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Sample records for terminal storage argillaceous

  1. United States National Waste Terminal Storage argillaceous rock studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunton, G.D.

    1981-01-01

    The past and present argillaceous rock studies for the US National Waste Terminal Storage Program consist of: (1) evaluation of the geological characteristics of several widespread argillaceous formations in the United States; (2) laboratory studies of the physical and chemical properties of selected argillaceous rock samples; and (3) two full-scale in situ surface heater experiments that simulate the emplacement of heat-generating radioactive waste in argillaceous rock

  2. United States National Waste Terminal Storage argillaceous rock studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunton, G.D.

    1979-01-01

    The past and present argillaceous rock studies for the US National Waste Terminal Storage Program consist of: (1) evaluation of the geological characteristics of several widespread argillaceous formations in the United States; (2) laboratory studies of the physical and chemical properties of selected argillaceous rock samples; and (3) two full-scale in-situ surface heater experiments that simulate the emplacement of heat-generating radioactive waste in argillaceous rock

  3. National waste terminal storage program bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asher, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    In February 1976, the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) announced a greatly expanded waste management program for defense and commercial radioactive waste. In that announcement, ERDA indicated that the Oak Ridge Operations Office (ORO) of ERDA would have lead responsibility for overall coordination of the expanded commercial geologic disposal program and that an Office of Waste Isolation (OWI) would be created within Union Carbide Corporation-Nuclear Division (UCC-ND) with the responsibility for program management of that activity. This bibliography lists many of the documents authored since 1958 by UCC-ND's technical personnel, consultants, and subcontractors as part of the geologic waste disposal programs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the current National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program. Future editions will contain new documents as well as other prior-year documents which, because of our schedule, we were unable to identify, locate, and include in this first edition. Longer-range plans include broadening the scope of coverage to include documents authored by other NWTS Program participants. This edition, as well as future editions, will list only those documents that have been processed through ERDA's Technical Information Center for public availability from the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Virginia. Full reference and citation information appears only once, with various indexes provided for the convenience of the user. Report references are arranged by issuing organization with sequencing according to document numbers; references to journal articles and conference proceedings are arranged by issue date

  4. Storage Space Allocation of Inbound Container in Railway Container Terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient storage strategy of railway container terminals is important in balancing resource utilization, reducing waiting time, and improving handling efficiency. In this paper, we consider the formulation and solution algorithm for storage space allocation problem of inbound containers in railway container terminal. The problem is formulated as two-stage optimization models, whose objectives are balancing the workload of inbound containers and reducing the overlapping amounts. An algorithm implement process based on rolling horizon approach is designed to solve the proposed models. Computational experiments on an actual railway container terminal show that the proposed approach is effective to solve space allocation problem of inbound container and is significant for the operation and organization of railway container terminals.

  5. Assessing materials handling and storage capacities in port terminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinu, O.; Roşca, E.; Popa, M.; Roşca, M. A.; Rusca, A.

    2017-08-01

    Terminals constitute the factual interface between different modes and, as a result, buffer stocks are unavoidable whenever transport flows with different discontinuities meet. This is the reason why assessing materials handling and storage capacities is an important issue in the course of attempting to increase operative planning of logistic processes in terminals. Proposed paper starts with a brief review of the compatibilities between different sorts of materials and corresponding transport modes and after, a literature overview of the studies related to ports terminals and their specialization is made. As a methodology, discrete event simulation stands as a feasible technique for assessing handling and storage capacities at the terminal, taking into consideration the multi-flows interaction and the non-uniform arrivals of vessels and inland vehicles. In this context, a simulation model, that integrates the activities of an inland water terminal and describes the essential interactions between the subsystems which influence the terminal capacity, is developed. Different scenarios are simulated for diverse sorts of materials, leading to bottlenecks identification, performance indicators such as average storage occupancy rate, average dwell or transit times estimations, and their evolution is analysed in order to improve the transfer operations in the logistic process

  6. Overview of the National Waste Terminal Storage Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerby, C.D.

    1976-01-01

    The following seven distinct steps necessary for developing a terminal storage facility are discussed: identification of formations of interest; reconnaissance surveys; in situ tests; area studies; detailed confirmation studies; pilot plant operations; and conversion of the pilot plant into a federal repository

  7. Engineering study: disposition of terminal liquors for interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metz, W.P.; Ogren, W.E.

    1975-02-01

    Eight alternative processes were chosen as being technologically feasible within the time frame dictated by budgeting procedures and terminal liquor availability. Solidified waste products acceptable for single-shell tank storage were assumed to be placed in available single-shell tanks. Double-shell tanks were used only for the more mobile terminal liquors or semi-solid mush products. The mush, chemical neutralization, and clay in-tank processes offer potential savings of tens of millions of dollars over double-shell tank storage of terminal liquors. In order to achieve this cost savings, the process development and demonstration must be completed prior to the beginning of double-shell tank construction (Dec. 1976) expected to be funded from a fiscal year 1977 line item. Budgeting for these additional double-shell tanks must proceed since the processing options discussed here are not yet available and may not prove to be available at the required time. This study indicates the following topics for additional study: Process technology development to achieve interim storage of terminal liquor products receives the greatest emphasis as a means of reducing capital expenditures. Interim storage product criteria, waste inventory, and conversion to final form require definition to allow comparison of the alternatives for disposition of terminal liquors. The pseudotechnical nature of product acceptability criteria is important to the evaluation of the partial neutralization and aluminum removal alternatives. More accurate estimates of terminal liquor quantity and composition are required to give a sound technical basis for choosing the appropriate processing alternative. Retrieval and reprocessing operations may affect the comparisons presented by this study

  8. National waste terminal storage conceptual reference repository description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odgers, I.L.; Collings, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    The conceptual reference repository description (CRRD) discusses, from a conceptual engineering standpoint, the structures, systems, equipment, and operations necessary to: (1) receive unreprocessed spent fuel assemblies in standard casks; (2) unload these assemblies; (3) place them in canisters; (4) transport the canisters to underground storage locations in the salt dome; and (5) place the canisters in terminal storage. The CRRD also elaborates on the concepts for retrieval and recovery of the spent fuel after burial and describes the development of the shafts and the underground areas, as well as the supporting operational utility and administrative features of the repository

  9. National waste terminal storage program. Supplementary quality-assurance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garland, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    The basic Quality Assurance Program Requirements standard for the National Waste Terminal Storage Program has been developed primarily for nuclear reactors and other fairly well established nuclear facilities. In the case of waste isolation, however, there are many ongoing investigations for which quality assurance practices and requirements have not been well defined. This paper points out these problems which require supplementary requirements. Briefly these are: (1) the language barrier, that is geologists and scientists are not familiar with quality assurance (QA) terminology; (2) earth sciences deal with materials that cannot be characterized as easily as metals or other materials that are reasonably homogeneous; (3) development and control of mathematical models and associated computer programs; (4) research and development

  10. Terminal storage of radioactive waste in geologic formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomenick, T.F.

    1976-01-01

    The principal aim of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program is to develop pilot plants and, ultimately, repositories in several different rock formations in various parts of the country. Rocks such as salt, shale, limestone, granite, schists, and serpentinite may all qualify as host media for the disposition of radioactive wastes in the proper environments. In general, the only requirement for any rock formation or storage site is that it contain any emplaced wastes for so long as it takes for the radioactive materials to decay to innocuous levels. This requirement, though, is a formidable one as some of the wastes will remain active for periods of hundreds of thousands of years and the physical and chemical properties of rocks that govern circulating groundwater and hence containment, are difficult to determine and define. Nevertheless, there are many rock types and a host of areas throughout the country where conditions are promising for the development of waste repositories. Some of these are discussed below

  11. Storage yard operations in container terminals : Literature overview, trends, and research directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlo, Hector J.; Vis, Iris F. A.; Roodbergen, Kees Jan

    2014-01-01

    Inbound and outbound containers are temporarily stored in the storage yard at container terminals. A combination of container demand increase and storage yard capacity scarcity create complex operational challenges for storage yard managers. This paper presents an in-depth overview of storage yard

  12. Gas migration in argillaceous rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, E. E.; Olivella, S.

    2007-01-01

    The intrinsic gas permeability of fractured argillaceous rocks depends on the current structure of micro-cracks and fissures of the rock. They are a consequence of the initial state and the subsequent deformations induced by stress and gas pressure changes. Stresses are also coupled with fluid pressures and, therefore, gas flow and mechanical behaviour are intensely coupled. Laboratory experiments, aimed at determining intrinsic permeability, show the relevant effect of volumetric deformations induced by isotropic, as well as deviatoric stress changes. The relevance, in practice, of the flow-mechanical coupling is illustrated by means of some results obtained during the performance of the drift scale test (DST) in fractured tuff in the Yucca Mountain facility. The technique of embedding discontinuities in continuum thermo-hydro-mechanical elements is capable of reproducing observed features of gas flow migration in clayey rocks. An example is described. It is believed that the developed approach provides a powerful computational procedure to handle complex gas phenomena in clayey rocks. (author)

  13. Graphic terminal based on storage tube display with microcomputer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leich, H.; Levchanovsky, F.; Nikulnikov, A.; Polyntsev, A.; Prikhodko, V.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes a graphic terminal where a microcomputer realizes functions like the generation of picture elements (points, symbols, vectors), display control, processing of data received from keyboard and trackball, communication with a host computer and others. The terminal has been designed for operating in a local network as well as in autonomous control systems for data acquisition and processing in physical experiments [ru

  14. Migration of gases through argillaceous rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomlinson, M.J.

    1988-11-01

    Research literature relating to laboratory and field experimentation and numerical modelling of gas transport in argillaceous geological materials has been examined. A data base has been formed to assist simulation of gas migration behaviour from proposed underground nuclear waste repositories. (author)

  15. In situ migration experiment in argillaceous formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hidekazu

    1990-01-01

    International cooperative R and D has been performed within the five years framework of the bilateral agreement between PNC (Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation) and SCK/CEN (Studiecentrum voor Kernergie/Centre D'etude de L'energie Nucleaire, Mol, Belgium) which is focused on 'The Migration Experiment in argillaceous formation.' This Tertiary argillaceous formation, called Boom clay, is located at about 230m depth in Mol-Dessel area, Belgium. The argillaceous rock is considered to have a high capability for retardation to radionuclides when they migrate in geosphere because of a high content of clay minerals and dissolved carbon-rich pore water. The main purpose of this collaboration work is to characterize the migration phenomena in sedimentary rock through understanding of the behaviour of radionuclides migration in the argillaceous formation. The present report describes the preliminary results of in situ one-dimensional migration experiment with labelled clay core emplaced in borehole under advective condition. In the experiment, radioactive tracer Sr-85 and Eu-152+154 have been used in order to determine the apparent dispersion coefficient and retardation factor of Boom clay. Finally, the following conclusions were obtained by in situ measurement and calculation based on a appropriate migration model; a) From the Sr-85 experiment, diffusive behavior is interpreted to be a dominant phenomena on radionuclides transportation. b) From the Eu-152+154 experiment, very small non-retarded fraction is observed. (author)

  16. Hydraulic and hydrochemical characterisation of argillaceous rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Throughout the OECD member countries many national programmes on radioactive waste management are considering geological disposal in argillaceous media. In order to determine their suitability for waste disposal, evaluations and understanding of basic physical and chemical processes that govern radionuclides transport through these formations are required. Clay-rich media have a very marked capacity to retard the movement of radionuclides by sorption, filtration and other mechanisms. However, a complicating factor to make quantitative predictions of the performance of clay barriers is our incomplete knowledge of the mechanisms of groundwater and solute transport in compact clays. Application of hydraulic testing and groundwater sampling methods to low and very low permeability rocks, and in particular to argillaceous media, requires modifications in equipment, testing procedures, and interpretation methods. In this context, the NEA Coordinating Group on Site Evaluation and Design of Experiments for Radioactive Waste Disposal (SEDE) established the NEA Working Group on Measurement and Physical Understanding of Groundwater Flow through Argillaceous Media (the Clay Club) to address the many issues associated with this subject. The workshop on hydraulic and hydrochemical characteristics of argillaceous media was hosted by the British Geological Survey in Keyworth, United Kingdom, on 7-9 June 1994

  17. National Waste Terminal Storage Program. Progress report, October 1, 1976--September 30, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asher, J.M.

    1978-04-01

    The National Waste Terminal Storage Program Report comprises five sections: technical projects, facility projects, planning and analysis, regulatory affairs, and public affairs. Progress made in these areas during the period October 1, 1976, to September 30, 1977, is reported

  18. National Waste Terminal Storage Program information meeting, December 7-8, 1976. [Slides only, no text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-12-06

    Volume II of the report comprises copies of the slides from the talks presented at the second session of the National Waste Terminal Storage Program information meeting. This session was devoted to geologic studies. (LK)

  19. National Waste Terminal Storage Program information meeting, December 7-8, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Volume II of the report comprises copies of the slides from the talks presented at the second session of the National Waste Terminal Storage Program information meeting. This session was devoted to geologic studies

  20. Acceptable TRU packaging for interim storage and/or terminal isolation: FY-1977 final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doty, J.W.; Peterson, J.B.

    1978-01-01

    A program was conducted for the definition and demonstration of acceptable waste packages for defense transuranic waste for interim storage and terminal isolation. During FY-1977, a Contractor Questionnaire was used to gather pertinent data and to assess contractor concerns. This information was integrated into basic application data in the form of a checklist. Conceptual Container Design Specifications were developed by analyzing and evaluating the application data against Federal Regulations and interim/terminal storage constraints

  1. Economics of National Waste Terminal Storage Spent Fuel Pricing Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-05-01

    The methodology for equitably pricing commercial nuclear spent fuel management is developed, and the results of four sample calculations are presented. The spent fuel management program analyzed places encapsulated spent fuel in bedded salt while maintaining long-term retrievability. System design was reasonable but not optimum. When required, privately-owned Away From Reactor (AFR) storage is provided and the spent fuel placed in AFR storage is eventually transported to final storage. Applicable Research and Development and Government Overhead are included. The cost of each component by year was estimated from the most recent applicable data source available. These costs were input to the pricing methodology to establish a one-time charge whose present value exactly recovered the present value of the expenditure flow. The four cases exercised were combinations of a high and a low quantity of spent fuel managed, with a single repository (venture) or a multiple repository (campaign) approach to system financial structure. The price for spent fuel management calculated ranged from 116 to 152 dollars (1978) per kilogram charged initially to the reactor. The effect of spent fuel receiving rate on price is illustrated by the fact that the extremes of price did not coincide with the cases having the extremes of undiscounted cost. These prices for spent fuel management are comparable in magnitude to other fuel cycle costs. The range of variation is small because of compensating effects, i.e., additional costs for high early deliveries (AFR and transportation) versus lower present value of future revenue for later delivery cases. The methodology contains numerous conservative assumptions, provisions for contingencies, and covers the complete set of spent fuel management expenses

  2. Simulation-Based Optimization for Storage Allocation Problem of Outbound Containers in Automated Container Terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Storage allocation of outbound containers is a key factor of the performance of container handling system in automated container terminals. Improper storage plans of outbound containers make QC waiting inevitable; hence, the vessel handling time will be lengthened. A simulation-based optimization method is proposed in this paper for the storage allocation problem of outbound containers in automated container terminals (SAPOBA. A simulation model is built up by Timed-Colored-Petri-Net (TCPN, used to evaluate the QC waiting time of storage plans. Two optimization approaches, based on Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO and Genetic Algorithm (GA, are proposed to form the complete simulation-based optimization method. Effectiveness of this method is verified by experiment, as the comparison of the two optimization approaches.

  3. Thermal operations conditions in a national waste terminal storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-09-01

    Some of the major technical questions associated with the burial of radioactive high-level wastes in geologic formations are related to the thermal environments generated by the waste and the impact of this dissipated heat on the surrounding environment. The design of a high level waste storage facility must be such that the temperature variations that occur do not adversely affect operating personnel and equipment. The objective of this investigation was to assist OWI by determining the thermal environment that would be experienced by personnel and equipment in a waste storage facility in salt. Particular emphasis was placed on determining the maximum floor and air temperatures with and without ventilation in the first 30 years after waste emplacement. The assumed facility design differs somewhat from those previously analyzed and reported, but many of the previous parametric surveys are useful for comparison. In this investigation a number of 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional simulations of the heat flow in a repository have been performed on the HEATING5 and TRUMP heat transfer codes. The representative repository constructs used in the simulations are described, as well as the computational models and computer codes. Results of the simulations are presented and discussed. Comparisons are made between the recent results and those from previous analyses. Finally, a summary of study limitations, comparisons, and conclusions is given

  4. THM-coupled modeling of selected processes in argillaceous rock relevant to rock mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czaikowski, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Scientific investigations in European countries other than Germany concentrate not only on granite formations (Switzerland, Sweden) but also on argillaceous rock formations (France, Switzerland, Belgium) to assess their suitability as host and barrier rock for the final storage of radioactive waste. In Germany, rock salt has been under thorough study as a host rock over the past few decades. According to a study by the German Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, however, not only salt deposits but also argillaceous rock deposits are available at relevant depths and of extensions in space which make final storage of high-level radioactive waste basically possible in Germany. Equally qualified findings about the suitability/unsuitability of non-saline rock formations require fundamental studies to be conducted nationally because of the comparatively low level of knowledge. The article presents basic analyses of coupled mechanical and hydraulic properties of argillaceous rock formations as host rock for a repository. The interaction of various processes is explained on the basis of knowledge derived from laboratory studies, and open problems are deduced. For modeling coupled processes, a simplified analytical computation method is proposed and compared with the results of numerical simulations, and the limits to its application are outlined. (orig.)

  5. Iodine and selenium migration through argillaceous rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frasca, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Deep argillaceous formations are considered as potential host rock for high-level radioactive waste repository. Based on safety assessment calculations, active selenium ( 79 Se) and iodine ( 129 I) from high level radioactive waste might be ones of the major dose contributors due to their longevity and their anionic character. However, because of their high sensitivity to redox condition, a special attention to the oxidation state of these elements is required. A comparative study on the diffusion properties of selenium and iodine through argillaceous rocks was realized with the aim to determine the effects of both the redox conditions and the mineralogy on the migration of these two elements. For these purposes, we have studied two argillaceous rocks: Toarcian argillite from Tournemire (France) and Opalinus clay (OPA) from the Mont-Terri (Switzerland). The study of the iodide migration allowed to confirm the control on the iodide retention of both oxidized pyrite and natural organic matter. A kinetic control of the iodide sorption is also suspected. We focus the selenium study on the more oxidized species, Se(IV) and Se(VI). The Se(IV) migration is strongly dependant from oxido-reduction processes. Indeed, the Se(IV) diffusion experiments through Tournemire argillite and OPA indicated a significant reduction associated to Fe(II). The Se(VI) study evidenced a behavior dependant from the initial concentration: at the highest concentration, no significant retention was observed while the retention is significant at the lowest concentration. Furthermore, spectroscopic analyses tend to show a low Se(VI) reduction at the Fe contact. However, biotic origin cannot be excluded. (author)

  6. National Waste Terminal Storage Program. Progress report, April 1, 1975--September 30, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This report is divided into two parts: the Management Report and the Technical Report. Section 1 of the Management Report provides a general National Waste Terminal Storage program overview, which includes a summary of the long-range plan. Part II contains the status reports of the technical projects, facility projects, and systems projects

  7. Optimal LNG (liquefied natural gas) regasification scheduling for import terminals with storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trotter, Ian M.; Gomes, Marília Fernandes Maciel; Braga, Marcelo José; Brochmann, Bjørn; Lie, Ole Nikolai

    2016-01-01

    We describe a stochastic dynamic programming model for maximising the revenue generated by regasification of LNG (liquefied natural gas) from storage tanks at importation terminals in relation to a natural gas spot market. We present three numerical resolution strategies: a posterior optimal strategy, a rolling intrinsic strategy and a full option strategy based on a least-squares Monte Carlo algorithm. We then compare model simulation results to the observed behaviour of three LNG importation terminals in the UK for the period April 2011 to April 2012, and find that there was low correlation between the observed regasification decisions of the operators and those suggested by the three simulated strategies. However, the actions suggested by the model simulations would have generated significantly higher revenues, suggesting that the facilities might have been operated sub-optimally. A further numerical experiment shows that increasing the storage and regasification capacities of a facility can significantly increase the achievable revenue, even without altering the amount of LNG received, by allowing operators more flexibility to defer regasification. - Highlights: • We present a revenue maximisation model for LNG (liquefied natural gas) storage tanks at import terminals. • Three resolution strategies: posterior optimal, rolling intrinsic and full option. • The full option strategy is based on a least-squares Monte Carlo algorithm. • Model simulations show potential for higher revenue in three UK LNG terminals. • Numerical experiments show how storage and regasification capacities affect revenue.

  8. National Waste Terminal Storage Program Information Management Plan. Volume I. Management summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-05-01

    A comprehensive information management plan is needed for the processing of the large amount of documentation that will accumulate in the National Waste Terminal Storage program over the next decade. The plan will apply to all documentation from OWI contractors, subcontractors, and suppliers, and to external documentation from OWI organizations

  9. A comparative analysis of storage and retrieval equipment at a container terminal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vis, I.F.A.

    2006-01-01

    In designing container terminals one have to consider the choice for a certain type of storage and retrieval equipment by performing a feasibility and economic analysis. In this paper, we compare, by means of a simulation study, the performance of manned straddle carriers and automated stacking

  10. Proceedings of the 1982 National Waste Terminal Storage Program information meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-12-01

    The substantial progress made during fiscal year 1982 in the programmatic work directed toward providing the nation with at least one licensed, fully operational mined geologic repository as early as 1998 is given in these papers at the 1982 National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) information meeting. Individual papers are indexed. (DP)

  11. Proceedings of the 1981 National Waste Terminal Storage Program information meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-11-01

    Separate abstracts have been prepared for each of the following sixteen sections: Overview of the National Waste Terminal Storage Program; Site Characterization; Repository Development; Regulatory Framework; Systems; Socioeconomic Evaluation; Site Screening/Characterization Support Activities; Repository Data Base Development; Regulatory Implementation; Systems Performance Assessment; Sociopolitical Initiatives; Earth Sciences; International Waste Management; Waste Package Development; Quality Assurance; and Overviews of NWTS Projects

  12. National Waste Terminal Storage Program information meeting, December 7-8, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-12-01

    Volume I of the report comprises copies of the slides from the talks presented at the first session of the National Waste Terminal Storage Program information meeting. The agenda for the first day included an overview of the program plus presentations on such subjects as schedules and controls, facility projects, systems studies, regulatory affairs and technical support

  13. Engineering study: disposition of terminal liquors for interim storage. [Eight alternative processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metz, W.P.; Ogren, W.E.

    1975-02-01

    Eight alternative processes were chosen as being technologically feasible within the time frame dictated by budgeting procedures and terminal liquor availability. Solidified waste products acceptable for single-shell tank storage were assumed to be placed in available single-shell tanks. Double-shell tanks were used only for the more mobile terminal liquors or semi-solid mush products. The mush, chemical neutralization, and clay in-tank processes offer potential savings of tens of millions of dollars over double-shell tank storage of terminal liquors. In order to achieve this cost savings, the process development and demonstration must be completed prior to the beginning of double-shell tank construction (Dec. 1976) expected to be funded from a fiscal year 1977 line item. Budgeting for these additional double-shell tanks must proceed since the processing options discussed here are not yet available and may not prove to be available at the required time. This study indicates the following topics for additional study: Process technology development to achieve interim storage of terminal liquor products receives the greatest emphasis as a means of reducing capital expenditures. Interim storage product criteria, waste inventory, and conversion to final form require definition to allow comparison of the alternatives for disposition of terminal liquors. The pseudotechnical nature of product acceptability criteria is important to the evaluation of the partial neutralization and aluminum removal alternatives. More accurate estimates of terminal liquor quantity and composition are required to give a sound technical basis for choosing the appropriate processing alternative. Retrieval and reprocessing operations may affect the comparisons presented by this study. (DLC)

  14. Features, events and processes evaluation catalogue for argillaceous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazurek, M.; Pearson, F.J.; Volckaert, G.; Bock, H.

    2003-01-01

    The OECD/NEA Working Group on the Characterisation, the Understanding and the Performance of Argillaceous Rocks as Repository Host Formations for the disposal of radioactive waste (known as the 'Clay Club') launched a project called FEPCAT (Features, Events and Processes Catalogue for argillaceous media) in late 1998. The present report provides the results of work performed by an expert group to develop a FEPs database related to argillaceous formations, whether soft or indurated. It describes the methodology used for the work performed, provides a list of relevant FEPs and summarises the knowledge on each of them. It also provides general conclusions and identifies priorities for future work. (authors)

  15. Early fracturing in argillaceous massifs and related carbonate transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaudoin, B.; Dennebouy, S.; Parize, O.; Brulhet, J.; Trouiller, A.

    2004-01-01

    To be sure of the stability in the future of underground storage in argillaceous massifs needs to understand the present-day properties of the sediment in the light of its history. It is why early fracturing and associated carbonate transfer in shaly-marly massifs is one of the major themes of the MINANDRA Partnership (Ecole des Mines de Paris + ANDRA + some collaborators). That joint program involves tens of geo-scientists, and we would like to present here the main objects we study and the methods we apply. The base of the project is made of selected large reference-outcrops where an early fracturing is undoubtedly visible in the field. Two sets of such outcrops are presently worked in south-eastern France: - Aptian-albian marls (Marnes Bleues), at Bevons (near 04-Sisteron) and Saint-Andre de Rosans (W. of 05-Serres). - Domerian marls, at Clue du Vancon (E. of 04-Sisteron). Both are made of thick marls and intercalated limestone beds and nodules. (authors)

  16. Theoretical realization of cluster-assembled hydrogen storage materials based on terminated carbon atomic chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chun-Sheng; An, Hui; Guo, Ling-Ju; Zeng, Zhi; Ju, Xin

    2011-01-14

    The capacity of carbon atomic chains with different terminations for hydrogen storage is studied using first-principles density functional theory calculations. Unlike the physisorption of H(2) on the H-terminated chain, we show that two Li (Na) atoms each capping one end of the odd- or even-numbered carbon chain can hold ten H(2) molecules with optimal binding energies for room temperature storage. The hybridization of the Li 2p states with the H(2)σ orbitals contributes to the H(2) adsorption. However, the binding mechanism of the H(2) molecules on Na arises only from the polarization interaction between the charged Na atom and the H(2). Interestingly, additional H(2) molecules can be bound to the carbon atoms at the chain ends due to the charge transfer between Li 2s2p (Na 3s) and C 2p states. More importantly, dimerization of these isolated metal-capped chains does not affect the hydrogen binding energy significantly. In addition, a single chain can be stabilized effectively by the C(60) fullerenes termination. With a hydrogen uptake of ∼10 wt.% on Li-coated C(60)-C(n)-C(60) (n = 5, 8), the Li(12)C(60)-C(n)-Li(12)C(60) complex, keeping the number of adsorbed H(2) molecules per Li and stabilizing the dispersion of individual Li atoms, can serve as better building blocks of polymers than the (Li(12)C(60))(2) dimer. These findings suggest a new route to design cluster-assembled hydrogen storage materials based on terminated sp carbon chains.

  17. Office of Waste Isolation. Progress report, November 1977. [National waste terminal storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhines, R.C.; Asher, J.M. (eds.)

    1977-12-28

    This program is part of the National Waste Terminal Storage program. The Geologic Review Group meeting was held in New Orleans, November 16-17. Start-up of the near-surface heater experiment in the Conasauga Shale formation is under way at Oak Ridge. The first shipment of experimental equipment from Oak Ridge to Avery Island, Louisiana, for the dome salt in-situ test was successfully completed. On November 9-10, a design status review on the spent fuel repository conceptual design was held with Kaiser Engineers, Inc. On November 2, OWI personnel reviewed the progress on the Economic Studies with TRW representatives.

  18. Modelling and Metaheuristic for Gantry Crane Scheduling and Storage Space Allocation Problem in Railway Container Terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Zeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The gantry crane scheduling and storage space allocation problem in the main containers yard of railway container terminal is studied. A mixed integer programming model which comprehensively considers the handling procedures, noncrossing constraints, the safety margin and traveling time of gantry cranes, and the storage modes in the main area is formulated. A metaheuristic named backtracking search algorithm (BSA is then improved to solve this intractable problem. A series of computational experiments are carried out to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm under some randomly generated cases based on the practical operation conditions. The results show that the proposed algorithm can gain the near-optimal solutions within a reasonable computation time.

  19. Natural tracer profiles across argillaceous formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazurek, Martin; Alt-Epping, Peter; Bath, Adrian; Gimmi, Thomas; Niklaus Waber, H.; Buschaert, Stephane; Canniere, Pierre De; Craen, Mieke De; Gautschi, Andreas; Savoye, Sebastien; Vinsot, Agnes; Wemaere, Isabelle; Wouters, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Solute transport processes in clay and shale formations at nine sites are examined. → Conservative pore-water tracers (e.g. Cl - , δ 18 O, δ 2 H, He) show regular profiles. → These indicate the dominance of diffusive transport over times of 10 5 -10 6 years. → The contribution of vertical advection to transport is limited or negligible. → Modelled evolution times are in line with independent palaeo-hydrogeological data. - Abstract: Argillaceous formations generally act as aquitards because of their low hydraulic conductivities. This property, together with the large retention capacity of clays for cationic contaminants, has brought argillaceous formations into focus as potential host rocks for the geological disposal of radioactive and other waste. In several countries, programmes are under way to characterise the detailed transport properties of such formations at depth. In this context, the interpretation of profiles of natural tracers in pore waters across the formations can give valuable information about the large-scale and long-term transport behaviour of these formations. Here, tracer-profile data, obtained by various methods of pore-water extraction for nine sites in central Europe, are compiled. Data at each site comprise some or all of the conservative tracers: anions (Cl - , Br - ), water isotopes (δ 18 O, δ 2 H) and noble gases (mainly He). Based on a careful evaluation of the palaeo-hydrogeological evolution at each site, model scenarios are derived for initial and boundary pore-water compositions and an attempt is made to numerically reproduce the observed tracer distributions in a consistent way for all tracers and sites, using transport parameters derived from laboratory or in situ tests. The comprehensive results from this project have been reported in . Here the results for three sites are presented in detail, but the conclusions are based on model interpretations of the entire data set. In essentially all cases, the

  20. Communication of technical information to lay audiences. [National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowes, J.E.; Stamm, K.R.; Jackson, K.M.; Moore, J.

    1978-05-01

    One of the objectives of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program is to provide terminal storage facilities for commercial radioactive wastes in various geologic formations at multiple locations in the United States. The activities performed under the NWTS Program will affect regional, state, and local areas, and widespread public interest in this program is expected. Since a large part of the NWTS Program deals with technical information it was considered desirable to initiate a study dealing with possible methods of effectively transmitting this technical information to the general public. This study has the objective of preparing a state-of-the-art report on the communication of technical information to lay audiences. The particular task of communicating information about the NWTS Program to the public is discussed where appropriate. The results of this study will aid the NWTS Program in presenting to the public the quite diverse technical information generated within the program so that a widespread, thorough public understanding of the NWTS Program might be achieved. An annotated bibliography is included.

  1. Shales and other argillaceous strata in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, S.; Johnson, K.S.

    1985-03-01

    This report presents detailed geologic and hydrologic data that describe shales and other argillaceous rocks; data are from the open literature. These data are intended to be used in the future to aid in assessment of various strata and their potential for repository siting. No observations, conclusions, or recommendations are made by the authors of this report relative to the suitability of various argillaceous rocks for waste disposal. There are, however, other published reports that contain technical data and evaluative statements regarding the suitability of various argillaceous rocks for repository siting. Where appropriate, the authors of this report have referenced this previously published literature and have summarized the technical data. 838 refs., 121 figs., 6 tabs

  2. Clay club catalogue of characteristics of argillaceous rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The OECD/NEA Working Group on the Characterisation, the Understanding and the Performance of Argillaceous Rocks as Repository Host Formations, namely the Clay Club, examines the various argillaceous rocks that are being considered for the deep geological disposal of radioactive waste, i.e. from plastic, soft, poorly indurated clays to brittle, hard mud-stones or shales. The Clay Club considered it necessary and timely to provide a catalogue to gather in a structured way the key geo-scientific characteristics of the various argillaceous formations that are - or were - studied in NEA member countries with regard to radioactive waste disposal. The present catalogue represents the outcomes of this Clay Club initiative. (author)

  3. Shales and other argillaceous strata in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzales, S.; Johnson, K.S.

    1985-03-01

    This report presents detailed geologic and hydrologic data that describe shales and other argillaceous rocks; data are from the open literature. These data are intended to be used in the future to aid in assessment of various strata and their potential for repository siting. No observations, conclusions, or recommendations are made by the authors of this report relative to the suitability of various argillaceous rocks for waste disposal. There are, however, other published reports that contain technical data and evaluative statements regarding the suitability of various argillaceous rocks for repository siting. Where appropriate, the authors of this report have referenced this previously published literature and have summarized the technical data. 838 refs., 121 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Alarm management for storage and transportation terminals; Gerenciamento de alarmes para terminais de transferencia e estocagem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loureiro, Patricia [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Feldman, Rafael Noac [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Recently, in many industrial segments, it has been taken into account the issues related to the high amount of alarms that are announced in the control rooms, even if the industrial process is under normal conditions. Recent studies and surveys have shown that the three major problems related to it are: alarms that remain active during normal operation; alarms that remain chattering during an operational period; the phenomenon called Alarm flood, that occurs when an extensive amount of alarms is announced and the operator does not have enough time to take effective actions. In order to reduce or to eliminate the two above mentioned causes, alarm analysis and housekeeping, called Alarm Rationalization, have been efficient in major cases, because such facts occur mainly due to inadequate limits definition and/or equipment and instruments out of service or in maintenance. Such alarms are called in the literature as bad-actors or villains, and their occurrences may reach up to 50% of the daily total amount of alarms. This paper aims to present the main results of a project named Alarm Management for Transfer and Storage Terminals. The project development is based on two different terminal surveys, in order not only to identify the most frequent causes of undesirable alarms, but also to generate design standards. The main phases of the project are: alarm rationalization based on bad-actors detection; generate a set of design and operation standards; generate an Alarm Philosophy document for the Terminals. (author)

  5. Fractured rock modeling in the National Waste Terminal Storage Program: a review of requirements and status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St John, C.; Krug, A.; Key, S.; Monsees, J.

