and Materials: Whole-body dual energy computed tomography (DECT) images of cadavers and leukemia patients were acquired, segmented to separate bone marrow components, namely, bone, red marrow (RM), and yellow marrow (YM). DECT-derived marrow fat fraction was validated using histology of lumbar vertebrae obtained from cadavers. The fractions of RM (RMF = RM/total marrow) and YMF were calculated in each skeletal region to assess the correlation of marrow composition with sites and ages. Treatment planning was simulated to target irradiation differentially at a higher dose (18 Gy) to either RM or YM and a lower dose (12 Gy) to the rest of the skeleton. Results: A significant correlation between fat fractions obtained from DECT and cadaver histology samples was observed (r=0.861, P<.0001, Pearson). The RMF decreased in the head, neck, and chest was significantly inversely correlated with age but did not show any significant age-related changes in the abdomen and pelvis regions. Conformity of radiation to targets (RM, YM) was significantly dependent on skeletal sites. The radiation exposure was significantly reduced (P<.05, t test) to organs at risk (OARs) in RM and YM irradiation compared with standard total marrow irradiation (TMI). Conclusions: Whole-body DECT offers a new imaging technique to visualize and measure skeletal-wide marrow composition. The DECT-based treatment planning offers volumetric and site-specific precise radiation dosimetry of RM and YM, which varies with aging. Our proposed method could be used as a functional compartment of TMI for further targeted radiation to specific bone marrow environment, dose escalation, reduction of doses to OARs, or a combination of these factors.

  7. Effect of TCEA3 on the differentiation of bovine skeletal muscle satellite cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Yue; Tong, Hui-Li; Li, Shu-Feng; Yan, Yun-Qin

    2017-01-01

    Bovine muscle-derived satellite cells (MDSCs) are important for animal growth. In this study, the effect of transcription elongation factor A3 (TCEA3) on bovine MDSC differentiation was investigated. Western blotting, immunofluorescence assays, and cytoplasmic and nuclear protein isolation and purification techniques were used to determine the expression pattern and protein localization of TCEA3 in bovine MDSCs during in vitro differentiation. TCEA3 expression was upregulated using the CRISPR/Cas9 technique to study its effects on MDSC differentiation in vitro. TCEA3 expression gradually increased during the in vitro differentiation of bovine MDSCs and peaked on the 5th day of differentiation. TCEA3 was mainly localized in the cytoplasm of bovine MDSCs, and its expression was not detected in the nucleus. The level of TCEA3 was relatively higher in myotubes at a higher degree of differentiation than during early differentiation. After transfection with a TCEA3-activating plasmid vector (TCEA3 overexpression) for 24 h, the myotube fusion rate, number of myotubes, and expression levels of the muscle differentiation-related loci myogenin (MYOG) and myosin heavy chain 3 (MYH3) increased significantly during the in vitro differentiation of bovine MDSCs. After transfection with a TCEA3-inhibiting plasmid vector for 24 h, the myotube fusion rate, number of myotubes, and expression levels of MYOG and MYH3 decreased significantly. Our results indicated, for the first time, that TCEA3 promotes the differentiation of bovine MDSCs and have implications for meat production and animal rearing. - Highlights: • Muscle-derived satellite cell differentiation is promoted by TCEA3. • TCEA3 protein was localized in the cytoplasm, but not nuclei of bovine MDSCs. • TCEA3 levels increased as myotube differentiation increased. • TCEA3 affected myotube fusion, myotube counts, and MYOG and MYH3 levels.

  8. Human skeletal muscle releases leptin in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolsk, Emil; Grøndahl, Thomas Sahl; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2012-01-01

    Leptin is considered an adipokine, however, cultured myocytes have also been found to release leptin. Therefore, as proof-of-concept we investigated if human skeletal muscle synthesized leptin by measuring leptin in skeletal muscle biopsies. Following this, we quantified human skeletal muscle...... was unaltered. During saline infusion the adipose tissue release averaged 0.8 ± 0.3 ng min(-1) 100g tissue(-1) whereas skeletal muscle release was 0.5 ± 0.1 ng min(-1) 100g tissue(-1). In young healthy humans, skeletal muscle contribution to whole body leptin production could be substantial given the greater...

  9. AMPK in skeletal muscle function and metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøbsted, Rasmus; Hingst, Janne Rasmuss; Fentz, Joachim

    2018-01-01

    Skeletal muscle possesses a remarkable ability to adapt to various physiologic conditions. AMPK is a sensor of intracellular energy status that maintains energy stores by fine-tuning anabolic and catabolic pathways. AMPK's role as an energy sensor is particularly critical in tissues displaying...... highly changeable energy turnover. Due to the drastic changes in energy demand that occur between the resting and exercising state, skeletal muscle is one such tissue. Here, we review the complex regulation of AMPK in skeletal muscle and its consequences on metabolism (e.g., substrate uptake, oxidation......, and storage as well as mitochondrial function of skeletal muscle fibers). We focus on the role of AMPK in skeletal muscle during exercise and in exercise recovery. We also address adaptations to exercise training, including skeletal muscle plasticity, highlighting novel concepts and future perspectives...

  10. The LIM and POU homeobox genes ttx-3 and unc-86 act as terminal selectors in distinct cholinergic and serotonergic neuron types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feifan; Bhattacharya, Abhishek; Nelson, Jessica C; Abe, Namiko; Gordon, Patricia; Lloret-Fernandez, Carla; Maicas, Miren; Flames, Nuria; Mann, Richard S; Colón-Ramos, Daniel A; Hobert, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Transcription factors that drive neuron type-specific terminal differentiation programs in the developing nervous system are often expressed in several distinct neuronal cell types, but to what extent they have similar or distinct activities in individual neuronal cell types is generally not well explored. We investigate this problem using, as a starting point, the C. elegans LIM homeodomain transcription factor ttx-3, which acts as a terminal selector to drive the terminal differentiation program of the cholinergic AIY interneuron class. Using a panel of different terminal differentiation markers, including neurotransmitter synthesizing enzymes, neurotransmitter receptors and neuropeptides, we show that ttx-3 also controls the terminal differentiation program of two additional, distinct neuron types, namely the cholinergic AIA interneurons and the serotonergic NSM neurons. We show that the type of differentiation program that is controlled by ttx-3 in different neuron types is specified by a distinct set of collaborating transcription factors. One of the collaborating transcription factors is the POU homeobox gene unc-86, which collaborates with ttx-3 to determine the identity of the serotonergic NSM neurons. unc-86 in turn operates independently of ttx-3 in the anterior ganglion where it collaborates with the ARID-type transcription factor cfi-1 to determine the cholinergic identity of the IL2 sensory and URA motor neurons. In conclusion, transcription factors operate as terminal selectors in distinct combinations in different neuron types, defining neuron type-specific identity features.

  11. Proteomic analysis indicates that mitochondrial energy metabolism in skeletal muscle tissue is negatively correlated with feed efficiency in pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Liangliang; Xu, Yueyuan; Hou, Ye; Qi, Xiaolong; Zhou, Lian; Liu, Huiying; Luan, Yu; Jing, Lu; Miao, Yuanxin; Zhao, Shuhong; Liu, Huazhen; Li, Xinyun

    2017-03-01

    Feed efficiency (FE) is a highly important economic trait in pig production. Investigating the molecular mechanisms of FE is essential for trait improvement. In this study, the skeletal muscle proteome of high-FE and low-FE pigs were investigated by the iTRAQ approach. A total of 1780 proteins were identified, among which 124 proteins were differentially expressed between the high- and low-FE pigs, with 74 up-regulated and 50 down-regulated in the high-FE pigs. Ten randomly selected differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were validated by Western blotting and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Gene ontology (GO) analysis showed that all the 25 DEPs located in mitochondria were down-regulated in the high-FE pigs. Furthermore, the glucose-pyruvate-tricarboxylic acid (TCA)-oxidative phosphorylation energy metabolism signaling pathway was found to differ between high- and low-FE pigs. The key enzymes involved in the conversion of glucose to pyruvate were up-regulated in the high-FE pigs. Thus, our results suggested mitochondrial energy metabolism in the skeletal muscle tissue was negatively correlated with FE in pigs, and glucose utilization to generate ATP was more efficient in the skeletal muscle tissue of high-FE pigs. This study offered new targets and pathways for improvement of FE in pigs.

  12. Actin depolymerization enhances adipogenic differentiation in human stromal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Li; Hu, Huimin; Qiu, Weimin

    2018-01-01

    Human stromal stem cells (hMSCs) differentiate into adipocytes that play a role in skeletal tissue homeostasis and whole body energy metabolism. During adipocyte differentiation, hMSCs exhibit significant changes in cell morphology suggesting changes in cytoskeletal organization. Here, we examined...... the effect of direct modulation of actin microfilament dynamics on adipocyte differentiation. Stabilizing actin filaments in hMSCs by siRNA-mediated knock down of the two main actin depolymerizing factors (ADFs): Cofilin 1 (CFL1) and Destrin (DSTN) or treating the cells by Phalloidin reduced adipocyte...

  13. Phosphoinositides in Ca(2+) signaling and excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal muscle: an old player and newcomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csernoch, Laszlo; Jacquemond, Vincent

    2015-12-01

    Since the postulate, 30 years ago, that phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P 2) as the precursor of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)P 3) would be critical for skeletal muscle excitation-contraction (EC) coupling, the issue of whether phosphoinositides (PtdInsPs) may have something to do with Ca(2+) signaling in muscle raised limited interest, if any. In recent years however, the PtdInsP world has expanded considerably with new functions for PtdIns(4,5)P 2 but also with functions for the other members of the PtdInsP family. In this context, the discovery that genetic deficiency in a PtdInsP phosphatase has dramatic consequences on Ca(2+) homeostasis in skeletal muscle came unanticipated and opened up new perspectives in regards to how PtdInsPs modulate muscle Ca(2+) signaling under normal and disease conditions. This review intends to make an update of the established, the questioned, and the unknown regarding the role of PtdInsPs in skeletal muscle Ca(2+) homeostasis and EC coupling, with very specific emphasis given to Ca(2+) signals in differentiated skeletal muscle fibers.

  14. Regulation of skeletal growth and mineral acquisition by the GH/IGF-1 axis: Lessons from mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakar, Shoshana; Isaksson, Olle

    2016-06-01

    The growth hormone (GH) and its downstream mediator, the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), construct a pleotropic axis affecting growth, metabolism, and organ function. Serum levels of GH/IGF-1 rise during pubertal growth and associate with peak bone acquisition, while during aging their levels decline and associate with bone loss. The GH/IGF-1 axis was extensively studied in numerous biological systems including rodent models and cell cultures. Both hormones act in an endocrine and autocrine/paracrine fashion and understanding their distinct and overlapping contributions to skeletal acquisition is still a matter of debate. GH and IGF-1 exert their effects on osteogenic cells via binding to their cognate receptor, leading to activation of an array of genes that mediate cellular differentiation and function. Both hormones interact with other skeletal regulators, such as sex-steroids, thyroid hormone, and parathyroid hormone, to facilitate skeletal growth and metabolism. In this review we summarized several rodent models of the GH/IGF-1 axis and described key experiments that shed new light on the regulation of skeletal growth by the GH/IGF-1 axis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Vitamin K2 improves proliferation and migration of bovine skeletal muscle cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønning, Sissel Beate; Pedersen, Mona Elisabeth; Berg, Ragnhild Stenberg; Kirkhus, Bente; Rødbotten, Rune

    2018-01-01

    Skeletal muscle function is highly dependent on the ability to regenerate, however, during ageing or disease, the proliferative capacity is reduced, leading to loss of muscle function. We have previously demonstrated the presence of vitamin K2 in bovine skeletal muscles, but whether vitamin K has a role in muscle regulation and function is unknown. In this study, we used primary bovine skeletal muscle cells, cultured in monolayers in vitro, to assess a potential effect of vitamin K2 (MK-4) during myogenesis of muscle cells. Cell viability experiments demonstrate that the amount of ATP produced by the cells was unchanged when MK-4 was added, indicating viable cells. Cytotoxicity analysis show that MK-4 reduced the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) released into the media, suggesting that MK-4 was beneficial to the muscle cells. Cell migration, proliferation and differentiation was characterised after MK-4 incubation using wound scratch analysis, immunocytochemistry and real-time PCR analysis. Adding MK-4 to the cells led to an increased muscle proliferation, increased gene expression of the myogenic transcription factor myod as well as increased cell migration. In addition, we observed a reduction in the fusion index and relative gene expression of muscle differentiation markers, with fewer complex myotubes formed in MK-4 stimulated cells compared to control cells, indicating that the MK-4 plays a significant role during the early phases of muscle proliferation. Likewise, we see the same pattern for the relative gene expression of collagen 1A, showing increased gene expression in proliferating cells, and reduced expression in differentiating cells. Our results also suggest that MK-4 incubation affect low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) and the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) with a peak in gene expression after 45 min of MK-4 incubation. Altogether, our experiments show that MK-4 has a positive effect on muscle cell migration and

  16. Effect of Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid on Myogenesis and Mitochondrial Biosynthesis during Murine Skeletal Muscle Cell Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tun-Yun Hsueh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids are important nutrients for human health, especially omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, which have been found to play positive roles in the prevention of various diseases. However, previous studies have reported that excessive omega-3 fatty acids supplement during pregnancy caused side effects such as slower neural transmission times and postnatal growth restriction. In this study, we investigated the effect of EPA and DHA on mitochondrial function and gene expression in C2C12 myoblasts during skeletal muscle differentiation. C2C12 myoblasts were cultured to confluency and then treated with differentiation medium that contained fatty acids (50-µM EPA and DHA. After 72 h of myogenic differentiation, mRNA was collected, and gene expression was analyzed by real-time PCR. Microscopy was used to examine cell morphology following treatment with fatty acids. The effect of EPA and DHA on cellular oxygen consumption was measured using a Seahorse XF24 Analyzer. Cells treated with fatty acids had fewer myotubes formed (P ≤ 0.05 compared with control cells. The expression of the genes related to myogenesis was significantly lower (P ≤ 0.05 in cells treated with fatty acids, compared with control cells. Genes associated with adipogenesis had higher (P ≤ 0.05 expression after treatment with fatty acids. Also, the mitochondrial biogenesis decreased with lower (P ≤ 0.05 gene expression and lower (P ≤ 0.05 mtDNA/nDNA ratio in cells treated with fatty acids compared with control cells. However, the expression of genes related to peroxisome biosynthesis was higher (P ≤ 0.05 in cells treated with fatty acids. Moreover, fatty-acid treatment reduced (P ≤ 0.05 oxygen consumption rate under oligomycin-inhibited (reflecting proton leak and uncoupled conditions. Our data imply that fatty acids might reduce myogenesis and increase adipogenesis in myotube formation. Fatty acids

  17. Could a functional artificial skeletal muscle be useful in muscle wasting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuoco, Claudia; Cannata, Stefano; Gargioli, Cesare

    2016-05-01

    Regardless of the underlying cause, skeletal muscle wasting is detrimental for a person's life quality, leading to impaired strength, locomotion, and physiological activity. Here, we propose a series of studies presenting tissue engineering-based approaches to reconstruct artificial muscle in vitro and in vivo. Skeletal muscle tissue engineering is attracting more and more attention from scientists, clinicians, patients, and media, thanks to the promising results obtained in the last decade with animal models of muscle wasting. The use of novel and refined biomimetic scaffolds mimicking three-dimensional muscle environment, thus supporting cell survival and differentiation, in combination with well characterized myogenic stem/progenitor cells, revealed the noteworthy potential of these technologies for creating artificial skeletal muscle tissue. In vitro, the production of three-dimensional muscle structures offer the possibility to generate a drug-screening platform for patient-specific pharmacological treatment, opening new frontiers in the development of new compounds with specific therapeutic actions. In vivo, three-dimensional artificial muscle biomimetic constructs offer the possibility to replace, in part or entirely, wasted muscle by means of straight reconstruction and/or by enhancing endogenous regeneration. Reports of tissue engineering approaches for artificial muscle building appeared in large numbers in the specialized press lately, advocating the suitability of this technology for human application upon scaling up and a near future applicability for medical care of muscle wasting. http://links.lww.com/COCN/A9

  18. Skeletal Muscle Na+ Channel Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina eSimkin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Five inherited human disorders affecting skeletal muscle contraction have been traced to mutations in the gene encoding the voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.4. The main symptoms of these disorders are myotonia or periodic paralysis caused by changes in skeletal muscle fiber excitability. Symptoms of these disorders vary from mild or latent disease to incapacitating or even death in severe cases. As new human sodium channel mutations corresponding to disease states become discovered, the importance of understanding the role of the sodium channel in skeletal muscle function and disease state grows.

  19. Skeletal muscle insulin resistance associated with cholesterol-induced activation of macrophages is prevented by high density lipoprotein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew L Carey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests that high density lipoprotein (HDL may modulate glucose metabolism through multiple mechanisms including pancreatic insulin secretion as well as insulin-independent glucose uptake into muscle. We hypothesized that HDL may also increase skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity via cholesterol removal and anti-inflammatory actions in macrophages associated with excess adiposity and ectopic lipid deposition. METHODS: Human primary and THP-1 macrophages were treated with vehicle (PBS or acetylated low density lipoprotein (acLDL with or without HDL for 18 hours. Treatments were then removed, and macrophages were incubated with fresh media for 4 hours. This conditioned media was then applied to primary human skeletal myotubes derived from vastus lateralis biopsies taken from patients with type 2 diabetes to examine insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. RESULTS: Conditioned media from acLDL-treated primary and THP-1 macrophages reduced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in primary human skeletal myotubes compared with vehicle (primary macrophages, 168±21% of basal uptake to 104±19%; THP-1 macrophages, 142±8% of basal uptake to 108±6%; P<0.05. This was restored by co-treatment of macrophages with HDL. While acLDL increased total intracellular cholesterol content, phosphorylation of c-jun N-terminal kinase and secretion of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines from macrophages, none were altered by co-incubation with HDL. Insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation in human skeletal myotubes exposed to conditioned media was unaltered by either treatment condition. CONCLUSION: Inhibition of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in primary human skeletal myotubes by conditioned media from macrophages pre-incubated with acLDL was restored by co-treatment with HDL. However, these actions were not linked to modulation of common pro- or anti-inflammatory mediators or insulin signaling via Akt.

  20. Strategies for cell manipulation and skeletal tissue engineering using high-throughput polymer blend formulation and microarray techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ferdous; Tare, Rahul S; Kanczler, Janos M; Oreffo, Richard O C; Bradley, Mark

    2010-03-01

    A combination of high-throughput material formulation and microarray techniques were synergistically applied for the efficient analysis of the biological functionality of 135 binary polymer blends. This allowed the identification of cell-compatible biopolymers permissive for human skeletal stem cell growth in both in vitro and in vivo applications. The blended polymeric materials were developed from commercially available, inexpensive and well characterised biodegradable polymers, which on their own lacked both the structural requirements of a scaffold material and, critically, the ability to facilitate cell growth. Blends identified here proved excellent templates for cell attachment, and in addition, a number of blends displayed remarkable bone-like architecture and facilitated bone regeneration by providing 3D biomimetic scaffolds for skeletal cell growth and osteogenic differentiation. This study demonstrates a unique strategy to generate and identify innovative materials with widespread application in cell biology as well as offering a new reparative platform strategy applicable to skeletal tissues. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Differential diagnosis of cystic bone tumors in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Refior, H.J.; Stuerz, H.

    1982-09-01

    Skeletal changes leading to a suspicion of the presence of a tumour frequently occur in childhood with the roentgenological manifestation of a cyst. X-ray morphology can differ depending upon the localisation and the course. In childhood, however such findings are mainly classified as tumour-like bone lesions. This group comprises, inter alia, the juvenile bone cyst, the aneurysmatic bone cyst and fibrous dysplasia. However, it is necessary to exclude by differential diagnosis - even though the main age of manifestation is after completion of growth - genuine bone tumours with cystic phenomena, such as the giant cell tumour, chondroma or chondroblastoma. Verification of the diagnosis can be effected via radiologic-diagnostic methods such as tomography and angiography as well as computerized tomography. The use of scintigraphy of the skeleton can likewise be indicated. Numerous laboratory parameters can be used in individual cases to exclude certain diagnoses. Taking these aspects into consideration, the article reviews differential diagnosis of the most frequent skeletal affections in childhood. Great emphasis is given to the ranking and importance of the individual diagnostic methods.

  2. Redox Control of Skeletal Muscle Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Moal, Emmeran; Pialoux, Vincent; Juban, Gaëtan; Groussard, Carole; Zouhal, Hassane; Chazaud, Bénédicte; Mounier, Rémi

    2017-08-10

    Skeletal muscle shows high plasticity in response to external demand. Moreover, adult skeletal muscle is capable of complete regeneration after injury, due to the properties of muscle stem cells (MuSCs), the satellite cells, which follow a tightly regulated myogenic program to generate both new myofibers and new MuSCs for further needs. Although reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) have long been associated with skeletal muscle physiology, their implication in the cell and molecular processes at work during muscle regeneration is more recent. This review focuses on redox regulation during skeletal muscle regeneration. An overview of the basics of ROS/RNS and antioxidant chemistry and biology occurring in skeletal muscle is first provided. Then, the comprehensive knowledge on redox regulation of MuSCs and their surrounding cell partners (macrophages, endothelial cells) during skeletal muscle regeneration is presented in normal muscle and in specific physiological (exercise-induced muscle damage, aging) and pathological (muscular dystrophies) contexts. Recent advances in the comprehension of these processes has led to the development of therapeutic assays using antioxidant supplementation, which result in inconsistent efficiency, underlying the need for new tools that are aimed at precisely deciphering and targeting ROS networks. This review should provide an overall insight of the redox regulation of skeletal muscle regeneration while highlighting the limits of the use of nonspecific antioxidants to improve muscle function. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 27, 276-310.

  3. TEAD1-dependent expression of the FoxO3a gene in mouse skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Xuewen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background TEAD1 (TEA domain family member 1 is constitutively expressed in cardiac and skeletal muscles. It acts as a key molecule of muscle development, and trans-activates multiple target genes involved in cell proliferation and differentiation pathways. However, its target genes in skeletal muscles, regulatory mechanisms and networks are unknown. Results In this paper, we have identified 136 target genes regulated directly by TEAD1 in skeletal muscle using integrated analyses of ChIP-on-chip. Most of the targets take part in the cell process, physiology process, biological regulation metabolism and development process. The targets also play an important role in MAPK, mTOR, T cell receptor, JAK-STAT, calcineurin and insulin signaling pathways. TEAD1 regulates foxo3a transcription through binding to the M-CAT element in foxo3a promoter, demonstrated with independent ChIP-PCR, EMSA and luciferase reporter system assay. In addition, results of over-expression and inhibition experiments suggest that foxo3a is positively regulated by TEAD1. Conclusions Our present data suggests that TEAD1 plays an important role in the regulation of gene expression and different signaling pathways may co-operate with each other mediated by TEAD1. We have preliminarily concluded that TEAD1 may regulate FoxO3a expression through calcineurin/MEF2/NFAT and IGF-1/PI3K/AKT signaling pathways in skeletal muscles. These findings provide important clues for further analysis of the role of FoxO3a gene in the formation and transformation of skeletal muscle fiber types.

  4. Differential structural properties of GLP-1 and exendin-4 determine their relative affinity for the GLP-1 receptor N-terminal extracellular domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Steffen; Schimmer, Susann; Oschmann, Jan; Schiødt, Christine Bruun; Knudsen, Sanne Möller; Jeppesen, Claus Bekker; Madsen, Kjeld; Lau, Jesper; Thøgersen, Henning; Rudolph, Rainer

    2007-05-15

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and exendin-4 (Ex4) are homologous peptides with established potential for treatment of type 2 diabetes. They bind and activate the pancreatic GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) with similar affinity and potency and thereby promote insulin secretion in a glucose-dependent manner. GLP-1R belongs to family B of the seven transmembrane G-protein coupled receptors. The N-terminal extracellular domain (nGLP-1R) is a ligand binding domain with differential affinity for Ex4 and GLP-1: low affinity for GLP-1 and high affinity for exendin-4. The superior affinity of nGLP-1R for Ex4 was previously explained by an additional interaction between nGLP-1R and the C-terminal Trp-cage of Ex4. In this study we have combined biophysical and pharmacological approaches thus relating structural properties of the ligands in solution to their relative binding affinity for nGLP-1R. We used both a tracer competition assay and ligand-induced thermal stabilization of nGLP-1R to measure the relative affinity of full length, truncated, and chimeric ligands for soluble refolded nGLP-1R. The ligands in solution and the conformational consequences of ligand binding to nGLP-1R were characterized by circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy. We found a correlation between the helical content of the free ligands and their relative binding affinity for nGLP-1R, supporting the hypothesis that the ligands are helical at least in the segment that binds to nGLP-1R. The Trp-cage of Ex4 was not necessary to maintain a superior helicity of Ex4 compared to GLP-1. The results suggest that the differential affinity of nGLP-1R is explained almost entirely by divergent residues in the central part of the ligands: Leu10-Gly30 of Ex4 and Val16-Arg36 of GLP-1. In view of our results it appears that the Trp-cage plays only a minor role for the interaction between Ex4 and nGLP-1R and for the differential affinity of nGLP-1R for GLP-1 and Ex4.

  5. Cerebellar medulloblastoma presenting with skeletal metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barai Sukanta

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Medulloblastomas are highly malignant brain tumours, but only rarely produce skeletal metastases. No case of medulloblastoma has been documented to have produced skeletal metastases prior to craniotomy or shunt surgery. A 21-year-old male presented with pain in the hip and lower back with difficulty in walking of 3 months′ duration. Signs of cerebellar dysfunction were present hence a diagnosis of cerebellar neoplasm or skeletal tuberculosis with cerebellar abscess formation was considered. MRI of brain revealed a lesion in the cerebellum suggestive of medulloblastoma. Bone scan revealed multiple sites of skeletal metastases excluding the lumbar vertebrae. MRI of lumbar spine and hip revealed metastases to all lumbar vertebrae and both hips. Computed tomography-guided biopsy was obtained from the L3 vertebra, which revealed metastatic deposits from medulloblastoma. Cerebrospinal fluid cytology showed the presence of medulloblastoma cells. A final diagnosis of cerebellar medulloblastoma with skeletal metastases was made. He underwent craniotomy and histopathology confirmed medulloblastoma.

  6. Differentiation-Associated Downregulation of Poly(ADP-Ribose Polymerase-1 Expression in Myoblasts Serves to Increase Their Resistance to Oxidative Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Oláh

    Full Text Available Poly(ADP-ribose polymerase 1 (PARP-1, the major isoform of the poly (ADP-ribose polymerase family, is a constitutive nuclear and mitochondrial protein with well-recognized roles in various essential cellular functions such as DNA repair, signal transduction, apoptosis, as well as in a variety of pathophysiological conditions including sepsis, diabetes and cancer. Activation of PARP-1 in response to oxidative stress catalyzes the covalent attachment of the poly (ADP-ribose (PAR groups on itself and other acceptor proteins, utilizing NAD+ as a substrate. Overactivation of PARP-1 depletes intracellular NAD+ influencing mitochondrial electron transport, cellular ATP generation and, if persistent, can result in necrotic cell death. Due to their high metabolic activity, skeletal muscle cells are particularly exposed to constant oxidative stress insults. In this study, we investigated the role of PARP-1 in a well-defined model of murine skeletal muscle differentiation (C2C12 and compare the responses to oxidative stress of undifferentiated myoblasts and differentiated myotubes. We observed a marked reduction of PARP-1 expression as myoblasts differentiated into myotubes. This alteration correlated with an increased resistance to oxidative stress of the myotubes, as measured by MTT and LDH assays. Mitochondrial function, assessed by measuring mitochondrial membrane potential, was preserved under oxidative stress in myotubes compared to myoblasts. Moreover, basal respiration, ATP synthesis, and the maximal respiratory capacity of mitochondria were higher in myotubes than in myoblasts. Inhibition of the catalytic activity of PARP-1 by PJ34 (a phenanthridinone PARP inhibitor exerted greater protective effects in undifferentiated myoblasts than in differentiated myotubes. The above observations in C2C12 cells were also confirmed in a rat-derived skeletal muscle cell line (L6. Forced overexpression of PARP1 in C2C12 myotubes sensitized the cells to oxidant

  7. Prenatal diagnosis of sirenomelia by two-dimensional and three-dimensional skeletal imaging ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rong; Chen, Xin-lin; Yang, Xiao-hong; Ma, Hui-jing

    2015-12-01

    This study sought to evaluate the contribution of two-dimensional ultrasound (2D-US) and three-dimensional skeletal imaging ultrasound (3D-SUIS) in the prenatal diagnosis of sirenomelia. Between September 2010 and April 2014, a prospective study was conducted in a single referral center using 3D-SUIS performed after 2D-US in 10 cases of sirenomelia. Diagnostic accuracy and detailed findings were compared with postnatal three-dimensional helical computed tomography (3D-HCT), radiological findings and autopsy. Pregnancy was terminated in all 10 sirenomelia cases, including 9 singletons and 1 conjoined twin pregnancy, for a total of 5 males and 5 females. These cases of sirenomelia were determined by autopsy and/or chromosomal examination. Initial 2D-US showed that there were 10 cases of oligohydramnios, bilateral renal agenesis, bladder agenesis, single umbilical artery, fusion of the lower limbs and spinal abnormalities; 8 cases of dipus or monopus; 2 cases of apus; and 8 cases of cardiac abnormalities. Subsequent 3D-SUIS showed that there were 9 cases of scoliosis, 10 cases of sacrococcygeal vertebra dysplasia, 3 cases of hemivertebra, 1 case of vertebral fusion, 3 cases of spina bifida, and 5 cases of rib abnormalities. 3D-SUIS identified significantly more skeletal abnormalities than did 2D-US, and its accuracy was 79.5% (70/88) compared with 3D-HCT and radiography. 3D-SUIS seems to be a useful complementary method to 2D-US and may improve the accuracy of identifying prenatal skeletal abnormalities related to sirenomelia.

  8. Spot light on skeletal muscles: optogenetic stimulation to understand and restore skeletal muscle function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bremen, Tobias; Send, Thorsten; Sasse, Philipp; Bruegmann, Tobias

    2017-08-01

    Damage of peripheral nerves results in paralysis of skeletal muscle. Currently, the only treatment option to restore proper function is electrical stimulation of the innervating nerve or of the skeletal muscles directly. However this approach has low spatial and temporal precision leading to co-activation of antagonistic muscles and lacks cell-type selectivity resulting in pain or discomfort by stimulation of sensible nerves. In contrast to electrical stimulation, optogenetic methods enable spatially confined and cell-type selective stimulation of cells expressing the light sensitive channel Channelrhodopsin-2 with precise temporal control over the membrane potential. Herein we summarize the current knowledge about the use of this technology to control skeletal muscle function with the focus on the direct, non-neuronal stimulation of muscle fibers. The high temporal flexibility of using light pulses allows new stimulation patterns to investigate skeletal muscle physiology. Furthermore, the high spatial precision of focused illumination was shown to be beneficial for selective stimulation of distinct nearby muscle groups. Finally, the cell-type specific expression of the light-sensitive effector proteins in muscle fibers will allow pain-free stimulation and open new options for clinical treatments. Therefore, we believe that direct optogenetic stimulation of skeletal muscles is a very potent method for basic scientists that also harbors several distinct advantages over electrical stimulation to be considered for clinical use in the future.

  9. Traumatic skeletal changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troeger, J.; Schofer, O.

    1985-01-01

    Skeleton scintiscanning is indicated in the following cases: (1) Suspected bone injury after clinical examination, the radiograph of the skeletal region in question contributing findings that either do not confirm suspision, or make not clear whether the changes observed are traumatic. (2) Polytrauma. (3) When the accident scenario reported by the persons taking care of the child does not sufficiently explain the skeletal changes observed, or when these persons expressly deny the possibility of a trauma being the cause of findings observed. (4) Suspected or proven battered-child syndrome. (orig./MG) [de

  10. Chemical shift MRI can aid in the diagnosis of indeterminate skeletal lesions of the spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douis, H. [University Hospital Birmingham, Department of Radiology, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Department of Radiology, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Davies, A.M. [Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Department of Radiology, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Jeys, L. [Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Oncology, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Sian, P. [Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Department of Spinal Surgery and Spinal Oncology, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2016-04-15

    To evaluate the role of chemical shift MRI in the characterisation of indeterminate skeletal lesions of the spine as benign or malignant. Fifty-five patients (mean age 54.7 years) with 57 indeterminate skeletal lesions of the spine were included in this retrospective study. In addition to conventional MRI at 3 T which included at least sagittal T1WI and T2WI/STIR sequences, patients underwent chemical shift MRI. A cut-off value with a signal drop-out of 20 % was used to differentiate benign lesions from malignant lesions (signal drop-out <20 % being malignant). There were 45 benign lesions and 12 malignant lesions. Chemical shift imaging correctly diagnosed 33 of 45 lesions as benign and 11 of 12 lesions as malignant. In contrast, there were 12 false positive cases and 1 false negative case based on chemical shift MRI. This yielded a sensitivity of 91.7 %, a specificity of 73.3 %, a negative predictive value of 97.1 %, a positive predictive value of 47.8 % and a diagnostic accuracy of 82.5 %. Chemical shift MRI can aid in the characterisation of indeterminate skeletal lesions of the spine in view of its high sensitivity in diagnosing malignant lesions. Chemical shift MRI can potentially avoid biopsy in a considerable percentage of patients with benign skeletal lesions of the spine. (orig.)

  11. Evaluation of the efficiency of FDG PET/CT in detection and characterization of skeletal metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Wafaie

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: Fused PET/CT was highly efficient in evaluation of skeletal metastases with superior performance in: detection of early bone marrow infiltration not apparent on CT, resolution of metabolic activity before definite signs of complete healing on CT, detection of missed sclerotic metastases on PET due to their relatively low metabolic activity, detection of intra and extra osseous recurrence and differentiation of benign from malignant bone lesions.

  12. Skeletal Muscle Metastasis as an Initial Presentation of Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma: A Case Report and a Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutahir A. Tunio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC frequently metastasizes to the lungs and bones. However, metastasis to the skeletal muscles is an extremely rare manifestation of FTC. To date, only seven cases of FTC have been reported in the literature. Skeletal muscle metastases from FTC usually remain asymptomatic or manifest as swelling and are associated with dismal prognosis. Case Presentation. A 45-year-old Saudi woman presented with right buttock swelling since 8 months. Physical examination revealed right gluteal mass of size  cm and right thyroid lobe nodule. The rest of examination was unremarkable. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed  cm lobulated mass arising from the gluteus medius muscle, and tru-cut biopsy confirmed the metastatic papillary carcinoma of thyroid origin. The patient subsequently underwent palliative radiotherapy followed by total thyroidectomy and radioactive iodine ablation. At the time of publication, the patient was alive with partial response in gluteal mass. Conclusion. Skeletal muscles metastases are a rare manifestation of FTC, and searching for the primary focus in a patient with skeletal muscle metastasis, thyroid cancer should be considered as differential diagnosis.

  13. Actin-associated protein palladin is required for migration behavior and differentiation potential of C2C12 myoblast cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Ngoc Uyen Nhi; Liang, Vincent Roderick; Wang, Hao-Ven, E-mail: hvwang@mail.ncku.edu.tw

    2014-09-26

    Highlights: • Palladin is involved in myogenesis in vitro. • Palladin knockdown by siRNA increases myoblast proliferation, viability and differentiation. • Palladin knockdown decreases C2C12 myoblast migration ability. - Abstract: The actin-associated protein palladin has been shown to be involved in differentiation processes in non-muscle tissues. However, but its function in skeletal muscle has rarely been studied. Palladin plays important roles in the regulation of diverse actin-related signaling in a number of cell types. Since intact actin-cytoskeletal remodeling is necessary for myogenesis, in the present study, we pursue to investigate the role of actin-associated palladin in skeletal muscle differentiation. Palladin in C2C12 myoblasts is knocked-down using specific small interfering RNA (siRNA). The results show that down-regulation of palladin decreased migratory activity of mouse skeletal muscle C2C12 myoblasts. Furthermore, the depletion of palladin enhances C2C12 vitality and proliferation. Of note, the loss of palladin promotes C2C12 to express the myosin heavy chain, suggesting that palladin has a role in the modulation of C2C12 differentiation. It is thus proposed that palladin is required for normal C2C12 myogenesis in vitro.

  14. Actin-associated protein palladin is required for migration behavior and differentiation potential of C2C12 myoblast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Ngoc Uyen Nhi; Liang, Vincent Roderick; Wang, Hao-Ven

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Palladin is involved in myogenesis in vitro. • Palladin knockdown by siRNA increases myoblast proliferation, viability and differentiation. • Palladin knockdown decreases C2C12 myoblast migration ability. - Abstract: The actin-associated protein palladin has been shown to be involved in differentiation processes in non-muscle tissues. However, but its function in skeletal muscle has rarely been studied. Palladin plays important roles in the regulation of diverse actin-related signaling in a number of cell types. Since intact actin-cytoskeletal remodeling is necessary for myogenesis, in the present study, we pursue to investigate the role of actin-associated palladin in skeletal muscle differentiation. Palladin in C2C12 myoblasts is knocked-down using specific small interfering RNA (siRNA). The results show that down-regulation of palladin decreased migratory activity of mouse skeletal muscle C2C12 myoblasts. Furthermore, the depletion of palladin enhances C2C12 vitality and proliferation. Of note, the loss of palladin promotes C2C12 to express the myosin heavy chain, suggesting that palladin has a role in the modulation of C2C12 differentiation. It is thus proposed that palladin is required for normal C2C12 myogenesis in vitro

  15. Combined use of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) and platelet rich plasma (PRP) stimulates proliferation and differentiation of myoblasts in vitro: new therapeutic perspectives for skeletal muscle repair/regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassoli, Chiara; Vallone, Larissa; Tani, Alessia; Chellini, Flaminia; Nosi, Daniele; Zecchi-Orlandini, Sandra

    2018-02-05

    Satellite cell-mediated skeletal muscle repair/regeneration is compromised in cases of extended damage. Bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) hold promise for muscle healing but some criticisms hamper their clinical application, including the need to avoid animal serum contamination for expansion and the scarce survival after transplant. In this context, platelet-rich plasma (PRP) could offer advantages. Here, we compare the effects of PRP or standard culture media on C2C12 myoblast, satellite cell and BM-MSC viability, survival, proliferation and myogenic differentiation and evaluate PRP/BM-MSC combination effects in promoting myogenic differentiation. PRP induced an increase of mitochondrial activity and Ki67 expression comparable or even greater than that elicited by standard media and promoted AKT signaling activation in myoblasts and BM-MSCs and Notch-1 pathway activation in BM-MSCs. It stimulated MyoD, myogenin, α-sarcomeric actin and MMP-2 expression in myoblasts and satellite cell activation. Notably, PRP/BM-MSC combination was more effective than PRP alone. We found that BM-MSCs influenced myoblast responses through a paracrine activation of AKT signaling, contributing to shed light on BM-MSC action mechanisms. Our results suggest that PRP represents a good serum substitute for BM-MSC manipulation in vitro and could be beneficial towards transplanted cells in vivo. Moreover, it might influence muscle resident progenitors' fate, thus favoring the endogenous repair/regeneration mechanisms. Finally, within the limitations of an in vitro experimentation, this study provides an experimental background for considering the PRP/BM-MSC combination as a potential therapeutic tool for skeletal muscle damage, combining the beneficial effects of BM-MSCs and PRP on muscle tissue, while potentiating BM-MSC functionality.