    1983-05-01

    Generalized computer codes capable of forming the basis for numerical models of fractured rock masses are being used within the NWTS program. Little additional development of these codes is considered justifiable, except in the area of representation of discrete fractures. On the other hand, model preparation requires definition of medium-specific constitutive descriptions and site characteristics and is therefore legitimately conducted by each of the media-oriented projects within the National Waste Terminal Storage program. However, it is essential that a uniform approach to the role of numerical modeling be adopted, including agreement upon the contribution of modeling to the design and licensing process and the need for, and means of, model qualification for particular purposes. This report discusses the role of numerical modeling, reviews the capabilities of several computer codes that are being used to support design or performance assessment, and proposes a framework for future numerical modeling activities within the NWTS program

  6. Intelligent Heuristic Techniques for the Optimization of the Transshipment and Storage Operations at Maritime Container Terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Expósito-Izquierdo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the main contributions of the Ph.D. thesis of Christopher Exp\\'osito-Izquierdo. This thesis seeks to develop a wide set of intelligent heuristic and meta-heuristic algorithms aimed at solving some of the most highlighted optimization problems associated with the transshipment and storage of containers at conventional maritime container terminals. Under the premise that no optimization technique can have a better performance than any other technique under all possible assumptions, the main point of interest in the domain of maritime logistics is to propose optimization techniques superior in terms of effectiveness and computational efficiency to previous proposals found in the scientific literature when solving individual optimization problems under realistic scenarios. Simultaneously, these optimization techniques should be enough competitive to be potentially implemented in practice. }}

  7. Pore fluids from the argillaceous rocks of the Harwell region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brightman, M.A.; Bath, A.H.; Cave, M.R.; Darling, W.G.

    1985-06-01

    The aim of this work was to obtain samples of pore water from argillaceous formations in the Harwell area for chemical analysis to provide a background for radionuclide migration studies and regional groundwater flow pattern. This report describes the samples, development of a pore-water squeezing cell and its operation. Chemical and analytical studies are summarized. (UK)

  8. Oil spill prevention: Regulatory trends and compliance at existing storage terminals and refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janisz, A.J.

    1993-01-01

    In 1973, the Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) regulations were promulgated. The objective of the regulations was to prevent oil spills. However, in the late 1980s and early 1990s, several catastrophic spills of oils led to review of oil spill prevention regulations by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the US Coast Guard, and the Department of the Interior's Minerals Management Service. The reviews led to promulgation of various acts and regulations including the proposed revisions to the SPCC regulations, the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA-90), and others. Numerous facilities within the petroleum and chemical industry were or will be affected by these regulations. This paper discusses regulatory trends for spill planning and prevention in general, but principally concentrates on above ground storage tanks at facilities storing or refining petroleum products. The paper includes discussions of bills on above ground storage tanks and proposed national standards, as well as regulatory trends in various states. Proposed SPCC regulations and their effects on the industry are also discussed, including requirements for impermeable surfaces and increasing secondary containment capacity. Management strategies to review facility operations and prepare for upgrades are outlined. The paper discusses the types of upgrades typically necessary at existing storage terminals and refineries and discusses information necessary to prepare conceptual designs and cost estimates. Cost estimates for typical upgrades, such as raising earthen berms and installing isolation valves, are presented. Facilities in the state of New Jersey are used as examples, because regulations in New Jersey are similar to the proposed federal regulations

  9. Risk Analysis of a Fuel Storage Terminal Using HAZOP and FTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Fuentes-Bargues

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The size and complexity of industrial chemical plants, together with the nature of the products handled, means that an analysis and control of the risks involved is required. This paper presents a methodology for risk analysis in chemical and allied industries that is based on a combination of HAZard and OPerability analysis (HAZOP and a quantitative analysis of the most relevant risks through the development of fault trees, fault tree analysis (FTA. Results from FTA allow prioritizing the preventive and corrective measures to minimize the probability of failure. An analysis of a case study is performed; it consists in the terminal for unloading chemical and petroleum products, and the fuel storage facilities of two companies, in the port of Valencia (Spain. HAZOP analysis shows that loading and unloading areas are the most sensitive areas of the plant and where the most significant danger is a fuel spill. FTA analysis indicates that the most likely event is a fuel spill in tank truck loading area. A sensitivity analysis from the FTA results show the importance of the human factor in all sequences of the possible accidents, so it should be mandatory to improve the training of the staff of the plants.

  10. National Waste Terminal Storage Program: information management plan. Volume II. Plan description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-05-01

    A comprehensive information management plan to provide for the systematic processing of large amounts of internally prepared and externally acquired documentation that will accrue to the Office of Waste Isolation (OWI) during the next decade is outlined. The Information Management Plan of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program is based on time proven procedures developed by government and industry for the requirements determination, acquisition, and the administration of documentation. The NWTS Information Management Plan is designed to establish the basis for the planning, development, implemenation, operation and maintenance of the NWTS Information Management System. This plan will help assure that documentation meets required quality standards and that each organization's needs are reflected when soliciting documentation from subcontractors. An example would be the Quality Assurance documentation requirement necessary to comply with eventual NRC licensing regulations. The provisions of the NWTS Information Management Plan will apply to all documentation from OWI contractors, subcontractors, and suppliers, and to OWI organizations for documentation prepared periodically for external dissemination

  11. Risk Analysis of a Fuel Storage Terminal Using HAZOP and FTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Bargues, José Luis; González-Cruz, Mª Carmen; González-Gaya, Cristina; Baixauli-Pérez, Mª Piedad

    2017-06-30

    The size and complexity of industrial chemical plants, together with the nature of the products handled, means that an analysis and control of the risks involved is required. This paper presents a methodology for risk analysis in chemical and allied industries that is based on a combination of HAZard and OPerability analysis (HAZOP) and a quantitative analysis of the most relevant risks through the development of fault trees, fault tree analysis (FTA). Results from FTA allow prioritizing the preventive and corrective measures to minimize the probability of failure. An analysis of a case study is performed; it consists in the terminal for unloading chemical and petroleum products, and the fuel storage facilities of two companies, in the port of Valencia (Spain). HAZOP analysis shows that loading and unloading areas are the most sensitive areas of the plant and where the most significant danger is a fuel spill. FTA analysis indicates that the most likely event is a fuel spill in tank truck loading area. A sensitivity analysis from the FTA results show the importance of the human factor in all sequences of the possible accidents, so it should be mandatory to improve the training of the staff of the plants.

  12. Evalution of NDA techniques and instruments for assay of nuclear waste at a waste terminal storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blakeman, E.D.; Allen, E.J.; Jenkins, J.D.

    1978-05-01

    The use of Nondestructive Assay (NDA) instrumentation at a nuclear waste terminal storage facility for purposes of Special Nuclear Material (SNM) accountability is evaluated. Background information is given concerning general NDA techniques and the relative advantages and disadvantages of active and passive NDA methods are discussed. The projected characteristics and amounts of nuclear wastes that will be delivered to a waste terminal storage facility are presented. Wastes are divided into four categories: High Level Waste, Cladding Waste, Intermediate Level Waste, and Low Level Waste. Applications of NDA methods to the assay of these waste types is discussed. Several existing active and passive NDA instruments are described and, where applicable, results of assays performed on wastes in large containers (e.g., 55-gal drums) are given. It is concluded that it will be difficult to routinely achieve accuracies better than approximately 10--30% with ''simple'' NDA devices or 5--20% with more sohpisticated NDA instruments for compacted wastes. It is recommended that NDA instruments not be used for safeguards accountability at a waste storage facility. It is concluded that item accountability methods be implemented. These conclusions and recommendations are detailed in a concurrent report entitled ''Recommendations on the Safeguards Requirements Related to the Accountability of Special Nuclear Material at Waste Terminal Storage Facilities'' by J.D. Jenkins, E.J. Allen and E.D. Blakeman

  13. Effect of Li Termination on the Electronic and Hydrogen Storage Properties of Linear Carbon Chains: A TAO-DFT Study

    OpenAIRE

    Seenithurai, Sonai; Chai, Jeng-Da

    2017-01-01

    Accurate prediction of the electronic and hydrogen storage properties of linear carbon chains (C n ) and Li-terminated linear carbon chains (Li2C n ), with n carbon atoms (n?=?5?10), has been very challenging for traditional electronic structure methods, due to the presence of strong static correlation effects. To meet the challenge, we study these properties using our newly developed thermally-assisted-occupation density functional theory (TAO-DFT), a very efficient electronic structure meth...

  14. Diesel oil safety stock in storage and distribution terminals: a case study: Porto Velho/Rio, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Rubens C. [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); D' agosto, Marcio A. [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents a methodology for calculating diesel oil safety stock in distributor terminals located in the northern of Brazil, applied on a case study for terminals in the state of Rondonia. From the mapping of logistic flows related to transport and storage of diesel oil, the risk factors that cause uncertainties in lead time were analyzed and quantified. Through a research conducted among economic agents (producers, distributors and carriers) operating in the region, it was measured the relevance and impact of risk factors on the safety stock in the terminals. The safety stock was calculated by the classical equation of inventories, as well as by the methodology proposed in this paper. The difference between the two methods has unveiled inefficiencies derived from uncertainties in lead time. Recommendations of actions to mitigate the risk factors are included at the end of this paper. (author)

  15. ANDRA - Referential Materials. Volume 1: Context and scope; Volume 2: Argillaceous materials; Volume 3: Cementitious materials; Volume 4: The corrosion of metallic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This huge document gathers four volumes. The first volume presents some generalities about materials used in the storage of radioactive materials (definition, design principle, current choices and corresponding storage components, general properties of materials and functions of the corresponding storage components, physical and chemical solicitations experienced by materials in a storage), and the structure and content of the other documents. The second volume addresses argillaceous materials. It presents some generalities about these materials in the context of a deep geological storage, and about their design. It presents and comments the crystalline and chemical, and physical and chemical characteristics of swelling argillaceous materials and minerals, describes how these swelling argillaceous materials are shaped and set up, presents and comments physical properties (hydraulic, mechanical and thermal properties) of these materials, comments and discusses the modelling of the geo-chemical behaviour, and their behaviour in terms of containment and transport of radionuclides. The third volume addresses cementitious materials. It presents some generalities about these materials in the context of a deep geological storage, and about their definition and specifications. It presents some more detailed generalities (cement definition and composition, hydration, microstructure of hydrated cements, adjuvants), presents and comments their physical properties (fresh concrete structure and influence of composition, main aimed properties in the hardened status, transfer, mechanical, and thermal properties, shaping and setting up of these materials, technical solutions for hydraulic works). The fourth volume addresses the corrosion of metallic materials. It presents some generalities about these materials in the context of a deep geological storage of radioactive materials. It presents metallic materials and discusses their corrosion behaviour. It describes the peculiarities

  16. THM-coupled modeling of selected processes in argillaceous rock relevant to rock mechanics; THM-Gekoppelte Modellierung ausgewaehlter gesteinsmechanisch relevanter Prozesse im Tongestein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czaikowski, Oliver [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Braunschweig (Germany). Repository Safety Research Div.

    2012-08-15

    Scientific investigations in European countries other than Germany concentrate not only on granite formations (Switzerland, Sweden) but also on argillaceous rock formations (France, Switzerland, Belgium) to assess their suitability as host and barrier rock for the final storage of radioactive waste. In Germany, rock salt has been under thorough study as a host rock over the past few decades. According to a study by the German Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, however, not only salt deposits but also argillaceous rock deposits are available at relevant depths and of extensions in space which make final storage of high-level radioactive waste basically possible in Germany. Equally qualified findings about the suitability/unsuitability of non-saline rock formations require fundamental studies to be conducted nationally because of the comparatively low level of knowledge. The article presents basic analyses of coupled mechanical and hydraulic properties of argillaceous rock formations as host rock for a repository. The interaction of various processes is explained on the basis of knowledge derived from laboratory studies, and open problems are deduced. For modeling coupled processes, a simplified analytical computation method is proposed and compared with the results of numerical simulations, and the limits to its application are outlined. (orig.)

  17. Discrete Analysis of Damage and Shear Banding in Argillaceous Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinç, Özge; Scholtès, Luc

    2018-05-01

    A discrete approach is proposed to study damage and failure processes taking place in argillaceous rocks which present a transversely isotropic behavior. More precisely, a dedicated discrete element method is utilized to provide a micromechanical description of the mechanisms involved. The purpose of the study is twofold: (1) presenting a three-dimensional discrete element model able to simulate the anisotropic macro-mechanical behavior of the Callovo-Oxfordian claystone as a particular case of argillaceous rocks; (2) studying how progressive failure develops in such material. Material anisotropy is explicitly taken into account in the numerical model through the introduction of weakness planes distributed at the interparticle scale following predefined orientation and intensity. Simulations of compression tests under plane-strain and triaxial conditions are performed to clarify the development of damage and the appearance of shear bands through micromechanical analyses. The overall mechanical behavior and shear banding patterns predicted by the numerical model are in good agreement with respect to experimental observations. Both tensile and shear microcracks emerging from the modeling also present characteristics compatible with microstructural observations. The numerical results confirm that the global failure of argillaceous rocks is well correlated with the mechanisms taking place at the local scale. Specifically, strain localization is shown to directly result from shear microcracking developing with a preferential orientation distribution related to the orientation of the shear band. In addition, localization events presenting characteristics similar to shear bands are observed from the early stages of the loading and might thus be considered as precursors of strain localization.

  18. Vesicle capture, not delivery, scales up neuropeptide storage in neuroendocrine terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgari, Dinara; Zhou, Chaoming; Hewes, Randall S; Deitcher, David L; Levitan, Edwin S

    2014-03-04

    Neurons vary in their capacity to produce, store, and release neuropeptides packaged in dense-core vesicles (DCVs). Specifically, neurons used for cotransmission have terminals that contain few DCVs and many small synaptic vesicles, whereas neuroendocrine neuron terminals contain many DCVs. Although the mechanistic basis for presynaptic variation is unknown, past research demonstrated transcriptional control of neuropeptide synthesis suggesting that supply from the soma limits presynaptic neuropeptide accumulation. Here neuropeptide release is shown to scale with presynaptic neuropeptide stores in identified Drosophila cotransmitting and neuroendocrine terminals. However, the dramatic difference in DCV number in these terminals occurs with similar anterograde axonal transport and DCV half-lives. Thus, differences in presynaptic neuropeptide stores are not explained by DCV delivery from the soma or turnover. Instead, greater neuropeptide accumulation in neuroendocrine terminals is promoted by dramatically more efficient presynaptic DCV capture. Greater capture comes with tradeoffs, however, as fewer uncaptured DCVs are available to populate distal boutons and replenish neuropeptide stores following release. Finally, expression of the Dimmed transcription factor in cotransmitting neurons increases presynaptic DCV capture. Therefore, DCV capture in the terminal is genetically controlled and determines neuron-specific variation in peptidergic function.

  19. Technical conservatisms in NWTS repository conceptual designs. National Waste Terminal Storage Repository No. 1: special study No. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-09-01

    Prior studies have developed conceptual designs for National Waste Terminal Storage Repositories 1 and 2. Due to the considerable detail and volume of the documents describing these designs, it is often difficult to identify and comprehend the substantial conservatisms contained within them. This study identifies and explains the major technical conservatisms in these two conceptual designs in a concise and readily understandable format. The areas discussed include thermal loading of the geologic structure, rock mechanics and underground design, waste throughput capacity, hoisting systems, nuclear criticality safety, confinement of radioactive materials, occupational exposure and health physics, environmental effects, and cost estimates. Conservatisms are described in detail, quantified where possible, and compared to appropriate criteria

  20. RNase L controls terminal adipocyte differentiation, lipids storage and insulin sensitivity via CHOP10 mRNA regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabre, Odile Martine Julie; Salehzada, T; Lambert, K

    2012-01-01

    Adipose tissue structure is altered during obesity, leading to deregulation of whole-body metabolism. Its function depends on its structure, in particular adipocytes number and differentiation stage. To better understand the mechanisms regulating adipogenesis, we have investigated the role...... is associated with CHOP10 mRNA and regulates its stability. CHOP10 expression is conserved in RNase L(-/-)-MEFs, maintaining preadipocyte state while impairing their terminal differentiation. RNase L(-/-)-MEFs have decreased lipids storage capacity, insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake. Expression of ectopic...... RNase L in RNase L(-/-)-MEFs triggers CHOP10 mRNA instability, allowing increased lipids storage, insulin response and glucose uptake. Similarly, downregulation of CHOP10 mRNA with CHOP10 siRNA in RNase L(-/-)-MEFs improves their differentiation in adipocyte. In vivo, aged RNase L(-)/(-) mice present...

  1. National waste terminal storage repository in a bedded salt formation for spent unreprocessed fuel. Quality assurance program for licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-12-01

    A National Waste Terminal Storage Repository, in bedded salt, for spent unreprocessed fuel is the subject of a conceptual design project which began in January 1977. This volume presents a preliminary quality assurance program to guide the license applicant in developing a detailed program that will be compatible with anticipated National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTSR2) contracting arrangements and provide the documentation required by regulatory bodies. This QA program is designed to provide confidence that the quality-related activities pertaining to safety-related structures, systems, and components will be identified and controlled. Specific responsibilities for quality-related activities are documented and assigned to personnel and organizations for the major phases of facility design and construction. These responsibilities encompass a broad range of activities and are addressed in this preliminary program. The quality assurance program elements are organized and discussed herein as follows: (1) quality assurance during design and construction; (2) the applicant (DOE); (3) siting contractor; (4) architect/engineer; (5) project field management; and (6) operations contractor

  2. Mechanisms of sorption of neptunium and technetium on argillaceous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooker, P.J.; West, J.M.; Noy, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    It is of pressing concern to understand the behaviour of radionuclides in the environment and in particular long-lived ones (e.g. Np-237 and Te-99) in argillaceous rocks. Clay formations have been chosen as likely candidates for holding low level radioactive waste repositories and in the event of leakage of radionuclides into the geosphere some knowledge of their fate is required in a far-field safety assessment study. The objectives of this present work were to examine the properties of neptunium and technetium in ground-waters associated with clay-rich materials and to ascertain the variations in sorption of these radionuclides under different environmental conditions and to use the information in a forecast of transport through a clay layer

  3. Natural tracer profiles across argillaceous formations: the Claytrac project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazurek, M.; Alt-Epping, P.; Gimi, Th.; Niklaus Waber, H.; Bath, A.; Gimmi, Th.

    2009-01-01

    Disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel in engineered facilities, or repositories, located deep underground in suitable geological formations is being developed worldwide as the reference solution to protect humans and the environment both now and in the future. An important aspect of assessing the long-term safety of deep geological disposal is developing a comprehensive understanding of the geological environment in order to define the initial conditions for the disposal system as well as to provide a sound scientific basis for projecting its future evolution. The transport pathways and mechanisms by which contaminants could migrate in the surrounding host rock are key elements in any safety case. Relevant experiments in laboratories or underground test facilities can provide important information, but the challenge remains in being able to extrapolate the results to the spatial and temporal scales required for performance assessment, which are typically tens to hundreds of metres and from thousands to beyond a million years into the future. Profiles of natural tracers dissolved in pore water of argillaceous rock formations can be considered as large-scale and long-term natural experiments which enable the transport properties to be characterised. The CLAYTRAC Project on Natural Tracer Profiles Across Argillaceous Formations was established by the NEA Clay Club to evaluate the relevance of natural tracer data in understanding past geological evolution and in confirming dominant transport processes. Data were analysed for nine sites to support scientific understanding and development of geological disposal. The outcomes of the project show that, for the sites and clay-rich formations that were studied, there is strong evidence that solute transport is controlled mainly by diffusion. The results can improve site understanding and performance assessment in the context of deep geological disposal and have the potential to be applied to other

  4. National waste terminal storage program: configuration management plan. Volume I. Management summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-05-01

    Objective of the Configuration Management Plan is to describe the Office of Waste Isolation's approach for the systematic identification, change control, status accounting, and auditing of: documents defining the NWTS Program and the plans for attaining the defined objectives; physical and functional characteristics of each storage site, facility, systems and equipment; and associated costs and schedules

  5. Thermal Energy Storage for the Small Packaged Terminal Air Conditioning Unit. Quarterly progress report, February 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-01

    To finalize the IceBear design for full-scale production, build two preproduction prototypes, and confirm cost projections for production and market analysis. The 5 tasks being carried out are: Task 1--Finalize thermal energy storage tank design; Task 2--Finalize internal heat exchanger; Task 3--Finalize refrigerant management and control components; Task 4--Preproduction prototype laboratory testing; and Task 5--Reporting.

  6. National waste terminal storage repository in a bedded salt formation for spent unreprocessed fuel. Volume I. Conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-12-01

    In February 1976, the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA), now the Department of Energy (DOE), established a National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program. As a part of this program, two parallel conceptual design efforts were initiated in January 1977. One was for deep geologic storage, in domed salt, of high level waste resulting from the reprocessing of spent fuel. The other was for deep geologic storage of unreprocessed spent fuel in bedded salt. These two concepts are identified as NWTS Repository 1 and Repository 2, respectively. Repository 2 (NWTSR2) is the concept which is covered by this Conceptual Design Report. Volume I of the conceptual design report contains the following information: physical description of the report; project purpose and justification; principal safety, fire, and health hazards; environmental impact considerations; quality assurance considerations; assessment of operational interfaces; assessment of research and development interfaces; project schedule; proposed method of accomplishment; summary cost estimate; and outline specifications. The conceptual design for Repository 2 was developed in sufficient detail to permit determination of scope, engineering feasibility, schedule, and cost estimates, all of which are necessary for planning and budgeting the project

  7. Study of the strain's mechanism of deep argillaceous rocks: interest of microstructure and petro-physical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasc-Barbier, M.

    2002-09-01

    This study was carried out in order to better understand the behaviour of deep argillaceous rocks and in particular those chosen by ANDRA to build an underground laboratory to study the feasibility to set up an underground storage for highly radioactive wastes. We have studied experimentally different mechanisms (chemo-mechanical and hygro-mechanical coupling and creep behaviour) that could lead to macroscopic strain so as to attempt to characterize them from a microstructural point of view, Hence we have implemented innovative experimental tests such as the conception of a triaxial cell where fluids can circulate or the use of mercury porosimetry on dry or wet samples. We have thus been able to show the importance of the clay-calcite relation in the argillite studied both from the chemical point of view (chemical balance dominated by calcite) and from a structural point of view (micro-fissuration seems to take place preferentially at the grain / clayey material interface). (author)

  8. On the identification of behavior laws parameters of argillaceous rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecampion, Brice

    2002-01-01

    This work aims to develop methods for identification of constitutive parameters of argillaceous rocks. Under the proposed underground research laboratory of the ANDRA, it is necessary to develop such methods for the interpretation of many steps to be performed on site. We focused on two major aspects of the rheological behavior of this type of rock: poro-elastic behavior on the one hand and the elasto-viscoplastic other. The first part focuses on the identification of poro-elastic parameters. Chapter 2 refers to the direct problem and discusses a number of important points concerning the inverse problem of identification. The third chapter is dedicated to the formulation of techniques for calculating gradient for linear poro-elastic case. The numerical finite element is discussed. The methods of direct differentiation and adjoint state are validated on a two-dimensional numerical example using the code of finite element Cast3M. Identification of poro-elastic coefficients argillaceous rocks of the Meuse Haute-Marne from laboratory tests is discussed in detail in Chapter 4. The use of semi-explicit approximate solution of problems provides a direct method for quick identification. The second part of the dissertation on the identification of elasto-viscoplastic parameters. The features of visco-plastic behaviours argillaceous rocks Meuse Haute-Marne are discussed in Chapter 5 on the basis of experimental results. Modeling this behavior is considered. It proposes a model isotropic nonlinear viscoplastic strain hardening to duplicate tests. The parameters of this law of behavior are identified on a creep test unidimensional drained conditions. The deformations arise when poro-elastic and viscoplastic behavior of the rock. We show that it is possible to separate these two phenomena. All parameters are identified poro-elastic viscoplastic, a semi-explicit solution of the creep test is used. Chapter 6 presents a method for identifying parameters elasto-viscoplastic in the

  9. Sorption data bases for generic Swiss argillaceous rock systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradbury, M. H.; Baeyens, B.; Thoenen, T.

    2010-09-01

    In Switzerland the site selection procedure for both high level waste (HLW) and low and intermediate level waste (L/ILW) repositories is specified by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy in the Sectoral Plan for Deep Geological Repositories. In the forthcoming stage 2 of this plan, potential sites will be identified within regions previously selected based on the presence of suitable host rocks, namely Opalinus Clay, 'Brauner Dogger', Effingen Member and Helvetic Marl. Preliminary safety analyses are an integral part of this procedure, and require, amongst other information, the radionuclide sorption properties of the host rock. This report describes a methodology to develop a Generic Rock Sorption Data Base (GR-SDB) for argillaceous rocks. The method will be used to compile specific SDBs for the above mentioned host rocks. Arguments are presented that the main factor influencing sorption on argillaceous rocks is the phyllosilicate mineral content. These minerals are particularly effective at binding metals to their surfaces by cation exchange and surface complexation. Generally, the magnitude of sorption is directly correlated with the phyllosilicate content (2:1 type clays: illite/smectite/illitesmectite mixed layers), and this parameter best reflects the sorption potential of a given mineral assembly. Consequently, sorption measurements on illite were preferably used as source data for the GR-SDB. The second component influencing radionuclide sorption is the porewater chemistry. In the present report, generic water compositions were extracted from the analytical ranges of deep ground waters in various sedimentary formations in Switzerland. In order to cover the range of ionic strength (I) and pH values of Swiss ground waters in argillaceous rocks, five types of generic water compositions were defined, combining low, intermediate and high values of ionic strength and pH. The GR-SDB for in situ conditions was derived using conversion factors (CF). As the name

  10. National Waste Terminal Storage Program prospective participants conference, May 11, 1976, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This national program is being undertaken to find technical and environmental approaches for the storage of commercial power reactor radioactive wastes in geologic formations. Purpose of this conference was to inform prospective participants and organizations about the program plan. Included in this document are numerous viewgraph slides on ERDA fuel cycle programs and national waste management programs, interrelations between ORO and OWI, OWI plans and programs, geologic and other studies, environmental impact baseline studies, subcontract/audit requirements, and procurement packages. Subcontracting documents, ERDA news releases, ERDA-76-43 introduction and executive summary, a Federal Energy Resources Council report on waste management, and a bidder's mailing list application are included in appendices

  11. Design cost scoping studies. Nevada Test Site Terminal Waste Storage Program, Subtask 1.3: facility hardening studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanev, P.I.; Owen, G.N.

    1978-04-01

    As part of a program being conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, to determine the feasibility of establishing a terminal waste storage repository at the Nevada Test Site, URS/John A. Blume and Associates, Engineers, made approximate determinations of the additional costs required to provide protection of structures against seismic forces. A preliminary estimate is presented of the added costs required to harden the surface structures, underground tunnels and storage rooms, and vertical shafts of the repository against ground motion caused by earthquakes and underground nuclear explosions (UNEs). The conceptual design of all of the structures was adapted from proposed bedded-salt waste-isolation repositories. Added costs for hardening were calculated for repositories in three candidate geological materials (Eleana argillite, Climax Stock granite, and Jackass Flats tuff) for several assumed peak ground accelerations caused by earthquakes (0.3g, 0.5g, and 0.7g) and by UNEs (0.5g, 0.7g, and 1.0g). Hardening procedures to protect the tunnels, storage rooms, and shafts against incremental seismic loadings were developed from (1) qualitative considerations of analytically determined seismic stresses and (2) engineering evaluations of the dynamic response of the rock mass and the tunnel support systems. The added costs for seismic hardening of the surface structures were found to be less than 1% of the estimated construction cost of the surface structures. For the underground structures, essentially no hardening was required for peak ground accelerations up to 0.3g; however, added costs became significant at 0.5g, with a possible increase in structural costs for the underground facilities of as much as 35% at 1.0g

  12. Magnetic Viscosity for Cyclostratigraphic Logging of Argillaceous Sediment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Tabbagh

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic susceptibility (MS is currently used as a directly representative proxy for the study of climatic variations, and for cyclostratigraphic studies. It depends on the concentration of magnetic minerals in the rocks, but does not allow identifying the magnetic minerals. In the case of argillaceous sediments, the paramagnetism of clay particles often plays a major role in determining the magnitude of their magnetic susceptibility, while the presence of ferrimagnetic iron oxides or sulfides cannot be assessedusing susceptibility measurements alone. Among the different methods that can be used to detect ferrimagnetic particles magnetic viscosity (MV characterizing the delay corresponding to the acquisition or loss of induced magnetization, has the same advantages as MS. Itsmeasurement is direct, rapid and has been proven to be very efficient in detecting the presence of secondary ferrimagnetic minerals in soils. A MV measurement technique was tested on cores taken from a borehole, in Callovian-Oxfordian formations in the eastern Paris Basin (France (Fig. 1. Although the MV values are very small, they have cyclic variations of which strongest values are found at the base of the Lower Oxfordian. These values, when correlated to MS,Gamma Ray (GR and a sequential interpretation of a borehole drilled close-by are found to be associated with the maximum clay fraction in the core samples, a MS maximum, and a major transgression event. Consequently, a significant increase in ferrimagnetic minerals can be associated with this event.

  13. Redox potential and mobility of contaminant oxyanions (As, Sb, Cr) in argillaceous rock subjected to oxic and anoxic cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markelova, Ekaterina

    2016-01-01

    (V), and N(V). Oxy-anion mobility was investigated under sterile conditions, with the addition of labile organic carbon (ethanol), and with the addition of a topsoil microbial inoculum. Speciation analyses revealed irreversible reduction: freshly reduced As(III), Sb(III), Cr(III), and N(III) were not re-oxidized during subsequent oxic periods. Microbially induced reduction transformations decreased aqueous concentrations of Sb and Cr via mineral precipitation, removed N via volatilization, but retained As in solution. Microorganisms exhibited two distinct strategies of contaminant reduction. The first strategy involved the simultaneous reduction of CrO 4 2- , HAsO 4 2- , and Sb(OH) 6 - likely via detoxification under aerobic and denitrifying conditions, as observed in the non-inoculated argillaceous suspensions. The second strategy involved respiratory reduction and followed the predicted thermodynamic order from highest to lowest redox potential. In the argillaceous subsoil suspension enriched with the topsoil inoculum, the reduction of terminal electron acceptors proceeded in the following order: O 2 , CrO 4 2- , NO 3 - , HAsO 4 2- , and Sb(OH) 6 - . In the third part of the thesis, the oxy-anion mobility observed in the argillaceous suspensions (representative of a saturated, clay-rich subsurface environment from depths > 20 m) was further compared to oxy-anion mobility in topsoil suspensions (representative of a near-surface soil < 0.01 m enriched in (hydr)oxide phases). The key differences between the topsoil and subsoil systems were the abundance of oxyhydroxide Fe and Mn minerals and the range of EH values developed during redox cycles. The results indicated that in the topsoil suspensions, strong redox cycling of Fe and Mn correlated closely with the observed oscillating mobility of As and Sb. This correlation suggests a crucial role of oxyhydroxide minerals acting not only as major sorbents, but also as oxidants ultimately controlling the reversibility of

  14. micro-mechanical experimental investigation and modelling of strain and damage of argillaceous rocks under combined hydric and mechanical loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.

    2012-01-01

    The hydro-mechanical behavior of argillaceous rocks, which are possible host rocks for underground radioactive nuclear waste storage, is investigated by means of micro-mechanical experimental investigations and modellings. Strain fields at the micrometric scale of the composite structure of this rock, are measured by the combination of environmental scanning electron microscopy, in situ testing and digital image correlation technique. The evolution of argillaceous rocks under pure hydric loading is first investigated. The strain field is strongly heterogeneous and manifests anisotropy. The observed nonlinear deformation at high relative humidity (RH) is related not only to damage, but also to the nonlinear swelling of the clay mineral itself, controlled by different local mechanisms depending on RH. Irreversible deformations are observed during hydric cycles, as well as a network of microcracks located in the bulk of the clay matrix and/or at the inclusion-matrix interface. Second, the local deformation field of the material under combined hydric and mechanical loadings is quantified. Three types of deformation bands are evidenced under mechanical loading, either normal to stress direction (compaction), parallel (microcracking) or inclined (shear). Moreover, they are strongly controlled by the water content of the material: shear bands are in particular prone to appear at high RH states. In view of understanding the mechanical interactions a local scale, the material is modeled as a composite made of non-swelling elastic inclusions embedded in an elastic swelling clay matrix. The internal stress field induced by swelling strain incompatibilities between inclusions and matrix, as well as the overall deformation, is numerically computed at equilibrium but also during the transient stage associated with a moisture gradient. An analytical micro-mechanical model based on Eshelby's solution is proposed. In addition, 2D finite element computations are performed. Results

  15. Ambient-temperature fabrication of microporous carbon terminated with graphene walls by sputtering process for hydrogen storage applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Arghya Narayan; Joo, Sang Woo; Min, Bong-Ki

    2013-01-01

    A very thin amorphous carbon film (10–30 nm), has been bombarded with sputtered Cr nanoparticles, resulting in inelastic collision between the nanoparticles and the nuclei of the C-atoms causing atom displacement and re-arrangement into graphene layers. The process occurs at ambient temperature. Fabrication of graphitic microporous carbon terminated with few-to-multilayer graphene walls has been verified by Raman spectroscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy. High resolution transmission electron micrographs reveal that the formation of graphene layers is highly sensitive to the sputtering parameters. With a gradual increase in the sputtering voltage/current density/time from 3.5 kV/40 mA–cm −2 /1.0 min to 5.0 kV/70 mA–cm −2 /3.0 min the graphitic domains are found to transform from semi-graphitized layers to well-defined, highly ordered, larger-area graphene walls within the microporous network. The mechanism of this graphitic microporous carbon formation is assumed to be due to two simultaneous processes: in one hand, the sputtering plasma, containing energetic ions and sub-atomic particles, act as dry-etchant to activate the a:C film to transform it into microporous carbon, whereas on the other hand, the charged metal nanoparticle/ion bombardment under sputtering resulted in the inelastic collision between the nanoparticles/ions and the nuclei of the C atoms followed by atom displacement (and displacement cascade) and re-arrangement into ordered structure to form graphitic domains within the microporous carbon network. H 2 storage experiment of the samples depicts excellent hydrogen storage properties. This simple, cost-effective, complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor-compatible, single-step process of metal-graphene hybrid nanomaterial formation may find interesting applications in the field of optoelectronics and biotechnology. Additionally, this method can be adopted easily for the incorporation of transition metals into graphene and

  16. Pore water colloid properties in argillaceous sedimentary rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degueldre, Claude, E-mail: c.degueldre@lancaster.ac.uk [Engineering Department, University of Lancaster, LA1 4YW Lancaster (United Kingdom); ChiAM & Institute of Environment, University of Geneva, 1211 Genève 4, Swizerland (Switzerland); Earlier, NES, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Cloet, Veerle [NAGRA, Hardstrasse 73, 5430 Wettingen (Switzerland)

    2016-11-01

    colloid concentration is expected to be very low (< 1 ppb, for 10–100 nm) which restricts their relevance for radionuclide transport. - Graphical abstract: Processes describing the colloid live to build up a colloid population. - Highlights: • This study predicts pore water colloid properties from argillaceous sedimentary rocks. • The study combines field, laboratory and model results. • The high mineralization of the pore water limits the clayeous colloid concentration. • The study predicts colloid concentrations below the ppb level for sizes from 10 to 100 nm.