  16. Group I Paks Promote Skeletal Myoblast Differentiation In Vivo and In Vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joseph, Giselle A; Lu, Min; Radu, Maria

    2017-01-01

    fusion in Drosophila We report that both Pak1 and Pak2 are activated during mammalian myoblast differentiation. One pathway of activation is initiated by N-cadherin ligation and involves the cadherin coreceptor Cdo with its downstream effector, Cdc42. Individual genetic deletion of Pak1 and Pak2 in mice....... Furthermore, primary myoblasts lacking Pak1 and Pak2 display delayed expression of myogenic differentiation markers and myotube formation. These results identify Pak1 and Pak2 as redundant regulators of myoblast differentiation in vitro and in vivo and as components of the promyogenic Ncad/Cdo/Cdc42 signaling...

  17. Psychotherapy Termination Practices with Older Adults: Impact of Patient and Therapist Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Daniel J; Zeff, Patricia; Zweig, Richard A

    2018-02-06

    The aims of this study were to survey clinicians' opinions regarding psychotherapy practices in mutual termination with a specified population (depressed older adult outpatients) and to examine the patient and therapist characteristics that may influence such practices. We surveyed psychologists' (N = 96) psychotherapy termination practices, using a hypothetical depressed older adult as a referent, to assess consensus on the appropriateness of various guidelines to termination and to examine whether these differ as a function of patient and therapist characteristics. Several practices were generally agreed to be "extremely appropriate" when terminating psychotherapy with older adults, including collaborating to determine the end date of treatment and discussing patient growth. Data also indicate that patient factors, such as personality pathology, and therapist factors, such as having an Integrative theoretical orientation were associated with differential endorsement of termination practices. Identification as a geropsychologist or working regularly with older adults were associated with a more cautious approach to termination. There is substantial consensus regarding many approaches to termination, but modifications might be appropriate depending on patient characteristics. Clinicians agree on a set of fundamental termination practices when working with older adults, but modify these based on orientation and diagnosis.

  18. HEXIM1 controls satellite cell expansion after injury to regulate skeletal muscle regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Peng; Chen, Kang; Huang, Bihui; Liu, Min; Cui, Miao; Rozenberg, Inna; Chaqour, Brahim; Pan, Xiaoyue; Barton, Elisabeth R.; Jiang, Xian-Cheng; Siddiqui, M.A.Q.

    2012-01-01

    The native capacity of adult skeletal muscles to regenerate is vital to the recovery from physical injuries and dystrophic diseases. Currently, the development of therapeutic interventions has been hindered by the complex regulatory network underlying the process of muscle regeneration. Using a mouse model of skeletal muscle regeneration after injury, we identified hexamethylene bisacetamide inducible 1 (HEXIM1, also referred to as CLP-1), the inhibitory component of the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) complex, as a pivotal regulator of skeletal muscle regeneration. Hexim1-haplodeficient muscles exhibited greater mass and preserved function compared with those of WT muscles after injury, as a result of enhanced expansion of satellite cells. Transplanted Hexim1-haplodeficient satellite cells expanded and improved muscle regeneration more effectively than WT satellite cells. Conversely, HEXIM1 overexpression restrained satellite cell proliferation and impeded muscle regeneration. Mechanistically, dissociation of HEXIM1 from P-TEFb and subsequent activation of P-TEFb are required for satellite cell proliferation and the prevention of early myogenic differentiation. These findings suggest a crucial role for the HEXIM1/P-TEFb pathway in the regulation of satellite cell–mediated muscle regeneration and identify HEXIM1 as a potential therapeutic target for degenerative muscular diseases. PMID:23023707

  19. Actin depolymerization enhances adipogenic differentiation in human stromal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Li; Hu, Huimin; Qiu, Weimin

    2018-01-01

    Human stromal stem cells (hMSCs) differentiate into adipocytes that play a role in skeletal tissue homeostasis and whole body energy metabolism. During adipocyte differentiation, hMSCs exhibit significant changes in cell morphology suggesting changes in cytoskeletal organization. Here, we examined...... differentiation as evidenced by decreased number of mature adipocytes and decreased adipocyte specific gene expression (ADIPOQ, LPL, PPARG, FABP4). In contrast, disruption of actin cytoskeleton by Cytochalasin D enhanced adipocyte differentiation. Follow up studies revealed that the effects of CFL1 on adipocyte...... differentiation depended on the activity of LIM domain kinase 1 (LIMK1) which is the major upstream kinase of CFL1. Inhibiting LIMK by its specific chemical inhibitor LIMKi inhibited the phosphorylation of CFL1 and actin polymerization, and enhanced the adipocyte differentiation. Moreover, treating h...

  20. Is Growth Differentiation Factor 11 a Realistic Therapeutic for Aging-Dependent Muscle Defects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Shavonn C; Brack, Andrew; MacDonnell, Scott; Franti, Michael; Olwin, Bradley B; Bailey, Beth A; Rudnicki, Michael A; Houser, Steven R

    2016-04-01

    This "Controversies in Cardiovascular Research" article evaluates the evidence for and against the hypothesis that the circulating blood level of growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) decreases in old age and that restoring normal GDF11 levels in old animals rejuvenates their skeletal muscle and reverses pathological cardiac hypertrophy and cardiac dysfunction. Studies supporting the original GDF11 hypothesis in skeletal and cardiac muscle have not been validated by several independent groups. These new studies have either found no effects of restoring normal GDF11 levels on cardiac structure and function or have shown that increasing GDF11 or its closely related family member growth differentiation factor 8 actually impairs skeletal muscle repair in old animals. One possible explanation for what seems to be mutually exclusive findings is that the original reagent used to measure GDF11 levels also detected many other molecules so that age-dependent changes in GDF11 are still not well known. The more important issue is whether increasing blood [GDF11] repairs old skeletal muscle and reverses age-related cardiac pathologies. There are substantial new and existing data showing that GDF8/11 can exacerbate rather than rejuvenate skeletal muscle injury in old animals. There is also new evidence disputing the idea that there is pathological hypertrophy in old C57bl6 mice and that GDF11 therapy can reverse cardiac pathologies. Finally, high [GDF11] causes reductions in body and heart weight in both young and old animals, suggestive of a cachexia effect. Our conclusion is that elevating blood levels of GDF11 in the aged might cause more harm than good. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. The C-Terminal O-S Acyl Shift Pathway under Acidic Condition to Propose Peptide-Thioesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Mi Kim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Peptide-thioester is a pivotal intermediate for peptide ligation and N-, C-terminal cyclization. In this study, desired pathway and the side products of two C-terminal handles, hydroxyethylthiol (HET and hydroxypropylthiol (HPT are described in different conditions as well as kinetic studies. In addition, a new mechanism of C-terminal residue racemization is proposed on the basis of differentiation of products derived from the two C-terminal handles in preparing peptide thioesters through an acid-catalyzed tandem thiol switch, first by an intramolecular O-S acyl shift, and then by an intermolecular S-S exchange.

  2. Retrospective review to determine the utility of follow-up skeletal surveys in child abuse evaluations when the initial skeletal survey is normal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kachelmeyer Andrea

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The AAP recommends that a follow-up skeletal survey be obtained for all children Methods A retrospective review of radiology records from September 1, 1998 - January 31, 2007 was conducted. Suspected victims of child abuse who were Results Forty-seven children had a negative initial skeletal survey and were included for analysis. The mean age was 6.9 months (SD 5.7; the mean number of days between skeletal surveys was 18.7 (SD 10.1 Four children (8.5% had signs of healing bone trauma on a follow-up skeletal survey. Three of these children (75% had healing rib fractures and one child had a healing proximal humerus fracture. The findings on the follow-up skeletal survey yielded forensically important information in all 4 cases and strengthened the diagnosis of non-accidental trauma. Conclusion 8.5 percent of children with negative initial skeletal surveys had forensically important findings on follow-up skeletal survey that increased the certainty of the diagnosis of non-accidental trauma. A follow-up skeletal survey can be useful even when the initial skeletal survey is negative.

  3. Assessment of mandibular growth by skeletal scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaban, L.B.; Cisneros, G.J.; Heyman, S.; Treves, S.

    1982-01-01

    Accurate assessment of facial skeletal growth remains a major problem in craniomaxillofacial surgery. Current methods include: (1) comparisons of chronologic age with growth histories of the patient and the family, (2) hand-wrist radiographs compared with a standard, and (3) serial cephalometric radiographs. Uptake of technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate into bone is a reflection of current metabolic activity and blood flow. Therefore, scintigraphy with this radiopharmaceutical might serve as a good method of assessing skeletal growth. Thirty-four patients, ranging in age from 15 months to 22 years, who were undergoing skeletal scintigrams for acute pathologic conditions of the extremities, were used to develop standards of uptake based on age and skeletal maturation. The results indicate that skeletal scintigraphy may be useful in evaluation of mandibular growth

  4. Effect of N-Terminal Acylation on the Activity of Myostatin Inhibitory Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Kentaro; Nakamura, Akari; Rentier, Cédric; Mino, Yusaku; Asari, Tomo; Saga, Yusuke; Taguchi, Akihiro; Yakushiji, Fumika; Hayashi, Yoshio

    2016-04-19

    Inhibition of myostatin, which negatively regulates skeletal muscle growth, is a promising strategy for the treatment of muscle atrophic disorders, such as muscular dystrophy, cachexia and sarcopenia. Recently, we identified peptide A (H-WRQNTRYSRIEAIKIQILSKLRL-NH2 ), the 23-amino-acid minimum myostatin inhibitory peptide derived from mouse myostatin prodomain, and highlighted the importance of its N-terminal tryptophan residue for the effective inhibition. In this study, we synthesized a series of acylated peptide derivatives focused on the tryptophan residue to develop potent myostatin inhibitors. As a result of the investigation, a more potent derivative of peptide A was successfully identified in which the N-terminal tryptophan residue is replaced with a 2-naphthyloxyacetyl moiety to give an inhibitory peptide three times (1.19±0.11 μm) more potent than parent peptide A (3.53±0.25 μm). This peptide could prove useful as a new starting point for the development of improved inhibitory peptides. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Proliferation and skeletal myotube formation capability of C2C12 and H9c2 cells on isotropic and anisotropic electrospun nanofibrous PHB scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricotti, Leonardo; Genchi, Giada G; Menciassi, Arianna; Polini, Alessandro; Iandolo, Donata; Pisignano, Dario; Ciofani, Gianni; Mattoli, Virgilio; Vazão, Helena; Ferreira, Lino

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at investigating the behavior in terms of the proliferation and skeletal muscle differentiation capability of two myoblastic cell lines, C2C12 and H9c2, on both isotropic and anisotropic electrospun nanofibrous poly(hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) scaffolds, as well as on PHB films and polystyrene controls. After a careful characterization of the matrices in terms of surface morphology, surface roughness and mechanical properties, the proliferation rate and the capability of the two cell lines to form skeletal myotubes were evaluated. Genetic analyses were also performed in order to assess the differentiation level of the cells on the different substrates. We demonstrated that the aligned nanofibrous mesh decreases the proliferation activity and provides a higher differentiative stimulus. We also clarified how the nanofibrous substrate influences myotube formation, and quantified a series of myotube-related parameters for both C2C12 and H9c2 cells. (paper)

  6. Neuromuscular junction formation between human stem-cell-derived motoneurons and rat skeletal muscle in a defined system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiufang; Das, Mainak; Rumsey, John; Gonzalez, Mercedes; Stancescu, Maria; Hickman, James

    2010-12-01

    To date, the coculture of motoneurons (MNs) and skeletal muscle in a defined in vitro system has only been described in one study and that was between rat MNs and rat skeletal muscle. No in vitro studies have demonstrated human MN to rat muscle synapse formation, although numerous studies have attempted to implant human stem cells into rat models to determine if they could be of therapeutic use in disease or spinal injury models, although with little evidence of neuromuscular junction (NMJ) formation. In this report, MNs differentiated from human spinal cord stem cells, together with rat skeletal myotubes, were used to build a coculture system to demonstrate that NMJ formation between human MNs and rat skeletal muscles is possible. The culture was characterized by morphology, immunocytochemistry, and electrophysiology, while NMJ formation was demonstrated by immunocytochemistry and videography. This defined system provides a highly controlled reproducible model for studying the formation, regulation, maintenance, and repair of NMJs. The in vitro coculture system developed here will be an important model system to study NMJ development, the physiological and functional mechanism of synaptic transmission, and NMJ- or synapse-related disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, as well as for drug screening and therapy design.

  7. Novel Tyrosine Phosphorylation Sites in Rat Skeletal Muscle Revealed by Phosphopeptide Enrichment and HPLC-ESI-MS/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangmin; Højlund, Kurt; Luo, Moulun; Meyer, Christian; Thangiah, Geetha; Yi, Zhengping

    2012-01-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation plays a fundamental role in many cellular processes including differentiation, growth and insulin signaling. In insulin resistant muscle, aberrant tyrosine phosphorylation of several proteins has been detected. However, due to the low abundance of tyrosine phosphorylation (tyrosine phosphorylation sites have been identified in mammalian skeletal muscle to date. Here, we used immunoprecipitation of phosphotyrosine peptides prior to HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis to improve the discovery of tyrosine phosphorylation in relatively small skeletal muscle biopsies from rats. This resulted in the identification of 87 distinctly localized tyrosine phosphorylation sites in 46 muscle proteins. Among them, 31 appear to be novel. The tyrosine phosphorylated proteins included major enzymes in the glycolytic pathway and glycogen metabolism, sarcomeric proteins, and proteins involved in Ca2+ homeostasis and phosphocreatine resynthesis. Among proteins regulated by insulin, we found tyrosine phosphorylation sites in glycogen synthase, and two of its inhibitors, GSK-3α and DYRK1A. Moreover, tyrosine phosphorylation sites were identified in several MAP kinases and a protein tyrosine phosphatase, SHPTP2. These results provide the largest catalogue of mammalian skeletal muscle tyrosine phosphorylation sites to date and provide novel targets for the investigation of human skeletal muscle phosphoproteins in various disease states. PMID:22609512

  8. Identification of Histone Deacetylase 2 as a Functional Gene for Skeletal Muscle Development in Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Shahjahan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A previous genome-wide association study (GWAS exposed histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2 as a possible candidate gene for breast muscle weight in chickens. The present research has examined the possible role of HDAC2 in skeletal muscle development in chickens. Gene expression was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction in breast and thigh muscles during both embryonic (four ages and post-hatch (five ages development and in cultures of primary myoblasts during both proliferation and differentiation. The expression of HDAC2 increased significantly across embryonic days (ED in breast (ED 14, 16, 18, and 21 and thigh (ED 14 and 18, and ED 14 and 21 muscles suggesting that it possibly plays a role in myoblast hyperplasia in both breast and thigh muscles. Transcript abundance of HDAC2 identified significantly higher in fast growing muscle than slow growing in chickens at d 90 of age. Expression of HDAC2 during myoblast proliferation in vitro declined between 24 h and 48 h when expression of the marker gene paired box 7 (PAX7 increased and cell numbers increased throughout 72 h of culture. During induced differentiation of myoblasts to myotubes, the abundance of HDAC2 and the marker gene myogenic differentiation 1 (MYOD1, both increased significantly. Taken together, it is suggested that HDAC2 is most likely involved in a suppressive fashion in myoblast proliferation and may play a positive role in myoblast differentiation. The present results confirm the suggestion that HDAC2 is a functional gene for pre-hatch and post-hatch (fast growing muscle development of chicken skeletal muscle.

  9. Isolation and Characterization of Human Myoblast Culture In Vitro for Technologies of Cell and Gene Therapy of Skeletal Muscle Pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabakov, V Yu; Zinov'eva, O E; Voskresenskaya, O N; Skoblov, M Yu

    2018-03-01

    We analyzed cultures of 5 independent myoblast lines from human skeletal muscles. It was shown that the content of desmin-positive cells in cultures at early passages exceeds 90%. Typical morphofunctional signs of myogenic differentiation disturbances were identified and their dynamics was studied. Signs of alternative adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation of cells were revealed. Based on these data, limitations for the use of myoblast cultures of certain passages for biomedical research and cell therapy were evaluated.

  10. Skeletal muscle lymphoma: observations at MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eustace, S.; Winalski, C.S.; McGowen, A.; Lan, H.; Dorfman, D.

    1996-01-01

    We present the MR appearances of three patients with biopsy-proven primary lymphoma of skeletal muscle. In each case lymphoma resulted in bulky expansion of the involved muscle, homogeneously isointense to skeletal muscle on T1-weighted images, homogeneously hyperintense to skeletal muscle on T2-weighted images and diffusely enhancing following intravenous administration of gadopentate dimeglumine. (orig.)

  11. Mitophagy is required for mitochondrial biogenesis and myogenic differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Jon; Andres, Allen M; Taylor, David J R; Weston, Thomas; Hiraumi, Yoshimi; Stotland, Aleksandr; Kim, Brandon J; Huang, Chengqun; Doran, Kelly S; Gottlieb, Roberta A

    2016-01-01

    Myogenesis is a crucial process governing skeletal muscle development and homeostasis. Differentiation of primitive myoblasts into mature myotubes requires a metabolic switch to support the increased energetic demand of contractile muscle. Skeletal myoblasts specifically shift from a highly glycolytic state to relying predominantly on oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) upon differentiation. We have found that this phenomenon requires dramatic remodeling of the mitochondrial network involving both mitochondrial clearance and biogenesis. During early myogenic differentiation, autophagy is robustly upregulated and this coincides with DNM1L/DRP1 (dynamin 1-like)-mediated fragmentation and subsequent removal of mitochondria via SQSTM1 (sequestosome 1)-mediated mitophagy. Mitochondria are then repopulated via PPARGC1A/PGC-1α (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, coactivator 1 alpha)-mediated biogenesis. Mitochondrial fusion protein OPA1 (optic atrophy 1 [autosomal dominant]) is then briskly upregulated, resulting in the reformation of mitochondrial networks. The final product is a myotube replete with new mitochondria. Respirometry reveals that the constituents of these newly established mitochondrial networks are better primed for OXPHOS and are more tightly coupled than those in myoblasts. Additionally, we have found that suppressing autophagy with various inhibitors during differentiation interferes with myogenic differentiation. Together these data highlight the integral role of autophagy and mitophagy in myogenic differentiation.

  12. Thyroid Hormone Signaling in Male Mouse Skeletal Muscle Is Largely Independent of D2 in Myocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werneck-de-Castro, Joao P.; Fonseca, Tatiana L.; Ignacio, Daniele L.; Fernandes, Gustavo W.; Andrade-Feraud, Cristina M.; Lartey, Lattoya J.; Ribeiro, Marcelo B.; Ribeiro, Miriam O.; Gereben, Balazs

    2015-01-01

    The type 2 deiodinase (D2) activates the prohormone T4 to T3. D2 is expressed in skeletal muscle (SKM), and its global inactivation (GLOB-D2KO mice) reportedly leads to skeletal muscle hypothyroidism and impaired differentiation. Here floxed Dio2 mice were crossed with mice expressing Cre-recombinase under the myosin light chain 1f (cre-MLC) to disrupt D2 expression in the late developmental stages of skeletal myocytes (SKM-D2KO). This led to a loss of approximately 50% in D2 activity in neonatal and adult SKM-D2KO skeletal muscle and about 75% in isolated SKM-D2KO myocytes. To test the impact of Dio2 disruption, we measured soleus T3 content and found it to be normal. We also looked at the expression of T3-responsive genes in skeletal muscle, ie, myosin heavy chain I, α-actin, myosin light chain, tropomyosin, and serca 1 and 2, which was preserved in neonatal SKM-D2KO hindlimb muscles, at a time that coincides with a peak of D2 activity in control animals. In adult soleus the baseline level of D2 activity was about 6-fold lower, and in the SKM-D2KO soleus, the expression of only one of five T3-responsive genes was reduced. Despite this, adult SKM-D2KO animals performed indistinguishably from controls on a treadmill test, running for approximately 16 minutes and reached a speed of about 23 m/min; muscle strength was about 0.3 mN/m·g body weight in SKM-D2KO and control ankle muscles. In conclusion, there are multiple sources of D2 in the mouse SKM, and its role is limited in postnatal skeletal muscle fibers. PMID:26214036

  13. Identification of mechanosensitive genes during skeletal development: alteration of genes associated with cytoskeletal rearrangement and cell signalling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolfe, Rebecca A; Nowlan, Niamh C; Kenny, Elaine M; Cormican, Paul; Morris, Derek W; Prendergast, Patrick J; Kelly, Daniel; Murphy, Paula

    2014-01-20

    Mechanical stimulation is necessary for regulating correct formation of the skeleton. Here we test the hypothesis that mechanical stimulation of the embryonic skeletal system impacts expression levels of genes implicated in developmentally important signalling pathways in a genome wide approach. We use a mutant mouse model with altered mechanical stimulation due to the absence of limb skeletal muscle (Splotch-delayed) where muscle-less embryos show specific defects in skeletal elements including delayed ossification, changes in the size and shape of cartilage rudiments and joint fusion. We used Microarray and RNA sequencing analysis tools to identify differentially expressed genes between muscle-less and control embryonic (TS23) humerus tissue. We found that 680 independent genes were down-regulated and 452 genes up-regulated in humeri from muscle-less Spd embryos compared to littermate controls (at least 2-fold; corrected p-value ≤0.05). We analysed the resulting differentially expressed gene sets using Gene Ontology annotations to identify significant enrichment of genes associated with particular biological processes, showing that removal of mechanical stimuli from muscle contractions affected genes associated with development and differentiation, cytoskeletal architecture and cell signalling. Among cell signalling pathways, the most strongly disturbed was Wnt signalling, with 34 genes including 19 pathway target genes affected. Spatial gene expression analysis showed that both a Wnt ligand encoding gene (Wnt4) and a pathway antagonist (Sfrp2) are up-regulated specifically in the developing joint line, while the expression of a Wnt target gene, Cd44, is no longer detectable in muscle-less embryos. The identification of 84 genes associated with the cytoskeleton that are down-regulated in the absence of muscle indicates a number of candidate genes that are both mechanoresponsive and potentially involved in mechanotransduction, converting a mechanical stimulus

  14. Glassin, a histidine-rich protein from the siliceous skeletal system of the marine sponge Euplectella, directs silica polycondensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Katsuhiko; Amano, Taro; Bari, Md Rezaul; Weaver, James C; Arima, Jiro; Mori, Nobuhiro

    2015-09-15

    The hexactinellids are a diverse group of predominantly deep sea sponges that synthesize elaborate fibrous skeletal systems of amorphous hydrated silica. As a representative example, members of the genus Euplectella have proved to be useful model systems for investigating structure-function relationships in these hierarchically ordered siliceous network-like composites. Despite recent advances in understanding the mechanistic origins of damage tolerance in these complex skeletal systems, the details of their synthesis have remained largely unexplored. Here, we describe a previously unidentified protein, named "glassin," the main constituent in the water-soluble fraction of the demineralized skeletal elements of Euplectella. When combined with silicic acid solutions, glassin rapidly accelerates silica polycondensation over a pH range of 6-8. Glassin is characterized by high histidine content, and cDNA sequence analysis reveals that glassin shares no significant similarity with any other known proteins. The deduced amino acid sequence reveals that glassin consists of two similar histidine-rich domains and a connecting domain. Each of the histidine-rich domains is composed of three segments: an amino-terminal histidine and aspartic acid-rich sequence, a proline-rich sequence in the middle, and a histidine and threonine-rich sequence at the carboxyl terminus. Histidine always forms HX or HHX repeats, in which most of X positions are occupied by glycine, aspartic acid, or threonine. Recombinant glassin reproduces the silica precipitation activity observed in the native proteins. The highly modular composition of glassin, composed of imidazole, acidic, and hydroxyl residues, favors silica polycondensation and provides insights into the molecular mechanisms of skeletal formation in hexactinellid sponges.

  15. Comparison of second molar eruption patterns in patients with skeletal Class II and skeletal Class I malocclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brin, Ilana; Camasuvi, Semin; Dali, Nasser; Aizenbud, Dror

    2006-12-01

    The eruptive positions of the second molars in Class I and Class II malocclusions were studied. Pretreatment records of 221 patients with a mean age of 11.3 years were evaluated. About 19% of them had skeletal Class I, 31% had skeletal maxillary Class II, and 50% had skeletal mandibular Class II malocclusions. The mean values of the dental and chronologic ages of the subjects were similar. The eruptive positions in relation to a reference line, the developmental stages of the patients' second molars and dental ages were recorded from the panoramic roentgenograms. The distribution of the various developmental stages in each malocclusion group was similar, and no association between skeletal malocclusion and dental developmental stage of the second molars was encountered. The eruptive position of the maxillary second molars was more occlusal only in the oldest maxillary Class II group, above 12 years of age (P = .02). These results support, in part, previous reports suggesting that the maxillary second molars may erupt earlier in patients with skeletal maxillary Class II malocclusions.

  16. Mitochondrial dysfunction in human skeletal muscle biopsies of lipid storage disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debashree, Bandopadhyay; Kumar, Manish; Keshava Prasad, Thottethodi Subrahmanya; Natarajan, Archana; Christopher, Rita; Nalini, Atchayaram; Bindu, Parayil Sankaran; Gayathri, Narayanappa; Srinivas Bharath, Muchukunte Mukunda

    2018-02-09

    Mitochondria regulate the balance between lipid metabolism and storage in the skeletal muscle. Altered lipid transport, metabolism and storage influence the bioenergetics, redox status and insulin signalling, contributing to cardiac and neurological diseases. Lipid storage disorders (LSDs) are neurological disorders which entail intramuscular lipid accumulation and impaired mitochondrial bioenergetics in the skeletal muscle causing progressive myopathy with muscle weakness. However, the mitochondrial changes including molecular events associated with impaired lipid storage have not been completely understood in the human skeletal muscle. We carried out morphological and biochemical analysis of mitochondrial function in muscle biopsies of human subjects with LSDs (n = 7), compared to controls (n = 10). Routine histology, enzyme histochemistry and ultrastructural analysis indicated altered muscle cell morphology and mitochondrial structure. Protein profiling of the muscle mitochondria from LSD samples (n = 5) (vs. control, n = 5) by high-throughput mass spectrometric analysis revealed that impaired metabolic processes could contribute to mitochondrial dysfunction and ensuing myopathy in LSDs. We propose that impaired fatty acid and respiratory metabolism along with increased membrane permeability, elevated lipolysis and altered cristae entail mitochondrial dysfunction in LSDs. Some of these mechanisms were unique to LSD apart from others that were common to dystrophic and inflammatory muscle pathologies. Many differentially regulated mitochondrial proteins in LSD are linked with other human diseases, indicating that mitochondrial protection via targeted drugs could be a treatment modality in LSD and related metabolic diseases. © 2018 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  17. Guidelines for genetic skeletal dysplasias for pediatricians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Yoon Cho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal dysplasia (SD is a kind of heterogeneous genetic disorder characterized by abnormal growth, development, differentiation, and maintenance of the bone and cartilage. The patients with SD most likely to be seen by a pediatrician or orthopedic surgeon are those who present with short stature in childhood. Because each category has so many diseases, classification is important to understand SD better. In order to diagnose a SD accurately, clinical and radiographic findings should be evaluated in detail. In addition, genetic diagnosis of SD is important because there are so various SDs with complex phenotypes. To reach an exact diagnosis of SDs, cooperative approach by a clinician, a radiologist and a geneticist is important. This review aims to provide an outline of the diagnostic approach for children with disproportional short stature.

  18. The cAMP Response Element Binding protein (CREB) is activated by Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1) and regulates myostatin gene expression in skeletal myoblast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuloaga, R.; Fuentes, E.N.; Molina, A.; Valdés, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •IGF-1 induces the activation of CREB via IGF-1R/PI3K/PLC signaling pathway. •Calcium dependent signaling pathways regulate myostatin gene expression. •IGF-1 regulates myostatin gene expression via CREB transcription in skeletal myoblast. -- Abstract: Myostatin, a member of the Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily, plays an important role as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth and differentiation. We have previously reported that IGF-1 induces a transient myostatin mRNA expression, through the activation of the Nuclear Factor of Activated T cells (NFAT) in an IP 3 /calcium-dependent manner. Here we examined the activation of CREB transcription factor as downstream targets of IGF-1 during myoblast differentiation and its role as a regulator of myostatin gene expression. In cultured skeletal myoblast, IGF-1 induced the phosphorylation and transcriptional activation of CREB via IGF-1 Receptor/Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (PI3K)/Phospholipase C gamma (PLC γ), signaling pathways. Also, IGF-1 induced calcium-dependent molecules such as Calmodulin Kinase II (CaMK II), Extracellular signal-regulated Kinases (ERK), Protein Kinase C (PKC). Additionally, we examined myostatin mRNA levels and myostatin promoter activity in differentiated myoblasts stimulated with IGF-1. We found a significant increase in mRNA contents of myostatin and its reporter activity after treatment with IGF-1. The expression of myostatin in differentiated myoblast was downregulated by the transfection of siRNA–CREB and by pharmacological inhibitors of the signaling pathways involved in CREB activation. By using pharmacological and genetic approaches together these data demonstrate that IGF-1 regulates the myostatin gene expression via CREB transcription factor during muscle cell differentiation

  19. The cAMP Response Element Binding protein (CREB) is activated by Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1) and regulates myostatin gene expression in skeletal myoblast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuloaga, R. [Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Santiago (Chile); Fuentes, E.N.; Molina, A. [Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Santiago (Chile); Interdisciplinary Center for Aquaculture Research (INCAR), Víctor Lamas 1290, PO Box 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Valdés, J.A., E-mail: jvaldes@unab.cl [Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Santiago (Chile); Interdisciplinary Center for Aquaculture Research (INCAR), Víctor Lamas 1290, PO Box 160-C, Concepción (Chile)

    2013-10-18

    Highlights: •IGF-1 induces the activation of CREB via IGF-1R/PI3K/PLC signaling pathway. •Calcium dependent signaling pathways regulate myostatin gene expression. •IGF-1 regulates myostatin gene expression via CREB transcription in skeletal myoblast. -- Abstract: Myostatin, a member of the Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily, plays an important role as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth and differentiation. We have previously reported that IGF-1 induces a transient myostatin mRNA expression, through the activation of the Nuclear Factor of Activated T cells (NFAT) in an IP{sub 3}/calcium-dependent manner. Here we examined the activation of CREB transcription factor as downstream targets of IGF-1 during myoblast differentiation and its role as a regulator of myostatin gene expression. In cultured skeletal myoblast, IGF-1 induced the phosphorylation and transcriptional activation of CREB via IGF-1 Receptor/Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (PI3K)/Phospholipase C gamma (PLC γ), signaling pathways. Also, IGF-1 induced calcium-dependent molecules such as Calmodulin Kinase II (CaMK II), Extracellular signal-regulated Kinases (ERK), Protein Kinase C (PKC). Additionally, we examined myostatin mRNA levels and myostatin promoter activity in differentiated myoblasts stimulated with IGF-1. We found a significant increase in mRNA contents of myostatin and its reporter activity after treatment with IGF-1. The expression of myostatin in differentiated myoblast was downregulated by the transfection of siRNA–CREB and by pharmacological inhibitors of the signaling pathways involved in CREB activation. By using pharmacological and genetic approaches together these data demonstrate that IGF-1 regulates the myostatin gene expression via CREB transcription factor during muscle cell differentiation.

  20. Skeletal muscle contraction-induced vasodilation in the microcirculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Kwang-Seok; Kim, Kijeong

    2017-10-01

    Maximal whole body exercise leads skeletal muscle blood flow to markedly increase to match metabolic demands, a phenomenon termed exercise hyperaemia that is accomplished by increasing vasodilation. However, local vasodilatory mechanisms in response to skeletal muscle contraction remain uncertain. This review highlights metabolic vasodilators released from contracting skeletal muscle, endothelium, or blood cells. As a considerable skeletal muscle vasodilation potentially results in hypotension, sympathetic nerve activity needs to be augmented to elevate cardiac output and blood pressure during dynamic exercise. However, since the enhanced sympathetic vasoconstriction restrains skeletal muscle blood flow, intramuscular arteries have an indispensable ability to blunt sympathetic activity for exercise hyperaemia. In addition, we discuss that mechanical compression of the intramuscular vasculature contributes to causing the initial phase of increasing vasodilation following a single muscle contraction. We have also chosen to focus on conducted (or ascending) electrical signals that evoke vasodilation of proximal feed arteries to elevate blood flow in the microcirculation of skeletal muscle. Endothelial hyperpolarization originating within distal arterioles ascends into the proximal feed arteries, thereby increasing total blood flow in contracting skeletal muscle. This brief review summarizes molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of skeletal muscle blood flow to a single or sustained muscle contraction.

  1. The skeletal endocannabinoid system: clinical and experimental insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphael, Bitya; Gabet, Yankel

    2016-05-01

    Recently, there has been a rapidly growing interest in the role of cannabinoids in the regulation of skeletal remodeling and bone mass, addressed in basic, translational and clinical research. Since the first publications in 2005, there are more than 1000 publications addressing the skeletal endocannabinoid system. This review focuses on the roles of the endocannabinoid system in skeletal biology via the cannabinoid receptors CB1, CB2 and others. Endocannabinoids play important roles in bone formation, bone resorption and skeletal growth, and are sometimes age, gender, species and strain dependent. Controversies in the literature and potential therapeutic approaches targeting the endocannabinoid system in skeletal disorders are also discussed.

  2. Nurses' attitudes to terminally ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, E M; Sorribes, E; Ezquerro, O

    2001-05-01

    The care of terminally ill patients is a challenge for nurses that has raised special interest in recent years. Several studies have shown a stereotyped negative attitude in nurses towards terminally ill patients. However, all have used methods with several limitations. The aim of the study presented in this paper was to identify the nurses' attitude to the terminally ill patient in Catalonia, Spain, and the relationship of this attitude to different socio-demographic data (type of centre, shift, years of experience, age and sex) by means of a new quantitative method based on the free word-association test. One hundred and seventy-five nurses working in 18 hospitals and hospices in Catalonia, Spain were included in the study. Data were analysed by the Associative Semantic Field Differential method by means of the computer programme CONTEXT and a quantitative evaluation of the degree of attitudes positivity was obtained. The study revealed a general slight negative trend in attitudes towards the terminally ill patient. A more positive attitude was observed in older caregivers and in women. The positivity in attitude decreased from morning to night shift. No differences were observed between nurses working in hospitals and those working in hospices. We conclude that nursing attitudes can be analysed by methods such as that used in this study. Attempts can be made to modify this attitude in caregivers by means of training programmes and stimulating awareness of an adequate professional approach.

  3. Adipophilin distribution and colocalization with lipid droplets in skeletal muscle.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shaw, Christopher S

    2009-05-01

    Intramyocellular lipids (IMCL) are stored as discrete lipid droplets which are associated with a number of proteins. The lipid droplet-associated protein adipophilin (the human orthologue of adipose differentiation-related protein) is ubiquitously expressed and is one of the predominant lipid droplet-proteins in skeletal muscle. The aim of this study was to investigate the subcellular distribution of adipophilin in human muscle fibres and to measure the colocalization of adipophilin with IMCL. Muscle biopsies from six lean male cyclists (BMI 23.4 +\\/- 0.4, aged 31 +\\/- 2 years, W (max) 346 +\\/- 8) were stained for myosin heavy chain type 1, IMCL, adipophilin and mitochondria using immunofluorescence and viewed with widefield and confocal fluorescence microscopy. The present study shows that like IMCL, the adipophilin content is ~twofold greater in type I skeletal muscle fibres and is situated in the areas between the mitochondrial network. Colocalization analysis demonstrated that 61 +\\/- 2% of IMCL contain adipophilin. Although the majority of adipophilin is contained within IMCL, 36 +\\/- 4% of adipophilin is not associated with IMCL. In conclusion, this study indicates that the IMCL pool is heterogeneous, as the majority but not all IMCL contain adipophilin.

  4. Derivation of Stromal (Skeletal and Mesenchymal) Stem-Like Cells from Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, Linda; Abdallah, Basem M.; Elsafadi, Mona; Al-Nbaheen, May S.; Aldahmash, Abdullah; Kassem, Moustapha

    2012-01-01

    Derivation of bone forming cells (osteoblasts) from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) is a prerequisite for their use in clinical applications. However, there is no standard protocol for differentiating hESCs into osteoblastic cells. The aim of this study was to identify the emergence of a human stromal (mesenchymal and skeletal) stem cell (hMSC)-like population, known to be osteoblastic cell precursors and to test their osteoblastic differentiation capacity in ex vivo cultures and in vivo. We cultured hESCs in a feeder-free environment using serum replacement and as suspension aggregates (embryoid bodies; hEBs). Over a 20 day developmental period, the hEBs demonstrated increasing enrichment for cells expressing hMSC markers: CD29, CD44, CD63, CD56, CD71, CD73, CD105, CD106, and CD166 as revealed by immunohistochemical staining and flow cytometry (fluorescence-activated cell sorting) analysis. Ex vivo differentiation of hEBs using bone morphogenic protein 2 (BMP2) combined with standard osteoblast induction medium led to weak osteoblastic induction. Conversely, subcutaneous in vivo implantation of day 20 hEBs in immune deficient mice, mixed with hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate (HA/TCP) as an osteoconductive scaffold, revealed bone and cartilage, and fibrous tissue elements after 8 weeks. These tissues were of human origin and there was no evidence of differentiation to nonmesodermal tissues. hEBs implanted in the absence of HA/TCP formed vacuolated tissue containing glandular, fibrous and muscle-like tissue elements. Conversely, implantation of undifferentiated hESCs resulted in the formation of a teratoma containing a mixture of endodermal, mesodermal, and ectodermal tissues. Our study demonstrates that hMSC-like cells can be obtained from hESCs and they can be induced to form skeletal tissues in vivo when combined with HA/TCP. These findings are relevant for tissue engineering and suggest that differentiated hEBs can provide an unlimited source for

  5. Skeletal shape correspondence via entropy minimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Liyun; Styner, Martin; Vicory, Jared; Paniagua, Beatriz; Prieto, Juan Carlos; Yang, Dan; Pizer, Stephen M.