  17. Proceedings of the workshop on the use of argillaceous materials for the isolation of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Argillaceous materials are characterized by favourable properties for radioactive waste isolation. In particular their low permeability and high sorption capacity make them a very effective barrier. Approaches to the utilisation of argillaceous materials for waste isolation are emplacement of the waste in a shale or claystone formation on land or in argillaceous sediments under the ocean floor. It is also feasible to use clays or a mixture of clay and sand as an artificial barrier around waste containers placed in cavities excavated in a different geological formation. Finally, clays could be used in different ways ro reduce the permeability of other formations or for backfilling, plugging and sealing of cavities, shafts, boreholes and fractures. There are still some unknowns in relation to the use of argillaceous materials, particularly for the containment of heat generating wastes. Additional difficulties exist for the in situ measurement of permeability and radionuclides migration. These proceedings represent a record of the papers and discussions at this meeting organised by the NEA

  18. Influence aqueous solutions on the mechanical behavior of argillaceous rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakim, J.

    2005-12-01

    The hydration of the shale with an aqueous solution induces a swelling deformation which plays an important role in the behaviour of the structures excavated in this type of grounds. This deformation is marked by a three-dimensional and anisotropic character and involves several mechanisms like adsorption, osmosis or capillarity. Several researches were dedicated to swelling and were often much debated due to the complexity of the implied phenomena. The goal of this thesis is therefore to contribute to a better understanding of shale swelling when the rock is confined and hydrated with an aqueous solution. The main part of the work accomplished was related to the Lorraine shale and to the Tournemire shale. To characterize swelling and to identify the main governing parameters, it was necessary to start the issue with an experimental approach. Many apparatus were then developed to carry out tests under various conditions of swelling. In order to facilitate the interpretation of the tests and thereafter the modelling of the behaviour, the experimental procedure adopted consisted of studying first the mechanical aspect and then the chemical aspect of swelling. In the mechanical part, swelling was studied by imposing on the sample a mechanical loading while maintaining during the tests the same aqueous solution. The principal parameters which were studied are the effect of the lateral conditions on axial swelling (impeded strain or constant stress) as well as the influence of the axial stress on radial swelling. The anisotropy of swelling was studied by carrying out, for different orientations of the sample, tests of free swelling, impeded swelling and uniaxial swelling. These various mechanical tests allowed to study the three-dimensional anisotropic swelling in all the conditions and to select the most appropriate test to be used in the second phase of the research. The precise analysis performed to explain the mechanisms behind the swelling of an argillaceous rock

  19. Mineralogical characterization of the argillaceous material from the Municipality of Santa Barbara, Para, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrando, E.A.; Sheller, T.; Angelica, R.S.; Neves, R.S.

    2009-01-01

    In the present work were investigated mineralogical phases in a material with argillaceous characteristic of the region of Genipauba, Santa Barbara, State of Para. Characterization of the collected sample was performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis (DTA), thermogravimetric analysis (TG) and infrared spectroscopy (IR). The results of the assays indicate the presence of the clay minerals like kaolinite and muscovite, as well as minerals as quartz and anatase. (author)

  20. Contribution to hydrogeological investigations related to the disposal of radioactive wastes in a deep argillaceous formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patijn, J.

    1987-01-01

    The study deals with the development of a methodology in order to evaluate the capability of an aquifer system to be used for the disposal of radioactive wastes in deep argillaceous formations. The first part is concerned with hydrogeological investigations of a sedimentary basin. The second part is concerned with flow simulation using NEWMAN model. The limited influence of some possible geological events on radionuclide transfer is emphasized [fr

  1. National Waste Terminal Storage repository in a bedded salt formation for spent unreprocessed fuel. Occupational exposure and health physics studies. KE report No. 78-21-R

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    This report includes the Occupational Exposure and Health Physics studies of the National Waste Terminal Storage Repository Number 2 (NWTSR2). Section 1 deals with occupational radiation exposures. The results of dose equivalent and dose commitment calculations are summarized. The man-rem total is a summation of all doses to all personnel throughout a year. It would have to be divided by the number of total personnel involved, to obtain an average annual dose per person. Section 2 presents the occupational exposures due to nonradiological pollutants. The activities of workers and the equipment used during the construction, storage/retrieval and decommissioning of the facility are outlined. Tabulations are presented of the substances (dusts, fumes, gases and vapors) and physical agents (heat, vibration, and nonionizing radiation) to which personnel will be exposed in various surface and underground work areas during construction and decommissioning, and during storage and retrieval operations. Some significant nonradiological occupational exposures are summarized. Section 3 outlines the health physics program for the NWTSR2 facility. It is important to initiate the health physics program one or two years before the facility is placed in operation to establish the radiation background levels at the site and its surrounding area, and to collect environmental samples, both on-site and off-site, prior to waste storage and retrieval operations. The health physics organization consists of 15 persons, including five health physicists

  2. Deformation and damage modes of deep argillaceous rocks under hydro-mechanical stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vales, F.

    2008-12-01

    An experimental identification of the hydro-mechanical behaviour of an argillite rock is proposed within a multi-scale approach. In particular, interest is focused on the spatial and temporal localization of strain and damage in a specimen during hydro-mechanical loading. Firstly, we describe the techniques used to follow the rock evolutions under loading, and in particular Digital Images Correlation (DIC), Acoustic Emission, microscopy and mercury intrusion porosimetry. Measurement errors and device limitations are discussed. The studied material is the Callovo-Oxfordian indurated argillaceous rock (or argillite) of the Bure site where ANDRA has built an underground research laboratory to study the radioactive waste storage. Petrophysical characterizations and microstructural observations by optical and scanning electron microscopy provide an identification of the constitutive phase and a characterization of their spatial distribution and typical sizes. Argillite can be described as a composite structure with a continuous clay matrix and embedded mineral particles, essentially quartz and carbonates. The typical size of these particles ranges from a few micrometers to a few hundreds micrometers, with an average close to 50 μ.m. The general experimental procedure combines two steps: in a fist time, imposed suctions bring samples to a given degree of water saturation, and, in a second time, uniaxial mechanical compression tests are performed. To understand the evolutions of the material under hydric and mechanical loading, samples are instrumented with standard measurement techniques, but also with Digital Image Correlation, at both the global scale of the sample and the local scale of the composite microstructure, and with Acoustic Emissions recording. Moisture transfers are imposed by controlled suctions on the range of 150 to 2.8 MPa, corresponding to the relative humidity range of 32 to 98%RH. During pure hydric solicitation, the changes in physical parameters

  3. A physico-chemical characterisation technique for determining the pore-water chemistry in argillaceous rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeyens, B.; Bradbury, M.H.

    1991-09-01

    A prerequisite for carrying out credible sorption studies is the definition of an aqueous phase composition which is in equilibrium with the solid phase. Experimental methods and data analysis procedures are described which enable an equilibrium water composition to be produced for argillaceous rocks which is not dependent on liquid to solid (L:S) ratios. Since a Valanginian marl formation is under consideration by Nagra as a potential rock for the disposal of low and short-lived medium level radioactive waste in Switzerland, samples of this material were chosen for this investigation. Aqueous phase and nickel ethylenediamine extraction experiments were carried out at different L:S ratios under controlled atmosphere conditions (P CO 2 =10 -2 bar, O 2 ≤ 5 ppm ). The results from these tests and petrographical examinations were combined to define the system in terms of the physico-chemical characteristics of the clay mineral component (CEC and cation occupancies) and the identities of highly soluble and solubility limited phases in the marl. The geochemical code PHREEQE was used in conjunction with the Gapon equations to calculate the pore water composition. This work clearly showed that pore water chemistries obtained from aqueous extracts alone may lead to an arbitrary water chemistry in argillaceous rock systems, particularly with respect to ionic composition and ionic strength, which may have important consequences for radionuclide speciation and sorption studies. (author) 11 figs., 12 tabs., 25 refs

  4. Coal terminal directory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-06-15

    The directory gives a comprehensive listing of the world's coal terminals, in a total of 50 countries including information on throughput, facilities, storage capacity, and vessel size limitation.

  5. National waste terminal storage repository in a bedded salt formation for spent unreprocessed fuel: construction accounting manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-12-01

    The preparation of a cost estimate for a program to construct a new or add-on waste storage facility is one of the major objectives of the conceptual design effort. It is essential that a construction accounting manual be developed for use in estimating (conceptual, Title 1 and working estimates), cost accounting and cost control purposes on a consistent basis throughout life of the project. In order to meet this objective, itemized cost estimates and cost accounting data must be in sufficient detail to assure the reliability of such cost estimates and cost data. A cost accounting manual for contractors involved in the project is set forth in this document. For the conceptual design cost estimate, the estimate will be prepared in accordance with this construction accounting manual and all future estimates will be prepared on this basis. When work starts under the project, cost data will be accumulated and reported in accordance with this manual to provide consistency between estimates and actual cost data for cost control programs

  6. National waste terminal storage repository in a bedded salt formation for spent unreprocessed fuel. Special study No. 1. 25-year retrievability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-12-01

    National Waste Terminal Storage Repository 2 (NWTSR2), in bedded salt, for spent unreprocessed fuel is the subject of a conceptual design project which began in January 1977. In the base conceptual design the spent fuel is to be stored in a retrievable mode for 5 years. This report presents the results of a separate study on 25-year retrievability with open storage rooms. Drawings prepared for 25-year retrievability are only those which differ from the companion 5-year retrievability drawings which comprise Volume II of the Conceptual Design Report (CDR). NWTSR2 capital facilities originally were to be constructed in phases. Phase I was to include those facilities required for the first 5 years of operation, which were hypothesized to be from 1985 through 1990; Phase II was to include facilities required from 1991 until the capacity of the 2000-acre mine was reached. These dates are used as the basis for conceptual design and for Special Study No. 1 but do not represent actual schedule dates for the repository. The terms Phase I and Phase II are used throughout the drawings and test, so they need to be understood. However, it is not now intended to phase the capital construction because of the relatively small effort represented by Phase II surface construction. An optional future expansion of the mine, Phase III, would add 1000 acres on the end of the mine opposite the shaft pillar. The optional Phase III expansion would commence operation upon completion of Phase II operations. The drawings and design comparisons for Phase III mine operations appear only in this report

  7. The contribution of tracers in understanding transportation processes in indurated argillaceous formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savoye, Sebastien

    2008-01-01

    In a first part, the author recalls briefly the properties of the two argillaceous formations studied in this HDR report: the Toarcian/Domerian argillite and the Opalinus clay of Mont Terri. At first, have been described the two undamaged argillite materials and then the damaged Tournemire argillite. The second part gives the results obtained from the researches on the undamaged rock with natural tracers and with approaches using artificial tracers. The third part deals with the study of the damaged rock in separating natural perturbations of those of anthropogenic origin. At last, the conclusion gives the guiding thema of this research work and the main long-term future prospects that may result. (O.M.)

  8. National Waste Terminal Storage Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerby, C.D.

    1976-01-01

    Objective of this program is to provide facilities (Federal repositories) in various deep geologic formations at several locations in USA for the safe disposal of commercial radioactive waste from power reactors. The four types of containerized waste are described. The steps for developing the repositories are outlined

  9. Self-sealing of fractures in argillaceous formations - Evidence, mechanisms and implications for performance assesment (an NEA Clay Club project)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bock, H.; Dehandschutter, B.; Martin, C.D.; Mazurek, M.; Haller, A. de; Skoczylas, F.; Davy, C.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. After some earlier attempts dating back to the year 1999, the Self-Sealing Project of the Clay Club of the NEA/OECD was re-launched in 2007 and recently completed with the publication of NEA monograph No. 6184 (Bock et al., 2010). The project aimed at providing an overview and synthesis of the current understanding of, and conceptual approaches to, the processes that lead to self-sealing of natural and man-induced fractures in argillaceous formations at typical repository depths. The term 'self-sealing' relates to a phenomenon that fractured argillaceous formations tend to become, with the passage of time, less conductive to groundwater and finally hydraulically insignificant. It directly addresses the long-term functionality of the host rock as a migration barrier to radio-nuclides and it is often considered as one of the decisive factors favouring the choice of argillaceous formations as host rocks for deep disposals. In its outcome the project has significantly consolidated the evidence on self-sealing in argillaceous formations. It reconfirmed that self-sealing is a common phenomenon in a wide variety of argillaceous formations which are currently considered in context with deep geological repositories; from plastic clays (Boom Clay in the HADES URF) to moderately indurated clays (Opalinus Clay at Mont Terri and Callovo- Oxfordian argillites at the Meuse-Haute Marne URL). One of the most compelling evidence stems from the fact that self-sealing is observed over a large spread of scales in terms of length and time: At the millimetre to metre scale in laboratory testing, at the repository scale (10 m to 100 m range) in URL field tests and at the kilometre scale in geologic and geotechnical analogues such as traffic tunnels and hydrocarbon reservoirs. Over geological time scales, it is, for example, evidenced in the existence of hydraulically and geochemically inactive geological faults, in the existence

  10. The disposal of high level radioactive waste in argillaceous host rocks identification of parameters, constraints and geological assessment priorities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horseman, S.T.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this report, commissioned by ENRESA, is to examine the characteristics, properties and responses of argillaceous media (clays and more indurated mudrocks) in some detail in order to identify the main parameters that will influence the radiological safety of a deep underground facility for the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) and to highlight possible constraints and other important issues relating to the construction, operation and performance of such a facility

  11. Microscale experimental investigation of deformation and damage of argillaceous rocks under cyclic hydric and mechanical loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Linlin; Yang, Diansen; Heripre, Eva; Chanchole, Serge; Bornert, Michel; Pouya, Ahmad; Halphen, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Document available in abstract form only. Argillaceous rocks are possible host rocks for underground nuclear waste repositories. They exhibit complex coupled thermo-hydro-chemo-mechanical behavior, the description of which would strongly benefit from an improved experimental insight on their deformation and damage mechanisms at microscale. We present some recent observations of the evolution of these rocks at the scale of their composite microstructure, essentially made of a clay matrix with embedded carbonates and quartz particles with sizes ranging from a few to several tens of micrometers, when they are subjected to cyclic variations of relative humidity and mechanical loading. They are based on the combination of high definition and high resolution imaging in an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM), in situ hydro-mechanical loading of the samples, and digital image correlation techniques. Samples, several millimeters in diameter, are held at a constant temperature of 2 deg. Celsius while the vapor pressure in the ESEM chamber is varied from a few to several hundreds of Pascals, generating a relative humidity ranging from about 10% up to 90%. Results show a strongly heterogeneous deformation field at microscale, which is the result of complex hydro-mechanical interactions. In particular, it can be shown that local swelling incompatibilities can generate irreversible deformations in the clay matrix, even if the overall hydric deformations seem reversible. In addition, local damage can be generated, in the form of a network of microcracks, located in the bulk of the clay matrix and/or at the interface between clay and other mineral particles. The morphology of this network, described in terms of crack length, orientation and preferred location, has been observed to be dependent on the speed of the variation of the relative humidity, and is different in a saturation or desaturation process. Besides studying the deformation and damage under hydric

  12. An Experimental Study on the Water-Induced Strength Reduction in Zigong Argillaceous Siltstone with Different Degree of Weathering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-chuan Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The water-softening property of soft rocks is a key problem in geotechnical engineering. A typical red-bed soft rock (the Zigong argillaceous siltstones with different weathering degree is selected as an example to study the water-softening property and the influence of degree of weathering. A series of mechanical and microstructure tests are carried out to analyze the weathering characteristics and mechanism of the Zigong argillaceous siltstones. The results of mechanical experiments reveal that the water content and the weathering degree of rock specimens both have a weakening effect on the compressive and shear strengths. According to the results of present microstructure tests, the mechanical properties of the Zigong argillaceous siltstones are closely correlated with their physical properties, including internal microstructure and material composition for highly weathered rocks or moderately weathered rocks (in both natural and saturation conditions. Finally, experimental results indicate that the changes of microstructure and internal materials are two main factors that influence rock strength parameters after contacting with water and that these properties reflect the rock weathering degree. In a word, when red-bed soft rocks are encountered in geotechnical engineering, special attention should be paid to presence of water.

  13. Creep tests on clean and argillaceous salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellegard, K.D.; Pfeifle, T.W.

    1993-05-01

    Fifteen triaxial compression creep tests were performed on clean and argillaceous salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The temperatures in the tests were either 25 degrees C or 100 degrees C while the stress difference ranged from 3.5 MPa to 21.0 MPa. In all tests, the confining pressure was 15 MPa. Test duration ranged from 23 to 613 days with an average duration of 300 days. The results of the creep tests supplemented earlier testing and were used to estimate two parameters in the Modified Munson-Dawson constitutive law for the creep behavior of salt. The two parameters determined from each test were the steady-state strain rate and the transient strain limit. These estimates were combined with parameter estimates determined from previous testing to study the dependence of both transient and steady-state creep deformation on stress difference. The exponents on stress difference determined in this study were found to be consistent with revised estimates of the exponents reported by other investigators

  14. Study of Different Argillaceous Formations Performed in the Context of the FUNMIG project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, A. M.; Melon, A.; Sanchez, D. M.; Gaucher, E.; Tournassat, C.; Altmann, S.C.; Vinsot, A.; Maes, N.; Craen, M. de; Leupin, O.; Wersin, P.; Astudillo, J.

    2010-07-01

    Argillaceous Rock Formations of low permeability have been selected in several countries as potential geological host rock for the disposal of high level radioactive wastes (HLRW). The general barrier function of the host rock is to retard and attenuate the migration of radionuclides to the biosphere, and the properties of clay minerals sustain this barrier functions. Nowadays, a number of Underground Research Laboratories (URL) have been constructed for a more in depth investigation of the indurated as well as plastic clay rock formations indifferent countries. The HADES under ground research facility (URF) was constructed at Mol (Belgium), where the Boom Clay formation is being studied as a reference host rock formation. The Opalinus Clay formation has been studied in the Mont Terri Rock Laboratory (Switzerland). The Callovo- Oxfordian clayrock is being characterised in the Meuse/Haute-Marne Site at Bure (France). The Boda Claystone is being analysed at Mecsek in Hungary. The knowledge on biogeochemical processes which affect the transport of radionuclides through the geosphere is a key parameter for the safety case of a HLRW repository, which was the aim of the EC Project FUNMIG: Fundamental Processes of Radionuclide Migration. The main factors controlling the mobility of the radionuclides are the chemistry of the pore water, the chemical reactions involving the radionuclides and the sorption processes on clay minerals. There fore, the pore water chemistry plays an important role in determining radionuclide migration characteristics in clay-rock formations. (Author)

  15. Numerical Investigation of Acoustic Emission Events of Argillaceous Sandstones under Confining Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaohui Chong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available At the laboratory scale, locating acoustic emission (AE events is a comparatively mature method for evaluating cracks in rock materials, and the method plays an important role in numerical simulations. This study is aimed at developing a quantitative method for the measurement of acoustic emission (AE events in numerical simulations. Furthermore, this method was applied to estimate the crack initiation, propagation, and coalescence in rock materials. The discrete element method-acoustic emission model (DEM-AE model was developed using an independent subprogram. This model was designed to calculate the scalar seismic tensor of particles in the process of movement and further to determine the magnitude of AE events. An algorithm for identifying the same spatiotemporal AE event is being presented. To validate the model, a systematic physical experiment and numerical simulation for argillaceous sandstones were performed to present a quantitative comparison of the results with confining pressure. The results showed good agreement in terms of magnitude and spatiotemporal evolution between the simulation and the physical experiment. Finally, the magnitude of AE events was analyzed, and the relationship between AE events and microcracks was discussed. This model can provide the research basis for preventing seismic hazards caused by underground coal mining.

  16. Far-field thermomechanical response of argillaceous rock to emplacement of a nuclear-waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McVey, D.F.; Thomas, R.K.; Lappin, A.R.

    1980-08-01

    Before heat-producing wastes can be emplaced safely in any argillaceous rock, it will be necessary to understand the far-field thermal and thermomechanical response of this rock to waste emplacement. This report presents the results of a first series of calculations aimed at estimating the far-field response of argillite to waste emplacement. Because the thermal and mechanical properties of argillite are affected by its content of expandable clay, its behavior is briefly compared and contrasted with that of a shale having the same matrix thermal properties, but containing no expandable clay. Under this assumption, modeled temperatures are the same for the two rock types at equivalent power densities and reflect the large dependence of in-situ temperatures on both initial power density and waste type. Thermomechanical calculations indicate that inclusion of contraction behavior of expandable clays in the assumed argillite thermal expansion behavior results, in some cases, in generation of a large zone in and near the repository that has undergone volumetric contraction but is surrounded by uniformly compressive stresses. Information available to date indicates that this contraction would likely result in locally increased fluid permeability and decreased in-situ thermal conductivity, but might well be advantageous as regards radionuclide retention, because of the increased surface area within the contracted zone. Assumption of continuous and positive expansion behavior for the shale eliminates the near-repository contraction and tensional zones, but results in near-surface tensional zones directly above the repository

  17. The siliceous-calcareous-argillaceous rock type uranium deposit in south subzone of Western Qinling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Farong; Zhou Dean; Ji Hongfang

    1995-11-01

    The siliceous-calcareous-argillaceous rock type uranium deposit in south subzone of western Qinling is an inland found type deposit with specific mineralization and good potentiality. The mineralization distributes along definite horizons and occurs in siliceous layer and lenses of siliceous-calcareous rocks. Orebody presents in forms of stratoid, lenticular and irregular veins and controlled by factorial structures. Ore is identified as massive and sandy and each characterized by various mineral compositions and element associations. The study shows that the mineralizing materials are mainly derived from ore-bearing strata. The metallogenic environment has characteristics of middle-low temperature and supergene The metallogenesis underwent three stages: (1) Sedimentation-diagenesis of the ore-bearing strata led to preliminary concentration of uranium; (2) Polytectonic activities accompanied by underground hydrothermal process resulted in the industrial concentration of uranium; and (3) Orebody reworked by oxidation-denudation and leaching, locally has taken place secondary concentration. The deposit in origin attributes to polygenesis dominated by underground hydrothermal metallogenesis. Main metallogenic epoch happens during the periods of Late Yanshan and Himalayan. According to the geological-tectonic conditions the further prospecting direction in study area is proposed. (3 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs.)

  18. Time-dependent evolution of the excavation damaged zone in the argillaceous Tournemire site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rejeb, A.; Cabrera, J. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN/DEI/SARG), Lab. d' Etude Hydrodynamique et Geotechnique, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2006-07-01

    The experimental Tournemire site enables the assessment of the Excavation Damaged Zones (EDZ) around three structures excavated in argilites: the century-old tunnel, the ten year-old east and west galleries, and the three year-old main gallery. This paper discusses the main experimental results concerning the EDZ characterisation and their interpretation. EDZ fracture analyses from the galleries (cartography) and the radial boreholes (core analyses) allow for accurate structural characterisation of the EDZs. The tunnel has an EDZ with dense, homogeneous fracturing parallel to the wall, resembling onion skins. However, the new galleries do not have an EDZ similar to that of the tunnel. Unsaturated micro-cracks, mainly parallel to the bedding planes are observed on the non covered walls of each gallery. The extent of the EDZ does not seem to be affected by the age of the structure. It is approximately 20 % of the mean radius of the structure. Based on the modelling and experimental characterisation work completed, it is considered that the EDZ in this argillaceous Tournemire site is due to a deferred failure. At first time, when the wall of the structures are not covered the desaturation/re-saturation phenomena induced a tensile failure around the new galleries. During the time, these desaturation/re-saturation phenomena cause a gradual weakening of the material. The EDZ tunnel fractures are explained by this possible hydric damage and a decreasing mechanical strength with the time. These assumptions remain to be confirmed through coupled numerical modelling in unsaturated medium. (authors)

  19. Time-dependent evolution of the excavation damaged zone in the argillaceous Tournemire site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rejeb, A.; Cabrera, J.

    2006-01-01

    The experimental Tournemire site enables the assessment of the Excavation Damaged Zones (EDZ) around three structures excavated in argilites: the century-old tunnel, the ten year-old east and west galleries, and the three year-old main gallery. This paper discusses the main experimental results concerning the EDZ characterisation and their interpretation. EDZ fracture analyses from the galleries (cartography) and the radial boreholes (core analyses) allow for accurate structural characterisation of the EDZs. The tunnel has an EDZ with dense, homogeneous fracturing parallel to the wall, resembling onion skins. However, the new galleries do not have an EDZ similar to that of the tunnel. Unsaturated micro-cracks, mainly parallel to the bedding planes are observed on the non covered walls of each gallery. The extent of the EDZ does not seem to be affected by the age of the structure. It is approximately 20 % of the mean radius of the structure. Based on the modelling and experimental characterisation work completed, it is considered that the EDZ in this argillaceous Tournemire site is due to a deferred failure. At first time, when the wall of the structures are not covered the desaturation/re-saturation phenomena induced a tensile failure around the new galleries. During the time, these desaturation/re-saturation phenomena cause a gradual weakening of the material. The EDZ tunnel fractures are explained by this possible hydric damage and a decreasing mechanical strength with the time. These assumptions remain to be confirmed through coupled numerical modelling in unsaturated medium. (authors)

  20. Study of the propagation of dislocation in argillaceous materials and side effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsetto, M.; Chiantore, V.; Gera, F.; Heuckel, T.; Muzzi, F.; Peano, A.; Cautilli, F.; Tassoni, E.

    1987-01-01

    As part of the research programme on radioactive waste disposal, the numerical modelling of the propagation of shear bands in the plastic clays is studied more directly and some numerical results have been obtained. In particular the connection between clay constitutive laws and bifurcation criterion is studied to know the dislocation value at which the propagation of shear bands may take place. The experimental program, connected with numerical modelling of fracture propagation in clay due to a displacement in the basement, covered the following two aspects: - investigation of the response of clays under high pressure; - development of a prototype of a plane strain shear box with a movable base. Tests to investigate the response of argillaceous materials under high pressure have been undertaken to prove the validity in this stress range of the assumptions of the constitutive model developed. The second aspect of the experimental program was aimed at a preliminary investigation of a discontinuity in clay. Finally, in the situ observations about fracture propagation in clay have led to preliminary conclusion that at least near the surface, the blue clays of plio-pleistocenic age are always intersected by a network of fissures. Within a few tens of meters from the surface some of the fissures can show oxidated bands of thickness up to two or three centimeters which is due to contact with percolating water and/or air. Informations about fracturing and clay behaviour at greater depth have been obtained from people involved in tunneling works. In conclusion it appears that the fracture response and the secondary permeability of clay masses are characterized by a wide variability, due to many factors at play

  1. In situ measurement of the rate of oxygen consumption by the Callovo-Oxfordian argillaceous rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinsot, A.; Lundy, M.; Claret, F.; Wechner, S.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The ventilation of excavated drifts in the Callovo-Oxfordian argillaceous rock induces its exposure to air. The oxygen from air reacts with several reduced mineral species from the rock. It may also react with organic species existing in the rock. The effects of these reactions on the rock mineralogy were observed in the first meters of many boreholes drilled in the Andra's Underground Research Laboratory (URL) drifts at 490 m deep. They generate mainly sulfated and ferric secondary phases. The consequences of these reactions on the evolution of a radioactive waste disposal in such a rock are two folds. First, they will contribute to oxygen consumption and the generation of an anoxic atmosphere in the drifts and vaults after their closure. In addition, they will influence the composition of the water which will later on fill the drifts and vaults. These phenomena are taken into account in the modeling of disposal evolutions at various times and space scales. The main remaining uncertainties regarding these phenomena concern: i) the identification of all the species involved in the oxygen reduction; ii) the reaction kinetics; and iii) the extension of the oxidized zone around the drifts and vaults. The aim of the 'POX experiment' is to reduce these uncertainties. This experiment includes a test dedicated to the quantitative study of oxygen consumption in the Callovo-Oxfordian argillaceous rock. This test was implemented in 2009 in the Andra's URL. After an initial phase during which the rock natural gases and pore water at the test location were observed, the first oxygen injection was performed in July 2011. The experimental concept is based on gas circulation in a borehole. It consists of a 15 m-long and 76 mm-diameter ascending borehole, from which the last 5 m constitute the test interval. The rock surface in the test interval is close to 1 m 2 . The last 6 m of the borehole were cored with argon as a drilling

  2. Characterization of discontinuities in an argillaceous medium (Tournemire site): key questions related to safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrera Nunez, J. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire

    2001-07-01

    The safety assessment of deep radioactive waste disposal in argillaceous medium concerns the evaluation of the possibilities and transfer processes through this geological barrier. Generally, this material is characterized by a very low permeability. However, faults and fractures may affect this medium and consequently it is important to analyse the transfer possibilities along these discontinuities. The first phase of this evaluation is the detection or survey of the fractures, and the second one is the evaluation of their hydraulic properties. A discontinuity is not a synonymous of fluid transfer, which in turn may be inhomogeneous along the same fracture. The well-compacted Tournemire argillaceous medium (argilites and marls) is affected by some faults and fractures of natural (tectonic) and artificial (excavation) origin. The natural fractures are of different scales: major regional faults that limit blocks, secondary fault and fractured zones that affect the blocks, and local fractures and micro-fractures. These discontinuities are studied from the surface analyses, transversal boreholes and drifts. Geophysical methods are tested to detect these discontinuities to different scales. The present-day fluids are shown in some fractured sectors that allow us to analyse the possibilities of fluid transfer along these discontinuities. The fracture analyses show that permeability or transmissivity properties may change along the discontinuities. A decametric fluid transfer is shown along some fractures; however, their integration in a larger scale is not yet analysed. It is necessary to understand how the transfer in the near field may be connected to the possible far field transfer, or these transfers are not possible through the argillaceous medium. (author)

  3. Characterization of discontinuities in an argillaceous medium (Tournemire site): key questions related to safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrera Nunez, J.

    2001-01-01

    The safety assessment of deep radioactive waste disposal in argillaceous medium concerns the evaluation of the possibilities and transfer processes through this geological barrier. Generally, this material is characterized by a very low permeability. However, faults and fractures may affect this medium and consequently it is important to analyse the transfer possibilities along these discontinuities. The first phase of this evaluation is the detection or survey of the fractures, and the second one is the evaluation of their hydraulic properties. A discontinuity is not a synonymous of fluid transfer, which in turn may be inhomogeneous along the same fracture. The well-compacted Tournemire argillaceous medium (argilites and marls) is affected by some faults and fractures of natural (tectonic) and artificial (excavation) origin. The natural fractures are of different scales: major regional faults that limit blocks, secondary fault and fractured zones that affect the blocks, and local fractures and micro-fractures. These discontinuities are studied from the surface analyses, transversal boreholes and drifts. Geophysical methods are tested to detect these discontinuities to different scales. The present-day fluids are shown in some fractured sectors that allow us to analyse the possibilities of fluid transfer along these discontinuities. The fracture analyses show that permeability or transmissivity properties may change along the discontinuities. A decametric fluid transfer is shown along some fractures; however, their integration in a larger scale is not yet analysed. It is necessary to understand how the transfer in the near field may be connected to the possible far field transfer, or these transfers are not possible through the argillaceous medium. (author)

  4. Sensitivity analysis for near-surface disposal in argillaceous media using NAMMU-HYROCOIN Level 3-Test case 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.R.; Paige, R.W.

    1988-07-01

    HYDROCOIN is an international project for comparing groundwater flow models and modelling strategies. Level 3 of the project concerns the application of groundwater flow models to repository performance assessment with emphasis on the treatment of sensitivity and uncertainty in models and data. Level 3, test case 1 concerns sensitivity analysis of the groundwater flow around a radioactive waste repository situated in a near surface argillaceous formation. Work on this test case has been carried out by Harwell and will be reported in full in the near future. This report presents the results obtained using the computer program NAMMU. (author)

  5. Self-sealing of Fractures in Argillaceous Formations in the Context of Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel in engineered facilities, or repositories, located deep underground in suitable geological formations is being developed worldwide as the reference solution to protect humans and the environment both now and in the future. Assessing the long-term safety of geological disposal requires developing a comprehensive understanding of the geological environment. The transport pathways are key to this understanding. Of particular interest are fractures in the host rock, which may be either naturally occurring or induced, for example, during the construction of engineered portions of a repository. Such fractures could provide pathways for migration of contaminants. In argillaceous (clay) formations, there is evidence that, over time, fractures can become less conductive and eventually hydraulically insignificant. This process is commonly termed 'self-sealing'. The capacity for self-sealing relates directly to the function of clay host rocks as migration barriers and, consequently, to the safety of deep repositories in those geological settings. This report - conducted under the auspices of the NEA Clay Club - reviews the evidence and mechanisms for self-sealing properties of clays and evaluates their relevance to geological disposal. Results from laboratory tests, field investigations and geological analogues are considered. The evidence shows that, for many types of argillaceous formations, the understanding of self-sealing has progressed to a level that could justify its inclusion in performance assessments for geological repositories. (authors)

  6. Influence of osmotic processes on the excess-hydraulic head measured in the Toarcian/Domerian argillaceous formation of Tournemire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tremosa, J.