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: Improving the shape statistics of medical image objects by generating correspondence of interior skeletal points. Data: Synthetic objects and real world lateral ventricles segmented from MR images. Method(s): Each object's interior is modeled by a skeletal representation called the s-rep, which is a quadrilaterally sampled, folded 2-sided skeletal sheet with spoke vectors proceeding from the sheet to the boundary. The skeleton is divided into three parts: up-side, down-side and fold-curve. The spokes on each part are treated separately and, using spoke interpolation, are shifted along their skeletal parts in each training sample so as to tighten the probability distribution on those spokes' geometric properties while sampling the object interior regularly. As with the surface-based correspondence method of Cates et al., entropy is used to measure both the probability distribution tightness and sampling regularity. The spokes' geometric properties are skeletal position, spoke length and spoke direction. The properties used to measure the regularity are the volumetric subregions bounded by the spokes, their quadrilateral sub-area and edge lengths on the skeletal surface and on the boundary. Results: Evaluation on synthetic and real world lateral ventricles demonstrated improvement in the performance of statistics using the resulting probability distributions, as compared to methods based on boundary models. The evaluation measures used were generalization, specificity, and compactness. Conclusions: S-rep models with the proposed improved correspondence provide significantly enhanced statistics as compared to standard boundary models.

  6. Giant cell tumour in the foot of a skeletally immature girl: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Baker, Joseph F

    2009-08-01

    We present a case of delayed diagnosis of a benign giant cell tumour (GCT) of the third metatarsal in a skeletally immature girl. The patient underwent en bloc excision of the tumour. The tumour had replaced the third metatarsal and had infiltrated the surrounding soft tissue and the second and fourth metatarsal bases. Deep, lateral and medial margins were all involved. A high index of suspicion is needed when evaluating any tumours of the foot, because the compact structure of the foot may delay diagnosis. Early detection is important for avoiding amputation, as the hindfoot and midfoot are classified as one compartment and radical resection is impossible to achieve. Tumours grow faster in the foot than in other bones. GCT in this location and age-group are rare and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a destructive bony lesion in skeletally immature patients.

  7. The use of real-time polymerase chain reaction for rapid diagnosis of skeletal tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Naomi; Fraser, Thomas G; Bauer, Thomas W; Joyce, Michael J; Hall, Gerri S; Tuohy, Marion J; Procop, Gary W

    2006-07-01

    We identified Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA using real-time polymerase chain reaction on a specimen from an osteolytic lesion of a femoral condyle, in which the frozen section demonstrated granulomas. The process was much more rapid than is possible with culture. The rapid detection of M tuberculosis and the concomitant exclusion of granulomatous disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria or systemic fungi are necessary to appropriately treat skeletal tuberculosis. The detection and identification of M tuberculosis by culture may require several weeks using traditional methods. The real-time polymerase chain reaction method used has been shown to be rapid and reliable, and is able to detect and differentiate both tuberculous and nontuberculous mycobacteria. Real-time polymerase chain reaction may become a diagnostic standard for the evaluation of clinical specimens for the presence of mycobacteria; this case demonstrates the potential utility of this assay for the rapid diagnosis of skeletal tuberculosis.

  8. [Molecular mechanisms of skeletal muscle hypertrophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astratenkova, I V; Rogozkin, V A

    2014-06-01

    Enzymes Akt, AMPK, mTOR, S6K and PGC-1a coactivator take part in skeletal muscles in the regulation of synthesis of proteins. The expression of these proteins is regulated by growth factors, hormones, nutrients, mechanical loading and leads to an increase in muscle mass and skeletal muscle hypertrophy. The review presents the results of studies published in the past four years, which expand knowledge on the effects of various factors on protein synthesis in skeletal muscle. The attention is focused on the achievements that reveal and clarify the signaling pathways involved in the regulation of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle. The central place is taken by mTOR enzyme which controls and regulates the main stages of the cascade of reactions of muscle proteins providing synthesis in the conditions of human life. coactivator PGC-1a.

  9. Isolation and Osteogenic Differentiation of Rat Periosteum-derived Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Declercq, Heidi Andrea; De Ridder, Leo Isabelle; Cornelissen, Maria Jozefa

    2005-01-01

    Selection of appropriate cultures having an osteogenic potential is a necessity if cell/biomaterial interactions are studied in long-term cultures. Osteoblastic cells derived from rat long bones or calvaria have the disadvantage of being in an advanced differentiation stage which results in terminal differentiation within 21 days. In this regard, less differentiated periosteum-derived osteoprogenitors could be more suitable.

  10. Comparison of diffusion-weighted whole body MRI and skeletal scintigraphy for the detection of bone metastases in patients with prostate or breast carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutzeit, Andreas; Doert, Aleksis; Froehlich, Johannes M.; Eckhardt, Boris P.; Meili, Andreas; Scherr, Patrick; Schmid, Daniel T.; Weymarn, Constantin A. von; Willemse, Edwin M.M.; Binkert, Christoph A.; Graf, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    To prospectively compare the diagnostic accuracy of diffusion-weighted whole body imaging with background whole body signal suppression (DWIBS) with skeletal scintigraphy for the diagnosis and differentiation of skeletal lesions in patients suffering from prostate or breast cancer. A diagnostic cohort of 36 patients was included in skeletal scintigraphy and 1.5 T DWIBS MRI. Based on morphology and signal intensity patterns, two readers each identified and classified independently, under blinded conditions, all lesions into three groups: (1) malignant, (2) unclear if malignant or benign and (3) benign. Finally, for the definition of the gold standard all available imaging techniques and follow-up over a minimum of 6 months were considered. Overall, 45 circumscribed bone metastases and 107 benign lesions were found. DWIBS performed significantly better in detecting malignant skeletal lesions in patients with more than 10 lesions (sensitivity: 0.97/0.91) compared to skeletal scintigraphy (sensitivity: 0.48/0.42). No statistical difference could be found between DWIBS (0.58/0.33) and skeletal scintigraphy (0.67/0.58) in the sensitivity values for malignant skeletal lesions in patients with less than 5 lesions. For benign lesions, scintigraphy scored best with a sensitivity of 0.93/0.87 compared to 0.20/0.13 for DWIBS. Interobserver agreement with Cohen's kappa coefficient was calculated as 0.784 in the case of scintigraphy and 0.663 for DWIBS. With respect to staging, in prostate and breast carcinoma, the DWIBS technique is not superior to skeletal scintigraphy, but ranks equally. However, in the cases with many bone lesions, markedly more metastases could be discovered using the DWIBS technique than skeletal scintigraphy. (orig.)

  11. Archform comparisons between skeletal class II and III malocclusions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zou

    Full Text Available The purpose of this cross-sectional research was to explore the relationship of the mandibular dental and basal bone archforms between severe Skeletal Class II (SC2 and Skeletal Class III (SC3 malocclusions. We also compared intercanine and intermolar widths in these two malocclusion types. Thirty-three virtual pretreatment mandibular models (Skeletal Class III group and Thirty-five Skeletal Class II group pretreatment models were created with a laser scanning system. FA (the midpoint of the facial axis of the clinical crownand WALA points (the most prominent point on the soft-tissue ridgewere employed to produce dental and basal bone archforms, respectively. Gained scatter diagrams of the samples were processed by nonlinear regression analysis via SPSS 17.0. The mandibular dental and basal bone intercanine and intermolar widths were significantly greater in the Skeletal Class III group compared to the Skeletal Class II group. In both groups, a moderate correlation existed between dental and basal bone arch widths in the canine region, and a high correlation existed between dental and basal bone arch widths in the molar region. The coefficient of correlation of the Skeletal Class III group was greater than the Skeletal Class II group. Fourth degree, even order power functions were used as best-fit functions to fit the scatter plots. The radius of curvature was larger in Skeletal Class III malocclusions compared to Skeletal Class II malocclusions (rWALA3>rWALA2>rFA3>rFA2. In conclusion, mandibular dental and basal intercanine and intermolar widths were significantly different between the two groups. Compared with Skeletal Class II subjects, the mandibular archform was more flat for Skeletal Class III subjects.

  12. Generalized skeletal pathology: Results of radionuclide studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fueger, G.F.; Aigner, R.

    1987-01-01

    Generalized pathological changes may involve the skeleton systematically (bone tissue, bone marrow) or at multiple sites involving destruction or infiltration. Appropriate radionuclide studies include total-body bone or bone marrow scintigraphy, absorptiometry (osteodensitometry) and the 24 h whole-body retention measurement. Established radioindicators are 99m-Tc-(hydroxy)methylendiphosphonate (HMDP or MDP) and 99m-Tc-human serumalbumin-nanocolloid. Absorptiometry of the forearm, extended by computer-assisted transaxial tomography, may be expected to prove as the most efficient method of bone density measurement. The 24 h whole-body retention measurement is useful for the diagnosis and follow-up of metabolic and endocrine osteopathies, if the very same osteotropic 99m-Tc-chelate is used. Whole-body bone scintigraphy today is one of the most important radionuclide studies for diagnosis and follow-up of skeletal metastases. Scintigraphy provides evidence of skeletal metastases several months earlier than radiological examinations. In about 40 percent of patients with cancer of the prostate, scintigraphy provided positive findings of skeletal metastases in the absence of both pain and increased levels of phosphatase. In patients with a history of malignancy, 60 percent of solitary findings on skeletal scintigraphy are metastases. The frequency of false negative findings obtained by whole-body skeletal scintigraphy are metastases. The frequency of false negative findings obtained by whole-body skeletal scintigraphy ranges from 2 to 4%. Compared to skeletal scintigraphy, bone marrow scintigraphy frequently yields significant additional findings in cases of plasmocytoma, histiocytoma, lymphoma and haemoblastoses. (orig.) [de

  13. Acute high-caffeine exposure increases autophagic flux and reduces protein synthesis in C2C12 skeletal myotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, M A; Downs, R M; Webb, G W; Crocker, C L; Kinsey, S T; Baumgarner, Bradley L

    2017-04-01

    Caffeine is a highly catabolic dietary stimulant. High caffeine concentrations (1-10 mM) have previously been shown to inhibit protein synthesis and increase protein degradation in various mammalian cell lines. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of short-term caffeine exposure on cell signaling pathways that regulate protein metabolism in mammalian skeletal muscle cells. Fully differentiated C2C12 skeletal myotubes either received vehicle (DMSO) or 5 mM caffeine for 6 h. Our analysis revealed that caffeine promoted a 40% increase in autolysosome formation and a 25% increase in autophagic flux. In contrast, caffeine treatment did not significantly increase the expression of the skeletal muscle specific ubiquitin ligases MAFbx and MuRF1 or 20S proteasome activity. Caffeine treatment significantly reduced mTORC1 signaling, total protein synthesis and myotube diameter in a CaMKKβ/AMPK-dependent manner. Further, caffeine promoted a CaMKII-dependent increase in myostatin mRNA expression that did not significantly contribute to the caffeine-dependent reduction in protein synthesis. Our results indicate that short-term caffeine exposure significantly reduced skeletal myotube diameter by increasing autophagic flux and promoting a CaMKKβ/AMPK-dependent reduction in protein synthesis.

  14. Differential subcellular localization of insulin receptor substrates depends on C-terminal regions and importin β

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabuta, Tomohiro; Take, Kazumi; Kabuta, Chihana; Hakuno, Fumihiko; Takahashi, Shin-Ichiro

    2008-01-01

    Insulin receptor substrates (IRSs) play essential roles in signal transduction of insulin and insulin-like growth factors. Previously, we showed that IRS-3 is localized to the nucleus as well as the cytosol, while IRS-1 and 2 are mainly localized to the cytoplasm. In the present study, we found that importin β directly interacts with IRS-3 and is able to mediate nuclear transport of IRS-3. Importin β interacted with the pleckstrin homology domain, the phosphotyrosine binding domain and the C-terminal region of IRS-3; indeed all of these fragments exhibited predominant nuclear localization. By contrast, almost no interaction of importin β with IRS-1 and -2 was observed, and their C-terminal regions displayed discrete spotty images in the cytosol. In addition, using chimeric proteins between IRS-1 and IRS-3, we revealed that the C-terminal regions are the main determinants of the differing subcellular localizations of IRS-1 and IRS-3.

  15. Differential isotope dansylation labeling combined with liquid chromatography mass spectrometry for quantification of intact and N-terminal truncated proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Yanan; Li, Liang

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •LC–MS was developed for quantifying protein mixtures containing both intact and N-terminal truncated proteins. • 12 C 2 -Dansylation of the N-terminal amino acid of proteins was done first, followed by microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis. •The released 12 C 2 -dansyl labeled N-terminal amino acid was quantified using 13 C 2 -dansyl labeled amino acid standards. •The method provided accurate and precise results for quantifying intact and N-terminal truncated proteins within 8 h. -- Abstract: The N-terminal amino acids of proteins are important structure units for maintaining the biological function, localization, and interaction networks of proteins. Under different biological conditions, one or several N-terminal amino acids could be cleaved from an intact protein due to processes, such as proteolysis, resulting in the change of protein properties. Thus, the ability to quantify the N-terminal truncated forms of proteins is of great importance, particularly in the area of development and production of protein-based drugs where the relative quantity of the intact protein and its truncated form needs to be monitored. In this work, we describe a rapid method for absolute quantification of protein mixtures containing intact and N-terminal truncated proteins. This method is based on dansylation labeling of the N-terminal amino acids of proteins, followed by microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis of the proteins into amino acids. It is shown that dansyl labeled amino acids are stable in acidic conditions and can be quantified by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC–MS) with the use of isotope analog standards

  16. Radiologic aspects of diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis in the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukamoto, Y.; Onitsuka, H.; Lee, K.

    1977-01-01

    Radiographs of 175 patients with diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) of the spine or ankylosing spondylitis were reviewed. DISH most frequently began in the middle and lower portions of the thoracic spine; it was rare in the upper portion. A few vertebrae were first affected, and then involvement extended, sometimes throughout the thoracic spine. The anterior and lateral aspects of vertebral bodies were mainly affected. Hyperostosis vertically spanning the anterior aspects of the vertebrae varied in thickness up to 10 mm, and the rate at which the hyperostosis proliferated was not specific for any vertebra. Males were 12 times more frequently affected than females, especially in the older age groups. Diabetes mellitus and hypertension have reportedly been associated with DISH, but no such correlation was found in this study. Despite the existence of criteria for differential diagnosis, it is sometimes difficult to distinguish ankylosing spondylitis from DISH radiologically. The radiologic features helpful in the differential diagnosis are described, and a review of the pertinent literature is included

  17. Skeletal MR imaging: Correlation with skeletal scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colletti, P.M.; Raval, J.K.; Ford, P.V.; Benson, R.C.; Kerr, R.M.; Boswell, W.D.; Siegel, M.E.; Ralls, P.W.

    1987-01-01

    Skeletal MR images bone marrow while skeletal scintigraphy uses bone metabolism to demonstrate abnormalities. The purpose of this paper is to correlate these MR and scintigraphic findings. T1 and T2 MR images at 0.5 T were correlated with planar bone scintigraphy (RN) using Tc-99m MDP in 56 patients. Of 23 cases with suspected spinal metastases, 19 were positive by MR imaging, 16 by RN. Individual lesions were shown better by MR imaging in five and by RN in two. These two cases had scoliosis, a potential difficulty with MR imaging. In 14 cases of suspected avascular necrosis (AVN), MR imaging was positive in 13 while RN was positive in ten. One negative case by RN had bilateral AVN by MR imaging. Four skull lesions shown easily by RN were seen only in retrospect on MR images. MR imaging is advantageous in evaluating bones with predominant marrow such as vertebrae or the femoral head, while RN is superior in areas primarily composed of cortical bone such as the skull

  18. Heterogeneity among muscle precursor cells in adult skeletal muscles with differing regenerative capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlath, G K; Thaloor, D; Rando, T A; Cheong, M; English, A W; Zheng, B

    1998-08-01

    Skeletal muscle has a remarkable capacity to regenerate after injury, although studies of muscle regeneration have heretofore been limited almost exclusively to limb musculature. Muscle precursor cells in skeletal muscle are responsible for the repair of damaged muscle. Heterogeneity exists in the growth and differentiation properties of muscle precursor cell (myoblast) populations throughout limb development but whether the muscle precursor cells differ among adult skeletal muscles is unknown. Such heterogeneity among myoblasts in the adult may give rise to skeletal muscles with different regenerative capacities. Here we compare the regenerative response of a masticatory muscle, the masseter, to that of limb muscles. After exogenous trauma (freeze or crush injuries), masseter muscle regenerated much less effectively than limb muscle. In limb muscle, normal architecture was restored 12 days after injury, whereas in masseter muscle, minimal regeneration occurred during the same time period. Indeed, at late time points, masseter muscles exhibited increased fibrous connective tissue in the region of damage, evidence of ineffective muscle regeneration. Similarly, in response to endogenous muscle injury due to a muscular dystrophy, widespread evidence of impaired regeneration was present in masseter muscle but not in limb muscle. To explore the cellular basis of these different regenerative capacities, we analyzed the myoblast populations of limb and masseter muscles both in vivo and in vitro. From in vivo analyses, the number of myoblasts in regenerating muscle was less in masseter compared with limb muscle. Assessment of population growth in vitro indicated that masseter myoblasts grow more slowly than limb myoblasts under identical conditions. We conclude that the impaired regeneration in masseter muscles is due to differences in the intrinsic myoblast populations compared to limb muscles.

  19. Evaluation of skeletal and cardiac muscle function after chronic administration of thymosin beta-4 in the dystrophin deficient mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher F Spurney

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thymosin beta-4 (Tbeta4 is a ubiquitous protein with many properties relating to cell proliferation and differentiation that promotes wound healing and modulates inflammatory mediators. We studied the effects of chronic administration of Tbeta4 on the skeletal and cardiac muscle of dystrophin deficient mdx mice, the mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Female wild type (C57BL10/ScSnJ and mdx mice, 8-10 weeks old, were treated with 150 microg of Tbeta4 twice a week for 6 months. To promote muscle pathology, mice were exercised for 30 minutes twice a week. Skeletal and cardiac muscle function were assessed via grip strength and high frequency echocardiography. Localization of Tbeta4 and amount of fibrosis were quantified using immunohistochemistry and Gomori's tri-chrome staining, respectively. Mdx mice treated with Tbeta4 showed a significant increase in skeletal muscle regenerating fibers compared to untreated mdx mice. Tbeta4 stained exclusively in the regenerating fibers of mdx mice. Although untreated mdx mice had significantly decreased skeletal muscle strength compared to untreated wild type, there were no significant improvements in mdx mice after treatment. Systolic cardiac function, measured as percent shortening fraction, was decreased in untreated mdx mice compared to untreated wild type and there was no significant difference after treatment in mdx mice. Skeletal and cardiac muscle fibrosis were also significantly increased in untreated mdx mice compared to wild type, but there was no significant improvement in treated mdx mice. In exercised dystrophin deficient mice, chronic administration of Tbeta4 increased the number of regenerating fibers in skeletal muscle and could have a potential role in treatment of skeletal muscle disease in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

  20. Pathogenesis of Insulin Resistance in Skeletal Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad A. Abdul-Ghani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance in skeletal muscle is manifested by decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and results from impaired insulin signaling and multiple post-receptor intracellular defects including impaired glucose transport, glucose phosphorylation, and reduced glucose oxidation and glycogen synthesis. Insulin resistance is a core defect in type 2 diabetes, it is also associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Dysregulation of fatty acid metabolism plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Recent studies have reported a mitochondrial defect in oxidative phosphorylation in skeletal muscle in variety of insulin resistant states. In this review, we summarize the cellular and molecular defects that contribute to the development of insulin resistance in skeletal muscle.