    2010-01-01

    In the framework of the studies dealing on ability to store radioactive wastes in argillaceous formations, signification of interstitial pressures is an important point to understand water and solutes transport. In very low permeability argillaceous formations, like those studied in the Callovo-Oxfordian of the Paris basin by ANDRA, pore pressure is frequently higher than the theoretical hydrostatic pressure or than the pressure in the surrounding aquifers. Such an overpressure is also measured in the Toarcian/Domerian argillaceous formation (k = 10 -21 m 2 ), studied by the IRSN in the underground research laboratory of Tournemire (Aveyron, France). The hydraulic head profile has been specified in this manuscript and found to present a 30 ±10 m excess head. This excess-head can be due to compaction disequilibrium of the argillaceous formation, diagenetic evolution of the rock, tectonic compression, changes in hydrodynamic boundary conditions or osmotic processes. Amongst these potential causes, chemical osmosis and thermo-osmosis, a fluid flow under a chemical concentration and a temperature gradient, respectively, are expected to develop owing to the small pore size and the electrostatic interactions related to the charged surface of clay minerals. The goal of the work presented here was to study and quantify the contribution of each cause to the measured excess-head. Chemo-osmotic and thermo-osmotic permeabilities were obtained by experiments and using theoretical models. Theoretical models are based on the reproduction of the interactions occurring between the charged surface of clay minerals and pore solution and their up-scaling at the representative elementary volume macroscopic scale. Chemical osmosis phenomenon is related to anionic exclusion and the determination of the chemo-osmotic efficiency requires the resolution of an electrical interactions model. A triple-layer-model which considers diffuse layers overlapping was improved during this thesis to be

  7. Nature and reactivity of organic matter in argillaceous formations: example of the Callovo-Oxfordian of Bure (France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michels, R.; Elie, M.; Faure, P.; Huault, V.; Martinez, L.; Bartier, D.; Fleck, S.; Hautevelle, Y.

    2004-01-01

    In carbon cycle models, it is admitted that less than 1% of produced organic carbon is transferred to the geological cycle as sedimentary organic matter (Tissot and Welte, 1984). Although, coal or petroleum source rocks are most well known, sedimentary organic matter also occurs in various concentrations throughout many different rock facies. Organic matter is therefore a witness of the record of environmental changes as well as biomass evolution through time. It is also a reliable tracer of diagenetic conditions, from sediment deposition to metamorphism and subsurface alteration. Especially in the case of argillaceous sediments, known for their potential proneness of organic matter, the study of fossil organic matter is able to unravel a large amount of information concerning the geological past (depositional conditions and preservation, paleo-environment, burial, thermal history) as well as the future (effects of induced thermal perturbation, oxidative alteration, biodegradation). We are presenting here data obtained on the Callovo-Oxfordian argillaceous formations of Bure (France), which are the target layers for the installation of a future laboratory. (authors)

  8. Modelling of tracer profiles in pore water of argillaceous rocks in the Benken borehole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimmi, T.; Waber, H. N.

    2004-12-01

    Isotope tracers offer unique possibilities for analysing flow and transport processes over large scales of time and space. This is especially relevant for low-permeability media like clay stones, where transport is typically very slow and, consequently, difficult to investigate. Such lithologies are currently being investigated in several countries as potential host rocks for the disposal of radioactive or other hazardous waste. In the deep borehole at Benken (north-eastern Switzerland), a sequence of aquifers and argillaceous aquitards was investigated. Water samples were obtained from four formations (Malm, Keuper, Muschelkalk, and Buntsandstein). The Malm and the Keuper aquifer delimit a sequence of clay stones and marls at depth from about 400 to 700 m with hydraulic conductivities generally below 10 -13 m s -1 . Profiles of δ 18 O, δ 2 H, chloride, and δ 37 Cl in pore fluids of these formations were obtained. The chemical, isotopic, and noble gas composition of the ground water samples indicated that no cross-formation flow occurred, but that - with the exception of the Malm - the waters evolved geochemically within the formation from which they were sampled. Infiltration conditions could also be inferred from the data. The pore water profiles in the low-permeability zone show clear trends that hint at diffusion-dominated transport processes. To evaluate possible mechanisms and time scales of evolution of the profiles, a series of advective-dispersive model calculations was performed. Varying initial conditions as well as the type and concentration values of boundary conditions revealed the following: (i), molecular diffusion to the underlying aquifer can explain the general features of the isotope profiles, (ii), no signatures of advective flow could be detected, (iii), the evolution time is in the order of 0.5 to 1 Ma (relying on laboratory diffusion coefficients) with a possible range of about 0.2 to 2 Ma, which is geologically plausible, and, (iv

  9. Water states and types of water in materials from different argillaceous formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, A.M.; Melon, A.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Depending of their structure and degree of compaction, clays can be hydrated by a variable amount of water molecules in the inter-lamellar space and on external surfaces. Due to the fact that the structure and nature of water molecules (properties of liquid water) is influenced by the clay surfaces; different types of waters are involved in clayey systems (internal/external water, adsorbed/free water) giving a double porosity structure. The water volume accessible to ions is a key parameter in order to determine the pore water chemistry affecting the radionuclide transport in clay-rocks. In the case of argillaceous formations, natural consolidation induces significant physical and structural changes to clays as a function of time, leading to a progressive compaction and agglomeration of particles, reduction of crystallinity and an increase of micro-strain, which affects both the tetrahedral and octahedral layers. Structure and dynamics of water are modified when water molecules are close to interfaces or confined in porous spaces. At high degrees of compaction, the diffusive transport of the solvated ions and the solvent molecules in clays is substantially retarded compared with the free electrolyte solution because of the surface complexation of ions and the strong ordering of solvent molecules at the solid-liquid interface. Besides, mud-rocks contain a variable amount of different types of clays, such as illite, kaolinite, chlorites, smectite and illite/smectite mixed layers; as well as other main and accessory minerals which influence also the amount of water adsorbed and types of waters in these systems. Structural and dynamic properties of water confined among basal planes of clays have been extensively studied by means of water adsorption isotherms, neutron scattering, molecular dynamics (MD) and Monte- Carlo simulations. However, most of the works are related to purified clays and dispersed systems. In real

  10. The influence of water on the mechanical behaviour of argillaceous rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freissmuth, H.J.

    2002-12-01

    This thesis was done in collaboration with the French national radioactive waste agency ANDRA. The aim is to contribute to a better understanding of the mechanical behaviour of argillaceous rocks under the influence of aqueous solutions, as they are considered to be a possible host rock for a nuclear waste disposal site. Shale, can depending on the composition, change its mechanical and petrophysical properties in a wide range due to fluid-clay mineral interactions. One and the same shale can be soft or hard, ductile or rigid, permeable or sealing - depending on the environmental conditions the sample is exposed to. Shale can be very sensitive to a change of conditions such as humidity, stress state, temperature, and chemical potential gradients. One of the most obvious shale reactions is the swelling and shrinking as a function of it's saturation and the chemical potential gradient in the fluid system. Theses volume changes also sometimes alter other properties. Depending on the nature and the concentration of a liquid, a shale can either shrink or swell when in contact with a liquid. The material may sometimes also disperse in the liquid and deteriorate completely.An understandable description of the clay-minerals from the site of Est is given. The physicochemical micro mechanism of the fluid solid interaction such as adsorption, absorption, capillarity and osmosis are also presented. The possible consequences of these mechanisms on the macro mechanical behaviour, such as swelling and shrinking, crack induction and others was analysed. X-ray microfocus technology was introduced and used to analyse shale under different environmental conditions. The advantage of this technology is it's non-destructive character. The preparation of classical thin cross section is a rather inappropriate method, concerning micro cracks and deterioration in shale, because of the grinding of the material. A solution test was conducted to qualitatively observe the real-time reaction of

  11. Long term monitoring of water production flow rates in boreholes in the Callovo-Oxfordian argillaceous rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinsot, A.; Delay, J.; La Vaissiere, R. de; Cruchaudet, M.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Water production was observed in several boreholes in the Callovo-Oxfordian argillaceous rock (COx). These boreholes were implemented in 2005 in the Andra's Underground Research Laboratory (URL) at more than 400 m in depth. Despite the low COx permeability: close to 10-13 m/s, two original experimental setups made it possible to monitor water production flow rates ranging from 0.5 to 50 mL/day during 3 to 4 years in 4 boreholes. This contribution describes the water flow rate evaluation methods and the results obtained from several experimental phases which may be considered as a series of constant pressure production tests. The first experimental concept was based on seepage water collection. It consisted in filling with gas the interval of an ascending borehole at a pressure close to 1 bar and closing it. The hydraulic pressure in the rock surrounding the sealed interval was higher than 30 bars. Due to the hydraulic pressure difference between the interval and the surrounding rock, the interstitial water of the formation flowed into the interval, accumulated at its base by gravity and was pumped out at a controlled flow rate. The pumping rate was adjusted so that the water level would not exceed 40 cm inside the 5-meter-long interval. The water level was deduced from the difference between two absolute pressure measurements: one above the water surface in the gas phase and the other at the bottom of the water column. The total volume of the daily produced formation water was obtained by adding the water volume pumped out during the day and the water volume difference inside the interval between the beginning and the end of the day. This kind of experiment was performed in two boreholes. The second experimental concept was based on water circulation. It consisted in filling with water the interval of a descending borehole. Two water circulation lines and one pressure control line linked the test interval to

  12. Effect of the pore water composition on the diffusive anion transport in argillaceous, low permeability sedimentary rocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigger, Cornelia; Van Loon, Luc R

    2018-06-01

    The effect of the pore water composition on the diffusive anion transport was studied for two different argillaceous, low permeability sedimentary rocks, Opalinus Clay (OPA) and Helvetic Marl (HM). The samples were saturated with different solutions with varying molar concentration and different main cations in the solution: NaCl based pore solutions and CaCl 2 based pore solutions. The total porosity was measured by through-diffusion experiments with the neutral tracer HTO. Experiments performed in NaCl solutions resulted in a porosity of 0.12 for OPA and 0.03 for HM, and are consistent with results of the experiments in CaCl 2 solutions. The total porosity was independent of the molar concentration, in contrast to the measured anion porosity, which increased with increasing molar concentration. It could further be observed that the pore solution based on the bivalent cation calcium shielded the negative surface charge stronger than the monovalent cation sodium, resulting in a larger measureable anion-accessible porosity in the case of CaCl 2 solutions. The data was modelled based on an adapted Donnan approach of Birgersson and Karnland (2009). The model had to be adjusted with a permanent free, uncharged porosity, as well as with structural information on the permanent anion exclusion because of so-called bottleneck pores. Both parameters can only be evaluated from experiments. Nevertheless, taking these two adaptions into account, the effect of varying pore water compositions on the anion-accessible porosity of the investigated argillaceous rocks could be satisfactorily described. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of the pore water composition on the diffusive anion transport in argillaceous, low permeability sedimentary rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigger, Cornelia; Van Loon, Luc R.

    2018-06-01

    The effect of the pore water composition on the diffusive anion transport was studied for two different argillaceous, low permeability sedimentary rocks, Opalinus Clay (OPA) and Helvetic Marl (HM). The samples were saturated with different solutions with varying molar concentration and different main cations in the solution: NaCl based pore solutions and CaCl2 based pore solutions. The total porosity was measured by through-diffusion experiments with the neutral tracer HTO. Experiments performed in NaCl solutions resulted in a porosity of 0.12 for OPA and 0.03 for HM, and are consistent with results of the experiments in CaCl2 solutions. The total porosity was independent of the molar concentration, in contrast to the measured anion porosity, which increased with increasing molar concentration. It could further be observed that the pore solution based on the bivalent cation calcium shielded the negative surface charge stronger than the monovalent cation sodium, resulting in a larger measureable anion-accessible porosity in the case of CaCl2 solutions. The data was modelled based on an adapted Donnan approach of Birgersson and Karnland (2009). The model had to be adjusted with a permanent free, uncharged porosity, as well as with structural information on the permanent anion exclusion because of so-called bottleneck pores. Both parameters can only be evaluated from experiments. Nevertheless, taking these two adaptions into account, the effect of varying pore water compositions on the anion-accessible porosity of the investigated argillaceous rocks could be satisfactorily described.

  14. National waste terminal storage repository in a bedded salt formation for spent unreprocessed fuel. Special study No. 1. Twenty-five-year retrievability, decommissioning cost estimate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    This estimate covers decommissioning costs of facilities for the receipt, handling, and storage in bedded salt of canistered spent fuel assemblies from both BWR and PWR commercial power plants. The estimate includes all decommissioning costs for a repository, based on 25-year retrievability, constructed in accordance with the design shown in Conceptual Design Report (CDR), as modified by Special Study No. 1 (KE Report No. 78-60-RE) and decommissioned in accordance with the program outlined in the Conceptual Design Description Report, KE Report No. 78-58-R. Costs for Operating Contractor personnel on the site at this time are included in this report and not in the Operating Cost Estimate (KE Report 78-63-RE). The operating cost estimates end with the completion of storage room backfilling. The three major elements of decommissioning are: demolition of surface facilities, backfilling of main entries and airways, and shaft liner removal and shaft plugging. EDIT, ECON, and DELOX computer programs and a chart of accounts were furnished by UCC-ND under direction of the Government and the line item-capital-cost estimate was prepared according to the prescribed format. The decommissioning cost estimate referenced herein is in the same format as its companion line item-capital-cost estimate KE Report 78-62-RE

  15. National waste terminal storage repository in a bedded salt formation for spent unreprocessed fuel. Special study No. 3. Waste retrieval from backfilled regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    Methods and costs were studied for delayed canister retrieval from rooms that had been backfilled immediately after canister storage. The effects of this method of storage on mine geometry, thermal and rock mechanics environments, mine development and operations, mine ventilation, time schedule, retrieval machinery and safety were investigated. Salt and air temperatures were determined. Pillar width, number of rooms, extraction ratio, tonnages of mined salt, and salt handling and hoisting requirements were calculated. The required changes in mining equipment were established. Salt handling and elapsed time schedules were developed. Ventilation requirements - size and number of shafts, size the arrangement of airways, number of stacks, and size and number of fans were then calculated. The development sequence of these facilities was established. Canister retrieval problems were analyzed for canisters stuck in the hole as well as free. Retrieval methods and machinery were studied and are described. Safety with respect to both radiation and room collapse was studied and compared with CDR safety conditions. The effects of a reduced themal loading of 30 KW/acre on temperatures, room closure, mine layout, ventilation and ground control were studied and reported. A cost estimate was prepared, giving cost differentials between the base CDR costs and Special Study No. 3. Two appendices are included. The first contains nine Heat Transfer memoranda that state the thermal basis of this study. The second appendix provides a detailed operating time analysis of the retrieval machinery

  16. Multi-Objective Scheduling Optimization Based on a Modified Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II in Voltage Source Converter−Multi-Terminal High Voltage DC Grid-Connected Offshore Wind Farms with Battery Energy Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Young Kim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Improving the performance of power systems has become a challenging task for system operators in an open access environment. This paper presents an optimization approach for solving the multi-objective scheduling problem using a modified non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm in a hybrid network of meshed alternating current (AC/wind farm grids. This approach considers voltage and power control modes based on multi-terminal voltage source converter high-voltage direct current (MTDC and battery energy storage systems (BESS. To enhance the hybrid network station performance, we implement an optimal process based on the battery energy storage system operational strategy for multi-objective scheduling over a 24 h demand profile. Furthermore, the proposed approach is formulated as a master problem and a set of sub-problems associated with the hybrid network station to improve the overall computational efficiency using Benders’ decomposition. Based on the results of the simulations conducted on modified institute of electrical and electronics engineers (IEEE-14 bus and IEEE-118 bus test systems, we demonstrate and confirm the applicability, effectiveness and validity of the proposed approach.

  17. Mineralogical characterization of the argillaceous material from the Municipality of Santa Barbara, Para, Brazil; Caracterizacao mineralogica de material argiloso proveniente do municipio de Santa Barbara, Para, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrando, E.A., E-mail: edemarino@ufpa.b [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Maraba, PA (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia de Materiais. Lab. de Materiais Ceramicos; Sheller, T.; Angelica, R.S. [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Fac. de Geologia. Inst. de Geociencias; Neves, R.S. [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Quimica. Inst. de Tecnologia

    2009-07-01

    In the present work were investigated mineralogical phases in a material with argillaceous characteristic of the region of Genipauba, Santa Barbara, State of Para. Characterization of the collected sample was performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis (DTA), thermogravimetric analysis (TG) and infrared spectroscopy (IR). The results of the assays indicate the presence of the clay minerals like kaolinite and muscovite, as well as minerals as quartz and anatase. (author)

  18. Predicting the uptake of Cs, Co, Ni, Eu, Th and U on argillaceous rocks using sorption models for illite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques Fernandes, Maria; Vér, Nóra; Baeyens, Bart

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Contaminant retention in argillaceous rocks controlled by sorption on clay minerals. • Cs, Ni, Co, Eu, Th and UO 2 sorption isotherm measurements on Boda and Opalinus Clay. • Boda and Opalinus Clay exhibit different mineralogies and porewater compositions. • Blind predictions using quasi-mechanistic sorption models developed for illite. • Good agreement between measurements and blind predictions. - Abstract: Reliable predictions of radiocontaminant migration are a requirement for the establishment of radioactive waste repositories. Parametrization of the necessary sorption models seems to be, however, extremely challenging given the multi-mineralic composition of the lithosphere. In this study it is shown for two argillaceous rocks – Boda and Opalinus Clay relevant for the Hungarian and Swiss repository concepts, respectively – that this task can be substantially simplified by taking into account only the most sorptive mineral fraction, namely the 2:1 clay minerals illite and illite/smectite mixed layers. Two different models were required to blind predict the sorption isotherms of Cs, Co, Ni, Eu, Th and UO 2 measured on the two clay rock samples in a synthetic porewater. Cs sorption was modelled with the generalised Cs (GCs) sorption model and the sorption of the other cations with the 2site protolysis non electrostatic surface complexation and cation exchange (2SPNE SC/CE) model. The 2SPNE SC/CE model for illite was extended with surface complexation reactions on weak sites for Co, Ni, Eu, UO 2 and on strong sites for Eu-carbonato complexes. Complementary to the sorption measurements and modelling, extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy was used to probe the retention mechanism of Ni on illite, Boda and Opalinus Clay at higher loadings. The reliable blind predictions of the selected metal cations, which are representative for monovalent alkaline metals, divalent transition metals, lanthanides, and trivalent

  19. Prematurely terminated slug tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasaki, K.

    1990-07-01

    A solution of the well response to a prematurely terminated slug test (PTST) is presented. The advantages of a PTST over conventional slug tests are discussed. A systematized procedure of a PTST is proposed, where a slug test is terminated in the midpoint of the flow point, and the subsequent shut-in data is recorded and analyzed. This method requires a downhole shut-in device and a pressure transducer, which is no more than the conventional deep-well slug testing. As opposed to slug tests, which are ineffective when a skin is present, more accurate estimate of formation permeability can be made using a PTST. Premature termination also shortens the test duration considerably. Because in most cases no more information is gained by completing a slug test to the end, the author recommends that conventional slug tests be replaced by the premature termination technique. This study is part of an investigation of the feasibility of geologic isolation of nuclear wastes being carried out by the US Department of Energy and the National Cooperative for the Storage of Radioactive Waste of Switzerland

  20. A preliminary assessment of the relationship between the mineralogy and diagenetic history of four argillaceous rocks and their thermomechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopp, O.C.; Mulligan, P.J.; Reeves, D.K.

    1988-11-01

    A primary purpose of this study was to develop reproducible, quantitative methods to determine the bulk mineral composition and diagenetic history of argillaceous rocks and to attempt, in a preliminary way, to explain the thermomechanical behavior of several formations that were being measured by others. This report presents the results of several methods of analysis [specific-gravity determinations, water contents, chemical analyses by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis, quantitative mineralogical analyses by x-ray diffraction (QXRD), preferred orientation analyses by x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of fractured samples] that were used to study selected samples from the Conasauga Group, the Rhinestreet Shale, the Pierre Shale, and the Green River Formation to determine their mineralogical character and the effects of diagenesis on these materials. The results were then related to thermochemical test data that were obtained on samples from the same cores. Specific-gravity determinations on ''as-received'' samples ranged from 2.00 for the Green River Formation to 2.75 for the Rhinestreet Shale. Exposure to the atmosphere resulted in a small net gain (+0.5) in specific gravity for the Conasauga Group samples and a net loss (-0.11) for the Pierre Shale samples. Water contents, determined by heating to 105/degree/C for 1 h, averaged 0.8% by weight for the Conasauga Shale, Rhinestreet Shale, and Green River Formation samples. The water content determined for the Pierre Shale samples was 12.1 wt %

  1. Terminal Ballistics

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Zvi

    2012-01-01

    This book covers the important issues of terminal ballistics in a comprehensive way combining experimental data, numerical simulations and analytical modeling. The first chapter reviews the experimental equipment which are used for ballistic tests and the diagnostics for material characterization under impulsive loading conditions. The second chapter covers essential features of the codes which are used for terminal ballistics such as the Euler vs. Lagrange schemes and meshing techniques, as well as the most popular material models. The third chapter, devoted to the penetration mechanics of rigid penetrators, brings the update of modeling in this field. The fourth chapter deals with plate perforation and the fifth chapter deals with the penetration mechanics of shaped charge jets and eroding long rods. The last two chapters discuss several techniques for the disruption and defeating of the main threats in armor design. Throughout the book the authors demonstrate the advantages of numerical simulations in unde...

  2. Terminal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Frank [Langenhagen, DE; Allais, Arnaud [Hannover, DE; Mirebeau, Pierre [Villebon sur Yvette, FR; Ganhungu, Francois [Vieux-Reng, FR; Lallouet, Nicolas [Saint Martin Boulogne, FR

    2009-10-20

    A terminal structure (2) for a superconducting cable (1) is described. It consists of a conductor (2a) and an insulator (2b) that surrounds the conductor (2a), wherein the superconducting cable (1) has a core with a superconducting conductor (5) and a layer of insulation that surrounds the conductor (5), and wherein the core is arranged in such a way that it can move longitudinally in a cryostat. The conductor (2a) of the terminal structure (2) is electrically connected with the superconducting conductor (5) or with a normal conductor (6) that is connected with the superconducting conductor (5) by means of a tubular part (7) made of an electrically conductive material, wherein the superconducting conductor (5) or the normal conductor (6) can slide in the part (7) in the direction of the superconductor.

  3. Termination unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traeholt, Chresten; Willen, Dag; Roden, Mark; Tolbert, Jerry C.; Lindsay, David; Fisher, Paul W.; Nielsen, Carsten Thidemann

    2016-05-03

    Cable end section comprises end-parts of N electrical phases/neutral, and a thermally-insulation envelope comprising cooling fluid. The end-parts each comprises a conductor and are arranged with phase 1 innermost, N outermost surrounded by the neutral, electrical insulation being between phases and N and neutral. The end-parts comprise contacting surfaces located sequentially along the longitudinal extension of the end-section. A termination unit has an insulating envelope connected to a cryostat, special parts at both ends comprising an adapter piece at the cable interface and a closing end-piece terminating the envelope in the end-section. The special parts houses an inlet and/or outlet for cooling fluid. The space between an inner wall of the envelope and a central opening of the cable is filled with cooling fluid. The special part at the end connecting to the cryostat houses an inlet or outlet, splitting cooling flow into cable annular flow and termination annular flow.

  4. Sorption data bases for argillaceous rocks and bentonite for the provisional safety analyses for SGT-E2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeyens, B.; Thoenen, T.; Bradbury, M. H.; Marques Fernandes, M.

    2014-11-01

    In Stage 1 of the Sectoral Plan for Deep Geological Repositories, four rock types have been identified as being suitable host rocks for a radioactive waste repository, namely, Opalinus Clay for a high-level (HLW) and a low- and intermediate-level (L/ILW) repository, and 'Brauner Dogger', Effingen Member and Helvetic Marls for a L/ILW repository. Sorption data bases (SDBs) for all of these host rocks are required for the provisional safety analyses, including all of the bounding porewater and mineralogical composition combinations. In addition, SDBs are needed for the rock formations lying below Opalinus Clay (lower confining units) and for the bentonite backfill in the HLW repository. In some previous work Bradbury et al. (2010) have described a methodology for developing sorption data bases for argillaceous rocks and compacted bentonite. The main factors influencing the sorption in such systems are the phyllosilicate mineral content, particular the 2:1 clay mineral content (illite/smectite/illite-smectite mixed layers) and the water chemistry which determines the radionuclide species in the aqueous phase. The source sorption data were taken predominantly from measurements on illite (or montmorillonite in the case of bentonite) and converted to the defined conditions in each system considered using a series of so called conversion factors to take into account differences in mineralogy, in pH and in radionuclide speciation. Finally, a Lab → Field conversion factor was applied to adapt sorption data measured in dispersed systems (batch experiments) to intact rock under in-situ conditions. This methodology to develop sorption data bases has been applied to the selected host rocks, lower confining units and compacted bentonite taking into account the mineralogical and porewater composition ranges defined. Confidence in the validity and correctness of this methodology has been built up through additional studies: (i) sorption values obtained in the manner

  5. Sorption data bases for argillaceous rocks and bentonite for the provisional safety analyses for SGT-E2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeyens, B.; Thoenen, T.; Bradbury, M. H.; Marques Fernandes, M.

    2014-11-15

    In Stage 1 of the Sectoral Plan for Deep Geological Repositories, four rock types have been identified as being suitable host rocks for a radioactive waste repository, namely, Opalinus Clay for a high-level (HLW) and a low- and intermediate-level (L/ILW) repository, and 'Brauner Dogger', Effingen Member and Helvetic Marls for a L/ILW repository. Sorption data bases (SDBs) for all of these host rocks are required for the provisional safety analyses, including all of the bounding porewater and mineralogical composition combinations. In addition, SDBs are needed for the rock formations lying below Opalinus Clay (lower confining units) and for the bentonite backfill in the HLW repository. In some previous work Bradbury et al. (2010) have described a methodology for developing sorption data bases for argillaceous rocks and compacted bentonite. The main factors influencing the sorption in such systems are the phyllosilicate mineral content, particular the 2:1 clay mineral content (illite/smectite/illite-smectite mixed layers) and the water chemistry which determines the radionuclide species in the aqueous phase. The source sorption data were taken predominantly from measurements on illite (or montmorillonite in the case of bentonite) and converted to the defined conditions in each system considered using a series of so called conversion factors to take into account differences in mineralogy, in pH and in radionuclide speciation. Finally, a Lab → Field conversion factor was applied to adapt sorption data measured in dispersed systems (batch experiments) to intact rock under in-situ conditions. This methodology to develop sorption data bases has been applied to the selected host rocks, lower confining units and compacted bentonite taking into account the mineralogical and porewater composition ranges defined. Confidence in the validity and correctness of this methodology has been built up through additional studies: (i) sorption values obtained in the manner

  6. Energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role that energy storage may have on the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include historical aspects of energy storage, thermal energy storage including sensible heat storage, latent heat storage, thermochemical heat storage, and seasonal heat storage, electricity storage including batteries, pumped hydroelectric storage, compressed air energy storage, and superconducting magnetic energy storage, and production and combustion of hydrogen as an energy storage option

  7. Selected charts: National Waste Terminal Storage Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Staff members of the Office of Waste Isolation on October 21, 1977 reviewed the status of the OWI Waste Management Program for Commissioner E.E. Varanini III, State of California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission, and members of his staff. Copies of the viewgraphs and 35-mm slides shown at the briefing are compiled

  8. Economics of national waste terminal storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-02-01

    This topical report integrates two separate studies performed in FY 1978: spent fuel pricing studies which have previously been reported in Y/OWI/SUB-78/42512/2, and cost analysis studies reported in Y/OWI/SUB-78/42512/1. The cost analysis studies, which are parametric in nature, have been used to generate pricing estimates using the methodologies developed for the pricing studies. 8 figures, 16 tables

  9. Survey of foreign terminal waste storage programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmon, K.M.

    1983-11-01

    This paper is an update on the waste repository development programs in World Outside Centrally Planned Economies Area countries. Summaries are included for Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Federal Republic of Germany, India, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and United Kingdom. 15 references, 1 figure, 6 tables

  10. Creep and damage in argillaceous rocks: microstructural change and phenomenological modeling; Fluage et endommagement des roches argileuses: evolution de la microstructure et modelisation phenomenologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabre, G

    2005-06-15

    The underground radioactive waste disposal far exceeds the period of exploitation of common civil engineering works. These specific projects require to predict the irreversible deformations over a large time scale (several centuries) in order to assess the extension and to forecast the evolution of the EDZ (Excavation Damage Zone) around the cavity. In this study, the viscosity of three sedimentary argillaceous rocks has been studied under different conditions of uniaxial compression: static or cyclic creep tests, monotonic and quasistatic tests, performed across various strata orientations. Argillaceous rocks are studied as a possible host layer for radioactive waste disposals. Indeed, they present some of the physical characteristics and mechanical properties, which are essential for being a natural barrier: low permeability, high creep potential and important holding capacity of radioactive elements. The purpose of the experimental study was to shed some light over the mechanisms governing the development of delayed deformations and damage of argillaceous rocks. It relates three rocks: an argillite from East of France, a Tournemire argillite and a marl from Jurassic Mountains. On atomic scale, viscoplastic deformations are due to irreversible displacements of crystalline defects, called dislocations. The experimental study was also supplemented with observations on thin sections extracted from the argillite and marl samples using a SEM. The aim was to identify the mechanisms responsible for the time-dependent behaviour on a microstructural scale. Analytical simulations of the mechanical behaviour of the three rocks gave parameters used in different viscoplastic models. The best modeling was obtained with the viscoplastic model which takes account of the development of volumetric strains and of the damage anisotropy. (author)

  11. Preliminary assessment of shales and other argillaceous rocks in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, S.; Johnson, K.S.

    1981-01-01

    Shales and related clay-rich rock types throughout the conterminous United States are geologically characterized and evaluated on a regional basis relative to their promise as possible candidate rock sequences for the repository disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. Only stratigraphic intervals or parts of them that are laterally persistent, consist of 75 m or more of shale, mudstone, or argillite, and lie at depths of 305 to 915 m below the land surface are included. The general properties of clay-rich rocks, as well as the several desirable characteristics that make them potentially attractive as disposal host candidates, are reviewed. Also discussed are the geologic factors that dictate the potential acceptability of any shale sequence relative to the regional subsurface distribution of units that meet the basic criteria of extent, thickness, and depth. Included in this context are the tectonic setting, geologic structure, seismicity, groundwater hydrology, mineralogy and content of organic matter, mineral resource potential of both the shales and the enclosing geologic basins, and any construction experience on underground openings, such as hydrocarbon-storage facilities. The clay-rich strata that appear to be promising on the basis of this evaluation are inventoried according to their occurrence and distribution within nine geologic-geomorphic regions throughout the country. Also considered are several, more localized occurrences of Precambrian argillites whose mineralogies make them a related yet separate group in comparison with the sedimentary strata already summarized. Topics for which data are insufficient or on which inadequate study has been conducted to date are also identified

  12. Terminal ballistics

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Zvi

    2016-01-01

    This book comprehensively discusses essential aspects of terminal ballistics, combining experimental data, numerical simulations and analytical modeling. Employing a unique approach to numerical simulations as a measure of sensitivity for the major physical parameters, the new edition also includes the following features: new figures to better illustrate the problems discussed; improved explanations for the equation of state of a solid and for the cavity expansion process; new data concerning the Kolsky bar test; and a discussion of analytical modeling for the hole diameter in a thin metallic plate impacted by a shaped charge jet. The section on thick concrete targets penetrated by rigid projectiles has now been expanded to include the latest findings, and two new sections have been added: one on a novel approach to the perforation of thin concrete slabs, and one on testing the failure of thin metallic plates using a hydrodynamic ram.

  13. St. James marine terminal facility description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) currently owns and operates a marine terminal on the west bank of the Mississippi River at St. James, Louisiana. The St. James facility was constructed by the Department to provide marine services associated with the fill and drawdown of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) crude oil storage facilities located at Bayou Choctaw and Weeks Island, Louisiana. Although strategic to the mission of the SPR in the event of a national emergency, the St. James terminal is situated such that it has a high potential to also serve the commercial industry`s needs for crude oil terminalling and storage. The St. James terminal is located approximately 45 miles west of New Orleans and 30 miles southeast of Baton Rouge, and approximately 160 miles upstream from the mouth of the Mississippi River. Construction of the St. James terminal was initiated in 1978 and was completed in 1980. Since then, the terminal has received and transferred over 125 million barrels of crude oil to the SPR sites for storage. For crude oil distribution, the St. James terminal was connected to the neighboring LOCAP terminal by a 0.1 mile 36-inch pipeline in 1981 and to the Capline terminal by a 0.5 mile 30-inch pipeline in 1988. The terminal also has a 30-inch pipeline connection to the Koch oil terminal which was used for initial fill purposes; however, this pipeline has been disconnected and is currently inactive. A complete description of the St. James terminal facilities, operational capabilities, operational certifications, and future Government requirements are presented in Sections 2, 3, 4, and 5 respectively.

  14. Proceedings of the self-healing topical session of the IGSC Working Group on Measurement and Physical Understanding of Groundwater Flow through Argillaceous Media (Clay Club)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    A Topical Session focused on the 'Evidence of, and Approaches to Self-Healing in Argillaceous Media' was organised in the framework to the 11. meeting of the Clay Club. It was held at Nancy in France on 16 May 2001 at the invitation of the French Organisation for Radioactive Waste Management (ANDRA). Twenty-six participants representing several national waste management organisations, regulatory authorities, geological surveys as well as academic community took part in the session. The Topical session was mainly aimed at exchanging information on: - The general point of view on self-healing from geomechanical and geochemical experts; - The approaches that are or will be followed by the various organisations in order to deal with self-healing. The geological settings covered in the presentations concerned the whole range of argillaceous media, from soft, plastic clays to indurated clay-stones, currently studied with respect to deep disposal of radioactive waste. The Topical Session showed the importance of a multidisciplinary approach to this topic. The presentations emphasised the interest of a state-of-the-art report on self-healing to provide a sound and disposal-dedicated scientific framework for subsequent studies related to this area

  15. Termination unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traeholt, Chresten [Frederiksberg, DK; Willen, Dag [Klagshamn, SE; Roden, Mark [Newnan, GA; Tolbert, Jerry C [Carrollton, GA; Lindsay, David [Carrollton, GA; Fisher, Paul W [Heiskell, TN; Nielsen, Carsten Thidemann [Jaegerspris, DK

    2014-01-07

    This invention relates to a termination unit comprising an end-section of a cable. The end section of the cable defines a central longitudinal axis and comprising end-parts of N electrical phases, an end-part of a neutral conductor and a surrounding thermally insulation envelope adapted to comprising a cooling fluid. The end-parts of the N electrical phases and the end-part of the neutral conductor each comprising at least one electrical conductor and being arranged in the cable concentrically around a core former with a phase 1 located relatively innermost, and phase N relatively outermost in the cable, phase N being surrounded by the neutral conductor, electrical insulation being arrange between neighboring electrical phases and between phase N and the neutral conductor, and wherein the end-parts of the neutral conductor and the electrical phases each comprise a contacting surface electrically connected to at least one branch current lead to provide an electrical connection: The contacting surfaces each having a longitudinal extension, and being located sequentially along the longitudinal extension of the end-section of the cable. The branch current leads being individually insulated from said thermally insulation envelope by individual electrical insulators.