  1. Lsd1 regulates skeletal muscle regeneration and directs the fate of satellite cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosic, Milica; Allen, Anita; Willmann, Dominica; Lepper, Christoph; Kim, Johnny; Duteil, Delphine; Schüle, Roland

    2018-01-25

    Satellite cells are muscle stem cells required for muscle regeneration upon damage. Of note, satellite cells are bipotent and have the capacity to differentiate not only into skeletal myocytes, but also into brown adipocytes. Epigenetic mechanisms regulating fate decision and differentiation of satellite cells during muscle regeneration are not yet fully understood. Here, we show that elevated levels of lysine-specific demethylase 1 (Kdm1a, also known as Lsd1) have a beneficial effect on muscle regeneration and recovery after injury, since Lsd1 directly regulates key myogenic transcription factor genes. Importantly, selective Lsd1 ablation or inhibition in Pax7-positive satellite cells, not only delays muscle regeneration, but changes cell fate towards brown adipocytes. Lsd1 prevents brown adipocyte differentiation of satellite cells by repressing expression of the novel pro-adipogenic transcription factor Glis1. Together, downregulation of Glis1 and upregulation of the muscle-specific transcription program ensure physiological muscle regeneration.

  2. Purified Human Skeletal Muscle-Derived Stem Cells Enhance the Repair and Regeneration in the Damaged Urethra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Nobuyuki; Tamaki, Tetsuro; Hirata, Maki; Soeda, Shuichi; Nitta, Masahiro; Hoshi, Akio; Terachi, Toshiro

    2017-10-01

    Postoperative damage of the urethral rhabdosphincter and nerve-vascular networks is a major complication of radical prostatectomy and generally causes incontinence and/or erectile dysfunction. The human skeletal muscle-derived stem cells, which have a synchronized reconstitution capacity of muscle-nerve-blood vessel units, were applied to this damage. Cells were enzymatically extracted from the human skeletal muscle, sorted using flow cytometry as CD34/45 (Sk-34) and CD29/34/45 (Sk-DN/29) fractions, and separately cultured/expanded in appropriate conditions within 2 weeks. Urethral damage was induced by manually removing one third of the wall of the muscle layer in nude rats. A mixture of expanded Sk-34 and Sk-DN/29 cells was applied on the damaged portion for the cell transplantation (CT) group. The same amount of media was used for the non-CT (NT) group. Urethral pressure profile was evaluated via electrical stimulation to assess functional recovery. Cell engraftments and differentiations were detected using immunohistochemistry and immunoelectron microscopy. Expression of angiogenic cytokines was also analyzed using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and protein array. At 6 weeks after transplantation, the CT group showed a significantly higher functional recovery than the NT group (70.2% and 39.1%, respectively; P cells differentiated into skeletal muscle fibers, nerve-related Schwann cells, perineuriums, and vascular pericytes. Active paracrine angiogenic cytokines in the mixed cells were also detected with enhanced vascular formation in vivo. The transplantation of Sk-34 and Sk-DN/29 cells is potentially useful for the reconstitution of postoperative damage of the urethral rhabdosphincter and nerve-vascular networks.

  3. MAPK signaling pathways and HDAC3 activity are disrupted during differentiation of emerin-null myogenic progenitor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol M. Collins

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the gene encoding emerin cause Emery–Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD. Emerin is an integral inner nuclear membrane protein and a component of the nuclear lamina. EDMD is characterized by skeletal muscle wasting, cardiac conduction defects and tendon contractures. The failure to regenerate skeletal muscle is predicted to contribute to the skeletal muscle pathology of EDMD. We hypothesize that muscle regeneration defects are caused by impaired muscle stem cell differentiation. Myogenic progenitors derived from emerin-null mice were used to confirm their impaired differentiation and analyze selected myogenic molecular pathways. Emerin-null progenitors were delayed in their cell cycle exit, had decreased myosin heavy chain (MyHC expression and formed fewer myotubes. Emerin binds to and activates histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3. Here, we show that theophylline, an HDAC3-specific activator, improved myotube formation in emerin-null cells. Addition of the HDAC3-specific inhibitor RGFP966 blocked myotube formation and MyHC expression in wild-type and emerin-null myogenic progenitors, but did not affect cell cycle exit. Downregulation of emerin was previously shown to affect the p38 MAPK and ERK/MAPK pathways in C2C12 myoblast differentiation. Using a pure population of myogenic progenitors completely lacking emerin expression, we show that these pathways are also disrupted. ERK inhibition improved MyHC expression in emerin-null cells, but failed to rescue myotube formation or cell cycle exit. Inhibition of p38 MAPK prevented differentiation in both wild-type and emerin-null progenitors. These results show that each of these molecular pathways specifically regulates a particular stage of myogenic differentiation in an emerin-dependent manner. Thus, pharmacological targeting of multiple pathways acting at specific differentiation stages may be a better therapeutic approach in the future to rescue muscle regeneration in vivo.

  4. The Impact of Endurance Training on Human Skeletal Muscle Memory, Global Isoform Expression and Novel Transcripts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maléne E Lindholm

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Regularly performed endurance training has many beneficial effects on health and skeletal muscle function, and can be used to prevent and treat common diseases e.g. cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes and obesity. The molecular adaptation mechanisms regulating these effects are incompletely understood. To date, global transcriptome changes in skeletal muscles have been studied at the gene level only. Therefore, global isoform expression changes following exercise training in humans are unknown. Also, the effects of repeated interventions on transcriptional memory or training response have not been studied before. In this study, 23 individuals trained one leg for three months. Nine months later, 12 of the same subjects trained both legs in a second training period. Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained from both legs before and after both training periods. RNA sequencing analysis of all 119 skeletal muscle biopsies showed that training altered the expression of 3,404 gene isoforms, mainly associated with oxidative ATP production. Fifty-four genes had isoforms that changed in opposite directions. Training altered expression of 34 novel transcripts, all with protein-coding potential. After nine months of detraining, no training-induced transcriptome differences were detected between the previously trained and untrained legs. Although there were several differences in the physiological and transcriptional responses to repeated training, no coherent evidence of an endurance training induced transcriptional skeletal muscle memory was found. This human lifestyle intervention induced differential expression of thousands of isoforms and several transcripts from unannotated regions of the genome. It is likely that the observed isoform expression changes reflect adaptational mechanisms and processes that provide the functional and health benefits of regular physical activity.

  5. Myogenic Precursors from iPS Cells for Skeletal Muscle Cell Replacement Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isart Roca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of adult myogenic stem cells as a cell therapy for skeletal muscle regeneration has been attempted for decades, with only moderate success. Myogenic progenitors (MP made from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs are promising candidates for stem cell therapy to regenerate skeletal muscle since they allow allogenic transplantation, can be produced in large quantities, and, as compared to adult myoblasts, present more embryonic-like features and more proliferative capacity in vitro, which indicates a potential for more self-renewal and regenerative capacity in vivo. Different approaches have been described to make myogenic progenitors either by gene overexpression or by directed differentiation through culture conditions, and several myopathies have already been modeled using iPSC-MP. However, even though results in animal models have shown improvement from previous work with isolated adult myoblasts, major challenges regarding host response have to be addressed and clinically relevant transplantation protocols are lacking. Despite these challenges we are closer than we think to bringing iPSC-MP towards clinical use for treating human muscle disease and sporting injuries.

  6. Differential isotope dansylation labeling combined with liquid chromatography mass spectrometry for quantification of intact and N-terminal truncated proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Yanan; Li, Liang, E-mail: Liang.Li@ualberta.ca

    2013-08-20

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •LC–MS was developed for quantifying protein mixtures containing both intact and N-terminal truncated proteins. •{sup 12}C{sub 2}-Dansylation of the N-terminal amino acid of proteins was done first, followed by microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis. •The released {sup 12}C{sub 2}-dansyl labeled N-terminal amino acid was quantified using {sup 13}C{sub 2}-dansyl labeled amino acid standards. •The method provided accurate and precise results for quantifying intact and N-terminal truncated proteins within 8 h. -- Abstract: The N-terminal amino acids of proteins are important structure units for maintaining the biological function, localization, and interaction networks of proteins. Under different biological conditions, one or several N-terminal amino acids could be cleaved from an intact protein due to processes, such as proteolysis, resulting in the change of protein properties. Thus, the ability to quantify the N-terminal truncated forms of proteins is of great importance, particularly in the area of development and production of protein-based drugs where the relative quantity of the intact protein and its truncated form needs to be monitored. In this work, we describe a rapid method for absolute quantification of protein mixtures containing intact and N-terminal truncated proteins. This method is based on dansylation labeling of the N-terminal amino acids of proteins, followed by microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis of the proteins into amino acids. It is shown that dansyl labeled amino acids are stable in acidic conditions and can be quantified by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC–MS) with the use of isotope analog standards.

  7. Ionic interaction of myosin loop 2 with residues located beyond the N-terminal part of actin probed by chemical cross-linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliszka, Barbara; Martin, Brian M; Karczewska, Emilia

    2008-02-01

    To probe ionic contacts of skeletal muscle myosin with negatively charged residues located beyond the N-terminal part of actin, myosin subfragment 1 (S1) and actin split by ECP32 protease (ECP-actin) were cross-linked with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide (EDC). We have found that unmodified S1 can be cross-linked not only to the N-terminal part, but also to the C-terminal 36 kDa fragment of ECP-actin. Subsequent experiments performed on S1 cleaved by elastase or trypsin indicate that the cross-linking site in S1 is located within loop 2. This site is composed of Lys-636 and Lys-637 and can interact with negatively charged residues of the 36 kDa actin fragment, most probably with Glu-99 and Glu-100. Cross-links are formed both in the absence and presence of MgATP.P(i) analog, although the addition of nucleotide decreases the efficiency of the cross-linking reaction.

  8. Determinants of relative skeletal maturity in South African children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Nicola L; Rousham, Emily K; Johnson, William; Norris, Shane A; Pettifor, John M; Cameron, Noël

    2012-01-01

    The variation of skeletal maturity about chronological age is a sensitive indicator of population health. Age appropriate or advanced skeletal maturity is a reflection of adequate environmental and social conditions, whereas delayed maturation suggests inadequate conditions for optimal development. There remains a paucity of data, however, to indicate which specific biological and environmental factors are associated with advancement or delay in skeletal maturity. The present study utilises longitudinal data from the South African Birth to Twenty (Bt20) study to indentify predictors of relative skeletal maturity (RSM) in early adolescence. A total of 244 black South African children (n=131 male) were included in this analysis. Skeletal maturity at age 9/10 years was assessed using the Tanner and Whitehouse III RUS technique. Longitudinal data on growth, socio-economic position and pubertal development were entered into sex-specific multivariable general linear regression models with relative skeletal maturity (skeletal age-chronological age) as the outcome. At 9/10 years of age males showed an average of 0.66 years delay in skeletal maturation relative to chronological age. Females showed an average of 1.00 year delay relative to chronological age. In males, being taller at 2 years (pdetermining the rate of skeletal maturation during childhood independently of current stature. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Novel Therapeutic Effects of Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma for Muscle Regeneration and Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae Won; Kang, Sung Un; Kim, Yang Eun; Park, Ju Kyeong; Yang, Sang Sik; Kim, Yeon Soo; Lee, Yun Sang; Lee, Yuijina; Kim, Chul-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle can repair muscle tissue damage, but significant loss of muscle tissue or its long-lasting chronic degeneration makes injured skeletal muscle tissue difficult to restore. It has been demonstrated that non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma (NTP) can be used in many biological areas including regenerative medicine. Therefore, we determined whether NTP, as a non-contact biological external stimulator that generates biological catalyzers, can induce regeneration of injured muscle without biomaterials. Treatment with NTP in the defected muscle of a Sprague Dawley (SD) rat increased the number of proliferating muscle cells 7 days after plasma treatment (dapt) and rapidly induced formation of muscle tissue and muscle cell differentiation at 14 dapt. In addition, in vitro experiments also showed that NTP could induce muscle cell proliferation and differentiation of human muscle cells. Taken together, our results demonstrated that NTP promotes restoration of muscle defects through control of cell proliferation and differentiation without biological or structural supporters, suggesting that NTP has the potential for use in muscle tissue engineering and regenerative therapies. PMID:27349181

  10. BET bromodomain inhibition rescues erythropoietin differentiation of human erythroleukemia cell line UT7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goupille, Olivier; Penglong, Tipparat; Lefèvre, Carine; Granger, Marine; Kadri, Zahra; Fucharoen, Suthat; Maouche-Chrétien, Leila; Leboulch, Philippe; Chrétien, Stany

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► UT7 erythroleukemia cells are known to be refractory to differentiate. ► Brief JQ1 treatment initiates the first steps of erythroid differentiation program. ► Engaged UT7 cells then maturate in the presence of erythropoietin. ► Sustained JQ1 treatment inhibits both proliferation and erythroid differentiation. -- Abstract: Malignant transformation is a multistep process requiring oncogenic activation, promoting cellular proliferation, frequently coupled to inhibition of terminal differentiation. Consequently, forcing the reengagement of terminal differentiation of transformed cells coupled or not with an inhibition of their proliferation is a putative therapeutic approach to counteracting tumorigenicity. UT7 is a human leukemic cell line able to grow in the presence of IL3, GM-CSF and Epo. This cell line has been widely used to study Epo-R/Epo signaling pathways but is a poor model for erythroid differentiation. We used the BET bromodomain inhibition drug JQ1 to target gene expression, including that of c-Myc. We have shown that only 2 days of JQ1 treatment was required to transitory inhibit Epo-induced UT7 proliferation and to restore terminal erythroid differentiation. This study highlights the importance of a cellular erythroid cycle break mediated by c-Myc inhibition before initiation of the erythropoiesis program and describes a new model for BET bromodomain inhibitor drug application.

  11. BET bromodomain inhibition rescues erythropoietin differentiation of human erythroleukemia cell line UT7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goupille, Olivier [CEA, Institute of Emerging Diseases and Innovative Therapies, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); UMR INSERM U.962, University Paris XI, CEA, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Penglong, Tipparat [CEA, Institute of Emerging Diseases and Innovative Therapies, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); UMR INSERM U.962, University Paris XI, CEA, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Thalassemia Research Center and Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University (Thailand); Lefevre, Carine; Granger, Marine; Kadri, Zahra [CEA, Institute of Emerging Diseases and Innovative Therapies, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); UMR INSERM U.962, University Paris XI, CEA, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Fucharoen, Suthat [Thalassemia Research Center and Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University (Thailand); Maouche-Chretien, Leila [CEA, Institute of Emerging Diseases and Innovative Therapies, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); UMR INSERM U.962, University Paris XI, CEA, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Leboulch, Philippe [CEA, Institute of Emerging Diseases and Innovative Therapies, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); UMR INSERM U.962, University Paris XI, CEA, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Genetics Division, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Chretien, Stany, E-mail: stany.chretien@cea.fr [CEA, Institute of Emerging Diseases and Innovative Therapies, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); UMR INSERM U.962, University Paris XI, CEA, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2012-12-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UT7 erythroleukemia cells are known to be refractory to differentiate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Brief JQ1 treatment initiates the first steps of erythroid differentiation program. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Engaged UT7 cells then maturate in the presence of erythropoietin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sustained JQ1 treatment inhibits both proliferation and erythroid differentiation. -- Abstract: Malignant transformation is a multistep process requiring oncogenic activation, promoting cellular proliferation, frequently coupled to inhibition of terminal differentiation. Consequently, forcing the reengagement of terminal differentiation of transformed cells coupled or not with an inhibition of their proliferation is a putative therapeutic approach to counteracting tumorigenicity. UT7 is a human leukemic cell line able to grow in the presence of IL3, GM-CSF and Epo. This cell line has been widely used to study Epo-R/Epo signaling pathways but is a poor model for erythroid differentiation. We used the BET bromodomain inhibition drug JQ1 to target gene expression, including that of c-Myc. We have shown that only 2 days of JQ1 treatment was required to transitory inhibit Epo-induced UT7 proliferation and to restore terminal erythroid differentiation. This study highlights the importance of a cellular erythroid cycle break mediated by c-Myc inhibition before initiation of the erythropoiesis program and describes a new model for BET bromodomain inhibitor drug application.

  12. Effect of heat stress on contractility of tissue-engineered artificial skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Shunya; Nakamura, Tomohiro; Fujisato, Toshia

    2018-01-23

    The effects of heat stress on tissue like skeletal muscle have been widely studied. However, the mechanism responsible for the effect of heat stress is still unclear. A useful experimental tissue model is necessary because muscle function in cell culture may differ from native muscle and measuring its contractility is difficult. We previously reported three-dimensional tissue-engineered artificial skeletal muscle (TEM) that can be easily set in a measurement apparatus for quantitative evaluation of contractility. We have now applied TEM to the investigation of heat stress. We analyzed contractility immediately after thermal exposure at 39 °C for 24 or 48 h to evaluate the acute effects and after thermal exposure followed by normal culture to evaluate the aftereffects. Peak twitch contractile force and time-to-peak twitch were used as contractile parameters. Heat stress increased the TCF in the early stage (1 week) after normal culture; the TCF decreased temporarily in the middle to late stages (2-3 weeks). These results suggest that heat stress may affect both myoblast fusion and myotube differentiation in the early stage of TEM culture, but not myotube maturation in the late stage. The TCF increase rate with thermal exposure was significantly higher than that without thermal exposure. Although detailed analysis at the molecular level is necessary for further investigation, our artificial skeletal muscle may be a promising tool for heat stress investigation.

  13. Secreted Protein Acidic and Rich in Cysteine (SPARC) in Human Skeletal Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Louise H.; Petersson, Stine J.; Sellathurai, Jeeva; Andersen, Ditte C.; Thayssen, Susanne; Sant, Dorte J.; Jensen, Charlotte H.; Schrøder, Henrik D.

    2009-01-01

    Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC)/osteonectin is expressed in different tissues during remodeling and repair, suggesting a function in regeneration. Several gene expression studies indicated that SPARC was expressed in response to muscle damage. Studies on myoblasts further indicated a function of SPARC in skeletal muscle. We therefore found it of interest to study SPARC expression in human skeletal muscle during development and in biopsies from Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy and congenital muscular dystrophy, congenital myopathy, inclusion body myositis, and polymyositis patients to analyze SPARC expression in a selected range of inherited and idiopathic muscle wasting diseases. SPARC-positive cells were observed both in fetal and neonatal muscle, and in addition, fetal myofibers were observed to express SPARC at the age of 15–16 weeks. SPARC protein was detected in the majority of analyzed muscle biopsies (23 of 24), mainly in mononuclear cells of which few were pax7 positive. Myotubes and regenerating myofibers also expressed SPARC. The expression-degree seemed to reflect the severity of the lesion. In accordance with these in vivo findings, primary human-derived satellite cells were found to express SPARC both during proliferation and differentiation in vitro. In conclusion, this study shows SPARC expression both during muscle development and in regenerating muscle. The expression is detected both in satellite cells/myoblasts and in myotubes and muscle fibers, indicating a role for SPARC in the skeletal muscle compartment. (J Histochem Cytochem 57:29–39, 2009) PMID:18796407

  14. Effect of controlled deactivation on the thermochemical characteristics of hydrogen adsorption on skeletal nickel from sodium hydroxide-water solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prozorov, D. A.; Lukin, M. V.; Ulitin, M. V.