  16. Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, William W.

    Described are technological considerations affecting storage of energy, particularly electrical energy. The background and present status of energy storage by batteries, water storage, compressed air storage, flywheels, magnetic storage, hydrogen storage, and thermal storage are discussed followed by a review of development trends. Included are…

  17. Operational Optimization in Port Container Terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    As a result of the significant increase in worldwide containerized transportation the development of efficient handling systems in marine terminals has become very important for port competitiveness. In order to optimize the productivity the total handling time for containers in the terminal must...... be minimized. An overview of the different operational problems in port container terminals is presented and an aggregated model and solution approach is shown. Next, there will be focused on the yard storage problem and a mathematical formulation and solution proposals will be presented....

  18. Comparison of sorption measurements on argillaceous rocks and bentonite with predictions using the SGT-E2 approach to derive sorption data bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, M. H.; Baeyens, B; Marques Fernandes, M.

    2014-11-15

    In Stage 1 of the Sectoral Plan for Deep Geological Repositories, four rock types have been identified as being suitable host rocks for a radioactive waste repository, namely, Opalinus Clay for a high-level (HLW) and a low- and intermediate-level (L/ILW) repository, and 'Brauner Dogger', Effingen Member and Helvetic Marls for a L/ILW repository. Sorption data bases (SDBs) for all of these host rocks are required for the provisional safety analyses, including all of the bounding porewater and mineralogical composition combinations. In addition, SDBs are needed for the rock formations lying below Opalinus Clay (lower confining units) and for the bentonite backfill in the HLW repository. A detailed procedure was developed for deriving SDBs for argillaceous rocks (and bentonite) based on sorption edge measurements on illite (and montmorillonite), the hypothesis that 2:1 clay minerals are the dominant sorbents and a series of so called conversion factors which take into account the different radionuclide speciations in the different porewaters. Since this methodology for generating SDBs is relatively new, a validation and demonstration of the robustness and reliability of the sorption values derived was required. This report describes an extensive piece of work in which blind predictions of sorption values were compared with measured ones. Sorption isotherms were measured for the following metal ions Cs(I), Co(II), Ni(II), Eu(III), Th(IV) and U(VI) in a range of realistic porewater chemistries for a range of host rock mineralogies. In the end 53 isotherm data sets were measured. For each of these isotherms a prediction was made of the sorption at trace concentrations using the SDB derivation methodology. A comparison between measured and predicted values for each case was then made. This validation study shows that the methodology used for the derivation of the sorption data bases for argillaceous rocks and bentonite produces reliable sorption values. (authors)

  19. Optimizing yard operations in port container terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallehauge, Louise Sibbesen

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of positioning containers in a yard block of a port container terminal. The objective of the container positioning problem (CPP) is to minimise the total handling time in the block, i.e. the time required for storage and reshuffling of containers. One...

  20. kosh Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  1. kpdt Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  2. kewr Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  3. kiso Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  4. kpga Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  5. kbkw Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  6. ktcl Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  7. pgwt Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  8. kpsp Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  9. kbih Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  10. kdnl Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  11. kart Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  12. kilm Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  13. kpne Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  14. kabi Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  15. ptpn Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    Data.gov (United States)

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  17. panc Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  18. kpbi Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  19. kgdv Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  20. kcmx Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  1. kdls Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  2. koaj Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  3. krhi Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  4. kbpk Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  5. khuf Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  6. kbpi Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  7. ktrk Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  8. kwmc Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  9. katy Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  10. tjmz Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  11. kdet Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  12. kcxp Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  13. kbur Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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  16. kloz Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  17. kcec Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  18. kdec Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  19. paor Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  20. kavl Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  1. kdrt Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  2. kstl Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  3. kbfi Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  4. khsv Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  5. pafa Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  6. kekn Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  7. tncm Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  8. kith Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  9. kgnv Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  10. ktoi Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  11. kgso Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  12. nstu Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  13. kmgm Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  14. khib Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  15. pavd Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  16. kfar Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  17. kluk Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  18. kwwr Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  19. klse Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  20. ksts Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  1. koth Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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  3. ksgf Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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  13. khio Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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  14. klaf Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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  17. kipt Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  19. Organizational Relationship Termination Competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Thomas; Geersbro, Jens

    2011-01-01

    termination are found to significantly affect a firm's relationship termination competence. The findings suggest that managers should regard termination as a legitimate option in customer relationship management. In order to decrease the number of unwanted customers, managers must accept termination......Most firms are involved in a number of customer relationships that drain the firm's resources. However, many firms are hesitant to address this problem. This paper investigates customer relationship termination at the organizational level. We develop and analyze the organizational dimensions...... of organizational termination in order to improve our understanding of the management of termination. The impact of these termination dimensions on the percentage of unwanted customers is developed and tested using PLS on data gathered from a cross-sectional survey of more than 800 sales representatives. We find...

  20. kink Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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  3. kaoo Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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  18. kdug Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  19. ktix Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  20. kcod Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  1. kslk Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  2. kgfl Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  3. kguc Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  4. kmlu Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  5. kbff Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  6. ksmn Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  7. kdro Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  8. kmce Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  9. ktpa Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  10. kmot Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  11. kcre Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  12. klws Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  13. kotm Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  14. khqm Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  15. kabr Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  16. klal Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  17. kelp Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  18. kecg Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  19. khbg Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  20. kpbf Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  1. konp Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  2. pkwa Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  3. ktvf Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  4. paga Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  5. khks Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  6. kdsm Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  7. kpsm Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  8. kgrb Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  9. kgmu Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  10. papg Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  11. kbgm Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  12. pamc Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  13. klrd Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  14. ksan Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  15. patk Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  16. kowb Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  17. klru Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  18. kfxe Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  19. kjct Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  20. kcrg Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  1. paaq Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  2. kaex Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  3. klbx Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  4. kmia Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  5. kpit Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  6. kcrw Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  7. paen Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  8. kast Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  9. kuin Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  10. kmht Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  11. kcys Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  12. kflo Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  13. pakn Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  14. pabt Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  15. krdg Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  16. khdn Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  17. kjac Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  18. kphx Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  19. Energy storage cell impedance measuring apparatus, methods and related systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, John L.; Morrison, William H.; Christophersen, Jon P.

    2017-12-26

    Energy storage cell impedance testing devices, circuits, and related methods are disclosed. An energy storage cell impedance measuring device includes a sum of sinusoids (SOS) current excitation circuit including differential current sources configured to isolate a ground terminal of the differential current sources from a positive terminal and a negative terminal of an energy storage cell. A method includes applying an SOS signal comprising a sum of sinusoidal current signals to the energy storage cell with the SOS current excitation circuit, each of the sinusoidal current signals oscillating at a different one of a plurality of different frequencies. The method also includes measuring an electrical signal at a positive terminal and a negative terminal of the energy storage cell, and computing an impedance of the energy storage cell at each of the plurality of different frequencies using the measured electrical signal.

  20. Geophysical exploration to estimate the surface conductivity of residual argillaceous bands in the groundwater repositories of coastal sediments of EOLGA, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.J. George

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Electrical geophysical applications exploit a petrophysical relationship governing the electrical properties of rocks/sediments when field data are coupled with laboratory data. Given the robust analytical techniques of electrical method and the interrelationship with laboratory measurements, it seems natural to classify, and hence simplify, the spatially aggregated conductivity information on the basis of rock/sediment lithology. This provides a unique link between lithological sediment/rock parameters and the physical parameters controlling bulk conductivity. In this work vertical electrical sounding (VES technique employing Schlumberger configuration integrated with sediment and water analysis have been used to determine the conductivity of argillaceous bands of aquifer sands (fine- coarse sands in Eastern Obolo Local Government Area (EOLGA. The analysis of the data shows that the aquifer systems composing of fine sands, siltstones and coarse sand have bulk and pore-water resistivities ranging from 40.1–2049.4 Ω m (average = 995.18 Ω m to 2.7–256.9 Ω m (average = 91.2 Ω m respectively. These ranges respectively correspond to porosity and formation factor of (19.5–40.6%; average = 29.2% and (7.1–19.7%; average = 12.95%. Within the limit of experimental errors clearly specified in the work, the intrinsic (clay-free formation factor (Fi was estimated to be 16.34 while the intrinsic porosity and the conductivity of the pore-scale clay (σA were respectively estimated to be 20.4% and 3.2679 mS/m. Accounting for this conductivity magnitude of argillaceous bands from bulk conductivity (σb of aquifer sands makes the aquifer systems in the area to be consistent with Archie’s law that is valid only in clay-free sandy formation. The graphical deductions and contour distribution of parameters realised from data processing could be used to derive input parameters for contaminant migration modelling and to improve the

  1. Tritium storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hircq, B.

    1990-01-01

    This document represents a synthesis relative to tritium storage. After indicating the main storage particularities as regards tritium, storages under gaseous and solid form are after examined before establishing choices as a function of the main criteria. Finally, tritium storage is discussed regarding tritium devices associated to Fusion Reactors and regarding smaller devices [fr

  2. CONTAINER TERMINALS IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart W. WIEGMANS

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to address the linkage between logistics (in particular, the management of marketing channel flows and transport markets, while also the interaction between these two markets and intermodal container terminals is analysed. The marketing channel theory is used to describe all relevant actors and flows that run through marketing channels, starting with customer needs and ending with customer satisfaction. Porter's theory of competitive advantages is used to review competitive forces in both markets. Finally, a competitor analysis is performed for the logistics and transport market. These theories are applied so as to be able to determine the competitive position of intermodal container terminals with a view to the management of marketing channel flows and the physical transport of freight flows. Hence, the central question of this paper is: Which markets are served by intermodal container terminals and with whom are they competing? At present, neither the maritime container terminals nor the continental container terminals appear to have a significant influence in the logistics service market; they concentrate mainly on the physical movement of containers (transshipment. Furthermore, maritime container terminals and continental container terminals are not dominant players in the transport service market. Our conclusion is that continental terminals are predominantly competing with unimodal road transport, with neighbouring continental terminals and with barge transport companies.

  3. Energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaier, U.

    1981-04-01

    Developments in the area of energy storage are characterized, with respect to theory and laboratory, by an emergence of novel concepts and technologies for storing electric energy and heat. However, there are no new commercial devices on the market. New storage batteries as basis for a wider introduction of electric cars, and latent heat storage devices, as an aid for solar technology applications, with satisfactory performance standards are not yet commercially available. Devices for the intermediate storage of electric energy for solar electric-energy systems, and for satisfying peak-load current demands in the case of public utility companies are considered. In spite of many promising novel developments, there is yet no practical alternative to the lead-acid storage battery. Attention is given to central heat storage for systems transporting heat energy, small-scale heat storage installations, and large-scale technical energy-storage systems.

  4. Lazy Productivity via Termination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endrullis, J.; Hendriks, R.D.A.

    2011-01-01

    We present a procedure for transforming strongly sequential constructor-based term rewriting systems (TRSs) into context-sensitive TRSs in such a way that productivity of the input system is equivalent to termination of the output system. Thereby automated termination provers become available for

  5. Termination of cycle rewriting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zantema, H.; König, B.; Bruggink, H.J.S.; Dowek, G.

    2014-01-01

    String rewriting can not only be applied on strings, but also on cycles and even on general graphs. In this paper we investigate termination of string rewriting applied on cycles, shortly denoted as cycle rewriting, which is a strictly stronger requirement than termination on strings. Most

  6. Deformation and damage modes of deep argillaceous rocks under hydro-mechanical stresses; Modes de deformation et d'endommagement de roches argileuses profondes sous sollicitations hydro-mecaniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vales, F.

    2008-12-15

    An experimental identification of the hydro-mechanical behaviour of an argillite rock is proposed within a multi-scale approach. In particular, interest is focused on the spatial and temporal localization of strain and damage in a specimen during hydro-mechanical loading. Firstly, we describe the techniques used to follow the rock evolutions under loading, and in particular Digital Images Correlation (DIC), Acoustic Emission, microscopy and mercury intrusion porosimetry. Measurement errors and device limitations are discussed. The studied material is the Callovo-Oxfordian indurated argillaceous rock (or argillite) of the Bure site where ANDRA has built an underground research laboratory to study the radioactive waste storage. Petrophysical characterizations and microstructural observations by optical and scanning electron microscopy provide an identification of the constitutive phase and a characterization of their spatial distribution and typical sizes. Argillite can be described as a composite structure with a continuous clay matrix and embedded mineral particles, essentially quartz and carbonates. The typical size of these particles ranges from a few micrometers to a few hundreds micrometers, with an average close to 50 {mu}.m. The general experimental procedure combines two steps: in a fist time, imposed suctions bring samples to a given degree of water saturation, and, in a second time, uniaxial mechanical compression tests are performed. To understand the evolutions of the material under hydric and mechanical loading, samples are instrumented with standard measurement techniques, but also with Digital Image Correlation, at both the global scale of the sample and the local scale of the composite microstructure, and with Acoustic Emissions recording. Moisture transfers are imposed by controlled suctions on the range of 150 to 2.8 MPa, corresponding to the relative humidity range of 32 to 98%RH. During pure hydric solicitation, the changes in physical parameters

  7. Siting considerations for LNG import terminals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meratla, Z. [CDS Research Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Site selection criteria for liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities and terminals were reviewed in this PowerPoint presentation. Onshore and offshore sites were discussed. Typical public opposition issues were examined, including public concerns over safety and the environment. Low key consultation processes with local communities was advised to assess levels of interest and opposition during initial stages. It was suggested that desirable LNG sites should not be visible from local communities. Remoteness from built-up areas was advised, as well as ensuring that sites meet the requirements of future expansion and large LNG carriers. Issues concerning waterway drawbacks and exclusion zones were examined, as well as the relative merits of onshore and offshore terminals. It was noted that onshore terminals are accessible to personnel as well as outside emergency response resources, and are less susceptible to weather related downtime. In addition, onshore spills are generally impounded. Offshore LNG import terminals are visible from shorelines and susceptible to stray marine traffic and abnormal events. Siting considerations for offshore facilities include sensitive areas; shipping channels; foundation issues; shipping lane access; and offshore pipeline lengths. Issues concerning loading arms, remote flare systems, integral ballast and process equipment for offshore facilities were discussed. Membrane type storage systems and tank construction details were presented as well as details of self supporting storage systems. A comparison of gravity-based structures and floating facilities was presented. It was concluded that floating LNG facilities have well developed security procedures, passive protection and automatic intruder detection alarms. tabs., figs.

  8. Kitimat LNG terminal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmaltz, I.; Boulton, R.

    2007-01-01

    Kitimat Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) terminal is a terminal development company owned by Galveston LNG, a privately owned Canadian energy development company. This presentation provided information on Kitimat LNG with particular reference to its terminal located in Bish Cove on the Douglas Channel in British Columbia. This LNG terminal is reported to be the only fully permitted regasification terminal on the west coast of Canada and the United States. The presentation addressed market fundamentals including several graphs, such as world natural gas proved reserves in 2006; LNG supplements to Canadian gas supplies; global LNG demand for 2005-2020; average annual United States LNG imports; and global LNG liquefaction projects. Other market fundamentals were described, including that Kitimat is the only other approved terminal aside from the Costa Azul terminal in Mexico; Kitimat is the only west coast LNG import terminal that connects to midwest and eastern North American markets through existing gas pipelines; LNG producers are looking for destination diversification; and markets and marketers are looking for supply diversification. The authors noted that by 2010, western Canadian gas demand will exceed Californian demand. Other topics that were discussed in the presentation included Canadian natural gas field receipts; unadjusted bitumen production outlook; oil sands gas demand; forward basis fundamentals; and the commercial drivers of the Kitimat LNG terminal. The presentation also discussed the pacific trail pipelines, a partnership between Galveston LNG and Pacific Northern Gas to develop the natural gas transmission line from Kitimat to Summit. The presentation concluded with a discussion of the benefits of Kitimat LNG terminal such as providing access to the largest natural gas markets in the world via major gas transmission lines with spare capacity. figs

  9. Energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    After having outlined the importance of energy storage in the present context, this document outlines that it is an answer to economic, environmental and technological issues. It proposes a brief overview of the various techniques of energy storage: under the form of chemical energy (hydrocarbons, biomass, hydrogen production), thermal energy (sensitive or latent heat storage), mechanical energy (potential energy by hydraulic or compressed air storage, kinetic energy with flywheels), electrochemical energy (in batteries), electric energy (super-capacitors, superconductor magnetic energy storage). Perspectives are briefly evoked

  10. A preliminary assessment of mineralogical criteria on the utility of argillaceous rocks and minerals for high-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopp, O.C.

    1986-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to review available data concerning the properties reported for shales and clay-rich rocks and clay minerals to determine whether such information could be instrumental in selecting the more favorable assemblages of clays for high-level waste repository purposes. Literature searches were conducted for reports dealing with the properties of these argillaceous materials. The properties that were obtained from appropriate references were recorded in an Appleworks Database. The data are divided into five major goups: chemical properties, general physical properties, hydrologic properties, mechanical properties, and thermal properties. The Database includes such information as the type of material, formation name, geological age, location, depth, test conditions, results, and reference(s). In general, noticeable correlations were not apparent when mineralogical information was compared with various properties using plots of the data for each individual property. The best correlations were obtained for chemical and certain mechanical and hydrologic properties. Thermal properties appear to be least influenced by clay mineral composition. An important reason for the inability to correlate mineralogical compositions with most properties was the lack of uniformity of test methods, test conditions, and even the units used for reporting the final data. There was very limited information concerning the mineralogical compositions of most of the shales tested. The potential exists for identifying the more suitable formations (or specific horizons within formations) using mineralogical data; however, in order to make such selections, it will be necessary to collect future data using standardized test methods and conditions. The mineralogical compositions of the samples tested need to be determined quantitatively rather than qualitatively

  11. DECOVALEX-THMC Project. Task C. Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ) in argillaceous rock at Tournemire site (France). Report of Task C1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rejeb, A. (comp.) [Inst. of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (France); Stephansson, O. (comp.) [GeoForschungsZentrum-Potsdam (Germany); Millard, A. [CEA/IRSN (France); Ziefle, G.; Kohlmeier, M.; Massmann, J.; Zielke, W. [ISEB/BGR (Germany); Uehara, S.; Kobayashi, A.; Chijimatsu, M.; Fujita, T. [KU/JAEA (Japan)

    2007-02-15

    The DECOVALEX-THMC project is an ongoing international co-operative project that was stared in 2004 to support the development of mathematical models of coupled Thermal (T), Hydrological (H), Mechanical (M) and Chemical (C) processes in geological media for siting potential nuclear fuel waste repositories. The general objective is to characterise and evaluate the coupled THMC processes in the near field and far field of a geological repository and to assess their impact on performance assessment: - during the three phases of repository development: excavation phase, operation phase and post-closure phase; - for three different rocks types: crystalline, argillaceous and tuff; - with specific focus on the issues of: Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ), permanent property changes of rock masses, and glaciation and permafrost phenomena. This report describes the results of Task C1 of the project devoted to Excavation Damage Zone (EDZ) in argillaceous rock at the Tournemire site in France. The task is to develop adequate numerical models for interpretation of observed damaged zones around three different openings excavated at different time at the Tournemire site. The research teams are asked to model the evolution of the EDZ with time and to compare the results with measurements performed at the site. Three research teams are participating in this task: - CEA (Commissariat of Atomic Energy, France) and the IRSN (Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear safety, France) ; - ISEB (Institute of Fluid Mechanics and Computer Applications in Civil Engineering, University of Hanover, Germany) supported by the BGR (Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, Germany); - KU (Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Kyoto University, Japan) supported by the JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Japan). This report presents a description and definition of Task C including a geological description of the site, the geomechanical characterisation of the argillaceous

  12. Nonleaking battery terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, W. E.; Nagle, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    Three different terminals were designed for usage in a 40 ampere/hour silver zinc battery which has a 45% KOH by weight electrolyte in a plastic battery case. Life tests, including thermal cycling, electrical charge and discharge for up to three years duration, were conducted on these three different terminal designs. Tests for creep rate and tensile strength were conducted on the polyphenylene oxide plastic battery cases. Some cases were unused and others containing KOH electrolyte were placed on life tests. The design and testing of nonleaking battery terminals for use with a KOH electrolyte in a plastic case are considered.

  13. Storage tank stratification/rollover alarm management. Liquefied natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Versluijs, Pieter [Waertsilae France SAS, Calais (France). Waertsilae Whessoe PCT

    2011-03-21

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminals need to be able to store multiple grades of LNG, and to have sufficient storage capacity available for all of them. Managing storage to ensure availability and to optimise the use of storage capacity is, therefore, essential. This article discusses ways of achieving these aims.

  14. Nontraumatic terminal ileal perforation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wani Rauf A

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is still confusion and controversy over the diagnosis and optimal surgical treatment of non traumatic terminal ileal perforation-a cause of obscure peritonitis. Methods This study was a prospective study aimed at evaluating the clinical profile, etiology and optimal surgical management of patients with nontraumatic terminal ileal perforation. Results There were 79 cases of nontraumatic terminal ileal perforation; the causes for perforation were enteric fever(62%, nonspecific inflammation(26%, obstruction(6%, tuberculosis(4% and radiation enteritis (1%. Simple closure of the perforation (49% and end to side ileotransverse anastomosis(42% were the mainstay of the surgical management. Conclusion Terminal ileal perforation should be suspected in all cases of peritonitis especially in developing countries and surgical treatment should be optimized taking various accounts like etiology, delay in surgery and operative findings into consideration to reduce the incidence of deadly complications like fecal fistula.

  15. Terminated Multifamily Mortgages Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This dataset includes all terminated HUD Multifamily mortgages except those from the Hospital Mortgage Insurance Program. It includes the Holder and Servicer at the...

  16. Neutron storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strelkov, A.V.

    2004-01-01

    The report is devoted to neutron storage (NS) and describes the history of experiments on the NS development. Great attention is paid to ultracold neutron (UCN) storage. The experiments on the UCN generation, transport, spectroscopy, storage and detection are described. Experiments on searching the UCN electric-dipole moment and electric charge are continued. Possible using of UCN for studying the nanoparticles is discussed [ru

  17. Energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odru, P.

    2010-01-01

    This book proposes a broad overview of the technologies developed in the domains of on-board electricity storage (batteries, super-capacitors, flywheels), stationary storage (hydraulic dams, compressed air, batteries and hydrogen), and heat storage (sensible, latent and sorption) together with their relative efficiency, their expected developments and what advantages they can offer. Eminent specialists of this domain have participated to the redaction of this book, all being members of the Tuck's Foundation 'IDees' think tank. (J.S.)

  18. Energy storage

    CERN Document Server

    Brunet, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Energy storage examines different applications such as electric power generation, transmission and distribution systems, pulsed systems, transportation, buildings and mobile applications. For each of these applications, proper energy storage technologies are foreseen, with their advantages, disadvantages and limits. As electricity cannot be stored cheaply in large quantities, energy has to be stored in another form (chemical, thermal, electromagnetic, mechanical) and then converted back into electric power and/or energy using conversion systems. Most of the storage technologies are examined: b

  19. Tritium storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hircq, B.

    1989-01-01

    A general synthesis about tritium storage is achieved in this paper and a particular attention is given to practical application in the Fusion Technology Program. Tritium, storage under gaseous form and solid form are discussed (characteristics, advantages, disadvantages and equipments). The way of tritium storage is then discussed and a choice established as a function of a logic which takes into account the main working parameters

  20. Visual communication and terminal equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Cheol Hui

    1988-06-01

    This book is divided two parts about visual communication and terminal equipment. The first part introduces visual communication, which deals with foundation of visual communication, technique of visual communication, equipment of visual communication, a facsimile and pictorial image system. The second part contains terminal equipment such as telephone, terminal equipment for data transmission on constitution and constituent of terminal equipment for data transmission, input device and output device, terminal device and up-to-date terminal device.

  1. Visual communication and terminal equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Cheol Hui

    1988-06-15

    This book is divided two parts about visual communication and terminal equipment. The first part introduces visual communication, which deals with foundation of visual communication, technique of visual communication, equipment of visual communication, a facsimile and pictorial image system. The second part contains terminal equipment such as telephone, terminal equipment for data transmission on constitution and constituent of terminal equipment for data transmission, input device and output device, terminal device and up-to-date terminal device.

  2. Characterization of the tensile behaviour of argillaceous soils for the barriers of waste disposal facilities; Caracterisation du comportement en traction des sols argileux pour les barrieres de centres de stockage de dechets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madjoudj Guessasma, N

    2001-12-01

    Compacted clay beds are traditionally used for the covering of radioactive waste repositories. Their implementation is a delicate task which requires to take into consideration the type of waste and the environment properties: climate, hydrology, topography and sociology. Several works have been performed on the mechanical behaviour of such soils with respect to their elastic or compression rupture properties. However, their sensibility with respect to the cracking generated by an hydric change or by a flexural strength (differential compaction of the wastes) remains badly known. The aim of this work is to propose a laboratory test for the characterization of the suitability of these materials with respect to their tensile extensibility. This test has been performed on two types of argillaceous materials. The document is structured as follows: after a synthesis of the main causes of alteration of cover materials, a characterization of two natural fine soils which could be used as cover material is presented. Their tensile properties is analyzed, in particular their deformation during cracking and rupture. Different direct or indirect tensile tests are analyzed in order to define a simple test for the characterization of the tensile properties of soils. The influence of the compacting mode on the cracking and rupture is also studied. Finally, a real scale experiment simulating the bending of an argillaceous cover above a cavity has been performed in-situ. The results are compared with those obtained at the laboratory in order to validate the choices proposed for an application to waste repository covers. (J.S.)

  3. Probe Storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemelli, Marcellino; Abelmann, Leon; Engelen, Johannes Bernardus Charles; Khatib, M.G.; Koelmans, W.W.; Zaboronski, Olog; Campardo, Giovanni; Tiziani, Federico; Laculo, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of probe-based data storage research over the last three decades, encompassing all aspects of a probe recording system. Following the division found in all mechanically addressed storage systems, the different subsystems (media, read/write heads, positioning, data

  4. Tandem Terminal Ion Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, G.C.; Lindner, C.E.; Myers, A.W.; Wechel, T.D. van

    2000-01-01

    OAK-B135 Tandem Terminal Ion Source. The terminal ion source (TIS) was used in several experiments during this reporting period, all for the 7 Be(γ) 8 B experiment. Most of the runs used 1 H + at terminal voltages from 0.3 MV to 1.5 MV. One of the runs used 2 H + at terminal voltage of 1.4 MV. The other run used 4 He + at a terminal voltage of 1.37 MV. The list of experiments run with the TIS to date is given in table 1 below. The tank was opened four times for unscheduled source repairs. On one occasion the tank was opened to replace the einzel lens power supply which had failed. The 10 kV unit was replaced with a 15 kV unit. The second time the tank was opened to repair the extractor supply which was damaged by a tank spark. On the next occasion the tank was opened to replace a source canal which had sputtered away. Finally, the tank was opened to replace the discharge bottle which had been coated with aluminum sputtered from the exit canal

  5. Tandem Terminal Ion Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    2000-01-01

    OAK-B135 Tandem Terminal Ion Source. The terminal ion source (TIS) was used in several experiments during this reporting period, all for the(sup 7)Be((gamma))(sup 8)B experiment. Most of the runs used(sup 1)H(sup+) at terminal voltages from 0.3 MV to 1.5 MV. One of the runs used(sup 2)H(sup+) at terminal voltage of 1.4 MV. The other run used(sup 4)He(sup+) at a terminal voltage of 1.37 MV. The list of experiments run with the TIS to date is given in table 1 below. The tank was opened four times for unscheduled source repairs. On one occasion the tank was opened to replace the einzel lens power supply which had failed. The 10 kV unit was replaced with a 15 kV unit. The second time the tank was opened to repair the extractor supply which was damaged by a tank spark. On the next occasion the tank was opened to replace a source canal which had sputtered away. Finally, the tank was opened to replace the discharge bottle which had been coated with aluminum sputtered from the exit canal

  6. Windows Terminal Servers Orchestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowiec, Sebastian; Gaspar, Ricardo; Smith, Tim

    2017-10-01

    Windows Terminal Servers provide application gateways for various parts of the CERN accelerator complex, used by hundreds of CERN users every day. The combination of new tools such as Puppet, HAProxy and Microsoft System Center suite enable automation of provisioning workflows to provide a terminal server infrastructure that can scale up and down in an automated manner. The orchestration does not only reduce the time and effort necessary to deploy new instances, but also facilitates operations such as patching, analysis and recreation of compromised nodes as well as catering for workload peaks.

  7. Energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1962-07-01

    The papers on energy storage problems, given to the United Nations Conference on New Sources of Energy, Rome, 1961, are reviewed. Many aspects of the subject are discussed: comparisons between the costs of storing energy in batteries and in fuel cells; the use, efficiency and expected improvement of fuel cells; the principles involved in the chemical conversion of solar energy to chemical energy; the use of metal hydride fuel cells; the chemical conversion and storage of concentrated solar energy for which the solar furnace is used for photochemical reactions. Finally, the general costs of storing energy in any form and delivering it are analyzed with particular reference to storage batteries and fuel cells.

  8. A Two-terminal Active Capacitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Haoran; Wang, Huai

    2017-01-01

    This letter proposes a concept of two-terminal active capacitor implemented by power semiconductor switches and passive elements. The active capacitor has the same level of convenience as a passive one with two power terminals only. It is application independent and can be specified by rated...... voltage, ripple current, equivalent series resistance, and operational frequency range. The concept, control method, self-power scheme, and impedance characteristics of the active capacitor are presented. A case study of the proposed active capacitor for a capacitive DC-link application is discussed....... The results reveal a significantly lower overall energy storage of passive elements and a reduced cost to fulfill a specific reliability target, compared to a passive capacitor solution. Proof-of-concept experimental results are given to verify the functionality of the proposed capacitor....

  9. The Tiny Terminators

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 5. The Tiny Terminators - Mosquitoes and Diseases. P K Sumodan. General Article Volume 6 Issue 5 May 2001 pp 48-55. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/05/0048-0055 ...

  10. Making Wireless Terminals Simpler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren Skovgaard; Popovski, Petar; De Carvalho, Elisabeth

    2005-01-01

    equalization in the downlink, which these requirements lead to. We propose to solve the problem by applying pre-processing at the base station, thereby rendering the terminal simple. We establish a general MIMO block transmission model, and derive different transmit/receive filters, based on the Linear Minimum...

  11. Trauma and termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, F

    1995-02-01

    The author suggests a particular reading of the thesis put forward by Freud in 'Analysis terminable and interminable' that an effective and more definitive conclusion may be expected in analyses of cases with traumatic aetiology. This reading shifts the emphasis from the patient's history to the possibility of its crystallising in focal nuclei emerging within the analytic relationship under the pressure of the termination. The revival of separation anxieties which cannot be worked through, and their crystallisation in precipitating traumatic events, may give rise to decisive psychic work allowing the analysis to be brought to a conclusion. Two case histories are presented to show how the end of the analysis assumes the form of a new trauma, which reactivates in the present, traumatic anxieties from the patient's own infantile history. In the first case a premature birth and in the second a miscarriage, originally experienced as isolated automatic events without time or history, are relived in the terminal phase as vicissitudes of the transference, so that new meaning can be assigned to them and they can be withdrawn from the somatic cycle of repetition. The powerful tendency to act out and the intense countertransference pressure on the analyst are discussed in the light of the specificities of this phase, which is crucial to the success of the analysis. This leads to a re-examination, in the concluding notes, of some theoretical questions inherent in the problem of the termination and, in particular, to a discussion of the ambiguous concept of a natural ending.

  12. NPOESS Field Terminal Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckmann, G.; Route, G.

    2009-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Defense (DoD), and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation weather and environmental satellite system; the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). NPOESS replaces the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) managed by the DoD. The NPOESS satellites carry a suite of sensors that collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere, and space. The ground data processing segment for NPOESS is the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS), developed by Raytheon Intelligence and Information Systems. The IDPS processes NPOESS satellite data to provide environmental data products (aka, Environmental Data Records or EDRs) to NOAA and DoD processing centers operated by the United States government. The IDPS will process EDRs beginning with the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) and continuing through the lifetime of the NPOESS system. IDPS also provides the software and requirements for the Field Terminal Segment (FTS). NPOESS provides support to deployed field terminals by providing mission data in the Low Rate and High Rate downlinks (LRD/HRD), mission support data needed to generate EDRs and decryption keys needed to decrypt mission data during Selective data Encryption (SDE). Mission support data consists of globally relevant data, geographically constrained data, and two line element sets. NPOESS provides these mission support data via the Internet accessible Mission Support Data Server and HRD/LRD downlinks. This presentation will illustrate and describe the NPOESS capabilities in support of Field Terminal users. This discussion will include the mission support data available to Field Terminal users, content of the direct broadcast HRD and LRD

  13. Data storage

    CERN Multimedia

    McIntosh, E.

    1972-01-01

    The workload of the CERN central computer system is dominated, in terms of number of jobs, by short jobs submitted from, terminals and remote batch stations. The arrival of the CDC 7600, which will be even more easily accessible and will give the user his results more quickly, is likely to accentuate this domination.

  14. Antecedents of Customer Relationship Termination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geersbro, Jens; Ritter, Thomas

    To end business relationships, or to more actively terminate relationships, has long been acknowledged as part of customer relationship management. However, compared to other elements such as initiation and maintenance of relationships, little is known about the termination of business...... relationships as a managerial task. This paper contributes by (1) developing a conceptualization of relationship termination competence and (2) analyzing its antecedents. The empirical results identify termination acceptance, definition non-customers, organizational relationship termination routines......, and motivation as significant antecedents. Because of this, managers need to develop their organizations in order to use relationship termination as a vital strategy....

  15. Influence aqueous solutions on the mechanical behavior of argillaceous rocks; Influence des solutions aqueuses sur le comportement mecanique des roches argileuses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakim, J

    2005-12-15

    The hydration of the shale with an aqueous solution induces a swelling deformation which plays an important role in the behaviour of the structures excavated in this type of grounds. This deformation is marked by a three-dimensional and anisotropic character and involves several mechanisms like adsorption, osmosis or capillarity. Several researches were dedicated to swelling and were often much debated due to the complexity of the implied phenomena. The goal of this thesis is therefore to contribute to a better understanding of shale swelling when the rock is confined and hydrated with an aqueous solution. The main part of the work accomplished was related to the Lorraine shale and to the Tournemire shale. To characterize swelling and to identify the main governing parameters, it was necessary to start the issue with an experimental approach. Many apparatus were then developed to carry out tests under various conditions of swelling. In order to facilitate the interpretation of the tests and thereafter the modelling of the behaviour, the experimental procedure adopted consisted of studying first the mechanical aspect and then the chemical aspect of swelling. In the mechanical part, swelling was studied by imposing on the sample a mechanical loading while maintaining during the tests the same aqueous solution. The principal parameters which were studied are the effect of the lateral conditions on axial swelling (impeded strain or constant stress) as well as the influence of the axial stress on radial swelling. The anisotropy of swelling was studied by carrying out, for different orientations of the sample, tests of free swelling, impeded swelling and uniaxial swelling. These various mechanical tests allowed to study the three-dimensional anisotropic swelling in all the conditions and to select the most appropriate test to be used in the second phase of the research. The precise analysis performed to explain the mechanisms behind the swelling of an argillaceous rock

  16. Review paper. Terminal lucidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiriboga-Oleszczak Boris Alejandro

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Terminal lucidity is a term used in the medical literature to determine the improvement of mental functioning shortly before death, even among patients with serious and long-term disorders. In 19th century, cases of mind clarity recovery shortly before death, were often recognized by doctors and interpreted as a sign of an impending death. In 20th century, the interest in this phenomenon decreased and then, virtually disappear. In recent years, on the wave of publications concerning near death experiences and related events such as the end of life experiences, papers about the improvement of mental functioning shortly before death, exponentially grew and got a new name, terminal lucidity. In this paper, an overview of the available literature is presented to outline the historical, phenomenological and clinical picture of this phenomenon and its possible implications for medical care and future studies.

  17. Scandium Terminal Imido Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Erli; Chu, Jiaxiang; Chen, Yaofeng

    2018-02-20

    Research into transition metal complexes bearing multiply bonded main-group ligands has developed into a thriving and fruitful field over the past half century. These complexes, featuring terminal M═E/M≡E (M = transition metal; E = main-group element) multiple bonds, exhibit unique structural properties as well as rich reactivity, which render them attractive targets for inorganic/organometallic chemists as well as indispensable tools for organic/catalytic chemists. This fact has been highlighted by their widespread applications in organic synthesis, for example, as olefin metathesis catalysts. In the ongoing renaissance of transition metal-ligand multiple-bonding chemistry, there have been reports of M═E/M≡E interactions for the majority of the metallic elements of the periodic table, even some actinide metals. In stark contrast, the largest subgroup of the periodic table, rare-earth metals (Ln = Sc, Y, and lanthanides), have been excluded from this upsurge. Indeed, the synthesis of terminal Ln═E/Ln≡E multiple-bonding species lagged behind that of the transition metal and actinide congeners for decades. Although these species had been pursued since the discovery of a rare-earth metal bridging imide in 1991, such a terminal (nonpincer/bridging hapticities) Ln═E/Ln≡E bond species was not obtained until 2010. The scarcity is mainly attributed to the energy mismatch between the frontier orbitals of the metal and the ligand atoms. This renders the putative terminal Ln═E/Ln≡E bonds extremely reactive, thus resulting in the formation of aggregates and/or reaction with the ligand/environment, quenching the multiple-bond character. In 2010, the stalemate was broken by the isolation and structural characterization of the first rare-earth metal terminal imide-a scandium terminal imide-by our group. The double-bond character of the Sc═N bond was unequivocally confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Theoretical investigations revealed the presence

  18. National Waste Terminal Storage Program. Progress report, January 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asher, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    Project reports are presented on work performed by commercial and/or nonprofit organizations under subcontract to OWI, by ERDA contractors, including UCC-ND, by OWI consultants, and by other federal agencies supporting and participating in the NWTS Program. Each project report identifies the OWI staff member responsible for managing the project, as well as the names of the consultants, subcontractors, or ERDA facilities conducting the work. Activities in geological, engineering repository, and technical support projects are reviewed. Information is included on planning and analysis, regulatory affairs, and public affairs

  19. National Waste Terminal Storage Program. Progress report, July 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asher, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    The report contains project reports on work performed by organizations under subcontract to OWI, by ERDA contractors, by OWI consultants, and by other federal agencies participating in the NWTS program. The reports are made under the headings of technical projects, facility projects, planning and analysis, and regulatory affairs

  20. National Waste Terminal Storage Program, planning and control system manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-09-01

    This manual contains a brief description of the NWTS program in order to define the environment within which the system must function; an overview of the system, and the concepts and techniques that were utilized in its development; and OWI implementation on the NWTS Program

  1. Rock mechanics in the National Waste Terminal Storage Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monsees, J.E.; Wigley, M.R.

    1982-01-01

    The overall objective of the rock mechanics program of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation is to predict the response of a rock mass hosting a waste repository during its construction, operation, and postoperational phases. The operational phase is expected to be 50 to 100 yr; the postoperational phase will last until the repository no longer poses any potential hazard to the biosphere, a period that may last several thousand years. The rock mechanics program is concerned with near-field effects on mine stability, as well as far-field effects relative to the overall integrity of the geologic waste isolation system. To accomplish these objectives, the rock mechanics program has established interactive studies in numerical simulation, laboratory testing, and field testing. The laboratory and field investigations provide input to the numerical simulations and give an opportunity for verification and validation of the predictive capabilities of the computer codes. Ultimately the computer codes will be used to predict the response of the geologic system to the development of a repository. 3 references, 5 figures

  2. National waste terminal storage program. Progress report, September 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asher, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    Project reports are given of the following studies: USGS Water Resources Division study of Louisiana salt domes; Northeast Texas Salt Dome Basin study; salt-dome hydrology in Mississippi; volcanic rocks; crystalline rocks; Paradox Basin; geologic studies at the Nevada Test Site; heat transfer/thermal analysis; waste/rock interaction; rock mechanics; borehole plugging; safety and reliability; shale and clay mineral studies; conceptual design of NWTS repositories; waste container studies; transportation/logistics study; and environmental study

  3. LNG TERMINAL SAFE OPERATION MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Andrzej ADAMKIEWICZ; Włodzimierz KAMIŃSKI

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the significance of LNG terminal safety issues in natural gas sea transport. It shows particular requirements for LNG transmission installations resulting from the specific properties of LNG. Out of the multi‐layer critical safety areas comprising structural elements of the terminal safety system, possibilities to decrease the risk of emergency occurrence on LNG terminals have been selected. Tasks performed by the LNG terminal, together with its own personnel and the out...

  4. Structural characterization of the mineralogical transitions in the argillaceous formations: geochemical controls and implications of the conversion to illite processes. Particular case of an alkaline disturbance in the Callovian-Oxfordian of the Meuse / Haute-Marne underground laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claret, F.

    2001-11-01

    The Callovian-Oxfordian argillaceous formation covers a mineralogical transition between a disordered illite/smectite interstratified bed (R0 - upper part) and an ordered one (R1 - lower part). The mineralogy of these clays influences the conditions of retention of the formation and their reactivity with respect to physico-chemical disturbances potentially induced by the disposal. In order to make a fine characterization of the Callovian-Oxfordian clay minerals, the simplified conventional methods have been rejected. The method retained consists in the direct comparison of calculated X-ray diffraction spectra with those recorded on a given sample after several processes, and in reproducing all its characteristics (peaks position, intensity ratios, profiles) using a unique structural model. The clay minerals of the EST104 borehole can be described as a mixture of three main phases: an illite, a smectite and an interstratified illite/disordered expansible mineral (R0) with a fixed composition (35% exp.). The physical characteristics of these phases are constant with depth. The mineralogical transition described above corresponds to a change in the relative proportion of the different phases. This description differs from the one classically proposed for the diagenetic conversion to illite of sedimentary series. However, the use of the same tools on a reference diagenetic series leads to a similar description. These new results imply to reconsider the reaction mechanisms proposed for these minerals and their kinetic modeling. Finally, the reactivity of Callovian-Oxfordian clay minerals as a response to an alkaline disturbance is strongly limited by the presence of the organic matter covering the argillaceous particulates and which protects the reactive sites of the clay minerals. (J.S.)

  5. Energy Storage

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bladergroen, B

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In commercial arena, the most recent developments in EES are in electrochemical storage, singling out Li-ion batteries and Vanadium Redox flow batteries, while power-to-gas/-fuels (electrolysis of water into hydrogen and subsequent methanisation...

  6. Liver Storage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-10-23

    Oct 23, 1971 ... The need for whole-organ preservation has become in- cre.asingly important ... ideally fulfil the same purpose as the circulation of blood through the body, ... Hepatic hypothermia produced by the introduction of cold electrolyte ... Recently, we reported successful hypothermic immersion storage for up to 8 ...

  7. Dry storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnott, Don.

    1985-01-01

    The environmental movement has consistently argued against disposal of nuclear waste. Reasons include its irretrievability in the event of leakage, the implication that reprocessing will continue and the legitimacy attached to an expanding nuclear programme. But there is an alternative. The author here sets out the background and a possible future direction of a campaign based on a call for dry storage. (author)

  8. Storage Rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, W.

    2010-01-01

    Storage rings are circular machines that store particle beams at a constant energy. Beams are stored in rings without acceleration for a number of reasons (Tab. 1). Storage rings are used in high-energy, nuclear, atomic, and molecular physics, as well as for experiments in chemistry, material and life sciences. Parameters for storage rings such as particle species, energy, beam intensity, beam size, and store time vary widely depending on the application. The beam must be injected into a storage ring but may not be extracted (Fig. 1). Accelerator rings such as synchrotrons are used as storage rings before and after acceleration. Particles stored in rings include electrons and positrons; muons; protons and anti-protons; neutrons; light and heavy, positive and negative, atomic ions of various charge states; molecular and cluster ions, and neutral polar molecules. Spin polarized beams of electrons, positrons, and protons were stored. The kinetic energy of the stored particles ranges from 10 -6 eV to 3.5 x 10 12 eV (LHC, 7 x 10 12 eV planned), the number of stored particles from one (ESR) to 1015 (ISR). To store beam in rings requires bending (dipoles) and transverse focusing (quadrupoles). Higher order multipoles are used to correct chromatic aberrations, to suppress instabilities, and to compensate for nonlinear field errors of dipoles and quadrupoles. Magnetic multipole functions can be combined in magnets. Beams are stored bunched with radio frequency systems, and unbunched. The magnetic lattice and radio frequency system are designed to ensure the stability of transverse and longitudinal motion. New technologies allow for better storage rings. With strong focusing the beam pipe dimensions became much smaller than previously possible. For a given circumference superconducting magnets make higher energies possible, and superconducting radio frequency systems allow for efficient replenishment of synchrotron radiation losses of large current electron or positron beams

  9. LNG TERMINAL SAFE OPERATION MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej ADAMKIEWICZ

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the significance of LNG terminal safety issues in natural gas sea transport. It shows particular requirements for LNG transmission installations resulting from the specific properties of LNG. Out of the multi‐layer critical safety areas comprising structural elements of the terminal safety system, possibilities to decrease the risk of emergency occurrence on LNG terminals have been selected. Tasks performed by the LNG terminal, together with its own personnel and the outside one, have been defined. General theses for LNG terminal safety have been formulated.

  10. Terminal weather information management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alfred T.

    1990-01-01

    Since the mid-1960's, microburst/windshear events have caused at least 30 aircraft accidents and incidents and have killed more than 600 people in the United States alone. This study evaluated alternative means of alerting an airline crew to the presence of microburst/windshear events in the terminal area. Of particular interest was the relative effectiveness of conventional and data link ground-to-air transmissions of ground-based radar and low-level windshear sensing information on microburst/windshear avoidance. The Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator located at Ames Research Center was employed in a line oriented simulation of a scheduled round-trip airline flight from Salt Lake City to Denver Stapleton Airport. Actual weather en route and in the terminal area was simulated using recorded data. The microburst/windshear incident of July 11, 1988 was re-created for the Denver area operations. Six experienced airline crews currently flying scheduled routes were employed as test subjects for each of three groups: (1) A baseline group which received alerts via conventional air traffic control (ATC) tower transmissions; (2) An experimental group which received alerts/events displayed visually and aurally in the cockpit six miles (approx. 2 min.) from the microburst event; and (3) An additional experimental group received displayed alerts/events 23 linear miles (approx. 7 min.) from the microburst event. Analyses of crew communications and decision times showed a marked improvement in both situation awareness and decision-making with visually displayed ground-based radar information. Substantial reductions in the variability of decision times among crews in the visual display groups were also found. These findings suggest that crew performance will be enhanced and individual differences among crews due to differences in training and prior experience are significantly reduced by providing real-time, graphic display of terminal weather hazards.

  11. Interactive storage and retrieval of pathologist's observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trauger, G.M.; Dagle, G.E.; Watson, C.R.; McIntyre, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    A system was developed for interactive storage and retrieval of pathologic observations. Data are entered on a CRT terminal using modified SNOP (Systematized Nomenclature of Pathology) codes. They are then stored and processed in a PDP 11/70 computer, and are retrieved on demand, utilizing DATATRIEVE and a variety of reports convenient for statistical analysis

  12. The Heliospheric Termination Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokipii, J. R.

    2013-06-01

    The heliospheric termination shock is a vast, spheroidal shock wave marking the transition from the supersonic solar wind to the slower flow in the heliosheath, in response to the pressure of the interstellar medium. It is one of the most-important boundaries in the outer heliosphere. It affects energetic particles strongly and for this reason is a significant factor in the effects of the Sun on Galactic cosmic rays. This paper summarizes the general properties and overall large-scale structure and motions of the termination shock. Observations over the past several years, both in situ and remote, have dramatically revised our understanding of the shock. The consensus now is that the shock is quite blunt, is with the front, blunt side canted at an angle to the flow direction of the local interstellar plasma relative to the Sun, and is dynamical and turbulent. Much of this new understanding has come from remote observations of energetic charged particles interacting with the shock, radio waves and radiation backscattered from interstellar neutral atoms. The observations and the implications are discussed.

  13. Underground Storage Tanks - Storage Tank Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Storage Tank Location is a DEP primary facility type, and its sole sub-facility is the storage tank itself. Storage tanks are aboveground or underground, and are...

  14. Effective diffusion coefficients and porosity values for argillaceous rocks and bentonite: measured and estimated values for the provisional safety analyses for SGT-E2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Loon, L.R.

    2014-11-01

    In Stage 2 of the Sectoral Plan for Deep Geological Repositories, safety analyses have to be performed. Geochemical parameters describing the transport and retardation of radionuclides in the argillaceous rocks considered and in compacted bentonite are required. In the present report, diffusion parameters for all clay host rocks, confining units and compacted bentonite are derived. Diffusion of tritiated water (HTO), "3"6Cl"- and "2"2Na"+ was studied. The measurements gave values for effective diffusion coefficients (D_e) and diffusion accessible porosities. The general observed trend "N"aD_e > "H"T"OD_e > "C"lD_e is in agreement with the expected behaviour of the three species in clay materials: ion exchanging cations show an enhanced mobility due to surface diffusion effects and anions are slowed down due to anion exclusion. Due to the negatively charged clay surfaces, anionic species are repelled from these surfaces resulting in an accessible porosity that is smaller than the total porosity as measured with HTO. The effect of porewater composition on the diffusion of HTO, "3"6Cl"- and "2"2Na"+ in Opalinus Clay was investigated. For ionic strength (IS) values between 0.17 M and 1.07 M, no significant effect on D_e could be observed. In the case of "3"6Cl"-, no effect on the accessible porosity was observed. The anion diffusion accessible porosity equals 50-60 % of the total porosity, independent on the ionic strength of the porewater. The diffusion parameters were measured on sedimentary rocks such as chalk, clay and limestone rocks. All data could be described by one single modified version of Archie's relation (extended Archie's relation). For values of porosity greater than about 0.1, the classical Archie's relation was valid. For values smaller than 0.1, the data deviated from the classical Archie's relation; this can be explained by additional changes of tortuosity with porosity values. At high porosity values (low density rocks), the microfabric of the clay

  15. Studies for geologic storage of radioactive waste in the southeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marine, I.W.

    1977-01-01

    The National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program was initiated to conduct the research necessary to select a site for a geologic repository for the storage of high-level, solidified radioactive waste from commercial power reactors. The program also includes the design and construction of the facility and its operation once completed. As part of this program, the Savannah River Laboratory is conducting geological research that is particularly relevant to potential repository sites in the Southeast, but is also of generic applicability. This paper describes the National Waste Terminal Storage program as well as the research program at the Savannah River Laboratory

  16. Studies for geologic storage of radioactive waste in the southeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marine, I.W.

    1978-01-01

    The National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program was initiated to conduct the research necessary to select a site for a geologic repository for the storage of high-level, solidified radioactive waste from commercial power reactors. The program also includes the design and construction of the facility and its operation once completed. As part of this program, the Savannah River Laboratory is conducting geological research that is particularly relevant to potential repository sites in the southeast, but is also of generic applicability. This paper describes the National Waste Terminal Storage program as well as the research program at the Savannah River Laboratory. 31 figures

  17. Final Generic Environmental Impact Statement. Handling and storage of spent light water power reactor fuel. Volume 2. Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-08-01

    This volume contains the following appendices: LWR fuel cycle, handling and storage of spent fuel, termination case considerations (use of coal-fired power plants to replace nuclear plants), increasing fuel storage capacity, spent fuel transshipment, spent fuel generation and storage data, characteristics of nuclear fuel, away-from-reactor storage concept, spent fuel storage requirements for higher projected nuclear generating capacity, and physical protection requirements and hypothetical sabotage events in a spent fuel storage facility

  18. Resolution and termination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina FOLTIŞ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The resolution, the termination and the reduction of labour conscription are regulated by articles 1549-1554 in the new Civil Code, which represents the common law in this matter. We appreciate that the new regulation does not conclusively clarify the issue related to whether the existence of liability in order to call upon the resolution is necessary or not, because the existence of this condition has been inferred under the previous regulation from the fact that the absence of liability shifts the inexecution issue on the domain of fortuitous impossibility of execution, situation in which the resolution of the contract is not in question, but that of the risk it implies.

  19. Mobile Termination and Mobile Penetration

    OpenAIRE

    Hurkens, Sjaak; Jeon, Doh-Shin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we study how access pricing affects network competition when subscription demand is elastic and each network uses non-linear prices and can apply termination-based price discrimination. In the case of a fixed per minute termination charge, we find that a reduction of the termination charge below cost has two oppos- ing effects: it softens competition but helps to internalize network externalities. The former reduces mobile penetration while the latter boosts it. We find that fi...

  20. Mobile termination and mobile penetration

    OpenAIRE

    Hurkens, Sjaak

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we study how access pricing affects network competition when subscription demand is elastic and each network uses non-linear prices and can apply termination-based price discrimination. In the case of a fixed per minute termination charge, we find that a reduction of the termination charge below cost has two opposing effects: it softens competition but helps to internalize network externalities. The former reduces mobile penetration while the latter boosts it. We find that firm...

  1. Fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, C.; Alvarez-Miranda, A.

    2009-01-01

    ENSA is a well known manufacturer of multi-system primary components for the nuclear industry and is totally prepared to satisfy future market requirements in this industry. At the same time that ENSA has been gaining a reputation world wider for the supply of primary components, has been strengthening its commitment and experience in supplying spent fuel components, either pool racks or storage and transportation casks, and offers not only fabrication but also design capabilities for its products. ENSA has supplied Spent Fuel Pool Racks, in spain, Finland, Taiwan, Korea, China, and currently it is in the process of licensing its own rack design in the United States of America for the ESBWR along with Ge-Hitachi. ENSA has supplied racks for 20 pools and 22 different reactors and it has also manufactured racks under all available technologies and developed a design known as Interlock Cell Matrix whose main features are outlined in this article. Another ENSA achievement in rack technology is the use of remote control for re-racking activities instead of using divers, which improves the ALARA requirements. Regarding casks for storage and transportation, ENSA also has al leading worldwide position, with exports prevailing over the Spanish market where ENSA has supplied 16 storage and transportation casks to the Spanish nuclear power Trillo. In some cases, ENSA acts as subcontractor for other clients. Foreign markets are still a major challenge for ENSA. ENSA-is well known for its manufacturing capabilities in the nuclear industry, but has been always involved in design activities through its engineering division, which carries out different tasks: components Design; Tooling Design; Engineering and Documentation; Project Engineering; Calculations, Design and Development Engineering. (Author)

  2. Underground storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1965-06-10

    A procedure is described for making an underground storage cavity in a soluble formation. Two holes are drilled, and fluid is pumped into the first hole. This fluid is a non-solute for the formation material. Then pressure is applied to the fluid until the formation is fractured in the direction of the second hole. More non-solute fluid is injected to complete the fracture between the 2 holes. A solute fluid is then circulated between the 2 holes, which results in removal of that part of the formation next to the fracture and the forming of a chamber.

  3. Pumped storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, P.L.

    1991-01-01

    The privately financed 1,000 MW Rocky Point Pumped Storage Project located in central Colorado, USA, will be one of the world's highest head, 2,350 feet reversible pump/turbine projects. The project will offer an economical supply of peaking power and spinning reserve power to Colorado and other southwestern states. This paper describes how the project will be made compatible with the environmental conditions in the project area and the type of terrestrial mitigation measures that are being proposed for those situations where the project impacts the environment, either temporarily or permanently

  4. In situ and laboratory investigations of fluid flow through an argillaceous formation at different scales of space and time, Tournemire tunnel, southern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisson, Jean-Yves; Bertrand, Lucien; Heitz, Jean-François; Golvan, Yann Moreau-Le

    2001-01-01

    In the context of a research and development program on waste disposal, an experimental site (Tournemire tunnel, Aveyron, France) was selected by the French Institute for Nuclear Protection and Safety (IPSN) in order to undertake studies on potential fluid flow at different scales of space and time within a 250-m-thick argillaceous formation. The argillite has a low natural water content ( 3-5%) and very low radii access porosity. Diffusion (tritiated water) coefficients (1×10-12 to 2×10-11 m2/s) and hydraulic conductivities derived from different types of laboratory tests (10-14 to 10-13 m/s) are characteristics of a very low-permeable rock. In situ hydraulic tests (including long-term hydraulic-head measurements) were used to obtain values for hydraulic head and hydraulic conductivity at a scale of 1-10 m (10-13 to 10-11 m/s). Despite uncertainties on these data (due to a scale factor, presence of fissures, and possible artefacts due to hydro-chemo-mechanical coupling), it is expected that fluid flow is essentially governed by diffusion processes. Identification of possible natural flows at larger scales of time and space was investigated using natural isotopic tracers from interstitial fluids. Modelling, based on the deuterium profile along the clay formation and assuming pure diffusion processes, provides estimations of possible flow times. However, lack of knowledge concerning the past geological evolution of the site and the possible role of a fracture network do not permit reduction of uncertainties on these estimations at this stage. Résumé. Dans le cadre de son programme de recherche et développement sur les stockages de déchets, un site expérimental (tunnel de Tournemire, Aveyron, France) a été sélectionné par l'Institut de Protection et Sûreté Nucléaire (IPSN) pour conduire des études sur les possibilités de transferts de fluides à différentes échelles de temps et d'espace au sein d'une formation argileuse de 250 m d'épaisseur. L

  5. Underground storage of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, J.E.

    1977-06-01

    The objective of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program is to provide facilities in various deep geologic formations at multiple locations in the United States which will safely dispose of commerical radioactive waste. The NWTS Program is being administered for the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) by the Office of Waste Isolation (OWI), Union Carbide Corporation, Nuclear Division. OWI manages projects that will lead to the location, construction, and operation of repositories, including all surface and underground engineering and facility design projects and technical support projects. 7 refs., 5 figs

  6. Underground storage of nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, J E

    1977-12-01

    The objective of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program is to provide facilities in various deep geologic formations at multiple locations in the United States which will safely dispose of commercial radioactive waste. The NWTS Program is being administered for the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) by the Office of Waste Isolation (OWI), Union Carbide Corporation, Nuclear Division. OWI manages projects that will lead to the location, construction, and operation of repositories, including all surface and underground engineering and facility design projects and technical support projects.

  7. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2013-02-19

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  8. Study of the argillaceous fraction of sedimentary sequences of Meuse and Gard. Reconstitution of the diagenetic history and of the physico-chemical characteristics of the targets. Mineralogical, geochemical and isotopic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousset, D.

    2002-01-01

    Very low permeable argillaceous rocks like Callovo-Oxfordian clay-stones or Vraconian siltstones were chosen to host a research laboratory built to determine the physico-chemical properties of the host formations for a potential underground disposal of radioactive waste. Knowledge and understanding of post-sedimentary modifications are of prime importance for definition of these properties; evaluation and quantification of the post-sedimentary changes represent the aim of this study, focused specifically on the clay material of the sequences. Samples were taken from two drillings (HTM102 and MAR501). In the HTM102 core samples, illite and mixed-layers illite/smectite are the dominant clay components of most clay fractions. Systematic SEM and TEM observations and isotopic K-Ar and Rb-Sr analyses pointed to diagenetic neo-formations of carbonates (calcite, dolomite) and clays. For instance, veils and laths of authigenic clay particles around old detrital ones can distinctly be observed. The epoch, duration and extent of the diagenetic activity(ies) are difficult to evaluate because of an overall detrital contribution even in the finest granulometric fractions. However; analysis of a bentonite layer in the sequence provides a diagenetic reference for the authigenic clay material. Correlation between relative sea level and authigenesis of smectite-rich mineral has been outlined. Chemistry of diagenetic fluids also seems to be reliable with sea level variations. These observations argue in favour of diagenetic activities limited in restricted rock volumes. The case study of MAR501 is close to the HTM102 one: smectite-rich illite/smectite mixed-layers represent the major component of the clay fraction and K-Ar values argue ire the sense of a mixing between detrital and younger clay populations. Diagenetic glauconites in the sequence yield are age close to 93,7 ±0,3 Ma for Vraconian level, in agreement with stratigraphical data. The case study of a clay-filled fault

  9. Selection of Air Terminal Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    This paper discusses the selection of the air terminal device for the experiments and numerical prediction in the International Energy Agency Annex 20 work: Air Flow Pattern within Buildings,......This paper discusses the selection of the air terminal device for the experiments and numerical prediction in the International Energy Agency Annex 20 work: Air Flow Pattern within Buildings,...

  10. The practice of terminal discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radha Krishna, Lalit Kumar; Murugam, Vengadasalam; Quah, Daniel Song Chiek

    2017-01-01

    'Terminal discharges' are carried out in Singapore for patients who wish to die at home. However, if due diligence is not exercised, parallels may be drawn with euthanasia. We present a theoretical discussion beginning with the definition of terminal discharges and the reasons why they are carried out in Singapore. By considering the intention behind terminal discharges and utilising a multidisciplinary team to deliberate on the clinical, social and ethical intricacies with a patient- and context-specific approach, euthanasia is avoided. It is hoped that this will provide a platform for professionals in palliative medicine to negotiate challenging issues when arranging a terminal discharge, so as to avoid the pitfall of committing euthanasia in a country such as Singapore where euthanasia is illegal. It is hoped that a set of guidelines for terminal discharges may someday be realised to assist professionals in Singapore and around the world.

  11. Integrated Yard Space Allocation and Yard Crane Deployment Problem in Resource-Limited Container Terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caimao Tan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Yard storage space and yard crane equipment are the core resources in the container terminal yard area. This paper studies the integrated yard space allocation (outbound container space and yard crane deployment problem in resource-limited container terminals where yard space and yard cranes are extremely scarce. Two corresponding counterstrategies are introduced, respectively, and the integrated problem is solved as mixed integer programming. The model this paper formulated considers the container volume fluctuation of the service line, and the objective is a trade-off between yard sharing space and terminal operation cost. In numerical experiments, this paper tries to reveal the management meaning in practical operation of container terminal and provides decision support for terminal managers; therefore a series of scenarios are presented to analyze the relations among the yard sharing space, the number of yard cranes, the size of yard subblock, and the cost of terminal operation.

  12. Storage fee analysis for a nuclear waste terminal storage facility. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-09-01

    A model was developed for determining a pricing schedule designed to recover federal government costs incurred in the development, design, construction, operation, decommissioning, and surveillance of a federal repository for high-level waste generated by the commercial nuclear power industry. As currently constructed, the model computes current dollar prices on a yearly basis for a single unit charge or a split fee based upon two user-provided quantity flows. Over the period of facility operation, the computed-cost schedule shows variability on a year-to-year basis only within specified ranges. The model uses as basic input data: cost schedule for the federal repository; quantity flow schedule for each factor to be charged; schedule for escalation rate, discount rate, and interest rate; and fraction of costs to be recovered on each quantity flow if the split-fee option is used. The model allows testing of these variables in order to determine the relative significance of each component with regard to cost to, and impact on, the nuclear power industry. Another feature of the model is its versatility. Not only is the user able to specify the percent of total costs to be covered by each method of fee assessment listed above but also the user can specify a revenue-cost ratio, an option that would prove useful in trying to assess the general uncertainty involved when dealing in the future. In addition, the model accepts either current-dollar or constant-dollar cost measures, and in the case of the latter escalates the costs with user-provided assumptions

  13. Ports and Terminals : Planning and Functional Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenveld, R.; Velsink, H.

    1993-01-01

    1. Maritime transport, means and commodities 3. Principles of integrated port planning 4. Planning and design of a port's water areas 5. Port terminals - introduction 6. Conventional general cargo terminals 7. Container terminals 8. Oil & liquid gas terminals 9. Dry bulk cargo terminals 10. Fishery

  14. Thermo-hydro-mechanical processes in the nearfield around a HLW repository in argillaceous formations. Vol. II. In-situ-investigations and interpretative modelling. May 2007 to May 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chun-Liang; Czaikowski, Oliver; Komischke, Michael; Wieczorek, Klaus

    2014-06-15

    Deep disposal of heat-emitting high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in clay formations will inevitably induce thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical disturbances to the host rock and engineered barriers over very long periods of time. The responses and resulting property changes of the natural and engineered barriers are to be well understood, characterized, and predicted for assessing the long-term performance and safety of the repositories. In accordance with the R and D programme defined by the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi), GRS has intensively performed site-independent research work on argillaceous rocks during the last decade. Most of the investigations have been carried out on the Callovo-Oxfordian argillite and the Opalinus clay by par-ticipation in international research projects conducted at the underground research laboratories at Bure in France (MHM-URL) and Mont-Terri in Switzerland (MT-URL). The THM-TON project, which was funded by BMWi under contract number 02E10377, in-vestigated the THM behaviours of the clay host rock and clay-based backfill/sealing materials with laboratory tests, in situ experiments and numerical modelling.

  15. Biomarker for Glycogen Storage Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-03

    Fructose Metabolism, Inborn Errors; Glycogen Storage Disease; Glycogen Storage Disease Type I; Glycogen Storage Disease Type II; Glycogen Storage Disease Type III; Glycogen Storage Disease Type IV; Glycogen Storage Disease Type V; Glycogen Storage Disease Type VI; Glycogen Storage Disease Type VII; Glycogen Storage Disease Type VIII

  16. Mechanisms of DNA replication termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewar, James M; Walter, Johannes C

    2017-08-01

    Genome duplication is carried out by pairs of replication forks that assemble at origins of replication and then move in opposite directions. DNA replication ends when converging replication forks meet. During this process, which is known as replication termination, DNA synthesis is completed, the replication machinery is disassembled and daughter molecules are resolved. In this Review, we outline the steps that are likely to be common to replication termination in most organisms, namely, fork convergence, synthesis completion, replisome disassembly and decatenation. We briefly review the mechanism of termination in the bacterium Escherichia coli and in simian virus 40 (SV40) and also focus on recent advances in eukaryotic replication termination. In particular, we discuss the recently discovered E3 ubiquitin ligases that control replisome disassembly in yeast and higher eukaryotes, and how their activity is regulated to avoid genome instability.

  17. JCO criticality accident termination operation

    OpenAIRE

    金盛 正至

    2010-01-01

    In 2001, we summarized the circumstances surrounding termination of the JCO criticality accident based on testimony in the Mito District Court on December 17, 2001. JCO was the company for uranium fuels production in Japan. That document was assembled based on actual testimony in the belief that a description of the work involved in termination of the accident would be useful in some way for preventing nuclear disasters in the future. This year is the tenth year of the JCO criticality acciden...

  18. Termination of Safeguards on ULWBR Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivan R. Thomas; Ernest L. Laible

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management, has approved the disposition of 31 metric tons of Unirradiated Light Water Breeder Reactor (ULWBR) material in canisters stored within dry wells of the Underground Fuel Storage Facility at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC). This unirradiated material consists primarily of ceramic pellets of thorium oxide in stainless steel cladding, but it also contains 300 kilograms of uranium that is 98 wt% U-233. The ULWBR material was not processed at the INTEC because it was incompatible with prior chemical separation schemes. Other economical recovery options have not been identified, and expressions of interest for consolidating the material with existing projects at other DOE sites have not been received. The U-233 could be used for producing the medical isotope Actinium-225, but the proof-of-principle demonstration and follow-on pilot program have not been developed to the point of requiring production quantities of U-233. Consequently, the selected disposition of the ULWBR material was burial as Low Level Waste at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which required terminating safeguards controls for the contained Category II quantity of Attractiveness Level D special nuclear material (SNM). The requested termination followed the twelve point evaluation criteria of the Historical Defense Program Discard Guidance and included a security analysis for evaluating the risks of theft, diversion, and radiological sabotage associated with the material. Continuity of knowledge in the book inventory was assured by documenting that the original shipper's measurements accurately reflected the quantities of materials received and that the ULWBR materials had remained under adequate physical protection and had been subject to periodic physical inventories. The method selected for substantiating the book values as the basis for terminating safeguards was the nondestructive assay used during physical

  19. Energy storage. The actual challenge for tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combe, Matthieu; Danielo, Olivier

    2016-09-01

    As methods of energy production are now diversified and efficient, the challenge is now their integration into the grid, and their storage. Thus, this publication first proposes a set of articles which address perspectives and realisations (or projects) related to energy storage: the challenge of modernisation of Pump Storage Power plants (PSP), the possibilities provided by power-to-gas technology to store electricity, the possibilities provided by coupling of CO 2 storage and geothermal energy. Other aspects concern electric power storage at the back end of the supply chain: the Corri-door project of 200 terminals for fast electric charging (for electric vehicles), the emergence of the domestic battery as storage mean in different counties. More prospective projects are also evoked: the use of hot water in Hawaii to store photovoltaic solar electricity and inspired projects by ENGIE and EDF, the perspective of energy storage on miniaturised chips, and a three-wheel light vehicle (Moe) using solar energy and developed by the Evovelo startup

  20. Liquefied natural gas storage at Ambergate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higton, C W; Mills, M J

    1970-08-19

    Ambergate works was planned in 1965-1966 and the decision was taken to install 4 ICI lean gas reformers using natural gas as feedstock, fuel, and enrichment. To cover the possible failure of natural gas supplies, petroleum distillate would be used as alternative feedstock and fuel. The choice for alternative enrichment lay between LPG or LNG. Since LNG would provide peak-on-peak storage facilities for either the East Midlands Board or the Gas Council when conversion was completed--and in the meantime would provide an additional source of LNG for local requirements when temporary LNG installations were used during conversion--agreement was reached with the Gas Council for it to build a 5,000-ton storage installation at Ambergate. The installation consists of 3 major sections: (1) the offloading bay and storage tank; (2) the reliquefaction system; and (3) the export system. The offloading bay and storage tank are for the reception and storage of liquefied Algerian natural gas, delivered to Ambergate by road tanker from the Canvey Is. Terminal. The reliquefaction system is to maintain the necessary storage tank conditions by reliquefying the boil-off natural gas. The export system delivers LNG from the storage tank at high pressure through a vaporization section in the national methane grid.