    2013-04-01

    Differential heats of adsorption in a wide range of surface coverage and maximum amounts of adsorbed hydrogen are determined by adsorption calorimetry on partially deactivated skeletal nickel from aqueous solutions of sodium hydroxide. The effect of the composition of solutions on the values of limiting adsorption and adsorption equilibria of individual forms of hydrogen is shown.

  15. Determination of the state of operating mechanical stresses acting on surface piping with problems of differential collapses in the Venta de Carpio Terminal; Determinacion del estado de esfuerzos mecanicos actuantes en tuberias superficiales con problemas de hundimientos diferenciales en la Terminal Venta de Carpio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neri B, Ernesto R; Garcia E, Nairoby [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The Venta de Carpio Terminal is located in the Northern part of the old Texcoco Lake, State of Mexico, in highly compressible soil. In it, it is received, regulated, measured and distributed natural gas, LP gas and PEMEX Refinacion products that are supplied to distribution terminals of and consumption centers located in the central area of the country, that encompasses the states of Puebla, Tlaxcala, Mexico, Hidalgo, Queretaro and a small part of the Federal District. The construction of the Venta de Carpio station dates from 1960; since then, it has presented important regional settlements, mainly due to the water extraction of the subsoil, that have imposed deformations to the piping systems connected to the surface facilities that have been piloted in the terminal. Equally, other surface piping systems and facilities present deformations by differential settlement between their supports. [Spanish] La Terminal Venta de Carpio se ubica en la parte norte del antiguo Lago de Texcoco, Estado de Mexico, en terreno altamente compresible. En ella, se recibe, regula, mide y distribuye gas natural, gas LP y productos de Pemex Refinacion que se suministran a terminales de distribucion y centros de consumo localizados en el area central del pais, que comprende los estados de Puebla, Tlaxcala, Mexico, Hidalgo, Queretaro y una pequena parte del Distrito Federal. La construccion de la estacion Venta de Carpio data de 1960; desde entonces, se han presentado asentamientos regionales importantes debidos, principalmente a la extraccion de agua del subsuelo, que han impuesto deformaciones a los sistemas de tuberias conectados con las instalaciones superficiales que han sido piloteadas en la terminal. De igual modo, otros sistemas de tuberias e instalaciones superficiales presentan deformaciones por hundimientos diferenciales entre sus apoyos.

  16. Aberrant and alternative splicing in skeletal system disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xin; Tang, Liling

    2013-10-01

    The main function of skeletal system is to support the body and help movement. A variety of factors can lead to skeletal system disease, including age, exercise, and of course genetic makeup and expression. Pre-mRNA splicing plays a crucial role in gene expression, by creating multiple protein variants with different biological functions. The recent studies show that several skeletal system diseases are related to pre-mRNA splicing. This review focuses on the relationship between pre-mRNA splicing and skeletal system disease. On the one hand, splice site mutation that leads to aberrant splicing often causes genetic skeletal system disease, like COL1A1, SEDL and LRP5. On the other hand, alternative splicing without genomic mutation may generate some marker protein isoforms, for example, FN, VEGF and CD44. Therefore, understanding the relationship between pre-mRNA splicing and skeletal system disease will aid in uncovering the mechanism of disease and contribute to the future development of gene therapy. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Epigenetic landscapes reveal transcription factors regulating CD8+ T cell differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bingfei; Zhang, Kai; Milner, J. Justin; Toma, Clara; Chen, Runqiang; Scott-Browne, James P.; Pereira, Renata M.; Crotty, Shane; Chang, John T.; Pipkin, Matthew E.; Wang, Wei; Goldrath, Ananda W.

    2017-01-01

    Dynamic changes in the expression of transcription factors (TFs) can influence specification of distinct CD8+ T cell fates, but the observation of equivalent expression of TF among differentially-fated precursor cells suggests additional underlying mechanisms. Here, we profiled genome-wide histone modifications, open chromatin and gene expression of naive, terminal-effector, memory-precursor and memory CD8+ T cell populations induced during the in vivo response to bacterial infection. Integration of these data suggested that TF expression and binding contributed to establishment of subset-specific enhancers during differentiation. We developed a new bioinformatics method using the PageRank algorithm to reveal novel TFs influencing the generation of effector and memory populations. The TFs YY1 and Nr3c1, both constitutively expressed during CD8+ T cell differentiation, regulated the formation of terminal-effector and memory-precursor cell-fates, respectively. Our data define the epigenetic landscape of differentiation intermediates, facilitating identification of TFs with previously unappreciated roles in CD8+ T cell differentiation. PMID:28288100

  18. Irisin is a pro-myogenic factor that induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy and rescues denervation-induced atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza, Musarrat Maisha; Subramaniyam, Nathiya; Sim, Chu Ming; Ge, Xiaojia; Sathiakumar, Durgalakshmi; McFarlane, Craig; Sharma, Mridula; Kambadur, Ravi

    2017-10-24

    Exercise induces expression of the myokine irisin, which is known to promote browning of white adipose tissue and has been shown to mediate beneficial effects following exercise. Here we show that irisin induces expression of a number of pro-myogenic and exercise response genes in myotubes. Irisin increases myogenic differentiation and myoblast fusion via activation of IL6 signaling. Injection of irisin in mice induces significant hypertrophy and enhances grip strength of uninjured muscle. Following skeletal muscle injury, irisin injection improves regeneration and induces hypertrophy. The effects of irisin on hypertrophy are due to activation of satellite cells and enhanced protein synthesis. In addition, irisin injection rescues loss of skeletal muscle mass following denervation by enhancing satellite cell activation and reducing protein degradation. These data suggest that irisin functions as a pro-myogenic factor in mice.

  19. [Skeletal anchorage in the past, today and tomorrow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melsen, Birte; Dalstra, Michel

    2017-03-01

    Skeletal anchorage was not introduced as an alternative to conventional anchorage modalities. The first skeletal anchorage was a ligature through a hole in the infrazygomatic crest. This was replaced by surgical screws and finally the TADs, which were optimized with respect to the material and morphology, were developed. A bracket-like head allows for the use of the mini-implant as indirect anchorage, but should not be a tool for lost control resulting from badly planned biomechanics or failing compliance. Skeletal anchorage should serve as an adjunct to correct biomechanics, to enable treatments that could not be performed prior to the introduction of skeletal anchorage. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that temporary anchorage mini-screws help maintain bone density, height and width of alveolar processes in the extraction sites, and thus prevent the thinning of the alveolar ridge usually observed. In adult patients with degenerated dentitions the application of skeletal anchorage can allow for the displacement of teeth where no anchorage units are present, but also for the redevelopment and maintenance of atrophic alveolar bone. The basis for the optimal use of skeletal anchorage is that the correct line of action for the desired tooth displacement is defined and the necessary force system constructed either with the skeletal anchorage as direct or as indirect anchorage. After a period, during which osseointegrated implants were used as anchorage for tooth movement and bone maintenance, it was accepted that the mini-implants could serve also as anchorage for skeletal displacements avoiding loading of teeth. © EDP Sciences, SFODF, 2017.

  20. Knee radiography in the diagnosis of skeletal dysplasias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwee, Thomas C.; Beek, Frederik J.A.; Nievelstein, Rutger A.J.; Beemer, Frits A.

    2006-01-01

    Flattening of the epiphyses of long bones is seen in several skeletal dysplasias and standardized measurements on a radiograph of the knee to detect skeletal dysplasias using this feature have been described. Since then only two other studies in which this method was used have been published, and both included only a small number of children and neither had a control group. In addition, the Dutch National Working Group on Skeletal Dysplasias began to have doubts about the reliability of the method. We therefore decided to re-evaluate its accuracy in a population of children with and without a skeletal dysplasia. To determine the diagnostic value of standardized measurements on conventional AP radiographs of the knee in children with a skeletal dysplasia. Subjects and methods: We measured the distal femoral metaphysis and epiphysis according to the published method on conventional AP radiographs of the knee in 45 healthy children and 52 children with a skeletal dysplasia. We compared graphically the height of the distal femoral epiphysis with its width and with the width of the femoral metaphysis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were calculated for each group of children. All graphs showed a considerable overlap between children with a skeletal dysplasia and healthy children. The size of the area under the ROC curves for the different groups was small, varying between 0.567 and 0.653. This method does not discriminate between children with a skeletal dysplasia and healthy children. We therefore consider it to be of little diagnostic value. (orig.)

  1. Mechanical modeling of skeletal muscle functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, B.J.J.J.

    1998-01-01

    For movement of body or body segments is combined effort needed of the central nervous system and the muscular-skeletal system. This thesis deals with the mechanical functioning of skeletal muscle. That muscles come in a large variety of geometries, suggest the existence of a relation between muscle

  2. The role of p38 MAP kinase and c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase signaling in the differentiation and apoptosis of immortalized neural stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Se-Ran; Cho, Sung-Dae; Ahn, Nam-Shik; Jung, Ji-Won; Park, Joon-Suk; Jo, Eun-Hye; Hwang, Jae-Woong; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Bong-Hee; Kang, Kyung-Sun; Lee, Yong-Soon

    2005-01-01

    The two distinct members of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase family c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) and p38 MAP kinase, play an important role in central nervous system (CNS) development and differentiation. However, their role and functions are not completely understood in CNS. To facilitate in vitro study, we have established an immortal stem cell line using SV40 from fetal rat embryonic day 17. In these cells, MAP kinase inhibitors (SP600125, SB202190, and PD98059) were treated for 1, 24, 48, and 72 h to examine the roles of protein kinases. Early inhibition of JNK did not alter phenotypic or morphological changes of immortalized cells, however overexpression of Bax and decrease of phosphorylated AKT was observed. The prolonged inhibition of JNK induced polyploidization of immortalized cells, and resulted in differentiation and inhibition of cell proliferation. Moreover, JNK and p38 MAP kinase but not ERK1/2 was activated, and p21, p53, and Bax were overexpressed by prolonged inhibition of JNK. These results indicate that JNK and p38 MAP kinase could play dual roles on cell survival and apoptosis. Furthermore, this established cell line could facilitate study of the role of JNK and p38 MAP kinase on CNS development or differentiation/apoptosis

  3. A unified anatomy ontology of the vertebrate skeletal system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasila M Dahdul

    Full Text Available The skeleton is of fundamental importance in research in comparative vertebrate morphology, paleontology, biomechanics, developmental biology, and systematics. Motivated by research questions that require computational access to and comparative reasoning across the diverse skeletal phenotypes of vertebrates, we developed a module of anatomical concepts for the skeletal system, the Vertebrate Skeletal Anatomy Ontology (VSAO, to accommodate and unify the existing skeletal terminologies for the species-specific (mouse, the frog Xenopus, zebrafish and multispecies (teleost, amphibian vertebrate anatomy ontologies. Previous differences between these terminologies prevented even simple queries across databases pertaining to vertebrate morphology. This module of upper-level and specific skeletal terms currently includes 223 defined terms and 179 synonyms that integrate skeletal cells, tissues, biological processes, organs (skeletal elements such as bones and cartilages, and subdivisions of the skeletal system. The VSAO is designed to integrate with other ontologies, including the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO, Gene Ontology (GO, Uberon, and Cell Ontology (CL, and it is freely available to the community to be updated with additional terms required for research. Its structure accommodates anatomical variation among vertebrate species in development, structure, and composition. Annotation of diverse vertebrate phenotypes with this ontology will enable novel inquiries across the full spectrum of phenotypic diversity.

  4. A unified anatomy ontology of the vertebrate skeletal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahdul, Wasila M; Balhoff, James P; Blackburn, David C; Diehl, Alexander D; Haendel, Melissa A; Hall, Brian K; Lapp, Hilmar; Lundberg, John G; Mungall, Christopher J; Ringwald, Martin; Segerdell, Erik; Van Slyke, Ceri E; Vickaryous, Matthew K; Westerfield, Monte; Mabee, Paula M

    2012-01-01

    The skeleton is of fundamental importance in research in comparative vertebrate morphology, paleontology, biomechanics, developmental biology, and systematics. Motivated by research questions that require computational access to and comparative reasoning across the diverse skeletal phenotypes of vertebrates, we developed a module of anatomical concepts for the skeletal system, the Vertebrate Skeletal Anatomy Ontology (VSAO), to accommodate and unify the existing skeletal terminologies for the species-specific (mouse, the frog Xenopus, zebrafish) and multispecies (teleost, amphibian) vertebrate anatomy ontologies. Previous differences between these terminologies prevented even simple queries across databases pertaining to vertebrate morphology. This module of upper-level and specific skeletal terms currently includes 223 defined terms and 179 synonyms that integrate skeletal cells, tissues, biological processes, organs (skeletal elements such as bones and cartilages), and subdivisions of the skeletal system. The VSAO is designed to integrate with other ontologies, including the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO), Gene Ontology (GO), Uberon, and Cell Ontology (CL), and it is freely available to the community to be updated with additional terms required for research. Its structure accommodates anatomical variation among vertebrate species in development, structure, and composition. Annotation of diverse vertebrate phenotypes with this ontology will enable novel inquiries across the full spectrum of phenotypic diversity.

  5. A Unified Anatomy Ontology of the Vertebrate Skeletal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahdul, Wasila M.; Balhoff, James P.; Blackburn, David C.; Diehl, Alexander D.; Haendel, Melissa A.; Hall, Brian K.; Lapp, Hilmar; Lundberg, John G.; Mungall, Christopher J.; Ringwald, Martin; Segerdell, Erik; Van Slyke, Ceri E.; Vickaryous, Matthew K.; Westerfield, Monte; Mabee, Paula M.

    2012-01-01

    The skeleton is of fundamental importance in research in comparative vertebrate morphology, paleontology, biomechanics, developmental biology, and systematics. Motivated by research questions that require computational access to and comparative reasoning across the diverse skeletal phenotypes of vertebrates, we developed a module of anatomical concepts for the skeletal system, the Vertebrate Skeletal Anatomy Ontology (VSAO), to accommodate and unify the existing skeletal terminologies for the species-specific (mouse, the frog Xenopus, zebrafish) and multispecies (teleost, amphibian) vertebrate anatomy ontologies. Previous differences between these terminologies prevented even simple queries across databases pertaining to vertebrate morphology. This module of upper-level and specific skeletal terms currently includes 223 defined terms and 179 synonyms that integrate skeletal cells, tissues, biological processes, organs (skeletal elements such as bones and cartilages), and subdivisions of the skeletal system. The VSAO is designed to integrate with other ontologies, including the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO), Gene Ontology (GO), Uberon, and Cell Ontology (CL), and it is freely available to the community to be updated with additional terms required for research. Its structure accommodates anatomical variation among vertebrate species in development, structure, and composition. Annotation of diverse vertebrate phenotypes with this ontology will enable novel inquiries across the full spectrum of phenotypic diversity. PMID:23251424

  6. Loss of ATRX in chondrocytes has minimal effects on skeletal development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren A Solomon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mutations in the human ATRX gene cause developmental defects, including skeletal deformities and dwarfism. ATRX encodes a chromatin remodeling protein, however the role of ATRX in skeletal development is currently unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We induced Atrx deletion in mouse cartilage using the Cre-loxP system, with Cre expression driven by the collagen II (Col2a1 promoter. Growth rate, body size and weight, and long bone length did not differ in Atrx(Col2cre mice compared to control littermates. Histological analyses of the growth plate did not reveal any differences between control and mutant mice. Expression patterns of Sox9, a transcription factor required for cartilage morphogenesis, and p57, a marker of cell cycle arrest and hypertrophic chondrocyte differentiation, was unaffected. However, loss of ATRX in cartilage led to a delay in the ossification of the hips in some mice. We also observed hindlimb polydactily in one out of 61 mutants. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings indicate that ATRX is not directly required for development or growth of cartilage in the mouse, suggesting that the short stature in ATR-X patients is caused by defects in cartilage-extrinsic mechanisms.

  7. Identification of miR-2400 gene as a novel regulator in skeletal muscle satellite cells proliferation by targeting MYOG gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wei Wei [The Laboratory of Cell and Development, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150030 (China); College of Life Sciences and Agriculture & Forestry, Qiqihar University, Qiqihar, Heilongjiang 161006 (China); Tong, Hui Li; Sun, Xiao Feng; Hu, Qian; Yang, Yu; Li, Shu Feng [The Laboratory of Cell and Development, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150030 (China); Yan, Yun Qin, E-mail: yanyunqin@sohu.com [The Laboratory of Cell and Development, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150030 (China); Li, Guang Peng [The Key Laboratory of Mammal Reproductive Biology and Biotechnology Ministry of Education, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021 (China)

    2015-08-07

    MicroRNAs play critical roles in skeletal muscle development as well as in regulation of muscle cell proliferation and differentiation. Previous study in our laboratory showed that the expression level of miR-2400, a novel and unique miRNA from bovine, had significantly changed in skeletal muscle-derived satellite cells (MDSCs) during differentiation, however, the function and expression pattern for miR-2400 in MDSCs has not been fully understood. In this report, we firstly identified that the expression levels of miR-2400 were down-regulated during MDSCs differentiation by stem-loop RT-PCR. Over-expression and inhibition studies demonstrated that miR-2400 promoted MDSCs proliferation by EdU (5-ethynyl-2′ deoxyuridine) incorporation assay and immunofluorescence staining of Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Luciferase reporter assays showed that miR-2400 directly targeted the 3′ untranslated regions (UTRs) of myogenin (MYOG) mRNA. These data suggested that miR-2400 could promote MDSCs proliferation through targeting MYOG. Furthermore, we found that miR-2400, which was located within the eighth intron of the Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome candidate 1-like 1 (WHSC1L1) gene, was down-regulated in MDSCs in a direct correlation with the WHSC1L1 transcript by Clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats interference (CRISPRi). In addition, these observations not only provided supporting evidence for the codependent expression of intronic miRNAs and their host genes in vitro, but also gave insight into the role of miR-2400 in MDSCs proliferation. - Highlights: • miR-2400 is a novel and unique miRNA from bovine. • miR-2400 could promote skeletal muscle satellite cells proliferation. • miR-2400 directly targeted the 3′ untranslated regions of MYOG mRNA. • miR-2400 could be coexpressed together with its host gene WHSC1L1.

  8. TIPS to manipulate myogenesis: retention of myoblast differentiation capacity using microsphere culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Parmar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cell therapy is an emerging option for regenerating skeletal muscle. Improved delivery methods for anchorage-dependent myoblasts are likely to improve integration and function of transplanted muscle cells. Highly porous microspheres, produced using thermally induced phase separation (TIPS, have features ideally suited for minimally invasive cell delivery. The purpose of this study was to investigate, for the first time, the use of TIPS microspheres as highly porous microcarriers for manipulation of human skeletal muscle myoblasts (HSMM under defined culture conditions. HSMM cells readily attached to the surface of poly (DL-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA TIPS microcarriers, where they were induced to continue proliferating or to be driven towards differentiation whilst under static-dynamic culture conditions for 7 days. Switching from proliferation medium to differentiation medium for 7 days, resulted in increased protein expression of skeletal muscle cell contractile apparatus components, MyoD and skeletal muscle myosin heavy chain, compared with cells cultured on conventional culture plasticware for the same duration (p < 0.001. Growth of myoblasts on the surface of the microcarriers and their migration following simulated delivery, caused no change to the proliferative capacity of cells over 7 days. Results from this study demonstrate that TIPS microspheres provide an ideal vehicle for the expansion and delivery of myoblasts for therapeutic applications. Transplantation of myoblasts anchored to a substrate, rather than in suspension, will reduce the amount of ex vivo manipulation required during preparation of the product and allows cells to be delivered in a more natural state. This will improve the ability to control cell dosage and increase the likelihood of efficacy.

  9. The inhibitory roles of Ihh downregulation on chondrocyte growth and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ang; Zhang, Hongqi; Hu, Minyu; Liu, Shaohua; Wang, Yuxiang; Gao, Qile; Guo, Chaofeng

    2018-01-01

    The proliferative rate of chondrocytes affects bone elongation. Chondrocyte hypertrophy is required for endochondral bone formation as chondrocytes secrete factors required for osteoblast differentiation and maturation. Previous studies have demonstrated that the Indian hedgehog (Ihh) signaling pathway is a key regulator of skeletal development and homeostasis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the function of Ihh in chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation, as well as the underlying mechanisms. Ihh was knocked down in mouse chondrocyte cells using short hairpin RNA. Chondrocyte apoptosis and cell cycle arrest were assessed using flow cytometry and the results indicated that knockdown of Ihh significantly inhibited cell growth (PIhh also resulted in cell cycle arrest at G1 to S phase in chondrocytes. It was also observed that knockdown of Ihh decreased alkaline phosphatase activity and mineral deposition of chondrocytes. The inhibitory roles of Ihh downregulation on chondrocyte growth and differentiation may be associated with the transforming growth factor-β/mothers against decapentaplegic and osteoprotegerin/receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand signaling pathway. The results of the present study suggest that chondrocyte-derived Ihh is essential for maintaining bone growth plates and that manipulation of Ihh expression or its signaling components may be a novel therapeutic technique for the treatment of skeletal diseases, including achondroplasia.

  10. The role of the SIBLING, Bone Sialoprotein in skeletal biology - Contribution of mouse experimental genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouleftour, Wafa; Juignet, Laura; Bouet, Guenaelle; Granito, Renata Neves; Vanden-Bossche, Arnaud; Laroche, Norbert; Aubin, Jane E; Lafage-Proust, Marie-Hélène; Vico, Laurence; Malaval, Luc

    2016-01-01

    Bone Sialoprotein (BSP) is a member of the "Small Integrin-Binding Ligand N-linked Glycoproteins" (SIBLING) extracellular matrix protein family of mineralized tissues. BSP has been less studied than other SIBLING proteins such as Osteopontin (OPN), which is coexpressed with it in several skeletal cell types. Here we review the contribution of genetically engineered mice (BSP gene knockout and overexpression) to the understanding of the role of BSP in the bone organ. The studies made so far highlight the role of BSP in skeletal mineralization, as well as its importance for proper osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation and activity, most prominently in primary/repair bone. The absence of BSP also affects the local environment of the bone tissue, in particular hematopoiesis and vascularization. Interestingly, lack of BSP induces an overexpression of OPN, and the cognate protein could be responsible for some aspects of the BSP gene knockout skeletal phenotype, while replacing BSP for some of its functions. Such interplay between the partly overlapping functions of SIBLING proteins, as well as the network of cross-regulations in which they are involved should now be the focus of further work. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Matrix Biology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Skeletal Muscle Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart Jeromson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle is a plastic tissue capable of adapting and mal-adapting to physical activity and diet. The response of skeletal muscle to adaptive stimuli, such as exercise, can be modified by the prior nutritional status of the muscle. The influence of nutrition on skeletal muscle has the potential to substantially impact physical function and whole body metabolism. Animal and cell based models show that omega-3 fatty acids, in particular those of marine origin, can influence skeletal muscle metabolism. Furthermore, recent human studies demonstrate that omega-3 fatty acids of marine origin can influence the exercise and nutritional response of skeletal muscle. These studies show that the prior omega-3 status influences not only the metabolic response of muscle to nutrition, but also the functional response to a period of exercise training. Omega-3 fatty acids of marine origin therefore have the potential to alter the trajectory of a number of human diseases including the physical decline associated with aging. We explore the potential molecular mechanisms by which omega-3 fatty acids may act in skeletal muscle, considering the n-3/n-6 ratio, inflammation and lipidomic remodelling as possible mechanisms of action. Finally, we suggest some avenues for further research to clarify how omega-3 fatty acids may be exerting their biological action in skeletal muscle.

  12. Msx homeobox genes inhibit differentiation through upregulation of cyclin D1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, G; Lee, H; Price, S M; Shen, M M; Abate-Shen, C

    2001-06-01

    During development, patterning and morphogenesis of tissues are intimately coordinated through control of cellular proliferation and differentiation. We describe a mechanism by which vertebrate Msx homeobox genes inhibit cellular differentiation by regulation of the cell cycle. We show that misexpression of Msx1 via retroviral gene transfer inhibits differentiation of multiple mesenchymal and epithelial progenitor cell types in culture. This activity of Msx1 is associated with its ability to upregulate cyclin D1 expression and Cdk4 activity, while Msx1 has minimal effects on cellular proliferation. Transgenic mice that express Msx1 under the control of the mouse mammary tumor virus long terminal repeat (MMTV LTR) display impaired differentiation of the mammary epithelium during pregnancy, which is accompanied by elevated levels of cyclin D1 expression. We propose that Msx1 gene expression maintains cyclin D1 expression and prevents exit from the cell cycle, thereby inhibiting terminal differentiation of progenitor cells. Our model provides a framework for reconciling the mutant phenotypes of Msx and other homeobox genes with their functions as regulators of cellular proliferation and differentiation during embryogenesis.

  13. Satellite cell proliferation in adult skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Frank W. (Inventor); Thomason, Donald B. (Inventor); Morrison, Paul R. (Inventor); Stancel, George M. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Novel methods of retroviral-mediated gene transfer for the in vivo corporation and stable expression of eukaryotic or prokaryotic foreign genes in tissues of living animals is described. More specifically, methods of incorporating foreign genes into mitotically active cells are disclosed. The constitutive and stable expression of E. coli .beta.-galactosidase gene under the promoter control of the Moloney murine leukemia virus long terminal repeat is employed as a particularly preferred embodiment, by way of example, establishes the model upon which the incorporation of a foreign gene into a mitotically-active living eukaryotic tissue is based. Use of the described methods in therapeutic treatments for genetic diseases, such as those muscular degenerative diseases, is also presented. In muscle tissue, the described processes result in genetically-altered satellite cells which proliferate daughter myoblasts which preferentially fuse to form a single undamaged muscle fiber replacing damaged muscle tissue in a treated animal. The retroviral vector, by way of example, includes a dystrophin gene construct for use in treating muscular dystrophy. The present invention also comprises an experimental model utilizable in the study of the physiological regulation of skeletal muscle gene expression in intact animals.

  14. Chromatin plasticity as a differentiation index during muscle differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Tomonobu M.; Higuchi, Sayaka; Kawauchi, Keiko; Tsukasaki, Yoshikazu; Ichimura, Taro; Fujita, Hideaki

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Change in the epigenetic landscape during myogenesis was optically investigated. ► Mobility of nuclear proteins was used to state the epigenetic status of the cell. ► Mobility of nuclear proteins decreased as myogenesis progressed in C2C12. ► Differentiation state diagram was developed using parameters obtained. -- Abstract: Skeletal muscle undergoes complicated differentiation steps that include cell-cycle arrest, cell fusion, and maturation, which are controlled through sequential expression of transcription factors. During muscle differentiation, remodeling of the epigenetic landscape is also known to take place on a large scale, determining cell fate. In an attempt to determine the extent of epigenetic remodeling during muscle differentiation, we characterized the plasticity of the chromatin structure using C2C12 myoblasts. Differentiation of C2C12 cells was induced by lowering the serum concentration after they had reached full confluence, resulting in the formation of multi-nucleated myotubes. Upon induction of differentiation, the nucleus size decreased whereas the aspect ratio increased, indicating the presence of force on the nucleus during differentiation. Movement of the nucleus was also suppressed when differentiation was induced, indicating that the plasticity of chromatin changed upon differentiation. To evaluate the histone dynamics during differentiation, FRAP experiment was performed, which showed an increase in the immobile fraction of histone proteins when differentiation was induced. To further evaluate the change in the histone dynamics during differentiation, FCS was performed, which showed a decrease in histone mobility on differentiation. We here show that the plasticity of chromatin decreases upon differentiation, which takes place in a stepwise manner, and that it can be used as an index for the differentiation stage during myogenesis using the state diagram developed with the parameters obtained in this study.

  15. Combined orthodontic and surgical correction of adult skeletal class II with hyperdivergent jaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Jiku; Bagchi, Paulami; Gupta, Swati; Gupta, Hemant; Autar, Ram

    2012-01-01

    A case of severe Class II skeletal malocclusion with anterior open bite having vertical growth pattern and matching soft tissue profile is presented. Considering age of the patient and the severity of the malocclusion, it was decided to combine orthodontic treatment with surgery. A 0.022 Roth Pre-adjusted Edgewise Appliance was chosen for the orthodontic correction and Le-Fort 1 differential vertical impaction of maxilla with mandibular autorotation and augmentation genioplasty was considered as the treatment plan. The main aim was to reduce the gummy smile and correct the class II profile.

  16. Membrane glycoproteins of differentiating skeletal muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, K.R.; Remy, C.N.; Smith, P.B.

    1987-01-01

    The composition of N-linked glycoprotein oligosaccharides was studied in myoblasts and myotubes of the C2 muscle cell line. Oligosaccharides were radioactively labelled for 15 hr with [ 3 H] mannose and plasma membranes isolated. Ten glycopeptides were detected by SDS-PAGE and fluorography. The extent of labelling was 4-6 fold greater in myoblasts vs myotubes. A glycopeptide of Mr > 100,000 was found exclusively in myoblast membranes. Lectin chromatography revealed that the proportion of tri-, tetranntenary, biantennary and high mannose chains was similar throughout differentiation. The high mannose chain fraction was devoid of hybrid chains. The major high mannose chain contained nine mannose residues. The higher level of glycopeptide labelling in myoblasts vs myotubes corresponded to a 5-fold greater rate of protein synthesis. Pulse-chase experiments were used to follow the synthesis of the Dol-oligosaccharides. Myoblasts and myotubes labelled equivalently the glucosylated tetradecasaccharide but myoblasts labelled the smaller intermediates 3-4 greater than myotubes. Myoblasts also exhibited a 2-3 fold higher Dol-P dependent glycosyl transferase activity for chain elongation and Dol-sugar synthesis. Together these results show that the degree of protein synthesis and level of Dol-P are contributing factors in the higher capacity of myoblasts to produce N-glycoproteins compared to myotubes

  17. Effect of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate on miRNA expression in differentiating equine satellite cells exposed to hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodkowska, Karolina A; Ciecierska, Anna; Majchrzak, Kinga; Ostaszewski, Piotr; Sadkowski, Tomasz

    2018-01-01

    Skeletal muscle injury activates satellite cells to initiate processes of proliferation, differentiation, and hypertrophy in order to regenerate muscle fibers. The number of microRNAs and their target genes are engaged in satellite cell activation. β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) is known to prevent exercise-induced muscle damage. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of HMB on miRNA and relevant target gene expression in differentiating equine satellite cells exposed to H 2 O 2 . We hypothesized that HMB may regulate satellite cell activity, proliferation, and differentiation, hence attenuate the pathological processes induced during an in vitro model of H 2 O 2 -related injury by changing the expression of miRNAs. Equine satellite cells (ESC) were isolated from the samples of skeletal muscle collected from young horses. ESC were treated with HMB (24 h) and then exposed to H 2 O 2 (1 h). For the microRNA and gene expression assessment microarrays, technique was used. Identified miRNAs and genes were validated using real-time qPCR. Cell viability, oxidative stress, and cell damage were measured using colorimetric method and flow cytometry. Analysis of miRNA and gene profile in differentiating ESC pre-incubated with HMB and then exposed to H 2 O 2 revealed difference in the expression of 27 miRNAs and 4740 genes, of which 344 were potential target genes for identified miRNAs. Special attention was focused on differentially expressed miRNAs and their target genes involved in processes related to skeletal muscle injury. Western blot analysis showed protein protection in HMB-pre-treated group compared to control. The viability test confirmed that HMB enhanced cell survival after the hydrogen peroxide exposition. Our results suggest that ESC pre-incubated with HMB and exposed to H 2 O 2 could affect expression on miRNA levels responsible for skeletal muscle development, cell proliferation and differentiation, and activation of tissue repair after

  18. Activation of the skeletal alpha-actin promoter during muscle regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, D R; Carson, J A; Stewart, L N; Booth, F W

    1998-11-01

    Little is known concerning promoter regulation of genes in regenerating skeletal muscles. In young rats, recovery of muscle mass and protein content is complete within 21 days. During the initial 5-10 days of regeneration, mRNA abundance for IGF-I, myogenin and MyoD have been shown to be dramatically increased. The skeletal alpha-actin promoter contains E box and serum response element (SRE) regulatory regions which are directly or indirectly activated by myogenin (or MyoD) and IGF-I proteins, respectively. We hypothesized that the skeletal alpha-actin promoter activity would increase during muscle regeneration, and that this induction would occur before muscle protein content returned to normal. Total protein content and the percentage content of skeletal alpha-actin protein was diminished at 4 and 8 days and re-accumulation had largely occurred by 16 days post-bupivacaine injection. Skeletal alpha-actin mRNA per whole muscle was decreased at day 8, and thereafter returned to control values. During regeneration at day 8, luciferase activity (a reporter of promoter activity) directed by -424 skeletal alpha-actin and -99 skeletal alpha-actin promoter constructs was increased by 700% and 250% respectively; however, at day 16, skeletal alpha-actin promoter activities were similar to control values. Thus, initial activation of the skeletal alpha-actin promoter is associated with regeneration of skeletal muscle, despite not being sustained during the later stages of regrowth. The proximal SRE of the skeletal alpha-actin promoter was not sufficient to confer a regeneration-induced promoter activation, despite increased serum response factor protein binding to this regulatory element in electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Skeletal alpha-actin promoter induction during regeneration is due to a combination of regulatory elements, at least including the SRE and E box.

  19. A rare case of extensive skeletal muscle metastases in adenocarcinoma cervix identified by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vishnoi, Madan Gopal; Jain, Anurag; John, Arun Ravi; Paliwal, Dharmesh

    2016-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma cervix is an uncommon histological subtype of carcinoma cervix; further incidence of skeletal muscle metastases is even rarer. We report the identification of extensive fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) avid metastatic skeletal muscle deposits in a known case of adenocarcinoma cervix. The largest lesion representative of muscle deposit in the right deltoid was histopathologically confirmed to be metastatic poorly differentiated carcinoma. This report also serves to highlight the importance of 18 F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (CT) as compared to conventional imaging modalities such as CT and ultrasonography and comments better over the description of invasiveness as well as the extent of disease in carcinoma cervix

  20. Evaluating two-dimensional skeletal structure parameters using radiological bone morphometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asa, Kensuke; Sakurai, Takashi; Kashima, Isamu; Kumasaka, Satsuki

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this study was to investigate the reliability of two-dimensional (2D) skeletal structure parameters obtained using radiological bone morphometric analysis. The 2D skeletal parameters in the regions of interest (ROIs) were measured on computed radiography (CR) images of first phalanges from racehorses, using radiological bone morphometric analysis. Cancellous bone blocks were made from the phalanges in the same position as the ROI determined on CR images. Three-dimensional (3D) trabecular parameters were measured using micro-computed tomography (μCT). The correlations between the 2D skeletal parameters and 3D trabecular parameters were evaluated in relation to the measured bone strength. The following 2D skeletal structure parameters were correlated with bone strength (r=0.61-0.69): skeletal perimeter (Sk.Pm), skeletal number (Sk.N), skeletal separation (Sk.Sp), skeletal spacing (Sk.Spac), fractal dimension (FD), and skeletal pattern factor (SkPf). The 3D trabecular structure parameters were closely correlated with bone strength (r=0.74-0.86). The 2D skeletal parameters Sk.N, Sk.Pm, FD, SkPf, and Sk.Spac were correlated with the 3D trabecular parameters (r=0.61-0.70). The 2D skeletal parameters obtained using radiological bone morphometric analysis may be useful indicators of trabecular strength. (author)

  1. Identification of new dystroglycan complexes in skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric K Johnson

    Full Text Available The dystroglycan complex contains the transmembrane protein β-dystroglycan and its interacting extracellular mucin-like protein α-dystroglycan. In skeletal muscle fibers, the dystroglycan complex plays an important structural role by linking the cytoskeletal protein dystrophin to laminin in the extracellular matrix. Mutations that affect any of the proteins involved in this structural axis lead to myofiber degeneration and are associated with muscular dystrophies and congenital myopathies. Because loss of dystrophin in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD leads to an almost complete loss of dystroglycan complexes at the myofiber membrane, it is generally assumed that the vast majority of dystroglycan complexes within skeletal muscle fibers interact with dystrophin. The residual dystroglycan present in dystrophin-deficient muscle is thought to be preserved by utrophin, a structural homolog of dystrophin that is up-regulated in dystrophic muscles. However, we found that dystroglycan complexes are still present at the myofiber membrane in the absence of both dystrophin and utrophin. Our data show that only a minority of dystroglycan complexes associate with dystrophin in wild type muscle. Furthermore, we provide evidence for at least three separate pools of dystroglycan complexes within myofibers that differ in composition and are differentially affected by loss of dystrophin. Our findings indicate a more complex role of dystroglycan in muscle than currently recognized and may help explain differences in disease pathology and severity among myopathies linked to mutations in DAPC members.

  2. Nanotopographical Control of Stem Cell Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E. McNamara

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells have the capacity to differentiate into various lineages, and the ability to reliably direct stem cell fate determination would have tremendous potential for basic research and clinical therapy. Nanotopography provides a useful tool for guiding differentiation, as the features are more durable than surface chemistry and can be modified in size and shape to suit the desired application. In this paper, nanotopography is examined as a means to guide differentiation, and its application is described in the context of different subsets of stem cells, with a particular focus on skeletal (mesenchymal stem cells. To address the mechanistic basis underlying the topographical effects on stem cells, the likely contributions of indirect (biochemical signal-mediated and direct (force-mediated mechanotransduction are discussed. Data from proteomic research is also outlined in relation to topography-mediated fate determination, as this approach provides insight into the global molecular changes at the level of the functional effectors.

  3. Skeletal muscle proteomic signature and metabolic impairment in pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malenfant, Simon; Potus, François; Fournier, Frédéric; Breuils-Bonnet, Sandra; Pflieger, Aude; Bourassa, Sylvie; Tremblay, Ève; Nehmé, Benjamin; Droit, Arnaud; Bonnet, Sébastien; Provencher, Steeve

    2015-05-01

    Exercise limitation comes from a close interaction between cardiovascular and skeletal muscle impairments. To better understand the implication of possible peripheral oxidative metabolism dysfunction, we studied the proteomic signature of skeletal muscle in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Eight idiopathic PAH patients and eight matched healthy sedentary subjects were evaluated for exercise capacity, skeletal muscle proteomic profile, metabolism, and mitochondrial function. Skeletal muscle proteins were extracted, and fractioned peptides were tagged using an iTRAQ protocol. Proteomic analyses have documented a total of 9 downregulated proteins in PAH skeletal muscles and 10 upregulated proteins compared to healthy subjects. Most of the downregulated proteins were related to mitochondrial structure and function. Focusing on skeletal muscle metabolism and mitochondrial health, PAH patients presented a decreased expression of oxidative enzymes (pyruvate dehydrogenase, p metabolism in PAH skeletal muscles. We provide evidences