  1. Multi-terminal memtransistors from polycrystalline monolayer molybdenum disulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangwan, Vinod K.; Lee, Hong-Sub; Bergeron, Hadallia; Balla, Itamar; Beck, Megan E.; Chen, Kan-Sheng; Hersam, Mark C.

    2018-02-01

    Memristors are two-terminal passive circuit elements that have been developed for use in non-volatile resistive random-access memory and may also be useful in neuromorphic computing. Memristors have higher endurance and faster read/write times than flash memory and can provide multi-bit data storage. However, although two-terminal memristors have demonstrated capacity for basic neural functions, synapses in the human brain outnumber neurons by more than a thousandfold, which implies that multi-terminal memristors are needed to perform complex functions such as heterosynaptic plasticity. Previous attempts to move beyond two-terminal memristors, such as the three-terminal Widrow-Hoff memristor and field-effect transistors with nanoionic gates or floating gates, did not achieve memristive switching in the transistor. Here we report the experimental realization of a multi-terminal hybrid memristor and transistor (that is, a memtransistor) using polycrystalline monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) in a scalable fabrication process. The two-dimensional MoS2 memtransistors show gate tunability in individual resistance states by four orders of magnitude, as well as large switching ratios, high cycling endurance and long-term retention of states. In addition to conventional neural learning behaviour of long-term potentiation/depression, six-terminal MoS2 memtransistors have gate-tunable heterosynaptic functionality, which is not achievable using two-terminal memristors. For example, the conductance between a pair of floating electrodes (pre- and post-synaptic neurons) is varied by a factor of about ten by applying voltage pulses to modulatory terminals. In situ scanning probe microscopy, cryogenic charge transport measurements and device modelling reveal that the bias-induced motion of MoS2 defects drives resistive switching by dynamically varying Schottky barrier heights. Overall, the seamless integration of a memristor and transistor into one multi-terminal device could

  2. CO 2 breakthrough—Caprock sealing efficiency and integrity for carbon geological storage

    KAUST Repository

    Espinoza, D. Nicolas

    2017-10-23

    Small pores in high specific surface clay-rich caprocks give rise to high capillary entry pressures and high viscous drag that hinder the migration of buoyant carbon dioxide CO2. We measured the breakthrough pressure and ensuing CO2 permeability through sediment plugs prepared with sand, silt, kaolinite and smectite, and monitored their volumetric deformation using high-pressure oedometer cells. The data show water expulsion and volumetric contraction prior to CO2 breakthrough, followed by preferential CO2 flow thereafter. Our experimental results and data gathered from previous studies highlight the inverse relationship between breakthrough pressure and pore size, as anticipated by Laplace’s equation. In terms of macro-scale parameters, the breakthrough pressure increases as the sediment specific surface increases and the porosity decreases. The breakthrough pressure is usually lower than the values predicted with average pore size estimations; it can reach ∼6.2MPa in argillaceous formations, and 11.2MPa in evaporites. The CO2 permeability after breakthrough is significantly lower than the absolute permeability, but it may increase in time due to water displacement and desiccation. Leakage will be advection-controlled once percolation takes place at most storage sites currently being considered. Diffusive and advective CO2 leaks through non-fractured caprocks will be minor and will not compromise the storage capacity at CO2 injection sites. The “sealing number” and the “stability number” combine the initial fluid pressure, the buoyant pressure caused by the CO2 plume, the capillary breakthrough pressure of the caprock, and the stress conditions at the reservoir depth; these two numbers provide a rapid assessment of potential storage sites. Unexpected CO2 migration patterns emerge due to the inherent spatial variability and structural discontinuities in geological formations; sites with redundant seal layers should be sought for the safe and long

  3. Boil off gas (BOG) management in Spanish liquid natural gas (LNG) terminals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Querol, E.; Gonzalez-Regueral, B.; Garcia-Torrent, J.; Garcia-Martinez, M.J. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Combustibles, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros de Minas, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, c. Alenza 4, 28003 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-11-15

    Spain is a country with six LNG terminals in operation and three more scheduled for 2011. At the same time an increasing number of LNG tanks are under construction to compensate the Spanish lack of underground storage. A method for evaluating the daily boil off generated is presented in this paper. This method is applied to evaluate the increase of BOG to be handle by LNG terminals in 2016, studying the best commercially available solution to be installed. Finally, as a solution to tackle with the BOG a cogeneration plant is suggested. This option will reduce terminal's operational costs increasing its availability. (author)

  4. OPTIMIZING TIME WINDOWS FOR MANAGING ARRIVALS OF EXPORT CONTAINERS AT CHINESE CONTAINER TERMINALS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Gang; Yang, Zhongzhen

    2009-01-01

    of driver and truck waiting time, the cost of container cargo storage time, the truck idle cost and terminal yard fee. Secondly, to minimize the costs, a heuristic is developed based on a genetic algorithm to optimize the time window arrangement. The optimal solution involves the position and the length...... window management programme that is widely used in Chinese terminals to facilitate the terminal operations and the truck delivery operations. Firstly, the arrangement of time windows is assumed to follow the principle of minimizing the transport costs. A cost function is defined that includes the cost...

  5. Repository schemes for high-level radioactive waste disposal. Report on task no. 1(b)- Review of schemes for argillaceous and saliferous formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    This Report examines international proposals for the underground storage of high level radioactive waste. From this study proposals have been developed in relation to conditions that can be expected in the United Kingdom. This Report is restricted to the consideration of repositories in the softer rocks, the clays and the shales which can be encountered in many parts of the United Kingdom. It has also considered the construction of a repository in rock salt. The only such deposits which could be developed for the purpose are found under the North Sea. For the purpose of this Study it has been assumed that suitable sites can be located near enough to a coast line to allow works to be constructed from the land. The likely cost of a repository will vary widely depending upon the nature of the ground in which it is constructed and the depth. The choice here is not an engineering matter but is dictated by the degree of protection which it is necessary to give to the environment, both within the forseeable future and for many generations to come. Costs are estimated making various assumptions.

  6. Terminal Disease: A Biolaw Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rivas García

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous and varied pathologies that can lead to a state of terminal illness, provoking numerous bioethical dilemmas that are inherent and specific to each circumstance. The objective of the present work has been to provide a current and useful analysis that can help to understand the main bioethical problems, from the perspective of biolaw that must be solved in the inevitable path towards the end of life that any terminal illness implies. The methodology used included a study of bibliographic documentation in the main databases of interest in bioethics. It can be concluded that the biolaw is a very useful tool that helps health care professionals and relatives when it comes to the analysis and decision making regarding a terminal illness. Independently of medical practice based on protocols and scientific knowledge, it is necessary to ensure that not everything that can legally be carried out is accepted in the field of biolaw.

  7. Digital autonomous terminal access communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novacki, S.

    1987-01-01

    A significant problem for the Bus Monitor Unit is to identify the source of a given transmission. This problem arises from the fact that the label which identifies the source of the transmission as it is put into the bus is intercepted by the Digital Autonomous Terminal Access Communications (DATAC) terminal and removed from the transmission. Thus, a given subsystem will see only data associated with a label and never the identifying label itself. The Bus Monitor must identify the source of the transmission so as to be able to provide some type of error identification/location in the event that some problem with the data transmission occurs. Steps taken to alleviate this problem by modifications to the DATAC terminal are discussed.

  8. SIRKULASI TERMINAL PENUMPANG KAPAL LAUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etsa Purnama Sari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wilayah Indonesia yang terdiri dari pulau dan perairan menjadikan angkutan laut menjadi salah satu sarana transportasi yang cukup efektif di negara ini. Daya angkut yang besar dan beragam serta biaya yang lebih murah dengan jarak jangkauan yang luas, membuat sarana ini banyak diminati oleh masyarakat sekaligus juga merupakan pendukung utama perkembangan kehidupan sosial budaya dan roda perekonomian. Untuk mendukung proses transportasi laut ini perlu sarana berupa pelabuhan. Pelabuhan dalam melakukan pelayanan terhadap kapal memiliki beberapa fasilitas pokok dan penunjang yang wajib dimiliki. Salah satunya adalah terminal penumpang kapal laut dengan berbagai kegiatan di dalamnya untuk kedatangan maupun keberangkatan. Masalah ketidaknyamanan dalam berkegiatan, jauhnya akses sirkulasi antara satu kegiatan dengan kegiatan kegiatan embarkasi dan debarkasi yang tidak teratur, pembagian jalur sirkulasi penumpang dan pengantar penumpang yang tidak jelas seringkali muncul akibat sirkulasi yang tidak direncanakan dengan baik pada terminal penumpang kapal laut. Bahkan tidak jarang dapat menimbulkan adanya calo tiket hingga adanya penumpang tanpa tiket yang dapat masuk ke dalam kapal hingga kapal berlayar. Perencanaan sebuah sirkulasi yang tepat pada terminal penumpang kapal laut memerlukan kajian terhadap unsur-unsur sirkulasi seperti pencapaian, pola sirkulasi, jalur sirkulasi, serta bentuk ruang sirkulasi. Kajian unsur-unsur ini selanjutnya diselidiki melalui penelusuran masalah dengan analisis deskriptif melalui penggambaran objek penelitian yang terdapat pada Terminal Penumpang Pelabuhan International Yokohama, Terminal Penumpang Pelabuhan Kobe dan Terminal Penumpang Pelabuhan Osanbashi Hall   As one of the largest archipelago country, sea transportation acts as one of the most effective means of transportation in Indonesia. Large and diverse carrying capacity, lower cost with wide range of distances, are factors which making sea

  9. Termination of past nuclear activities at the nuclear research institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janzekovic, H.; Krizman, M.

    2006-01-01

    Many countries, particularly in Europe, started with nuclear programs in the fifties of the last century. As a consequence nuclear research institutes were established, among them also the Institute Jozef Stefan (IJS) in Slovenia. The nuclear activities at the IJS were related to the development of uranium ore processing technology and technologies comprising uranium oxide and hexafluoride. After very intensive period of nuclear activities the decline began step by step due to different reasons. Various approaches of the termination and decommissioning of facilities were used. The inspectors of the Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA), the responsible authority, started intensive activities at the IJS at the end of 2004. All together 22 research laboratories or research units were included in the inspection program and around 50 researchers of the IJS were involved into the inspection procedures. The inspection was very intensive in the laboratories and storages where past nuclear activities took place and were later on abandoned. As a result several contaminated equipments and sites in addition to around 200 unregistered sources were found. The majority of these sources is related to past nuclear activities. The inspection program related to the terminated research activities is still in progress. The IJS immediately started with the remediation activities including the development of methodology related to decontamination of radioactive liquids. The decontamination of two nuclear laboratories and three different storages of radioactive waste at its sites is in progress. Sixty of the above mentioned sources have been already stored in the Central Interim Storage for Radioactive Waste. (author)

  10. What Determines Joint Venture Termination?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bo Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Joint venture (JV) research continues to flourish as researchers seek to advance our understanding of why so many JVs fail. Cui and Kumar (this issue) take a contingency approach to explain how and why business relatedness may provide new insights as to what determines JV termination. This commen......Joint venture (JV) research continues to flourish as researchers seek to advance our understanding of why so many JVs fail. Cui and Kumar (this issue) take a contingency approach to explain how and why business relatedness may provide new insights as to what determines JV termination...

  11. The management of terminal delirium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macleod A

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Delirium is a distressing and disturbing clinical event. Palliation of the symptoms by multi-component interventions can be effective. The goal of interventions is to raise the deliriant threshold by combined symptom relief, environmental, psychological and pharmacological interventions. Haloperidol remains the drug of choice for delirium. For intractable delirious symptoms at the end of life terminal sedation may be indicated.

  12. Renewal of the control terminals of the criticality alarm system of the factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escandon Ortiz, E.; Dorado Sierra, P.; Ortiz Trujillo, D.; Zurron Cifuentes, O.; Lopez Marquez, J.

    2011-01-01

    The new terminals to be installed are based on computer servers with eDNA management software and have the same features as the existing, but with the advantage of a greater dynamism and flexibility in obtaining and storage of historical data from the modules of acquisition of data (DAM) system.

  13. Virtualized Networks and Virtualized Optical Line Terminal (vOLT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jonathan; Israel, Stephen

    2017-03-01

    The success of the Internet and the proliferation of the Internet of Things (IoT) devices is forcing telecommunications carriers to re-architecture a central office as a datacenter (CORD) so as to bring the datacenter economics and cloud agility to a central office (CO). The Open Network Operating System (ONOS) is the first open-source software-defined network (SDN) operating system which is capable of managing and controlling network, computing, and storage resources to support CORD infrastructure and network virtualization. The virtualized Optical Line Termination (vOLT) is one of the key components in such virtualized networks.

  14. Feasibility of safe terminal disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, B.; Papp, T.

    1980-01-01

    The results of the KBS study indicate that safe terminal storage of spent nuclear fuel in crystalline rock is feasible with the technology available today and at a safety level that is well within the limitations recommended by the ICRP. This statement is not only based on the fact that the doses calculated in the KBS study were acceptably low, but even more on the freedom to choose the dimensions of the engineered barriers as well as depth of the repository and to some degree the quality of the host rock

  15. Commercial solutions [for dry spent fuel storage casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, W.F.; Pennington, C.W.; Hobbs, J.; Lee, W.; Thomas, B.D.; Dibert, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    In the aftermath of the termination of the DOE's MPC (Multi-Purpose Canister) programme, commercial suppliers are coming forward with new or updated systems to meet utility needs. Leading vendors describe the advantages of their systems for dry spent fuel storage and transport. (Author)

  16. Fuel assembly storage pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiranuma, Hiroshi.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To remove limitation of the number of storage of fuel assemblies to increase the number of storage thereof so as to relatively reduce the water depth required for shielding radioactive rays. Structure: Fuel assembly storage rack containers for receiving a plurality of spent fuel assembly racks are stacked in multi-layer fashion within a storage pool filled with water for shielding radioactive rays and removing heat. (Furukawa, Y.)

  17. Heat transport and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despois, J.

    1977-01-01

    Recalling the close connections existing between heat transport and storage, some general considerations on the problem of heat distribution and transport are presented 'in order to set out the problem' of storage in concrete form. This problem is considered in its overall plane, then studied under the angle of the different technical choices it involves. The two alternatives currently in consideration are described i.e.: storage in a mined cavity and underground storage as captive sheet [fr

  18. Storage in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabanes, J.M.; Rottenberg, J.; Abiad, A.; Caudron, S.; Girault, Ph.

    2007-01-01

    Storage represents one of the key elements among the different modulation tools. How the problem of storage is put forward in Europe in front of the increasing uncertainty of the gas demand and prices? What are the policies implemented by storage facility operators? To what extend storage can amortize gas prices volatility or allow the market actors to take the best profit of this volatility? These are the questions debated at this workshop by four specialists of this domain. (J.S.)

  19. 41 CFR 302-9.206 - What should I do if there is no port or terminal at my authorized point of origin or authorized...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... there is no port or terminal at my authorized point of origin or authorized destination when I transport... Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE OF PROPERTY 9-ALLOWANCES... From a Post of Duty § 302-9.206 What should I do if there is no port or terminal at my authorized point...

  20. Pit Water Storage Ottrupgaard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    2000-01-01

    The pit water storage, a seasonal thermal storage, was built in 1993 with floating lid and hybrid clay-polymer for pit lining. The storage was leaking severe and solutions were to be found. In the paper solutions for pit lining and floating lids are discussed, cost estimations given and coming...

  1. Terminal nerve: cranial nerve zero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eduardo Duque Parra

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been stated, in different types of texts, that there are only twelve pairs of cranial nerves. Such texts exclude the existence of another cranial pair, the terminal nerve or even cranial zero. This paper considers the mentioned nerve like a cranial pair, specifying both its connections and its functional role in the migration of liberating neurons of the gonadotropic hormone (Gn RH. In this paper is also stated the hypothesis of the phylogenetic existence of a cerebral sector and a common nerve that integrates the terminal nerve with the olfactory nerves and the vomeronasals nerves which seem to carry out the odors detection function as well as in the food search, pheromone detection and nasal vascular regulation.

  2. Three-terminal superconducting devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    The transistor has a number of properties that make it so useful. The authors discuss these and the additional properties a transistor would need to have for high performance applications at temperatures where superconductivity could contribute advantages to system-level performance. These properties then serve as criteria by which to evaluate three-terminal devices that have been proposed for applications at superconducting temperatures. FETs can retain their transistor properties at low temperatures, but their power consumption is too large for high-speed, high-density cryogenic applications. They discuss in detail why demonstrated superconducting devices with three terminals -Josephson effect based devices, injection controlled weak links, and stacked tunnel junction devices such as the superconducting transistor proposed by K. Gray and the quiteron -- each fail to have true transistor-like properties. They conclude that the potentially very rewarding search for a transistor compatible with superconductivity in high performance applications must be in new directions

  3. JCO criticality accident termination operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanamori, Masashi

    2001-12-01

    On September 30 at around 10:35 AM, criticality accident occurred at the JCO's conversion building in Tokai-mura. Since criticality accident had not been anticipated, neither devices for termination of criticality accident nor neutron detectors were available. Immediately after the information of the accident, our emergency staff (Japan Nuclear Cycle development institute staff) went to JCO site, to measure the intensity of neutrons and gammas. There were four main tasks, first one was to measure the radiation intensity, second one was to terminate the criticality accident, third one is to alert the residents surrounding the JCO site, fourth one is to evacuate the employees in the site. These tasks were successfully performed until October 1. This paper describes about how these operations were performed by the relevant staffs. (author)

  4. U. K. storage market improves after difficult start to year

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kingston, J

    1979-07-15

    According to J. Kingston of PD Oil and Chemical Storage Ltd., the present shortage of oil and product supplies has raised storage capacity rates and some tankage expansion is being considered, but there is no prospect of new terminal construction in the short-term without considerable hardening of storage tariffs. The few tanks under construction are for the specific requirements of certain chemical producers. PD Oil and Chemical operates three storage facilities at Barry, South Wales, where many tanks are specially lined for handling difficult products, Ipswich, and Purfleet, U.K., which have a total capacity of 733,600 cu m, as well as seven others in South Africa, Australia, Spain, France, the U.S., Canary Islands, and Cape Verde Islands in conjunction with subsidiary or associated companies. A table lists PD Oil and Chemical's facilities in the U.K., including location, type of storage, capacity, and accessibility.

  5. Dictionary of nuclear energy termination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-04-15

    This book lists termination of nuclear energy such as abbreviation, symbol, unit of nuclear energy, radiological unit, the symbol for element, isotope chart and the periodic table. This book contains about 5500 words involving to nuclear energy with index in Korean and English. It arranges alphabetically. So, with this book, it is easy and fast to find out the glossary, unit and symbol on nuclear energy.

  6. Combining norms to prove termination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genaim, S.; Codish, M.; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2002-01-01

    Automatic termination analysers typically measure the size of terms applying norms which are mappings from terms to the natural numbers. This paper illustrates howt o enable the use of size functions defined as tuples of these simpler norm functions. This approach enables us to simplify the probl...... of the recursive data-types in the program, is often a suitable choice. We first demonstrate the power of combining norm functions and then the adequacy of combining norms based on regular types....

  7. Dictionary of nuclear energy termination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    This book lists termination of nuclear energy such as abbreviation, symbol, unit of nuclear energy, radiological unit, the symbol for element, isotope chart and the periodic table. This book contains about 5500 words involving to nuclear energy with index in Korean and English. It arranges alphabetically. So, with this book, it is easy and fast to find out the glossary, unit and symbol on nuclear energy.

  8. War Termination: A Selected Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    UA25 .L342 2009) Mandel, Robert . The Meaning of Military Victory. Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 2006. 190pp. (U163 .M266 2006) Marshall, Monty G., and...Ted Robert Gurr. Peace and Conflict 2005: A Global Survey of Armed Conflicts, Self-Determination Movements, and Democracy. College Park: Center for...18pp. (AD-A468-990) http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA468990 Raymer , James H. In Search of Lasting Results: Military War Termination Doctrine. Fort

  9. High Octane Fuel: Terminal Backgrounder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, Kristi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-02-11

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy sponsored a scoping study to assess the potential of ethanol-based high octane fuel (HOF) to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. When the HOF blend is made with 25%-40% ethanol by volume, this energy efficiency improvement is potentially sufficient to offset the reduced vehicle range often associated with the decreased volumetric energy density of ethanol. The purpose of this study is to assess the ability of the fuel supply chain to accommodate more ethanol at fuel terminals. Fuel terminals are midstream in the transportation fuel supply chain and serve to store and distribute fuels to end users. While there are no technical issues to storing more ethanol at fuel terminals, there are several factors that could impact the ability to deploy more ethanol. The most significant of these issues include the availability of land to add more infrastructure and accommodate more truck traffic for ethanol deliveries as well as a lengthy permitting process to erect more tanks.

  10. Wind turbine storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, H.; Ilinca, A.; Perron, J.

    2005-01-01

    Electric power is often produced in locations far from the point of utilization which creates a challenge in stabilizing power grids, particularly since electricity cannot be stored. The production of decentralized electricity by renewable energy sources offers a greater security of supply while protecting the environment. Wind power holds the greatest promise in terms of environmental protection, competitiveness and possible applications. It is known that wind energy production is not always in phase with power needs because of the uncertainty of wind. For that reason, energy storage is the key for the widespread integration of wind energy into the power grids. This paper proposed various energy storage methods that can be used in combination with decentralized wind energy production where an imbalance exists between electricity production and consumption. Energy storage can play an essential role in bringing value to wind energy, particularly if electricity is to be delivered during peak hours. Various types of energy storage are already in use or are being developed. This paper identified the main characteristics of various electricity storage techniques and their applications. They include stationary or embarked storage for long or short term applications. A comparison of characteristics made it possible to determine which types of electricity storage are best suited for wind energy. These include gravity energy; thermal energy; compressed air energy; coupled storage with natural gas; coupled storage with liquefied gas; hydrogen storage for fuel cells; chemical energy storage; storage in REDOX batteries; storage by superconductive inductance; storage in supercondensers; and, storage as kinetic energy. 21 refs., 21 figs

  11. Analytical methods and simulation models to assess innovative operational measures and technologies for rail port terminals: the case of Valencia Principe Felipe terminal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricci, S.

    2016-07-01

    The topic of freight transport by rail is a complex theme and, in recent years, a main issue of European policy. The legislation evolution and the White Paper 2011 have demonstrated the European intention to re-launch this sector. The challenge is to promote the intermodal transport system to the detriment of road freight transport. In this context intermodal freight terminals, play a primary role for the supply chain, they are the connection point between the various transport nodes and the nodal points where the freight are handled, stored and transferred between different modes to final customer. To achieve the purpose, it is strengthen the improvement of existing intermodal freight terminals and the development of innovative intermodal freight terminals towards higher performance (ERRAC, 2012). Many terminal performances improvements have been proposed and sometime experimented. They are normally basing on combinations of operational measures and innovative technologies (e.g. automatic horizontal and parallel storage and handling, automated gate and sensors for tracking systems data exchange) tested in various terminals, with often-contradictory results. The research work described in this paper (developed within the Capacity4Rail EU project) focusses on the assessment of effects that these innovations can have in the intermodal freight terminals combined in various alternative consistent effective scenarios. The methodological framework setup to assess these innovations is basing on a combination of analytical methods based on sequential algorithms and discrete events simulation models. The output of this assessment method are key performance indicators (KPIs) selected according to terminals typologies and related to different aspects (e.g. management, operation and organization). The present paper illustrates the application of the methodological framework, tuned on the operation of various intermodal terminals, for the validation on today operation and the

  12. Storage Optimization for Export Containers in the Port of Izmir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Türsel Eliiyi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we consider a real-life export container storage problem at an important container terminal in the Port of Izmir, Turkey. Currently, the container storage decisions at the port are taken by operators manually, which leads to continuous unnecessary re-handling movements of the containers. High transportation costs, waste of time, and inefficient capacity utilization in the container storage area are the consequences of non-optimal decisions. The main goal of this study is to minimize the transportation costs and the number of re-handling moves while storing the export containers at the terminal yard. We formulate the problem in two stages. While the first stage assigns the containers of the same vessel to a group of yard bays via an optimization model, the second stage decides on the exact location of each container with the help of an efficient heuristic approach. The experimental results with real data are presented and discussed.

  13. Functionalization of hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CBDT), has been covalently attached at the terminal carbon atoms of the hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) backbone. The modification of HTPB backbone by CBDT molecule does not affect the unique physico-chemical properties such ...

  14. Fuel storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peehs, M.; Stehle, H.; Weidinger, H.

    1979-01-01

    The stationary fuel storage tank is immersed below the water level in the spent fuel storage pool. In it there is placed a fuel assembly within a cage. Moreover, the storage tank has got a water filling and a gas buffer. The water in the storage tank is connected with the pool water by means of a filter, a surge tank and a water purification facility, temperature and pressure monitoring being performed. In the buffer compartment there are arranged catalysts a glow plugs for recombination of radiolysis products into water. The supply of water into the storage tank is performed through the gas buffer compartment. (DG) [de

  15. Efficiency analysis of container ports and terminals

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Q.

    2010-01-01

    In the past two decades the steady growth of seaborne trade has resulted in the increase of container ships, container ports and their terminals. The structure of the shipping market is, moreover, continuously evolving. On the carrier side, shipping companies form consortia and alliances; on the port side, global terminal operators and dedicated container terminals are emerging. The aim of this research is to evaluate the efficiency of container ports and terminals and to study...

  16. Assessing storage adequacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amirault, P.

    2004-01-01

    Government policy encourages the use of natural gas. It is expected that liquefied natural gas (LNG) and Arctic gas will make up 20 to 25 per cent of supply. This presentation provided an outlook of storage value based on a technical analysis by the National Petroleum Counsel (NPC) report. A moderately robust growth is expected in the residential and commercial load which may be partially offset by robust growth in electricity. The net result is an increase in storage requirements. It was concluded that there is a strong case for growth in storage demand but a lack of good sites for additional capacity. This will lead to higher storage values. The NPC sees the need for 1 Tcf more storage use by 2025, of which 700 Bcf will need to come from new storage. In particular, current storage levels may not be sufficient to meet a colder than normal winter, and deliverability is affected by field inventory. Most storage capacity was built before 1985, mostly by regulated entities. It is expected that only 250 to 400 Bcf will be added over the next 25 years in North America. If storage becomes scarce, prices will move to the marginal cost of new additions, and the upper limit on price will be determined by salt cavern storage. An increase of $1.00 in the price of leasing storage would add about $0.11 to the average price of consumed gas. tabs., figs

  17. Spent fuel storage rack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morikawa, Matsuo; Uchiyama, Yuichi.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the safety and facilitate the design by limiting the relative displacement in a storage rack. Constitution: The outer wall of a storage rack disposed in water within a fuel pool, the pool wall opposing to the storage rack and the structure between the opposing storages racks are made as a space for confining the pool water or a structure formed with a slight gap, for example, a combination of a recessed structure and a protruded structure. In such a constitution, a space for confirming the pool water is established and the pool water thus confined forms a flow resistance when the storage rack vibrates upon earthquakes, serves as a damper and significantly reduces the responsivity. Furthermore, the relative displacement in the storage rack is limited to inhibit excess earthquake forces to exert on setting bolts and rack clamping bolts of the storage rack. (Sekiya, K.)

  18. Kajian Kinerja Terminal Batu Ampar Kota Balikpapan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randha Alief Chikita

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Batu Ampar Terminal Balikpapan is the only type A passenger terminal in Balikpapan City. The purpose of this study is to determine the operational performance of the terminal at this time and also to determine the level of service in the terminal. The results of this study indicate that for FIFO queue discipline analysis on AKDP and AKAP bus lines, it is known that ρ <1 means that there is currently no queue in the terminal. For the analysis of terminal facilities it is known that there are still some terminal facilities that are not yet available from the main facilities and supporting facilities, therefore the need for additional facilities in order to meet the standard of passenger terminal type A. In the next 15 years analysis for traffic intensity value is approaching 1 which means in the future will cause the queue in the terminal, so it is necessary for the improvement of terminal performance. For the service performance with IPA method there are 35 variables that there are 7 variables that enter in quadrant I. In the next step to do analysis to know the priority of handling by using QFD method. Keywords: Batu Ampar Terminal Balikpapan, IPA, terminal performance, QFD

  19. Strategic technology alliance termination : an empirical investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadowski, B.M.; Duysters, G.M.

    2008-01-01

    There is growing consensus that overall alliance termination rates are high. However, despite this track record of termination and despite unsurpassed growth rates of strategic technology alliances, little is known about the reasons for their termination. Typically strategic alliances have been

  20. 49 CFR 374.309 - Terminal facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Terminal facilities. 374.309 Section 374.309... REGULATIONS Adequacy of Intercity Motor Common Carrier Passenger Service § 374.309 Terminal facilities. (a... attendants and be regularly patrolled. (b) Outside facilities. At terminals and stations that are closed when...

  1. 9 CFR 3.40 - Terminal facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terminal facilities. 3.40 Section 3.40... Pigs and Hamsters Transportation Standards § 3.40 Terminal facilities. No person subject to the Animal... animal holding areas of a terminal facility where shipments of live guinea pigs or hamsters are...

  2. 9 CFR 3.91 - Terminal facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terminal facilities. 3.91 Section 3.91... Primates 2 Transportation Standards § 3.91 Terminal facilities. (a) Placement. Any persons subject to the... with inanimate cargo or with other animals in animal holding areas of terminal facilities. Nonhuman...

  3. 9 CFR 3.65 - Terminal facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terminal facilities. 3.65 Section 3.65... Transportation Standards § 3.65 Terminal facilities. No person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations shall commingle shipments of live rabbits with inanimate cargo. All animal holding areas of a terminal facility...

  4. 9 CFR 3.18 - Terminal facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terminal facilities. 3.18 Section 3.18... Cats 1 Transportation Standards § 3.18 Terminal facilities. (a) Placement. Any person subject to the... inanimate cargo in animal holding areas of terminal facilities. (b) Cleaning, sanitization, and pest control...

  5. 46 CFR 525.2 - Terminal schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... domestic law and international conventions and agreements adopted by the United States; such terminal... their own negligence, or that impose upon others the obligation to indemnify or hold-harmless the terminals from liability for their own negligence. (2) Enforcement of terminal schedules. Any schedule that...

  6. 25 CFR 11.1114 - Termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Minor-in-Need-of-Care Procedure § 11.1114 Termination. (a) Parental rights to a child may be terminated... rights if, following efforts to prevent or eliminate the need to remove the minor, it finds such efforts... alternatives: (1) If parental rights to a child are terminated, the children's court shall place the minor in a...

  7. Commercial storage and marketing trials of irradiated Onions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouchpramool, K.; Charoen, S.; Prachasitthisak, Y.

    1997-06-01

    Pilot scale storage tests were carried out in co-operation with commercial onions traders in the years 1986 and 1987 to evaluate the efficacy of irradiation for sprout inhibition of onions under actual commercial stored in commercial cold storage at 1-10 degrees C and 70-90% relative humidity. The results show that irradiation reduce sprouting in onions by 11 and 40 per cent and weight loss by 3 and 5 per cent after 5 and 6 months of storage, respectively. Storage losses are minimum when radiation is applied within two weeks of harvest. A maximum storage life of six months as against five months for controls is attained. Post cold storage life at ambient temperature for irradiated onions after withdrawal from cold storage is one week longer than that of non-irradiated controls. The radio inhibition process is technically feasible and economically justified as a profit can be made during the extended storage period. Marketing trials of irradiated onions conducted during and after termination of storage revealed no adverse comments from consumers and retailers/wholesalers. Wholesalers.retailers and consumers preferred irradiated onions because of their better physical quality and longer marketable life

  8. Intrinsic terminators in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Tiago Ebert; Siqueira, Franciele Maboni; Schrank, Irene Silveira

    2015-04-08

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, an important pathogen of swine, exhibits a low guanine and cytosine (GC) content genome. M. hyopneumoniae genome is organised in long transcriptional units and promoter sequences have been mapped upstream of all transcription units. These analysis provided insights into the gene organisation and transcription initiation at the genome scale. However, the presence of transcriptional terminator sequences in the M. hyopneumoniae genome is poorly understood. In silico analyses demonstrated the presence of putative terminators in 82% of the 33 monocistronic units (mCs) and in 74% of the 116 polycistronic units (pCs) considering different classes of terminators. The functional activity of 23 intrinsic terminators was confirmed by RT-PCR and qPCR. Analysis of all terminators found by three software algorithms, combined with experimental results, allowed us to propose a pattern of RNA hairpin formation during the termination process and to predict the location of terminators in the M. hyopneumoniae genome sequence. The stem-loop structures of intrinsic terminators of mycoplasma diverge from the pattern of terminators found in other bacteria due the low content of guanine and cytosine. In M. hyopneumoniae, transcription can end after a transcriptional unit and before its terminator sequence and can also continue past the terminator sequence with RNA polymerases gradually releasing the RNA.

  9. Integrity assessment of a storage tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Osorio Correa; Santos, Jose Henrique Gomes dos; Carvalho, Alexis Fernandes [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    In the last internal inspection of a 5000 bbl freshwater storage tank located in a shipping terminal, widespread pitting corrosion was detected on the shell courses. In some of these pits, its depth was such that the remaining thickness was bellow the minimum thickness required according to the design code. Nevertheless, this approach is overly conservative since it does not consider the pits size, depth and spacing. Thanks to advances in stress analysis, new tools are available for the evaluation of damaged equipment widely employed in the oil industry such as pressure vessels, piping and storage tanks. In the present work, the authors present the integrity assessment performed on this tank using the Fitness for Service approach using the methods and procedures contained in the document API RP 579 (Fitness-for-service). (author)

  10. PC-Cluster based Storage System Architecture for Cloud Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Yee, Tin Tin; Naing, Thinn Thu

    2011-01-01

    Design and architecture of cloud storage system plays a vital role in cloud computing infrastructure in order to improve the storage capacity as well as cost effectiveness. Usually cloud storage system provides users to efficient storage space with elasticity feature. One of the challenges of cloud storage system is difficult to balance the providing huge elastic capacity of storage and investment of expensive cost for it. In order to solve this issue in the cloud storage infrastructure, low ...

  11. Large mass storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peskin, A.M.

    1978-01-01

    The report of a committee to study the questions surrounding possible acquisition of a large mass-storage device is presented. The current computing environment at BNL and justification for an online large mass storage device are briefly discussed. Possible devices to meet the requirements of large mass storage are surveyed, including future devices. The future computing needs of BNL are prognosticated. 2 figures, 4 tables

  12. Benchmarking Cloud Storage Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xing

    2014-01-01

    With the rise of cloud computing, many cloud storage systems like Dropbox, Google Drive and Mega have been built to provide decentralized and reliable file storage. It is thus of prime importance to know their features, performance, and the best way to make use of them. In this context, we introduce BenchCloud, a tool designed as part of this thesis to conveniently and efficiently benchmark any cloud storage system. First, we provide a study of six commonly-used cloud storage systems to ident...

  13. Optimizing Time Windows For Managing Export Container Arrivals At Chinese Container Terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Gang; Yang, Zhongzhen

    2010-01-01

    window management programme that is widely used in Chinese terminals to facilitate terminal and truck delivery operations. Firstly, the arrangement of time windows is assumed to follow the principle of minimizing transport costs. A cost function is defined that includes the costs of truck and driver...... waiting time, fuel consumption associated with truck idling, storage time of the containerized cargos and yard fee. Secondly, to minimize the total cost, a heuristic is developed based on a genetic algorithm to find a near optimal time window arrangement. The optimized solution involves the position...

  14. A new storage-ring light source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Alex [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    A recently proposed technique in storage ring accelerators is applied to provide potential high-power sources of photon radiation. The technique is based on the steady-state microbunching (SSMB) mechanism. As examples of this application, one may consider a high-power DUV photon source for research in atomic and molecular physics or a high-power EUV radiation source for industrial lithography. A less challenging proof-of-principle test to produce IR radiation using an existing storage ring is also considered.

  15. Water Storage: Quo Vadis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smakhtin, V.

    2017-12-01

    Humans stored water - in various forms - for ages, coping with water resources variability, and its extremes - floods and droughts. Storage per capita, and other storage-related indicators, have essentially become one way of reflecting the progress of economic development. Massive investments went into large surface water reservoirs that have become the characteristic feature of the earth's landscapes, bringing both benefits and controversy. As water variability progressively increases with changing climate, globally, on one hand, and the idea of sustainable development receives strong traction, on another - it may be worth the while to comprehensively examine current trends and future prospects for water storage development. The task is surely big, to say the least. The presentation will aim to initiate a structured discussion on this multi-facet issue and identify which aspects and trends of water storage development may be most important in the context of Sustainable Development Goals, Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction, Paris Agreement on Climate Change, and examine how, where and to what extent water storage planning can be improved. It will cover questions like i) aging of large water storage infrastructure, the current extent of this trend in various geographical regions, and possible impacts on water security and security of nations; ii) improved water storage development planning overall in the context of various water development alternatives and storage options themselves and well as their combinations iii) prospects for another "storage revolution" - speed increase in dam numbers, and where, if at all this is most likely iv) recent events in storage development, e.g. is dam decommissioning a trend that picks pace, or whether some developing economies in Asia can do without going through the period of water storage construction, with alternatives, or suggestions for alleviation of negative impacts v) the role of subsurface storage as an

  16. JCO criticality accident termination operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanamori, Masashi

    2010-07-01

    In 2001, we summarized the circumstances surrounding termination of the JCO criticality accident based on testimony in the Mito District Court on December 17, 2001. JCO was the company for uranium fuels production in Japan. That document was assembled based on actual testimony in the belief that a description of the work involved in termination of the accident would be useful in some way for preventing nuclear disasters in the future. The description focuses on the witness' own behavior, and what he saw and heard, and thus is written from the perspective of action by one individual. This was done simply because it was easier for the witness to write down his memories as he remembers them. Description of the activities of other organizations and people is provided only as necessary, to ensure that consistency in the descriptive approach is not lost. The essentials of this report were rewritten as a third-person objective description in the summary of the report by the Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ). Since then, comments have been received from sources such as former members of the Nuclear Safety Commission (Dr. Kenji Sumita and Dr. Akira Kanagawa), concerned parties from the former Science and Technology Agency, and reports from the JCO Criticality Accident Investigation Committee of the AESJ, and thus this report was rewritten to correct incorrect information, and add material where that was felt to be necessary. This year is the tenth year of the JCO criticality accident. To mark this occasion we have decided to translate the record of what occurred at the accident site into English so that more people can draw lessons from this accident. This report is an English version of JAEA-Technology 2009-073. (author)

  17. Energy Storage Economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgqvist, Emma M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-07

    This presentation provides an overview on energy storage economics including recent market trends, battery terminology and concepts, value streams, challenges, and an example of how photovoltaics and storage can be used to lower demand charges. It also provides an overview of the REopt Lite web tool inputs and outputs.

  18. System for secure storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2005-01-01

    A system (100) comprising read means (112) for reading content data and control logic data from a storage medium (101), the control logic data being uniquely linked to the storage medium (101), processing means (113-117), for processing the content data and feeding the processed content data to an

  19. Grain Handling and Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Troy G.; Minor, John

    This text for a secondary- or postecondary-level course in grain handling and storage contains ten chapters. Chapter titles are (1) Introduction to Grain Handling and Storage, (2) Elevator Safety, (3) Grain Grading and Seed Identification, (4) Moisture Control, (5) Insect and Rodent Control, (6) Grain Inventory Control, (7) Elevator Maintenance,…

  20. Wind-energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, L. H.

    1980-01-01

    Program SIMWEST can model wind energy storage system using any combination of five types of storage: pumped hydro, battery, thermal, flywheel, and pneumatic. Program is tool to aid design of optional system for given application with realistic simulation for further evaluation and verification.

  1. Optical storage networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Ulrich

    2001-11-01

    For efficient business continuance and backup of mission- critical data an inter-site storage network is required. Where traditional telecommunications costs are prohibitive for all but the largest organizations, there is an opportunity for regional carries to deliver an innovative storage service. This session reveals how a combination of optical networking and protocol-aware SAN gateways can provide an extended storage networking platform with the lowest cost of ownership and the highest possible degree of reliability, security and availability. Companies of every size, with mainframe and open-systems environments, can afford to use this integrated service. Three mayor applications are explained; channel extension, Network Attached Storage (NAS), Storage Area Networks (SAN) and how optical networks address the specific requirements. One advantage of DWDM is the ability for protocols such as ESCON, Fibre Channel, ATM and Gigabit Ethernet, to be transported natively and simultaneously across a single fiber pair, and the ability to multiplex many individual fiber pairs over a single pair, thereby reducing fiber cost and recovering fiber pairs already in use. An optical storage network enables a new class of service providers, Storage Service Providers (SSP) aiming to deliver value to the enterprise by managing storage, backup, replication and restoration as an outsourced service.

  2. ERDA's Chemical Energy Storage Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swisher, J. H.; Kelley, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    The Chemical Energy Storage Program is described with emphasis on hydrogen storage. Storage techniques considered include pressurized hydrogen gas storage, cryogenic liquid hydrogen storage, storage in hydride compounds, and aromatic-alicyclic hydrogen storage. Some uses of energy storage are suggested. Information on hydrogen production and hydrogen use is also presented. Applications of hydrogen energy systems include storage of hydrogen for utilities load leveling, industrial marketing of hydrogen both as a chemical and as a fuel, natural gas supplementation, vehicular applications, and direct substitution for natural gas.

  3. Electricity Storage. Technology Brief

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simbolotti, G. [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development ENEA, Rome (Italy); Kempener, R. [International Renewable Energy Agency IRENA, Bonn (Germany)

    2012-04-15

    Electricity storage is a key technology for electricity systems with a high share of renewables as it allows electricity to be generated when renewable sources (i.e. wind, sunlight) are available and to be consumed on demand. It is expected that the increasing price of fossil fuels and peak-load electricity and the growing share of renewables will result in electricity storage to grow rapidly and become more cost effective. However, electricity storage is technically challenging because electricity can only be stored after conversion into other forms of energy, and this involves expensive equipment and energy losses. At present, the only commercial storage option is pumped hydro power where surplus electricity (e.g. electricity produced overnight by base-load coal or nuclear power) is used to pump water from a lower to an upper reservoir. The stored energy is then used to produce hydropower during daily high-demand periods. Pumped hydro plants are large-scale storage systems with a typical efficiency between 70% and 80%, which means that a quarter of the energy is lost in the process. Other storage technologies with different characteristics (i.e. storage process and capacity, conversion back to electricity and response to power demand, energy losses and costs) are currently in demonstration or pre-commercial stages and discussed in this brief report: Compressed air energy storage (CAES) systems, Flywheels; Electrical batteries; Supercapacitors; Superconducting magnetic storage; and Thermal energy storage. No single electricity storage technology scores high in all dimensions. The technology of choice often depends on the size of the system, the specific service, the electricity sources and the marginal cost of peak electricity. Pumped hydro currently accounts for 95% of the global storage capacity and still offers a considerable expansion potential but does not suit residential or small-size applications. CAES expansion is limited due to the lack of suitable

  4. Plutonium storage criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, D. [Scientech, Inc., Germantown, MD (United States); Ascanio, X. [Dept. of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The Department of Energy has issued a technical standard for long-term (>50 years) storage and will soon issue a criteria document for interim (<20 years) storage of plutonium materials. The long-term technical standard, {open_quotes}Criteria for Safe Storage of Plutonium Metals and Oxides,{close_quotes} addresses the requirements for storing metals and oxides with greater than 50 wt % plutonium. It calls for a standardized package that meets both off-site transportation requirements, as well as remote handling requirements from future storage facilities. The interim criteria document, {open_quotes}Criteria for Interim Safe Storage of Plutonium-Bearing Solid Materials{close_quotes}, addresses requirements for storing materials with less than 50 wt% plutonium. The interim criteria document assumes the materials will be stored on existing sites, and existing facilities and equipment will be used for repackaging to improve the margin of safety.

  5. Compact nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselev, V.V.; Churakov, Yu.A.; Danchenko, Yu.V.; Bylkin, B.K.; Tsvetkov, S.V.

    1983-01-01

    Different constructions of racks for compact storage of spent fuel assemblies (FA) in ''coolin''g pools (CP) of NPPs with the BWR and PWR type reactors are described. Problems concerning nuclear and radiation safety and provision of necessary thermal conditions arising in such rack design are discussed. It is concluded that the problem of prolonged fuel storage at NPPs became Very actual for many countries because of retapdation of the rates of fuel reprocessing centers building. Application of compact storage racks is a promising solution of the problem of intermediate FA storage at NPPs. Such racks of stainless boron steel and with neutron absorbers in the from of boron carbide panels enable to increase the capacity of the present CP 2-2.6 times, and the period of FA storage in them up to 5-10 years

  6. Concept Layout Model of Transportation Terminals

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Li-ya; Sun, Li-shan; Wang, Wu-hong; Xiong, Hui

    2012-01-01

    Transportation terminal is the key node in transport systems. Efficient terminals can improve operation of passenger transportation networks, adjust the layout of public transportation networks, provide a passenger guidance system, and regulate the development of commercial forms, as well as optimize the assembly and distribution of modern logistic modes, among others. This study aims to clarify the relationship between the function and the structure of transportation terminals and establish ...

  7. Electricity storage using a thermal storage scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Alexander, E-mail: ajw36@cam.ac.uk [Hopkinson Laboratory, Cambridge University Engineering Department, Trumpington Street, Cambridge. CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-22

    The increasing use of renewable energy technologies for electricity generation, many of which have an unpredictably intermittent nature, will inevitably lead to a greater demand for large-scale electricity storage schemes. For example, the expanding fraction of electricity produced by wind turbines will require either backup or storage capacity to cover extended periods of wind lull. This paper describes a recently proposed storage scheme, referred to here as Pumped Thermal Storage (PTS), and which is based on “sensible heat” storage in large thermal reservoirs. During the charging phase, the system effectively operates as a high temperature-ratio heat pump, extracting heat from a cold reservoir and delivering heat to a hot one. In the discharge phase the processes are reversed and it operates as a heat engine. The round-trip efficiency is limited only by process irreversibilities (as opposed to Second Law limitations on the coefficient of performance and the thermal efficiency of the heat pump and heat engine respectively). PTS is currently being developed in both France and England. In both cases, the schemes operate on the Joule-Brayton (gas turbine) cycle, using argon as the working fluid. However, the French scheme proposes the use of turbomachinery for compression and expansion, whereas for that being developed in England reciprocating devices are proposed. The current paper focuses on the impact of the various process irreversibilities on the thermodynamic round-trip efficiency of the scheme. Consideration is given to compression and expansion losses and pressure losses (in pipe-work, valves and thermal reservoirs); heat transfer related irreversibility in the thermal reservoirs is discussed but not included in the analysis. Results are presented demonstrating how the various loss parameters and operating conditions influence the overall performance.

  8. Performance Evaluation and Modelling of Container Terminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatasubbaiah, K.; Rao, K. Narayana; Rao, M. Malleswara; Challa, Suresh

    2018-02-01

    The present paper evaluates and analyzes the performance of 28 container terminals of south East Asia through data envelopment analysis (DEA), principal component analysis (PCA) and hybrid method of DEA-PCA. DEA technique is utilized to identify efficient decision making unit (DMU)s and to rank DMUs in a peer appraisal mode. PCA is a multivariate statistical method to evaluate the performance of container terminals. In hybrid method, DEA is integrated with PCA to arrive the ranking of container terminals. Based on the composite ranking, performance modelling and optimization of container terminals is carried out through response surface methodology (RSM).

  9. What is a "good enough" termination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Glen O

    2009-06-01

    In Freud's technique papers, he failed to develop a systematic approach to termination. Much of the existing literature is based on psychoanalytic mythologies about the way patients are expected to end analysis. The models described in the literature are often starkly at odds with what one sees in clinical practice. A wish for idealized versions of termination underlies much of what has been written, and we need to shift to a conceptual model involving "good enough" termination. A number of different endings to psychoanalysis may, in the long run, lead to productive outcomes; these models are examined, as are various approaches to the dilemmas presented at the time of termination.

  10. A new approach for two-terminal electronic memory devices - Storing information on silicon nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saranti, Konstantina; Alotaibi, Sultan; Paul, Shashi

    2016-06-01

    The work described in this paper focuses on the utilisation of silicon nanowires as the information storage element in flash-type memory devices. Silicon nanostructures have attracted attention due to interesting electrical and optical properties, and their potential integration into electronic devices. A detailed investigation of the suitability of silicon nanowires as the charge storage medium in two-terminal non-volatile memory devices are presented in this report. The deposition of the silicon nanostructures was carried out at low temperatures (less than 400 °C) using a previously developed a novel method within our research group. Two-terminal non-volatile (2TNV) memory devices and metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structures containing the silicon nanowires were fabricated and an in-depth study of their characteristics was carried out using current-voltage and capacitance techniques.

  11. Ultrafine hydrogen storage powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Iver E.; Ellis, Timothy W.; Pecharsky, Vitalij K.; Ting, Jason; Terpstra, Robert; Bowman, Robert C.; Witham, Charles K.; Fultz, Brent T.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.

    2000-06-13

    A method of making hydrogen storage powder resistant to fracture in service involves forming a melt having the appropriate composition for the hydrogen storage material, such, for example, LaNi.sub.5 and other AB.sub.5 type materials and AB.sub.5+x materials, where x is from about -2.5 to about +2.5, including x=0, and the melt is gas atomized under conditions of melt temperature and atomizing gas pressure to form generally spherical powder particles. The hydrogen storage powder exhibits improved chemcial homogeneity as a result of rapid solidfication from the melt and small particle size that is more resistant to microcracking during hydrogen absorption/desorption cycling. A hydrogen storage component, such as an electrode for a battery or electrochemical fuel cell, made from the gas atomized hydrogen storage material is resistant to hydrogen degradation upon hydrogen absorption/desorption that occurs for example, during charging/discharging of a battery. Such hydrogen storage components can be made by consolidating and optionally sintering the gas atomized hydrogen storage powder or alternately by shaping the gas atomized powder and a suitable binder to a desired configuration in a mold or die.

  12. Storage of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    Even if the best waste minimization measures are undertaken throughout radioisotope production or usage, significant radioactive wastes arise to make management measures essential. For developing countries with low isotope usage and little or no generation of nuclear materials, it may be possible to handle the generated waste by simply practicing decay storage for several half-lives of the radionuclides involved, followed by discharge or disposal without further processing. For those countries with much larger facilities, longer lived isotopes are produced and used. In this situation, storage is used not only for decay storage but also for in-process retention steps and for the key stage of interim storage of conditioned wastes pending final disposal. The report will serve as a technical manual providing reference material and direct step-by-step know-how to staff in radioisotope user establishments and research centres in the developing Member States without nuclear power generation. Considerations are limited to the simpler storage facilities. The restricted quantities and low activity associated with the relevant wastes will generally permit contact-handling and avoid the need for shielding requirements in the storage facilities or equipment used for handling. A small quantity of wastes from some radioisotope production cells and from reactor cooling water treatment may contain sufficient short lived activity from activated corrosion products to require some separate decay storage before contact-handling is suitable. 16 refs, 12 figs, 8 tabs

  13. Aflatoxins & Safe Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe eVillers

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines both field experience and research on the prevention of the exponential growth of aflatoxins during multi-month post harvest storage in hot, humid countries. The approach described is the application of modern safe storage methods using flexible, Ultra Hermetic™ structures that create an unbreatheable atmosphere through insect and microorganism respiration alone, without use of chemicals, fumigants, or pumps. Laboratory and field data are cited and specific examples are given describing the uses of Ultra Hermetic storage to prevent the growth of aflatoxins with their significant public health consequences. Also discussed is the presently limited quantitative information on the relative occurrence of excessive levels of aflatoxin (>20 ppb before versus after multi-month storage of such crops as maize, rice and peanuts when under high humidity, high temperature conditions and, consequently, the need for further research to determine the frequency at which excessive aflatoxin levels are reached in the field versus after months of post-harvest storage. The significant work being done to reduce aflatoxin levels in the field is mentioned, as well as its probable implications on post harvest storage. Also described is why, with some crops such as peanuts, using Ultra Hermetic storage may require injection of carbon dioxide or use of an oxygen absorber as an accelerant. The case of peanuts is discussed and experimental data is described.

  14. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed

  15. Magnox waste storage complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    This article looks at the design and construction of British Nuclear Fuel Limited's (BNFL) Magnox waste storage complex by Costain Engineering Limited. Magnox swarf from fuel decanning is stored underwater in specially designed silos. Gas processing capabilities from Costain Engineering Limited and the experience of BNFL combined in this project to provide the necessary problem-solving skills necessary for this waste storage upgrading and extension project. A retrofitted inerting facility was fitted to an existing building and a new storage extension was fitted, both without interrupting reprocessing operations at Sellafield. (UK)

  16. Tiered Storage For LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Hanushevsky, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    For more than a year, the ATLAS Western Tier 2 (WT2) at SLAC National Accelerator has been successfully operating a two tiered storage system based on Xrootd's flexible cross-cluster data placement framework, the File Residency Manager. The architecture allows WT2 to provide both, high performance storage at the higher tier to ATLAS analysis jobs, as well as large, low cost disk capacity at the lower tier. Data automatically moves between the two storage tiers based on the needs of analysis jobs and is completely transparent to the jobs.

  17. Next generation storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesser, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    With diminishing requirements for plutonium, a substantial quantity of this material requires special handling and ultimately, long-term storage. To meet this objective, we at Los Alamos, have been involved in the design of a storage facility with the goal of providing storage capabilities for this and other nuclear materials. This paper presents preliminary basic design data, not for the structure and physical plant, but for the container and arrays which might be configured within the facility, with strong emphasis on criticality safety features

  18. Monitored retrievable storage design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, W.D.

    1985-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA) established a national policy for the safe storage and disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The NWPA requires that DOE... ''submit a proposal to Congress on the need for and feasibility of one or more Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Facilities''... In subsequent evaluations of the commercial nuclear waste management system, DOE has identified important advantages in providing an MRS Facility as an integral part of the total system. The integral MRS Facility serves as an independent, centralized spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste handling and packaging facility with a safe temporary storage capacity

  19. Storage-ring FEL for the vuv

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, J.M.; Bisognano, J.J.; Garren, A.A.; Halbach, K.; Kim, K.J.; Sah, R.C.

    1984-09-01

    A free-electron laser for the vuv operating in a storage ring requires an electron beam of high density and low energy spread and a short wavelength, narrow-gap undulator. These conditions tend to produce longitudinal and transverse beam instabilities, excessive beam growth through multiple intrabeam scattering, and a short gas-scattering lifetime. Passing the beam only occasionally through the undulator in a by-pass straight section, as proposed by Murphy and Pellegrini, allows operation in a high-gain, single-pass mode and a long gas-scattering lifetime. Several storage ring designs have been considered to see how best to satisfy the several requirements. Each features a by-pass, a low-emittance lattice, and built-in wigglers for enhanced damping to counteract the intra-beam scattering. 15 references, 3 figures, 2 tables

  20. CPA ups storage at Lavera site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Back, R.

    1992-01-01

    Compagnie Parisienne des Asphaltes (CPA; Paris) and its subsidiary Pacsud -owned 65% by CPA and 35% by Shell Chimie (Paris) - have inaugurated their new chemicals storage site at Lavera, France, in the Europort South complex near Marseilles. The facilities, with 60,000-m.t./year capacity, also include a barreling plant that will have output of up to 250 bbl/hour when it comes onstream next spring. Total investment for these facilities amount to F122 million ($22.5 million), including F22 million for the barreling unit. CPA, France's number two storage specialist, after LB Chimie (Paris), is jointly owned by investment company Union Normandie (60%), Elf Aquitaine (Paris; 20%), and Total (Paris; 20%). Adding to its existing French storage sites at Dunkirk and Rouen, CPA says it decided to build on the Pacsud venture because it considered it attractive to invest in the petroleum and petrochemical complex of Fos-Berre-Lavera, particularly since the present trend in the oil and chemical industries is to subcontract all ancillary functions, especially logistics. CPA general manager Rafic Charles Rathle says that customer requirements and the role of the service provider are changing. With that in mid, CPA, in addition to providing storage terminals, converts its depots into distribution and packing centers. At Lavera the company has taken over storage, blending, and barreling operations for Pacsud and its direct customers. For example, Pacsud has a long-term contract with Shell Chimie for the latter's additive production at a 10,000-m.t./year rate. Another long-term contract is being negotiated, but the identity of the customer was not revealed

  1. 78 FR 5717 - Safety Zone; Military Ocean Terminal Concord Safety Zone, Suisun Bay, Military Ocean Terminal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Military Ocean Terminal Concord Safety Zone, Suisun Bay, Military Ocean Terminal... Guard is establishing a safety zone in the navigable waters of Suisun Bay near Military Ocean Terminal Concord, CA in support of military onload and offload operations. This safety zone is established to...

  2. Irradiation from video display terminals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backe, S.; Hannevik, M.

    1987-01-01

    Video display terminals (VDT's) are in common use by computer operators. In the last years this group of workers has expressed growing concern about their work environment and possible hazardious effects in connection with radiation emission from VDT's. Radiation types and levels of emission and possible biological effects have been the subject of research activity in Norway and in other countries. This report summarizes the various radiation types and their levels of emission from VDT's. An overview of recent epidemiological studies and animal experiments, and the conclusions given by the research groups are also presented. The conclusions drawn in this report based on the current knowledge are: Radiation, other than low frequency pulsed magnetic fields, have low and negligible emission levels and will not represent any health hazard to VDT-operator or to the foetus of pregnant operators. The biological effects of low frequency pulsed mangetic fields have been the subject of epidemiological studies and animal experiments. Epidemiological studies carried out in Canada, Finland, Sweden and Norway gave no support for any correlation between pregnancy complications and operation of VDT's. From animal experiments it has so far been impossible to assert an effect on pregnancy outcome from low frequency pulsed magnetic fields

  3. 9 CFR 3.117 - Terminal facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terminal facilities. 3.117 Section 3... Marine Mammals Transportation Standards § 3.117 Terminal facilities. Carriers and intermediate handlers... facility of any carrier or intermediate handler where marine mammal shipments are maintained must be...

  4. Bargaining in Mergers and Termination Fees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weitzel, U.; Rosenkranz, S.

    We model takeovers as a bargaining process and explain termination fees for, both, the target and the acquirer, subject to parties’ bargaining power and outside options. In equilibrium, termination fees are offered by firms with outside options in exchange for a greater share of merger synergies.

  5. [Terminal phase hydration, pain and delirium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heick, A.

    2009-01-01

    Hydration of the terminal patient may relieve confusion and complaints of "dry mouth". But it may worsen oedema of the brain, lungs, and extremities, worsen terminal rattling and cause a need for frequent changing of diapers. The decision of whether and how to treat a dying patient with fluids...

  6. 48 CFR 32.109 - Termination financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Termination financing. 32... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Non-Commercial Item Purchase Financing 32.109 Termination financing. To encourage contractors to invest their own funds in performance despite the susceptibility of...

  7. Diffractive optical elements for space communication terminals

    OpenAIRE

    Herzig, Hans-Peter; Ehbets, Peter; Teijido, Juan M.; Weible, Kenneth J.; Heimbeck, Hans-Joerg

    2007-01-01

    The potential of diffractive optical elements for advanced laser communication terminals has been investigated. Applications include beam shaping of high- power laser diode arrays, optical filter elements for position detection and hybrid (refractive/diffractive) elements. In addition, we present a design example of a miniaturized terminal including diffractive optics.

  8. Size-change termination and transition invariants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heizmann, Matthias; Jones, Neil; Podelski, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Two directions of recent work on program termination use the concepts of size-change termination resp. transition invariants. The difference in the setting has as consequence the inherent incomparability of the analysis and verification methods that result from this work. Yet, in order...

  9. 28 CFR 2.43 - Early termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... terminated because there is a likelihood that the parolee will engage in conduct violating any criminal law... shall review the status of the parolee to determine the need for continued supervision. The Commission shall also conduct a status review whenever the supervision officer recommends early termination of the...

  10. 14 CFR 272.12 - Termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS ESSENTIAL AIR SERVICE TO THE FREELY ASSOCIATED STATES § 272.12 Termination. These provisions shall terminate on October 1, 1998, unless the program of essential air service to the Federated States of...

  11. 43 CFR 29.13 - Termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Termination. Upon termination of operations of the Pipeline, the full disposition of all claims, and the... shall request that Congress provide for final disposition of the Fund. If Congress at any time establishes a comprehensive oil pollution liability fund which supersedes or repeals the Fund, the Fund assets...

  12. 75 FR 49510 - Credit Watch Termination Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5411-N-02] Credit Watch Termination Initiative AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Housing--Federal Housing Commissioner, HUD. ACTION... FHA Credit Watch Termination Initiative. This notice includes a list of mortgagees which have had...

  13. 75 FR 17944 - Credit Watch Termination Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5411-N-01] Credit Watch Termination Initiative AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Housing--Federal Housing Commissioner, HUD. ACTION... FHA Credit Watch Termination Initiative. This notice includes a list of mortgagees which have had...

  14. [Terminal phase hydration, pain and delirium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heick, A.

    2009-01-01

    Hydration of the terminal patient may relieve confusion and complaints of "dry mouth". But it may worsen oedema of the brain, lungs, and extremities, worsen terminal rattling and cause a need for frequent changing of diapers. The decision of whether and how to treat a dying patient with fluids sh...

  15. 7 CFR 983.89 - Termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Miscellaneous Provisions § 983.89 Termination. (a) The Secretary may at any time..., That such majority has, during such representative period, produced for market more than fifty percent of the volume of such pistachios produced for market, but such termination shall be announced at...

  16. Canwest propane: Canwest Propane's newest terminal delivers the winning conditions for B.C. market expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2004-01-01

    Opening of a new propane terminal in Surrey, BC by Canwest Propane Ltd., is reported. The facility is the first rail terminal opened by Canwest, and is intended to serve the greater Vancouver area, Vancouver island and the US Northwest, specifically Washington State. The Surrey location allows the company to service its business by rail, the most efficient method of getting product to the Lower Mainland. The facility sits on 4.5 acres of land; a CN rail track runs alongside the site, where six 30,000 gallon storage tanks are located. About 60 million litres of propane is expected to be distributed from the terminal, with further expansion anticipated both on Vancouver Island and in the US Northwest. photos

  17. AUTOMATION OF TRACEABILITY PROCESS AT GRAIN TERMINAL LLC “ UKRTRANSAGRO"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. TRISHYN

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A positive trend of growth in both grain production and export is indicated. In the current marketing year the export potential of the Ukrainian grain market is close to the record level. However, the high positions in the rating of world exporters are achieved not only due to the high export potential, but also because of higher quality and logistics. These factors depend directly on the quality of enterprise management and all processes occurring at it. One of the perspective ways of enterprise development is the implementation of the traceability system and further automation of the traceability process. European integration laws are obliging Ukrainian enterprises to have a traceability system. Traceability is an ability to follow the movement of a feed or food through specified stages of production, processing and distribution. The process of traceability is managing by people, which implies a human factor. Automation will allow, in a greater extent, to exclude the human factor that will mean decreasing of errors in documentation and will speed up the process of grain transshipment. Research work on the process was carried out on the most modern grain terminal - LLC “UkrTransAgro”. The terminal is located in the Ukrainian water area of the Azov Sea (Mariupol, Ukraine. Characteristics of the terminal: capacity of a simultaneous storage - 48,120 thousand tons, acceptance of crops from transport - 4,500 tons / day; acceptance of crops from railway transport - 3000 tons / day, transshipment capacity - up to 1.2 million tons per year, shipment to the sea vessels - 7000 tons / day. The analysis of the automation level of the grain terminal is carried out. The company uses software from 1C - «1C: Enterprise 8. Accounting for grain elevator, mill, and feed mill for Ukraine». This software is used for quantitative and qualitative registration at the elevator in accordance with industry guidelines and standards. The software product has many

  18. Terminal del aeropuerto de Colonia - Alemania Federal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider-Esleben, P.

    1972-02-01

    Full Text Available This terminal has two basements, ground floor and five higher floor levels. The lower basement has reserve water storage tanks heating and air conditioning plant and other services. The top basement contains telephone exchanges, transformer plant and further ancillary facilities. Passenger arrivals are located on the ground floor, and this includes customs and traffic police offices, distinguished passengers reception rooms, an auditorium, luggage distribution installations and waiting rooms. The second floor is devoted to passenger departure facilities, which includes a reception hall, waiting zones, information centre, offices, and the desks of the air companies. On the third floor there are two independent restaurants, for national and international flights. The fourth floor contains air traffic control services, including a metereological office, and on the fifth floor there is a visitors coffee shop and a large terrace.Consta de dos plantas de sótano, baja y cinco plantas de altura. El segundo sótano contiene: los depósitos de reserva de agua, central de calefacción, instalaciones de aire acondicionado, etc.; y en el primer sótano están: la central telefónica, transformador, etc. En la planta baja se desarrolla el movimiento de llegada de pasajeros y alberga: los despachos de aduanas y policía, un auditorio, salas para la recepción de personalidades, despacho de equipajes y sala de espera. En la primera planta tiene lugar el tráfico de salida y aloja: la nave de recepción, con las zonas de espera, centro de información, oficinas, mostradores de las compañías aéreas, etc. En la segunda planta, cuyo nivel se halla a 10,25 m sobre la pista de despegue, está la terraza en voladizo destinada, principalmente, para los visitantes. La tercera planta dispone de dos restaurantes (independientes para pasajeros de vuelos internacionales y nacionales, etc. La cuarta planta comprende los locales para el control aéreo (estación meteorol

  19. Storage of strawberry pollen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafet Aslantaş

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine storage ability of strawberry pollen at different temperatures for three different strawberry cultivars 'Aliso', 'Brio', and 'Cruz'. Strawberry pollen was stored at room temperature (22 ±2°C, +4°C, -4°C and -18°C in stabile humidity conditions. Strawberry poIlen was germinated using the hanging drop method in a 20% sucrose solution. Pollen germination rate increased because of low temperature storage. Pollen stored at room temperature and +4°C, -4°C, and -18°C was kept for 8 months, about one year, and 20 months, respectively. Pollen germination rates decreased as the length of storage period increased. The reaction of all cultivars tested on the duration and temperature of storage was similar.

  20. Hydrogen storage compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen; Vajo, John J.; Cumberland, Robert W.; Liu, Ping

    2011-04-19

    Compositions for hydrogen storage and methods of making such compositions employ an alloy that exhibits reversible formation/deformation of BH.sub.4.sup.- anions. The composition includes a ternary alloy including magnesium, boron and a metal and a metal hydride. The ternary alloy and the metal hydride are present in an amount sufficient to render the composition capable of hydrogen storage. The molar ratio of the metal to magnesium and boron in the alloy is such that the alloy exhibits reversible formation/deformation of BH.sub.4.sup.- anions. The hydrogen storage composition is prepared by combining magnesium, boron and a metal to prepare a ternary alloy and combining the ternary alloy with a metal hydride to form the hydrogen storage composition.